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Sample records for agencies mark chernobyl

  1. UN agencies mark Chernobyl anniversary with launch of US$2.5-million project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the 24th of April 2009 four United Nations agencies marked the 23rd anniversary of the Chernobyl nuclear accident by launching a $2.5 million programme designed to meet the priority information needs of affected communities in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Funded by the UN Trust Fund for Human Security, this three-year initiative aims to translate the latest scientific information on the consequences of the accident into sound practical advice for residents of the affected territories. The project is a joint effort by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the World Health Organization (WHO)

  2. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. This report summerize the results from a post-Chernobyl research program on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in contaminated areas. Pathways, processes and factors determining the Cs-137 concentration in soil, plant, water, fish and wild animal were investigated. 84 refs., 40 figs., 20 tabs

  3. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor accident in Chernobyl also had a memorable 1986 Spring for the region of Lake Constance. Salad had to be ploughed up in the vegetable fields, the feeding of cows with fresh grass was forbidden, and becquerel values played a decisive role in food purchases. Along with the measurement of radioactivity in rainwater, the authors began to take food and soil samples; hundreds of samples were tested in the laboratories of the University of Constance. They provided, in cooperation with public authorities, for the protection of the population against radiation, and explained, in numerous lectures, the significance of this incident to everyday life. Besides, they recorded recent scientific findings about the behaviour of radioactive substances in the environment. The book gives a summary of the findings. It also includes, besides a description of the events of May 1986 at Lake Constance, a presentation of the results of scientific investigations into Chernobyl's radioactivity. This is thus the first detailed account of the diverse effects of the reactor accident with respect to one particular region which, though more than 1500 km away, was surprisingly seriously affected, and which, owing to its special features - Lake Constance is Europe's most important drinking water reservoir -, is particularly endangered, in case of radioactive release. (orig./HP) With 2 separate tabs

  4. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article summarizes the current controversial discussions in the public about the utilisation of nuclear energy in the F.R.G., which has gained so much emotional impetus after the Chernobyl reactor accident. The accident scenario and the causes of the disaster are outlined in order to show the difference between facts and conditions there, and design and conditions in our country, especially with regard to the LWRs. The main reason launching the disaster, it is said, lies in non-observance of orders and operating instructions; the article underlines the system of design features and instructions that has been established, and multiply checked, for reactor stations in the F.R.G., in order to prevent undue interference with the design-based safety equipment. Due to the high safety standard of the nuclear power plants in the F.R.G., Chernobyl cannot be used as an argument against further utilisation of nuclear energy in the F.R.G. (HSCH)

  5. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This documentary report tries to give an answer, beyond the current reporting during the last months - including the VDI Nachrichten - how to judge somewhat surely the reasons of the accident and its procession according to the report of the USSR and the international discussion. Subjects: Sequence of events and causes leading to the accident in the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl; dimension and consequences of the radioactive precipitations in West-Germany; foundations of nuclear fission; structure and security systems of Sovjet reactor lines and comparisons with German nuclear power plants; licensing procedure and continual control of the German plants; moral responsibility of the peaceful use of nuclear energy; nuclear phase out and its consequences, and at last data and facts about the use of renewable sources of energy. (orig./GL)

  6. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book brings together a comprehensive history of the first 18 months of the accident at Chernobyl and the complete pictorial record of the disaster, including many photographs never seen in the West. It also gives a unique record of subsequent events in the USSR involving the evacuation and re-housing of a population of 135,000, the building of the 400,000 tonne concrete sarcophagus over the damaged reactor and the decontamination of the environment which may take years to complete. The human dimension of radiation injuries is recreated in the cast histories and hospital photographs of the firemen who brought the blaze under control. The problems of contamination of the food chain for various countries is included, and recommendations for safe levels of activity in milk are described

  7. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26th 1986, the worst accident in the history of commercial nuclear power generation occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station some 60 miles north of Kiev in the Ukraine. This article describes the sequence of events that occurred and the consequences of the accident. There was extensive damage to the Unit 4 reactor and the building which housed it. Some 31 people have died as a result of the accident either directly or as a result of receiving lethal radiation doses. A significant release of fission products occurred, contaminating land around the station and requiring the evacuation of around 135,000 people from their homes. The radioactive cloud generated over many days was carried by winds to all parts of Europe where there was a varying degree of public concern. The contamination resulted in restrictions on the consumption of meat and vegetables. The latent health effects may not be statistically significant when viewed against the normal mortality rate over the next 40 years. (author)

  8. 77 FR 6815 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Country of Origin Marking Requirements for Containers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Marking Requirements for Containers or Holders AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP... requirement concerning Country of Origin Marking Requirements for Containers or Holders. This request for...: Title: Country of Origin Marking Requirements for Containers or Holders. OMB Number: 1651-0057....

  9. 77 FR 23490 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Country of Origin Marking Requirements for Containers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register (77 FR 6817) on February 9, 2012... Marking Requirements for Containers or Holders AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Requirements for Containers or Holders. This is a proposed extension of an information collection that...

  10. Chernobyl's living legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty years later, the April 1986 Chernobyl accident lives on in different ways: in fact and fiction. Today, national and international experts from eight United Nations agencies including the IAEA are working to sift fact from fiction. They are teamed with Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine to evaluate, document and report the accident's true scale. Known as the Chernobyl Forum, the group issued its comprehensive report in September 2005. It covers health and environmental consequences, and includes recommendations to channel assistance to where it is most needed. Dr. Fred Mettler is a member of the Forum, and a Chernobyl veteran researcher who served as the health team leader in an IAEA-led international project that first presented on-site assessments of Chernobyl's effects in the early 1990s, and participated in the International Chernobyl Conference in 1996 that summed up what was scientifically known then. In this essay, he revisits Chernobyl's health picture from personal and professional perspectives

  11. Chernobyl bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone ampersand Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time

  12. Chernobyl bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, F. Jr.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time.

  13. Chernobyl and the media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The way the media reported the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident was discussed at a day seminar in Birmingham in July. Contributors were from the Forsmark nuclear power station in Sweden where the disaster was first noticed, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Russian film industry, French TV and SCRAM. Personal experiences and opinions of Chernobyl and the media were discussed. The approach in West Germany, France, Finland and the United Kingdom is compared. (UK)

  14. The enduring lessons of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major impacts of the Chernobyl accident fall into three categories: the physical impacts, in terms of health and environmental effects; the psycho-social impacts on the affected populations; and the influence of the accident on the nuclear industry worldwide. The physical impacts mark Chernobyl as the site of the most serious nuclear accident in history. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core released a cloud of radionuclides that contaminated large areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Hundreds of thousands of workers participated in efforts to mitigate the consequences of the accident, and many of these individuals were exposed to substantial radiation doses. The psycho-social impacts were also devastating. Over 100 000 people were evacuated immediately after the accident, and the total number of evacuees from severely contaminated areas eventually reached 350 000 people. While these resettlements helped to reduce the collective dose of radiation, it was deeply traumatic for those involved. The third impact I mentioned is the enormous influence of the Chernobyl accident on the nuclear industry. A decade earlier, the accident at Three Mile Island had already cast doubt on the ability of nuclear power plant operators to prevent severe accidents. Chernobyl had far greater impact; the accident emblazoned itself on public consciousness as proof positive that nuclear safety was an oxymoron. Some countries decided to reduce or terminate further construction of nuclear facilities, and the expansion of nuclear capacity came to a near standstill. It has taken nearly two decades of strong safety performance to repair the industry's reputation. From the time of the accident, the IAEA has been continuously involved in technical assistance and research projects to mitigate the environmental and health consequences in affected areas. Since 1990, more than $15 million has been disbursed through the IAEA technical cooperation programme on a broad range of these projects often in cooperation with other organizations represented here today. The Agency will continue those efforts, and we are committed to the 'UN Strategy for Recovery', launched in 2002. IAEA strongly supports the UN focus on developing new initiatives to address the human needs of the affected individuals, with a view to progressively restoring life to 'normal' to the degree possible

  15. Chernobyl and the credit markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial concerns that follow in the wake of accidents at Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and other installations include the costs of backfitting, emergency planning, and the Price-Anderson Act. Evacuation planning is part of the licensing procedure, but recent refusals by local government agencies to participate in such planning effectively bars licensing and operation of a facility except through costly litigation. The Chernobyl accident will affect the liability cap of the Price-Anderson liability provisions and future credit ratings

  16. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described

  17. A visit to Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R

    1987-06-26

    Details of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant were given by Soviet experts at a special International Atomic Energy Agency meeting in Vienna, Austria, in August 1986. Several unanswered questions were made much clearer by a visit to the decontaminated and operating power plant at Chernobyl and by discussions with Soviet scientists. The visit gives us insights into the way the Soviets design their technology, the consequences of the accident, and the magnificent way they coped with the disaster. Although there are general conclusions to be drawn for the rest of the world, such as the realization that operators of technological systems can and will deliberately cut out safety systems, the primary specific conclusion is to be grateful that the West did not follow the Soviet route in its development of nuclear power. PMID:3603003

  18. Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monograph contains the catastrophe's events chronology, the efficiency assessed of those measures assumed for their localization as well as their environmental and socio-economic impact. Among materials of the monograph the results are presented of research on the radioactive contamination field forming as well as those concerning the investigation of biogeochemical properties of Chernobyl radionuclides and their migration process in the environment of the Ukraine. The data dealing with biological effects of the continued combined internal and external radioactive influence on plants, animals and human health under the circumstances of Chernobyl accident are of the special interest. In order to provide the scientific generalizing information on the medical aspects of Chernobyl catastrophe, the great part of the monograph is allotted to appraise those factors affecting the health of different population groups as well as to depict clinic aspects of Chernobyl events and medico-sanitarian help system. The National Programme of Ukraine for the accident consequences elimination and population social protection assuring for the years 1986-1993 and this Programme concept for the period up to the year 2000 with a special regard of the world community participation there

  19. Chernobyl fantasy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several versions of technical reasons of Chernobyl accident, which have received a wide resonance in mass-media, and are seemed as reasonable for most public without any special education in reactor's physics, are discussed. Probable reasons of its origination are analysed, and its scientific groundlessness is shown

  20. Project Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the follow-up after the Chernobyl fallout is to obtain the best possible information about the environmental and dose commitment consequences in Sweden. The essential part of the work by the institute to improve the state of readiness is described. (G.B.)

  1. After Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident mobilized profound anxieties in many people, which subsequently were repressed again and played down with the aid of the known psychological mechanisms. The authors trace the anxiety, and the resistance against it, and pose the question of whether we are at all capable of learning to think along new lines. From the contents: 10 theses on Chernobyl 1986 (Anders, G.); Anxiety, apathy and new thinking (Richter, H.-E.); On the Germans' particular way of dealing with existential threats (Wirth, H.-J.); Appeasement and delusion - small and big flights from powerlessness (Leithaeuser, T.); Socio-psychological theses on the consequences of nuclear energy (Clemenz, M.); Psychological arguments in the discussion about Chernobyl (Kettner, M.); Relationship between fear and technology (Brede, K.); Inhumanity of technology (Spangenberg, N.); Psychology of nuclear addiction (Bauriedl, T.); Nature or technology - search of the wizard's apprentice for lost salvation (Bastian, T./Hilger, M.); Living under a nuclear threat - significance of existential fear experienced during childhood (Boehnke, K., et al.); Survey of, and psychoanalytical reflections on, poisoned childhood (Petri, H.); On knowing, feeling, and experience after Chernobyl (Thiel, W.); Sociopsychological aspects of the staging of politics as a state spectacle fit for the media (Fuechner, H.). (orig./HP)

  2. Chernobyl assessed (Report of NEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern state of knowledge about Chernobyl accident effect on men's health as well as radiological and social-economic impacts for population of Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation is presented in the report of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Accepted estimations of absorbed radiation dose of population suggest that except the thyroid disease it is improbable that irradiation causes radiation effects among population

  3. Chernobyl, 14 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) International cooperation, 7) More information about Chernobyl and 8) Glossary

  4. Chernobyl retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, F J

    1988-01-01

    On April 28, 1986 heavy radioactive fallout from an unknown source was reported from Sweden. Later, it was discovered that two days earlier, a nuclear power reactor at Chernobyl, in the Soviet Union, had exploded releasing an enormous cloud of effluent containing 40 million Ci of 131I, 3 million Ci of 137Cs, and 50 million Ci of xenon radioisotopes. This far exceeded the 15 Ci of 131I escape in the notorious Three Mile Island accident. Chernobyl reactor IV, of an antiquated design, was a graphite-moderated reactor which suffered a steam explosion when the operating staff attempted an experiment involving preservation of safety functions during a planned shutdown. Following the explosion, a fire started in the graphite core which required ten days to control. Thirty-one persons died, two in the initial explosion and 29 of various combinations of thermal and radiation burns, and gamma irradiation. Existing emergency plans were invoked involving treatment on the scene and evacuation of seriously injured patients to a special hospital in Moscow, as well as to nearby Kiev. Later, 135,000 residents of the immediate neighborhood were surveyed and evacuated after fallout radiation levels began to rise. Fallout patterns around Europe and the northern hemisphere were closely tracked. Consequences of the accident in human and monetary terms will require years of evaluation. Although the United States has no power reactors of the Chernobyl type, the country does have a radiation disaster management plan, often rehearsed at the state level. As a consequence of Chernobyl certain international agreements dealing with radiation disaster information and management have been forged. PMID:3278382

  5. After Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses a number of effects of the Chernobyl-accident on public opinion about nuclear power. The analysis is based on a comparison of a survey conducted shortly after Chernobyl and a number of measurements in the Netherlands between 1982 and 1986. The conclusions can be summarized as follows: Attitudes towards nuclear power and especially towards building new stations have become much more negative after the disaster in Chernobyl. Although a majority of the population now wants to close existing nuclear power stations, there appears strong support for continuation of nuclear research. The structure of the nuclear debate has not changed fundamentally. Supporters and opponents have kept the same demographic characteristics. The arguments which distinguish them have not changed, except that the expectation of a serious accident has an increased impact on attitudes. A majority of the population felt the information after the accident not sufficient. Since 1982 attitudes towards coal also have become more negative, mainly as a consequence of the higher visibility of effects of acid rain. (Auth.)

  6. Chernobyl - a Canadian technical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report we present the design review done to date in Canada by AECL. From the Canadian point of view it covers: 1) relevant information on the Chernobyl design and the accident, both as presented by the Soviets at the Post-Accident Review Meeting (PARM) held in Vienna from August 25-29, 1986, and as deduced from publicly available Soviet documentation; and 2) details of AECL's technical review of the CANDU PHWR (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) against the background of the Chernobyl accident, and implications of the Chernobyl accident. Reviews of operational aspects are underway by the Canadian electrical utilities and a review by the Canadian regulatory agency (the Atomic Energy Control Board) is near completion

  7. Chernobyl reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of fallout in the United Kingdom, particularly in Scotland, from the radioactivity released in the Chernobyl reactor accident is discussed. The nature of radioactivity involved in the fallout, an opinion about its 'safe levels' and an explanation as to how it can enter the body and what effect it has on the body are given. The point is made that children in utero, breast-feeding children and growing children, are particularly at risk from iodine 131, caesium and strontium 90. Measures that could be taken to minimise the risk to children, should a similar situation arise, are suggested. (U.K.)

  8. Chernobyl, 12 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) The Franco-German cooperation, and 7) Glossary

  9. Chernobyl's legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The findings of the five year joint Chernobyl Research Programme undertaken by the European Union, the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Belarus, were presented at a conference in Minsk in March 1996. The overall impression from the conference is that the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident are relatively small. The total number of directly attributable deaths so far is 43. This includes: 28 reactor staff and firemen who died from acute radiation syndrome (ARS) with three others who died from other causes shortly after the accident; nine patients who have subsequently died from confirmed ARS; and three children who have died from thyroid cancer. Further deaths may occur with time amongst thyroid and ARS patients and it is always possible that there could be deaths in the long term from solid cancers which have a long induction time. A group of special interest for follow up are the workers involved in the emergency clean-up. There are no signs so far of an abnormal increase in childhood leukaemia or cancer, other than operable thyroid cancer, among the population living in the most contaminated areas. There are, however, disastrous social and economic effects for the people of Ukraine and Belarus and a great deal of concomitant psycho-somatic illness aggravated by the political upheavals of recent years. (U.K.)

  10. The Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl disaster is examined in chronological order from the experiment that led to the explosions, to the firefighting efforts, the release of radioactivity, its fallout, the evacuations from the contaminated zone and the long-term medical, ecological, economic and political repercussions. The sources of information are nearly all Soviet - the Ukranian and Russian press, Moscow and Kiev radio broadcasts, Soviet television documentaries and the report of the Soviet government commission to the International Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986. Reports by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, the Central Electricity Generating Board and the International Atomic Energy Agency have also been used. The latter chapters look at who was to blame for the accident, what impact the accident has had on Soviet society and why the Soviet government continues to expand its nuclear power programme. (author)

  11. Chernobyl - ten years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This folder contains ten brief factsheets which aim to give a balanced presentation of the facts relating to the reactor accident at the Chernobyl power station ten years after the event. Details of the incident are given and its aftermath, in particular as it has affected the lives and health of people living in the immediate vicinity, is considered. Since records of the health of people in the region before the accident were very poor, it is extremely difficult to make definitive statements about the health effects of the accident. It is clear, however, that there has been a marked increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer especially among children in Belarus. Although curable this has given rise to deaths owing to poor health care. It is likely that deaths due to other cancers will occur in the longer term. Though estimates vary, they are in the region of 10-25,000 world wide over the next 70 years. Comparisons with the numbers of deaths from other large-scale non-nuclear industrial disasters are provided which put the Chernobyl incident in context and experts who refute the wilder claims made in the media are quoted. The status of the plant today and the international effort to improve the safety of the 15 original RMBK commercial reactors still operating in the former USSR are described. (Author)

  12. Chernobyl 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled the Chernobyl accident process and consequences for the power station buildings, and also the emergency interventions to cover the reactor and avoid that the molten core reaches underground waters, the author proposes a brief overview of the consequences at the international level in the field of nuclear safety with the emergence of a culture of safety which has been applied in other industrial sectors, with the improvement of the quality of transmitted information, and with the lessons learned about the efficiency of early ingestion of iodine pills. The author evokes the construction of a containment arch to dismantle the whole installation, comments the various results published on health consequences and gives some explanations about their discrepancy

  13. The enduring lessons of Chernobyl. International conference of the Chernobyl Forum, 6 September 2005, Vienna, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a defining moment in the history of nuclear energy. The lessons of this tragedy are interwoven with a recurrent theme: namely, the importance of international cooperation. With its recently released document - entitled 'Chernobyl's Legacy' - the Chernobyl Forum has solidly reinforced that theme. The major impacts of Chernobyl fall into three categories: the physical impacts, in terms of health and environmental effects; the psychological and social impacts on the affected populations; and the influence of the accident on the nuclear industry worldwide. The physical impacts mark Chernobyl as the site of the most serious nuclear accident in history. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core released a cloud of radionuclides that contaminated large areas of Europe and, in particular, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Hundreds of thousands of people were exposed to substantial radiation doses, including workers from all three of these countries who participated in efforts to mitigate the consequences of the accident. The definitive numbers compiled in the Chernobyl Forum report are sobering: the 50 emergency rescue workers who died from acute radiation syndrome and related illnesses; the 4000 children and adolescents who contracted thyroid cancer - 9 of whom also died; and the hundreds of thousands of hectares of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres that were contaminated by environmental fallout. But as severe as these impacts were, the situation was made even worse by conflicting information and vast exaggerations - in press coverage and pseudo-scientific accounts of the accident - reporting, for example, fatalities in the tens or hundreds of thousands. The psychological and social impacts were also devastating. Over 100 000 people were immediately evacuated, and the total number of evacuees from contaminated areas eventually reached 350 000. While some of these resettlements were essential to reduce the collective dose of radiation, the experience was of course deeply traumatic for those involved. From the time of the accident, the IAEA has been continuously involved in technical cooperation and research projects to mitigate the environmental and health consequences in affected areas. Since 1990, we have spent more than $15 million on health care and monitoring, the development of new crops and agricultural guidelines, and other projects - often in cooperation with the organizations represented here today. But these efforts have not done nearly enough to address the human needs of the most affected populations. The Agency is committed to the UN Strategy for Recovery, and we agree with the recommendations of the Chernobyl Forum report. In particular, we stand ready to assist with the development of new initiatives that would help local populations regain control over their own livelihoods through assistance with safe food production techniques, improved primary health care, and encouragement of private sector investment and development

  14. Chernobyl, 17 after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This information document takes stock on the Chernobyl accident effects, 17 years after the reactor accident. The domains concerned are: the Chernobyl power plant, the sanitary consequences of the accident in the most exposed countries, the Chernobyl environment and the polluted regions management, the Chernobyl accident consequences in France; Some data and technical sheets on the RBMK reactors and the international cooperation are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  15. Chernobyl revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations made on a visit to the Chernobyl area in July 1990 are reported. Although the main purpose of the visit was to try out thermoluminescence techniques on materials exposed to radiation during the accident, the observations reported here are of a more general nature covering the variations in dose rate and contamination of surfaces within the 30 km exclusion zone and in the deserted tow of Pripyat, and plant, animal and bird life. The most ubiquitous contamination in Pripyat is caesium, which has penetrated all porous surfaces and would probably be very difficult to remove from brick structures if rehabitation were ever contemplated. Recorded dose-rates varied considerably on and in different parts of buildings. Radiation measurements of external surfaces were typically in the range 1-10 μSv/h and an order of magnitude less within buildings. Grass verges were particularly badly contaminated; measurements up to 110 μSv/h were noted in the most polluted area of Pripyat. Ecologically, the area seems to have benefited from having been allowed to return to nature. Many birds and a wide variety of plants and trees were flourishing; some older pine trees showed evidence of damage, however. The only insects observed were peacock butterflies. (Author)

  16. Communication from the Permanent Mission of Belarus to the International Atomic Energy Agency concerning consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received a communication dated 27 March 2001 from the Permanent Representative of Belarus to the Agency and, as requested therein, the text of a statement by the Governor for Belarus is attached hereto, for the information of Member States

  17. Chernobyl - Could it happen here? [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at the Soviet nuclear power station at Chernobyl in April 1986, the CEGB produced this video which has now been updated in the light of the information provided by the Soviets at the International Atomic Energy Agency Conference in Vienna. At this conference it was made clear that the Chernobyl accident would have been impossible in any nuclear reactor operational outside the USSR. This video explains why. It examines the main reasons for the failure of the reactor at Chernobyl and the two fundamental design flaws which resulted in the sequence of events leading up to the accident. It shows how British reactors have built-in protection to compensate for failure in any part of the system, and how the reactors are tolerant to operator error. The programme also explains the safety standards and regulations which are enforced in CEGB nuclear power stations and the rigorous training that reactor operators have to undergo

  18. Chernobyl new safe confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents the new safe confinement that will be commissioned at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP in 2015. The confinement will ensure that Chernobyl Unit 4 will be placed in an environmentally safe condition for at least next 100 years. The article highlights the current work status, future perspectives and the feasibility of confinement concept

  19. Belarus : Chernobyl Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2002-01-01

    The world's worst nuclear accident occurred in Chernobyl on April 26, 1986, releasing at least 100 times as much radiation as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The most affected country was Belarus, for which the environmental, health, and other consequences of the Chernobyl accident were disastrous. The present report reveals that notable differences exist between zones ...

  20. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations

  1. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I.; Santillo, D.; Johnston, P.; Stringer, R.; Sadownichik, T. (eds.); Antipkin, Yu.G. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Arabskaya, L.P. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazyka, D.A. [Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)] (and others)

    2006-04-15

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations.

  2. Assisting the Return to Normal Life in Chernobyl-Affected Regions: The International Chernobyl Research and Information Network (ICRIN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the International Chernobyl Research and Information Network (ICRIN) project, a programme designed to meet the priority information needs of communities in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine which were affected by the 1986 nuclear accident. Its aim is to empower Chernobyl affected communities through targeted delivery of the most recent scientific information on the accident’s impacts, translated into practical advice, including recommendations on healthy lifestyles. Supported by a United Nations General Assembly resolution, the project is part of a broader effort by all United Nations agencies to help local communities return to normal life, under the United Nations Action Plan on Chernobyl to 2016. (author)

  3. IAEA Director General expresses satisfaction with shutdown of Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Mohamed ElBaradei, today expressed his satisfaction with the decision of the Government of Ukraine to close the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 15 December in response to concerns about the safety of the plant. He said he very much appreciated the Ukrainian Government's commitment to maintain high levels of safety at nuclear facilities in Ukraine, which he described as being in line with the high international priority attached to the safety of nuclear facilities. The Director General noted that the year 2001 will mark the 15th anniversary of the nuclear accident in unit 4 at Chernobyl, which had a significant impact on life, health and the environment in Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation and prompted concerns in other countries about the effects of radiation. Since the Chernobyl accident the Agency has assisted, and will continue to assist, Ukraine and the other affected countries, in overcoming the consequences of the accident and enhancing the safe and reliable operation of other nuclear power plants. In the case of Ukraine, the Director General said the Agency intends to assist in the development of an integrated approach to planning, management, and implementation of the decommissioning of units 1 to 3 of the Chernobyl plant as well as in the management of radioactive waste at the plant. More generally, the IAEA is helping Ukraine to strengthen the effectiveness of its nuclear regulatory regime. Since the accident at Chernobyl the IAEA has significantly expanded its nuclear safety programme. It has facilitated the negotiation of a convention on the safety of nuclear installations and other international agreements in the areas of notification and assistance in the case of nuclear accidents, liability and waste management. It has expanded the corpus of international safety standards and put into place an enhanced system of safety review missions to Member States. The Director General said that in his view the future of nuclear energy depended to a large extent on demonstrating a good record of nuclear safety and addressing nuclear waste management issues. ''A good safety record'', he said, ''relies on good technology, effective regulatory practices and well qualified and trained staff''. (author)

  4. Radiation exposure and breast cancer: lessons from Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrodnik, Aleksandra; Hudon, Tyler W; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y

    2013-04-01

    The lessons learned from the Chernobyl disaster have become increasingly important after the second anniversary of the Fukushima, Japan nuclear accident. Historically, data from the Chernobyl reactor accident 27 years ago demonstrated a strong correlation with thyroid cancer, but data on the radiation effects of Chernobyl on breast cancer incidence have remained inconclusive. We reviewed the published literature on the effects of the Chernobyl disaster on breast cancer incidence, using Medline and Scopus from the time of the accident to December of 2010. Our findings indicate limited data and statistical flaws. Other confounding factors, such as discrepancies in data collection, make interpretation of the results from the published literature difficult. Re-analyzing the data reveals that the incidence of breast cancer in Chernobyl-disaster-exposed women could be higher than previously thought. We have learned little of the consequences of radiation exposure at Chernobyl except for its effects on thyroid cancer incidence. Marking the 27th year after the Chernobyl event, this report sheds light on a specific, crucial and understudied aspect of the results of radiation from a gruesome nuclear power plant disaster. PMID:23691737

  5. Chernobyl: fourteen years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current situation around Chernobyl is observed, special attention being paid to the status of SARCOPHAGUS and consequences for human health. The problem of low doses is reviewed, with an impact to what the hormesis is

  6. Chernobyl: a documentary story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This account of the Chernobyl disaster of April 1986 is based on interviews with many of the participants. Realising that the Chernobyl accident was to have a massive impact on the USSR and the world, the author felt impelled to travel to the designated danger zone around the reactor, to live there and to interview firemen, first-aid workers, party and government officials and local media representatives. The result is a variety of vivid eyewitness accounts that are unprecedented in their detail and frankness. These accounts show why the author considers the Chernobyl accident to be the most important event in the Soviet Union since World War II. The book, itself a product of glasnost, reveals how the Chernobyl accident was viewed from inside the Soviet Union. (author)

  7. Chernobyl and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident of 26 April 1986 in Chernobyl with the immense activity release was a catastrophe which took many victims and will still take many. This fact should not be hidden. This brochure represents an attempt to reflect the poor information from Chernobyl in a generally understandable manner and to assess them. Its goal is especially to make clear why even in maximum accidents in German nuclear power plants there is no danger to the population. The effects of the radioactive substances released after the accident in Chernobyl on Germany are described and put into relation. All presentations and descriptions were kept as models and were simplified and are therefore incomplete. This brochure was not meant to be an educational book; it only tries to respond to the questions raised by the accident in Chernobyl in the minds of non-professionals thus taking away the fear and strengthening the confidence in the safety of German reactors. (orig.)

  8. Problems of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection comprises the materials of working meeting 'The Development of Technologies of the 'Ukrytie' Radioactive Waste Management', held on May 20-21, 1997 in Chernobyl. The results of research work of the experts of Ukraine and other countries directed on solving problems, concerning removal of fuel containing materials and other radioactive waste from destroyed Unit 4 of Chernobyl NPP are given. The data on waste quantities, their location and classification, strategy of waste management and some technologies are described

  9. Chernobyl, 16 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document on the Chernobyl site evolution is constituted around four main questions. What about the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor and the ''sarcophagus'' constructed around the reactor? What about the sanitary consequences of the accident on the liquidators asked to blot out the radiation and the around people exposed to radiation? What about the contaminated land around the power plant and their management? Concerning the France, what were the ''radioactive cloud'' sanitary consequences? (A.L.B.)

  10. Medical cooperative projects. From Nagasaki to Chernobyl and Semipalatinsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years, Nagasaki University, particularly the Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, has been engaged in research regarding the late health effects of radiation exposure in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Since 1991, we have participated in several Chernobyl projects including the Chernobyl Sasakawa Medical Cooperation Project which demonstrated a marked increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid cancer around Chernobyl, especially in the Gomel region, Belarus. Furthermore, we have performed both fieldwork and research to clarify the late effects of radiation exposure around Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site and participated in bilateral official medical assistance projects between Japan and Kazakhstan to strengthen the medical infrastructure in this area. Through these humanitarian and scientific projects, we have been collaborating closely with our counterparts in the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) for the past 15 years. Here, we present a brief review of our past activities and future directions of international cooperative radiation research from Nagasaki to Chernobyl and Semipalatinsk. (author)

  11. Chernobyl, 13 years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an annual report, regularly issued by IPSN, that presents the ecological and health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. The present status of the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant, which Ukraine engaged to stop definitively in year 2000, is summarized. The only reactor unit now in operation is Chernobylsk-3 Reactor which poses two safety questions: evolution of cracks in part of the tubing and behaviour of the pressure tubes. Although, some improvements in the RBMK reactor types were introduced, problems remain that make IPSN to stress the requirement of stopping this NPP completely. In the contaminated territories surrounding Chernobyl incidence rate of infant thyroid cancers continues to grow, reaching values 10 to 100 times higher than the natural rate. In France the IPSN analyzed 60,000 records carried out in 17 sites during May 1986 and April 1989. It was estimated that the individual dose received during 60 years (1986-2046) by the inhabitants of the most affected zone (eastern France) is lower than 1.5 mSv, a value lower than 1% of the natural cosmic and telluric radioactivity exposure for the same period. For the persons assumed to live in the most attacked forests (from eastern France) and nourishing daily with venison and mushrooms the highest estimate is 1 mSv a year. Concerning the 'hot spots', identified in mountains by IPSN and CRIIRAD, the doses received by excursionists are around 0.015 mSv. For an average inhabitant of the country the dose piled up in the thyroid due to iodine-131 fallout is estimated to 0.5-2 mSv for an adult and 6.5-16 mSv for an infant. These doses are 100 to 1000 times lower than the ones to which the infants living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl are exposed to. The contents of the report is displayed in the following six chapters: 1. Chernobyl in some figures; 2. The 'sarcophagus' and the reactors of the Chernobyl NPP; 3. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident;. 4. The impact of Chernobyl fallout in France; 5. Chernobyl's environment and the management of contaminated territories.; 6. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl

  12. Real and mythical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation describes the public Unacceptance of Nuclear Power as a consequence of Chernobyl Accident, an accident which was a severest event in the history of the nuclear industry. It was a shock for everybody, who has been involved in nuclear power programs. But nobody could expect that it was also the end romantic page in the nuclear story. The scale of the detriment was a great, and it could be compared with other big technological man-made catastrophes. But immediately after an accident mass media and news agencies started to transmit an information with a great exaggerations of the consequences of the event. In a report on the Seminar The lessons of the Chernobyl - 1' in 1996 examples of such incorrect information, were cited. Particularly, in the mass media it was declared that consequences of the accident could be compared with a results of the second world war, the number of victims were more than hundred thousand people, more than million of children have the serious health detriments. Such and other cases of the misconstruction have been called as myths. The real consequences of Chernobyl disaster have been summed on the International Conference 'One decade after Chernobyl' - 2, in April 1996. A very important result of the Chernobyl accident was a dissemination of stable unacceptance of the everything connected with 'the atom'. A mystic horror from invisible mortal radiation has been inspired in the masses. And from such public attitude the Nuclear Power Programs in many countries have changed dramatically. A new more pragmatic and more careful atomic era started with a slogan: 'Kernkraftwerk ? Nein, danke'. No doubt, a Chernobyl accident was a serious technical catastrophe in atomic industry. The scale of detriment is connected with a number of involved peoples, not with a number of real victims. In comparison with Bhopal case, earthquakes, crashes of the airplanes, floods, traffic accidents and other risky events of our life - the Chernobyl is not a most hazardous ones. Such psychological effects of the Chernobyl accident resulted from the lack of public information, the stress of relocation and the fear that any radiation exposures are damaging. Those affected people are believing that illnesses of all kinds are due to radiation. The spreading of such mistaken did influence on general public disapproval of Nuclear Power. This presentation includes also the data of real consequences for the health of concerned population

  13. Space Radar Image of Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its surroundings, centered at 51.17 north latitude and 30.15 west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 16th orbit on October 1, 1994. The area is located on the northern border of the Ukraine Republic and was produced by using the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization. The differences in the intensity are due to differences in vegetation cover, with brighter areas being indicative of more vegetation. These data were acquired as part of a collaboration between NASA and the National Space Agency of Ukraine in Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences. NASA has included several sites provided by the Ukrainian space agency as targets of opportunity during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The Ukrainian space agency also plans to conduct airborne surveys of these sites during the mission. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located toward the top of the image near the Pripyat River. The 12-kilometer (7.44-mile)-long cooling pond is easily distinguishable as an elongated dark shape in the center near the top of the image. The reactor complex is visible as the bright area to the extreme left of the cooling pond and the city of Chernobyl is the bright area just below the cooling pond next to the Pripyat River. The large dark area in the bottom right of the image is the Kiev Reservoir just north of Kiev. Also visible is the Dnieper River, which feeds into the Kiev Reservoir from the top of the image. The Soviet government evacuated 116,000 people within 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) of the Chernobyl reactor after the explosion and fire on April 26, 1986. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  14. Agreement between the Governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding international research on the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant to be carried out at the ''Pripyat'' scientific centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement between the Governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding International Research on the Consequences of the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to be carried out at the ''Pripyat'' Scientific Centre which was approved by the IAEA's Board of Governors on 12 September 1990. It was signed on 21 September 1990 and entered into force on the same date

  15. Chernobyl - the government reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Farmers' Union of Wales submitted this memorandum to the Agriculture Committee of the House of Commons giving its interpretation of the Government's reaction to the Chernobyl disaster. The primary aim of the paper is to provide an objective assessment of the impact of the disaster and the Government's handling of it, for future reference. The subject is dealt with under the following headings:- Chernobyl nuclear fallout in Wales, monitoring of milk and fresh vegetables, silage contamination, the North Wales Sheep Sector, soil, herbage and genetic implications, recommendations for the future. (UK)

  16. Psychological lessons of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to the time of the disaster, the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was regarded as one of the best in the USSR, and the city of Pripyat, housing the plant's staff, was rightly called one of the most comfortable. Also, the psychological climate of the plant provided no causes for worry. This was a worked-in team, composed of seasoned and knowledgeable experts. How can one then explain the events that happened in such an unlikely place. Isn't there a danger that the situation will repeat itself? The author considers the question and other psychological aspects of the Chernobyl incident

  17. The post Chernobyl society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disaster from the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl that took place on April 26, 1986 is considered to be the worst ecologic disaster in Europe during the entire nuclear power producing history (estimated on the highest level, the seventh). The disaster had an poisonous impact on people's health and ambitions, it also gave birth to a new vision on the impact of the human factor on the universe. The post Chernobyl society is an alarming sign as regarding the human surviving perspectives, and a violent lesson on the 'global biography'. (author)

  18. Healthy living after Chernobyl?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our food today is endangered not only through environmental poisons and the machinations of profit-hungry manufacturers but also, after the reactor disaster of Chernobyl, by radioactive materials. There is great uncertainty amongst consumers: Whan can I still eat? How can I best protect my children from food products contaminated by radioactivity or enriched with pollutants? Does it still make sense to buy organically produced foodstuffs? Which food products are low in pollutants? With this book the authors want to counteract general helplessness and help the reader with comprehensible and sound information as well as practical tips for eating and living healthily after Chernobyl. (orig.)

  19. Nuclear power after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The psychological and political consequences of the accident at Chernobyl are increasing negative attitudes towards nuclear power in some Western countries and delays to the construction programmes. Global nuclear power development is behind earlier assumptions not only because of Chernobyl, however. This may have serious consequences because the rapid increase in world population and the essential increase in the living standards in the developing nations are leading to increased demands for energy. If this is to be satisfied by increased use of fossil energy sources then serious climatic consequences are threatened. Therefore every delay to the application of nuclear power in the industrial countries is serious. (orig.)

  20. The legacy of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There being no comprehensive portrayal of Chernobyl from the Soviet side as regards technical, ecological, and medical aspects, the author as a biologist with knowledge in agriculture and radiation biology who lived and worked in the USSR as well as in Great Britain, tries to see the catastrophe and its consequences in a slightly different light. He sees the accident also as political failure. The various chapters are called: A post mortem of the catastrophe; the radioactive volcano; environmental impacts; consequences for agriculture; consequences relating to health in the Soviet Union; global impacts; the Soviet atomic energy program; a history of nuclear accidents in the Soviet Union; nuclear energy after Chernobyl. (HSCH)

  1. The Chernobyl catastrophe is the most terrible civil nuclear incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The 4th nuclear reactor of the Chernobyl NPP exploded on 26 April 1986, 20 years ago. It's the most terrible nuclear civil accident of all times. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident led to contamination of 3,1 million ha of arable land, 1,5 million ha of natural pasture land, 3,5 million ha of forests and changed the lifestyle for millions of people in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. It is well known that the mortality in the contaminated areas (infant mortality by cancer) drastically increased. The Chernobyl catastrophe is presented , such as a sad example for humanity, a complex political international, economical, social and, particular, ecological problem according to the traditional and new studies for the development of the nucleotide contaminated territories: 1. Financing of safety of stopped working 4th nuclear reactor (security of covering system) and of work another 3 blocks at the Chernobyl NPP. Detailed control of international financial support for guarantee the safety, security of the Chernobyl NPP and sustainable development for rehabilitation of the affected zones and people. 2. It should be marked increase in medical, demographic analysis and in social, economical protection of the people in the contaminated areas. 3. Analysis and synthesis, monitoring of the long-time data results due to environmental, ecological, social and political consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. 4. Protection from the possible terrorist (extra) actions and (inter) damage or incident function of the Chernobyl plant, such as an old generation nuclear power. 5. Planned budget for future studies in the affected territories and flexibility actually realization of budget (State and International). 6. Nuclear refuse and aria/water protection in the Ukraine, Belarus and Russia contaminated zones. 7. Risk evaluation of not good function of NPPs which are situated in Russia, Ukraine and in another places (always remembering that the Chernobyl catastrophe is the largest nuclear civil incident all over the world)

  2. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  3. Wildlife in Chernobyl forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article is a review of a book addressed Wormwood Forest: a natural history of Chernobyl which describes life in Europe's largest wildlife sanctuary in the region surrounding the Chernobyl station. Since the accident, the area has largely been a safe haven from hunters and farmers, allowing the wildlife to live in an undisturbed environment. Against this backdrop, the book describes in detail, a highly controversial programme that released an endangered species of horse into the zone. Lack of funding for such programmes makes it nearly impossible to administer them. The book blends reportage, popular science and encounters with the zone's few residents. The result is an account of a remarkable land, its people and animals seen through the eyes of the locals, the author and the zoologists, botanists and radiologists who travelled with her around the zone. The radiation is the book's ever-present protagonist, as the author describes in detail how it works itself through the entire food chain and environment. Along the author's journey through the affected regions of Belarus and Ukraine she debunks several myths surrounding Chernobyl and the nuclear industry in general. In fact, while there have been a small number of cases of mutations observed in some species, these are not as dramatic as the Chernobyl mythology.

  4. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on 26 April 1986, there was considerable speculation in the West about the nature and cause of the disaster. This article provides a description of the plant, the operating procedures followed, operator errors and the cause of the rapid and large energy release which occurred in the reactor core

  5. Chernobyl - cause and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The events which led to the explosion and fire at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in the USSR are described. The safety violations during the tests being carried out on the reactor are detailed and the global consequences of the disaster are discussed

  6. Science. Chernobyl-96. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection contains the results of Chernobyl accident investigation on the territory of Ukraine. The conference was devoted to the following problems: -equipment and dosimetry; - agriculture and forestry radioecology and environmental monitoring; - medical, biological and social consequences; - waste management; - 'Shelter' problems; - information and simulation technologies

  7. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP)

  8. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The weather situation over Europe during the first days after the Chernobyl accident is described, and an estimation of the plume rise and the transport level of the emission from the reactor is given. The main characteristics of the radioactive cloud towards Norway are shown on trajectory maps. Maps showing the precipitation pattern in Norway during the relevant time period are also presented

  9. Chernobyl and our health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health impacts in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident are discussed in this booklet. Five experts of different relevant fields (biology, radioecology, nuclear physics and psychology) give their views on probable radiation doses and health effects from these doses, contamination of food chains etc. (L.E.)

  10. Chernobyl accident and Danmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  11. The Chernobyl effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In what way and to what extent does an event like the Chernobyl reactor accident influence the citizen's attitudes and political commitment. This book evolves a number of theses on these questions dealing above all with the determinants of political protest. Two investigations are presented in order to verify those theses: in 1982 and 1987 (some nine months after the Chernobyl reactor accident), the same persons were interviewed. In addition, representative surveys in the Federal Republic of Germany are analysed, in order to assess in general the impact of Chernobyl. From the contents: explanation model for political protest; Chernobyl effect: effect of critical events on the mobilization of political protest; discontent with nuclear energy use, political alienation and protest; internal incentives for protest: norms, readiness for aggression, and entertainment quality of protest; resources as determinants of political protest; sanctions and protest; social nets and political protest; verification of a central model of political protest, and problems encountered by research. Appendix: investigation plan and random sampling of the panel of nuclear power opponents. (orig./HP)

  12. The truth about Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is an account from the inside of the Soviet nuclear industry of the Chernobyl accident itself: who was there, what they were doing and how they responded. It quotes official statements of the reactor operators and others who were present, but also adds semi-fictional accounts of what people (who are not dead) might have said

  13. The Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD through its history; La Agencia de Energia Nuclear de la OCDE, a traves de su historia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echavarri, L.

    2008-07-01

    This year, 2008, marks the 50th Anniversary of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). During these years the Agency has adapted to the evolution of the world energy situation. At the beginning the Agency launches international collaboration projects to establish the technological bases required for nuclear energy, then helps member countries in the construction of nuclear power plants and later analyzes the safety criteria as a consequence of the Three Miles Island and Chernobyl accidents. Based on this experience, the NEA faces the X XI Century prepared to contribute, even more, to a better international collaboration for a safe, environmentally friendly and economical use of the nuclear energy. (Author)

  14. Agency talk. With apologies to Mark Twain (and, for that matter, Newt Gingrich), reports of HCFA's death have been greatly exaggerated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, P

    1996-01-20

    The Health Care Financing Administration continues to plug alone while it awaits word on what sort of job it will be required to do in the future. The ongoing battle over the scope of federal authority over Medicaid, as well as managed care-driven changes in Medicare, will reshape the agency. Whatever the specifics, change is imminent. PMID:8556041

  15. The consequences of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of the Chernobyl IV Reactor its operation and safety system. The following issues are analyzed; 1: the errors of the operators that produced the accident in april 26, 1986; 2: the fallout caused by the first explosions, that has mainly incorporated I and Cs in the food chain; 3: the path of the Chernobyl cloud, its passing across the north and south of Europe, and the middle east; 4: measures to stop the accident, fire control, plant stabilization and recovery of the place; 5: a sarcophagus, a technical novelty, had to be built due to the difficulties of monitoring; 6: the problematic decontamination of the forested places, caused interesting programs to be developed. Afterwords the effects produced by high and low doses in the population, were studied. A group of experts, reached the conclusion that no corrective or improvement measures for the occidental safety mechanisms, were required. (M.E.L.)

  16. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  17. Reflections on Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl and Three Mile Island reactor accidents are revealing some of the social costs of such failures, widespread opposition to nuclear power. As far as mortality and morbidity go, Chernobyl was probably a smaller incident than the chemical disaster at Bhopal. But nuclear people must accept the idea that a nuclear hazard is perceived as somehow different. Since nuclear energy will be needed to replace oil eventually, and the environmental impacts of properly operating nuclear power plants are far less than those of fossil fuelled power plants, this appears to be an appropriate time for the United States and other interested countries to start developing inherently safe nuclear power plants which will be acceptable to the public

  18. Chernobyl: The aftermath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear accident in Chernobyl prompted vehement and sometimes controversial public and political reaction in the Federal Republic of Germany, as it did elsewhere. What remained after the initial concern subsided? We at the IIUG feel obligated to make a contribution to the preservation and the improvement of our environmental quality, both in basic and specialized research aimed at environmental problems. It is time to take stock of the findings of our own work; we must access the feedback to and implementation of this research; the candidness and integrity of the scientific-economic-political community; superfluous knowledge or information gaps; structural obstacles and possible alternatives. This paper presents, in condensed form, the results of the 'post-Chernobyl' discussions at the IIUG, based on our work in various projects. (orig.)

  19. Chernobyl echo in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident in the Chernobyl atomic power plant has united efforts of a number of institutions to assess its influence in our Republic. Ambient air, food, drinking water, fodder, etc. radioactive contamination was being determined. Milk and diary products and grass has been tested for 131I, hygiene tests of products imported from Byelorusia and the Ukraine were obligatory. Contamination of food stuffs and drinking water has reached pre-accident levels now. National Safety Committee of highly qualified experts should be established as a coordinative center to develop and maintain the State Programme for evaluation of the effects of the Chernobyl APP accident , the influence of the Ignalina atomic power plant and other problems of radioactive safety. (author). 1 tab

  20. Chernobyl: what sanitary consequences?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  1. Chernobyl: a year after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity measurements in the year after the Chernobyl accident, carried out by the Radioprotection Division of the Joint Research Centre of Ispra, are reported. Air at ground level and in grass, milk, wheat, meat, fishes and man have been measured. The evaluation of the 1987 individual dose equivalent due to the exposure of the population living in N.W. Italy is compared with the dose equivalent absorbed in the year following the accident

  2. Chernobyl and the consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brochure contains the texts of a broadcasting series with the following subjects: 1) Brighter than a thousand suns - what happened at Chernobyl; 2) Radical assault on the genetic material - the effect of radiation; 3) It's the dose that counts - slight radiation and human health; 4) Nuclear fallout - contamination levels of water, soil and air; 5) Safety against bombing - how safe are German nuclear power plants; 6) Practical advice for consumers. (HP)

  3. Problems of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection comprises the results of researches and test design activities directed to elaborate and put into practice technologies and robotic complex to fulfil works in 'Ukrittya' of Chernobyl NPP (extraction of the remains of the nuclear fuel, their isolation and burial) with accordance of national and international standards. The collection reflects Ukraine's and Russia's experience of creation of remote control aggregates and separate systems of robotic complexes

  4. Fallout over Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friends of the Earth Ltd set up a mobile radiation monitoring unit between October and November 1988 which surveyed grass, silage, vegetables, meat in areas in Cumbria, North Wales, the Isle of Man and Scotland affected by the restrictions on the slaughter and movement of sheep following the accident at Chernobyl in 1986. This report contains the results of 357 sample analyses for CS 134 and Cs 137 examined during the survey and discusses discrepancies with official data. (U.K.)

  5. Chernobyl 25 years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief recall on radioactivity measurement units and on radioactivity itself, this report describes and comments the Chernobyl accident, its consequent releases, the scattering of the radioactive plume over Europe, the formation of radioactive deposits in Europe, the contamination of the different environments and of the food chain, the health impact in the most contaminated areas, the doses received in France and their associated risks. It finally draws some lessons from this accident

  6. Post Chernobyl-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives the results of individual monitoring carried out on population after Chernobyl accident. After a brief description of measurement methods as well as instrumentation features, the results of I-131 contamination in thyroid and of beta-gamma emitters on people's skin and clothing are reported. From the information available it appears that people coming out from Kiev (U.S.S.R.) showed the higher contamination

  7. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The documentation aims at giving a clearly arranged account of facts, interrelations and comparative evaluations of general interest. It deals with the course of events, atmospheric dispersion and fallout of the substances released and discusses the basic principles of the metering of radioactive radiation, the calculation of body doses and comparative evaluations with the radioactive exposure and risks involved by other sources. The author intends to contribute to an objective discussion about the Chernobyl reactor accident and nuclear energy as such. (DG)

  8. Chernobyl: radiation and disinformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is presented of the accident at Chernobyl and the delay in reporting it. A hypothesis is suggested for the cause of the accident and subsequent increase in intensity as resulting from decomposition of water and release of hydrogen at the high temperatures reached. Comments are also made on radiation levels compared with those from natural background radiation and from mass-radiography. (V.J.H.)

  9. Chernobyl - consequences and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident has taught mankind very plainly that nuclear energy bears a deadly potential and thus is to be ranked as a key problem of future decisions in the sector of power engineering. Decisions to be taken in future have to be seen in the context of the ecological, economic, and social needs. The statements given reflect the FEST's opinion on nuclear energy and the biological, economic, political, and ethical implications. (DG)

  10. Return to Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the catastrophic accident at the Chernobylsk 4 reactor in 1986, the Ukraine is currently expanding its nuclear industry. The government is committed to increasing the share of nuclear output to 40% of the country's electric power and the Chernobyl plant is included in this plan. All the Chernobyl reactors were closed down at the time of the accident, but units 1, 2 and 3 had all been restarted after safety modifications by December 1987. A fire in the turbine hall of unit 2 in 1991 resulted in the closure of that reactor and precipitated a political decision to close the entire plant by 1993. The economic consequences of such action and the safe operation of the remaining two reactors led, however, to the reversal of that decision. Work is now far advanced on unit 2 for a restart in 1996 and the management wants to upgrade all three reactors according to IAEA guidelines. Nevertheless, the question of closure of the Chernobyl plant remains in the air. A conditional acceptance of closure by 2000 has been made by the Ukraine provided the shortfall in power is taken up by a new gas-fired station. International finance is being sought for decommissioning, for urgent action on the decaying sarcophagus of unit 4, and for the gas-fired plant. Closure of the plant, given the social upheaval of the accident and recent political events, could contribute to the health of the Ukrainian national psyche. (UK)

  11. Marking Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Teachers say that they would gladly teach a day in the classroom if at the end of the day they could leave and have no marking. There is a common staffroom perception that mathematics teachers have it easy when it comes to marking. In arts subjects, setting an essay can be a fairly straightforward matter--a one-line question may suffice--but

  12. Marking Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Teachers say that they would gladly teach a day in the classroom if at the end of the day they could leave and have no marking. There is a common staffroom perception that mathematics teachers have it easy when it comes to marking. In arts subjects, setting an essay can be a fairly straightforward matter--a one-line question may suffice--but…

  13. The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An AAEC Task Group was set up shortly after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to monitor and evaluate initial reports and to assess the implications for Australia. The Task Group issued a preliminary report on 9 May 1986. On 25-29 August 1986, the USSR released details of the accident and its consequences and further information has become available from the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and the World Health Organisation. The Task Group now presents a revised report summarising this information and commenting on the consequences from the Australian viewpoint

  14. Chernobyl - 10 years on. Proceedings of a conference organised by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident from an Irish perspective was the focus of a conference organised by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland to mark the tenth anniversary of the accident. The health consequences of Chernobyl were discussed along with presentations on such issues as the hazards to the Irish population from Sellafield; the radiation hazard posed by radon gas; radiation hazards in medicine, industry and education, and Ireland's National Emergency Plan for Nuclear Accidents

  15. Chernobyl - 20 years and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacronique, J.F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Deconinck, F.; Govaerts, P.; Eggermont, C. [SCK-CEN - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie, Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Cort, M. de [Institute for Environment and Sustainability, DG JRC EC (Italy); Joulia, J.P. [EuropeAid Co-operation Office, EC, Brussels (Belgium); Dal, A.H.; Balonov, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Kenigsberg, J. [Commission on Radiation protection, council of ministry (Belarus); Hindie, E. [Universites Paris, 75 (France); Havenaar, M. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    In commemoration of the Chernobyl accident 20 years ago, the French society for radiation protection (S.F.R.P.) and the Belgian society for radiation protection (B.V.S.A.B.R.) organise jointly a one day colloquium in Brussels. This colloquium is divided in two parts: the first one concerns the technical and organisational aspects of the accident with the scenario and its global impact, the international environmental radioactivity information exchange through the Chernobyl experience, the European Union (E.U.) assistance to mitigate the Chernobyl accident consequences, the crisis communication and management and the lessons learned from them; the second part is devoted to the medical and humanitarian aspects through the thyroid cancers after Chernobyl accident, the health effects in the European Union (E.U.) and the psychological factors affecting health after the Chernobyl disaster. (N.C.)

  16. Chernobyl - 20 years and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In commemoration of the Chernobyl accident 20 years ago, the French society for radiation protection (S.F.R.P.) and the Belgian society for radiation protection (B.V.S.A.B.R.) organise jointly a one day colloquium in Brussels. This colloquium is divided in two parts: the first one concerns the technical and organisational aspects of the accident with the scenario and its global impact, the international environmental radioactivity information exchange through the Chernobyl experience, the European Union (E.U.) assistance to mitigate the Chernobyl accident consequences, the crisis communication and management and the lessons learned from them; the second part is devoted to the medical and humanitarian aspects through the thyroid cancers after Chernobyl accident, the health effects in the European Union (E.U.) and the psychological factors affecting health after the Chernobyl disaster. (N.C.)

  17. RBMKs and Chernobyl-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outline information is given on RBMK power plants - the USSR's RBMK programme, the design of Chernobyl-4, the accident at Chernobyl-4 and measures taken to improve RBMK safety. The RBMKs are graphite-moderated reactors with pressure-tube channels for the fuel. The reactor coolant is high-pressure water which boils as it passes through the fuel channels. A fundamental characteristic of an RBMK core is that it has a positive void coefficient. This is normally overcome by the control system but there is also a strict operating rule that RBMKs must not be operated for any length of time below 20% full power. This is to avoid problems of thermal-hydraulic instability, the increased effect of the positive void coefficient and danger of an overall positive power coefficient. This rule and others were disregarded and some safety systems were disconnected in setting up the conditions for a turbine-generator test in April 1986 at Chernobyl-4. Forty seconds after the start of the test the operators initiated emergency shutdown. Two to three seconds later the reactor became prompt critical and disaster resulted. It is ironical that insertion of the control rods to effect emergency shutdown probably triggered the power pulse which led to the subsequent explosions. Since then modifications have been made to RBMKs to ensure that such an accident cannot happen again and by late 1986 most of the RBMKs were back in service at full power. UK authorities have studied the RBMK design, the USSR report of the accident and other analyses, and have expressed their firm belief that no such accident could happen with any of the UK reactors. (author)

  18. Geochemistry of Chernobyl radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP caused contamination of the most of Ukrainian and Byelorussian territory and of Briansk region (Russia). Over 80 radionuclides with half-life more then 5 hours and total activity amounted to almost 1.9*1018Bq were released into environment. Solid-phase are characteristic for the contaminated areas of Ukraine and condensation ones for those of Belarus. About 90% of solid-phase radioactive deposits are parts with radionuclide composition close to that of irradiated nuclear fuel. In the first post-accidental months the main mechanism of vertical dislocation of radionuclides of the Chernobyl fuel fallout was migration of radionuclides in a form of solid particles. In soil radioactive deposits are subjected to influence of soil solutions. The pace of 90Sr into the mobile form is measured by years another radionuclides release from particles with the same rate but relatively quickly transfer into immobile form. Owing to difference in immobilization rates in soils 90Sr is found at present on the whole in mobile form, 80-95% of activity of another radionuclides are found in immobile form. Grading of radionuclides caused by forms of nuclides occurs the river system. Owing to that, 90Sr transfers into soluble state and depletion of bottom sediments. Regional evacuation of 90Sr from contaminated drainage system into the river system of Dnieper is 5 times higher than of 137Cs. The first forecast of contamination of the river system after accident was based on geochemical behaviour of radionuclides of the Chernobyl fallout and subsequent events bore out it. Now forecast of natural decontamination of contaminated lands and counter measured are based on radiochemical knowledge

  19. Chernobyl and Soviet law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article deals with problems after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl, especially concerning Soviet liability law. In the Soviet Union, article 450 of the Ukrainian Civil Code provides a strict liability which is relevant for the operation of a nuclear reactor, too. Particular problems, however, arise from the high degree of secrecy in Soviet atomic law. The author supposes that Soviet law has developed the principle of customary international law for the liability of nuclear damage. The enforcement of these claims, however, is still to be found. (CW)

  20. Evaluation investigation 'Chernobyl'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an evaluation of the attitude of the Dutch government in response to the Chernobyl accident. It deals with measures taken by the government in order to minimize the (possible) effects, apparent shortcomings and how one has dealt with them, measures which can be taken at least by the Netherlands in case of a reactor accident given the presence of dozens of nuclear power plants in Europe. Good and less good aspects of the temporary organization are noted and some general recommendations are given. (Auth.)

  1. Sheep (radioactivity) (after Chernobyl)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the radiation ban on sheep movements announced on 20 June are debated. This is of particular concern to the farmers of Wales, Cumbria and the South of Scotland for whom it poses grave financial problems. Several questions about statements made at the time of the Chernobyl incident and the resulting increased radiation levels in parts of the British Isles are raised, and criticisms of the Government attitude and information are made. The delay in announcing compensation is also criticised. The debate, which lasted over an hour, is reported verbatim. It includes discussions on markets and prices of the sheep in the areas of the ban. (UK)

  2. Chernobyl, fifteen years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has been constituted around four questions: the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor, and the sarcophagus around it; the health consequences of the accident on the persons that have worked on the damaged reactor and on the population in the countries the most exposed to fallout,; the situation of contaminated territories around the power plant and their management today; the last question concerns especially the France with the consequences of the radioactive cloud and what we know about the health risks induced by this event. (N.C.)

  3. Chernobyl - facts and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article summarizes and comments on the activities started in the FRG after the Chernobyl MCA, and tries to assess whether the legal provisions currently applicable, or emergency plans available, are apt to efficiently cope with such an emergency situation. The author discusses the Soviet Union's initial efforts towards minimizing the disastrous significance of events, the lack of preparedness of German authorities and provisions, the non-availability of persons responsible during weekends and night hours, the confounding mess of measured data and units published by the information media and authorities, and the lack of a suitable information scheme and infrastructure supported both by the Land governments and the Federal Government. (HSCH)

  4. Chernobyl and pump cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outcome of studies by Atomic Energy of Canada in collaboration with the Nuclear Safety Analysis Centre provides a perspective regarding the influence of such factors as positive scram and pump cavitation in Chernobyl. In the absence of definitive plant information, several possible keys to the accident can be postulated. Looking at available information on likely plant conditions, and on the subsequent core damage, the simulations suggest the positive scram effect did have a role, in conjunction with void reactivity and flow rundown effects, in triggering the event. Pump cavitation, while of potential general significance, appears to be inconsistent with known information about the accident. (author)

  5. Chernobyl' 94. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains materials of the 4th International Scientific and Technical Conference devoted to the results of 8-years work on Chernobyl accident consequences mitigation. Main results of research in radiation monitoring, applied radioecology, effect of radionuclides on biological objects in contaminated territories are presented. Information about waste management and medical consequences of the accident is given. Methodology and strategic of further research on radionuclides in environment and their influence on living organisms is determined. Large factual materials and its generalization may be usefull for scientists and practical workers in the field of radiation monitoring, radiology and medicine

  6. Chernobyl - and then?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes how the different parties of the nuclear debate react to, and deal with, the information that arises on the issue, i.e. the process that leads to decision making. After the Chernobyl accident, a public enquiry was made, to form a base for decisions regarding the future energy policy of Sweden, including the phasing-out of nuclear power. The differing interpretations and uses of the results of this enquiry are studied, in the hope to clarify and separate factual and value-based appreciations of different energy policy alternatives

  7. US perspective on Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Soviet medical response to the Chernobyl catastrophe was impressive and demonstrated an enviable level of radiobiologic competence. It also afforded the first opportunity to test the usefulness of bone marrow transplantation as life saving therapy for heavily irradiated patients under emergency conditions. More than 135,000 persons were at risk of exposure to life-threatening levels of radiation. A remarkably engineered evacuation of this population prevented the medical consequences from becoming worse than they were. Our medical perspective is based on the 40-year history of radiation incidents worldwide and especially in the United States

  8. Chernobyl: an early report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview and assessment of the nuclear accident at Chernobyl is presented. The authors have assembled data from throughout Europe to estimate upper bounds for the possible radiation releases from the accident, the exposures these may produce in humans, and the health consequences that may follow. Measurements of radioactivity in air, fallout, and milk and other food are included. Doses from the accident are compared with those from other sources of radiation exposure and a comparison is made of the annual risk of cancer from this and other causes

  9. The accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

  10. Chernobyl: the facts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanbridge, R. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden) Dept. of Journalism, Media and Communication Studies)

    1993-08-01

    In these Search Strategies, searchers from different countries and professions are given a question to answer, a budget of Pounds 50 and a time in which to produce their report. We hope that these blow-by-blow accounts, together with the hints and tips picked up along the way, will help readers to develop their own search strategies. Journalists are more and more coming to use online services and here the author gives a journalist's account of tracking down the elusive facts surrounding the Chernobyl disaster. (author).

  11. Post Chernobyl studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shortly after the Chernobyl accident and subsequent radionuclide deposition in the UK, a number of short and long-term investigations were initiated by the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology. MAFF granted a sum of money, Pound 15,000, for the purposes of 'at the moment' consultation and as a contribution towards those studies. This report fulfils the requirements of the contract as agreed with MAFF with regard to a written report and contains information and data sets on the following projects partially supported by MAFF funding: Great Britain survey, Cumbria survey, time sequence study, Dun Fell transect, sheep tissue analysis. (author)

  12. Chernobyl: the long shadow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl: the Long Shadow offers a balanced review of what happened there, why and how it happened, and what the main lessons and implications of the accident are. It looks back on events during and after the disaster, in particular reviewing how it and the radiation fallout were dealt with in different countries, and looks forward to how the incident might affect the nuclear power industry around the world. The book explores the significance of the accident within the Soviet Union, considers its impact on public confidence in nuclear power, and reviews what improvements are necessary in emergency planning throughout the rest of the world. It is written from an inter-disciplinary perspective; based on detailed scientific research, which is described in non-specialist terms, it considers themes like attitudes to nuclear power and political reactions to the accident itself. It sets the Chernobyl accident into a proper context, and will appeal to students and teachers of geography, environmental science, international politics, nuclear physics, and to anyone interested in current affairs and environmental problems. (author)

  13. Chernobyl, an opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled the circumstances of the Chernobyl accident, and given some indications of associated releases (iodine 131, caesium 134 and 137), the authors gives an overview of biological effects of radiations: generalities (doses, biological effects), results of epidemiological studies in terms of stochastic effects of radiations (for survivals of atomic explosions, in other epidemiological studies, in epidemiological studies related to thyroid), of relationship between dose and effect in the case of low doses (generalities, risk coefficients), and of extrapolation. In the next part, the authors discuss the health consequences of the accident in the former USSR and in the world: consequences noticed by the end of 2000 (non stochastic effects, stochastic effects like occurrence of thyroid cancers or of leukaemia, exposed populations, occurrence of other cancers), predictions of impacts and death on a long term due to stochastic effects (for thyroid cancers, leukaemia and other cancers), global assessment. Then, they discuss the impact of the Chernobyl accident: generalities, doses delivered to the whole body, thyroid cancers

  14. Dispersion modelling after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the time of the Chernobyl accident, little was known about the magnitude and time pattern of the release from the damaged reactor. This paper describes the detective work done in the weeks following the accident to assess the release and its dispersal across Europe; also new calculations done since the USSR presentations in Vienna at the end of August 1986 and some estimates of longer term collective dose commitment are given. The MESOS computer model developed at Imperial College to simulate the dispersal of hypothetical accidental releases of important radionuclides, out to distances of several hundred kilometers, and estimate levels of contamination in the air and deposited on the ground, was adapted for real time use. Combined with meteorological data and measurements of radionuclides collected from miscellaneous sources across Europe, it was possible to estimate how much had been released. To conclude, some general remarks are made about the implications of the Chernobyl accident for technical support in emergency procedures for any future nuclear accident. (UK)

  15. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the most severe in the nuclear industry. The accident caused the rapid death of 31 power plant employees and firemen, mainly from acute radiation exposures and burns, and brought about the evacuation of 116,000 people within a few weeks. In addition, about half a million workers and four million members of the public have been exposed, to some extent, to radiation doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident. A large number of radiation measurements have been made since the accident in order to reconstruct the doses received by the most exposed populations. On the basis of currently available information, it appears that: (1) average doses received by clean-up workers from external irradiation decreased with time, being about 300 mGy for the persons who worked in the first three months after the accident, about 170 mGy for the remainder of 1986, 130 mGy in 1987, 30 mGy in 1988, and 15 mGy in 1989; (2) the evacuees received, before evacuation, effective doses averaging 11 mSv for the population of Pripyat, and 18 mSv for the remainder of the population of the 30 km zone, with maximum effective doses ranging up to 380 mSv; and (3) among the populations living in contaminated areas, the highest doses were those delivered to the thyroids of children. Thyroid doses derived from thyroid measurements among Belarussian and Ukrainian children indicate median thyroid doses of about 300 mGy, and more than 1% of the children with thyroid doses in excess of 5000 mGy. A description is provided of the epidemiological studies that the National Cancer Institute has, since 1990, at the request of the Department of Energy, endeavoured to undertake, in cooperation with Belarus and Ukraine, on two possible health effects resulting from the Chernobyl accident: (1, thyroid cancer in children living in contaminated areas during the first few weeks following the accident, and (2) leukaemia among workers involved in clean-up operations at the reactor site in 1986 and 1987. (author)

  16. Chernobyl. Answers to your questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, this document takes stock on the existing information and enhance the elements which can be set with certainty. The accident is recalled and the environmental and biological effects are presented. (A.L.B.)

  17. Calculating Risk: Radiation and Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert Peter

    1987-01-01

    Considers who is at risk in a disaster such as Chernobyl. Assesses the difficulty in translating information regarding radiation to the public and in determining the acceptability of technological risks. (NKA)

  18. Nuclear Energy Law after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication contains a serie of presentations on effects of the accident at Chernobyl from a legal viewpoint and the actions taken at the international and the national level. They illustrate the scope and seriousness of the challenges posed by an accident having a substantial impact on a large number of countries. Some papers deal with the Chernobyl accident itself, while others examine the current legislative and regulatory context, highlighting particular problem areas (NEA)

  19. Core fragments in Chernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the finding of core fragments from Chernobyl fallout on clothing and shoes of Dutch travellers returning from the Soviet Union and Poland after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Data are presented on the fractional γ-ray activities for various radionuclides in hot particles collected from trousers [Kiev and NE Poland] and a shoe [Minsk]. The α activity of the hot particle from the Minsk shoe, as well as the energy spectrum of these α particles, is also reported. (UK)

  20. Bhopal and Chernobyl: some comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to compare some aspects of the accidents at Bhopal and Chernobyl, their causes and consequences. There were design and management inadequacies in both cases, Maintenance inadequacies were plenty in Bhopal but not in Chernobyl. Written instructions were unsatisfactory in Bhopal. In Chernobyl the operators deliberately violated the instructions repeatedly; this compounded by the unsatisfactory nature of reactor design, led to the accident. Disaster management preparedness and emergency response were excellent at Chernobyl. At Bhopal the plant management was absolutely unprepared and contributed practically nothing to the emergency management; however, civil and military authorities did a splendid job. Immediate deaths in Bhopal are estimated to be 2,500 to 10,000 and the number affected 200,000. None of the plant staff were affected and all the casualties were in non-plant personnel living nearby. All the 31 deaths in Chernobyl were among the plant personnel. Although 135,000 persons living in a 30 Km zone round the reactor were evacuated and medically examined, none had to be hospitalised. The world scientific community seems to have forgotten Bhopal within a year or so after the accident, while Chernobyl continues to excite intense interest. Extensive knowledge of the biological effects of radiation helps to estimate the likely number of cancer and genetic effects from Chernobyl. Knowledge of Methyl iso cyanate (MIC) toxicology is woefully inadequate; recent evidence indicates the possibility of carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of MIC. Both at Bhopal and Chernobyl there are elaborate plans for detailed followup of the populations for several decades. (author). 17 refs., 3 tabs

  1. About Chernobyl - Twenty Years Later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the information on its consequences so contradictory in the former USSR countries, the status of the effects observed, the forecasting concerning the onset of cancers in the coming years among the populations that were exposed to radiations, the public opinion facing the pessimists. He concludes on the lessons which can be drawn from Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

  2. Chernobyl: A Policy Response Study

    OpenAIRE

    Segerstahl, B.

    1991-01-01

    This book reports on how regions, countries, and Europe as a continent responded to the Chernobyl accident. The responses of society to traumatic disasters which change the whole pattern of life on a continent for an extended time period are discussed. "It is highly important to talk about Chernobyl. This accident should not become taboo, an isolated freak occurrence that never should have happened and that should be ignored. Such social amnesia is a risky outcome of the credibility cris...

  3. Chernobyl - the Pandora syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design background to the reactor at Chernobyl is given, followed by a detailed explanation and chronology of the events which led to the two explosions in April 1986. The effects, both short and long-term are given in terms of personnel casualties. The role of the Civil Defence in the immediate aftermath of the explosions is recounted. The emergency procedures carried out are listed. These included evacuation of the local populations and smothering of the reactor fire. The next stages, of pumping out water under the reactor and building a concrete platform under the reactor are detailed as far as information is known. When the reactor basement had been reinforced the whole reactor was entombed in concrete. The radiation dose rates to the nearby inhabitants and major cities further away are given. The radiation sources and units of measurement are explained. The corresponding cancer risk factors are given. The fallout progress, the doses and their consequences are shown. (U.K.)

  4. Health effects from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many misconceptions of the effects on health from the accident at Chernobyl. The 1996 conference in Vienna held one decade after the event, and more recent material being examined by UNSCEAR, provide a more soundly-based view. Apart from an increase in thyroid cancer in some of those people exposed as children, there is no evidence of a major public health impact to date from radiation exposures caused by the accident. There is no increase in leukemia attributable to radiation exposure, the most likely indicator, even in the group of radiation workers. Definitive studies of the health status of the various groups involved have been difficult to carry out because of the socio-economic conditions. Clearly, their continuation is going to need further international cooperation. (author)

  5. USA trip following Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaintiff claimed damages amounting to DM 2.610.- for passenger tickets in August 1986 at the Federal Administrative Office. He had flown to the USA for three weeks with his wife and two daughters aged 20 months on 7 May 1986 following the reactor accident at Chernobyl, in order to avoid the danger of radiation exposure. The Federal Administrative Office had rejected the damage claim according to paragraph 38 subsection 2 Atomic Energy Act. The Higher Administrative Court dismissed the claim on the merits. The recourse to the administrative courts would be open (only head note), but pursuant to paragraph 25 subsection 1 Atomic Energy Act in connection with section 3 lit. (a) Paris Convention, the preconditions for compensation for damage to life and health or loss of property are not satisfied. (OVG NW, decision of 23.3.1990 - 21 A 801/88 -). (orig./HP)

  6. Chernobyl health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 26 April 1986, a few short minutes were not enough to destroy one of the four nuclear reactors at Chernobyl and cause, over the next few weeks, the deaths of 31 people from among the staff, rescuers and firefighters who had dealt with the accident and prevented the spread of the catastrophe to the other three reactors on the site. The experts and the authorities soon recognized that the consequences of this event for the environment and for the surrounding populations would last several decades. Forecast estimates from very diverse sources of the nature and extent of these consequences came thick and fast, particularly in the years 1986 and 1987. Unfortunately, they differed so greatly in both time and space that they lacked all credibility. As the news spread through the public, it could only worsen a social climate which was already seriously upset by the effects of the catastrophe itself. 55 refs

  7. Global implications of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This editorial discusses the concern over the elevated background levels of radiation following an accident such as Chernobyl, and mentions especially the usefulness of monitoring programmes for marine organisms. The future of nuclear power is discussed with particular reference to the dangers of developing the nuclear industry in areas of social and political unrest, technical inexperience, and severe climatic conditions (e.g. floods, earthquakes, hurricanes etc.). It is pointed out that the difficulties of dealing with radioactive leaks are exacerbated in agriculturally-oriented poorly educated societies living at or near subsistence levels. Particular reference is made to the dilemma of Hong Kong in relation to the Chinese proposal to build a water cooled reactor at Daya Bay, a decision based on the prestige of high technology rather than need, in a country with enormous coal resources. (U.K.)

  8. Problems of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This collection includes the materials, in which are, from one hand, the results of previous years works aimed at mitigation of Chernobyl accident aftermath and decrease of 'Ukryttia' object impact to surrounding environment are generalized and summed up, and from another hand, decisions and technologies are seen that are aimed at decrease of nuclear and radiation safety during the works of converting 'Ukryttia' object into an ecologically safe system. over fifteen years passed from the accident moment a rich experience in overcoming the accident aftermath has been accumulated and a great volume of experimental and theoretical data was gained, that is becoming as a base for further developments and testing of new technologies of 'Ukryttia' object rad waste management, lowering of risks during the works of 'Ukryttia' object conversion, improvement of its nuclear and radiation safety

  9. Ten years after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As was amply demonstrated during the EU/IAEA/WHO Summing-up-Conference in Vienna, Austria, April 8-12, 1996, the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident were, fortunately, not as serious as frequently presented in the media: 28 people died from acute radiation syndrome in 1986, 14 more of possibly radiation-related causes since. Of the <1000 thyroid cancers in children, 90 to 95% are curable. There have so far been no other demonstrable increases in the former Soviet Union, as well as in Western Europe, of leukemias, solid cancers, or genetic defects, nor are any to be expected in the future. Even among the open-quotes liquidatorsclose quotes with doses ∼100 mSv, of the ∼150 additional expected leukemias during the 10 yr after the accident, none have been observed. The economical, social, and political consequences, however, both in the former Soviet Union and in Western Europe, have been very substantial. Whole countries developed an hysterical 'radiation sickness.' As A. Merkel, the German Minister of Environment and Reactor Safety, who chaired the conference, pointed out, 'the radiation sensitivity of societies far exceeds that of individuals.' It is obvious that important groups in Ukraine, Belaurus, and Russia try to blame a large fraction of all economic, social, and health problems during the last decade, which are substantial (∼ 6 yr less life expectancy, twice the homicides and traffic deaths, increased alcoholism, and so forth), on radiation of the Chernobyl accident in an effort to attract more support. Western scientists refute such claims but admit large non-radiation-related problems caused by the accident

  10. Some problems of invalids of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe caused health disorders of the liquidators, and as a result many of them became handicapped. The rate of health disorders among the invalids of Chernobyl is a few times higher than that of other citizens of the country. The invalids of Chernobyl need constant support, social help, medical rehabilitation and qualified medical care. Invalids of Chernobyl suffered from the consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe most of all. We are turning to foreign charity organizations for help in creating the Center of Psychological Support and organizing working places with flexible hours for Invalids of Chernobyl. (Authors)

  11. The Chernobyl cloud would have stopped at the borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author proposes a retrospective overview and analysis of information published either by involved agencies or by media after the Chernobyl accident about the presence or absence of radioactive fallouts in France. While defending Professor Pellerin, the author acknowledges some mistakes made by authorities in their communication, but also outlines that some realistic and clear information published by the SCPRI or the CIPR have been quickly forgotten by the media. The author analyses the different publications and communiques made by authorities, agencies and media over different periods: from April to May 1986, in 1999 when Professor Pellerin filed a defamation lawsuit against authors of a book, and when an ecologist politician was also sentenced. The author then proposes a discussion of health consequences of Chernobyl in France, and analyses the controversy on this issue during the 1997-2006 period. He comments the content of a report published in March 2006 by the IRSN scientific committee

  12. Challenger and Chernobyl: lessons and reflections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary cause of the Challenger accident was the failure of O-ring seals in the solid rocket booster, a subcomponent which had been known to be faulty for some time. When Hans Mark was the most senior engineering member of the NASA management executive team, he had asked for a complete review of these subcomponents; this was not done. The accident to the Chernobyl atomic reactor has not been publicly analyzed to the same extent as the Challenger explosion, and hence there must remain some speculation as to the detailed sequence of events. The lessons from both accidents are clear: faulty human understanding the the equipment and the lack of education, training and discipline were critical. The authors conclude that the Shuttle will fly again soon, and that political problems in the Soviet Union may be great and may force some changes. (author)

  13. Chernobyl NPP accident. Overcoming experience. Acquired lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of accident on the Chernobyl NPP unit 4. History of construction, causes of the accident and its consequences, actions for its mitigation are described. Modern situation with Chernobyl NPP decommissioning and transferring of 'Ukryttya' shelter into ecologically safe system are mentioned. The future of Chernobyl site and exclusion zone was discussed

  14. Chernobyl - the radiological consequences in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident, in terms of early health effects, doses to the population of the USSR, and the counter-measures which were taken during and after the accident to reduce doses to people and radionuclide levels in the environment. The paper is based on information presented by Soviet scientists during the Post-Accident Review Meeting held at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna over the week beginning 25 August 1986. Some of this information was preliminary and is unlikely to be correct in every detail, given the short time in which it was compiled. Nevertheless, it does enable the scale of the consequences of the accident in the USSR to be appreciated. (author)

  15. Chernobyl - hue and cry for the scapegoats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of August 1986, there was a well attended meeting of IAEA (the International Atomic Energy Agency) in Vienna, devoted to the catastrophe at Chernobyl and its sequels. Little came out of a 430 page report submitted by the Russians. The truths are difficult to decipher and the paper comments on information available and makes a few conjectures. The Soviets seemed keen to put the blame on human errors and breaks in the chain of command and some doubt is placed on the place of dogma in Soviet reasoning. The actions leading up to the accident are examined and then follows some reasoned thinking on the results, both immediately and in the future, both near the plant and for a very large area around it. (G.V.D.)

  16. Chernobyl the health consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses initially on selected aspects of the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, and then goes on to discuss some of the pitfalls involved in trying to assess the health detriment in isolation and without regard for the context in which it occurs. The accident on 26 April 1986 was unique. Two explosions, followed by a graphite fire in the destroyed reactor, not only dispersed radionuclides high into the atmosphere, but the fire was instrumental in ensuring the continued dispersion for about ten days. This prolonged discharge into the atmosphere combined with changes in wind direction ensured that radionuclides were widely distributed over Europe and were even detected throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The actual ground deposition was very variable, depending on may factors such as coincident rainfall during the passage of the plume, wind speed and direction, and the topography of the terrain. The mosaic distribution of the ground deposition became much more variable with distance from the site, and is responsible for the wide range of individual doses that characterises this accident. The paper details the health effects of the accident on those immediately involved, and also the delayed health effects, including increased incidence of thyroid cancer, among the populations of surrounding areas of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. It also discusses the widespread psychosocial detriment which resulted from the accident. Finally, the paper evaluated the efficacy of decontamination measures which were adopted in the affected areas in the years following the accident

  17. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection reflects the results of researches and test-design activities in the exclusion area of the Chernobyl NPP directed to elaborate the equipment and devices for scientific researches and elimination of the accident after effects at the Chernobyl NPP and to study composition and structure of solid-phase bearers of the activity in the soil of the exclusion area, form transformation of decay products, radionuclide composition of the fuel precipitation in the nearest zone of the Chernobyl NPP. Special attention is paid to medical-biological problems of the accident after effects influence on flora, fauna and human health, labour conditions and sick rate of people working in the exclusion area

  18. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection reflects the results of researches and test-design activities in the exclusion area of the Chernobyl NPP, directed to elaborate the equipment and devices for scientific researches and elimination of the accident aftereffects at Chernobyl NPP and to study composition and structure of solid-phase bearers of the activity in the soil of the exclusion area, form transformation of decay products, radionuclide composition of the fuel precipitation in the nearest zone of Chernobyl NPP. Special attention is paid to medical-biological problems of the accident aftereffects influence on flora, fauna and human health, labour conditions and sick rate state of people working in the exclusion area. For scientists, experts working in the field of ecology, radioecology, atom energetics, radiology, radiochemistry, radiobiology and related fields. It may be useful for postgraduates and students

  19. Chernobyl catastrophe: an unexpected result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six years ago, the Chernobyl-4 reactor has exploded. During 10 days, an important part of radioactive products of reactor heart has been ejected in the atmosphere, shaping a radioactive cloud whose the trajectories and fall-outs on all Europe have worried the public opinion . The authors, J.C. NENOT and R. COULON , 6 years after, take stock of the ecological, agricultural and sanitary consequences and if the ecological effects are in a good issue of regression, even near to Chernobyl, on the other hand in medical and sanitary scopes stay uncertainties

  20. Chernobyl catastrophe: An unexpected result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six years ago, the Chernobyl-4 reactor has exploded. During 10 days , an important part of radioactive products of reactor heart has been ejected in the atmosphere, shaping a radioactive cloud whose the trajectories and fall-outs on all Europe have worried the public opinion. The author, J.C. Nenot and R. Coulon, 6 years after, take stock of the ecological, agricultural and sanitary consequences and if the ecological effects are in a good issue of regression, even near to Chernobyl, on the other hand in medical and sanitary scopes stay uncertainties. 8 refs., 4 figs

  1. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The techniques currently used in off-site consequence modelling are applied to the Chernobyl accident. Firstly, the time dependent spread of radioactive material across the European continent is considered, followed by a preliminary assessment of the dosimetric impact (in terms of collective and mean individual doses) on the various countries of Eastern and Western Europe. The consequences of the accident in the USSR are also discussed. Finally, the likely implications of the Chernobyl event on research in the field of environmental consequence assessment are outlined. (author)

  2. Post-Chernobyl emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the result of a study ordered by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the National Swedish Institute of Radiation Protection to evaluate the measurements taken in Sweden in response to the Chernobyl accident. The enquiry was also given the task of suggesting improvements of the nuclear accidents emergency planning and other activities relevant to nuclear accidents. Detailed accounts are given of the course of events in Sweden at the Chernobyl accident and the steps taken by central or local authorities are discussed. Several alterations of the emergency planning are proposed and a better coordination of the affected organizations is suggested. (L.E.)

  3. Chernobyl - considerations of an insurer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author underlines the insurers' reactions after the Chernobyl accident. Firstly, their reactions as providers of security for loss and destruction in power plants and for third party liability: offers of financial cover have not been affected - quite the contrary - since 26 April 1986. He then refers to their consideration of the detrimental consequences: Chernobyl has revealed a new aspect of nuclear incidents - the addition of various types of expenditure quite apart from compensation of personal injury or property may considerably increase their economic impact (NEA)

  4. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

  5. Reports of the Chernobyl accident consequences in Brazilian newspapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public perception of the risks associated with nuclear power plants was profoundly influenced by the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl Power Plants which also served to exacerbate in the last decades the growing mistrust on the 'nuclear industry'. Part of the mistrust had its origin in the arrogance of nuclear spokesmen and in the secretiveness of nuclear programs. However, press agencies have an important role in shaping and upsizing the public awareness against nuclear energy. In this paper we present the results of a survey in reports of some Brazilian popular newspapers on Chernobyl consequences, as measured by the total death toll of the accident, to show the up and down dance of large numbers without any serious judgment. (author)

  6. Project Chernobyl - Progress report 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of the Chernobyl accident have been investigated by a comprehensive measuring program. Some of the results are presented. Dose commitments in Sweden, both collective and individual, are summed up. The measures which have been taken to reduce dose commitments are discussed. (G.B.)

  7. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

  8. Chernobyl its effect on Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the results of the measurements made during the first six months after the Chernobyl accident to determine the extent of the resultant environmental contamination. Estimates are presented of the individual and collective doses received by the public during the first six months and the first year after the accident

  9. Standby after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is an investigation concerning strandby and actions by SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (National Institute of Radiation Protection) due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. It consists of a final report and two appendices. The final report is divided into two parts: 'I: Facts' and 'II: Analyzes'. 'Facts': The Swedish model for information: radio, press. Basic knowledge about ionizing radiation in the society. Resources for information. Need for information. Message forms for information. Announcements from the authorities in TV, radio, press, meeting, advertisements. Statements concerning the reactor accident and its consequences in Swedish mass media. How did the public recieve the information? 'Analyzis': Information responsibilities and policies. SSI information activities concerning radiologic accidents, conditions, methods and resources. Ditto for SKI, Swedish National Food Administration and the National Board of Agriculture. Appendix I: Information from authorities in the press three weeks after the Chernobyl accident: The material and the methods. The acute phase, the adoptation phase, the extension of the persective. What is said about the authorities in connection with Chernobyl? Appendix II: The fallout from Chernobyl, the authorities and the media coverage: The nationwide, regional and local coverage from radio and television. Ditto from the press. Topic and problem areas in reporting. Instructions from the authorities in media. Contribution in the media from people representing the authorities. Fallout in a chronologic perspective. (L.F.)

  10. Miners take stock after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia's uranium producers, already facing a tough market have been plunged further into the unknown following the accident at Chernobyl. The production of uranium in Australia is reviewed with emphasis on the three uranium miners -Queensland Mines, Energy Resources of Australia and Western Mining Corporation

  11. The Chernobyl accident. Appendix B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In appendix B, the models introduced in chapter 6 are applied to the study of the Chernobyl accident. This event is very important in the teaching of nuclear engineering, and I have included in this Appendix a relatively detailed description of the accident. However, the analysis is limited to the physics of the relevant phenomena. (author)

  12. Studies of Cancer Risk among Chernobyl liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cae-control studies among Chernobyl liquidators- one of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), the other of thyroid cancer risk were carried out in Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russia. These studies were coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The specific objective of these studies was to estimate the radiation induced risk of these diseases among liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, and, in particular, to study the effect of exposure protraction and radiation type on the risk of radiation induced cancer in the low to medium (0-500 mSv) radiation dose range. The study population consisted of the approximately 15.000 Baltic countries, 66 000 Balarus and 65 000 Russian liquidators who worked in the 30 km zone in 1986-1987, and who were registered in the Chernobyl registry of these countries. The studies included cases diagnosed in 1993-1998 for all countries but Belarus, where the study period was extended until 2000. for controls were selected in each country from the national cohort for each case, mateched on age, gender and region of residence. Information on study subjects was obtained through face-to-face interview using a standardised questionnaire with questions on demographic factors, time place and conditions of work as a liquidator and potential risk and confoundinf factors for the tumours of interest. Ocerall 126 cases of leukaemia and NHL, 119 cases of thyroid cancer and 1060 controls were interviewed. Individual estimates of kerma in air and of dose to the bone marrow and related uncertainties were derived for each subject in the leukaemia and NHL study, using a method of analytical dose reconstruction developed whiting the study. Estimates of individual doses to the thyroid from external exposures, I-131 and long-lived isotopes were derived for all subjects in the thyroid case-control study. Dose-response analyses have been carried out. Resulting risk estimates will be presented and compared to risk estimates derived from atomic bomb survivors and other high dose studies

  13. The 1986 Chernobyl accident; Der Unfall von Tschernobyl 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerner, Alexander; Stueck, Reinhard; Weiss, Frank-Peter [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching bei Muenchen, Koeln (Germany). Bereich Reaktorsicherheitsanalysen; Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    April 26, 2011 marks the 25th anniversary of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the worst incident in the history of the peaceful utilization of nuclear power. While investigations of the course of events and the causes of the accident largely present a uniform picture, descriptions still vary widely when it comes to the impact on the population and the environment. This treatment of the Chernobyl accident constitutes a summary of facts about the initiation of the accident and the sequence of events that followed. In addition, measures are described which were taken to exclude any repetition of a disaster of this kind. The health consequences and the socio-economic impact of the accident are not discussed in any detail. The first section contains an introduction and an overview of the Soviet RBMK (Chernobyl) reactor line. In section 2, fundamental characteristics of this special type of reactor, which was exclusively built in the former Soviet Union, are discussed. This information is necessary to understand the sequence of accident events and provides an answer to the frequent question whether that accident could be transferred to reactors in this country. The third section outlines the history of the accident caused ultimately by a commissioning test never performed before. The section is completed by a brief description of radiological releases and the state of the plant after the accident when entombed in the ''sarcophagus.'' The different causes are then summarized and the modifications afterwards made to RBMK reactors are outlined. (orig.)

  14. Challenges to decision makers after urban contamination: The Chernobyl experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The real history of the Chernobyl decisions will probably be published in ten or fifty years after the death of the politicians who made those decisions and the soviet scientists who were there creating them. But that is not out of the possibility that real and tragic history will never be published at all. This is mainly because the most hard and responsible Chernobyl decisions which had to be made in the situation of acute time, skill and information deficit, had been marked by the stamp of time and society where all of us, including the authors, were living. Never before, and I hope very much, never in the future, has humanity faced the industrial nuclear-radiation accident with the scale like Chernobyl NPP accident. So it's extremely important to summarise and put together not only the scientific but human experience of the scientists which directly formed the large-scale decisions. It is very important to explain to society not only the scientific background of those decisions but also the scientists' personal views, their personal impressions as at the time of decision making as in eight years after the accident. (author)

  15. Chernobyl victims: realistic evaluation of medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective assessment of early and delayed medical consequence of the Chernobyl accident is presented. Mortality of people due to acute radiation disease, burns and mechanical injuries are attributed to the early effects. Oncological and genetic diseases are considered as the delayed effects. Delayed radiation effects on the residents of contaminated territories were estimated by epidemiologic examination taking into account the dose due to radioactive fallout. Certain regions of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine were mostly exposed to contamination. Contamination density by 137Cs is considered and radiation doses due to natural sources and Chernobyl accident are compared. Disease incidence is analysed for carcinoma and genetic diseases. Health hazard caused by non-radiation accidental factors (psychological stress, victim psychology thrusting, groundless evacuation) is assessed

  16. Chernobyl, 14 years later; Tchernobyl, 14 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) International cooperation, (7) More information about Chernobyl and (8) Glossary.

  17. Social Chernobyl participants condition in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full texts: At the moment in Lithuania live almost 6 600 Chernobyl participants (persons witch were in attendance Chernobyl nuclear power station emergency ravage liquidation works and executing another works in 30 kilometers zone). About 770 died and 170 went to other nations. Thievery other fixed illnesses coherence with being in 30 kilometers zone. According 26 October, 1990 Republic of Lithuania government's resolution No. 325 intended that Chernobyl participants credit accomplishes Ministry of Social care but until now in the Republic there is not undivided database, consequently we use different institution's and social investigations information which is not circumstantial. Chernobyl participants social condition and medicine service control certificates, government's resolutions and Ministry of health care and work and Ministry's of health care requisitions. There is not a law which guarantees Chernobyl participants social rights. Supposedly that for in Lithuania there is not the logistics which could vouch medical facilities provision for Chernobyl participants. Until 2005 sanatorium treating of Chernobyl participants was pursuance through invalids till but this treatment was not available to everyone Chernobyl participant for two reasons: 1 - Vicinities doctors and GPs not all the time contemprorize illnesses with being in The nuclear power station of the Chernobyl zone. 2 - Invalids till was not fixing the number of the permissions to the sanatoriums for the Chernobyl participants. Since 13 September, 2005 by Republic of Lithuania government's resolution No. 998 municipal governments budget bankrolls once a year may offset eighteen-days sanatorium treatment for persons which were liquidating The nuclear power-station of the Chernobyl emergency ravage but Chernobyl participants should give Specialists committee inference. Another problem social security. Chernobyl participant's requirement supply if they ill or died according Government's 18 February, 1998 resolution No.198 Regarding onetime compensations and exemptions for persons witch experienced damage liquidating emergency of The nuclear power-station of Chernobyl. There is fixed amount of money (about 4114 EUR), witch is paying Chernobyl participant's family in case of his or her death but if for her or him will be diagnose, for example, 2nd group of invalidity and pay onetime compensation (about 1646 EUR) this amount will be calculate from the forethought compensation. De-facto Chernobyl participants children (which is 1224) since 1991 is tending by Republic centre of Chernobyl participants children in Vilnius but de jure our children are left beyond social care and especially beyond health care scheme attention line. Chernobyl participants children have not got juridical status. They are not mention neither Republican juridical certificate. Neither Chernobyl participants neither our children are not involved in Lithuanian health care programme witch was confirmed by Parliament of Republic of Lithuania on 2 July, 1998. To improve our conditions we are working hardly in many ways. Our work's main ways are: 1. Work with public office. Every year we are sending laws and prescripts additions and changes to The Republic of Lithuania President office Ministry of Health care and Ministry of social care and work. We prepared and proposed a law project for Parliament of Republic of Lithuania 'People witch suffered from, The nuclear power-station of Chernobyl emergency, social care' in April, 2005. 2. Work with Chernobyl participants and society. Every year we arranging anniversary of The nuclear power-station of Chernobyl. We publishing internet newspaper. We started to prosecute projects with students to remember the emergency of The nuclear power-station of Chernobyl. We annually make opportunity to get a pecuniary relief for Chernobyl participants

  18. The social impact of the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book entitled the 'Social impact of the Chernobyl disaster' examines the aftermath of the reactor accident, using information culled from a fact-finding visit to the USSR in 1987, and from a wide variety of Soviet source materials. The subject is discussed under the following topic headings:-the cause of the Chernobyl accident, the victims of Chernobyl, the environmental impact, the economic and political repercussions, and the nuclear power debate. (U.K.)

  19. Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a painful memory in the lives of the hundreds of thousands of people who were most affected by the accident. In addition to the emergency rescue workers who died, thousands of children contracted thyroid cancer, and thousands of other individuals will eventually die of other cancers caused by the release of radiation. Vast areas of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres were contaminated by environmental fallout. Hundreds of thousands of people were evacuated from these affected areas - forced to leave behind their homes, possessions, and livelihoods - and resettled elsewhere, in a traumatic outcome that has had long-lasting psychological and social impacts. The commemoration of the Chernobyl tragedy is taking place in many forums this month - in Minsk, in Kiev and in other locations. At the IAEA, it might be said that we have been responding to the accident and its consequences for twenty years, in a number of ways: first, through a variety of programmes designed to help mitigate the environmental and health consequences of the accident; second, by analyzing the lessons of what went wrong to allow such an accident to occur at all; and third, by working to prevent any such accident from occurring in the future. Building a strong and effective global nuclear safety regime is a central objective of our work. This requires effective international cooperation. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core, and discharged its contents in a cloud of radionuclides, made painfully clear that the safety risks associated with nuclear and radiological activities extend beyond national borders. International cooperation on nuclear safety matters - sharing information, setting clear safety standards, assisting with safety upgrades, and reviewing operational performance - has therefore become a hallmark of IAEA activity, particularly at a time when we are witnessing an expansion of nuclear power to meet increasing energy demands in many parts of the world. In 2001, after taking note of the conflicting views on the results of the accident, I called for the creation of a Chernobyl Forum, inviting the world's foremost scientific experts to conduct an exhaustive assessment of the health, environmental and social impacts of the accident. As with all IAEA programmes, we emphasized an impartial, fact based approach to the analysis of this difficult and highly charged topic. I was pleased that, after a long period of careful analysis, the parties involved - including the World Health Organization and seven other specialized United Nations agencies, as well as the Governments of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine - were able to achieve consensus on the set of authoritative reports that were issued last September. But the Chernobyl Forum had another purpose as well. My hope was that, by giving clear, impartial answers about the accident and its effects, we would be able to focus more effectively on present and future needs. Better international cooperation on assistance to the people and regions affected by the accident. Smarter approaches to safe food production and effective health care. Enhanced investments in the people concerned, in ways that would give them control over their own livelihoods. In short, it was my hope that, by answering questions about the past, we could restore a vision of a brighter future for the regions concerned. And that remains my hope. We will not soon forget the Chernobyl accident. We will not forget the emergency workers who gave their lives. We will not forget the health and environmental consequences. And we should never forget the lessons we learned regarding nuclear safety and international cooperation. In remembering the Chernobyl accident, we should renew our determination to ensure that such a tragedy will not happen again. But we must also remember the survivors, the individuals and communities who seek to move forward with their lives and the lives of their children. At this time of remembrance, they too deserve our attention and assistance, so that they will be able to move beyond the shadow of the Chernobyl accident and into a prosperous future. (IAEA)

  20. World nuclear developments after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986 will inevitably go down in history as the year of Chernobyl, the consequences of which must be delays in and even withdrawals from the development of nuclear power. On the credit side, the Soviet Union has done a rapid and remarkable job in sealing the damaged reactor and rehabilitating the station and the area while improving the safety of its total program. Equally effective has been the response of the IAEA. In terms of nuclear power's claim as a major source of energy, nothing has changed as a result of Chernobyl. 15% of the world's electricity is now produced from nearly 400 power reactors. In comparison with any other energy form nuclear energy must rank high in terms of economy, safety and environmental effects. What has changed is the public perception of nuclear power, and the effort world-wide which will need to be made to restore public confidence

  1. The reactor accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Karlsruhe region an effective dose equivalent is expected to be 60 μSv (6 mrem) for adults and 118 μSv (11,8 mrem) for a child, one year old, for the time between May 86 and May 87. These doses are caused by inhalation of radionuclides released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl, by the γ-radiation of deposited radionuclides and by the ingestion of contaminated food. The dose caused by as the uptake of natural radioactivity by food and inhaled air, the terrestrial and cosmic radiation achieves about 2200 μSv/a (220 mrem/a). During the first year after the reactor accident the additional dose will be about 5% of the natural annual exposure. During the following years the dose caused by radionuclides from Chernobyl will be negligible low. (orig.)

  2. Monstrosities - an outcome of Chernobyl?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the western parts of Turkey, which have been particularly hard hidden by the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident, an extremely high number of malformations in newborns have been recorded. There is reason to attribute this to the high radioactivity level measured in this region after the accident. But most radiation experts refuse to accept any connection between the miscarriages or malformation and the reactor accident. (orig./HP)

  3. The reactor accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contamination, caused by the radioactivity released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl was measured in samples taken in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The radioactivity was determined in air, fodder, milk, vegetables, other plants, foodstuffs, soil, precipitations, drinking water, sludge and other samples. Results of measurements are reported which were received with considerably more than 1000 samples. The evaluation of the data will be presented in KfK 4140. (orig.)

  4. Curium isotopes in Chernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear reactors plutonium and transplutonium isotopes are produced by multiple neutron capture of uranium and plutonium and are important for the energy production and their composition reflects the core burnout. Under normal operation these elements are not released to the environment in significant amounts. There are accordingly very few areas or source terms where exotic transplutonium elements, such as curium isotopes, can be studied in the environment. The Chernobyl accident provided a complex spectrum of fission and activation products in fallout while the relative amounts, compared to the core inventory, of refractory elements such as transuranium and transplutonium elements were small. The major alpha-activity consisted of 242Cm (T1/2=163 d) that would have decayed after a few years. Presence of so called 'supported 242Cm' from the long-lived 242Amm (T1/2=141 a) in environmental samples, following fallout from the Chernobyl accident has been demonstrated. It has also been possible to assess the core burn up by using the data obtained for the Cm isotopes. The curium isotopes 243Cm (T1/2=29.1 a) and 244Cm (T1/2=18.1 a) cannot be resolved by conventional alpha-spectrometry. The assessment of these isotopes in environmental samples contaminated from the Chernobyl accident has been made by studying the effective half-life of the mixture of the isotopes. The data are compared with those previously obtained by high-resolution alpha-spectrometry and spectral deconvolution. (author)

  5. Long term consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe and remediation programmes in the Russian Federation [Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Government of the Russian Federation has charged the Russian Ministry for Emergencies (EMERCOM) with coordinating activities for the mitigation of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The Ministry has undertaken the function of a State customer of federal target programmes for eliminating effects of radiological emergencies and catastrophes. Federal ministries and agencies, as well as executive authorities of the Russian Federation are involved in implementing the programmes. Joint Russian-Belarus projects to mitigate effects of the Chernobyl catastrophe have been under way since 1998

  6. Human cytogenetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequency of chromosome aberration was evaluated in 537 persons taken part in amelioration after the accident. The highest rate of aberration was found in covering builders and dosimetrists: 3.24±0.25 and 3.11±0.43 per 100 cells, respectively. The mean rate of aberrations among the Chernobyl NPP staff was 2.37±0.20 per 100 cells, in the other examined groups the mean yield of aberration varied from 1.31 to 1.47 per 100 cells. The found aberration rates correspond to the equivalent whole body doses in the range from 131 to 515 mGy as evaluated by the established dose-response curve. In the group of covering builders the individual aberration rates varied more markedly, and corresponded to the equivalent whole body dose up to about 1 Gy. Slides of 27 individuals were checked by an automated scoring system. The results showed a satisfactory correlation between the frequencies of dicentrics per chromosome detected by routine and computer methods. 17 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  7. Fallout from Chernobyl [Letters to the editor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six brief letters discuss the possible health effects of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident including an increase in thyroid cancer in children in Belarus, chromosomal abnormalities in workers from Latvia who cleared up the Chernobyl accident site, an increased trisomy 21 in Berlin but a lack of increased childhood leukaemia incidence in Greece. (UK)

  8. Fallout from Chernobyl [Letters to the editor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, E.D. (Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Abelin, T.; Egger, M. (Bern Univ. (Switzerland)) (and others)

    1994-11-12

    Six brief letters discuss the possible health effects of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident including an increase in thyroid cancer in children in Belarus, chromosomal abnormalities in workers from Latvia who cleared up the Chernobyl accident site, an increased trisomy 21 in Berlin but a lack of increased childhood leukaemia incidence in Greece. (UK).

  9. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr

    1992-04-01

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

  10. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit trademark) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report

  11. The Chernobyl reactor accident source term: Development of a consensus view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 1986, scientists from the former Soviet Union provided the nuclear safety community with an impressively detailed account of what was then known about the Chernobyl accident. This included assessments of the magnitudes, rates, and compositions of radionuclide releases during the ten days following initiation of the accident. A summary report based on the Soviet report, the oral presentations, and the discussions with scientists from various countries was issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency shortly thereafter. Ten years have elapsed since the reactor accident at Chernobyl. A great deal more data is now available concerning the events, phenomena, and processes that took place. The purpose of this document is to examine what is known about the radioactive materials released during the accident. The accident was peculiar in the sense that radioactive materials were released, at least initially, in an exceptionally energetic plume and were transported far from the reactor site. Release of radioactivity from the plant continued for about ten days. A number of more recent publications and results from scientists in Russia and elsewhere have significantly improved our understanding of the Chernobyl source term. Because of the special features of the reactor design and the pecularities of the Chernobyl accident, the source term for the Chernobyl accident is of limited applicability of the safety analysis of other types of reactors

  12. Chernobyl sufferers in Ukraine and their social problems: short outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the historical review on the Chernobyl catastrophe. The state was badly prepared to a disaster of such a scale as Chernobyl and most of necessary decisions were drafted and taken immediately when they were needed. Fortunately in the initial period there were material and resources available and a mechanism of direction was in place. The mechanism was not perfect, and its quality was quickly deteriorating. The executive power of the USSR -Council of Ministers and numerous ministries- behaved practically independently from the Supreme Soviet Parliament until 1989. The first period was marked by attempts to hide and to diminish the consequences. The Law had been passed by the Parliament of Ukrainian SSR on 28 february, 1991. Later the Law underwent some serious amendments in 1992, 1993, 1996, mainly because an application of the Law revealed some economic miscounts. Some controversial provisions of the law, like the tax exempt status of the organizations working in the contaminated area, and the import laws for the Chernobyl organizations have been already revoked. In this paper we will pay special attention to informal non-governmental help from international community. Few projects of international organizations, very often quite negatively perceived by Ukrainian people, require separate analysis.The goal of these projects was to offer research assistance to respective Ukrainian institutions and thus these projects were to some extent not directly aimed at suffers, but at some medical problems. Intergovernmental assistance to suffers was quite limited. Ukrainian writers were the the first who begun campaign to disclose the truth of Chernobyl in Ukraine. In 1998 the first green' NGO was created in Ukraine. These NGOs played an important role of pressure groups. Often local politician were using supports from these groups in their election campaigns and legislative works. Separate investigation is needed to asses the role and results of activities of deferent charitable foundations and enterprises. This paper is based both on material published in the Soviet Union and Ukraine and on author's personal experiences. The report does not pretend to be a complete investigation of social activities in Ukraine related to Chernobyl disaster. (Y. Tanaka)

  13. Mobile Radiological Laboratories Intercomparison Measurements - Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In last decade different institutions in European countries have organised periodic intercomparison exercises of mobile radiological laboratories to improve the preparedness of emergency monitoring teams. The 12th Regular Workshop on Mobile Radiological Laboratories was held in Exclusion Zone of the Chernobyl NPP, Ukraine from September 13 to September 18, 1999 under the acronym MORAL-12. The European Centre of Technological Safety (TESEC), Kiev, Ukraine and J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia organised Intercomparison Measurements 99 jointly under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Nineteen teams from 9 countries and IAEA participated in the Workshop. Six field and personal and equipment contamination control exercises were prepared and conducted at two measuring sites with very different ambient dose rate levels. The Workshop pointed out that such exercises are very valuable for rapid, efficient and harmonised emergency response in case of nuclear or radiological emergency. The teams had an opportunity to test their ability to perform field measurements in the contaminated environment, and to report results on the spot, as well as to test their emergency preparedness and persistence. They gained new experiences for fieldwork under stress conditions. An overview and results of these intercomparison measurements are presented and lessons learned are discussed. (author)

  14. Health effects of Chernobyl: newer perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the 26th of April 1986, the 4th unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the former Soviet Union exploded, following a scheduled but not-well-planned testing of a turbo-generator prior to a shutdown of the reactor. This led to a release of large amounts of radioactive material into the atmosphere, resulting in a cloud not only over in the Soviet Union, but due to prevailing meteorological condition, over the Eastern Europe as well. Over the past ten years, a large number of agencies in the areas of human health and hygiene, agriculture and veterinary sciences in addition to those involved in radiation protection and radiation safety have studied the impact of the accident. These studies were also extended to evaluate and mitigate the consequences. The accident has been a warning, and has provided lessons in mitigating the consequences of any industrial accident. Newer perspectives have emerged in the area of early diagnosis and treatment of the acute effects of radiation. Research in the areas of genetics, molecular biology and radiation biology will contribute to better medical care in future. (author). 3 tabs

  15. Assessment of Chernobyl health consequences under the influence of public and other interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl reactor accident on 26 April 1986 was the largest and most severe disaster in the history of civil nuclear technology involving radiation exposure and radioactive contamination of large areas in the NIS. Among the three countries Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, Belarus was mostly affected, because about 70% of the radioactive fallout was deposited on its territory. The radiation doses from various nuclides, to which the public as well as the liquidators were exposed during the first months, let expect serious health consequences for a large number of persons. During the first weeks after the accident, the authorities in Moscow released several orders of secrecy. Later, in July 1987 the order was given that acute and chronic diseases of liquidators, who were exposed to less than 50 rem, must not be attributed to the effects of ionizing radiation. In 1990, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized the International Chernobyl Project, with the participation of the Commission of the European Communities, the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO) and others, in order to investigate and assess the radiological situation in the three affected Soviet Republics. 200 scientists from the West and 500 from USSR were sent by their governments to participate. Concerning the health impact, the IAEA team under its chairman professor F. Mettler from USA concluded in 1991 that there were no health disorders that could be attributed directly to radiation exposure. IAEA favoured psychological stress and anxiety to be the cause of health disorders observed. This information was spread world wide. But in reality, at this time the number of thyroid cancer cases in children in Belarus was already 30 times higher than the average in the 10 years before Chernobyl. And IAEA and other international organizations did not want to take into account the findings and reports of Belarusian and Ukrainian scientists on the marked increase in thyroid cancers, BBC found out and published in 1996 an TV documentation that as far back as 1990 F. Mettler had analyzed in the USA the pathological slides of thyroid cancer of 20 Ukrainian children confirming the malignancy in all cases. But Mettler and his colleagues suppressed this fact and stated in their reports that there was none. As a result, international organizations and the UN did not s tart proper assistance programmes for t he people affected and valuable time was lost. A new report in 2000 by the UNSCEAR committee contained a evaluation of the consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl accident which concludes that there is no evidence of a major public health impact attributable to radiation exposure fourteen years after the accident, apart from a high level of (treatable, non-fatal) thyroid cancers in children. With this exception, the report states 'there is no scientific evidence of increases in over all cancer incidence or mortality or in non-malignant disorders that could be related to radiation exposure.' The statement of UNSCEAR ignores a large number of scientific publications on a several fold increase in thyroid cancers in adults, the large increase in non-malignant thyroid disorders and in other diseases. It should be noted that this UN committee does not consist of independently elected scientists, but only of those being sent as representatives of governments of the 21 nations, who have strong interest in the use of nuclear technology. And F. Mettler is still member of UNSCEAR and represents the interests of the US government. Two international research programmes on the health effects of Chernobyl are of special interest. In the Project 'International Cooperation for post Chernobyl NIS Thyroid Tissue, Nucleic Acid and Data Banks' the USA, the European Atomic Energy Community, Japan and WHO invited Belarus, Russia and Ukraine to form a collaborative research resource. In the description of the programme it is outlined that competition among scientific groups should be avoided, that the study of the pathology and molecular biology of thyroid cancer should include the role of isotopes of iodine and of other factors influencing cancer incidence including exposure to other carcinogens, genetic factors etc.. All data are collected in Great Britain. Also of great interest is the 'BelAm Project' in Belarus and 'UkrAm Project' in Ukraine. In this project in Belarus, which started in 1996, a cohort of about 12 000 persons will be monitored for 30 years in order to see how many thyroid cancer cases would appear. Recent articles in the international press criticise that the project would only serve investigation on Belarus while after the detection of cancer cases the treatment and aftercare would be left to the patients and to the health system in Belarus, which is not ready to give all patients the appropriate treatment. Merely in Gomel region about 400 000 people being children or adolescents at the time of the accident, have high risk of developing thyroid cancer and deserve regular checks, and not only the group necessary for the statistical significance of the interests of the USA. Research projects by international organisations on the health consequences for the citizens and patients of NIS countries after the Chernobyl catastrophe should be made dependant on the obligation that these organisations guarantee at the same time therapy and aftercare to a substantial part of the population at risk. (Authors)

  16. Chernobyl radioactivity in Turkish tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity measurement of Turkish tea of 1986 crops is reported. The total cesium activity ranged from about 5500 Bq kg-1 up to 43600 Bq kg-1. Some other fission products from Chernobyl could be detected in the tea samples, e.g., 95Zr, 95Nb, 103Ru, 106Ru, 110mAg and 125Sb. In addition, some activity values found in tea from USSR are given. The transfer rate of cesium from tea leaves to tea water was found to be about 74%. (author) 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  17. Chernobyl: lessons of the decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident led to a drastic increase the incidents of thyroid cancer in children living at territories contaminated with radionuclides. The incidents of hemoblastoses which are etiologically closely related to radiation did not change after the incident. The lessons of the decade that passed since the accident necessitate measures aimed at alleviation of the medical consequences of the accident which are to be implemented for many years. The program of such measures should be based on a strictly scientific evaluation of each factor, that will be conductive to a most adequate state financing of this work

  18. 10th anniversary of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every issue has its defining event. There is no doubt that the single word which now embodies that difficult-to express unease felt by many people about nuclear power is Chernobyl. In this sense, April 26 1996 will be far more than an anniversary, just as Chernobyl was far more than a very serious accident which was nonetheless largely localised in its effects. It will be used by those who wish to the industry - the professional campaigners in the Green movement - and those who see an opportunity to sell newspapers or TV programmes - the professional exaggerators - to spread that unease as far as possible. The British Nuclear Industry Forum, which consists of seventy member companies at the heart of nuclear power in the UK, has convened a Task Force, with an international membership, in an attempt to make sure that we are ready for the anniversary, and to respond to the tactics of the opposition in as effective a way as possible. This paper outlines the general principles which have so far emerged from our discussions. There are two guiding principles to our approach. The first is that no matter how good a story is about Chernobyl, it is still a bad story. But secondly, this anniversary will be big news whether we like it or not, so we must make the best of it. In this sense the event brings with it opportunities to remind people of positive messages, on fuel diversity, on environment, and on Western efforts to help to improve the safety standards of the nuclear industry in the region, and the health of the people near Chernobyl. This leads to a position for the campaign which might appear paradoxical. We must be proactive but low-profile. We simply cannot afford to keep quiet and let the wildest claims about the effects of Chernobyl be spouted unchallenged. This does not simply mean generating responses to stories once they have been published. It means analysing press coverage of previous anniversaries to understand how the media are likely to treat it; it means a lot of behind-the-scenes work bringing journalists into contact with the true facts of the matter. If the nuclear power industry takes the lead in promulgating the data collected by the World Health Organisation and others, we and the information may well simply be disbelieved, and our own growing credibility will suffer. It follows that the industry must identify independent, relevant academics who are prepared to talk in public about the true situation and encourage the media to talk to them - even if such academics do not always take the same pro-nuclear line which we would ourselves. We must also address the problems of the region itself, and especially the safety both of the operating stations, and of the Chernobyl 'sarcophagus', in many ways a more urgent danger. Ile nuclear industry will run an ongoing campaign for money to be made available - we want to help, we ought to help, but we can't afford to-help. This sends two messages. First, that money has to be spent. This would both generate business for our companies, and reduce the risk of us all being closed down because of Chernobyl as another accident would be cased no matter where it happened. Secondly, that our own nuclear stations are safe - it can't happen here - and that we want to spread that safety more widely. The wider arguments for nuclear power can be introduced by comparing the disastrous environmental effects of the burning of coal and other fossil fuels in the Eastern bloc, and making the point that even accepting Chernobyl, nuclear power has brought the same benefits to the East as it has to the West. These principles must be turned into a campaign - an international campaign, with each country presenting the key messages in a key way. Chernobyl will not go away, so it has to be managed. The techniques we develop for the tenth anniversary will have application for many years to come

  19. After Chernobyl, Creys-Malville?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author considers the announcement of the detection, at the Superphenix reactor on 31st March 1987, of a leakage of sodium coolant from a container (used to store the liquid sodium while the fuel rods are changed) in the light of assurances made following the disinformation about the Chernobyl disaster. He is critical of the director of the plant's comment that the sodium escaped 'drop by drop', when it appears the sodium was escaping at the rate of 500 kg per day. (G.T.H.)

  20. Chernobyl fallout in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl deposition in the UK was sampled in May and October 1986 and in June of 1987. The sampling concentrated on grassy vegetation but in October 1986 other vegetation, soils and wildlife were included. Deposition patterns have been established and a greater degree of retention and recycling indicated for the organic soils of upland Britain. For wild animals concentration factors varied not only between species but with sex and age. Highest tissue concentrations were recorded in species feeding on heather (Blue hares and Grouse) and the lowest in rabbits feeding on grass over mineral soils. Radiocaesium was found in a carnivore (the fox) at the top of the food chain. (author)

  1. Chernobyl record. The definitive history of the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of Chernobyl Record have taken 14 years to compile and this period of time was necessary to enable information to be released from Soviet sources, measurements to be made in the environment, for estimation of radiation doses and for follow-up of the health of population groups which had been exposed. This time frame also includes the 10th anniversary conferences and the completion of joint projects of the European Commission, Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation. It has also enabled me to visit the power plant site, Chernobyl town and Pripyat relatively soon after the accident and also some 10 years later: December 1987 and June 1998. Without such visits some of the photographs in this Record could not have been obtained. Information is also contained in these pages of comparisons of various aspects of the Chernobyl accident with data from the Three Mile Island accident in the USA in 1979, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, the highly contaminated Techa river area in the Urals in Russia and the accident in Tokaimura, Japan in 1999. The first two chapters are introductory in that they describe terminology which is necessary for an understanding of the remaining chapters. Chapters 3-6 describes the early events: including those leading up to the explosion and then what followed in the immediate aftermath. Chapters 7-8 describe the Sarcophagus and the past and future of nuclear power for electricity generation, including the future of the Chernobyl power station. Chapters 9-11 consider the radiation doses received by various populations, including liquidators, evacuees and those living on contaminated territories: and the contamination of milk by 131I, and the contamination of other parts of the food chain by 137Cs. Chapters 12-14 describe the environmental impact of the accident, as does chapter 11. Chapters 15-18 detail the long-term effects on health, including not only the incidence of cancer, but also of non-malignant diseases and conditions, such as psychosocial illnesses. Chapter 19 is an English translation from 'Pravda' of a short memoir entitled 'My duty is to tell about this' by Academician Valery Legasov, the First Deputy Director of the Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Moscow, who committed suicide on the 2nd anniversary of the accident, April 1988. Previously he had been one of the leading Soviet proponents of the nuclear power option for electricity generation. Chapter 20 records the local history and culture of Ukrainian Polissya, the area which includes most of the 30 km zone. What was borne in mind throughout the research for this book, including the eye witness accounts, have been the words of Thomas Gradgrind in the Charles Dickens novel Hard Times: 'Now what I want to hear is facts'. This philosophy has, is believed to ensure that what follows is a balanced account of the accident and its aftermath, excluding media hype and biased accounts of self-interest groups, and debunking some of the myths which have surrounded Chernobyl

  2. Chernobyl record. The definitive history of the Chernobyl catastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mould, R.F

    2000-07-01

    The contents of Chernobyl Record have taken 14 years to compile and this period of time was necessary to enable information to be released from Soviet sources, measurements to be made in the environment, for estimation of radiation doses and for follow-up of the health of population groups which had been exposed. This time frame also includes the 10th anniversary conferences and the completion of joint projects of the European Commission, Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation. It has also enabled me to visit the power plant site, Chernobyl town and Pripyat relatively soon after the accident and also some 10 years later: December 1987 and June 1998. Without such visits some of the photographs in this Record could not have been obtained. Information is also contained in these pages of comparisons of various aspects of the Chernobyl accident with data from the Three Mile Island accident in the USA in 1979, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, the highly contaminated Techa river area in the Urals in Russia and the accident in Tokaimura, Japan in 1999. The first two chapters are introductory in that they describe terminology which is necessary for an understanding of the remaining chapters. Chapters 3-6 describes the early events: including those leading up to the explosion and then what followed in the immediate aftermath. Chapters 7-8 describe the Sarcophagus and the past and future of nuclear power for electricity generation, including the future of the Chernobyl power station. Chapters 9-11 consider the radiation doses received by various populations, including liquidators, evacuees and those living on contaminated territories: and the contamination of milk by {sup 131}I, and the contamination of other parts of the food chain by {sup 137}Cs. Chapters 12-14 describe the environmental impact of the accident, as does chapter 11. Chapters 15-18 detail the long-term effects on health, including not only the incidence of cancer, but also of non-malignant diseases and conditions, such as psychosocial illnesses. Chapter 19 is an English translation from 'Pravda' of a short memoir entitled 'My duty is to tell about this' by Academician Valery Legasov, the First Deputy Director of the Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Moscow, who committed suicide on the 2nd anniversary of the accident, April 1988. Previously he had been one of the leading Soviet proponents of the nuclear power option for electricity generation. Chapter 20 records the local history and culture of Ukrainian Polissya, the area which includes most of the 30 km zone. What was borne in mind throughout the research for this book, including the eye witness accounts, have been the words of Thomas Gradgrind in the Charles Dickens novel Hard Times: 'Now what I want to hear is facts'. This philosophy has, is believed to ensure that what follows is a balanced account of the accident and its aftermath, excluding media hype and biased accounts of self-interest groups, and debunking some of the myths which have surrounded Chernobyl.

  3. Chernobyl, 12 years later; Tchernobyl, douze ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3) Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) The Franco-German cooperation, and (7) Glossary.

  4. Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty years have passed since the worst nuclear reactor accident in the world occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The radioactive contamination which resulted from the explosion and fire in the first few days spread over large areas of neighbouring Belarus and the Russian Federation, with most of the fallout in Belarus. While national and local authorities did not immediately disclose the scale of the accident, the mitigation measures, such as distribution of potassium iodine pills, food restriction, and mass evacuation from areas where the radioactive contamination was greatest, undoubtedly reduced the health impact of the radiation exposure and saved many lives. The accident caused severe social and economic disruption and had significant environmental and health impact. This was aggravated by the political and economical changes in the three affected states related to the break-down of the Soviet Union. In the aftermath of the accident the international scientific and medical community collaborated closely with national experts dealing with health effects of the accident in the affected countries. There is a substantial body of international collaborative projects on the situation, which should lead to advancement in radiation sciences. However, considerable speculation and disinformation remains about the possible health impact of the accident for the millions of affected people. To address the health, environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the United Nations in 2003 launched an Inter-Agency initiative, the Chernobyl Forum. The Forum's Secretariat, led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and several other international organizations collaborated with the governments of the affected countries. The purpose of the Chernobyl Forum was to review the consequences of the accident, issue technical reports and, based on this information, to provide authoritative statements and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. An additional purpose of the Forum was to provide the information in non-scientific, appropriate languages (Russian and English) to the affected populations. Under the Forum's auspices, the WHO's Radiation and Environmental Health Programme convened a series of international scientific expert meetings. They included scientists of international repute who had been conducting research on Chernobyl. This report is the outcome of WHO's contribution to the Forum. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) review of the scientific literature on Chernobyl health effects published in 2000 was used in this review and updated with more recent information. Many lessons have been learned from the Chernobyl accident and preparations have been made to respond to and mitigate future accidents. An international system of response to nuclear emergencies and radiological accidents has been established, including the WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Response Network. Over the past 20 years, people in the three affected countries have come a long way in Overcoming the consequences of the accident. Providing the public and key professionals with accurate information about the health and environmental consequences of the disaster should be a high priority. This report is the result of a sound scientific evaluation of the available evidence and provides a firm basis for moving forward

  5. Immune reactivity and thyroid pathology in persons who participated in Chernobyl accident clean-up Communication 1. Thyroid hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of some immune reactivity parameters in the persons who participated in Chernobyl accident clean-up demonstrated that functional changes of cellular immunity, more marked and stable with the patients having enlarged thyroid gland, prevail. The revealed disturbances progress with the increase of the dose of external irradiation

  6. Laser marking method and laser marking device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For distinguishable control for members such as fuel rods while following after the flow of transportation/storage/utilization, it is necessary to apply marking directly to cladding tubes. However, in a marking method for using letter pattern-masking, it is necessary to prepare and exchange various kinds of letter pattern masking corresponding to the marking letters, and the marking operation is not efficient. Then, laser beams are irradiated under focussing on the surface of an object, and the laser beams are scanned while being controlled to oxidize the surface of the object thereby applying bar code-like markings. The surface of the object at the periphery of the starting point of the laser beam scanning is coated with a mask having a predetermined thickness to conduct marking. The device can be simplified, the marking operation can be improved, occurrence of fine pores so called spikes can be prevented previously, and melting damage of the mask can be prevented since the laser beams are not focused on the surface of the mask. (N.H.)

  7. Impressions of Chelyabinsk and Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international delegation touring Russia and Ukraine was demonstrated the consequences of the accidents at the nuclear installations of Chelvabinsk and Chernobyl. On the site in Russia, an explosion of a tank filled with high level radioactive waste in 1957 released a radioactive cloud of approx. 20 million Ci, of which 90% rained down in the immediate vicinity, while 10% spread over an area of 23,000 square kilometers. 10,200 persons were resettled for this reason within two years. Among the population in the contaminated area, the cancer rate rose, but is still said to be lower than at other industrialized sites. At a distance of 44 km from the Chernobyl nuclear power plants, the new city of Pripyat has been established for 23,000 inhabitants. Planning work on additional nuclear generating units was stopped after the accident of unit 4. The complete loss of unit 4 has been felt by the USSR as a bigger economic disaster than the radioactive contamination of the environment. (orig.)

  8. Malignant neoplasms on the territories of Russia damaged owing to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presents the results of descriptive analysis of development of onco epidemiological situation in six of the most polluted regions owing to the Chernobyl accident in 1981-1994. The growth of malignancies incidence is marked in all territories as well as in the Russian Federation as a whole. The most adverse tendencies have been revealed in the Bryansk, Orel, Ryazan regions. It is marked that the formation of a structure, levels and trends of the malignancies incidence has been occurring under influence of a complex of factors usual up to the accident. The analysis of the data from the specialized cancer-register evidences that the incidence of thyroid malignancies is actively growing in the population of the Bryansk region. The probability of connection of growth of the thyroid cancer incidence in children of the Bryansk region with the Chernobyl accident is reasonably high, but should be confirmed through the application of methods of analytical epidemiology

  9. Integrating Research on Thyroid Cancer after Chernobyl — the Chernobyl Tissue Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, G. A.; Bethel, J. A.; Galpine, A.; Krznaric, M.; Unger, K

    2011-01-01

    The only unequivocal radiological effect of the Chernobyl accident on human health is the increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed in childhood or early adolescence. In response to the scientific interest in studying the molecular biology of thyroid cancer after Chernobyl, the Chernobyl Tissue Bank was established. The project is supported by the governments of Ukraine and Russia, and financially supported (in total around US$3million) by the European Commission, the National Cancer Instit...

  10. Genetic effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic radiation effects resulted from the Chernobyl accident were considered for the population of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Techniques of the assessment of genetic risk of exposure of a man was discussed. Results of cytogenetic examination of the population were presented as well as health state of pregnants and newborns following the Chernobyl accident. Elevated level of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of peripheric blood in participants of the Chernobyl accident response and in population of contaminated zones. This fact testifies on the real genetic injury in cells due to accident. Growth of intrauterine losses in pregnancy, congenital anomalies, hereditary diseases in descendants of exposed parents. 17 figs

  11. The Chernobyl accidents: Causes and Consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this communication is to discuss the causes and the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. To facilitate the understanding of the events that led to the accident, the author gave a simplified introduction to the important physics that goes on in a nuclear reactor and he presented a brief description and features of chernobyl reactor. The accident scenario and consequences have been presented. The common contribution factors that led to both Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been pointed out.(author)

  12. Mark Napier / Mark Napier ; interv. Tilman Baumgrtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Napier, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Ameerika kunstnikust Mark Napierist (snd. 1961) ja tema loomingust, 2001. a. tehtud meiliintervjuu kunstnikuga. Vrguteosest "The Digital Landfill" (1998), koos Andy Deckiga loodud tst "GrafficJam" (1999), tdest "Shredder" (1998), "Feed", "Riot", "P-Soup" (2000), vrgukunstist ja muust

  13. Cancer consequences of the Chernobyl accident: 20 years on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardis, Elisabeth [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon CEDEX 08 (France); Howe, Geoffrey [Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th Street, Room 1104, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Ron, Elaine [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Building EPS, MS 7238, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)] (and others)

    2006-06-15

    26 April 2006 marks the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. On this occasion, the World Health Organization (WHO), within the UN Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened an Expert Group to evaluate the health impacts of Chernobyl. This paper summarises the findings relating to cancer. A dramatic increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed among those exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated territories. Iodine deficiency may have increased the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodines, while prolonged stable iodine supplementation in the years after exposure may reduce this risk. Although increases in rates of other cancers have been reported, much of these increases appear to be due to other factors, including improvements in registration, reporting and diagnosis. Studies are few, however, and have methodological limitations. Further, because most radiation-related solid cancers continue to occur decades after exposure and because only 20 years have passed since the accident, it is too early to evaluate the full radiological impact of the accident. Apart from the large increase in thyroid cancer incidence in young people, there are at present no clearly demonstrated radiation-related increases in cancer risk. This should not, however, be interpreted to mean that no increase has in fact occurred: based on the experience of other populations exposed to ionising radiation, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Although it is expected that epidemiological studies will have difficulty identifying such a risk, it may nevertheless translate into a substantial number of radiation-related cancer cases in the future, given the very large number of individuals exposed. (rev0009i.

  14. Chernobyl - state of the art; Chernobyl - o estado da arte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Daiane C.B. de; Vicente, Roberto; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Borges, Jessica F.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Souza, Carla D.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Benega, Marcos A.G.; Souza, Anderson S. de; Silva, Thais H. da, E-mail: dcsouza@ipen.br, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.br, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.br, E-mail: rtiezzi@ipen.br, E-mail: carladdsouza@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: marcosagbenega@ipen.br, E-mail: bteigarodrigues@gmail.com, E-mail: thaishunk@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This article aims to analyze what has been done so far in relation to damage caused by the accident and the state of art in Chernobyl, as well as the impact on radiation protection applied safety nuclear power plants. In the first part of the work a data survey was done through a bibliographic review and the in the second part data was collected during a visit, in June 2013 at the crash site, when was observed dose values in the affected areas and the works of repairs that have been made in the sarcophagus and surroundings as well as in official reports available through active international bodies. The main results indicate significant improvements in radiation protection systems.

  15. The ecology of the Chernobyl catastrophe. Scientific outlines of an international programme of collaborative research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl disaster was the largest civil nuclear catastrophe of all time. When reactor number 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant exploded on 26 April 1986, it permanently changed the lives of more than 4 million people living in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, shaking the fabric of an area almost the size of England, and triggering a whole swathe of environmental, economic, social, medical and political repercussions. At first the Soviet Union tackled the aftermath alone but, by 1990, with the process of change associated with perestroika, the three affected states of Belarus, Ukraine and the Federation of Russia appealed to the international community for solidarity and help. In co-operation with other agencies of the United Nations system, the UNESCO Chernobyl Programme was launched , with the formal signing of an agreement in January 1991 between the three republics and UNESCO. Since then, some twenty projects have been carried out in UNESCO's various fields of competence - education, science, culture and communication. The volume reviews eight years of study on the impact of Chernobyl on natural ecosystems, agro-ecosystems, human ecology, biological diversity, and genetic and socio-economic systems. It comprises eight chapters. The first three chapters discuss the effects of the high levels of radionuclides released from the Chernobyl reactor on the environment, on natural ecosystems and on agro-ecosystems. The fourth chapter, on human ecology, covers both the human effects at the time of the disaster and those still continuing today. Chapters five and six describe the impact of radionuclide release on biological diversity and genetic systems respectively. The socioeconomic effects of the catastrophe are discussed in chapter seven. Each of these seven chapters ends with scientific hypotheses and research recommendations, with a final chapter providing a detailed description of the setting up and aims of the multinational and multidimensional Chernobyl Ecological Science Network

  16. Chernobyl forests: post, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl accident created a unique ecological situation which influenced on all forest biocenoses element. Urgent actions for forest protection are needed. Their absence has negative impact on biological, sanitary and fire protection situation in forests

  17. Chernobyl: The bitter taste of wormwood [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vivid account of the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, the far-reaching effects of radioactivity, monitoring radiation, evacuation of victims, etc. The video deals mainly with the impact and consequences of the accident in Sweden and Ukraine

  18. Impact of the Chernobyl accident on Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present and discuss measurements of radionuclide concentrations made in Turkey during the Chernobyl event and perform preliminary analyses of the internal and external doses associated with exposure to these materials. 15 refs., 1 tab

  19. Was pump cavitation the key to Chernobyl?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The claim that pump cavitation was an important factor in the reactor accident at Chernobyl is considered. A sequence of events, which differs from that given in the Vienna report, is proposed. (U.K.)

  20. Origin of the Chernobyl myths and stereotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes the origin of main negative Chernobyl myths and stereotypes in Belarus' society which do not meet the reality, hinder the revival and development processes of affected territories. (authors)

  1. Current status and prospects for Chernobyl Ukritiye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current status and prospects for Chernobyl Ukritiye (sarcophagus) are described, including the following issues: the accident; the sarcophagus; the radioactive inventory; the design basis criteria; the analysis of the present state; a way forward

  2. Increased leukemia risk in Chernobyl cleanup workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.

  3. Fright from Chernobyl; Skremselet fra Tsjernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    Research on nuclear power be defined through catastrophes, said Norwegian experts. The worst of them throwing after 25 years still an equally long and dark shadow. 25 years since the Chernobyl accident. The article has fact boxes on the three major reactor accidents, Chernobyl with RBMK reactor; Three Mile Island with PWR and BWR reactor at Fukushima. Points out the danger by untrained personnel deal with risky situations. (AG)

  4. Chernobyl - state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article aims to analyze what has been done so far in relation to damage caused by the accident and the state of art in Chernobyl, as well as the impact on radiation protection applied safety nuclear power plants. In the first part of the work a data survey was done through a bibliographic review and the in the second part data was collected during a visit, in June 2013 at the crash site, when was observed dose values in the affected areas and the works of repairs that have been made in the sarcophagus and surroundings as well as in official reports available through active international bodies. The main results indicate significant improvements in radiation protection systems

  5. Radiation effects blamed on Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strictly speaking, the nature of an epidemiological study would not permit the same causal links to be established as an experimental study does. Instead, it merely provides circumstantial evidence, from which some conclusions can be drawn as to the causative factors in the occurrences recorded. To summarize it may be stated that as fas as the Germans are concerned no scientific evidence has so far been provided to prove health impairments attributable to an added radiation load from the Chernobyl fallout. On the other hand, it can not be denied that there are indications of health damage in a few individuals unreasonably changing their eating habits for fear of radiation injuries. The question as to whether the event instilled a permanent feeling of unease in some population groups still remains largely obscure. (orig.)

  6. Whole body measurements after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the consequences of the reactor accident at Chernobyl was a contamination of foodstuffs with radioactive cesium-isotopes in Bavaria, FRG. The resulting body burdens in the population could be measured by whole body counters; this was not only important in order to inform individuals about the cesium activities in their bodies but, on the basis of several thousand of these measurements, it was possible to estimate the radiation doses to the people living in the Munich area. Additionally, the influence of sex, age, and nutritional habits could be studied. The results agreed reasonably well with the prospective dose estimates calculated on the basis of models, which had been developed for the assessment of health consequences of reactor accidents

  7. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    -border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law.......First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross...

  8. When Chernobyl came to Chilton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the Chernobyl accident occurred, there existed in the UK an organisation with respected and experienced scientific staff, well known to its 6,000 clients and to the media science correspondents. But because the public information campaigns of large commercial organisations were, and still are, beyond the financial resources of NRPB, it was not well known to the general public apart from those who take part in the nuclear debate. On 28 April, it all began to change. The accident at Chernobyl involved a large explosion in a nuclear reactor. The explosion blew the top off the plant and released a cloud of radioactive material which spread across Europe, north to Norway and south to the Mediterranean, with remnants travelling west as far as the British Isles. It dispersed and diluted as it travelled but as the radioactivity spread across the continent country after country was placed on alert. There had been no warning from the Soviet government and the advance of the cloud caught Russia's neighbours by surprise. There were many more calls from the media and a call to Sweden, it was clear that an accident had occurred in Russia. The next two days were dominated by requests from the media for information on all aspects of nuclear accidents - hypothetical and real. Then the calls from the public came, mainly about the risks of holidays in Europe but some from people concerned about relatives abroad. International connections are highly developed in radiological protection and NRPB staff set about collecting information from contacts in western Europe as the radioactive cloud drifted across the continent

  9. Chernobyl reactor accident: medical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl reactor accident on 26th April, 1986 is by far the worst radiation accident in the history of the nuclear industry. Nearly 500 plant personnel and rescue workers received doses varying from 1-16 Gy. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was seen only in the plant personnel. 499 individuals were screened for ARS symptoms like nausea, vomitting, diarrhoea and fever. Complete blood examination was done which showed initial granulocytosis followed by granulocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Cytogenetic examinations were confirmatory in classifying the patients on the basis of the doses received. Two hundred and thirty seven cases of ARS were hospitalised in the first 24-36 hrs. No member of general public suffered from ARS. There were two immediate deaths and subsequently 28 died in hospital and one of the cases died due to myocardial infarction, making a total of 31 deaths. The majority of fatal cases had whole body doses of about 6 Gy, besides extensive skin burns. Two cases of radiation burns had thermal burns also. Treatment of ARS consisted of isolation, barrier nursing, replacement therapy with fluid electrolytes, platelets and RBC transfusions and antibiotic therapy for bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Bone marrow transplantations were given to 13 cases out of which 11 died due to various causes. Radiation burns due to beta, gamma radiations were seen in 56 cases and treated with dressings, surgical excision, skin grafting and amputation. Oropharangeal syndrome, producing extensive mucous in the oropharynx, was first seen in Chernobyl. The patients were treated with saline wash of the mouth. The patients who had radioactive contamination due to radioactive iodine were given stable iodine, following wash with soap, water and monitored. Fourteen survivors died subsequently due to other causes. Late health effects seen so far include excess of thyroid cancer in the children and psychological disorders due to stress. No excess leukemia has been reported so far. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Summary of Chernobyl followup research activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In NUREG-1251, ''Implications of the Accident at Chernobyl for Safety Regulation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plants in the United States,'' April 1989, the NRC staff concluded that no immediate changes in NRC's regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors were needed; however, it recommended that certain issues be considered further. NRC's Chernobyl followup research program consisted of the research tasks undertaken in response to the recommendations in NUREG-1251. It included 23 tasks that addressed potential lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl accident. This report presents summaries of NRC's Chernobyl followup research tasks. For each task, the Chernobyl-related issues are indicated, the work is described, and the staff's findings and conclusions are presented. More detailed reports concerning the work are referenced where applicable. This report closes out NRC's Chernobyl followup research program as such, but additional research will be conducted on some issues as needed. The report includes remarks concerning significant further activity with respect to the issues addressed

  11. Chernobyl accident. Exposures and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986 happened during an experimental test of the electrical control system as the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance. The operators, in violation of safety regulations, had switched off important control systems and allowed the reactor to reach unstable, low-power conditions. A sudden power surge caused a steam explosion that ruptured the reactor vessel and allowed further violent fuel-steam interactions that destroyed the reactor and the reactor building. The Chernobyl accident was the most serious to have ever occurred in the nuclear power industry. The accident caused the early death of 30 power plant employees and fire fighters and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine inhabited by several million people. Radionuclides released from the reactor that caused exposure of individuals were mainly iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Iodine-131 has a short radioactive half-life (8 days), but it can be transferred relatively rapidly through milk and leafy vegetables to humans. Iodine becomes localized in the thyroid gland. For reasons of intake of these foods, size of thyroid gland and metabolism, the thyroid doses are usually greater to infants and children than to adults. The isotopes of caesium have relatively long half-lives (caesium-134: 2 years; caesium-137: 30 years). These radionuclides cause long-term exposures through the ingestion pathway and from external exposure to these radionuclides deposited on the ground. In addition to radiation exposure, the accident caused long-term changes in the lives of people living in the contaminated regions, since measures intended to limit radiation doses included resettlements, changes in food supplies, and restrictions in activities of individuals and families. These changes were accompanied by major economic, social and political changes in the affected countries resulting from the disintegration of the former Soviet Union. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has given particular attention to the accident. Estimates of average doses in separate regions of countries and for the population of the northern hemisphere as a whole were presented in Annex D of the UNSCEAR 1988 Report. The experience gained in treating the immediate radiation injuries of workers and fire fighters involved in controlling the accident were also reviewed in the UNSCEAR 1988 Report (Annex G). The UNSCEAR Committee is currently involved in the final phase of preparation of a further assessment of the exposures and effects of the accident. During the last several years, considerable attention has been devoted to investigating possible associations between health effects in the populations and the exposure to radionuclides released and dispersed following the Chernobyl accident. Of particular note has been the occurrence of numerous thyroid cancers in children. The number of thyroid cancers in individuals exposed in childhood, particularly in the severely contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine is considerably greater than expected based on previous knowledge. The high incidence and the short induction period have not been experienced in other populations, and other factors are most certainly influencing the risk. If the current trend continues, further thyroid cancers can be expected to occur, especially in those exposed at young ages. The most recent findings indicate that the thyroid cancer risk for those older than 10 years of age at the time of the accident is leveling off, while the increase continues for those younger than 4-5 years in 1986. Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer after childhood exposure, there is no evidence of a major public health impact 14 years after the Chernobyl accident. No increases in overall cancer incidence or mortality have been observed that could be attributed to ionizing radiation. Risk of leukaemia, one of the major concerns after radiation exposure, does not appear to be elevated even among the recovery workers. Neither is there any scientific proof of other non-malignant disorders, somatic or mental, that are related to ionizing radiation. A majority of the epidemiological studies completed to date are of the descriptive type, in which average population exposures are correlated with the average rates of cancer incidence in specific time periods. As long as individual doses with reasonably low uncertainties are not available, the extent to which health effects might be radiation-related remains unclear. The reconstruction of individual doses is a key element in future research on radiation associated cancers related to the Chernobyl accident. Although the Chernobyl accident could shed some light on the knowledge on the late effects of protracted radiation exposures, it must be recognized that because of the relatively low doses received by the majority of exposed individuals, any increase in cancer incidence or mortality will be difficult to detect in epidemiological studies. (author)

  12. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report relates the Chernobylsk accident, why following a succession of technical malfunctions and human errors, reactor no. 4 of the Chernobylsk nuclear power plant explodes on April 26. 1986. Radioactive dust, aerosols and gases (including caesium and iodine) are ejected into atmosphere. The regions worst hit are in the immediate vicinity of the plant, but deposits are very uneven, producing a leopard spot type of pattern. Propelled by easterly winds, the radioactive cloud disperses increasingly, scattering deposits over the whole of Europe. At the beginning of May, the cloud arrives in France. the eastern portion of the country is most strongly affected. Ground, water and agriculture are contaminated by caesium deposits in Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation. About the contamination in France, ground contamination is slight, fourteen years later, however, it is still detectable. Relative to the impact on health in the vicinity of Chernobylsk plant, it is hard to assess this impact. Among children in Southern Belarus, the number of thyroid cancers has risen one hundred-fold. In France, the doses delivered represents generally less than 1% of the average annual dose from radioactivity of natural origin. But some of the doses received were higher. Today, the protective sarcophagus covering the damaged reactor is fragile. Reactor no.3, still in operation, continues to pose a risk but the shutdown is provided for december 2000. (N.C.)

  13. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new Federal Minister for the Environment has now presented to the public a report entitled 'Report on the reactor accident in Tchernobyl, its effects and the precautions taken or to be taken' (date: 16.6.1986; Ref. No. Z RS I 1-518 042-SOW/2). The report was requested at a meeting of the Parliamentary Committee on Internal Affairs on May 5, 1986 on the subject of the events in the USSR, by the chairman of the committee; this report is given as a fulfilment of the promise by the Ministry of the Interior by the Ministry for the Environment, Protection of Nature and Reactor Safety, which has now assumed responsibility for questions of reactor safety and radiation protection. The comprehensive report was discussed in the relevant parliamentary committee on June 27, 1986. The main outlines of the report are given here. (orig./HP)

  14. Psychosocial consequences of the Chernobyl disaster (A survey of Chernobyl accidental exposed and a non-exposed population sample)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of psychological factors in the aftermath of industrial disasters is being recognized increasingly. Two field studies (total N=3084) were conducted in two regions of the former Soviet Union, to investigate the long-term psychosocial consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster in 1986. A sub sample of the respondents (N=449) was studied using a standardized physical and psychiatric examination. The first study took place in the Gomel region (Belarus) in the direct vicinity of the damaged nuclear plant. A control study was conducted in the Tver region (the Russian Federation), about 250 km north-west of Moscow. The results of the study indicate significantly higher levels of psychological distress, poorer subjective health and higher medical consumption in the exposed population. These findings were most prominent in risk groups such as evacuated people and mothers with children. No significant differences in overall levels of psychiatric or physical morbidity were found. Radiation related diseases could not account for the poor health perception in the investigated sample. These results indicate that psychological factors following the Chernobyl disaster had a marked effect upon psychological well being, on perceived health and on subsequent illness behavior. Fears about future health play a key role in determining this response. The provision of adequate information to the public as well as to the public health services may be important to counteract these fears

  15. Stakeholders and radiological protection: lessons from Chernobyl 20 years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty years after the major accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, the radioactive contamination continues to have an important impact on lives in the vicinity, and to a lesser extent in areas such as Western Europe and beyond. The purpose of this report is not to address clinical or environmental studies, but to look at how people are coping with the difficulties they still face. Commissioned by the Committee for Radiation Protection and Public Health of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the report focuses on the role of radiological protection and how this discipline has been deployed to help people manage their lives. Although the topic of this report concerns radioactivity and nuclear power, it can also be very useful to policy makers and experts dealing with the aftermath of wide-scale disasters, regardless of their causes (natural, accidental or malicious). Whilst we all hope never to see another event causing contamination on the scale that followed Chernobyl, it is prudent to be prepared. Hence this report also describes many of the problems that could need to be faced in the longer term by technical specialists, should such a contamination event occur, and presents ways of dealing with them. This report will provide readers with insights into how to plan better for this type of event, in particular beyond the immediate response phase. (author)

  16. DDG-NS statement at the opening of the international conference 'Chernobyl: Looking back to go forwards'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA, as a specialised nuclear-related technical UN agency, has been involved in the mitigation of the Chernobyl accident consequences since early May 1986 when former Director General Hans Blix had visited Chernobyl in order to observe the physical damage and to discuss further actions. The IAEA took on many projects related to technical assistance, technical co-operation and research - with several immediate and longer term goals: first, to mitigate the accident's radiological, environmental and health consequences; second, to improve the overall safety of other RBMK reactors; and third, to understand and disseminate globally those lessons that could be learned from the Chernobyl experience. The projects executed between 1986 and 2005 covered the full range of topics: radiation, waste and nuclear safety; monitoring human exposure; environmental restoration of contaminated land; treatment of people living in the affected areas; and development of special measures to reduce exposure levels. The largest project took place in 1990. Over a two year period, the Agency coordinated the efforts of some 200 international experts over a two year period to complete an independent assessment of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Many missions to the three most affected countries were conducted and many meetings were held. The Agency has also organized or supported numerous international meetings to foster information exchange and to promote further assessment of the accident's radiological consequences. The Agency continues its ongoing activities regarding the mitigation of the accident's radiological consequences as part of the UN strategy 'Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident - A Strategy for Recovery' launched in 2002. Further IAEA commitment in continued Chernobyl-related activities, mainly in nuclear and radiation safety fields, may involve the following areas: Safety of Shelter decommissioning, Safety of radioactive waste management in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, Safety of remediation of contaminated land, especially in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, - Radiation safety of general public residing in contaminated areas, Environmental monitoring and monitoring of human exposure in contaminated areas, and Safety of operating and new nuclear power plants

  17. Chernobyl information: The ALARA backlash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk information to the public failed after the Chernobyl accident, also in countries where radiation protection authorities and experts initially enjoyed public confidence. In contrast to many other large accidents, the responsibility for the information failure stays mainly with the authorities and experts themselves, not with the mass media. Many factors together caused the radiation risk information from SSI (Swedish Radiation Protection Institute), and its sister authorities in many other countries, to be confusing and inadequate, despite the best of intentions. The two major malefactors were the handling of food contamination restrictions and the short-sighted risk optimisation by applying the ALARA principle. In addition, the assurance that the Chernobyl contamination was fairly harmless made no sense to the layman, as a massive array of controlling procedures was enforced simultaneously. The food regulations became unfortunately focused on becquerel per kilogram limits instead of the primary goal, a dose reduction per year, corresponding to an yearly intake of Cs-137. The lesson learned is that the risk significant long-term intake ambition must be understood and digested by laymen and media, before any secondary limits, e.g. the activity concentration of foodstuffs expressed as becquerel per kg, for controlling or trading purposes, are introduced. As it were, the experts and authorities lost credibility, due to what people considered as ambiguities. The concept of ALARA (As Low As Readily Achievable) is in the backbone of every ionising radiation expert, and a useful strategy for optimising dose burdens during controlled situations. In connection to the Chernobyl accident many advices to the public was given based on the ALARA principle. 'Rinse leafy vegetables' sounds at first very reasonable, cheap and innocent, but if the averted dose is low, such an advice should not be given. The individual dose-reduction should be weighted against all negative side effects, e.g. a jeopardized green vegetable industry, a loss of confidence in experts as the advice is not risk reductive enough etc. Radiation expert must learn from this that a proper optimisation must take into consideration all consequences of any proposed intervention or given advice. ALARA focuses on monetary costs versus radiation dose, and is much too narrow-sighted to be used after accidents involving a radioactive contamination. In order to avoid an information debacle in the future, the radiation protection community must learn to present risk information on the conditions of the receiver. Advices must be consistent, understandable and limited to what is really risk significant on the individual level. It must be observed that the ALARA principle may deleterious interfere with such an information strategy, as ALARA invites the expertise to advice on trivial risks. In doing so, experts and authorities lose credibility and the ear of the public. (author)

  18. Chernobyl from the point of view of disaster sociology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some social aspects of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus are considered. The information system of publications on this theme is analyzed. The influence of various factors of the Chernobyl accident on social changes in the areas of radioactive contamination is investigated. The Chernobyl subculture formation process in the contaminated areas is considered. Practical recommendations of sociologists on the elimination of the Chernobyl catastrophe effects are given. 12 refs

  19. Radionuclide migration in the Chernobyl contamination zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that the Chernobyl fallout of 137 reaching the land soils with precipitation was rapidly and tightly sorbed to the fine fraction of sediment or soils. The majority of the 137Cs is retained in the top few centimetres of the soil or sediment profiles. In the absence of strong variations in precipitation over a relatively small area the total bomb-derived 137Cs fallout can assumed to be spatial uniform. The Chernobyl 137Cs fallout was mostly connected with one or two rains. So the spatial variability of this 137Cs can be higher. Furthermore because the explosion of the Chernobyl nuclear plant happened together with fire lot of ashes particles with radionuclide were distributed within vast areas. So even microvariability of Chernobyl 137Cs can be very high in some places. The horizontal migration of 137Cs connects with soil erosion processes that dominate on the agricultural lands of the Central Russia. The main goal of this investigation is to evaluate the caesium-137 horizontal and vertical migration within typical landscape of the Central Russia 11 years after the Chernobyl accident. (author). 7 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Chernobyl: Its effects in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After taking a second look at the impact of the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident, Soviet scientists and government officials are now admitting that contamination is much worse than they initially believed. Soviet citizens, fearful and suspicious from the start, find little reassurance in the new openness says the author. Recent articles in various Soviet media frankly question the accuracy of official information previously provided the public, particularly on the level of radioactive releases from Chernobyl and the size of the contaminated area. for example, one soviet study concludes that the emission of radioactive products at Chernobyl exceeded those at Hiroshima by more than 90 times. In June 1989, Marples visited the town of Chernobyl and discussed the work there with Soviet officials. He reports that major health problems are beginning to emerge among people living well beyond the 30-kilometer evacuation zone - problems that are causing increased concern among the population. The destructive effects of the Chernobyl tragedy are increasingly evident and the public appears to be seeking a scapegoat in both the central planners who direct the nuclear industry and in the soviet health authorities who misread the situation from the first and subsequently tried to hide the true picture

  1. Introduction: geoscientific knowledgebase of Chernobyl and Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Voitsekhovych, Oleg; Korobova, Elena; Stohl, Andreas; Wotawa, Gerhard; Kita, Kazuyuki; Aoyama, Michio; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2013-04-01

    Radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011) accidents is a multi-disciplinary geoscience problem. Just this session (GI1.4) contains presentations of (i) atmospheric transport for both short and long distances, (ii) aerosol physics and chemistry, (ii) geophysical measurement method and logistics, (iv) inversion method to estimate the geophysical source term and decay, (v) transport, migration, and sedimentation in the surface water system, (vi) transport and sedimentation in the ocean, (vii) soil chemistry and physics, (viii) forest ecosystem, (ix) risk assessments, which are inter-related to each other. Because of rareness of a severe accident like Chernobyl and Fukushima, the Chernobyl's 27 years experience is the only knowledgebase that provides a good guidance for the Fukushima case in understanding the physical/chemical processes related to the environmental radioactive contamination and in providing future prospectives, e.g., what we should do next for the observation/remediation. Unfortunately, the multi-disciplinary nature of the radioactive contamination problem makes it very difficult for a single scientist to obtain the overview of all geoscientific aspects of the Chernobyl experience. The aim of this introductory talk is to give a comprehensive knowledge of the wide geoscientific aspects of the Chernobyl contamination to Fukushima-related geoscience community.

  2. Chernobyl after five years and over

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26th 1986 the catastrophe occurred at the nuclear electric power generation system. The first inkling of the accident was known through the Swedish monitoring station about the radioactive fallout. It was also in 1986 that the USSR gave an idea of an earlier accident which happened in 1957. The Chernobyl reactor has pressure tubes and is a pressure vessel reactor. Graphite is used as an industrial material. In western reactors in USA with the increase in heat, power generation comes down. The international AEC discussed the Chernobyl comprehensively and came out with conclusion of deficiency in design which was accepted by the Soviet side without any demur. In 1970, in UK an accident has been reported with pressurized reactor. In 1987, Chernobyl was discussed under the chair of Eugene Volkov by USSR. In 1989, another conference was arranged at Sicily. The first annual nuclear safety met at Minsk in 1990 (June); USSR/USA meet on Chernobyl was also held at Solchin in 1989. A future meeting on Chernobyl was held at Paris in July 1991. In all these meetings, it is emphasized that more training and safety culture establishment was necessary by the international nuclear safety advisory group on safety. (author). 2 refs., 1 tab

  3. Marking as Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Val

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of assessment which has received little attention compared with perennial concerns, such as standards or reliability, is the role of judgment in marking. This paper explores marking as an act of judgment, paying particular attention to the nature of judgment and the processes involved. It brings together studies which have explored

  4. Leukaemia incidents after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romania and especially its Eastern territory were among the most heavily affected area after Chernobyl accident. The objective of our study was to investigate whether or not the nuclear accident determined an increased number of leukaemia cases. The specific rates of leukaemia incidents by age group were calculated in 588167 children aged 0-6 years in April 1986 and 99917 children which have been exposed 'in utero'. The rates of 1989-1994 period were compared with the rates of 1980-1985 period. The incidence rates were lower in the exposed group than that in controls for children under 1 year (20.52/105 inh vs 23.11/105 inh), 1-3 years (13.26/105 inh vs 16.11/105 inh) and 4-6 years (9.58/105 inh vs 10.58/105 inh). The cohort of 'in utero' exposed children presented a leukaemia incidences insignificantly higher than that before the accident (23.10/105 inh vs 15.93/105 inh)

  5. Chernobyl. Disaster and its legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundreds of thousands of people have been helping to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident, but there still are many areas in which many people have to live with the risks induced by elevated environmental radioactivity. The authors of the book have been participating in the measuring programme of the Federal Republic of Germany, intended to measure and map the radiation exposure of the population and the environment in the states of the former Soviet Union affected by the disaster. Due to their participation in biophysical and medical measuring programmes, the authors are familiar with the situation on site. Their report is intended to give the general reader a picture of the causes and progress of the reactor accident of April 1986, and of its longlasting effects on human health and the food chain. The information presented is based on authentic material and data and reveals the biologic, medical and social consequences as well as the related scientific and ecologic problems. (orig./HP)

  6. Chernobyl - ethical and environmental considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarises briefly the main facts of the Chernobyl incident, the reactions to it, and the consequences in terms of global atmospheric pollution. Meteorological conditions determined the pattern of fallout, which over the United Kingdom for Cs137 varied in the ratio 10 : 4000 Bq/m2 (on grass). There has been poor understanding by the media and the public of the quantitative aspects, aggravated by the differing characteristics of the several radionuclides (15 are listed), and the different units used in the USSR and the UK. Very complete information on fallout in the British Isles was obtained from meteorological data and the atmospheric dispersion models operated at Imperial College. Transfer through food chains depended on the variety of circumstances: the monitoring programmes and control measures were found to be in need of improvement, as no criteria existed for the amounts that justify intervention in the supply of foodstuffs to the public. Long-term effects in the UK of the measured radiation from this incident, in terms of deaths per year attributed to cancer are given and compared with other health hazards. The disaster has underlined the responsibilities of top management and of professional engineers, the need to promote a 'safety culture', and the value of effective organisation, the international exchange of experience, and the role of the media in improving public information. (author)

  7. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galstyan I.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS, developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

  8. [Identification from bite marks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, P

    1980-02-01

    Criteria to be considered for establishing the guilt or innocence of a possible offender on the basis of bite marks on the skin of the murder victim were presented using four analyses of bite marks on murder victims. The bite marks must be identifiable; a clear 1:1 photograph should be made which is then compared with impression of a model of the suspect's bite. These impressions are made with graphite on, for example, the surface of a balloon or modelling clay. The evidence provided by a distinct bite mark is almost as conclusive as a fingerprint. Using only the bite mark photographs, the forensic-stomatologic evaluation influenced the course of argumentation in the legal proceedings of three of the four cases discussed; the evaluation was central for the proceedings in one case. PMID:6931762

  9. The international Chernobyl project: Assessment of radiological consequences and evaluation of protective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brochure gives a brief account of the findings of the International Chernobyl Project. Further details will be found in the report ''The International Chernobyl Project: An Overview'' (INI22:066284/5) and in the Technical Report (INI23:011339). Measurements and assessments carried out under the project provided general corroboration of the levels of surface cesium-137 contamination reported in the official maps. The project also concluded that the official procedures for estimating radiation doses to the population were scientifically sound, although they generally resulted in overestimates of two- to threefold. The project could find no marked increase in the incidence of leukemia or cancer, but reported absorbed thyroid doses in children might lead to a statistically detectable rise in the incidence of thyroid tumors. Significant non-radiation-related health disorders were found, and the accident had substantial psychological consequences in terms of anxiety and stress

  10. Public acceptance of nuclear power after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-synonymous public acceptance of nuclear power in part of this situation, especially after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The Republic of Belarus has suffered from the Chernobyl accident most of all, as have other countries including Russia and Ukraine. Therefore, public opinion on nuclear power development in Belarus is very important in forming public acceptance in this field all over the world. Three polls on public acceptance on nuclear power development were provided in Belarus during 1995-1998, including the regions contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. Consideration of the results shows the general number of supporters of nuclear power decreased from 49.5% to 17.2% during this period. But at the same time, the number of the supporters increased among the highly educated people, young people and other categories of the population. The program of forming a favorable public opinion of nuclear power has been developed in the Republic of Belarus. (authors)

  11. Post-Chernobyl scientific perspectives: Thyroid effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The population in the area around Chernobyl, particularly southern Belarus and northern Ukraine, was exposed to high levels of fallout from the Chernobyl accident including large amounts of radioactive iodine. As the thyroid gland concentrates iodine, it was exposed to higher levels of radiation than other body tissues. The radioactive isotope of iodine, iodine-131, has been extensively and safely used in the treatment of thyrotoxicosis. Thus, the report of increased numbers of thyroid carcinoma in children in areas exposed to fallout from Chernobyl was surprising to some, both because of the previous lack of thyroid carcinoma in patients treated with radioactive iodine, and because of the very short time (four years) between exposure and the start of the increase

  12. Scientific and technical aspects of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection contains the presentations and scientific articles prepared for and discussed during the Conference titled '2001: International Cooperation For Chernobyl'. The materials outline the outcomes achieved while implementing Chernobyl site scientific-technical researches and projects, as well as activities aimed at enhancing the ChNPP safety, decommissioning and radwaste management. It also highlights the issues related to transforming the Unit Shelter into an ecologically safe system, represents the results of ecological researches in the Exclusion Zone, medical effects of the 1986 accident at Chernobyl NPP, together with social and economic problems the city of Slavutich faces now due to the early ChNPP Units decommissioning, and Slavutich business development opportunities under the circumstances of Special Economic Zone 'Slavutich'

  13. Chernobyl and the international liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors investigate whether Federal German citizens would have any success in claiming compensation for damage as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident in a Soviet court, and the answer is positive in terms of substantive law. Actions would have to be filed against the AES at Chernobyl to the Chernobyl county court, which would examine the claims according to Soviet (Ukrainian) civil law, and taking into account two aspects of liability, namely strict liability, and liability in tort. However, it would indeed be more realistic to expect that any such action would be dismissed by the court upon the directive of political authorities, as the Soviet Government certainly would have no interest at all to give any foreign citizen the chance to win a case in such a politically significant matter. (orig./HSCH)

  14. Chernobyl and its consequences twenty years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The April 26, 1986 accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant near Kiev in the Ukraine, was the worst nuclear power accident in history. large number of people was acutely exposed and a vast amount of land was contaminated in Ukraine, Belarus, Russia and all over Europe and North hemisphere. Till now fifty emergency workers died due to radiation sickness and subsequent diseases and nine children died due to thyroid cancer. In total it is projected by statistical modeling that radiation has caused or will cause the premature deaths of about 4000 people from 600000 affected by the higher radiation doses due to Chernobyl accident. The results of measured gamma ray doses from the radioactive contamination from Chernobyl are given in this paper also.(author)

  15. Latest report about health effects of the chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After twenty years of Chernobyl accident, the international conference was hold in Kyiv, Ukraine, 24-26, April in 2006. During the conference WHO declares the paper named health effects of the Chernobyl accident. The report look back the nuclear accident in the history, and then recite conclusion about health effects of the Chernobyl accident, which from doses received from the Chernobyl accident, thyroid cancer, non-thyroid solid cancer, leukemia, mortality, cataract and cardiovascular disease. The report is considered as milestone events in the studying of health effects of Chernobyl accident. (authors)

  16. Consequences and problems of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data on epidemic situation in connection with the Chernobyl accident, based on the personal medical and dosimetric information on all the persons, subjected to radiation effect, and included in the Russian state medicodosimetric register, are presented. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident become the cause for origination of serious radiation injures by 134 persons (with lethal outcome by 37 patients) and also remote radiation stochastic effects by children (thyroid gland cancer) and by liquidators (thyroid gland leucosis and cancer). The permanent stress and other unfavorable factors conditioned aggravation of chronical and increase in somatic diseases and psychoneurotic disorders

  17. Chernobyl in Poland: First three days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of medical prevention and control actions in Poland during the first three days after Chernobyl accident has been described in detail. The cooperation of governmental and territorial authorities as well as medical services have been discussed. The extent of consequences of Chernobyl accident in Poland have been compared with other European countries. The doses early absorbed by Polish population due to contamination of food and environment with plutonium, cesium and strontium radionuclides have been assessed for the period of 1987-1992. 10 refs, 1 tab., 3 figs

  18. The Nordic Chernobyl data base project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl Data Base has been established with the purpose of collecting the large amount of data resulting from measurements made in several laboratories in the period following the Chernobyl accident. All information is stored in the C data base handling system developed especially for this kind of environmental data. The C base data handling system allows for easy input from a variety of sources and easy output to other computer programs for further data treatment. This paper describes the structures, codes and methods used and the present status of the project. (au)

  19. The Chernobyl disaster - ten years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large areas of Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine are contaminated with very high levels of radioactivity from the fallout of the Chernobyl reactor accident. The most affected areas are in the vicinity of Chernobyl, and east of Gomel (in Belarus), where much of the radioactive plume came down. The article describes the contamination with cesium 137 and iodine 131, as well as the immediate countermeasures taken after the accident, and the long-term action for decontamination of the polluted soil. Information is given on the radiation dose received by the population, in particular the thyroid doses, and prognostic data on thyroid cancer incidence. (orig.)

  20. Chernobyl: assessment of radiological and health impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international radiological protection community performed a major status review of the situation around the damaged Chernobyl reactor on the 10-year anniversary of the accident. Since then, studies of the accident site and the contaminated territories continue to be undertaken, which have yielded new scientific results and highlighted important social and health aspects. This report is a complete update of the NEA's earlier publication, Chernobyl: Ten Years On. In particular, it offers the reader the most recent information on the significant new experience gained in the areas of emergency management, long-term environmental behaviour of radioactive materials and health effects. (author)

  1. Chernobyl radionuclide distribution and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izrael, Yury A

    2007-11-01

    The accident at Unit No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on 26 April 1986 presented severe challenges in radiation protection. Early activity measurements defined the contaminated areas in order to determine what persons should be evacuated on the basis of the exposure limit at that time of 100 mSv (10 rem) for accidents. The immediate definition of these areas was accomplished with specially equipped aircraft capable of measuring external gamma-exposure rate and radionuclide spectra. Over time, maps of 137Cs contamination (the most important long-lived radionuclide) have become more and more sophisticated and have been used for further determinations of the control of the consequences of the accident. About 70% of the total release of 137Cs was deposited in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine; but there was also widespread deposition throughout the countries of Western Europe. Two atlases of contamination throughout Europe were prepared, and the Russian atlas included data on other radionuclides and on external gamma-exposure rates. The radiocesiums behaved as volatile radionuclides because of the volatility of cesium. In contrast to the typical pattern after nuclear weapons tests, 90Sr behaved only as a refractory element, as its volatile precursors krypton and rubidium had already decayed within the reactor. Nearly all of the refractory elements (strontium, plutonium, etc.) released by the accident were confined to the 30-km zone around the reactor. A proposal is made to develop a more complete atlas of 137Cs deposition from the accident that would include the entire Northern Hemisphere. Water was not an important vector of exposure to human beings following the accident. PMID:18049217

  2. International Chernobyl project [AEA report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA have co-ordinated the first international assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the affected areas outside the 30km prohibited zone around the reactor. These areas have a total population of about 1 million people, living in approximately 2700 settlements. The main aim of the project was to answer the question 'Is it safe for the population to go on living in the affected areas?'. The project did not investigate radiological health effects among more than 100 000 people evacuated from the 30 km prohibited zone. Nor did it study effects among the emergency personnel temporarily brought into the region for accident management and recovery work (the so-called 'liquidators'). Project teams reviewed official data on environmental contamination from 500 settlements, data collection practices and reporting and also official information on radiation doses received by people living in seven settlements. Other project teams reviewed official data at key medical centres and institutes. Then they examined people both from surveyed contaminated settlement and from surveyed control settlements. The team concluded that there were significant non-radiation related health disorders in populations of both contaminated and control settlements. None of the disorders could be attributed directly to radiation exposure. In particular, no evidence was found for a significant increase in foetal abnormalities; infant and prenatal mortality rates had fallen since the accident. Children were found to be generally healthy with no abnormalities in either thyroid stimulating or thyroid hormones. The accident had created substantial negative psychological consequences, manifesting themselves in terms of anxiety and stress due to continuing high levels of uncertainty. (author)

  3. Mark Raidpere portreefotod Kielis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Kieli Linnagaleriis avatud 2. Ars Baltica fototriennaalil 'Can You Hear Me?' esindab Eestit Mark Raidpere seeriaga 'Portreed 1998'. Nituse Eesti-poolne kuraator Anu Liivak, kataloogiteksti kirjutas Anders Hrm. Tuntumaid osalejaid triennaalil Wolfgang Tillmans

  4. Bite Mark Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK Padmakumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bite mark analysis plays an important role in personal identi- fi cation in forensic odontology. They are commonly seen in violent crimes such as sexual assaults, homicides, child abuse, etc. Human bites are common on the face and are usually seen on prominent locations of the face such as the ears, nose and lips. Individual characteristics recorded in the bite marks such as fractures, rotations, attrition, and congenital malformations are helpful in identifying the individual who caused it. We are reporting the case of a 55-year-old lady with bite marks on her left ear, who was allegedly assaulted by the suspect. On the basis of characteristic features of the suspect’s dentition, it was concluded that the bite marks seen on the victim was most probably caused by the suspect.

  5. Mark 1 Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Mark I Test Facility is a state-of-the-art space environment simulation test chamber for full-scale space systems testing. A $1.5M dollar upgrade in fiscal year...

  6. Marks of Metal Copenhell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Planchebaseret udendørs udstilling på musikfestivalen Copenhell 18-20/6 2015. En mindre udgave af udstillingen Marks of Metal - Logodesign og visualitet i heavy metal. Udarbejdet i samarbejde med Mediemuseet.......Planchebaseret udendørs udstilling på musikfestivalen Copenhell 18-20/6 2015. En mindre udgave af udstillingen Marks of Metal - Logodesign og visualitet i heavy metal. Udarbejdet i samarbejde med Mediemuseet....

  7. Bite Mark Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    SK Padmakumar; VT Beena; N Salmanulfaris; Acharya, Ashith B.; Indu, G; Kumar, Sajai J.

    2014-01-01

    Bite mark analysis plays an important role in personal identi- fi cation in forensic odontology. They are commonly seen in violent crimes such as sexual assaults, homicides, child abuse, etc. Human bites are common on the face and are usually seen on prominent locations of the face such as the ears, nose and lips. Individual characteristics recorded in the bite marks such as fractures, rotations, attrition, and congenital malformations are helpful in identifying the in...

  8. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Results from the IPHECA pilot projects and related national programmes. Summary report from WHO 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main conclusions drawn from the investigations are that the Chernobyl accident caused psychosocial problems due to poor information just after the accident, and stresses and traumas inter alia due to forced relocation. A marked increase of thyroid cancer among children has been demonstrated. However, no significant increase in the frequency of leukemia has been observed., 2 figs, 3 tabs

  9. COMPUTER HARDWARE MARKING

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe de protection des biens

    2000-01-01

    As part of the campaign to protect CERN property and for insurance reasons, all computer hardware belonging to the Organization must be marked with the words 'PROPRIETE CERN'.IT Division has recently introduced a new marking system that is both economical and easy to use. From now on all desktop hardware (PCs, Macintoshes, printers) issued by IT Division with a value equal to or exceeding 500 CHF will be marked using this new system.For equipment that is already installed but not yet marked, including UNIX workstations and X terminals, IT Division's Desktop Support Service offers the following services free of charge:Equipment-marking wherever the Service is called out to perform other work (please submit all work requests to the IT Helpdesk on 78888 or helpdesk@cern.ch; for unavoidable operational reasons, the Desktop Support Service will only respond to marking requests when these coincide with requests for other work such as repairs, system upgrades, etc.);Training of personnel designated by Division Leade...

  10. Fallout from Chernobyl and atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. Chernobyl in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some results and experience gained so far in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident are discussed in the light of knowledge obtained from the studies of fallout from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. Cesium-137, which was an important radionuclide in the bomb fallout, was still more important after Chernobyl. For most Swedes the external irradiation from deposited Cs-137 was the dominating source of irradiation. Studies of Chernobyl fallout have given new information in the fate of contamination in the forest environment, lakes, urban areas, on shielding factors for houses etc. The releases from Chernobyl gave relatively lower dietary doses than expected form the same amount of Cs-137, released through nuclear weapons testing. However lake fish, moose and forest products have shown to be of greater importance than earlier realized. The main reason for the lower dietary doses from Chernobyl was the seasonal distribution of the fallout with deposition just before the start of the growing season. The various actions taken also reduced the intake of Cs-137 and Cs-134. Otherwise, there are no radical differences in the behaviour of cesium in the environment after the bombs and after Chernobyl. Differences may exist, primarily during the first year, due to different fallout conditions, where also the physical-chemical form of the fallout might have been of some importance. The average Swede will have an effective dose commitment of around 1 mSv from Chernobyl, which is about the same as from the bomb fallout. The highest doses due to Chernobyl area received by people living in high deposition areas (>80 kBq/m2 of CS-137) and consuming larger amounts of game animals, lake fish and reindeer. (66 refs.)

  11. One decade after Chernobyl. Summing up the consequences of the accident. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. Refs, figs, tabs

  12. Chernobyl, Ecological and Health Impact: Ten Years of Observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just when you thought that everything that could be said, had been said, another set of papers marking the tenth anniversary is published! These are the nine papers (seven in English, two in French) presented at a conference held in Brussels in 1996 on 'Chernobyl, ecological and health impact: ten years of observation'. For those wishing rapid access to up-to-date and quantitative information on the source term, dose data, the environmental and social impact of the accident, and on current research and engineering initiatives, this small volume is surprisingly helpful. One or two papers, in particular, contain a wealth of quantitative data. The following examples illustrate the variety and detail of the information provided: - the initial source term estimate for 21 important radionuclides was approximately correct, with the exception of the estimates for iodine-131 and radiocaesium, which were about a factor of three too low. - cattle evacuated from the exclusion zone on the first day, after 9 days and after 30 days, received about 0.1, 1 and 2 Gy whole body dose, and about 10, 100 and 200 Gy thyroid dose, respectively. - it is possible that recent data, although not yet statistically significant, could be revealing the beginning of an excess of 'blood malignancies'. In short, if you are looking for a specific item of information related to the Chernobyl accident, these proceedings are worth scanning. The above review was first published in the NRPB Bulletin and is reproduced with the permission of the publishers. (book review: Proceedings, Conference; vol 22 no 1, Brussels; 1996, April)

  13. Chernobyl - A chronicle of difficult weeks [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The film demonstrates how authorities and volunteers dealt with the accident at the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl in the Ukraine. The efforts to get the fire under control, to take care of patients with radiation injuries, and to evacuate about 100,000 inhabitants of the area, are shown

  14. Could a 'Chernobyl' nuclear disaster happen here?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At 1.23 a.m. (Soviet European Time) on Saturday 26 April 1986 an accident occurred in reactor number four of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power-Station in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. The hydrogen in the core of the reactor exploded while the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance, and a cloud of radioactivity was blasted high into the atmosphere. The radioactive plume drifted north-westwards to Sweden where, on 28 April, a radiation detector at the Forsmark nuclear complex gave the first public warning of the Chernobyl disaster. South Africa possesses one nuclear power-station, at Koeberg some 30 kilometres north of Cape Town. Is Koeberg safe? Could a Chernobyl-style disaster occur here? The difference in design between the Chernobylsk-4 reactor and Koeberg reactor is discussed. Differences in the design of the two power-stations preclude the same type of accident from happening at Koeberg. The chances of an accident affecting the environment seriously remain remote, given a design philosophy which includes minimising the possibility of an accident, containing it should it happen, and pre-planning the emergency response in case it cannot be contained. That, in a nutshell, is why we believe Koeberg will never become a 'Chernobyl'

  15. Chernobyl zone: acute problems of social sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ecological safety of dwelling and active mode of life for the population in regions contaminated after the Chernobyl accident requires effective actions in further territory organization and social infrastructure development. This condition is necessary for reproduction and increasing of the social, economic, demographic and production potential in territories of Ukraine

  16. Chernobyl health effects: radiation or stress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While very high numbers of deaths and other illnesses have been attributed to the Chernobyl accident, sometimes deliberately to raise fears about nuclear energy, there is growing medical evidence that fear itself plays a part in causing the health problems. (author)

  17. Meteorological data related to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a detailed technical description of the JRC-Ispra comprehensive collection of meteorological information related to the Chernobyl accident and attempts an analysis of the data in order to perform an initial checking of their quality and facilitate a suitable and compact way of display

  18. Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It summarizes the consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident, describes the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, the measurement strategies, the activity levels and doses and countermeasures and action levels used. Past and remaining problems are discussed and the major investigations and improvements are given. (author)

  19. Consequences in Guatemala of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the long distance between Guatemala and Chernobyl, the country did not undergo direct consequences of radioactive contamination in the short term. However, the accident repercussions were evident in the medium and long-term, mainly in two sectors, the economic-political and the environmental sectors

  20. Sociological and medical aspects of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sociological survey data, the results of the state of health service in some districts of Gomel and Mogilev regions as well as of the completeness of the fulfillment of state resolutions concerning the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident after effects are given

  1. Chernobyl: the actual facts and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a first part, a Power Point presentation explains the technical reasons of the Chernobyl accident and recalls the environmental and health consequences on a short, middle and long term. In a second part, the author analyses the treatment by the media in France and shows how the population has been manipulated by nuclear opponents with the active complicity of some media

  2. Chernobyl: A first-hand account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author, living in Moscow at the time, was traveling by night train to visit family in Kiev at the time of the chernobyl accident. He recalls a passenger in his compartment asking if anyone had noticed in the morning press about the explosion in Chernobyl. In Kiev, about 50 mi from Chernobyl by air, he noted on arrival that everyone was calm - the city quiet with no rumors or gossip. He contrasts this with the world being alert, in despair, full of alarm. On failure to reach old friends by phone, he thought they had left the city for at least 4-day vacations - May 1 and 2 holidays plus Saturday and Sunday. He continues to recount the life as usual situation aided and abetted by the governments lack of information and misinformation on the perilously dangerous radioactivity and extent of the disaster. He notes friends showing him a January 1986 copy of Izvestia with an article about the Chernobyl unit, several months before, being named winner in a competition among all nuclear power stations in the USSR

  3. The British official response to Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author criticizes the British authorities' response to Chernobyl fallout, briefly examines the deficiencies in monitoring arrangements in Scotland, in particular the lack of weather radar cover for that region, and comments on the new National Response Plan and monitoring network, with reference to venison, rainwater, freshwater fish and game, and milk. (U.K.)

  4. Slavutich - the town that loves Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the death of Pripyat, the town serving the Chernobyl station before the accident, new facilities were needed to house plant staff. The result was the construction of Slavutich, whose families now live under the threat of plant closure and and loss of the benefits of residing in one of the Ukraine's showpiece towns. (author)

  5. Decision conferencing and the International Chernobyl Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the International Chernobyl Project, five decision conferences were held with the Soviet authorities to identify the major factors driving decision making in relation to relocation and other protective measures which are being applied in the affected regions of Byelorussia, Ukraine and the Russian Federation. This report describes the running of those conferences and the conclusions reached from them. (Author)

  6. Radionuclide migration in the Chernobyl contamination zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that fallout of 137Cs reaching the land soils with precipitation was rapidly and tightly sorbed to the fine fraction of sediment or soils. The majority of the 137Cs is retained in the top few centimetres of the soil or sediment profiles (Loughran et al, 1993, Owens et al, 1996). In the absence of strong variations in precipitation over a relatively small area the total bomb-derived 137Cs fallout can assumed to be spatial uniform. The Chernobyl 137Cs fallout was mostly connected with one or two rains. So the spatial variability of this 137Cs can be higher. Furthermore because the explosion on the Chernobyl nuclear plant happen together with fire, a lot of ashes particles with radionuclide were distributed within vast areas. So even microvariability of Chernobyl 137Cs can be very high in some places. The horizontal migration of 137Cs connects with soil erosion processes that dominate on the agricultural lands of the Central Russia. The main goal of this investigation is to evaluate the caesium-137 horizontal and vertical migration within typical landscape of the Central Russia 11 years after the Chernobyl accident

  7. Since Chernobyl: A World of Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clamp, Alice

    1991-01-01

    This article chronicles the international collaboration behind the technological review and the subsequent upgrading of operational safety procedures at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants within the Soviet Union and various Eastern European countries in the aftermath of the tragedy at Chernobyl. (JJK)

  8. Thyroid cancer in Belarus after Chernobyl: International thyroid project. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident has demonstrated what was always known but perhaps has not been as fully acknowledged as it might, namely that national or other geographical boundaries are no defence against radioactive fallout. Much (some 2.2 millions) of the approximately 10 million population of Belarus have been, and are still being, exposed to the radiation resulting from the accident. The most obvious adverse effect of the radiation is on the condition of the thyroid system in children. Now, only just over eight years after the accident, we are experiencing an increase in childhood thyroid cancer which is particularly marked in those closest to the site of the accident. In young children thyroid cancer is an extremely rare condition and thus although at present the numbers of cases (more than 250 since the accident) is not large in absolute terms it is a sufficiently important development to capture the interest of the international medical and scientific community and to give rise to considerable apprehension as to the future development of the outbreak. Although this increase in thyroid cancer has not been definitively attributed to the Chernobyl accident, and indeed a major aim of this project is to elucidate the cause of the cancer, the fact of the exposure of the population of Belarus to the isotopes of iodine at the time of accident, and what we have learned from the experience in the Marshall Islands following the testing of the first hydrogen bomb on Bikini Atoll lead us to consider the accident as the most likely cause of the increase. Belarus is a relatively small and newly independent country. By any standards the Chernobyl accident was a technological disaster of enormous proportions causing damage to the environment over vast land areas. Necessarily it must be a major concern for us and an issue to be considered in the planning of our future. Its impact on the future health of our nation must be assessed as objectively and dispassionately as possible and we therefore welcome the partnership of international collaboration that this project represents

  9. Interns getting excellent marks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reports on the activity of the information agency Atomic Relations that provides nuclear students with an opportunity for probation and pre-diploma internships. The Agency gives the students the opportunity to gain access to a wide range of readily-available information about nuclear power, get invited to specialized events, and communicate directly with scientific and business circles. Subsequently the knowledge they obtain is successfully used for writing and presenting their diploma papers

  10. Augmented marked graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, King Sing

    2014-01-01

    Petri nets are a formal and theoretically rich model for the modelling and analysis of systems. A subclass of Petri nets, augmented marked graphs possess a structure that is especially desirable for the modelling and analysis of systems with concurrent processes and shared resources.This monograph consists of three parts: Part I provides the conceptual background for readers who have no prior knowledge on Petri nets; Part II elaborates the theory of augmented marked graphs; finally, Part III discusses the application to system integration. The book is suitable as a first self-contained volume

  11. Fathoming Mark Twain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggar, Joanna

    1988-01-01

    Relates the efforts of completing two collections of the works and papers of Mark Twain. Describes the combined efforts of the University of Iowa and the University of California to publish both a scholarly edition and a reader's edition devoted to Twain. (KO)

  12. Mark 22 Reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations for reactivity held in control rods have underpredicted the observed Mark 22 reactivity. Reactivity predictions by charge designers have accounted for this by including large biases which change with exposure and reactor region. The purpose of this study was to thoroughly investigate the methods and data used in the reactivity calculations. The goal was to identify errors and improvements and make necessary corrections

  13. Chernobyl accident: Causes, consequences and problems of radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General description of Chernobyl accident is given in the review. The accident causes are briefly described. Special attention is paid to radiation situation after the accident and radiation measurements problems. Some data on Chernobyl disaster are compared with the corresponding data on Fukushima accident. It is noted that Chernobyl and Fukushima lessons should be taken into account while developing further measures on raising nuclear industry safety. -- Highlights: ► The short comparative analysis of accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima is given. ► We note the great effect of β-radiation on the radiation situation at Chernobyl. ► We discuss the problems of radiation measurements under these conditions. ► The impact of shelter on the radiation situation near Chernobyl NPS is described

  14. Chernobyl accident: Causes, consequences and problems of radiation measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kortov, V.; Ustyantsev, Yu.

    2013-01-01

    General description of Chernobyl accident is given in the review. The accident causes are briefly described. Special attention is paid to radiation situation after the accident and radiation measurements problems. Some data on Chernobyl disaster are compared with the corresponding data on Fukushima accident. It is noted that Chernobyl and Fukushima lessons should be taken into account while developing further measures on raising nuclear industry safety. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 76 FR 33023 - Safety Advisory; Unauthorized Marking of Compressed Gas Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... Gas Cylinders AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION... undetermined number of certain (aluminum) cylinders were improperly marked and represented as DOT specification 3AL cylinders. The cylinders were neither marked nor certified by an authorized independent...

  16. Chernobyl: Chronicle of difficult weeks [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. Chernobyl : chronicle of difficult weeks. Shevchenko's film crew was the first in the disaster zone following the meltdown of the core of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. They shot continuously for more than three months. Portions of the film are exposed with white blotches - a radiation leakage. The film demonstrates how authorities and volunteers dealt with the accident, shows the efforts to get the fire under control, to take care of patients with radiation injuries, and to evacuate about 100,000 inhabitants of the area. 2. The BAM zone : permanent residents. The Baikal-Amur Mainline (BAM) railroad in Siberia is called the longest monument to the stagnation of the Brezhnev years. The film shows the lives and fates of the people in contrast to the marches and songs praising the project

  17. Chernobyl: The end of the nuclear dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl - once the name of an obscure Soviet nuclear plant in the Ukraine - has become a global household word because of the April 1986 explosion that destroyed one of its reactors and spread radioactive fallout over most of the northern hemisphere. A September 1986 study from the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory revealed that this disaster released as much radioactivity into the soil, air, and water as all the nuclear tests and bombs exploded since the 1940s. In this book by a team of correspondents from the London Observer, all the essential information is given: a description of Chernobyl town and its nuclear plant; a vivid account of the events surrounding the accident, in which many people acted heroically; the delays in reporting the disaster; the problems of evacuating people and of coping with the injured; the reactions in the Soviet Union and around the world; and the immediate and possible longterm effects of the release of so much radioactivity

  18. Chernobyl experience of emergency data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience of work on the Chernobyl problem carried out by the Nuclear Safety Institute within 1990-95 for the information analytic support of the USSR and Russian government bodies is briefly examined. During this period approaches to the problem have become more corresponding to those realised by the government of a democratic State responsible to its population. Within the limits of the information analytic support of Russian government bodies an information management system was created. It included: Central bank of generalised data, Bank of models, Information systems for federal and local authorities intercommunicated with information systems of departments and scientific database. Analysis of results of this practical exercise permits to ascertain that the preparation of argued proposals on the population protection in time-limit conditions as well as the material resource insufficiency and the available information incompleteness are difficult problems. The acquired experience of work with the Chernobyl area databases is constantly developing and expanding. (R.P.)

  19. New predictions for Chernobyl childhood thyroid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New, firmer predictions are presented for the number of childhood thyroid cancers caused by Chernobyl: between 3300 and 7600 over all time, with a central estimate of 4400. The high efficacy of medical treatment suggests that at least 70% of the sufferers should survive the illness, with 95% or better survival a realistic target given early and skilled surgery and treatment. In view of the reported lack of evidence for other long-term health effects and the comparatively small number of early deaths, the total figure for deaths attributable to the Chernobyl accident may currently be estimated as from a few hundreds to a few thousands, with one thousand as a reasonable central estimate. (author)

  20. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  1. Chernobyl today and compared to other disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disaster in Unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl, now Ukraine, occurred fourteen years ago. Although much has been written about the accident, the public still has no proper yardstick by which to assess realistically the risk involved. This is true not only with respect to nuclear power plants of the type found in Germany and almost anywhere in the western world, but also in relation to non-nuclear disasters, which tend to be accepted by the public much more readily. As far as the number of persons killed or injured is concerned, the scope of the Chernobyl disaster turned out to be smaller than, or at least comparable to, other disasters. This is true even in comparison with other power generation technologies, for instance, accidents in coal mining or dam bursts. Even major railway accidents, airplane crashes, or the large number of people regularly killed in road traffic, are soon forgotten by the media. (orig.)

  2. Franco-German cooperation on Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the franco-german cooperation on Chernobyl. The purpose of this cooperation is to collect and validate all the data available in order to build a reliable and unbiased data-base. This cooperation is based on 3 axis and is funded with 6 million Ecus for 3 years. The 3 programmes are: i) the safety of the sarcophagus, ii) the radio-ecological consequences of the accident, and iii) the impact on health. The Chernobyl accident has had dramatic effects on the environment which were till now more or less under-estimated, the program on radio-ecological consequences will include information about the storage places of the wastes coming from the massive soil decontamination as well as information about the contamination of the artificial lake that was used to drain the low part of the reactor building and about the contamination of underground waters. (A.C.)

  3. Lessons taught by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On nuclear development, it is natural that safety is the most important condition. However, when occurring an accident in spite of earnest efforts on safety pursuit, it is essential for a technical developer to absorb some lessons from its contents as much as possible and show an attitude to use thereafter. The Chernobyl accident brought extraordinarily large damage in the history of nuclear technology development. Therefore, the edition group of the Japan Society of Atomic Energy introduced opinions of three groups of the Society (that is, groups on reactor physics, nuclear power generation, and human-machine system research) with some description on cause analysis of the accident and its result and effect. And, here was also shown four basic difference on design between RMBK type reactor in Chernobyl and LWR type reactor supplied in Japan. (G.K.)

  4. The accident in Chernobyl power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26, 1986 an accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union. The accident, an uncontrolled power excursion, resulted in the destruction of the affected reactor. Thirty-one people gave their lives. Large amounts of radioactive materials were released into the environment and widely dispersed. The accident was caused by major weaknesses in the design of the RBMK-reactor in connection with grave acts of maloperation by the staff. The accident has not shown unknown phenomena. In the light water reactors used in the Federal Republic of Germany power excursions with the potential to destroy the fuel are excluded by the design of these reactors. The findings made as a result of investigations of the Chernobyl accident show no reasons for reassessing the safety concept of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig./HP)

  5. Appearing consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Chernobyl is the greatest world's tragedy after Chirosima. Global results of this tragedy is already being seen. They are the people who have received radiation dose. the first type of cancer 5 years after Chernobyl accident was the thyroid gland cancer, the reason of it, large quantities of radioactive iodine in the air, food products, milk of cattle and finally their collection in the thyroid gland cancer entering the human body. Period all of a sudden after 10 years completed the next latent type of cancer was leykoz. Giving rise to this type of cancer more sensitive to radiation of the body - a violation of the spinal brain function. After 20 years passing from the accident in the first generation one ill child must be born cause of undergoing to radiation father or mother from each three days in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine

  6. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Dept. Nucleaire Medecine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  7. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  8. Mark Twain on phrenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James L

    2003-12-01

    Mark Twain was a noted 19th century American writer and humorist. He often elaborated upon the personalities of his characters, and his observational skills reflected a strong interest in psychology. Similarly, he found an interest in phrenology, a pseudoscience that purported to characterize personality traits according to elevations or depressions on the head. Twain's style is clearly reflected in the interesting essay he wrote regarding his personal experience with phrenology. PMID:14633308

  9. The Mark III spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design, construction and performance of the Mark III, a new general purpose large solid angle spectrometer at SPEAR, the SLAC 2-8 GeV e+e- storage ring. The detector has been designed for the study of exclusive final states in e+e- annihilation, which requires large solid angle coverage combined with charged particle momentum resolution, particle identification, and photon detection efficiency at low energies. (orig.)

  10. The legal issues of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to international law the Federal Republic of Germany has a right to claim compensations from the Soviet Union. This all the more as both states have signed the treaty of Nov. 13, 1979 which as part of the UN Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) is known as the ''Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution''. By civil law victims may sue a Kiev court for compensations or else sue for damages in the Federal Republic of Germany. It is very unlikely that the reactor management itself will pay any damages. According to the Atomic Energy Law, paragraph 38, 2 and paragraph 34, 1 p. 2 victims in the Federal Republic of Germany may claim compensations up to a maximum of 1 billion marks from the Federal Government. However, compensations may only be sued for if attempts to sue a Soviet court have failed. Compensations must be claimed at the Federal Administrative Board in Cologne. (HP)

  11. The Chernobyl accident — an epidemiological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cardis, E; Hatch, M.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since radioactive releases from the Chernobyl nuclear accident led to exposure of millions of people in Europe. Studies of affected populations have provided important new data on the links between radiation and cancer – particularly the risk of thyroid tumours from exposure to iodine isotopes - that are important not only for a fuller scientific understanding of radiation effects, but also for radiation protection.

  12. Natural Resources Damage from Chernobyl. Further Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note reports the extent of some components of natural resources damage from the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, primarily losses in producer surplus in the reindeer industry in Lapland, Sweden. The damage suffered by Swedish moose hunters has been estimated earlier. The result is a lower boundary of natural resources damage amounting to SEK 736 million, or about SEK 112 per adult Swede. 6 refs

  13. Natural Resources Damage from Chernobyl. Further Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederqvist, T. [Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-07-01

    This note reports the extent of some components of natural resources damage from the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, primarily losses in producer surplus in the reindeer industry in Lapland, Sweden. The damage suffered by Swedish moose hunters has been estimated earlier. The result is a lower boundary of natural resources damage amounting to SEK 736 million, or about SEK 112 per adult Swede. 6 refs.

  14. Medical consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of health deterioration in population of Ukraine affected after the Chernobyl accident are presented. The survived population division in groups, peculiarities of morbidity incidence and prevalence are described. The dynamics of some medical demography parameters are discussed concerning adults and paediatric population. The precise values of incidence and prevalence for the main classes of diseases are shown in comparison of 1995-1996 to 1987. (author)

  15. Chernobyl and the consequences for Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an introducing chapter the meteorological situation over Austria in the days after the Chernobyl accident is outlined. The following chapters are on measurement of contamination of environment, foodstuffs and fodder; on measures taken to minimize the radiation burden; a comparison with the fallout from nuclear weapons tests; a dose estimation to the population and finally, a comparison with contamination in some other european countries. 26 tabs., 117 figs. (qui)

  16. Chernobyl GIS project in Belarus and Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urged by the Chernobyl accident, Belarus and the Ukraine decided to create a joint Geographic Information System (GIS). Canada was asked for assistance. The creation of the system encompasses a pilot project and the full-scale project. In the contribution presented, the pilot project is highlighted, including its objectives, partners involved, system orientation, database design, expected results and applications, and future developments. (P.A.). 1 fig., 10 refs

  17. Multidimensional analysis of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multidimensional analysis of the CHERNOBYL accident was carried out to identify the role of the design and operating features of the RMBK-1000 and thereby identify implications on other reactor concepts. The results show that assumptions regarding the pre-accident fuel burnup and flux distributions are major determinants of the size and shape of the power pulse, especially due to their influence on effective system void reactivity and on the amount, if any, of positive scram reactivity

  18. The Chernobyl accident: consequences and their overcoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimation of radioecological, medico-biological, economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe has shown that unimaginable damage was incurred on Belarus and its territory became the zone of ecological calamity. The Chernobyl NPP catastrophe has led to the contamination of almost the fourth part of the territory of Belarus where there lived 2,2 million people. The damage caused to the republic by the catastrophe makes up 32 annual budgets of the republic of the pre-accident period in account for the 30-years period for its overcoming. Radioecological situation in Belarus is characterized by complexity and heterogeneous contamination of the territory by different radionuclides and their presence on all the components of the environment. It stipulates the plurality of ways of external and internal irradiation of the population and jeopardizes its health. There is registered the worsening of the population's health, of evacuated and inhabiting the contaminated areas as well, with increase of a number of somatic diseases, including oncological diseases, there are disorders in the metabolic processes and functions of the main systems of the organism. The demographic indices are decreasing. Particular concern causes the children's morbidity growth and genetic consequences of the accident. The contamination of agricultural lands has stipulated in the neighboring the Chernobyl NPP zone the impossibility of their use for food production. On the other lands it has been required to re-profile the farms and create new technologies of the agricultural production. There have been revealed the destructive tendencies in all spheres of the life activity of people who experienced radiation effects. The processes of social adaptation and socio-psychological support of the population require considerable optimization. In spite of that for ten years passed after the catastrophe the discrepancy of its estimations has not been overcome completely. At the same time, the accident consequences considered in this report show that the problems born by the Chernobyl catastrophe on April 26, 1986 will remain actual for long

  19. Environmental radioactivity measurements after the Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurements of the environmental radioactivity performed by the Radiation Protection Division of the CCR Ispra and by the Healt Physics Service of the CRE Saluggia ENEA on samples collected in the North-Western Italy after the Chernobyl accident are here reported. The general structure of the environmental laboratories; the choice of the samples and their collection are discussed in order to plan the actions and to make the measurements comparable

  20. Legal aspects of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brief article presents questions arising after the Chernobyl reactor accident, primarily those of compensation for damage and the relationship between citizens and the state. As existing laws do not offer suitable instruments for reacting to such a disaster, the author outlines ways and means that should be created on an international level in order to be able to react more efficiently in future. (HSCH)

  1. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive 131I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of 131I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 106 person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 107 person-rem (2 x 105 Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs

  2. Chernobyl: the plant that refuses to die

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the cracking of the Sarcophagus enclosing Reactor 4 and recent observations of increased radiation inside, no decision on the future of the Chernobyl plant has been made. There is pressure from the G7 countries to close it down, but reluctance in Ukraine for a variety of reasons. Closure of the remaining functioning reactors at the plant would require new capacity to be substituted in order to meet the Ukraine's power demand and support its already ailing economy. Controversially, the Ukraine would like the new capacity to come from the completion of two VVER plants at Rovno and Khmelnitsky but it would embarrass the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development to be seen to be financing the replacement of Chernobyl by more nuclear reactors. Opposition to plant closure also comes from those concerned for the future of the town of Slavutich which houses the Chernobyl workforce of 6,000 and their families. The fear is that closure would mean a sudden slide into poverty for the 24,000 inhabitants. Moreover, should the workforce disappear, who would look after the Sarcophagus? It is the future of the Sarcophagus which should be the priority of all parties to the debate. Opinions differ on the consequences of the collapse of the present structure but they could constitute another disaster. (UK)

  3. The Chernobyl accident--an epidemiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardis, E; Hatch, M

    2011-05-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since radioactive releases from the Chernobyl nuclear accident led to the exposure of millions of people in Europe. Studies of affected populations have provided important new data on the links between radiation and cancer-particularly the risk of thyroid tumours from exposure to iodine isotopes-that are important not only for a fuller scientific understanding of radiation effects, but also for radiation protection. It is now well documented that children and adolescents exposed to radioiodines from Chernobyl fallout have a sizeable dose-related increase in thyroid cancer, with the risk greatest in those youngest at exposure and with a suggestion that deficiency in stable iodine may increase the risk. Data on thyroid cancer risks to other age groups are somewhat less definitive. In addition, there have been reported increases in incidence and mortality from non-thyroid cancers and non-cancer end points. Although some studies are difficult to interpret because of methodological limitations, recent investigations of Chernobyl clean-up workers ('liquidators') have provided evidence of increased risks of leukaemia and other haematological malignancies and of cataracts, and suggestions of an increase in the risk of cardiovascular diseases, following low doses and low dose rates of radiation. Further careful follow-up of these populations, including the establishment and long-term support of life-span study cohorts, could provide additional important information for the quantification of radiation risks and the protection of persons exposed to low doses of radiation. PMID:21396807

  4. The Chernobyl Forum: major findings and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balonov, M.I. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: m.balonov@iaea.org

    2007-07-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986 was the most severe in the history of the nuclear industry, causing a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. The recently completed Chernobyl Forum concluded that after a number of years, along with reduction of radiation levels and accumulation of humanitarian consequences, severe social and economic depression of the affected regions and associated psychological problems of the general public and the workers had become the most significant problem to be addressed by the authorities. The majority of the affected land is now safe for life and economic activities. However, in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and in some limited areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine some restrictions on land-use should be retained for decades to come. Most of the 600,000 emergency and recovery operation workers and five million residents of the contaminated areas in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine received relatively minor radiation doses which are comparable with the natural background levels. Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed at a young age and some increase of leukaemia and solid cancer in most exposed workers, there is no clearly demonstrated increase in the somatic diseases due to radiation.

  5. The Cuban Chernobyl program. realities and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In April of 1990 started the 'Cuban Chernobyl Program'. This program was designed to offers specialised medical attention and to develop a rehabilitation plan with children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. Up to the moment more than 21 500 children and adults had been assisted in the program, with a significant set of medical procedures done. Dosimetric, biomedical and psychological research had been also carried out as part of the program. The more significant medical attention activities include the treatment of 289 children with haematological disorders, including 6 bone marrow transplantation, more than 100 important surgical interventions, and the treatment of 117 children with solid tumors. The dosimetric results on more than 7000 children are including in a database with information on internal Cs 137 contamination, internal, external and total doses, children living location, and its contamination by Cs 137, and other significant information for radiological impact evaluation. The behaviour of all the medical information of the program in relation to the contamination of the land and the internal contamination of the children was analysed using this database. The program has accumulated an experience of interest for physicians, psychologists and in general persons interested in Chernobyl consequences

  6. Health consequences [of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The World Health Organisation Conference on the Health Consequences of the Chernobyl and Other Radiological Accidents, held in Geneva last November, is reported. The lack of representation from the civil nuclear industry led often to one-sided debates instigated by the anti-nuclear lobbies present. Thyroid cancer in children as a result of the Chernobyl accident received particular attention. In Belarus, 400 cases have been noted, 220 in Ukraine and 60 in the Russian Federation. All have been treated with a high degree of success. The incidence of this cancer would be expected to follow the fallout path as the main exposure route was ingestion of contaminated foods and milk products. It was noted that the only way to confirm causality was if those children born since the accident failed to show the same increased incidence. Explanations were offered for the particular susceptibility of children to thyroid cancer following exposure to radiation. Another significant cause of concern was the health consequences to clean-up workers in radiological accidents. The main factor is psychological problems from the stress of knowing that they have received high radiation doses. A dramatic increase in psychological disorders has occurred in the Ukraine over the past ten years and this is attributed to stress generated by the Chernobyl accident, compounded by the inadequacy of the public advice offered at the time and the socio-economic uncertainties accompanying the breakup of the former USSR. (UK)

  7. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident of 26 April, 1986, population dose assessment favours the view that the radiation risk of population effected by the early fallout would be different from that in regions contaminated later. Taking into account the short half-time of the most important radioactive iodine isotopes, thyroid disorders would be expected mainly to follow the early fallout distribution. At the time of accident at Unite 4 of the Chernobyl NPP, surface winds were from the Southeast. The initial explosions and heat carried volatile radioactive materials to the 1,5 km height, from where they were transported over the Western part of Belarus, Southern and Western part of Lithuania toward Scandinavian countries. Thus the volatile radioiodine and some other radionuclides were detected in Lithuania on the very first days after the accident. The main task of the work - to conduct short Half-time radioiodine and long half-time radiocesium dose assessment of Lithuanian inhabitants a result of the early Chernobyl accident fallout

  8. 30 years life with Chernobyl, 5 years life with Fukushima. Health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IPPNW report on health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima covers the following issues: Part.: 30 years life with Chernobyl: Summarized consequences of Chernobyl, the accident progression, basic data of the catastrophe, estimation of health hazards as a consequence of the severe accident of Chernobyl, health consequences for the liquidators, health consequences for the contaminated population, mutagenic and teratogenic effects. Part B: 5 years life with Fukushima: The start of the nuclear catastrophe, emissions and contamination, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on human health, thyroid surveys in the prefecture Fukushima, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on the ecosystem, outlook.

  9. Surveillance of congenital malformations in Belarus. Chernobyl aftermath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In order to study possible genetic effects of the Chernobyl accident in human population a comparative analysis of the prevalence at birth of congenital malformations (CM) was performed on region and area administrative levels basing on the data of Belarus registry of CM permanently functioning since 1979. An attempt was made to evaluate dose dependence of the effects under study. We analyzed time trends of the prevalence at birth of 9 so called 'mandatory registered' nosologic units of CM. These group of CM could be easily diagnosed within the neonatal period and were assigned for registration at creation of the registry. Over 12 thousand cases registered within the period of 1981 to 2004 in 4 regions as well as about 3 thousand cases found in 47 rayons highly contrasting by radiation exposure were scrutinized. No long-term impact of the Chernobyl release on prevalence rates of surveyed CM was shown. Since the middle 80-s a similar steady increasing trend was observed as in contaminated, as in control areas with a tendency to stabilization after middle 90-s. We fail to reveal a dose dependence for CM prevalence rates calculated for the whole post-accidental period. Nonetheless, during the first years after the accident situation in contaminated areas was notably different from those in the control. Within the period of 1987 to 1989 a significant access of CM prevalence was registered in the strict radiological control area (Cs 137 soil contamination over 555 kBq/m2) as compared to non-contaminated zone. Relative risk was estimated as RR1987-1989 = 1.57 with 95% confidence interval being 95%CI = [1.29; 1.89]. Before the accident no difference in prevalence rates was marked (RR1981-1986 = 0.93; 95%CI = [0.80; 1.09]); nor it was evident in the farther post-accidental period (RR1990-2004 = 0.99; 95%CI = [0.80; 1.09]). Anomalies with high contribution of dominant de novo mutations (polydactyly, reduction defects of limbs and multiple CM) played principal role in the revealed increase. For this CM group a correlation with the estimated effective dose values was observed within the corresponding time period, no such relationship was marked for other analyzed CM, however. Analysis of the farther period failed to reveal a similar association for any group of CM under study. Thus, adverse effect of the Chernobyl accident on fetal development could not be excluded only within the first years after the accident. Peculiarity of the group of anomalies, chosen for the study, limits the impact of screening effect; however, it could not be completely ruled out because of ecological study design. Obtained results need to be confirmed in consecutive series of case-control and cohort studies. Extensive implementation of prophylactics of CM in the early 90-s made it possible to maintain the CM prevalence rates among newborns at the pre-accidental values. Currently over 30% of mandatory registered CM and about 20% of all CM in Belarus are registered among fetuses aborted for genetic reasons. Nevertheless, rather high level of CM prevalence in the republic insists farther improvement of the prophylactics of malformed children birth. For this purpose similar measures seems to be appropriate as for the residents of contaminated, as non-contaminated areas, since currently no substantial difference in time trends are traceable. The most perspective way of improvement of CM prenatal diagnostics is enlargement of the group of women that undergo ultrasound screening of I and II trimesters in specialized centers of prenatal diagnostics

  10. The reactor accident at Chernobyl and its implications of world-wide food trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl reactor disaster of 26 April 1986 caused not only destruction, death, injury, and high level radioactive contamination in the zone around the nuclear power plant - it also caused wide-spread low level contamination in many countries of Easter and Central Europe. It is shown that although populations outside the disaster area were not exposed to serious danger, the confusion that arose not only among the general public but also among regulatory agencies, caused tremendous difficulties for food manufacturers and the food trade. 2 refs., 3 tabs, 3 figs

  11. Ceremony marking Einstein Year

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Sunday 13th November at 10:00amat Geneva's St. Peter's Cathedral To mark Einstein Year and the importance of the intercultural dialogue of which it forms a part, a religious service will take place on Sunday 13 November at 10 a.m. in St. Peter's Cathedral, to which CERN members and colleagues are warmly welcomed. Pastor Henry Babel, senior minister at the Cathedral, will speak on the theme: 'God in Einstein's Universe'. Diether Blechschmidt will convey a message on behalf of the scientific community.

  12. Mark Twain: Devil's Advocate

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade of his life, Mark Twain wrote three manuscripts around the theme of a Mysterious Stranger. The first manuscript was published by Harper Bros., but its editors had made so many changes that Twain scholars call it a fraud. This paper examines the damage done by the fraud to Twain's reputation and to our understanding of his later years. It examines the development of the theme of laughter from the first manuscript to the third, and it makes recommendations as to how the harm ...

  13. Drosophila as a model object in to study Chernobyl NPP after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Water extractions of soil probes, which were selected on areas with different density of radioactive pollutions near Chernobyl exclusion zone ('Apple-tree garden' (Chernobyl); 'Island' (the bank of the pond-cooler of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant); 'Torch' (the area of revegetation near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant); 'Red forest' (side of a road) and 'Red forest' (edge of a forest)) were investigated. Dosimetric metering of all studied areas was conducted. γ- and β-activities of soil probes were determined by spectrometry and radiochemistry methods. The contents of trace elements in the soil probes of areas the 'Appletree garden' and 'Island' were determined. Water extractions from soil were prepared according to standard method (ratio - 1 : 2,5). The mutagenicity of water extractions of soil was estimated using the test of frequency of the sex-linked lethal mutations of Drosophila melanogaster. Water extractions were directly adds to a nourishing medium instead of standard component - distilled water. The strain of wild type of Drosophila Canton-S and natural populations of Drosophila from Pyriatin and Chernobyl were used in our study. The natural populations of Chernobyl and Pyriatin were included in study for more fully estimation of influence of factor on genetic processes of Drosophila, because of presence of unspecific adaptations of natural populations from radioactive polluted territories (as was shown before). According to dosimetric analysis data radiation activity of all water extractions of soils did not exceed a natural background. The probes of soil from areas the 'Red forest' and the 'Torch' were marked the higher activity; total activity of them was over 110 Mbk/kg. It is possibly that this fact was the reason of the absence of descendants in all variants of experiments conducted on medium with water extraction the 'Red forest' and in a variant of experiments concerned on study of activity of water extraction from soil of area 'Torch' on the strain of Canton S. According to analysis of water extractions of soils the statistically significant increase of frequency of the sex-linked lethal mutations was observed in population of Drosophila from Chernobyl breed on the medium with water extractions of soils from probe of the area 'Torch' only. In other variants, namely in the study of influence water extractions of soil on a laboratory Drosophila line and on the individuals of population of Pyriatin we did not obtained the data. It is possibly because of high toxicness of this probe. Survival of Chernobyl population on this medium maybe reflects the adaptations to this factor. Toxic for all of studied strains or populations of Drosophila was the water extraction of soil collected from the area the 'Red forest' (edge of a forest). The death of paternal individuals and their descendants on the stage of egg was observed in all variants of experiments.

  14. Internal contamination of some families after the Chernobyl accident 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl 1986. accident random internal contamination of measurements Belgrade and Kragujevac population, using Whole Body Counter (WBC) was performed. Some selected results, as a whole family member repetitive long time measurements, are in the paper presented. The parents of the malformation children born in period after Chernobyl accident are also measured. 4 refs.; 1 figs.; 5 tabs

  15. Reporting on Radiation: A Content Analysis of Chernobyl Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sharon M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Evaluates how well the media guided readers and viewers through the Chernobyl disaster. Concludes that the press and television did not provide enough radiation and risk information in their coverage of the Chernobyl accident, but what was provided was appropriate, even-handed, and conservative. (NKA)

  16. Chernobyl plume: commentary about a discharge; Nuage de Chernobyl: commentaires sur un non-lieu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2011-07-15

    The Paris appeal court has dismissed the charges against P. Pellerin who was the head of the SCIRP (service of protection against the ionizing radiations) at the time of the Chernobyl accident. The appeal court confirms that P.Pellerin never said that the Chernobyl plume stopped at the French border but instead he said that the Chernobyl plume entered the French territory but the radioactivity level was so low that it was unnecessary to take sanitary steps. P.Pellerin based his decision on the results of 6500 controls performed by the SCIRP in May and June 1986. Seven other European countries recommended not to take sanitary measures. The increase of thyroid cancers that has happened in all industrialized countries and that affect only adults, can not due to Chernobyl contamination because child's thyroid is far more sensitive than adult's. The increase of thyroid cancer is mainly due to a better detection of the tumors. (A.C.)

  17. Consequences of Chernobyl accident in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Among nuclides emitted from the destroyed Chernobyl reactor only radioiodine and radiocesium were of serious health concern. The amount of iodine-131 released in this catastrophe was about 180 times lower than during the total release of this nuclide from 77 nuclear weapon tests performed in remote areas in the record year of 1962, and the release of cesium-137 was only five times lower. However, the bulk of Chernobyl emission was confined in time to only twelve days, and its geographical dispersion was much smaller and closer to populated areas than that of nuclear tests debris. Only a small part of cesium-137 and cesium-134 from the Chernobyl reactor reached the Southern Hemisphere, via stratospheric transport routes. Therefore, radiation doses received by the population from the Chernobyl radionuclides was in the affected areas higher than from the nuclear tests fallout. In part of Europe the doses received by children in the thyroid gland from iodine-131 radiation were high enough to expect an increase in thyroid cancers. In the contaminated regions of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the estimated thyroid doses in children could reach up to several thousand mSv. In a group of >100,000 persons evacuated during the first few weeks, the average thyroid dose in children under 3 years of age was about 1000 mSv, and in adults about 70 mSv. Between 1986 and 1995 about 700 thyroid cancers in children were reported from Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, most of which may be attributed to Chernobyl radiation. About 95% of these cancers are believed to be curable. The whole body dose from cloud passage, ground deposition and intake of cesium-137 and of other radionuclides was much smaller than thyroid doses, and do not pose a real risk to the population. The average lifetime (70 years) whole body doses in the most contaminated regions of Belarus ranged between 88 and 160 mSv, in Ukraine 84 and 120 mSv and in Russia 78 to 130 mSv. The average doses to 800,000 'liquidators' ranged between 170 mSv in 1986 and 15 mSv in 1989. Among the >100,000 evacuees the average whole body dose prior to evacuation was 15 mSv. The average lifetime Chernobyl whole body doses in European countries outside the former Soviet Union range from 0.006 mSv in Portugal to 2.4 mSv in Bulgaria. In the Northern Hemisphere the average Chernobyl lifetime dose is 0.14 mSv, i.e. about 0.08% of the natural dose. The average global whole body dose of natural radiation during 70 years is about 170 mSv, and 700 mSv in typically high background areas. Epidemiological studies from Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggest that no increase in cancer mortality should be expected at a single whole body dose (in addition to natural background radiation) of <200 mSv, delivered during a fraction of a second. Doses of about 200 mSv accumulated over tens of years of exposure would be even less effective. Ten years after the Chernobyl catastrophe the total radiation death toll is 31 - 38 persons, among them 3 persons were the members of the public. The total expected number of thyroid cancer deaths is about 500. In Poland, a country closest to Chernobyl outside the former Soviet Union, during two days, starting on the second day after arrival of radioactive cloud, 18.5 million persons were administered a prophylactic dose of stable iodine in form of 'Lugol solution', to block the uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid. This caused a thyroid dose reduction by a factor of up to 5, without any intra-thyroid side effects. Economic loses related to necessary and unnecessary remedial measures are estimated to reach in Belarus between 1986 and 2015 US$ 191.7 billion, of which US$ 86.32 billion are costs of financial and other compensation ('privileges') for peoples living at contaminated regions. It is estimated that in Ukraine in regions where 'Chernobyl radiation dose' is less than 1 mSv/year about 1.73 million persons receives the 'privileges'. Psychosomatic consequences of radiophobia induced by mass-media and policy of authorities in the contaminated regions are also discussed

  18. International nuclear law in the 25 years between Chernobyl and Fukushima and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is dedicated both to legal developments since the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant 25 years ago and possible legal implications of the accidents at Fukushima Daiichi which occurred after Japan was struck by a devastating earthquake on 11 March 2011. Following the accident at Three Mile Island in 1979 and at Chernobyl in 1986, Fukushima will be remembered as the third major accident in the history of civilian nuclear power reactors. Yet Chernobyl was and remains the worst trauma in this history as a result of which nuclear developments slowed down significantly. Eventually, the industry emerged as a safer and stronger technology, particularly because the 25 years between Chernobyl and Fukushima were marked by an exceptional national and international commitment to nuclear safety and emergency preparedness so as to prevent accidents and minimise potential damages, if such occur. From a legal point of view it is safe to say that the nuclear industry is one of the most strictly regulated. However, it is equally safe to say that there is no zero risk technology and that accidents can happen. For several weeks after the tragic events in Japan the world's focus turned - justifiably so - to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power units. It was nevertheless astonishing to observe that the real tragedy, the terrible loss of lives, swept away villages, and the chaos following the breakdown of all kinds of infrastructure were treated as a sideshow compared with the dramatic images of explosions at the Fukushima Daiichi units and helicopters trying to drop seawater into the spent fuel pools. The live broadcasting of accidents might present one of the first lessons to be learnt in our Internet and 24-hour news channel era which did not exist at the time of Chernobyl. The international legal community will also face challenges as the accident has put 25 years of international co-operation and international nuclear law-making to its first serious test. The question will be if, where and how the international legal regime governing peaceful nuclear activities showed weaknesses. There is no room for the hasty setting up of new conventions; there are, however, lessons to be learnt which in turn will lead to the improvement of the international legal framework. It will take time and effort to understand and process the events. While this paper is being written, the reactors at Fukushima have yet to be stabilised; nevertheless a first glance at the key legal issues will be attempted. (author)

  19. Use of experimental plots for assessing Chernobyl-derived fallout of 137CS in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caesium-137 (137Cs) is widely used for the determination of soil erosion and sedimentation rates. However, in Europe, if the additional inputs of 137Cs fallout associated with the Chernobyl accident have given a supplementary mark to know the chronological history of buried sediments in rivers or wetlands, they have considerably complicated the interpretation of 137Cs inventories used for estimating soil redistribution on slopes. In fact, determination of Chernobyl-derived fallout 137Cs is problematic because very few sites have been correctly sampled at the moment of the accident. During the ten years after, it was possible to estimate the fallout measuring the 134Cs activity for estimating 137Cs (137Cs /134Cs 2.0 at the time of the accident). But these measurements are extremely rare, whereas it should be the more accurate method to resolve this question. The more used solution is to use model based on atmospheric circulation and rain precipitation, the main part of fallout been due to atmospheric washing by the rain. Other solution is to compare 137Cs specific activity of soil samples collected after the accident and older samples. Then, we choose a set of soil samples collected on several experimental plots at different places in France, and sampled before and after the Chernobyl accident, to determine the part of contamination linked to this 137Cs fallout event with a simple comparison of their 137Cs specific activity. In fact, national French institutes working on agronomy maintain experimental plots, with varied surface area (1 m2 10 m2 or larger), for monitoring of soil physics and chemistry evolution. Nine sites were studied: two of them close to Paris, one 100 km east of Paris, 3 in Loire basin and 3 in south west, in the Pyrenees Atlantic. These measurements confirm the influence of the Chernobyl radioactive plume over the Paris Basin concerning the 137Cs fallout. The 137Cs specific activity is, on average, 25% (from 18 to 35% at Grignon) and 26% (9 to 43% at Versailles) higher in the samples collected after the Chernobyl accident (respectively 1993 et 1987) than those sampled before (1980 and 1981). On the east of Paris, from an experimental plot (115 m2) of the I.N.R.A. at Janvilliers (Marne), the soil sample dating from 1987 presents a 137Cs specific activity twice more important than the one collected in 1975. For the other sites (Pyrenees Atlantic and Landes as well as Loir et Cher), the increase of 137Cs specific activity is around 10 up to 15%. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the soil mineralogical composition does not noticeably affect the 137Cs retention. (author)

  20. Old and new radionuclide presence in Romania after Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosma, Constantin; Iurian, Andra; Nita, Dan; Pantelica, Ana; Prodan, Eugen

    2013-04-01

    Our laboratory measured the radionuclide presence in Transylvania region both after Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. The paper presents old and new data connected with these disasters obtained not only by us but also by others laboratories from Romania. It is an attempt to mark the mainly aspects regarding the radioactive contamination in our country connected with these catastrophes. After the Chernobyl accident the radioactive cloud passage over Romania on NE - SW direction brought relatively intesive radionuclide deposition. On this direction the highest deposition were found in the areas where this passage during April 30-st and May 1-st were accompanied by rainfalls. In the rain water and fresh sediment colected at May 1-st, 1986 and measured the next days, all radionuclide species from Chernobyl could be identified [1]. Additional measurements of 90Sr and 239/240Pu have been made several years later in different environmental samples (roof sediment, soil, pollen, sand, roof-water, street dust) collected in 1986 from Cluj-Napoca, Romania [2]. In the case of Fukushima disaster the air transport from west and north-west brought small quantities of radionuclides over the Romanian teritorry. Even if in this case the radioactive cloud was very dilluted, 131I could be clearly identified and measured in air, rain water and other products as: milk, vegetables, grass, fresh meat from the NW of Romania [3]. Measurements have been also conducted in Bucharest and Pitesti. During the last 5 years suplimentary 137Cs measurements were made in different areas as an attempt to use this radionuclide as soil and sediment tracer. [1]. C. Cosma, Some Aspects of Radioactive Contamination after Chernobyl Accident in Romania, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 251, 2, 221-226 (2002) [2]. C. Cosma, Strontium-90 Measurement without Chemical Separation in Samples after Chernobyl Accident, Spectrochimica Acta, Part B, 55, 1165-1171 (2000) [3]. C. Cosma, AR. Iurian, DC. Ni?, R. Begy R, C. Cîndea , Indicators of the Fukushima radioactive release in NW Romania, J Environ Radioact. 114:94-9. (2012) doi: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2011.11.020

  1. Proceeding of the 2-nd International Conference 'Long-term Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Disaster'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the second International conference 'Long-term health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster' in 1-6 June 1998 Kiev (Ukraine) the following problems were discussed: 1.Epidemiological aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 2.Clinical and biological effects of ionizing radiation; 3.Social and psychological aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster; 4.Rehabilitation of the Chernobyl disaster survivors

  2. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment' (EGE). Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental effects of the 26 April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Even though it is now nearly 20 years after the accident and substantial monies have been spent on such evaluations, there are still many conflicting reports and rumours. This joint report has been developed with the full cooperation of the United Nations (UN) family of relevant organisations and with political representatives from the three more affected countries: Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation. In addition, recognised scientific experts from the three countries and additional international experts provided the basis for the preparation of reports for review by the actual members of the Chernobyl Forum. The - Chernobyl Forum - is a high-level political forum whose suggestion for existence was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO), and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. The organisational meeting of the Chernobyl Forum was held on 3-5 February 2003, at which time the decision was reached to establish the Forum as an ongoing entity of the above named organisations. Thus, the organisational meeting of the Forum decided to establish the Chernobyl Forum as a series of managerial, expert and public meetings in order to generate authoritative consensual statements on the health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident and the environmental consequences induced by the released radioactive materials, to provide advice on remediation and special health-care programmes, and to suggest areas where further research is required; and to accept the following Terms of Reference (TOR) of the Forum. The objectives of the Chernobyl Forum were defined as follows: To explore and refine the current scientific assessments on the long-term health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident, with a view to producing authoritative consensus statements focusing on: the health effects attributable to radiation exposure caused by the accident, the environmental consequences induced by the radioactive materials released due to the accident, e.g., contamination of foodstuffs, and additionally to address the consequences attributable to the accident although not directly related to the radiation exposure or radioactive contamination; To identify gaps in scientific research relevant to the radiation-induced or radioactive contamination-induced health and environmental impacts of the accident, and suggest areas where further work is required based on an assessment of the work done in the past, and bearing in mind ongoing work and projects; To provide advice on, and to facilitate implementation of scientifically sound programmes on mitigation of the accident consequences, including possible joint actions of the organizations participating in the Forum, such as: agricultural, economic and social life under safe conditions, special health care of the affected population, monitoring of the long-term human exposure to radiation, and addressing the environmental issues pertaining to the decommissioning of the Shelter and management of radioactive waste originating from the Chernobyl accident. The Chernobyl Forum itself continued as a high-level organisation of senior officials from UN agencies and the three more affected countries. The actual work has been accomplished by two expert groups: Expert Group -Environment - (EGE) and Expert Group 'Health' (EGH). Members of each of these two groups consisted of recognised international scientists, including those from the three more affected countries. Within these two groups and their subworking groups the draft documents to support this report were prepared for consideration by the members of the Forum. The EGE was coordinated by the IAEA and the EGH was coordinated by the WHO. In all cases the scientists from the UN organisations, the international community, and the three affected countries have been able to reach consensus in the preparation of their respective draft documents. After approval by the members of the Forum itself and final editing of the draft documents, this report is the result of that process regarding the environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident. A similar report on the health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident has been prepared for Forum consideration and approval by the Expert Group 'Health'

  3. Health implications of the Chernobyl accident for Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimations of Chernobyl-related accidental exposures to the Bulgarian population indicated the doses received to be low-level. Possible deviations in individual subjects were likewise held to be within the low-level range. It was thus inferred that appearance of nonstochastic, threshold effects which become manifest after doses of a certain magnitude, were not to be expected as such effects are known to require doses well in excess of those attributable to the accident. So it is difficult to explain the increase in nonmalignant thyroid pathology noted for 1986 and 1987 and particularly marked in children, according to a recent analysis covering the period 1980-1990. The characteristics of radiation exposure experienced by the Bulgarian population point only to possible stochastic effects (carcinogenic or genetic) and some types of damage incurred during embryonic development. As regards carcinogenic risk predictions indicated that any accident-related malignancies would hardly be statistically demonstrable in a setting of high spontaneous frequencies. Attention is now centered on leukemias in children, myeloid leukemia in adults and non-Hodgkin lymphomas. No increase has been noted for the 1986-1990. Radiation-related lung cancer and breast cancer have a latent period of some 20-30 years, so that looking for them at this time does not appear to be warranted. Thyroid cancer which is closely related to 131-iodine exposure has thus far shown no elevation across the country. With respect to the genetic risk carried by the Chernobyl accident for our population predictions based on internationally accepted criteria indicated it to be extremely low-level in term of severe genetic effects. Our retrospective analysis of incidence of spontaneous abortions in 1986 and 1987 as well as of stillbirths, congenital malformations, perinatal and neonatal infant mortality in 1987 and 1988, revealed no deviations attributable to accidental radiation exposure. The group at highest risk from the accident was that of pregnant woman. The period from 8 to 15 gestation weeks has been found to be highly vulnerable to ionizing radiation. (author)

  4. Hymenoptera marking technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In true social hymenopterans, such as many species of bees, wasps and all species of ants, the main characteristics are the overlapping of generations, the care with the offspring and the division of labor among the members of the colony. The first biological feature means that in a same moment there are groups of individuals, with variable ages, that execute different activities in the colony. In order to study the division of labor among the members of the colony, or to estimate the life span of these insects, or even to analyze any kind of behavior in non-social insects, it is necessary to know the exact age of each individual. For this reason, the insects must be identified soon after emergence. The identification of insects with numbers is an important technological improvement in behavioral studies, mainly in honeybee colonies. The aim of this scientific note is to describe an easy and cheaper technique for marking hymenopterans.

  5. Vanadin i mark

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Maja A; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2015-01-01

    Svensk järnmalm innehåller förhållandevis höga halter av metallen vanadin vilket medför att t.ex. masugnsslagg från stålindustrin också har förhöjda halter. Vanadin förekommer naturligt i jordar, men vid höga koncentrationer kan den orsaka toxicitet. Kunskapen om vanadins kemi och toxicitet i mark har dock varit bristfällig, vilket gör miljöriskbedömningar osäkra. I det här projektet var syftet att öka kunskapen om vanadins kemi och toxicitet. Detta gjordes dels genom att studera vanadins bin...

  6. Mark III vertex chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, J.; Bolton, T.; Bunnell, K.; Cassell, R.; Eisele, R.; Grab, C.; Mazaheri, G.; Odian, A.; Pitman, D.; Toki, W.

    1989-03-15

    We have constructed and installed a pressurized straw vertex chamber in the Mark III experiment at the SLAC e/sup +/e/sup -/ storage ring SPEAR. The chamber consists of 12 concentric layers of straws, arrayed at radii between 5.4 cm and 13.0 cm from the interaction point. There are a total of 640 straws, each 8 mm in diameter and 84 cm long. We obtain an overall spatial resolution of 49 ..mu..m for argon-ethane (50%/50%) at 3 atm absolute using a cosmic ray data sample. The effects of gases on various chamber materials have been investigated. Chamber lifetime studies have been performed. A prototype chamber was used to study the resolution obtained with various gases.

  7. Environmental consequences of Chernobyl in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Chernobyl in April 1986 spread radioactive contamination throughout Europe. Using measurements of activity concentrations in the air, on the ground and in a range of foods, estimates of the doses received by the populations of western Europe have been made. For the European Community (EC) countries, the average individual effective doses accruing from the first year following the accident are estimated to range from less than a microsievert in Portugal to a few hundred microsieverts in the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and Greece. Elsewhere in western Europe, similar average individual effective doses have been estimated, up to a value of about 700 μSv for Austria. These values can be compared with the average effective dose of about 2000 μSv which the populations of western Europe receive each year from natural radiation. The restrictions placed on consumption of some foods are estimated to have been effective in reducing doses to the most exposed individuals by a factor of two in some countries. Throughout the EC, however, countermeasures are estimated to have reduced the collective effective dose by about 5%. The health impact on western Europe from the accident at Chernobyl can be assessed from the collective effective doses and the collective thyroid doses estimated together with the appropriate risk factors. For the EC the collective effective dose estimate is about 80,000 man Sv; considering western Europe as a whole the collective dose would be a few tens of percent higher. Using the risk factor recommended by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, the theoretical number of extra cancers predicted in western Europe due to the Chernobyl accident is of the order of 1000. This can be compared with the number of fatalities which would be expected over the next fifty years in western Europe as a result of radiation from natural sources, which is over half a million. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  8. Chernobyl lesson and the nuclear power prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At sixteen years from the disaster which made the commercial power reactor nr. 4 of the Chernobyl NPP known worldwide, the radiation effects and the consequences are still vivid. A basic statement is to be underlined, namely, the Chernobyl event was not an accident in a nuclear power plant being in an industrial, commercial state of operation but an accident following an experiment done on the reactor. Lack of professionalism, of nuclear safety culture, the outrageous violation of basic rules and regulations, established for the unit operation, represent some of the causes originating the Chernobyl disaster. One of the most unfair consequences enhanced by an incorrect mass media information and political manipulation was the ensuing antinuclear media campaign. The paper quotes recent monographs and United Nations Documents showing how the facts were distorted to render arguments and support for various political, economical or humanistic goals. Thus, over more than 15 years due to the hard controversies and irrational campaigns on a global scale the nuclear power was discredited. Practically, all the nuclear power plant constructions were either delayed or cancelled. Moreover, some governments have sustained even closing the existing nuclear stations. The author asks himself rhetorically whether somebody has considered and quantified the immense losses produced by such unmotivated policy or else the additional damage and abuse caused to our home planet by the additional burning of fossil fuels to replace the nuclear fuel burning in nuclear power plants. The paper ends by mentioning the environmental advantages and economic efficiency of that clean energy source which is the nuclear power

  9. Pseuchoneurotic disorders associated with the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This survey relied largely on random selection. As a rule, the attention of the specialists was directed to people with certain specific complaints. Psychogenic disorders observed in the area of the accident at the Chernobyl plant were followed and studied by a team of specialists from the USSR Ministry of Health, beginning on 29 April 1986. According to the nature of the observed stress effects and of the resultant psychic disorders, it was possible to delineate three periods: first the acute period of the disaster from the time of the accident, lasting about 10 days until completion of the evacuation of the population from the danger zone (5 May); second the intermediate delayed period, the period of comparatively early consequences (from 6 May to October 1986); and third, the period of remote consequences. In the course of the year, 1,572 people were examined. The data available indicate that the psychogenic disorders observed after the Chernobyl accident can be regarded as the consequence of a single process, the dynamics of which are determined on the one hand by the characteristics of the emergency situation and on the other by the traits and the degree of preparedness of the people involved. The special nature of the stress situation in all three periods - the threat to health - gave rise to certain characteristic clinical observations, primarily a high degree of somatization and hypochondria. An understanding of the psychological disorders affecting those who lived through the Chernobyl accident, and of their effects on the work capability and pattern of life of people at various stages after the accident, has made it possible to develop and implement a complex and refined system of prophylactic and medical measures. (author)

  10. Chernobyl' 94. Additional collection of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This additional collection of abstracts contains materials of the 4. International Scientific and Technical Conference devoted to the results of 8-year work on Chernobyl accident consequences mitigation. Main results of research in radiation monitoring, applied radioecology, effect of radionuclides on biological objects in contaminated territories are presented. Information about waste management and medical consequences of the accident is given. Methodology and strategic of further research mon radionuclides in environment and their influence on living organisms is determined. Large factual materials and its generalization may be useful for scientists and practical workers in the field of radiation monitoring, radiology and medicine

  11. Thyroid carcinomas induced by Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl nuclear station accident is the unprecedented catastrophic accident in human nuclear industry with a large of quantity of radioactive nucleons resulting in contamination in many countries of the northern Hemisphere. After almost 20 years studying, it is approved that Belarus is the most serious affected country by the accident. Especially thyroid carcinomas in the people exposed to radioactive fall-out is considered to be the only one late radiation effect. RET gene in the happening of thyroid carcinomas is being paid close attention at present

  12. Children thyroid carcinoma and Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Nuclear medicine diagnostic department of Kaunas Medical University Clinics 22 children (6-16 years of age), ill with thyroid carcinoma were examined. Bas ing on the data of Kaunas Medical University Clinic the incidence of children thyroid carcinoma did not increase after Chernobyl accident. Ratio of boys and girls was 4.5:1. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma was detected in 15 (68.2%)children, mixed carcinoma - 4 (18.2%), nondiferenciated -3 (13.6%) children. First stage of cancer was detected only in one patient (4.5%), second -16 (72.7%), third - 3 (13.6%), fourth stage - 2 (9.1%) patients. (author)

  13. Risk of thyroid cancer among Chernobyl liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: While the increased risk of thyroid cancer is well demonstrated in people exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated areas around the Chernobyl power plant, following the accident which took place on 26 April 1986, the effect of exposure on adults remains unclear. A collaborative case-control study of thyroid cancer was set-up, nested within cohorts of Belarus, Russian and Baltic countries liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, to evaluate the radiation-induced risk of this disease among liquidators, and to assess the roles of screening and of radiation exposures in the observed increased thyroid cancer incidence among liquidators. The study population consisted of the cohorts of approximately 66,000 Belarus, 65,000 Russian and 15,000 Baltic countries liquidators who took part in the clean-up activities on the reactor site and in the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 1987. The liquidators were mainly exposed to external radiation, although substantial dose to the thyroid from iodine isotopes may have been received by liquidators who worked in May-June 1986 and by those who resided in the most contaminated territories of Belarus. Information was collected on study subjects by use of a standardized questionnaire that was administrated during a face-to-face interview with the study subject and/or a proxy (a relative or a colleague). The interview included questions on demographic factors, time, place and conditions of work as a liquidator and on potential risk and confounding factors for thyroid cancer. A method of analytical dose reconstruction, entitled RADRUE (Realistic Analytical Dose Reconstruction with Uncertainty Estimation) was developed within the study and applied to estimate individual doses to the thyroid from external radiation and related uncertainties for each subject. Approaches to derive individual thyroid dose estimates from inhaled and ingested iodine isotopes were also developed and implemented. 115 cases of thyroid cancer and 457 matched controls were included in the study. The main analyses were restricted to 107 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma and their 423 matched controls with reliable information on work in the Chernobyl area. Most subjects received low doses (median 69 mGy). The doses were much higher for women (median 196 mGy) than for men (median 64 mGy). Results of this study will be presented, together with their implications for radiation risk assessment and protection. (author)

  14. Belarus and Chernobyl: The second decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popular non-fiction book reflects recent views of the accident happened at Chernobyl 12 years ago. It presents some aspects of the state's huge work aimed at protecting public health and mitigating the consequences of the disaster in the Republic of Belarus. While preparing the publication the authors have used results of scientific studies conducted as per order of the Ministry for Emergencies by different bodies of the National Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Health, Academy of Agrarian Sciences, Ministry of Agriculture and Foodstuffs etc. It is intended for a broad readership

  15. ENC86: Under the shadow of Chernobyl?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined meeting of the European Nuclear Society, the American Nuclear Society and FORATOM in Geneva from 1-6 June had the distinction of being the first major meeting of the nuclear industry after Chernobyl. It was so close that all the papers had been written before the accident. Nothing, in the sense that Chernobyl was not a western reactor, so in detail very little technical information will emerge which will affect western procedures for reactor design or safety assessment given the reviews that have occurred since Three Mile Island. We will expect to learn a great deal about the handling of emergencies, institutional and organisational arrangements, and potentially could learn a great deal of scientific and radiological interest, but these are all matters of detail, not principle, so nothing has changed. Everything, in the sense that the public perception has changed dramatically for the worse. The public has been shocked by the far-reaching effects of the accident. Whether the change is sufficient to challenge the future development of nuclear power is not yet clear, but the matter is certainly open for debate, at least in some countries. This dual view was reflected throughout the conference. The major speakers in the plenary sessions dwelt principally on the effects of Chernobyl. The speakers in the technical and numerous poster sessions did not, in general, have to make any changes to their presentations or to the detailed scientific material. There was an anti-nuclear demonstration at the conference headquarters on the Sunday evening which prevented some participants reaching the opening reception. This was organised by an umbrella anti-nuclear organisation calling itself 'Contratom'. The first social event having been substantially disrupted, it was noticeable that none of the technical sessions of the conference throughout the rest of the week were affected in the slightest. The views of the major speakers can be grouped into three areas. Firstly, what we can and should learn from Chernobyl; secondly, what effect the accident is likely to have in broad terms on the future of nuclear power; and, thirdly, what can be done by the nuclear industry to modify that effect

  16. Societal impacts of the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes the extensive societal impacts of the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine and Belorussia from the viewpoint of a newspaper journalist having close contacts to the inhabitants in these countries. The various impacts of the accident will continue to have major and long-term consequences on the economy of these countries in general and more specifically on agriculture and foodstuff production, health care and social welfare as well as huge psychological suffering to the people. The article also takes notice of the negative impact that the accident has had on the progress of nuclear power programmes in other European countries and even world-wide. (orig.) (1 fig.)

  17. Chernobyl health effects: radiation or stress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration is given to results of wide-scale examination of human population, subjected to the effect of radiation in result of Chernobyl accident. The examined contingents consisted of liquidators, evacuated from 30-km zone, people still living in contamination territories, children of irradiated parents and children, who received large radiation doses. High levels of respiratory system diseases, digestive system diseases, cardiovascular diseases and nervous system diseases were revealed for these people. It was revealed that stress, socio-economic and chemical factors played sufficient role in disease incidence. It is shown that fair of radiation may damage more, than radiation itself

  18. Chernobyl: the political fall-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The attitude to nuclear power of the major political parties in the United Kingdom is examined following the reactor accident at Chernobyl. In particular the Government policy, which is to reaffirm its commitment to nuclear energy, and that of the Labour opposition policy, which may be not to build any more nuclear power stations, are discussed. However, the Labour party policy is still open to debate and may be changed before the next general election. The Scottish and Welsh Nationalist parties and the Greens are all anti-nuclear. (U.K.)

  19. ARAC response to the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the assessments provided by ARAC during the first two weeks after the Chernobyl reactor accident began. Results of this work and measurements made by European countries during that same period show that no major short-term acute health effects would be expected in Europe as a result of this accident. Statistical long-term health effects were not addressed in these studies. Both measured and calculated I-131 concentrations in milk in the US were over an order of magnitude below the USDA guideline of 15,000 pCi/l

  20. The Chernobyl murder. The nuclear Goulag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors of this book are the Chernobyl victims of the 26 April 1986 nuclear accident: millions of poor farmers, contaminated young mothers and children which eat every days radionuclides; ''Liquidators'', sacrificed to stop the fire of the power plants; invalids and also doctors and scientists which refuse the nuclear lobby. This book presents the two Byelorussian scientists which have risk their career and their health to help the contaminated populations. This book takes stock on the today nuclear policy and becomes alarm in seeing the development of the nuclear program in many countries. (A.L.B.)

  1. Chernobyl and its consequences for Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First there is a short version of 16 pages. Then a detailed account is given mainly on the activities of the Federal Environment Office and the radiation burden to the population. The chapter headings are 1) The Chernobyl reactor accident 2) The meteorological situation 3) Monitoring of the radioactive contamination in Austria 4) Aims of the radiation measurement activities 5) Initial situation in Austria and first measurements 6) Environmental control 7) Food control 8) Fodder 9) Measures taken to minimise the radiation burden - a chronology 10) Comparison with nuclear tests fallout 11) Dose estimation 12) Radioactive contamination in other European countries. (G.Q.)

  2. Chernobyl fallout in the Chesapeake Bay region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief article presents the results of the atmospheric deposition of 103Ru, 134Cs and 137Cs at the Chesapeake Biological Laboratory in Solomons, Maryland in May and June 1986 following the Chernobyl reactor accident. 103Ru activity rose rapidly between 16th May and 22nd May which coincided with the passage of severe thunderstorms and a fivefold increase in the deposition of the cosmogenic nuclide 7Be. It is concluded that the strong convective storms in this time were tapping a higher-altitude air mass rich in 7Be and 103Ru. (U.K.)

  3. Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The implementation of good known effective countermeasures at early stage could have substantially reduced the number of thyroid cancer cases after accident. U N Chernobyl Forum recommended long-term activity for mitigation Chernobyl's consequences - A Strategy for Recovery. For improvement this strategy must be create the modern system of the radiation protection based on the new international and national recommendations. The key issues of the Belarusian experience is discussed. (author)

  4. Radionuclide deposition from the Chernobyl cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper investigates the radionuclide deposition over the United Kingdom from the radioactive cloud created by the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. The ranges of peak air and rain-water concentrations of radionuclides observed in the British Isles during 2-5 May 1986 are reported. also attempts are made to link the time variations of these levels to meteorological conditions. In particular, high levels measured on grass are linked to heavy rainfalls associated with thunderstorms embedded in the radioactive cloud. (U.K.)

  5. Medical aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 11 to 13 May 1988, the All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine convened a Conference on Medical Aspects of the Chernobyl Accident in Kiev. This was the first conference on this subject with international participation held in the Soviet Union. There were 310 specialists representing Soviet scientific establishments and over 60 experts from 23 other countries and international organizations participated in the Conference. Participants at the Conference discussed medical aspects of accident mitigation, including therapeutic, psychological, demographic, epidemiological and dosimetric problems. These proceedings include 29 reports presented by Soviet scientists during the four sessions as well as summaries of discussions and opening addresses. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Lessons learnt from clean-up of urban area after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Chernobyl NPP showed that huge territories including densely populated areas can be exposed to contamination as a result of unforeseen circumstances. The Chernobyl accident forced reconsidering of many regulations in the field of population protection and was a powerful incentive to development of many applied sciences. In 1992-1996, an international team of scientists carried out investigations on ECP-4 project 'Strategies of Decontamination'. Including of an independent sub-project 'Urban environment and countermeasures' into the project of French-German initiative on Chernobyl 'Radioecology' was the extension of work on study of urban environment contamination. The aim of the projects ware to synthesize the large body of experimental data received during elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident and in the course of special studies carried out in former USSR and later in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, and prediction on this basis of radionuclide behavior in the urban environment. In 2003 the EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) project was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Urban Remediation Working Group of the EMRAS has focused on the assessment of the effectiveness of countermeasures employed in urban settings after releases of radioactivity. This review considers results of principally Ukrainian, Russian, and Belarus researchers who worked on these projects. Over the 20-year period a number of publications have reviewed the effectiveness of countermeasures, particularly those used after the Chernobyl accident. The general principles of radiological protection are based on radiation doses, intervention levels and effective countermeasures. Decontamination of densely built-up cities constructed of various building materials with total surface area significantly exceeding the administrative city area is an extremely difficult task. In the Late-Phase Response, 'classical' radiological principles and criteria need detailed clarification. The specific aspect of this phase is the problem of social protection and social rehabilitation. The rehabilitation of the contaminated territories has been considered as a combination of measures directed at improvement of environmental conditions and the quality of life. While planning decontamination for the long term, it is important to take into account the contribution of external dose to the total (external and internal) dose. The materialization of the social aspect is a very important characteristic of this phase. Unfortunately, in spite of all the efforts, the negative consequences of the accident have not been completely overcome. Nevertheless, the data array that has been accumulated since the accident allows unbiased assessment of not only the errors but also the achievements of the stupendous work on minimization of the consequences of the accident and drawing conclusions important for the future. (author)

  7. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Results from the IPHECA pilot projects and related national programmes. Summary report from WHO 1995; Helsemessige konsekvenser av Tsjernobylulykken. Resultater fra IPHECAs pilotundersoekelser og tilknyttede nasjonale programmer. Sammenfattende rapport fra WHO 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The main conclusions drawn from the investigations are that the Chernobyl accident caused psychosocial problems due to poor information just after the accident, and stresses and traumas inter alia due to forced relocation. A marked increase of thyroid cancer among children has been demonstrated. However, no significant increase in the frequency of leukemia has been observed., 2 figs, 3 tabs.

  8. SLARette Mark 2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SLAR (Spacer Location and Repositioning) program has developed the technology and tooling necessary to locate and reposition the fuel channel spacers that separate the pressure tube from the calandria tube in a CANDU reactor. The in-channel SLAR tool contains all the inspection probes, and is capable of moving spacers under remote control. The SLAR inspection computer system translates all eddy currents and ultrasonic signals from the in-channel tool into various graphic displays. The in-channel SLAR tool can be delivered and manipulated in a fuel channel by either a SLAR delivery machine or a SLARette delivery machine. The SLAR delivery machine consists of a modified fuelling machine, and is capable of operating under totally remote control in automatic or semi-automatic mode. The SLARette delivery machine is a smaller less automated version, which was designed to be quickly installed, operated, and removed from a limited number of fuel channels during regular annual maintenance outages. This paper describes the design and operation of the SLARette Mark 2 system. 5 figs

  9. Abundance of birds in Fukushima as judged from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of radiation on abundance of common birds in Fukushima can be assessed from the effects of radiation in Chernobyl. Abundance of birds was negatively related to radiation, with a significant difference between Fukushima and Chernobyl. Analysis of 14 species common to the two areas revealed a negative effect of radiation on abundance, differing between areas and species. The relationship between abundance and radiation was more strongly negative in Fukushima than in Chernobyl for the same 14 species, demonstrating a negative consequence of radiation for birds immediately after the accident on 11 March 2011 during the main breeding season in March–July, when individuals work close to their maximum sustainable level. - Highlights: ► Abundance of birds was negatively related to radiation in Chernobyl and Fukushima. ► Effects of radiation on abundance differed between Chernobyl and Fukushima and among species. ► For 14 species common to the two areas the effects of radiation on abundance were stronger in Fukushima than in Chernobyl. - The negative effect of radiation on abundance of birds in Fukushima exceeded that for the same species in Chernobyl.

  10. Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation doses to man in Sweden due to the Chernobyl accident originate mainly from external irradiation from deposited radionuclides and internal irradiation from consumption of radioactively contaminated food stuffs. Inhalation and external irradiation from the passing cloud give only a minor contribution to the total dose. As an average for the Swedish population the individual radiation dose during the first year amounts to about 0.1 mSv, i.e. 10% of the natural background radiation. In the most contaminated areas, however, the individual dose may become 30 times higher than the average dose. The dose committed over 50 years has estimated to be about six times as high as the first year dose. The collective dose for the Swedish population has been estimated to about 1300 manSv the first year after the accident and the corresponding dose over 50 years to 5000 to 7000 manSv. This could lead to 100 to 200 extra fatal cancers. Furthermore, no damages on man that can be related to Chernobyl fallout, e.g. pre-natal effects, have so far been observed in Sweden. Shortly after the accident, several research projects were initiated in Sweden in order to follow the distribution of radionuclides in the aquatic and terrestrial environment. The results which in many cases are preliminary, shows that the recovery of the ecosystem will take several decades. (author)

  11. The causes of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the man in the street Chernobyl epitomizes the danger of nuclear energy but when we examine the causes of this accident we see that this drama is not intrinsically linked to the production of electricity from nuclear fission. The author sees 2 components in the Chernobyl event: the accident itself and its sanitary consequences. The author considers 3 main causes to the accident: -) a design that makes the reactor difficult to control, -) a series of 6 humane failures or breaking of operating rules, and -) political reasons: the largest possible budget was dedicated to plutonium production so any improvement for safety was considered as costly and secondary, moreover the religion of secrecy which was well spread in the ancient Soviet Union, prevented any scientific from knowing all the information concerning this type of reactor. As for the sanitary consequences, the author considers direct causes and underlying causes. The lack of information for the local population, the delay taken for iodine distribution or for the interdiction of farm products consumption are included in the direct causes. The slowness of Soviet bureaucracy, tight budgets and politico-scientific disputes are quoted among the underlying causes. (A.C.)

  12. Chernobyl and the 30-km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The region contaminated as a consequence of the accident in unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station is subdivided into 4 different zones based on the level of contamination and the additional radiation dose to be expected by the people living there. The 30-km zone, which had been evacuated completely, is currently inhabited by some 100 ''returnees'' on Ukrainian territory, with approximately 3,500 employees of the Chernobyl nuclear power station and some 13,000 persons working there who are involved in studies of scientific problems (approx. 120 projects, most of them international), plus service, maintenance and guard staff, firefighters, forest workers and gamekeepers, etc. Most of these people live in the newly built town of Slavutich. Some concrete measures have already been taken for future use of the 30-km zone (creation of a shallow land burial site for radioactive waste and decommissioning waste at the VECTOR site, construction of an interim store for the fuel elements of the nuclear power plant), but also more extensive concepts have been developed (construction of a central fuel element store for Ukrainian nuclear power plants, shallow land burial of waste with higher contents of longlived radionuclides, perhaps construction of an underground repository), which even consider touristic ambitions. (orig.)

  13. Environmental stress reactions following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The widespread public anxiety and pessimism about the Chernobyl accident appears to be out of all proportion to the radiation induced health effects. The concept of stress is invoked to explain the widespread damage to general health and well-being. Stress can be defined as the process by which adverse mental experiences have negative effects on bodily functions. The mechanism is physiological, mediated through the autonomic nervous system and the endocrinological system. The International Chernobyl Project study was conducted by the International Advisory Committee in 1990 and published by the IAEA in 1991. The study found significant differences between 'contaminated' and 'clean' areas for symptoms attributable to stress; 45% (30% in 'clean' areas) of the people believed that they had an illness due to radiation exposure. The level of general health was found to be low and almost all ailments were attributed by the population to radiation. These effects (confirmed by other studies) were compounded by poor public understanding of radiation; initial secrecy; subsequent lack of effective communication; and the collapse of the centralize political and economic systems. Distrust of 'authorities' is widespread. One important study using a regression method has shown that 'economic situation' and 'attitude to the future' are better predictors of stress symptoms than contamination level. 61 refs, 2 tabs

  14. Chernobyl caesium distribution in two forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident on April 26, 1986, affected a considerable part of Europe, including the Romanian territory too. As part of the environment, the forests, covering up to 30 % area of Romania, were contaminated by the radionuclides resulting from Chernobyl nuclear accident. Being a source of radionuclides for intake and habitat for some critical groups and also a secondary source of contamination (resuspension, erosion), forest radioecology is an increasing research topic. The distribution of radiocaesium with depth was analysed in the brown-reddish forest type soil of two forests. The profile with depth and the specific activity of each layer permit the assessment of: total deposition, migration rate and diffusion coefficient for Cs-137 and also Cs-134. The total deposition of Cs-137 is about 47 kBq/m2 for Magurele area and about 14 kBq/m2 for Naipu forest. The migration rate is more than 10 times greater in Naipu forest as in Magurele forest. The diffusion coefficients are similar, about 0.2 cm2/an. (author)

  15. A hygienic appraisal of the effect of hard metals on the ecological situation in the zone of active influence of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are presented on the distribution of a soil pollution by lead in Ukraine. They allow one to ear-mark territories located along the 'western trace' of the Chernobyl outburst as the most polluted ones in comparison with background and pre-accident lead levels as well as with other territories of Ukraine. We mark the principle difference in size and composition of element associations in ground before and after the accident. The content of elements reaches ten background levels, their distribution over area cannot be described by the normal or lognormal law, i.e., it is nonequilibrium. Available element associations are not natural (Pb-Ba, Nb-Zr, etc.) and probably reflect the spectrum of elements which were dispersed during the Chernobyl accident and/or through the liquidation period and caused the pollution of territories

  16. Chernobyl: The true scale of the accident. 20 years later a UN report provides definitive answers and ways to repair lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authoritative figures regarding the effect of the Chernobyl accident presented in a landmark digest report, 'Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts', just released by the Chernobyl Forum. The digest, based on a three-volume, 600-page report and incorporating the work of hundreds of scientists, economists and health experts, assesses the 20-year impact of the largest nuclear accident in history. The Forum is made up of 8 UN specialized agencies, including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA), United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and the World Bank, as well as the governments of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. The Forum's report aims to help the affected countries understand the true scale of the accident consequences and also suggest ways the governments of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia might address major economic and social problems stemming from the accident. Members of the Forum, including representatives of the three governments, will meet September 6 and 7 in Vienna at an unprecedented gathering of the world's experts on Chernobyl, radiation effects and protection, to consider these findings and recommendations

  17. Teacher agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priestley, M.; Biesta, G.; Robinson, Sarah

    The concept of teacher agency has emerged in recent literature as an alternative means of understanding how teachers might enact practice and engage with policy (e.g. Lasky, 2005; Leander & Osbourne, 2008; Ketelaar et al., 2012; Priestley, Biesta & Robinson, 2013). But what is agency? Agency...... remains an inexact and poorly conceptualised construct in much of the literature, where it is often not clear whether the term refers to an individual capacity of teachers to act agentically or to an emergent ‘ecological’ phenomenon dependent upon the quality of individuals’ engagement with their...... environments (Biesta & Tedder, 2007). In this chapter, we outline the latter conception of agency, developing a conceptual model for teacher agency that emphasizes the temporal and relational dimension of the achievement of agency. Why does this matter? Recent curriculum policy in many countries heralds a [re...

  18. Advertising Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2015-01-01

    their clients, the advertisers, who are in search of customers for their goods and services. Agencies thus mediate between three different but interlocking social groups: industry, media, and consumers. The history of advertising is largely the history of the advertising agencies that have served the...... market segmentation. This article is concerned with the origins, early developments, organization, compensation arrangements, and accounts of contemporary full-service advertising agencies....

  19. From Chernobyl to Fukushima: the effect of low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Power Point presentation describes the Fukushima's reactors, recalls some data about the earthquake and tsunami, and indicates their consequences for the operation of the power station (notably the loss of cooling means). It identifies some design errors for the Chernobyl's and Fukushima's power stations, outlines differences between these two cases. It gives assessment of doses receives by external irradiation around Fukushima, of the dose rate evolution, of the sea contamination. It gives some data about the Chernobyl accident (radioactivity evolution). After some data about health consequences of Chernobyl, health risks and more particularly biological risks associated to low doses are described. Protection measures are evoked, as well as psycho-social impacts

  20. Fukushima and Chernobyl. A first comparison of health hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having evoked the heavy consequences of the Fukushima accident as an industrial disaster (destructions and reconstruction, dismantling costs), the author discusses the classification of this accident in comparison with that of Chernobyl in terms of radioactive releases and levels. He outlines the quality of decisions regarding emergency response regarding population rescue, protection and care. He discusses the medical and health consequences. He outlines the differences with the situation met on the Chernobyl site, comments the results of different health and epidemiological surveys performed about Chernobyl

  1. Radioactive iodine-131 over Taiwan after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two weeks after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, a substantial increase in radioactivity above normal background levels was observed in various samples taken in Taiwan, which is 7600 km from Chernobyl. The 131I concentrations in grass, rainwater, and milk were monitored continuously in succeeding weeks and correlations with weather conditions are discussed. Levels of radiation fallout over Taiwan due to the Chernobyl accident are much lower than the response levels recommended by local authorities and pose no danger to the public. (author)

  2. Mark Kostabi soovib muuta inimesi nnelikumaks / Kalev Mark Kostabi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kostabi, Kalev Mark, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Kalev Mark Kostabi oma sisekujunduslikest eelistustest, ameeriklaste ja itaallaste kodude sisekujunduse erinevustest, kunstist kui ruumikujunduse hest osast, oma New Yorgi ja Rooma korterite kujundusest

  3. Mark Kostabi soovib muuta inimesi õnnelikumaks / Kalev Mark Kostabi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kostabi, Kalev Mark, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Kalev Mark Kostabi oma sisekujunduslikest eelistustest, ameeriklaste ja itaallaste kodude sisekujunduse erinevustest, kunstist kui ruumikujunduse ühest osast, oma New Yorgi ja Rooma korterite kujundusest

  4. Chernobyl: disinformation. 2000 dead in Chernobyl: they were made by journalists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having briefly recalled the scenario which resulted in the Chernobyl accident, the differences between the Chernobyl reactor and the French graphite-based reactors, and that some modifications have been introduced in the alarm system of the Bugey reactor, the author reviews the chronology of events and information after the accident. He recalls the Soviet way to deal with the information, states that the authorities did not immediately understand the severity of the accident. He notably outlines and comments a statement reporting that 2.000 people died just after the accident. Thus, it appears that both sides could be criticized, the Russian side for its slow reaction, and the Western side for disinformation. He also denounces a fake documentary report made by a French journalist (images pretended to have been taken in Chernobyl had been in fact shot in an Italian factory). He also evokes the reactions of people in front of this kind information about risks of exposure. He analyses the content of an article written by a French journalist who denounced some kinds of plots elaborated by oil companies, by the USSR, by anti-nuclear activists

  5. Transformative Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Klaus

    The purpose of this paper is to enhance the conceptual understanding of the mediatory relationship between paradoxes on an organizational and an individual level. It presents a concept of agency that comprises and mediates between a structural and individual pole. The constitution of this agency is...

  6. Chernobyl liquidators. The people and the doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the data available from the scientific literature concerning clean-up workers, or so-called liquidators, of the Chernobyl accident. There are several different definitions of liquidators: Legal definitions of 'liquidators'. Their importance rests on the fact that some state Chernobyl registers are based on these definitions. Definitions from various scientific reports. Definitions for the purpose, which have been published in scientific papers and books. The simplified definition of liquidators would be people who were directly involved in clean-up operations in the exclusion zone in 1986-1991. Estimations of the number of liquidators vary from 100 000 to 800 000 people. Four major cohorts of liquidators are now split among Russia (168,000 people), Belarus (63,500 people), Ukraine (123,536 people) and the Baltic States (about 15,000 people from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania). The definition of liquidator and the formation of cohort are the most critical factor in liquidator-related studies and not enough attention is paid to this matter by researchers. The term 'liquidator' describes a very heterogeneous group of people. Liquidators may be grouped according to work performed in the exclusion zone or affiliation to various organisations. The majority of liquidators in 1986-1987 were conscripts and reservists of the Soviet Union Army. According to data from Russian National Medical and Dosimetric Registry, 76% of liquidators were 25-39 years old at the moment of arrival to the Chernobyl area. Only about 1% of liquidators was women. From the results of biodosimetry we know that the average accumulated dose estimation for the liquidator group is about 0.2 Gy. The official documented average dose from the Russian National Medical Dosimetric Registry is 0.13 Gy. However, the liquidator group contains some overexposed subgroups with a higher accumulated dose. Individual dosimetry is only available for small subgroups of liquidators, mostly professionals in radiation protection and specialised military units. These individuals do not, however, feature in most liquidator studies. Any epidemiological or medical follow-up to liquidators can only be successful if the relatively small groups of people with doses higher than 0.25 Gy can be identified. They are unlikely to exceed 7% of all liquidators. (author)

  7. Seeing the invisible laser markings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser markings are widely used for identification and traceability. With the miniaturization of semiconductor devices, material removal in conventional deep laser markings is undesirable as it could cause contamination. Shallow laser markings 1-6 ?m in depth could be produced by melting and reshaping the material, with virtually no material removal, no debris and vapour free. However, with material modification, the planarity of the wafer is no longer maintained. We demonstrate here the production of 'invisible' laser markings with no material removal, no debris and vapour free and undetectable material modification. These 'invisible' markings were undetectable using sophisticated instruments, but they could be made clearly visible to our unaided naked eyes through the difference in condensation between the laser-marked and unmarked areas. (fast track communication)

  8. Diplomatic agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    diplomatic agency has been conceptualized in International Relations theory (English School, game theory, Foreign Policy Analysis, constructivism, practice theory, post-positivism) before presenting and exemplifying major and overlapping types of diplomatic agency, including communication, negotiation and......Diplomatic agency is intriguing. On the one hand, diplomats are crucial to the management of day-to-day international relations and the negotiation of war and peace. On the other hand, most diplomatic action is highly constrained or invisible. This chapter provides an overview of the ways in which...... advocacy. It analyzes how professionalization, legalization, personalization and popularization of diplomacy have shaped diplomatic agency including how international law, bureaucracy, public diplomacy and new information technologies have impacted the scope and content of diplomatic agency. Finally, it...

  9. Radioactivity of eggs due to the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident wash-out of radionuclides and deposition on vegetation caused a distinct increase of radioactivity of eggs. Exposure of the consumers of contaminated eggs was insignificant. (orig.)

  10. Perspective view of industrial disasters: (was Chernobyl the worst. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, V.C.

    1988-02-01

    The paper surveys past industrial disasters and answers the question: ''was Chernobyl the worst.''. The disasters with which Chernobyl is compared are: Oppau, Germany (1921), Cleveland, U.S.A. (1944), Lugwigshafen (1948), Aberfan, U.K. (1966), Seveso, Italy (1976), Three Mile Island, U.S.A., (1979), Mississauga, Canada (1979), Mexico City, Mexico (1984), Bhopal, India (1984) and Basle, Switzerland (1986). Immediate fatalities as a measure of disaster, delayed fatalities, physical injuries as a measure, individual and societal shock, long term public anxiety, disruption of way of life, environmental damage, and property damage and other financial loss, are all discussed. The survey shows that if dominant criteria are those of death and injury then Chernobyl was not the worst. However, if environmental damage, financial loss, creation of public anxiety and disruption of way of life were dominant criteria, then Chernobyl could be rated the worst.

  11. A perspective view of industrial disasters: (was Chernobyl the worst?)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper surveys past industrial disasters and answers the question: ''was Chernobyl the worst?''. The disasters with which Chernobyl is compared are: Oppau, Germany (1921), Cleveland, U.S.A. (1944), Lugwigshafen (1948), Aberfan, U.K. (1966), Seveso, Italy (1976), Three Mile Island, U.S.A., (1979), Mississauga, Canada (1979), Mexico City, Mexico (1984), Bhopal, India (1984) and Basle, Switzerland (1986). Immediate fatalities as a measure of disaster, delayed fatalities, physical injuries as a measure, individual and societal shock, long term public anxiety, disruption of way of life, environmental damage, and property damage and other financial loss, are all discussed. The survey shows that if dominant criteria are those of death and injury then Chernobyl was not the worst. However, if environmental damage, financial loss, creation of public anxiety and disruption of way of life were dominant criteria, then Chernobyl could be rated the worst. (UK)

  12. Chernobyl: four years later: attitudes, risk management and communication

    OpenAIRE

    Pligt, van der, J.; Midden, C.H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the impact that the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl has had on risk management and risk communication in relation to risk perception; decisions and coping with uncertainty; and public opinion, personal attitudes, and public policy.

  13. Chernobyl accidents, its consequences and problems of its mitigations. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems discussed were devoted to: 1. Medical and biological aspects of the accident. 2. Agricultural works at contaminated territories. 3. Monitoring of contaminated regions. 4. Decontamination and safety of Chernobyl zone objects. 5. Social, economic and general problems

  14. Modeling the Dispersal and Deposition of Radionuclides: Lessons from Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ApSimon, H. M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Described are theoretical models that simulate the dispersion of radionuclides on local and global scales following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Discusses the application of these results to nuclear weapons fallout. (CW)

  15. Eesti vajab riigiarhitekti / Mark Soosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    2006-01-01

    Linnade tekkimisest Eestis, linnaehitusest ja linnaplaneerimisest. Prnu muinsuskaitsealast ja uute korruselamute ehitamisest. Arhitektuuriameti loomise ja riigiarhitekti ametikoha vajalikkusest. Kommenteerivad lar Mark, Triin Ojari, Harry Liivrand, Karin Paulus

  16. Comparisons of the emissions in the Windscale and Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents are summarized under the following headings: 1) Windscale accident summary 2) Emission of 137Cs from Windscale 3) Emission of other fission products from Windscale 4) Environmental effects - iodine 5) Environmental effects - caesium. A bibliography is attached and where figures are available, comparisons are made with the Chernobyl fallout, including thyroid iodine burdens for U.K. students who were in Russia at the time of the Chernobyl accident, and milk measurements of Caesium 137 in the U.K. (UK)

  17. Mental health of liquidators of the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our study was to characterize the clinical and psychological aspects of the Chernobyl disaster-related mental disorders. We evaluated both clinically and psychologically four hundred and fifty patients who were exposed to low doses of radiation resulting from the Chernobyl disaster. They did not suffer from radiation sickness. The investigations started four years after the catastrophe took place in 1990 and continue to the present day. (orig.)

  18. About Chernobyl - Twenty Years Later; Propos sur Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tubiana, M

    2006-07-01

    The author discusses the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the information on its consequences so contradictory in the former USSR countries, the status of the effects observed, the forecasting concerning the onset of cancers in the coming years among the populations that were exposed to radiations, the public opinion facing the pessimists. He concludes on the lessons which can be drawn from Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

  19. Chernobyl as viewed from the 90's [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is admitted in this film that after the Chernobyl accident there was a lot of unnecessary secrecy which created a great deal of confusion among the public. The film shows the investigations within the reactor and the efforts undertaken to put the remnants of the reactor into a safe state, including the construction of the sarcophagus which was built around it. The film also presents the radiological environmental monitoring, as well as the health aspects of Chernobyl

  20. Distribution and migration of Chernobyl accident release products in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article summarize a study of the Chernobyl atomic power plant accident release product densities in the soil of residential sites of Astravets and Diatlovo regions of Byelorusia neighbouring with Lithuania. The measurements have been carried out in 1980-1991. The work also presents the vertical profiles of Chernobyl accident release products in soil with a different extent of radioactive pollution. (author). 3 tabs., 2 figs

  1. Health consequences of Chernobyl. 25 years after the reactor catastrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is an evaluation of studies indicating health effects as a consequence of the reactor catastrophe in Chernobyl. The most exposed population include the cleaning personnel (liquidators), the population evacuated from the 30 km zone, the populations in highly contaminated regions in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, the European population in lass contaminated regions. The following issues are discussed: the liquidators, infant mortality, genetic and teratogenic damages, thyroid carcinoma and other thyroid diseases, carcinogenic diseases and leukemia, other diseases following the Chernobyl catastrophe.

  2. Chernobyl and the safety of nuclear reactors in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report assesses the possible bearing of the Chernobyl accident on the safety of nuclear reactors in OECD countries. It discusses analyses of the accident performed in several countries as well as improvements to the safety of RBMK reactors announced by the USSR. Several remaining questions are identified. The report compares RBMK safety features with those of commercial reactors in OECD countries and evaluates a number of issues raised by the Chernobyl accident

  3. Chernobyl - Fukushima. Comparison of public reactions to nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 2011 Japan faced Chernobyl-like crisis after the accident at the nuclear power plant 'Fukushima-1'. Despite the differences in mentality, cultural traditions and technology development, public reactions to nuclear disaster consequences and actions of the governments in this situation were similar. System actions taken by the Belarusian state to overcome the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe are highly appreciated by Japan at all levels. (authors)

  4. Conception of the fire warning system in the Chernobyl zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classification of fire danger and radiation factors in the Chernobyl zone presented. Scenaries of fire emergence and aerial migration of radionuclides in the evacuation zone are analyzed with estimation of radiation conditions. Based on the analysis of fire risk in Chernobyl NPP zone a new conception of the fire warning system is suggested. A version of the block diagram of the system is presented and its composing units as well as conditions and the field of practical use are described

  5. Chernobyl-related Bladder Lesions: New Interpretation Required

    OpenAIRE

    Sergei V Jargin

    2014-01-01

    Some aspects of practical pathology in the former Soviet Union, having a potential impact on the diagnostic quality, as well as possible mechanisms of false-positive diagnostics of malignant and premalignant lesions after the Chernobyl accident were discussed previously. In particular, overdiagnosis appears probable in regard to the bladder lesions detected in the radio-contaminated areas. Some studies on the post-Chernobyl bladder lesions are valuable but require new interpretation. [J Inter...

  6. Proceedings of the international symposium on post-Chernobyl environmental radioactivity studies in East European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident on 26th April 1986 reminded the world that the threat coming from nuclear power-plants is not fictitious. The societies of the neighbouring countries suffered a real shock caused not only by the accident itself, but also by the fact that information was restricted and hardly available. Even now, our knowledge about the scale and consequences of the accident is limited. After the accident many international organizations and institutions dealing with environment protection and others started to investigate different aspects of this case. As a result of this interest, many symposia and conferences have been organized. The aim has been not only to estimate the consequences of this single case, to investigate the level of environment protection or to elaborate the new, better methods of environment monitoring. Also moral, legal and psychological aspects of the situation are being investigated. The territory of Poland, lying close to the accident place, suffered its direct influence. Thus, not only government and scientific institutions deal with the subject, but there is also a growing interest of the society, which demands more and more reliable information about the Chernobyl accident effects. Many Central- and East-European countries are in similar situation. Following general interest of Chernobyl accident effects, the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin (Poland) and the Jozef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana (Yugoslavia) organized on 17-19th September 1990 in Kazimierz on the Vistula (Poland) a joint international conference having the character of workshop. The conference was organized on the basis of already existing scientific collaboration of these institutions with the co-operation of the European Community (Brussels, Belgium) and International Atomic Energy Agency (Vienna, Austria)

  7. Radiological exposure of the population around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1991 to 1993 German scientists carried out a measuring programme to determine the radiation exposure in the areas of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. Several German scientific institutions were involved in these investigations. The project started in May 1991 with 22 vehicles operating in the highly contaminated areas. By the end, more than 300 000 individuals, about 6000 environmental samples and 7000 personal dosemeters had been measured. The incorporated activity for 98% of all individuals investigated was low and gave no cause for concern. In 2% of all cases an activity was found which was significantly higher but never exceeded the professional annual intake limits set by ICRP. The maximum value of the 10-year effective dose since 1986 - averaged for each of the 240 settlements investigated - was assussed as 100 mSv. (orig./MG)

  8. Worldwide radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of the entire world population to radiation resulting from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident has been evaluated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The evaluation accounted for measurement results reported from 34 countries to establish the pattern of transfer during the first year after the accident; the report used fallout measurement experience to make a projection of doses to be received from continued exposure, primarily to 137Cs. On the basis of transfer factors derived from this information and of 137Cs deposition measured or estimated in all regions of the Northern Hemisphere, the collective effective dose equivalent commitment has been estimated. The result is 600,000 man.Sv, with 53% of this to be received in Europe and 36% in the USSR. (The two areas were measured separately.) (author). 2 refs, 3 tabs

  9. The Chernobyl accident - five years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the fifth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident the initial situation at that time, the control of the consequences to Austria in the present light, as well as the knowledge gained from the accident and its consequences are described. A final estimate and appraisal of the total population dose by the accident alloted according to the individual exposure pathways and the dose reductions due to countermeasures by the authorities are given. The dose reduction in the following years is described. Five years later the external exposure was reduced to about 6 % of the values of the first year, the ingestion dose to about 5 % of the first-year-values. Finally, the current radiation situation is described and the dose contribution by foodstuff with elevated activity concentration is estimated. Also the consequences from the experience and knowledge obtained by the accident are described. (author)

  10. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor accident at unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine has deeply affected the living conditions of millions of people. Especially the health consequences have been of public concern up to the present and also been the subject of sometimes absurd claims. The current knowledge on the radiological consequences of the accident is reviewed. Though an increased hazard for some risk groups with high radiation exposure, e.g., liquidators, still cannot be totally excluded for the future, the majority of the population shows no statistically significant indication of radiation-induced illnesses. The contribution of the Research Center Juelich to the assessment of the post-accidental situation and psychological relief of the population is reported. The population groups still requiring special attention include, in particular, children growing up in highly contaminated regions and the liquidators of the years 1986 and 1987 deployed immediately after the accident. (author)

  11. Chernobyl fallout measurements in some Mediterranean biotas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity of various terrestrial vegetation leaves characteristic of Mediterranean countries was measured after the Chernobyl accident. Particular attention was paid to lichens and seaweed which are considered as bioindicators of radioactive contamination. The concentration of long-lived fission nuclides remaining three months after the accident were found to be enhanced in needle form leaves and lichens. The seaweed Sphaerococcus exhibits a strong specific activity for iodine and ruthenium elements and poor concentration for caesium nuclides. The activity ratios of different isotopes of the same element measured in vegetation samples agreed well with values found in airborne aerosols by other authors. The activation nuclide 110mAg was found in all samples with the same ratio as in the soil deposition (110mAg/137Cs = (1.0 0.2) x 10-2). 13 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  12. Chernobyl: Symptom of a worrying psychological epidemic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl psychological epidemic was already latent well prior to 1986 fully broke out after the accident, and continues to spread. It must be halted. But how can we counter a belief which has taken on the appearance of reality. It is the unknown, linked to alarming symbols, which sustains fear. To get beyond this state, radioactivity, ionizing radiation and nuclear energy have to become as ordinary as air travel and electronic calculators. In a climate of confidence and openness, it should be possible to successfully communicate several solid scientific reference points by first targeting teachers, doctors, and journalists. Thirty years ago, nuclear energy was presented as a universal panacea (clean, safe, and renewable). Now things have swung to the other extreme, and it is presented as diabolical. We have shifted from a symbolically white level to a symbolically black level, and both are misleading. It is high time to rejoin the world of facts, a world full of shades of gray

  13. Observations on radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary study of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident for the Department of the Environment was started in June 1986 which involved taking on an opportunistic basis, samples of air, rain, grass and soil in the UK. This study was integrated into a programme of other investigations funded by the Departments of Health and Social Security and of Energy including measurements on people, in air, deposition and soil overseas, on deposition to buildings and the derivation where possible of parameters of interest in accident assessment. This report is a comprehensive account of all these initial investigations and presented in fulfilment of the Preliminary Study under DoE contract PECD 7/9/359. (author)

  14. The consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the decay of the iodine isotopes the measuring campaigns, in addition to the measuring of soil pollution and pollution of products, concentrated on the way of the cesium isotopes through the food chain, especially in crops, milk, meat and mother's milk. A special programme was developed for the analysis of foreign basic substances for teas, essences and tinctures. In connection with the incorporation measurements in the university hospital Eppendorf the measurement campaigns provided the data material in order to calculate with the aid of the computer program ECOSYS of the GSF the effective dose equivalent which the inhabitants of Hamburg additionally take up due to the accident of Chernobyl. Consequences with regard to measuring methods and social consequences are mentioned. (DG)

  15. Psychosocial effects of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    The psychological factors surrounding the Chernobyl disaster include the sudden trauma of evacuation, long-term effects of being a refugee, disruption of social networks, illness, separation and its effects on families, children's perception and effects on their development and the threat of a long-term consequence with an endless future. Added to this was the breakdown of the Soviet Union with consequent collapse of health services, increasing poverty and malnutrition. These complexities made necessary new individual and social treatment methods developed in UNESCO Community Centres, within which some positives have resulted, such as the development of individual and group self help and the professions of counselling, social work and community development, practices which did not previously exist in the Soviet Union. PMID:17370858

  16. Spa treatment of Chernobyl liquidators in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the first experience gained in the use of the unique climate and spa of the Dead Sea for the treatment and rehabilitation of the Chernobyl liquidators at clinic near the city of Arad. Ninety-six patients were treated in Israel, in 40 of these radiation was the etiological factor of the disease: consequences of acute and chronic radiation disease, the astheno-neurotic syndrome, discirculatory encephalopathy, subatrophic laryngopharyngitis, and obstructive bronchitis. Eighty-eight patients had direct indications for treatment at the Dad Sea; locomotory, respiratory, and skin diseases. The course of treatment included the Dad Sea baths, mud applications, sun baths, climatotherapy, physiotherapy, massage, bioenergy therapy, inhalations, moisturizing creams, etc. An appreciable improvement with resolution of the principal symptoms was attained in 82% of patients, in 13% improvement with a significant abatement of the symptoms was achieved, whereas in 5% no apparent results were seen

  17. Public relations and the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991-1993, a large-scale measuring programme was carried out in Germany to assess the radiation burden of the population in regions polluted due to the Chernobyl accident. The primary goal was to objectively inform the population about their actual radiation exposure, to reduce unjustified fears, and to enable countermeasures to be taken where appropriate. A comprehensive overview of the radiation situation was thus also obtained in the regions examined. Channels were sought and found in order to communicate with the more than 250 000 individuals involved in the programme as well as with scientific institutions and the public. Direct communication of the results to the persons examined by means of a certificate including a short explanation proved to be essential to create an atmosphere of trust. (P.A.)

  18. Chernobyl and consequences for the Soviet agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The region within a radius of 30 km around the Chernobyl reactor was declared a safety zone, from where people and livestock were evacuated. In this zone agricultural activities were stopped temporarily. The losses to Soviet agriculture are surprinsingly low, the reason being that in the Soviet Union radioactivity hazards are rated differently than in western countries. The Soviet radiation protection standards for man are accordingly. They allow a total body burden of 500 mrem a year, and a thyroid burden for children of 30 mrem. It is obvious that the authorities keep the quantitative losses for agriculture down. Of greater consequence could be the qualitative losses in so far as the soil of a large area will be contaminated on a long-term basis, radioactive contaminated crops have been and will continue to be harvested and fed, and contaminated food is and will be eaten. (orig./HSCH)

  19. Impact on London of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation levels in London following the Chernobyl accident have been measured and are reported. The sampling programme of atmospheric dusts, water and milk is detailed. A few other items, eg food and ships arriving at Tilbury and Sheerness were also tested. The counting techniques are given. The results show that at its peak the additional activity contributed by the inhalation of the debris probably increased the radiation dose to an individual in London by about 40% of the natural dose for that period. The increased activity in milk gave rise to an additional dose and may continue to do so. However, the radioactive debris from the fallout was much less in London than other parts of the UK. (U.K.)

  20. Economical aspects of the Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technique to evaluate the economical damage resulted from the radioactive contamination of the agricultural territories was developed. The technique studies the economical damage as an integrity of losses in the cost value caused to the agricultural and national economy taken as a whole as a result of contamination of agricultural lands by radionuclides, as well as, additional costs to compensate for those losses, to eliminate the accident effects and to ensure normal activity of agroindustrial production including provision of favorable conditions for life and activity of the rural population. The economical damage resulted from the Chernobyl accident in six South-West areas of the Bryansk region during 1986-1990 was estimated according to the given technique

  1. Radiant smiles everywhere - before the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The business reports presented by the Federal German electric utilities for 1985 are almost all simply brillant. Electricity consumption has been going up, some of the utilities even can boast about rates kept constant over the year. But before the printed business reports could be presented to the meetings of shareholders, a nasty cloud threw a dark shadow over all the brilliant results. The Chernobyl accident made some of the hymns over the nuclear electricity increases and nuclear power in general sound rather queer. Could we do without this energy source. Substituting nuclear power would yearly require: 28 million t of oil, or 41 million t of hard coal, or 142 million t of browncoal, or 38 thousand million cubic metres of natural gas. Extrapolating current conditions and assuming best achievements, renewable energy sources might be able to meet 6 p.c. of the primary energy demands by the year 2000. (orig./HP)

  2. Molecular characteristics of the Chernobyl thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Since a phenomenon of radiation-induced Chernobyl thyroid cancer has been recognized, a number of investigations have been undertaken to elucidate the distinctive molecular features of human thyroid cancer of radiation etiology. Most of the studies examined mutational and expression characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) developed in children and adolescents who were residents of territories in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout. Rearrangement-type alterations of RET/PTC family have been found at a very high rate accounting for 49-87% of studied cases that is generally higher than in spontaneous PTC series. Among the rearrangement types, the most common RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 displayed a definite association with PTC latency and histological type of a tumor. RET/PTC3 was predominant in PTCs developed during the first decade after the accident and correlated with the solid morphology. Higher RET/PTC1 prevalence has been documented in the cases diagnosed later on; the tumors largely had classic papillary histotype. In addition, several non-conventional RET/PTC rearrangements have been described in radiation-related PTCs suggestive of a possible link between the generation of a rearrangement and radiation exposure. Another molecular event, an activating missense point mutation of BRAF gene, is frequently registered in PTCs. Consistently with observations in spontaneous cases, Chernobyl PTCs showed a clear age-correlated trend of mutant BRAF prevalence. Mutations are nearly exclusively found in adult patients being exceptionally rare in youngsters. In Chernobyl PTCs we found a significant difference in the mutation prevalence between childhood/adolescent and adult patient groups. Mutations of other genes implicated in thyroid carcinogenesis, such as of members of RAS and RAF families, Gsa, TP53 and some others did not display mutational patterns significantly differing between radiation-induced and spontaneous PTCs. As a whole, besides of some particular correlations, mutational and expression studies have not resulted in an identification of a distinctive molecular signature that might unambiguously be associated with radiation-induced thyroid tumors. To further improve our understanding of the basics of radiogenic cancer, an attempt was done to examine individual genetic characteristics of patients with radiation-associated PTCs. In a pilot study, we profiled a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several genes whose products are involved in the DNA damage pathway, TP53, ATM and HDM2. As a result, several SNPs displaying a significant association with radiation-related or spontaneous adult or childhood PTC have been documented. These findings demonstrate that molecular epidemiology approaches hold a promise in the problem of detection of the genetic traits potentially contributing to or modifying susceptibility to radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis in humans. Purposeful expansion of the molecular targets to be profiled in corresponding series may be of importance for identification of groups of radiation risk

  3. Medical demographic consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A demographic study was made of the population evacuated from the 30-km zone around the nuclear power plant and of the population living in areas over which the radioactive cloud passed and over which the plume was formed. For the farmers evacuated from 11,655 homes in the Chernobyl region, 7,000 new houses, built in the Kiev region, had already been provided within 5 months of the accident, and by the summer of 1987 another 5,000 houses were available. A study of the resettlement of the population carried out a year after the accident showed that more than 60% of those evacuated continued to live in the regions from which the evacuation had taken place; about 5% were resettled in other republics, and 20% within their own republic. (author). 7 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Fuel particles still dominate the Chernobyl scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uniqueness of the Chernobyl accident in 1986 from an environmental perspective lay in the fact that so much radioactive material was discharged to atmosphere in the form of solid particles of fuel ('hot particles'). Intact fuel particles can still be found on land in Belarus and Ukraine even ten years after the accident. On undisturbed land, there has been little downward migration and most of the particles and radionuclides leached from them are still within about 5 cm of the soil surface. For a given level of deposition, the soil-to-plant transfer on particle-contaminated land has apparently been less than where the radionuclides came from weapons fallout or were applied in aqueous solutions in controlled experiments. Soon after the accident, it was shown that radioisotopes of cesium and strontium would be leached at similar rates. However, the strontium would become increasingly available for root-uptake, but, on most soils, the cesium would be rapidly 'fixed' and its availability for root-uptake by plants would be limited. This indeed has proved to be the case. 137Cs levels in grass and arable crops have remained roughly constant since about 1990, but 90Sr levels have shown a consistent yearly increase. The presence of fuel particles on land inside a 30 km restriction zone around Chernobyl site will be a major consideration in any planning of land reclamation. Even beyond the 30 km zone, the presence of fuel particles is an important factor to consider in radioecological research, environmental monitoring, and remediation. (author) 2 tabs., 25 refs

  5. Editorial: Thyroid cancer and the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl power station nearly 10 years ago was unprecedented in the exposure of a very large population to high levels of fallout including high levels of isotopes of iodine, predominantly 131I. An increase in incidence of childhood thyroid cancer was first observed in 1990 in Belarus and in the Ukraine, and the first reports in the Western literature were published in 1992. At a symposium in Nagasaki in June 1994, the numbers of cases that had occurred between 1990 and 1993 in Belarus, a country with a population of just over 10 million, was reported to be 233, and in the heavily contaminated northern parts of the Ukraine, with a population of about 7 million, 36 cases occurred in the same period. To put these figures into perspective, the number of childhood thyroid cancers registered in England and Wales over a 30-year period was 154, an average of 5 cases per yr in a population of 50 million people, with about 10 million children under 15 yr of age. The initial reports of such a great increase in childhood thyroid cancers in the areas exposed to fallout from Chernobyl were at first greeted in the West with some skepticism. The latent period between exposure and development of thyroid cancer was surprisingly short, based on experience with thyroid carcinomas developing after external radiation to the neck. The reliability of the figures based on the pathological diagnosis was questioned because the cases had not been confirmed by Western pathologists, and because the known high frequency of papillary microcarcinoms in adults raised the possibility that the reported incidence was resulted form increased ascertainment and not a true increase in incidence. 14 refs

  6. Nuclear safety in France after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study looks at the organization of nuclear reactor safety in France, French nuclear reactor safety philosophy, and the French response to the accident at the Chernobyl reactor in the USSR. The civil nuclear power program aims to obtain a third of all energy resources from nuclear power by 1990. The regulatory function is carried out by the Service central de surete des installations nucleaires (SCSIN). Safety analyses for the licensing process are prepared by EDF, reviewed by an independent body, and approved by SCSIN. The minister of the Department of Industry is advised by a body having no equivalent in Canada, the Conseil Superieur de la surete nucleaire, a group of 'wise people' comprising persons chosen for their prestige within their fields. SCSIN shares the responsibility for informing the public on nuclear safety with the Department of Energy, EDF, and CEA. Emergency situations are handled by the Department of Internal Affairs, which takes advice from the departments of industry, health and defence. The French philosophy on nuclear safety is similar to the one that can be found in Canada and other Western countries. Design is based on 'defence-in-depth'. Strong quality control is exercised. Problems related to the application of these principles include frequency and consequence limits on postulated severe accidents; classification of accidents for design purposes; use of probabilistic methods; special procedures for mitigating consequences of non-design-base accidents; and measures to decrease the frequency and severity of human errors. French experts are convinced that no accident as serious as Chernobyl can occur in France; however, measures are being taken to improve the overall safety of nuclear power stations. Major efforts are being devoted to informing the public on all matters relating to nuclear energy in order to regain support for the nuclear program

  7. Twenty years since the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty years have elapsed since the tragic accident that occurred on April 26, 1986 at Chernobyl. Then the dimensions of the explosion of the reactor no 4 horrified the people all over the globe. The event's consequences many times more severe than those of the atomic bombs used in 1945, shocked every member of the human society. Unfortunately, the excessive dramatic covering by media of these effects was and still is used by the opponents of nuclear energy when fighting to rule this technology out of the energy mix. The beginning of the third millennium has highlighted a severe want of nuclear power capacities necessary to fulfill the ever increasing needs for energy. An ever growing pollution due to release into the environment of additional amounts of greenhouse effect gases resulted in regional and global climate changes that cause disasters and calamities. Experts from the World Energy Council, USA State Department of Energy, OECD, AIE, IAEA, etc, demonstrated that there are no grounds to rule the nuclear power out of the list of industrial technologies for electricity generation. The economic and nuclear safety effects and results of the new generations of the nuclear power plants have tremendously improved and their competitiveness and performances are beyond doubt. The Chernobyl lesson has revealed that knowing and telling the whole truth is the only way to regain the population's trust, the key factor in the further development of nuclear energy in our world. Considering this situation the saying 'Who does not understand the issue, is against it' needs no comment

  8. Chernobyl caesium distribution in two forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident on April 26, 1986 affected a considerable part of Europe, including the Romanian territory too. The soil acts as an integrator and the main part of the received radionuclides remains here. However, due to diffusion, leaching and runoff, activity of living organisms in soil, human activity and different other factors, the deposited radionuclides on the soil surface can be removed from the original deposition areas. Mainly, the transport of Cs-137 from soil to other environmental factors is intensively studied having in view the natural resource exploitation in radioactive contaminated areas, this radionuclide being one of the most important radioisotopes released by earlier nuclear weapon tests and nuclear accidents. Generally, migration rates of radionuclides in soil are evaluated by column and percolation experiments, in controlled conditions and using well-defined concentrations of the radionuclide. As part of the environment, the forests have been contaminated up to a depth of 30 cm by the radionuclides resulting from Chernobyl nuclear accident. As the forest is a source of radionuclides for intake and habitat for some critical groups and also a secondary source of contamination (resuspension, erosion), its radioecology became an increasing research topic. The depth distribution of radiocaesium was analysed in the brown-reddish forest type soil of two forests. The depth profile and the specific activity of each layer permit the assessment of total deposition, migration rate and diffusion coefficient for Cs-137 and Cs-134. The total deposition of Cs-137 is about 47 kBq/m2 for Magurele area and about 14 kBq/m2 for Naipu forest. The migration rate is more than 10 times higher in Naipu forest as compared to Magurele forest. The diffusion coefficients are similar, namely about 0.2 cm2/year. (authors)

  9. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental health problems like depression in Fukushima patients. (note)

  10. Investigation on the causes and consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fully ten years have passed since Chernobyl accident. The worst incident in history occurred in Reactor No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. The cause of the accident was an overlap of the defects in the safety of nuclear reactor and serious violations of rules by its operators. However we can no longer deny the fact that people who suspect the safety of nuclear power generation have increased since the accident. It is likely that such tendency attributes to the information from the mass media intending to exaggerate the accident. So, the author attempted to further investigate the Chernobyl accident upon the tenth year after the accident aiming to promote the people's porper understanding on nuclear power generation. Previously, various measures for accident prevention have been taken in nuclear power stations not to actualize the potential troubles. Citing some examples the author demonstrated that any accidient such as Chernobyl accident never happen when at least one of the multiple measures for accident prevention which are taken on a basis of the concept of defense in depth is not broken. On the other hand, the people are exposed to many kinds of unexpected damages due to accidents or disasters in the daily life. The influences of Chernobyl accident on health were compared to those of accidents and disasters which we may daily encounter, in respect of lifetime detriment. And the lifetime detriment of Chernobyl accident was found to be similar or even smaller than that due to the car accidents in Japan. (M.N.)

  11. Agency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting, and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex ...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism.......Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting, and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...

  12. Agency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex a...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism.......Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...

  13. Radioecological transfer of {sup 137}Cs from ground deposition to man from Chernobyl debris and from nuclear weapons fallout in different Swedish populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeaef, C.L. [Malmoe Univ. Hospital, Lund Univ., Dept. of Radiation Physics, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    A comparison of the estimated committed effective dose per unit activity deposition on ground was made between different critical groups in Sweden. The time-integrated aggregate transfer of {sup 137}Cs for the global fallout was 2-3 times higher than from Chernobyl debris for Swedish urban populations. For reindeer herders this difference is even more marked, with a factor of three to four higher time-integrated transfer factor of nuclear weapons fallout. Considering the transfer of Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs debris the time-integrated transfer factor appears to be more than 25 times higher for reindeer herders in Sweden than for the urban reference groups. An even more pronounced relative difference between the time integrated aggregate transfer was observed between reindeer herders and urban reference populations for the pre-Chernobyl fallout (a factor of 30). The projected committed effective dose from internal contamination of Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs per unit activity deposition is observed to be 2030 {mu}Sv/kBq m{sup -2}. The highest values in Sweden are obtained for reindeer herders with an estimated radioecological transfer of 0.5 mSv/kBq m{sup -2}. (au)

  14. Radioecological transfer of 137Cs from ground deposition to man from Chernobyl debris and from nuclear weapons fallout in different Swedish populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of the estimated committed effective dose per unit activity deposition on ground was made between different critical groups in Sweden. The time-integrated aggregate transfer of 137Cs for the global fallout was 2-3 times higher than from Chernobyl debris for Swedish urban populations. For reindeer herders this difference is even more marked, with a factor of three to four higher time-integrated transfer factor of nuclear weapons fallout. Considering the transfer of Chernobyl 137Cs debris the time-integrated transfer factor appears to be more than 25 times higher for reindeer herders in Sweden than for the urban reference groups. An even more pronounced relative difference between the time integrated aggregate transfer was observed between reindeer herders and urban reference populations for the pre-Chernobyl fallout (a factor of 30). The projected committed effective dose from internal contamination of Chernobyl 137Cs per unit activity deposition is observed to be 2030 μSv/kBq m-2. The highest values in Sweden are obtained for reindeer herders with an estimated radioecological transfer of 0.5 mSv/kBq m-2. (au)

  15. Classifying sea lamprey marks on Great Lakes lake trout: Observer agreement, evidence on healing times between classes, and recommendations for reporting of marking statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebener, M.P.; Bence, J.R.; Bergstedt, R.A.; Mullett, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    In 1997 and 1998 two workshops were held to evaluate how consistent observers were at classifying sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) marks on Great Lakes lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) as described in the King classification system. Two trials were held at each workshop, with group discussion between trials. Variation in counting and classifying marks was considerable, such that reporting rates for A1-A3 marks varied two to three-fold among observers of the same lake trout. Observer variation was greater for classification of healing or healed marks than for fresh marks. The workshops highlighted, as causes for inconsistent mark classification, both departures from the accepted protocol for classifying marks by some agencies, and differences in how sliding and multiple marks were interpreted. Group discussions led to greater agreement in classifying marks. We recommend ways to improve the reliability of marking statistics, including the use of a dichotomous key to classify marks. Laboratory data show that healing times of marks on lake trout were much longer at 4??C and 1??C than at 10??C and varied greatly among individuals. Reported A1-A3 and B1-B3 marks observed in late summer and fall collections likely result from a mixture of attacks by two year classes of sea lamprey. It is likely that a substantial but highly uncertain proportion of attacks that occur in late summer and fall lead to marks that are classified as A1-A3 the next spring. We recommend additional research on mark stage duration.

  16. Chernobyl, 13 years after; Tchernobyl, 13 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regniault-Lacharme, Mireille; Metivier, Henri [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1999-04-01

    This is an annual report, regularly issued by IPSN, that presents the ecological and health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. The present status of the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant, which Ukraine engaged to stop definitively in year 2000, is summarized. The only reactor unit now in operation is Chernobylsk-3 Reactor which poses two safety questions: evolution of cracks in part of the tubing and behaviour of the pressure tubes. Although, some improvements in the RBMK reactor types were introduced, problems remain that make IPSN to stress the requirement of stopping this NPP completely. In the contaminated territories surrounding Chernobyl incidence rate of infant thyroid cancers continues to grow, reaching values 10 to 100 times higher than the natural rate. In France the IPSN analyzed 60,000 records carried out in 17 sites during May 1986 and April 1989. It was estimated that the individual dose received during 60 years (1986-2046) by the inhabitants of the most affected zone (eastern France) is lower than 1.5 mSv, a value lower than 1% of the natural cosmic and telluric radioactivity exposure for the same period. For the persons assumed to live in the most attacked forests (from eastern France) and nourishing daily with venison and mushrooms the highest estimate is 1 mSv a year. Concerning the 'hot spots', identified in mountains by IPSN and CRIIRAD, the doses received by excursionists are around 0.015 mSv. For an average inhabitant of the country the dose piled up in the thyroid due to iodine-131 fallout is estimated to 0.5-2 mSv for an adult and 6.5-16 mSv for an infant. These doses are 100 to 1000 times lower than the ones to which the infants living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl are exposed to. The contents of the report is displayed in the following six chapters: 1. Chernobyl in some figures; 2. The 'sarcophagus' and the reactors of the Chernobyl NPP; 3. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident;. 4. The impact of Chernobyl fallout in France; 5. Chernobyl's environment and the management of contaminated territories.; 6. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl.

  17. Experience in health care organization for victims of Chernobyl accident under conditions of spatial hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience in organization of health care for victims of Chernobyl accidents under conditions of spatial hospitals are discussed taking into account patients with residual contamination of skin and clothe. A necessity of well-adjusted organization activites, including an inpatient clinic with well-equipped reception, dosimetric, haryological and bacteriological laboratories, an intensive care department, a surgical (burn) department, a blood transfusion laboratory and equipment for plasmopheresis and hemosorption is marked. Therapy of such patients should be developed along the following lines: 1) prevention and therapy of infectious complications; 2) blood cell substitution therapy; 3) bone marrow transplantation; 4) detoxicating therapy; 5) correction of water-electrolyte metabolism; 6) therapy of local radiation injuries

  18. Radiation environment within the 30 km area of the Chernobyl' APP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effluent structure together with meteorological conditions indicated the main pollution zones and their spotty map obtained from isotope ratio and radiation dose measurements. Soon after the accident the main contaminated areas were formed in the western, south-western and north-eastern directions. By the autumn of 1987 the pollution abatement became 2 orders lower that it had been just after the accident. According to the situation in the mid 1987 1/6 of the entire 30 km area around the Chernobyl' APP was marked by the 10 mR/h isoline. The calculations have shown that during the next 5 years the radiation level can be 5 times lower due to radioactive isotope decay

  19. One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident. Poster presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. To facilitate the discussions of the Conference, background papers were prepared for the Technical Symposium by teams of scientists from around the world, who collaborated over a period of months to ascertain, consolidate and present the current state of knowledge in six key areas: clinically observed effects; thyroid effects; long term health effects; other health related effects; consequences for the environment; and the consequences in perspective: prognosis for the future. A background paper on the social, economic, institutional and political impact of the accident was prepared by Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The conclusions of the Forum on Nuclear Safety Aspects served as a background paper on this topic

  20. One decade after Chernobyl - The review of the results of an International Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 26 April 1986 the most serious accident in the history of the nuclear industry occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the former Soviet Union, near the current borders of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. The consequences attributed to this accident have been subjected to extensive scientific examination. Ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) jointly sponsored an International Conference to recapitulate the accident's consequences and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The Conference 'One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the accident', took place in the Austria Center Vienna, Austria, from 8 to 12 April 1996. This paper is a review of the Conference based on updating reports and keynote presented, background papers presented by expert panels and discussions of these by the Conference. The clinical observed effects, thyroid effects, long term health effects and psychological consequences are particularly addressed. (author)

  1. One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident. Poster presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. To facilitate the discussions of the Conference, background papers were prepared for the Technical Symposium by teams of scientists from a round the world, who collaborated over a period of months to ascertain, consolidate and present the current state of knowledge in six key areas: clinically observed effects; thyroid effects; long term health effects; other health related effects; consequences for the environment; and the consequences in perspective: prognosis for the future. A background paper on the social, economic, institutional and political impact of the accident was prepared by Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The conclusions of the Forum on Nuclear Safety Aspects served as a background paper on this topic. Refs, figs, tabs

  2. 76 FR 11432 - Coding of Design Marks in Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ..., the USPTO published a notice and request for comments at 75 FR 81587, proposing to discontinue a... http://www.uspto.gov/trademarks/law/FR_Notices_2010.jsp and is addressed below. The proposed... United States Patent and Trademark Office Coding of Design Marks in Registrations AGENCY: United...

  3. 75 FR 81587 - Coding of Design Marks in Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Coding of Design Marks in Registrations AGENCY: United States Patent and... Trademark Office (``USPTO'') proposes to discontinue its secondary design coding, the practice of coding... registrations with design coding, while improving the accuracy of its electronic database, and modified its...

  4. Vastab Mark Lubotski / Mark Lubotski ; interv. Toomas Velmet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lubotski, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Hamburgi Muusikakrgkooli viiuliprofessor Mark Lubotskist, kes viibis Tallinnas oktoobris 2008 ja oli IV rahvusvahelise Heino Elleri nimelise viiuldajate konkursi rii esimeheks. Tema sidemetest Eesti muusikutega, pagemisest Lnde, Heino Elleri nimelisest konkursist ja tst riis

  5. Pinnuks silmas - Mark Soosaar 60 / Mark Soosaar ; interv. Jri Aarma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    2006-01-01

    Mark Soosaare vastused olematutele ksimustele (J. Aarma ksimused vahelt ra vetud). Endast, oma uuest filmist "Vabatahtlikud" ja muust. Lisatud Sirje Niitra artikkel "Valutab sdant" Soosaare muredest ja vitlustest seoses Prnu linnaga

  6. MarkIT broo = Offices of MarkIT

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Prnu mnt. 102C asuvas broohoones paikneva MarkIT broo sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Kard Mnnil (SAB Miu Miu Miu) ja Loreida Hein (Studio La), nende thtsamate tde loetelu. Valge broombel on sisearhitektide projekteeritud. Graafika on sisearhitektid ise joonistanud

  7. Assistance fund for Chernobyl children: 11 year assistance in development of Ukrainian child hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fund has large statistics of health conditions in children born in post-Chernobyl period. This statistics indicates a considerable increase of health anomalies in children. The highest level of oncological diseases was observed 5 years after Chernobyl accident

  8. Landscapes of the Chernobyl zone and estimation on their fire risk conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scale for estimation of the landscapes of the Chernobyl zone for fire risk conditions is suggested as based on the factorial method. The data obtained are suggested to be used for fire prevention in the Chernobyl NPP zone

  9. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.

    2003-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

  10. Report of the US Department of Energy's team analyses of the Chernobyl-4 Atomic Energy Station accident sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to better understand the Chernobyl-4 accident of April 26, 1986, the US Department of Energy (DOE) formed a team of experts from the National Laboratories including Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The DOE Team provided the analytical support to the US delegation for the August meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and to subsequent international meetings. The DOE Team has analyzed the accident in detail, assessed the plausibility and completeness of the information provided by the Soviets, and performed studies relevant to understanding the accident. The results of these studies are presented in this report

  11. Russian National Chernobyl Register as information and and analytical for Chernobyl accident medical consequences estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is devoted to using of the National Radiation and Epidemiology Register basic part, namely the Russian State Medical-Dosimetric Register of the people affected by the Chernobyl accident, to estimate the medical consequences of the accident. First part of article presents the common description and current state of Register. The estimation of medical consequences of the accident for clean-up workers is given in second part. The prognosis of radiation effects and definition of basic epidemiology factors to propose optimal medicalrehabilitation measures is discussed

  12. Eesti vajab riigiarhitekti / Mark Soosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    2006-01-01

    Linnade tekkimisest Eestis, linnaehitusest ja linnaplaneerimisest. Pärnu muinsuskaitsealast ja uute korruselamute ehitamisest. Arhitektuuriameti loomise ja riigiarhitekti ametikoha vajalikkusest. Kommenteerivad Ülar Mark, Triin Ojari, Harry Liivrand, Karin Paulus

  13. Surgical skin-marking techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granick, M S; Heckler, F R; Jones, E W

    1987-04-01

    Surgical skin-marking inks and dyes are in everyday use for designing and planning incisions in plastic and reconstructive surgery. We have traced the historical development of surgical skin-marking techniques from ancient times to the present. The biochemical characteristics of the commonly used marking agents are discussed. A three-part experiment utilizing a pig model was carried out to test the tissue inflammatory response to the various dyes and inks when used intradermally as tattoos, the persistence of such tattoos, and the ease of skin erasure for each of eight stains. Methylene blue and gentian violet are recommended as the best all-purpose marking agents. The use of proprietary inks is discouraged. PMID:2434965

  14. Recent ?' results from Mark III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results on ?' decays from Mark III are presented. With a data sample of 240,000 ?' events, we measure ?' ? ?+?-?, ?' ? ??, ?' ? ??c, ?' ? ?4?, ?' ? ?6?, and perform a search for ?' ? ??. Implications of our measurements are discussed. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  15. Marks on the petroleum fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document offers some marks on the petroleum fiscality in France: the taxes as the 'accises' and the 'TVA', the part of the taxes in the sale price at the service station, the comparison with other countries of Europe, the tax revenues and the Government budget. It provides also marks on the fuels prices formation (margins), the world petroleum markets (supply and demand) and the part of the petroleum companies on the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  16. Transformations of humus and soil mantle in the urbanized areas of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented are investigations into the demutation processes of the towns plant community in the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone (Pripyat, Chernobyl, Chernobyl-2). Demonstrated is the specific nature of the reduction of humus and soil mantle in the abandoned towns under the impact of the natural factors. 21 refs., 5 tab., 7 figs

  17. Temporary Agency Workers: Social Characteristics and Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Kozina

    2012-01-01

    The article is devoted to new forms of employment being formed under conditions of agency work (or leasing labour). The human capital theory postulates that marginal social groups are mainly involved into temporary agency work which doesn’t provide workers with social guarantees. It can be found on the lowest step of the social ladder. So, social costs of increase in labour market flexibility may be very high and show up discrimination of agency workers, pushing them away from the labour mark...

  18. Cancer following the Chernobyl nuclear accident: what we have learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Twenty years later, the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear plant in Ukraine remains the largest of its kind. Ukraine and Belarus in particular were heavily contaminated, principally with radioiodine which concentrate in the thyroid gland. Before Chernobyl, little was known about, the risk of thyroid cancer in those exposed to radioiodine as children, although there were some reports based on exposed adults. A number of epidemiologic studies have since been conducted to evaluate populations in Chernobyl-exposed areas. These have provided valuable information about the risks of Iodine-131 to children. I will summarize these studies and the lessons the international scientific and medical community have learned from this research on Chernobyl. Finally, I will describe progress with a seminal project: the Belarus-American Study of Thyroid Cancer and Other Thyroid Diseases following the Chernobyl Accident. This collaborative effort has involved screening a cohort of approximately 12,000 individuals exposed as young persons at two year intervals for three consecutive cycles. This is the first study, cohort in design, to be based on individual, measured doses and thus can provide the best quantitative estimate of the dose-response relationship between Iodine-131 and risk of thyroid cancer

  19. Thyroid cancer development in Chernobyl including new additional results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We have been studying the etiology of thyroid cancer development among the exposed people in Hiroshima. In 1993, we have proposed the hypothesis of oncology model of thyroid cancer development in children following the nuclear power plant accident in Chernobyl, and then related studies has been done in Chernobyl and also in Hiroshima. Following findings are included. Urinary iodine level was lower in Chernobyl than in Hiroshima. Stimulation of ret oncogene in thyroid cancer tissues, and appearance of nuclear abnormalities of thyroid follicular cells were found higher rate among the exposed people. Sensitivity of TSH-receptor in thyroid tissues (TSH-R mRNA expression) was higher while young. Synergistic effect of TSH-R mRNA and ER mRNA expressions were found in both of normal tissues and cancer tissues in thyroid, but it was more apparent in cancer tissues. These findings gave the additional proofs on the hypothesis of thyroid cancer development in Chernobyl. Including these results, we like to present the importance of thyroid for the health of the exposed people in Chernobyl

  20. Chromosome aberrations in Norwegian reindeer following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosome analyses were carried out on peripheral blood lymphocytes of semi-domestic reindeer in Norway which had been exposed to varying amounts of radiocesium emanating from the Chernobyl accident. The sampling was done in the period 1987-1990. The material included 192 reindeer, originating from four herds in central Norway, an area considerably affected by fallout from the Chernobyl accident, and from three herds in northern Norway which was unaffected by fallout from the accident. Significant heterogeneity in the distribution of chromosome aberrations between herds was observed. The pattern of chromosome aberration frequencies between herds was not related to the variation in radiocesium exposure from the Chernobyl accident. Other factors than the Chernobyl accident appear therefore to be of importance for the distribution of aberration frequencies found among present herds. Within the most contaminated area the reindeer born in 1986 showed significantly more chromosome aberrations than those born both before and after 1986. This could suggest that the Chernobyl accident fallout created an effect particularly among calves, during the immediate post-accident period in the most exposed areas

  1. On the situation in the areas of the Soviet Union affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station on April 26, 1986 is the event with the most severe consequences in the history of the peaceful uses of nuclear power. Five years later, the experts and the public, both national and international, are still far from having obtained a complete overview of the radiological situation in the immediate and more distant environment of the destroyed plant. Copious information about measurements conducted by the Soviets, but also by international agencies, has produced partly contradictory findings, all of it extremely fragmentary about partial aspects of the disaster. This summary report about the situation written from a radiobiologist's point of view covers such aspects as the failure of the policy which had sought to put a ban on the dissemination of information; the levels of contamination; a radiological assessment of the 35 rem concept; the issue of generally higher morbidity; and the necessary measures of support and assistance. (orig.)

  2. Radiation exposure of the population around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the population in large parts of northern Ukraine, the region around Chernobyl, was resettled, these people are now returning to their accustomed agricultural environment - illegally, but tolerated. In order for evacuated villages to be cleared for resettlement, the dose commitment due to continuous external and internal exposures of the persons returning must be determined. Examination concentrates on the fallout of reactor nuclides, the path of radionuclides through the food chain to people, and on present and post exposures. Special attention in this respect is paid to the deposition density of cesium. On the basis of the data collected so far, the village inhabitants considered in 1998/99 suffer an average external exposure of 0.7±0.2 mSv/a in addition to the natural external exposure of 0.8 mSv/a and, with a conversion factor of 0.038 mSv/a per kBq of 137 Cs whole body activity [8], 0.5±0.2 mSv/a (excluding inhabitants 17 and 18) of additional internal exposure, mainly as a function of mushroom intake. The ban on consumption of mushrooms and fruit growing in the forests, and education of the public about the reasons for it, could help to reduce the additional internal exposure further to approx. 0.1 mSv/a. (orig.)

  3. Communications strategy for the Chernobyl Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Communications Strategy was developed for the International Chernobyl Centre (ICC) as part of a joint UK/Ukraine project, sponsored by the Department of Trade and Industry and NNC Limited. The Plan was developed during four weeks of workshop discussions in the UK between staff from the centre and experienced PR Professionals from NNC Limited. The requirements for a sustained communications activity at the ICC go much further than simply enhancing or promoting the Centre's scientific and technical activities. Raising sufficient awareness of the Centre among potential funding agents and commercial partners is critical to its future development as a major centre for international co-operation and research. It is only through establishing and developing effective communications that the Centre will become well enough known and understood both within the Ukraine, and internationally, to secure its long term future. However, as the workshop programme unfolded, it also became clear that communications was in itself a legitimate and necessary function of the Centre, and part of the foundations of its existence. The Centre has a fundamental role as an 'information exchange', collecting and communicating information from within the Ukraine to the rest of the world, and interpreting world interest and attitudes to the Ukraine Government and nuclear industry. As such compliments the efforts of individual power plant and corporate PR functions within the Ukraine nuclear energy sector

  4. The Chernobyl accident - impact on Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implications of the Chernobyl accident are outlined. For the USSR, 135,000 people had to be moved. Farming in these regions will cause difficult problems in the future. The contamination of 131I caused great problems in Western Europe the first month after the accident. The excess dose the first year after the accident was generally below 2 mSv. Over a 50-year period an increase over background of less than 1% is predicted. It is not possible to state if this irradiation has any health impact. Great problems were caused for the population in northern Scandinavia because of the reliance on reindeer breeding, hunting and fishing. Very few Lapps will, however, reach an effective dose equivalent of 5 mSv during 1986/1987. This is less than the natural background effective dose equivalent during a year for the average Swede. Therefore, the greatest problem seems to be the difficulty for the Lapps to sell their reindeer meat and lake fish. 40 refs.; 2 figs.; 11 tabs

  5. Brain damage in utero after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The report presents research study results of neuropsychiatric consequences of the children exposed in utero, who were born just after the Chernobyl accident (between April 26, 1986 and February 26, 1987). The children were under investigation for three stages: in 1990-1992; 1994-1996; 2002-2004. We use the data on health state, IQ level tests and individual dose reconstruction data. First correlation between prenatal acute exposure after atomic bombing and intellectual level decrease was demonstrated by Japanese scientists. It is known that while the Chernobyl whole body irradiation doses are much lower than the Japanese doses, thyroid doses after the Chernobyl accident are significantly higher. During the first stage the five-year-old prenatally exposed children were under examination. The results showed much more somatic diseases and neurofunctional mental disorders. It was also established in this cohort that starting with the 0.3 Sv threshold dose thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level grown along with fetal thyroid dose increase. Thereupon the radiation-induced malfunction of the thyroid-pituitary system was suggested as an important biological mechanism in the genesis of mental disorders in prenatally irradiated children. The epidemiological WHO project 'Brain Damage in Utero' (IPHECA) was implemented in the second stage. The examination of prenatally exposed children from the contaminated territories (555 kBq/m2 and more) resulted in an increased frequency of moderate mental retardation, emotional and behavioral disorders. Increasing of borderline nervous and psychological disorders of parents from the main group was higher than from the control. However it was rather hard to treat these results because individual dosimetric data were not available. Only in the third stage reconstruction of individual doses of children born to mothers evacuated from the Chernobyl exclusion zone was carried out at taking internal and external exposure. It was established that mean fetal dose (M±SD) was 65.4±33.9 mSv for the exposed group and 1.2±0.3 mSv - for the control, which was formed with Kiev residents. Prenatal brain doses were 19.2±11.3 mSv and 0.8±0.2 mSv for the exposed and control groups, respectively. Thyroid doses in utero were 760.4±631.8.1 mSv and 44.5±43.3 mSv for the exposed and control groups, correspondingly. The children having whole body prenatal dose more than 100 mSv made up 13,2% and 33,8% - having thyroid exposure dose in utero more than 1 Sv. It is worth mentioning that the frequency of somatic, neuropsychiatric and thyroid diseases was increasing in all the stages of the study. The third stage clearly demonstrates that the prenatally exposed children have significantly more nervous diseases and mental disorders. Children and their mothers were also examined with special psychological tests (WISC, the Achenbach and Rutter A(2), WAIS, SDS, PTSD, GHQ-28 and others). We revealed significant differences in intelligence, emotional and behavioral disorders of exposed children comparing to the control. The exposed children showed decreasing full-scale IQ along with decreasing verbal IQ. Although the frequency of performance/verbal intelligence discrepancies increased. No mental retardation was revealed. The exposed and evacuated mothers showed no differences of verbal abilities, but they had experienced much more real stress events. So they demonstrated more depression, PTSD, somatoform disorders, anxiety/insomnia, and social dysfunction. However, direct interdependence of the registered effects on the prenatally received doses is not revealed. The exception is IQ discrepancies of the prenatally irradiated children exceed 25 points. Thus, it is obviously true that somatic and mental health, intellectual development of the exposed in utero children have resulted not only from irradiation factor, but from a complex of psychosocial factors of catastrophe: theirs mothers' poor health and intellectual development level, experience in stress events, usual risk factors, and fetal irradiation

  6. Radiocesium in Austrian precipitation samples after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measured rain samples' contaminations, taken by the Austrian System for the measurement of Environmental Radioactivity, as from May 1986 and April 1986 are presented in maps and tables. The very narrow local pattern of the deposition of Chernobyl-fallout inside the Alpine valleys, caused by irregular weather conditions, can be seen very clearly, with values differing by a factor of up to 30 within a few kilometres. Maximum values reach up to more than 150 kBq Cs-137/m2, whereas the average values are in the range of tens of kBq/m2. In spite of the very different location of the samplers in the two systems, the ones of the ASMER being situated in or near larger communities, the others located in small villages in Alpine valleys, with the exception of Carinthia and Vorarlberg the average values are remarkably similar. This seems to justify the use of the ASMER-data for dose assessment studies, especially if taking into account the population distribution and associated weighting factors. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab. (qui)

  7. Five years after Chernobyl: 1986 - 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident to the fourth nuclear reactor at Chernobyl on 26th April 1986 had major impacts not only on the nuclear industries in the Soviet Union and elsewhere in the world but also on the daily life of those in the station and further afield. Some of the actions taken to safeguard the population outside the Soviet Union such as banning the sale of lamb from upland areas in the United Kingdom and the effects on the reindeer herds in Scandinavia inevitably received considerable publicity and interest. Material published by the popular media often fails to separate clearly opinion from fact or to give due weight to the important as compared to the trivial. The Watt Committee on Energy with a membership drawn from over 60 professional bodies covering a wide spectrum of technologies seemed to be ideally qualified to sift through the material and record what is known with reasonable certainty, indicate facts which have a general consensus of agreement among disinterested experts, and draw attention to areas where information is still not confirmed. (author)

  8. Chernobyl fallout measurements in some Mediterranean biotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barci, G; Dalmasso, J; Ardisson, G

    1988-03-01

    The radioactivity of various terrestrial vegetation leaves characteristic of Mediterranean countries has been measured after the Chernobyl accident. In addition, we paid particular attention to lichens and seaweed which are considered as bioindicators of radioactive contamination. Most measurements were performed non-destructively using both coaxial and planar HPGe detectors. For odd mass radionuclides having low energy lines, such as 125Sb or 141Ce the sensitivity of the planar HPGe detector is better than the coaxial detector. The concentration of long-lived fission nuclides remaining three months after the accident were found to be enhanced in needle form leaves and in lichens. The seaweed Sphaerococcus exhibits a strong specific activity for iodine and ruthenium elements and poor concentration for caesium nuclides. The activity ratios of different isotopes of the same element measured in vegetation samples agree well with values found in airborne aerosols by other authors. The activation nuclide 110mAg is found in all samples with the same ratio 110mAg/137Cs = (1.0 +/- 0.2).10(-2) as in the soil deposition. PMID:3363337

  9. Human hair radioactivity in the Chernobyl area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of recent decades have shown that the elemental composition of human hair can be considered as an indicator of both internal and external human body status. However, there are only a few studies on human hair radioactivity. The Chernobyl accident necessitated the study of the hair of various groups of inhabitants of the contaminated area. Data on hair radioactivity and elemental composition allowed us to draw the following conclusions. (1) When account is taken of the simplicity of sampling and measurements of human hair activity in polluted areas can be used as a monitor for fast detection of the scale and area of pollution. (2) Measurement of hair α and β activity is useful for preliminary body burden determination while the whole body counter is inapplicable. (3) Study of activity along the hair strand allows dating of contamination with an accuracy of about 10 days and gives information about the removal of radioactivity from the body. (4) Determination of uranium could give additional information about the distance of nuclear fuel transport from the damaged reactor. (5) Elemental composition of hair and profiles along the strand reflect the influence of medical treatment and can be used to study post-accident health status. ((orig.))

  10. The German Chernobyl project: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents results and lessons learned by one of the so far largest assessments of a post-accidental situation. Funded by the Federal Republic of Germany the German Chernobyl Project investigated in the years 1991-1993 the radiological situation in contaminated regions of the Russian Federation, Belarus and Ukraine. Measurements included a mass screening of the population in order to determine the Cesium body burdens of 250,000+ individuals in more than 240 settlements as well as the evaluation of external doses in selected settlements with soil contaminations varying from less than 74 kBq/m2 to about 3700 kBq/m2 including some, where decontamination measures had previously been taken. Also in many settlements environmental monitoring was undertaken. For most individuals doses did not exceed the international annual limits set for the general population. Open and comprehensive communication of results was favourably accepted by the public. In a few settlements the radiological situation has been followed up till to date. (author)

  11. Post Chernobyl safety review at Ontario Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally recognized that the Chernobyl Unit 4 accident did not reveal any new phenomena which had not been previously identified in safety analyses. However, the accident provided a tragic reminder of the potential consequences of reactivity initiated accidents (RIAs) and stimulated nuclear plant operators to review their safety analyses, operating procedures and various operational and management aspects of nuclear safety. Concerning Ontario Hydro, the review of the accident performed by the corporate body responsible for nuclear safety policy and by the Atomic Energy Control Board (the Regulatory Body) led to a number of specific recommendations for further action by various design, analysis and operation groups. These recommendations are very comprehensive in terms of reactor safety issues considered. The general conclusion of the various studies carried out in response to the recommendations, is that the CANDU safety design and the procedures in place to identify and mitigate the consequences of accidents are adequate. Improvements to the reliability of the Pickering NGSA shutdown system and to some aspects of safety management and staff training, although not essential, are possible and would be pursued. In support of this conclusion, the paper describes some of the studies that were carried out and discusses the findings. The first part of the paper deals with safety design aspects. While the second is concerned with operational aspects

  12. Four years after Chernobyl: the medical repercussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear accident at Chernobyl accounted for an acute radiation syndrome in 237 persons on the site. Triage was the initial problem and was carried out according to clinical and biological criteria; evaluating the doses received was based on these criteria. Thirty one persons died and only 1 survived a dose higher than 6 Gy. Skin radiation burns which were due to inadequate decontamination, greatly worsened prognosis. The results of 13 bone marrow transplantations were disappointing, with only 2 survivors. Some time after the accident, these severely irradiated patients are mainly suffering from psychosomatic disorders, in the USSR, some areas have been significantly contaminated and several measures were taken to mitigate the impact on population: evacuating 135 000 persons, distributing prophylactic iodine, establishing standards and controls on foodstuff. Radiation phobia syndrome which developed in many persons, is the only sanitary effect noticed up to now. Finally, in Europe, there was only an increase in induced abortions and this was totally unwarranted. If we consider the risk of radiation induced cancer, an effect might not be demonstrated

  13. Uncertainties in thyroid dose reconstruction after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most significant impact of the Chernobyl accident of 26 April 1986 is the increased incidence of thyroid cancer among Belarusians, Russians, and Ukrainians who were exposed as children to radioiodines in fallout resulting from atmospheric releases. The US National Cancer Institute (NCI), in cooperation with the ministries of health of Belarus and Ukraine, is involved in epidemiological studies of thyroid diseases related to the accident. Individual thyroid doses, as well as uncertainties, have been estimated for the members of the cohort studies (approximately 13,000 Ukrainians and 12,000 Belarusians). The cohort subjects, who were selected from the large group of children whose thyroids were monitored for gamma radiation within a few weeks after the accident, provided personal information on their residence history and dietary habits during interviews. Thyroid dose estimates range from 1 mGy to more than 20 Gy. The uncertainties are found to be approximately log normally distributed, with geometric standard deviations ranging from 1.6 to 5.0. The medians of the geometric standard deviations are 1.7 for the Ukrainian subjects and 2.1 for the Belarusian subjects. The major sources of uncertainty in the thyroid dose estimates are found to be those related to the thyroid mass of the subject and to the estimation of the thyroidal content of 131I at the time of thyroid monitoring. (author)

  14. Ten years after the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 5 percent of the total amount of cesium released from the Chernobyl reactor accident deposited in Sweden. The middle part of Sweden received the highest fallout. During the first period after the accident, cows in these areas were not allowed to graze. Due to the time of the year there were very few problems with cultivated crops, even during the first summer. Game, reindeer, fresh water fish, wild berries and mushrooms, however, were contaminated to a great extent and still after 10 years high concentrations of 137Cs can be found in these animals and in mushrooms, but to a lesser extent in wild berries. Intensive controls of the Cs content are still being carried out in reindeer at the time of slaughtering. During the last few years, hand instruments for estimation of the Cs content of live animals (reindeer mostly) has been available. This makes it possible to slaughter only animals estimated to have levels of Cs below the limit value. When offered for sale, the limit value for 137Cs is 300 Bq/kg for the 'basic foodstuffs' and for meat from game, reindeer, fresh water fish, nuts, wild berries and mushrooms 1500 Bq/kg. High levels of 137Cs will be found in reindeer and fresh water fish from some areas for many years in the future. 8 refs, 11 figs

  15. Radiation exposure: Cytogenetic tests. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty test subjects who, either during or after the reactor accident of Chernobyl (26th April 1986), stayed at a building site at Shlobin 150 km away, were examined for spontaneously occurring as well as mitomycin C-induced Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCE). The building site staff, who underwent a whole-body radionuclide count upon their return to Austria (June through September 1986), were used for the cytogenetic tests. The demonstration of the SCE was made from whole-blood cultures by the fluorescence/Giemse technique. At last 20 Metaphases of the 2nd mitotic cycle were evaluated per person. The radiation doses of the test subjects were calculated by adding the external exposure determined on the building site, the estimated thyroid dose through I-131, and the measured incorporation of Cs-134 and Cs-137. The subjects were divided into two groups for statistical analysis: One was a more exposed group (proven stay at Shlobin between 26th April and 31st May 1986, mostly working in the open air) and the other a less exposed group for comparison (staying at Shlobin from 1st Juni 1986 and working mainly indoors). (orig.)

  16. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Styria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results which document the contamination of Styria (Southern part of Austria) immediately after and in the years following the Chernobyl accident. The radioactivity and distribution of radionuclides in aerosols, rain water, soil, vegetation, animals and various samples of food are described in great detail. One of the key results is that the highest levels of contamination were found in two districts (Liezen, Deutschlandsberg), and the deposition rates for Cs-137 were determined to be in the range from 3 to about 80 kBq/m2. Of particular interest are studies concerning the migration and distribution of radionuclides in soil, the uptake of radiocesium by the aquatic vegetation and the existence of radionuclides in the natural ecosystem up to this day. Effective dose equivalents due to incorporated radiocesium was estimated to be 252.2 μSv for the adult population of Graz (capital of Styria) over the four years follwing the fallout. (authors) 17 papers are presented and are of INIS scope

  17. Debate on the Chernobyl disaster: on the causes of Chernobyl overestimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2012-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, many publications appeared that overestimated its medical consequences. Some of them are discussed in this article. Among the motives for the overestimation were anti-nuclear sentiments, widespread among some adherents of the Green movement; however, their attitude has not been wrong: nuclear facilities should have been prevented from spreading to overpopulated countries governed by unstable regimes and regions where conflicts and terrorism cannot be excluded. The Chernobyl accident has hindered worldwide development of atomic industry. Today, there are no alternatives to nuclear power: nonrenewable fossil fuels will become more and more expensive, contributing to affluence in the oil-producing countries and poverty in the rest of the world. Worldwide introduction of nuclear energy will become possible only after a concentration of authority within an efficient international executive. This will enable construction of nuclear power plants in optimally suitable places, considering all sociopolitical, geographic, geologic, and other preconditions. In this way, accidents such as that in Japan in 2011 will be prevented. PMID:22403906

  18. Incidence Probability of Delayed Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the first international Conference on the long -term consequences of the Chernobyl disaster in 1995 at Kiev, and also during the 1996 International Conference at Vienna, Summing up the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the data regarding the delayed health consequences were mainly related to thyroid cancer, hereditary disorders, general morbidity, mortality and psychological disturbances. Contrary to expectations, the incidences of Leukemia and Soft Tissue tumors were similar to the spontaneous incident. The expected delayed effects, however, among the accident survivors, the liquidators and populations resident in contaminated areas would show higher incidence probability to Leukemia. These population groups have been continuously exposed to low level radiation both externally and internally. Application of the new ICRP concept of radiation-induced Detriment, and the Nominal Probability Coefficient for Cancer and hereditary effects for both workers and populations are used as the rationale to calculate the incidence probability of occurrence of delayed health effects of the Chernobyl accidents

  19. Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkart, W.; Grosche, B.; Schoetzau, A. [Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meiosis, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Main principles of the Chernobyl' NPP zone development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is suggested to divide the Chernobyl' NPP zone into two parts, which are the alienation and evacuation (buffer) zones. The alienation zone includes the areas with greatest contamination around the Chernobyl' NPP. The population residence in this zone is forbidden. The watching method of working with short-time personnel residence is suggested to be used in this zone. The buffer zone is the territory out of the alienation zone boundaries including all settlements, from which the population is evacuated. Constant residence is permitted in the buffer zone for persons 50 and more years old with introduction of restrictions for diet and residence organization. The production activity in this zone includes operation of three units of the Chernobyl' NPP, works with the Ukrytie object and researches. Operations connected with radioactive waste processing and redisposal from places of storage is not recommended to be done. It is suggested to develop methods for local radioactive waste processing

  1. Geographic information systems for the Chernobyl decision makers in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following numerous national and international studies conducted on the overall impact of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster, decision-makers of the affected countries have oriented their efforts on environmental clean-up and population safety. They have focused on activities leading to a better understanding of radionuclide contamination and to the development of effective environmental rehabilitation programs. Initial developments involved the use of domestic USSR technologies consisting of mainframe IBM computers and DEC minicomputers. Later, personal computers with imported software packages were introduced into the decision-making process. Following the breakup of the former USSR, the Ministry of Chernobyl was created in Ukraine in 1991. One of the Ministry's mandate was the elimination of the environmental after-effects of the Chernobyl disaster

  2. Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meiosis, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Carcinoma of the stomach following the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical consequences of many nuclear accidents on humans are well studied, but the results pertaining to gastric cancer patients who were exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear accident have not been analysed. In this study, the outcome of the surgical treatment of 68 gastric cancer patients who were exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear accident was compared with that of 117 consecutive gastric patients from uncontaminated areas of the Ukraine. Patients in the study group was significantly younger than that of the control group. Young age, invasive tumours with smaller number of distant metastases, frequent necessity for total gastrectomy and combined operations with adjacent organs, a higher level of postoperative morbidity and mortality and low levels of natural killer cells (CD16+) with a tendency to decrease after surgery are characteristic of patients with carcinoma of the stomach affected by the Chernobyl accident. (author)

  4. The Chernobyl reference horizon (?) in the Greenland ice sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published reports of the presence of radioactive debris from the Chernobyl reactor accident in snow on the Greenland ice sheet raised the strong prospect that such debris might constitute a valuable time stratigraphic marker all over the ice sheet. Large volume snow samples to test this possibility were collected from 7 snowpits as part of a wide ranging regional snow chemistry survey conducted during 1987 and 1988. Snow ''labeled'' with Chernobyl derived radioactivity was detected in all of the pits. However, the total amount of radioactive debris found at the different locations varied over a 20 fold range. The variability in total fallout showed no clear large scale spatial pattern that could be related to the presumed progress of the radioactive plume over Greenland, suggesting that small scale differences in precipitation pattern and reworking of the snow by wind were predominantly responsible for the patchy preservation of the Chernobyl ''layer'' on the Greenland ice sheet. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  5. Chernobyl accident: the crisis of the international radiation community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information given in the present report about the Chernobyl accident and its radiological consequences indicates a serious crisis of the international radiation community. The following signs of this crises can be discerned: The international radiation community did not recognize the real reasons of the accident for a long time. It could not make a correct assessment of the damage to the thyroid of the affected populations of Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. Up to present time it rejects the reliable data on hereditary malformations. It is not able to accept reliable data on the increase in the incidence in all categories of people affected by the Chernobyl accident. The international radiation community supported the Soviet authorities in their attempts to play down the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for a long time. (author)

  6. Improvement of practical Countermeasures: Preventive medication. Post-Chernobyl action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred on 26 April 1986, presented major challenges to the European Community with respect to the practical and regulatory aspects of radiation protection, public information, trade, particularly in food, and international politics. The Chernobyl accident was also a major challenge to the international scientific community which had to evaluate rapidly the radiological consequences of the accident and advise on the introduction of any countermeasures. Prior to the accident at Chernobyl, countermeasures to reduce the consequences of radioactive contamination had been conceived largely in the context of relatively small accidental releases and for application over relatively small areas. Less consideration had been given to the practical implications of applying such measures in case of a large source term and a spread over a very large area

  7. Scientific and technical aspects of international cooperation in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection contains the presentations and scientific articles prepared for and discussed during the Conference titled '2000: International Cooperation For Chernobyl'. The materials outline the outcomes achieved while implementing Chernobyl site scientific-technical researches and projects, as well as activities aimed at enhancing the ChNPP safety, decommissioning and radwaste management. It also highlights the issues related to transforming the Unit Shelter into an ecologically safe system, represents the results of ecological researches in the Exclusion Zone, medical effects of the 1986 accident at Chernobyl NPP, together with social and economic problems the city of Slavutich faces now due to the early ChNPP Units decommissioning, and Slavutich business development opportunities under the circumstances of Special Economic Zone 'Slavutich'

  8. Chernobyl: getting to the heart of the matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the second of two linked articles on the aftermath of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident of 1986, the author explores the effects on local agriculture and the health of populations affected by the contamination from the fall-out, especially children. Agriculture around Chernobyl has resumed, with workers moving back from the cities to areas where radiation doses are similar to parts of Cornwall. Concern continues about the safety of milk from cows grazing contaminated grass and eating local mushrooms. The largest risk to children's health is not birth deformaties, but leukaemia, possibly in part due to iodine deficiency in their diet prior to contamination. Concern also continues about keeping power supplies going in areas heavily dependent on nuclear power. Reactor safety issues remaining operational RBMK reactors and the sarcophagus around Chernobyl-4 itself have yet to be resolved. (UK)

  9. Thyroid nodularity and cancer among Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid examinations, including palpation, ultrasound and, selectively, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, were conducted on nearly 2,000 Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia to evaluate the occurrence of thyroid cancer and nodular thyroid disease among men with protracted exposure to ionizing radiation. The examinations were conducted in four cities in Estonia during March-April 1995, 9 years after the reactor accident. The study population was selected from a predefined cohort of 4,833 cleanup workers from Estonia under surveillance for cancer incidence. These men had been sent to Chernobyl between 1986 and 1991 to entomb the damaged reactor, remove radioactive debris and perform related cleanup activities. A total of 2,997 men were invited for thyroid screening and 1,984 (66%) were examined. Estimates of radiation dose from external sources were obtained from military or other institutional records, and details about service dates and types of work performed while at Chernobyl were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Blood samples were collected for assay of chromosomal translocations in circulating lymphocytes and loss of expression of the glycophorin A (GPA) gene in erythrocytes. The primary outcome measure was the presence or absence of thyroid nodules as determined by the ultrasound examination. Of the screened workers, 1,247 (63%) were sent to Chernobyl in 1986, including 603 (30%) sent in April or May, soon after the accident. Workers served at Chernobyl for an average of 3 months. The average age was 32 years at the time of arrival at Chernobyl and 40 years at the time of thyroid examination. The mean documented radiation dose from external sources was 10.8 cGy. Biological indicators of exposure showed low correlations with documented dose, but did not indicate that the mean dose for the population was higher than the average documented dose. 47 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs

  10. Closing of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant: Social aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction started in 1970. Reactor Unit 1 was put into operation in 1977 and shut down in 1996; Unit 2 in 1978 and shut down in 1991; Unit 3 in 1981 and shut down in 2000. Unit 4 was put into operation in 1983 and was destroyed in 1986 due to the Chernobyl catastrophe. The construction of Units 5 and 6 was left unfinished. Up to 26 April 1986, the Chernobyl NPP had generated 150.2 billion kWh. After the accident the plant generated 158.6 billion kWh. Total output reached 308.8 billion kWh. On 15 December 2000, Ukraine demonstrated its good will by permanently closing the Chernobyl NPP prior to exhausting the planned resources, and is decommissioning the nuclear facility at present. There are two aspects to the closing of a nuclear facility: Safe shutdown of the nuclear facility and conversion of the 'shelter' into an ecologically safe system (technical-economic aspect); Minimization of the social impact of the closing of the facility (social-economic aspect). To minimize the impact of the closing of the facility on the local population, legislation has been passed as follows: The law of Ukraine, which includes general principles of the further operation and decommissioning of the Chernobyl NPP and conversion of the destroyed Unit 4 into an ecologically safe system; Plan of the Chernobyl NPP's decommissioning and programme for the safe maintenance of the 'shelter'; Programme of establishing extra jobs for Chernobyl NPP personnel and for the residents of the town of Slavutich. The Ukrainian legislation provides a number of compensating measures to minimize the impact of the closing of the nuclear facility on the local population. The main features of the program for establishment of extra jobs is described. The shutdown and decommissioning of nuclear facilities creates not only technical but also complicated social problems. To solve these problems successfully, public understanding and State support are essential

  11. IAEA and WANO Mark Anniversary of Fukushima Accident, Increase Cooperation, 5 March 2012, Vienna/London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Next Sunday, 11 March 2012, marks the first anniversary of the devastating earthquake and tsunami that struck the east coast of Japan. One year on, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) are increasing their mutual cooperation to maximise nuclear safety efforts around the globe. The two organisations are revising their Memorandum of Understanding in light of the lessons learned from the Fukushima accident, and will be stepping up their efforts to share expertise and knowledge between operators and governments. There will be greater coordination between WANO peer reviews and IAEA OSART missions, in which international experts assess the safety of individual nuclear power plants, and discussions are under way to examine further areas to improve information sharing. This is in addition to the other work each organisation is doing to reinforce nuclear safety worldwide. IAEA Director General, Yukiya Amano said: 'The IAEA is delighted to strengthen its coordination and cooperation with WANO. One of the lessons of Fukushima is the need for strong and effective communication between governments, regulators and nuclear operators. The IAEA's Action Plan on Nuclear Safety underlines the need for all stakeholders to work together to put these lessons into practice as tangibly and swiftly as possible, to deliver concrete results. By working more closely together, we can help to ensure that practical experience is properly shared to reinforce nuclear safety everywhere'. Laurent Stricker, Chairman of WANO, commented: 'While the terrible events of last year had a major lasting impact on the industry, they have also served as the catalyst for huge change. WANO has shifted from primarily focusing on accident prevention, to an emphasis on both prevention and mitigation, and has redoubled its efforts to promote excellence in nuclear safety in each and every plant across the world. All nuclear plants have carefully analysed their ability to withstand and respond to both design basis and beyond design basis events since Fukushima, and improvements have already been made to severe accident management and emergency preparedness. This work will continue over the coming months and years'. Amano and Stricker agreed that further lessons would continue to be learned from the Fukushima accident, as they were from earlier accidents such as Chernobyl and Three Mile Island, and that strong cooperation between the IAEA and WANO would be a vital element in this process. (IAEA)

  12. International Conference 'Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident. Future Outlook'. Abstracts proceeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference concludes a series of events dedicated to the 20 anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and promote an effective implementation of the accumulated international experience in the following areas: Radiation protection of the population and emergency workers, and the environmental consequences of Chernobyl accident; Medical and public health response to radiation emergencies; Strengthening radiological emergency management of radiation accidents; Economic and legal aspects of radioactive waste management and nuclear power plants decommissioning; Radioactive waste management: Chernobyl experience; Nuclear power plant decommissioning: Chernobyl NPP; Transformation of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system

  13. Mark Napier / Mark Napier ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Napier, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Ameerika kunstnikust Mark Napierist (sünd. 1961) ja tema loomingust, 2001. a. tehtud meiliintervjuu kunstnikuga. Võrguteosest "The Digital Landfill" (1998), koos Andy Deckiga loodud tööst "GrafficJam" (1999), töödest "Shredder" (1998), "Feed", "Riot", "P-Soup" (2000), võrgukunstist ja muust

  14. Vastab Mark Lubotski / Mark Lubotski ; interv. Toomas Velmet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lubotski, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Hamburgi Muusikakõrgkooli viiuliprofessor Mark Lubotskist, kes viibis Tallinnas oktoobris 2008 ja oli IV rahvusvahelise Heino Elleri nimelise viiuldajate konkursi žürii esimeheks. Tema sidemetest Eesti muusikutega, pagemisest Läände, Heino Elleri nimelisest konkursist ja tööst žüriis

  15. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne McNeilly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson’s School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The “minimal-marking” concept (Haswell, 1983, which requires dramatically more student engagement, resulted in more successful learning outcomes for surface-level knowledge acquisition than the more traditional approach of “teacher-corrects-all.” Results suggest it would be effective, not just for grammar, punctuation, and word usage, the objective here, but for any material that requires rote-memory learning, such as the Associated Press or Canadian Press style rules used by news publications across North America.

  16. Experience of soil rehabilitation in the scenario of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl post-accident scenario became nowadays a natural radioecology laboratory, where a wide range of decontamination methods can be applied, validated or developed. This paper presents the application of a soil rehabilitation technique, the removal of vegetation and associated soil, in the experimental fields of Bourakovka and Chistogalovka surrounding the Chernobyl NPP. The results obtained have shown soil decontamination factors higher than 90% for caesium and strontium. This technique involves the removal of deposited hot particles released at the accident, and the experience allowed a detailed study of one of them corresponding to a nuclear fuel fragment, probably generated at the beginning of the breakdown. 16 refs. (Author)

  17. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 μSv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

  18. Eye pathologies of Chernobyl clean-up workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diseases of the nervous system and sense organs have become the most significant pathologies of Chernobyl clean-up workers during the last four years. The aim of this work was to evaluate the incidence of eye disorders among Chernobyl clean-up workers to provide more information for health specialists. During the last 10 years, the most common eye pathology has been angiopathia retinae, followed by myopia and cataracta. Statistical analyses showed that the clean-up workers have higher risk to develop angiopathia retinae than the control group. (author)

  19. The ghost has left the bottle: One year after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several authors attempt to describe the public attitude in different countries a year after the accident in the Chernobyl-4 reactor. Even the Soviet Union is now faced with an antinuclear movement (M. Butenschoen); Cooperation between West Germany and the Soviet Union in the field of nuclear safety (W. Hoffmann); France intends a drastic raise of EC limiting values for radioactively contaminated food (Th. Hanke); There is a lack of knowledge concerning the ecological and social cost of social actions (O. Ulrich); How our radiation burden is influenced by accidents, bureaucracy, and consumption (A. Furtmayr-Schuh); Berlin study on genetic defects after Chernobyl contains incongruities (H. Engeln). (GL)

  20. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on radioactivity in Swedish reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallout radiocesium is effectively transferred to reindeer and the transfer is highly dependent on the season. The reduction of radiocesium from the soil-pasture-reindeer ecosystem has occurred with a higher rate after the Chernobyl fallout than after the nuclear weapons tests. Effective countermeasures have helped to prevent contamination of reindeer meat intended for human consumption. Nevertheless, the fallout from Chernobyl will probably remain a problem for reindeer husbandry in the contaminated parts of Sweden for a least 20 more years. 6 refs., 2 figs

  1. More on Chernobyl. Root cause as identified by AECL analysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article poses the question: What caused the Chernobyl accident? and puts forth a probable cause based on the design of the neutron absorber rods that control the RBMK reactor. The article is based on the presentation given by the Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS) president Dr. Jerry Cuttler at a special symposium entitled Chernobyl, The Legacy, held at the University of Toronto, April 27, 1996. The neutron absorber rods were not designed to accommodate the sequence of events that occurred prior to the accident, and modifications to the design were implemented based on the determination of the root cause of the accident. 3 figs

  2. Chernobyl, 16 years later; Tchernobyl, 16 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    This document on the Chernobyl site evolution is constituted around four main questions. What about the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor and the ''sarcophagus'' constructed around the reactor? What about the sanitary consequences of the accident on the liquidators asked to blot out the radiation and the around people exposed to radiation? What about the contaminated land around the power plant and their management? Concerning the France, what were the ''radioactive cloud'' sanitary consequences? (A.L.B.)

  3. One year after Chernobyl - the world has changed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the Chernobyl accidents for the antiatomic movement and nuclear power in Austria and other European countries is outlined. In the same number there several other very short contributions (without authors) whose content is indicated by the headings: The mentality of the proponents (of nuclear power). The callousness of the proponents. The feigned play of the atomic lobby shocks the Austrian public. West Germany on the march to an atomic state. First success against Wackersdorf (fuel reprocessing plant in West Germany). Temelin -the czechoslovakian Chernobyl/Cattenom- on the Austrian border. 5 figs., 1 tab. (qui)

  4. Radioactive fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident had considerable consequences for Norway. Except for the areas in the former USSR, around Chernobyl some areas in Norway received fallout which gave the highest contamination levels. The natural and semi natural ecosystems will produce food products with high activity levels of radiocesium for several decennium. Cost-effective countermeasures were implemented, and they reduced the doses considerable, especially for critical groups. Doses received over the next 50 years will probably cause cancer in 500 persons. 63 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  5. Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

  6. Environmental behaviour of radioactivity from Chernobyl: Brothers Water study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been carried out to examine the short term behaviour of Chernobyl derived radionuclides together with the longer term patterns of transport of weapons fallout derived 137Cs first studied on the Brothers Water catchment in the English Lake District in the 1970's. Chernobyl derived radiocaesium is observable in the soils and lake sediments of the catchment. 210Pb dating and diatom analysis were used to confirm that the lake sediments sampled were undisturbed. A simple box model is used to estimate radionuclide inventories in Brothers Water Lake sediments. Estimates derived using this model are reasonably consistent with estimates obtained from a variety of other sources. (author)

  7. Photoindicational investigations in the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole complex of landscapes, ecotopes, types of vegetation and stages of their reestablishment in the Chernobyl exclusion zone is shown in 480 phytosociologic stand made during the years passed from the Chernobyl accident. Changes in ecological conditions of habitats in the course of demutation and syngenetic processes were estimated according to the main climatic and edaphic factors on the basis of photoindicational scales. Directions of further development of plant communities are presented. The necessity of the constant phytoecological monitoring in the exclusion zone is substantiated

  8. 78 FR 58604 - Safety Advisory: Unauthorized Marking of Compressed Gas Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Gas Cylinders AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION... unauthorized marking of high pressure compressed gas cylinders by Beauchesne Fire Equipment located at 21... and special permit cylinders as requalified in accordance with the Hazardous Materials...

  9. 77 FR 64590 - Safety Advisory: Unauthorized Marking of Compressed Gas Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Gas Cylinders AGENCY: Pipeline and hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION... unauthorized marking of high pressure compressed gas cylinders by George Welding & Supply Co., Inc. located at... compressed gas cylinders with unauthorized Requalifier Identification Numbers (RIN). In addition,...

  10. 25 years since Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental and food radioactivity surveillance in Romania, begun since the early 60's, with 47 laboratories from National Environment Radioactivity Surveillance Network (NERSN) in the framework of Ministry of Environmental and the network of 21 Radiation Hygiene Laboratories (RHL) from centers and institutes of the Ministry of Public Health. The surveillance was conducted by global beta and alpha measurements, necessary to make some quick decisions as well as gamma spectrometry to detect high and low resolution profile accident. Thus the two networks together and some departmental labs recorded from the first moments (since April 30, 1986) the presence of the contaminated radioactive cloud originated from Ukraine, after the nuclear accident on 26 April 1986 at Chernobyl NPP, on the Romanian territory. NERSN followed up the radioactive contamination of air (gamma dose rate, atmospheric aerosols and total deposition), surface water, uncultivated soil, and spontaneous vegetation while the RHL monitored the drinking water and food. Early notification of this event allowed local and central authorities to take protective measures like: administration of stable iodine, advertisements in media on avoiding consumption of heavily contaminated food, prohibition of certain events that took place outdoors, interdiction of drinking milk and eating milk products for one month long. Most radionuclides, fission and activation products (22 radionuclides), released during the accident, have been determined in the environmental factors. A special attention was paid to radionuclides like Sr-90, I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137, especially in aerosol samples, where the maximum values were recorded on Toaca Peak (Ceahlau Mountain) on May, the first, 1986: 103 Bq/m3, I-131, 63 Bq/m3, Cs-137. The highest value of I-131 in drinking water, 21 Bq/l, was achieved on May, the third, 1986 in Bucharest and in cow milk exceeded the value of 3000 Bq/l. For sheep milk some sporadic values exceeding 10 000 Bq/l. After decrease of I-131 activity, especially by decay, a special attention was paid to cesium radionuclides (Cs-134 and Cs-137) detected in food (dairy, meat, vegetables and fruits, etc.) with activities of about 100 Bq/kg. The level of contamination of the environment, drinking water and food decreased over years after accident, so in the early 90's the measurement values returned to levels existing before the accident, excepting Cs-137. This radionuclide is still present in the environment, especially in soil. The lowest values are in the cultivated soil, and the highest in the uncultivated soil, forest soil and in some mountain areas. Although the transfer of Cs-137 in vegetation is low, yet it can be easily detected in some plants from natural ecosystems (spontaneous mushrooms, berries etc.) and quite difficult in food (at levels of mBq order). Current level of contamination of the environment and food in Romania after the Chernobyl nuclear accident is very low, making it difficult to highlight the two long-life contaminants, Cs-137 and Sr-90 that can be measured only by laboratories who have performing equipment and can perform radiochemical analyses. Quantifying the levels of contamination throughout Romania allowed assessing the doses received by the population and hence the analysing the effects (birth defects, leukemia and thyroid cancer) and carrying epidemiological studies on various types of diseases attributed to incorporation of radionuclides in particular in the target group of children. (authors)

  11. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a difference in the trends when comparing exposed and unexposed oblasts. - Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain: Intelligence Assessment of Ukrainian children is measured by an adapted and normalised tool: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, WISC (the verbal, performance and full scale IQs). There are significant (p0.05). - General conclusions: At present stage, not all the possible effects of the Chernobyl accident have been studied: some of them may arise after a long latency period.The basic data that are supporting our present descriptive analyses are stored in our common HEDAC database. Final reports of all the sub-projects are available and most of our results are presented in our CD summarizing the workshop in Kiev on October 5 and 6, 2004. (author

  12. Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health' (EGH). Working draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared by three WHO expert committees convened under auspices of the Chernobyl Forum's Expert Group 'Health' (EGH), and by WHO staff. It provides an updated assessment of the health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and follows a detailed report on this topic published by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation in 2000 (UNSCEAR, 2000). The accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in northern Ukraine on April 26, 1986 and released large amounts of radioactivity, primarily radioactive isotopes of caesium and iodine. These releases contaminated large areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine and other countries to a lesser extent, These releases exposed sizable populations to internal and external radiation doses. The Chernobyl accident caused the deaths of 30 power plant employees and firemen within a few days or weeks (including 28 deaths that were due to radiation exposure). In addition, about 240,000 recovery operation workers (also called 'liquidators' or 'clean-up workers') were called upon in 1986 and 1987 to take part in major mitigation activities at the reactor and within the 30-km zone surrounding the reactor. Residual mitigation activities continued on a relatively large scale until 1990. All together, about 600,000 persons (civilian and military) have received special certificates confirming their status as liquidators, according to laws promulgated in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine (UNSCEAR, 2000). In addition, massive releases of radioactive materials into the atmosphere brought about the evacuation of about 116,000 people from areas surrounding the reactor during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of about 220,000 people from what are at this time three independent republics of the former Soviet Union: Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Vast territories of those three republics were contaminated to a substantial level. The population of those contaminated areas, from which no relocation was required, was about 5 million people. The present report focuses on the long-term health consequences of radiation exposures in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Cancer is currently thought to be the most consequential long-term stochastic effect of ionizing radiation (UNSCEAR, 2000), but, other non-malignant disease outcomes are also considered. To address the present status of information on these outcomes, the WHO, under the auspices of the Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened three separate meetings of experts in Geneva. The first of these meetings addressed thyroid disease and took place 1-3 December 2003, the second on leukemia and solid cancers other than thyroid cancer took place 5-7 April 2004, and the final meeting on non-cancer outcomes and health systems was convened 13-15 September 2004. The reports of each meeting were amalgamation into this report, which is structured as follows: Section 1 covers some general issues and reproduces the summary of the findings from the 2000 UNSCEAR report for convenience, since that report was the starting point for the current expert assessments, i.e., this assessment focused on new evidence available since that report. It also discusses various methodological issues regarding epidemiological studies, since epidemiology provides the primary tool for assessing health effects in human populations and the subsequent sections make broad use of such epidemiological studies. Dosimetry, which underpins all epidemiological studies of radiation and risk, is covered, in Section 2 with Chapter 4 being devoted to thyroid dosimetry and Chapter 5 to whole-body, bone marrow and other specific organ dosimetry. Sections 3 to 5 deal in turn with the various possible health outcomes of the Chernobyl accident including thyroid disorders, leukaemia and nonthyroid cancers, and non-cancer effects. In general, the approach has been to first summarize the current evidence relating to that outcome, in particular, focusing on new studies which have appeared since the UNSCEAR 2000 report. This is followed by the assessment made by the various expert panels at their meetings, as described above. Within this assessment, each topic, e.g., epidemiology, biology, etc., is divided into a consensus, i.e., conclusions that the experts feel can reasonably be made at this time, followed by a section on gaps in knowledge, where important gaps are identified. Finally, a series of recommendations regarding future scientific research are provided within each discipline. Section 6 is devoted to a description of the various health systems operating in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine and is followed by recommendations that the expert group thought to be most appropriate in these areas. The objectives of this report are 1) to provide the scientific and lay community with an assessment of the current status of information regarding health consequences of the Chernobyl accident and 2) to provide appropriate authorities and agencies with a series of detailed recommendations for future directions both in research and with respect to the health systems operating in the three countries that have been most severely affected by the world's worst nuclear accident

  13. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty years of peaceful utilization of nuclear power were interrupted by the reactor accident in unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in Ukraine in 1986, a disruptive event whose consequences profoundly affected the way of life of millions of people, and which has moved the public to this day. Releases of radioactive materials contaminated large areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Early damage in the form of radiation syndrome was suffered by a group of rescue workers and members of the reactor operating crew, in some cases with fatal consequences, while the population does not, until now, show a statistically significant increase in the rate of late damage due to ionizing radiation expect for thyroid diseases in children. In particular, no increases in the rates of solid tumors, leukaemia, genetic defects, and congenital defects were detected. For some risk groups exposed to high radiation doses (such as liquidators) the hazard may still be greater, but the large majority of the population need not live in fear of serious impacts on health. Nevertheless, the accident shows major negative social and psychological consequences reinforced by the breakdown of the Soviet Union. This may be one reason for the observed higher incidence of other diseases whose association with the effects of radiation as a cause has not so far been proven. The measurement campaign conducted by the federal government in 1991-1993 addressed these very concerns of the public in an effort to provide unbiased information about exposures detected, on the one hand, in order to alleviate the fears of the public and reduce stress and, on the other hand, to contribute to the scientific evaluation of the radiological situation in the regions most highly exposed. The groups of the population requiring special attention in the future include especially children growing up in highly contaminated regions, and the liquidators of 1986 and 1987 employed in the period immediately after the accident. (orig.)

  14. Cytogenetic analysis of Chernobyl cleanup workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodosimetric analyses were performed of workers involved in clean-up operations following the Chernobyl accident. Blood samples were collected from 188 exposed workers who participated in the cleanup and from 69 subjects living in Russia but not involved in the cleanup activities. The samples were collected between September 1991 and May 1996 and shipped to Livermore for cytogenetic evaluation. Chromosome 1, 2, and 4 were painted simultaneously with whole-chromosome DNA probes, at at least 1500 metaphase cells (500 cell equivalents) were analyzed for structural aberrations from each subject. The PAINT system was used for the initial classification of all aberrations. Translocations were subsequently evaluated to determine whether they were reciprocal or non-reciprocal, and then enumerated according to the classical method which assumes all translocations are reciprocal. Univariate statistical analyses (including adjustments for age and smoking status) found greater frequencies of chromosome translocations among the exposed compared to controls (p≤0.0001), regardless of the method of enumerating translocations. The difference in translocation frequencies between clean-up and control subjects was explainable by invoking an average population exposure to 12 ± 3 cGy. This estimate was based on an in vitro dose response curve with 137Cs exposure to human blood, and was obtained in our laboratory with the same painting probes. Differences between clean-up workers and controls were seen for dicentrics and for total acentric fragments. Smoking was also associated with increased translocation frequencies. These results show the feasibility of performing retrospective biodosimetry by painting following low doses of ionizing radiation

  15. Neutronic static analysis of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present analysis, estimates were made of the positive reactivity introduced through the growth of the coolant void fraction in a Graphite-water steam-generating reactor both at the average value of burnup given by the Soviets and at the maximum value. Using Monte Carlo models, various possible axial distribution of burnup, displacer models, conditions in the control channels and positions of the control rods were considered in calculating the insertion of positive reactivity with the fall of the manual and emergency control rods; that is the positive scram. The possibility of positive reactivity insertion due to the creation of a mixture of fuel, water and cladding in a number of central fuel channels has been examined. This situation corresponds to the explosion of these channels, and is considered in the present work as the cause of the second reactivity peak. At the level of the data presented in this study, vaporization of cooling water in the fuel channels can be considered as the cause of the Chernobyl accident. The accident began in the region of the channels close to the axis of the reactor and spread to its periphery. The positive reactivity due to insertion of the manual and emergency control rods - positive scram -played a marginal role in the development of the accident. Fracture of the fuel followed by bursting of the channels around the axis of the reactor, due to contact between the hot UO2 particles and the cooling water at th end of the first peak, could have started a mechanism capable of producing a second peak in reactivity, in the case of fuel damage extended to a sufficiently large portion of the core

  16. Radionuclide deposition from the Chernobyl cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union created a cloud of radioactivity that affected a surprisingly large area of Europe. This letter concentrates on the main passage of this cloud over the United Kingdom and presents some results of preliminary investigations into the collected data on radioactivity levels in the air, in rain water, on grass and in milk, and attempts to link the time variations of these levels to meteorological conditions. In particular, we report that high levels measured on grass are linked to to heavy rainfalls associated with thunderstorms embedded in the radioactive cloud. The accident is believed to have begun at 01: 23 local time on Saturday 26 April (20:23 GMT on Friday 25 April) and to have ended on the following Wednesday or Thursday. By the Monday, countries throughout Europe had been alerted and possible trajectories of the plume were being estimated, based on standard meteorological data. In many cases, analyses and forecasts from numerical weather prediction models were being used. Trajectories calculated at the Meteorological Office early in the week indicated a possible risk to the United Kingdom, and this possibility was strengthened when, on Wednesday, enhanced radiation levels were reported in northern Italy, indicating a first arrival in the United Kingdom on Friday 2 May. Since then, more thorough analyses of the cloud movement have been carried out at the Meteorological Office and at many other centres throughout Europe, and the most probable path of the cloud that affected the United Kingdom is shown

  17. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures of fuel containing materials can be fairly useful for the entire world's nuclear community and can help make nuclear energy safer.

  18. Terrestrial invertebrate population studies in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 caused the release to atmosphere of substantial amounts of radioactivity. Precise estimates of the release vary. The USSR State Committee presented information to a meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986 indicating a release of some 2.9x105 TBq 137Cs and 2x105 TBq 90Sr, with a total fission/activation product release of 1.7x106 TBq. Other commentators suggest that up to double this amount may have been released. Estimates of deposition likewise vary, although it is probable that about half the released activity was deposited within 20 km of the release point, predominantly following two plume trajectories to the north and west. This resulted in the death of pine trees over 400 ha, the abandonment of 100,000 to 150,000 ha of agricultural land and the establishment of an exclusion zone extending to 30 km from the site. High levels of radionuclide contamination continue to prevail within the exclusion zone. Nonetheless, over the past fifteen years, re-colonisation has been widespread. Mixed deciduous woodlands, with a high proportion of birch (Betula spp.) and willow (Salix spp.), have become established in the forest areas, while agricultural land has succeeded to tall grassland and scrub. Field sites established in this study exhibited external gamma dose rates varying from 0.1 μSv h-1 to 140 μSv h-1. Corresponding mean concentrations of 137Cs in the top 20 cm of soil varied from about 6.102 to 3.106 Bq kg-1 dw. This study summarises observations over the period 2001 to 2004. Sub-surface activity, as measured by bait lamina penetration, appears to be inversely correlated with concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr in soil. Likewise, at the very highest levels of contamination, there is some loss of invertebrate diversity; although little associated change in overall biomass. Between years, population densities and species dominance vary significantly. This does not appear to correlate directly with levels of radiation exposure, but may provide indirect evidence for population fragility. Preliminary growth and breeding experiments on earthworms in soils from the region and matched soils spiked in the laboratory have proved variable. However, there is some (non-statistically significant) indication of depressed growth rates in all contaminated regimes compared to control populations. (author)

  19. Brssel Euroopa pealinnaks? / lar Mark

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mark, lar, 1968-

    2009-01-01

    Brsseli Euroopa kvartali planeerimisvistlusest, mille peakorraldaja oli Brsseli pealinna piirkond koos Brsseli linna ja Euroopa Komisjoniga. Eestist osales riis arhitekt lar Mark. Meeskonna Atelier Christian de Portzamparc vidutst ja teiste teise vooru psenud nelja meeskonna (JDS / Julien De Smedt Architects, OMA / Office for Metropolitan Architecture, Xaveer De Geyter Architect, Fletcher Priest Architects) tdest

  20. Laser marking method and device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An object is disposed in laser beam permeating liquid or gaseous medium. Laser beams such as CW laser or pulse laser oscillated from a laser device are emitted to the object to apply laser markings with less degradation of identification and excellent corrosion resistance on the surface of the object simply and easily. Upon applying the laser markings, a liquid or gas as a laser beam permeating medium is blown onto the surface of the object, or the liquid or gas in the vicinity of the object is sucked, the laser beam-irradiated portion on the surface can be cooled positively. Accordingly, the laser marking can be formed on the surface of the object with less heat affection to the object. In addition, if the content of a nitrogen gas in the laser beam permeating liquid medium is reduced by degassing to lower than a predetermined value, or the laser beam permeating gaseous medium is formed by an inert gas, a laser marking having high corrosion resistance and reliability can be formed on the surface of the objective member. (N.H.)