Sample records for aid to families with dependent children

  1. Aid to Families with Dependent Children Quality Control Review Panel Decisions

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) Quality Control Review Panel of the Departmental Appeals Board concerning the AFDC program...

  2. Participation Rates in the Aid to Families with Dependent Children Program: Trends for 1967 through 1984.

    Ruggles, Patricia; Michel, Richard C.

    This report examines participation rates in the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. TRIM2, a microsimulation model that simulated the eligibility and benefit rules of the AFDC program on a state-by-state basis, showed that there had been a dramatic decline after 1981 in the rate at which AFDC families were applying for and…

  3. Wisconsin's Aid to Families with Dependent Children and Child Support Enforcement Programs Could Be Improved.

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report from the General Accounting Office reviews selected aspects of Wisconsin's Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. Chapter 1 describes AFDC and specifies the scope of the program review. In Chapter 2 the potential for increasing child support collections from parents is explored. Actions which could increase collections…

  4. Introduction to the AFDC program. Aid to Families with Dependent Children.

    Page, S B; Larner, M B


    This journal issue discusses the policy challenges of helping parents move from welfare to work. As a foundation, this introductory article explains the federal-state program of cash assistance called Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), to which the term welfare refers in most of these articles. While a number of other social programs are sometimes included under the umbrella of welfare-such as the Supplemental Security Income program for the disabled, food stamps, and Medicaid-the program that has drawn the most public scrutiny and negative attention, and the centerpiece of the 1996 welfare reform legislation, is AFDC. This article explains the basic structure of the AFDC program, including eligibility criteria and benefits; discusses the characteristics of families that have received AFDC; describes trends in the program's size and cost from the 1970s to 1996; and indicates the major ways in which the block grant established in the 1996 welfare reform legislation compares to the AFDC program that it replaced. PMID:9170729

  5. 42 CFR 435.110 - Individuals receiving aid to families with dependent children.


    ... essential to the well-being of a recipient (see 45 CFR 233.20(a)(2)(vi)) and who could be a recipient under... with dependent children. (a) A Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to individuals receiving AFDC. (b) For purposes of this section, an individual is receiving AFDC if his needs are included in...

  6. Families, children, migration and AIDS.

    Haour-Knipe, Mary


    Migration is very often a family affair, and often involves children, directly or indirectly. It may give rise to better quality of life for an entire family, or to bitter disappointment, and may also increase vulnerability to HIV and AIDS. This review, carried out for the Joint Learning Initiative on Children and AIDS, links the literature on "migration", on "HIV and AIDS" and on "families". Three themes are sketched: (1) As both HIV prevalence and circular migration increase, former migrant workers affected by AIDS may return to their families for care and support, especially at the end of life, often under crisis conditions. Families thus lose promising members, as well as sources of support. However, very little is known about the children of such migrants. (2) Following patterns of migration established for far different reasons, children may have to relocate to different places, sometimes over long distances, if their AIDS-affected parents can no longer care for them. They face the same adaptation challenges as other children who move, but complicated by loss of parent(s), AIDS stigma, and often poverty. (3) The issue of migrant families living with HIV has been studied to some extent, but mainly in developed countries with a long history of migration, and with little attention paid to the children in such families. Difficulties include involuntary separation from family members, isolation and lack of support, disclosure and planning for children's care should the parent(s) die and differences in treatment access within the same family. Numerous research and policy gaps are defined regarding the three themes, and a call is made for thinking about migration, families and AIDS to go beyond description to include resilience theory, and to go beyond prevention to include care. PMID:22380978

  7. Strengthening families to support children affected by HIV and AIDS.

    Richter, Linda M; Sherr, Lorraine; Adato, Michele; Belsey, Mark; Chandan, Upjeet; Desmond, Chris; Drimie, Scott; Haour-Knipe, Mary; Hosegood, Victoria; Kimou, Jose; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Mathambo, Vuyiswa; Wakhweya, Angela


    This paper provides an overview of the arguments for the central role of families, defined very broadly, and we emphasise the importance of efforts to strengthen families to support children affected by HIV and AIDS. We draw on work conducted in the Joint Learning Initiative on Children and AIDS's Learning Group 1: Strengthening Families, as well as published data and empirical literature to provide the rationale for family strengthening. We close with the following recommendations for strengthening families to ameliorate the effects of HIV and AIDS on children. Firstly, a developmental approach to poverty is an essential feature of responses to protect children affected by HIV and AIDS, necessary to safeguard their human capital. For this reason, access to essential services, such as health and education, as well as basic income security, must be at the heart of national strategic approaches. Secondly, we need to ensure that support garnered for children is directed to families. Unless we adopt a family oriented approach, we will not be in a position to interrupt the cycle of infection, provide treatment to all who need it and enable affected individuals to be cared for by those who love and feel responsible for them. Thirdly, income transfers, in a variety of forms, are desperately needed and positively indicated by available research. Basic economic security will relieve the worst distress experienced by families and enable them to continue to invest in the health care and education of their children. Lastly, interventions are needed to support distressed families and prevent knock-on negative outcomes through programmes such as home visiting, and protection and enhancement of children's potential through early child development efforts. PMID:22380973

  8. An introduction to family-centred services for children affected by HIV and AIDS

    Richter Linda


    Abstract Family-centred services in the context of HIV/AIDS acknowledge a broad view of a "family system" and ideally include comprehensive treatment and care, community agencies and coordinated case management. The importance of family-centred care for children affected by HIV/AIDS has been recognized for some time. There is a clear confluence of changing social realities and the needs of children in families affected by HIV and AIDS, but a change of paradigm in rendering services to childre...

  9. Income Effects of Divorce in Families with Dependent Children

    Bratberg, Espen; Tjøtta, Sigve


    Marital splits may affect the economic well-being of families with children significantly. We study the economic effects of divorce in such families in Norway, using administrative information on more than 60,000 individuals. In the typical case, where the mother has custody, the mother (and child) lacks behind before maintenance payments, but after adding these, the outcomes at the median are very similar. However, the median pre-post divorce income reduction is larger for custodial women th...

  10. Children of men with alcohol dependence: Psychopathology, neurodevelopment and family environment

    Raman, Vijaya; Prasad, Suveera; Appaya, M. Prakash


    Background: Children of people with alcohol dependence (COAs) are at high risk for behavioral and cognitive problems. Aim: Aim of this study was to compare the nature and extent of these problems in children of men with and without alcohol dependence. Materials and Methods: 32 children (17 in study group and 15 controls) were evaluated for psychopathology, neurodevelopment, cognitive functioning and family environment. Tools used were: Socio-demographic data sheet, Malin’s Intelligence Scale for Indian Children (MISIC), Child Behavior Checklist, Trail Making Test, Neurodevelopment Scale and the Family Environment Scale. Results: Children of men with alcohol dependence had higher externalizing than internalizing scores. Children of alcohol-dependent fathers had higher scores on the neurodevelopment scale and lower scores on the performance scale of the MISIC than the children in control group. These children also made more errors on the Trail Making Test. The family environment of COAs was characterized by lack of independence for its members, greater perceived control and lack of adequate cultural and intellectual activities. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that children of men with alcohol dependence have difficulties with frontal lobe functions and neurodevelopmental tasks. There are also difficulties in the family, which are related to alcohol consumption by the father. PMID:21267372

  11. Children of men with alcohol dependence: Psychopathology, neurodevelopment and family environment

    Raman, Vijaya; Prasad, Suveera; Appaya, M. Prakash


    Background: Children of people with alcohol dependence (COAs) are at high risk for behavioral and cognitive problems. Aim: Aim of this study was to compare the nature and extent of these problems in children of men with and without alcohol dependence. Materials and Methods: 32 children (17 in study group and 15 controls) were evaluated for psychopathology, neurodevelopment, cognitive functioning and family environment. Tools used were: Socio-demographic data sheet, Malin’s Intelligence Scale ...

  12. Teaching Basic First-Aid Skills against Home Accidents to Children with Autism through Video Modeling

    Ergenekon, Yasemin


    It is known that children with DD can learn first-aid skills and use whenever needed. Applying first-aid skills was taught to three inclusion students with autism through "first-aid skills training package". In the study multiple probe design with probe trials across behaviors was used. The findings indicated that first-aid skills training package…

  13. The dangers of involving children as family caregivers of palliative home-based-care to advanced HIV/AIDS patients

    S M Kang′ethe


    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to explore the dangers of involving children as family caregivers of palliative care and home-based-care to advanced HIV/AIDS patients, while its objective is to discuss the dangers or perfidiousness that minors especially the girl children face as they handle care giving of advanced HIV/AIDS patients. The article has relied on eclectic data sources. The research has foundminors disadvantaged by the following: being engulfed by fear and denied rights through care giving; being emotionally and physiologically overwhelmed; being oppressed and suppressed by caring duties; being at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS; and having their education compromised by care giving. The paper recommends: (1 strengthening and emphasizing on children′s rights; (2 maintaining gender balance in care giving; (3 implementation and domestication of the United Nations conventions on the rights of children; (4 community awareness on equal gender co participation in care giving; (5 and fostering realization that relying on child care giving is a negative score in fulfilling global Millennium Development Goals.

  14. Head Start Service Guide for Children and Families with HIV or AIDS = Guia de Servicios para Ninos con V.I.H. Positivo y con Sindrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (S.I.D.A.) y sus Familias.

    Puerto Rico Commonwealth Office of Children's Services and Community Development, Old San Juan.

    This document provides guidelines and procedures, in Spanish and English, for Head Start teachers in taking care of children with AIDS, or children who are HIV positive, and their families. The goal of the guide is to maximize participation of infected children in the Head Start program. The guide presents activities in three main stages:…

  15. Pragmatic Abilities of Children with Hearing Loss Using Cochlear Implants or Hearing Aids Compared to Hearing Children

    Most, Tova; Shina-August, Ella; Meilijson, Sara


    This study characterized the profile of pragmatic abilities among 24 children with hearing loss (HL) aged 6.3-9.4 years, 13 using hearing aids (HAs) and 11 using cochlear implants (CIs), in comparison to those of 13 hearing children with similar chronological and language ages. All the children with HL used spoken language, attended regular…


    Malievsky, V.


    The article is devoted to an actual problem of pediatrics to the organization of medical aid to children with rheumatic diseases. The basic normative documents regulating works pediatric and rheumatological of service on municipal, regional and federal levels are reflected. The operational experience of the Republican center of children cardiorheumatology and artrology in Republic Bashkortostan is presented. The characteristic of the computer program «The Register of children with rheumatic d...

  17. "Fighting the system": Families caring for ventilator-dependent children and adults with complex health care needs at home

    Nielsen Erik W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of individuals with complex health care needs now receive life-long and life-prolonging ventilatory support at home. Family members often take on the role of primary caregivers. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of families giving advanced care to family members dependent on home mechanical ventilation. Methods Using qualitative research methods, a Grounded Theory influenced approach was used to explore the families' experiences. A total of 15 family members with 11 ventilator-dependent individuals (three children and eight adults were recruited for 10 in-depth interviews. Results The core category, "fighting the system," became the central theme as family members were asked to describe their experiences. In addition, we identified three subcategories, "lack of competence and continuity", "being indispensable" and "worth fighting for". This study revealed no major differences in the families' experiences that were dependent on whether the ventilator-dependent individual was a child or an adult. Conclusions These findings show that there is a large gap between family members' expectations and what the community health care services are able to provide, even when almost unlimited resources are available. A number of measures are needed to reduce the burden on these family members and to make hospital care at home possible. In the future, the gap between what the health care can potentially provide and what they can provide in real life will rapidly increase. New proposals to limit the extremely costly provision of home mechanical ventilation in Norway will trigger new ethical dilemmas that should be studied further.

  18. Expanding Supports to Improve the Lives of Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Russa, Mary Bower; Matthews, Amy L.; Owen-DeSchryver, Jamie S.


    Research suggests that families with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience increased stress and challenges compared with families of typically developing children. We highlight the need for family-centered approaches to reduce family stress, and we elaborate on some of the most central universal needs for families with a child…

  19. Pulmonary diseases in children with AIDS

    The opportunistic infections evident in children with AIDS are similar to those reported in adults. However malignant lymphoma or sarcoma are seen in only 4%. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is frequently seen. CMV infections, streptococcus pneumonia and lung infections causes by gram negative bacterial infections occur as well. In cases with lymhoid interstitial pneumonia evidence of Epstein-Barr virus infection is common in children. (orig./MG)

  20. The Impact of Organizational Factors and Government Policy on Psychiatric Nurses' Family-Focused Practice With Parents Who Have Mental Illness, Their Dependent Children, and Families in Ireland.

    Grant, Anne; Reupert, Andrea


    Government policy and organizational factors influence family-focused practice (FFP) in adult mental health services. However, how these aspects shape psychiatric nurses' practice with parents who have mental illness, their dependent children, and families is less well understood. Drawing on the findings of a qualitative study, this article explores the way in which Irish policy and organizational factors might influence psychiatric nurses' FFP, and whether (and how) FFP might be further promoted. A purposive sample of 14 psychiatric nurses from eight mental health services completed semi-structured interviews. The analysis was inductive and presented as thematic networks. Both groups described how policies and organizational culture enabled and/or hindered FFP, with differences between community and acute participants seen. This study indicates a need for policies and organizational supports, including child and family skills training, to promote a whole family approach in adult mental health services. PMID:27090512

  1. The Experiences and Perceptions of Five Elementary School Counselors: Providing Family Counseling to Families of Children with Learning Disabilities

    Granato, Laura A,


    Family systems counseling is a powerful and beneficial counseling technique that has been effective in treating families of children with learning disabilities. Family counseling has been effective in many settings, but has not been explored as a school counselor intervention. This research is a qualitative study exploring school counselorsâ experiences and perceptions while providing family counseling to families of children with learning disabilities. This counseling included a minimum...

  2. Children affected with HIV/AIDS: Information of HIV/AIDS in five Colombian cities*

    Ana María Trejos


    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe information about HIV/AIDS in a youth population under 18 years of age affected with HIV/AIDS and caregivers in five Colombian cities: Cali, Buenaventura, Barranquilla, Santa Marta, and Cartagena. Methods: 286 personal surveys were conducted: 11 of children who were aware of their status of involvement with HIV/AIDS and 275 of caregivers of children who did not know their status of involvement with HIV/AIDS. The surveys were conducted in health institutions in the State and private sectors and private, using instruments in line with training programs from participating institutions to inquire about HIV/AIDS. Descriptive analysis was performed of the data and tabulation was done with the SPSS program. Results: Most children who knew their status of involvement with HIV/AIDS report that by acquiring the HIV virus, they may develop other diseases; however, half of these fail to recognize that AIDS weakens the body’s ability to fight infection. The children surveyed partly recognized the HIV/AIDS transmission and treatment mechanisms, while caregivers possess adequate information on the disease. We found reasons to delay the delivery of diagnosis by caregivers 96.2% (N=275 related to avoiding psychological harm to the children, and that if they were to know said status, they might inadvertently disclose this to others, probably exposing them to stigma and/or discrimination. Likewise, professionals providing health services to HIV seropositive children express lack of training regarding the proper procedure and age to reveal such information. Conclusions: It is a priority to enhance the capacity, information, and education of patients about effects, characteristics, manifestations, and treatment of the disease within the comprehensive health management processes conducive to supporting affected families.

  3. Comparison of Peer and Self-Video Modeling in Teaching First Aid Skills to Children with Intellectual Disability

    Ozkan, Serife Yucesoy


    The purposes of this study were to (1) compare peer and self-video modeling in terms of effectiveness and efficiency in teaching first aid skills to children with intellectual disability and (2) analyze the error patterns made in probe sessions to determine whether the children who took the role of sufferers during the first aid skill sessions…

  4. Rural children's attitudes to people with HIV/AIDS in Mali: the causes of stigma.

    Castle, Sarah


    Qualitative research among young people and other community members in rural Mali elicited knowledge and attitudes with regard to HIV/AIDS. Findings indicated that rumours concerning methods of infection are likely to increase the stigmatization of those with the disease. The most frequently stated mode of transmission involved urinating in a place where someone with AIDS had already urinated. Shared clothes, food and water were seen as sources of infection. Both children and teachers recommended that people with AIDS be isolated. Even talking to them would lead to a risk of infection. Discriminatory views were likely to have been reinforced by parents and community elders who possessed the same misinformation. The notion that AIDS results from sexual encounters between young women and dogs belonging to white people in Côte d'Ivoire was also widespread. These discourses may reflect perceived xenophobia and risk to migrants associated with current tensions between the two countries, together with misgivings about Western sexual liberalism. A holistic educational programme is proposed to address not simply HIV/AIDS, but the social context in which infection occurs, with view to combating stigma and discrimination associated with not just HIV but also with migration in this setting. PMID:21972829

  5. Responses to Children's Media Use in Families with and without Siblings: A Family Development Perspective

    Davies, John J.; Gentile, Douglas A.


    Drawing on family development theory, this study provides insight into how family stages with and without siblings are related to media habits and effects. Two national samples (N = 527 and N = 1,257) present a cross-sectional snapshot of media uses in families across three stages of family life: families with preschoolers (2-6 years), with…

  6. Assistive Technology for Children with HIV/AIDS.

    Khanna, Neena; Feist-Price, Sonja


    This discussion of assistive technology for children with AIDS considers management in the school setting, functional limitations related to HIV/AIDS, and the use of assistive technology to address HIV/AIDS- related bodily, mental, sensory, and speech and language impairments. (Contains references.) (DB)

  7. Educating and Training Students to Work with Culturally, Linguistically, and Ability-Diverse Young Children and Their Families

    Maude, Susan; Catlett, Camille; Moore, Susan M.; Sanchez, Sylvia Y.; Thorpe, Eva K.


    The quality of services for our increasingly diverse families with infants and toddlers depends upon the comfort, confidence, and competence of the personnel available to provide these services. Colleges and universities must be able to produce graduates who possess the necessary sensitivity, knowledge, and skills to serve children and families of…

  8. Family Demands, Social Support and Family Functioning in Taiwanese Families Rearing Children with Down Syndrome

    Hsiao, C-Y.


    Background: Down syndrome (DS) affects not only children but also their families. Much remains to be learned about factors that influence how families of children with DS function, especially families in non-Western populations. The purpose of this cross-sectional, correlational study was to examine how family demographics, family demands and…

  9. Couple relationships in families with dependent children after a diagnosis of maternal breast cancer in the United Kingdom: Perspectives from mothers and fathers.

    Corney, Roslyn; Puthussery, Shuby; Swinglehurst, Jane


    This article examines the facilitators and the barriers to couple relationships in families in the UK with dependent children after a diagnosis of maternal breast cancer. Qualitative data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews with 23 participants, including 10 couples and three women whose partners did not take part. Recorded interviews were analyzed using a thematic approach identifying themes and patterns in the interview transcripts and categorizing them using a framework. Key individual and contextual factors perceived as barriers or facilitators to couple relationships included: being a "young" family with young children, frustration and resentment from male partners, women's reactions to the illness, individual communication styles, differing needs for "personal space," body image concerns, and social support. Findings indicated the need for strengthening "family focus" in services with adequate support for male partners. Health and family services should consider variability in the experiences of couples with dependent children and be sensitive to the needs of partners alongside the women. PMID:27295387

  10. A behavioral family intervention to improve adherence and metabolic control in children with IDDM

    Bonner, Melanie Jean


    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a behavioral family intervention on adherence and metabolic control in insulin dependent diabetic children (IODM). Specifically, assumption of regimen responsibilities between the parent and child were manipulated to facilitate regimen adherence. The intervention delivered was a target-specific behavioral contract extended sequentially across four target behaviors (Le., blood glucose testing, insulin injections, diet, and exercise). Regimen...

  11. Relationship between Response to Methylphenidate Treatment in Children with ADHD and Psychopathology in Their Families

    Grizenko, Natalie; Kovacina, Bojan; Amor, Leila Ben; Schwartz, George; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Joober, Ridha


    Objective: To compare the pattern of familial aggregation of psychopathology in children who are good responders (GR) to methylphenidate (MPH) versus those who are poor responders (PR). Method: A total of 118 clinically referred children ages 6 to 12 years, diagnosed with ADHD participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized 2-week…

  12. Improving survival among Brazilian children with perinatally-acquired AIDS

    Luiza Harunari Matida


    Full Text Available Brazil was the first developing country to provide free, universal access to antiretroviral treatment for AIDS patients. The Brazilian experience thus provides the first evidence regarding the impact of such treatment on the survival of perinatally acquired AIDS cases in the developing world. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used medical record reviews to examine characteristics and trends in the survival of a representative sample of 914 perinatally acquired AIDS cases in 10 Brazilian cities diagnosed between 1983 and 1998. RESULTS: Survival time increased steadily and substantially. Whereas half of the children died within 20 months of diagnosis at the beginning of the epidemic, 75% of children diagnosed in 1997 and 1998 were still alive after four years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Advances in management and treatment have made a great difference in the survival of Brazilian children with AIDS. These results argue strongly for making such treatment available to children in the entire developing world.

  13. Aided auditory thresholds in children with postmeningitic deafness.

    Brookhouser, P E; Auslander, M C


    Postmeningitic hearing loss is often bilateral, profound, and rapid in onset. Children with postmeningitic hearing loss may be identified as potential candidates for cochlear implantation. The length of time required for a definitive trial with conventional amplification, which must precede a final decision regarding cochlear implant surgery, has been the subject of debate. Twenty-five children with bilateral severe-to-profound postmeningitic sensorineural hearing loss were fitted with appropriate amplification and results of serial-aided tests were analyzed to determine the degree of benefit and changes in aided thresholds over time. Twelve children gave aided responses that clearly indicated the presence of residual hearing and good aided benefit. Ten youngsters have responded consistently in the vibrotactile range when aided, thus receiving limited benefit from conventional amplification. Of particular interest are three children who initially exhibited limited or no auditory responses but who, after a period of 16 to 25 months, showed excellent benefit with binaural hearing aids. These children are all in total communication programs and have received good auditory training. Caution should be exercised when concluding that such a child does not benefit from amplification. PMID:2755288

  14. Applying a Family-Level Economic Strengthening Intervention to Improve Education and Health-Related Outcomes of School-Going AIDS-Orphaned Children: Lessons from a Randomized Experiment in Southern Uganda.

    Ssewamala, Fred M; Karimli, Leyla; Torsten, Neilands; Wang, Julia Shu-Huah; Han, Chang-Keun; Ilic, Vilma; Nabunya, Proscovia


    Children comprise the largest proportion of the population in sub-Saharan Africa. Of these, millions are orphaned. Orphanhood increases the likelihood of growing up in poverty, dropping out of school, and becoming infected with HIV. Therefore, programs aimed at securing a healthy developmental trajectory for these orphaned children are desperately needed. We conducted a two-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a family-level economic strengthening intervention with regard to school attendance, school grades, and self-esteem in AIDS-orphaned adolescents aged 12-16 years from 10 public rural primary schools in southern Uganda. Children were randomly assigned to receive usual care (counseling, school uniforms, school lunch, notebooks, and textbooks), "bolstered" with mentorship from a near-peer (control condition, n = 167), or to receive bolstered usual care plus a family-level economic strengthening intervention in the form of a matched Child Savings Account (Suubi-Maka treatment arm, n = 179). The two groups did not differ at baseline, but 24 months later, children in the Suubi-Maka treatment arm reported significantly better educational outcomes, lower levels of hopelessness, and higher levels of self-concept compared to participants in the control condition. Our study contributes to the ongoing debate on how to address the developmental impacts of the increasing numbers of orphaned and vulnerable children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, especially those affected by HIV/AIDS. Our findings indicate that innovative family-level economic strengthening programs, over and above bolstered usual care that includes psychosocial interventions for young people, may have positive developmental impacts related to education, health, and psychosocial functioning. PMID:26228480

  15. From Mothers' Pensions to Aid to Dependent Children in the Great Plains: The Course from Charity to Entitlement

    Lee, R. Alton


    The most important third-party movement in American history emerged out of the social and economic chaos brewing in the Great Plains in the last two decades of the nineteenth century. The maelstrom, labeled Populism, contained a powerful, indeed a truly revolutionary message--that man was his brother's keeper. This concept proved to have…

  16. Experiences of stigma and access to HAART in children and adolescents living with HIV/AIDS in Brazil.

    Abadía-Barrero, César Ernesto; Castro, Arachu


    This study describes and conceptualizes the experiences of stigma in a group of children living with HIV in São Paulo, Brazil, and evaluates the impact of access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) over the social course of AIDS and over the children's experiences of stigma. Through ethnographic research in São Paulo from 1999 to 2001, the life trajectories of 50 children ages 1-15 living with or affected by HIV were studied. Data were collected via participant observation and semi-structured informal interviews and analyzed using social theories on illness experience and social inequality. Our results demonstrate that AIDS-related stigma occurs within complex discrimination processes that change as children reach adolescence. We found that structural violence in the forms of poverty, racism, and inequalities in social status, gender, and age fuels children's experiences of stigma. We also describe how access to HAART changes the lived experience of children, reduces stigma, and brings new challenges in AIDS care such as adolescents' sexuality and treatment adherence. Based on these results, we propose structural violence as the framework to study stigma and argue that interventions to reduce stigma that solely target the perception and attitudes toward people living with HIV are limited. In contrast universal access to HAART in Brazil is a powerful intervention that reduces stigma, in that it transforms AIDS from a debilitating and fatal disease to a chronic and manageable one, belongs to a broader mechanism to assure citizens' rights, and reduces social inequalities in access to health care. PMID:16099573

  17. Fostering Families' and Children's Rights to Family Connections

    Landsman, Miriam J.; Boel-Studt, Shamra


    Recent federal legislation strengthens children's and families' rights to family-centered practice by increasing the responsibility of child welfare agencies to identify and engage extended family members in providing care and support to children placed out of the home. Preliminary results from an experimental study of a federally funded family…

  18. Prenatal and Family Risks of Children Born to Mothers with Epilepsy: Effects on Cognitive Development

    Titze, Karl; Koch, Sabine; Helge, Hans; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Rauh, Hellgard; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph


    The offspring of mothers with epilepsy are considered to be at developmental risk during pregnancy from: (1) generalized maternal seizures (hypoxia); (2) teratogenicity of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs); and (3) adverse socio-familial conditions associated with having a chronically sick mother. Sixty-seven children of mothers with epilepsy and 49…

  19. The Family Map: A Tool for Understanding the Risks for Children in Families with Substance Abuse

    Bokony, Patti A.; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Johnson, Danya; McKelvey, Lorraine; Bradley, Robert H.


    This article reviews the findings from our assessments of children and their families in two Head Start programs using the Family Map. Specifically, we used the Family Map assessment tool to identify risks to children associated with alcohol and drug use in families with young children. Practical suggestions are offered to administrators about the…

  20. Family networks to improve outcomes in children with intellectual and developmental disorders: a qualitative study

    Hamdani, Syed Usman; Atif, Najia; Tariq, Mahjabeen; Minhas, Fareed Aslam; Iqbal, Zafar; Rahman, Atif


    Background There are at least 50 million children with an intellectual or developmental disorder in South Asia. The vast majority of these children have no access to any service and there are no resources to develop such services. We aimed to explore a model of care-delivery for such children, whereby volunteer family members of affected individuals could be organized and trained to form an active, empowered group within the community that, a) using a task-sharing approach, are trained by spe...

  1. Children orphaned by AIDS who live in orphanages in Uganda : What enables them to Thrive?


    The study aimed at finding out what enables children orphaned by AIDS who live in orphanages to thrive. In Africa, many orphaned children are looked after by relatives in their extended families. Currently, these traditional safety nets have been weakened by the increasing number of orphaned children mainly caused by AIDS and related diseases. Other factors like poverty and unemployment have also contributed to relatives' inability to continuously care for extra children. This has resulted i...

  2. A Mulditisiciplinary Model of Family Therapy with people living with HIV/AIDS

    Ismael Fernando Díaz Oropeza


    Full Text Available The multidisciplinary model includes Family Therapy with persons living with HIV/AIDS and their families. Its theoretical basis is based in Medical Family Therapy, biopsychosocial and systemic perspectives. Collaborative and narrative therapies, solution building and reflecting team‘s ideas are combined in clinical practice. As results, families have normalized illness’ impact, they have co generated possibilities such as strengthening of abilities for coping problems related to illness though agency, communion, empowerment, normalizing, reframing and mobilizing family resources.

  3. Working with Parents to Promote Children's Literacy: A Family Literacy Project in Uganda

    Parry, Kate; Kirabo, Elizabeth; Nakyato, Gorreth


    This article discusses the importance of family practices to children's acquisition of literacy and describes attempts to influence such practices through the institution of family literacy programmes. One of these is the Family Literacy Project in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, which both served as a model and provided material for a similar…

  4. Risky Situations: Vulnerable Children. Working with Families Who Have Children, Ages Birth to 5, Who Are at Risk of Maltreatment with a Focus on Disabilities.

    Jones, Deb; And Others

    Information on the prevention of child maltreatment is provided, as well as methods and programs to respond to the maltreatment of children with disabilities, ages birth to 5 years. Challenges to providing effective service delivery are addressed, along with the family perspective and total family needs. Risk factors that affect family functioning…

  5. Inverse association of natural mentoring relationship with distress mental health in children orphaned by AIDS

    Munakata Tsunetsugu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The magnitude of the AIDS-orphaned children crisis in sub-Saharan Africa has so overstretched the resource of most families that the collapse of fostering in the sub-region seems imminent (UNICEF, 2003, fueling the need for a complementary/alternative care. This paper examines the probability of the natural mentoring care to ameliorate distress mental health in children orphaned by AIDS. Methods 952 children, mean age about 14 years, from local community schools and child-care centers in Kampala (Uganda and Mafikeng/Klerksdorp (South Africa towns participated in the study. The design has AIDS-orphaned group (n = 373 and two control groups: Other-causes orphaned (n = 287 and non-orphaned (n = 290 children. We use measures of child abuse, depression, social discrimination, anxiety, parental/foster care, self-esteem, and social support to estimate mental health. Natural mentoring care is measured with the Ragins and McFarlin (1990 Mentor Role Instrument as adapted. Results AIDS-orphaned children having a natural mentor showed significant decreased distress mental health factors. Similar evidence was not observed in the control groups. Also being in a natural mentoring relationship inversely related to distress mental health factors in the AIDS-orphaned group, in particular. AIDS-orphaned children who scored high mentoring relationship showed significant lowest distress mental health factors that did those who scored moderate and low mentoring relationship. Conclusions Natural mentoring care seems more beneficial to ameliorate distress mental health in AIDS-orphaned children (many of whom are double-orphans, having no biological parents than in children in the control groups.

  6. Helping Young Children Deal with Family Violence.

    Quick, Donna S.; Botkin, Darla; Quick, Sam


    Urges teachers to be aware of the types of family violence, their prevalence, and the common effects of family violence on young children. Explores indicators of abuse and neglect, factors that protect against family violence, suggestions for creating a nurturing classroom climate, and the role of early childhood professionals in cases of abuse.…

  7. Gay men with AIDS and their families of origin: an analysis of social support.

    Kadushin, G


    This article reviews the literature on the relationships between gay men with AIDS and their families of origin to determine why the family is not a principal source of social support. Several reasons explain the absence of the family from the support network, including the family's lack of acceptance of homosexuality and the relationship with a male partner; the stigma associated with AIDS; the inability of family members to communicate openly about homosexuality and AIDS; the lack of competence among family members in dealing with HIV issues; and overprotective, infantilizing behavior by parents. A sibling, most often a sister, is the family member to whom the gay man with AIDS feels closest and from whom he is most likely to seek support. Implications for practice and research are discussed. PMID:8722141

  8. Speech intelligibility of children with cochlear implants, tactile aids, or hearing aids.

    Osberger, M J; Maso, M; Sam, L K


    Speech intelligibility was measured in 31 children who used the 3M/House single-channel implant (n = 12), the Nucleus 22-Channel Cochlear Implant System (n = 15), or the Tactaid II + two-channel vibrotactile aid (n = 4). The subjects were divided into subgroups based on age at onset of deafness (early or late). The speech intelligibility of the experimental subjects was compared to that of children who were profoundly hearing impaired who used conventional hearing aids (n = 12) or no sensory aid (n = 2). The subjects with early onset of deafness who received their single- or multichannel cochlear implant before age 10 demonstrated the highest speech intelligibility, whereas subjects who did not receive their device until after age 10 had the poorest speech intelligibility. There was no obvious difference in the speech intelligibility scores of these subjects as a function of type of device (implant or tactile aid). On the average, the postimplant or tactile aid speech intelligibility of the subjects with early onset of deafness was similar to that of hearing aid users with hearing levels between 100 and 110 dB HL and limited hearing in the high frequencies. The speech intelligibility of subjects with late onset of deafness showed marked deterioration after the onset of deafness with relatively large improvements by most subjects after they received a single- or multichannel implant. The one subject with late onset of deafness who used a tactile aid showed no improvement in speech intelligibility. PMID:8450658

  9. South African Families Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Relationship between Family Routines, Cognitive Appraisal and Family Quality of Life

    Schlebusch, L.; Samuels, A. E.; Dada, S.


    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between family routines, cognitive appraisal of the impact of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on the family and family quality of life (FQOL) in families raising children with ASD in South Africa. Methods: A sample of 180 families of young children with ASD who were…

  10. Relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and symptoms of anxiety and depression: the mediating effect of bullying victimization in a prospective sample of South African children and adolescents.

    Boyes, Mark E; Cluver, Lucie D


    South African children and adolescents living in HIV/AIDS-affected families are at elevated risk of both symptoms of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Poverty and HIV/AIDS-related stigma are additional risk factors for these negative mental health outcomes. Community level factors, such as poverty and stigma, are difficult to change in the short term and identifying additional potentially malleable mechanisms linking familial HIV/AIDS with mental health is important from an intervention perspective. HIV/AIDS-affected children are also at increased risk of bullying victimization. This longitudinal study aimed to determine whether prospective relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and both anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms operate indirectly via bullying victimization. Adolescents (M = 13.45 years, 56.67 % female, n = 3,515) from high HIV-prevalent (>30 %) communities in South Africa were interviewed and followed-up one year later (n = 3,401, 96.70 % retention). Census enumeration areas were randomly selected from urban and rural sites in two provinces, and door-to-door sampling included all households with a resident child/adolescent. Familial HIV/AIDS at baseline assessment was not directly associated with mental health outcomes 1 year later. However, significant indirect effects operating via bullying victimization were obtained for both anxiety and depression scores. Importantly, these effects were independent of poverty, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, and baseline mental health, which highlight bullying victimization as a potential target for future intervention efforts. The implementation and rigorous evaluation of bullying prevention programs in South African communities may improve mental health outcomes for HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents and this should be a focus of future research and intervention. PMID:24996836

  11. Working with Families of Young Children with Special Needs

    McWilliam, R. A., Ed.


    This user-friendly book presents research-based best practices for serving families of children with special needs from birth to age 6. Expert contributors demonstrate how early intervention and early childhood special education can effectively address a wide range of family concerns, which in turn optimizes children's development and learning.…

  12. From Family Deficit to Family Strength: Viewing Families' Contributions to Children's Learning from a Family Resilience Perspective

    Amatea, Ellen S.; Smith-Adcock, Sondra; Villares, Elizabeth


    This article presents an overview of a research-informed family resilience framework, developed as a conceptual map to guide school counselors' preventive and interventive efforts with students and their families. Key processes that characterize children's and families' resilience are outlined along with recommendations for how school counselors…

  13. Caring for Children Affected by HIV and AIDS

    UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre


    This IRC Insight highlights the urgent need to support families and communities to care for children orphaned by HIV/AIDS. The report looks at how the epidemic undermines children's health and schooling, and reinforces marginalization and deprivation. It explores the options for the care of children in communities affected by the AIDS epidemic. Beginning with the premise that the parent-child bond is the basic building block of child development and the family the basic unit of society, the r...

  14. Exploring the spiritual needs of families with seriously ill children.

    Ferrell, Betty; Wittenberg, Elaine; Battista, Vanessa; Walker, Gay


    Although we know that families of seriously ill children experience spiritual distress, especially at the end of the child's life, there is little information on the specific spiritual needs of families. In order to develop further training for nurses in paediatrics and help nurses develop skills for communicating about spirituality, this research examined the spiritual needs of families based on nurses' experiences with families of seriously ill children. Nurses' experiences revealed that families' anger with God, blame/regret, forgiveness, and ritual and cultural traditions are salient spiritual needs requiring effective nurse communication skills to support families of ill children. PMID:27568778

  15. Performance of deaf children with cochlear implants and vibrotactile aids.

    Osberger, M J; Miyamoto, R T; Robbins, A M; Renshaw, J J; Berry, S W; Myres, W A; Kessler, K; Pope, M L


    A longitudinal study is under way to examine the speech perception and production skills of deaf children who use a single- or multi-channel cochlear implant, or a two-channel tactile aid. The speech perception data showed that the majority of subjects who achieved the highest scores on a range of measures used the multi-channel cochlear implant. The production data showed that all three types of sensory aids were effective in promoting production skills, with the cochlear implant users showing the greatest gains in this area. PMID:2132583

  16. Nothing can defeat combined hands (Abashize hamwe ntakibananira): protective processes and resilience in Rwandan children and families affected by HIV/AIDS.

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah; Stulac, Sara N; Barrera, Amy Elizabeth; Mushashi, Christina; Beardslee, William R


    In Rwanda, the dual vectors of HIV and legacy of the 1994 genocide have had devastating consequences for children and families. In this and other low-resource settings, extreme poverty, poor access to services, family conflict, and other adversities put children and families affected by HIV/AIDS at increased risk of mental health problems. However, even in the face of tremendous hardship, many children and families demonstrate better than expected outcomes. To design interventions that harness these natural sources of resilience, greater knowledge of local protective processes is needed. This study used free listing exercises (N = 68) and key informant interviews (N = 58) with adults and children (ages 10-17) to investigate strengths and sources of resilience in Rwandan children and families at risk for psychosocial difficulties due to HIV/AIDS. Clinician key informants (N = 10) were also interviewed. Five forms of protective resources emerged through this research: perseverance (kwihangana); self-esteem/self-confidence (kwigirira ikizere); family unity/trust (kwizerana); good parenting (kurera neza) and collective/communal support (ubufasha abaturage batanga). Operating within individual, family, and collective/community systems, these resources support children at multiple ecological levels. Study evidence suggests that these protective processes provide "leverage points" for strengths-based interventions designed to increase resilient outcomes and prevent mental health problems. This information on culturally-appropriate practices for building resilience, along with input from local community advisory boards and the government, has informed the development of a Family Strengthening Intervention, which has broad applications to many forms of adversity and trauma. PMID:21840634

  17. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Full Text Available ... Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch this video to learn ... know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. Read our burn prevention tips | ...

  18. Evidence of Resilience in Families of Children with Autism

    Bayat, Mojdeh


    Background: Family resilience is a growing field of inquiry, investigating factors that contribute to a family's becoming stronger in spite of dealing with adversity. Despite the growing interest in studying family resilience, the topic has not been explored in families with children who have disabilities. This report, a part of a larger…


    Dočkal Vladimír


    Full Text Available Social work emphasizes the need to identify the peoples' social needs, which are individual and different for each subject. The qualitative analysis of the 'other' children (Roma children, children with disabilities and children intellectually gifted mothers' testimonies we reconstructed the three dominant social needs in the following families: the need for social acceptance, children's need to ensure the effective saturation of their special educational needs and the need for family cohesion. Based on this, there is room for activities of a social worker working with these families.

  20. Psychological effects on the family having children with asthma.

    Pantha Aryal, Barsha


    Asthma is the most common chronic childhood disease which is defined as the chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways. The study deals with the problems of families having asthmatic children as well as about self-esteem in asthmatic children. The aim of the study is to find out the problems of families with asthmatic children and the measures to maintain positive self-esteem in those children. The research questions of this study include-(1) what are the problems of family having children ...

  1. Families with school-age children.

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell


    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture

  2. From experience of rendering of the psychological aid to families of migrants

    A mass moving of the population from the contaminated regions is the feature of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences . In result it in families has changed customary a way of life, a gap of family and friendly ties has taken place, prosperity has changed, family traditions have begun to vary and etc.. The correction of the family relations as the form of the psychological aid to the children is widely used by clinical psychologists, psycho physicians, psychiatrists, but last time by school psychologists and social teachers too. For achievement of the therapeutic effect it is necessary to decide two problems - both understanding by the members of family of a role of own personality features in a distortion of operation of family and correction of inadequate reactions of the members of family

  3. Family Background and School Achievement of Children with Motoric Disorders

    Radojlovic, Jasmina; Ilic-Stosovic, Danijela; Djonovic, Nela; Simovic, Tatjana


    There is no pedagogical literature about school achievement that does not include the family as a very important factor. Family and family relationships of children with motoric disorders are determined by the ability of parents and other family members to build an objective attitude toward the child with disability. That includes the construction priority in the development of the child. The main aim of this paper is to provide information about possible correlation between various family ba...

  4. Infliximab dependency in children with Crohn's disease

    Duricova, D; Pedersen, N; Lenicek, M;


    BACKGROUND: Recently, infliximab dependency has been described. AIM: To assess frequency of ID in 82 consecutive Crohn's disease children treated with infliximab 2000-2006 and to describe clinical and genetic predictors of long-term infliximab response. METHODS: A phenotype model of infliximab....../partial response. In long-term outcome, 22% maintained prolonged response, 12% had no response, while 66% became infliximab dependent. Perianal disease and no previous surgery were associated with infliximab dependency (OR 5.34, 95% CI: 1.24-22.55; OR 6.7, 95% CI: 1.67-26.61). No association was found with studied...... polymorphisms. The cumulative probability of surgery 50 months after starting infliximab was 10% in infliximab dependency, 30% in prolonged responders and 70% in nonresponders (P = 0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: Sixty-six per cent of children became infliximab dependent. Perianal disease and no surgery prior to...

  5. Vulnerability of families with children with intestinal stomas

    Clara Ferraz Lazarini Zacarin; Willyane de Andrade Alvarenga; Renata Olzon Dionísio de Souza; Daianne Cibele de Souza Borges; Giselle Dupas


    Intestinal stomas cause transformations in the body and create specific and continuous needs for care that imply in hospitalization and surgeries. In this context, we applied the concept of family vulnerability in order to identify the vulnerability of the family living with a child who has intestinal stoma. It is a qualitative study which interviewed the mothers of children with this chronic condition. We used narrative analysis based on the concept of family vulnerability. The results displ...

  6. Effectiveness of music therapy as an aid to neurorestoration of children with severe neurological disorders.

    Bringas, Maria L; Zaldivar, Marilyn; Rojas, Pedro A; Martinez-Montes, Karelia; Chongo, Dora M; Ortega, Maria A; Galvizu, Reynaldo; Perez, Alba E; Morales, Lilia M; Maragoto, Carlos; Vera, Hector; Galan, Lidice; Besson, Mireille; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro A


    This study was a two-armed parallel group design aimed at testing real world effectiveness of a music therapy (MT) intervention for children with severe neurological disorders. The control group received only the standard neurorestoration program and the experimental group received an additional MT "Auditory Attention plus Communication protocol" just before the usual occupational and speech therapy. Multivariate Item Response Theory (MIRT) identified a neuropsychological status-latent variable manifested in all children and which exhibited highly significant changes only in the experimental group. Changes in brain plasticity also occurred in the experimental group, as evidenced using a Mismatch Event Related paradigm which revealed significant post intervention positive responses in the latency range between 308 and 400 ms in frontal regions. LORETA EEG source analysis identified prefrontal and midcingulate regions as differentially activated by the MT in the experimental group. Taken together, our results showing improved attention and communication as well as changes in brain plasticity in children with severe neurological impairments, confirm the importance of MT for the rehabilitation of patients across a wide range of dysfunctions. PMID:26582974

  7. Effectiveness of Music Therapy as an aid to Neurorestoration of children with severe neurological disorders

    Maria L Bringas


    Full Text Available This study was a two-armed parallel group design aimed at testing real world effectiveness of a music therapy (MT intervention for children with severe neurological disorders. The control group received only the standard neurorestoration program and the experimental group received an additional MT Auditory Attention plus Communication (ACC protocol just before the usual occupational and speech therapy. Multivariate Item Response Theory (MIRT identified a neuropsychological status-latent variable manifested in all children and which exhibited highly significant changes only in the experimental group. Changes in brain plasticity also occurred in the experimental group, as evidenced using a Mismatch Event Related paradigm which revealed significant post intervention positive responses in the latency range between 308 and 400 ms in frontal regions. LORETA EEG source analysis identified prefrontal and midcingulate regions as differentially activated by the MT in the experimental group. Taken together, our results showing improved attention and communication as well as changes in brain plasticity in children with severe neurological impairments, highlight/comfort the importance of MT for the rehabilitation of patients across a wide range of dysfunctions.

  8. Effectiveness of music therapy as an aid to neurorestoration of children with severe neurological disorders

    Bringas, Maria L.; Zaldivar, Marilyn; Rojas, Pedro A.; Martinez-Montes, Karelia; Chongo, Dora M.; Ortega, Maria A.; Galvizu, Reynaldo; Perez, Alba E.; Morales, Lilia M.; Maragoto, Carlos; Vera, Hector; Galan, Lidice; Besson, Mireille; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro A.


    This study was a two-armed parallel group design aimed at testing real world effectiveness of a music therapy (MT) intervention for children with severe neurological disorders. The control group received only the standard neurorestoration program and the experimental group received an additional MT “Auditory Attention plus Communication protocol” just before the usual occupational and speech therapy. Multivariate Item Response Theory (MIRT) identified a neuropsychological status-latent variable manifested in all children and which exhibited highly significant changes only in the experimental group. Changes in brain plasticity also occurred in the experimental group, as evidenced using a Mismatch Event Related paradigm which revealed significant post intervention positive responses in the latency range between 308 and 400 ms in frontal regions. LORETA EEG source analysis identified prefrontal and midcingulate regions as differentially activated by the MT in the experimental group. Taken together, our results showing improved attention and communication as well as changes in brain plasticity in children with severe neurological impairments, confirm the importance of MT for the rehabilitation of patients across a wide range of dysfunctions. PMID:26582974

  9. Care arrangements of AIDS orphans and their relationship with children's psychosocial well-being in rural China.

    Hong, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Qun; Lin, Xiuyun; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita


    There is an estimated 100,000 children orphaned by AIDS in China, but data on the care arrangement of these orphans are limited. In this study, we examine the relationship between AIDS orphans' care arrangement and their psychosocial well-being among a sample of AIDS orphans in rural China. A total of 296 children who lost both parents to AIDS participated in the study, including 176 in orphanages, 90 in kinship care and 30 in community-based group homes. All participants completed a cross-sectional survey assessing their traumatic symptoms, physical health and schooling. Data reveal that the AIDS orphans in group homes reported the best outcomes in three domains of psychosocial well-being, followed by those in the orphanages and then the kinship care. The differences in psychosocial well-being among the three groups of children persist after controlling for key demographic characteristics. The findings suggest that the appropriate care arrangement for AIDS orphans should be evaluated within the specific social and cultural context where the orphans live. In resource-poor regions or areas stricken hardest by the AIDS epidemic, kinship care may not sufficiently serve the needs of AIDS orphans. Community-based care models, with appropriate government and community support preserving the family style and low child-to-caregiver ratio may constitute an effective and sustainable care model for the best interest of the AIDS orphans in developing countries. PMID:20587602

  10. Perception of Early Intervention Family Outcome: Inside Chinese-American Families Having Children with Disabilities

    Wu, Pei-Fang Rachel


    This study seeks to determine whether Chinese-American Families having a child with disabilities experience different needs and expected early intervention family outcomes from families from the mainstream culture. The Researcher used different qualitative research techniques to examine Chinese-American Families who have children with…

  11. Parental Adjustment, Marital Relationship, and Family Function in Families of Children with Autism

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chou, Miao-Churn; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Lee, Ju-Chin; Wong, Ching-Ching; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Wu, Yu-Yu


    This study aimed to investigate the psychopathology, marital relationship, and family function in parents of children with autistic disorder (autism) as compared to parents of typically developing children. We also compared these measures between the mothers and the fathers. We assessed 151 families with at least one child with autistic disorder…

  12. "AIDS is rape!" gender and sexuality in children's responses to HIV and AIDS.

    Bhana, Deevia


    This paper examines young African school children's understanding of HIV and AIDS. Based on focus group interviews with children aged 7-8 in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa, it explores the ways in which gender and sexuality feature in their responses to the disease. Data were collected between 2003 and 2004 through 26 focus groups involving 55 boys and 64 girls. The paper argues that younger children are active agents in giving meaning to the disease. Their agency is negotiated within complex social processes involving sexual violence, highly unequal gender/age inequalities, but also sexual expression. Those expressions are subsumed however under a regime of violence and fear catapulting men, albeit with contestation, as chief vectors in the spread of the disease and a source of girls' anxieties. Children's responses to the disease are the effects of material, symbolic and discursive forces effectively constraining the opportunities available to them and creating patterns of vulnerability especially for young girls. Interventions aimed at scaling up efforts to address young children responses to the disease must be situated in parallel efforts to end poverty, sexual violence and pervasive gender inequalities in order to foster more comprehensively the exercise of young children's agency. PMID:19560247


    Mojžíšová Adéla


    Full Text Available The article presents information on the social determinants of health that affect families with children with disabilities. Results are based on a study of the project: Social determinants of health in the selected target groups. The qualitative study using in-depth interview. File sub-research consisted of six complete families with a child with disabilities in the age range of 6-15 years. Families were selected by stratified purposive sampling. The aim of the qualitative study using in-depth interviews to identify the key social determinants of health for families caring for a child with a disability and their subsequent examination of quantitative research strategies within the project ZSF JU. Significant issues have proven to social support, stress and social status. Stress of mothers of children with intellectual disabilities is not affected by the sex of the child and is not dependent on the age of the mother. Social networkof families is made up of close family, friends, community and the professionals who assist them in the care of children with disabilities. Parents consider it very important need to share their difficulties, both at the institutional level and a personal level. Central to the care of their children consider quality social and health services, provided primarily to non-profit sector or sectors of church organizations. Based on the results of qualitative research on families with a child with disabilities, it is clear that the most important for respondents to maintain the social status of the permanence of at least one family member full-time and given the age of the child with disabilities and other children in the family and the opportunity to find part-time the second member of the family. Social and health services are those instruments from the perspective of the social determinants of health, thanks to which can effectively prevent the risk of social exclusion of families with children with disabilities.

  14. Welfare: Income and Relative Poverty Status of AFDC Families. Report to the Honorable William V. Roth, Jr., U.S. Senate.

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This report assesses the income sources, amounts and relative poverty status of welfare families in the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program, and determines the implications of these results for federal welfare policy. Annually, about $15 billion in AFDC payments are made to needy families with children for such basics as food,…

  15. Parental loss, trusting relationship with current caregivers, and psychosocial adjustment among children affected by AIDS in China.

    Zhao, Junfeng; Li, Xiaoming; Barnett, Douglas; Lin, Xiuyun; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Naar-King, Sylvie; Stanton, Bonita


    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between parental loss, trusting relationship with current caregivers, and psychosocial adjustment among children affected by AIDS in China. In this study, cross-sectional data were collected from 755 AIDS orphans (296 double orphans and 459 single orphans), 466 vulnerable children living with HIV-infected parents, and 404 comparison children in China. The trusting relationship with current caregivers was measured with a 15-item scale (Cronbach's α = 0.84) modified from the Trusting Relationship Questionnaire developed by Mustillo et al. in 2005 (Quality of relationships between youth and community service providers: Reliability and validity of the trusting relationship questionnaire. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 14, 577-590). The psychosocial measures include rule compliance/acting out, anxiety/withdrawal, peer social skills, school interest, depressive symptoms, loneliness, self-esteem, future expectation, hopefulness about future, and perceived control over the future. Group mean comparisons using analysis of variance suggested a significant association (p depression. These associations remained significant in General Linear Model analysis, controlling for children's gender, age, family socioeconomic status, orphan status (orphans, vulnerable children, and comparison children), and appropriate interaction terms among factor variables. The findings in the current study support the global literature on the importance of attachment relationship with caregivers in promoting children's psychosocial development. Future prevention intervention efforts to improve AIDS orphans' psychosocial well-being will need to take into consideration the quality of the child's attachment relationships with current caregivers and help their current caregivers to improve the quality of care for these children. Future study is needed to explore the possible reasons for the lack of association between a trusting

  16. Going to School with Narcolepsy--Perceptions of Families and Teachers of Children with Narcolepsy

    Karjalainen, Satu; Nyrhilä, Anna-Maria; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu


    In 2009 and 2010, a large group of Finnish children and adolescents got narcolepsy after the vaccination campaign to prevent swine flu pandemic. A sample of children and adolescents who had gotten narcolepsy after 2009 participated in this study. The purpose of this research was to analyse how narcolepsy that developed from the swine flu…

  17. Supporting Families of Young Children with Disabilities Using Technology

    Parette, Howard P.; Meadan, Hedda; Doubet, Sharon; Hess, Jackie


    Research has frequently focused on needs, preferences, and practices of families of young children with disabilities. Surprisingly, relatively little seems to be known about how families use technology to gain information about and support their needs, even though Web-based and other information and communication technology applications have…

  18. Families of children with congenital heart disease: A literature review.

    Wei, Holly; Roscigno, Cecelia I; Hanson, Cherissa C; Swanson, Kristen M


    In 2000 and 2002, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute launched two initiatives to encourage treatment innovations and research on children with heart disease and their families. Since then, no systematic reviews have examined the evidence regarding the impacts of having a child with congenital heart disease (CHD) on families. This review synthesized key findings regarding families of children with CHD, critiqued research methods, described what has been done, and provided recommendations for future inquiry. Databases searched included PubMed, CINAHL, Family & Society Studies Worldwide, Women's Studies International, and PsycINFO. The literature search followed the PRISMA guidelines. As a result, ninety-four articles were reviewed. Four major themes were derived: parents' psychological health, family life, parenting challenges, and family-focused interventions. In conclusion, while they found parents having psychological symptoms, researchers did not explore parents' appraisals of what led to their symptoms. Research is needed to explore parents' experiences and expectations. PMID:26404115

  19. Development of a voice database to aid children with hearing impairments

    In the development of software for voice analysis or training, for people with hearing impairments, a database having sounds of properly pronounced words is of paramount importance. This paper shows the advantage that will be obtained from getting an own voice database, rather than using those coming from other countries, even having the same language, in the development of speech training software aimed to people with hearing impairments. This database will be used by software developers at the School of Engineering of Mar del Plata National University.

  20. Development of a voice database to aid children with hearing impairments

    Kuzman, M. G.; Agüero, P. D.; Tulli, J. C.; Gonzalez, E. L.; Uriz, A. J.; Cervellini, M. P.


    In the development of software for voice analysis or training, for people with hearing impairments, a database having sounds of properly pronounced words is of paramount importance. This paper shows the advantage that will be obtained from getting an own voice database, rather than using those coming from other countries, even having the same language, in the development of speech training software aimed to people with hearing impairments. This database will be used by software developers at the School of Engineering of Mar del Plata National University.

  1. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia in children with AIDS: high-resolution CT findings

    Pulmonary involvement in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) represents a wide spectrum of diseases. Among the non-infectious, non-neoplastic affections associated with AIDS, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is now a well-recognized entity, but its radiological pattern studied with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has rarely been described in children. The aim of this study was to illustrate the HRCT spectrum of pulmonary involvement in children with LIP and to evaluate its usefulness in the early diagnosis of this entity. Twelve children with AIDS, aged 3-9 years (mean age 5 years 7 months), underwent chest radiographs and HRCT. A control group of 7 healthy aged-matched children was also studied in the same conditions. Diagnosis of LIP was based on clinical data and HRCT findings. Eight children of 12 had a reticulonodular pattern on chest radiographs. Two children had normal chest films and two children showed peribronchiolar thickening. High-resolution CT displayed micronodules, 1-3 mm in diameter, with a perilymphatic distribution in all patients. High-resolution CT demonstrated also subpleural nodules in children without reticulonodular opacities on chest radiographs. High-resolution CT is able to define a more specific pattern of abnormalities than conventional chest radiographs in children with LIP, allows an earlier and more confident diagnosis and may be useful for the detection of other pathologies associated with AIDS, such as opportunistic infections or superimposed malignancies. (orig.)

  2. The impact of aid chains: relations of dependence or supportive partnerships for community-led responses to HIV/AIDS?

    Aveling, E L


    In the context of increasing global emphasis on partnerships between international, governmental and civil society organisations in the distribution of international aid, this paper examines the ways in which the resulting aid chains promote and undermine community-led responses to HIV/AIDS. The impact of the aid-granting system is examined using an ethnographic case study of an HIV/AIDS prevention programme with Cambodian military families. The case study draws on observations of stakeholder meetings and programme activities, interviews with stakeholders (the donor, NGOs and military community) and textual materials (programme guidelines, policies and reports). Campbell et al.'s interrelated concepts of relational, symbolic and material context are used to frame the analysis. The establishment of a relationship with a more powerful international NGO is shown to be beneficial to the military community and civil society groups. The international NGO uses its significant material and economic leverage to improve the community's relational context (by ensuring the support of the military high command), symbolic context (by strengthening the position of community and civil society partners in relation to government bodies) and material context (through increasing access to health services). However, material and symbolic asymmetries between partners in the aid chain persist, curtailing the community's involvement and leadership. At the material and relational levels, the hierarchical flow of aid encourages accountability to the demands of the donor while excluding grassroots groups from directly accessing funding. At the symbolic level, problem-focused representations of the military further reinforce the community's position as recipients of intervention, which undermines recognition for the community's knowledge, strengths and right to fully participate. Thus while aid chains can be supportive of community-led responses, this analysis highlights how the structures

  3. A Family History of Psychopathology Modifies the Decrement in Cognitive Control Among Patients with HIV/AIDS



    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of HIV/AIDS on cognitive control and to determine if the effect is modified by familial risk for either alcohol or mood disorders. Sixty HIV-1 seropositive and 75 seronegative volunteers were assigned to 4 subgroups defined by the crossing of a diagnosis of alcohol dependence in the biological father with diagnoses of either major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder in the biological mother. Cognitive control was evaluated during a tas...

  4. Face singular do cuidado familiar à criança portadora do vírus HIV/AIDS Cara singular del Cuidado Familiar al niño Portador del Vírus VIH/ SIDA Singular view of family care for children with the HIV / AIDS virus

    Giovana Calcagno Gomes


    el cuidado, ofreciendo informaciones sobre el VIH/SIDA a las personas de su círculo social, disminuyendo el estigma y la discriminación a la que están expuestos esos niños.OBJECTIVE: To understand the lived experience of the family in caring for children with the HIV/AIDS virus. METHODS: The study was conducted in a university hospital in the first semester of 2010. Participants included seven family caregivers. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: There was evidence of a silencing of the diagnosis by the family caregiver whose life function became that of caregiver for the child. In terms of difficulties for care, these included: the health conditions of the mother or her death; hospitalizations that compromised schooling and reveaed the diagnosis; and fear of telling the diagnosis to the child. CONCLUSION: It is believed that health/nursing professionals need to employ strategies that enable these families to better cope with everyday life, advising them about care, providing information on HIV/AIDS to people in their social circle, and diminishing stigma and discrimination to which these children are exposed.

  5. Benefits of Family Meals for Children With Special Therapeutic and Behavioral Needs.

    DeGrace, Beth W; Foust, Ruth E; Sisson, Susan B; Lora, Karina R


    Frequency of family meals (FMs) is associated with favorable child outcomes; however, no study to date has examined the relationship between frequency of FMs and outcomes for children with disabilities. Data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health for children with disabilities (N = 4,336) were used. Logistic regression for each dependent variable was completed using frequency of FMs and covariates of age, gender, race, family structure, and poverty level. Each day per week increase in the frequency of FMs increased the likelihood for positive social skills (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.01, 1.19]) and engagement in school (OR = 1.09, 95% CI [1.02, 1.16]). Frequency of FMs was not associated with problematic social behaviors or parental aggravation with child. Our findings suggest that children with disabilities whose families participate in frequent FMs have a greater likelihood of positive social and family health outcomes. PMID:27089299

  6. Theory-of-Mind Development in Oral Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants or Conventional Hearing Aids

    Peterson, Candida C.


    Background: In the context of the established finding that theory-of-mind (ToM) growth is seriously delayed in late-signing deaf children, and some evidence of equivalent delays in those learning speech with conventional hearing aids, this study's novel contribution was to explore ToM development in deaf children with cochlear implants. Implants…

  7. The Impact of Children with High-Functioning Autism on Parental Stress, Sibling Adjustment, and Family Functioning

    Rao, Patricia A.; Beidel, Deborah C.


    The article discuses a study conducted to investigate the impact of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) on parental stress, sibling adjustment, and family functioning; the study involves a sample of parents of 15 children with HFA and parents of 15 matched control children who completed questionnaires measuring the dependent variables. The…

  8. Parenting and the parent-child relationship in families of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities and externalizing behavior.

    Schuiringa, Hilde; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter


    This cross-sectional study examined the association between parenting behavior, the parent-child relationship, and externalizing child behavior in families of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). The families of a child with MBID and accompanying externalizing behavior problems (n=113) reported more positive discipline and physical punishment but less involvement, less positive parenting, less monitoring, a lower sense of parenting competence, less acceptance of the child, and less closeness to the child than the families of a child with MBID and no accompanying externalizing behavior problems (n=71). The parent-child relationship was most strongly associated with externalizing child behavior, over and above parenting behaviors. In addition, the parent-child relationship was found to be associated with parenting behavior, over and above the child's externalizing behavior. Our results highlight the importance of both the parent-child relationship and parenting behavior in connection with the occurrence of externalizing behavior problems on the part of children with MBID. Parenting behavior and the parent-child relationship may thus be promising targets for interventions with this group of children. PMID:25262097

  9. Family Context and Young Children's Responses to Earthquake

    Proctor, Laura J.; Fauchier, Angele; Oliver, Pamella H.; Ramos, Michelle C.; Rios, Martha A.; Margolin, Gayla


    Background: Family context can affect children's vulnerability to various stresses, but little is known regarding the role of family variables on children's reactions to natural disaster. This prospective study examined the influence of predisaster observed parenting behaviors and postdisaster parental stress on young children's distress following…

  10. Access to Services, Quality of Care, and Family Impact for Children with Autism, Other Developmental Disabilities, and Other Mental Health Conditions

    Vohra, Rini; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha; St Peter, Claire


    This cross-sectional study examined perceived access to services, quality of care, and family impact reported by caregivers of children aged 3-17 years with autism spectrum disorders, as compared to caregivers of children with other developmental disabilities and other mental health conditions. The 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with…

  11. Residential Treatment Following Outpatient Treatment for Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities: A Study of Child and Family Characteristics

    Embregts, Petri J. C. M.


    In this study, the question was explored whether children with a mild intellectual disability (MID) who were placed in residential treatment following outpatient treatment differ significantly on child and family characteristics from children with MID and not placed in residential treatment following outpatient treatment. The records of the…

  12. Stresses and Coping Strategies of Chinese Families with Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities

    Wang, Peishi; Michaels, Craig A.; Day, Matthew S.


    Data from 368 families of children with autism and other developmental disabilities in the People's Republic of China were gathered to understand the stresses that families experience and the coping strategies they employ. Chinese families of children with developmental disabilities perceived high levels of stress related to pessimism, child…

  13. Individual and familial factors associated with fruit and vegetable intake among 11- to 14-year-old Romanian school children.

    Lotrean, Lucia Maria; Tutui, Iulia


    The healthy nutrition guidelines proposed by international research institutes and the World Health Organization recommend a daily intake of fruit and vegetables of at least 400 g, representing five servings a day (each serving contains around 80 g). Moreover, the recommendations stress the importance of consuming both fruit and vegetables daily, preferably at least two portions of fruit and three portions of vegetables per day. To efficiently develop interventions for promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among children, it is essential to identify and understand the factors that influence these behaviours. The present study aims at identifying the individual and familial factors which influence fruit and vegetable consumption among Romanian children. A cross-sectional survey by means of anonymous questionnaires was conducted among 361 school children, aged 11-14, from Cluj-Napoca, Romania (April-May 2011). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the correlates of fruit and vegetable intake. The results show that 44.6% of the children met the recommendations regarding fruit intake, while 9.1% of the children declared eating the daily recommended portions of vegetables. Knowledge regarding the recommended number of daily servings and higher self-efficacy concerning the intake of fruit and vegetables every day were positively associated with higher consumption of fruit and vegetables. Fruit preference also influenced positively the consumption of fruit. The familial factor associated with vegetable intake was the perceived behaviour of the mother, while fruit intake was higher among children who declared higher fruit availability at home. Hence, it is necessary to develop in Romania nutrition interventions addressing the determinants of fruit and vegetable intake as identified by this study; these interventions should target both children and parents. PMID:25323566

  14. Psychotherapy with children in refugee families who have survived torture

    Grünbaum, Liselotte


    Children of refugee families who have survived torture often have emotional, psychosomatic and behavioural problems as well as problems with learning. In order to understand the difficulties of these children, we have to recognize the complicated interaction of cumulative traumatic strain and...... recurring exposure to shocking violence. The traumatic experiences of the child in the country of origin take place in the broader context of chronic danger and persecution, often to be followed in the country of exile both by recurrent family strain and social estrangement. In the transference this...

  15. Vulnerability of families with children with intestinal stomas

    Clara Ferraz Lazarini Zacarin


    Full Text Available Intestinal stomas cause transformations in the body and create specific and continuous needs for care that imply in hospitalization and surgeries. In this context, we applied the concept of family vulnerability in order to identify the vulnerability of the family living with a child who has intestinal stoma. It is a qualitative study which interviewed the mothers of children with this chronic condition. We used narrative analysis based on the concept of family vulnerability. The results display that the family has gone through previous noteworthy experiences associated with the child’s condition. The family cares for the child on their own and seeks ways to control the situation and regain autonomy, hoping for stoma reversal. Based on the concept of vulnerability, we observed that these families can be considered vulnerable, for they experience threats to their autonomy, but are moved by the hope of reversal and intestinal tract reconstruction. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i2.26639.

  16. Key Working for Families with Young Disabled Children

    Bernie Carter


    Full Text Available For families with a disabled child, the usual challenges of family life can be further complicated by the need to access a wide range of services provided by a plethora of professionals and agencies. Key working aims to support children and their families in navigating these complexities ensuring easy access to relevant, high quality, and coordinated care. The aim of this paper is to explore the key worker role in relation to “being a key worker” and “having a key worker”. The data within this paper draw on a larger evaluation study of the Blackpool Early Support Pilot Programme. The qualitative study used an appreciative and narrative approach and utilised mixed methods (interviews, surveys and a nominal group workshop. Data were collected from 43 participants (parents, key workers, and other stakeholders. All stakeholders who had been involved with the service were invited to participate. In the paper we present and discuss the ways in which key working made a difference to the lives of children and their families. We also consider how key working transformed the perspectives of the key workers creating a deeper and richer understanding of family lives and the ways in which other disciplines and agencies worked. Key working contributed to the shift to a much more family-centred approach, and enhanced communication and information sharing between professionals and agencies improved. This resulted in families feeling more informed. Key workers acted in an entrepreneurial fashion, forging new relationships with families and between families and other stakeholders. Parents of young disabled children and their service providers benefited from key working. Much of the benefit accrued came from strong, relational, and social-professional networking which facilitated the embedding of new ways of working into everyday practice. Using an appreciative inquiry approach provided an effective and relevant way of engaging with parents, professionals

  17. Vocabulary and Working Memory in Children Fit with Hearing Aids

    Stiles, Derek J.; McGregor, Karla K.; Bentler, Ruth A.


    Purpose: To determine whether children with mild-to-moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss (CHL) present with disturbances in working memory and whether these disturbances relate to the size of their receptive vocabularies. Method: Children 6 to 9 years of age participated. Aspects of working memory were tapped by articulation rate, forward…

  18. 'Why does it happen like this?' Consulting with users and providers prior to an evaluation of services for children with life limiting conditions and their families.

    Hunt, Anne; Brown, Erica; Coad, Jane; Staniszewska, Sophie; Hacking, Suzanne; Chesworth, Brigit; Chambers, Lizzie


    Children with life limiting conditions and their families have complex needs. Evaluations must consider their views and perspectives to ensure care is relevant, appropriate and acceptable. We consulted with children, young people, their parents and local professionals to gain a more informed picture of issues affecting them prior to preparing a bid to evaluate services in the area. Multiple methods included focus groups, face-to-face and telephone interviews and participatory activities. Recordings and products from activities were analysed for content to identify areas of relevance and concern. An overarching theme from parents was 'Why does it happen like this?' Services did not seem designed to meet their needs. Whilst children and young people expressed ideas related to quality of environment, services and social life, professionals focused on ways of meeting the families' needs. The theme that linked families' concerns with those of professionals was 'assessing individual needs'. Two questions to be addressed by the evaluation are (1) to what extent are services designed to meet the needs of children and families and (2) to what extent are children, young people and their families consulted about what they need? Consultations with families and service providers encouraged us to continue their involvement as partners in the evaluation. PMID:24270996

  19. Parenting Mediates the Impact of Caregivers' Distress on Children's Well-Being in Families Affected by HIV/AIDS.

    Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Tam, Cheuk Chi; Du, Hongfei; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng


    Parental illness imposes great challenges to children's life and mental health. Having a parent infected by HIV may further challenge children's psychological well-being. Existing studies have demonstrated a negative impact of caregiver's distress on children's well-being. Limited studies examined the potential pathways of the link. This study aims to examine whether parenting stress, parenting competence and parental responsiveness can explain the relationship between caregivers' distress and children's well-being. A community sample of children of parents living with HIV and their current caregivers (n = 754 dyads) was recruited in rural central China. Children completed the measures on their psychological well-being and perceived parental responsiveness of their caregivers. Caregivers reported on their psychological well-being, parenting stress, and parenting competence. Structural equation modeling analysis showed that caregivers' distress indirectly affect children's well-being through parenting stress, parenting competence and parental responsiveness. Parenting stress explained the impact of caregiver's distress on parental responsiveness and showed pervasive effects on parenting competence. Our findings lend credence to family-based intervention for children affected by HIV and affirm the importance of incorporating the cognitive, emotional and behavioral components of parenting practices in such intervention. PMID:26078116

  20. Una respuesta institucional colombiana a niños/as que viven con VIH/SIDA A Colombian institutional response to Colombian children infected with HIV/AIDS

    Miguel Eduardo Barrios Acosta


    Full Text Available El VIH/SIDA en la niñez es un problema social y su abordaje trasciende al sector de la salud. Las respuestas normativas, políticas, institucionales y de servicios tienen particularidades para la infancia. Un acercamiento propuesto se basa en los siguientes ejes: salud, nutrición, educación, condiciones socioeconómicas familiares, repercusiones psicosociales, protección, vivienda y estigmatización y discriminación. Desde estos lineamientos se exploró una institución usando la Teoría Bioecológica del Desarrollo Humano. Se describe y analiza la vida de niños/as en la institución. Es un estudio etnográfico y participaron 31 niños/as y 30 adultos/as. La respuesta institucional es satisfactoria en salud, alimentación, educación y cuidados básicos. La no revelación del diagnóstico, la estigmatización y discriminación contra los niños/as, la validación de la institucionalización, el manejo de las repercusiones psicoemocionales y del estigma y los costos del programa fueron las principales falencias. Los niños/as aprecian la respuesta institucional sobre el cubrimiento de sus necesidades básicas y rechazan algunas prácticas que ellos/as identifican como coercitivas y estigmatizantes. El reintegro de los niños/as a sus familias se recomienda como una estrategia de trabajo futuro sustentada en evidencias que demuestran mejores resultados biopsicosociales y bajo costo.Children with HIV/AIDS is a social issue,the approach to which transcends the health sector. The normative, political, institutional and service sector responses have specificities related to children. A proposed approach is based on the following points: health care, nutrition, education, family-socioeconomic status, psychosocial repercussions, protection, housing, stigmatization and discrimination. Based on these guidelines,a survey was conducted of an institutional responseapplying the Bioecological Model of Human Development. Life of children in the

  1. Raising Children in an Evangelical Family Environment: Biblical Principles Applied to the Family

    Ljubinka Jambrek


    Full Text Available As Creator, God designed the family and determined the standards and rules for living and functioning in the family. As a basic unit of society, the family is to reflect God’s glory. God’s plan for marriage and the family has not changed, only the human approach to this institution has changed. Therefore, it is vital to re-emphasize how important it is that the family functions according to biblical standards. This article deals with raising children in an evangelical environment which assumes God’s presence, the reading and keeping of God’s Word, love between the parents, prayer, and worship of God. Clear goals for raising children are presented. This work offers valuable and lived examples of biblical discipline. It discusses the topic of discipline from childhood to the teen ages, trust, responsibility, communication and relationship with God. Finally, the article points out the importance of times of family worship.

  2. Raising Children in an Evangelical Family Environment: Biblical Principles Applied to the Family

    Ljubinka Jambrek


    As Creator, God designed the family and determined the standards and rules for living and functioning in the family. As a basic unit of society, the family is to reflect God’s glory. God’s plan for marriage and the family has not changed, only the human approach to this institution has changed. Therefore, it is vital to re-emphasize how important it is that the family functions according to biblical standards. This article deals with raising children in an evangelical environment which assume...

  3. Psychological, social, and familial problems of people living with HIV/AIDS in Iran: A qualitative study

    Masoumeh Dejman; Hossein Malekafzali Ardakani; Bahareh Malekafzali; Ghobad Moradi; Mohammad Mehdi Gouya; Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari1; Seyed Ahmad Seyed Alinaghi; Minoo Mohraz


    Background: HIV/AIDS is one of the diseases which not only makes threats to physical health, but also, due to the negative attitudes of people and the social stigma, affects the emotional and social health of patients. The aim of this study was to identify the psychological, social, and family problems of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Iran. Methods: In this qualitative study, we used purposive sampling to enroll PLWHA, their families, and physicians and consultants in two cities ...

  4. Home Is Where the Family Is: Moving House with Children.

    Linke, Pam


    This publication is intended to help parents address their children's needs and emotions when the family is moving from one place to another. Detailed information and tips are provided on several moving-related issues, including: (1) how children respond to change; (2) how parents respond to change; (3) preparing children for the move; (4) the…

  5. The Adaptive Project of Parenting: South Asian Families with Children with Developmental Delays.

    Raghavan, Chemba; Weisner, Thomas S.; Patel, Devindra


    This study compared patterns of family adaptation to children with developmental delays of South Asian families living in California with similar Euro-American families. Analysis of parent interviews found differences in family support, spousal relations, gender roles, cultural identity, and spirituality. Similarities were found in hope for…

  6. Family Smoking, Exposure to Secondhand Smoke at Home and Family Unhappiness in Children

    Jian Jiu Chen


    Full Text Available Tobacco use adversely affects many aspects of well-being and is disliked by non-smokers. However, its association with family happiness is unknown. We investigated the associations of family unhappiness with smoking in family members and secondhand smoke (SHS exposure at home in Hong Kong children. In a school-based survey in 2012–2013, 1238 primary school students (mean age 8.5 years, standard deviation 0.9; 42.6% boys reported family smoking, SHS exposure at home and whether their families had any unpleasant experience caused by smoking or SHS in the past 30 days (tobacco-related unpleasant experience, and rated the overall level of happiness in their families (family unhappiness. Multivariable logistic regression was used to study the associations of tobacco-related unpleasant experience and family unhappiness with family smoking and SHS exposure at home. Tobacco-related unpleasant experience and family unhappiness were reported by 27.5% and 16.5% of students. Unpleasant experience was more strongly associated with family smoking than SHS exposure at home. Family unhappiness was associated with both family smoking (odds ratio 2.37; 95% confidence interval 1.51–3.71 and SHS exposure at home (1.82; 1.39–2.40. These results suggest a previously neglected possible impact of tobacco use on family happiness.

  7. Family-based prevention of mental health problems in children affected by HIV and AIDS: an open trial

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Ng, Lauren; Kirk, Catherine M.; Munyanah, Morris; Mushashi, Christina; Ingabire, Charles; Teta, Sharon; Beardslee, William Rigby; Brennan, Robert Thomas; Zahn, Ista; Stulac, Sara Nicole; Cyamatare, Felix R; Sezibera, Vincent


    Objective The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility and acceptability of an intervention to reduce mental health problems and bolster resilience among children living in households affected by caregiver HIV in Rwanda. Design Pre-post design, including 6-month follow-up. Methods The Family Strengthening Intervention (FSI) aims to reduce mental health problems among HIV-affected children through improved child–caregiver relationships, family communication and ...

  8. The Effect of Aided Language Stimulation on Vocabulary Acquisition in Children with Little or No Functional Speech

    Dada, Shakila; Alant, Erna


    Purpose: To describe the nature and frequency of the aided language stimulation program and determine the effects of a 3-week-long aided language stimulation program on the vocabulary acquisition skills of children with little or no functional speech (LNFS). Method: Four children participated in this single-subject,multiple-probe study across…

  9. Importance of psychological support for families of children with cancer

    Kaćanski Nataša


    Full Text Available Introduction. A family of a child with cancer needs continuous help and support from medical and other professionals, relatives, friends and community at the moment of making diagnosis and during the treatment. The goal of this study was to find out the most frequent sources of individual or community based psychological support, reported by parents of children suffering from malignant diseases. We focused on the help received at the moment of making diagnosis and within the first and second year of treatment. Material and Methods. We analyzed data obtained by a questionnaire specially designed for parents of children suffering from different malignancies. The poll was conducted from April 2007 till October 2009 at the Hematology/ Oncology Department of Children’s Hospital of Novi Sad and it included 72 parents of both sexes, whose children were treated at our Department in the period from 2007 to 2009. The children were of different age. Results. The parents selected the following forms of support as the most important: support given by the emotional partner and other family members (together with sick and healthy child, communication with and accessibility of hospital stuff (physicians at the first place, but also psychologists, nurses, other parents, support groups…. They also expressed their need for contacting friends, relatives and other close people. The selected forms of support are extremely important for the patients (regardless of age and for their family. All forms of organized and professionally conducted psycho-social support of patients and their family result in higher quality of psychological survival during the treatment and further rehabilitation of patients after rejoining their primary social environment. Conclusion. Family is the primary and the most important social surrounding within which disease both happens and is resolved. Adequate support can help family to overcome such crises, thus leading to the positive

  10. Silent Victims: Children Exposed to Family Violence

    Kolar, Kathryn R.; Davey, Debrynda


    Annually an estimated 3 million or more children are exposed to acts of domestic violence between adults in their homes. These children are at risk for abuse themselves as well as other immediate and long-term problems, especially if they have been exposed to repeated episodes of domestic violence. Multiple behavioral manifestations, including…

  11. Yeasts from the oral cavity of children with AIDS: exoenzyme production and antifungal resistance

    Bosco Vera Lúcia


    Full Text Available The oral fungal microbiota of 30 children with AIDS, of both genders, aged from two to six years, receiving outpatient treatment, was evaluated and compared with that of a control group composed of 30 healthy subjects with matching ages and genders. Virulence factors, such as exoenzyme production, and susceptibility to five antifungal agents using an E-Test kit were evaluated. C. albicans predominated over other species in the AIDS group, showing a higher production of proteinase and phospholipase when compared with that observed in the control group. In this study few clinical manifestations of and low selectivity for C. albicans (23.3% were observed in the AIDS group. The enzymatic studies showed that 53.8% of the AIDS strains were strongly positive whereas only 33.3% of the non-AIDS strains were positive. Amphotericin B was the most effective drug among the antifungal agents tested against C. albicans. The frequency, selectivity and level of exoenzyme production by C. albicans suggest a higher pathogenicity in the AIDS children than in the control children.

  12. A Systematic Desensitization Paradigm to Treat Hypersensitivity to Auditory Stimuli in Children with Autism in Family Contexts

    Koegel, Robert L.; Openden, Daniel; Koegel, Lynn Kern


    Many children with autism display reactions to auditory stimuli that seem as if the stimuli were painful or otherwise extremely aversive. This article describes, within the contexts of three experimental designs, how procedures of systematic desensitization can be used to treat hypersensitivity to auditory stimuli in three young children with…

  13. Family Factors Associated with the Peer Social Competence of Young Children with Mild Delays.

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Neville, Brian; Connor, Robert T.; Hammond, Mary A.


    A model addressing family influences on the peer-related social competence of young children with mild developmental (cognitive) delays was developed and tested. Path analytic techniques were used to evaluate the model. Results supported the importance of family influences on the peer-related social competence of young children with mild…

  14. Changing Family Practices with Assistive Technology: MOBERO Improves Morning and Bedtime Routines for Children with ADHD

    Sonne, Tobias


    Families of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often report morning and bedtime routines to be stressful and frustrating. Through a design process involving domain professionals and families we designed MOBERO, a smartphone-based system that assists families in establishing healthy morning and bedtime routines with the aim to assist the child in becoming independent and lowering the parents’ frustration levels. In a two-week intervention with 13 children with ADHD a...

  15. The Starting Early Starting Smart Integrated Services Model: Improving Access to Behavioral Health Services in the Pediatric Health Care Setting for At-Risk Families with Young Children

    Morrow, Connie E.; Mansoor, Elana; Hanson, K. Lori; Vogel, April L.; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Genatossio, Carolyn Seval; Windham, Amy; Bandstra, Emmalee S.


    We evaluated the Starting Early Starting Smart (SESS) national initiative to integrate behavioral health services (parenting, mental health, and drug treatment) into the pediatric health care setting for families with young children. Data are presented from five pediatric care (PC) sites, drawing from families at risk due to demographic and…

  16. Cultural Socialization in Families With Internationally Adopted Children

    Lee, Richard M.; Grotevant, Harold D.; Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Gunnar, Megan R.


    Cultural socialization attitudes, beliefs, and parenting behaviors were examined in families with internationally adopted children. The authors hypothesized that parents with lower color-blind racial attitudes would be more likely to engage in enculturation and racialization parenting behaviors because they hold stronger beliefs in the value and importance of cultural socialization. Using data from the Minnesota International Adoption Project, the results support this mediation model of cultu...

  17. The social work with family and children with institutional upbringing injunction

    DROZČÁKOVÁ, Zdeňka


    The thesis deals with social work with children and families with the institutional upbringing injunction, which is execute by social workers from the department of social law protection of children. The theoretical part generally characterizes the terms family, introduce to risk factors en famille and define the term social law protection of children and institutional upbringing. Attention paid to acts of the social worker in context of institutional upbringing. The practical part are being ...

  18. Mother Positivity and Family Adjustment in Households with Children with a Serious Disability

    Trute, Barry; Benzies, Karen M.; Worthington, Catherine


    Only limited attention has been given to parent coping resources in the positive adjustment of families of children with a disability. This study is the first to explore maternal positivity as a psychological coping resource related to family adjustment in these families. Consistent with broaden-and-build theory and prior positivity research, positivity was operationalized through a ratio of positive to negative affect scores. We employed longitudinal tracking over a 1 year interval. Children...

  19. Preventive interventions in families with parental depression: children's psychosocial symptoms and prosocial behaviour

    Solantaus, Tytti; Paavonen, E. Juulia; Toikka, Sini; Punamäki, Raija-Leena


    Abstract The aim is to document the effectiveness of a preventive family intervention (Family Talk Intervention, FTI) and a brief psychoeducational discussion with parents (Let?s Talk about the Children, LT) on children?s psychosocial symptoms and prosocial behaviour in families with parental mood disorder, when the interventions are practiced in psychiatric services for adults in the finnish national health service. Patients with mood disorder were invited to participate with thei...

  20. Opportunistic illnesses in Brazilian children with AIDS: results from two national cohort studies, 1983-2007

    Heukelbach Jorg


    Full Text Available Abstract Background HAART has significantly reduced AIDS-related morbidity in children. However, limited evidence is available from developing countries regarding patterns of opportunistic illnesses. We describe these events and their associated factors in children with AIDS in Brazil. Methods This study is based on two representative retrospective multi-center cohorts including a total 1,859 children with AIDS, infected via mother-to-child transmission (MTCT, between 1983-2002. Opportunistic illnesses were described and analyzed over time. The association of demographic, clinical and operational data with the occurrence of opportunistic diseases was assessed. Results In total, 1,218 (65.5% had at least one event of an opportunistic disease. Variables significantly associated with occurrence of these events included: region of residence (OR 2.68-11.33, as compared to the Northern region, age Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (21.9 vs. 13.2%; p Conclusions Despite the significant reduction in recent years, opportunistic illnesses are still common in Brazilian children with AIDS in the HAART era, especially bacterial diseases. The data reinforce the need for scaling up prevention of MTCT, early diagnosis of infection, and improvement of comprehensive pediatric care.

  1. Associations between Family Environment, Parenting Practices, and Executive Functioning of Children with and without ADHD

    Schroeder, Valarie M.; Kelley, Michelle L.


    We examined the relationships between executive functioning, family environment, and parenting practices in children diagnosed with ADHD as compared to children without ADHD. Participants were parents (N = 134) of 6- to 12-year-old ADHD and non-ADHD-diagnosed children. Compared to the control group, parents of children diagnosed with ADHD reported…

  2. Changing Family Practices with Assistive Technology: MOBERO Improves Morning and Bedtime Routines for Children with ADHD

    Sonne, Tobias

    Families of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often report morning and bedtime routines to be stressful and frustrating. Through a design process involving domain professionals and families we designed MOBERO, a smartphone-based system that assists families in establis......Families of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often report morning and bedtime routines to be stressful and frustrating. Through a design process involving domain professionals and families we designed MOBERO, a smartphone-based system that assists families in...... establishing healthy morning and bedtime routines with the aim to assist the child in becoming independent and lowering the parents’ frustration levels. In a two-week intervention with 13 children with ADHD and their families, MOBERO significantly improved children’s independence and reduced parents...

  3. Supporting families of children who are deaf or hard of hearing with an autism spectrum disorder.

    Wiley, Susan; Innis, Heather


    Families of children who are deaf or hard of hearing (Deaf/HH) with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience many frustrations and challenges in the identification of ASD, accessing supports and services to address all of their child's needs, and identifying networking and support opportunities with other families with children with similar needs. Professionals working with families are in a unique position to help navigate the often disconnected systems of services for children who are Deaf/HH and services for children with ASD. This article poses some possible strategies that professionals can implement in practice when working with children who are Deaf/HH with an ASD. PMID:25321850

  4. Family care to individuals dependent on alcohol and other drugs

    Keity Laís Siepmann Soccol; Marlene Gomes Terra; Nara Marilene Oliveira Girardon-Perlini; Danilo Bertasso Ribeiro; Cristiane Trivisiol da Silva; Lucia Amabile Camillo


    This is a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive research, which aimed to describe the family care given to the individual dependent on alcohol and other drugs. For data collection we used the interview, open, free and recorded, which was performed in August and September 2011. The 11 subjects were relatives of the individuals dependent on alcohol and other drugs, involved in family groups conducted at the Psychosocial care Center for Alcohol and Drugs. From the content analysis of these in...

  5. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  6. An Important Opportunity for Family Planning Education: Mothers with Children Hospitalized in Children Governmental Hospital, Diyarbakir-2004.

    Alpay Çakmak; Melikşah Ertem


    Family planning is an important tool to avoid maternal deaths. But unfortunately women have no chance to reach family planning services particularly in developing countries. All contacts with health professionals of women should be evaluate a opportunity for family planning education. In this study we aimed to show the fact that children hospital is also an important opportunity for family planning education. We interviewed 352 women with a child hospitalized in Children Governmental Hospita...

  7. Parents of children with haemophilia at an early age: assessment of perceived stress and family functioning.

    Torres-Ortuño, A; Cuesta-Barriuso, R; Nieto-Munuera, J


    Haemophilia is a chronic disease that requires a multidisciplinary approach for proper management and control of its clinical manifestations. The perception and management of parents of children with haemophilia can be affected by stressful situations as a result of treatment or disease progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of stress and family functioning in parents of children with haemophilia 1-7 years. This is an observational clinical study involving 49 parents of children with haemophilia 1-7 years who attended the VIII Workshop for Parents of Children with haemophilia, organized by the Spanish Federation of Hemophilia in La Charca, Murcia (Spain). After obtaining parental consent, the questionnaires was applied to them, FACES III (family functioning) and Pediatric Inventory for Parents (perceived stress), and a record of data on the clinical characteristics and treatment. Significant differences in the perception of stressors by gender of parents were found. A family history of haemophilia, the use of port-a-cath, inhibitor development and gender of the parents were the descriptive variables most correlated with dependents variables. These variables, together with the type of haemophilia affect significantly in the parental stress and family functioning. Parents have difficulty adjusting to disease management, perceiving many stressors. Gender and family history, can hinder the proper compliance with treatments, reducing its effectiveness. PMID:25142950

  8. Family-School Intervention for Children with ADHD: Results of Randomized Clinical Trial

    Power, Thomas J.; Mautone, Jennifer A.; Soffer, Stephen L.; Clarke, Angela T.; Marshall, Stephen A.; Sharman, Jaclyn; Blum, Nathan J.; Glanzman, Marianne; Elia, Josephine; Jawad, Abbas F.


    Accumulating evidence highlights the importance of using psychosocial approaches to intervention for children with ADHD that target the family and school, as well as the intersection of family and school.

  9. Why people living with HIV/AIDS exclude individuals from their chosen families

    Grant JS


    Full Text Available Joan S Grant,1 David E Vance,1 Worawan White,2 Norman L Keltner,1 James L Raper3 1School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, 2Department of Nursing, Pensacola State College, Pensacola, Florida, 3School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA Abstract: Health professionals can gain a better understanding of key elements of social support by examining reasons why people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (PLWH exclude individuals from their chosen families (ie, families of choice. Our study identified reasons why PLWH excluded specific individuals from their chosen families. This mixed-method design was drawn from a larger study of 150 PLWH, in which 94 self-reported why they excluded individuals from their chosen families. Physical and emotional distance (n = 64; 68.1%; nonsupport, nonacceptance, and harm (n = 25; 26.6%; conditional caring and trust (n = 22; 23.4%; and no blood/familial relationship (n = 13; 13.8% were the reasons PLWH excluded individuals from their chosen families. Demographic and personal characteristics were unrelated to these themes, supporting the conclusion that reasons for excluding family members are universal and not dependent on particular participant characteristics. For chosen family relationships to develop and exist, these findings emphasize the value of physical and emotional contact between individuals.Keywords: families, stigma, social networks, human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

  10. Family Functioning in Asian Families Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Capabilities and Positive Meanings

    Xue, J.; Ooh, J.; Magiati, I.


    Background: There has been increasing interest in exploring the factors contributing to successful adaptation and family functioning in ethnically and culturally diverse families who raise children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), in order to inform more appropriate strength-based family support services. This pilot study used the Family…

  11. Parent attendance and homework adherence predict response to a family-school intervention for children with ADHD.

    Clarke, Angela T; Marshall, Stephen A; Mautone, Jennifer A; Soffer, Stephen L; Jones, Heather A; Costigan, Tracy E; Patterson, Anwar; Jawad, Abbas F; Power, Thomas J


    This study examined the relative contribution of two dimensions of parent engagement, attendance and homework adherence, to parent and child treatment response and explored whether early engagement was a stronger predictor of outcomes than later engagement. The sample consisted of parents of participants (n = 92; M age = 9.4 years, SD = 1.27; 67% male, 69% White) in a 12-session evidence-based family-school intervention for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Attendance was assessed using clinician records, and homework adherence was measured by rating permanent products. Outcomes included parent and teacher ratings of family involvement in education, parenting practices, and child functioning. Accounting for the contributions of baseline scores and attendance, homework adherence was a significant predictor of parental self-efficacy, the parent-teacher relationship, parenting through positive involvement, and the child's inattention to homework and homework productivity. Accounting for the contribution of baseline scores and homework adherence, attendance was a significant predictor of one outcome, the child's academic productivity. Early homework adherence appeared to be more predictive of outcomes than later adherence, whereas attendance did not predict outcomes during either half of treatment. These results indicate that, even in the context of evidence-based practice, it is the extent to which parents actively engage with treatment, rather than the number of sessions they attend, that is most important in predicting intervention response. Because attendance is limited as an index of engagement and a predictor of outcomes, increased efforts to develop interventions to promote parent adherence to behavioral interventions for children are warranted. PMID:23688140

  12. Access to services, quality of care, and family impact for children with autism, other developmental disabilities, and other mental health conditions

    Vohra, Rini; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha; St Peter, Claire


    This cross-sectional study examined perceived access to services, quality of care, and family impact reported by caregivers of children aged 3–17 years with autism spectrum disorders, as compared to caregivers of children with other developmental disabilities and other mental health conditions. The 2009–2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs was utilized to examine the association between child’s special needs condition and three outcomes (N = 18,136): access to services (difficulty using services, difficulty getting referrals, lack of source of care, and inadequate insurance coverage), quality of care (lack of care coordination, lack of shared decision making, and no routine screening), and family impact (financial, employment, and time-related burden). Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to compare caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorders to caregivers of children with developmental disabilities (cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, developmental delay, or intellectual disability), mental health conditions (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, behavioral/conduct problems, or depression), or both developmental disabilities and mental health conditions. Caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorders were significantly more likely to report difficulty using services, lack of source of care, inadequate insurance coverage, lack of shared decision making and care coordination, and adverse family impact as compared to caregivers of children with developmental disabilities, mental health conditions, or both. PMID:24353274

  13. A Family-School Intervention for Children with ADHD: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Power, Thomas J.; Mautone, Jennifer A.; Soffer, Stephen L.; Clarke, Angela T.; Marshall, Stephen A.; Sharman, Jaclyn; Blum, Nathan J.; Glanzman, Marianne; Elia, Josephine; Jawad, Abbas F.


    Objective: Accumulating evidence highlights the importance of using psychosocial approaches to intervention for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that target the family and school, as well as the intersection of family and school. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a family-school intervention, Family-School…

  14. Working With Children in Families With Parental Substance Abuse: Nurses' Experiences and Complexity in Relationships.

    Wallström, Rebecca; Persson, Renée Ståleborg; Salzmann-Erikson, Martin


    Children who grow up in families with parental substance abuse are exposed to increased risk of developing a variety of disorders. As nurses encounter these children, it is important for them to be supportive. The aim of the current study was to describe nurses' experiences and reflections regarding their work with children in families with parental substance abuse. A qualitative descriptive approach was adopted. Seven nurses were interviewed, and data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. The results were presented in four categories: (a) nurses' responsibilities; (b) identification of children's social network; (c) ethical concerns; and (d) assessment and evaluation of children's behavior. Nurses' preventive work and intervention in dysfunctional families may have direct consequences on children's present and future development and well-being. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(6), 38-44.]. PMID:27245251

  15. Social protection to support vulnerable children and families: the potential of cash transfers to protect education, health and nutrition.

    Adato, M; Bassett, L


    Investing in social protection in sub-Saharan Africa has taken on a new urgency as HIV and AIDS interact with other drivers of poverty to simultaneously destabilise livelihoods systems and family and community safety nets. Cash transfer programmes already reach millions of people in South Africa, and in other countries in southern and East Africa plans are underway to reach tens and eventually hundreds of thousands more. Cash transfers worldwide have demonstrated large impacts on the education, health and nutrition of children. While the strongest evidence is from conditional cash transfer evaluations in Latin America and Asia, important results are emerging in the newer African programmes. Cash transfers can be implemented in conjunction with other services involving education, health, nutrition, social welfare and others, including those related to HIV and AIDS. HIV/AIDS-affected families are diverse with respect to household structure, ability to work and access to assets, arguing for a mix of approaches, including food assistance and income-generation programmes. However, cash transfers appear to offer the best strategy for scaling up to a national system of social protection, by reaching families who are the most capacity constrained, in large numbers, relatively quickly. These are important considerations for communities hard-hit by HIV and AIDS, given the extent and nature of deprivation, the long-term risk to human capital and the current political willingness to act. PMID:22380980

  16. Challenges to Children's Independent Citizenship: Immigration, Family and the State

    Leiter, Valerie; McDonald, Jennifer Lutzy; Jacobson, Heather T.


    This article explores how recent federal legislation has increased the extent to which US children's citizenship is dependent upon their parents' citizenship, by contrasting children who are adopted internationally by US citizens and second-generation US children. Two interconnected phenomena are examined: (1) the broader material and theoretical…

  17. To Buy or Not to Buy: Family Dynamics and Children's Consumption

    Julie Evans; Joan Chandler


    This article draws on data from a qualitative study of children living in families with either low or high levels of household income and outlines the intrafamilial dynamics that surround young children's relationships to contemporary consumer culture. The motivation for parents to provide their children with particular commodities, how parents prioritised children's requests and the rationale they used to buy or not to buy certain items was much more complex than parents simply 'giving in' t...

  18. [Parents and children in families with alcohol problems--anthropologic and preventive study].

    Wojcieszek, Krzysztof Andrzej


    The paper describes the proposition of solution of a difficult dilemma concerning the real role of parents in the development of children in families with alcohol problem (alcohol misuse and dependency of parents). From one side drinking parents are the cause of serious destruction of child health and development. From the other side we have the data about positive influence of strong bonds between children and their parents in alcohol use prevention (parenting as protective factor). Original philosophical theory of person structure with additional theory of parenting supplies the possibility of the solution of the dilemma. It is necessary to differentiate the personal relationship and the emotions (and behaviours) as two different levels of bonding. Alcohol dependent parents have influence on both levels, they protect and make the risk at the same time. The proposal is that the protective influence is still more powerful and important, so it is necessary to protect bonds between children and their parents despite the fact of some lateral destruction. It is also necessary to confront parents with the effects of their behaviour (intervention, therapy) to develop their possibilities to renovate their parenting functions, which is necessary for effective prevention. The theory allows to understand the situation of the child in the alcohol family more precisely. It is especially important for social workers, teachers and therapists working with such families. Some rules for working with the children of alcoholics are formulated. PMID:14704491

  19. School age children with HIV/AIDS: possible discrimination and attitudes against

    Donata Kurpas


    Full Text Available Survey-based study what purpose was to analyse respondents’ opinions about contacts with HIV/AIDS-affected people. It was performed using a paper-pencil method during visits of respondents at primary care centres and on-line through a link to the questionnaire distributed among patients of primary care physicians. The study involved 302 respondents, 80% of whom were women; the average age was 34.48 years. The majority of respondents did not know anyone with HIV/AIDS (89.6%. About 83.3% claimed that they would not decrease contacts with HIV/AIDS-affected people. According to 64.1% of respondents, children with HIV/AIDS should go to kindergarten/public or non-public school. We selected a group of respondents, who previously were not but now are inclined to limit such contacts. These respondents can be a potential target group for HIV/AIDS educational programmes. Most respondents think that there is insufficient information about the HIV/AIDS in the mass media.

  20. The Experience of Military Families with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders during Relocation and Separation

    Davis, Jennifer M.; Finke, Erinn H.


    Military families with a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are underrepresented in the literature. In order to provide appropriate services, research must be done to determine the needs of these families. A qualitative methodology was used to interview military spouses with children with ASD about their experiences with therapeutic…

  1. Service Delivery Experiences and Intervention Needs of Military Families with Children with ASD

    Davis, Jennifer M.; Finke, Erinn; Hickerson, Benjamin


    The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of military families with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) specifically as it relates to relocation. Online survey methodology was used to gather information from military spouses with children with ASD. The finalized dataset included 189 cases. Descriptive statistics and…

  2. Individual Characteristics, Familial Experience, and Psychopathology in Children of Mothers with Borderline Personality Disorder

    Barnow, Sven; Spitzer, Carsten; Grabe, Hans J.; Kessler, Christoph; Freyberger, Harald J.


    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine individual characteristics, familial experience, and psychopathology of children of mothers with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Method: Children of mothers with BPD were compared to children of mothers (1) with depressive disorders, (2) with cluster C personality disorders, and (3) without…

  3. Marital Quality and Families of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Barker, Erin T.; Greenberg, Jan S.


    In the current review, we highlight recent research on marital quality in parents of children with developmental disabilities (DD) and discuss the child and family factors that account for why some marriages fare better than others. We will also discuss the need for the field of DD to broaden its perspective on marital quality and to examine the impact of marriages on child well-being and the well-being of parents. The clinical implications of recent research findings on marital quality for i...

  4. Family intervention for children with functional somatic symptoms

    Hulgaard, Ditte Roth; Dehlholm-Lambertsen, Birgitte; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka

    lidelser, Århus; Århus universitet Aim & Background: Functional somatic symptoms (FSS) can be defined as physical symptoms that cannot be fully explained by organic pathology. FSS are prevalent in children worldwide and in all medical settings, and when severe, pose a major burden on those with FSS and on...... area. Method: The review was conducted with reference to the PRISMA guidelines. A protocol was published in advance on PROSPERO. The individual study quality was assessed by the standardised Psychotherapy outcome study methodology rating form – revised (POMF – R) followed by an overall descriptive...... the family’s illness beliefs. The role of family factors in the management of FSS in children is still unclear. Implications will be discussed....

  5. Enhancement of brain event-related potentials to speech sounds is associated with compensated reading skills in dyslexic children with familial risk for dyslexia

    Lohvansuu, Kaisa; Hämäläinen, Jarmo; Tanskanen, Annika; Ervast, Leena; Heikkinen, Elisa; Lyytinen, Heikki; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.


    Specific reading disability, dyslexia, is a prevalent and heritable disorder impairing reading acquisition characterized by a phonological deficit. However, the underlying mechanism of how the impaired phonological processing mediates resulting dyslexia or reading disabilities remains still unclear. Using ERPs we studied speech sound processing of 30 dyslexic children with familial risk for dyslexia, 51 typically reading children with familial risk for dyslexia, and 58 typically reading contr...

  6. Parents of Children with Asperger Syndrome or with Learning Disabilities: Family Environment and Social Support

    Heiman, Tali; Berger, Ornit


    The study examined the family environment and perceived social support of 33 parents with a child diagnosed with Asperger syndrome and 43 parents with a child with learning disability, which were compared to 45 parents of children without disabilities as a control group. Parents completed the Family Environment Scale and Social Support Scale…

  7. Counselling Intervention and Support Programmes for Families of Children with Special Educational Needs

    Fareo, Dorcas Oluremi


    All couples look forward to having normal healthy babies. The issues of disabilities in their children shake the families and serve as sources of severe psychological disruption to family adjustment. The parents of such children live with many difficult issues and frequently experience trauma, grief and stress. Intervention programmes are…

  8. Service Delivery Experiences and Intervention Needs of Military Families with Children with ASD.

    Davis, Jennifer M; Finke, Erinn; Hickerson, Benjamin


    The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of military families with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) specifically as it relates to relocation. Online survey methodology was used to gather information from military spouses with children with ASD. The finalized dataset included 189 cases. Descriptive statistics and frequency analyses were used to examine participant demographics and service delivery questions. Results indicated the larger sample of military spouses largely confirmed the experiences reported qualitatively in previous studies and contributed information that was previously unknown about variables associated with the access, availability, quality, and frequency of intervention services for military families with children with ASD. PMID:26780908


    Prashant Srivastava


    Full Text Available Background: Parents having autistic and mentally retarded children experience periods of poor quality of life, disbelief, deep sadness, depression and family burden. Family members of children with autism and mentally retardation are often perceived to experience negative psycho-social effects which leads to family burden as well as their quality of life also affected. Aims & Objectives: To Assess and Compare the Family Burden & Quality of Life among the parents having children with Autism and Mental Retardation. Method: 60 Parents (30 Parents having children with Autism & 30 Parents having children with Mental Retardation have been included purposively as sample of study. Semi- Structured Socio Demographic datasheet was used to collect the relevant socio demographic information followed by Family Burden Schedule and WHO Quality of Life- Bref.

  10. The Role of Family Income in the Intergenerational Association of AFDC Receipt.

    Martin, Molly A.


    Daughters from low-income families not receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) are compared to daughters from low-income families receiving assistance to better account for family in intergenerational association of AFDC. Although this research cannot establish a causal role, intergenerational transition of financial resources…

  11. World AIDS Day focuses on children.


    The focus of the 1997 World AIDS Day was children. An estimated 1600 children become infected with HIV each day and, by the end of 1997, 1 million children--95% of them in developing countries--are expected to be HIV-infected. Another 8 million children have lost their mothers to AIDS. Although most HIV-positive children become infected as a result of maternal-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, and breast feeding, other risk factors such as child sex abuse, exploitation in the commercial sex trade, blood transfusions, and intravenous drug use are also significant in later years. Because of its devastating impact on social and economic life, the fight against AIDS is one of the most important challenges in the world today. The UNAIDS program, a joint venture of 6 UN agencies with expertise ranging from reproductive health care to economic development, is at the center of this effort. PMID:12321305

  12. Impacts of Marital Status and Parental Presence on the Material Hardship of Families with Children.

    Lerman, Robert I.

    This study investigated how marriage, cohabitation, single parenthood, and the presence of biological parents affected the incomes and material hardships of children. Data from the 1997 and 1999 National Survey of America's Families were used to examine recent changes in the marital status and household structure of families with children, how…

  13. Predicting Treatment Dropout in Parent Training Interventions for Families of School-Aged Children with ADHD

    Schneider, Brian W.; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Haack, Lauren M.; Lawton, Katie E.


    Premature treatment dropout is a problem for many families seeking mental health services for their children. Research is currently limited in identifying factors that increase the likelihood of dropout in families of school-aged children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Thus, the goal of the current study was to examine…

  14. Impact of employee benefits on families with children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Gnanasekaran, Sangeeth; Choueiri, Roula; Neumeyer, Ann; Ajari, Ogheneochuko; Shui, Amy; Kuhlthau, Karen


    The objectives of this study are to evaluate the employee benefits parents of children with autism spectrum disorders have, how benefits are used, work change, and job satisfaction. We conducted a cross-sectional mailed survey study of 435 families with children with autism spectrum disorders residing in the United States. We received 161 surveys for a response rate of 37%. Families reported using the following benefits: 39% paid family leave, 19% unpaid family leave, 91% flexible work arrangements, and 86% telecommuting. Of respondents, 43% reported stopping work, cutting down on hours worked, or changing jobs because of their child's condition. Having paid family leave was a positive predictor for job satisfaction. Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders have an interest and need for alternative work arrangements. PMID:26341992

  15. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Full Text Available ... Children With Special Needs Watch this video to learn what you need to know about burn prevention ... becoming a certified Child Passenger Safety (CPS) technician. Learn More » About Us Mission Programs Public Policy Research ...

  16. Stepping Stones: Family Responses to Services provided to their Deaf children

    Dawson, N; Willoughby, A.; Canavan, M; Cheskin, A.; Palmer, N; Kyle, JG


    Changes in policy and attitudes of central government in the last ten years have offered to parents of children with special needs a central role in decision-making in regard to their children in all aspects of service. Following a series of meetings beginning in 2005, a group of parents, professionals and researchers, set out a vision of creating an integrated family-focused and family-led set of services for deaf children and their families in the South West Region of England. The motivatio...

  17. Storyboarding as an aid to learning about death in children's nursing.

    Dexter, Yvonne


    The sudden or anticipated death of a child is one of the most challenging and unique experiences that children's nursing students will encounter in practice. There is evidence to suggest that the effect this can have on a practitioner can affect quality of care. Although education for nurses about dealing with death has been studied, there is limited research into the education of those working with dying children and how effective it is in preparing them to deal with the situation. This deficit presents those involved in children's nurse education with a significant challenge and an opportunity to be innovative. This article examines the use of storyboarding as a creative teaching tool to enable children's nursing students to reflect on their experiences of working with children and families in death situations. The wider implications for the use of this technique in practice and education are considered. PMID:27266749

  18. The effect of disability on children with cerebral palsy and their families

    MORRIS, CHRISTOPHER; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Professor Ray Fitzpatrick


    ObjectivesTo describe the 'activities and participation' of children with cerebral palsy, as defined by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), using family-assessed instruments.MethodsA structured review of family assessed instruments appropriate for measuring children's activities and participation was undertaken to identify questionnaires for use in a postal survey. The survey involved a geographically-defined population of children with ce...

  19. Managing children with diabetes within the family: Entering into the Diabetes Orbit

    Sanjari, Mahnaz; Peyrovi, Hamid; Mehrdad, Neda


    Background Diabetes is the disease of family and parents of children with diabetes face different problems which concerns meeting the developmental needs of children and daily control of children with diabetes. This article aims to explain how to manage diabetes around the child’s life within the family. Methods In this qualitative study, data was collected through semi-structured interview technique and was analyzed using Grounded Theory approach. The process of data collection was carried o...

  20. The Influence of Hearing Aid Use on Outcomes of Children with Mild Hearing Loss

    Walker, Elizabeth A.; Holte, Lenore; McCreery, Ryan W.; Spratford, Meredith; Page, Thomas; Moeller, Mary Pat


    Purpose: This study examined the effects of consistent hearing aid (HA) use on outcomes in children with mild hearing loss (HL). Method: Five- or 7-year-old children with mild HL were separated into 3 groups on the basis of patterns of daily HA use. Using analyses of variance, we compared outcomes between groups on speech and language tests and a…

  1. A Family Guide to Systems of Care for Children with Mental Health Needs = Guia para la familia de "Systems of Care" para la salud mental de sus hijos.

    Dougherty, Janice; Harris, Pam; Hawes, Janet; Shepler, Rick; Tolin, Canice; Truman, Connie

    This bilingual (English-Spanish) guide is intended to assist parents and caregivers in seeking help for children with mental health problems. As part of the system of care, parents and caregivers need to work together to help the child in need. Caregivers and counselors can help families define their strengths, determine the things they want to…

  2. From family planning to HIV/AIDS prevention to poverty alleviation: a conversation with Mechai Viravaidya. Interview by Glenn A. Melnick.

    Viravaidya, Mechai


    In this interview, Mechai Viravaidya shares how he harnessed the media and various other distribution channels in Thailand to launch nationwide programs aimed at changing attitudes, beliefs, and health behavior in very controversial and difficult areas, such as sexual behavior in the context of population control and HIV/AIDS. He provides insight into the leadership skills required to change cultural beliefs in order to achieve public health objectives. And finally, he describes how his thinking has evolved and broadened to include poverty alleviation and improved management and sustainability models for nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as the most effective way to improve health status in the long run. PMID:17895259

  3. Facilitating Positive Psychosocial Adaptation in Children with Cystic Fibrosis by Increasing Family Communication and Problem-Solving Skills. A Research Report to the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation.

    Stabler, Brian; And Others

    This study tested the effects of two group-oriented supportive and educational approaches on the parents of children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Thirteen families were randomly assigned either to a group which received information on medical and technical aspects of CF or to a group which received instruction in communication skills in addition to…

  4. Parental Coping Strategies and Strengths in Families of Young Children with Disabilities.

    Judge, Sharon Lesar


    This study investigates the relationship between parental perceptions of coping strategies and family strengths in families of young children with disabilities (N=69). Use of social supports was highly associated with family strengths; in contrast, wishful thinking, self-blame, distancing, and self-control were negatively related to family…

  5. The family doctor and children with special educational needs.

    Ni Bhrolchain, C M


    Twenty three of the 1548 children registered with a group practice were found to have special educational needs. Only half of these children were known by the health visitor attached to the practice to have such needs. Ten of the 17 children attending school had no reference to their special needs in their case notes. Irregular attendance and poor immunization records indicated a lack of anticipatory care within the practice. Children with a physical handicap, in particular, attended their fa...

  6. AIDS in South Africa: Therapeutic Interventions to Strengthen Resilience among Orphans and Vulnerable Children

    Heath, Melissa Allen; Donald, David R.; Theron, Linda C.; Lyon, Rachel Crook


    Worldwide, approximately 10% of the 34.2 million individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are under the age of 18. Additionally, 17.8 million children have experienced one or both parents dying of HIV/AIDS. In comparison to other countries, South Africa has the highest per capita of…

  7. Participation in Family Law Proceedings for Children Whose Father Is Violent to Their Mother

    Eriksson, Maria; Nasman, Elisabet


    This article examines the opportunities and obstacles for vulnerable and victimized children's participation in family law proceedings. With the help of a set of interviews with children, a framework for the analysis of vulnerable and victimized children's participation is outlined with reference to, on the one hand, the childhood studies debates…

  8. Old enough to know : consulting children about sex and AIDS education in Africa

    McLaughlin, Colleen; Swartz, Sharlene; Kiragu, Susan; Walli, Shelina; Mohamed, Mussa


    This compelling study, comprising of a sample of eight schools in three countries in sub-Saharan Africa – Kenya, South Africa and Tanzania – examines the sources, contents and processes of children´s community-based sexual knowledges and asks how these knowledges interact with AIDS education programmes in school. Old enough to know showcases the possibilities of consulting pupils using engaging, interactive and visual methods including digital still photography, mini-video documentaries, as w...

  9. Screening Children for Familial Aortopathies: Tread With Caution.

    Richer, Julie; Laberge, Anne-Marie


    The knowledge surrounding the genetic etiologies of familial aortopathies and familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections has greatly expanded over the past few years. However, despite these advances, the underlying molecular etiology remains unidentified in most families with nonsyndromic familial aortopathies, and in a subset of families with syndromic aortopathies. In these families we cannot offer a genetic test to establish which family members are at risk. Although the general consensus has been to clinically follow all at-risk family members on the basis of family history, it remains unclear at the age at which to initiate clinical surveillance and the frequency which to screen asymptomatic relatives, whether or not a genetic etiology has been established in the family. These questions are particularly troublesome in a pediatric context where the risks of screening are potentially higher and the likelihood that such screening will provide immediate benefits is often lower than in adults. In this report we aim to: (1) provide clinicians with a framework within which to evaluate risks and benefits of screening asymptomatic pediatric patients for a family history of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections; and (2) provide a potential approach for patients (a) in whose family a disease-causing mutation has been identified, (b) patients in whose family the proband is syndromic, but does not have an identified disease-causing mutation, and (c) patients in whose family the proband is nonsyndromic and does not have an identified disease-causing mutation. PMID:26724511


    Baum, Katherine T.; Byars, Anna W.; deGrauw, Ton J.; Johnson, Cynthia S.; Perkins, Susan M.; Dunn, David W.; Bates, John E.; Austin, Joan K.


    Children with epilepsy, even those with new-onset seizures, exhibit relatively high rates of behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among early temperament, family adaptive resources, and behavior problems in children with new-onset seizures. Our major goal was to test whether family adaptive resources moderated the relationship between early temperament dimensions and current behavior problems in 287 children with new-onset seizures. Two of the three temperament dimensions (difficultness and resistance to control) were positively correlated with total, internalizing, and externalizing behavior problems (all p < 0.0001). The third temperament dimension, unadaptability, was positively correlated with total and internalizing problems (p < 0.01). Family adaptive resources moderated the relationships between temperament and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at school. Children with a difficult early temperament who live in a family environment with low family mastery are at the greatest risk for behavior problems. PMID:17267291

  11. Factors associated with the referral of anxious children to mental health care: the influence of family functioning, parenting, parental anxiety and child impairment.

    Jongerden, Loes; Simon, Ellin; Bodden, Denise H M; Dirksen, Carmen D; Bögels, Susan M


    This study aims to identify factors that predict the mental health care referral of anxious children. In total, 249 children and families, aged 8-13 years, participated: 73 children were referred with anxiety disorders to mental health care [mean (M) age = 10.28, standard deviation (SD) = 1.35], 176 non-referred anxious children recruited in primary schools (M age = 9.94, SD = 1.22). Child anxiety and other disorders were assessed with semi-structured interviews. Child anxiety symptoms, behavioural problems, parental anxiety, the parenting styles overprotection, autonomy encouragement, rejection, and the family functioning dimensions control and relational functioning, were assessed with child, father and mother report on questionnaires. The summed interference rating of children's anxiety disorders was a predictor of referral, consistent over child and parent reports, but not comorbidity. Most family and parenting variables did not predict referral, nor differed between the referred and non-referred sample. Contrary to our hypothesis, maternal self-reported anxiety decreased the odds of referral and child reported parental autonomy granting increased, while child reported overprotection decreased the odds of referral. The impairment for the child due to the number and severity of their anxiety disorder(s) is, based on child, mother and father report associated with referral. This indicates that those who need it most, receive clinical treatment. PMID:25511424

  12. Key worker services for disabled children: what characteristics of services lead to better outcomes for children and families?

    Sloper, P.; Greco, V.; Beecham, J.; Webb, R


    Background: Research has shown that families of disabled children who have a key worker benefit from this service and recent policy initiatives emphasize the importance of such services. However, research is lacking on which characteristics of key worker schemes for disabled children are related to better outcomes for families. Methods: A postal questionnaire was completed by 189 parents with disabled children who were receiving a service in seven key worker schemes in England and Wales. Path...

  13. Diversity and mobility in households with children orphaned by AIDS in Couffo, Benin

    Fagbemissi, R.C.; Lie, R.; Leeuwis, C.


    This paper characterises children orphaned by AIDS in the Couffo region of Benin. A 2006 census conducted for the research revealed a total of 315 such orphans, aged 0 to 14 years, within 88 households. Seventy-one percent of these children were under the care of their mothers or grandmothers, 68% w

  14. Conocimiento de Transmision de SIDA y Percepcion Hacia los Ninos con SIDA en el Salon de Clases de los Maestros de Educacion Especial (Knowledge of AIDS Transmission and Special Education Teachers' Attitudes towards Children with AIDS in the Classroom).

    Lopez de Williams, Milka

    This Spanish-language master's thesis presents a study which measured special education teachers' knowledge of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) virus transmission and their attitudes toward children with AIDS in schools. Attitudes were then related to social variables such as sex, teacher's age, and knowing someone with AIDS. A survey of…

  15. Evaluation of a Brief Intervention to Improve the Nursing Care of Young Children in a High HIV and AIDS Setting

    Zuma, Thembelihle H.; Celia Hsiao; Rochat, Tamsen J.; Richter, Linda M.


    The HIV epidemic in South Africa is putting great strain on health services, including the inpatient care of young children. Caregivers and young children (107 pairs) and 17 nurses participated in an intervention to improve the care of young children in hospital in a high HIV and AIDS setting. The intervention addressed caregiver expectations about admission and treatment, responsive feeding, coping with infant pain and distress, assistance with medical procedures, and preparation for dischar...

  16. 'Girls just like to be friends with people: gendered experiences of migration among children and young people in returning Irish families

    Ní Laoire, Caitríona


    The gendered nature of children and young people's experiences of migration are explored in this paper, drawing on research with children in Irish return migrant families. The paper focuses on the ways in which gender dynamics both reinforce and complicate the children's complex social positionings in Irish society. It explores the gendered nature of the children's and young people's everyday lives, relationships with peers and negotiations of identity, through a specific focus on the role of...

  17. Vulnerability of Bangladeshi street-children to HIV/AIDS: a qualitative study

    Uddin, Md Jasim; Sarma, Haribondhu; Wahed, Tasnuva; Ali, Md Wazed; Koehlmoos, Tracey Perez; Nahar, Quamrun; Azim, Tasnim


    Background Children living on the streets are an underprivileged population of Bangladesh and are likely to be more vulnerable to STIs/HIV for their day-to-day risky behaviours and lifestyles. This study assessed the vulnerability of Bangladeshi street-children to HIV/AIDS using qualitative participatory methods. Methods This ethnographic participatory, qualitative study was conducted during February 2010– December 2011 among children aged 5–12 years, who live and/or work on the streets in Dh...

  18. Family Relationships Effect to Children s Psychology Development.



    Based on studying the social interaction development of children,and analysis on the reasons and the necessity of children's behavior occurrence,I conclude that the importance of family influence on child development.

  19. Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials Reveal Changes in Audibility with Nonlinear Frequency Compression in Hearing Aids for Children: Clinical Implications.

    Ching, Teresa Y C; Zhang, Vicky W; Hou, Sanna; Van Buynder, Patricia


    Hearing loss in children is detected soon after birth via newborn hearing screening. Procedures for early hearing assessment and hearing aid fitting are well established, but methods for evaluating the effectiveness of amplification for young children are limited. One promising approach to validating hearing aid fittings is to measure cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs). This article provides first a brief overview of reports on the use of CAEPs for evaluation of hearing aids. Second, a study that measured CAEPs to evaluate nonlinear frequency compression (NLFC) in hearing aids for 27 children (between 6.1 and 16.8 years old) who have mild to severe hearing loss is reported. There was no significant difference in aided sensation level or the detection of CAEPs for /g/ between NLFC on and off conditions. The activation of NLFC was associated with a significant increase in aided sensation levels for /t/ and /s/. It also was associated with an increase in detection of CAEPs for /t/ and /s/. The findings support the use of CAEPs for checking audibility provided by hearing aids. Based on the current data, a clinical protocol for using CAEPs to validate audibility with amplification is presented. PMID:27587920

  20. Rh-TSH (Thyrogen) aided radioiodine therapy in children and adolescents with differentiated thyroid cancer

    Full text of publication follows. Background: Although recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) is widely used to aid radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), almost in all clinical studies it was used in adults and there are very few data concerning paediatric group of patients. The Aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of rhTSH-aided radioiodine treatment in DTC patients 18 yr old or younger. Material and Methods: Twenty five children/adolescents (median age 15, range 7-18) with the diagnosis of DTC were treated using the approved adult regimen (one 0.9 mg im. injection daily on two consecutive days) and therapeutic activity of 131I (median 3.7 GBq, range 2.2-3.8 GBq). Thyroglobulin concentration was evaluated on the 1. and 6. day of stimulation, and whole body scan (WBC) on the 6. day. Subsequently the patients were followed-up every 6 months, including single diagnostic 131I WBS. The median follow up after the treatment was 28 months. Results: In 16 children radioiodine treatment was given as an adjuvant treatment after total/near total thyroidectomy. In another 9 children distant metastases (mainly to lungs) were recognized. Peak TSH concentration post-rhTSH exceeded 25 mU/liter in all children. In all children the peak stimulated thyroglobulin was achieved on day 6 of stimulation (median 4 ng/ml, range 0.17-1080.0 ng/ml). In children treated with radioiodine as an adjunct to total thyroidectomy, in all but two cases complete remission was achieved. Two patients needed subsequent radioiodine retreatment. All are now free of disease. Among patients with distant metastases in 3 (33%) complete remission and in 6 (67%) partial remission (decrease in thyroglobulin concentration and decrease in radioiodine uptake on WBS) was achieved. In none but one patients there were side effects after rhTSH application. In one patient on the second day after the first rhTSH dose rush was observed, that resolved after anti

  1. Work and Family Balance Among Icelandic Employees with Young Children

    Arnardottir, Audur Arna; Hreinsson, Sturla; Sigurjonsson, Olaf

    Work-family balance is one of the major organizational challenges of the 21st century. Extensive research has been conducted that assesses wf-balance from the conflict standpoint, but in recent years, benefits, resulting from simultaneous participation in the work and family role, have gained...... conflict and less enrichment than Icelandic mothers (controlled for age, number of children, and number of weekly work hours. Cohen’s d from.52 to.72). T-test for independent samples showed that Icelandic fathers experienced significantly more time and behavior related conflicts than Icelandic mothers, and...... negatively correlated to the same variables (r=-.18 to -.37). Icelandic mothers report stronger positive attitude and support from employer and coworkers regarding taking time off to care for children than Icelandic fathers....

  2. Prompts to eat novel and familiar fruits and vegetables in families with 1-3 year-old children: Relationships with food acceptance and intake.

    Edelson, Lisa R; Mokdad, Cassandra; Martin, Nathalie


    Toddlers often go through a picky eating phase, which can make it difficult to introduce new foods into the diet. A better understanding of how parents' prompts to eat fruits and vegetables are related to children's intake of these foods will help promote healthy eating habits. 60 families recorded all toddler meals over one day, plus a meal in which parents introduced a novel fruit/vegetable to the child. Videos were coded for parent and child behaviors. Parents completed a feeding style questionnaire and three 24-h dietary recalls about their children's intake. Parents made, on average, 48 prompts for their children to eat more during the main meals in a typical day, mostly of the neutral type. Authoritarian parents made the most prompts, and used pressure the most often. In the novel food situation, it took an average of 2.5 prompts before the child tasted the new food. The most immediately successful prompt for regular meals across food types was modeling. There was a trend for using another food as a reward to work less well than a neutral prompt for encouraging children to try a novel fruit or vegetable. More frequent prompts to eat fruits and vegetables during typical meals were associated with higher overall intake of these food groups. More prompts for children to try a novel vegetable was associated with higher overall vegetable intake, but this pattern was not seen for fruits, suggesting that vegetable variety may be more strongly associated with intake. Children who ate the most vegetables had parents who used more "reasoning" prompts, which may have become an internalized motivation to eat these foods, but this needs to be tested explicitly using longer-term longitudinal studies. PMID:26792770

  3. Resilience among children exposed to traumatic loss : a study of children orphaned by AIDS in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


    Objective: While traumatic parental loss presents an undeniable risk factor for maladaptive outcomes, some groups of children appear to manifest successful adaptation and do not follow a negative developmental pathway. The purpose of the present study was to test to what degree children orphaned by AIDS demonstrate resilience. Method: The self-report version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire for children age ranging from 11-16 (SDQ S11-16), and a background information inventor...

  4. Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities and Externalizing Behavior: Individual Characteristics, Family functioning and Treatment Effectiveness

    Schuiringa, H.D.


    Children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID; IQ between 55 and 85 with problems in adaptive functioning) have been found to show higher rates of emotional and externalizing behavior problems and their externalizing behavior problems tend to persist over time, more so than those

  5. Serving the Nation's Children and Families.

    Children's Bureau (DHHS/OHS), Washington, DC.

    This brochure describes activities of the three bureaus of the Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF). The Children's Bureau of ACYF helps state, local, public and private agencies, and associations of agencies develop programs to assist families with problems which affect their children. Activities of the Children's Bureau focus…

  6. [I-THOU Eternal relationship in the life of caregivers of children with AIDS: study based on Martin Buber philosophy].

    Schaurich, Diego


    This phenomenological study aimed at understanding, in the light of Martin Buber's philosophy, what is to be a caregiver of children with AIDS. The phenomenological interview guided the meeting with seven caregivers of children with AIDS, selected in a teaching hospital of Porto Alegre-RS, southern of Brazil. The data were interpreted in the light of hermeneutics, emerging the unit of meaning Dialogues 'between' the familiar I and the Eternal THOU. The dialogues take place in the search for answers that allow the understanding of the significance of the impact and challenges they face while living with AIDS. As well, they reveal hope in changes, in the cure and in a vaccine development. We believe that knowing the importance of dialogue in the context of HIV/AIDS epidemic provide the development of a nursing care that brings together the technical-scientific and humanistic aspects. PMID:22378509

  7. Exposure to Media Violence and Young Children with and without Disabilities: Powerful Opportunities for Family-Professional Partnerships

    Erwin, Elizabeth J.; Morton, Naomi


    There is growing concern regarding the amount and type of violence that young children are exposed to on a daily basis. Through media, popular toys and video games violent images are consistently present in children's lives starting at a very young age. This paper discusses (a) the growing presence of young children's exposure to media violence,…

  8. Taxonomy of family life styles: II. Homes with slow-learning children.

    Mink, I T; Meyers, C E; Nihira, K


    A battery of instruments dealing with family social environment and family and child characteristics and behavior was administered to 218 families with slow-learning children in EMR and educably handicapped programs. Cluster analysis was performed on family environment variables. Seven unique family clusters, each with distinctive patterns of characteristics, were identified: child-oriented, cohesive; learning-oriented, high residential quality; low disclosure, unharmonious; disadvantaged, noncohesive; achievement-oriented, low residential quality; expression-oriented with few sociocultural interests; and outerdirected with little achievement-orientation. Comparisons among the clusters and ethnographic/interviewer observations revealed significant differences in other family and child characteristics and behavior. Development of a classification system for families with retarded children was discussed. PMID:6486175

  9. Mothers' Reports of Parenting in Families of Children with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Relations to Impression Management

    Johnson, Charlotte; Scoular, Douglas J.; Ohan, Jeneva L.


    We investigated the relations between a tendency to respond in a socially desirable manner and mothers' reports of their parenting behaviors, and the influence of social desirability on the associations among parenting practices and mothers' and children's symptoms. Forty-two mothers of 7 to 12 year old boys with symptoms of…

  10. Saving Money and Getting Help: Advice for Families of Children with Spina Bifida.

    Rosenfeld, Lynn; And Others


    The excerpt from "Saving Money and Getting Help: Advice for Families of Children with Spina Bifida" (Lynn Rosenfeld) provides guidelines for parents concerning health insurance, health maintenance organizations, and questions to ask concerning health insurance coverage and filing claims. (DB)

  11. Race and Gender Differences in Theories of Sexual Behavior Among Rural Adolescents Residing in AFDC Families.

    Benda, Brent B.; Corwyn, Robert Flynn


    Adolescents (n=414) living with rural Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) families were studied to determine predictors of sexual behavior in blacks and whites. Sex- and age-related differences were noted. The role of family support, welfare, and feelings of frustration were studied along with other variables. (Author/MMU)

  12. Stress in Families of Children With Neuromuscular Disease.

    Holroyd, Jean; Guthrie, Donald


    This study compared parents of children with neuromuscular diseases to parents of children with psychiatric diagnoses, using the Questionnaire on Resources and Stress. The groups showed different patterns of stress relating to child care. Within the neuromuscular group, parental stress increased with the severity of the child's illness.…

  13. Motivational readiness of children to school in nuclear and single parent families

    Kateryna Ostrovska


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is a comparison of psychological readiness of the child to go to school in nuclear and single parent families. To obtain the objectives of the paper the following methods were used: 1 methods “Two schools” by L.A Venger to identify the level of formation of internal position of the student; 2 the method “Motivational research studies in older preschoolers” by M.R. Ginsburg; 3 method “Pattern” by L.I. Tsehanskaya to determine the degree of development of skills training activities; 4 method “Graphic dictation” by D. El’konin to study the ability to follow adult instructions. The investigated group consisted of 40 students from first grade secondary school - 20 students from nuclear families (12 girls and 8 boys and 20 students from single parent families (9 girls and 11 boys. As a result of qualitative, comparative and correlation analysis it was shown that readiness of children to go to school susbstantially depends on completness of their families. The children from families have a higher level of skill training and internal position than children from single parent families. This occurs because both parents pay more attention to the children in the forming of a willingness to learn in school. The studies have shown that in the group of children from nuclear families dominate the highest level of development of skills training activities, increased formation of internal positions and childrens social motivation. These indicators are the hallmarks of readiness to learn at school. Also, some recommendations to teachers are provided as for increase of motivation to learn in children from single parent families.

  14. Impact of Family Chickens on the Livelihoods of People Living with HIV and AIDS in Four Villages of Botswana

    Kenaleone Gabanakgosi


    Full Text Available The impact of family chickens on the livelihoods of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA was investigated in Khudumelapye, Mogobane, Mokubilo and Serowe villages of Botswana. The objectives of this study were to determine the consumption and marketing of family chickens and to evaluate the contribution of family chickens towards household income and nutrition of PLWHA in four villages of Botswana. Data were collected from 100 respondents (25 from each village using a structured questionnaire and through direct observation. The results showed that 79% of the respondents slaughtered chickens for family consumption and 21% to honour guests. Sixty-one percent of respondents consumed eggs while the remainder used eggs for breeding purposes. Seventy-four percent of the respondents sold some chickens to meet immediate family needs. Eighty-two percent of chickens were sold for cash followed by barter (10%. A total of 874 chickens were sold from the surveyed villages earning the sum of P18, 030.00 (2253.75USD. The average price of a chicken was P57.50 (7.19USD. These results suggest that family chickens were mainly used for consumption and were also sold to meet family needs, thus contributing to improved household income and nutrition of PLWHA. In order to increase the benefits of rearing family chickens, the rearers should be trained in general poultry management. In addition, the rearers should be encouraged to form associations which will assist in marketing chickens

  15. “If they Fail that First Year, it’s very Hard for them to Recover”: An Exploration of Factors that Support and Hinder the Transition to Mainstream School for Children with Special Educational Needs and their Families.

    Hassett, Fiona


    The transition to school is increasingly recognised as a significant life event for children, with a positive or negative transition impacting on their social and emotional wellbeing and academic achievements. Children with special educational needs are at an increased risk of a poor adjustment to school and their families are vulnerable to additional stresses due to the child’s special educational needs. The transition to school is therefore an important period for these families, and the su...

  16. Family life of caregivers: A descriptive study of disruption of family activities, leisures and interaction of caregivers of children with cerebral palsy

    Ramita Sardana


    Full Text Available Context: The purpose of this research was to study family life of caregivers who provide primary care to children with Cerebral Palsy. Aim: To study the family activities, leisure and interaction of caregivers of children with Cerebral Palsy. Settings and Design: Study was conducted in Dept. of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, AIIMS, New Delhi. Methods and Material: Study sample consisted of 65 primary caregivers of children with Cerebral Palsy. Questionnaires about family activities, leisure and interaction from Family burden interview schedule were used. Descriptive statistics and multiple regressions were used for data analysis. Results: All three domains i.e. disruption of routine family activities, family leisure and family interaction were found to be disrupted in caregivers of children with Cerebral Palsy. Various factors like education of caregiver, total children, family income, duration of caregiving, speech disturbance in child, seizures and mental retardation were found to effect scores of disruption of family activities, leisure and interaction. Conclusions: Caregivers of children with Cerebral palsy experience disruption of family activities, leisure and interaction. For proper care of children caregiver’s family life should be taken care of. Healthcare providers should enhance support networks to encourage and promote normal family activities, leisure and interactions of caregivers.

  17. Approach to atopic dermatitis in children by the Family Physician

    Alysson Quitério Guilherme


    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic and inflammatory disease that affects the skin of children in their early stages of life. Its aetiology remains little understood, but it is known that there is a dysfunction of the skin barrier, which facilitates the penetration of allergens/irritants into the epidermis, causing an inflammatory response with a predominance of Th2 response relative to Th1. The diagnosis is clinical and may be associated with previous and family medical history of atopies such as rhinitis and asthma. AD manifests itself through eczematous, pruritic injuries with the presence of erythema, papules, vesicles, and scales. The main differential diagnoses of AD are seborrheic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, psoriasis and scabies. The treatment is based on the education of patients and their families, plus the control of pruritus with antihistamines and of inflammation with corticosteroids or calcineurin inhibitors. Given the high prevalence and impact of AD on the quality of life of paediatric patients, early diagnosis and an individualized approach are paramount.

  18. Developmental, Familial and Educational Characteristics of a Sample of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Greece

    Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Papatrecha, Virginia; Polychronopoulou, Stavroula; Mavronas, Dimitris


    The aim of this study is to describe the developmental, familial and educational characteristics of 91 children with a clinical diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), from one educational district of Athens, Greece. Records of the 91 children, aged 4-14 years old, were examined with respect to sex, age of diagnosis, type of ASDs, school…

  19. Integrating Immigrant Children into Schools in Europe: Measures to Foster Communication with Immigrant Families and Heritage Language Teaching for Immigrant Children

    De Coster, Isabelle


    This document talks about immigrant children, who are defined here as either children born in another country (within or outside Europe) or children whose parents or grandparents were born in another country. So the term "immigrant children" used here covers various situations, which can be referred to in other contexts as "newly-arrived…

  20. Experiences of women who have lost young children to AIDS in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a qualitative study

    Demmer Craig


    Full Text Available Abstract Background AIDS continues to be the leading cause of death in South Africa. Little is known about the experiences of mothers who have lost a young child to AIDS. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the attitudes and experiences of women who had lost a young child to HIV/AIDS in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 women who had lost a child to AIDS. The average age of the deceased children was six years. Interviews were also conducted with 12 key informants to obtain their perspectives on working with women who had lost a child to AIDS. A thematic analysis of the transcripts was performed. Results In addition to the pain of losing a child, the women in this study had to endure multiple stresses within a harsh and sometimes hostile environment. Confronted with pervasive stigma and extreme poverty, they had few people they could rely on during their child's sickness and death. They were forced to keep their emotions to themselves since they were not likely to obtain much support from family members or people in the community. Throughout the period of caring for a sick child and watching the child die, they were essentially alone. The demands of caring for their child and subsequent grief, together with daily subsistence worries, took its toll. Key informants struggled to address the needs of these women due to several factors, including scarce resources, lack of training around bereavement issues, reluctance by people in the community to seek help with emotional issues, and poverty. Conclusions The present study offers one of the first perspectives on the experiences of mothers who have lost a young child to AIDS. Interventions that are tailored to the local context and address bereavement issues, as well as other issues that affect the daily lives of these mothers, are urgently needed. Further studies are needed to identify factors that promote resilience among these

  1. Family responses to a child with schizophrenia: An Indonesian experience.

    Wiguna, Tjhin; Ismail, Raden Irawati; Noorhana, Setyawati R; Kaligis, Fransiska; Aji, Arundhati Nugrahaning; Belfer, Myron L


    Indonesian culture puts a high value on family bonding. Therefore, support and encouragement for each family member is high that any problems are the responsibility of the whole family. This paper explores the implications of the phenomena whether is a schizophrenic child in the family affected the parental relationship in Indonesian family and trying to find out the implication of parental relationship on medication adherence. This was a cross-sectional study which involved 180 parents of children with schizophrenia and parents with aged matched non-schizophrenic children as a control group; consisting of 45 parents of children with schizophrenia and 135 parents of non-schizophrenic children. The parental relationship was examined by using the Indonesian version of Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale IV (Indonesian version of FACES IV). Our study revealed that 75.6% parents of children with schizophrenia experienced a healthy parental relationship compared to 94.80% in the parents of non-schizophrenic children group. The most prevalent of unhealthy relationship among parents of children with schizophrenia was chaotic disengagement. Parental adherence to give medication for their child with schizophrenia was better if they had a healthy parental relationship. In conclusion, a small number of Indonesian parents with schizophrenic children experienced an unhealthy parental relationship. Therefore, psycho-education and supportive psychotherapy still needed to facilitate those families to express their emotion adapt and cope. PMID:26481170

  2. Improving survival in children with AIDS in Brazil: results of the second national study, 1999-2002

    Luiza Harunari Matida; Alberto Novaes Ramos Jr; Jorg Heukelbach; Adriana Sañudo; Regina Célia de Menezes Succi; Heloisa Helena de Sousa Marques; Marinella Della Negra; Norman Hearst


    The objective of this study is to characterize survival in children with AIDS diagnosed in Brazil between 1999-2002, compared with the first national study (1983-1998). This national retrospective cohort study examined a representative sample of Brazilian children exposed to HIV from mother-to-child transmission and followed through 2007. The survival probability after 60 months was analyzed by sex, year of birth and death, clinical classification, use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and prop...

  3. Early Childhood Intervention: Shaping the Future for Children with Special Needs and Their Families

    Eidelman, Steven, Ed.; Kaczmarek, Louise A., Ed.; Maude, Susan P., Ed.


    This eye-opening set looks at young children with special needs, their families, and the laws, policies, programs, and services designed to help them. It is scientifically known that early childhood is a time of significant brain development. That makes it especially crucial that children with special needs be recognized early so that appropriate…

  4. Evaluation of a family-based behavioural intervention programme for children with obesity

    Teder, Marie


    Background and aims: Impaired eating habits and reduced physical activity have become associated with obesity in children in the last three decades. Parents have a responsibility to be good models for their children regarding lifestyle patterns and habits. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate a family-based behavioural intervention programme (FBIP) for children with obesity designed for use in paediatric outpatient care. The specific aims were to investigate the clinical outcomes and progra...

  5. Exposure to violence and psychological well-being over time in children affected by HIV/AIDS in South Africa and Malawi.

    Skeen, S; Macedo, A; Tomlinson, M; Hensels, I S; Sherr, L


    Many of the risk factors for violence against children are particularly prevalent in families and communities affected by HIV/AIDS. Yet, in sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV rates are high, efforts to prevent or address violence against children and its long-lasting effects are hampered by a lack of evidence. We assessed the relationship between violence exposure and mental health among HIV-affected children attending community-based organisations in South Africa (n = 834) and Malawi (n = 155, total sample n = 989) at baseline and 12-15-month follow-up. Exposure to violence in the home and in the community was high. HIV-negative children who lived with an HIV-positive person experienced most violence overall, followed by HIV-positive children. Children unaffected by HIV experienced least violence (all p self-esteem (β = -0.17, p self-esteem (β = -0.18, p children (β = 0.24, p self-esteem for children experiencing different types of violence at baseline. This may have been due to ongoing participation in the community-based programme. These data highlight the burden of violence in these communities and possibilities for programmes to include violence prevention to improve psychosocial well-being in HIV-affected children. PMID:27002770

  6. Psychosocial functioning in Dutch foster children: The relationship with child, family, and placement characteristics.

    Goemans, Anouk; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul


    Foster care is the preferred alternative for out-of-home care, but not necessarily beneficial for foster children's psychosocial functioning. This dilemma leaves researchers with a challenge to find out more about the factors related to foster children's social and emotional functioning. In a sample of 446 Dutch foster children we examined the extent to which three clusters of characteristics, those akin to the foster child, the foster family, or foster placement, were related to foster children's functioning at the time of research. Multivariate three-step hierarchical regression analyses were performed for three outcome variables: externalizing problems, internalizing problems, and prosocial behavior. We found that all three clusters of foster care characteristics were significantly related to foster children's functioning. Foster placement characteristics, in particular interventions aimed at foster children, explained the largest amount of variance in behavior problems. Children receiving interventions had more externalizing and internalizing problems. A possible explanation is that interventions are indicated for those foster children who are in the highest need of additional support. Prosocial behavior was particularly related to foster family characteristics. The results were mostly in line with international research. Careful screening and monitoring of the social and emotional functioning of foster children may help to identify problems at an early stage. In addition (preventive) support should be offered to those foster children and families who are in need of it. PMID:27131271

  7. Virtual environments increase participation of children with cerebral palsy in robot-aided treadmill training

    Brütsch, K; König, A; Zimmerli, L; Guidali, M; Duschau-Wicke, A; Meyer-Heim, A; Lünenburger, Lars; Koeneke, Susan; Jäncke, Lutz; RIENER, R.; M. Wellner


    Virtual environments can make repetitive motor rehabilitation exercises more motivating and thereby more effective. We hypothesize that participation-dependent multimodal stimuli increase the patientpsilas activity as expressed through force exertion during robot-aided treadmill training. In a single case study with one patient (12 years old), we were able to show that active participation increased in the presence of visual stimuli and decreased in their absence. For a feasibility study, we ...

  8. Children with special health care needs: Impact of health care expenditures on family financial burden

    Lindley, Lisa C.; Mark, Barbara A.


    We investigated the relationship between health care expenditures for Special Health Care Needs (SHCN) children and family perception of financial burden. Using 2005/2006 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs data, a multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the relationship between the SHCN child’s health care expenditure and perceived financial burden, while controlling for family and child characteristics. Our analysis suggests that health care expend...

  9. Parental Stress, Coping Strategies and Social Support in Families of Children with a Disability

    Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Murdaca, Anna Maria; Costa, Sebastiano; Filippello, Pina; Larcan, Rosalba


    The aim of this research was to compare parental stress, coping strategies and social support perceived in families of children with low functioning autism (n = 8), high functioning autism (n = 10), Down syndrome (n = 12) and parents of typically developing children (n = 20). Specifically, the objective was to investigate which variables (coping…

  10. Parental Stress, Family-Professional Partnerships, and Family Quality of Life: Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among the quality of life of families that have at least one child with autism spectrum disorder, parental stress level, and partnerships between the family and professionals. Also, parent perceptions of parental stress, family quality of life, and family-professional partnerships were…

  11. Emotion Socialization in Families of Children with an Anxiety Disorder

    Suveg, Cynthia; Zeman, Janice; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen; Cassano, Michael


    Compared emotion socialization in 26 children with anxiety disorders ages 8-12 years and their mothers to 26 nonclinical counterparts without psychopathology. Children and their mothers participated in an emotion interaction task in which they discussed occasions when the child felt worry, sadness, and anger. Responses were coded for length of…

  12. Evaluation of the benefit of amplification in children fitted with hearing aids

    Carvalho, Luciana Regina de Lima


    Full Text Available Introduction: In Brazil, it is rare studies with using deaf children of auditory device above of seven years. Objective: To investigate the benefit supplied for the amplification in deaf children to 7 years old to 11 years old using auditory device, under the perspective of the proper child and the adults with who it more coexists, and to verify if the time of conviviality of the adults with the child intervenes with their answers. Method: One is about a clinical and experimental study. They had participated of the study 48 citizens, divided in 4 distinct groups: G1- 12 deaf children; G2- 12 adults with average companionship of 40 weekly hours with the deaf child; G3- 12 adults with average companionship of 20 weekly hours with the deaf child; G4- 12 adults with average companionship of 10 weekly hours with the deaf child. All the children were using of device bilaterally and presented auditory loss of severe or deep degree. Results: The results indicate damage in the auditory abilities of the children evaluated had to the difficulties faced for them to listen to elements gifts in situations of its daily one. The time of companionship with the child did not have differences in the results between the different groups in agreement. Conclusion: The viability of the evaluation of the proportionate benefit for the auditory device in children was evidenced clinically on the basis of the information of the family. The device of individual sonorous amplification exerted influence in the auditory abilities of the evaluated children, although the proportionate benefit for its use to be lesser of what the waited one.

  13. The Role of Family in Abnormality and Crime of Children with a Case Study

    Mohammad Rasool Ahangaran


    Full Text Available Family is one of the most important grounds of crime and crime victimization development. The experts, welfare workers, lawyers and sociologists argue that the factor or factors should be identified that provide the kind of conditions under which the individuals abuse, tolerate or accept the crime in order to secure the society, reduce the social harms and finally propose the procedures to reform it. The purpose of this study is to investigate the crime victimization of children in the city of Qom. So, a questionnaire was distributed and completed through the interviews with the parents live in this city and who have a child or children. The questionnaires were analyzed by the SPSS software. The sample size was 266 individuals. The findings of research show that there is a meaningful inverse relationship among the children' control by their families, the rate of children belonging to their families, family cohesion and tendency towards criminal behavior. In other words, as the above mentioned variables increase, the children' tendency towards criminal behaviors decrease and vice versa. The analysis of variance (ANOVA test was used to compare the family structure with the children' tendency towards criminal behaviors. The result of this test shows a significant difference. In other words, the comparison of means suggests that the children with separated parents are more inclined to criminal behaviors.

  14. Work Experiences and Family Functioning among Employed Fathers with Children of School Age.

    Kinnunen, Ulla; And Others


    Investigated how 657 fathers' job satisfaction and job stress were related to four domains: individual, parent-child, marital, and child. Results showed that the job affected all four domains. Job stress and job satisfaction were directly related to family functioning. Discusses implications for families with school-age children. (RJM)

  15. Quality of Life of Families with Children Who Have Severe Developmental Disabilities: A Comparison Based on Child Residence

    McFelea, Joni Taylor; Raver, Sharon


    This study measured the quality of life of two groups of families with children who had severe developmental disabilities-families whose child lived at home and families whose child lived in a residential facility. Participants were 54 primary caregivers of children who had severe intellectual disabilities and who lacked the ability to both…

  16. A Report of Two Children with Severe Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    Noormohammad Noori


    Full Text Available Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH is an autosomal disorder that causes severe elevations in total cholesterol and low- density lipoprotein. FH is one of the primary risk factors for premature coronary artery disease in children and adults which requires early diagnosis and appropriate medical intervention. In this article, we report two cases of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

  17. A Report of Two Children with Severe Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    Noormohammad Noori; Ghasem Miri-Aliabad; Mehdi Jahantigh


    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal disorder that causes severe elevations in total cholesterol and low- density lipoprotein. FH is one of the primary risk factors for premature coronary artery disease in children and adults which requires early diagnosis and appropriate medical intervention. In this article, we report two cases of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

  18. Should a hearing aid in the contralateral ear be recommended for children with a unilateral cochlear implant?

    Beijen, J.W.; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Leeuw, A.R.; Snik, A.F.M.


    OBJECTIVES: To predict bimodal benefit before cochlear implantation, we compared the performances of participants with bimodal fitting and with a cochlear implant alone on speech perception tests. METHODS: Twenty-two children with a cochlear implant in one ear and a hearing aid in the other (bimodal

  19. Children with Social-Emotional Issues and the Family Systems Approach

    Handy, Linda Resmini


    In this article, the author proposes a family systems approach, where parents and children alike follow relationship rules that allow no intimidating verbal abuse or physical abuse. Many children who are socially and emotionally disabled, with no presenting biological cause, are often such due to the discomfort they experience in their world of…

  20. Cohabitation and Children's Family Instability

    Kelly Raley, R.; Wildsmith, Elizabeth


    This study estimates how much children's family instability is missed when we do not count transitions into and out of cohabitation, and examines early life course trajectories of children to see whether children who experience maternal cohabitation face more family instability than children who do not. Using data from the 1995 National Survey of…

  1. Family Functioning and the Well-Being of Children With Chronic Conditions: A Meta-Analysis.

    Leeman, Jennifer; Crandell, Jamie L; Lee, Anna; Bai, Jinbing; Sandelowski, Margarete; Knafl, Kathleen


    For children with chronic conditions, well-being is closely related to how well their families function. Most prior research syntheses on family functioning and child well-being have focused on children with a single condition, thereby limiting the potential to aggregate and build on what is known across conditions. To address this challenge, research reports were reviewed and meta-analyses conducted of findings on the relationship between family functioning and child well-being across a range of chronic physical conditions. The sample was derived from a larger systematic review study that included 1,028 reports published between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2014. The current review includes 53 studies in which a relationship between family functioning and child well-being was analyzed using one of four family measures: Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales, Family Environment Scale, Family Relationship Index, or Family Assessment Device. Most studies were cross-sectional and observational (n = 43, 81%). The most frequently studied conditions were diabetes, cancer, sickle cell disease, and asthma. In 37 studies, findings were sufficiently comparable to conduct meta-analyses. Significant correlations were identified between children's psychological health and seven of nine dimensions of family functioning. Significant correlations also were found between dimensions of family functioning and children's problem behaviors, social competence, quality of life, and, to a lesser extent, adherence and physical health. Of the family dimensions, cohesion and conflict were associated most strongly with child outcomes. Understanding the specific family variables, such as conflict, linked to varied child outcomes is key for intervention development. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27128982

  2. Are parental ADHD problems associated with a more severe clinical presentation and greater family adversity in children with ADHD?

    Agha, Sharifah Shameem; Zammit, Stanley; Thapar, Anita; Langley, Kate


    Although Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is recognised to be a familial and heritable disorder, little is known about the broader family characteristics of having a parent with ADHD problems. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parent ADHD problems, child clinical presentation and family functioning in a sample of children with ADHD. The sample consisted of 570 children with ADHD. Child psychopathology was assessed using a semi-structured dia...

  3. Comorbidities in children and adolescents with AIDS acquired by HIV vertical transmission in Vitoria, Brazil.

    Sandra F Moreira-Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studying diseases associated with AIDS is essential for establishing intervention strategies because comorbidities can lead to death. The objectives were to describe the frequency of comorbidities and verify their distribution according to demographic, epidemiological and clinical data as well as to classify diseases in children and adolescents with AIDS in Vitória, Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among children with AIDS, as defined according to the criteria established by the Ministry of Health, who acquired HIV via vertical transmission, were aged 0 to 18 years, and were monitored at a referral hospital from January 2001 to December 2011. RESULTS: A total of 177 patients were included, of whom 97 were female (55%. There were 60 patients (34% <1 year old, 67 patients (38% between the ages of 1 and 5, and 50 patients (28% ≥6 years of age included at the time of admission to the Infectious Diseases Ward. Regarding clinical-immunological classification, 146 patients (82.5% showed moderate/severe forms of the disease at the time of admission into the Ward, and 26 patients (14.7% died during the study. The most common clinical signs were hepatomegaly (81.62%, splenomegaly (63.8%, lymphadenopathy (68.4% and persistent fever (32.8%. The most common comorbidities were anaemia (67.2%, pneumonia/septicaemia/acute bacterial meningitis (ABM (64.2%, acute otitis media (AOM/recurrent sinusitis (55.4%, recurrent severe bacterial infections (47.4% and dermatitis (43.1%. An association between severe clinical-immunological classification and admission to the Ward for children aged less than one year old was found for several comorbidities (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Delayed diagnosis was observed because the majority of patients were admitted to the Infectious Diseases Ward at ≥1 year of age and were already presenting with serious diseases. The general paediatrician should be alert to this possibility to make an early

  4. 25 CFR 20.401 - What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families?


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.401 What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? Services to Children, Elderly,...

  5. 25 CFR 20.400 - Who should receive Services to Children, Elderly, and Families?


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who should receive Services to Children, Elderly, and... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.400 Who should receive Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? Services to Children, Elderly, and...

  6. Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families

    Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay


    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

  7. Identification of the Communicative Abilities of Brazilian Children with Cerebral Palsy in the Family Context

    Deliberato, Debora; Manzini, Eduardo Jose


    This article highlights the importance of the information obtained from the family in the implementation of the augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) system. The objective was to investigate the communicative abilities of children with severe communication deficit through their parents' reports within the family routine. Eleven parents…

  8. Profile and Predictors of Service Needs for Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Hodgetts, Sandra; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Nicholas, David


    Purpose: Increasing demand for autism services is straining service systems. Tailoring services to best meet families' needs could improve their quality of life and decrease burden on the system. We explored overall, best, and worst met service needs, and predictors of those needs, for families of children with autism spectrum disorders. Methods:…

  9. Development of a Family-School Intervention for Young Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Mautone, Jennifer A.; Marshall, Stephen A.; Sharman, Jaclyn; Eiraldi, Ricardo B.; Jawad, Abbas F.; Power, Thomas J.


    Although numerous studies have evaluated the effectiveness of multimodal psychosocial interventions for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, these programs are limited in that there has not been an explicit focus on the connection between family and school. This study was designed to develop and pilot test a family-school…

  10. Children with mild intellectual disability and their families – needs for support, service utilisation and experiences of support

    Olsson, Lena


    This thesis focuses on service utilisation among children with mild ID and their families, their needs for support and their experiences of support. Aims The overall aim of the thesis was to explore and describe service utilisation patterns among families of children with mild ID from a systems perspective. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive and comparative quantitative design was used to describe the extent of service utilisation among 84 children with mild ID and their families (paper I...

  11. Affinities, Seeing and Feeling Like Family: Exploring Why Children Value Face-to-Face Contact

    Davies, Hayley


    This article examines face-to-face contact as a way in which children practise, imagine and constitute their closest relationships. Based on the findings of a qualitative school-based study, the article shows that children regard "seeing" as a family and relational practice that enables them to feel connected to and develop affinities with others.…

  12. The Developmental Outcome of Children Born to Heroin-Dependent Mothers, Raised at Home or Adopted.

    Ornoy, Asher; And Others


    Children born to heroin-dependent mothers (n=83) were compared to 76 children born to heroin-dependent fathers and to 3 control groups with and without environmental deprivation and health problems. Results found that developmental delays and behavioral disorders found among heroin-exposed children resulted primarily from severe environmental…

  13. Hispanic Families' Perspectives on Using a Bilingual Vocabulary Kit to Enhance Their Prekindergarten Children's Vocabulary Development

    Query, Rebecca Robinson; Ceglowski, Deborah; Clark, Patricia; Li, Yongmei


    The purpose of this study was to examine Hispanic families' perspectives on using a prepared kit to enhance their preschoolers' vocabulary development at home. Families enrolled in a public prekindergarten program were provided with a bilingual (English/Spanish) home literacy kit that included ways in which to engage their children in activities…

  14. Social Networking Family of Caregivers during Hospitalization of Children

    Marina Menezes


    Full Text Available Objective To identify and analyze the significant networks of family, social and hospital support described by the family caregivers of hospitalized children 5-12 years during the hospital stay. Method Descriptive study, exploratory and qualitative study conducted with 20 caregivers of children hospitalized in a hospital in a city in southern Brazil, through semi-structured interviews and significant social networks maps, tailored to the hospital setting. Results Data analysis showed that the most active social network was comprised of families through emotional support, material aid and services. Relations with hospital health care team and the hospital context were cited as providing support to the caregivers of the hospitalized child. Conclusions The identification of social networks in the child’s hospitalization course enables equip professionals working in the institution aiming at better targeting of actions and care for the family and hospitalized children.

  15. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J


    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members. PMID:23564208

  16. Welfare Dependency: Coordinated Community Efforts Can Better Serve Young At-Risk Teen Girls. Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate.

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    This General Accounting Office study, commissioned by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, reflects concerns about rising caseloads and long-term dependence on welfare programs, such as Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Attention has been focused the United State's welfare system, particularly on the rising number of teenage mothers. The forces…

  17. Processing and Testing the Quality of Life in Families with Mentally Retarded Children

    S Askari Shahed


    Full Text Available Background & aim: Mentally retarded children need more care on quality of life, therefore the family plays an important role, but the results indicate low levels of quality of life for these children and their families. The present study aimed to measure the quality of life in mothers of educable mentally retarded daughter motivated provide a model to measure quality of life and understanding of issues affecting the design. An attempt to investigate and describe the factors affecting the quality of family life with a disability and the relationship between these indicators and how to measure them families with children with mental retardation.   Methods: The research method was descriptive-analytic. The sample consisted of 75 mothers with a mentally retarded daughter who were participated in this study through census sampling. By studying literature, the related texts criteria of quality of life were extracted. All study information of participants was obtained by standard questionnaires. Using correlation analysis techniques, univariate regression, logistic regression analysis were analyzed through structural equations.   Results: The results indicated that the performance of family (family interactions, parenting, mental health and physical capabilities mother (resilience and aggression, personal beliefs and quality of life of families with disabled children influenced it. Personal beliefs are an important determinant of quality of life.   Conclusion: The results of structural equation modeling and corresponding indexes indicated that the proposed model based on experimental data fitting was good and desirable product was in compliance with the conceptual model.    

  18. Behavioral and emotional adjustment, family functioning, academic performance, and social relationships in children with selective mutism.

    Cunningham, Charles E; McHolm, Angela; Boyle, Michael H; Patel, Sejal


    This study addressed four questions which parents of children with selective mutism (SM) frequently ask: (1) Is SM associated with anxiety or oppositional behavior? (2) Is SM associated with parenting and family dysfunction? (3) Will my child fail at school? and (4) Will my child make friends or be teased and bullied? In comparison to a sample of 52 community controls, 52 children with SM were more anxious, obsessive, and prone to somatic complaints. In contrast, children with SM were less oppositional and evidenced fewer attentional difficulties at school. We found no group differences in family structure, economic resources, family functioning, maternal mood difficulties, recreational activities, or social networks. While parents reported no differences in parenting strategies, children with SM were described as less cooperative in disciplinary situations. The academic (e.g., reading and math) and classroom cooperative skills of children with SM did not differ from controls. Parents and teachers reported that children with SM had significant deficits in social skills. Though teachers and parents rated children with SM as less socially assertive, neither teachers nor parents reported that children with SM were victimized more frequently by peers. PMID:15482497

  19. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Full Text Available ... Blog Videos Newsletter facebook twitter instagram pinterest gplus youtube Search Brand Menu Why It Matters Who We ... needs. Read our burn prevention tips | Visit our YouTube channel Did You Know? Teens with a family ...

  20. Family based treatment for children with functional somatic symptoms: A systematic literature review

    Hulgaard, Ditte Roth; Dehlholm-Lambertsen, Birgitte; Rask, Charlotte

    on which treatment to offer children and adolescents with FSS. Research in adults shows that different FSS respond to the same kind of treatment, with the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy being well established. In the understanding of mental health issues in children, it is well established...... that family issues play a role. Thus there is an increasing focus on interventions targeting the whole family, and empirical support for family- based treatment for children with mental health problems is growing. However systematic research on the subject is challenged by the fact that family based...... intervention as well as a systematic evaluation of the quality of included studies will be presented. Abstract internet id 64...

  1. Family practice nurse views on barriers to immunising children.

    Petousis-Harris, Helen; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Turner, Nikki; Soe, Ben


    New Zealand (NZ) has low immunisation coverage for infants and children compared to many other westernised countries. Barriers to improving uptake are multifactorial, with health professional knowledge and attitudes identified as important modifiable factors. In NZ practice nurses give most childhood vaccinations in the primary health care setting. This study explored aspects of 150 family practice nurse views, knowledge and experience about immunisation. Qualitative and quantitative text data were obtained through randomised computer assisted telephone surveys and converged using a triangulated multi-method approach. Response rate was 89.3% nurses identified parents' fear as the greatest barrier to achieving better immunisation uptake and disagreed that health professional knowledge was a barrier. However, findings showed lack of knowledge among many participants, despite many feeling confident about their knowledge base. Factors associated with lower practice coverage of infants under 2 years were poorer knowledge of contraindications to vaccination and lack of completion of vaccinator training, especially an update course. A high level of confidence, more years in practice, dedicated time to follow-ups were not associated with better coverage rates. Practice nurses may be unaware that their knowledge in some areas needs improving. A trained practice nurse appears to play a significant role in overcoming fears and maintaining high coverage rates in their practice. We conclude that strategies that focus on primary health care provider support and education are more likely to gain high coverage than those that are purely directed at overcoming access barriers. PMID:15780719

  2. From novice to expert: agroecological competences of children orphaned by AIDS compared to non-orphans in Benin

    Price Lisa L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background AIDS has created new vulnerabilities for rural African households due to prime-age adult mortality and is assumed to lead to impairment of the intergenerational transfer of farming knowledge. There has been scant research to date, however, on the impacts of parental death on farming knowledge of children made orphans by AIDS. The question we investigate is if there is a difference in agricultural expertise between AIDS affected and non-affected adults and children. Methods The research was carried out in rural Benin with 77 informants randomly selected according to their AIDS status: 13 affected and 13 non-affected adults; 13 paternal, 13 maternal and 13 double orphans; and 12 non-orphan children. Informants descriptions from pile sorting exercises of maize and cowpea pests were categorized and then aggregated into descriptions based form (morphology and function (utility and used to determine whether the moving from novice to expert is impaired by children orphaned by AIDS. Differences and similarities in responses were determined using the Fischer exact test and the Cochran-Mantzel-Haenszel test. Results No significant differences were found between AIDS affected and non-affected adults. Results of the study do reveal differences in the use of form and function descriptors among the children. There is a statistically significant difference in the use of form descriptors between one-parent orphans and non-orphans and in descriptors of specific damages to maize. One-parent paternal orphans were exactly like non-affected adults in their 50/50 balanced expertise in the use of both form and function descriptors. One-parent orphans also had the highest number of descriptors used by children overall and these descriptors are spread across the various aspects of the knowledge domain relative to non-orphans. Conclusions Rather than a knowledge loss for one-parent orphans, particularly paternal orphans, we believe we are witnessing

  3. Children's television viewing and objectively measured physical activity: associations with family circumstance

    Salmon Jo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The contribution of family circumstance to physical activity and television viewing has not been widely investigated in pre-adolescents, and available information is inconsistent. This study examines whether television viewing and objectively measured physical activity vary by different indicators of family circumstance. Methods Data from the 2001 Children's Leisure Activity Study and the 2002/3 Health, Eating and Play Study, involving Australian children in Grades Prep (mean age 6y and 5–6 (mean age 11y, were combined. Children wore accelerometers for six consecutive 24 hour periods. Average min/day in low-intensity activity (1.0–1.9 METs and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity (≥3 METs were calculated. Parents reported children's television viewing and family circumstance. Linear regression analyses were conducted separately for young girls, young boys, older girls and older boys. Results Complete data were available for 2458 children. Parental education and, to a lesser extent, employment level were inversely associated with television viewing. Children in single-parent families, those whose fathers were not in paid employment, and those without siblings tended to spend more time in low-intensity activity than their peers. Children with siblings spent more time in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity; associations were stronger for girls. Maternal education was positively associated with moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity for younger children. Maternal employment was positively associated with moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity for older children. Multivariable models did not demonstrate a cumulative explanatory effect. Conclusion Individual measures of family circumstance were differentially associated with television, low-intensity activity and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity and associations were often not consistent across age-by-gender groups. Interventions may need to be tailored

  4. Families of children with Down syndrome and maternal strategies of coping with stress knowing the diagnosis

    Ojo, Lea


    Family has a very important role in children's life, because it influences their development in many ways. Also children themselves influence family members with their developmental and behavioral characteristics and they have an effect on the dynamics of what is happening in the family. The diagnosis of Down syndrome, a chromosomal disorder, which causes characteristic facial features, hypotonic muscles, hyperflexibility of conclusions, sensitive skin, sparse hair and big tongue, touches...

  5. Examination of the Family Involvement Questionnaire-Early Childhood (FIQ-EC) with Low-Income, Latino Families of Young Children

    McWayne, Christine M.; Manz, Patricia H.; Ginsburg-Block, Marika D.


    Given the growing numbers of Latino children entering the U.S. educational system, there is a need to understand the ways Latino parents support their children's early education. However, tools used to measure family engagement have been developed primarily with middle-income, English-speaking European American families in the United States. The…

  6. Cardiac autonomic functions in children with familial Mediterranean fever.

    Şahin, Murat; Kır, Mustafa; Makay, Balahan; Keskinoğlu, Pembe; Bora, Elçin; Ünsal, Erbil; Ünal, Nurettin


    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common inherited autoinflammatory disease in the world. The long-term effects of subclinical inflammation in FMF are not well recognized. Some studies have suggested that FMF is associated with cardiac autonomic dysfunction in adult FMF patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the cardiac autonomic functions in pediatric FMF patients by using several autonomic tests. Thirty-five patients with FMF and 35 healthy controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Demographic data, disease-specific data, and orthostatic symptoms were recorded. In all participants, 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG), 24 h ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring, transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill exercise test, and head upright tilt-table (HUTT) test were performed. The heart rate recovery (HRR) indices of the two groups were similar. Also, chronotropic response was similar in both groups. The time-domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) were similar in both groups, except mean RR (p = 0.024). Frequencies of ventricular and supraventricular ectopic stimuli were similar in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in average QT and average corrected QT interval length, average QT interval dispersion, and average QT corrected dispersion. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the ratio of clinical dysautonomic reactions on HUTT. However, we observed a significantly higher rate of dysautonomic reactions on HUTT in patients with exertional leg pain than that in patients without (p = 0.013). When the fractal dimension of time curves were compared, FMF patients exhibited significantly lower diastolic blood pressure parameters than controls in response to HUTT. Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in children with FMF is not prominent. Particularly, patients with exertional leg pain are more prone to have dysautonomic features

  7. An effective strategy for intervention with children and adolescents affected by HIV and AIDS.

    Gossart-Walker, S; Moss, N E


    angry outbursts and provocative behavior have been integrated into the story of the group. As children need to express rage they at times speak of John, using his ability to express this feeling as an example to the safety of the group. Again this type of work is not only powerful and intense, but needs to be unhurried. Children such as John and his comembers need time to experience their grief and heal their pain. Thus, groups are an effective strategy for work with HIV-affected children in helping them deal with the losses within their families and continue to grow into healthy adults. PMID:10768070

  8. The Role of Teacher and Family Opinions in Identifying Gifted Kindergarten Children and the Consistence of These Views with Children's Actual Performance

    Daglioglu, H. Elif; Suveren, Senem


    This study was conducted in order to identify gifted children attending kindergartens of elementary schools, determine how successful families and teachers were in selecting these children, and see how consistent their opinions were with children's actual performance. Participants were children attending kindergartens of elementary schools,…

  9. State of the art in educational journals on studies of families of children with special educational needs in the period from 2002 to 2011

    Giovana Mendes Ferroni; Fabiana Cia


    The purpose of this paper is mapping studies indexed between the years of 2002 and 2011 in the educational field and evaluated like A1 or A2 by the database Qualis Capes, in the three years 2010-2012, in order to research ways that studies with families of children with special educational needs have been made. For this, we analyze elements such as: annual evolution of the studies, subjects analyzed, adopted and thematic instruments used to collect data from database searches “Scielo” and “Ca...

  10. Preparing Special Education Teachers to Collaborate with Families

    Collier, Margo; Keefe, Elizabeth B.; Hirrel, Laura A.


    Positive family-school-community relationships are associated with student success. Creating successful relationships with parents is an important but difficult task for teachers to master. Therefore, teacher candidates need opportunities to learn how to develop collaborative relationships with parents of all children, including children with…