A long-term marine dispersion model, MEAD (Marine Environment Annual Dispersion), has been developed from the CUMBRIA model created by AEA Technology, UK MEAD includes improvements made to the parameterisation of some of the physical processes represented in CUMBRIA together with a new flowfield and model grid. Transport of pollutants (in this case radionuclides) in the model is defined to occur in three phases; dissolved in the water column and attached to suspended and deposited sediments. A spatially varying suspended particulate material (SPM) concentration field is included in MEAD and ionic exchange between the dissolved and deposited phases is parameterised. Initial comparisons of MEAD results with limited available observed data show good agreement indicating satisfactory representation of the physical processes by the model. (author)
Cote, James E.
The controversy between Margaret Mead and Derek Freeman about Mead's work (1928) on coming of age in Samoa in the 1920s is analyzed. Freeman's claim to have refuted Mead's findings can be easily refuted itself. Mead's study, arguing that adolescent turmoil is not universal, stands the test of time. (SLD)
Bo, Inger Glavind
Meads tænkning er interessant af flere grunde. Hans perspektiv er dynamisk med vægt på social interaktion og relationer. Herved danner hans tænkning afsæt for en socialkonstruktivistisk tænkning, men han drager ikke selv den konklusion og nøjes med at kalde sig socialbehaviorist. I artiklen...... argumenteres der for, at denne betegnelde ikke yder Mead fuld retfærdighed, og det bliver vist, hvordan Meads socialpsykologi leverer grundlaget for en konstruktivistisk forståelse....
Seibel, Hans Dieter
Agricultural development banks (AgDBs), which are not viable, should either be closed, or transformed into self-reliant, sustainable financial intermediaries. Experience shows that reform is possible. Among the prominent cases are Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) and Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC, Thailand) as well as ADB/Nepal, which has been transforming its small farmer credit program into financially self-reliant local financial intermediaries owned and managed by th...
Competing risks and the development of adaptive management plans for water resources: Field reconnaissance investigation of risks to fishes and other aquatic biota exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (edcs) in lake mead, Nevada USA
Linder, G.; Little, E.E.
The analysis and characterization of competing risks for water resources rely on a wide spectrum of tools to evaluate hazards and risks associated with their management. For example, waters of the lower Colorado River stored in reservoirs such as Lake Mead present a wide range of competing risks related to water quantity and water quality. These risks are often interdependent and complicated by competing uses of source waters for sustaining biological resources and for supporting a range of agricultural, municipal, recreational, and industrial uses. USGS is currently conducting a series of interdisciplinary case-studies on water quality of Lake Mead and its source waters. In this case-study we examine selected constituents potentially entering the Lake Mead system, particularly endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Worldwide, a number of environmental EDCs have been identified that affect reproduction, development, and adaptive behaviors in a wide range of organisms. Many EDCs are minimally affected by current treatment technologies and occur in treated sewage effluents. Several EDCs have been detected in Lake Mead, and several substances have been identified that are of concern because of potential impacts to the aquatic biota, including the sport fishery of Lake Mead and endangered razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) that occur in the Colorado River system. For example, altered biomarkers relevant to reproduction and thyroid function in fishes have been observed and may be predictive of impaired metabolism and development. Few studies, however, have addressed whether such EDC-induced responses observed in the field have an ecologically significant effect on the reproductive success of fishes. To identify potential linkages between EDCs and species of management concern, the risk analysis and characterization in this reconnaissance study focused on effects (and attendant uncertainties) that might be expressed by exposed populations. In addition, risk reduction
Gaines, G.B.; Thomas, R.E.; Noel, G.T.; Shilliday, T.S.; Wood, V.E.; Carmichael, D.C.
As a significant beginning in applying accelerated tests to solar arrays for life-prediction purposes, this study is directed toward (a) developing a plan for predicting the service life of a specific solar array in a specific geographic site - viz., the 25-KW flat-plate array installed near Mead, Nebraska, and (b) developing technical information from laboratory and field measurements for designing an accelerated test that can be carried out in 2 years and have predictive validity for a service life as long as 20 years. Status of the program is described.
Antonio Iglesias; Ananias Pascoal; Altino Branco Choupina; Carlos Alfredo Carvalho; Xesús Feás; Leticia M. Estevinho
Mead is a traditional alcoholic drink derived from the fermentation of diluted honey in the presence of appropriate yeast. Its modern production, in general terms, involves the addition of nutrients to initial diluted honey, pasteurization, yeast inoculation, fermentation and removal of impurities. Undesirable events along the process have been reported; among them, we highlight: delayed or arrested fermentations, modified and unpleasant sensory and quality parameters of the final product. Th...
Iglesias, Antonio; Pascoal, Ananias; Choupina, Altino Branco; Carvalho, Carlos Alfredo; Feás, Xesús; Estevinho, Leticia M
Mead is a traditional alcoholic drink derived from the fermentation of diluted honey in the presence of appropriate yeast. Its modern production, in general terms, involves the addition of nutrients to initial diluted honey, pasteurization, yeast inoculation, fermentation and removal of impurities. Undesirable events along the process have been reported; among them, we highlight: delayed or arrested fermentations, modified and unpleasant sensory and quality parameters of the final product. These problems have been linked to the inability of yeasts to accomplish their role in extreme growth conditions. Emphasis has also been placed on the long fermentation times required, ranging from weeks to months, particularly when traditional procedures are applied and when the honey concentration is low. A series of alterations to the must and technological changes have been proposed in order to optimize the mead production process. In this context, this review examines the evidence that aims to improve meads' quality and make the production process easier and more efficient, by clarifying the source of unexpected events, describing the implementation of different fermentative microorganisms and using new methodologies. PMID:25153872
Gaines, G.B.; Thomas, R.E.; Noel, G.T.; Shilliday, T.S.; Wood, V.E.; Carmichael, D.C.
This report describes an accelerated test which is designed to predict the life of the 25-kW photovoltaic array installed near Mead, Nebraska. Emphasis is placed on the power-output degradation at the module level and on long-term degradation modes, as appropriate for life prediction of mature devices for which infant failures are few. A quantitative model for accelerating testing using multiple environmental stresses is used to develop the test design. The model accounts for the effects of thermal stress by a relation of the Arrhenius form. This relation is then corrected for the effects of nonthermal environmental stresses such as relative humidity, atmospheric pollutants, and ultraviolet radiation. The test conditions, measurements, and data analyses for the accelerated tests are presented for determining the predicted life of the modules in service at Mead. Constant-temperature, cyclic-temperature, and uv types of tests are specified, incorporating selected levels of relative humidity and chemical contamination and an imposed forward-bias current and static electric field. It is recommended that as a first step in test implementation, the model be selectively validated using identified portions of the accelerated test design.
Full Text Available Mead is a traditional alcoholic drink derived from the fermentation of diluted honey in the presence of appropriate yeast. Its modern production, in general terms, involves the addition of nutrients to initial diluted honey, pasteurization, yeast inoculation, fermentation and removal of impurities. Undesirable events along the process have been reported; among them, we highlight: delayed or arrested fermentations, modified and unpleasant sensory and quality parameters of the final product. These problems have been linked to the inability of yeasts to accomplish their role in extreme growth conditions. Emphasis has also been placed on the long fermentation times required, ranging from weeks to months, particularly when traditional procedures are applied and when the honey concentration is low. A series of alterations to the must and technological changes have been proposed in order to optimize the mead production process. In this context, this review examines the evidence that aims to improve meads’ quality and make the production process easier and more efficient, by clarifying the source of unexpected events, describing the implementation of different fermentative microorganisms and using new methodologies.
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Agriculture, Other dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as 'Ag...
Gaines, G.B.; Thomas, R.E.; Noel, G.T.; Shilliday, T.S.; Wood, V.E.; Carmichael, D.C.
Economic viability requires that photovoltaic arrays should have a service life of 20 years or longer. Qualification and performance tests indicate that presently available photovoltaic modules provide acceptable performance at the time of installation. This study is being conducted as part of a program to develop and validate an accelerated test plan that can be used to predict the useful service life of present and future solar arrays. Previously a methodology was developed for designing an accelerated test program incorporating trade-offs between the cost of each test and its value in reducing the variance in the life prediction for that array. The objective of the present study is to apply this methodology to develop an accelerated test plan to predict the service life of the 25-kW photovoltaic array installed near Mead, Nebraska. Potential long-term degradation modes for the two types of modules in the Mead array have been determined and judgments have been made as to those environmental stresses and combinations of stresses which accelerate the degradation of the power output. Hierarchical trees representing the severity of effects of stresses (test conditions) on eleven individual degradation modes have been constructed and have been pruned of tests judged to be nonessential. Composites of those trees have been developed so that there is now one pruned tree covering eight degradation modes, another covering two degradation modes, and a third covering one degradation mode. These three composite trees form the basis for selection of test conditions in the final test plan which is now being prepared.
Jeppesen, Søren; Hampwaye, Godfrey; Phiri, Douglas
Food processing is important to the Zambian economy and entails a set of options for local firms to grow and create employment given the growth potential the country possesses in agriculture. This policy brief summarizes the findings of a study of 38 Zambian owned firms in the food processing...
Carreira da Silva, Filipe
George Herbert Mead was born on 27 February 1863, in South Hadley, Massachusetts, the son of a clergyman, Hiram Mead. In 1869, the family moved to Oberlin, Ohio, where his father took a chair at the Theological Seminary of Oberlin College. Between 1880 and 1883, Mead studied in Oberlin College where he met two students from Hawaii, Henry and Helen Castle. In 1887, after brief work experience as a railway surveyor and a private tutor, Mead followed Henry Castle into Harvard University to study...
Dirk J. Bezemer; Headey, Derek
Throughout history, agriculture-led development strategies with state support programs have been essential to achieving rapid economy-wide growth, poverty reduction and structural transformation at early stages of development. Yet over the last three decades, the domestic and international policy environments have continued to discriminate against agricultural development in the poorest countries. This paper studies the causes and manifestations of this ‘urban bias’, including discrimination ...
There have been many readings of Mead's work, and this paper proposes yet another: Mead, theorist of the social act. It is argued that Mead's core theory of the social act has been neglected, and that without this theory, the concept of taking the attitude of the other is inexplicable and the contemporary relevance of the concept of the significant symbol is obfuscated. The paper traces the development of the social act out of Dewey's theory of the act. According to Mead, Dewey's theory does ...
Full Text Available Mead is a traditional alcoholic beverage obtained by fermenting mead wort; however, its production still remains frequently an empirical exercise. Different meads can be produced, depending on fermentation conditions. Nevertheless, to date few studies have been developed on factors that may influence mead quality. The main objective of this work was to study the influence of sweetness and ethanol content on mead acceptability. Different meads were produced with two sweetness levels (sweet and dry meads and three ethanol contents (18, 20, 22% (v/v, adjusted by brandy addition. Afterwards, meads acceptability was evaluated by sensory analysis through a consumers’ panel (n=108 along with chemical analysis by HPLC-RID of glucose, fructose, ethanol, glycerol and acetic acid. The sweet (75 gglucose+fructose/L and dry (23 gglucose+fructose/L meads presented glycerol contents equal to 5.10±0.54 and 5.96±0.95 g/L, respectively, that were desirable since glycerol improves mead quality. Low concentrations of acetic acid were determined (0.46±0.08 and 0.57±0.09 g/L, avoiding the vinegar off-character. Concerning sensory analysis, the alcohol content of mead had no effect on the sensory attributes studied, namely, aroma, sweetness, flavour, alcohol feeling and general appreciation. Regarding sweetness, the “sweet meads” were the most appreciated by the consumers (score of 5.4±2.56, whereas the “dry meads” (score of 2.7±2.23 showed low acceptability. In conclusion, this work revealed that sweetness is a sensory key attribute for mead acceptance by the consumers, whereas ethanol content (18 to 22% (v/v is not.
This 35 million dollar facility will be a vital part of the Pacific Northwest-Southwest Intertie. It will be one of the four terminals in the project, involving ehv direct current transmission of power. After site preparation, construction began July 25 on the Bureau of Reclamations Mead Substation. This is a key dc, ac terminal of the Pacific Northwest-Southwest Intertie. The entire Mead Substation, fully equipped with both ac and dc facilities, is scheduled for completion by September 1971.
Full Text Available Agriculture today is a strategic point of a country's economy, providing food based on population, development of internal and external trade and manufacturing industries by supplying raw materials. For Romania, this branch is a strong point both in terms climatic (temperate, balanced relief, soil quality and at the same time is also a way of national development and convergence of rural areas to their full potential untapped. With strong reforms, well implemented, a specific legislative framework which aims to protecting private property, Romania could reduce the low efficiency and can have a sustainable agriculture. The paper aimed to present the advantages of consuming organic products, and, on the other hand, the advantages of a country in terms of organic farming. European agriculture is a competitive, market-oriented, but also protecting the environment model.
Xiaohang; ZHANG; Shoufu; CUI; Fuping; LIU
This paper firstly introduced policy of photovoltaic agriculture in China. It discussed significance of developing photovoltaic agriculture. Then,it introduced progress in application of photovoltaic agriculture at both home and abroad. Finally,it pointed out existing problems in photovoltaic agriculture and came up with recommendations for development of photovoltaic agriculture in China.
The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants’ low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to a certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance operation are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative economic organization has limited coverage and small size of organization, which is harmful to the diversification of agricultural risks. Secondly, cooperative economic organization lacks capital funds and its development is not standard, which is not perfect for the function exertion as a carrier. Lastly, members of professional cooperative organization have low cultural qualities, which restrict the implementation of agricultural insurance. The modes of farmers’ cooperative economic organization promoting agricultural insurance development are proposed, including mode of agricultural insurance cooperative ( mutual corporation), mode of "leading enterprises (companies) + professional cooperative organization (planting majors) + insurance" and mode of professional cooperatives serving as agricultural insurance agent. Last of all, the promoting role of agricultural insurance in agricultural cooperative economic organization is briefly illustrated.
The Tillamook Digester is a fully operational demonstration project that will identify the components necessary to bring the concept to a financially viable alternative for handling waste manure from dairy operations in Tillamook County.
LIU Rui; LIU Chang
This article discussed what economic globalization had brought to China's agricultural development and how to deal with the globalization of China's agricultural development after China's entry into WTO. This study expounded our opportunities and challenges under the new circumstance of China's accession to WTO on the agriculture and gave some measures to reduce the unfavorable impacts on the agriculture.
Bucciarelli, L.L.; Cremin, J.D.; Fenton, H.A.; Hopkinson, R.F.; Lyon, E.F.; Romaine, W.R.
A 25 peak kW photovoltaic power system, presently the world's largest, has been installed at the University of Nebraska's Agricultural Research Station in Mead, Nebraska. The project goals include the collection of data on solar insolation, photovoltaic (PV) array performance, power conditioning equipment performance, and weather. A comprehensive system of sensors and data logging equipment has been installed for the purpose of collecting these data. The system allows for the automatic transmission of all accumulated data on a daily basis to Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, Massachusetts, for reduction and analysis. The data which have been gathered on the array during its initial operating period are summarized.
Beginning in 1933, while working in New Guinea, Margaret Mead developed her so-called squares hypothesis. Mead never published its terms, though she made a brief comment on it in her autobiography, Blackberry Winter (1972), and the arguments found in Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies (1935) and the research leading to Balinese Character (Bateson & Mead, 1942) bore its imprint. Beginning with William McDougall's distinction between temperament (innate predispositions) and character (learned organization of habit), Mead articulated a morphological approach to the interplay between biology and culture that yielded four primary and four intermediary personality types. Under specified but not inevitable circumstances, the conscious choices of a given people could render one or another of these types characteristic or predominantly stable within their population, giving each of the other types a definite relation to the dominant type and thereby the cultural ethos of its society. Persons of each type followed a developmental path specific to their type different both from that of other types and in its manifestations given the various relations of the individual's type to the dominant type. Mead's hypothesis was, therefore, a vision of the unity and diversity of a single human species as well as an approach to the differing psychological positioning of individuals in cultures. In examining Mead's hypothesis, this essay also takes up Mead's debts to several leading psychologists (McDougall, C. G. Jung, and Erik Erikson), and (provisionally) how her vision differed from that of Ruth Benedict. PMID:15048668
Russell R. Barton; John S. Ivey, Jr.
When the Nelder-Mead method is used to optimize the expected response of a stochastic system (e.g., an output of a discrete-event simulation model), the simplex-resizing steps of the method introduce risks of inappropriate termination. We give analytical and empirical results describing the performance of Nelder-Mead when it is applied to a response function that incorporates an additive white-noise error, and we use these results to develop new modifications of Nelder-Mead that yield improve...
A system controller has been designed, built, tested, and in operation for one year at MIT/Lincoln Laboratory's 25-kW-peak Solar Photovoltaic Power System located at Mead, Nebraska. The controller allows the site to operate without human intervention, and has brought to light some of the problems of charge-control algorithms in a deep-discharge environment.
Resume Pour George Herbert Mead, penser c?est entretenir . Cette conception ne parait pas a premiere vue d?une originalite absolue. Ce qui la rend vraiment originale est l?approche dont elle fait partie, et notamment la double idee que la conversation dont il s?agit est une conversation de gestes ou d?attitudes, et que la pensee ainsi que l?intelligence reflexive naissent de l?internalisation d?un proc...
Silva, Filipe Carreira da
G.H. Mead (1863-1931) oriented much of his intellectual efforts around three unavoidable questions for anyone living in a modern society: how are selfhood, knowledge, and politics understood and organized in such a society? Modern individuals continually seek answers to questions although nobody has ever come up with a definitive answer to them. Modernity, in other words, confronts us with inevitable problematics that fundamentally shape the way in which we think about certain topics. For the...
This research focuses on the agriculture sustainable development for poverty reduction and raising productivity in agriculture. Agriculture is one of way the vast majority of Bone District, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia that makes their living with its high multiplier affect across the wider economy. This sector also is most capable of growing the continent???s economy in the medium term. KKN PPM Dikti gives fund to manage research in all areas including agriculture and re...
Claudio Marcelo Viale
In The American Evasion of Philosophy Cornell West makes a comparison between the developments of European and classical American philosophies. Within West’s analogy, however, two important American figures are missing: Josiah Royce and George H. Mead. In the context of this framework, this article attempts to extend West’s analogy, speculating on the possible roles of Royce and Mead within it. The argumentation is developed in two parts: on the one hand, I show how secondary literature that ...
Analyzes Margaret Mead's contributions, focusing on Mead as an anthropologist and educator. It discusses contradictions in her ethnographies and in her work on learning. The paper also discusses her beliefs about the problems of the contemporary United States, particularly her rarely noticed contributions to a theory of learning. (SM)
Monroe, Suzanne S.
Anthropologist Margaret Mead focused much of her thinking, speaking, and writing on education and the impact of rapid change on educational theory and practice. The history of Mead's writings shows sensitivity to both tradition and change. A selection of 12 of Mead's publications provides insight into Mead's innovative and thought-provoking ideas.…
Wessells, Stephen M.; Rosen, Michael
“Lake Mead – Clear and Vital” is a 13 minute documentary relating the crucial role of science in maintaining high water quality in Lake Mead. The program was produced coincident with release of the Lakes Mead and Mohave Circular a USGS publication covering past and on-going research in the lakes and tributaries of the Lake Mead National Recreation Area.
Full Text Available The stages which determine the development of agricultural enterprises in France are investigated in the article. In the course of implementation of Ukrainian-French programs of scientific and educational cooperation on the problems of the management of agricultural enterprises in State Educational Institutions training specialists (cities of Chartres and Vic–en Bigorre, France it was found that the major components of development of agricultural enterprises in France are as follows: agricultural policy, education, motivation, information and management. The problem of the diversified development in the context of transition to green economy and sustainable development is considered. It is determined that an example of competitive development of agricultural enterprises in France is the establishment and operation of professional associations, in particular, cooperatives and clusters. The priority directions of economic and ecological development of agricultural enterprises for Ukraine are offered in order to implement potential opportunities of agricultural enterprises and to relocate the resources into new kinds of agricultural and non-agricultural activities
Azadi, Hossein; Ghanian, Mansour; Ghuchani, Omid M.; Rafiaani, Parisa; Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Hajivand, Roghaye Y.; Dogot, Thomas
The present debate on how to increase global food production in a sustainable way has focused on arguments over the pros and cons of genetically modified (GM) crops. Scientists in both public and private sectors clearly regard GM technology as a major new set of tools, whereas industry sees it as an opportunity for increased profits. However, it remains questionable whether GM crops can contribute to agricultural growth, agricultural development, and agricultural sustainability. This review p...
Ramalhosa, Elsa; Gomes, Teresa; Pereira, Ana Paula; Dias, Teresa; Estevinho, Leticia M
Honey is a natural product with recognized physical and chemical properties, which contribute to its biological activity. However, honey is currently being sold at low prices, making it imperative to find alternatives to make apiculture a viable national enterprise. One of these alternatives could be mead production. Despite the excellent properties of honey, mead production faces several problems, namely, delays and "pouts" fermentations, lack of product uniformity, and production of yeast off-flavors. Many factors might be related with these problems, such as honey variety, temperature, medium composition (vitamin and nitrogen content), fermentative yeast, and pH. Due to all these factors, mead production has decreased over the years. To overcome this situation, more research is needed to optimize the production of this beverage. This chapter presents a comprehensive review of previous research on mead production. It will focus on honey characterization and mead production. The first section covers honey composition and the way this affects honey properties, as well as important parameters that are indicators of honey quality. The second section discusses mead production, including fermentative microorganisms, fermentation conditions, and required postfermentation adjustments and maturation conditions. The final section focuses on the problems that must be surpassed and what the future holds for mead production. PMID:21867893
Byerlee, Derek; de Janvry, Alain; Sadoulet, Elisabeth
The fundamental role that agriculture plays in development has long been recognized. In the seminal work on the subject, agriculture was seen as a source of contributions that helped induce industrial growth and a structural transformation of the economy. However, globalization, integrated value chains, rapid technological and institutional innovations, and environmental constraints have deeply changed the context for agriculture's role. We argue that a new paradigm is needed that recognizes ...
Wolf,; Schoorlemmer, H.B.; Smit, A B; Lauwere, de, C.
Sustainable agriculture is an important issue in the Netherlands. A balance between People, Planet and Profit is necessary to create a sustainable agriculture. Entrepreneurial qualities are important for farmers to find this balance for his particular situation. Therefore, three research institutes of Wageningen UR have started a joint project to analyse and develop entrepreneurship in agriculture, being started in 2002 and ending in 2005. This project is linked to several existing farmers ne...
Stefan Dercon; Douglas Gollin
Agriculture is the largest sector in most sub-Saharan economies in terms of employment, and it plays an important role in supplying food and export earnings. Rural poverty rates remain high, and labor productivity is strikingly low. This article asks how these factors shape the role of agriculture in African development strategies. Is agricultural growth a prerequisite for growth in other sectors? Or will urbanization and nonagricultural export markets ultimately be the forces that pull the r...
Pereira, Ana Paula; Dias, Teresa; Andrade, João; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Estevinho, Letícia M
Mead is a traditional drink, which results from the alcoholic fermentation of diluted honey carried out by yeasts. However, when it is produced in a homemade way, mead producers find several problems, namely, the lack of uniformity in the final product, delayed and arrested fermentations, and the production of "off-flavours" by the yeasts. These problems are usually associated with the inability of yeast strains to respond and adapt to unfavourable and stressful growth conditions. The main objectives of this work were to evaluate the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, isolated from honey of the Trás-os-Montes (Northeast Portugal), to produce mead. Five strains from honey, as well as one laboratory strain and one commercial wine strain, were evaluated in terms of their fermentation performance under ethanol, sulphur dioxide and osmotic stress. All the strains showed similar behaviour in these conditions. Two yeasts strains isolated from honey and the commercial wine strain were further tested for mead production, using two different honey (a dark and a light honey), enriched with two supplements (one commercial and one developed by the research team), as fermentation media. The results obtained in this work show that S. cerevisiae strains isolated from honey, are appropriate for mead production. However it is of extreme importance to take into account the characteristics of the honey, and supplements used in the fermentation medium formulation, in order to achieve the best results in mead production. PMID:19481129
Julie Dana; Gilbert, Christopher L.
We survey the experience of risk management in developing country agricultural supply chains. We focus on exposure, instruments, impediments to access and developing country futures markets. We draw on lessons from experience over the past two decades.
Richard Mead (1673-1754) was an important figure in the development of medical science and toxicology. He wrote the first book in the English Language solely devoted to poisons, was an advocate for evidence-based medicine, advanced the social role of physicians in serving the poor and disadvantaged, supported the wider medical and scientific communities, and serves as a life role model for any age. PMID:21288153
This article highlights the contribution to sustainable agricultural development of various nuclear techniques, and describes the methods developed and promoted by the IAEA's Laboratories at Seibersdorf and Vienna. After a general introduction to the applications of nuclear techniques in agriculture there follow sections devoted to soil fertility, irrigation and crop production; agrochemicals and residues; insect pest control; and plant breeding. A second article, to appear in the next edition of the IAEA Bulletin, will focus on environmental aspects of sustainable development
Ramalhosa, Elsa; Gomes, Teresa; de Pereira, Ana Paula; Dias, Teresa; Leticia M. Estevinho
Honey is a natural product with recognized physical and chemical properties, which contribute to its biological activity. However, honey is currently being sold at low prices, making it imperative to find alternatives to make apiculture a viable national enterprise. One of these alternatives could be mead production. Despite the excellent properties of honey, mead production faces several problems, namely, delays and “pouts” fermentations, lack of product uniformity, and production of yea...
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Metadata only record This document provides projects funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation with a strategy to integrate gender into their work to improve agricultural development as a means of more effectively reducing hunger and poverty in developing countries. It outlines the expectations, tools, and necessary components required for an effective gender impact strategy. Specifically, the strategy focuses on engaging women as active participants and beneficiaries of agricultural...
The design and development of agricultural robots, consists of both mechan- ical, electrical and software components. All these components must be de- signed and combined such that the overall goal of the robot is fulfilled. The design and development of these systems require collaboration between...... processing, control engineering, etc. This thesis proposes a Model-Driven Software Develop- ment based approach to model, analyse and partially generate the software implementation of a agricultural robot. Furthermore, Guidelines for mod- elling the architecture of an agricultural robots are provided......, assisting with bridging the different engineering disciplines. Timing play an important role in agricultural robotic applications, synchronisation of robot movement and implement actions is important in order to achieve precision spraying, me- chanical weeding, individual feeding, etc. Discovering...
Lindsay A. K.; Mukole Kongolo
The objective of this study was to examine the importance of managing and maintaining the quality of rural roads to support agricultural and rural development in the Kingdom of Swaziland, to facilitate the distribution of agricultural products and its accessibility to the population. A structured questionnaire survey was used to collect both secondary and primary data sources, to fill the key information gaps through random sampling method. The data collected were tabulated and analysed throu...
The Ecuadorian Atomic Energy Commission has elaborated a plan for development of nuclear energy, the construction of a 1-3 MW Nuclear Reactor for Research and production of radioisotopes and of the related laboratories. Agriculture is a very important part of this plan, in the following areas: genetics, irrigation, plant and animal nutrition and metabolisms, and pest and disease control. Ecuadorian agriculture institutions have also been considered in this plan. (Author)
Larson, Donald F; Dinar, Ariel; Frisbie, J. Aapris
Many experts believe that low-cost mitigation opportunities in agriculture are abundant and comparable in scale to those found in the energy sector. They are mostly located in developing countries and have to do with how land is used. By investing in projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), countries can tap these opportunities to meet their own Kyoto Protocol obligations. The...
Qiang, Christine Zhenwei; Kuek, Siou Chew; Dymond, Andrew; Esselaar, Steve
The dynamic growth of mobile communications technology is creating opportunities for economic growth, social empowerment, and grassroots innovation in developing countries. One of the areas with the greatest potential impact is in the contribution that mobile applications can make to agricultural and rural development (ARD), by providing access to information, markets, and services to mill...
Claudio Marcelo Viale
Full Text Available In The American Evasion of Philosophy Cornell West makes a comparison between the developments of European and classical American philosophies. Within West’s analogy, however, two important American figures are missing: Josiah Royce and George H. Mead. In the context of this framework, this article attempts to extend West’s analogy, speculating on the possible roles of Royce and Mead within it. The argumentation is developed in two parts: on the one hand, I show how secondary literature that considers Royce-Mead ties reproduces Meadean statements on Royce –mainly presented in “The Philosophies of Royce, James and Dewey in their American Setting” (1930; on the other hand, I show a schematic analysis of Meadean statements on Royce from a historic as well as a systematic pragmatist perspective.
Cao, Liming; Pan, Xiaohua; Li, Maobai
In order to reduce carbon emission in agricultural production, this paper has discussed the development trend of low-carbon agriculture in terms of developing precision agriculture, improving the use efficiency of fertilizer, scientific use of pesticides, water-saving irrigation, ecological control of pests as well as energy conservation and emission reduction by agricultural machinery and other agricultural practices.
With advance of urbanization and industrialization, modern agricultural development in Chinas economic developed areas (CEDAs) is greatly restricted by traditional concept. To speed up the development of modern agriculture in CEDAs, this paper takes Suzhou City as an example from theories supporting modern agricultural development. It demonstrates agriculture in CEDAs plays an important role in adjusting supply of agricultural and sideline products, reserving rural labor employment, protecting ecological environment, increasing farmers income, and passing on agricultural culture. It contends that CEDAs should take reserving basic farmland as prerequisite; take adequate supply of primary agricultural products, protection of living environment, maintenance of agricultural landscape, and inheritance of farming culture as objectives; establish perfect modern agricultural system through firmly setting up modern agricultural value concept; increase local public finance input; increase agricultural functional value from technical and management levels, to realize increase of farmers income, promote sustainable development of agriculture, promote integrated urban and rural development, as well as harmonious development of human and nature.
Low carbon agriculture is a new production mode of green agriculture development to face the challenge of the global climate change, and a kind of innovation on developing circular agriculture. Up to now, low carbon agricultural development approaches are lacking of deep and systematical researches. Therefore, the paper briefly analyzed the situation and the existing problems of China's low carbon agricultural development, and then put forward the approaches to promote the low carbon agricultural development.
Recent agricultural biotechnology research and advances in the province are reviewed. Targets and practices for biotechnological development in depth are discussed, with stress on the talent's training, new techniques＇ establishment and its industrialization, starting from the existing level and problems in the field in the province.
Raisa Sergeyevna Shepitko
Full Text Available The article reveals the agriculture development potential of the Volgograd region enabling to move to the stable type of reproduction as well as its factors: the natural conditions, location, technological types of production, agrarian structure, horizontal and vertical integration, state support. Methodological approach of the differentiation of green box subsidies is approved, the mechanism of its realization is proposed. The evidence base is substantiated by the long-term research of the soil intensification and soil quality factors influencing the soil productivity in the region. Within the boundaries of the existing natural areas, the following zones of territorial and economic development are allocated: the zones of competitive and efficient grain production; the zone of commercial sunflower production; the zones of territory and priority development. The criterion signs of their development are formulated. Alongside with the natural factor, the following factors were accepted as a criterion: the level of production adaptability and development of rural areas, displacement of population, customary lifestyle, arrangement of production infrastructure, resources, the structure of the agrarian economy. The evolutionary entrance of small agribusiness into the innovative economy have been reasoned as well as the creating on this basis of a special sector of agrarian economy — organic agriculture, which is reasonable to develop in the field of dairy cattlebreeding and vegetable-growing. A strategic analysis of the technological types of production existing in the regional agriculture in the context of organizational units and activities is presented. These are: industrial with innovative elements, extensive and intensive with innovative elements, extensive and intensive, extensive. They provide modernization as a factor of evolutionary formation of the innovative economy in the agrarian sector. Considering the global tendencies, the priorities
Hoda, Anwarul; Gulati, Ashok
The World Trade Organizationâ€™s Doha Round of trade talks has been plagued by a lack of concrete progress toward establishing a fair and harmonious agricultural trading system. Because the results of the Doha Round could have far-reaching implications for the trade and economic prospects of developing countries in the twenty-first century, it is critical for these countries to fully understand the issues involved in the negotiations on agriculture. However, there has been no authoritative an...
Industrialization of agricultural scientific and technological achievements has become an extremely important part in agricultural structural adjustment and agricultural economic development. Basic models for industrialization of China’s agricultural scientific and technological achievements should be:( i) integrating scientific and technological development and production relying on large enterprises;( ii) integrating scientific research and development with agricultural scientific and technological achievements and scientific research institutions as support;( iii) spindle type transformation;( vi) agricultural scientific and technological demonstration area;( v) technology extension network.
The impact of the agricultural mechanization development on the agricultural economy has caught public attention. In this paper,the role of the agricultural mechanization in the agricultural economic development of Chongqing is analyzed with the qualitative and quantitative methods based on econometrics and agricultural engineering theory,and its contribution rate is 30. 6%. Moreover,the development of agricultural mechanization of the agricultural economy will play a leading role in the 21 st century,and will change the traditional economic development mode featured by increasing agricultural labor and chemical fertilizer. The quality and quantity of agricultural labor force mastering modern science technology is the key to the development of modern agricultural economy.
Organic farming as the method and organic food nowadays play more and more important role in supplying sustainable and environmentally friendly practices, support a high level of biodiversity, utilize natural processes and ensure appropriate animal welfare standards. The paper analyzes the development and issues of perspectives of organic farming in Latvia. Some findings on organic agriculture development are given, estimating the primary information on organic farming in Latvia regarding the...
Mohammad Sadegh Sabouri; Meysam Solouki
Agriculture and its development is the foundation of development in Iran as a developing country. So, it can be regarded as the foundation for economical and social development. The capabilities of agriculture sector are limited and its efficiency is trivial because of neglecting agricultural development and keeping its support just as a slogan. The transformation of agriculture to a developed, dynamic, efficient environment depends not only on appropriate climate and ...
Zhao, Jingzhu; Luo, Qishan; Deng, Hongbing; Yan, Yan
This paper introduces the concepts and aims of sustainable agriculture in China. Sustainable agricultural development comprises sustainability of agricultural production, sustainability of the rural economy, ecological and environmental sustainability within agricultural systems and sustainability of rural society. China's prime aim is to ensure current and future food security. Based on projections of China's population, its economy, societal factors and agricultural resources and inputs bet...
On the basis of introducing the concept of urban agriculture, this paper analyses the necessity of developing urban agriculture in Huainan City as follows: it is the need of transformation and upgrading of agricultural industry; it is the need of development of urban-rural integration; it is the need of sustainable urban development; it is the need of solving the issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers effectively. Then this paper analyses the endowment of developing urban agriculture in Huainan City. And finally the basic conception in industrial form and spatial framework is put forward, to develop urban agriculture in Huainan City.
Dhas, Albert Christopher
Tamil Nadu is basically an agricultural economy. Agriculture is the backbone of the development of the Tamil Nadu economy. The role of agriculture in shaping the economy could be reflected from the large proportion of population that depends on agriculture for their livelihood and the significant contribution of agriculture to the state income. Due to its predominance, any positive and negative aspects of developments in the state could be linked with the performance of the agricultural sec...
Photosynthetically derived biomass and residues, including waste products from food processing industries are renewable. They accumulate every year in large quantities, causing deterioration to the environment and loss of potentially valuable resources. The conserved energy is potentially convertible; thermodynamically the energy can be tapped into forms which are more amenable for value added agricultural applications or for other higher value products such as chemicals or their feedstocks. The forms and types in which this biomass has to be modified for the intended use depend on the costs or the respective alternatives. Under current situations, where chemical feedstocks are available in abundance at very competitive prices, biomass is obviously more suitably placed in the agro-industrial sector. Recycling of the biomass or residues into the soil as biofertilizers or for some other uses for agricultural applications requires less intense energy inputs for their improvements. Highly efficient biological processes with microorganisms as the primary movers in the production of the desired end products indeed require less capital costs than in most other industrial entities. In this paper, the various processes, which are potentially valuable and economically feasible in the conversion of biomass and residues for several products important in the agricultural sector, are described. Emphasis is given to the approach and the possible permutations of these processes to arrive at the desired good quality products for sustainable agricultural development. (Author)
This paper introduces current situations of agricultural insurance market in Shaanxi Province. It is indicated that development of Shaanxi’s agricultural insurance industry is faced with following difficulties. First, risks of agricultural production are various, occurrence frequency is high and losses are great. Second, effective supply of commercial insurance companies for agriculture is seriously inadequate. Third, farmers’ demand for agricultural insurance is restricted by many factors. Fourth, government support for agricultural insurance is not generous. Then, it puts forward strategies for development of agricultural insurance in Shaanxi Province. These include: encourage commercial insurance companies to actively enter agricultural insurance market; establish perfect agricultural reinsurance system; strengthen propaganda of agricultural insurance and speed up agricultural industrialization; enhance policy support for agricultural insurance to promote its development.
Organic agriculture can contribute to meaningful socio-economic and ecologically sustainable development, especially in poorer countries. This is due on the one hand to the application of organic principles, which means efficient management of local resources (e.g. local seed varieties, manure, etc.) and therefore costeffectiveness. On the other hand, the market for organic products – at local and international level – has tremendous growth prospects and offers creative producers and exporter...
With advance of urbanization and industrialization, modern agricultural development in Chinaâ€™s economic developed areas (CEDAs) is greatly restricted by traditional concept. To speed up the development of modern agriculture in CEDAs, this paper takes Suzhou City as an example from theories supporting modern agricultural development. It demonstrates agriculture in CEDAs plays an important role in adjusting supply of agricultural and sideline products, reserving rural labor employment, protec...
Toward the end of his life, George Herbert Mead developed a theory of perspectives that may be used to reinterpret his social, developmental psychology. This paper attempts such a reinterpretation, leading to the emergence of a theory of perspective taking in early childhood that looks quite different from that which is assumed in most extant work…
... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Lake Mead in support of the construction project for Lake... the timing of the construction. Immediate action is necessary to ensure the safety of commercial...
... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Lake Mead in support of the construction project for Lake... ensure the public's safety. Background and Purpose Vegas Tunnel Construction will be...
Fanxing; MENG; Jianguo; ZHOU
Development of modern agriculture has higher and higher requirements on quality of peasants.This study,on the basis of connotations of modern agriculture,current situation and problems of Chinese peasants,and contradictions between modern agricultural development and peasants’ quality,specifies requirements of modern agriculture on new peasants,proposes corresponding suggestions to promote the cultivation of new Chinese peasants.
Egelyng, Henrik; Halberg, Niels; Jensen, Henning Høgh
Farmers growing food with high eco-efficiency may be seen cultivating peace by reducing competition among nations for oil and as producers of other public goods: biodiverse landscapes and ecosystem services with more soil fertility, less water use and less pollution. How does Organic agriculture...... (OA) fare globally on eco-efficiency? Are most African farmers eco-efficient – or may eco-efficient farmers be found everywhere? As OA develops throughout the planet, what does Denmark do beyond Europe? Is organic farming part of our development policy? Do we dilligently share our comparative...
In the study,the connotation and objectives of agricultural cleaner production were introduced firstly,and then the development status of agricultural cleaner production in China was analyzed,and the problems existing in the development of agricultural cleaner production were pointed out.From the strategy of agricultural sustainable development,the necessity and feasibility of implementing agricultural cleaner production in China were discussed.Finally,some related countermeasures were put forward according...
Silva, Filipe Carreira da
G. H. Mead is rightly considered to be one of sociology's founding fathers, yet to date there have been surprisingly few books devoted to his life and work. This book fills the gap by introducing Mead's ideas to a younger generation of social scientists. Beginning with a biographical account of the main events in Mead's career, Filipe Carreira da Silva provides a thorough examination of Mead's social theory of the self, the reception of his ideas into sociology, and the relevance of his w...
Zhong Funing; Zhu Jing
Feeding a growing population exceeding 1 billion is a big challenge to the Chinese government and has partly led to the self-sufficient policy in grain production and supply for decades. However, the efforts to push grain production everywhere have resulted in not only deterioration of the environment but also stagnation or even reduction in farmers'income as production costs continue to increase.This situation might be worsening after China's accession to the WTO that provides market access for bulk commodity imports. A sustainable development in Chinese agriculture depends on diversification, or structural adjustment, that allows Chinese farmers to fully utilize their comparative advantage in production of labor-intensive goods.Past experience has shown that diversification has contributed more than a half of the growth in Chinese agriculture during the reform period and reduced stresses on the environment at the same time. It is likely to contribute even more to Chinese agriculture in the future and in a sustainable manner.
With the advent of low-carbon economy nowadays,the development of agriculture is necessary to adapt to the situation of global economic development,and transform the agricultural development models. This paper firstly gives an overview of low-carbon economy and lowcarbon agriculture,and then points out the possibility of developing the low-carbon agricultural economy in China,and describes the ways to develop the low-carbon agricultural economy. Finally,this paper puts forth the corresponding recommendations for the development of the lowcarbon agricultural economy.
Rosen, Michael R.; Turner, Kent; Goodbred, Steven L.; Miller, Jennell M.
Lakes Mead and Mohave, which are the centerpieces of Lake Mead National Recreation Area, provide many significant benefits that have made the modern development of the Southwestern United States possible. Lake Mead is the largest reservoir by volume in the nation and it supplies critical storage of water supplies for more than 25 million people in three Western States (California, Arizona, and Nevada). Storage within Lake Mead supplies drinking water and the hydropower to provide electricity for major cities including Las Vegas, Phoenix, Los Angeles, Tucson, and San Diego, and irrigation of more than 2.5 million acres of croplands. Lake Mead is arguably the most important reservoir in the nation because of its size and the services it delivers to the Western United States. This Circular includes seven chapters. Chapter 1 provides a short summary of the overall findings and management implications for Lakes Mead and Mohave that can be used to guide the reader through the rest of the Circular. Chapter 2 introduces the environmental setting and characteristics of Lakes Mead and Mohave and provides a brief management context of the lakes within the Colorado River system as well as overviews of the geological bedrock and sediment accumulations of the lakes. Chapter 3 contains summaries of the operational and hydrologic characteristics of Lakes Mead and Mohave. Chapter 4 provides information on water quality, including discussion on the monitoring of contaminants and sediments within the reservoirs. Chapter 5 describes aquatic biota and wildlife, including food-web dynamics, plankton, invertebrates, fish, aquatic birds, and aquatic vegetation. Chapter 6 outlines threats and stressors to the health of Lake Mead aquatic ecosystems that include a range of environmental contaminants, invasive species, and climate change. Chapter 7 provides a more detailed summary of overall findings that are presented in Chapter 1; and it contains a more detailed discussion on associated
Xinmin; ZHANG; Chunhong; QIN
Firstly,the status quo of low-carbon agriculture development in China was analyzed,and then advanced experience of developed countries in low-carbon agriculture development was introduced,finally ways of developing low-carbon agriculture in China were put forward.
The report presents the current status of some selected CGPRT Crops (secondary crops) and examines their potentials in enhancing the sustainable development of diverse agriculture in Bangladesh. Agriculture in Bangladesh is composed of crop, livestock, fisheries and forestry subsectors. This study deals primarily with crop agriculture and the scope of diversification is limited to crop rather than agricultural diversification.
We analyze development situations of Beijing modern urban agriculture from agricultural distribution,agricultural foundation and agricultural industrial system.Our research on challenges and opportunities of Beijing modern urban agriculture indicates that challenges include short of resources,deterioration of environment,and high production cost,and opportunities include large market space,advanced agricultural industrial experience and many other development opportunities.On the basis of these,we put forward development thought of Beijing modern urban agriculture in " the Twelfth Five Plan" period.We must improve foundation,integration and demonstration of agriculture;orient towards market and satisfy medium and high end market demands;actively cultivate and strengthen agricultural industrial level;create unique product brand;and raise added value of agricultural products.
Li, Jinkai; Gong, Liutang; Ji, Xi; Zhang, Jin; Miao, Pei
Using pesticides has double effects. On one hand, it contributes to pests control and regulates the growth of crops; On the other hand, it does harm to the environment. To develop ecological agriculture should not only emphasize the output level of agriculture to pursuit of economic efficiency, but also need to keep the ecological environment protected and focus on the social benefits during the development of the industry. As a large agricultural country in the world, China is vigorously promoting the development of ecological agriculture, which is bound to put forward to developing the pesticide industry and green ecological development requirements to promote the transformation and upgrading of agricultural pharmaceutical industry. This paper discusses the mechanism of pesticide pollution on the ecological environment and analyzes China's agricultural problems in the pharmaceutical industry. Then study on the development of Chinese green pesticides and try to find the proper paths of agricultural pharmaceutical to achieve industrial upgrading. PMID:25016265
Based on basic theory of Diamond Model,this paper analyzes the competitive power of Zhengzhou urban agriculture from production factors,demand conditions,related and supporting industries,business strategies and structure,and horizontal competition.In line with these situations,it introduces that the cluster development is an effective approach to lifting competitive power of Zhengzhou urban agriculture.Finally,it presents following countermeasures and suggestions:optimize spatial distribution for cluster development of urban agriculture;cultivate leading enterprises and optimize organizational form of urban agriculture;energetically develop low-carbon agriculture to create favorable ecological environment for cluster development of urban agriculture.
Full Text Available The experience of the developed countries has shown that it is completely delusional to try and create a modern agriculture without the powerful development of agricultural insurances. Agriculture has always been one of the most important economic branches in Romania, as it has the highest value of all European countries by GDP (8-12%. This field represents an important direction in the economic development, especially due to the high potential of the agricultural development in the E.U. countries. The present paper tries to illustrate the potential of agricultural insurances, their necessity, the general presentation of the domestic agricultural insurance market and that of the European Unions as well as the search for viable solutions of development in agriculture by the aid of insurances.
Wangyun; NING; Yulan; KUANG; Yonghua; ZHANG
Kunming City has entered the rapid development stage of urbanization. In the course of building the urban modern agriculture, the agricultural mechanization of Kunming City is being faced with excellent development opportunity. In this paper, the author scientifically analyzed current development situations of agricultural mechanization in Kunming City and explored existing problems in the course of development. On the basis of analysis, the author put forward recommendations, including increasing scientific research input for agricultural machinery, supporting agricultural machinery enterprises, promoting scientific and technical innovation, taking characteristic industries (such as flowers and vegetables) as pillar industry, speeding up development of modern facility agriculture, and upgrading primary processing of agricultural products. These will play significant role in the development of agricultural mechanization in Kunming City.
This paper discusses the importance of ecological agriculture from the perspective of ecological ethics. Firstly, it proposes issues encountered in the development process of ecological agriculture in China. Secondly, it develops the ecological ethics implication of ecological agriculture that ecological agriculture implies respect towards ecological value, reflects pursuit on ecological benefit and emphasizes emphasis on ecological safety. Thirdly, it makes an analysis of the development pat...
Anh, Dao The; Thinh, Le Duc; Bihn, Vu Trong
The objective of the study is to investigate the socio-economic impacts of recent developments in the regional and global economic environment, including trade liberalization on upland agriculture at a village level and identifying constraints to the sustainable development of diversified agriculture, in particular upland agriculture based on CGPRT crops in Viet Nam.
Turner, Kent; Rosen, Michael R.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Miller, Jennell M.
Lakes Mead and Mohave, which are the centerpieces of Lake Mead National Recreation Area (LMNRA), provide many significant benefits that have made the modern development of the Southwestern United States possible. Lake Mead is the largest reservoir by volume in the nation and it supplies critical storage of water supplies for more than 25 million people in three Western States (California, Arizona, and Nevada). Storage within Lake Mead supplies drinking water and the hydropower to provide electricity for major cities including Las Vegas, Phoenix, Los Angeles, Tucson, and San Diego, and irrigation of more than 2.5 million acres of croplands (National Park Service, 2010). Lake Mead is arguably the most important reservoir in the nation because of its size and the services it delivers to the Western United States (Holdren and Turner, 2010).
Suzanne Gatt; Ignasi Puigdellívol; Silvia Molina
El interaccionismo simbólico de Mead sirve tanto para entender cómo las y los estudiantes aprenden como para mejorar los entornos de aprendizaje. Este artículo revisa las contribuciones teóricas de este autor que están actualmente en la base de las actuaciones educativas de más éxito a nivel internacional. Se profundiza teóricamente en la visión interaccionista del aprendizaje, la dialogicidad constituyente de la persona, y la interacción mediada por el lenguaje verbal y los gestos. Estos ...
Xin Xiang [Chinese Ministry of Agriculture (China). Centre of Energy and Environmental Protection; Mang, H.P. [Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering (China)]|[Centrum fuer Internationale Migration und Entwicklung (CIM), Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
China is still largely rural, with abundant biomass resources including agricultural residues, and animal wastes amounting to about 2.5 billion tons per annum. The first National Strategy for Renewable Rural Biomass Energy Development has developed a strategy which will provide a framework for a sustainable utilization of these resources as well as develop additional resources for renewable energy reduction. To comply with these regulations, under current economic and regulatory conditions, the least-cost response for mist agro-enterprises will be the installation of conventional, ''end of pipe'' waste treatment facilities. The results of an International Seminar on Biogas for Poverty and Sustainable Development in Beijing (Peoples Republic of China) in October 2005 came up with the following strategies for large scale biogas plant implementation: (a) Integration of biogas electricity generation in national feed-in-grid strategies and village electrification; (b) Create models for biogas grids; (c) Testing clear rules for Renewable Energy laws application; (d) Promotion of large scale industrial and community plants; (e) Integration of bio-organic waste and septic/faecal sludge collection system.
John M. Kerr
India's agricultural growth has been sufficient to move the country from severe food crises of the 1960s to aggregate food surpluses today. Most of the increase in agricultural output over the years has taken place under irrigated conditions. The opportunities for continued expansion of irrigated area are limited, however, so Indian planners increasingly are looking to rainfed, or unirrigated agriculture to help meet the rising demand for food projected over the next several decades. Given th...
This Graduation Thesis represents basic concepts of real estate market and factors, affecting value of the landed property or real estate. It describes the development process of landed property - from agricultural land to urbanized land for construction with building permission. Landed property prices are analysed by the development stages and are based on The Surveying and Mapping Authority of the Republic of Slovenia's (Geodetska uprava Republike Slovenije - GURS) data. GURS divides landed...
Mercado, Agustin R., Jr.; Manuel R. Reyes; Ella, Victor B.
This presentation describes the implementation of Conservation Agriculture production practices in Claveria, Misamis, Philippines, as well as its impacts on soil conservation and marketable produce yields. This research was conducted by the SANREM CRSP Long Term Research Activity 12, Conservation agriculture for food security in Cambodia and the Philippines.
Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...
In 1977 MIT/Lincoln Laboratory designed, constructed, and put into operation a 25-kW-peak solar photovoltaic power system in Mead, Nebraska. This system was to be used to provide power to an agricultural test facility operated by the University of Nebraska. The initial application of the PV system was to provide power to irrigate an 80-acre cornfield. The photovoltaic power system is described as it existed at the time of its inauguration, and as it will exist following the completion of presently planned modifications, which include more fully automated control and addition of an uninterruptible power supply.
Full Text Available The paper focuses on the situation of the agricultural land market in Slovakia and in selected region of the SR – Nitra region, on the application and development of agricultural land prices in Slovakia and on the factors that influence the decisions of agricultural enterprises on the market with agricultural land. In this paper were used primary data obtained with interview method realized within the research of Department of European policies, Slovak University of Agriculture during the period 2012 – 2013 in all districts of region Nitra. The evaluation of the impact of agricultural subject on agricultural land market in Slovakia was realized by using the method of regression analysis. Based on the results from the research we can state that entrepreneurs still prefer more to rent land then to purchase a land. The main factors influencing the decision-making process of agricultural subjects are ownership fragmentation, the fragmentation of agricultural plots and business's financial situation and profitability of the purchase. Many entrepreneurs pointed to this indicator as one of the most influential in terms of increasing the market price, respectively as a reason for not signing the lease agreement. The agricultural land market in Slovakia is emerging but still not sufficiently transparent. Further development of the market will continue to be marked by the overall economic situation in agriculture, relatively low competitiveness of Slovak farmers in the European market and reduced profitability. Research showed that the most pronounced effect on the price of agricultural land and the amount of rent for agricultural land has the number of enterprises. Growing number of farms will increase the price or amount of rent for agricultural land.
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).
This annual review of selected developments in agricultural education and training of the United Nations family presents economic and social progress reports of countries dependent upon agriculture. Topics covered are education and training in Africa, deep sea fishing training in Korea, correspondence courses in agriculture, national marketing…
Adewumi, B. A.
Agricultural Engineering has transformed agricultural practices from subsistence level to medium and large-scale production via mechanisation in the developed nations. This has reduced the labour force requirements in agriculture; increased production levels and efficiency, product shelf life and product quality; and resulted into…
Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Carstensen, J.; Frohn, L.M.;
The retrospective analysis investigates links between atmospheric nitrogen deposition and algal bloom development in the Kattegat Sea from April to September 1989-1999. The analysis is based on atmospheric deposition model results from the ACDEP model,hydrodynamic deep-water flux results, phytopl...
Liangshan; YANG; Hailing; HE
Creative agriculture is a new agricultural type with originality as a key element, integrating agricultural production activities into creative activities such as culture and art, broadening functions of agriculture and improving added value of agricultural products. Creative agriculture is characterized by external economy, technology integration, art appreciation, high efficiency and value, and it is significant for promoting inheritance of traditional culture, optimal allocation and regeneration of resources, optimal distribution of elements, expansion of agricultural functions, construction of beautiful countryside, cultural construction of rural areas, transformation of agricultural and rural economic growth mode. With agricultural resources as the foundation, sightseeing and leisure agriculture as the breakthrough point, by means of science and technology, many regions in China have explored products of creative agriculture and presented several typical cases of creative agriculture. However, these projects are mostly restricted by problems such as poor development concept, lack of supportive policies, and ineffective industrial integration. Taking Zhejiang Province as an example, we proposed path choice, supportive system and relevant policy suggestions for the development of creative agriculture.
Fengcui; FAN; Yu; TIAN; Zhihong; LI; Jianming; JIA; Yufang; SHI
The present situation,problems and constraints of the circular agriculture development in Hebei Province are systematically analyzed,the subject modes suitable for the development of circular agriculture and the value-added potential are described,and finally some proposals are put forward.
O.V. Prokopenko; V.A. Omelyanenko
The aim of the article. The aim of the article is an analysis of technological aspects of leasing application for agricultural enterprises in the context of complex innovative development of agrarian sphere.The results of the analysis. It is shown that the latest technology and recovery techniques must be at all stages of the agricultural sector. The first stage is selection of breeding. The last is sale of agricultural products. Asset structure of agricultural enterprises occupies about one ...
Stefan Dercon; Douglas Gollin
Agriculture is the largest sector in most sub-Saharan economies in terms of employment, and it plays an important role in supplying food and export earnings. Rural poverty rates remain high, and labor productivity is strikingly low. This paper asks how these factors shape the role of agriculture in African development strategies. Is agricultural growth a prerequisite for growth in other sectors? Or will urbanization and non-agricultural export markets ultimately be the forces that pull the ru...
Hasager, Charlotte Bay; CARSTENSEN J.; Frohn, L. M.; Gustafson, B.; Brandt, J.; Conley, D.; Geernaert, G.; Henriksen, P.; C. A. Skjøth; Johnsson, M.
The retrospective analysis investigates links between atmospheric nitrogen deposition and algal bloom development in the Kattegat Sea from April to September 1989-1999. The analysis is based on atmospheric deposition model results from the ACDEP model,hydrodynamic deep-water flux results, phytoplankton abundance observations from Danish and Swedish marine monitoring stations and optical satellite data. Approximately 70 % of the atmospheric deposition consists of wet depostion of highly episod...
Mohammad Sadegh Sabouri
Full Text Available Agriculture and its development is the foundation of development in Iran as a developing country. So, it can be regarded as the foundation for economical and social development. The capabilities of agriculture sector are limited and its efficiency is trivial because of neglecting agricultural development and keeping its support just as a slogan. The transformation of agriculture to a developed, dynamic, efficient environment depends not only on appropriate climate and natural resources but also on human resource development in the relevant sector. The main purpose of the present research was to study and recognize agricultural development indicators from agriculture experts’ viewpoints (including researchers, trainers and extension experts in six provinces in Iran on the basis of Adjacent Provinces Plan. The study was designed with three phases of theoretical foundations, field operations and data analysis. The statistical population was 863 experts, out of which 198 experts were selected by stratified sampling. The validity and reliability of measurement tool (questionnaire was analyzed by SPSS software package. The study was a correlation-descriptive study in which factor analysis statistics was used in addition to descriptive statistics. Experts grouped indicators of future agricultural development in nine groups (access to inputs, application of technologies for the development of human resource and sustainability; reduction of losses; economical development; improvement of infrastructures; agricultural mechanization; social status; improvement of marketing; land reform; yield increase. Results about the difference in respondents’ viewpoints revealed significant differences in experts’ viewpoints in six studied province about relevant variables and in their viewpoints about the components of agricultural development (infrastructure improvement, marketing, optimum management and sustainability, human resource development and economical
Eicher, Carl K.
During Africa's first two decades of independence from 1960 to 1980, priority was given to increasing the size of national extension services because it was assumed that technology could be imported from industrial countries and the International Agricultural Research Centers. Over the past decade, donors have turned their attention to assisting national agricultural research systems (NARS). But many NARS are performing poorly and are faced with a high turnover of scientific staff and inadequ...
Asenso-Okyere, Kwadwo; Davis, Kristin
"Every day, millions of rural people who depend on agriculture confront technical, economic, social, cultural, and traditional obstacles to improving their livelihoods. To cope with these obstacles, the rural poor draw on indigenous knowledge and innovate through local experimentation and adaptation. Indigenous knowledge alone, however, is not enough to deal with the complex problems facing the agricultural sector. Emerging issues such as high food prices, climate change, and demands for biof...
Pehu, Eija; Ragasa, Catherine
Technological innovation in agriculture can bring enormous benefits to the poor. High-yielding varieties of staple food crops have improved agricultural productivity, raised incomes, and reduced food prices. Innovations in plant breeding research based on advances in genetics that make it possible to manipulate plant DNA. Referred to as 'biotechnology,' its use in agriculture is controversial, particularly with regard to the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), also k...
Chambwera, Muyeye; Anderson, Simon
African agriculture is already struggling to meet increasing demand for food. Climate change, which will alter agroecological conditions and looks set to arrest and decrease agricultural yields on the continent, will make it even harder to achieve food security. Boosting agricultural productivity in Africa, especially in the face of climate change, cannot be achieved without the benefits of cutting edge science. Advances in technology development and transfer, capacity building and policy research must be harnessed by developing and disseminating relevant strategies and technologies, and improving policy environments. The European Initiative for Agricultural Research for Development (EIARD), which facilitates and coordinates European policy and support for agricultural research for development, must integrate climate change into its activities and ensure that agricultural research for development and climate change adaptation are not disjointed. This demands a more strategic and coordinated approach from the initiative — one that reflects African realities, responds to African priorities for adaptation and development, and makes the best use of limited resources.
Short for Xi’an-Xianyang New Development area,Xixian New Area is a modern garden city and the development urban agriculture is its key and bright point.With the aid of SWOT method,this paper analyzes strength,weakness,opportunity and threat of urban agriculture in Xixian New Area.Combining actual conditions of developing urban agriculture in Xixian New Area,it discusses general and specific development modes of urban agriculture.It is concluded that urban agriculture in Xixian New Area should bring into play its strength and avoid its weakness,select suitable development mode and road.Besides,it should give into play multi-function of urban agriculture,so as to promote coordinated and sustainable development of economy,society,ecology and environment.
The agricultural economy in Anhui Province is developing so fast,but farmers are severely affected by the frequent occurrence of natural disasters. The current agricultural insurance mode is not suitable,therefore,the research on agricultural insurance modes of Anhui Province helps to promote the steady development of the agricultural production. Starting from situation of agricultural insurance in Anhui Province,learning from both experience of foreign country and the latest successful domestic modes,we try to put forward agricultural insurance mode framework which is suitable for Anhui Province. Based on the actual situation of Anhui Province,it is necessary to adopt the mode of government leading combined with agricultural mutual aid rather than copy the existing mode.
Rijn, van F.C.
In this thesis, I show that social capital has an important role in the evaluation of development initiatives targeting agricultural innovation. Social capital and agricultural innovation are naturally linked from an innovation system perspective in which innovations result from the integration of k
Full Text Available In the present article, an attempt was made to assess the sustainability of agricultural holdings with diff erent directions of production. Agricultural holdings in the Podlaskie voivodeship registered in the FADN system in 2011–2012 were investigated. Assessment accounted for agroecological indicators (share of permanent grasslands, share of cereals in crops, soil coverage with vegetation, stock density and economic indicators (profi tableness of land and labor. Analysis was conducted according to a classifi cation into agricultural holding types: fi eldcrops, dairy cattle, and granivores. Fieldcrop and granivore holdings achieved more favourable environmental sustainability indicators. Holdings specializing in dairy cattle breeding posed a threat to the natural environment, mainly due to their excessive stock density. Economic sustainability assessment showed that granivore holdings were assessed most favorably. In these holdings, holding income per full-time worker was 37% greater than in fi eldcrop holdings and 57% greater than in dairy cattle holdings.
Full Text Available Cloud computing technology has brought great opportunities to the development of China's agriculture; however it is also facing unprecedented challenges. According to the advantages of cloud computing, based on the status quo of China's agricultural development, the paper first discussed the impacts of cloud computing for China's agricultural development; and analyzed the field and the prospects of its possible applications in agriculture; then presented the application and promotion of cloud computing technology is a long-term system works, not only need to build the data center, integrate resources, enhance service capabilities, and also need to make information security.
Full Text Available Agricultural sector, from past to present, had assumed very important duties on economic and social development of societies. It became a globally indispensable and strategic sector due to its various attributes such as: direct/indirect contributions to population nourishment, national income, employment, capital transfers, raw material supply for industry, exportation, biological diversity and ecological balance. Since the dawn of humankind, agricultural sector had gone through a variety of phases in terms of production activities and land proprietorship. Agricultural activities that emerged in the period of hunter-gatherer societies have been superseded by today’s specialized and planned agricultural enterprises utilizing information and technology. Agricultural accounting has also experienced a significant change in parallel with those improvements. This study aims to investigate historical development of agricultural accounting and difficulties encountered during its implementation. Research studies indicate that agricultural assets were initially recorded and inventory controls were performed by Sumerians. Until the Middle Ages, agricultural accounting did not experience any development, whereas it still encounters various difficulties eve
Jadalla. A. E. Omar
Full Text Available The specific objectives of Sustainable agricultural development are to enhance food security; to increase productivity and competitiveness of the sector; to deepen linkages with other sectors; to create new sources of growth for the sector; and to conserve and utilize natural resources in a sustainable basis. The agricultural extension services can play a crucial role in providing this network of information on sustainable agricultural education. Thus, the role of agricultural extension is very important to support Sustainable agricultural development which is moving from production to a wider set of sustainability and environmental objectives may need to change their extension approach. To fulfill this objective, a sample of 46 Managers, Deputy Directors, respondents was selected through simple of sampling technique. A survey study was applied as a methodology of research .A questionnaire was used to collect the data and Analysis of descriptive statistics. Results: According to factor analysis, the implications for sustainable agricultural development were categorized into two groups consisting: (a The Decentralization (b The Pluralism. That decentralization is high with Delegate the local committees (local leaders, farmers’ organizations and agricultural credit organizations for the dissemination of sustainable agricultural development programs and for the collection of taxes and financial charges from the farmers due to the extension services and loans of 67.4�0.While 69.6 �0of Managers and Deputy Directors mentioned that high performance of Pluralism is Providing training for farmers organizations’ staff. To achieve this participation, extension organizations would need to formally of decentralization and Pluralism or transfer the control of specific program planning and management functions to the system levels of local Agricultural extension, Private sector organizations, Farmers organizations and Education organizations where
Kang, Jun; Cai, Lecai; Li, Hongchan
With the developing of the agricultural information, it is inevitable trend of the development of agricultural electronic commercial affairs. On the basis of existing study on the development application model of e-commerce, combined with the character of the agricultural information, compared with the developing model from the theory and reality, a new development model electronic commerce of regional agriculture base on the government is put up, and such key issues as problems of the security applications, payment mode, sharing mechanisms, and legal protection are analyzed, etc. The among coordination mechanism of the region is discussed on, it is significance for regulating the development of agricultural e-commerce and promoting the regional economical development.
Chongjing; TAN; Shi; YANG
Development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing takes on rapid increase in number of service organizations,diversified service methods,improvement in service level,and constant service income. However,there are some problems,including unreasonable composition and small scale of service organization,imbalanced development of four service methods,low service level,and low operating income of agricultural machinery households. To accelerate development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing,it is recommended to take following measures: adjusting subsidy for purchase and operation of agricultural machinery; improving fiscal and taxation and financial system; speeding up infrastructure construction,establishing agricultural machinery information network,and improving organizational form and methods of agricultural machinery operating service.
Based on the brief account of the connotation of transforming economic development pattern and government functions,the thesis will introduce the development status of agricultural economy in Guizhou Province:firstly,single agricultural industrial structure;secondly,large gap between urban and rural development;thirdly,low-level utilization of agricultural science and technology;fourthly,fierce contradiction between agricultural mode of production and ecological environment.Then it analyzes the basic requirements for government functions in transforming the development pattern of agricultural economy in Guizhou Province:the first one is the function to guide sustainable development and the structural adjustment of agricultural production;the second is the function to coordinate urban-rural development and equally supply basic public goods;the third is the function to input science and technology to serve agriculture;the fourth one is the dominant function to promote the harmonious development of man and nature as well as to reduce the number of peasants.In order to promote the transformation of agricultural development mode and maintain the sound and rapid economic development,some corresponding measures and suggestions are proposed from the perspective of government functions:firstly,promoting the optimization and upgrading of industrial structure;secondly,the government should take the lead in providing rural public goods;thirdly,strengthening the skills training and technological education of rural labor force;fourthly,reducing the number of farmers and retaining the farmers.
Jovanovic, Raka; Kais, Sabre; Alharbi, Fahhad H.
A new hybridization of the Cuckoo Search (CS) is developed and applied to optimize multi-cell solar systems; namely multi-junction and split spectrum cells. The new approach consists of combining the CS with the Nelder-Mead method. More precisely, instead of using single solutions as nests for the CS, we use the concept of a simplex which is used in the Nelder-Mead algorithm. This makes it possible to use the flip operation introduces in the Nelder-Mead algorithm instead of the Levy flight wh...
This document presents innovations in agricultural risk management for natural disaster risk, with the focus on defining practical roles for governments of developing countries and the World Bank in developing risk management strategies. The paper includes the following content: introduction; risk and risk management in agriculture, including informal and formal mechanisms; approaches to a...
Recent increases in demand for agricultural land has fuelled academic, as well as public, interest in the potential effects of high value agricultural land, particularly in developing countries. The dominating question seems to be: will increasing demand for agricultural land imply land grabbing...... or rural development? This article finds empirical support for a proposed theory which suggests that the extent of agricultural rent-seeking, in the form of large-scale land acquisitions, is determined by the relative political power of an elite and a farmer group. © 2014 Taylor & Francis....
Yichuan Zhang; Lei Feng
Purpose: The development of leisure agriculture is an important means of agricultural industry structure adjustment of Henan province, China, to realize the transition from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. Design/methodology/approach: The SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat) analysis of Henan leisure agriculture will contribute to the sustainable development of Henan leisure agriculture. The strength, weakness, opportunity and threat of developing leisure agriculture ...
RADULY ISTVAN; PARTENIE DUMBRAVA
AAgricultural direct marketing implies the selling of agricultural, mainly horticultural products directly to the public either through on-farm markets (farm-shops), community-based farmers’ markets, or post, electronic mail and internet web order. These types of distribution channels can supply customers with fresh, ripen and healthy produce without the physical and social costs of transportation. In our view direct marketing alone is not competitive enough, as it should combine innovation w...
Baydakov A. N.
Full Text Available The main statements of the methodology of forecasting of social-economic phenomena and processes in agriculture and the basic requirements to ensure realistic results of forecasting the development of the agrarian economy are considered in this work. The relevance of this topic conditioned on the need of developing a systematic and evidence-based development strategy for the agricultural sector of the country as a whole and on the regional level. In this regard, the study presents an analysis of the main indicators of the Program of development of agriculture of Russia and the Stavropol region, as well as their comparative characteristics, which allowed us to make conclusions about the region's share in the national indicators of agricultural development. The authors have conducted forecasting of the major indicators of Agriculture of Russia and the Stavropol region. The forecast covers such characteristics of agriculture, as the amount of output (production component, investments in fixed capital of agro industrial complex (investment component and balanced financial result (resultant component. The composed scenarios of development of agricultural production in Russia and the Stavropol region reflect possible trends: inertial development of the industry, based on maintaining the current dynamics of development; pessimistic scenario anticipating slow pace of development of investment activity in the agricultural sector; optimistic scenario, based on the assumption that the creation of fundamental conditions for public and private investment in agro industrial complex. The results are of interest to scientists studying the processes of development of agriculture, and for representatives of the agricultural business and government
This thesis addresses the development and issues of environmentally friendly agriculture in the Czech Republic, in particular after its entry to the European Union. It provides definitions for the basic concepts and conditions of environmentally friendly agriculture. It explores the history of and legislation regarding environmentally friendly agriculture and conditions for animal husbandry, plant cultivation and the attitude to the environment under the current regime. The thesis also descri...
Oded Galor; Omer Ozak
This paper establishes that the Caloric Suitability Index (CSI) dominates the commonly used measure of agricultural suitability in the examination of the effect of land productivity on comparative economic development. The analysis demonstrates that the agricultural suitability index does not capture the large variation in the potential caloric yield across equally suitable land, reflecting the fact that land suitable for agriculture is not necessarily suitable for the most caloric-intensive ...
Lerman, Zvi; SHAGAIDA Natalya
Russia has experienced dramatic changes in land ownership and land tenure since the dissolution of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991: agricultural land has been largely privatized, individual landowners now have legal rights to most agricultural land in the country, and previous prohibitions on buying and selling of land have been removed by recent laws. The necessary preconditions for the development of agricultural land markets have been met and we are beginning to witness transactions th...
Pemberton, Carlisle A.; Mgonja, Mary A.
The paper examined whether increasing agricultural output would lead to an expansion of employment in rural areas in the Caribbean and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The paper found that the agricultural development problems in the Caribbean and SSA are very similar, especially, declining export demand for products, adverse trade policies and the actions of nature, causing damage to agricultural production. The simulations performed showed that in both regions, even a 4% annual increase in agricul...
The paper firstly analyzes selection factors for market subjects of agricultural industrial development in China. From the political aspect, it is required to take account of features of subjects of agricultural industrial development at current stage. From economic aspects, we should adheres to the two-tier management system that integrates unified with separate management on the basis of household contract management in the countryside, and cultivate and foster subject enterprises according to features of most important market subjects in market economy. From natural aspects, it is proposed to consider features of agricultural industry and inherent advantages of agricultural resources in China. From social aspects, it is essential to draw on successful experience of developed countries in developing market subjects of agricultural industry.
Silva, Filipe Carreira da
Filipe Carreira da Silva addresses the basic questions 'How should we read Mead?' and 'Why should we read Mead today' by showing that the history of ideas and theory-building are closely-related endeavors. Following a contextualist approach in exploring the meaning of Mead's writings, Carreira da Silva reads the entire corpus of Mead's published and unpublished writings in light of the context in which they were originally produced, from concrete events like the American involvement in World ...
Renato Ferreira de Souza
Full Text Available Com este artigo pretende-se contribuir para a compreensão histórica de um autor/personagem da Psicologia. Analisamos e acrescemos conhecimento sobre George Herbert Mead e os desdobramentos de sua teoria psicossocial. Para esse propósito, explicitaremos, no texto, uma das vertentes analíticas utilizadas em nossa dissertação, qual seja: por meio da abordagem social em história da psicologia, confrontamos a vida de Mead com momentos de constituição da psicologia, colocando em relevo aspectos centrais dessa interlocução nem sempre identificados. Correlacionamos a história de Mead com questões sociais, políticas, econômicas e científicas, assim como suas conexões com práticas e valores culturais específicos de sua época. Buscamos compreender sua limitada difusão na ciência psicológica, dando, assim, continuidade ao processo de (revolta do autor.This article intends to contribute to historical understanding of author/character of Psychology. We analyzed and enlarged knowledge about George Herbert Mead and the developing of his psychosocial theory. For this reason, we will explain in the text as analytical side used in our dissertation, in other words: through of the social approach in history of psychology we confront the life of Mead with facts of constitution of the psychology, emphasizing central aspects of this discussion not always identified. We correlate the history of Mead with social, politic, economic and scientific questions as well as his connections with practices and specific cultural values of his time. We look to understand his limited diffusion in the psychological science, giving, so, continuity to the process of returns of the author.
Wolfe, M.S.; Baresel, J.P.; Desclaux, D.;
The need for increased sustainability of performance in cereal varieties, particularly in organic agriculture (OA), is limited by the lack of varieties adapted to organic conditions. Here, the needs for breeding are reviewed in the context of three major marketing types, global, regional, local, in...... characteristics into the crop can be helped by diversification within the crop, allowing complementation and compensation among plants. Although the problems of breeding cereals for organic farming systems are large, there is encouraging progress. This lies in applications of ecology to organic crop production...
Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Matthews, Alan
Despite substantial reforms, the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is still criticised for its detrimental effects on developing countries. This paper provides updated evidence on the impact of the CAP on one developing country, Uganda. It goes beyond estimating macro-level economic effects...... by analysing the impacts on poverty. The policy simulation results show that eliminating EU agricultural support would have marginal but nonetheless positive impacts on the Ugandan economy and its poverty indicators. From the perspective of the EU’s commitment to policy coherence for development, this supports...... the view that further reducing EU Agricultural support would be positive for development....
Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Matthews, Alan
Despite substantial reforms, the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is still criticised for its detrimental effects on developing countries. This paper provides updated evidence on the impact of the CAP on one developing country, Uganda. It goes beyond estimating macro-level economic effects...... by analysing the impacts on poverty. The policy simulation results show that eliminating EU agricultural support would have marginal but nonetheless positive impacts on the Ugandan economy and its poverty indicators. From the perspective of the EU’s commitment to policy coherence for development, this supports...... the view that further reducing EU Agricultural support would be positive for development....
Full Text Available Bioelectrochemical systems (BES are a newly emerged technology for energy-efficient water and wastewater treatment. Much effort as well as significant progress has been made in advancing this technology towards practical applications treating various types of waste. However, BES application for agriculture has not been well explored. Herein, studies of BES related to agriculture are reviewed and the potential applications of BES for promoting sustainable agriculture are discussed. BES may be applied to treat the waste/wastewater from agricultural production, minimizing contaminants, producing bioenergy, and recovering useful nutrients. BES can also be used to supply irrigation water via desalinating brackish water or producing reclaimed water from wastewater. The energy generated in BES can be used as a power source for wireless sensors monitoring the key parameters for agricultural activities. The importance of BES to sustainable agriculture should be recognized, and future development of this technology should identify proper application niches with technological advancement.
Quan, Yongxin; Liu, Zeng-Rung
China is the most populous country in the world. Of its 1.3 billion people, 22% of the world population, about 67% are living in rural areas. Although China is the third largest country in terms of area, the arable land is only 7% of the global amount. With relatively meager endowment, it is undoubtedly a daunting task for the agricultural sector to provide adequate supply to fulfil huge needs for food and other agricultural products. In addition, agriculture development in China confronts wi...
On the basis of industrial division of China’s Securities Regulatory Commission,listed companies in the processing industry of agro-products and food production industry have also been incorporated into agricultural listed companies.Developmental discrepancy of agricultural listed companies is analyzed.The main manifestations are small population quantity,slow development,weak growing capacity,relatively poor rationality and unbalanced regional distribution.The internal causes of this kind of situation lie in the weak quality and inadequate developmental driving force of agricultural listed companies,while the external causes are the capital chasing and unbalanced political support of the country.Therefore,the key of quickening the development of agricultural listed companies is inner power and external competition.Thus,the political thoughts of the development of agricultural listed companies are proposed.
George, David; Clewett, Jeff; Birch, Colin; Wright, Anthony; Allen, Wendy
There are few professional development courses in Australia for the rural sector concerned with climate variability, climate change and sustainable agriculture. The lack of educators with a sound technical background in climate science and its applications in agriculture prevents the delivery of courses either stand-alone or embedded in other…
Anriquez, Gustavo; Stamoulis, Kostas G.
This paper examines the relationship between rurality and poverty, and the role the agricultural sector can play in rural development, poverty reduction, and overall development. The historical views regarding the role of the primary sector in development are presented, and then using original data, the paper argues that there was an historical misjudgment against the primary sector that served as a foundation for anti-agricultural bias in public policy until the late 80â€™s. Finally, this pa...
Sustainable agricultural development seeks not only to preserve and maintain natural resources, but also to develop them, as future generations would have much more demand quantity-wise and quality-wise for agricultural and food products. Such goals should ensure a balance with the development of livelihoods enjoyed by the individuals concerned. Livelihood should not be restricted to an indicator of sufficient income levels but should also include public health concerns and edu...
Abstract The analysis of which factors affect the development of European agricultural policy, the CAP, combines economic, political and historic methods to examine the interaction between politicians, farmers and voters/taxpayers. The objective of this PhD thesis is to examine the development...... and persistence of agricultural policy in the EU, based on the hypothesis that the political process and the agricultural structure are linked together. This is achieved through an examination of the foundation, the Danish farm household income and the future of agricultural support. The result of this study...... is that the foundation of agricultural policy in Europe depends on domestic policy, thus how the policy measures will affect voters. The farm households in Denmark have a living standard which is equal to rest of the society....
Full Text Available The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of export. According to selected indicators of social challenges of sustainable agriculture the number of persons working in agriculture has decreasing tendency in last years. The evaluation of selected indicators of environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture implies that area of organic agriculture is the most widely applied sub-measure within the measure agri-environmental payments. For ensuring the balance of the three mentioned dimensions of sustainable agriculture is necessary to increase of local production and consumption of local products, to ensure the protection of nature and landscape, to ensure rural development and to increase the employment opportunities in countryside.
Reymer V. V.
Full Text Available This article explains the relevance of evaluation of agricultural growth, which can be achieved through the implementation of agricultural sectors’ innovative potential. The opportunities of agricultural growth are defined by the set of macroeconomic, sectoral and regional factors as well as the type of enterprises that have different levels of innovative susceptibility. The authors give an overview of the main methods of social and economic forecasting and justify the choice of the ARIMA (Autoregressive integrated moving average as a tool for forecasting regional development of agriculture. The article presents the experts’ estimatesbased values of integrated indicators of agricultural exogenous factors and the ARIMA-parameters based on the use of these indicators for time series prediction of agricultural production in the Amur region. The authors conclude that the time series ARIMA-model of the gross agricultural production, taking into account the influence of innovation potential factors, demonstrate a good approximation to the Amur region data. This article also compares the forecasts of agricultural production on inertial and innovative scenario for the Amur region, and provides an estimation of innovation potential growth of the agricultural branches
Full Text Available Food insecurity threatens communities across the Tamilnadu States, characterized by environmental degradation, decreasing agricultural land, rising social inequities, skewed communities, and public health issues. Urban agriculture provides an opportunity to counteract food system problems and empower individuals. Urban agriculture is broadly defined as food production in urban spaces. Despite its benefits, urban agriculture is threatened by institutional barriers. Urban agriculture is not fully supported by municipal laws and policies, making it vulnerable and impermanent. Therefore, developing and implementing planning policies, laws, and programs to support urban agriculture will establish its practices and support its benefits. Research focuses on broad policies, comprehensive plans, zoning ordinances, and organizational infrastructure. Samples are drawn from cities across the Tamilnadu States, including San Francisco, Chicago, Boston, Cleveland, Seattle, and Chicago. Discussion, comparison, and evaluation are based on public input and comment. Because of the very recent and ongoing nature of urban agriculture planning measures, discussed policies, laws, and programs are sometimes incomplete or in the process of being adopted. This thesis establishes opportunities, examples, and boundaries for developing an urban agriculture planning framework and potential nationwide municipal application.
MARIA EUGÊNIA BUNCHAFFT
Full Text Available Mead foi um filósofo pragmatista americano que desenvolveu uma linha de pensamento denominada como interacionismo simbólico. Para o psicólogo social, somente pode existir um sentido de "eu" se houver um senso correspondente de um "nós". A teoria de Mead é fundamental para Habermas e para Honneth, pois não recorre ao individualismo metodológico, explicando os fenômenos sociais e o comportamento social em uma perspectiva intersubjetiva. Defende-se que a preocupação fundamental de Habermas (2002; 2012, em sua releitura da psicologia social de Mead, se concentra em que o desenvolvimento do self alcance um nível de pós-convencionalidade. A preocupação de Honneth, ao resgatar Mead, vincula-se aos contextos de vulnerabilidade moral, ou seja, à possibilidade de evitar os danos que o self possa sofrer na formação da identidade pessoal. Sustenta-se, finalmente, que uma releitura da psicologia social de Mead com base no paradigma normativo da autorrealização não possui recursos teóricos com potencialidade para avaliar as injustiças contemporâneas e atender aos desafios propostos pelos novos movimentos sociais, porquanto a ampliação das dimensões de reconhecimento não pode basear-se em uma apologia da psicologia moral do sofrimento. Busca-se, portanto, apresentar um diálogo entre Habermas e Honneth sobre a psicologia social de Mead.
The article explicates George Herbert Mead's theory of consciousness as presented in Mind, Self and Society. According to Mead, the term consciousness may refer to three different sets of phenomena: (1) the environment as implied by our goal-directed action; Mead names this consciousness aspect...... experience; it is shared by humans and subhuman animals alike; (2) consciousness of environmental experience; Mead names this consciousness aspect awareness; it is exclusively human; (3) the peculiar sensed qualities attaching to consciousness, equalling what is today named qualia. Descartes......-inspired psychology makes the third consciousness aspect all-important. Within Mead's framework for a darwinistically inspired psycholgy, it becomes theoretically insignificant....
Jonathan Brooks; George Dyer; Ed Taylor
This paper proposes a methodological framework for examining the distributional effects of alternative agricultural policies in less developed economies. The framework combines disaggregated household models with an explicit modelling of the linkages between product and factor markets.
Jickells, T.; Spokes, L.
The coastal seas are one of the most valuable resources on the planet but they are threatened by human activity. We rely on the coastal area for mineral resources, waste disposal, fisheries and recreation. In Europe, high population densities and high levels of industrial activity mean that the pressures arising from these activities are particularly acute. One of the main problems concerning coastal seas is the rapid increase in the amounts of nitrogen-based pollutants entering the water. They come from many sources, the most important ones being traffic, industry and agriculture. These pollutants can be used by algae as nutrients. The increasing concentrations of these nutrients have led to excessive growth of algae, some of which are harmful. When algae die and decay, oxygen in the water is used up and the resulting lower levels of oxygen may lead to fish kills. Human activity has probably doubled the amount of chemically and biologically reactive nitrogen present globally. In Europe the increases have been greater than this, leading to real concern over the health of coastal waters. Rivers have, until recently, been thought to be the most important source of reactive nitrogen to the coastal seas but we now know that inputs from the atmosphere are large and can equal, or exceed, those from the rivers. Our initial hypothesis was that atmospheric inputs are important and potentially different in their effect on coastal ecosystems to riverine inputs and hence require different management strategies. However, we had almost no information on the direct effects of atmospheric deposition on marine ecosystems, though clearly such a large external nitrogen input should lead to enhanced phytoplankton growth The aim of this European Union funded MEAD project has been to determine how inputs of nitrogen from the atmosphere affect the chemistry and biology of coastal waters. To try to answer this, we have conducted field experiments in the Kattegat, an area where we know
George Herbert Mead har skrevet en rigtig dårlig bog, der dog også er en klassiker. "sindet, selvet og samfundet" er den blevet til i en udgivelsesklar dansk udgave- og oversættelsen er en historie i seig selv.......George Herbert Mead har skrevet en rigtig dårlig bog, der dog også er en klassiker. "sindet, selvet og samfundet" er den blevet til i en udgivelsesklar dansk udgave- og oversættelsen er en historie i seig selv....
MARIA EUGÊNIA BUNCHAFFT
Mead foi um filósofo pragmatista americano que desenvolveu uma linha de pensamento denominada como interacionismo simbólico. Para o psicólogo social, somente pode existir um sentido de "eu" se houver um senso correspondente de um "nós". A teoria de Mead é fundamental para Habermas e para Honneth, pois não recorre ao individualismo metodológico, explicando os fenômenos sociais e o comportamento social em uma perspectiva intersubjetiva. Defende-se que a preocupação fundamental de Habermas (2002...
Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Jean, Sebastien; Matthews, Alan
Recent analyses suggest that the impact of agricultural trade liberalization on developing countries will be very uneven. Simulations suggest that the effects of agricultural trade liberalization will be small, overall, and are likely to be negative for a significant number of developing countries. The Doha Round focuses on tariff issues, but these countries currently have practically duty-free access to European and North American markets under preferential regimes. Multilateral liberalizati...
Mok, Hoi-Fei; Williamson, Virginia; Grove, James; Burry, Kristal; BARKER, S; Hamilton, Andrew
Food production in cities has long been a tradition in many countries around the world and a mainstream activity for many developed countries. While urban agriculture plays an important role in increasing food security and social well-being, it comes with significant costs and constraints. Here, we review the growth of urban agriculture throughout the developed world in order to clarify the different benefits, risks, and hindrances associated with the practice. Through this analysis, we ident...
George, D.; Clewett, J.; Birch, C; Wright, A.; Allen, W
There are few professional development courses in Australia for the rural sector concerned with climate variability, climate change and sustainable agriculture. The lack of educators with a sound technical background in climate science and its applications in agriculture prevents the delivery of courses either stand-alone or embedded in other courses, and adversely affects the ability of graduating students to apply climate information. This paper presents evidence from a professional develop...
DeRosa, Dean A.
Despite petroleum's prominence in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), agriculture remains important to most to the region's economies. And more robust and more dynamic agricultural growth could significantly boost sustainable economic growth and rural development in those countries. An appropriate avenue for improving agricultural growth is to expand agricultural exports in MENA countries with appreciable-to-large agricultural sectors and comparative advantage in cereal grains, agricultu...
Silva, Filipe Carreira da
Despite decades of scholarship on G.H. Mead (1863—1931), we are still far from an adequate estimate of the full scope of his contributions. In this article, I examine the standard caricature that portraits Mead as an essentially idealist thinker, without much to say on the `material conditions of reproduction' of modern industrialized societies. Focusing on Habermas's version of this interpretation, I try to show that if `science and democracy' is a common theme amongst classical pragmatists,...
Spatz, Karen J.
Export market development activities are an integral part of today's agricultural marketing due to increasing competition worldwide. Marketing activities include promotion, advertising, and research financed by private and government-supported commodity groups. Cooperatives and private industry primarily market brand products but they also support generic promotion through legislated commodity programs. Federal and State agricultural commodity promotion programs are supported by growers and/o...
Based on basic theory of Diamond Model, this paper analyzes the competitive power of Zhengzhou urban agriculture from production factors, demand conditions, related and supporting industries, business strategies and structure, and horizontal competition. In line with these situations, it introduces that the cluster development is an effective approach to lifting competitive power of Zhengzhou urban agriculture. Finally, it presents following countermeasures and suggestions: optimize spatial d...
Habib A. Zuberi
This study, based on the time-series data covering the period from 1956 to 1986, estimates production function in the agricultural sector of Pakistan. The strategy for agricultural development in the country has been based on greater utilization of "high pay-off low-cost technology. The government advanced loans through financial institutions to make it possible for the farmers to acquire this technology. Despite the infusion of seed-fertilizer technology, per acre yield of major crops like w...
Cultivated capital lies at the heart of concerns about sustainable development for 3 reasons: First, sustaining agricultural productivity is essential to meeting the world’s still growing demand for food. Without adequate food consumption, nutrition and labour productivity are impaired, which in turn limits the pace of economic growth and poverty alleviation. Second, removing poverty requires income growth among the rural poor, many of whom continue to rely on agriculture-based economic syste...
Full Text Available Economic development within rural areas of the Republic of Moldova is affected by multiple issues which cross the agricultural individual sector development. One of the main factors that would influence positively the development of agriculture is investment. Investment plays an important role on the country's economy, representing the material support of its economic and social development. It ensures the permanent capital increase, advances the technical and economic efficiency of existing ones and creates new places of employment. In this context, investment is the decisive element of economic growth, of the intensive, qualitative and effective factors promotion.
Castle, S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Reager, J. T.; Thomas, B.
Over the past decade the Western US has experienced extreme drought conditions, which have affected both agricultural and urban areas. An example of water infrastructure being impacted by these droughts is Lake Mead, the largest reservoir in the United States at its full capacity that provides water and energy for several states in the Western US. Once Lake Mead falls below the critical elevation of 1050 feet above sea level, the Hoover Dam, the structure that created Lake Mead by damming flow within the Colorado River, will stop producing energy for Las Vegas. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, launched in 2002, have proven successful for monitoring changes in water storage over large areas, and give hydrologists a first-ever picture of how total water storage is changing spatially and temporally within large regions. Given the importance of the Colorado River to meet water demands to several neighboring regions, including Southern California, it is vital to understand how water is transported and managed throughout the basin. In this research, we use hydrologic remote sensing to characterize the human and natural water balance of the Colorado River basin and Lake Mead. The research will include quantifying the amount of Colorado River water delivered to Southern California, coupling the GRACE Total Water Storage signal of the Upper and Lower Colorado River with Landsat-TM satellite imagery and areal extent of Lake Mead water storage, and combining these data together to determine the current status of water availability in the Western US. We consider water management and policy changes necessary for sustainable water practices including human water use, hydropower, and ecosystem services in arid regions throughout the Western US.
The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig
A study was conducted during the year 2008 in the state of Haryana (India) by interviewing a total numbers of 80 farm and the study revealed that reasons for developing agri-tourism were easy to enter (62.50%), high profit (81.25%), employment opportunity (75.00%), no competition (37.50%). Promotion of agri-tourism were putting hoarding on roadsides (82.50%), through internet web sites (62.50%), advertisement in newspaper (37.50%), and local TV channel (18.75%).Agri-tourism contributes sustai...
In recent years,China’s economic construction enters into a new development period.The buyer’s market appears,structural demand of agricultural products becomes excessive,and the demand market becomes depressed.In the process of seeking approaches for expanding domestic demands,accelerating construction of small towns is a breakthrough point of rural population urbanization,and also an optimal approach for realizing transfer of rural surplus labor.Besides,accelerating construction of small towns is an inevitable path for intensive management of rural land implementing ecological agriculture,and also an optimal path for improving farmers’ quality and improving living conditions.In addition,it is an essential strategy for increasing consumption,expanding domestic demand,pulling rural economic and social development,and also a powerful measure for realizing sustainable development of agriculture.In the process of construction of rural urbanization,it is required to attach importance to strategy of sustainable development of agriculture.This is beneficial for the present generation and for descendants.Therefore,how to build small towns and how to solve many problems in sustainable development of agriculture have received much concern.
Over the past 30 years, programmes of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division have helped countries solve practical, and costly, problems in areas of soil fertility, irrigation, and crop production; plant breeding and genetics; animal production and health; insect and pest control; agrochemicals and residues; and food preservation. The Division's overall objectives are to exploit the potential for application of isotopes and radiation techniques in agricultural research and development; to increase and stabilize agricultural production; to reduce production costs; to improve the quality of food; to protect agricultural products from spoilage and losses; and to minimize pollution of food and the agricultural environment. On the occasion of the Joint Division's 30th anniversary year, this article highlights selected achievements over the past three decades
Muhammad Hakimi Mohd Shafiai
Full Text Available The Islamic finance industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. However, many potential Muslim customers, particularly in rural areas, have unfulfilled banking needs and lack access to financing. Meanwhile, entrepreneurial projects in the agricultural sector are presumed to optimize economic growth. In addition, some scholars have expounded that the financial problems faced by the agricultural sector are caused by the risks of debt financing and lack of access to the capital market. In Islamic law, almuzara’ah and al-musaqah can be considered as forms of partnership contract in farming. Therefore, using descriptive analysis, this paper attempts to portray how Islamic financial principles are closely related to the agricultural sector in developing Islamic agricultural finance. This study found that the application of the modes of Islamic financing in the agricultural sector through financial institutions could be very effective in providing financing to ensure that the partnership progresses effectively and efficiently. As a result, there is an urgent need to develop a sound agricultural financial system based on Islamic contracts in order to increase and sustain the income of farmers and landowners and to reduce poverty.
LI Li; TSUNEKAWA Atsushi; TSUBO Mitsuru; KOIKE Atsushi
Drylands of the world cover 41% of the Earth's land surface and are a direct source of livelihood for 6.5 billion people, especially in developing countries. However, nearly all drylands are at risk of land degradation as a result of human activities. Poverty and desertification in dryland areas are major problems threatening sustainable agriculture and rural development in dryland areas. Several topics that are significant for sustainable agriculture and rural development for food security and environmental rehabilitation in dryland areas were stressed in this paper.
Luciana Aparecida de Araújo Penitente
Full Text Available Habermas pensa a questão da individuação e da socialização a partir dos estudos de George Hebert Mead, que, na sua concepção, foi o primeiro a refletir substancialmente sobre um modelo de eu produzido socialmente. Mead oferece todo subsídio teórico para o desenvolvimento de uma teoria da evolução humana que envolve o processo de individuação e de socialização. Pelo paradigma de intercompreensão, ou seja, da relação intersubjetiva de indivíduos que se socializam por meio da comunicação e se reconhecem mutuamente, Mead permite a mudança de paradigma da consciência de si, da autorreferência de um sujeito que age isoladamente para o indivíduo que processa trocas sociais mediante a linguagem. Portanto, um dos principais componentes da teoria de Mead, em que Habermas busca contribuição para sua Teoria da Ação Comunicativa, é o processo de constituição do "eu", sua identidade. Mead acredita ser a individuação representada como um processo que é linguisticamente mediador da socialização e da construção de uma história de vida, na qual os sujeitos são conscientes de si. É esse meio linguístico estabelecido entre os sujeitos e o meio do entendimento intrassubjetivo e histórico vital que possibilita a formação de uma identidade de sujeitos socializados. É o reconhecimento intersubjetivo e autoentendimento mediado intersubjetivamente que propicia a formação da identidade. Esse quadro conceitual será fundamental a Habermas, na sua acepção de eu pós-convencional.Habermas discusses the question of individualization and socialization on the basis of the studies of George Herbert Mead, who, in Habermas' view, was the first to reflect substantially on a model of the socially produced "I". Mead offers a theoretical basis for the development of a theory of human evolution that involves the process of individualization and socialization. Through the paradigm of mutual understanding, that is, the intersubjective
Rodrigo Artunduaga Salas
Full Text Available The new advances in biotechnology, especially in the completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana, genome sequence has profound implications for human health as well as plant biology and agriculture. It will permit us to know the action of all the genes involved in the key growing and development processes of plants. Modification of the structure of genes will allow the regulation of the expression of some characteristics such as the size of the leaves or the dynamics of the roots and fruits growth. In this way, the commercialization of the products of the new biotechnologies will influence in this century´s nations, agricultural production, productivity and food supply. The challenges and opportunities for the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC are enormous, due to the rich base of their flora, fauna and microorganisms resources, which are essential to the pharmaceutical and feeding industries. The international Community recognizes the benefits of Biotechnology, but it also advocate more inquiry into the impacts of advanced agricultural biotechnologies on the environment, food system, structure of agriculture, rural communities, and population health.The countries of LAC should continue the development and improvement of the regulatory framework for preventing or minimizing the possible risks of the use and management of the transgenic organisms in their territory, and therefore, be able to make use of their potential benefits, ensuring the protection of public health and the environment.
Ahmad Reza Khorami
Full Text Available The agricultural sector as one of the most important sectors in the process of development has always had a special status in world economy. However, relative decrease of the share of agriculture over the recent decades often leads one to believe that agriculture can be ignored in favor of those sectors which have a faster progress, whereas, on the contrary, in order to accelerate favorable economic transition agriculture must be encouraged. Therefore, this research seeks to study the role and effect of the agricultural sector in comparison to other sectors such as industry, services, mining and commerce on variables such as GDP, the remnant of bank facilities and credit organizations, total petroleum exports in Iran during the past 15 years. Research methodology is applied and of descriptive-correlational type. Data collection tool is previous documents and evidence. Data analysis method is step-by-step regression. The results of the research indicate that in the first, second and third regression models agriculture respectively has the third, first and second status in regard to level of effectiveness.
Full Text Available Community supported agriculture (CSA refers to those agricultural activities that contrast with commercial agriculture. They consist of members who pay for fresh, untreated and locally grown food directly from farmers. In this way the risk is shared and the resellers are eliminated. This paper discusses the basic principles of CSA functioning and the historical circumstances of their development. Besides the economic dimension of the functioning of CSA groups, which is most important (ensuring of purchase, emphasis is also given to the social and cultural dimension of the groups activity. The basis of the work is the presentation of the functioning of CSA groups in Croatia and a comparison of social and economic characteristics of the group members and the farmers that collaborate to the groups with trends in the world. The results were collected by administering an online questionnaire among 46 group members and 5 famers. The survey has confirmed the starting hypothesis – that the group members are younger and highly educated persons who live in large cities or urbanized regions (Zagreb, Kvarner, Istria and are driven by eco-social motives (ecological consciousness, healthy food, cooperation with group members. Farmers who cooperate with CSA groups are practicing ecological agriculture on farms that are smaller than an average Croatian farm. They collaborate with the groups because of easier selling of the products and they find that the groups have a positive effect on their income and involvement in the local community.
Whitcraft, A. K.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Vermote, E.; Justice, C. O.
Recognizing the dynamic nature of agricultural cultivation both within and between years and across the globe, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is developing an agricultural monitoring (GEO-GLAM) system with the goal of enhancing the availability and use of satellite and in situ Earth observations (EO) for the generation of timely and accurate information on national, regional, and global food supply. One of the key components of the GEO-GLAM system is the coordination of satellite observations so as to ensure sufficient and appropriate data volume and quality for agricultural monitoring. Therefore, it is essential that we develop EO requirements which articulate in a spatially explicit way where, when, how frequently, and at what spatial resolution satellite imagery must be acquired to meet the needs of a variety of agricultural monitoring applications. Accordingly, best-available cropland location information ('where?') in conjunction with ten years of MODIS surface reflectance data have been used to characterize the timing and duration of the agricultural growing season ('when?') in the form of agricultural growing season calendars (GSCs) for all major agricultural areas of the Earth. With respect to temporal resolution, we must first identify the frequency with which we require imagery inputs for monitoring applications such as crop condition, crop type, crop yield estimation, and planted and harvested area estimation. Members of the GEO Agriculture Monitoring Community of Practice - a group of international scientists - have combined their knowledge and expertise to articulate these general requirements. Second, we must determine how cloud cover impacts the ability of optical sensing systems to meet these established temporal resolution requirements. To this end, MODIS Terra (morning; 2000-2011) and Aqua (afternoon; 2002-2011) observations have been analyzed to derive probabilities of a cloud free clear view at different times of day throughout the
Full Text Available Based on the usage of multiple sources of literature in this paper, a review of the most important characteristics is made along with the comparison of functions related to agricultural insurance in Croatia. Larger part of this paper is about comparison of offers and the ways agricultural insurance is being subsided in developed countries of the EU and USA on one hand, and Croatia on the other. Also, a display of risk coverage is made, along with the subsidization of the country and the way insurance system functions in Spain (country with the most developed security in Europe, Portugal, Italy, Austria and France. Main characteristic of the agricultural insurance in Croatia is a weak offer from the insurance companies, but also a weak demand. Therefore, only four companies can insure crops and plantations in Croatia. Although risk is unavoidable, negative impacts can be reduced with well-timed reaction and responsible organisation.
Pereira, A.P.; Ferreira, A. Mendes; Oliveira, J. M.; Estevinho, L .M.; Faia, A. Mendes
Mead is a traditional alcoholic beverage obtained by the fermentation of diluted honey performed by yeasts. In this work the potential of application of immobilised yeast cells on single-layer Ca-alginate or double-layer alginateechitosan for mead production was assessed for the first time. The meads produced either with entrapped or free cells were evaluated in terms of quality and aroma profile. The immobilisation procedure had no adverse effect on cell viability, since minor differen...
de Pereira, Ana Paula; Dias, Teresa; Andrade, João Verdial; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana; Mendes-Faia, Arlete; Leticia M. Estevinho
Mead is a traditional alcoholic drink which results from the fermentation of diluted honey. Yeasts used in mead production are, usually, wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Most of these yeasts are not adapted to the conditions of mead production namely, high sugar levels, low pH values and reduced nitrogen concentrations. The inability of yeast strains to respond and adapt to unfavorable stressful growth conditions, leads to several problems, such as lack of uniformity of the final ...
Luo, Yan; Yan YANG; Chen, Rui; Wu, Wei; PENG, Ziyun; Chen, Liangzheng; Li, Xuelin
Climatic characteristics of foreign low latitude plateau regions are firstly introduced. Then, experience and lessons of major foreign low latitude plateau countries in developing modern agriculture are analyzed, including Indian three agricultural revolutions and agricultural informationization development, application of agricultural biotechnology in Brazil, trade liberalization and economic de-agriculture of Mexico, and Argentina, Saudi Arabia and South Africa attaching great importance to...
Development of ecological agriculture is the mainstream of the world's agricultural development, as well as the only way to change from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. This paper expatiates the connotation of ecological agriculture and its significance to the development of western China. There are problems in the development of ecological agriculture in western China, manifested mainly in insufficient subsequent supply, overextension of resources, lack of capital and technolog...
Barnett, Tim P.; Pierce, David W.
A water budget analysis shows that under current conditions there is a 10% chance that live storage in Lakes Mead and Powell will be gone by about 2013 and a 50% chance that it will be gone by 2021 if no changes in water allocation from the Colorado River system are made. This startling result is driven by climate change associated with global warming, the effects of natural climate variability, and the current operating status of the reservoir system. Minimum power pool levels in both Lake Mead and Lake Powell will be reached under current conditions by 2017 with 50% probability. While these dates are subject to some uncertainty, they all point to a major and immediate water supply problem on the Colorado system. The solutions to this water shortage problem must be time-dependent to match the time-varying, human-induced decreases in future river flow.
Bacon, Neil; And Others
This training manual, the last volume in a four-volume series for use in training Peace Corps workers, deals with livestock. The first chapter provides suggested guidelines for setting up and carrying out the livestock component of the agricultural development worker training course. Included in the second chapter are lesson plans covering the…
Ausgangspunkt des Artikels ist die Handlungsrelevanz sozialer Vorstellungen. Verbreitete Konzeptualisierungen dieser Vorstellungen sind nicht zufriedenstellend. In Abschnitt 2 wird die dimensionale Analyse des Konzepts 'gemeinsames Wissen' durchgeführt, und in Abschnitt 3 werden Probleme und Perspektiven der Erklärung der Entstehung dieses Wissens analysiert. Sowohl für die Entwicklung des Konzepts wie der erklärungskräftigen Thesen erfolgt ein Rückgriff auf Mead. Eine Reihe seiner Ide...
Full Text Available The information flows and relations in agri-industry are very complex if we consider the institutes, industrial and commercial companies, banks, governmental organizations, which are related to this sector. The higher education and research institutions play very important rule in research on ICT. In the innovation systems several actors are seen as relevant to agricultural innovation, including agricultural entrepreneurs, researchers, consultants, policy makers, supplier and processing industries, retail and customers. Forces at play in today's economic and social environment create a need for greater communication and cooperation among specialists in value-added partnerships. The Hungarian Association of Agricultural Informatics has been implemented „The dissemination of research and development on innovative information technologies in agriculture” project, which was a part of the Social Renewal Operational Program, New Hungary Development Plan. Within this national program the project helped the diffusion of R&D research results on ICT in agriculture. A scientific journal and an online portal have been implemented in the project. This article describes the main objectives, developments and tasks which were solved and the main results of the project.
New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. Agricultural Experiment Station.
One of five reports developed to summarize research efforts conducted as part of an Agricultural-Forestry Development Project, this report presents the results of an inventory of human resources used in the agricultural and forestry industries in the Four Corners Economic Development Region. Explored are such aspects of labor as: (1) employment…
The development status and existing problems in the field of nuclear agricultural sciences (NAS) are reviewed. Including the application of nuclear technology in mutation breeding by irradiation, isotopic technique application, food irradiation and sterile insect technique, etc. China has made great achievements in the research and application of nuclear technique in agriculture from 1950s to 1990s. Due to lack of enough financial support to the basic research and reformation of science and research system in China, the development of NAS now meets its tough time. Through analyzing the difference and reasons of NAS development between China and the USA, it is recognized that the innovation in research and scientific system is important for promoting the development speed and research level of NAS. (authors)
de Janvry, Alain
In the classical paradigm of development economics that prevailed in the 1960s, agricultural growth was held to be the key pillar for industrial growth, itself seen to be synonymous with economic development. The paradigm was anchored in telling success stories, from the long history of the “Western Experience” to the then-recent “Asian miracles”. And it was supported by rigorous modeling exercises. But, in spite of success stories, implementation of this paradigm was running into increasing ...
Abstract. Qaim is a leading academic researcher on the global impacts of genetically modified crops and his diligence and thoroughness abound in his newest book, Genetically Modified Crops and Agricultural Development. Qaim’s objective is to inform the reader about the contribution that GM crops have, and can, make to improving economic circumstances and contribute to increased food security, particularly in developing countries. He accomplishes this objective through an artful blending of st...
The aim of this paper is to give a broad overview of the main issues faced by developing countries in a context of trade liberalization as part of the multilateral agricultural trade negotiations in the WTO Doha Round. The bargaining positions of developing countries in the Doha Round are described. A comparison of empirical results on possible outcomes of a Doha Round agreement follows with a focus on impacts in terms of poverty reduction. Results are then analyzed using the main theoretical...
Linn, Johannes F;
Taking successful development interventions to scale is critical if the world is to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and make essential gains in the fight for improved agricultural productivity, rural incomes, and nutrition. How to support scaling up in these three areas, however, is a major challenge. This collection of policy briefs is designed to contribute to a better understanding of the experience to date and the lessons for the future. Scaling up means expanding, replicating, a...
Fatma Nil Doner
The aim of this study is to provide a broad conceptual and historical outline of how rural development policies have been determined through technocratic policies in economic and political terms rather than participatory and transparent decision making processes. Given that the state and managerial expert groups have been the main architects of rural development and agricultural policies along with suprastate organizations such as the IMF and the World Bank, this study offers in-depth coverag...
Csaba Sarudi; Zoltán Szakály; Attila Máthé; Viktória Szente
Rural development includes local population, its way of life, employment characteristics, income structure, dwelling conditions, service levels as well as cultural aspects just as traditional handcrafts, dishes, language, clothing and habits. Since agriculture is a historically determining economic activity in rural areas its effects primarily determines the rural ways of life. New rural development policy of EU can be featured by multisectoral and integrated approach. Organic farming is base...
Staatz, John M.; Dembélé, Niama Nango
Agriculture is growing in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but the growth is precarious. In most countries, it has yet to reach the sustained 6% annual rate estimated by NEPAD as necessary to meet the Millennium Development Goal of cutting poverty in half by 2015. Growth needs to be accelerated, secured and used more effectively to promote broadly shared development. This requires two elements. The first is a reversal in the massive underinvestment and significant mis-investment that has taken place...
There is a great deal of concern today to ensure that economic development, including agricultural development, is sustainable. It is being increasingly emphasized that this sustainability requires care to be taken of the natural environment. This is because the natural environment is both the source of important resources that support economic activity and an avenue or sink for disposal of wastes from economic activity. Soil and water are for example, important natural resources used in agri...
Zhai Rongxin; Liu Yansui
From the view of.system theory,modern agriculture in a region embodies elements conformitv,structure optimization,multi-functionality and sustainable development.This paper first expounds on the relationship among agricultural elements,structure,function and development theoretically,compartmentalizes agriculture types based on human-land elements matching,and depicts the development path of agricultural multi-functionality.It shows that the matching of human-land elements is a key to agricultural types,and the multi:functionality is an indication of agricultural development stages.At last,as a case study of Suzhou in easteru coastal area,the paper analyzes the evolvement situation and developing mechanism and some typical models of modern agriculture which suit to agriculture system evolvement.The results show that in Suzhou the agriculture productivity has improved greatly,And along with the agriculture structure optimizing,agriculture function has translated from "production " to "nonproduction and production ".With simulation of agricultural trend in Suzhou,it is found that Suzhou has a LP,dependence (labor productivity) on agricultural element,so Suzhou will has much more potential in land productivity.Based on the above analysis on agricultural system,some typical patterns on modern agriculture in Suzhou are brought up,such as export-oriented agriculture,enterprises-leading agriculture,science and technology parks agriculture,stereoscopic agriculture,and tourism and sightseeing agriculture.
Indian agriculture has achieved remarkable success in the food grain production due to inception of 'rainbow revolution', which made the country self-sufficient in food production. Sustainable agriculture (SA) is an ongoing process, in which people take actions leading to development of agriculture that meets their current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. It advocates avoiding all those actions, which reduce the ability of future generations to meet out the present generations. It is based on the optimal interaction between clean environment, healthy economy, and vital society by avoiding trade-off of problems to other regions on to the future. Moreover, sustainable agriculture is the function of people's progress and nature's capacity. In fact, SA commits us to considering the long-term effect and to recognize our place within the ecosystem. It encourages a continuous reflection on the implications of human activity on the ecosystem. Empirical evidences shows that in the race of self-sufficiency in food grain production, we compromised a lot on social and environmental fronts. The aftermath of green revolution is not so sustainable as it showed reverse side too, in the form of environmental degradation and ecological imbalances. Such threats have led to the need for promoting sustainable development in agriculture. Due to several unsustainable activities which resulted in resource degradation in the form of top soil loss, ground water depletion and forest degradation. The average soil loss is estimated to be over 16 tonnes/ha/year. The ground water depletion resulted in several blocks as 'grey blocks' and 'dark blocks'. This happened mainly due to increase in number of tube-wells and free supply of electricity making the cost of pumping water very low. Rate of human induced land degradation is very high. Out of total geographical area of 329.0 million ha, 187 million ha (57.0 %) are reported to have degraded, of
McKim, Billy R.; Saucier, P. Ryan
Accidents happen; however, the likelihood of accidents occurring in the agricultural mechanics laboratory is greatly reduced when agricultural mechanics laboratory facilities are managed by secondary agriculture teachers who are competent and knowledgeable. This study investigated the agricultural mechanics laboratory management in-service needs…
Full Text Available This paper analyzed an opportunity of rural farmers in north of Thailand by interviewing 124 households which were 59 families from Tumbon-Santa Aumpor- Narnoi Nan province, 23 families from Tumbon-Banlao Aumpor-Mayjai Prayao Province, 22 families from Tumbon-Sritoi Aumpor-Mayjai Prayao Province, and 20 families from Tumbon-Parfak Aumpor-Mayjai Prayao Province during January 2012 – October 2012. Probit model was developed to answer some factors that impacted farm’s income. The results showed that the relationships between both organic and inorganic land and income level are positive. Most of the farmers were willing to change from conventional agricultures to organic agriculture but they did not have enough information and extension from government and private sectors. Comparing benefits and cost between conventional and organic agriculture found that organic agricultures provided better price and farmers will have better quality of live. Systems of knowledge and policies need to be developed and apply for peasants and farmers in north rural area in Thailand.
Full Text Available The article aims to study the recent trends and identify the main problems of the agricultural service cooperatives development. The processes of establishing and functioning of cooperatives in Lviv region are investigated. The dynamics of number of established cooperatives shows a gradual growth in recent year, while the share of operating units is rather low. The size structure of the agricultural service cooperatives in Lviv region proves that the rural population is insufficiently active in participating in cooperatives. The most popular sphere of activity of the cooperatives in the region is dairy production, while the most wide spread type of cooperative is a marketing cooperative. The analysis of the sales of agricultural products by the cooperatives of the region by distribution channels shows that on the present stage of their development service cooperatives can hardly cope with their main objective which is to overcome the monopoly power of commercial intermediaries. This is evidenced by the fact that the share of agricultural production sold by cooperatives to the intermediaries is still significant.
Jinhua; TANG; Yinghui; LI; Hongxia; LI; Yilin; LIU; Gangqiang; CHEN
As a part of certain region,agricultural development has inevitable connection with regional urbanization,and they are highly heterogeneous and complementary in space. Their internal relationship is manifested as agricultural structure suits demand of urbanization development through adjustment in the process of urbanization,while urbanization is based on development of regional agriculture. From history of world agriculture and urbanization development,agriculture firstly provides primitive accumulation for urbanization development,and drives regional urbanization through promoting agricultural development. When urbanization develops to certain stage,urbanization accumulation increases and reaches the goal of " boosting urbanization through agriculture". If urbanization develops slowly,agricultural adjustment will lack motive force. On the contrary,weak agricultural development will lead to stagnation of urbanization. Therefore,adjustment of agricultural structure and urbanization development are interconnected,mutually promoted and restricted,and interdependent.
Bullwinkel, H. J.; Hopkinson, R. F.
During the past three years (1978 to 1980), a 25-kWp photovoltaic (PV) solar energy system has provided 107-MW hours of energy to the University of Nebraska's Agricultural Research Station in Mead, Nebraska. Electrical energy produced by the PV system has provided 100% of the power needed throughout the growing season to meet the irrigation requirements for an 80-acre cornfield, as well as significant portions of power required for PV-related crop-drying and fertilizer-manufacturing experiments. Annual array output averaged 21.4 kWh (1978), 20.4 kWh (1979) and 19.0 kWh (1980) for every 1.0 kWh/m/sup 2/ of insolation. Field data indicate that the PV system, developed and maintained jointly by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Lincoln Laboratory and the University of Nebraska under US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship, has performed up to expectations, if due allowance is made for component degradation and seasonal soil/snow accumulation on the array.
Duro, Dennis Correa
Over the coming decades it is expected that the vast amounts of area currently in agricultural production will face growing pressure to intensify as world populations continue to grow, and the demand for a more Western-based diet increases. Coupled with the potential consequences of climate change, and the increasing costs involved with current energy-intensive agricultural production methods, meeting goals of environmental and socioeconomic sustainability will become ever more challenging. At a minimum, meeting such goals will require a greater understanding of rates of change, both over time and space, to properly assess how present demand may affect the needs of future generations. As agriculture represents a fundamental component of modern society, and the most ubiquitous form of human induced landscape change on the planet, it follows that mapping and tracking changes in such environments represents a crucial first step towards meeting the goal of sustainability. In anticipation of the mounting need for consistent and timely information related to agricultural development, this thesis proposes several advances in the field of geomatics, with specific contributions in the areas of remote sensing and spatial analysis: First, the relative strengths of several supervised machine learning algorithms used to classify remotely sensed imagery were assessed using two image analysis approaches: pixel-based and object-based. Second, a feature selection process, based on a Random Forest classifier, was applied to a large data set to reduce the overall number of object-based predictor variables used by a classification model without sacrificing overall classification accuracy. Third, a hybrid object-based change detection method was introduced with the ability to handle disparate image sources, generate per-class change thresholds, and minimize map updating errors. Fourth, a spatial disaggregation procedure was performed on coarse scale agricultural census data to render
Wang Yang,; Wang Yan
Along with the rapid advance of industrialization and urbanization process, fostering new agricultural business entities become inevitable for agricultural transformation and the construction of agricultural modernization in China. The status of the new agricultural business entities determines the level of modern agricultural development. In recent years, new agricultural business entities have grew rapidly. However, there are still many problems including the difficulties in financing loans, inadequate agricultural insurance system, bad implementation of agricultural subsidies, jagged agricultural talents and so on. In order to foster new agricultural business entities, countermeasures should be carried out to ensure financial support, perfect the agricultural insurance, strengthen the level of agricultural subsidies, strive to develop the degree of specialization agricultural operators and so on.
Kovačević Dušan; Lazić Branka
Agriculture is usually developed as much and just society where there is a branch of the economy. Today, there are different directions from industry agriculture to many concepts based on ecological principles. Future of agriculture development in the XXI century will imply sustainable agriculture as the alternative to the industrial agriculture. Conventional agriculture as an intensive one has a duty to ensure maximum production in terms of quantity and qu...
Zheng, Zewen; Zhang, Chenghua
Relationship between socialist new countryside construction and agricultural industrialization development in China is analyzed. On the one hand, socialist new countryside construction is the era background of agricultural industrialization development, offering a strong support for the development of agricultural industrialization. On the other hand, agricultural industrialization management is an important content of new countryside construction, offering basic economic guarantee for the co...
... defined in 33 CFR 110.127. (2) Temple Bar landing strip, located at approximate latitude 36°01′ N... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Mead National Recreation... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.48 Lake Mead National Recreation...
Gomes, Teresa; Barradas, Carla; Dias, Teresa; Andrade, João Verdial; Morais, Jorge Sá; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Leticia M. Estevinho
ln the north of Portugal, and in particular in Trás-os-Montes region, there is sometimes an overproduction of honey. Mead is one of the possibilities to overcome this problem. However, most of the time, mead is not produced in a standardized, but empirical and handmade form.
Martens, Corry; McLean, Scott
In Canada, agriculture and its related industries are undergoing rapid and significant changes. Among the many issues facing farmers and other agri-business people are the development of biotechnologies, the decline of on-farm and rural populations, the emergence of new public policies, concerns over food safety, globalisation of markets, sensitivity to environmental issues, and the influence of regional and global trade agreements. Given the complexity of these issues, and the distinctivenes...
A. De Castro
Full Text Available In this paper is presented a perspective on sustainability in agriculture - which derives from a notion of development tied to the idea of growth - supported by technological advances aimed at ensuring sustainable management of natural resources. In this sense, we consider here a socio-ecological approach in order to bring together the individual and their environment, showing that this relationship is fundamental for a process of coevolution, where nature and human being together can define the organization society.
Orsini, Francesco; Kahane, Remi; Nono-Womdim, Remi; Gianquinto, Giorgio
International audience The year 2007 marked a critical event in the world history. For the first time, more than half of the world population now lives in cities. In many developing countries, the urbanization process goes along with increasing urban poverty and polluted environment, growing food insecurity and malnutrition, especially for children, pregnant and lactating women; and increasing unemployment. Urban agriculture represents an opportunity for improving food supply, health condi...
Eash, Neal S.; Walker, Forbes; Thierfelder, Christian; Marake, Makoala V.; Wilcox, M; Lambert, D; Basson, A.
Metadata only record This presentation was given at the Soil Science Society of America annual meeting on October 22nd, 2012 in Cincinnati, Ohio at 11:10 in the morning. Conservation agricultural practices were used in Southern Africa's cropping system to improve soil nutrient, improve food security, sequester carbon, and mitigate green house gases. LTRA-9 (Developing sustainable CAPS for smallholder farmers in Southern Africa)
Schäfer, Prof. Dr. Martina
The paper presents results on the societal contributions of organic agriculture that go beyond environmental benefits derived from organic standards of production. Based on a survey and case studies, the differing contributions toward rural development by organic farms in Brandenburg (Germany) are demonstrated, including their social and regional engagement, building of bridges between urban and rural areas, and promotion of regional marketing and tourism. Further, the paper highlights the o...
Organic agriculture can, especially in poorer countries, contribute to meaningful socioeconomical and ecologically sustainable development. On the one hand, this is due to the organic practice, which means management of local resources (e.g. local seed varieties, dung, etc.) and therefore cost effectiveness. On the other hand, the market for organic products — at local and international level — has tremendous prospects for growth and offers to creative producers and exporters from the south s...
da Silva, Filipe Carreira
My aim is to discuss the history of the reception of George Herbert Mead's ideas in sociology. After discussing the methodological debate between presentism and historicism, I address the interpretations of those responsible for Mead's inclusion in the sociological canon: Herbert Blumer, Jürgen Habermas, and Hans Joas. In the concluding section, I assess these reconstructions of Mead's thought and suggest an alternative more consistent with my initial methodological remarks. In particular, I advocate a reconstruction of Mead's ideas that apprehends simultaneously its evolution over time and its thematic breadth. Such a historically minded reconstruction can be not only a useful corrective to possible anachronisms incurred by contemporary social theorists, but also a fruitful resource for their theory-building endeavors. Only then can meaningful and enriching dialogue with Mead begin. PMID:16345008
Sun, Nan; Chen, Shuhui
According to the viewpoints of predecessors, we define the signification of development right of agricultural land and connotation of the price of development right of agricultural land as follows, the development right of agricultural land is to change the former use nature of agricultural land, so as to become the right of construction Use land; the price of development right of agricultural land refers to the price that is difference between the price of construction use land, and summatio...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction; Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV. 165.T11-281 Section 165.T11-281 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS...
Full Text Available The European model of agriculture refers to a multifunctional andvirtuous model of agriculture that is progressively substituting the productivistmodel of agriculture, that, in the recent past, has been supported by agriculturalcommunity policies. However, the European model of agriculture comprisesheterogeneous realities and economic actors characterised by different localconducts. Schematizing this model, we can distinguish two agriculturetypologies: modernised agriculture and traditional agriculture. In this article, wewill develop a theoretical framework which encompasses the different patternsof endogenous development in both agriculture typologies. Through this article,we aim to create the theoretical basis necessary to undertake the study of thedualistic model of European agriculture.
Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is an analysis of technological aspects of leasing application for agricultural enterprises in the context of complex innovative development of agrarian sphere.The results of the analysis. It is shown that the latest technology and recovery techniques must be at all stages of the agricultural sector. The first stage is selection of breeding. The last is sale of agricultural products. Asset structure of agricultural enterprises occupies about one third of machines and equipment, which are now physically and morally outdated. Authors of the article analyze the technological aspect of leasing and prove that leasing of biological assets and leasing equipment should be considered separately, which are more consistent with the structure of the innovation needs of agricultural businesses (purchase of machinery and equipment, research and development, acquisition software and industrial design. Innovative technologies and leasing are proposed to be considered in the context of the eco-village system to ensure maximum utilization of all natural resources: low-temperature heat of the earth, air and water (heat pumps, alternative energy (solar, biomass, wind, water, etc., not carbon motor fuel (biogas, air, electricity, new modes, innovative agricultural technologies, safe disposal of solid waste of local wastewater treatment (biological, resonance, mechanical, technologies in the construction and infrastructure development. Stability of eco-village is affected by a lot of factors, including: economic (existence of a business within the eco-village and use the most cost-effective technologies; social (creating conditions for the development of human capital; technological (business uses the most effective technologies; environment (rational use of natural resources; political (agreement with the objectives of the state and its support; information (high level of information and transport connectivity. New
Achieving food security and environmental issues become greatest challenge of humankind. Further, natural resources are almost reaching its limit and hence there is a global call for optimum utilisation and also conservation of natural resources. In this existing scenario, sustainable natural resources management heavily relies on sound sustainable agricultural practices. The sustainable agricultural practices dissemination, diffusion and adoption depend on agricultural knowledge information ...
Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the development and application of agricultural composting reactor experimental apparatus. In agriculture, conversion of straw, sludge and other junk to agricultural fertilizer have a broad market prospect, it not only benefit solid waste recycling but also increase food production and food quality. Currently, the existing composting reactor had several shortcomings in practical application process, such as uneven mixing, long composting reaction cycle, producing odor and low maturity. Considering of materials and spatial structure, ventilation system, stirring system, we designed and developed a new experimental device aerobic composting reactor with relatively simple structure. We used the material in experimental device to doing a series of experiments, it include stir even, temperature changes, moisture changes, changes of organic matter, ammonia nitrogen change, change of nitrate nitrogen, PH values and so on. Experimental results showed that standard organic fertilizer could be produced by the device. Moreover, it had more complete degradation of organic matter to improve the quality of the compost product. Experiments also showed that compared with other existing devices, using the device could ferment evenly, increase the speed of biochemical reactions and reduce the fermentation time.
Full Text Available A spatiotemporal analysis on the changes in the marsh landscape in the Honghe National Nature Reserve, a Ramsar reserve, and the surrounding farms in the core area of the Sanjiang Plain during the past 30 years was conducted by integrating field survey work with remote sensing techniques. The results indicated that intensified agricultural development had transformed a unique natural marsh landscape into an agricultural landscape during the past 30 years. Ninety percent of the natural marsh wetlands have been lost, and the areas of the other natural landscapes have decreased very rapidly. Most dry farmland had been replaced by paddy fields during the progressive change of the natural landscape to a farm landscape. Attempts of current Chinese institutions in preserving natural wetlands have achieved limited success. Few marsh wetlands have remained healthy, even after the establishment of the nature reserve. Their ecological qualities have been declining in response to the increasing threats to the remaining wetland habitats. Irrigation projects play a key role in such threats. Therefore, the sustainability of the natural wetland ecosystems is being threatened by increased regional agricultural development which reduced the number of wetland ecotypes and damaged the ecological quality.
Tietjen, Todd; Holdren, G. Chris; Rosen, Michael R.; Veley, Ronald J.; Moran, Michael J.; Vanderford, Brett; Wong, Wai Hing; Drury, Douglas D.
Given the importance of the availability and quality of water in Lake Mead, it has become one of the most intensely sampled and studied bodies of water in the United States. As a result, data are available from sampling stations across the lake (fig. 4-1 and see U.S. Geological Survey Automated Water-Quality Platforms) to provide information on past and current (2012) water-quality conditions and on invasive species that influence—and are affected by—water quality. Water quality in Lakes Mead and Mohave generally exceeds standards set by the State of Nevada to protect water supplies for public uses: drinking water, aquatic ecosystem health, recreation, or agricultural irrigation. In comparison to other reservoirs studied by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for a national lake assessment (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2010), Lake Mead is well within the highest or ‘good’ category for recreation and aquatic health (see U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Lakes Assessment and Lake Mead for more details). While a small part of the lake, particularly Las Vegas Bay, is locally influenced by runoff from urbanized tributaries such as Las Vegas Wash, contaminant loading in the lake as a whole is low compared to other reservoirs in the nation, which are influenced by runoff from more heavily urbanized watersheds (Rosen and Van Metre, 2010).
QIU, Meihuan; LIN, Minxia; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Hongyi; WANG, Zhunian
Industrialization of tropical agricultural science and technology is an essential part of tropical agricultural technological innovation. This paper firstly analyzed development mode of industrialization of tropical agricultural science and technology in Chin and then came up with recommendations for developing industrialization of tropical agricultural science and technology.
Meihuan; QIU; Minxia; LIN; Xiaodong; ZHANG; Hongyi; ZHANG; Zhunian; WANG
Industrialization of tropical agricultural science and technology is an essential part of tropical agricultural technological innovation.This paper firstly analyzed development mode of industrialization of tropical agricultural science and technology in Chin and then came up with recommendations for developing industrialization of tropical agricultural science and technology.
Connors, John Patrick
The Kilombero Valley lies at the intersection of a network of protected areas that cross Tanzania. The wetlands and woodlands of the Valley, as well as the forest of surrounding mountains are abundant in biodiversity and are considered to be critical areas for conservation. This area, however, is also the home to more than a half million people, primarily poor smallholder farmers. In an effort to support the livelihoods and food security of these farmers and the larger Tanzanian population, the country has recently targeted a series of programs to increase agricultural production in the Kilombero Valley and elsewhere in the country. Bridging concepts and methods from land change science, political ecology, and sustainable livelihoods, I present an integrated assessment of the linkages between development and conservation efforts in the Kilombero Valley and the implications for food security. This dissertation uses three empirical studies to understand the process of development in the Kilombero Valley and to link the priorities and perceptions of conservation and development efforts to the material outcomes in food security and land change. The first paper of this dissertation examines the changes in land use in the Kilombero Valley between 1997 and 2014 following the privatization of agriculture and the expansion of Tanzania's Kilimo Kwanza program. Remote sensing analysis reveals a two-fold increase in agricultural area during this short time, largely at the expense of forest. Protected areas in some parts of the Valley appear to be deterring deforestation, but rapid agricultural growth, particularly surrounding a commercial rice plantation, has led to loss of extant forest and sustained habitat fragmentation. The second paper focuses examines livelihood strategies in the Valley and claims regarding the role of agrobiodiversity in food security. The results of household survey reveal no difference or lower food security among households that diversify their
Friederichsen, Rupert; Thai, Thi Minh; Neef, Andreas;
Competing models of innovation informing agricultural extension, such as transfer of technology, participatory extension and technology development, and innovation systems have been proposed over the last decades. These approaches are often presented as antagonistic or even mutually exclusive....... This article shows how practitioners in a rural innovation system draw on different aspects of all three models, while creating a distinct local practice and discourse. We revisit and deepen the critique of Vietnam’s “model” approach to upland rural development, voiced a decade ago in this journal. Our...
QIANG, Chengkui; QIN, Yuehua; Wang, Shengyong; Zhou, Baoya; Feng, Wujian; Wang, Songsong
According to the characteristics of low carbon economy and low carbon agriculture at home and abroad, and combining with actual situations of agricultural development in Xuzhou City, the necessity of developing low carbon agriculture in Xuzhou City is analyzed by the perspectives of its agricultural production conditions, agricultural modernization, comprehensive competitive power, ecological civilization and low carbon economy. Simultaneously, the feasibility of developing low carbon agricul...
Firstly,the thesis introduces the connotation of green agriculture,indicating that the green agriculture has 4 characteristics,namely openness,continuity,high efficiency and standardization,compared with the traditional agricultural development model.Secondly,the advantages of developing green agriculture in Jiangsu Province are discussed,namely rich agricultural resources,notable technological advantage,solid agricultural foundation,high quality of agricultural products,great market prospect of green consumption,and notable policy advantage.In view of the increasing shortage of natural resources,increasing restriction of rural labor force,increasing deterioration of rural environment,inadequate popularization of green agriculture,and fierce competition at home and abroad,the restricted factors of developing green agriculture in Jiangsu Province are introduced.Finally,in view of the agricultural concept innovation,green agricultural system innovation,agricultural technology innovation,agricultural management innovation,operation system innovation,ecological system innovation,development of tourism agriculture and regional differentiation development strategy,the relevant countermeasures and suggestions are put forward,in order to explore a new agricultural development model for Jiangsu’s modern agricultural development.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to identify the constrainsaffecting urban agriculture in Tehran, Iran. The statisticalpopulation of this study consisted of city dwellers within the 22municipal districts of Tehran out of which 320 individuals wereselected as the sample of the study. Cochran’s formula was usedto determine the sampling size based on stratified samplingmethod. A panel of experts confirmed the validity of the questionnaireused in this study. The calculated Cronbach’s alpha forthe main sections of the questionnaire was 0.95 and 0.93. Resultsof the ranking of constrains and challenges revealed that “highstart-up costs” and “lack of knowledge among managers andauthorities” were among the most important constrains. Theresults of factor analysis revealed that 7 factors including “education-research”, “infrastructure”, “support”, “regulations andpolicy making”, “technical”, “financial-economic” and “cultural”explained 67.36 of the variance. Although list of constrainsrevealed is not perfect, this work paves the way for furtherresearch regarding factors influencing urban agriculture. It alsoprovides interesting information for planners about the challengesof urban agriculture development.
The significance of developing characteristic agriculture in Central Economic Zone was elaborated from four aspects of three modernizations coordinated development,guaranteeing city supply of agricultural products,creating more jobs for farmers,making agriculture more significant. The existing problems in urban agriculture development were analyzed,such as understanding deviation,extensive development,market confusion,short industrial chain,low degree of specialization,harsh environment. Several corresponding countermeasures were put forward,including giving full play to the role of government’s macro-control; perfecting compensation mechanism of urban agriculture,developing characteristic agriculture,promoting deep processing of agricultural products; advancing scientific innovation,improving production efficiency;operating sustainable ecological agricultural development road; relying on traffic advantage,promoting industrialization operation and urban agricultural logistics development.
According to the viewpoints of predecessors, we define the signification of development right of agricultural land and connotation of the price of development right of agricultural land as follows: the development right of agricultural land is to change the former use nature of agricultural land, so as to become the right of construction use land; the price of development right of agricultural land refers to the price that is difference between the price of construction use land, and summation of the price of former agricultural land, the expense of developing agricultural land, the expense of management, and profit, after the agricultural land is transformed into non-agricultural construction use land. By using the principle of economics of land, this paper expounds the generation mechanism of the price of development right of agricultural land, namely the diversity of agricultural land use and the change of demand and supply of development right of agricultural land. The influencing factors of the development right of agricultural land are analyzed, and there are mainly the price of agricultural land, the price of construction use land, the contradiction of demand and supply of urban land, land use, and agricultural land.
Full Text Available This study explored the nexus amongst government agricultural spending and its inherent volatility level, total capital employed and turnover of the agricultural sector of the stock market and agricultural output in Nigeria. Time series data from 1978-2008 were employed. Data were analyzed using square of mean-adjusted relative change volatility estimation method, co-integration and error correction model and two-stage-least squares regression technique. There is the existence of a long-run relationship amongst government agricultural spending, total capital employed and turnover of the agricultural sector of the stock market and agricultural output. Government agricultural spending is influenced by its lag (0.42 and agricultural output (-1.94. Total capital employed in the agricultural sector of the stock market is influenced by government agricultural spending (0.15. Total turnover of the agricultural sector of the stock market is influenced by the total capital employed in the sector and the volatility level in government agricultural spending (-0.03. Agricultural output is influenced by government agricultural spending (0.09 and total turnover of the agricultural sector of the stock market (0.23. Government agricultural spending stimulates the development of the agricultural sector of the stock market, while its volatility is an impediment. The agricultural sector of the stock market is an effective window policy makers can exploit to increase agricultural output.
Chengkui; QIANG; Yuehua; QIN; Shengyong; WANG; Baoya; ZHOU; Wujian; FENG; Songsong; WANG
According to the characteristics of low carbon economy and low carbon agriculture at home and abroad,and combining with actual situations of agricultural development in Xuzhou City,the necessity of developing low carbon agriculture in Xuzhou City is analyzed by the perspectives of its agricultural production conditions,agricultural modernization,comprehensive competitive power,ecological civilization and low carbon economy. Simultaneously,the feasibility of developing low carbon agriculture in the city is discussed through low carbon technology,rural land management model,agricultural input channel,agriculture-related scientific research system,agricultural research transformation mechanism and rural personnel training program to provide some references for promoting the rapid and sound development of low carbon agriculture in Xuzhou City.
Turner, Kent; Goodbred, Steven L.; Rosen, Michael R.; Miller, Jennell M.
Lake Mead, particularly its Boulder Basin, is one of the most intensively monitored reservoirs in the United States. With its importance to societal needs and ecosystem benefits, interest in water quality and water resources of Lake Mead will remain high. A number of agencies have authorities and management interests in Lake Mead and maintain individual agency monitoring programs. These programs were enhanced on an interagency basis from 2004 to 2012 to facilitate intensive monitoring in all major basins of the lake. Recognition that increasing stressors and influences in individual basins can affect water quality throughout Lake Mead and gave rise to an even stronger effort towards the development of holistic and effective interagency approaches. In 2010, agency monitoring programs were used to develop a management plan for water-dependent resources at Lake Mead National Recreation Area (LMNRA). The Long-Term Limnological and Aquatic Resource Monitoring and Research Plan for Lakes Mead and Mohave (the Plan; National Park Service, 2010) documented key management questions to be addressed through monitoring and research, and identified interagency strategic objectives for water quality and water-dependent resources. Moreover, the Plan provides a framework for summarizing water quality and water resource information in five resource categories: water quality and limnology; fish and aquatic biota; sediments; birds; and riparian vegetation. The Plan also addresses three stressors to lake resources: contaminants, invasive species, and climate change. For each of these topics, the current (2012) state of knowledge is summarized for LMNRA (table 7-1), including key scientific questions and findings, management implications, and information needs. A more detailed discussion for each topic follows.
Culp, Elzie Lynn [Surprise Valley Electrification Corp., Alturas, CA (United States)
Surprise Valley Electric, a small rural electric cooperative serving northeast California and southern Oregon, developed a 3mw binary geothermal electric generating plant on a cooperative member's ranch. The geothermal resource had been discovered in 1980 when the ranch was developing supplemental irrigation water wells. The 240°F resource was used for irrigation until developed through this project for generation of electricity. A portion of the spent geothermal fluid is now used for irrigation in season and is available for other purposes, such as greenhouse agriculture, aquaculture and direct heating of community buildings. Surprise Valley Electric describes many of the challenges a small rural electric cooperative encountered and managed to develop a geothermal generating plant.
Nakanishi, Tsuneo; Jæger-Hansen, Claes Lund; Griepentrog, Hans-Werner
Agricultural vehicles and robots expand their controlling software in size and complexity for their increasing functions. Due to repeated, ad hoc addition and modification, software gets structurally corrupted and becomes low performing, resource consuming and unreliable. This paper presents...... an evolutional development process combining Software Product Line (SPL) and eXtreme Derivation Development Process (XDDP). While SPL is a promising paradigm for successful reuse of software artefacts, it requires understanding of the whole system, a global and future view of the system, and preparation of well...... of the autonomous tractor, that applies XDDP initially for addition and modification of functions, accumulates core assets and cultivates a global view of the system through iterated development with XDDP, and finally shifts to SPL development....
Weng, Boqi; Zhang, Weili; Wang, Yixiang
This paper firstly elaborated current situation of agricultural resources and ecological environment protection of China, and pointed out that circular agriculture is an inevitable choice for sustainable development of agriculture and effective approach for low-carbon economic development. Then, it analyzed mode and benefit of typical circular agriculture, such as ecological orchard in southeast hills, sightseeing ecological agricultural garden, and crop straw use. Finally, it came up with co...
Full Text Available In the article assessment of economic efficiency of agriculture is discussed from the sustainable development perspective. Basic definitions are outlined and spheres of sustainability related to Polish agriculture characteristics. Concepts of productivity and efficiency measurement are illustrated with the use of recently conducted research. Ability of different measures to reflect most important processes in agriculture sector is discussed. Following, development policies for economy and agricultural sector are reviewed to suggest concept of economic efficiency measurement form the sustainable agriculture perspective.
ZHOU, Fangying; SUN, Shunqiang; Joseph J., Molnar
Circular agriculture helps to solve the drawbacks of traditional agricultural production and achieve unified economic and ecological benefits, consistent with the concept of sustainable development. Based on the theoretical perspective of circular agriculture, this paper builds the evaluation indicator system for circular agriculture in Sichuan Province, and uses the coefficient of variation to evaluate the current situation of development of circular agriculture in Sichuan Province from 2000...
The developmental status and situation of Yunnan Bazi agriculture are introduced. The prominent problems of Yunnan Bazi agriculture are put forward from the restriction of natural environment and the limitation of social economic conditions. The factors that affect the development of Bazi agriculture in Yunnan Province are analyzed. The factors include the burdens born by Bazi agriculture, the natural endowment of Bazi culture, policy preference of Yunnan Province, the potential and direction of the development of Bazi agriculture. Countermeasures on developing Bazi agriculture in Yunnan Province are put forward: the first one is to improve the level of agricultural science and technoogy; the second one is to intensify the balanced development between mountainous areas and mountainous areas, industry and agriculture, urban and rural areas; the third one is to pay attention to the development and adjustment of ecological agriculture; the fourth one is to keep rational development.
Shuo; CAO; Shunqiang; SUN
Vigorously developing agricultural circular economy is an effective way to achieve sustainable agricultural development,and a strategic measure to ease the pressure on agricultural resources,protect ecological and clean resources,and promote sustainable agricultural and rural economic development. From the theoretical perspective of circular agriculture,this paper builds the evaluation indicator system for circular agriculture,and uses entropy method to carry out the comprehensive evaluation of the development level of agricultural circular economy in Guizhou Province from 2003 to 2012. At the same time,this paper analyzes the obstacles to the development of agricultural circular economy in Guizhou Province in 2012,and sets forth the relevant recommendations based on these limitations,in order to improve the development level of circular agriculture in Guizhou Province.
This paper concerns the economic assessment of a nonconventional technology to provide a cheap food and/or feed for many developing countries, using wasted resources, i.e. coastal arid areas irrigated directly with seawater to grow a halophyte crop(Salicornia-sos-7). It was cultivated for two successive years in Kuwait. The analysis showed that the harvested yield was 20 tons per hectare, which provided 12.42 MT of straw for sale and 1.7 MT of oil seeds for processing. Processed seeds of 1-he...
Agricultural and Rural Development (ARD) is a fundamental component of Ethiopia's economic growth and poverty reduction strategy. The agricultural development strategy under Agriculture Development Led Industrialization (ADLI) and Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Program (SDPRP) focused on enhancing the productive capacity of smallholder farmers, promoting crop diversification...
Agricultural and Rural Development (ARD) is a fundamental component of Ethiopia's economic growth and poverty reduction strategy. The agricultural development strategy under Agriculture Development Led Industrialization (ADLI) and Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Program (SDPRP) focused on enhancing the productive capacity of smallholder farmers, promoting crop diversification...
DU Yan-yan; ZHAO Yun-hua
Rational utilization of agricultural waste resources is of great significance to reducing environmental pollution, improving rural ecological environment, and developing agricultural circular economy. Besides, in the context of global energy crisis, the research of resource utilization technology for agricultural wastes will exert considerable influence on survival and living of human beings. We firstly discuss about general situations of agricultural waste resources in China, research and application situations of agricultural waste recycling technology both at home and abroad. On the basis of development trend of agricultural waste recycling, we put forward countermeasures for agricultural waste recycling in China.
O autor discute a importância da psicologia social de G. H. Mead para o pensamento social de Habermas. De especial interesse para o filósofo alemão é a confluência, em Mead, de duas linhas de reflexão do pragmatismo norte-americano - a filosofia analítica da linguagem e a teoria psicológica do comportamento - na crítica à filosofia da consciência. Apesar de denominar sua teoria ''behaviorismo social'', Mead se afasta das teorias do comportamento clássicas, ao enfatizar a experiência interna d...
Yan; LUO; Yan; YANG; Rui; CHEN; Wei; WU; Ziyun; PENG; Liangzheng; CHEN; Xuelin; LI
Climatic characteristics of foreign low latitude plateau regions are firstly introduced.Then,experience and lessons of major foreign low latitude plateau countries in developing modern agriculture are analyzed,including Indian three agricultural revolutions and agricultural informationization development,application of agricultural biotechnology in Brazil,trade liberalization and economic de-agriculture of Mexico,and Argentina,Saudi Arabia and South Africa attaching great importance to developing modern agriculture relying on science and technology and paying close attention to resource conservation and environmental protection.Combining natural and social resource characteristics of Yunnan plateau agriculture,pertinent implications and recommendations for modern agricultural development in Yunnan are put forward.Specifically,these include strengthening agricultural sci-tech research and development,and extension and application;transforming agricultural development model;enhancing agricultural resource conservation and environmental protection;accelerating developing mountain organic ecological agriculture and autumn agriculture;reinforcing urban and rural integration to develop plateau characteristic agriculture on the basis of local actual conditions.
Full Text Available Based on the share of agriculture in GDP in Uzbekistan, the country can be allocated to a group of countries with a transitional type of economy that proceeds from agriculture to urbanization. At the same time specific local features exist. In Uzbekistan, about 65% of the population live in rural areas and currently about 3 million people are employed in agriculture. Although the trend shows a decline in the share of agriculture in gross domestic product, the number of people employed in agriculture has comparably slowly reduced. Agriculture's share of investment is only about 3-4% of the total amount of a fixed capital.
Cao Can; Wang Da-qing; Wang Hong-yan; Dai Lin
At present, the excessive use of the fertilizers and pesticides in the agricultural production has result in hardening of the soil and decrease of the wild animals and can not maintain the sustainable using of land resources. To develop ecological agriculture is a powerful measure to reduce energy consumption, protect environment, and realize the sustainable development of the agriculture. In order to promote the sustainable development of agriculture in Jianshan Farm, this paper by using SWOT analysis method analyzed the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat in the development of the ecological agriculture in Jianshan Farm, based on the experience from domestic and foreign ecological agricultural development, and put forward the countermeasures for the development of the ecological agriculture in order to develop ecological circular agriculture and non-genetic soybean crop protected areas, and to establish soybean-corn rotation area and healthy aquaculture zone, as well as develop new energy industry.
Boqi; WENG; Weili; ZHANG; Yixiang; WANG
This paper firstly elaborated current situation of agricultural resources and ecological environment protection of China,and pointed out that circular agriculture is an inevitable choice for sustainable development of agriculture and effective approach for low-carbon economic development. Then,it analyzed mode and benefit of typical circular agriculture,such as ecological orchard in southeast hills,sightseeing ecological agricultural garden,and crop straw use. Finally,it came up with countermeasures for further developing circular agriculture,including integrating building system and establishing suitable mode,formulating production standard and ensuring food safety,strengthening technological innovation,and supporting sustainable development.
Yang, Chun-he; Qiao, Qi-cheng; Gu, Wei-bing; Sun, Jia-Feng
Developing the low carbon ecological circular agriculture is an effective approach to realizing low carbon development of agriculture. Through investigation on existing measures and performance of development of low carbon type ecological circular agriculture in Nantong City, we analyzed the potential and problems of Nantong City in developing low carbon type ecological circular agriculture. Finally, with reference to domestic and foreign research achievements and practical experience, we put...