Taiwo Abdulahi Olabisi
Full Text Available Abstract The poverty of Nigerian farmers and their inability to increase their output and income above the subsistence level have been identified as one of the factors militating against food production in Nigeria. Yet agricultural cooperative create the ability for the supply of required agricultural inputs so that production of commodities is done timely to enhance productivity. They also provide an assured market for commodities produced by isolated small farmers in the rural areas. This paper was determined to evaluate the effects of cooperative societies on members output. The researchers administered a total of one hundred and twenty-six 126 questionnaires to the respondents with the assistance of the divisional cooperative officers. The hypotheses were analyzed through the use of t-test statistic and regression analysis. Results showed that the various Services rendered by farmers cooperative to their members include agric credit improved seedlings fertilizer and market access. They however disagreed that they received extension services the cooperative farmers agreed that they have access to the following agricultural services after joining cooperatives Access to Agric credit Access to Improved Seedlings and Access to Fertilizer. They disagree that they have Access to emerging markets and Access to Extension services. Hence the need to adopt cooperative as a platform for improving farmers productivity and output in Awka South L.G.A of Anambra state. As such the researchers therefore recommends that the Anambra State government should encourage research development and provision of adequate extension services to cooperative farmers through the Ministry in charge of cooperative in the state. Through the extension education the farmers will have knowledge of emerging markets and cooperative farmers should also be encouraged to join cooperative to enable them have access to agricultural credit among others.
Okeke; Daniel, C. Okeke; Charity C. Udeora and Samuel N.
This study assessed the socio-economic determinants of seed yam production in Oyi Local Government Area of Anambra State. Purposive and simple random sampling procedure was used respectively to select four communities and 120 respondents for the study. The data obtained were used to analyse the influence of socio economic factors on seed yam production and also determine the technical efficiency level of the seed yam farmers using descriptive statistics and stochastic production frontier fu...
Ezenwaji, E. E.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the extent of regional imbalances in residential water supply in Anambra State. To achieve this aim, primary data were collected between June and July 2012 from interviews on respondents and field observation, while secondary data were obtained from published materials from the State Ministry of Public Utilities, Water Resources and Community Development. Data generated were analysed to produce clusters using Cluster Analytical Technique which was calculated with the aid of MINITAB version 16 statistical package. Result shows that residential water supply accessibility pattern in Anambra State is structured into 4 zones (clusters. From the findings it was suggested that to improve the residential water supply access in various parts of the State, urgent water resources planning is needed to address the water poverty areas identified in the study.
Chito Clare Ekwealor; Christie Amechi Oyeka
Rice grain is one of the world's most important food crops, and its cultivation is a major occupation in Anambra State, Nigeria. These rice farmers are exposed to various agents that predispose them to cutaneous mycoses. The aim of this work was to screen rice farmers for lesions suggestive of cutaneous mycoses and to isolate and identify fungal agents associated with the infection. This survey was carried out between November 2009 and June 2011 in Anambra State, Nigeria. Clinical samples col...
Full Text Available Management of urban solid waste implies the collection, transfer, treatment recycle, reuse and disposal of such waste. Collection of urban household solid waste traditionally rests with government agencies designated with such responsibility. Solid waste collection begins from storage at the household level to the final treatment or disposal point and represents the most important aspect of urban solid waste management. Little has however been written on urban household solid waste collection in Nigeria. Using empirical data from three urban areas of Anambra State, Nigeria, the paper examines the place of informal private solid waste collectors in household solid waste collection. The ANOVA technique is used to test the null hypothesis that the sample means of the distance to designated community/street solid waste collection containers in the residential neighbourhoods of the three towns are equal. We conclude on household patronage of informal private solid waste collectors as against government provided community/street collection containers in the areas studied.
Chito Clare Ekwealor
Full Text Available Rice grain is one of the world's most important food crops, and its cultivation is a major occupation in Anambra State, Nigeria. These rice farmers are exposed to various agents that predispose them to cutaneous mycoses. The aim of this work was to screen rice farmers for lesions suggestive of cutaneous mycoses and to isolate and identify fungal agents associated with the infection. This survey was carried out between November 2009 and June 2011 in Anambra State, Nigeria. Clinical samples collected from 201 farmers with lesions suggestive of cutaneous mycoses were processed and the organisms identified. Questionnaires were used to obtain other necessary data and were statistically analyzed. Of the 2,580 rice farmers screened, 201 (7.79% showed positive lesions. Organisms recovered included Microsporum audouinii, Microsporum ferrugineum, Trichophyton megnini, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus terrus, Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus scleriotorum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Scopulariopsis sp., Chrysosporium sp., Eupenicillium javanicum, Fusarium sp., Penicillium aculeatum, and Penicillium pinophilum. At the end of this work, onychomycosis was observed to be the most prevalent with nondermatophyte molds now becoming very important agents of cutaneous mycoses among rice farmer.
Chukwumah, Fides Okwukweka; Ezeugbor, Carol Obiageli
This study investigated the extent of problems of strategic plans implementation for secondary schools' improvement in Anambra State, Nigeria for quality education provision. The study used a descriptive survey design paradigm. Respondents comprised 217 principals. There was no sampling. All the principals were used. Data were collected using…
K. M Onuoha,
Full Text Available The methods of seismic geohistory analysis and differential interformational velocity analysis have been applied using datafrom some interpreted seismic sections within the Anambra basin. These two techniques for basin analysis have been appliedin the basin in an attempt to aid the identification of anomalous velocity zones. Results from the seismic geohistory analysis indicatethat some faults arising probably from compressional stresses, due to the upliftment of the Abakaliki anticlinorium, were observed to be significant mostly in the northern and southeastern regions of the basin. These faults which originated in the Santonian are probably related to the first folding episode in the evolution of the Benue Trough. The Maestrichtian / Campanian faults observed towards the north of Anambra River-3 well may also have been influenced by these stresses or are directly related to the Post-Maestrichtian folding episode in the Benue Trough. The fault system KP identified on the seismic section is a Pre-Eocene event which cuts across from the south of Okpo-1 and Nzam-1 to the north of Iji-1 well. Sediments to the north of Nzam-1 well site have experienced more faulting during the Lower-Maestrichtian times. Fault systems that occurred after the Paleocene times are more prominent in the southern parts of Nzam-1 towards Iji-1 well sites. Generally most ofthe major faults occurred in the Paleocene. The major 'DIVA' anomaly observed southeast of Anambra River-1 well correlateswith the zone of overpressures within which liquid hydrocarbon, water and gas have been discovered in the basin. The Maestrichtian to Paleocene sediments in the southern and mainly in the southwestern sector of the Anambra basin should be the major sedimentary strata with liquid hydrocarbon potentials, whereas the Lower Cretaceous and particularly the Santonian sediments exhibit the highest potentials for gaseous hydrocarbons.
Eyo, Joseph; Ekwonye, Uchenna
The Anambra River is the largest tributary of the lower Niger River below Lukoja. Between the months of May and November the river is subject to seasonal flooding from heavy precipitation and land runoff into the drainage system. During the flood phase, pools form on the floodplains (known as the fadama) and these pools receive materials and biota from the main river channel. The biota often includes representatives of freshwater vertebrates (including fishes) and invertebrates. On this brief...
Peter Uchenna Okoye
Full Text Available This study examined the practice of building development in flood prone areas and how it has contributed to the menace of flooding in Ogbaru Council Area of Anambra State Nigeria. It was a survey research where questionnaires were distributed to heads of the selected households, in addition to physical observations on buildings within the selected households. Four towns out of sixteen towns that made up Ogbaru Council Area of Anambra State were purposefully selected. From these towns, 96 households each were randomly selected and a total of 384 questionnaires were administered to the head of each household or their representative, whereas 242 copies were completed, returned and found useful, thus, giving a response rate of 62.92%. The study found that siting of buildings on waterways, flood channels/plains, inadequate/lack of drains in the compounds, lack of planning restriction/developmental control, size of the building/area occupied by the building among others contribute greatly to the incessant flood menace in the study area. The study therefore deduced that some building practices such as those identified above have the ability of exacerbating the velocity and rate of flooding in the area which turned into natural disaster, and thus, recommended strict enforcement of building and urban development laws and control in the state to reduce indiscriminate erecting of building structures on waterways, including planlessness of our emerging urban centres.
Nkechi Cordelia Ojiagu; Ph.D Charles Onugu; Uchenna Ph.D
ABSTRACT The study examined the effect of membership of cooperative societies on the economic activities of farmers as well as the determinants of their income in rural Nigeria focusing on Anambra State. Data from 2506 members selected through multi-stage stratified random sampling were analyzed. The study found among others that members incomes are dependent upon their socio-economic profile such as age marital status and membership or otherwise of cooperative societies education cooperative...
Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) is common in all populations. Iodine and other trace elements naturally occur in the soil but erosion leaches off these elements from the soil. This results in a continued loss of trace elements from the soil. In the present study, the levels of iodine, selenium, zinc and lead in the environment (measured in soil, bitter leaves (Vernonia amygdalina), cassava roots (mannihot utilissima, staple food in Nigeria), and drinking water) and urinary iodine from school children (n = 200), pregnant women (n = 60) and women of child bearing age (n = 60) were determined for Nanka prone to soil erosion and Oba all in Anambra State, Nigeria (used as control) to assess their risk to IDD. The levels of selenium, zinc and lead were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry while the levels of iodine in the environment and urinary iodine were estimated using the method of Dunn et al.,(1993). In this study there was a positive correlation between iodine and the metals. The results show that the mean concentrations of total soil zinc (0.69±0.16 ppm); lead (0.40±0.12 ppm) values in Oba were significantly (p<0.05) higher than values from Nanka (Zn = 0.33±0.10 ppm; Pb=0.21±0.09 ppm). However, total soil values for selenium and iodine in soil were not significantly different in the two communities. Mean concentration of total vegetable zinc (0.63±0.14 ppm) value in Oba is significantly (p<0.05) higher than the value from Nanka (Zn=0.31±0.07 ppm). However, total vegetable values for I, Se and Pb were not significantly different in the two communities. Also, mean concentration of total cassava zinc (0.65±0.15 ppm) in Oba was significantly (p<0.05) higher than Zn (0.44±0.11 ppm) from Nanka. However, values for Se, Pb, and I were not significantly different in the two communities. Mean concentration of total water iodine (105.25±10.44μg/L) in Oba was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the value from Nanka (I=89.8±6.42μg/L). However, total
Ajidahun, E. J.
The hardpan cap of selected sections of loose Ajali sand in Anambra Basin of Nigeria was investigated for elemental compositions using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence mapping (M4-Tornado ED-XRF); while bulk mineralogy was determined by X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Hannover, Germany. Elemental maps of Fe, Si, Ti, Al, Cr etc. were used to highlight texture and mineral distribution. The Ajali sands are locally topped by iron rich hardpans. These hardpans consist of rock fragments up to several cm in length in a primary matrix and locally large pores. Besides laminated sandstone fragments, highly altered porphyritic volcanic rocks can be observed. The latter in the SEM appear highly spongeous, and show relics of phenochryts such as biotite, hornblende and pyroxene, corroded magmatic quartz, magnetite, Ilmenite, zircon or voids of former crystals in an almost entirely altered matrix Large pores show several generations of periodic infill of quartz sand / soil mixtures alternating with multiple layers of Fe rich precipitates, locally enriched in Al, P, S, Mn or Sr agglutinating the fines. Volcanic fragments show rims of elevated Cr content, and Cr and V-rich precipitates may separate generations of infill. A number of large open pore channels rimmed by Fe-rich matrix might act as water channels. They are coated by Al, K rich precipitates. Ajali sands can hardly be considered as the source for the agglutination of the hardpan cap. The source of Fe and other elements such as Al, K, Cr, V has to be attributed to the volcanic fragments, mainly to the matrix, but to the altered phenocrysts, too. Toxic elements such as Cr being mobile in the system are in part stabilized as precipitates. EDXRF-micro mapping provides excellent textural, chemical and even mineralogical information to get better insight into the sedimentation and agglutination history of the hardpan cap. Key
Muoghalu, Caroline Okumdi; Jegede, Samuel Ayodele
Perception is fundamental in the fight against stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Perception generally influences discriminatory attitudes towards PLHIV which exacerbates their problems and quickens the degeneration of the disease from HIV to AIDS. This study examined the Anambra people's perception and knowledge of HIV/AIDS with the goal of creating knowledge on these issues in order to design effective intervention programmes towards the reduction of social stigmatization associated with the pandemic. The study was carried out in Idemmili North and Oyi local government areas of Anambra State. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to elicit information from respondents who were adult males and females of 18 years and above. The research instruments were questionnaires and in-depth interview schedule. Questionnaires were administered on 1000 respondents while 13 people were interviewed in-depth. Analysis of quantitative data were conducted by using the Statistical package for Social Sciences. Univariate analysis in the form of frequencies were conducted which generated the distribution of respondents across the research variables. Furthermore, multivariate analysis were conducted to test the hypotheses and sought for relationships among variables. The qualitative data were reported in themes based on the research objectives and were analysed jointly with the quantitative data. The findings were that majority of the respondents viewed HIV/AIDS as a disease that afflict immoral people and as a punishment from God. Only a handful of them saw the disease as a disease that could afflict anybody. Also, many of the respondents said that AIDS is real but showed a low level of knowledge. It was further indicated that there were significant relationships between educational level, sex, occupation, income influence perception and peoples' reactions to HIV positive status of a relative while there were no significant relationships between
Full Text Available The status of human intestinal helminthiasis was studied in primary school pupils, secondary schools as well as university students in Ihiala Local Government Area of Anambra State between November 2006 and October 2007.Consent was obtained from the local government health authorities, from the heads of the various schools used as well as consents from the older students involved in the study before it commenced fully. Data was collected in the form of stool samples as well as personal questions on per-tested questionnaires. The samples were prepared and examined using the formal-ether concentration method. A total of 1, 913 stool samples were collected and examined. Results obtained showed 948 (49.5% studied participants to be infected with one or more parasites with the following prevalence rates: Necator americanus 85(4.4%, Ancylostoma duodanales 85(4.4%, Enterobius vermincularis 151 (7.9%, Ascaris Iumbricoides 353(37.2%, Trichuris trichura 143(2.6% and Schistosoma mansoni 31 (1.6 %. The prevalence of intestinal helminth was significantly higher in females than males especially in the school age groups (p <0.05. Control measures could include; regular environmental sanitation health education, good identification and treatment of infected individuals.
B.C. Okoye; Onyenweaku, C.E; Asumugha, G.N
This study employed a translog stochastic frontier cost function to measure the level of economic efficiency and it’s determinants in small-holder cocoyam production in Anambra state, Nigeria. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 cocoyam farmers in the state in 2005 from whom input-output data and their prices were obtained using the cost-route approach. The parameters of the stochastic frontier cost function were estimated using the maximum likelihood method. The re...
Clementina Uchenna Agbionu
Full Text Available The public sector in Nigeria has suffered series of setbacks which were attributed to ineffective and inefficient management which immediately calls for transformation of the sector in order to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency in the performance of the sector for national development. Transformation for national development in Nigeria demands new tools to support the performance of the public sector. Organizational Effectiveness is a tool which describes the degree to which an organization realizes its goal. This paper intends to contribute its own quota to the transformation question by investigating the potential models and tools for understanding, explaining and measuring organizational effectiveness of the public sector organizations in Nigeria. To do this, the paper evaluated the immediate results of the work of NATO RTO HFM Task Group (TG 163 on “Improving Organizational Effectiveness of Coalition Operations which consists of researchers from eleven nations of the world. The paper used descriptive statistics and content analysis to analyze “Organizational effectiveness in the context of public organizations, and to categorize factors critical to organizational effectiveness. Based on the review of the models, the study developed a structured questionnaire which was used to collect the relevant data for the purpose of investigating the effect of the different factors that influence organizational effectiveness, expose inefficiencies in public organizations and determine measures to achieve better organizational effectiveness in Anambra State Civil Service. The findings revealed that the key areas of structure and processes, people and culture do not receive adequate attention in the Anambra State Civil Service. A major recommendation of the study is that the emphasis of the government should not be basically on the provision of resources but also on how the resources are effectively and efficiently managed especially during the
Nkechi Cordelia Ojiagu
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study examined the effect of membership of cooperative societies on the economic activities of farmers as well as the determinants of their income in rural Nigeria focusing on Anambra State. Data from 2506 members selected through multi-stage stratified random sampling were analyzed. The study found among others that members incomes are dependent upon their socio-economic profile such as age marital status and membership or otherwise of cooperative societies education cooperative marketing credit gender and business expertise. Also respondents depend largely on farming related activities for generation of income in the study area. Furthermore it was found that the major challenge of the farmer-members is inadequate fund poor education and illiteracy among most members conflict among members and lack of access to farm input. The Nigerian government is advised to formulate policies that will incorporate information from the local level that can support planning implementation and evaluation of programmes that can enhance farmers income this however will influence the pattern of agricultural growth in ways that can change income level of rural farmers to grow fast. The study recommends that cooperatives should intensify their education of members to gain more benefits and that government non-governmental organizations and international development agencies should show interest in supervising and providing development support to Farmers Cooperative Societies in rural Nigeria.
Okuonghae, E O P; Onyenekwe, C C; Ahaneku, J E; Ukibe, N R; Nwani, P O; Asomugha, A L; Osakue, N O; Aidomeh, F; Awalu, C C
Diabetes mellitus has become an onerous disease to developing countries such as Nigeria. Rapid acceptance of urbanisation and sedentary life styles pose an encumbrance to its prevention and management. Increased oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus has been implicated as a culprit in perpetuating antioxidant depletion and diabetic complications in diabetes mellitus individuals. This study aims to evaluate the level of antioxidant status in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) female participants visiting the out-patient diabetic clinic of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria. A total of 86 participants aged 51±10 years were recruited for this study. The test group consists of 43 already confirmed type 2 diabetes mellitus females, while the control group consists of 43 apparently healthy females. The test subjects were further subgrouped into good and poor glycaemic control groups, using a cut-off of 0.05). This study concludes that there is antioxidant depletion in females with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26738397
Onyeka, Ifeoma N; Miettola, Juhani; Ilika, Amobi L; Vaskilampi, Tuula
This study evaluated efforts of secondary schools to prevent unintended pregnancy among students and their reactions to pregnant students before and after delivery. A cross-sectional survey of 46 teachers in three public and two private schools in Anambra state, Nigeria was carried out. Information was collected using self-administered questionnaire. Of all the teachers in the study, 87% reported unintended pregnancies among students in the previous 3 years. Expulsion (43%) and suspension (28%) were the most common reactions. Private schools were more likely to expel pregnant students than public schools. Following the delivery of their babies, 43% discontinued their education in the same school, whereas 37% continued their education in a different school. Counselling was given before suspension or expulsion in 4% of public schools and 15% of private schools. Majority of the schools (61%) did not have sex education as part of their schools' curriculum. Students should be re-admitted in order to ensure continuity of their academic development, prevent unemployment and mitigate poverty-induced repeat pregnancy. PMID:22590897
Full Text Available Background & objectives: The prevalence of trypanosomiasis was studied in cattle, being a major source of animal protein in Nigeria, thus, a very likely means of spread of Human African Trypano-somosis (HAT. Methods: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to diagnose bovine trypanosomiasis in 264 samples collected from adult cattle of mixed breeds, age and sex, in Anambra and Imo states, Nigeria. Results: Out of 264 samples analysed, 21 (7.96% were seropositive for Trypanosoma congolense while 20 (7.58% were seropositive for T. vivax and 8 (3.03% were seropositive for T. brucei infections in both the states. Interpretation & conclusion: The predominant species was found to be T. congolense. Mixed infection of three species, T. vivax, T. congolense and T. brucei was found to dominate other mixed infections in both the states. ELISA detected the infection of the three species of trypanosomes in the same group of animals. The usefulness of antigen capture ELISA in the diagnosis of human or animal trypanosomiasis was established, and the possibility of the spread of HAT caused by T. brucei gambiense and T.b. rhodesiense through cattle was expressed.
Full Text Available Over the past years, the Anambra basin one of Nigeria’s inland basins has recorded significant level of hydrocarbon exploration activities. The basin has been confirmed by several authors from source rock analyses to have the potential for generating hydrocarbon. For the hydrocarbon to be exploited, it is imperative to have a thorough understanding of the reservoir. Computer-assisted log analyses were employed to effectively evaluate the petrophysical parameters such as the shale volume (Vsh, total porosity (TP, effective porosity (EP, water saturation (Sw, and hydrocarbon saturation (Sh. Cross-plots of the petrophysical parameters versus depth were illustrated. Five hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs were delineated in well 1, four in well 2. The reservoirs in well 3 do not contain hydrocarbon. The estimated reservoir porosity varies from 10% to 21% while their permeability values range from 20md to 1400md. The porosity and permeability values suggest that reservoirs are good enough to store and also permit free flow of fluid. The volume of shale (0.05% to 0.35% analysis reveals that the reservoirs range from shaly sand to slightly shaly sand to clean sand reservoir. On the basis of petrophysics data, the reservoirs are interpreted a good quality reservoir rocks which has been confirmed with high effective porosity range between 20% and high hydrocarbon saturation exceeding 55% water saturation in well 1 and well 2. Water saturation 3 is nearly 100% although the reservoir properties are good
Full Text Available Over the past years, the Anambra basin one of Nigeria’s inland basins has recorded significant level of hydrocarbon exploration activities. The basin has been confirmed by several authors from source rock analyses to have the potential for generating hydrocarbon. For the hydrocarbon to be exploited, it is imperative to have a thorough understanding of the reservoir. Computer-assisted log analyses were employed to effectively evaluate the petrophysical parameters such as the shale volume (Vsh, total porosity (TP, effective porosity (EP, water saturation (Sw, and hydrocarbon saturation (Sh. Cross-plots of the petrophysical parameters versus depth were illustrated. Five hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs were delineated in well 1, four in well 2. The reservoirs in well 3 do not contain hydrocarbon. The estimated reservoir porosity varies from 10% to 21% while their permeability values range from 20md to 1400md. The porosity and permeability values suggest that reservoirs are good enough to store and also permit free flow of fluid. The volume of shale (0.05% to 0.35% analysis reveals that the reservoirs range from shaly sand to slightly shaly sand to clean sand reservoir. On the basis of petrophysics data, the reservoirs are interpreted a good quality reservoir rocks which has been confirmed with high effective porosity range between 20% and high hydrocarbon saturation exceeding 55% water saturation in well 1 and well 2. Water saturation 3 is nearly 100% although the reservoir properties are good.
Full Text Available Background: Child abuse is a major problem that has been living with man and seen by many as one of his day to day activities. Aim: The study aimed to ascertain the practice and effects of child abuse on the child and family in selected villages in Enugwu-Ukwu, Njikoka Local Government Area of Anambra state, and also to identify the factors associated with child abuse among the children. Methods: The study is a descriptive survey design using self-administered interviewer questionnaire. Four villages were purposively sampled for the study; Oruokwe, Awobu, Urukpeleke, and Uruogbo. Systematic sampling technique was adopted in sampling subjects. Results: Findings showed that the most common associated factor with child abuse with parent/guardian is poverty (50.7% and low social economic status (34.5%. The practices of child abuse are majorly concerned with starving the children (44.2% and kicking/shaking the children (41.2%. The effects on the child abuse on the child and family could lead the abused children into early marriage (26.5% and unwanted pregnancy (22.5%. Conclusion: The study indicated that child abuse in Njikoka LGA is due to poverty/low socio-economic status. The practices of child abuse borders on starving the children, kicking/shaking them and that, the effects of child abuse could lead the children into early marriage and/or having unwanted pregnancy. Therefore, social awareness campaign on child abuse and effects should be adopted and effective child abuse laws should be enacted by the government and stiff penalties and sanctions should be melted out to the offenders.
Muoghalu, Caroline O; Jegede, Samuel A
The HIV/AIDS pandemic is one of the worst epidemics that have been experienced by humankind. It is indeed a major event of our time. The pandemic has killed so many people around the world and Sub-Saharan Africa is the worst hit. The nature of the pandemic lent it to stigma and discrimination, which have made caring for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) a big problem. It has also brought so much suffering on PLWHA around the world. This article examines the role of culture and the family in the care for PLWHA in Anambra State. Quantitative and Qualitative data collection methods (questionnaire and in-depth interviews) are used to elicit information from respondents. A total of 1000 copies of a questionnaire were administered on adult males and females and 914 were completed and analyzed. Furthermore, in-depth interviews were conducted on 10 opinion leaders using an interview guide. Data were analyzed in themes based on the objectives and the data from in-depth interviews were used to support data from the questionnaire. The results showed that certain cultural practices such as cultural obligations to sick, blood relations, collective ownership of children, affinity to blood relations, and strong marital bond enhance care and support for PLWHA. Also, the burden of care for PLWHA was found to be on the family in the study area. In conclusion, cultural practices and the family play major roles in the care for PLWHA in the area and should be harnessed in order to make life more comfortable for PLWHA. PMID:21113852
Ubuoh Emmanuel Attah
Full Text Available The study was conducted at Nnewi –South of Anambra State, Nigeria to characterize soil in erosion prone area in order to know nutritional values of the soil to enable farmers employ appropriate measures to conserving the soils for high productivity. Soil auger studies were made at three locations where traverse was cut.Three profile pits designated ECH/UK/ 01 (upper slope , ECH/UK/ 02 (middle slope and ECH/UK/ 03 (lower slope were sited and samples of soils were taken to test for physico-chemical properties of the soils. The results revealed that the soils are deep, well drained , dark reddish brown to reddish brown, and yellowish red of the Munsell color notation. The soil texture in the three pedons have coarse texture that ranged from sandy clay loam to sandy loam, with high percentage of sand which is the reflection of the parent material. The bulk density ranged between between 1.50 – 1.80 g/cm3,, soil pH (3.33 – 4.09 indicating very strong acidity status, O.C.(0.28 – 0.89%, O.M (0.48- 1.54%, total N ( 0.042 – 0.98%, Available P ( 2.80 – 11.00 mg.kg-1, Na+( 0.113 – 270cmol.kg-1, K+(0.036 – 0.087 cmol.kg-1, Mg++(0.80-5.60 cmol.kg-1, Ca++(0.42 – 10.40 cmol.kg-1, EA (0.24 -1.28 cmol.kg-1 CEC( 3.104 – 16.966 cmol.kg-1, and BS ( 80.28 – 96.06% indicating low fertility rate of the soil due to heavy leaching and intensive agricultural activities that leads to erosion of the soil to devastating stage, which could be restored by reforestation programme, integrated Nutrient Management Options, and Effective public enlightenment campaign about the advantages of soil conservation for environmental sustainability.
武藤, 宣道; Nobumichi, MUTOH
This paper examines the new field of community economics with respect to Japan. A number of studies in community economics have already been produced in OECD countries including the United States. Although these are of great interest, each country has its own historical, socioeconomic context and must therefore develop its own approach to community economics. Community-oriented economics is neither macro-nor micro-economics in the standard economics textbook sense. Most community economics st...
Jensen, Steffen Bo
As its point of departure this working paper takes the multitude of different uses and meanings of the concept of community in local politics in Cape Town. Instead of attempting to define it in substantive terms, the paper takes a social constructivist approach to the study of community and...... is termed community work. First, the paper explores how community has become a governmental strategy, employed by the apartheid regime as well, although in different ways, as post-apartheid local government. Secondly, the paper explores the ways in which community becomes the means in which local...... residents lay claim on the state, as well as how it enters into local power struggles between different political groups within the township. In the third part, the paper explores how the meanings of community and the struggles to realise it have changed as South Africa, nationally and locally, has become...
Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Hansen-Schwartz, Martin; Hansen, Lars Kai
We present a method for detecting communities in bipartite networks. Based on an extension of the k-clique community detection algorithm, we demonstrate how modular structure in bipartite networks presents itself as overlapping bicliques. If bipartite information is available, the biclique...... community detection algorithm retains all of the advantages of the k-clique algorithm, but avoids discarding important structural information when performing a one-mode projection of the network. Further, the biclique community detection algorithm provides a level of flexibility by incorporating independent...... clique thresholds for each of the nonoverlapping node sets in the bipartite network...
This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...
The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well. PMID:12177941
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset shows the locations of known tracts of high quality natural communities in Kansas, generalized to the PLSS section. It is not a compehensive dataset of...
Aranceta Bartrina, J; Pérez Rodrigo, C; Serra Majem, L I
A growing body of scientific and epidemiological evidence indicates that diet and health are related: diet may be a risk factor or have potential protective effects. As a consequence, the focus of nutrition research has experienced a shift towards qualitative aspects of diet which could influence chronic disease, longevity, quality of life and physical and cognitive performance, leading to the development of Community Nutrition. The main undertakings in a Community Nutrition Unit are related to the identification, assessment and monitoring of nutrition problems at the community level and to planning, design, implementation and evaluation of nutrition intervention programs. Such programs combine a number of suitable strategies in a whole population approach, a high risk approach or an approach targeted at specific population groups, and are implemented in different settings, such as the work place, schools or community organizations. Community nutrition interventions aim to gradually achieve change in eating patterns towards a healthier profile. Community Nutrition programs require the use of a combination of strategies and a working group of people from different backgrounds. Many factors influence the nutritional status of an individual or a population. In order to gain effective work output, sound understanding of these patterns and a practical surveillance system are required. PMID:17424768
Ilika, Amobi Linus
Partner violence is a serious public health problem affecting mostly women. This qualitative study assessed the perceptions of rural Igbo women of Nigeria of intimate partner violence. Information was elicited using in-depth interviews and focus group discussion. Women of childbearing age were selected from the various women age grades in Ozubulu, Anambra State, Nigeria. Findings revealed that the women generally condone and are complacent with intimate partner violence, perceiving it as cultural and religious norms. The women felt that reprimands, beating and forced sex affecting their physical, mental and reproductive wellbeing are normal in marriage. They did not support reporting such cases to the police or divorcing the man, they would rather prefer reporting to family members. They felt that exiting the marriage would not gain the support of family members. They also expressed fear for the uncertainty in re-marrying, means of livelihood after re-marriage, social stigmatisation, and concern for their children. Socio-cultural norms and structures favour partner violence in Anambra State of Nigeria. There is a need for advocacy and concerted action that will involve the educational, health, civil and religious sectors of the society to evolve sustainable structures that will empower women and provide support to enable victims to react appropriately to violence. PMID:16623192
This podcast is for a general audience and discusses the benefits of walkable communities, as they relate to health, the environment, and social interaction. Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR. Date Released: 5/8/2008.
Strong and trust-based ties are usually related to homogeneous and complex knowledge, while weak ties are associated with heterogeneous and simple knowledge. Interfirm communities have been shown to depend on trust-based ties, while also relying on getting access to heterogeneous knowledge. These...... results yield a paradox which the present paper aims to address. Based on an in-depth case study of how a high-tech small firm organizes its interfirm activity, I show how a hybrid social relation, that is neither weak nor strong, is a useful conception for interfirm communities. Hereby, the study also...... goes beyond a mere structural approach to the organization of social networks and hence proposes a tighter integration between research on social networks and organizational design....
In current residential spaces there seem to be an increasing emphasis on small-scale communities. A number of new, high profiled residential complexes thus seek to promote new ways of social living by rethinking architectural design, typologies and concepts. In this paper I explore the emergence of...... these designed communities: What social life is promoted in such recent architectural visions? And to what extent can the social life and identity of a place actually be designed? The paper discusses these questions based on a fieldwork in three new housing complexes in the Copenhagen Region: The A......-house by architect Carsten Holgaard, the 8-house by BIG, and Lange Eng (The Long Meadow) by Dorte Mandrup. Rather than taking the perspective of either architect or user, the fieldwork has ethnographically traced the entire process from design to occupancy. The aim is to explore how the social life and...
Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław
The continuous interest in the social network area contributes to the fast development of this field. The new possibilities of obtaining and storing data facilitate deeper analysis of the entire social network, extracted social groups and single individuals as well. One of the most interesting research topic is the network dynamics and dynamics of social groups in particular, it means analysis of group evolution over time. It is the natural step forward after social community extraction. Having communities extracted, appropriate knowledge and methods for dynamic analysis may be applied in order to identify changes as well as to predict the future of all or some selected groups. Furthermore, knowing the most probably change of a given group some additional steps may be performed in order to change this predicted future according to specific needs. Such ability would be a powerful tool in the hands of human resource managers, personnel recruitment, marketing, telecommunication companies, etc.
Brent Chrite; David Hudson
This is an exploratory paper aimed at analyzing some of the many environmental and organizational influences that impact the competitiveness of business enterprises within the Southern African Development Community'. Specifically, we present results from a survey of managers in small, medium and large organizations within three member nations of SADC, South Africa, Zimbabwe and Namibia. The results of the surveys are presented in the context of existing dynamics and forces of emerging markets...
HEALTH EDUCATION — THE NEED TO MAKE IT WORK It is increasingly apparent that the major health problems in the world today — ranging from malnutrition and communicable diseases; many forms of mental ill-health and cardiac conditions; accidents and alcoholism, are primarily attributable to unsatisfactory living conditions, lack of knowledge and harmful practices on the part of individuals, families and communities. Advances in the field of science and technology can do no more towards the promo...
Budin, Wendy C.
In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education describes ways that Lamaze International is helping to create a community for those who share a common interest in promoting, supporting, and protecting natural, safe, and healthy childbirth. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth.
In May of 2009, Community Development Finance (CDF) opened the first nonprofit, full-service check cashing store in the country in Fruitvale, California. The project is designed to provide low-income households with the financial services they need, without the asset-stripping characteristics common to the fringe banking industry. In addition to providing affordable check cashing services and a payday loan product, CDF also provides financial coaching and literacy training, small business ass...
Sørensen, Henrik; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Gorm Hansen, Katrine;
”Online Communities” er et medie for brugere og fagfolk, hvor de kan mødes digitalt for at dele erfaringer, og dette kan anvendes som inspiration indenfor Brugerdreven Innovation. Via ”desk research” kan virksomheder opnå adgang til varierende mængder af brugere på en forholdsvist enkelt måde. I...... denne rapport beskrives eksperimentets opbygning, resultater og mulige værdi. Vi håber hermed på at kunne give praktisk indsigt i, hvorledes virksomheder fra byggematerialeindustrien kan agere i online communities....
The idea that communities need to be inclusive is almost axiomatic. The process, whereby, community members engage in inclusive practices is far less understood. Similarly, UK universities are being encouraged to include the wider community and extent campus boundaries. Here, I suggest a particular theoretical lens which sheds light on engagement…
August John Hoffman; Julie Wallach; Eduardo Sanchez
Community service work, volunteerism and mentoring have recently become popular topics of research as effective methods in improving self-esteem and civic responsibility. In the current study we explored the relationship between participation in a community service gardening program and ethnocentrism. We hypothesised that an inverse correlation would emerge where students who participated in a community service-gardening program would increase their perceptions of the importance of community ...
Gray, Karen A.; Galande, Mugdha
This instrumental case study examined the role of grassroots community organizing in a community land trust (CLT) in a southern U.S. city. Twenty-nine homeowners, renters, board members, community members, and current and former CLT employees were interviewed. In addition, two focus groups of 11 and six participants composed of CLT residents and…
Kim, Huyan Jin
Community is an integrative motif and the central message of the Bible. The divine goal of history is God's establishment of community. The Triune God is the origin of community and community is the mode of existence of God. Christian community is derived from God's community. The church is a community restored by the Triune God, and so the essence of the church is Christian community. The Bible is the history of community involving the beginning of community, the destruction of community, th...
Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel N
community detection consistent with an intuitive definition of communities and present a Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure for inferring the community structure. A Matlab toolbox with the proposed inference procedure is available for download. On synthetic and real networks, our model detects communities...
The focus of this paper will be methods of local community involvement in the community development planning efforts which will be required at the recommended sites. Community development planning will include capital improvement plans, housing plans, zoning changes, business development plans and other community service and fiscal plans required to meet the projected needs of new residents as a result of the repository construction and operation. This paper will present, (1) the need for community planning, (2) methods of responding to community planning needs, (3) current community planning issues to be addressed. 2 references, 1 figure
August John Hoffman
Full Text Available Community service work, volunteerism and mentoring have recently become popular topics of research as effective methods in improving self-esteem and civic responsibility. In the current study we explored the relationship between participation in a community service gardening program and ethnocentrism. We hypothesised that an inverse correlation would emerge where students who participated in a community service-gardening program would increase their perceptions of the importance of community service work and decrease their scores in ethnocentrism. Results of the paired samples t-test strongly support the hypothesis that community service gardening work significantly reduces reports of ethnocentrism: t(10 = -2.52, (p < .03 for community college students. The ramifications of the study and ramifications for future research are offered.
The community deception problem is about how to hide a target community C from community detection algorithms. The need for deception emerges whenever a group of entities (e.g., activists, police enforcements) want to cooperate while concealing their existence as a community. In this paper we introduce and formalize the community deception problem. To solve this problem, we describe algorithms that carefully rewire the connections of C's members. We experimentally show how several existing community detection algorithms can be deceived, and quantify the level of deception by introducing a deception score. We believe that our study is intriguing since, while showing how deception can be realized it raises awareness for the design of novel detection algorithms robust to deception techniques.
Gallegos, Tom; Mrgudic, Kate
Sees health care decision making posing variety of complex issues for individuals, families, and providers. Describes Health Decisions Community Council (HDCC), community-based bioethics committee established to offer noninstitutional forum for discussion of health care dilemmas. Notes that social work skills and values for autonomy and…
Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Community Challenge Grants aim to reform and reduce barriers to achieving affordable, economically vital and sustainable communities. The funds are awarded to...
Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The unsewered communities file was originally conceived as a representation of communities without a municipal sewer system or on-site septic systems. The selection...
Department of Veterans Affairs — The Community Nursing Home (CNH) database contains a list of all Community Nursing Home facilities under local contract to Veterans Health Administration (VHA). CNH...
Gundelach, Peter; Brincker, Benedikte
The exchange of open source software is a phenomenon that is becoming in- creasingly significant to IT users. This article presents the results of a study of the TYPO3 community, a community related to an open source CMS software. The article explores the community, identity and values of TYPO3 and...
This article overviews what community information means and its implications on the role of a library and information centre. No single institution can meet the general information requirements of any given community. It attempts to examine how .a cooperative venture of interagency network can lead to an effective community information service suitable for the local population.
Maré, David C; Michelle Poland
The purpose of this paper is to provide a guide to concepts, ideas, and measurements of geographic communities. The paper investigates the various concepts of geographic communities found in the literature and reviews existing studies to determine how researchers measure geographic communities in practice.
A community college instructor has incorporated the philosophy of Blaise Pascal into a course on organizational communication by providing community college students with a pragmatic small group exercise that requires them to see what communication skills are necessary to succeed within business and the community. This paper discusses how…
Lambregts, L.; Wiersum, K.F.
Uitleg over de oorsprong en betekenis van het gegrip 'community forestry', en een inventarisatie van de verschillende vormen van community forestry die in Nederland voorkomen en de motieven voor deelname aan community forestry activiteiten. Vooral twee categorieën van bosbeheer worden beschouwd als
-cise is to determine the degree to which the concepts of discourse commu-nity and community of practice are suitable for investigating the social and organizational context of text and knowledge production. Finally, the paper examines the explanatory value of the two concepts for analyzing text and knowledge......This paper aims at giving a more detailed description and discussion of two concepts of `community' developed in the research areas of text production/ writing and social learning / information management / knowledge sharing and comparing them with each other. The purpose of this theoretical exer...... production at different Danish workplaces (a consulting engi-neering company, a university department and a bank) and discusses their significance in the context of co-located as well as geographically distrib-uted communities....
Full Text Available This article will describe the 'Toolbox for the 21st Century Village' action research project and outline the critical research contexts that underpin its development as an online informatics and social engagement tool aimed at facilitating understanding, sharing and planning of integrated sustainability by individual communities. This will include exposing the context of ‘mis-communication’ of sustainability issues in society by visual culture, the media and politics. The article argues that this has served to alienate, demoralise and disenfranchise many individuals and communities. Being rural does not necessarily mean being ‘green’ and the article will describe the ‘green dichotomy’ and how rural behaviours are disproportionately dependent on natural resources and as a consequence are ‘less sustainable’, despite relative autonomy and community potential to make significant gains. The article will also unpack and explore how the loaded term sustainability only serves to divide and detract as a polemic and absolute term; whereas self-sufficiency is a demonstrable concern of vulnerable rural communities; a by-product of which can be genuine and valued, measurable and meaningful sustainable development. The above provides a contextual backdrop and rationale for the formation of a project that enables communities to frame their own concerns and envision themselves and their problems and responses as part of a larger system. The project is developed around an experimental online content management system (CMS platform that will facilitate sustainable development through envisioning, action planning and networking – connecting the ‘knots in the net’ of an active patchwork of ‘multi-local communities’. The platform design will provide methodology, process and capacity to enable reconciliation between the manifold concerns of social, economic and environmental sustainability whilst providing community facilitators with new
Rees, S. [BC Energy Aware Committee, Richmond, BC (Canada)
The mandate of the BC Energy Aware Committee is to promote and assist in the implementation of community energy planning by working with local governments, developers and utilities to integrate energy into local planning processes and to use local resources in the design and operation of communities. This paper presented the basic concepts of how energy is used in communities and how its use impacts the community. It was demonstrated that designing for energy supports community livability objectives. Energy considerations can be incorporated in existing community planning processes, thereby playing an important role in reducing Canada's greenhouse gas emissions and slowing down climate change. The paper also provided some practical advice that will help communities move toward sustainable energy development. Community energy planning encompasses land use planning and transportation, infrastructure efficiency, and alternative energy supply. The strategies that are related to each of these components were highlighted. The community energy planning program in Kamloops was presented as a case study of a specific initiative to build a community that is socially, environmentally and fiscally sustainable. tabs., figs.
Tadesse, Luche; Tafesse, Fikru; Hamamy, Hanan
The rates of congenital and genetic disorders in low and middle income countries are similar or might be higher than in high income countries due to a multitude of risk factors and the dearth of community genetic services. To direct effective preventive, diagnostic and counseling services, collecting data on the incidence and prevalence of various congenital and genetic disorders and their risk factors is a pre-requisite for establishing genetic services at the community level and mainly at the primary health care setting. This brief review is meant to assess the available epidemiological data in Ethiopia pertaining to congenital and genetic disorders on which the future community genetic services could be built. Existing epidemiological data on congenital and genetic disorders in Ethiopia is limited, and the few studies conducted revealed that folate and iodine deficiencies are prevalent among women in the reproductive age. Pregnant women's infection with syphilis and rubella is prevailing. Based on available data, cleft lip and palate, congenital heart diseases, club-foot, and gastro-intestinal malformations are the most common birth defects in Ethiopia. Community based studies to accurately demonstrate the incidence and prevalence levels of these disorders are almost unavailable. To plan for organization and implementation of community genetic services at the primary health care level in Ethiopia, conducting standardized epidemiological studies is currently highly recommended. PMID:25404975
Full Text Available Engaged scholarship is defined by Stanton (2008 as research that partners university scholarly resources with those in the public and private sectors to enrich knowledge, address and help solve critical social issues and contribute to the public good. To be truly engaged and of high quality, engagement must take place in the development of the purpose, throughout the research process and in the compilation of the research product. It includes research that incorporates only a few elements of community-engagement, for example having the researchers control the research with the community in more of a consultative role, to research in which both are equal partners throughout the process. This paper will report on a community engaged research course. Feedback from the community agencies and the students involved in the course will be examined in terms of the level of engagement and whether the students were able to make a contribution to the organization. KEYWORDScommunity engaged research, pedagogy, community partnerships
16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.
Bøllingtoft, Anne; Müller, Sabine; Ulhøi, John Parm; Snow, Charles C.
organizational model called the collaborative community of firms. This chapter addresses an important organizational role in a collaborative community, that of the shared services provider. The shared services provider acts as a facilitator in the community, helping member firms collaborate with one another and...... developing strategic initiatives that aid the community as a whole. We discuss the facilitator role of the shared services provider, contrasting it with the coordinator role found in other multi-firm organizations, and we show how shared services providers function by describing three examples of...... collaborative communities of firms from different sectors: the U.S.-based Blade.org and two Denmark-based communities, the Kalundborg Industrial Symbiosis and MG50. Implications for the theory and practice of organization design are discussed....
Okeke, Carina Maris Amaka
Sexual harassment in educational settings is a common problem globally. While it is well addressed in college and university campuses in most developed countries of the world through specific policies and mechanisms of enforcement, it remains a taboo topic in African colleges and universities particularly in Nigeria. This study investigated the…
Faustina Nkechi Osuji; Charles Chinedum Onyenekwe; Martins Ifeanyichukwu; Joseph Ebere Ahaneku; Micheal Ezeani; Ifeoma Pricilla Ezeugwunne
Objective:To determine the antioxidant status of HIV and malaria co-infected participants. Methods: Blood samples collected from the 193 randomly recruited participants were used for HIV screening, Plasmodium falciparum antigen screening, malaria parasite density count, CD4+ T cell count, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and total antioxidant status measurement. Standard laboratory methods were used for the analysis. Results: The results showed that glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, total antioxidant status and CD4+T cell count were significantly lowered in symptomatic HIV participants with and without malaria co-infection (P<0.01) in each case compared with control participants. Also, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidise, total antioxidant status and CD4+T cell count were significantly lowered in asymptomatic HIV participants with and without malaria co-infection (P<0.05) in each case, compared with control participants without malaria. Similarly, these antioxidants were significantly lowered in control participants with malaria infection (P<0.05) compared with control participants without malaria. The malaria parasite density in symptomatic HIV infected participants was negatively associated with glutathione reductase (r=-0.906, P<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (r=-0.719, P<0.01) and total antioxidant status (r=-0.824, P<0.01). Conclusions:The antioxidant activity was affected in HIV infected participants with malaria co-infection. Malaria co-infection in HIV seems to exert additional burden on antioxidants. This calls for concern in malaria endemic areas with increasing prevalence of HIV infection.
Agbim, Kenneth Chukwujioke; Oriarewo, Godday Orziemgbe; Owutuamor, Zechariahs Benapugha
Owing to the entrepreneurial nature of Igbo people and the importance of entrepreneurial leadership capabilities as a source of sustained entrepreneurial success to nascent and experienced entrepreneurs, this study assessed the effects of the dimensions of entrepreneurial leadership (strategic, communicative, personal and motivational factors) on sustained entrepreneurial success. The study also investigated the influence of demographic variables (age, gender, highest educational attainment a...
Egbu Anthony; Okoroigwe Decklan
Management of urban solid waste implies the collection, transfer, treatment recycle, reuse and disposal of such waste. Collection of urban household solid waste traditionally rests with government agencies designated with such responsibility. Solid waste collection begins from storage at the household level to the final treatment or disposal point and represents the most important aspect of urban solid waste management. Little has however been written on urban household solid waste collection...
Ron Shaffer; Steve Deller; Dave Marcouiller
In this article, the authors present arguments for a more interdisciplinary approach to community economic development. Building an alternative paradigm that includes six elementsâ€”resources, markets, institutions, society, decision making, and spaceâ€”they rethink the framework that links economic theory to the practice of community economic development. Major attention is paid to the integration of economic and noneconomic factors in the practice of community economic development. In the e...
Takashi Yano; Truls Gjestland; Soogab Lee
Activities from 2008 to 2011 by ICBEN community response to noise team were summarized. That is, individual community-based indexes such as community tolerance Level, Zuricher Fluglarm Index (ZFI) and Frankfurter Fluglarm Index (FFI/FNI) were newly proposed, differences in railway bonus between Europe and Asia were discussed by a Swedish survey, socio-acoustic surveys were reported from developing countries, and annoyance equivalents and dominant source models were proposed as the adequate co...
This article introduces the notion of community-focused strategies to refer to the set of actions, activities and policies that firms undertake to establish connections or relational links with one or more target communities of (potential) customers. Drawing on social identity theory and strategy research, this study begins with a proposed taxonomy of different community-focused strategies. Then it illustrates how such strategies contribute to the creation of competitive advantage and explore...
Sladeček Michal M.
Full Text Available This paper considers the concept of political community, its constitution and value. The starting point is that the concept of community is not sufficiently recognized in modern political theories, as well as in contemporary liberal theory. In the last two decades communitarian and republican political theory attempted to revitalize this notion. The first part of the paper elaborates on the polemics between these three theoretical orientations. The concluding part examines the possibilities and prospect for stable political community in conditions of pluralism of particular social communities and ethnocultural heterogeneity.
The internet has revolutionized the ways of communication and many companies/ organizations have adapted to the change but others have not, or have done it halfway. This presentation is a review of the main characteristics of virtual communities and their typology. The status of the Nuclear Online Community, both pro nuclear and antinuclear is analysed , and their main similarities and differences are discussed. The Pro nuclear Online Community is formed gradually. This presentation attempts to define some ways to increase the scope of the Community and encourage greater dissemination of the characteristics of nuclear energy. (Author)
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...
Reid, Fergal; McDaid, Aaron; Hurley, Neil
Considering a clique as a conservative definition of community structure, we examine how graph partitioning algorithms interact with cliques. Many popular community-finding algorithms partition the entire graph into non-overlapping communities. We show that on a wide range of empirical networks, from different domains, significant numbers of cliques are split across the separate partitions produced by these algorithms. We then examine the largest connected component of the subgraph formed by retaining only edges in cliques, and apply partitioning strategies that explicitly minimise the number of cliques split. We further examine several modern overlapping community finding algorithms, in terms of the interaction between cliques and the communities they find, and in terms of the global overlap of the sets of communities they find. We conclude that, due to the connectedness of many networks, any community finding algorithm that produces partitions must fail to find at least some significant structures. Moreover, contrary to traditional intuition, in some empirical networks, strong ties and cliques frequently do cross community boundaries; much community structure is fundamentally overlapping and unpartitionable in nature.
Bøllingtoft, Anne; Müller, Sabine; Ulhøi, John Parm;
is an organizational model called the collaborative community of firms. This chapter addresses an important organizational role in a collaborative community, that of the shared services provider. The shared services provider acts as a facilitator in the community, helping member firms collaborate with one another...... and developing strategic initiatives that aid the community as a whole. We discuss the facilitator role of the shared services provider, contrasting it with the coordinator role found in other multi-firm organizations, and we show how shared services providers function by describing three examples...
This article will investigate the notion of "community" within the aspirations of Community Music. Guiding this study are the questions: How is community made manifest through Community Music? What joins the notion of community to that of music? Two distinct sections will frame this research: (1) an etymological consideration of the word…
Brookey, Robert Alan
Argues that applications of "queer theory" must extend beyond questions of sexual representation. Contends that rhetorical theory can contribute to the investigation of sexuality, offering as an example an analysis of mainstream media representations of the homosexual "community." Concludes that the presentation of this community operates…
Vaughan, George B.
Argues that the community college's mission has been and will be constant with respect to its social role to educate; its responsiveness to community needs; its focus on teaching; its open access philosophy; and its commitment to a comprehensive curriculum. Examines social tensions affecting the mission. (DMM)
Britt, Teri; Player, Kathy; Parsons, Kathleen; Stover, Deanna
Entering a new, unstructured community is facilitated when existing members embrace the thoughts, ideas, and experiences of new members. Watson's Caring Healing Model, including the caritas conscious and transpersonal caring components, provides a framework for understanding the experience of being a new community member (e.g., a "newbie") in the Global Nursing Exchange. PMID:14986502
The concept of “communities of practice” is of relatively recent date. The concept gained momentum with Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger’s book from 1991, Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Since then, the notion of “communities of practice” has been a focus of attention, not least...
Communities, Cameras, and Conservation (CCC) is the most exciting and valuable program the author has seen in her 30 years of teaching field science courses. In this citizen science project, students and community volunteers collect data on mountain lions ("Puma concolor") at four natural areas and public parks along the Front Range of Colorado.…
This paper presents a historical perspective to the development of community music in Australia. Finding political support in Australia's progressive arts policies of the late 1970s, community music is discussed as embracing the principles of access and equity and supporting the development of musical skills in the context of social change and…
Greene, Katie; Mitcham, Karen Conn
Classroom community is an integral part of facilitating a safe and supportive learning environment for students. Teachers, architects of community, recognize the importance of encouraging collaboration and respect among students in the classrooms and schools, and the value of nurturing atmospheres of respect. Teachers who are intentional about…
Furman, Gail C.
This article proposes the concept of an ethic of community to complement and extend other ethical frames used in education e.g. the ethics of justice, critique, and care. Proceeding from the traditional definition of ethics as the study of moral duty and obligation, ethic of community is defined as the moral responsibility to engage in communal…
Quantum: Research & Scholarship, 1998
Profiles 10 University of New Mexico community programs: University Art Museum, Rio Grande and Four Corners Writing Projects, Blacks in the Southwest (exhibit), New Mexico Engineering Research Institute's Environmental Finance Center, Adolescent Social Action Program, Minority Engineering Programs, Rural Community College Initiative, Valencia…
Proposes viewing journalists as members of an interpretive community (not a profession) united by its shared discourse and collective interpretations of key public events. Applies the frame of the interpretive community to journalistic discourse about two events central for American journalists--Watergate and McCarthyism. (SR)
A clear and informative description of the theoretical and methodological content and implications of the concept of Community of Practice......A clear and informative description of the theoretical and methodological content and implications of the concept of Community of Practice...
With increasing frequency, communities are seeing the arrival of a new class of noncommercial broadband providers: community wireless networks (CWNs). Utilizing the same wireless technologies that many colleges and universities have used to create wireless networks on campus, CWNs are creating broadband access for free or at costs well below…
Hydle, Katja Maria; Kvålshaugen, Ragnhild; Breunig, Karl Joachim
This article explores situated practices in communities that provide transnational services. Communities of practice generally focus on reinforcing local ties. Our study identifies two distinctive but interdependent communities of practice that are transnational and virtual: one community consists of employees who share work and tasks, labeled communities of task; the other consists of employees who jointly share and create knowledge, labeled communities of learning. We extend the existing co...
Full Text Available Activities from 2008 to 2011 by ICBEN community response to noise team were summarized. That is, individual community-based indexes such as community tolerance Level, Zuricher Fluglarm Index (ZFI and Frankfurter Fluglarm Index (FFI/FNI were newly proposed, differences in railway bonus between Europe and Asia were discussed by a Swedish survey, socio-acoustic surveys were reported from developing countries, and annoyance equivalents and dominant source models were proposed as the adequate combined noise model. Furthermore, not only negative, but also positive aspects of sound were discussed as soundscape studies. Finally, seven items were listed as future team activities.
Barinaga, Ester; Parker, Patricia S.
We are pleased to offer this special issue on community-engaged scholarship. As scholar-activists working for social justice alongside youth of color (Pat) and critical arts activists engaging with stigmatized communities (Ester), we began this project with the intent of gathering a collection of...... to this special issue, Schaefer & Rivera) in community-engaged scholarship—issues that emerge at the intersection between the political and the theoretical and which are at the forefront of conversations both inside and outside the traditional boundaries of academe....
Full Text Available Within the background where education is increasingly driven by the economies of scale and research funding, we propose an alternative online open and connected framework (OOC for building global learning communities using mobile social media. We critique a three year action research case study involving building collaborative global learning communities around a community of practice of learning researchers and practitioners. The results include the development of a framework for utilising mobile social media to support collaborative curriculum development across international boundaries. We conclude that this framework is potentially transferrable to a range of educational contexts where the focus is upon student-generated mobile social media projects.
The author contends that healthy communities must be both environmentally and socially sustainable, given that health depends on the quality of the built and natural environments, and that global change resulting from the industrial economy is affecting the web of life. He argues that suburban sprawl wastes scarce resources and disproportionately places those resources in the hands of suburban dwellers. Urban areas can be made more environmentally sustainable, especially with respect to energ...
This paper discusses a popular community definition in complex network research in terms of the conditions under which a community is minimal,that is,the community cannot be split into several smaller communities or split and reorganized with other network elements into new communities.The result provides a base on which further optimization computation of the quantitative measure for community identification can be realized.
Fawcett, Ricky Lee; Kerr, Thomas A; Jordan, Steven Albert
This paper discusses an integrated community safety approach to creating safer communities. It defines community broadly to include two categories of community members: “industry” and “neighbors.” Potential community members within the “industry” category include facilities, government/regulators, customers, stockholders, and suppliers. Within the “neighbors” category are towns, cities, counties, states; people/commodity flow systems; news media and special interest groups; environment; and families of employees. Each of these potential community members and its characteristics are discussed. The integrated community safety approach consists of three major activities: (1) define the boundaries of the community; (2) facilitate the sense of community; and (3) address the needs of the community. Defining the boundaries of the community includes determining the geographical and social boundaries; this is accomplished through conducting a hazard analysis and community involvement to identify all of the community members. Facilitating the sense of community includes conducting a capability/needs assessment and continuing community involvement to identify the issues and concerns of community members. Addressing the needs of the community involves master planning to consider safety issues in all community development actions and continuing community education and involvement. The integrated community safety approach is a workable approach for existing industries and their neighbors as well as new projects that industries and their neighbors might be considering. By using this socio-technical approach to integrating industry and all of its neighbors into a safer community, the integrated community safety approach will better assure the viability and safety of industry and its neighbors while maintaining or improving the overall quality of life.
Ohio Board of Regents, 2009
This paper provides information on student characteristics, success and progress rates, cost of attendance, degrees awarded, class size, faculty characteristics, and employment outcomes at each of Ohio's twenty-three community college.
... 04/30/2016) New CDC Autism Data Highlights Importance of Long-term Services and Supports, Cultural Competency ( ... STAY CONNECTED Facebook Twitter YouTube E-mail Updates Administration for Community Living • Washington, DC 20201 Last Modified: ...
MacKenzie, Donald G.
Describes three trends--downsizing, reduction of government funding, and shift of decision making from federal to state and state to local agencies. Suggests that community response to these trends requires leadership, a role for adult educators. (SK)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To enable fisheries managers to comply with National Standard 8 (NS8), NMFS social scientists around the nation are preparing fishing community profiles that...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table is a lookup table that contains community map repository details and map history information that is shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) legend...
Novozhilova Elena Olegovna
Full Text Available The author dwells upon typical features of noosphere human communities, assessing prospects and hazards of genetic engineering, namely of recombinant DNA technology. Background: Socio-historical ecology ushers in a new approach to studying society in its relation to nature. This interrelation is regarded as a series of socio-ecological transformations ending up in certain types of socio-ecological systems being formed. One of such historical types is represented by a noosphere human community . Results: A number of characteristic features of this kind of community have been outlined, namely: its existence and functioning on global scale, major role of information in making up social wealth, creation of living matter. Conclusion: The noosphere human community is currently the latest stage in the sequence of historical types of socio-ecological systems. Widespread use of information and genetic technology may enable noosphere people to create in future a totally man-made world superseding evolutionary biosphere.
Hedge, R. S.
SUMMARY 51 suicides in a rural community of Northern Karnataka were studied for incidence, age and sex distribution, methods adopted for suicides, and causes of suicides. Suicides in rural area did not show any difference from urban suicide pattern.
Tan, Biying; Zhu, Feida; Qu, Qiang;
Mining user behavior patterns in social networks is of great importance in user behavior analysis, targeted marketing, churn prediction and other applications. However, less effort has been made to study the evolution of user behavior in social communities. In particular, users join and leave...... communities over time. How to automatically detect the online community transitions of individual users is a research problem of immense practical value yet with great technical challenges. In this paper, we propose an algorithm based on the Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle to trace the evolution of...... community transition of individual users, adaptive to the noisy behavior. Experiments on real data sets demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of our proposed method....
Beebe, Timothy J.; Harrison, Patricia A; Anu Sharma; Scott Hedger
This article reports on the development and evaluation of a mail survey measuring population attitudes toward substance use and potential receptivity of communities to different prevention efforts. The Community Readiness Survey was designed through a series of prevention practitioner and consultant meetings and focus groups. Psychometric evaluation revealed five distinct domains: perception of alcohol, tobacco, or other drug problem; support for prevention; permissive attitudes toward teen s...
Community Affairs Office
In July 2010, the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas launched the Community Outlook Survey, a quarterly online survey to assess community and economic development in the Eleventh District of the Federal Reserve System--Texas, northern Louisiana and southern New Mexico. ; This seven-question survey focuses on changes in financial well-being for low- and moderate-income (LMI) populations as well as service providers' capacity to serve the needs of these clients. The Bank uses providers' responses t...
Elizabeth Andress: Partnerships Produce a National Center for Home Food Preservation. Diana Friedman: National 4-H Healthy Lifestyles Grant. H. Wallace Goddard: Big Surprises on the Road to Happiness. Nancy Kershaw: Connecting the 4-H Clothing Project and Community. Jane A. Landis: NEAFCS Living Well Public Service Campaign. Rhea Lanting: The Healthy Diabetes Plate. Phyllis B. Lewis: Product Look-Alikes. Anna Martin: Raising Diabetes Awareness in Latino Communities. Earl Mcalexander: Youth Fi...
What explains the galvanising of communities to participate actively in energy projects? How do groups mobilize to overcome the often formidable barriers highlighted in the existing literature? Drawing on original qualitative research of 100 community energy groups in Scotland, including six in-depth case studies, we explain how effective mobilization occurs and the political dynamics surrounding such mobilization. To capture these dynamics, we adapt theories offered by literature on social movements, with a particular focus on resource mobilization theories. Applying our adapted framework, we identify two particular sets of resources shaping community energy mobilization: (i) structural resources, which refer to the broad political context structuring and constraining opportunities for community energy mobilization; and (ii) symbolic resources—less tangible resources used to galvanise participants. We investigate to what extent our case study groups were able to draw upon and exploit these resources. We find that structural resources can either facilitate or hinder mobilization; what matters is how state resources are exploited and constraints mitigated. The use of symbolic resources was highly effective in aiding mobilization. Each of the groups examined – despite their considerable variation – effectively exploited symbolic resources such as shared identity or desire for strong, self reliant communities. - Highlights: ► Explains how/why community energy groups mobilize and the political dynamics surrounding it. ► Draws on original qualitative research of 100 community energy groups in Scotland. ► Identifies two particular sets of resources (structural and symbolic) and their importance. ► Explains how these resources shape community energy mobilization in Scotland. ► Provides an original application of resource mobilization theory to the field of energy studies.
Hollander, Ed; Hidayat, Dedy Nur; Haenens, Leen
This paper discusses the ways in which efforts aimed at democratising the media system and empowering communities in Indonesia in three discursive periods (the 1998 "Revolution Movement", the "Reform Era" follow-up, and the 2002 Broadcasting Act up till the present time) have ebbed and flowed. The main result of the changing winds so far has been the liberalisation of the market, in line with global media trends. The Government has tried to frustrate the prospects of community media. Hence, t...
Purpose – Crafting the Community is a volunteering project run by the Textiles Department at the University of Huddersfield to promote and deliver textile craft activities to the wider community. The purpose of this paper is to explore how volunteering can be a powerful tool for enriching peoples’lives while deepening students’ textile-related competencies through placing their learning in social and communal settings. Design/methodology/approach – Initially the paper will articulate ...
This presentation discussed low carbon communities that used a variety of sustainable energy technologies to reduce energy consumption and waste. The presentation was given by a company who has adopted a One Planet framework to ensure the development of zero carbon, zero waste, sustainable communities.The Dockside Green project was awarded North America's highest leadership in energy and environmental design (LEED) score. The community includes a waste biomass plant and an on-site wastewater treatment plant. Excess heat produced by the community's greenhouse gas (GHG) neutral biomass district heating system is sold to neighbouring communities. The BedZED project in the United Kingdom uses a high-density format to support a community living and workspace environment that uses rainwater harvesting, passive solar heating, high performance envelopes, and green roofs. The site includes 40 electric car charging stations. A combined heat and power (CHP) biomass plant provides electricity and hot water to all buildings. Neighbourhood-scale sustainable development is expected to have a significant impact on the ecological footprint of North American cities. Carbon neutral projects in Canada were also listed. tabs., figs.
An original goal of Chicano Studies was to promote improvement of social and economic conditions in the community, with Chicana and Chicano scholars at the forefront of community struggles. Within this perspective, research is problem-based and part of the community action process. Chicano community groups want to work with researchers and…
Tulsa Community Coll., OK.
In 1996, Oklahoma's Tulsa Community College (TCC) participated in the American Association of Community Colleges' Exploring America's Communities project, which works to strengthen the teaching and learning of American history, literature, and culture at U.S. community colleges. TCC's primary goals were to promote professional development, to…
This exploratory study conducted in heavily indigenous communities was undertaken to investigate entrepreneurial perceptions of community (sense of place, image, and positioning) and social capital (reciprocity, shared vision, and density of networks) resources present in rural communities, and the sponsorship involvement of the entrepreneurs in community activities. The uniqueness of the study was its focus on indigenous communities with a higher than state average Native-American population...
Crocombe, N. G.
Community education is concerned with the development of the individual and the development of the community to improve the quality of life. Community colleges act as catalysts by coordinating citizen and agency participation and community resources to improve educational opportunities for all. (SK)
Chakraborty, Tanmoy; Ganguly, Niloy; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Mukherjee, Animesh
Identifying community structure is a fundamental problem in network analysis. Most community detection algorithms are based on optimizing a combinatorial parameter, for example modularity. This optimization is generally NP-hard, thus merely changing the vertex order can alter their assignments to the community. However, there has been very less study on how vertex ordering influences the results of the community detection algorithms. Here we identify and study the properties of invariant groups of vertices (constant communities) whose assignment to communities are, quite remarkably, not affected by vertex ordering. The percentage of constant communities can vary across different applications and based on empirical results we propose metrics to evaluate these communities. Using constant communities as a pre-processing step, one can significantly reduce the variation of the results. Finally, we present a case study on phoneme network and illustrate that constant communities, quite strikingly, form the core func...
V.V.Kulkarni; Niyati Vaishnav
The term Community Organization and locality development are interrelated and inter dependent. Unless community is organized community development is not possible. Locality development is the part and parcel of community development. In this paper conceptual clarity about locality development and its relationship with community organization is explained. The need of locality development its various stages, processes and implications to the social development is explained in detail. How the pr...
Bowen, Jonathan P.
Online communities have increased in size and importance dramatically over the last decade. The fact that many communities are online means that it is possible to extract information about these communities and the connections between their members much more easily using software tools, despite their potentially very large size. The links between members of the community can be presented visually and often this can make patterns in the structure of sub-communities immediately obvious. The lin...
Gale, Chris; Jacob, Mark
Active community involvement programs within your organization allow the engineering community to serve one another while promoting a positive work environment and strengthening the communities that are being served. Various community involvement programs will be presented that provide positive mentoring skills and/or public service to various organizations. Ongoing community involvement programs in two large organizations will be presented. Time will be allowed for questions and further dial...
The Bachelor Thesis "Marketing of the online communities" is devoted to online virtual communities, one of the phenomena of the current Internet. Goal of this thesis is to determine the factors that predispose the successful operation of online communities. The thesis defines the essentials features of social media, characterized by online communities and their role in marketing. It deals with strategic and tactical aspects of building and maintaining successful online communities. Based on t...
Nørskov, Sladjana V.; Rask, Morten
This paper addresses the application of observation to online settings with a special focus on observer roles. It draws on a study of online observation of a virtual community, i.e. an open source software (OSS) community. The paper examines general and specific advantages and disadvantages of the...... observer roles in online settings by relating these roles to the same roles assumed in offline settings. The study suggests that under the right circumstances online and offline observation may benefit from being combined as they complement each other well. Quality issues and factors important to elicit...... trustworthy observational data from online study settings, such as OSS communities, are discussed. A proposition is made concerning how threats to credibility and transferability in relation to online observation (i.e. lack of richness and detail, risk of misunderstandings) can be diminished, while...
Kourosh Holakouie Naieni
Full Text Available Community assessment is one of the core competencies for public health professionals; mainly because it gives them a better understanding of the strengths and drawbacks of their jurisdictions. We planned to recognize an appropriate model that provides a conceptual framework for the Iranian community.This study was conducted in Tehran, during 2009-2010 and consisted of two parts: a review of the literature and qualitative interview with selected experts as well as focus group discussion with health field staff. These steps were done to develop a conceptual framework: planning for a steering committee, forming a working committee, re-viewing community assessment models and projects, preparing the proposed model draft, in-depth interview and focused group discussions with national experts, finalizing the draft, and preparing the final model.Three different models published and applied routinely in different contexts. The 2008 North Carolina Community Assessment model was used as a reference. Ten national and 18 international projects were compared to the reference and one and six projects were completely compatible with this model, respectively.Our final proposed model takes communities through eight steps to complete a collaborative community assessment: form a community assessment team, solicit community participation and gain inter-sectoral collaboration, establish a working committee, empower the community, collect and analyze community's primary and secondary statistics, solicit community input to select health priorities, evaluate the community assessment and develop the community assessment document, an develop the community action plans.
Wikipedia, Flickr, You Tube, Facebook, LinkedIn are all examples of large community-built databases, although with quite diverse purposes and collaboration patterns. Their usage and dissemination will further grow introducing e.g. new semantics, personalization, or interactive media. Pardede delivers the first comprehensive research reference on community-built databases. The contributions discuss various technical and social aspects of research in and development in areas like in Web science, social networks, and collaborative information systems. Pardede delivers the first comprehensive rese
Fredrickson, Jim K.
In synthetic ecology, a nascent offshoot of synthetic biology, scientists aim to design and construct microbial communities with desirable properties. Such mixed populations of microorganisms can simultaneously perform otherwise incompatible functions. Compared with individual organisms, they can also better resist losses in function as a result of environmental perturbation or invasion by other species. Synthetic ecology may thus be a promising approach for developing robust, stable biotechnological processes, such as the conversion of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. However, achieving this will require detailed knowledge of the principles that guide the structure and function of microbial communities.
divergent approach to the ontology of groups put forward by Dietrich von Hildebrand in his book on the Metaphysics of Community. First, von Hildebrand argues that there are different kinds of social groups and that, accordingly, individuals can be ‘together’ in radically different ways. In particular, he...... communities (understood as a specific kind of group), he suggests a – within social ontology so far relatively unexplored – principle of constitution: instead of looking for the internal and subjective conditions that regulate the group’s constitution, he rather stresses an external one, i.e., the “virtus...
Heard through the ears of the Canadian composer and music teacher R. Murray Schafer the ideal auditory community had the shape of a village. Schafer’s work with the World Soundscape Project in the 70s represent an attempt to interpret contemporary environments through musical and auditory...... of sound as an active component in shaping urban environments. As urban conditions spreads globally, new scales, shapes and forms of communities appear and call for new distinctions and models in the study and representation of sonic environments. Particularly so, since urban environments...
Fernandez, Ana S.; Hashsham, Syed A.; Dollhopf, Sherry L.; Raskin, Lutgarde; Glagoleva, Olga; Dazzo, Frank B.; Hickey, Robert F.; Criddle, Craig S.; Tiedje, James M.
Methanogenic bioreactor communities were used as model ecosystems to evaluate the relationship between functional stability and community structure. Replicated methanogenic bioreactor communities with two different community structures were established. The effect of a substrate loading shock on population dynamics in each microbial community was examined by using morphological analysis, small-subunit (SSU) rRNA oligonucleotide probes, amplified ribosomal DNA (rDNA) restriction analysis (ARDR...
Sweet, Harold W.
This brief presentation describes public relations projects of Dubuque schools to popularize athletics. Among the activities cited which are used to promote community interest in sports events are public school-private school informal matches, talks, swim-a-thons, travel and adventure nights, class banquets with popular speakers, booster clubs,…
S. K. Farber
Full Text Available Structuring forest communities is considered as a pre-studying procedure. The paper defines the fundamental structuring terms and describes the theory behind it. Factors hampering forest typology development are discussed. The areas of forest typology promising regarding sustainable and multi-purposed forest management are outlined.
In the city of San Jose, more than half of all public school students tested are not proficient in their grade-level skills. This article discusses how school, civic and community leaders have joined forces with the goal of eliminating the achievement gap in San Jose by 2020. This wide and highly inclusive collaboration is made possible by an…
Елена Олеговна Новожилова
Full Text Available The author dwells upon typical features of noosphere human communities, assessing prospects and hazards of genetic engineering, namely of recombinant DNA technology.Background: Socio-historical ecology ushers in a new approach to studying society in its relation to nature. This interrelation is regarded as a series of socio-ecological transformations ending up in certain types of socio-ecological systems being formed. One of such historical types is represented by a noosphere human community .Results: A number of characteristic features of this kind of community have been outlined, namely: its existence and functioning on global scale, major role of information in making up social wealth, creation of living matter.Conclusion: The noosphere human community is currently the latest stage in the sequence of historical types of socio-ecological systems. Widespread use of information and genetic technology may enable noosphere people to create in future a totally man-made world superseding evolutionary biosphere.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-30
A report on the definition, history, production, membership and local benefits of community supported agriculture. Editor's note: the following article was written as a class assignment for Dr. Greg Welbaum's Vegetable Production course at Virginia Tech. Emily provides some good history and information on the CSA marketing option for specialty crop growers." "Originally printed in Virginia Vegetable, Small Fruit and Specialty Crops, June 2002
The modern science of networks has brought significant advances to our understanding of complex systems. One of the most relevant features of graphs representing real systems is community structure, or clustering, i.e. the organization of vertices in clusters, with many edges joining vertices of the same cluster and comparatively few edges joining vertices of different clusters. Such clusters, or communities, can be considered as fairly independent compartments of a graph, playing a similar role like, e.g., the tissues or the organs in the human body. Detecting communities is of great importance in sociology, biology and computer science, disciplines where systems are often represented as graphs. This problem is very hard and not yet satisfactorily solved, despite the huge effort of a large interdisciplinary community of scientists working on it over the past few years. We will attempt a thorough exposition of the topic, from the definition of the main elements of the problem, to the presentation of most methods developed, with a special focus on techniques designed by statistical physicists, from the discussion of crucial issues like the significance of clustering and how methods should be tested and compared against each other, to the description of applications to real networks.
Nettles, Saundra Murray
Develops a framework for promoting effective coaching, in the sense of encouraging children's achievement, in community settings for children of different ages. Effective coaches perform the following tasks: (1) teach; (2) assess performance; (3) structure the learning environment; and (4) provide social support. (SLD)
Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.
The number of households hooked up to cable television or community antenna television (CATV) is expanding rapidly, and Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has been developing regulations since 1962 to guide the growth of the industry. By 1965 the FCC had claimed jurisdiction over all CATV systems in the U. S. This jurisdiction was challenged…
Aron, William S.; And Others
Focusing on the drug addiction problem and its antecedent conditions in a Chicano population, the article examines several therapeutic interventions suggested by these conditions and indicates how they might be incorporated into a drug addiction Therapeutic Community treatment program designed to meet the needs of Chicano drug addicts. (Author/NQ)
Brix, Jacob; Sejer Jakobsen, Henning; Jordansen, Inger
to workshops uden fysisk tilstedeværelse af deltagerne med internettet som kommunikationskanal (online user communities via Skype & blogs). Empirien stammer fra BDI projektet Handivision1, hvor målgruppen og brugergruppen primært har været personer med fysiske funktionsnedsættelser. Vores analyse...
Devereux, Richard. 2005. Seagrass Rhizosphere Microbial Communities. In: Interactions Between Macro- and Microorganisms in Marine Sediments. E. Kristense, J.E. Kostka and R.H. Haese, Editors. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC. p199-216. (ERL,GB 1213). Seagrasses ...
... breathing (respiratory) condition in which there is an infection of the lung. This article covers community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This type of pneumonia is found in persons who have not recently been in the hospital or another health care facility such as a ...
This document presents the findings of the Office of the State Comptroller of New York regarding the audit of the records and procedures used in administering the Tuition Assistance Program (TAP) and Supplemental Tuition Assistance Program (STAP) at Erie Community College. TAP is an entitlement program designed to provide tuition aid to eligible…
Minbaeva, Dana; Hotho, Jasper; Muratbekova-Touron, Maral;
relations and interactions with community members can act as social cues that induce and expose individuals to community logics. We subsequently propose that properties of these relations – immediacy and relatedness - will affect individual response strategies towards community logics. We test these ideas......The paper aims at investigating how in pluralistic societies, such as emerging economies and countries in transition, organizational decision-makers respond to pressures of community logics in non-community settings, such as the work place. We theorize that in non-community settings, social...
The Community Radiation Monitoring Program (CRMP) is a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE); the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); the Desert Research Institute (DRI), a division of the University and Community College System of Nevada and the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Utah (UNEL). The twelfth year of the program began in the fall of 1991, and the work continues as an integral part of the DOE-sponsored long-term offsite radiological monitoring effort that has been conducted by EPA and its predecessors since the inception of nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The program began as an outgrowth of activities that occurred during the Three Mile Island incident in 1979. The local interest and public participation that took place there were thought to be transferrable to the situation at the NTS, so, with adaptations, that methodology was implemented for this program. The CRMP began by enhancing and centralizing environmental monitoring and sampling equipment at 15 communities in the existing EPA monitoring network, and has since expanded to 19 locations in Nevada, Utah and California. The primary objectives of this program are still to increase the understanding by the people who live in the area surrounding the NTS of the activities for which DOE is responsible, to enhance the performance of radiological sampling and monitoring, and to inform all concerned of the results of these efforts. One of the primary methods used to improve the communication link with people in the potentially impacted area has been the hiring and training of local citizens as station managers and program representatives in those selected communities in the offsite area. These managers, active science teachers wherever possible, have succeeded, through their training, experience, community standing, and effort, in becoming a very visible, able and valuable asset in this link
Roč. 55, č. 2 (2015), s. 205-226. ISSN 0038-0199 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : community satisfaction * rural communities * contextual effects Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 1.306, year: 2014
Zhao, Ming; Lü, Jinhu; Lai, Choy Heng
In this paper the effects of external links on the synchronization performance of community networks, especially on the competition between individual community and the whole network, are studied in detail. The study is organized from two aspects: the number or portion of external links and the connecting strategy of external links between different communities. It is found that increasing the number of external links will enhance the global synchronizability but degrade the ynchronization performance of individual community before some critical point. After that the individual community will synchronize better and better as part of the whole network because the community structure is not so prominent. Among various connection strategies, connecting nodes belonging to different communities randomly rather than connecting nodes with larger degrees is the most efficient way to enhance global synchronization of the network. However, a preferential connection scheme linking most of the hubs from the communities w...
Parker, Donna R; Assaf, Annlouise R
Review of the community-based CVD intervention programs suggests that a number of components have been successful using varying methods and materials for CVD risk reduction. It should be noted, however, that in multi-intervention programs it is often difficult to determine which components of the intervention were responsible for the overall success of the study. The community-based approach to CVD prevention is generalizable, cost-effective (because of the use of mass communication methods), and has the potential for modifying the environment and influencing health policies. Based on the experiences and successes of a number of community projects, recommendations have been proposed for developing future programs. Although they are not totally comprehensive, it has been suggested that a community-based intervention program should consider the following recommendations: 1) An understanding of the community: the needs and priorities of the community should be assessed, and close collaboration with individuals from the community, including community leaders, opinion leaders, community health care providers, and community organizations from various sectors of the community, should be consulted. Efforts should be focused on underserved and vulnerable populations. 2) Inclusion of community activities: these activities should be integrated within the context of the community environment, including primary health care services, voluntary organizations, grocery stores, restaurants, work sites, schools, and local media. 3) Inclusion mass media messages: the mass media can provide information and reinforcement of the behavior change. 4) Develop cost-effective interventions to assure that the community is exposed to an effective dose of the intervention. 5) Work with community organizations to help change social and physical environments to make them more conducive to health and healthy life-styles changes. 6) Develop a reliable monitoring and evaluation system: monitor the
Linton, Jayme N.
This qualitative interpretive case study used Wenger's (1998) communities of practice (CoP) framework to analyze how the electronic learning community (eLC) process at an established state virtual high school operated like a community of practice. Components of the eLC process were analyzed according to elements of the CoP framework, which…
Chaskin, Robert J.
This article explores the idea of community as it relates to the concept of resilience. It focuses on community both as context (local environments providing a set of risk and protective factors that have an influence on the well-being of community members) and as collective actors that can exhibit resilience in themselves by organizing and acting…
The Council of Graduate Schools' description of the faculty role differentiates several kinds of faculty service: "Service in the context of academia generally refers to service to the institution, the external community, and the larger academic community." Within these categories, the faculty role toward the external community has taken on a new…
Sekekhuneland, which is in the northern Transvaal in South Africa, has suffered from a 2-year drought which has led to a shortage of basic food in the villages and a 50-60% incidence of kwashiorkor among the village children. The natural resources of the area have been eliminated by over population and its attendant deforestation, land erosion, and wildlife decimation. The situation has been exacerbated by a political climate rife with corruption and incompetence. The most pressing problem is a shortage of water which prevents agricultural development and limits food production. Some dangerous traditional beliefs persist, such as believing that sickness is caused by curses which modern medicine cannot affect. In response to this situation, Hlatlolanang ("we share the burden"), a community-based development program has been put into place. The director of the center, Rose Mazibuko, is a nurse who believes that primary health care in its broadest sense is a human right. This involves not only the health sector but also agriculture, industrial development, education, housing, and public works. The first problem tackled was kwashiorkor. Other groups had failed to reduce the incidence of the condition in the area. Hlatlolanang recognized that mothers of affected children were being stigmatized by hospital personnel. Thus, the mothers would often go to the hospital only as a last resort and would avoid the training necessary to help their children. The community requested that Hlatlolanang become a training center where all members of the community could learn how to combat kwashiorkor and where inappropriate attitudes could undergo the necessary changes. Thus, the Hlatlolanang Health and Education Center was born with funding from the Kaiser Family Foundation, an architect who participated in the development workshop and knew exactly what the community wanted, an elected planning committee, and 4 local builders. People were carefully screened and hired to run the center
Full Text Available Four teachers (three classroom teachers and a teacher-librarian explain how their school applied a professional learning community framework to its operational practices. They discuss the process, the benefits, and the challenges of professional learning communities.
Arenas, Alex; Danon, Leon; Diaz-Guilera, Albert; Gleiser, Pablo M.; Guimera, Roger
We present an empirical study of different social networks obtained from digital repositories. Our analysis reveals the community structure and provides a useful visualising technique. We investigate the scaling properties of the community size distribution, and that find all the networks exhibit power law scaling in the community size distributions with exponent either -0.5 or -1. Finally we find that the networks' community structure is topologically self-similar using the Horton-Strahler i...
Collinson, M.; Collinson, D L
This working paper highlights the significance of multiple communities as crucial conditions, processes and consequences of FE leadership. Our research suggests that in (almost) all their activities FE colleges engage communities. They make important, but frequently under-estimated contributions to the local community and economy. This is the case within colleges (e.g. students and employees), between colleges and their multiple-partners (e.g. in the local community and economy) and between d...
Zhang, Yu; Park, Jaeok; van der Schaar, Mihaela
Sustaining cooperation among self-interested agents is critical for the proliferation of emerging online social communities, such as online communities formed through social networking services. Providing incentives for cooperation in social communities is particularly challenging because of their unique features: a large population of anonymous agents interacting infrequently, having asymmetric interests, and dynamically joining and leaving the community; operation errors; and low-cost reput...
Jonathan G. Cooper
Full Text Available University-Community Partnerships have been recognized as a valuable contribution to both the academic community and our cities and towns. In the words of Henry Cisneros, former U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Design secretary, “The long-term futures of both the city and the university in this country are so intertwined that one cannot—or perhaps will not—survive without the other.” Increasingly, colleges and university are bringing their time, energy and resources to bear on local problems. They are using their other physical, financial and intellectual capital to facilitate economic development, provide social services, technical assistance and create opportunities for applied research.
Yang, Shu-Lung; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Daley, Dennis
The "Prevention, Family, and Community" session was chaired by Dr. Joseph Jror-Serk Cheng, who is an expert in community psychiatry and mental health policy and is superintendent of the Bali Psychiatric Center in Taipei. Dr. Shu-Lung Yang, dean of Student Affairs and Professor/Director of the Crime Research Center, National Chung Cheng University in Taiwan, served as the discussant. The two presenters were Dr. Louise Ann Rohrbach, who presented on "Prevention of Alcohol and other Drug Abuse: Science, Practice, Critical Issues, and Future Direction," and Dr. Dennis Daley, who spoke on "Family and Social Aspects of Drug Abuse: Implications for Treatment and Recovery." Dr. Rohrbach is associate professor of Preventive Medicine and director of the Master of Public Health (MPH) program at the University of Southern California (USC) Keck School of Medicine. Dr. Daley is professor of psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine in Pennsylvania. PMID:25264416
Ziad D. Baghdadi
Establishing learning communities early in online education helps bridge distances and differences between physical and virtual worlds of teaching and learning. This article sheds light on the importance of learning communities, and gives readers advices for creating communities that connect, engage, and inspire. Several tools for assessment of learning are provided to appraise online learning communities’ benefits to learners at all levels.
Hoogstra, M.A.; Verbij, E.E.M.
Verslag van de conferentie 'Community Forestry - a change for the better' (7-9 december 1999, Londen). De nadruk lag op de sociale aspecten van community forestry: gezondheid, verbondenheid met het bos, samenwerking, rol van de overheid. Verder aandacht voor community forestry projecten in Engeland
As museum professionals conceptualize community building, they must now consider the virtual realm. Websites in and of themselves will not generate a community, as it takes sustained communication and interaction by staff to encourage growth. Online communities are complex forces that bring about systematic dualities that in turn stimulate…
Veen, E.J.; Bock, B.B.; Berg, Van den W.; Visser, A.J.; Wiskerke, J.S.C.
Community gardens vary in several ways: they are cultivated by different kinds of communities in various locations, entail individual or communal plots and the extent of active participation (e.g. gardening) differs. In this paper, we study seven community gardens with varying organisational desi
... that be an independent living community, assisted living community or nursing home. However, there are numerous signs that a ... Download the Guide to Choosing an Assisted Living Community checklist. ... living, assisted living, nursing homes, etc.-it's important to assess your or ...
This is a photograph of a community tree nursery, Meru, Kenya. In this nursery a community group has started a nursery to provide seedlings for their own forest reforestation projects as well as for sale. This shows that use of common pool resources and shows community forestry activities that also do private tree planting on homesteads.
Li, Angsheng; Li, Jiankou; Pan, Yicheng
Understanding and detecting natural communities in networks have been a fundamental challenge in networks, and in science generally. Recently, we proposed a hypothesis that homophyly/kinship is the principle of natural communities based on real network experiments, proposed a model of networks to explore the principle of natural selection in nature evolving, and proposed the measure of structure entropy of networks. Here we proposed a community finding algorithm by our measure of structure entropy of networks. We found that our community finding algorithm exactly identifies almost all natural communities of networks generated by natural selection, if any, and that the algorithm exactly identifies or precisely approximates almost all the communities planted in the networks of the existing models. We verified that our algorithm identifies or very well approximates the ground-truth communities of some real world networks, if the ground-truth communities are semantically well-defined, that our algorithm naturally finds the balanced communities, and that the communities found by our algorithm may have larger modularity than that by the algorithms based on modularity, for some networks. Our algorithm provides for the first time an approach to detecting and analyzing natural or true communities in real world networks. Our results demonstrate that structure entropy minimization is the principle of detecting the natural or true communities in large-scale networks.
In accordance with European efforts related to Critical Information Infrastructure Protection, in Hungary a special department called LRL-IBEK has been formed which is designated under the Disaster Management. While specific security issues of commercial applications are well understood and regulated by widely applied standards, increasing share of information systems are developed partly or entirely in a different way, by the community. In this paper different issues of the open development ...
Winschiers-Goagoses, Naska; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Rodil, Kasper;
The authors present community drawing as meaningful representations to inform locally valid technology design. They investigate recognition within and across cultural borders, thereby exposing variances of localities. The study contributes to the still scarce body of empirical work on culturally...... meaningful development of visual representations and recognition, as part of a longitudinal research project in which we co-design a 3D visualization for a specific Namibian pilot site....
Viele Datensätze können als Graphen aufgefasst werden, d.h. als Elemente (Knoten) und binäre Verbindungen zwischen ihnen (Kanten). Unter dem Begriff der "Complex Network Analysis" sammeln sich eine ganze Reihe von Verfahren, die die Untersuchung von Datensätzen allein aufgrund solcher struktureller Eigenschaften erlauben. "Community Detection" als Untergebiet beschäftigt sich mit der Identifikation besonders stark vernetzter Teilgraphen. Über den Nutzen hinaus, den eine Gruppierung verwandter...
Cerri, Stefano A.
International audience The keynote's goal is to reflect on emergent opportunities for human Discovery (in science), Creativity (in art & industry), and Learning (in education) as processes often occurring serendipitously in individuals and in communities empowered by dynamic Web connections in the global village. These reflections seem to fit best with the mandate of the CBIE Conference: sustainable education. Having been influenced by the pioneering work of the late ecologist Francesco Di...
Gillani, Nabeel; Eynon, Rebecca; Osborne, Michael; Hjorth, Isis; Roberts, Stephen
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) bring together thousands of people from different geographies and demographic backgrounds -- but to date, little is known about how they learn or communicate. We introduce a new content-analysed MOOC dataset and use Bayesian Non-negative Matrix Factorization (BNMF) to extract communities of learners based on the nature of their online forum posts. We see that BNMF yields a superior probabilistic generative model for online discussions when compared to other...
Braungart, S. [Petro-Canada, Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Ripley, M. [Perspectives MGM Inc. (Canada)
In this document, Petro-Canada reports to the stakeholders on non-financial issues that have an impact on the communities in which the company operates. It is the first such annual report. The document touches environmental performance measures, the company's commitment and involvement in the various communities where it has a presence, health and safety, high-performance work environment for the employees, as well as business principles that guide the making of decisions. Some basic information concerning Petro-Canada is presented, followed by an overview of the corporate responsibility. The next section of the report is concerned with the environment. It is further divided into categories such as energy, air quality, water quality, regulatory compliance, environmental investments, waste management, and product quality. The section devoted to employee well-being addresses the work environment, and health and safety. The values and ethical decision-making are discussed in the next section, including the code of business conduct, corporate values, criteria for ethical decision-making, relationship with suppliers and business associates, community investment. The major growth areas, like Newfoundland, Northern Alberta, the Mackenzie Delta all benefit from a special sub-section that brushes on the major accomplishments. The report concludes by a statement concerning the contribution made by Petro-Canada to the Canadian economy. figs.
Going into the next millennium do we see nuclear energy? Yes we will see an expanding nuclear sector in the modem community. he modem community that cares for people, health and environment needs nuclear. Energy saves lives. Electricity is efficient use of energy. Energy will be the key to a sustainable society, energy is life. Nuclear energy protects the environment. Nuclear is an integral part of the modern community caring for people, health and environment. The dynamics of the public opinion-forming process and its effects on the nuclear industry are a challenge of the global nuclear industry. Current communications strategy and its consequences are on of the key issues. The nuclear industry must be perceived in certain ways in order to move towards achieving the vision and avoiding the harassment scenario. Each perception goal does not bear the same function within the communications process. As the nuclear industry is oe of the keys to a sustainable society, it must achieve legitimacy in its capacity as an interesting agenda-setter for tackling problems and as an expert. We have to build our communication activities on an open and honest attitude and we have to establish trust and confidence. The nuclear industry must also prove its ability and performance. If this could be achieved there will be an option for the future
In this document, Petro-Canada reports to the stakeholders on non-financial issues that have an impact on the communities in which the company operates. It is the first such annual report. The document touches environmental performance measures, the company's commitment and involvement in the various communities where it has a presence, health and safety, high-performance work environment for the employees, as well as business principles that guide the making of decisions. Some basic information concerning Petro-Canada is presented, followed by an overview of the corporate responsibility. The next section of the report is concerned with the environment. It is further divided into categories such as energy, air quality, water quality, regulatory compliance, environmental investments, waste management, and product quality. The section devoted to employee well-being addresses the work environment, and health and safety. The values and ethical decision-making are discussed in the next section, including the code of business conduct, corporate values, criteria for ethical decision-making, relationship with suppliers and business associates, community investment. The major growth areas, like Newfoundland, Northern Alberta, the Mackenzie Delta all benefit from a special sub-section that brushes on the major accomplishments. The report concludes by a statement concerning the contribution made by Petro-Canada to the Canadian economy. figs
The Community Radiation Monitoring Program began its ninth year in the summer of 1989, continuing as an essential portion of the Environmental Protection Agency's long-standing off-site monitoring effort. It is a cooperative venture between the Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the University of Utah (U of U), and the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the University of Nevada System. The objectives of the program include enhancing and augmenting the collection of environmental radiation data at selected sites around the Nevada Test Site (NTS), increasing public awareness of that effort, and involving, in as many ways as possible, the residents of the off-site area in these and other areas related to testing nuclear weapons. This understanding and improved communication is fostered by hiring residents of the communities where the monitoring stations are located as program representatives, presenting public education forums in those and other communities, disseminating information on radiation monitoring and related subjects, and developing and maintaining contacts with local citizens and elected officials in the off-site areas. 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs
Sliwa, Sarah; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Clark, Valerie; Junot, Bridgid; Nahar, Elizabeth; Nelson, Miriam E; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Collins, Jessica; Edwards, Ruth; Hyatt, Raymond R
To build on a growing interest in community-based obesity prevention programs, methods are needed for matching intervention strategies to local needs and assets. We used the Community Readiness Model (CRM), a structured interview guide and scoring system, to assess community readiness to act on childhood obesity prevention, furthering a replication study of a successful intervention. Using the CRM protocol, we conducted interviews with 4 stakeholders in each of 10 communities of similar size,...
Sun, Peng Gang
Community detection gives us a simple way to understand complex networks' structures. However, there is an imbalance problem in community detection. This paper first introduces the imbalance problem and then proposes a new measure to alleviate the imbalance problem. In addition, we study two variants of the measure and further analyze the resolution scale of community detection. Finally, we compare our approach with some state of the art methods on random networks as well as real-world networks for community detection. Both the theoretical analysis and the experimental results show that our approach achieves better performance for community detection. We also find that our approach tends to separate densely connected subgroups preferentially.
Langhout, Regina Day; Rappaport, Julian; Simmons, Doretha
Culturally relevant, ongoing project-based learning was facilitated in a predominantly African American urban elementary school via a community garden project. The project involved teachers, students, university members, and community members. This article evaluates the project through two classroom-community collaboration models, noting common…
Full Text Available The paper explores the implications of mobility within educational communities for sharing and reuse of educational resources. The study begins by exploring individuals’ existing strategies for sharing and reusing educational resources within localised and distributed communities, with particular emphasis on the impact of geographic location on these strategies. The results indicate that the geographic distribution of communities has little impact on individuals’ strategies for resource management, since many individuals are communicating via technology tools with colleagues within a localised setting. The study points to few major differences in the ways in which individuals within the localised and distributed communities store, share and collaborate around educational resources. Moving beyond the view of individuals being statically involved in one or two communities, mobility across communities, roles and geographic location are formulated and illustrated through eight scenarios. The effects of mobility across these scenarios are outlined and a framework for future research into mobility and resource sharing within communities discussed.
Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Jemal, Alexis; Benoit, Ellen
Theoretical approaches traditionally applied in mental health and criminal justice interventions fail to address the historical and structural context that partially explains health disparities. Community Wise was developed to address this gap. It is a 12week group intervention informed by Critical Consciousness Theory and designed to prevent substance abuse, related health risk behaviors, psychological distress, and reoffending among individuals with a history of incarceration and substance abuse. This paper reports findings from the first implementation and pilot evaluation of Community Wise in two community-based organizations. This pre-posttest evaluation pilot-tested Community Wise and used findings to improve the intervention. Twenty-six participants completed a phone and clinical screening, baseline, 6- and 12-week follow-ups, and a focus group at the end of the intervention. Measures assessed participants' demographic information, psychological distress, substance use, criminal offending, HIV risk behaviors, community cohesion, community support, civic engagement, critical consciousness, ethnic identification, group cohesion, client satisfaction, and acquired treatment skills. Research methods were found to be feasible and useful in assessing the intervention. Results indicated that while Community Wise is a promising intervention, several changes need to be made in order to enhance the intervention. Community Wise is a new approach where oppressed individuals join in critical dialogue, tap into existing community resources, and devise, implement and evaluate their own community solutions to structural barriers. PMID:24630737
Full Text Available The reception of Benedict Anderson’s ideas was very fruitful in many disciplines, and his work provided key concepts that can now throw a clarifying light in some blurry matters. The expression “imagined community” has known a remarkable proliferation, a situation that led to both the formation of a research direction and to the perpetuation of a cliché. In this respect, my article pointed out some suggestive characteristics of virtual communities, explaining why the imagined community is a valuable subject for the theorists of new media. The impossibility to know in person all the members of a big community is just one factor that determines its imagined face. Moreover, the set of values and inner presuppositions that guide the members are important bricks in the construction of community. In my opinion, the virtual community is imagined as a multi-layered experience (technological, conversational, relational etc.. The dynamic of a virtual community contains the tension amongst these layers and the degree of its imagined side depends on multiple factors. In order to illustrate these aspects, I gave a brief example by analysing a Romanian virtual community, using the triad common language – temporality – high centers. In spite of its limitations, the perspectives offered by this concept are still useful for understanding the nature of online communities. Thus, the imagined community is a valuable set of beliefs and practices that underlie and bolster the effective meaning and functioning of the virtual communities.
Rice, J A
Hospitals face a paradigm shift: from planning service delivery to population-based community health planning. Comprehensive community health planning is a two-step process: assessment and action, in that order. Assessment identifies community problems and resources; action follows planning, which determines which of those problems should be addressed with which resources. This paper provides an overview of the community assessment process. The first challenge in launching a community health initiative is to identify and recruit partners drawn from the ranks of prominent community organizations, such as school boards, public health agencies, and elected officials. The best enlistment strategies are those that empower persons outside the hospital to take visible control. Defining the community is the first step in analyzing the community. It is important that everyone involved in the assessment process agree on the definition, which should take in those characteristics that make the community unique, including its social systems, environmental factors, and demographics. The next step in the process is developing a community health profile, a set of key community indicators or measures that will help you set priorities, document successes and failures, and monitor trends. There are a number of models available to consult in developing indicators, whether traditional, medically oriented determinants of health or broader parameters, such as housing and public safety. Criteria for selecting indicators include validity, stability and reliability, and responsiveness. Most indicators will be developed using secondary, or already existing, sources of data, such as census data, Medicare and Medicaid files, police records, and hospital admission and exit records. Conducting the community assessment involves putting together a list of problems to be solved and a list of available resources, both of which can be compiled using the same four-step process of gathering and
Full Text Available In accordance with European efforts related to Critical Information Infrastructure Protection, in Hungary a special department called LRL-IBEK has been formed which is designated under the Disaster Management. While specific security issues of commercial applications are well understood and regulated by widely applied standards, increasing share of information systems are developed partly or entirely in a different way, by the community. In this paper different issues of the open development style will be discussed regarding the high requirements of Critical Information Infrastructures, and possible countermeasures will be suggested for the identified problems.
MARIA JOSE CIFUENTES CERVANTES
@@ The Republic Of Ecuador is located in the west coast of South America.It has a total area of 256.370 km2 and a population of approximately 14 million.Spanish is considered as the official language.The country is subdivided into 24 provinces with the capital city being Quito and the other major city being Guayaquil.Since the year 2000 US Dollar had been the official currency.Approximately 50,000 people from China live now in Ecuador.Although the Chinese community in Ecuador is not as large as those in Brazil and Peru, it has a strong economic and social weight in the country.
Kjærgård, Jonas Ross
The article presents the argument that in order to have human rights in the years of the French Revolution it was necessary to be and act in accordance with an ambiguous concept of the natural. While the idea of the natural or of human nature could be an inclusive and universal one, it could also...... be used in a particularistic and excluding way which was the case in the legislation of Maximilien de Robespierre’s Terror Regime. Situated somewhere between inclusion in and exclusion from the community of rights, the playwright and political activist Olympe de Gouges sought to propagate an...
This paper examines the lessons for the New Deal era of some older strands in UK and European labour market measures; the Community Programme of the 1980s and the experience of â€œentreprises d'insertion in France, Spain and the Netherlands. It considers whether the institutional infrastructure of the New Deal is appropriate for the realisation of "intermediate labour marketsâ€. This raises some further questions; whether ILMs are about creating employment or merely redistributing it, and whe...
Yang, Shu-Lung; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; DALEY, DENNIS
The “Prevention, Family, and Community” session was chaired by Dr. Joseph Jror-Serk Cheng, who is an expert in community psychiatry and mental health policy and is superintendent of the Bali Psychiatric Center in Taipei. Dr. Shu-Lung Yang, dean of Student Affairs and Professor/Director of the Crime Research Center, National Chung Cheng University in Taiwan, served as the discussant. The two presenters were Dr. Louise Ann Rohrbach, who presented on “Prevention of Alcohol and other Drug Abuse: ...
Carroll, John M.
A university-community partnership to develop strategies for sustainable IT learning in local non-profit organizations initiated the Central Pennsylvania Community Information Technology Workshop series in 2003. The original goal was narrow and modest: To plan a set of participatory action research projects in which Penn State faculty and students would work with members of Centre County (Pennsylvania) non-profit community groups to develop IT infrastructures and applications. Through four ye...
Ana Neto; Teresa Maia; Pilar Santos Pinto
Introduction: The constant transformation of communities and its relationship with mental illness has been studied and debated for the past decades, although it is still not clear how it has been incorporated in clinical practice.Aims: The authors propose to review the relevance to Psychiatry, especially Community Psychiatry, of understanding communities as well as the methodologies and conceptual frameworks that allow that approach.Methods: Selected and critical review of the literature...
Landry, Craig; Li, Jingyuan
Storm force flooding continues to be a major concern in the hurricane season and causes considerable loss to the coastal communities. National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) provides recovery resources for the flood disaster and dissuades uneconomic uses from locating in flood hazard area. In order to motivate flood insurance purchase and promote increased flood hazard mitigation, the Community Rating System (CRS) that is a part of NFIP, credits 18 community floodplain management act...
Community-based ecotourism (CBET) is considered a sustainable form of tourism that improves the quality of life of hosts at the tourist destination. Scholars have yet to explore the long-term operation of CBET in relation to its effects on the local way of life. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to examine the transformation of a local community due to the operation of CBET in relation to sociocultural, economic and environmental aspects. The findings reveal that the community encoun...
Haapio, Appu, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Requirements for the assessment tools of buildings have increased, assessing of building components or separate buildings is not enough. Neighbourhoods, built environment, public transportations, and services, should be considered simultaneously. Number of population living in urban areas is high and increasing rapidly. Urbanisation is a major concern due to its detrimental effects on the environment. The aim of this study is to clarify the field of assessment tools for urban communities by analysing the current situation. The focus is on internationally well known assessment tools; BREEAM Communities, CASBEE for Urban Development and LEED for Neigborhood Development. The interest towards certification systems is increasing amongst the authorities, and especially amongst the global investors and property developers. Achieved certifications are expected to bring measureable publicity for the developers. The assessment of urban areas enables the comparison of municipalities and urban areas, and notably supports decision making processes. Authorities, city planners, and designers would benefit most from the use of the tools during the decision making process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The urban assessment tools have strong linkage to the region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tools promote complementary building and retrofitting existing sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sharing knowledge and experiences is important in the development of the tools.
Requirements for the assessment tools of buildings have increased, assessing of building components or separate buildings is not enough. Neighbourhoods, built environment, public transportations, and services, should be considered simultaneously. Number of population living in urban areas is high and increasing rapidly. Urbanisation is a major concern due to its detrimental effects on the environment. The aim of this study is to clarify the field of assessment tools for urban communities by analysing the current situation. The focus is on internationally well known assessment tools; BREEAM Communities, CASBEE for Urban Development and LEED for Neigborhood Development. The interest towards certification systems is increasing amongst the authorities, and especially amongst the global investors and property developers. Achieved certifications are expected to bring measureable publicity for the developers. The assessment of urban areas enables the comparison of municipalities and urban areas, and notably supports decision making processes. Authorities, city planners, and designers would benefit most from the use of the tools during the decision making process. - Highlights: ► The urban assessment tools have strong linkage to the region. ► The tools promote complementary building and retrofitting existing sites. ► Sharing knowledge and experiences is important in the development of the tools.
As part of its mission to honor human dignity and to care for the poor and vulnerable, Catholic Healthcare Partners (CHP), Cincinnati, has made a systemwide commitment to address housing needs in the communities it serves. A priority for the system is providing safe, affordable housing options for the low-income elderly. CHP's approach goes beyond "bricks and mortar," however. The system aims not only to provide a home for senior adults but also to enrich their lives. Through various activities and support services, CHP's senior living complexes in Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee offer residents an opportunity to live in a vibrant community. CHP facilities have developed a variety of initiatives to enhance residents' lives. Among these are: spiritual care services, nurses who serve as a resource to low-income elders, a short-stay shelter for seniors in transition, a service referral program, and therapy to help elders remain independent. In order to offer these comprehensive services to senior adults, CHP relies on partnerships with a variety of organizations and on funding from both the federal government and private investors. Especially as the nation's population ages, CHP continues to make its housing ministry a strategic priority. PMID:15807065
Energy transitions are high on political agendas. From a practical viewpoint, community approaches are deemed essential in order to transition from a predominantly centralized energy supply to a decentralized one, and to exploit the potential of renewable energies. In this paper, I discuss how the emergence of community-based energy projects can be analyzed from an institutional perspective. In this context, a ‘community’ is treated as an individual institutional order that shapes decisions. I examine how community structures the implementation of biogas cooperatives in the Autonomous Province of South Tyrol in Northern Italy. My findings suggest that ‘community spirit’, a cooperative tradition, and the norms of locality and responsibility are central drivers behind the emergence and constitution of biogas cooperatives. Not only do these institutional features of community influence the decision concerning which farmers are in or out but also plant location and scale. I argue that ‘community’ is a necessary analytical category for understanding community energy. - Highlights: • I analyze the emergence and constitution of biogas cooperatives in South Tyrol. • Emerging processes and the principal constitutions are similar. • Institutional forces influenced the biogas cooperatives' emergence and constitution. • Biogas cooperatives are decisively shaped by community spirit and local tradition. • The concept of community is used as an explanatory category for community energy
Stubbendieck, Reed M.; Vargas-Bautista, Carol; Straight, Paul D.
In the environment, bacteria live in complex multispecies communities. These communities span in scale from small, multicellular aggregates to billions or trillions of cells within the gastrointestinal tract of animals. The dynamics of bacterial communities are determined by pairwise interactions that occur between different species in the community. Though interactions occur between a few cells at a time, the outcomes of these interchanges have ramifications that ripple through many orders of magnitude, and ultimately affect the macroscopic world including the health of host organisms. In this review we cover how bacterial competition influences the structures of bacterial communities. We also emphasize methods and insights garnered from culture-dependent pairwise interaction studies, metagenomic analyses, and modeling experiments. Finally, we argue that the integration of multiple approaches will be instrumental to future understanding of the underlying dynamics of bacterial communities. PMID:27551280
To characterize the present benthic macroinvertebrate community of L-Lake, Regions 5 and 7 of the reservoir were sampled in September 1995 at the same locations sampled in 1988 and 1989 during the L-Lake monitoring program. The macroinvertebrate community of 1995 is compared to that of 1988 and 1989. The species composition of L-Lake`s macroinvertebrate community has changed considerably since 1988-1989, due primarily to maturation of the reservoir ecosystem. L-Lake contains a reasonably diverse macroinvertebrate community that is capable of supporting higher trophic levels, including a diverse assemblage of fish species. The L-Lake macroinvertebrate community is similar to those of many other southeastern reservoirs, and there is no indication that the macroinvertebrate community is perturbed by chemical or physical stressors.
To characterize the present benthic macroinvertebrate community of L-Lake, Regions 5 and 7 of the reservoir were sampled in September 1995 at the same locations sampled in 1988 and 1989 during the L-Lake monitoring program. The macroinvertebrate community of 1995 is compared to that of 1988 and 1989. The species composition of L-Lake's macroinvertebrate community has changed considerably since 1988-1989, due primarily to maturation of the reservoir ecosystem. L-Lake contains a reasonably diverse macroinvertebrate community that is capable of supporting higher trophic levels, including a diverse assemblage of fish species. The L-Lake macroinvertebrate community is similar to those of many other southeastern reservoirs, and there is no indication that the macroinvertebrate community is perturbed by chemical or physical stressors
Binzer, T.; Sand-Jensen, K.; Middelboe, A. L.
We compared 190 photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) experiments with single- and multispecies communities of macroalgae and vascular plants from freshwater and marine habitats. We found a typical hyperbolic P-E relation in all communities and no sign of photosaturation or photoinhibition of photosynt......We compared 190 photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) experiments with single- and multispecies communities of macroalgae and vascular plants from freshwater and marine habitats. We found a typical hyperbolic P-E relation in all communities and no sign of photosaturation or photoinhibition of...... photosynthesis at the highest irradiances of about 2,000 mmol m22 s21. Macrophyte communities displayed much higher maximum gross production (GPmax), respiration, and light compensation point than separate phytoelements because of the multilayered structure and extensive self-shading in the communities, whereas...
Yan Chen; Pei Zhao; Ping Li; Kai Zhang; Jie Zhang
Detecting communities or clusters in a real-world, networked system is of considerable interest in various fields such as sociology, biology, physics, engineering science, and interdisciplinary subjects, with significant efforts devoted in recent years. Many existing algorithms are only designed to identify the composition of communities, but not the structures. Whereas we believe that the local structures of communities can also shed important light on their detection. In this work, we devel...
Kjeldsen, Chris; Noe, Egon; Laursen, Klaus Brønd
The Food Communities was chosen as a case for HealthyGrowth because they constitute a major novelty within the Danish foodscape. As indicated in section 3, the Food Communities have emerged as the latest incarnation of a series of attempts to forge alternative food networks operating beyond the supermarket system. Denmark is distinguished by a large market share of organic food being sold via supermarkets, but The Food Communities are a novelty due to two factors, (1) they have experienced a ...
Wiryanto; Harahap, Urip; Karsono; Mawengkang, Herman
Majority of community pharmacy practice in Indonesia was described as practices that have not been standard fulfilling. This research have an aim to design a model of community pharmacy practice as instrument for fulfilling standard. Design of model of community pharmacy practice comprised practice standard, model of determining practice criteria, and model of improving practice criteria. Model of improving practice criteria used Nolan model, consisting of Plan, Do, Check, and ...
Sarkkinen, Laura; Rauhala, Marita
As technology is developing at a fast phase people are engaging in community activities more and more online, either by extending their offline social life or by creating themselves a whole new parallel life as a member of virtual community. Companies behind communities are rivaling for attention and need to come up with increasingly clever tactics to attract and engage new members. In this thesis the relatively new phenomenon of growth hacking, the use of unconventional methods in order ...
Liu, Ying; Vlassov, Vladimir; Navarro Moldes, Leandro
Community Clouds, usually built upon community networks, operate in a more disperse environment compared to a data center Cloud, with lower capacity and less reliable servers separated by a more heterogeneous and less predictable network interconnection. These differences raise challenges when deploying Cloud applications in a community Cloud. Open Stack Swift is an open source distributed storage system, which provides stand alone highly available and scalable storage from Open Stack Cloud c...
Chen, Yan; Zhao, Pei; Li, Ping; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Jie
Detecting communities or clusters in a real-world, networked system is of considerable interest in various fields such as sociology, biology, physics, engineering science, and interdisciplinary subjects, with significant efforts devoted in recent years. Many existing algorithms are only designed to identify the composition of communities, but not the structures. Whereas we believe that the local structures of communities can also shed important light on their detection. In this work, we develop a simple yet effective approach that simultaneously uncovers communities and their centers. The idea is based on the premise that organization of a community generally can be viewed as a high-density node surrounded by neighbors with lower densities, and community centers reside far apart from each other. We propose so-called "community centrality" to quantify likelihood of a node being the community centers in such a landscape, and then propagate multiple, significant center likelihood throughout the network via a diffusion process. Our approach is an efficient linear algorithm, and has demonstrated superior performance on a wide spectrum of synthetic and real world networks especially those with sparse connections amongst the community centers. PMID:27053090
Chen, Yan; Zhao, Pei; Li, Ping; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Jie
Detecting communities or clusters in a real-world, networked system is of considerable interest in various fields such as sociology, biology, physics, engineering science, and interdisciplinary subjects, with significant efforts devoted in recent years. Many existing algorithms are only designed to identify the composition of communities, but not the structures. Whereas we believe that the local structures of communities can also shed important light on their detection. In this work, we develop a simple yet effective approach that simultaneously uncovers communities and their centers. The idea is based on the premise that organization of a community generally can be viewed as a high-density node surrounded by neighbors with lower densities, and community centers reside far apart from each other. We propose so-called “community centrality” to quantify likelihood of a node being the community centers in such a landscape, and then propagate multiple, significant center likelihood throughout the network via a diffusion process. Our approach is an efficient linear algorithm, and has demonstrated superior performance on a wide spectrum of synthetic and real world networks especially those with sparse connections amongst the community centers.
Carchiolo, Vincenza; Malgeri, Michele; Mangioni, Giuseppe
Discovering communities in complex networks helps to understand the behaviour of the network. Some works in this promising research area exist, but communities uncovering in time-dependent and/or multiplex networks has not deeply investigated yet. In this paper, we propose a communities detection approach for multislice networks based on modularity optimization. We first present a method to reduce the network size that still preserves modularity. Then we introduce an algorithm that approximates modularity optimization (as usually adopted) for multislice networks, thus finding communities. The network size reduction allows us to maintain acceptable performances without affecting the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Chen, X; Wang, L; Chen, Xiaojie; Fu, Feng; Wang, Long
We introduce a community network model which exhibits scale-free property and study the evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma game (PDG) on this network model. It is found that the frequency of cooperators decreases with the increment of the average degree from the simulation results. And reducing inter-community links can promote cooperation when we keep the total links (including inner-community and inter-community links) unchanged. It is also shown that the heterogeneity of networks does not always enhance cooperation and the pattern of links among all the vertices under a given degree-distribution plays a crucial role in the dominance of cooperation in the network model.
Chen, Xiaojie; Fu, Feng; Wang, Long
We introduce a community network model which exhibits scale-free property and study the evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma game (PDG) on this network model. It is found that the frequency of cooperators decreases with the increment of the average degree kbar from the simulation results. And reducing inter-community links can promote cooperation when we keep the total links (including inner-community and inter-community links) unchanged. It is also shown that the heterogeneity of networks does not always enhance cooperation and the pattern of links among all the vertices under a given degree-distribution plays a crucial role in the dominance of cooperation in the network model.
This submission delineates a perspective derived from the experience of a community which has lived with the nuclear industry since its beginnings in Canada, 45 years ago. Much has been accomplished in both basic and applied research in that time, and the industry continues to be recognized worldwide as a leader in solving high-technology problems. However, recent funding cuts have seriously jeopardized the industry's ability to maintain this high standard. Current anti-nuclear attitudes among our elected and appointed officials respond more to today's political fashions than tomorrow's evident needs. The town of Deep River believes that the industry has demonstrated a superb safety record in the past. If common sense prevails in matters of safety, and if appropriate levels of funding are maintained, the nuclear industry will continue to be a source of pride for all concerned
Moore, Judy Hennessey; Johnson, Curtis Martin; Whitley, John B.; Drayer, Darryl Donald; Cummings, John C., Jr. (.,; .)
The Advanced Concepts Group of Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop, ''FOILFest: Community Enabled Security'', on July 18-21, 2005, in Albuquerque, NM. This was a far-reaching look into the future of physical protection consisting of a series of structured brainstorming sessions focused on preventing and foiling attacks on public places and soft targets such as airports, shopping malls, hotels, and public events. These facilities are difficult to protect using traditional security devices since they could easily be pushed out of business through the addition of arduous and expensive security measures. The idea behind this Fest was to explore how the public, which is vital to the function of these institutions, can be leveraged as part of a physical protection system. The workshop considered procedures, space design, and approaches for building community through technology. The workshop explored ways to make the ''good guys'' in public places feel safe and be vigilant while making potential perpetrators of harm feel exposed and convinced that they will not succeed. Participants in the Fest included operators of public places, social scientists, technology experts, representatives of government agencies including DHS and the intelligence community, writers and media experts. Many innovative ideas were explored during the fest with most of the time spent on airports, including consideration of the local airport, the Albuquerque Sunport. Some provocative ideas included: (1) sniffers installed in passage areas like revolving door, escalators, (2) a ''jumbotron'' showing current camera shots in the public space, (3) transparent portal screeners allowing viewing of the screening, (4) a layered open/funnel/open/funnel design where open spaces are used to encourage a sense of ''communitas'' and take advantage of citizen ''sensing'' and funnels are technological
Nogues, David Bravo; Rahbek, Carsten
The distribution of species on Earth and the interactions among them are tightly linked to historical and contemporary climate, so that global climate change will transform the world in which we live. Biological models can now credibly link recent decadal trends in field data to climate change......, but predicting future impacts on biological communities is a major challenge. Attempts to move beyond general macroecological predictions of climate change impact on one hand, and observations from specific, local-scale cases, small-scale experiments, or studies of a few species on the other, raise a plethora...... of unanswered questions. On page 1124 of this issue, Harley (1) reports results that cast new light on how biodiversity, across different trophic levels, responds to climate change....
Full Text Available The project ‘Creating Citizenship Communities’ is funded by the EsméeFairbairn Foundation and is being conducted by a partnership team from theDepartment of Education, University of York and the National Foundation forEducational Research. This article describes the project design and drawsattention to issues emerging from data analysis. An indication is given of theactions to be taken with professionals and young people in light of theproject findings. An argument is made for the need to co-ordinate work inschools by developing stronger liaison between citizenship educationteachers and those responsible for whole school initiatives to promotecommunity engagement; and helping teachers to build on young people’sexisting knowledge and expertise in community matters to help themunderstand and act more effectively in society.
Salazar, Amy M; Haggerty, Kevin P; de Haan, Benjamin; Catalano, Richard F; Vann, Terri; Vinson, Jean; Lansing, Michaele
The prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral (MEB) disorders among children and adolescents is a national priority. One mode of implementing community-wide MEB prevention efforts is through evidence-based community mobilization approaches such as Communities That Care (CTC). This article provides an overview of the CTC framework and discusses the adaptation process of CTC to prevent development of MEBs through preventing child abuse and neglect and bolstering child well-being in children aged 0 to 10. Adaptations include those to the intervention itself as well as those to the evaluation approach. Preliminary findings from the Keeping Families Together pilot study of this evolving approach suggest that the implementation was manageable for sites, and community board functioning and community adoption of a science-based approach to prevention in pilot sites looks promising. Implications and next steps are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26963184
Conclusion: This study concludes that the current status of community pharmacy practice is below par. There is a need to involve more pharmacists at community level and develop awareness programs to counter patients′ routine drug issues and reducing the burden of disease from society.
Thornton, Kate; Cherrington, Sue
Professional learning communities in the early childhood education sector have been under-researched. The focus on collaborative learning, collective enquiry and shared leadership of such communities makes them worthy of study in order to establish their relevance to the sector. One of the foci of this research involving case studies of different…
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre
This article explores the development of creativity in the context of folk art within an urban and rural community in Romania. It adopts a cultural psychological perspective on development, linking it to children's participation in community activities, as well as creativity, considered in relati...
Bryan, Robert; Laroder, Aris; Tippins, Deborah; Emaz, Meliza; Fox, Ryan
The community can be a powerful context and mini-laboratory for cultivating students' common understandings of science and mathematics. On the island of Panay in the Philippines, the community was the starting place for a group of fifth- and sixth-grade students to explore simple machines in their daily lives. What students learned in the process…
Boyte, Harry C.
Community service, widely touted as the cure for youngsters' political apathy, teaches little about the art of participating in public life. The service language of "caring and community" provides no antidote for today's youthful cynicism about politics, because it fails to reveal the public world extending beyond personal lives and local…
Fuller, Cherry; Kearley, Donna; Byerly, Gayla; Ramin, Lilly
Synergy may be defined as the collaboration between two or more parties to produce a combined effect greater than the sum of their separate parts. That is exactly what happened in Denton, Texas, when all types of librarians collaborated on a community reading initiative. In 2007 Denton Reads--a One Book, One Community organization--was formed with…
Zaferatos, Nicholas C.
This article presents the findings of a collaborative investigation by six nongovernment organisations (NGOs) from five European-Mediterranean countries to identify a framework for reversing rural marginalisation in Mediterranean communities through sustainable forms of community-based agricultural development. The project brought together…
Abowitz, Kathleen Knight
In the last decade, educational researchers and scholars have turned new attention to the theory and practice of community organizing as a method for addressing education injustices. While there are diverse traditions of community organizing work, by far the most influential model in US contexts is that of Saul Alinsky, whose "Rules for Radicals"…
Arterburn, Daniel; And Others
A community based (Conejo Valley, California) vocational program was designed to give handicapped junior and senior high school students a variety of real world experiences in the natural setting. Advantages of the community based approach include immediate transfer of learning, opportunities for generalization, provision of role models by other…
This article outlines strategies of maintaining integration emphasizing: (1) housing offices and counseling; (2) community action to alter real estate policies; (3) school action including public relations and human relations thinking; (4) community organization of commercial and religious institutions; (5) financial incentives for pro-integrative…
M. van der Werf (Marloes); S.G. Heumann (Silke); E.M.H. Mitchell
textabstractWhile communities at risk have been both drivers and partners in HIV research, their important role in TB research is yet to be fully realized. Involvement of communities in tuberculosis care and prevention is currently on the international agenda. This creates opportunities and indicate
Brem, Alexander; Maier, M.
Interdependencies between organizations are constantly increasing. Hence, more companies and employees are engaged in inter-organizational Communities of Practice (CoP). This paper focuses on the life cycle of such communities, using the case example of a German innovation network. For this reason...
Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Community Colleges and Workforce Preparation.
This document describes account classifications and definitions for the accounting system of the Iowa community colleges. In view of the objectives of the accounting system, it is necessary to segregate the assets of the community college according to its source and intended use. Additionally, the accounting system should provide for accounting by…
Knight, Philip H.
This manual is divided into three modules designed for use in a self-teaching situation. The first module presents a philosophical discussion of financing community education. The traditional model, requiring subordination of community education goals to the goals of the funding agency, is contrasted with an alternative model that establishes…
Thornton, L. Jay; Johnson, Sharon
This paper describes the prevalence and characteristics of employee wellness programs in public community colleges accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS). A random sample of 250 public community colleges accredited by SACS was mailed a 46-item employee-wellness program survey. The survey solicited program information…
This 1994 environmental scanning report from Vancouver Community College (VCC) reviews the expected effects of the separation of VCC into a new Vancouver Community College and Langara College (LC). The report examines the projected service area student-intake capacity; student characteristics; population growth trends; other postsecondary…
The New Mexico Rural Revitalization Initiative (NMRRI), an innovative program to enhance the growth and development of rural communities, involves schools and students as part of a holistic approach. The program requires community members to take responsibility for revitalizing their economy and fosters an entrepreneurial spirit among students.
Cook, Anthony A.
This article takes a look at the influence of technology on curriculum and teaching. It specifically examines the new wave of available technology and the opportunity for schools to make inroads into community outreach by engaging new, technological learning methods. The relationship among community education, public school relations, and distance…
Bringle, Robert G; Steinberg, Kathryn
Service learning, which integrates community service into coursework, provides a pedagogical intervention that can promote the civic growth of students in unique and powerful ways. Research is reviewed that documents the capacity of service learning to meet learning objectives associated with a conceptual framework that focuses on the knowledge, skills, and dispositions of a civic-minded college graduate. The outcomes of service learning should facilitate these students assuming influential roles in helping others become empowered, and thereby are important for enhancing the quality of life in communities. We also review research that focuses on the impact of service learning for community outcomes. Finally, we present implications for teaching community psychology, and recommendations for future research on service learning and community engagement. PMID:20872068
Community geriatrics has evolved as a specific aspect of geriatric medicine in the UK. In Ireland there is uncertainty as to how it should be planned. This is the first national survey of consultants, specialist registrars and general practitioners to seek their opinions. Most consultants and GPs reported already having a community aspect to their current practice, e.g. nursing home visits or community hospital visits, whereas most SpRs did not. Forty three of 62 respondents (69%) agreed that there is a need for community geriatricians and that there should be integration with hospital medicine. Fifty seven of 62 respondents (92%) felt that there would be a beneficial effect on GP services, though some expressed concern about work overlap. Thirteen of the 25 SpRs (52%) in training hoped to begin practice in community geriatrics in the future.
Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj
combined a simple mechanistic model and empirical measurements on artificially structured macroalgal communities (Ulva lactuca) with varying thallus absorptance and community density. Predicted and measured values corresponded closely and revealed that gross production in high-light environments...... that inefficient distribution of light can account for the low community production rates in aquatic habitats and the depth distribution of form-functional groups of macroalgae with different canopy structure.......-dimensional structure because of the strong drag and shear forces of moving water. This difference in canopy structure has been suggested to account for the three- to fivefold higher gross production rates in terrestrial than aquatic communities. To evaluate the effect of community structure in aquatic habitats, we...
Carpentier, N.; Lie, R.; Servaes, J.
Focuses on the concept of community media. Components that construct the identity of community media; Multi-theoretical approaches for analysis of community media; Definition of community media based on the concept of alternative media; Link between community media and civil society; Problems faced
This work provides a useful tool for community managers in their day-to-day job. The proposed tool must be easy to use and helpful to monitor an online community. The proposed model is specifically devoted to community manager working in no profit sector, in small organizations, scalable and not related to a specific technology or to a specific social network site. Following a literature review on the meaning of engagement in the social media environment, the work examines the opinion of e...
This report covers progress in the Cool Communities program and is intended to detail specific accomplishments during the year and to provide a limited amount of background information about the program and its progress over the past three years. The Cool Communities project is driven by local partnerships among business, citizens, government, and guided by a Local Advisory Committee of representatives from these organizations. A national overview of the program is given in the first section. The second section describes specific accomplishments in each of the model communities in Dade County, Atlanta, Frederick, Tucson, Springfield, Austin, and the Davis Monthan Air Force Base.
1.Introduction The method we will examine in this chapter advises teachers to consider their students as “whole persons.” Whole-person learning means that teachers consider not only their students' intellect,but also have some understanding of the relationship among students' feelings, physical reactions,instinctive protective reactions,and desire to learn.The Community Language Learning Method takes its principles from more general Counseling-Learning approach developed by Charles A.Curran.Curran studied adult learning for many years.He was also influenced by Carl Rogers' humanistic psychology (Rogers 1951;Brown 1994),and he found that adults often feel threatened by a new learning situation.They are threatened by the change inherent in learning and by the fear that they will appear foolish.Curran believed that a way to deal with the fears of students is for teachers to become “language counselors.” A language counselor does not mean someone trained in psychology;it means someone who is a skillful understander of the struggle students face as they attempt to internalize another language.The teacher who can “understand” can indicate his acceptance of the student.By understanding students' fears and being sensitive to them,he can help students overcome their negative feelings and turn them into positive energy to further their learning.
Discusses communities in the information society and examines virtual communities and the relation between technology and social life. Topics include interaction; idealized community; proximate communities; normative community; virtual communities and fragmented society; and social change versus technological change. (LRW)
The concept of 'gay community', and gay men's attachment to and involvement in gay community activities, has held both a symbolic and practical role in understanding and guiding responses to HIV in developed world contexts. In the West, the HIV epidemic has disproportionately affected gay men. Being involved in and connected to gay community activities (what, in Australia, is described as 'gay community attachment') predicted the adoption of safe sex practices. However, the meaning of gay community is changing. This presents a challenge to those working in HIV prevention. With reference to previous research, the meaning of gay community is analysed in qualitative interviews conducted with Australian gay men. The interview data indicate that gay men are often ambivalent about gay communities, suggesting a need for subtlety in the ways we think about and address gay men in HIV education and health promotion. The concept of 'personal communities' may better reflect the ways in which gay men engage with each other and their social networks. Recognising and responding to the changing nature of gay life will ensure that the flexibility and pragmatism of HIV programmes aimed at gay men are maintained. PMID:21644116
Abstract Background Although the Chinese government put a lot of effort into promoting the community patient’s life satisfaction, there still lacked the holistic and systematic approaches to promote the community patient’s life satisfaction in various regions of China. On the basis of the literature, it was found that both the community patient’s assessment of community medical service and trust in community health delivery system were important considerations when the community patient compr...
Ementa, Christiana Ngozi; Ile, Chika Madu
There are diverse social networking sites which range from those that provide social sharing and interaction to those that provide networks for professionals within same and other fields. Social networking sites require a user to sign up, create a profile and begin sending short messages about what the user is doing or thinking. The study sought…
Full Text Available Background & objectives: The present study was designed to determine possible contributory impact of malaria infection on some biochemical markers in subjects with HIV co-infection in order to know if they are adverse or protective.Methods: Participants were recruited at the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Unit, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria and grouped into: (i Malaria and HIV co-infection group (n = 45; and (ii HIV infected group without concurrent malaria infection (n = 57. Standard laboratory methods were used for the HIV and Plasmodium falciparum antigen screening, malaria parasite density, CD4+ T-cell count, packed cell volume, white blood cell count, serum iron and albumin concentrations.Results: The results showed that serum iron and albumin were significantly reduced and raised respectively in ‘Malaria–HIV co-infection group’ compared with ‘HIV infection group’ (p <0.05 and p <0.05. A positive association was observed between age and serum iron concentration in malaria and HIV co-infected group (r = 0.580; p <0.05 while negative associations were observed between PCV and serum iron (r = – 0.388; p <0.05 and between CD4+ T-cells and serum iron concentration (r = – 0.362; p<0.05 in malaria and HIV co-infected group. The CD4+ T-cell count, WBC count, PCV were not significantly different between the Malaria-HIV co-infection group and HIV infection group.Interpretation & conclusion: In the present study serum iron and albumin concentrations were the most sensitive indicators that showed the contributory impact of malaria infection on biochemical index in HIV co-infected subjects. The findings suggest that at the defined stage of HIV infection in the present study, malaria co-infection may moderate the impact of HIV infection on iron metabolism and hepatic synthesis of albumin.
Ezeani Nneka Salome; Oladele Rotimi
This study titled “Implications of Training and Development Programmes on Accountants productivity in selected Business organizations in Onitsha” is aimed at finding out the adequacy of training and development programme provided to the accountants in selected Business organizations in Onitsha, Nigeria. The success of any organization is not only determined by the quality of personnel available, but how adequate these human resources are harnessed and co-ordinate towards achieving the goal of...
One thousand nine hundred ninety-five individuals in 20 rural Canadian communities were measured on perceived social cohesion by the three Buckner scale subdimensions: psychological sense of community (PSOC), attraction, and neighboring. Number of household children, income over $20,000, age, birthplace in, and years lived in the community significantly positively influenced PSOC and Attraction. Number of household children (positive for income over $20,000; otherwise negative), income over $40,000, birthplace, and years in the community significantly influenced neighboring. Increased interaction generally increases individuals' social cohesion. As the only significant community variable was being on an island province, individual-oriented policies are recommended to increase cohesion. PMID:19579352
Navid, A; Ghim, C; Fenley, A; Yoon, S; Lee, S; Almaas, E
Microbes exist naturally in a wide range of environments, spanning the extremes of high acidity and high temperature to soil and the ocean, in communities where their interactions are significant. We present a practical discussion of three different approaches for modeling microbial communities: rate equations, individual-based modeling, and population dynamics. We illustrate the approaches with detailed examples. Each approach is best fit to different levels of system representation, and they have different needs for detailed biological input. Thus, this set of approaches is able to address the operation and function of microbial communities on a wide range of organizational levels.
Piccardi, Carlo; Calatroni, Lisa; Bertoni, Fabio
The community structure of two real-world financial networks, namely the board network and the ownership network of the firms of the Italian Stock Exchange, is analyzed by means of the maximum modularity approach. The main result is that both networks exhibit a strong community structure and, moreover, that the two structures overlap significantly. This is due to a number of reasons, including the existence of pyramidal groups and directors serving in several boards. Overall, this means that the “small world” of listed companies is actually split into well identifiable “continents” (i.e., the communities).
Lyons and Whelan provide a useful list of recommendations as to how community engagement on nanotechnology could be improved, which very few people working in community engagement could disagree with. However, as the conclusions of any study are dependent on the data obtained, if more data had been obtained and analysed then different conclusions might have been reached. Addressing the key issues in the paper and providing more data, also allows an opportunity to expand on current issues relating to community engagement on nanotechnology and the challenges it provides for practitioners. PMID:21258427
Malo André Hutson
Increased urbanization has also led to many challenges for urban residents. In the United States, land use and zoning, transportation and infrastructure, lack of affordable housing, and disinvestment have severely affected the quality of life of poor urban populations. Despite these challenges, opportunities do exist to make economically disadvantaged urban communities more sustainable, livable, and healthy. This working paper discusses the challenges facing urban communities and then conside...