Sample records for agent safety evaluation-wilate

  1. Bioprotective agents in safety control

    Dimitrijević-Branković Suzana I.


    Full Text Available Food poisoning is the one of the main health hazards even today. More than 200 known diseases are transmitted through food. The causes of foodborne illness include viruses, bacteria, parasites, toxins, metals, and prions and the symptoms of foodborne illness range from mild gastroenteritis to life-threatening neurological, hepatic and renal syndromes.The prevention of food poisonings represents very serious task for food manufacturers. Beside food control according to the concept "from the farm to the table" there is increased need for the development of new technology for longer shelf lifes of food. Food fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LAB and traditionally considered to be safe. There are many substances produced by LAB that affect the shelf life of fermented food, by active suppression of poisoning microorganisms growth. Because of that, the LAB is recently considered as bioprotective agents that have important role in food safety.

  2. New Safety rule for Chemical Agents

    Safety Commission


    The following Safety rule has been issued on 08-01-2010: Safety Regulation SR-C Chemical Agents This document applies to all persons under the Director General’s authority. It sets out the minimal requirements for the protection of persons from risks to their safety and health arising, or likely to arise, from the effects of hazardous chemical agents used in any CERN activity. All Safety rules are available on the web pages.

  3. Propagation Modeling of Food Safety Crisis Information Update Based on the Multi-agent System

    Meihong Wu; Jingfei Yang; Zhiling Hong


    This study propose a new multi-agent system frame based on epistemic default complex adaptive theory and use the agent based simulation and modeling the information updating process to study food safety crisis information dissemination. Then, we explore interaction effect between each agent in food safety crisis information dissemination at the current environment and mostly reveals how the government agent, food company agent and network media agent influence users confidence in food safety....

  4. Antifungal agents for onychomycosis: new treatment strategies to improve safety.

    Zane, Lee T; Chanda, Sanjay; Coronado, Dina; Del Rosso, James


    Onychomycosis is a common and difficult-to-treat fungal infection of the nail unit that gradually leads to dystrophic changes of the nail plate and nail bed. If untreated, infection progresses and may lead to discomfort, reduced quality of life, and risk of complications in patients with comorbid conditions (eg, diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus, peripheral vascular disease). Onychomycosis treatments are designed to eradicate causative pathogens (most commonly Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes), restore healthy nails, and prevent recurrence or spread of infection. Given the deep-seated nature of most cases of onychomycosis, an effective antifungal agent needs to achieve and maintain sufficient drug concentrations throughout the nail unit for the duration of healthy nail in-growth. Oral antifungal drugs are the most effective available therapy and are generally well tolerated, but may be limited by safety concerns and the potential for drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Thus, treating physicians and pharmacists must be cognizant of a patient's current medications; indeed, it may not be feasible to treat onychomycosis in patients with diabetes, heart disease, or depression because of the risk for DDIs. Current topical therapy is not associated with risk of DDIs. Tavaborole and efinaconazole, two recently approved topical agents, have demonstrated good nail penetration and high negative culture rates in clinical trials of patients with onychomycosis. This article provides the treating physician and pharmacist with information on the safety and effectiveness of current oral (allylamine, azole) and topical (ciclopirox, efinaconazole, tavaborole) treatment to aid in making informed treatment decisions based on the unique characteristics (medication history, comorbidities, nature of onychomycosis) of each patient. PMID:27136621

  5. Understanding the relationship between safety investment and safety performance of construction projects through agent-based modeling.

    Lu, Miaojia; Cheung, Clara Man; Li, Heng; Hsu, Shu-Chien


    The construction industry in Hong Kong increased its safety investment by 300% in the past two decades; however, its accident rate has plateaued to around 50% for one decade. Against this backdrop, researchers have found inconclusive results on the causal relationship between safety investment and safety performance. Using agent-based modeling, this study takes an unconventional bottom-up approach to study safety performance on a construction site as an outcome of a complex system defined by interactions among a worksite, individual construction workers, and different safety investments. Instead of focusing on finding the absolute relationship between safety investment and safety performance, this study contributes to providing a practical framework to investigate how different safety investments interacting with different parameters such as human and environmental factors could affect safety performance. As a result, we could identify cost-effective safety investments under different construction scenarios for delivering optimal safety performance. PMID:27240124

  6. Efficacy and Safety of Novel Anticoagulants Compared with Established Agents

    Rybak, Iwona; Ehle, Michael; Buckley, Leo; Fanikos, John


    Dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban are novel oral anticoagulants that offer major advantages over existing agents. The onset of the anticoagulant effect of these agents is rapid. Each agent has a predictable anticoagulant response that eliminates the need for monitoring. Clinical trials have been completed with all three agents in the prevention and treatment of the three leading causes of cardiovascular death: myocardial infarction, stroke, and venous thromboembolism (VTE). Novel agents h...

  7. Development of an expert system and software agent for aviation safety assessment

    Flowers, Thomas R.; Dowler, David M.


    The primary goal of this thesis is to design, develop and test an internet based prototype model for using expert system and software agent technologies to automate some of the analytical tasks in conducting aviation safety assessments using the data collected by the automated Aviation Command Safety Assessment (ACSA) system. The Aviation Command Safety Assessment is a questionnaire survey methodology developed to evaluate a Naval Aviation Command's safety climate, culture, and safety program...

  8. Agent-Based Simulation and Assessment of NAS Security and Safety Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation proposed here is the use of agent-based modeling and simulation to evaluate the safety of the National Airspace under crisis operations and...

  9. Drug Safety Communication: Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESAs)

    ... Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health A to ... it was archived. Search Archive Submit archive search Drugs Home Drugs Drug Safety and Availability Postmarket Drug ...

  10. Safety of Gadoterate Meglumine (Gd-DOTA) as a Contrast Agent for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Takahashi, Shoki


    Background: Safety is a primary concern with contrast agents used for MRI. If precautions could be taken before the repeated administration of gadolinium-based contrast media, then the awareness and management of adverse reactions would be more efficient. Objectives: To assess the safety and efficacy of gadoterate meglumine (Gd-DOTA) [Magnescope® in Japan, Dotarem® in other countries], a gadolinium-based contrast agent, in patients undergoing imaging of the brain/spinal cord and/or trunk/limb...


    V. V. Bagaeva


    Full Text Available Abstract:Effective treatment of patients with infectious and inflammatory diseases of the skin and mucous membranes often involves the use of antimicrobial agents.The purpose of the study was an in vitro estimation of cytotoxicity and the efficiency of national resources for local use: gel with bacteriophages («Otofag», «Fagogin», «Fagoderm», «Fagodent» and antiseptic — «Сhlorhexidine» and «Miramistin».Materials and Methods. To study the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents they used to provide crop strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes as one of the most common representatives of pathogens. The study of cell viability and cytotoxicity antimicrobials performed on cell lines KB — epidermoid carcinoma of the oral cavity of a human. For this purpose we use mikrotetrazoly test, which is widely used in the assessment of the effects on the cells of toxins, pharmaceuticals, adverse environmental factors, allowing to evaluate the toxicity of investigational drugs in vitro.The results showed that the efficacy against pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, has even a 10‑fold dilution of «Сhlorhexidine» 0.05% and gels with bacteriophages. Antiseptic «Miramistin» is effective only on the initial concentration. The study of cytotoxicity showed that the processing of epidermoid carcinoma cells with «Chlorhexidine» and «Мiramistin» invokes the irreversible reactions, while the composition processing of gels based on bacteriophages not further affect cell viability.Conclusions The results of the experiment confirmed the significant toxicity of tools such as «Сhlorhexidine» and «Miramistin» in proposed concentrations in the pharmacy network. Despite the high efficiency of these vehicles with regard to the studied pathogens, their long-term use in treatment of inflammatory diseases of the skin and mucous membranes can cause a slowing of repair processes. Gel means with bacteriophages

  12. Safety assessment of new antithrombotic agents: lessons from the EXTEND study on ximelagatran

    Agnelli, G; Eriksson, B I; Cohen, A T;


    BACKGROUND: Ximelagatran, the first oral direct thrombin inhibitor, was shown to be an effective antithrombotic agent but was associated with potential liver toxicity after prolonged administration. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: The aim of the EXTEND study was to assess safety and efficacy of extended ...

  13. Agent-based organizational modelling for analysis of safety culture at an air navigation service provider

    Assessment of safety culture is done predominantly by questionnaire-based studies, which tend to reveal attitudes on immaterial characteristics (values, beliefs, norms). There is a need for a better understanding of the implications of the material aspects of an organization (structures, processes, etc.) for safety culture and their interactions with the immaterial characteristics. This paper presents a new agent-based organizational modelling approach for integrated and systematic evaluation of material and immaterial characteristics of socio-technical organizations in safety culture analysis. It uniquely considers both the formal organization and the value- and belief-driven behaviour of individuals in the organization. Results are presented of a model for safety occurrence reporting at an air navigation service provider. Model predictions consistent with questionnaire-based results are achieved. A sensitivity analysis provides insight in organizational factors that strongly influence safety culture indicators. The modelling approach can be used in combination with attitude-focused safety culture research, towards an integrated evaluation of material and immaterial characteristics of socio-technical organizations. By using this approach an organization is able to gain a deeper understanding of causes of diverse problems and inefficiencies both in the formal organization and in the behaviour of organizational agents, and to systematically identify and evaluate improvement options.

  14. Efficacy, safety, quality control, marketing and regulatory guidelines for herbal medicines (phytotherapeutic agents)

    Calixto, J B


    This review highlights the current advances in knowledge about the safety, efficacy, quality control, marketing and regulatory aspects of botanical medicines. Phytotherapeutic agents are standardized herbal preparations consisting of complex mixtures of one or more plants which contain as active ingredients plant parts or plant material in the crude or processed state. A marked growth in the worldwide phytotherapeutic market has occurred over the last 15 years. For the European and USA market...

  15. Mammalian safety of microbial agents for vector control: a WHO Memorandum*


    This Memorandum outlines recommended safety tests for application to biological agents under consideration for widespread use for pest control. The basic principles utilized in developing these recommendations were that: (i) the hazards presented by microbial pesticides are inherently different from those associated with chemical pesticides and the tests used to determine hazard potential to man should reflect this; (ii) a high proportion of negative results is likely; (iii) tiered testing sy...

  16. Long-term follow-up of MCL patients treated with single-agent ibrutinib: updated safety and efficacy results

    Wang, Michael L.; Blum, Kristie A.; Martin, Peter; Goy, Andre; Auer, Rebecca; Kahl, Brad S.; Jurczak, Wojciech; Advani, Ranjana H.; Romaguera, Jorge E.; Williams, Michael E.; Barrientos, Jacqueline C.; Chmielowska, Ewa; Radford, John; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Dreyling, Martin


    Ibrutinib demonstrates durable responses and sustained single-agent activity in relapsed or refractory MCL at median 26.7-month follow-up.Ibrutinib shows a favorable benefit-risk profile over time, with a manageable safety profile.

  17. Efficacy, safety, quality control, marketing and regulatory guidelines for herbal medicines (phytotherapeutic agents

    J.B. Calixto


    Full Text Available This review highlights the current advances in knowledge about the safety, efficacy, quality control, marketing and regulatory aspects of botanical medicines. Phytotherapeutic agents are standardized herbal preparations consisting of complex mixtures of one or more plants which contain as active ingredients plant parts or plant material in the crude or processed state. A marked growth in the worldwide phytotherapeutic market has occurred over the last 15 years. For the European and USA markets alone, this will reach about $7 billion and $5 billion per annum, respectively, in 1999, and has thus attracted the interest of most large pharmaceutical companies. Insufficient data exist for most plants to guarantee their quality, efficacy and safety. The idea that herbal drugs are safe and free from side effects is false. Plants contain hundreds of constituents and some of them are very toxic, such as the most cytotoxic anti-cancer plant-derived drugs, digitalis and the pyrrolizidine alkaloids, etc. However, the adverse effects of phytotherapeutic agents are less frequent compared with synthetic drugs, but well-controlled clinical trials have now confirmed that such effects really exist. Several regulatory models for herbal medicines are currently available including prescription drugs, over-the-counter substances, traditional medicines and dietary supplements. Harmonization and improvement in the processes of regulation is needed, and the general tendency is to perpetuate the German Commission E experience, which combines scientific studies and traditional knowledge (monographs. Finally, the trend in the domestication, production and biotechnological studies and genetic improvement of medicinal plants, instead of the use of plants harvested in the wild, will offer great advantages, since it will be possible to obtain uniform and high quality raw materials which are fundamental to the efficacy and safety of herbal drugs.

  18. [Weighing use and safety of therapeutic agents and feed additives (author's transl)].

    van der Wal, P


    (1) The pros and cons of using feed additives and therapeutic agents may be successfully weighed in the light of carefully considered consumer requirements. (2) The socio-economic interests of the producer and the welfare of the animal will also determine the response of the production apparatus to consumer requirements. (3) Consumption of the current amounts of products of animal origin and maintenance of price and quality will only be feasible in the event of rational large-scale production in which constituents used in nutrition, prophylaxis and therapeutics are highly important factors. (4) Using these ingredients should be preceded by accurate evaluation of their use and safety. Testing facilities, conduct of studies and reporting should be such as to make the results nationally and internationally acceptable to all those concerned. (5) In deciding whether feed constituents are acceptable in view of the established use and safety, compliance will have to be sought with those standards which are accepted in other fields of society. Measures which result in raising the price of food without actually helping to reduce the risks to the safety of man, animals and environment, are likely to be rejected by any well-informed consumer who is aware of the facts. (6) For accurate weighing of use and safety at a national level, possibilities are hardly adequate in Europe. Decisions reached within the framework of the European Community, also tuned to U.S.A.- conditions are rightly encouraged. A centrally managed professionally staffed and equipped test system in the European Community would appear to be indispensable. PMID:7058519

  19. Contrasting safety assessments of a runway incursion scenario: Event sequence analysis versus multi-agent dynamic risk modelling

    In the safety literature it has been argued, that in a complex socio-technical system safety cannot be well analysed by event sequence based approaches, but requires to capture the complex interactions and performance variability of the socio-technical system. In order to evaluate the quantitative and practical consequences of these arguments, this study compares two approaches to assess accident risk of an example safety critical sociotechnical system. It contrasts an event sequence based assessment with a multi-agent dynamic risk model (MA-DRM) based assessment, both of which are performed for a particular runway incursion scenario. The event sequence analysis uses the well-known event tree modelling formalism and the MA-DRM based approach combines agent based modelling, hybrid Petri nets and rare event Monte Carlo simulation. The comparison addresses qualitative and quantitative differences in the methods, attained risk levels, and in the prime factors influencing the safety of the operation. The assessments show considerable differences in the accident risk implications of the performance of human operators and technical systems in the runway incursion scenario. In contrast with the event sequence based results, the MA-DRM based results show that the accident risk is not manifest from the performance of and relations between individual human operators and technical systems. Instead, the safety risk emerges from the totality of the performance and interactions in the agent based model of the safety critical operation considered, which coincides very well with the argumentation in the safety literature.

  20. Efficacy and safety of lanthanoids as X-ray contrast agents

    Objective: It has been suggested that elements from the lanthanoid (Ln) series may be well suited for use as absorbing elements in X-ray contrast agents (CA). Because gadolinium, an element of the lanthanoid series, has been identified as being possibly associated with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), a rare but potentially severe disease, we sought to determine if other lanthanoids might possess a similar potential. Materials and methods: By computed tomography (CT), we compared the X-ray attenuation of all lanthanoids to that of iodine in vitro. In addition, we injected Han-Wistar rats on five consecutive days with 2.5 mmol Ln/kg bodyweight intravenously to test several Ln-DTPA-BMA complexes (praseodymium, europium, gadolinium, and holmium). Saline solution and a Ca-DTPA-BMA group served as controls. Ln concentrations in the skin and organs were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This method measures the total Ln content and cannot differentiate between chelated and unchelated Ln. In addition, serum cytokine levels were measured by Luminex technology. The complex stability of the Ln-DTPA-BMA complexes was also assessed in vitro. Results: Lanthanoids showed up to 50% higher X-ray attenuation than iodine in CT. The highest X-ray attenuation was observed with holmium and erbium. Differences in the in vitro complex stability of Pr-, Eu-, Gd-, and Ho-DTPA-BMA complexes were observed. The complex stability differences were also reflected by differences in the concentrations in tissue of the lanthanoids in vivo. Injections of Ln complexes caused NSF-like skin lesions in rats and a rapid upregulation of pro-fibrotic and inflammatory serum cytokines. The Ca-DTPA-BMA complex did not to induce pro-fibrotic cytokines or skin lesions. Pr-DTPA-BMA appeared to be toxic; all Pr-DTPA-BMA treated animals died within the first four days of the experiment and were therefore excluded from further analyses. Conclusion: Lanthanoids are very well

  1. Efficacy and safety of lanthanoids as X-ray contrast agents

    Pietsch, Hubertus, E-mail: [Contrast Media Research, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Jost, Gregor, E-mail: [Contrast Media Research, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Frenzel, Thomas, E-mail: [Contrast Media Research, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Raschke, Marian, E-mail: [Nonclinical Drug Safety, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Walter, Jakob, E-mail: [Nonclinical Drug Safety, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Schirmer, Heiko, E-mail: [Medical Chemistry VI, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Huetter, Joachim, E-mail: [Contrast Media Research, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Sieber, Martin A., E-mail: [Contrast Media Research, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, 13353 Berlin (Germany)


    Objective: It has been suggested that elements from the lanthanoid (Ln) series may be well suited for use as absorbing elements in X-ray contrast agents (CA). Because gadolinium, an element of the lanthanoid series, has been identified as being possibly associated with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), a rare but potentially severe disease, we sought to determine if other lanthanoids might possess a similar potential. Materials and methods: By computed tomography (CT), we compared the X-ray attenuation of all lanthanoids to that of iodine in vitro. In addition, we injected Han-Wistar rats on five consecutive days with 2.5 mmol Ln/kg bodyweight intravenously to test several Ln-DTPA-BMA complexes (praseodymium, europium, gadolinium, and holmium). Saline solution and a Ca-DTPA-BMA group served as controls. Ln concentrations in the skin and organs were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This method measures the total Ln content and cannot differentiate between chelated and unchelated Ln. In addition, serum cytokine levels were measured by Luminex technology. The complex stability of the Ln-DTPA-BMA complexes was also assessed in vitro. Results: Lanthanoids showed up to 50% higher X-ray attenuation than iodine in CT. The highest X-ray attenuation was observed with holmium and erbium. Differences in the in vitro complex stability of Pr-, Eu-, Gd-, and Ho-DTPA-BMA complexes were observed. The complex stability differences were also reflected by differences in the concentrations in tissue of the lanthanoids in vivo. Injections of Ln complexes caused NSF-like skin lesions in rats and a rapid upregulation of pro-fibrotic and inflammatory serum cytokines. The Ca-DTPA-BMA complex did not to induce pro-fibrotic cytokines or skin lesions. Pr-DTPA-BMA appeared to be toxic; all Pr-DTPA-BMA treated animals died within the first four days of the experiment and were therefore excluded from further analyses. Conclusion: Lanthanoids are very well

  2. NOAC monitoring, reversal agents, and post-approval safety and effectiveness evaluation: A cardiac safety research consortium think tank.

    Reiffel, James A; Weitz, Jeffrey I; Reilly, Paul; Kaminskas, Edvardas; Sarich, Troy; Sager, Philip; Seltzer, Jonathan


    Four non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban) have been approved in the United States for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) and venous thromboembolic disease. They have been as or more effective than the prior standards of care, with less fatal or intracranial bleeding, fewer drug and dietary interactions, and greater patient convenience. Nonetheless, the absence of the ability for clinicians to assess compliance or washout with a simple laboratory test (or to adjust dosing with a similar assessment) and the absence of an antidote to rapidly stop major hemorrhage or to enhance safety in the setting of emergent or urgent surgery/procedures have been limitations to greater non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant usage and better thromboembolic prevention. Accordingly, a Cardiac Research Safety Consortium "think tank" meeting was held in February 2015 to address these concerns. This manuscript reports on the discussions held and the conclusions reached at that meeting. PMID:27297852

  3. Reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block by the selective relaxant binding agent sugammadex: a dose-finding and safety study

    Sorgenfrei, Iben F; Norrild, Kathrine; Larsen, Per Bo;


    Sugammadex (Org 25969) forms a complex with steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents, thereby reversing neuromuscular block. This study investigated the dose-response relation, safety, and pharmacokinetics of sugammadex to reverse rocuronium-induced block.......Sugammadex (Org 25969) forms a complex with steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents, thereby reversing neuromuscular block. This study investigated the dose-response relation, safety, and pharmacokinetics of sugammadex to reverse rocuronium-induced block....

  4. Efficacy, Safety, and Biomarkers of Single-Agent Bevacizumab Therapy in Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Boige, Valérie; Malka, David; Bourredjem, Abderrahmane; Dromain, Clarisse; Baey, Charlotte; Jacques, Nathalie; Pignon, Jean-Pierre; Vimond, Nadege; Bouvet-Forteau, Nathalie; De Baere, Thierry; Ducreux, Michel; Farace, Françoise


    The safety, efficacy, and potential biomarkers of activity of bevacizumab in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma were assessed. Bevacizumab was active and well tolerated. The clinical value of circulating endothelial cells and interleukin-6 and -8 warrants further investigation.

  5. The Safety of Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents for the Treatment of Anemia Resulting from Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Robles, Nicolas Roberto


    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) anemia treatment was revolutionized in the late 1980s with the introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin. This and related erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) greatly benefited patients by decreasing debilitating symptoms, improving their quality of life, and freeing them from dependence on blood transfusions with their associated complications such as infections, sensitization impeding transplantation, and secondary iron overload. However, even in the initial studies, untoward effects were noted in patients receiving ESAs, including worsening hypertension, seizures, and dialysis access clotting. Later, increased mortality, malignancy progression and even stroke were reported in renal patients. This review focuses on the safety issues of ESAs in CKD patients. PMID:26894799

  6. Ships in an Artificial Force Field: A Multi-agent System for Nautical Traffic and Safety

    Xiao, F.


    The main objective of this research is developing a simulation tool that provides information of detailed ship behavior in a specific navigational environment, on both the ship traffic level and the individual ship level, for safety analysis, decision making, planning of ports and waterways, and des

  7. Lipopeptides as the Antifungal and Antibacterial Agents: Applications in Food Safety and Therapeutics

    Khem Raj Meena; Kanwar, Shamsher S.


    A lot of crops are destroyed by the phytopathogens such as fungi, bacteria, and yeast leading to economic losses to the farmers. Members of the Bacillus genus are considered as the factories for the production of biologically active molecules that are potential inhibitors of growth of phytopathogens. Plant diseases constitute an emerging threat to global food security. Many of the currently available antimicrobial agents for agriculture are highly toxic and nonbiodegradable and thus cause ext...

  8. Lipopeptides as the antifungal and antibacterial agents: applications in food safety and therapeutics.

    Meena, Khem Raj; Kanwar, Shamsher S


    A lot of crops are destroyed by the phytopathogens such as fungi, bacteria, and yeast leading to economic losses to the farmers. Members of the Bacillus genus are considered as the factories for the production of biologically active molecules that are potential inhibitors of growth of phytopathogens. Plant diseases constitute an emerging threat to global food security. Many of the currently available antimicrobial agents for agriculture are highly toxic and nonbiodegradable and thus cause extended environmental pollution. Moreover, an increasing number of phytopathogens have developed resistance to antimicrobial agents. The lipopeptides have been tried as potent versatile weapons to deal with a variety of phytopathogens. All the three families of Bacillus lipopeptides, namely, Surfactins, Iturins and Fengycins, have been explored for their antagonistic activities towards a wide range of phytopathogens including bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes. Iturin and Fengycin have antifungal activities, while Surfactin has broad range of potent antibacterial activities and this has also been used as larvicidal agent. Interestingly, lipopeptides being the molecules of biological origin are environmentally acceptable. PMID:25632392

  9. Studies in laboratory animals to assess the safety of anti-inflammatory agents in acute porphyria.

    McColl, K E; Thompson, G G; Moore, M R


    The safety of various anti-inflammatory drugs in acute porphyria was assessed by examining their effect on rat hepatic haem synthesis. Azapropazone, chloroquine, and gold increased delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) synthase activity, indicating that they are liable to precipitate porphyric crises. Aspirin, ibuprofen, indomethacin, ketoprofen, flurbiprofen, phenylbutazone, naproxen, prednisolone, and penicillamine did not increase ALA synthase activity and should be safe in porphyria. Though th...

  10. Development and initial psychometric examination of the Home Safety and Beautification Assessment in mothers referred to treatment by child welfare agents.

    Donohue, Brad; Pitts, Michelle; Chow, Graig M; Benning, Stephen D; Soto-Nevarez, Arturo; Plant, Christopher P; Allen, Daniel N


    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death among children, with approximately 45% of injuries occurring in and around the home. Rates of home injury are particularly high in the homes of caregivers who are referred for intervention services by child welfare agents. However, there are few validated methods of home safety assessment available. The Home Safety and Beautification Assessment (HSBA) was developed to assist intervention planning specific to home safety and appearance in a sample of 77 mothers who were referred to treatment by Child Welfare Services. Exploratory factor analysis of HSBA items indicated that safety and appearance factors emerged across rooms in the home, and internal consistencies were good. For each room, the sums of assessors' safety and appearance intervention priority item scores were correlated with the assessors' global safety and appearance ratings of the entire home, respectively. The participants' overall room attractiveness scores were correlated with the assessors' overall room appearance intervention priority scores, whereas the participants' ratings of overall room safety were not correlated with the assessors' overall room safety intervention priority scores. Participants' scores on the Abuse subscale of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, personal income, and education level were not associated with the assessors' home safety and appearance intervention priority ratings, suggesting the HSBA is assessing constructs that are distinct from child abuse potential and socioeconomic status. The results support the HSBA in a sample referred to treatment by child welfare agents. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26322799

  11. FOREST GUARD: A complete safety for Wildlife using Mobile Agents and Sensor Clouds in WSN

    Sumit Kumar Tetarave


    Full Text Available With growing human population and search for new habitus and unsustainable use of natural resources, over exploitation of forests and wildlife is taking place world over. This is resulting in drastic decline in the number of essential flora and fauna. We propose a complete safe guard model named Forest Guard, for saving wildlife from human as well as their own collisions. This model will not guard them directly; rather it will help in collecting vital information about their real-time condition and will alert the institutional mechanisms to take corrective initiatives. The paper mentions this indirect support in the form of wireless sensor networks (WSN. In WSN, our proposed model uses mobile agents (MAs for handling huge area communication and injecting them for different guarding issues of different species of wildlife. A novel concept of Virtual Sensor Cloud (VSC is being discussed to trace different group of endangered wild animals such as Tigers, Lions, Elephants, etc.

  12. Food safety involving ingestion of foods and beverages prepared with phthalate-plasticizer-containing clouding agents.

    Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Lin, Ja-Liang


    In May 2011, the illegal use of the phthalate plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in clouding agents for use in foods and beverages was reported in Taiwan. This food scandal has caused shock and panic among the majority of Taiwanese people and has attracted international attention. Phthalate exposure is assessed by ambient monitoring or human biomonitoring. Ambient monitoring relies on measuring chemicals in environmental media, foodstuff and consumer products. Human biomonitoring determines body burden by measuring the chemicals, their metabolites or specific reaction products in human specimens. In mammalian development, the fetus is set to develop into a female. Because the female phenotype is the default, impairment of testosterone production or action before the late phase may lead to feminizing characteristics. Phthalates disrupt the development of androgen-dependent structures by inhibiting fetal testicular testosterone biosynthesis. The spectrum of effects obtained following perinatal exposure of male rats to phthalates has remarkable similarities with the human testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Epidemiological studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and shorter gestational age, shorter anogenital distance, shorter penis, incomplete testicular descent, sex hormone alteration, precocious puberty, pubertal gynecomastia, premature thelarche, rhinitis, eczema, asthma, low birth weight, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, low intelligence quotient, thyroid hormone alteration, and hypospadias in infants and children. Furthermore, many studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and increased sperm DNA damage, decreased proportion of sperm with normal morphology, decreased sperm concentration, decreased sperm morphology, sex hormone alteration, decreased pulmonary function, endometriosis, uterine leiomyomas, breast cancer, obesity, hyperprolactinemia, and thyroid hormone alteration in adults. Finally, the number of

  13. Multicenter analysis of tolerance and clinical safety of the extracellular MR contrast agent gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance registered)

    Purpose: Retrospective analysis of the occurrence of adverse events and the diagnostic efficacy of a paramagnetic contrast agent with weak intermittent protein binding and high relaxivity. Materials end methods: Postmarketing surveillance studies for gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance, BRACCO Altana Pharma, Constance) were conducted in Germany between 1998 and 2006 and then retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, relevant comorbidities, and allergies were recorded. The safety and tolerability of MultiHance were logged on a standardized data sheet. Results: A total of 38568 patients were included in the study. 829 patients (2.1%) had a known intolerance against contrast media. The examined regions included the central nervous system, the liver, and the vascular bed. The injection rate with automated injectors (n = 10456) varied between 1.0 und 3.0 ml/sec in 86.5% of patients. Adverse events totaled 1.2%. 11 patients (0.03%) experienced serious adverse events. The most frequent findings were nausea, vomiting and a feeling of warmth. Conclusion: MultiHance is a safe and very well tolerated contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a profile and frequency of adverse events similar to other extracellular MR contrast materials. (orig.)

  14. Efficacy and Safety of Antifibrinolytic Agents in Reducing Perioperative Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirements in Scoliosis Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    WANG, Meng; Zheng, Xin-Feng; Jiang, Lei-Sheng


    Background Routine use of antifibrinolytic agents in spine surgery is still an issue of debate. Objective To gather scientific evidence for the efficacy and safety of antifibrinolytic agents including aprotinin, tranexamic acid (TXA) and epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA, traditionally known as Amicar) in reducing perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in scoliosis surgery. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), retrosp...

  15. Efficacy, Safety, and Biomarkers of Single-Agent Bevacizumab Therapy in Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Malka, David; Bourredjem, Abderrahmane; Dromain, Clarisse; Baey, Charlotte; Jacques, Nathalie; Pignon, Jean-Pierre; Vimond, Nadege; Bouvet-Forteau, Nathalie; De Baere, Thierry; Ducreux, Michel; Farace, Françoise


    Objective. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly vascularized tumor in which neoangiogenesis contributes to growth and metastasis. We assessed the safety, efficacy, and potential biomarkers of activity of bevacizumab in patients with advanced HCC. Methods. In this phase II trial, eligible patients received bevacizumab, 5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks. The disease-control rate at 16 weeks (16W-DCR) was the primary endpoint. Circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and plasma cytokines and angiogenic factors (CAFs) were measured at baseline and throughout treatment. Results. The 16W-DCR was 42% (95% confidence interval, 27%–57%). Six of the 43 patients who received bevacizumab achieved a partial response (objective response rate [ORR], 14%). Grade 3–4 asthenia, hemorrhage, and aminotransferase elevation occurred in five (12%), three (7%), and three (7%) patients, respectively. During treatment, placental growth factor markedly increased, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A dramatically decreased (p < .0001); soluble VEGF receptor-2 (p < .0001) and CECs (p = .03) transiently increased on day 3. High and increased CEC counts at day 15 were associated with the ORR (p = .04) and the 16W-DCR (p = .02), respectively. Lower interleukin (IL)-8 levels at baseline (p = .01) and throughout treatment (p ≤ .04) were associated with the 16W-DCR. High baseline IL-8 and IL-6 levels predicted shorter progression-free and overall survival times (p ≤ .04). Conclusion. Bevacizumab is active and well tolerated in patients with advanced HCC. The clinical value of CECs, IL-6, and IL-8 warrants further investigation. PMID:22707516

  16. SAFETY

    Niels Dupont


    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  17. Safety

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  18. Safety of the Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Focusing in Part on Their Accumulation in the Brain and Especially the Dentate Nucleus.

    Runge, Val M


    The established class of intravenous contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging is the gadolinium chelates, more generally referred to as the gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). These can be differentiated on the basis of stability in vivo, with safety and tolerability of the GBCAs dependent upon chemical and biologic inertness. This review discusses first the background in terms of development of these agents and safety discussions therein, and second their relative stability based both on in vitro studies and clinical observations before and including the advent of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. This sets the stage for the subsequent focus of the review, the current knowledge regarding accumulation of gadolinium in the brain and specifically the dentate nucleus after intravenous administration of the GBCAs and differentiation among agents on this basis. The information available to date, from the initial conception of these agents in 1981 to the latest reports concerning safety, demonstrates a significant difference between the macrocyclic and linear chelates. The review concludes with a discussion of the predictable future, which includes, importantly, a reassessment of the use of the linear GBCAs or a subset thereof. PMID:26945278

  19. Observing the Safety Precautions Against Blood-Borne Infections by Delivery Agents in Therapeutic and Training Hospitals of Tabriz in 2011-2012

    Soheila Bani


    Full Text Available Objectives: Blood transferred disease is one of the great difficulties for human and it is counted as one of the serious problems of public health. Although health care is valuable, it has some risks such as contacting with various pathogens, especially blood transferred pathogens, so the aim of this study is to observe the safety precautions against blood-borne infections by delivery agents in therapeutic and training hospitals of Tabriz in 2012. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive research and all of the participants were the childbirth agents in 3 hospital of Tabriz (Alzahra , Taleghani , 29 Bahman. All of sample size was 100 persons. After obtaining informed consent, the questionnaires which contain demographic information and 24 statements that they were related to observance of safety points against blood transferred infections in childbirth rooms were given to participants to complete. The data were analyzed with SPSS software (Ver. 13. Results: Results showed that the rate of total observance of safety precautions against blood transmitted diseases was good in 54% of delivery agents and in 46% of them was average. Conclusion: Observing safety precautions against blood transmitted diseases needs motivation, effective education and necessary, that all of them should be in priority of health care planning by relevant authorities to reduce contaminated individuals and the costs of their treatment.

  20. EDGE study in Russian Federation: efficacy and safety of vildagliptine in comparison with other oral antidiabetic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    G R Galstyan


    Full Text Available According to international consensus, metformin is acknowledged as a first-line therapeutic agent for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, in most cases this treatment eventually requires intensification by supplementation with other hypoglycemic medications. The aim of the EDGE study (Effective Diabetes control with vildaGliptin and vildagliptin/mEtformin was to assess the efficacy and safety of vildagliptin in comparison with other oral agents in routine management of patients with T2DM that has been poorly controlled by metformin monotherapy.

  1. Efficacy and Safety of Antifibrinolytic Agents in Reducing Perioperative Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirements in Scoliosis Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Meng Wang

    Full Text Available Routine use of antifibrinolytic agents in spine surgery is still an issue of debate.To gather scientific evidence for the efficacy and safety of antifibrinolytic agents including aprotinin, tranexamic acid (TXA and epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA, traditionally known as Amicar in reducing perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in scoliosis surgery.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for randomized controlled trials (RCTs, retrospective case-control studies, and retrospective cohort studies on the use of antifibrinolytic agents in scoliosis surgery by searching in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Controlled Trials of papers published from January 1980 through July 2014. Safety of the antifibrinolytic agents was evaluated in all included studies, while efficacy was evaluated in RCTs.Eighteen papers with a total of 1,158 patients were eligible for inclusion in this study. Among them, 8 RCTs with 450 patients were included for evaluation of pharmacologic efficacy (1 RCT was excluded because of a lack of standard deviation data. Mean blood loss was reduced in patients with perioperative use of antifibrinolytic agents by 409.25 ml intraoperatively (95% confidence interval [CI], 196.57-621.94 ml, 250.30 ml postoperatively (95% CI, 35.31-465.30, and 601.40 ml overall (95% CI, 306.64-896.16 ml. The mean volume of blood transfusion was reduced by 474.98 ml (95% CI, 195.30-754.67 ml. The transfusion rate was 44.6% (108/242 in the patients with antifibrinolytic agents and 68.3% (142/208 in the patients with placebo. (OR 0.38; 95% CI; 0.25-0.58; P<0.00001, I2 = 9%. All studies were included for evaluation of safety, with a total of 8 adverse events reported overall (4 in the experimental group and 4 in the control group.The systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that aprotinin, TXA, and EACA all significantly reduced perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements


    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont


    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...


    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont


      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  4. Assessment of oral toxicity and safety of pentamethylchromanol (PMCol), a potential chemopreventative agent, in rats and dogs

    2,2,5,7,8-Pentamethyl-6-chromanol (PMCol) was administered by gavage in rats for 28 days at dose levels of 0, 100, 500, and 2000 mg/kg/day. PMCol administration induced decreases in body weight gains and food consumption, hepatotoxicity (increased TBILI, ALB, ALT, TP; increased relative liver weights; increased T4 and TSH), nephrotoxicity (increased BUN and BUN/CREAT, histopathology lesions), effect on lipid metabolism (increased CHOL), anemia, increase in WBC counts (total and differential), coagulation (FBGN↑and PT↓) and hyperkeratosis of the nonglandular stomach in the 2000 mg/kg/day dose group (in one or both sexes). In the 500 mg/kg/day dose group, toxicity was seen to a lesser extent. In the 100 mg/kg/day dose group, only increased CHOL (females) was observed. To assess the toxicity of PMCol in male dogs it was administered orally by capsule administration for 28 days at dose levels of 0, 50, 200 and 800 mg/kg/day (four male dogs/dose group). PMCol treatment at 800 mg/kg/day resulted in pronounced toxicity to the male dogs. Target organs of toxicity were liver and thymus. Treatment at 200 mg/kg/day resulted in toxicity consistent with slight adverse effect on the liver only. The results of the safety pharmacology study indicate that doses of 0, 50, 200 and 800 mg/kg administered orally did not have an effect on the QT interval, blood pressures and body temperatures following dosing over a 24-h recording period. Under the conditions of this study, the no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) for daily oral administration of PMCol by gavage for 28 days to male rats was 100 mg/kg/day and 50 mg/kg in male dogs. In female rats, the NOAEL was not established due to statistically significant and biologically meaningful increases in CHOL level seen in the 100 mg/kg/day dose group. The results of these studies indicated that administration of PMCol at higher dose levels resulted in severe toxicity in dogs and moderate toxicity in rats, however, administration at

  5. Efficacy and safety of combining intra-articular methylprednisolone and anti-TNF agent to achieve prolonged remission in patients with recurrent inflammatory monoarthritis.

    Haroon, Muhammad


    OBJECTIVE: To control local inflammation, the role of intra-articular corticosteroid is well established; similarly, with time there are more reports on the experience of intra-articular anti-TNF agent for localized joint inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the safety, local tolerability and clinical response after combining intra-articular administration of corticosteroids and anti-TNF agents for recurrent inflammatory monoarthritis. METHODS: Patients with recurrent monoarthritis of the knee were recruited from our inflammatory arthritis clinics. These patients required intra-articular corticosteroids every 8-12 weeks, with good short-term results. Five such consecutive patients were invited to partake in this study. Patients were maintained on their baseline immunosuppressive therapy. After aspiration of knee joint, the involved joint was injected with 80mg of methylprednisolone mixed with 5ml of lignocaine 1%; this was followed by the injection of an anti-TNF agent. RESULTS: In majority of our patients (three out of five), combining anti-TNF agent and methylprednisolone led to prolonged anti-inflammatory response, and these patients remain in remission to date (mean follow-up of 12 months). These responders were noted to be naive to anti-TNF therapy. Conversely, the remaining two patients were found to be on baseline systemic anti-TNF therapy, and both of them failed to respond either partly or completely. CONCLUSION: Combining intra-articular corticosteroid and anti-TNF agent has proved to be safe in our cohort of patients. We conclude that in particular subset of patients who suffer from recurrent inflammatory monoarthritis or oligoarthritis, combination therapy of intra-articular corticosteroids and anti-TNF agents appears attractive and promising.

  6. Single-dose safety and pharmacokinetic evaluation of fluorocoxib A: pilot study of novel cyclooxygenase-2-targeted optical imaging agent in a canine model

    Cekanova, Maria; Uddin, Md. Jashim; Legendre, Alfred M.; Galyon, Gina; Bartges, Joseph W.; Callens, Amanda; Martin-Jimenez, Tomas; Marnett, Lawrence J.


    We evaluated preclinical single-dose safety, pharmacokinetic properties, and specific uptake of the new optical imaging agent fluorocoxib A in dogs. Fluorocoxib A, N-[(5-carboxy-X-rhodaminyl)but-4-yl]-2-[1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl]acetamide, selectively binds and inhibits the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme, which is overexpressed in many cancers. Safety pilot studies were performed in research dogs following intravenous (i.v.) administration of 0.1 and 1 mg/kg fluorocoxib A. Blood and urine samples collected three days after administration of each dose of fluorocoxib A revealed no evidence of toxicity, and no clinically relevant adverse events were noted on physical examination of exposed dogs over that time period. Pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed in additional research dogs from plasma collected at several time points after i.v. administration of fluorocoxib A using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The pharmacokinetic studies using 1 mg/kg showed a peak of fluorocoxib A (92±28 ng/ml) in plasma collected at 0.5 h. Tumor specific uptake of fluorocoxib A was demonstrated using a dog diagnosed with colorectal cancer expressing COX-2. Our data support the safe single-dose administration and in vivo efficacy of fluorocoxib A, suggesting a high potential for successful translation to clinical use as an imaging agent for improved tumor detection in humans.

  7. Comparison of long-term drug survival and safety of biologic agents in patients with psoriasis vulgaris

    Gniadecki, R; Bang, B; Bryld, L E;


    has a significantly longer drug survival than the anti-TNF-α agents. Switching from one biologic to another is associated with an impairment of drug survival. Preventing loss of efficacy is a major area of medical need in the biologic therapy of psoriasis and the strategies that improve drug survival......BACKGROUND: Drug survival (time to drug discontinuation) has recently emerged as an important parameter reflecting the long-term therapeutic performance in a real-life setting. Biologic drug survival in psoriasis is mainly limited by a gradual loss of efficacy over time. Previous studies have been...... and to analyse the factors that influence drug survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were extracted from the prospective registry DERMBIO covering all patients with psoriasis vulgaris treated with biologic agents in the academic centres in Denmark. Drug survival was analysed using the Kaplan...

  8. Animal biodistribution,safety and validation study of dopamine transporter PET imaging agent 18F-FECNT

    WANG Songpei; CHEN Zhengping; LI Xiaomin; TANG Jie; LILT Chunyi; ZOU Meifen; PAN Donghui; LU Chunxiong; XU Yuping; XU Xijie; ZHOU Xingqin; JIN Jian


    This work was to investigate the pharmacologic characteristics of 18F-FECNT (2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-(2-[18F]fluorcethyl)nortropane) as a dopamine transporter (DAT) PET imaging agent.Its partition coefficients were determined in n-octanol and phosphate buffer (PB) (pH 7.0 and pH 7.4).6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) left-sided lesioned Parkinsonian rats were established and validated by rotational behavior tests.Biodistribution in vivo in mice,autoradiography in normal and hemi-Parkinsonian rat brains,and toxicity test were performed.The results showed that partition coefficients were 34.14 (pH 7.0) and 56.41 (pH 7.4),respectively.Biodistribution exhibited rapid uptake and favorable retention in the mice brains.The major radioactivity was metabolized by the hepatic system.The autoradiography showed that 18F-FECNT was highly concentrated in striaturn,and that the left and the tight striatal uptake were symmetrical in normal SD rat brains.In left-sided lesioned PD rat brains,the striatal uptake of 18F-FECNT bilaterally decreased in comparison with normal rats.No significant uptake was visible in the 6-OHDA lesioned-sided striatal areas.The results demonstrated that 18F-FECNT binds to DAT was specific.Toxicity trial displayed that the acceptable dose per kilogram to mice was 625 times greater than that to human.These indicate that 18F-FECNT is a potentially safe and useful DAT PET imaging agent in the brain.

  9. Production, safety, fighting, and risk

    Hausken, Kjell


    Two agents make a trade off between production and safety investment, fighting for joint production. Ceteris paribus, if agent 1 has a higher unit cost of production, lower emphasis on safety causes more fighting and higher utility for agent 1, and less production and safety effort by agent 1.

  10. Image quality and safety in pediatric urography using an ionic and a non-ionic iodinated contrast agent

    The safety and diagnostic efficacy of the new non-ionic, monomeric contrast medium iopentol (Imagopaque) were evaluated and compared with those of the ionic medium metrizoate (Isopaque), in urography in children in a randomized, double-blind, parallel study. The trial comprised 59 children aged from 3 months to 8 years; children with predefined risk factors were not included. The difference in attenuation between the renal and perirenal tissue, assessed from film density measurements, was chosen as the main variable. Diagnostic efficacy was also evaluated subjectively from demarcation of the kidney and the pelvic structures. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in the diagnostic efficacy. Serious adverse events did not occur in either group. Mild to moderate, transient adverse events were significantly less frequent in the iopentol group than in the metrizoate group, but in no case was medical treatment required. There were no changes or trends toward changes of clinical importance in either group, in serum chemistry variables measured in blood samples taken 2 min after injection of contrast medium compared to baseline values. (orig.)

  11. Safety of an oral anticancer agent (trifluridine/tipiracil combination tablet) in patients with advanced and recurrent colorectal cancer.

    Kimura, M; Go, M; Iwai, M; Ito, D; Asano, H; Usami, E; Teramachi, H; Yoshimura, T


    We retrospectively studied the safety of trifluridine/tipiracil combination tablet (TAS-102) monotherapy in patients with advanced and recurrent colorectal cancer. Adverse events to TAS-102 monotherapy were observed in 22 out of 23 cases (95.7%). The most frequent adverse events were neutropenia (69.6%), nausea (53.2%), and malaise (30.4%). Treatment was postponed in 54 (59.3%) out of 91 courses, and in 34 (66.7%) of these 54 courses, the delay in treatment was due to bone marrow suppression. Seven patients with peritoneal metastases suffered from nausea, whilst none of the patients without peritoneal metastases had nausea (p = 0.0139). Nausea and vomiting during a previous chemotherapy cycle was significantly associated with nausea after TAS-102 treatment (p = 0.0007), and the treatment cycles were significantly longer in patients with grade 3 or 4 neutropenia (p = 0.0061). Our results suggest that the incidence of nausea was higher in patients treated with TAS-102. Therefore, it is important to inform patients of the risk of these toxicities and to provide enhanced supportive care. Moreover, we recommend that, for patients with repeated treatment postponement due to neutropenia, the dosage should be fixed based on therapeutic efficacy and prognosis. PMID:27209703

  12. Efficacy and safety of travoprost alone or in combination with other agents for glaucoma and ocular hypertension: patient considerations

    Emilio Rintaro Suzuki Jr


    Full Text Available Emilio Rintaro Suzuki Jr, Cibele Lima Belico SuzukiInstituto de Olhos Pampulha, Belo, Horizonte, Minas Gerais, BrazilAbstract: Travoprost is a prostaglandin analog used in the management of glaucoma and ocular hypertension for reducing intraocular pressure (IOP. The IOP-lowering efficacy of travoprost has been shown to be similar to that of other prostaglandins, including latanoprost and bimatoprost. When compared with fixed combinations of timolol and either latanoprost or dorzolamide, travoprost alone can reduce mean IOP in a similar or superior manner. Concomitant therapy of travoprost and timolol can reach even greater IOP reductions than fixed combinations at some time points, but with no difference in the early morning, when IOP is usually higher. In addition, the long duration of action of travoprost can also provide better control of IOP fluctuation, probably due to its stronger prostaglandin F receptor mechanism. The side effects of travoprost do not represent a risk to the vision or health of the patient. The proven efficacy and safety combined with convenient once-daily dosing for travoprost increases patient compliance with treatment for glaucoma.Keywords: travoprost, prostaglandin, glaucoma

  13. Production, safety, exchange, and risk

    Hausken, Kjell


    Two agents convert resources into safety investment and production while exchanging goods voluntarily. Safety investment ensures reduction of costly risk. High unit cost of safety effort reduces both productive effort and safety effort, which reduces income.




    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Thalassemia is one of the most common inherited hemoglobinopathy seen in southern India. With regular blood transfusion, these children live longer but associated morbidity due to iron overload impairs the quality of life. We studied the efficacy and safety of new oral iron chelator, deferasirox, compared with deferiprone which was used for long time. MATERIAL AND METHODS : We cond ucted a prospective randomised control study, between January 2011 to June 2012 at thalassemia day care centre of Indira Gandhi I nstitute of C hild H ealth, Bengaluru. The children who were diagnosed as Thalassemia and receiving regular blood transfusion wit h serum ferritin levels more than 1000ng/ml and not receiving any chelation therapy were included in the study. These children were randomly divided into two groups as group 1 and group 2 by computer generated randomization. The children included in g roup 1 received Deferasirox and group 2 received Deferiprone as chelation therapy. The dosage of deferasirox was 20mg/kg/day once daily and that of deferiprone 75 mg/kg/day in three divided daily doses. The primary study outcome was to measure and compare the d ecrease in serum ferritin levels between the two study groups. The secondary outcome measures were to compare the side effect profiles among the two groups. RESULTS : We included 41 thalessemic children and 19 of them were included in group 1 (Deferasirox and 22 children in Group 2 (Deferiprone. At the end of study period of 18 months three children in group II discontinued therapy due to side effects, hence the remaining 19 were available for final analysis in group 2 whereas no drop outs in the group 1. During the study period, the serum ferritin decreased from 3261±2613ng/dl to 1586±766 ng/dl in group 1 as compared in group 2 from 4109±3153 ng/dl to 1743±1138 ng/dl (fig 2. This was also not statistically significant. In group 2, 68% of the children expe rienced adverse effect as compared

  15. Efficacy and safety of second-line agents for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after docetaxel. A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Gianpaolo Perletti


    Full Text Available Objective: We performed a systematic review of the literature to assess the efficacy and the safety of second-line agents targeting metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC that has progressed after docetaxel. Pooled-analysis was also performed, to assess the effectiveness of agents targeting the androgen axis via identical mechanisms of action (abiraterone acetate, orteronel. Materials and Methods: We included phase III randomized controlled trials that enrolled patients with mCRPC progressing during or after first-line docetaxel treatment. Trials were identified by electronic database searching. The primary outcome of the review was overall survival. Secondary outcomes were radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS and severe adverse effects (grade 3 or higher. Results: Ten articles met the inclusion criteria for the review. These articles reported the results of five clinical trials, enrolling in total 5047 patients. The experimental interventions tested in these studies were enzalutamide, ipilimumab, abiraterone acetate, orteronel and cabazitaxel. Compared to control cohorts (active drug-treated or placebotreated, the significant overall survival advantages achieved were 4.8 months for enzalutamide (hazard ratio for death vs. placebo: 0.63; 95% CI 0.53 to 0.75, P < 0.0001, 4.6 months for abiraterone (hazard ratio for death vs. placebo: 0.66, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.75, P < 0.0001 and 2.4 months for cabazitaxel (hazard ratio for death vs. mitoxantrone-prednisone: 0.70, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.83, p < 0.0001. Pooled analysis of androgen synthesis inhibitors orteronel and abiraterone resulted in significantly increased overall and progression-free survival for anti-androgen agents, compared to placebo (hazard ratio for death: 0.76, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.87, P < 0.0001; hazard ratio for radiographic progression: 0.7, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.77, P < 0.00001. Androgen synthesis inhibitors induced significant increases in risk ratios for adverse effects

  16. Safety test of a supplement, 5-aminolevulinic acid phosphate with sodium ferrous citrate, in diabetic patients treated with oral hypoglycemic agents

    Naohide Yamashita


    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to examine the safety of 5-aminolevulinic acid phosphate (5-ALA with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC in diabetic patients treated with one or more oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs. Background: Recent intervention studies performed in the USA and Japan have shown that a nutritional supplement of 5-ALA with SFC efficiently reduced blood glucose levels in pre-diabetic population without any adverse events. Thus, it was anticipated that 5-ALA with SFC may potentially be taken as a beneficial supplement by diabetic patients who were being treated with OHA therapy. Nevertheless, it is important to examine its safety and efficacy in diabetic population. Methods: This study was a prospective single-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled and parallel-group comparison study. Medically treated diabetic patients between the ages of 30 and 75 were recruited from the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan and 45 subjects were selected after screening. These subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: daily intake of 15mg 5-ALA, 50mg 5-ALA, and a placebo (n=15, respectively. The supplement or placebo was administered for 12 weeks followed by a four week washout period. The primary endpoint was safety and occurrence of hypoglycemic attack, while the secondary endpoint was changes of fasting blood glucose (FBG and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c. Results: Adverse events related to 5-ALA with SFC were not observed in all the groups. Abnormalities in blood and urine tests were not observed either. Significant decrease in FBG was not detected in all the groups. However, there was a small but significant decrease in HbA1c at 4 and 8 week in the 15 mg 5-ALA group. Significant decrease in HbA1c was not observed in the 50 mg 5-ALA group, although a tendency to decrease after 4 weeks was apparent. Conclusion: 5-ALA with SFC is a safe and potentially beneficial supplement if taken by diabetic patients treated with OHAs.

  17. Pharmacological management of hypertension in paediatric patients. A comprehensive review of the efficacy, safety and dosage guidelines of the available agents.

    Miller, K


    The prevalence of hypertension in children, although lower than in adults, is still significant. An underlying cause is often identified in the younger patient, with essential hypertension accounting for the majority of cases in adolescents. The natural history of hypertension in childhood is still not well delineated. Previous Task Force recommendations are addressed to reflect current experience with the newer classes of agents, namely the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and the calcium channel blockers (CCBs) where either limited or no experience was previously available. In addition, the current treatment recommendations of Joint National Committee V (JNCV) are reflected in our discussion. The current drug classes are reviewed with respect to dosage guidelines, adverse effects and potential drug-drug interactions. The advantages and disadvantages of a tailored or individualised therapeutic approach as opposed to rigid stepped care therapy will be presented. Clearly, more long term data need to be obtained with respect to the safety and efficacy of the newer classes of drugs. PMID:7533695

  18. Bioprotective agents in safety control

    Dimitrijević-Branković Suzana I.


    Food poisoning is the one of the main health hazards even today. More than 200 known diseases are transmitted through food. The causes of foodborne illness include viruses, bacteria, parasites, toxins, metals, and prions and the symptoms of foodborne illness range from mild gastroenteritis to life-threatening neurological, hepatic and renal syndromes.The prevention of food poisonings represents very serious task for food manufacturers. Beside food control according to the concept "from the fa...

  19. Efficacy and safety of a novel pharmacological stress test agent-higenamine in radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging: phase Ⅱ clinical trial

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of higenamine (HG), a pharmaco logical stress agent, for the detection of myocardial ischemia using SPECT. Methods: This study was an open,multi-center, randomized and positively controlled trial with crossover references. It consisted of 120 patients clinically confirmed or suspected of myocardial ischemia. Each patient underwent a resting MPI and two separate stress MPI in a randomized crossover manner with intravenous administration of HG or adenosine (Ad) on different days. The severity and extent of myocardial ischemia were diagnosed on stress MPI. The degree of vascular stenosis in terms of percentage narrowing was measured by CAG (>50% was defined as coronary disease), thus defined as gold standard. The diagnostic efficacy of HG and Ad was compared. Vital signs, routine blood and urine tests,blood biochemical items and side effects were documented for evaluation of procedure safety. Two-sample t test, χ2 or Fisher's exact test, and Kappa test were used. Results: A total of 109 patients completed the trim and CAG. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of HG MPI were 56.1% (32/57), 78.8% (41/52), 67.0%(73/109), 74.4% (32/43) and 62.1% (41/66), respectively, which were not significantly different from those of Ad MPI (52.6% (30/57), 82.7% (43/52), 67.0% (73/109), 76.9% (30/39) and 61.4%(43/70) ; χ2=0-0.2476, all P>0.05). The sensitivity of HG vs Ad MPI in the diagnosis of single-, double-and triple-vessel ischemia was 29.6% (8/27) vs 22.2% (6/27), 64.7% (11/17) vs 64.7% (11/17) and 100% (13/13) vs 100% (13/13), respectively. The concordance between HG and Ad for the detection of LAD, LCX and RCA ischemia was 95.41% (104/109), 97.25% (106/109) and 97.25% (106/109) (Kappa=0.8905, 0.8420 and 0.8874). HG did not induce significant systolic blood pressure change during or after administration. Both HG and Ad could induce temporary decrease of

  20. Phase 2 clinical study of 123I-IBF, a dopamine D2 receptor imaging agent, to evaluate clinical efficacy and safety in Parkinson's disease and Parkinson syndromes

    A Phase 2 multicenter trial of 123I-IBF, (S)-5-iodo-7-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl] carboxamido-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran, was conducted to evaluate its clinical efficacy and safety in 158 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) or Parkinson syndromes (PS). SPECT data were acquired at two hours (2H-SPECT), after intravenous injection of 123I-IBF (167 MBq). Additional SPECT scan at three hours (3H-SPECT) and dynamic SPECT scan at most until one hour were performed when possible. No severe side effects due to 123I-IBF injection were observed. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for discriminating PS from PD using the striatal specific binding count-to-frontal cortex count ratio (St/Fc-1) in 3H-SPECT were 72.7%, 81.0% and 78.1% in 64 clinically definite cases (i.e., typical cases), respectively. The putamen-to-caudate ratios were significantly lower in striatonigral degeneration compared with those in PD. The contralateral-to-ipsilateral ratios against the symptomatic side of tremor and/or rigidity in the patients with PD (Hoehn and Yahr I) were significantly higher than the left-to-right ratios in the normal controls. St/Fc-1 in 3H-SPECT was significantly lower in the patients showing a poor response to levodopa than in those showing a good response. The dopamine D2 receptor binding potential (k3/k4), obtained by dynamic SPECT based on compartment model analysis, correlated well with the striatal specific binding count-to-occipital cortex count ratio. These results suggest that 123I-IBF is a promising agent for differential diagnosis and pathophysiological evaluation of PD and PS. (author)

  1. An agent-based model to study effects of team processes on compliance with safety regulations at an airline ground service organization

    Sharpanskykh, A.; Haest, R.


    Maintaining high levels of safety under conditions of ever increasing air traffic is a challenging task. Failures to comply with safety-related regulations are often considered to be important contributors to safety occurrences. To address the issue of compliance, approaches based on external regula

  2. An agent-based model to study effects of team processes on compliance with safety regulations at an airline ground service organization

    Sharpanskykh, A.; Haest, R.


    Maintaining high levels of safety under conditions of ever increasing air traffic is a challenging task. Failures to comply with safety-related regulations are often considered to be important contributors to safety occurrences. To address the issue of compliance, approaches based on external regulation of the employees’ behavior were proposed. Unfortunately, an externally imposed control is often not internalized by employees and has a short-term effect on their performance. To achieve a lon...

  3. Chemical crowd control agents.

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Hussain, Syed Ather; Rameez, Mansoor Ali Merchant; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Madadin, Mohammed; Anwar, Naureen; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian


    Chemical crowd control agents are also referred to as riot control agents and are mainly used by civil authorities and government agencies to curtail civil disobedience gatherings or processions by large crowds. Common riot control agents used to disperse large numbers of individuals into smaller, less destructive, and more easily controllable numbers include chloroacetophenone, chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile, dibenzoxazepine, diphenylaminearsine, and oleoresin capsicum. In this paper, we discuss the emergency medical care needed by sufferers of acute chemical agent contamination and raise important issues concerning toxicology, safety and health. PMID:26658556

  4. Safety and clinical outcome of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction : A meta-analysis of individual patient data

    Fokkema, Marieke L.; van der Meer, Peter; Rao, Sunil V.; Belonje, Anne M.; Ferrario, Maurizio; Hillege, Hans L.; Katz, Stuart D.; Lipsic, Erik; Ludman, Andrew J.; Ott, Ilka; Prunier, Fabrice; Choi, Dong-Ju; Toba, Ken; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Voors, Adriaan A.


    Background Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) have been investigated in small studies in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents did not show a clear effect on left ventricular funct

  5. Efficacy and safety assessment of the addition of bevacizumab to adjuvant therapy agents in cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Ahmadizar, Fariba; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; De Boer, Anthonius; Liu, Geoffrey; Maitland-Van Der Zee, Anke H.


    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in the adjuvant cancer therapy setting within different subset of patients. Methods & Design/Results: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane and Clinical databases were searched for English language studies of randomized controlled trials comparin

  6. The safety and effectiveness of once daily detemir in patients with type 2 diabetes previously failing oral agents:the Chinese cohort from SOL-VETM observational study



    Objective To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of initiating once-daily insulin detemir(Levemir) as add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) who failed treatment of oral anti-diabetic drugs(OAD).Methods The present study was derived from the data of

  7. The successes and limitations of preclinical studies in predicting the pharmacodynamics and safety of cell-surface-targeted biological agents in patients

    Polson, Andrew G; Fuji, Reina N


    To improve drug development outcomes, it is important to review when preclinical pharmacodynamic and safety models have successfully predicted human responses and when they have not. In a recent issue of the BJP, Bugelski and Martin examined the concordance between preclinical and human data for biopharmaceuticals targeted to cell-surface proteins. The cases are interesting and several trends emerge. The pharmacodynamics of biopharmaceuticals in non-human primates is largely predictive; the u...

  8. 48-week efficacy and safety of dolutegravir relative to commonly used third agents in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected patients: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Dipen A Patel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A network meta-analysis can provide estimates of relative efficacy for treatments not directly studied in head-to-head randomized controlled trials. We estimated the relative efficacy and safety of dolutegravir (DTG versus third agents currently recommended by guidelines, including ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r, ritonavir-boosted darunavir (DRV/r, efavirenz (EFV, cobicistat-boosted elvitegravir (EVG/c, ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r, raltegravir (RAL, and rilpivirine (RPV, in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected patients. METHODS: A systematic review of published literature was conducted to identify phase 3/4 randomized controlled clinical trials (up to August 2013 including at least one third agent of interest in combination with a backbone nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI regimen. Bayesian fixed-effect network meta-analysis models adjusting for the type of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine [TDF/FTC] or abacavir/lamivudine [ABC/3TC] were used to evaluate week 48 efficacy (HIV-RNA suppression to <50 copies/mL and change in CD4+ cells/µL and safety (lipid changes, adverse events, and discontinuations due to adverse events of DTG relative to all other treatments. Sensitivity analyses assessing the impact of NRTI treatment adjustment and random-effects models were performed. RESULTS: Thirty-one studies including 17,000 patients were combined in the analysis. Adjusting for the effect of NRTI backbone, treatment with DTG resulted in significantly higher odds of virologic suppression (HIV RNA<50 copies/mL and increase in CD4+ cells/µL versus ATV/r, DRV/r, EFV, LPV/r, and RPV. Dolutegravir had better or equivalent changes in total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, and lower odds of adverse events and discontinuation due to adverse events compared to all treatments. Random-effects and unadjusted models resulted in similar conclusions. CONCLUSION: Three

  9. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of existing TNF blocking agents in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Kalle J Aaltonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Five-tumour necrosis factor (TNF-blockers (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol and golimumab are available for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Only few clinical trials compare one TNF-blocker to another. Hence, a systematic review is required to indirectly compare the substances. The aim of our study is to estimate the efficacy and the safety of TNF-blockers in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA and indirectly compare all five currently available blockers by combining the results from included randomized clinical trials (RCT. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted using databases including: MEDLINE, SCOPUS (including EMBASE, Cochrane library and electronic search alerts. Only articles reporting double-blind RCTs of TNF-blockers vs. placebo, with or without concomitant methotrexate (MTX, in treatment of RA were selected. Data collected were information of patients, interventions, controls, outcomes, study methods and eventual sources of bias. RESULTS: Forty-one articles reporting on 26 RCTs were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Five RCTs studied infliximab, seven etanercept, eight adalimumab, three golimumab and three certolizumab. TNF-blockers were more efficacious than placebo at all time points but were comparable to MTX. TNF-blocker and MTX combination was superior to either MTX or TNF-blocker alone. Increasing doses did not improve the efficacy. TNF-blockers were relatively safe compared to either MTX or placebo. CONCLUSIONS: No single substance clearly rose above others in efficacy, but the results of the safety analyses suggest that etanercept might be the safest alternative. Interestingly, MTX performs nearly identically considering both efficacy and safety aspects with a margin of costs.

  10. Biological Agents

    ... LABOR UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety & Health Administration About OSHA A to Z Index Contact Us ... OF LABOR Career & Internships | Contact Us Occupational Safety & Health Administration 200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210 800- ...

  11. Agent engineering

    Liu, Jiming; Zhong, Ning; Wang, Patrick S P


    Agent engineering concerns the development of autonomous computational or physical entities capable of perceiving, reasoning, adapting, learning, cooperating and delegating in a dynamic environment. It is one of the most promising areas of research and development in information technology, computer science and engineering. This book addresses some of the key issues in agent engineering: What is meant by "autonomous agents"? How can we build agents with autonomy? What are the desirable capabilities of agents with respect to surviving (they will not die) and living (they will furthermore enjoy

  12. CATS-based Agents That Err

    Callantine, Todd J.


    This report describes preliminary research on intelligent agents that make errors. Such agents are crucial to the development of novel agent-based techniques for assessing system safety. The agents extend an agent architecture derived from the Crew Activity Tracking System that has been used as the basis for air traffic controller agents. The report first reviews several error taxonomies. Next, it presents an overview of the air traffic controller agents, then details several mechanisms for causing the agents to err in realistic ways. The report presents a performance assessment of the error-generating agents, and identifies directions for further research. The research was supported by the System-Wide Accident Prevention element of the FAA/NASA Aviation Safety Program.

  13. Sunscreening Agents: A Review

    Latha, M. S.; Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; B R Naveen Kumar


    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food an...

  14. Vaccine Safety

    ... the safety of Tdap, Meningococcal, and HPV vaccines Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine is Very Safe Read about the safety of ... Hepatitis A Vaccine Safety Hepatitis B Vaccine Safety Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Safety FAQs about HPV Safety Influenza (Flu) Vaccine ...

  15. Antibiotic Agents

    ... either as public health or as non-public health antimicrobial agents. What is the difference between bacteriostats, sanitizers, disinfectants ... bacteria, however, there is considerable controversy surrounding their health benefits. The ... producing agents (Table of Antibacterials) have been used for many ...

  16. Efficacy and safety of adding an agent to bevacizumab/taxane regimens for the first-line treatment of Her2-negative patients with locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer: results from seven randomized controlled trials

    Liu, Xiaoqun; Liu, Xiangdong; Qiao, Tiankui; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Sujuan


    Background The combined therapy of bevacizumab (BEV) with taxane (paclitaxel or docetaxel) has shown an improvement on progression-free survival (PFS) and objective remission in Her2-negative patients with locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer (LR/MBC). However, there was no benefit in overall survival (OS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adding an agent to the BEV/taxane regimens for the treatment of Her2-negative patients with LR/MBC in a first-line setting. Materials and methods We searched PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, EBSCO, and the Cochrane Library databases for eligible trials. A meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.0 freeware package. We calculated the hazard ratio (HR) for PFS and OS. The odds ratio (OR) was used to calculate objective response rate (ORR) and grade 3/4 drug-related adverse events. The heterogeneity of study outcomes was calculated by the χ2 test or I2 statistics. Results A total of 1,124 patients from seven randomized controlled trials were analyzed. Our meta-analysis showed that the ORR was significantly improved in the BEV/taxane-based triplet group when compared with the BEV/taxane-based doublet group (OR =1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–1.67, P=0.03). A subset analysis showed that a similar result was achieved in the triplet group in which a cytotoxic agent was added (OR =1.46, 95% CI: 1.09–1.95, P=0.01). However, the PFS and OS had no statistically significant differences between the two groups (HR =0.87, 95% CI: 0.68–1.13, P=0.31; HR =0.98, 95% CI: 0.82–1.16, P=0.78, respectively). Regarding safety, thromboembolic events, fatigue, and diarrhea (all $grade 3) were more frequently observed in the BEV/taxane-based triplet group (OR =3.8, 95% CI: 1.86–7.79, P=0.0003; OR =1.55, 95% CI: 1.05–2.27, P=0.03; OR =2.1, 95% CI: 1.29–3.41, P=0.003, respectively). Other toxic effects had no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Conclusion Our

  17. New set of Chemical Safety rules

    HSE Unit


    A new set of four Safety Rules was issued on 28 March 2011: Safety Regulation SR-C ver. 2, Chemical Agents (en); General Safety Instruction GSI-C1, Prevention and Protection Measures (en); General Safety Instruction GSI-C2, Explosive Atmospheres (en); General Safety Instruction GSI-C3, Monitoring of Exposure to Hazardous Chemical Agents in Workplace Atmospheres (en). These documents form part of the CERN Safety Rules and are issued in application of the “Staff Rules and Regulations” and of document SAPOCO 42. These documents set out the minimum requirements for the protection of persons from risks to their occupational safety and health arising, or likely to arise, from the effects of hazardous chemical agents that are present in the workplace or used in any CERN activity. Simultaneously, the HSE Unit has published seven Safety Guidelines and six Safety Forms. These documents are available from the dedicated Web page “Chemical, Cryogenic and Biological Safety&...

  18. Agent, autonomous

    Luciani, Annie


    The expression autonomous agents, widely used in virtual reality, computer graphics, artificial intelligence and artificial life, corresponds to the simulation of autonomous creatures, virtual (i.e. totally computed by a program), or embodied in a physical envelope, as done in autonomous robots.

  19. Safety of MR liver specific contrast media

    Bellin, Marie-France [Hopital Paul Brousse, Universite Paris 11, Villejuif Cedex (France); Webb, Judith A.W. [St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Molen, Aart J. van der [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Thomsen, Henrik S. [Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev, Department of Diagnostic Radiology 54E2, Herlev (Denmark); Morcos, Sameh K. [Northern General Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sheffield (United Kingdom)


    Over the past few years a number of magnetic resonance (MR) liver specific contrast agents have been introduced. In this report the safety issues of these agents are addressed. A literature search was carried out. Based on the available information, simple guidelines on the safety issue of liver specific contrast agents have been produced by the Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology. The report and guidelines were discussed at the 11th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Santiago de Compostela. Liver specific contrast agents appear in general to be safe and well tolerated. However, the incidence of adverse reactions with iron oxides and the intravenous manganese based agent seems to be slightly higher than with gadolinium based agents. However, no safety information from comparative clinical trials has been published. Guidelines on the safety aspects are presented. (orig.)

  20. Safety of MR liver specific contrast media

    Over the past few years a number of magnetic resonance (MR) liver specific contrast agents have been introduced. In this report the safety issues of these agents are addressed. A literature search was carried out. Based on the available information, simple guidelines on the safety issue of liver specific contrast agents have been produced by the Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology. The report and guidelines were discussed at the 11th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Santiago de Compostela. Liver specific contrast agents appear in general to be safe and well tolerated. However, the incidence of adverse reactions with iron oxides and the intravenous manganese based agent seems to be slightly higher than with gadolinium based agents. However, no safety information from comparative clinical trials has been published. Guidelines on the safety aspects are presented. (orig.)

  1. Auto Safety

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Auto Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Auto Safety Print A A ... by teaching some basic rules. Importance of Child Safety Seats Using a child safety seat (car seat) ...

  2. Antimicrobial Agents

    Sigrid Mayrhofer


    Full Text Available Strains of the genus Bifidobacterium are frequently used as probiotics, for which the absence of acquired antimicrobial resistance has become an important safety criterion. This clarifies the need for antibiotic susceptibility data for bifidobacteria. Based on a recently published standard for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bifidobacteria with broth microdilution method, the range of susceptibility to selected antibiotics in 117 animal bifidobacterial strains was examined. Narrow unimodal MIC distributions either situated at the low-end (chloramphenicol, linezolid, and quinupristin/dalfopristin or high-end (kanamycin, neomycin concentration range could be detected. In contrast, the MIC distribution of trimethoprim was multimodal. Data derived from this study can be used as a basis for reviewing or verifying present microbiological breakpoints suggested by regulatory agencies to assess the safety of these micro-organisms intended for the use in probiotics.

  3. Antifungal agents.

    Ryder, N S


    At this year's ICAAC Meeting, new data on approximately 20 different antifungal agents were presented, while no new agents were disclosed. Drugs in late development include the triazoles, voriconazole (Pfizer Ltd) and Sch-56592 (Schering-Plough Corp), and the echinocandins, caspofungin (Merck & Co Inc) and FK-463 (Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co Ltd). In contrast to previous years, presentations on these and earlier developmental compounds were relatively modest in scope, with few significant new data. Little new information appeared on the most recent novel class of agents, the sordarins (Glaxo Wellcome plc). Early clinical results were presented for FK-463, showing acceptable tolerability and dose-dependent efficacy in AIDS-associated esophageal candidiasis. A new liposomal formulation of nystatin (Nyotran; Aronex Pharmaceuticals Inc) was shown to be equivalent to conventional amphotericin B in empiric therapy of presumed fungal infection in neutropenic patients, but with reduced toxicity. Intravenous itraconazole (Janssen Pharmaceutica NV) was an effective prophylactic therapy in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, while oral itraconazole was discussed as a treatment for fungal infection in heart and liver transplant patients. The allylamine compound, terbinafine (Novartis AG), showed good clinical efficacy against fungal mycetoma, a serious tropical infection. A major highlight was the first presentation of inhibitors of fungal efflux pumps as a strategy for overcoming resistance. MC-510027 (milbemycin alpha-9; Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) and its derivatives, potentiated the antifungal activity of triazoles and terbinafine in a number of Candida spp. Another pump inhibitor, MC-005172 (Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) showed in vivo potentiation of fluconazole in a mouse kidney infection model. Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc also presented inhibitors of bacterial efflux pumps. PMID:16113946

  4. Trading Agents

    Wellman, Michael


    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  5. Radioprotective Agents

    Ilker Kelle


    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  6. Nuclear safety

    The author proposes an overview of methods and concepts used in the nuclear industry, at the design level as well as at the exploitation level, to ensure an acceptable safety level, notably in the case of nuclear reactors. He first addresses the general objectives of nuclear safety and the notion of acceptable risk: definition and organisation of nuclear safety (relationships between safety authorities and operators), notion of acceptable risk, deterministic safety approach and main safety principles (safety functions and confinement barriers, concept of defence in depth). Then, the author addresses the safety approach at the design level: studies of operational situations, studies of internal and external aggressions, safety report, design principles for important-for-safety systems (failure criterion, redundancy, failure prevention, safety classification). The next part addresses safety during exploitation and general exploitation rules: definition of the operation domain and of its limits, periodic controls and tests, management in case of incidents, accidents or aggressions

  7. Safety Education.

    Daniels, James H.; And Others


    Five articles in this issue focus on safety education in agricultural laboratories. Topics discussed include teacher liability; elements of a safety instruction program; state and federal safety standards; ground fault current protection; and eye protection requirements and equipment. (SK)

  8. An agent framework for dynamic agent retraining: Agent academy

    Mitkas, P.; A. Symeonidis; Kechagias, D.; Athanasiadis, I.N.; Laleci, G.; KURT, G.; Kabak, Y.; Acar, A.; Dogac, A.


    Agent Academy (AA) aims to develop a multi-agent society that can train new agents for specific or general tasks, while constantly retraining existing agents in a recursive mode. The system is based on collecting information both from the environment and the behaviors of the acting agents and their related successes/failures to generate a body of data, stored in the Agent Use Repository, which is mined by the Data Miner module, in order to generate useful knowledge about the application domai...

  9. Reasoning about Risk in Agent's Deliberation Process: a Jadex Implementation

    Asnar, Yudistira; Giorgini, Paolo; Zannone, Nicola


    Autonomous agents and multi-agent systems have been proved to be useful in several safety-critical applications. However, in current agent architectures (particularly BDI architectures) the deliberation process does not include any form of risk analysis. In this paper, we propose guidelines to implement Tropos Goal-Risk reasoning. Our proposal aims at introducing risk reasoning in the deliberation process of a BDI agent so that the overall set of possible plans is evaluated with respect to ri...

  10. Agent Chameleons: Virtual Agents Real Intelligence

    O'Hare, Gregory; Duffy, Brian; Schoen-Phelan, Bianca; Martin, Alan; Bradley, John


    Agent Chameleons provides virtual agents powered by real intelligence, delivering next generation autonomic entities that can seamlessly migrate, mutate and evolve on their journey between and within physical and digital information spaces.

  11. ITER safety

    As part of the series of publications by the IAEA that summarize the results of the Conceptual Design Activities for the ITER project, this document describes the ITER safety analyses. It contains an assessment of normal operation effluents, accident scenarios, plasma chamber safety, tritium system safety, magnet system safety, external loss of coolant and coolant flow problems, and a waste management assessment, while it describes the implementation of the safety approach for ITER. The document ends with a list of major conclusions, a set of topical remarks on technical safety issues, and recommendations for the Engineering Design Activities, safety considerations for siting ITER, and recommendations with regard to the safety issues for the R and D for ITER. Refs, figs and tabs



    Ensuring safety while peacefully utilizing nuclear energy is a top priority for China A fter a recent earthquake in Japan caused radioactive leaks at a nuclear power plant in Tokyo, the safety of nuclear energy has again aroused public attention.

  13. 9th KES Conference on Agent and Multi-Agent Systems : Technologies and Applications

    Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi


    Agents and multi-agent systems are related to a modern software paradigm which has long been recognized as a promising technology for constructing autonomous, complex and intelligent systems. The topics covered in this volume include agent-oriented software engineering, agent co-operation, co-ordination, negotiation, organization and communication, distributed problem solving, specification of agent communication languages, agent privacy, safety and security, formalization of ontologies and conversational agents. The volume highlights new trends and challenges in agent and multi-agent research and includes 38 papers classified in the following specific topics: learning paradigms, agent-based modeling and simulation, business model innovation and disruptive technologies, anthropic-oriented computing, serious games and business intelligence, design and implementation of intelligent agents and multi-agent systems, digital economy, and advances in networked virtual enterprises. Published p...

  14. Safety Handbook.

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Safety policies, procedures, and related information are presented in this manual to assist school personnel in a continuing program of accident prevention. Chapter 1 discusses safety education and accident prevention in general. Chapter 2 covers traffic regulations relating to school safety patrols, school bus transportation, bicycles, and…

  15. Safety matters

    Gelder, P. van


    Several events have transpired recently to underscore yet again how important the issue of safety is for the local construction industry. This month regular contributor J.A. McInnis takes a look at how some of these events relate to one major area of site safety: safety whilst working at a height.

  16. 医疗失效模式与效应分析在提高宫缩抑制剂使用安全性中的应用%Application of healthcare failure mode and effect analysis in improving the safety of tocolytic agent usage

    余勇妙; 潘小兰; 钟瑞卿


    Objective: To investigate the application of healthcare failure mode ( HFMEA ) and effect analysis method in improving the safety of intravenous infusion of tocolytic agents. Methods:219 patients who were treated with intravenous infusion of tocolytic agents in accordance with HFMEA from January 2010 to February 2011 were taken as the observation group. The procedure of intravenous infusion of tocolytic agent was analyzed and the adjustment of regulation and rules and the process was implemented to continuously improve and make medication system better against the unsafe factors in the intravenous infusion of tocolytic agent; other 184 patients who received the treatment of intravenous infusion of tocolytic agents from January to December 2009 were taken as the control group. The healthcare failure mode, risk priority number ( RPN ) and the infusion completion rate of tocolytic agent abiding by doctors prescription as the concentration of drugs and time of infusion were compared between the two groups. Results:The infusion completion rate according to the concentration of drugs and time of infusion was significantly higher in the observation group than the control group ( P <0. 01 ) ;the RPN value of each failure mode was significantly lower in the observation group than the control group ( P <0. 05 ). Conclusion: The healthcare failure mode and effect analysis theory applied to the analysis of the safety of whole process of medication system in our hospital can ensure the safety of intravenous infusion of tocolytic agent.%目的:探讨医疗失效模式与效应分析(HFMEA)方法在提高静脉滴注宫缩抑制剂安全性中的应用.方法:将2010年1月~2011年2月实施HFMEA静脉滴注宫缩抑制剂的219例患者作为观察组,对静脉滴注宫缩抑制剂的用药流程进行分析,针对不安全的因素调整制度、流程,使静脉滴注宫缩抑制剂的安全用药系统不断完善并得以持续改进;将2009年1~12月

  17. Safety handbook

    The purpose of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization's Safety Handbook is to outline simply the fundamental procedures and safety precautions which provide an appropriate framework for safe working with any potential hazards, such as fire and explosion, welding, cutting, brazing and soldering, compressed gases, cryogenic liquids, chemicals, ionizing radiations, non-ionising radiations, sound and vibration, as well as safety in the office. It also specifies the organisation for safety at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories and the responsibilities of individuals and committees. It also defines the procedures for the scrutiny and review of all operations and the resultant setting of safety rules for them. ills

  18. Nuclear Safety

    In this short paper it has only been possible to deal in a rather general way with the standards of safety used in the UK nuclear industry. The record of the industry extending over at least twenty years is impressive and, indeed, unique. No other industry has been so painstaking in protection of its workers and in its avoidance of damage to the environment. Headings are: introduction; how a nuclear power station works; radiation and its effects (including reference to ICRP, the UK National Radiological Protection Board, and safety standards); typical radiation doses (natural radiation, therapy, nuclear power programme and other sources); safety of nuclear reactors - design; key questions (matters of concern which arise in the public mind); safety of operators; safety of people in the vicinity of a nuclear power station; safety of the general public; safety bodies. (U.K.)

  19. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2015. The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2014

    Helwigh, Birgitte; Porsbo, Lone Jannok; Boysen, Louise;

    This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2014 in 32 European countries (28 Member States (MS) and four non-MS). Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly re......, molluscs and products thereof’. The report further summarises trends and sources along the food chain of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma, rabies, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), West Nile virus and tularaemia....

  20. European Food Safety Authority, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control; The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2009

    Korsgaard, Helle


    The European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control have analysed the information on the occurrence of zoonoses and food-borne outbreaks in 2009 submitted by 27 European Union Member States. In 2009, 108,614 salmonellosis cases in humans were reported and the statistically significant decreasing trend in the case numbers continued. Eighteen Member States reached the European Union Salmonella reduction target for breeding flocks of fowl, 17 Member Stat...

  1. Oral agents in multiple sclerosis.

    Lorefice, L; Fenu, G; Frau, J; Coghe, G C; Marrosu, M G; Cocco, E


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Disease-modifying drugs licensed for MS treatment have been developed to reduce relapse rates and halt disease progression. The majority of current MS drugs involve regular, parenteral administration, affecting long-term adherence and thus reducing treatment efficacy. Over the last two decades great progress has been made towards developing new MS therapies with different modes of action and biologic effects. In particular, oral drugs have generated much interest because of their convenience and positive impact on medication adherence. Fingolimod was the first launched oral treatment for relapsing-remitting MS; recently, Teriflunomide and Dimethyl fumarate have also been approved as oral disease-modifying agents. In this review, we summarize and discuss the history, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety of oral agents that have been approved or are under development for the selective treatment of MS. PMID:25924620

  2. Safety; Avertissement



    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  3. Reactive Safety

    Rüdiger Ehlers; Bernd Finkbeiner


    The distinction between safety and liveness properties is a fundamental classification with immediate implications on the feasibility and complexity of various monitoring, model checking, and synthesis problems. In this paper, we revisit the notion of safety for reactive systems, i.e., for systems whose behavior is characterized by the interplay of uncontrolled environment inputs and controlled system outputs. We show that reactive safety is a strictly larger class of properties than standard...

  4. Visit safety


    Experiment areas, offices, workshops: it is possible to have co-workers or friends visit these places.     You already know about the official visits service, the VIP office, and professional visits. But do you know about the safety instruction GSI-OHS1, “Visits on the CERN site”? This is a mandatory General Safety Instruction that was created to assist you in ensuring safety for all your visits, whatever their nature—especially those that are non-official. Questions? The HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Write to   The HSE Unit

  5. Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Safety & Prevention

    ... and Healthy Jobs - Prevention through Design Hierarchy of Controls Industry and Occupation Coding and Support Logging Safety Machine Safety Motor Vehicle Safety Motor-Vehicle Safety of Law Enforcement Officers Nail Gun Safety National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS) Noise and ...

  6. Assurance in Agent-Based Systems

    Our vision of the future of information systems is one that includes engineered collectives of software agents which are situated in an environment over years and which increasingly improve the performance of the overall system of which they are a part. At a minimum, the movement of agent and multi-agent technology into National Security applications, including their use in information assurance, is apparent today. The use of deliberative, autonomous agents in high-consequence/high-security applications will require a commensurate level of protection and confidence in the predictability of system-level behavior. At Sandia National Laboratories, we have defined and are addressing a research agenda that integrates the surety (safety, security, and reliability) into agent-based systems at a deep level. Surety is addressed at multiple levels: The integrity of individual agents must be protected by addressing potential failure modes and vulnerabilities to malevolent threats. Providing for the surety of the collective requires attention to communications surety issues and mechanisms for identifying and working with trusted collaborators. At the highest level, using agent-based collectives within a large-scale distributed system requires the development of principled design methods to deliver the desired emergent performance or surety characteristics. This position paper will outline the research directions underway at Sandia, will discuss relevant work being performed elsewhere, and will report progress to date toward assurance in agent-based systems

  7. Agent-oriented Single Token and Colored Transition Petri Net


    Petri net is a kind of effective graphic modeling tool. The agent technology is combined with petri net in order to enhance flexibility and extendibility, and the agent-oriented single token and colored transition petri net is proposed. Some characteristics such as liveness, fairness and safety are analyzed. Finally, an example in mould agile manufacturing is given to illustrate the use of it.

  8. 9 CFR 121.4 - Overlap select agents and toxins.


    ....4 Section 121.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... agents and toxins listed in this section have the potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety, to animal health, or to animal products. (b) Overlap select agents and toxins: Bacillus...

  9. Halide test agent replacement study

    Banks, E.M.; Freeman, W.P.; Kovach, B.J. [and others


    The intended phaseout of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from commercial use required the evaluation of substitute materials for the testing for leak paths through both individual adsorbers and installed adsorbent banks. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT) is in charge of maintaining the standards and codes specifying adsorbent leak test methods for the nuclear safety related air cleaning systems. The currently published standards and codes cite the use of R-11, R-12 and R-112 for leak path test agents. All of these compounds are CFCs. There are other agencies and organizations (USDOE, USDOD and USNRC) also specifying testing for leak paths or in some cases for special life tests using the above compounds. The CONAGT has recently developed criteria for the suitability evaluation of substitute test agents. On the basis of these criteria, several compounds were evaluated for their acceptability as adsorbent bed leak and life test agents. The ASME CONAGT Test Agent Qualification Criteria. The test agent qualification is based on the following parameters: (1) Similar retention times on activated carbons at the same concentration levels as one of the following: R-11, R-12, R-112 or R-112a. (2) Similar lower detection limit sensitivity and precision in the concentration range of use as R-11, R-12, R-112 and R-112a. (3) Gives the same in-place leak test results as R-11, R-12, R-112, or R-112a. (4) Chemical and radiological stability under the use conditions. (5) Causes no degradation of the carbon and its impregnant or of the other NATS components under the use conditions. (6) Is listed in the USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory for commercial use.

  10. Biologic agents in juvenile spondyloarthropathies.

    Katsicas, María Martha; Russo, Ricardo


    The juvenile spondyloarthropathies (JSpA) are a group of related rheumatic diseases characterized by involvement of peripheral large joints, axial joints, and entheses (enthesitis) that begin in the early years of life (prior to 16(th) birthday).The nomenclature and concept of spondyloarthropathies has changed during the last few decades. Although there is not any specific classification of JSpA, diseases under the spondyloarthropathy nomenclature umbrella in the younger patients include: the seronegative enthesitis and arthropathy (SEA) syndrome, juvenile ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease-associated arthritis. Moreover, the ILAR criteria for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis includes two categories closely related to spondyloarthritis: Enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis.We review the pathophysiology and the use of biological agents in JSpA. JSpA are idiopathic inflammatory diseases driven by an altered balance in the proinflammatory cytokines. There is ample evidence on the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-17 in the physiopathology of these entities. Several non-biologic and biologic agents have been used with conflicting results in the treatment of these complex diseases. The efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents, such as etanercept, infliximab and adalimumab, have been analysed in controlled and uncontrolled trials, usually showing satisfactory outcomes. Other biologic agents, such as abatacept, tocilizumab and rituximab, have been insufficiently studied and their role in the therapy of SpA is uncertain. Interleukin-17-blocking agents are promising alternatives for the treatment of JSpA patients in the near future. Recommendations for the treatment of patients with JSpA have recently been proposed and are discussed in the present review. PMID:26968522

  11. AgentChess : An Agent Chess Approach

    Fransson, Henric


    The game of chess has many times been discussed and used for test purpose by science departments of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Although the technique of agent and as well multi-agent systems is quite old, the use of these offspring of AI within chess is limited. This report describes the project performed applying the use of agents to a chess program. To measure the performance of the logic has tests between the developed program main parts been performed. Further tests against a tradition...

  12. Agents in domestic environments

    van Moergestel, Leo; Langerak, Wouter; Meerstra, Glenn; Nieuwenburg, Niels van; Pape, Franc; Telgen, Daniël; Puik, Erik; meyer, john-jules


    Athor supplied : "This paper describes an agent-based architecture for domotics. This architecture is based on requirements about expandability and hardware independence. The heart of the system is a multi-agent system. This system is distributed over several platforms to open the possibility to tie the agents directly to the actuators, sensors and devices involved. This way a level of abstraction is created and all intelligence of the system as a whole is related to the agents involved. A pr...

  13. Culturally Aware Agent Communication

    Rehm, Matthias; Nakano, Yukiko; Koda, Tomoko;


    Agent based interaction in the form of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) has matured over the last decade and agents have become more and more sophisticated in terms of their verbal and nonverbal behavior like facial expressions or gestures. Having such “natural” communication channels...

  14. Riot Control Agents

    ... a person has been exposed to riot control agents. Long-term health effects of exposure to riot control agents Prolonged ... person is removed from exposure to riot control agents, long-term health effects are unlikely to occur. How you can ...

  15. Reasoning about emotional agents

    Meyer, J.-J.


    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this f

  16. Safety strategy

    The basis for safety strategy in nuclear industry and especially nuclear power plants is the prevention of radioactivity release inside or outside of the technical installation. Therefore either technical or administrative measures are combined to a general strategy concept. This introduction will explain in more detail the following topics: - basic principles of safety - lines of assurance (LOA) - defense in depth - deterministic and probabilistic methods. This presentation is seen as an introduction to the more detailed discussion following in this course, nevertheless some selected examples will be used to illustrate the aspects of safety strategy development although they might be repeated later on. (orig.)

  17. Safety culture

    The concept of Safety Culture was defined after Chernobyl's nuclear accident in 1986. It has not been exempt from discussion interpretations, adding riders, etc..., over the last 24 years because it has to do with human behavior and performance in the organizations. Safety Culture is not an easy task to define, assess and monitor. The proof of it is that today we still discussing and writing about it. How has been the evolution of Safety Culture at the Juzbado Factory since 1985 to today?. What is the strategy that we will be following in the future. (Author)

  18. Agents modeling agents in information economies

    Vidal, J.M.; Durfee, E.H. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    Our goal is to design and build agents that act intelligently when placed in an agent-based information economy, where agents buy and sell services (e.g. thesaurus, search, task planning services, etc.). The economy we are working in is the University of Michigan Digital Library (UMDL), a large scale multidisciplinary effort to build an infrastructure for the delivery of library services. In contrast with a typical economy, an information economy deals in goods and services that are often derived from unique sources (authors, analysts, etc.), so that many goods and services are not interchangeable. Also, the cost of replicating and transporting goods is usually negligible, and the quality of goods and services is difficult to measure objectively: even two sources with essentially the same information might appeal to different audiences. Thus, each agent has its own assessment of the quality of goods and services delivered.

  19. Safety Assessment of Synthetic Fluorphlogopite as Used in Cosmetics.

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan


    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (the Panel) reviewed the safety of synthetic fluorphlogopite as used in cosmetics. Synthetic fluorphlogopite functions as a bulking agent and a viscosity-increasing agent. The Panel reviewed available animal and human data related to this ingredient along with a previous safety assessment of other magnesium silicates. The Panel concluded that synthetic fluorphlogopite was safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment. PMID:26684795

  20. Food Safety

    ... are four basic steps to food safety at home: Clean - always wash your fruits and vegetables, hands, counters, and cooking utensils. Separate - keep raw foods to themselves. Germs can spread from one food ...

  1. Sun Safety

    ... Links Buttons and Badges Stay Informed Cancer Home Sun Safety Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays can damage your skin in ...

  2. Safety culture

    The response to a previous publication by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) indicated a broad international interest in expanding the concept of safety culture in such a way that its effectiveness in particular cases may be judged. This has two major components: the framework determined by organizational policy and by managerial action, and the response of individuals in working within and benefiting by the framework. (Z.S.) 1 fig

  3. Safety first!


    Among the many duties I assumed at the beginning of the year was the ultimate responsibility for Safety at CERN: the responsibility for the physical safety of the personnel, the responsibility for the safe operation of the facilities, and the responsibility to ensure that CERN acts in accordance with the highest standards of radiation and environmental protection.   The Safety Policy document drawn up in September 2014 is an excellent basis for the implementation of Safety in all areas of CERN’s work. I am happy to commit during my mandate to help meet its objectives, not least by ensuring the Organization makes available the necessary means to achieve its Safety objectives. One of the main objectives of the HSE (Occupational Health and Safety and Environmental Protection) unit in the coming months is to enhance the measures to minimise CERN’s impact on the environment. I believe CERN should become a role model for an environmentally-aware scientific research laboratory. Risk ...


    TIS Secretariat


    Please note that the SAFETY INSTRUCTION N0 49 (IS 49) and the SAFETY NOTE N0 28 (NS 28) entitled respectively 'AVOIDING CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF WATER' and 'CERN EXHIBITIONS - FIRE PRECAUTIONS' are available on the web at the following urls: and Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email:

  5. System safety education focused on flight safety

    Holt, E.


    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  6. Assessment of safety regulation using an artificial society

    This study proposes using an artificial society to assess impacts of safety regulation on the society. The artificial society used in this study is a multi-agent system, which consists of many agents representing companies. The agents cannot survive unless they get profits by producing some products. Safety regulation functions as the business environment, which the agents will evolve to fit to. We modeled this process of survival and adaptation by the genetic algorithm. Using the proposed model, case simulations were performed to compare various regulation styles, and some interesting insights were obtained how regulation style influences behavior of the agents and then productivity and safety level of the industry. In conclusion, an effective method for assessment of safety regulation has been developed, and then several insights were shown in this study

  7. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions This dataset is associated with the following...

  8. Operational safety

    The PNL Safety, Standards and Compliance Program contributed to the development and issuance of safety policies, standards, and criteria; for projects in the nuclear and nonnuclear areas. During 1976 the major emphasis was on developing criteria, instruments and methods to assure that radiation exposure to occupational personnel and to people in the environs of nuclear-related facilities is maintained at the lowest level technically and economically practicable. Progress in 1976 is reported on the preparation of guidelines for radiation exposure; Pu dosimetry studies; the preparation of an environmental monitoring handbook; and emergency instrumentation preparedness

  9. Safety organization

    After a rapid definition of a nuclear basis installation, the national organization of nuclear safety in France is presented, as also the main organizations concerned and their functions. This report shows how the licensing procedure leading to the construction and exploitation of such installations is applied in the case of nuclear laboratories of research and development: examinations of nuclear safety problems are carried out at different levels: - centralized to define the frame out of which the installation has not to operate, - decentralized to follow in a more detailed manner its evolution

  10. Nuclear safety

    GAO reviewed DOE's efforts to restart three nuclear reactors at its Savannah River site in South Carolina. Restarting the reactors, which have not been in operating since 1986, is a top priority at DOE because the reactors are the nation's only production source of tritium, a radioactive gas used in nuclear weapons. This report describes factors that might delay restarting the reactors and what the operating contractor is doing to bring about a better attitude toward safety among its personnel and the Savannah River site. This report also contains information on safety attitude problems at other DOE facilities and with DOE employees

  11. Design of safety distributed control under bounded time-varying communication delay

    Bresch-Pietri, Delphine; Del Vecchio, Domitilla


    This paper addresses the design of a distributed safety controller for two agents, subject to communication delay. The control objective is to ensure safety, meaning that the state of the two-agent system does not enter an undesired set in the state space. Our approach is based on the computation of the complementary set to the maximal controlled invariant set, and on a state estimation procedure which guarantees control agreement between the two agents. We solve the safety control problem fo...

  12. Agent Development Toolkits

    Singh, Aarti; Sharma, A K


    Development of agents as well as their wide usage requires good underlying infrastructure. Literature indicates scarcity of agent development tools in initial years of research which limited the exploitation of this beneficial technology. However, today a wide variety of tools are available, for developing robust infrastructure. This technical note provides a deep overview of such tools and contrasts features provided by them.

  13. Radiographic scintiscanning agent

    A new technetium-based scintiscanning agent has been prepared comprising a water soluble sup(99m)Tc-methanehydroxydiphosphonate in combination with a reducing agent selected from stannous, ferrous, chromous and titanous salts. As an additional stabilizer salts and esters of gentisic or ascorbic acids have been used. (E.G.)

  14. 30 CFR 75.1107-11 - Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal.


    ... equipment employed in low coal. 75.1107-11 Section 75.1107-11 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES... § 75.1107-11 Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal. On...

  15. Asimovian Adaptive Agents

    Gordon, D F


    The goal of this research is to develop agents that are adaptive and predictable and timely. At first blush, these three requirements seem contradictory. For example, adaptation risks introducing undesirable side effects, thereby making agents' behavior less predictable. Furthermore, although formal verification can assist in ensuring behavioral predictability, it is known to be time-consuming. Our solution to the challenge of satisfying all three requirements is the following. Agents have finite-state automaton plans, which are adapted online via evolutionary learning (perturbation) operators. To ensure that critical behavioral constraints are always satisfied, agents' plans are first formally verified. They are then reverified after every adaptation. If reverification concludes that constraints are violated, the plans are repaired. The main objective of this paper is to improve the efficiency of reverification after learning, so that agents have a sufficiently rapid response time. We present two solutions: ...

  16. How do agents represent?

    Ryan, Alex

    Representation is inherent to the concept of an agent, but its importance in complex systems has not yet been widely recognised. In this paper I introduce Peirce's theory of signs, which facilitates a definition of representation in general. In summary, representation means that for some agent, a model is used to stand in for another entity in a way that shapes the behaviour of the agent with respect to that entity. Representation in general is then related to the theories of representation that have developed within different disciplines. I compare theories of representation from metaphysics, military theory and systems theory. Additional complications arise in explaining the special case of mental representations, which is the focus of cognitive science. I consider the dominant theory of cognition — that the brain is a representational device — as well as the sceptical anti-representational response. Finally, I argue that representation distinguishes agents from non-representational objects: agents are objects capable of representation.

  17. Hyperthermia and chemotherapy agent

    The use of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer dates back to the late 19th century, but the modern era of chemotherapy drugs was ushered in during the 1940's with the development of the polyfunctional alkylating agent. Since then, numerous classes of drugs have evolved and the combined use of antineoplastic agents with other treatment modalities such as radiation or heat, remains a large relatively unexplored area. This approach, combining local hyperthermia with chemotherapy agents affords a measure of targeting and selective toxicity not previously available for drugs. In this paper, the effects of adriamycin, bleomycin and cis-platinum are examined. The adjuvant use of heat may also reverse the resistance of hypoxic cells noted for some chemotherapy agents

  18. Safety aspects

    It is assumed that in an accelerator-driven system (ADS) the same type of accidents can be envisaged as in critical reactors. After briefly describing the basic safety features of ADS, the first investigations of the behaviour of an accelerator driven fast oxide reactor during an unprotected loss-of-flow accident and the investigation of reactivity accidents in a large sodium-cooled ADS are presented

  19. Technical safety

    Technical risks are compared to the publically consciously or unconsciously accepted risks. This kind of risk analysis has the aim to achieve an optimum safety with a justifiable effort. The realization of this target requires the solving of technical, economic and sociopolitical problems. In order to minimize the risk, one can reduce the probability of occurence as well as the extent of damage. Risk situations for the population due to natural occurences such as earthquakes, strike of lightning, frost, high water etc. can be relatively well quantified. These are therefore suitable a a basis for comparison. This basis risk is increased by individual traffic and by human force effects such as terror and war. On the other hand, life in the neighbourhood of a nuclear power plant does not measurably contribute to increasing individual risk. In principle, by increased expenditure one can reduce technical risks. Due to the lack of means, one must then save correspondingly somewhere else. The safety risks there can then possibly increase overproportionally or at least the wide-spread desire for a higher standard of living cannot be fulfilled. Nevertheless, absolute safety can never be reached. The insurance business is responsible for covering the financial damage. Fault trees are used in technology to analyse the weak points. This is explained taking the example of a propylene low-temperature tank. If one keeps below the base risk it must be possible to build technical plants, even nuclear power plants, in densely populated areas. Technical safety analyses, however, only embrace one side of it, rigid building and material control and extensive elimination of human error ar just as important. (orig.)

  20. Safety Note

    SC Secretariat


    Please note that the Safety Note no 29 (NS 29) entitled 'Fire Prevention for Insulating Core (Sandwich) Panel Structures for Inside Use Guidelines for Selection, Installation and Use' is available on the web at the following url: Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC Unit secretariat, e-mail : SC Secretariat

  1. Nuclear safety

    The Program on Nuclear Safety comprehends Radioprotection, Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Material Control. These activities are developed at the Nuclear Safety Directory. The Radioactive Waste Management Department (GRR) was formally created in 1983, to promote research and development, teaching and service activities in the field of radioactive waste. Its mission is to develop and employ technologies to manage safely the radioactive wastes generated at IPEN and at its customer’s facilities all over the country, in order to protect the health and the environment of today's and future generations. The Radioprotection Service (GRP) aims primarily to establish requirements for the protection of people, as workers, contractors, students, members of the general public and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, it also aims to establish the primary criteria for the safety of radiation sources at IPEN and planning and preparing for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies. The procedures about the management and the control of exposures to ionizing radiation are in compliance with national standards and international recommendations. Research related to the main activities is also performed. The Nuclear Material Control has been performed by the Safeguard Service team, which manages the accountability and the control of nuclear material at IPEN facilities and provides information related to these activities to ABACC and IAEA. (author)

  2. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina


    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...... the construction of the agent’s identity, and (3) how HAI, as a mediated interaction, is framed by an asymmetric participation framework. The paper concludes by suggesting various participation roles, which may inform development of ECAs....

  3. Agent-Based Optimization

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz


    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  4. Agent Standards Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  5. Programming Service Oriented Agents

    Hirsch, Benjamin; Konnerth, Thomas; Burkhardt, Michael; Albayrak, Sahin


    This paper introduces a programming language for service-oriented agents. JADL++ combines the ease of use of scripting-languages with a state-of-the-art service oriented approach which allows the seamless integration of web-services. Furthermore, the language includes OWL-based ontologies for semantic descriptions of data and services, thus allowing agents to make intelligent decisions about service calls.

  6. Adrenal imaging agents

    The goals of this proposal are the development of selenium-containing analogs of the aromatic amino acids as imaging agents for the pancreas and of the adrenal cortex enzyme inhibitors as imaging agents for adrenal pathology. The objects for this year include (a) the synthesis of methylseleno derivatives of phenylalanine and tryptophan, and (b) the preparation and evaluation of radiolabeled iodobenzoyl derivatives of the selenazole and thiazole analogs of metyrapone and SU-9055

  7. Guanidinoacetic acid as a performance-enhancing agent.

    Ostojic, Sergej M


    Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA; also known as glycocyamine or guanidinoacetate) is the natural precursor of creatine, and under investigation as a novel dietary agent. It was first identified as a natural compound in humans ~80 years ago. In the 1950s, GAA's use as a therapeutic agent was explored, showing that supplemental GAA improved patient-reported outcomes and work capacity in clinical populations. Recently, a few studies have examined the safety and efficacy of GAA and suggest potential ergogenic benefits for physically active men and women. The purpose of this review is to examine possible applications of GAA supplementation for exercise performance enhancement, safety, and legislation issues. PMID:26445773

  8. Agent amplified communication

    Kautz, H.; Selman, B.; Milewski, A. [AT& T Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (United States)


    We propose an agent-based framework for assisting and simplifying person-to-person communication for information gathering tasks. As an example, we focus on locating experts for any specified topic. In our approach, the informal person-to-person networks that exist within an organization are used to {open_quotes}referral chain{close_quotes} requests for expertise. User-agents help automate this process. The agents generate referrals by analyzing records of e-mail communication patterns. Simulation results show that the higher responsiveness of an agent-based system can be effectively traded for the higher accuracy of a completely manual approach. Furthermore, preliminary experience with a group of users on a prototype system has shown that useful automatic referrals can be found in practice. Our experience with actual users has also shown that privacy concerns are central to the successful deployment of personal agents: an advanced agent-based system will therefore need to reason about issues involving trust and authority.

  9. Older Consumers Safety Test

    ... Pool Safely Home / Safety Education / Safety Guides / Home Older Consumers Safety Test This is a quiz on consumer ... mind when you think of Safety for the Older Consumer? Smoke Alarms? Hand Rails? Good Health? These are ...

  10. Meta-analysis of the safety of iron chelating agents

    Li, Niya; 李妮婭


    Background: Thalassaemia is a genetic disorder disease, one of the most clinically relevant haemoglobinopathies in paediatric population. It interferes with the synthesis of haemoglobin chain. For the sake of maintaining the serum haemoglobin at a normal level, regular blood cell transfusion is required to the patients with thalassaemia. In general, patients with thalassaemia are often diagnosed at an early age and need to take a life-long iron chelating therapy to prevent the multi-organ...

  11. Delivering safety

    In the United Kingdom there have been significant recent changes to the management of civil nuclear liabilities. With the formation in April 2005 of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), ownership of the civil nuclear licensed sites in the UK, including the Magnox Reactor Stations, passed to this new organisation. The NDAs mission is to seek acceleration of the nuclear clean up programme and deliver increased value for money and, consequently, are driving their contractors to seek more innovative ways of performing work. British Nuclear Group manages the UK Magnox stations under contract to the NDA. This paper summarises the approach being taken within its Reactor Sites business to work with suppliers to enhance working arrangements at sites, improve the delivery of decommissioning programmes and deliver improvements in safety and environmental performance. The UK Magnox stations are 1. generation gas-graphite reactors, constructed in the 1950's and 1960's. Two stations are currently still operating, three are shut-down undergoing defueling and the other five are being decommissioned. Despite the distractions of industry restructuring, an uncompromising policy of demanding improved performance in conjunction with improved safety and environmental standards has been adopted. Over the past 5 years, this policy has resulted in step-changes in performance at Reactor Sites, with increased electrical output and accelerated defueling and decommissioning. The improvements in performance have been mirrored by improvements in safety (DACR of 0 at 5 sites); environmental standards (reductions in energy and water consumption, increased waste recycling) and the overall health of the workforce (20% reduction in sickness absence). These achievements have, in turn, been recognised by external bodies, resulting in several awards, including: the world's first ISRS and IERS level 10 awards (Sizewell, 2006), the NUMEX plant maintenance award (Bradwell, 2006), numerous Ro

  12. Global safety

    DeTombe, Dorien J.


    Global Safety is a container concept referring to various threats such as HIV/Aids, floods and terrorism; threats with different causes and different effects. These dangers threaten people, the global economy and the slity of states. Policy making for this kind of threats often lack an overview of the real causes and the interventions are based on a too shallow analysis of the problem, mono-disciplinary and focus mostly only on the effects. It would be more appropriate to develop policy relat...

  13. Safety training

    SC Unit


    Habilitation électrique A course entitled "Habilitation électrique pour personnel de laboratoire" (electrical safety qualification for laboratory personnel) will be held on 22 and 23 June. Registration by e-mail to Explosion Hazards in the handling of flammable solvents and gases A course entitled "Explosion Hazards in the handling of flammable solvents and gases" given in French will be held on 18-19 June 2009. This course is obligatory for all FGSOs at CERN, and it is recommended for anyone handling flammable gas or solvents. To sign up please visit this page. For more information please contact Isabelle Cusato, tel. 73811.


    TIS Secretariat


    Please note that the revisions of safety notes no 3 (NS 3 Rev. 2) and no 24 (NS 24 REV.) entitled respectively 'FIRE PREVENTION FOR ENCLOSED SPACES IN LARGE HALLS' and 'REMOVING UNBURIED ELV AND LVA ELECTRIC CONDUITS' are available on the web at the following urls: Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email

  15. Safety Assessment of Microbial Polysaccharide Gums as Used in Cosmetics.

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan


    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel assessed the safety of 34 microbial polysaccharide gums for use in cosmetics, finding that these ingredients are safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentration. The microbial polysaccharide gums named in this report have a variety of reported functions in cosmetics, including emulsion stabilizer, film former, binder, viscosity-increasing agent, and skin-conditioning agent. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data in making its determination of safety. PMID:27383198

  16. Safety first


    Safety is a priority for CERN. That is a message I conveyed in my New Year’s address and that I reiterated at one of the first Enlarged Directorate meetings of 2012 when I outlined five key safety objectives for the year, designed and implemented according to accepted international standards.   As we move from spring to summer, it’s time to take stock of how we are doing. Objective number one for 2012, which overarches everything else, is to limit the number of incidents in the workplace. That means systematically investigating and acting on every incident that involves work stoppage, along with all the most frequent workplace accidents: falls, trips and slips. The performance indicator we set ourselves is the percentage of investigations and follow-ups completed. Year on year, these figures are rising but we can never be complacent, and must strive to reach and sustain 100% follow-up. The second objective is to improve hazard control, with a focus in 2012 on chemical ha...

  17. Safety balance: Analysis of safety systems

    Safety analysis, and particularly analysis of exploitation of NPPs is constantly affected by EDF and by the safety authorities and their methodologies. Periodic safety reports ensure that important issues are not missed on daily basis, that incidents are identified and that relevant actions are undertaken. French safety analysis method consists of three principal steps. First type of safety balance is analyzed at the normal start-up phase for each unit including the final safety report. This enables analysis of behaviour of units ten years after their licensing. Second type is periodic operational safety analysis performed during a few years. Finally, the third step consists of safety analysis of the oldest units with the aim to improve the safety standards. The three steps of safety analysis are described in this presentation in detail with the aim to present the objectives and principles. Examples of most recent exercises are included in order to illustrate the importance of such analyses

  18. Agent Oriented Programming进展%Advances in Agent Oriented Programming

    王一川; 石纯一


    Agent-oriented programming (AOP) is a framework to develop agents, and it aims to link the gap betweentheory and practical in agent research. The core of an AOP framework is its language and semantics. In this paper,we propose the necessary properties which agents should have, and then give a summary and analysis about differentAOP languages based on these properties.

  19. 10 April 2014: Safety Day at CERN

    Antonella Del Rosso


    A wide variety of chemicals is used every day in the different laboratories and workshops around CERN. Potentially toxic, corrosive, polluting or hazardous in other ways, these chemicals all have to be handled carefully, as we will be reminded by the Safety Day campaign to be held by the HSE Unit on 10 April to mark World Day for Safety and Health at Work.   The use of chemicals at CERN is regulated by "Safety Regulation SR-C, Chemical Agents", which defines the minimum health and safety protection requirements for people exposed to the potentially hazardous effects of dangerous chemicals. This regulation is complemented by other Safety guides. Regretfully, despite strict procedures and regular inspections, accidents caused by the improper use of chemicals do occur every year. "Unfortunately, each year we see a small number of accidents related to the handling of chemicals," confirms chemicals expert Jonathan Gulley, who is a member of the Prevention and Sa...

  20. Safety for Users

    HR Department


    CERN welcomes more than 8000 Users every year. The PH Department as host to these scientific associates requires the highest safety standards. The PH Safety Office has published a safety flyer for Users. Important safety topics and procedures are presented. Although the flyer is intended primarily to provide safety information for Users, the PH Safety Office invites all those on the CERN sites to keep a copy of the flyer as it gives guidance in matters of safety and explains what to do in the event of an emergency. The flyer is available at: PH-Safety Office PH Department

  1. Safety for Users

    HR Department


    CERN welcomes more than 8000 Users every year. The PH Department as host to these scientific associates requires the highest safety standards. The PH Safety Office has published a Safety Flyer for Users. Important safety topics and procedures are presented. Although the Flyer is intended primarily to provide safety information for Users, the PH Safety Office invites all those on the CERN sites to keep a copy of the flyer as it gives guidance in matters of safety and explains what to do in the event of an emergency. Link: PH-Safety Office PH Department

  2. Agents unleashed a public domain look at agent technology

    Wayner, Peter


    Agents Unleashed: A Public Domain Look at Agent Technology covers details of building a secure agent realm. The book discusses the technology for creating seamlessly integrated networks that allow programs to move from machine to machine without leaving a trail of havoc; as well as the technical details of how an agent will move through the network, prove its identity, and execute its code without endangering the host. The text also describes the organization of the host's work processing an agent; error messages, bad agent expulsion, and errors in XLISP-agents; and the simulators of errors, f

  3. Construction safety

    Li, Rita Yi Man


    A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

  4. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent: a comprehensive review

    Arif T


    Full Text Available Tasleem Arif Postgraduate Department of Dermatology, STD and Leprosy, Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India Abstract: Salicylic acid has been used to treat various skin disorders for more than 2,000 years. The ability of salicylic acid to exfoliate the stratum corneum makes it a good agent for peeling. In particular, the comedolytic property of salicylic acid makes it a useful peeling agent for patients with acne. Once considered as a keratolytic agent, the role of salicylic acid as a desmolytic agent, because of its ability to disrupt cellular junctions rather than breaking or lysing intercellular keratin filaments, is now recognized and is discussed here. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent has a number of indications, including acne vulgaris, melasma, photodamage, freckles, and lentigines. The efficacy and safety of salicylic acid peeling in Fitzpatrick skin types I–III as well as in skin types V and VI have been well documented in the literature. This paper reviews the available data and literature on salicylic acid as a peeling agent and its possible indications. Its properties, efficacy and safety, the peeling procedure, and possible side effects are discussed in detail. An account of salicylism is also included. Keywords: acne vulgaris, desmolytic agent, melasma, photodamage, salicylic acid 

  5. Global safety

    Dorien J. DeTombe


    Full Text Available Global Safety is a container concept referring to various threats such as HIV/Aids, floods and terrorism; threats with different causes and different effects. These dangers threaten people, the global economy and the slity of states. Policy making for this kind of threats often lack an overview of the real causes and the interventions are based on a too shallow analysis of the problem, mono-disciplinary and focus mostly only on the effects. It would be more appropriate to develop policy related to these issues by utilizing the approaches, methods and tools that have been developed for complex societal problems. Handling these complex societal problems should be done multidisciplinary instead of mono-disciplinary. In order to give politicians the opportunity to handle complex problems multidisciplinary, multidisciplinary research institutes should be created. These multidisciplinary research institutes would provide politicians with better approaches to handle this type of problem. In these institutes the knowledge necessary for the change of these problems can be created through the use of the Compram methodology which has been developed specifically for handling complex societal problems. In a six step approach, experts, actors and policymakers discuss the content of the problem and the possible changes. The framework method uses interviewing, the Group Decision Room, simulation models and scenario's in a cooperative way. The methodology emphasizes the exchange of knowledge and understanding by communication among and between the experts, actors and politicians meanwhile keeping emotion in mind. The Compram methodology will be further explained in relation to global safety in regard to terrorism, economy, health care and agriculture.

  6. Using Theorem Proving to Verify Properties of Agent Programs

    Alechina, N.; Dastani, M.; Khan, F.; Logan, B.; Meyer, J.-J. Ch.

    We present a sound and complete logic for automatic verification of simpleAPL programs. simpleAPL is a simplified version of agent programming languages such as 3APL and 2APL designed for the implementation of cognitive agents with beliefs, goals and plans. Our logic is a variant of PDL, and allows the specification of safety and liveness properties of agent programs. We prove a correspondence between the operational semantics of simpleAPL and the models of the logic for two example program execution strategies. We show how to translate agent programs written in simpleAPL into expressions of the logic, and give an example in which we show how to verify correctness properties for a simple agent program using theorem-proving.

  7. El agente encubierto

    Anaya Marcos, María del Carmen


    [ES] El trabajo versa sobre la figura del agente encubierto. Debemos enmarcar tal medida de investigación dentro del ámbito de la criminalidad organizada. Actualmente, estamos asistiendo a una proliferación de la delincuencia organizada. La sociedad ha evolucionado, y con ella la delincuencia. Fruto de tal evolución fue necesario incluir en nuestra Ley de Enjuiciamiento Criminal medidas extraordinarias de investigación, y una de ellas es el agente encubierto. Se trata de una medida muy polémi...

  8. The PLS agent : agent behavior validation by partial least squares

    Lorscheid, Iris; Meyer, Matthias; Pakur, Sandra; Ringle, Christian


    Agent-based modeling is widely applied in the social sciences. However, the validation of agent behavior is challenging and identified as one of the shortcomings in the field. Methods are required to establish empirical links and support the implementation of valid agent models. This paper contributes to this, by introducing the PLS agent concept. This approach shows a way to transfer results about causalities and decision criteria from empirical surveys into an agent-based decision model, th...

  9. Trading Agents for Roaming Users

    Boman, Magnus; Bylund, Markus; Espinoza, Fredrik; Danielson, Mats; Lyback, David


    Some roaming users need services to manipulate autonomous processes. Trading agents running on agent trade servers are used as a case in point. We present a solution that provides the agent owners with means to upkeeping their desktop environment, and maintaining their agent trade server processes, via a briefcase service.

  10. Software Agent Techniques in Design

    Hartvig, Susanne C


    This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments.......This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments....

  11. 13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent. 107.1620 Section 107.1620 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance...

  12. Programming multi-agent systems

    Dastani, Mehdi


    With the significant advances in the area of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems in the last decade, promising technologies for the development and engineering of multi-agent systems have emerged. The result is a variety of agent-oriented programming languages, development frameworks, executio

  13. Frequently asked questions: iodinated contrast agents.

    Bettmann, Michael A


    Although iodinated contrast agents are safe and widely used, adverse events occur and questions remain about their use, safety, and interactions. Some questions are easily answered and others still require extensive investigation. For one frequent question--is informed consent necessary before all contrast media injections--the simple answer is no. Another question concerns use of contrast media in patients with prior reactions or allergies. Contrast agents can be safely used in such patients, but special care must be taken to be aware of what the previous reaction was and to be ready to treat any reaction. The protective role of pre-treatment with steroids is well established for minor reactions, but they may not prevent major reactions. It is important to realize that even life-threatening, anaphylactoid reactions are not the result of a true allergy to contrast media. Many questions arise about contrast agent-induced nephropathy. Baseline serum creatinine values should be obtained in patients who are at risk, not all patients. The incidence and natural history of contrast agent-induced nephropathy remain unclear. It occurs only in patients with compromised renal function before contrast agent injection, but even patients with normal serum creatinine levels can have renal dysfunction. Calculated creatinine clearance is a better way to determine risk and to follow this complication. The outcome in almost all patients is benign, with progression to end-stage renal disease being rare. The major risk factors, in addition to renal dysfunction, are long-standing diabetes mellitus, dehydration, and use of other nephrotoxic medications. Recent work in preventing and ameliorating contrast agent-induced nephropathy with N-acetyl cysteine, substitution of an isosmolal nonionic contrast agent, and various hydration regimens has been promising. Another common concern is use of iodinated contrast agents in pregnant or breast-feeding women. In both cases, there is no evidence

  14. Modern antiplatelet agents in coronary artery disease.

    Power, Rachel F


    Dual antiplatelet therapy is well recognized in the prevention of thrombotic complications of acute coronary syndrome and percutaneous coronary interventions. Despite clinical benefits of aspirin and clopidogrel therapy, a number of limitations curtail their efficacy: slow onset of action, variability in platelet inhibitory response and potential drug-drug interactions. Furthermore, the single platelet-activation pathway targeted by these agents allows continued platelet activation via other pathways, ensuring incomplete protection against ischemic events, thus, underscoring the need for alternate antiplatelet treatment strategies. A number of novel antiplatelet agents are currently in advance development and many have established superior effects on platelet inhibition, clinical outcomes and safety profile than clopidogrel in high-risk patients. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current status of P2Y12 receptor inhibition and PAR-1 antagonists in determining a future strategy for individualized antiplatelet therapy.

  15. Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) is a generic risk assessment approach applied by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)

    Leuschner, R. G. K.; Robinson, T. P.; Hugas, M.; Cocconcelli, P. S.; Richard-Forget, F.; Klein, G.; Licht, Tine Rask; Nguyen-The, C.; Querol, A.; Richardson, M.; Suarez, J.E.; Thrane, Ulf; Vlak, J. M.; von Wright, A.


    Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) is a generic risk assessment approach applied by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to notified biological agents aiming at simplifying risk assessments across different scientific Panels and Units. The aim of this review is to outline the implementation...




    Last year the buying agent LOGITRADE started operations on the CERN site, processing purchasing requests for well-defined families of products up to a certain value. It was planned from the outset that a second buying agent would be brought in to handle the remaining product families. So, according to that plan, the company CHARLES KENDALL will be commencing operations at CERN on 8 May 2000 in Building 73, 1st floor, offices 31 and 35 (phone and fax numbers to be announced).Each buying agent will have its own specific list of product families and will handle purchasing requests up to 10'000 CHF.Whenever possible they will provide the requested supplies at a price (including the cost of their own services) which must be equivalent to or lower than the price mentioned on the purchasing request, changing the supplier if necessary. If a lower price cannot be obtained, agents will provide the necessary administrative support free of charge.To ensure that all orders are processed in the best possible conditions, us...

  17. Radioactive diagnostic agent

    A dispersion of denatured aggregates of serum albumin to which tin is attached is prepared and lyophilized. A mixture of polycarboxylic acid and a disaccharide or monosaccharide is included in the dispersion in sufficient amount to reduce degradation during lyophilization and aging. The dispersion is suitable for radioactive labelling and use as a diagnostic agent

  18. Developing Enculturated Agents

    Rehm, Matthias

    Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) are complex multimodal systems with rich verbal and nonverbal repertoires. There human-like appearance raises severe expectations regarding natural communicative behaviors on the side of the user. But what is regarded as “natural” is to a large degree dependent...

  19. Biomimetic Emotional Learning Agents

    Kenyon, Samuel H.


    This extended abstract proposes a type of AI agent comprised of: an autonomous real-time control system, low-level emotional learning (including a simple knowledge base that links homeostatic/innate drives to sensory perception states), and a novel sliding-priority drive motivation mechanism. Learning occurs in both phylogenetic and ontogenetic training.

  20. Agents of Change

    Hansen, Jens Aage; Lehmann, Martin


    at large, it emphasises universities as key change agents and providers in new learning, including tools such as project based and problem oriented learning (PBL) as well as information and communication technology (ICT); as providers of competent and motivated graduates to fill key positions in society...

  1. The need for agents

    Abolfazlian, Ali Reza Kian


    I denne artikel arbejder vi med begrebet Intelligent Software Agents (ISAs), som autonomous, social, reactive, proactive og subservient computer systemer. Baseret på socialt psykologiske argumenter viser jeg endvidere, hvordan både den menneskelige natur og det teknologiske stadium, som mennesket...

  2. Fire safety

    According to experience and probabilistic risk assessments, fires present a significant hazard in a nuclear power plant. Fires may be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The project consists of theoretical work, experiments and simulations aiming to increase the fire safety at nuclear power plants. The project has four target areas: (1) to produce validated models for numerical simulation programmes, (2) to produce new information on the behavior of equipment in case of fire, (3) to study applicability of new active fire protecting systems in nuclear power plants, and (4) to obtain quantitative knowledge of ignitions induced by important electric devices in nuclear power plants. These topics have been solved mainly experimentally, but modelling at different level is used to interpret experimental data, and to allow easy generalisation and engineering use of the obtained data. Numerical fire simulation has concentrated in comparison of CFD modelling of room fires, and fire spreading on cables on experimental data. So far the success has been good to fair. A simple analytical and numerical model has been developed for fire effluents spreading beyond the room of origin in mechanically strongly ventilated compartments. For behaviour of equipment in fire several full scale and scaled down calorimetric experiments were carried out on electronic cabinets, as well as on horizontal and vertical cable trays. These were carried out to supply material for CFD numerical simulation code validation. Several analytical models were developed and validated against obtained experimental results to allow quick calculations for PSA estimates as well as inter- and extrapolations to slightly different objects. Response times of different commercial fire detectors were determined for different types of smoke, especially emanating from smoldering and flaming cables to facilitate selection of proper detector

  3. 42 CFR 73.4 - Overlap select agents and toxins.


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overlap select agents and toxins. 73.4 Section 73.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION... toxins listed in this section have the potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety,...

  4. 42 CFR 73.3 - HHS select agents and toxins.


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false HHS select agents and toxins. 73.3 Section 73.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION... toxins listed in this section have the potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety....

  5. Build Autonomic Agents with ABLE



    The IBM Agent Building and Learning Environment(ABLE) provides a lightweight Java~(TM) agent frame- work,a comprehensive JavaBeansTM library of intelligent software components,a set of development and test tools, and an agent platform.After the introduction to ABLE,classes and interfaces in the ABLE agent framework were put forward.At last an autonomic agent that is an ABLE-based architecture for incrementally building autonomic systems was discussed.

  6. Linking Safety Analysis to Safety Requirements

    Hansen, Kirsten Mark

    Software for safety critical systems must deal with the hazards identified by safety analysistechniques: Fault trees, event trees,and cause consequence diagrams can be interpreted as safety requirements and used in the design activity. We propose that the safety analysis and the system design use...... the same system model and that this model is formalized in a real-time, interval logic, based on a conventional dynamic systems model with a state over time. The three safety analysis techniques are interpreted in this model and it is shown how to derive safety requirements for components of a system....

  7. CERN's new safety policy


    The documents below, published on 29 September 2014 on the HSE website, together replace the document SAPOCO 42 as well as Safety Codes A1, A5, A9, A10, which are no longer in force. As from the publication date of these documents any reference made to the document SAPOCO 42 or to Safety Codes A1, A5, A9 and A10 in contractual documents or CERN rules and regulations shall be deemed to constitute a reference to the corresponding provisions of the documents listed below.   "The CERN Safety Policy" "Safety Regulation SR-SO - Responsibilities and organisational structure in matters of Safety at CERN" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-1 - Departmental Safety Officer (DSO)" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-2 - Territorial Safety Officer (TSO)" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-3 - Safety Linkperson (SLP)" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-4 - Large Experiment Group Leader In Matters of Safety (LEXGLI...

  8. Patient safety: Safety culture and patient safety ethics

    Madsen, Marlene Dyrløv


    ,demonstrating significant, consistent and sometimes large differences in terms of safety culture factors across the units participating in the survey. Paper 5 is the results of a study of the relation between safety culture, occupational health andpatient safety using a safety culture questionnaire survey......, and those of patients who experience the physical effect of poor patient safety. The dissertationconsists of nine papers and an appendix. Paper 1 describes the results of doctors and nurses attitudes towards reporting and the handling of adverse events. Paper 2 is a study and “review” of the international...

  9. Status of safety improvements

    A review of safety improvements of the Armenian NPP, i.e. two WWER-440 units is presented. The implemented activities concerning engineering safety; radiation safety; operation safety; personnel training and qualification; operating experience are described in detail. A list of serious problems dealing with safety upgrading of NPP is given

  10. Contractor safety

    The recent trend in the United States and Shell Oil Company EandP has been to increase use of contractors to do specialized work. Many companies now use contractors almost exclusively for operations such as drilling, well workovers, construction, and many specialty and routine maintenance tasks. Today, approximately 75% of Shell Oil Company's actual operating work force in EandP is contract. Clearly, HSandE considerations must become an increasingly important part of the contractor selection process. This paper reports on the Shell Oil Company's evolution from a bidder selection process to a program of Matching Owner and Contractor. Well has begun to expand efforts to make better assessments of contractor's HSandE capabilities and values in pre-bid considerations. Focus is on pre-bid evaluations to select contractors that have strong HSandE commitments and values. Contractor safety performance in this industry must be brought up to the same standards as operating companies. In Shell Oil EandP is only willing to contractors who can and are willing to do that

  11. Safety evaluation by living probabilistic safety assessment and safety indicators

    A continuous monitoring and follow-up of the risks involved in the operation of a nuclear power plant is an important part of the operational safety management. In living probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), the plant specific PSA is applied in daily safety work to support solving of short-term problems, and maintaining as well as enhancing safety in the long term. A quicker and more problem oriented feedback of operating experience can be achieved by well defined safety indicators, highlighting important trends and possible recurrence of operational problems at the plant. Living PSA and safety indicators should be used in combination to effectively support decision making on safety related issues. The Nordic NKS/SIK-1 project also showed how a more systematic and clear basis for such decisions can be formulated by the method of decision analysis. (au) 18 refs

  12. Attentional bias toward safety predicts safety behaviors.

    Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Wang, Guangxi; Yuan, Xiao; Ding, Weidong; Shen, Zhongxiang


    Safety studies have primarily focused on how explicit processes and measures affect safety behavior and subsequent accidents and injuries. Recently, safety researchers have paid greater attention to the role of implicit processes. Our research focuses on the role of attentional bias toward safety (ABS) in workplace safety. ABS is a basic, early-stage cognitive process involving the automatic and selective allocation of attentional resources toward safety cues, which reflect the implicit motivational state of employees regarding safety goal. In this study, we used two reaction time-based paradigms to measure the ABS of employees in three studies: two modified Stroop tasks (Studies 1 and 2) and a visual dot-probe task (Study 3). Results revealed that employees with better safety behavior showed significant ABS (Study 2), and greater ABS than employees with poorer safety behavior (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, ABS was positively associated with the perceived safety climate and safety motivation of employees, both of which mediate the effect of ABS on safety behavior (Study 3). These results contributed to a deeper understanding of how early-stage automatic perceptual processing affects safety behavior. The practical implications of these results were also discussed. PMID:24922613

  13. Estimation for decentralized safety control under communication delay and measurement uncertainty

    Bresch-Pietri, Delphine; Del Vecchio, Domitilla


    International audience This paper addresses the design of a decentralized safety controller for two agents, subject to communication delay and imperfect measurements. The control objective is to ensure safety, meaning that the state of the two-agent system does not enter an undesired set in the state space. Assuming that we know a feedback map designed for the delay free-case, we propose a state estimation strategy which guarantees control agreement between the two agents. We present an es...

  14. Organization and Nuclear Safety: Safety culture

    This book presents the experience in nuclear safety and its influence in the exploitation on nuclear power plants. The safety organization and quality management before and after Chernobylsk and three mile island accidents

  15. Food safety.

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric


    Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively

  16. Bromine Safety

    Meyers, B


    The production and handling in 1999 of about 200 million kilograms of bromine plus substantial derivatives thereof by Great Lakes Chemical Corp. and Albemarle Corporation in their southern Arkansas refineries gave OSHA Occupational Injury/Illness Rates (OIIR) in the range of 0.74 to 1.60 reportable OIIRs per 200,000 man hours. OIIRs for similar industries and a wide selection of other U.S. industries range from 1.6 to 23.9 in the most recent OSHA report. Occupational fatalities for the two companies in 1999 were zero compared to a range in the U.S.of zero for all computer manufacturing to 0.0445 percent for all of agriculture, forestry and fishing in the most recent OSHA report. These results show that bromine and its compounds can be considered as safe chemicals as a result of the bromine safety standards and practices at the two companies. The use of hydrobromic acid as an electrical energy storage medium in reversible PEM fuel cells is discussed. A study in 1979 of 20 megawatt halogen working fluid power plants by Oronzio de Nora Group found such energy to cost 2 to 2.5 times the prevailing base rate at that time. New conditions may reduce this relative cost. The energy storage aspect allows energy delivery at maximum demand times where the energy commands premium rates. The study also found marginal cost and performance advantages for hydrobromic acid over hydrochloric acid working fluid. Separate studies in the late 70s by General Electric also showed marginal performance advantages for hydrobromic acid.

  17. A major safety overhaul


    A redefined policy, a revamped safety course, an environmental project... the TIS (Technical Inspection and Safety) Division has begun a major safety overhaul. Its new head, Wolfgang Weingarten, explains to the Bulletin why and how this is happening.

  18. Actions and Agents

    Alonso, E.


    In this chapter the notion of agency in AI is presented..It has been argued that in order to behave rationally in prevalent software applications artificial entities would have to be autonomous and adaptive. Besides, rather than working with single, isolated systems the new trend in AI would need to focus on inherently social entities in the form of multi-agent systems. The chapter begins by introducing the notion of action in traditional AI systems, deliberative and reactive. Next, the i...

  19. Towards Soft Computing Agents

    Neruda, Roman; Krušina, Pavel; Petrová, Zuzana


    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2000), s. 859-868. ISSN 1210-0552. [SOFSEM 2000 Workshop on Soft Computing. Milovy, 27.11.2000-28.11.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/1489; GA ČR GA201/99/P057 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : hybrid systems * intelligent agents Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  20. Perioperative allergy: uncommon agents.

    Caimmi, S; Caimmi, D; Cardinale, F; Indinnimeo, L; Crisafulli, G; Peroni, D G; Marseglia, G L


    Anesthesia may often be considered as a high-risk procedure and anaphylaxis remains a major cause of concern for anesthetists who routinely administer many potentially allergenic agents. Neuromuscular blocking agents, latex and antibiotics are the substances involved in most of the reported reactions. Besides these three agents, a wide variety of substances may cause an anaphylactic reaction during anesthesia. Basically all the administered drugs or substances may be potential causes of anaphylaxis. Among them, those reported the most in literature include hypnotics, opioids, local anesthetics, colloids, dye, Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), Iodinated Contrast Media (ICM), antiseptics, aprotinin, ethylene oxyde and formaldehyde, and protamine and heparins. No premedication can effectively prevent an allergic reaction and a systematic preoperative screening is not justified for all patients; nevertheless, an allergy specialist should evaluate those patients with a history of anesthesia-related allergy. Patients must be fully informed of investigation results, and advised to provide a detailed report prior to future anesthesia. PMID:22014927

  1. Advanced scale conditioning agents

    A technical description of Advanced Scale Conditioning Agents (ASCA) technology was published in the May-June 2003 edition of the Nuclear Plant Journal. That article described the development of programs of advanced scale conditioning agents and specific types to maintain the secondary side of steam generators within a pressurized water reactor free of deposited corrosion products and corrosion-inducing contaminants to ensure their long-term operation. This article describes the first two plant applications of advanced scale conditioning agents implemented at Southern Nuclear Operating Company's Vogtle Units 1 and 2 during their 2002 scheduled outages to minimize tube degradation and maintain full power operation using the most effective techniques while minimizing outage costs. The goal was to remove three to four fuel cycles of deposits from each steam generator so that after future chemical cleaning activities, ASCAs could be used to maintain the cleanliness of the steam generators without the need for additional chemical cleaning efforts. The goal was achieved as well as several other benefits that resulted in cost savings to the plant

  2. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions Share Tweet Linkedin ...

  3. HANARO Safety Performance Indicators

    HANARO is a 30 MW open-tank-in-pool type multi-purpose research reactor. Safety improvement activities have been implemented and the importance of safety management in nuclear activities for reactor application and utilization has also been emphasized. Safety performance indicators (SPIs) are used to assess the safety management status, in combination with other factors such as safety culture, human performance and operation status. The SPI system can provide a proactive approach to complement other safety assessment activities. HANARO has tried to develop a programme for the establishment of safety performance indicators. In this paper the application experience of safety performance indicators in HANARO is described. (author)

  4. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C. [eds.


    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  5. New Safety rules

    Safety Commission


    The revision of CERN Safety rules is in progress and the following new Safety rules have been issued on 15-04-2008: Safety Procedure SP-R1 Establishing, Updating and Publishing CERN Safety rules:; Safety Regulation SR-S Smoking at CERN:; Safety Regulation SR-M Mechanical Equipment:; General Safety Instruction GSI-M1 Standard Lifting Equipment:; General Safety Instruction GSI-M2 Standard Pressure Equipment:; General Safety Instruction GSI-M3 Special Mechanical Equipment: These documents apply to all persons under the Director General’s authority. All Safety rules are available at the web page: The Safety Commission

  6. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators

  7. Farm Health and Safety

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  8. SAM : Semantic Agent Model for SWRL rule-based agents

    Subercaze, Julien; Maret, Pierre


    International audience SemanticWeb technologies are part of multi-agent engineering, especially regarding knowledge base support. Recent advances in the field of logic for the semantic web enable a new range of applications. Among them, programming agents based on semantic rules is a promising field. In this paper we present a semantic agent model that allows SWRL programming of agents. Our approach, based on the extended finite state machine concept, results in a three layers architecture...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.905 - Loading of explosives or blasting agents.


    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loading of explosives or blasting agents. 1926.905 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.905 Loading of explosives or blasting agents. (a) Procedures that permit safe and...

  10. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    ... Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset peripheral neuropathy is related to their exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during service when the disease ...

  11. Agents Play Mix-game

    Gou, C


    In mix-game which is an extension of minority game, there are two groups of agents; group1 plays the majority game, but the group2 plays the minority game. This paper studies the change of the average winnings of agents and volatilities vs. the change of mixture of agents in mix-game model. It finds that the correlations between the average winnings of agents and the mean of local volatilities are different with different combinations of agent memory length when the proportion of agents in group 1 increases. This study result suggests that memory length of agents in group1 be smaller than that of agent in group2 when mix-game model is used to simulate the financial markets.

  12. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; REDDY, P; Flath, C.


    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2011 (Power TAC 2011). Agents are simulations of electrical power brokers, who must compete with each other for both power production and consumption, and manage their portfolios.

  13. Mediating Performance Through Virtual Agents

    Giannachi, Gabriella; Gillies, Marco; Kaye, Nick; Swapp, David


    This paper presents the process of creation of virtual agents used in a virtual reality performance. The performance aimed to investigate how drama and performance could inform the creation of virtual agents and also how virtual reality could raise questions for drama and performance. The virtual agents were based on the performance of 2 actors. This paper describes the process of preparing the actors, capturing their performances and transferring them to the virtual agents. A second set of a...

  14. Erythropoietic Agents and the Elderly

    Agarwal, Neeraj; Prchal, Josef T.


    Erythropoietin is a peptide hormone that stimulates erythropoiesis. There are several agents in clinical use and in development, which either act as ligands for the cell surface receptors of erythropoietin or promote erythropoietin production that stimulates erythropoiesis. These are known as erythropoietic agents. The agents already in use include epoetin alfa, epoetin beta, and darbepoetin alfa. Newer agents stimulating erythropoiesis (such as continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (C...

  15. Cultural Differentiation of Negotiating Agents

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.


    Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges, based on Hofstede’s model of national cultu

  16. Cultural differentiation of negotiating agents

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, T.


    Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges, based on Hofstede’s model of national cultu

  17. Collaborating with Autonomous Agents

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Cross, Charles D.; Fan, Henry; Hempley, Lucas E.; Motter, Mark A.; Neilan, James H.; Qualls, Garry D.; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Tran, Loc D.; Allen, B. Danette


    With the anticipated increase of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) entering into the National Airspace System, it is highly likely that vehicle operators will be teaming with fleets of small autonomous vehicles. The small vehicles may consist of sUAS, which are 55 pounds or less that typically will y at altitudes 400 feet and below, and small ground vehicles typically operating in buildings or defined small campuses. Typically, the vehicle operators are not concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead they are concerned with the overall mission. In order for this vision of high-level mission operators working with fleets of vehicles to come to fruition, many human factors related challenges must be investigated and solved. First, the interface between the human operator and the autonomous agent must be at a level that the operator needs and the agents can understand. This paper details the natural language human factors e orts that NASA Langley's Autonomy Incubator is focusing on. In particular these e orts focus on allowing the operator to interact with the system using speech and gestures rather than a mouse and keyboard. With this ability of the system to understand both speech and gestures, operators not familiar with the vehicle dynamics will be able to easily plan, initiate, and change missions using a language familiar to them rather than having to learn and converse in the vehicle's language. This will foster better teaming between the operator and the autonomous agent which will help lower workload, increase situation awareness, and improve performance of the system as a whole.

  18. Agentes de información Information Agents

    Alfonso López Yepes


    Full Text Available Este artículo realiza un repaso sobre las tipologías de agentes de información y describe aspectos como movilidad, racionalidad y adaptatividad, y el ajuste final de estos conceptos a entornos distribuidos como Internet, donde este tipo de agentes tienen un amplio grado de aplicación. Asimismo, se propone una arquitectura de agentes para un sistema multiagente de recuperación de información donde se aplica un paradigma documental basado en el concepto de ciclo documental.This article summarizes the main information agent types reflecting on issues such as mobility, rationality, adaptability and the final adjustment of this concepts to distributed environments such as the Internet, where this kind of agents has wide range application. Likewise, an information agent architecture is proposed to create a multi-agent information retrieval system in which a documentary paradigm based on the documentary cycle is developed.

  19. Secure Mobile Trade Agent

    Musbah M. Aqe


    Full Text Available E-commerce on the internet has the ability to produce millions of transactions and a great number of merchants whose supply merchandise over the internet. As a result, it is difficult for entities to roam over every site on the internet and choose the best merchandise to trade. So, in this paper we introduced a mobile trade agent that visit the sites to gather and evaluate the information from merchant servers and decide to trade goods on behalf of the user. We observed that the combination of public key cryptosystem with distributed object technology make this proposed scheme more secure and efficient than the already existed schemes.

  20. Configuring Computational Agents

    Beuster, G.; Neruda, Roman

    Halifax : Saint Mary's University, 2004 - (Zhuge, H.; Cheung, W.; Liu, J.), s. 57-62 ISBN 0-9734039-8-5. [International Workshop on Knowledge Grid and Grid Intelligence /2./. Beijing (CN), 20.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419 Grant ostatní: CZ-DE project(XX) CZE-03/023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : Bang 3 * multi-agent systems * computational intelligence models Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  1. Biologic agents in the treatment of glomerulonephritides.

    Yeo, See Cheng; Liew, Adrian


    Current immunosuppression strategies in the treatment of glomerulonephritides remain unsatisfactory, especially in glomerular diseases that are frequently relapsing or are resistant to treatment. Toxicities associated with the use of drugs with non-specific targets for the immune response result in treatment non-compliance, and increase morbidity and mortality in these patients. Advances in our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of glomerulonephritis and the availability of biologics have led to their successful use in the treatment of immune-mediated glomerular diseases. Biologics are usually very large complex molecules, often produced using recombinant DNA technology and manufactured in a living system such as a microorganism, or plant or animal cells. They are novel agents that can target specific immune cell types, cytokines or immune pathways involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders. It is attractive to consider that, given their specific mode of action, these agents can potentially offer a more directed and effective immunosuppression, with side-effect profiles that are much more desirable. However, there have been few randomized controlled trials comparing biologic agents to conventional immunosuppression, and in many of these studies the side-effect profiles have been disappointingly similar. In this review, we will examine the rationale, efficacy and safety of some commonly used biologics in the treatment of primary and secondary glomerulonephritides. We will also discuss some of the key challenges that may be encountered with the use of biologics in treating glomerulonephritis in the future. PMID:26040770

  2. Biological agents targeting beyond TNF-alpha

    Sharma Rashmi


    Full Text Available Biological agents represent an important addition to the therapies for immuno-inflammatory conditions and have a great impact on the disease course and quality of life of these patients. However, recent reports of serious infections like tuberculosis, demyelinating and neurodegenerative diseases, pancytopenia, cardiovascular diseases, etc. after anti-TNF therapy raised questions on their safety. Hence, focus is shifted towards drugs targeting cytokine checkpoints in the inflammatory cascades beyond TNF-a. Existing therapeutic targets include the biological agents acting as antagonists of various inflammatory cytokines (Anakinra, Tocilizumab, Atlizumab and modulators of CD80 or CD86-CD28 co-stimulatory signal (Abatacept, CD2 receptors on T-cells (Alefacept, CD11a, subunit of leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (Efalizumab, vitronectin receptor and CD20 antigen on pre-B, immature and mature B cells (Rituximab. With the introduction of these novel molecules the future for immunomodulatory intervention in rheumatology, asthma, crohn′s disease, septic shock etc. looks very promising. These novel therapeutic agents could truly give a new hope to the clinician to modify the disease and achieve tangible improvements in the lives of the patients.

  3. On personal safety culture

    The paper mainly expounds the personal safety culture, including the following aspects: the attitude to exploration, strict methods and the habit of exchange etc. It points out that straightening the education of safety culture and heightening the level of personal safety culture can get not only high-level safety but also high-level quality

  4. Safety in construction?

    Swuste, P.H.J.J.


    The available literature on Construction Safety is not very optimistic about the chances of evidence-based safety in the construction industry exerting a positive influence. Many articles indicate that the structures and processes that are designed to ensure safety in the industry are poor. Safety m

  5. Fusion safety status report

    This report includes information on a) tritium handling and safety; b) activation product generation and release; c) lithium safety; d) superconducting magnet safety; e) operational safety and shielding; f) environmental impact; g) recycling, decommissioning and waste management; and h) accident analysis. Recommendations for high priority research and development are presented, as well as the current status in each area

  6. Global nuclear safety culture

    As stated in the Nuclear Safety Review 1996, three components characterize the global nuclear safety culture infrastructure: (i) legally binding international agreements; (ii) non-binding common safety standards; and (iii) the application of safety standards. The IAEA has continued to foster the global nuclear safety culture by supporting intergovernmental collaborative efforts; it has facilitated extensive information exchange, promoted the drafting of international legal agreements and the development of common safety standards, and provided for the application of safety standards by organizing a wide variety of expert services

  7. Safety at CERN


    Safety is an integral part of our working lives, and should be in our minds whatever job we do at CERN. Ultimately, safety is the responsibility of the Director General – your safety is my concern. That’s why I have this week appointed a new Safety Policy Committee (SAPOCO) that reflects the new Organizational structure of CERN. CERN’s Staff Rules and Regulations clearly lay out in chapter 3 the scope of safety at CERN as well as my responsibilities and yours in safety matters. At CERN, safety is considered in the broadest sense, encompassing occupational Health and Safety, environmental protection, and the safety of equipment and installations. It is my responsibility to put appropriate measures in place to ensure that these conditions are met. And it is the responsibility of us all to ensure that we are fully conversant with safety provisions applicable in our areas of work and that we comply with them. The appointment of a n...

  8. Holograms as Teaching Agents

    Walker, Robin A.


    Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

  9. Amphoteric surface active agents

    Eissa, A.M. F.


    Full Text Available 2-[trimethyl ammonium, triethyl ammonium, pyridinium and 2-amino pyridinium] alkanoates, four series of surface active agents containing carbon chain C12, C14, C16 and C18carbon atoms, were prepared. Their structures were characterized by microanalysis, infrared (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Surface and interfacial tension, Krafft point, wetting time, emulsification power, foaming height and critical micelle concentration (cmc were determined and a comparative study was made between their chemical structure and surface active properties. Antimicrobial activity of these surfactants was also determined.

    Se prepararon cuatro series de agentes tensioactivos del tipo 2-[trimetil amonio, trietil amonio, piridinio y 2-amino piridinio] alcanoatos, que contienen cadenas carbonadas con C12, C14, C16 y C18 átomos de carbono.
    Se determinaron la tensión superficial e interfacial, el punto de Krafft, el tiempo humectante, el poder de emulsionamiento, la altura espumante y la concentración critica de miscela (cmc y se hizo un estudio comparativo entre la estructura química y sus propiedades tensioactivas. Se determinó también la actividad antimicrobiana de estos tensioactivos. Estas estructuras se caracterizaron por microanálisis, infrarrojo (IR y resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN.

  10. Contrast agents for MRI

    Contrast agents are divided into two categories. The first one is paramagnetic compounds, including lanthanides like gadolinium, which mainly reduce the longitudinal (T1) relaxation property and result in a brighter signal. The second class consists of super-paramagnetic magnetic nanoparticles (SPMNPs) such as iron oxides, which have a strong effect on the transversal (T2) relaxation properties. SPMNPs have the potential to be utilized as excellent probes for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For instance, clinically benign iron oxide and engineered ferrite nanoparticles provide a good MRI probing capability for clinical applications. Furthermore, the limited magnetic property and inability to escape from the reticuloendothelial system (RES) of the used nanoparticles impede their further advancement. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the engineered magnetic nanoparticle probes for the next-generation molecular MRI. Considering the importance of MRI in diagnosing diseases, this paper presents an overview of recent scientific achievements in the development of new synthetic SPMNP probes whereby the sensitive and target-specific observation of biological events at the molecular and cellular levels is feasible. - Highlights: • This paper studies the contrast agents for MRI. • Fe―Co alloys and Mn-ferrites exhibit suitable contrast enhancement. • Nonhydrolytic thermal-decomposition synthetic method is suitable to produce MNPs. • This method allows controlling the size, magnetic dopants, magneto-crystalline anisotropy. • The increase in the superparamagnetic size leads to the contrast-enhancement

  11. Agent-oriented Software Engineering

    GUAN Xu; CHENG Ming; LIU Bao


    An increasing number of computer systems are being viewed in terms of autonomous agents.Most people believe that agent-oriented approach is well suited to design and build complex systems. Yet. todate, little effort had been devoted to discuss the advantages of agent-oriented approach as a mainstreamsoftware engineering paradigm. Here both of this issues and the relation between object-oriented and agent-oriented will be argued. we describe an agent-oriented methodology and provide a quote for designing anauction system.

  12. Demand for public safety

    Pradhan, Menno; Ravallion, Martin


    In public safety of less concern to poor people? What about people in poor areas? How is demand for public safety affected by income inequality? Is there a self-correcting mechanism whereby higher crime increases demand for public safety? The authors study subjective assessments of public safety using a comprehensive socioeconomic survey of living standards in Brazil. They find public safety to be a normal good at the household level. Marginal income effects are higher for the poor, so inequa...

  13. Nuclear safety in perspective

    Andersson, K.; Sjöberg, B.M.D.; Lauridsen, Kurt; Wahlström, B.


    The aim of the NKS/SOS-1 project has been to enhance common understanding about requirements for nuclear safety by finding improved means of communicat-ing on the subject in society. The project, which has been built around a number of seminars, wassupported by limited research in three sub-projects: Risk assessment Safety analysis Strategies for safety management The report describes an industry in change due to societal factors. The concepts of risk and safety, safety management and systems...

  14. China's Work Safety Report

    Liang Jiakun


    @@ General Situation of China's Work Safety in 2004 In 2004, the national work safety situation remained stable as a whole and gained momentum to improve. The totality of accidents held the line and began to drop. The safety conditions in industrial,mining, and commercial/trading enterprises improved. Progress was made in ensuring work safety in the relevant industries and fields. The safety situation in most provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government) kept stable.

  15. Distance safety in blasting

    Dambov, Risto; Karanakova Stefanovska, Radmila; Dambov, Ilija


    In blasting performance for any purpose and in any location to implement these safeguards is necessary first to determine (calculated) safety distances in terms of the effect of the explosion from some explosive quantity. Calculation of distance safety in blasting performance are refers to: calculation of safety distances from the influence of air - shock waves, calculation of safety distances (zones) of spraying pieces (fragments action) and calculation of safety distances in action of seis...

  16. Training safely, Training safety

    Jianjun Wu; An, M.; Jin, Y.; H. Geng


    It is the basic requirement of maritime safety education to guarantee the safety of teaching operation while training the crew's occupation safety capability. Marine Training Center of Shanghai Maritime University has undertaken the practical teaching of "marine survival" for many years and come up with the whole safety procedures of training. Based on the requirements of SOLAS convention and regulations of STCW over crew training, this paper introduces the safety allocation, utilization and ...

  17. Learning models of intelligent agents

    Carmel, D.; Markovitch, S. [Computer Science Dept., Haifa (Israel)


    Agents that operate in a multi-agent system need an efficient strategy to handle their encounters with other agents involved. Searching for an optimal interactive strategy is a hard problem because it depends mostly on the behavior of the others. In this work, interaction among agents is represented as a repeated two-player game, where the agents` objective is to look for a strategy that maximizes their expected sum of rewards in the game. We assume that agents` strategies can be modeled as finite automata. A model-based approach is presented as a possible method for learning an effective interactive strategy. First, we describe how an agent should find an optimal strategy against a given model. Second, we present an unsupervised algorithm that infers a model of the opponent`s automaton from its input/output behavior. A set of experiments that show the potential merit of the algorithm is reported as well.

  18. Flexible, secure agent development framework

    Goldsmith; Steven Y.


    While an agent generator is generating an intelligent agent, it can also evaluate the data processing platform on which it is executing, in order to assess a risk factor associated with operation of the agent generator on the data processing platform. The agent generator can retrieve from a location external to the data processing platform an open site that is configurable by the user, and load the open site into an agent substrate, thereby creating a development agent with code development capabilities. While an intelligent agent is executing a functional program on a data processing platform, it can also evaluate the data processing platform to assess a risk factor associated with performing the data processing function on the data processing platform.

  19. Radiation safety audit system - safety perspectives

    In 2005 Safety and Health at the University of Western Australia (UWA) implemented a system of Radiation Safety Audits. The system was implemented to ensure complete audits were carried out annually for each section of the University with radiation safety issues. The audits cover those aspects of radiation safety regulated in the Radiation Safety Act of Western Australia and include high powered lasers, UV emitting devices, radioactive materials, x-ray machines. In relation to these there are regulated considerations for equipment registration, location of use and storage registration, licensing of individual to use radiation, training, documentation, working rules, personal monitoring, calibrations and supervision. Within the University there are University systems to control materials and equipment coming onto campus, risk assessment protocols required for each new project or type of work, local permits and waste disposal. UWA Safety and Health have an active role in delivering control of radiation safety and ensuring that safety systems are appropriate relevant and used in an immediate and useful manner. Safety and Health has importantly built a network of key people on campus, made sure they are assisted, valued and that the systems are seen as a way to improve efficiency in delivering real, relevant and useful radiation safety outcomes. The systems include uniform documentation across campus, clear expectations and an ongoing interest from Safety and Health to ensure the systems remain alive. This has allowed the audits to become efficient and effective both for the sections involved but also for Safety and health in its recording systems and improvement follow up process.

  20. TWRS safety program plan

    Calderon, L.M., Westinghouse Hanford


    Management of Nuclear Safety, Industrial Safety, Industrial Hygiene, and Fire Protection programs, functions, and field support resources for Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) has, until recently, been centralized in TWRS Safety, under the Emergency, Safety, and Quality organization. Industrial hygiene technician services were also provided to support operational needs related to safety basis compliance. Due to WHC decentralization of safety and reengineering efforts in West Tank Farms, staffing and safety responsibilities have been transferred to the facilities. Under the new structure, safety personnel for TWRS are assigned directly to East Tank Farms, West Tank Farms, and a core Safety Group in TWRS Engineering. The Characterization Project Operations (CPO) safety organization will remain in tact as it currently exists. Personnel assigned to East Tank Farms, West Tank Farms, and CPO will perform facility-specific or project-specific duties and provide field implementation of programs. Those assigned to the core group will focus on activities having a TWRS-wide or programmatic focus. Hanford-wide activities will be the responsibility of the Safety Center of Expertise. In order to ensure an effective and consistent safety program for TWRS under the new organization program functions, goals, organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and path forward must be clearly established. The purpose of the TWRS Safety Program Plan is to define the overall safety program, responsibilities, relationships, and communication linkages for safety personnel under the new structure. In addition, issues associated with reorganization transition are addressed, including training, project ownership, records management, and dissemination of equipment. For the purpose of this document ``TWRS Safety`` refers to all safety professionals and technicians (Industrial Safety, Industrial Hygiene, Fire Protection, and Nuclear Safety) within the TWRS organization, regardless of their

  1. Investigational agents for sickle cell disease.

    Okpala, Iheanyi


    Developments in the treatment of sickle cell disease (SCD) have not kept pace with advances in understanding the pathophysiology of this haemoglobinopathy. Drugs undergoing preclinical and clinical assessment for the therapy of these globin gene disorders are discussed in this article. Beginning with investigational agents for treatment of SCD as a whole, the discussion proceeds to drugs being developed for specific manifestations or iatrogenic complications. Despite being licensed in the USA, the prototype antisickling agent, hydroxycarbamide, has not attained worldwide clinical use because of concerns about long-term toxicity. The less toxic decitabine, which (as with hydroxycarbamide) increases fetal haemoglobin level, cannot be administered orally; therefore, the search continues for effective and safe antisickling drugs that can be taken orally. The naturally occurring benzaldehyde 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural has shown promising antisickling properties in vitro, and when administered to transgenic sickle mice. These effects are surpassed by the new synthetic pyridyl derivatives of benzaldehyde. Studies in humans with SCD are required to assess the clinical efficacy of these benzaldehydes. Niprisan, another antisickling agent with significant clinical efficacy and an attractive safety profile, is undergoing further development. The prospects of antiadhesion therapy in SCD are demonstrated by a recombinant protein containing the Fc fragment of IgG fused to the natural ligand for selectins: the conjugate significantly inhibited blood vessel occlusion in transgenic sickle mice. Whereas the orally administrable iron-chelating agent deferasirox is likely to increasingly take the place of desferioxamine (which can only be given parenterally), effective treatment of priapism in SCD remains a distressing challenge. PMID:16859388

  2. Novel agents for the treatment of alopecia.

    Sawaya, M E


    Recent approval in the United States of two new products, Propecia (Merck Co, Rahway, NJ) and Rogaine Extra Strength 5% (Pharmacia & UpJohn Co, Kalamazoo, MI), indicated in men to promote scalp hair growth, have added a new dimension to treatment options offered by physicians in treating androgenetic alopecia (AGA). The search for new and effective agents to treat many different hair loss problems has been intensified by the increase in hair biology research taking place worldwide, from university academic institutions to the pharmaceutical companies. All have a desire to profit from marketing such drugs that have been termed, "cosmeceuticals". Millions of men and women of every race suffer from various forms of alopecia, the most common being AGA where the target tissue active androgen, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) aggravates genetically programmed scalp hair follicles that results in short, fine, miniaturized hairs. Currently available to treat alopecia are drugs indicated for other disease processes because no other agents are accessible; some have severe side-effects and many are minimally effective. These prescription drugs were not originally indicated for alopecia and have not been adequately tested in controlled clinical trials to assess for efficacy, safety, and toxicity. These agents continue to be used clinically to treat patients with various forms of alopecia. As a result, a variety of new agents are emerging in the patient application process to gain protection and approval specifically for various forms of alopecia. This report reviews the most recently approved products, some of the more promising compounds in clinical trial development, as well as those in the over-the-counter (OTC) "natural" treatments category. PMID:9859915

  3. UTBot: A Virtual Agent Platform for Teaching Agent System Design

    In-Cheol Kim


    Full Text Available We introduce UTBot, a virtual agent platform for teaching agent system design. UTBot implements a client for the Unreal Tournament game server and Gamebots system. It provides students with the basic functionality required to start developing their own intelligent virtual agents to play autonomously UT games. UTBot includes a generic agent architecture, CAA (Context-sensitive Agent Architecture, a domain-specific world model, a visualization tool, several basic strategies (represented by internal modes and internal behaviors, and skills (represented by external behaviors. The CAA architecture can support complex long-term behaviors as well as reactive short-term behaviors. It also realizes high context-sensitivity of behaviors. We also discuss our experience using UTBot as a pedagogical tool for teaching agent system design in undergraduate Artificial Intelligence course.

  4. Mushrooms as therapeutic agents

    Sushila Rathee


    Full Text Available Mushrooms have been known for their nutritional and culinary values and used as medicines and tonics by humans for ages. In modern terms, they can be considered as functional foods which can provide health benefits beyond the traditional nutrients. There are monographs that cover the medicinal and healing properties of some individual traditional mushrooms. There has been a recent upsurge of interest in mushrooms not only as a health food which is rich in protein but also as a source of biologically active compounds of medicinal value which include complementary medicine/dietary supplements for anticancer, antiviral, hepatoprotective, immunopotentiating and hypocholesterolemic agents. However the mechanisms of the various health benefits of mushrooms to humans still require intensive investigation, especially given the emergence of new evidence of their health benefits. In the present paper the medicinal potential of mushrooms is being discussed.

  5. Microencapsulation of chemotherapeutic agents

    Mixing various amounts of chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatinum, 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin-C, and adriamycin with polymers such as poly-d, 1-lactide, ethylhydroxyethylcellulose, and polycaprolactone, several kinds of microcapsules were made. Among them, microcapsule made from ethylhydroxyethylcellulose showed best yield. Under light microscopy, the capsules were observed as particles with refractive properties. For the basic toxicity test, intraarterial administration of cisplatinum was done in 6 adult mongrel dogs. Follow-up angiography was accomplished in 2 wk intervals for 6 wks. Despite no significant difference in the histopathological examination between the embolized and normal kidneys, follow-up angiogram showed atrophy of renal cortex and diminished numbers of arterial branches in the embolized kidneys. In order to identify the structural properties of microcapsules, and to determine the drug content and the rate of release, further experiment is thought to be necessary. (Author)

  6. Hepatocytes as Immunological Agents.

    Crispe, Ian N


    Hepatocytes are targeted for infection by a number of major human pathogens, including hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and malaria. However, hepatocytes are also immunological agents in their own right. In systemic immunity, they are central in the acute-phase response, which floods the circulation with defensive proteins during diverse stresses, including ischemia, physical trauma, and sepsis. Hepatocytes express a variety of innate immune receptors and, when challenged with pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns, can deliver cell-autonomous innate immune responses that may result in host defense or in immunopathology. Important human pathogens have evolved mechanisms to subvert these responses. Finally, hepatocytes talk directly to T cells, resulting in a bias toward immune tolerance. PMID:26685314


    Shrivastava Neelesh


    Full Text Available This paper discuss on clinical representation of morbid jealousy which often termed delusional jealousy or ‘Othello Syndrome’ is a psychiatric condition where a lover believes against all reason and their beloved is being sexually unfaithful. Patients will be preoccupied with their partner’s perceived lack of sexual fidelity and will often behave in an unacceptable or extreme way as they endeavor to prove their ideas. Misuse of any psychomotor is an important association cause morbidity jealousy agents, like CNS stimulants that release the catecholamine, particularly dopamine, from pre synaptic terminals substance should be treated as a priority. Where higher levels of violence are reported Sildenafil may be useful as a diagnostic as well as therapeutic test in such cases .Many studies have shown an association between high alcohol consumption and developing morbid jealousy. Amphetamine-induced psychosis has been extensively studied because of its close resemblance to schizophrenia.

  8. Overview of safety culture

    This project safety culture is considered at policy, management and individual levels. The primary objective of this work is to provide an overview of safety culture relevant to radiotherapy practices. The specific objectives are to review and analyze the causes of poor safety culture and provide recommendations on implementation of sound safety culture within radiotherapy facilities which will help to prevent radiological accidents or to mitigate their consequences. The methodology used is the review of published IAEA materials and other documents containing safety culture with specific reference to radiotherapy. The result of the review revealed that all accidents in radiotherapy facilities were due to poor safety culture practices including inadequate regulatory control over sight. Some recommendations are provided and if implemented could improve safety culture which will lead to good safety performance and excellent commitment to safety culture which will significantly reduce accidents and their consequences in radiotherapy. (au)

  9. Occupational safety motivation

    Pedersen, Louise; Kines, Pete


    Background: Motivation is one of the most important factors for safety behaviour and for implementing change in general. However, theoretical and psychometric studies of safety performance have traditionally treated safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation unidimensionally. At...... the same time many motivation questionnaire items are seldom founded on theory and/or do not account for the theories’ ontological and epistemological differences, e.g. of how knowledge, attitude and action are related. Present questionnaire items tap into occupational safety motivation in asking...... whether or not respondents ‘are’ motivated and whether they feel that safety is important or worthwhile. Another important aspect is ‘what’ motivates workers to comply to and participate in safety. The aim of this article is to introduce a new theory-based occupational safety motivation scale which is...

  10. The experimental studies of Chinese herbs as a vascular embolization agent for the hepatic arteries

    Objective: To study the efficacy, safety and correlative characteristics of Chinese herb as a vascular embolization agent. Methods: Vascular embolization agent combined from several kinds of Chinese herb was manufactured and served as anticarcinogen and coagulant according to the chinese Pharmacopoeia. The characteristics of the combination embolization agent through embolizing the hepatic arteries in eight pigs were studied. Results: The combination agent was a non-homogenous suspension, easily to be injected through 5-F catheter with hyper attenuation under fluoroscopy; simultaneously with good histocompatibility and hemo-compatibility and without feverish response and toxicity. The combination agent mainly embolized the peripheral arteries with maintaining occlusion for 5 weeks and without formation of collateral circulation. Slight injuries of normal hepatic tissues with hepatic cytonecrosis and endochyloma focal necrosis were found through optical and electronic microscopy. Conclusions: The Chinese herb combination agent is safe and effective in experimental application with good angioembolic function and a potential peripheral embolization agent. (authors)