WorldWideScience

Sample records for agencies mark chernobyl

  1. UN agencies mark Chernobyl anniversary with launch of US$2.5-million project

    On the 24th of April 2009 four United Nations agencies marked the 23rd anniversary of the Chernobyl nuclear accident by launching a $2.5 million programme designed to meet the priority information needs of affected communities in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Funded by the UN Trust Fund for Human Security, this three-year initiative aims to translate the latest scientific information on the consequences of the accident into sound practical advice for residents of the affected territories. The project is a joint effort by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the World Health Organization (WHO)

  2. Chernobyl

    Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. This report summerize the results from a post-Chernobyl research program on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in contaminated areas. Pathways, processes and factors determining the Cs-137 concentration in soil, plant, water, fish and wild animal were investigated. 84 refs., 40 figs., 20 tabs

  3. Chernobyl

    The Chernobyl reactor accident provoked a wave of public discussion about the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and particularly so in the Federal Republic of Germany. The article in hand discusses some consequences as can be assessed so far, although information on the causes and the course of the accident still is very incomplete. From the information available so far, the possible sequence of events is described. The safety engineering and design of Federal German reactor types is compared with the reactor type installed at Chernobyl, with the result that the Soviet type never would have been licensed in the FRG. The fallout, i.e. the resulting radiation exposure of the population, is expected to remain within the limits of the natural radioactivity; the political effects and possible consequences with regard to further commitments for the advancement of the fast breeder reactor line and the reprocessing of spent fuel are discussed. (orig./RB)

  4. Chernobyl

    The reactor accident in Chernobyl also had a memorable 1986 Spring for the region of Lake Constance. Salad had to be ploughed up in the vegetable fields, the feeding of cows with fresh grass was forbidden, and becquerel values played a decisive role in food purchases. Along with the measurement of radioactivity in rainwater, the authors began to take food and soil samples; hundreds of samples were tested in the laboratories of the University of Constance. They provided, in cooperation with public authorities, for the protection of the population against radiation, and explained, in numerous lectures, the significance of this incident to everyday life. Besides, they recorded recent scientific findings about the behaviour of radioactive substances in the environment. The book gives a summary of the findings. It also includes, besides a description of the events of May 1986 at Lake Constance, a presentation of the results of scientific investigations into Chernobyl's radioactivity. This is thus the first detailed account of the diverse effects of the reactor accident with respect to one particular region which, though more than 1500 km away, was surprisingly seriously affected, and which, owing to its special features - Lake Constance is Europe's most important drinking water reservoir -, is particularly endangered, in case of radioactive release. (orig./HP) With 2 separate tabs

  5. Chernobyl

    This book brings together a comprehensive history of the first 18 months of the accident at Chernobyl and the complete pictorial record of the disaster, including many photographs never seen in the West. It also gives a unique record of subsequent events in the USSR involving the evacuation and re-housing of a population of 135,000, the building of the 400,000 tonne concrete sarcophagus over the damaged reactor and the decontamination of the environment which may take years to complete. The human dimension of radiation injuries is recreated in the cast histories and hospital photographs of the firemen who brought the blaze under control. The problems of contamination of the food chain for various countries is included, and recommendations for safe levels of activity in milk are described

  6. 77 FR 6815 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Country of Origin Marking Requirements for Containers...

    2012-02-09

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Country of Origin... requirement concerning Country of Origin Marking Requirements for Containers or Holders. This request for...: Title: Country of Origin Marking Requirements for Containers or Holders. OMB Number: 1651-0057....

  7. 77 FR 23490 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Country of Origin Marking Requirements for Containers...

    2012-04-19

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Country of Origin... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Country of Origin Marking... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register (77 FR 6817) on February 9,...

  8. Chernobyl bibliography

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone ampersand Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time

  9. Chernobyl bibliography

    Carr, F. Jr.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time.

  10. Chernobyl - Ten years after

    A decade later, in April 1996, more than 800 experts from 71 countries and 20 organizations, observed by over 200 journalists, met to review the Chernobyl accident's actual and possible future consequences, and to put these into proper perspective. They came together at the international conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident, held at the Austria Center in Vienna. The Chernobyl Conference was a model of international co-operation: six organizations of the UN family, including the IAEA, and two important regional agencies were involved in its organization

  11. Chernobyl and the media

    The way the media reported the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident was discussed at a day seminar in Birmingham in July. Contributors were from the Forsmark nuclear power station in Sweden where the disaster was first noticed, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Russian film industry, French TV and SCRAM. Personal experiences and opinions of Chernobyl and the media were discussed. The approach in West Germany, France, Finland and the United Kingdom is compared. (UK)

  12. The enduring lessons of Chernobyl

    The major impacts of the Chernobyl accident fall into three categories: the physical impacts, in terms of health and environmental effects; the psycho-social impacts on the affected populations; and the influence of the accident on the nuclear industry worldwide. The physical impacts mark Chernobyl as the site of the most serious nuclear accident in history. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core released a cloud of radionuclides that contaminated large areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Hundreds of thousands of workers participated in efforts to mitigate the consequences of the accident, and many of these individuals were exposed to substantial radiation doses. The psycho-social impacts were also devastating. Over 100 000 people were evacuated immediately after the accident, and the total number of evacuees from severely contaminated areas eventually reached 350 000 people. While these resettlements helped to reduce the collective dose of radiation, it was deeply traumatic for those involved. The third impact I mentioned is the enormous influence of the Chernobyl accident on the nuclear industry. A decade earlier, the accident at Three Mile Island had already cast doubt on the ability of nuclear power plant operators to prevent severe accidents. Chernobyl had far greater impact; the accident emblazoned itself on public consciousness as proof positive that nuclear safety was an oxymoron. Some countries decided to reduce or terminate further construction of nuclear facilities, and the expansion of nuclear capacity came to a near standstill. It has taken nearly two decades of strong safety performance to repair the industry's reputation. From the time of the accident, the IAEA has been continuously involved in technical assistance and research projects to mitigate the environmental and health consequences in affected areas. Since 1990, more than $15 million has been disbursed through the IAEA technical cooperation programme on a broad range of these

  13. Chernobyl reactor accident

    On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described

  14. Byelorussia's Chernobyl legacy

    Following the Chernobyl nuclear accident on 26 April 1986 radioactive fall-out was widely distributed over the eastern territories of the Soviet Union and over Europe. While the effects in Europe have been well documented and have received widespread media attention, less is known about the effects within the Soviet Union. The general picture that has been painted is that while the accident was serious, it wasn't that bad and the resulting contamination is something that can be lived with. In reality many people are living in contaminated zones which would be regarded as completely unacceptable in the United Kingdom. However, the USSR Ministry of Public Health has argued that relocation is not necessary. The Ministry and other agencies including the Red Cross do not recognize the contamination as serious and feel the main side effect of Chernobyl is psychological. In Byelorussia however, 100,000 people are still living in areas of major contamination. (author)

  15. After Chernobyl

    The Chernobyl accident mobilized profound anxieties in many people, which subsequently were repressed again and played down with the aid of the known psychological mechanisms. The authors trace the anxiety, and the resistance against it, and pose the question of whether we are at all capable of learning to think along new lines. From the contents: 10 theses on Chernobyl 1986 (Anders, G.); Anxiety, apathy and new thinking (Richter, H.-E.); On the Germans' particular way of dealing with existential threats (Wirth, H.-J.); Appeasement and delusion - small and big flights from powerlessness (Leithaeuser, T.); Socio-psychological theses on the consequences of nuclear energy (Clemenz, M.); Psychological arguments in the discussion about Chernobyl (Kettner, M.); Relationship between fear and technology (Brede, K.); Inhumanity of technology (Spangenberg, N.); Psychology of nuclear addiction (Bauriedl, T.); Nature or technology - search of the wizard's apprentice for lost salvation (Bastian, T./Hilger, M.); Living under a nuclear threat - significance of existential fear experienced during childhood (Boehnke, K., et al.); Survey of, and psychoanalytical reflections on, poisoned childhood (Petri, H.); On knowing, feeling, and experience after Chernobyl (Thiel, W.); Sociopsychological aspects of the staging of politics as a state spectacle fit for the media (Fuechner, H.). (orig./HP)

  16. Project Chernobyl

    The aim of the follow-up after the Chernobyl fallout is to obtain the best possible information about the environmental and dose commitment consequences in Sweden. The essential part of the work by the institute to improve the state of readiness is described. (G.B.)

  17. Chernobyl fantasy

    Several versions of technical reasons of Chernobyl accident, which have received a wide resonance in mass-media, and are seemed as reasonable for most public without any special education in reactor's physics, are discussed. Probable reasons of its origination are analysed, and its scientific groundlessness is shown

  18. Chernobyl, 14 years later

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) International cooperation, 7) More information about Chernobyl and 8) Glossary

  19. Chernobyl assessed (Report of NEA)

    Modern state of knowledge about Chernobyl accident effect on men's health as well as radiological and social-economic impacts for population of Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation is presented in the report of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Accepted estimations of absorbed radiation dose of population suggest that except the thyroid disease it is improbable that irradiation causes radiation effects among population

  20. After Chernobyl

    This report discusses a number of effects of the Chernobyl-accident on public opinion about nuclear power. The analysis is based on a comparison of a survey conducted shortly after Chernobyl and a number of measurements in the Netherlands between 1982 and 1986. The conclusions can be summarized as follows: Attitudes towards nuclear power and especially towards building new stations have become much more negative after the disaster in Chernobyl. Although a majority of the population now wants to close existing nuclear power stations, there appears strong support for continuation of nuclear research. The structure of the nuclear debate has not changed fundamentally. Supporters and opponents have kept the same demographic characteristics. The arguments which distinguish them have not changed, except that the expectation of a serious accident has an increased impact on attitudes. A majority of the population felt the information after the accident not sufficient. Since 1982 attitudes towards coal also have become more negative, mainly as a consequence of the higher visibility of effects of acid rain. (Auth.)

  1. Chernobyl - a Canadian technical perspective

    In this report we present the design review done to date in Canada by AECL. From the Canadian point of view it covers: 1) relevant information on the Chernobyl design and the accident, both as presented by the Soviets at the Post-Accident Review Meeting (PARM) held in Vienna from August 25-29, 1986, and as deduced from publicly available Soviet documentation; and 2) details of AECL's technical review of the CANDU PHWR (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) against the background of the Chernobyl accident, and implications of the Chernobyl accident. Reviews of operational aspects are underway by the Canadian electrical utilities and a review by the Canadian regulatory agency (the Atomic Energy Control Board) is near completion

  2. Emergency preparedness lessons from Chernobyl

    Emergency preparedness at nuclear power plants in the U.S has been considerably enhanced since the Three Mile Island accident, The Chernobyl accident has provided valuable data that can be used to evaluate the merit of some of these enhancements and to determine the need for additional improvements, for example, the USSR intervention levels of 25 rem and 75 rem for evacuation are contrasted with U.S Environmental Protection agency protective action guides. The manner in which 135,000 persons were evacuated from the 30-km zone around Chernobyl is contrasted with typical U.S. evacuation plans. Meteorological conditions and particulate deposition patterns were studied to infer characteristics of the radioactive plume from Chernobyl. Typical plume monitoring techniques are examined in light of lessons learned by the Soviets about plume behavior. This review has indicated a need for additional improvements in utility and government emergency plans, procedures, equipment, and training

  3. Chernobyl, 12 years later

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) The Franco-German cooperation, and 7) Glossary

  4. Medical Cooperative Projects: from Nagasaki to Chernobyl and Semipalatinsk

    Takamura, Noboru; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2005-01-01

    For many years, Nagasaki University, particularly the Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, has been engaged in research regarding the late health effects of radiation exposure in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Since 1991, we have participated in several Chernobyl projects including the Chernobyl Sasakawa Medical Cooperation Project which demonstrated a marked increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid cancer around Chernobyl, especially in the Gomel region, Belarus. Furthermore, we have perfor...

  5. The Chernobyl disaster

    The Chernobyl disaster is examined in chronological order from the experiment that led to the explosions, to the firefighting efforts, the release of radioactivity, its fallout, the evacuations from the contaminated zone and the long-term medical, ecological, economic and political repercussions. The sources of information are nearly all Soviet - the Ukranian and Russian press, Moscow and Kiev radio broadcasts, Soviet television documentaries and the report of the Soviet government commission to the International Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986. Reports by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, the Central Electricity Generating Board and the International Atomic Energy Agency have also been used. The latter chapters look at who was to blame for the accident, what impact the accident has had on Soviet society and why the Soviet government continues to expand its nuclear power programme. (author)

  6. Chernobyl accident

    The examination of the radioelements in macromicetae taken in the area of Como's Groane and in other areas near Lakes of Como and Maggiore and a few samples in Pine' di Trento are reported. A number of samples has been collected and analyzed at Joint Research Center, Ispra. A sampling of many pieces has been picked up by the Circolo Micologico Plinio il Vecchio and by the Unita' Sanitarie of Como and Varese. The various samples are subdivided for specie and the denomination for each one of them is given. The foundamental sampling is dated atumn 1986, a second sampling is made in autumn 1987. Gamma spectrometry has revealed the presence of many radiosotopes due to the Chernobyl fall-out. as Cs137, Cs134 and Ag110 (metastable); levels of Potassium 40, a natural radioactive element have been also measured. A discussion of results is presented and the comparison among data of the 1986 season and the 1987 one

  7. Chernobyl 2015

    After having recalled the Chernobyl accident process and consequences for the power station buildings, and also the emergency interventions to cover the reactor and avoid that the molten core reaches underground waters, the author proposes a brief overview of the consequences at the international level in the field of nuclear safety with the emergence of a culture of safety which has been applied in other industrial sectors, with the improvement of the quality of transmitted information, and with the lessons learned about the efficiency of early ingestion of iodine pills. The author evokes the construction of a containment arch to dismantle the whole installation, comments the various results published on health consequences and gives some explanations about their discrepancy

  8. The international Chernobyl project

    This article summarizes the official report of the International Advisory Committee at the conference of the International Chernobyl Project held in Vienna, May 1991. More details will be found in the actual report, ''The International Chernobyl Project: An Overview'' (INI22:066284/5). Measurements and assessments carried out under the project provided general corroboration of the levels of surface cesium-137 contamination reported in the official maps. The project also concluded that the official procedures for estimating radiation doses to the population were scientifically sound, although they generally resulted in overestimates of two- to threefold. The project could find no marked increase in the incidence of leukemia or cancer, but reported absorbed thyroid doses in children might lead to a statistically detectable rise in the incidence of thyroid tumors. Significant non-radiation-related health disorders were found, and the accident had substantial psychological consequences in terms of anxiety and stress. The project concluded that the protective measures taken were too extreme, and that population relocation and foodstuff restrictions should have been less extensive

  9. The enduring lessons of Chernobyl. International conference of the Chernobyl Forum, 6 September 2005, Vienna, Austria

    The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a defining moment in the history of nuclear energy. The lessons of this tragedy are interwoven with a recurrent theme: namely, the importance of international cooperation. With its recently released document - entitled 'Chernobyl's Legacy' - the Chernobyl Forum has solidly reinforced that theme. The major impacts of Chernobyl fall into three categories: the physical impacts, in terms of health and environmental effects; the psychological and social impacts on the affected populations; and the influence of the accident on the nuclear industry worldwide. The physical impacts mark Chernobyl as the site of the most serious nuclear accident in history. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core released a cloud of radionuclides that contaminated large areas of Europe and, in particular, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Hundreds of thousands of people were exposed to substantial radiation doses, including workers from all three of these countries who participated in efforts to mitigate the consequences of the accident. The definitive numbers compiled in the Chernobyl Forum report are sobering: the 50 emergency rescue workers who died from acute radiation syndrome and related illnesses; the 4000 children and adolescents who contracted thyroid cancer - 9 of whom also died; and the hundreds of thousands of hectares of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres that were contaminated by environmental fallout. But as severe as these impacts were, the situation was made even worse by conflicting information and vast exaggerations - in press coverage and pseudo-scientific accounts of the accident - reporting, for example, fatalities in the tens or hundreds of thousands. The psychological and social impacts were also devastating. Over 100 000 people were immediately evacuated, and the total number of evacuees from contaminated areas eventually reached 350 000. While some of these

  10. Impressions of Chernobyl

    Three years on from the nuclear power plant accident, an inaugural meeting of the Wano (World Association of Nuclear Operators) discusses impressions of the Chernobyl incident on a technical tour through the Chernobyl exclusion zone. (author)

  11. Chernobyl, 17 after

    This information document takes stock on the Chernobyl accident effects, 17 years after the reactor accident. The domains concerned are: the Chernobyl power plant, the sanitary consequences of the accident in the most exposed countries, the Chernobyl environment and the polluted regions management, the Chernobyl accident consequences in France; Some data and technical sheets on the RBMK reactors and the international cooperation are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  12. Chernobyl revisited

    Observations made on a visit to the Chernobyl area in July 1990 are reported. Although the main purpose of the visit was to try out thermoluminescence techniques on materials exposed to radiation during the accident, the observations reported here are of a more general nature covering the variations in dose rate and contamination of surfaces within the 30 km exclusion zone and in the deserted tow of Pripyat, and plant, animal and bird life. The most ubiquitous contamination in Pripyat is caesium, which has penetrated all porous surfaces and would probably be very difficult to remove from brick structures if rehabitation were ever contemplated. Recorded dose-rates varied considerably on and in different parts of buildings. Radiation measurements of external surfaces were typically in the range 1-10 μSv/h and an order of magnitude less within buildings. Grass verges were particularly badly contaminated; measurements up to 110 μSv/h were noted in the most polluted area of Pripyat. Ecologically, the area seems to have benefited from having been allowed to return to nature. Many birds and a wide variety of plants and trees were flourishing; some older pine trees showed evidence of damage, however. The only insects observed were peacock butterflies. (Author)

  13. Chernobyl - Could it happen here? [videorecording

    Following the accident at the Soviet nuclear power station at Chernobyl in April 1986, the CEGB produced this video which has now been updated in the light of the information provided by the Soviets at the International Atomic Energy Agency Conference in Vienna. At this conference it was made clear that the Chernobyl accident would have been impossible in any nuclear reactor operational outside the USSR. This video explains why. It examines the main reasons for the failure of the reactor at Chernobyl and the two fundamental design flaws which resulted in the sequence of events leading up to the accident. It shows how British reactors have built-in protection to compensate for failure in any part of the system, and how the reactors are tolerant to operator error. The programme also explains the safety standards and regulations which are enforced in CEGB nuclear power stations and the rigorous training that reactor operators have to undergo

  14. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I.; Santillo, D.; Johnston, P.; Stringer, R.; Sadownichik, T. (eds.); Antipkin, Yu.G. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Arabskaya, L.P. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazyka, D.A. [Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)] (and others)

    2006-04-15

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations.

  15. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations

  16. Communication from the Permanent Mission of Belarus to the International Atomic Energy Agency concerning consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus

    The Director General has received a communication dated 27 March 2001 from the Permanent Representative of Belarus to the Agency and, as requested therein, the text of a statement by the Governor for Belarus is attached hereto, for the information of Member States

  17. Assisting the Return to Normal Life in Chernobyl-Affected Regions: The International Chernobyl Research and Information Network (ICRIN)

    This article describes the International Chernobyl Research and Information Network (ICRIN) project, a programme designed to meet the priority information needs of communities in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine which were affected by the 1986 nuclear accident. Its aim is to empower Chernobyl affected communities through targeted delivery of the most recent scientific information on the accident’s impacts, translated into practical advice, including recommendations on healthy lifestyles. Supported by a United Nations General Assembly resolution, the project is part of a broader effort by all United Nations agencies to help local communities return to normal life, under the United Nations Action Plan on Chernobyl to 2016. (author)

  18. Chernobyl: fourteen years on

    Current situation around Chernobyl is observed, special attention being paid to the status of SARCOPHAGUS and consequences for human health. The problem of low doses is reviewed, with an impact to what the hormesis is

  19. Chernobyl: a documentary story

    This account of the Chernobyl disaster of April 1986 is based on interviews with many of the participants. Realising that the Chernobyl accident was to have a massive impact on the USSR and the world, the author felt impelled to travel to the designated danger zone around the reactor, to live there and to interview firemen, first-aid workers, party and government officials and local media representatives. The result is a variety of vivid eyewitness accounts that are unprecedented in their detail and frankness. These accounts show why the author considers the Chernobyl accident to be the most important event in the Soviet Union since World War II. The book, itself a product of glasnost, reveals how the Chernobyl accident was viewed from inside the Soviet Union. (author)

  20. Chernobyl 25 years later

    In this presentation authors describe the field trip to the territory of Chernobyl NPP. They obtained samples from contaminated territory which were analysed on the presence of plutonium-238 and plutonium-239.

  1. Chernobyl 25 years later

    In this paper authors describe the field trip to the territory of Chernobyl NPP. They obtained samples from contaminated territory which were analysed on the presence of plutonium-238 and plutonium-239.

  2. Radiation exposure and breast cancer: lessons from Chernobyl.

    Ogrodnik, Aleksandra; Hudon, Tyler W; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y

    2013-04-01

    The lessons learned from the Chernobyl disaster have become increasingly important after the second anniversary of the Fukushima, Japan nuclear accident. Historically, data from the Chernobyl reactor accident 27 years ago demonstrated a strong correlation with thyroid cancer, but data on the radiation effects of Chernobyl on breast cancer incidence have remained inconclusive. We reviewed the published literature on the effects of the Chernobyl disaster on breast cancer incidence, using Medline and Scopus from the time of the accident to December of 2010. Our findings indicate limited data and statistical flaws. Other confounding factors, such as discrepancies in data collection, make interpretation of the results from the published literature difficult. Re-analyzing the data reveals that the incidence of breast cancer in Chernobyl-disaster-exposed women could be higher than previously thought. We have learned little of the consequences of radiation exposure at Chernobyl except for its effects on thyroid cancer incidence. Marking the 27th year after the Chernobyl event, this report sheds light on a specific, crucial and understudied aspect of the results of radiation from a gruesome nuclear power plant disaster. PMID:23691737

  3. Problems of Chernobyl

    The collection comprises the materials of working meeting 'The Development of Technologies of the 'Ukrytie' Radioactive Waste Management', held on May 20-21, 1997 in Chernobyl. The results of research work of the experts of Ukraine and other countries directed on solving problems, concerning removal of fuel containing materials and other radioactive waste from destroyed Unit 4 of Chernobyl NPP are given. The data on waste quantities, their location and classification, strategy of waste management and some technologies are described

  4. Chernobyl, 16 years later

    This document on the Chernobyl site evolution is constituted around four main questions. What about the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor and the ''sarcophagus'' constructed around the reactor? What about the sanitary consequences of the accident on the liquidators asked to blot out the radiation and the around people exposed to radiation? What about the contaminated land around the power plant and their management? Concerning the France, what were the ''radioactive cloud'' sanitary consequences? (A.L.B.)

  5. Medical cooperative projects. From Nagasaki to Chernobyl and Semipalatinsk

    For many years, Nagasaki University, particularly the Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, has been engaged in research regarding the late health effects of radiation exposure in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Since 1991, we have participated in several Chernobyl projects including the Chernobyl Sasakawa Medical Cooperation Project which demonstrated a marked increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid cancer around Chernobyl, especially in the Gomel region, Belarus. Furthermore, we have performed both fieldwork and research to clarify the late effects of radiation exposure around Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site and participated in bilateral official medical assistance projects between Japan and Kazakhstan to strengthen the medical infrastructure in this area. Through these humanitarian and scientific projects, we have been collaborating closely with our counterparts in the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) for the past 15 years. Here, we present a brief review of our past activities and future directions of international cooperative radiation research from Nagasaki to Chernobyl and Semipalatinsk. (author)

  6. Chernobyl, 13 years after

    This is an annual report, regularly issued by IPSN, that presents the ecological and health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. The present status of the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant, which Ukraine engaged to stop definitively in year 2000, is summarized. The only reactor unit now in operation is Chernobylsk-3 Reactor which poses two safety questions: evolution of cracks in part of the tubing and behaviour of the pressure tubes. Although, some improvements in the RBMK reactor types were introduced, problems remain that make IPSN to stress the requirement of stopping this NPP completely. In the contaminated territories surrounding Chernobyl incidence rate of infant thyroid cancers continues to grow, reaching values 10 to 100 times higher than the natural rate. In France the IPSN analyzed 60,000 records carried out in 17 sites during May 1986 and April 1989. It was estimated that the individual dose received during 60 years (1986-2046) by the inhabitants of the most affected zone (eastern France) is lower than 1.5 mSv, a value lower than 1% of the natural cosmic and telluric radioactivity exposure for the same period. For the persons assumed to live in the most attacked forests (from eastern France) and nourishing daily with venison and mushrooms the highest estimate is 1 mSv a year. Concerning the 'hot spots', identified in mountains by IPSN and CRIIRAD, the doses received by excursionists are around 0.015 mSv. For an average inhabitant of the country the dose piled up in the thyroid due to iodine-131 fallout is estimated to 0.5-2 mSv for an adult and 6.5-16 mSv for an infant. These doses are 100 to 1000 times lower than the ones to which the infants living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl are exposed to. The contents of the report is displayed in the following six chapters: 1. Chernobyl in some figures; 2. The 'sarcophagus' and the reactors of the Chernobyl NPP; 3. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident;. 4. The impact of Chernobyl fallout in France

  7. Real and mythical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    This presentation describes the public Unacceptance of Nuclear Power as a consequence of Chernobyl Accident, an accident which was a severest event in the history of the nuclear industry. It was a shock for everybody, who has been involved in nuclear power programs. But nobody could expect that it was also the end romantic page in the nuclear story. The scale of the detriment was a great, and it could be compared with other big technological man-made catastrophes. But immediately after an accident mass media and news agencies started to transmit an information with a great exaggerations of the consequences of the event. In a report on the Seminar The lessons of the Chernobyl - 1' in 1996 examples of such incorrect information, were cited. Particularly, in the mass media it was declared that consequences of the accident could be compared with a results of the second world war, the number of victims were more than hundred thousand people, more than million of children have the serious health detriments. Such and other cases of the misconstruction have been called as myths. The real consequences of Chernobyl disaster have been summed on the International Conference 'One decade after Chernobyl' - 2, in April 1996. A very important result of the Chernobyl accident was a dissemination of stable unacceptance of the everything connected with 'the atom'. A mystic horror from invisible mortal radiation has been inspired in the masses. And from such public attitude the Nuclear Power Programs in many countries have changed dramatically. A new more pragmatic and more careful atomic era started with a slogan: 'Kernkraftwerk ? Nein, danke'. No doubt, a Chernobyl accident was a serious technical catastrophe in atomic industry. The scale of detriment is connected with a number of involved peoples, not with a number of real victims. In comparison with Bhopal case, earthquakes, crashes of the airplanes, floods, traffic accidents and other risky events of our life - the Chernobyl is

  8. Space Radar Image of Chernobyl

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its surroundings, centered at 51.17 north latitude and 30.15 west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 16th orbit on October 1, 1994. The area is located on the northern border of the Ukraine Republic and was produced by using the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization. The differences in the intensity are due to differences in vegetation cover, with brighter areas being indicative of more vegetation. These data were acquired as part of a collaboration between NASA and the National Space Agency of Ukraine in Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences. NASA has included several sites provided by the Ukrainian space agency as targets of opportunity during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The Ukrainian space agency also plans to conduct airborne surveys of these sites during the mission. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located toward the top of the image near the Pripyat River. The 12-kilometer (7.44-mile)-long cooling pond is easily distinguishable as an elongated dark shape in the center near the top of the image. The reactor complex is visible as the bright area to the extreme left of the cooling pond and the city of Chernobyl is the bright area just below the cooling pond next to the Pripyat River. The large dark area in the bottom right of the image is the Kiev Reservoir just north of Kiev. Also visible is the Dnieper River, which feeds into the Kiev Reservoir from the top of the image. The Soviet government evacuated 116,000 people within 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) of the Chernobyl reactor after the explosion and fire on April 26, 1986. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight

  9. Healthy living after Chernobyl?

    Our food today is endangered not only through environmental poisons and the machinations of profit-hungry manufacturers but also, after the reactor disaster of Chernobyl, by radioactive materials. There is great uncertainty amongst consumers: Whan can I still eat? How can I best protect my children from food products contaminated by radioactivity or enriched with pollutants? Does it still make sense to buy organically produced foodstuffs? Which food products are low in pollutants? With this book the authors want to counteract general helplessness and help the reader with comprehensible and sound information as well as practical tips for eating and living healthily after Chernobyl. (orig.)

  10. Chernobyl - the government reaction

    The Farmers' Union of Wales submitted this memorandum to the Agriculture Committee of the House of Commons giving its interpretation of the Government's reaction to the Chernobyl disaster. The primary aim of the paper is to provide an objective assessment of the impact of the disaster and the Government's handling of it, for future reference. The subject is dealt with under the following headings:- Chernobyl nuclear fallout in Wales, monitoring of milk and fresh vegetables, silage contamination, the North Wales Sheep Sector, soil, herbage and genetic implications, recommendations for the future. (UK)

  11. The Chernobyl catastrophe is the most terrible civil nuclear incident

    Full text: The 4th nuclear reactor of the Chernobyl NPP exploded on 26 April 1986, 20 years ago. It's the most terrible nuclear civil accident of all times. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident led to contamination of 3,1 million ha of arable land, 1,5 million ha of natural pasture land, 3,5 million ha of forests and changed the lifestyle for millions of people in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. It is well known that the mortality in the contaminated areas (infant mortality by cancer) drastically increased. The Chernobyl catastrophe is presented , such as a sad example for humanity, a complex political international, economical, social and, particular, ecological problem according to the traditional and new studies for the development of the nucleotide contaminated territories: 1. Financing of safety of stopped working 4th nuclear reactor (security of covering system) and of work another 3 blocks at the Chernobyl NPP. Detailed control of international financial support for guarantee the safety, security of the Chernobyl NPP and sustainable development for rehabilitation of the affected zones and people. 2. It should be marked increase in medical, demographic analysis and in social, economical protection of the people in the contaminated areas. 3. Analysis and synthesis, monitoring of the long-time data results due to environmental, ecological, social and political consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. 4. Protection from the possible terrorist (extra) actions and (inter) damage or incident function of the Chernobyl plant, such as an old generation nuclear power. 5. Planned budget for future studies in the affected territories and flexibility actually realization of budget (State and International). 6. Nuclear refuse and aria/water protection in the Ukraine, Belarus and Russia contaminated zones. 7. Risk evaluation of not good function of NPPs which are situated in Russia, Ukraine and in another places (always remembering that the Chernobyl catastrophe is the

  12. Wildlife in Chernobyl forests

    The article is a review of a book addressed Wormwood Forest: a natural history of Chernobyl which describes life in Europe's largest wildlife sanctuary in the region surrounding the Chernobyl station. Since the accident, the area has largely been a safe haven from hunters and farmers, allowing the wildlife to live in an undisturbed environment. Against this backdrop, the book describes in detail, a highly controversial programme that released an endangered species of horse into the zone. Lack of funding for such programmes makes it nearly impossible to administer them. The book blends reportage, popular science and encounters with the zone's few residents. The result is an account of a remarkable land, its people and animals seen through the eyes of the locals, the author and the zoologists, botanists and radiologists who travelled with her around the zone. The radiation is the book's ever-present protagonist, as the author describes in detail how it works itself through the entire food chain and environment. Along the author's journey through the affected regions of Belarus and Ukraine she debunks several myths surrounding Chernobyl and the nuclear industry in general. In fact, while there have been a small number of cases of mutations observed in some species, these are not as dramatic as the Chernobyl mythology.

  13. Nuclear energy after Chernobyl

    This paper on fundamental questions by a representative of the Federal German Government focuses on the following subjects: Nuclear energy as a part of the energy policy of the Federal German Government, the justifiability of nuclear energy, lessons from Chernobyl, nuclear phase-out, safety concepts for the future, supply of nuclear power plants, and nuclear waste disposal. (UA)

  14. Chernobyl accident and Danmark

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  15. Chernobyl: The WHO helps

    This booklet addresses concerns of the populations of the areas of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia affected by the Chernobyl accident. Answers to commonly asked questions comprise the bulk of the information, but the booklet also describes the WHO's work to study and mitigate the effects on the exposed populations

  16. Chernobyl and our health

    The health impacts in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident are discussed in this booklet. Five experts of different relevant fields (biology, radioecology, nuclear physics and psychology) give their views on probable radiation doses and health effects from these doses, contamination of food chains etc. (L.E.)

  17. Science. Chernobyl-96. Abstracts

    The collection contains the results of Chernobyl accident investigation on the territory of Ukraine. The conference was devoted to the following problems: -equipment and dosimetry; - agriculture and forestry radioecology and environmental monitoring; - medical, biological and social consequences; - waste management; - 'Shelter' problems; - information and simulation technologies

  18. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP)

  19. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  20. The Chernobyl effect

    In what way and to what extent does an event like the Chernobyl reactor accident influence the citizen's attitudes and political commitment. This book evolves a number of theses on these questions dealing above all with the determinants of political protest. Two investigations are presented in order to verify those theses: in 1982 and 1987 (some nine months after the Chernobyl reactor accident), the same persons were interviewed. In addition, representative surveys in the Federal Republic of Germany are analysed, in order to assess in general the impact of Chernobyl. From the contents: explanation model for political protest; Chernobyl effect: effect of critical events on the mobilization of political protest; discontent with nuclear energy use, political alienation and protest; internal incentives for protest: norms, readiness for aggression, and entertainment quality of protest; resources as determinants of political protest; sanctions and protest; social nets and political protest; verification of a central model of political protest, and problems encountered by research. Appendix: investigation plan and random sampling of the panel of nuclear power opponents. (orig./HP)

  1. Chernobyl: The aftermath

    The nuclear accident in Chernobyl prompted vehement and sometimes controversial public and political reaction in the Federal Republic of Germany, as it did elsewhere. What remained after the initial concern subsided? We at the IIUG feel obligated to make a contribution to the preservation and the improvement of our environmental quality, both in basic and specialized research aimed at environmental problems. It is time to take stock of the findings of our own work; we must access the feedback to and implementation of this research; the candidness and integrity of the scientific-economic-political community; superfluous knowledge or information gaps; structural obstacles and possible alternatives. This paper presents, in condensed form, the results of the 'post-Chernobyl' discussions at the IIUG, based on our work in various projects. (orig.)

  2. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  3. Reflections on Chernobyl

    The Chernobyl and Three Mile Island reactor accidents are revealing some of the social costs of such failures, widespread opposition to nuclear power. As far as mortality and morbidity go, Chernobyl was probably a smaller incident than the chemical disaster at Bhopal. But nuclear people must accept the idea that a nuclear hazard is perceived as somehow different. Since nuclear energy will be needed to replace oil eventually, and the environmental impacts of properly operating nuclear power plants are far less than those of fossil fuelled power plants, this appears to be an appropriate time for the United States and other interested countries to start developing inherently safe nuclear power plants which will be acceptable to the public

  4. Chernobyl: Geographic considerations

    This paper discusses the geographic considerations that could effect the long range consequences of the Chernobyl accident. First, the explosion and fire lofted the radionuclides that were released, so the areas that should have been most severely effected were the areas that were downwind of the accident. Curiously, the Soviets have not mentioned the number of casualties from these areas. A second consideration is that Chernobyl is located upstream from the Dnieper River which is the source for six major reservoirs. These reservoirs provide drinking water, industrial and irrigation water, and recreational and commercial fishing for over six million people. The Soviets say that they have taken measures to prevent the radioactive contamination of the Dnieper but they neglected to explain the methods used to accomplish this feat

  5. The Chernobyl accident

    In connection with the Chernobyl accident the report gives a description of the technical features of importance to the accident, the course of events, and the estimated health hazards in the local environment. Dissimilarities in western and Sovjet reactor safety philosophy are dealt with, as well as conceivable concequences in relation to technology and research in western nuclear power programmes. Results of activity level measurements of air and foodstuff, made in Norway by Institute for Energy Technology, are given

  6. Chernobyl: a year after

    The radioactivity measurements in the year after the Chernobyl accident, carried out by the Radioprotection Division of the Joint Research Centre of Ispra, are reported. Air at ground level and in grass, milk, wheat, meat, fishes and man have been measured. The evaluation of the 1987 individual dose equivalent due to the exposure of the population living in N.W. Italy is compared with the dose equivalent absorbed in the year following the accident

  7. Chernobyl 25 years on

    After a brief recall on radioactivity measurement units and on radioactivity itself, this report describes and comments the Chernobyl accident, its consequent releases, the scattering of the radioactive plume over Europe, the formation of radioactive deposits in Europe, the contamination of the different environments and of the food chain, the health impact in the most contaminated areas, the doses received in France and their associated risks. It finally draws some lessons from this accident

  8. Fallout over Chernobyl

    Friends of the Earth Ltd set up a mobile radiation monitoring unit between October and November 1988 which surveyed grass, silage, vegetables, meat in areas in Cumbria, North Wales, the Isle of Man and Scotland affected by the restrictions on the slaughter and movement of sheep following the accident at Chernobyl in 1986. This report contains the results of 357 sample analyses for CS 134 and Cs 137 examined during the survey and discusses discrepancies with official data. (U.K.)

  9. Chernobyl: radiation and disinformation

    A brief review is presented of the accident at Chernobyl and the delay in reporting it. A hypothesis is suggested for the cause of the accident and subsequent increase in intensity as resulting from decomposition of water and release of hydrogen at the high temperatures reached. Comments are also made on radiation levels compared with those from natural background radiation and from mass-radiography. (V.J.H.)

  10. 8 years after Chernobyl

    The Chernobyl accident is the largest radiation catastrophe in its scale and prolonged consequences. Nearly 70% of radioactive materials released into the atmosphere as a result of the reactor accident have deposited at the territory of Belarus. 23% of the territory republic turned out to be contaminated with cesium 137 with radiation density 1 Ci/sq.km. 2.1 millions of people inhabited these areas in Belarus (about 20% population). More than 18000 sq.km of agricultural land (22%) and more than 20000 sq.km of forests (30% of the entire tract) have been contaminated with radionuclides. There is not a single branch of production which is not damaged by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. After-effects of the accident tell on health of people. The increase of diseases of cardiovascular, alimentary, nervous, musculoskeletal systems, mental and lung diseases is observed in the area of radioactive contamination. Lately, the rise of thyroid cancer rates in children (from 1986 until 1994 more than 250 cases) causes particular anxiety. Nowadays, thyroid cancer is precisely considered as the direct after-effect of the Chernobyl catastrophe. Frequency of children birth with defects is nearly twice as large in the areas with density of contamination with cesium 137 radionuclides exceeding 15 Ci/sq.km. The creation of the system of radiation control is one of the main problems in elimination of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. Radiometers with the ability to control over Republican permissible levels of radionuclide content in food product and water have been created in the Republic. The radiation situation have been studied and the contaminated areas have been mapped. The control over radioactive contamination of air, water, sediments in carried out. (author)

  11. The chernobyl experience

    Jeschki, Wolfgang

    Numerous articles have been published about the events which occurred at Chernobyl and the radiological impact on the environment and the public. This article tries to find out which experience can be, should be or has already been gained from that accident. The fields which have been studied are: nuclear safety; radiation protection of rescue workers; medical treatment of overexposed persons; decontamination of agricultural land, buildings and cities; behaviour of radionuclides in ecosystems; effects of low doses on human beings.

  12. Return to Chernobyl

    Despite the catastrophic accident at the Chernobylsk 4 reactor in 1986, the Ukraine is currently expanding its nuclear industry. The government is committed to increasing the share of nuclear output to 40% of the country's electric power and the Chernobyl plant is included in this plan. All the Chernobyl reactors were closed down at the time of the accident, but units 1, 2 and 3 had all been restarted after safety modifications by December 1987. A fire in the turbine hall of unit 2 in 1991 resulted in the closure of that reactor and precipitated a political decision to close the entire plant by 1993. The economic consequences of such action and the safe operation of the remaining two reactors led, however, to the reversal of that decision. Work is now far advanced on unit 2 for a restart in 1996 and the management wants to upgrade all three reactors according to IAEA guidelines. Nevertheless, the question of closure of the Chernobyl plant remains in the air. A conditional acceptance of closure by 2000 has been made by the Ukraine provided the shortfall in power is taken up by a new gas-fired station. International finance is being sought for decommissioning, for urgent action on the decaying sarcophagus of unit 4, and for the gas-fired plant. Closure of the plant, given the social upheaval of the accident and recent political events, could contribute to the health of the Ukrainian national psyche. (UK)

  13. The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences

    An AAEC Task Group was set up shortly after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to monitor and evaluate initial reports and to assess the implications for Australia. The Task Group issued a preliminary report on 9 May 1986. On 25-29 August 1986, the USSR released details of the accident and its consequences and further information has become available from the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and the World Health Organisation. The Task Group now presents a revised report summarising this information and commenting on the consequences from the Australian viewpoint

  14. Chernobyl - 20 years and beyond

    In commemoration of the Chernobyl accident 20 years ago, the French society for radiation protection (S.F.R.P.) and the Belgian society for radiation protection (B.V.S.A.B.R.) organise jointly a one day colloquium in Brussels. This colloquium is divided in two parts: the first one concerns the technical and organisational aspects of the accident with the scenario and its global impact, the international environmental radioactivity information exchange through the Chernobyl experience, the European Union (E.U.) assistance to mitigate the Chernobyl accident consequences, the crisis communication and management and the lessons learned from them; the second part is devoted to the medical and humanitarian aspects through the thyroid cancers after Chernobyl accident, the health effects in the European Union (E.U.) and the psychological factors affecting health after the Chernobyl disaster. (N.C.)

  15. Chernobyl - 20 years and beyond

    Lacronique, J.F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Deconinck, F.; Govaerts, P.; Eggermont, C. [SCK-CEN - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie, Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Cort, M. de [Institute for Environment and Sustainability, DG JRC EC (Italy); Joulia, J.P. [EuropeAid Co-operation Office, EC, Brussels (Belgium); Dal, A.H.; Balonov, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Kenigsberg, J. [Commission on Radiation protection, council of ministry (Belarus); Hindie, E. [Universites Paris, 75 (France); Havenaar, M. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    In commemoration of the Chernobyl accident 20 years ago, the French society for radiation protection (S.F.R.P.) and the Belgian society for radiation protection (B.V.S.A.B.R.) organise jointly a one day colloquium in Brussels. This colloquium is divided in two parts: the first one concerns the technical and organisational aspects of the accident with the scenario and its global impact, the international environmental radioactivity information exchange through the Chernobyl experience, the European Union (E.U.) assistance to mitigate the Chernobyl accident consequences, the crisis communication and management and the lessons learned from them; the second part is devoted to the medical and humanitarian aspects through the thyroid cancers after Chernobyl accident, the health effects in the European Union (E.U.) and the psychological factors affecting health after the Chernobyl disaster. (N.C.)

  16. Chernobyl - 10 years on. Proceedings of a conference organised by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland

    The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident from an Irish perspective was the focus of a conference organised by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland to mark the tenth anniversary of the accident. The health consequences of Chernobyl were discussed along with presentations on such issues as the hazards to the Irish population from Sellafield; the radiation hazard posed by radon gas; radiation hazards in medicine, industry and education, and Ireland's National Emergency Plan for Nuclear Accidents

  17. Chernobyl - and then?

    The report describes how the different parties of the nuclear debate react to, and deal with, the information that arises on the issue, i.e. the process that leads to decision making. After the Chernobyl accident, a public enquiry was made, to form a base for decisions regarding the future energy policy of Sweden, including the phasing-out of nuclear power. The differing interpretations and uses of the results of this enquiry are studied, in the hope to clarify and separate factual and value-based appreciations of different energy policy alternatives

  18. Chernobyl: an early report

    An overview and assessment of the nuclear accident at Chernobyl is presented. The authors have assembled data from throughout Europe to estimate upper bounds for the possible radiation releases from the accident, the exposures these may produce in humans, and the health consequences that may follow. Measurements of radioactivity in air, fallout, and milk and other food are included. Doses from the accident are compared with those from other sources of radiation exposure and a comparison is made of the annual risk of cancer from this and other causes

  19. The accident of Chernobyl

    RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

  20. Chernobyl' 94. Abstracts

    This book contains materials of the 4th International Scientific and Technical Conference devoted to the results of 8-years work on Chernobyl accident consequences mitigation. Main results of research in radiation monitoring, applied radioecology, effect of radionuclides on biological objects in contaminated territories are presented. Information about waste management and medical consequences of the accident is given. Methodology and strategic of further research on radionuclides in environment and their influence on living organisms is determined. Large factual materials and its generalization may be usefull for scientists and practical workers in the field of radiation monitoring, radiology and medicine

  1. Evaluation investigation 'Chernobyl'

    This report is an evaluation of the attitude of the Dutch government in response to the Chernobyl accident. It deals with measures taken by the government in order to minimize the (possible) effects, apparent shortcomings and how one has dealt with them, measures which can be taken at least by the Netherlands in case of a reactor accident given the presence of dozens of nuclear power plants in Europe. Good and less good aspects of the temporary organization are noted and some general recommendations are given. (Auth.)

  2. US perspective on Chernobyl

    The Soviet medical response to the Chernobyl catastrophe was impressive and demonstrated an enviable level of radiobiologic competence. It also afforded the first opportunity to test the usefulness of bone marrow transplantation as life saving therapy for heavily irradiated patients under emergency conditions. More than 135,000 persons were at risk of exposure to life-threatening levels of radiation. A remarkably engineered evacuation of this population prevented the medical consequences from becoming worse than they were. Our medical perspective is based on the 40-year history of radiation incidents worldwide and especially in the United States

  3. Chernobyl, fifteen years after

    This work has been constituted around four questions: the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor, and the sarcophagus around it; the health consequences of the accident on the persons that have worked on the damaged reactor and on the population in the countries the most exposed to fallout,; the situation of contaminated territories around the power plant and their management today; the last question concerns especially the France with the consequences of the radioactive cloud and what we know about the health risks induced by this event. (N.C.)

  4. Chernobyl: the long shadow

    Chernobyl: the Long Shadow offers a balanced review of what happened there, why and how it happened, and what the main lessons and implications of the accident are. It looks back on events during and after the disaster, in particular reviewing how it and the radiation fallout were dealt with in different countries, and looks forward to how the incident might affect the nuclear power industry around the world. The book explores the significance of the accident within the Soviet Union, considers its impact on public confidence in nuclear power, and reviews what improvements are necessary in emergency planning throughout the rest of the world. It is written from an inter-disciplinary perspective; based on detailed scientific research, which is described in non-specialist terms, it considers themes like attitudes to nuclear power and political reactions to the accident itself. It sets the Chernobyl accident into a proper context, and will appeal to students and teachers of geography, environmental science, international politics, nuclear physics, and to anyone interested in current affairs and environmental problems. (author)

  5. Chernobyl, an opinion

    After having recalled the circumstances of the Chernobyl accident, and given some indications of associated releases (iodine 131, caesium 134 and 137), the authors gives an overview of biological effects of radiations: generalities (doses, biological effects), results of epidemiological studies in terms of stochastic effects of radiations (for survivals of atomic explosions, in other epidemiological studies, in epidemiological studies related to thyroid), of relationship between dose and effect in the case of low doses (generalities, risk coefficients), and of extrapolation. In the next part, the authors discuss the health consequences of the accident in the former USSR and in the world: consequences noticed by the end of 2000 (non stochastic effects, stochastic effects like occurrence of thyroid cancers or of leukaemia, exposed populations, occurrence of other cancers), predictions of impacts and death on a long term due to stochastic effects (for thyroid cancers, leukaemia and other cancers), global assessment. Then, they discuss the impact of the Chernobyl accident: generalities, doses delivered to the whole body, thyroid cancers

  6. Dispersion modelling after Chernobyl

    At the time of the Chernobyl accident, little was known about the magnitude and time pattern of the release from the damaged reactor. This paper describes the detective work done in the weeks following the accident to assess the release and its dispersal across Europe; also new calculations done since the USSR presentations in Vienna at the end of August 1986 and some estimates of longer term collective dose commitment are given. The MESOS computer model developed at Imperial College to simulate the dispersal of hypothetical accidental releases of important radionuclides, out to distances of several hundred kilometers, and estimate levels of contamination in the air and deposited on the ground, was adapted for real time use. Combined with meteorological data and measurements of radionuclides collected from miscellaneous sources across Europe, it was possible to estimate how much had been released. To conclude, some general remarks are made about the implications of the Chernobyl accident for technical support in emergency procedures for any future nuclear accident. (UK)

  7. The Chernobyl accident

    The accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the most severe in the nuclear industry. The accident caused the rapid death of 31 power plant employees and firemen, mainly from acute radiation exposures and burns, and brought about the evacuation of 116,000 people within a few weeks. In addition, about half a million workers and four million members of the public have been exposed, to some extent, to radiation doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident. A large number of radiation measurements have been made since the accident in order to reconstruct the doses received by the most exposed populations. On the basis of currently available information, it appears that: (1) average doses received by clean-up workers from external irradiation decreased with time, being about 300 mGy for the persons who worked in the first three months after the accident, about 170 mGy for the remainder of 1986, 130 mGy in 1987, 30 mGy in 1988, and 15 mGy in 1989; (2) the evacuees received, before evacuation, effective doses averaging 11 mSv for the population of Pripyat, and 18 mSv for the remainder of the population of the 30 km zone, with maximum effective doses ranging up to 380 mSv; and (3) among the populations living in contaminated areas, the highest doses were those delivered to the thyroids of children. Thyroid doses derived from thyroid measurements among Belarussian and Ukrainian children indicate median thyroid doses of about 300 mGy, and more than 1% of the children with thyroid doses in excess of 5000 mGy. A description is provided of the epidemiological studies that the National Cancer Institute has, since 1990, at the request of the Department of Energy, endeavoured to undertake, in cooperation with Belarus and Ukraine, on two possible health effects resulting from the Chernobyl accident: (1, thyroid cancer in children living in contaminated areas during the first few weeks following the accident, and (2) leukaemia among workers involved in clean

  8. The Chernobyl Trace in Belarus

    It is described the radiation contamination of territory of the Republic of Belarus in 1996 as result of the Chernobyl NPP accident. The maps and diagrams showing a radiation situation in the republic are given. 24 figs

  9. Chernobyl. Answers to your questions

    Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, this document takes stock on the existing information and enhance the elements which can be set with certainty. The accident is recalled and the environmental and biological effects are presented. (A.L.B.)

  10. About Chernobyl - Twenty Years Later

    The author discusses the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the information on its consequences so contradictory in the former USSR countries, the status of the effects observed, the forecasting concerning the onset of cancers in the coming years among the populations that were exposed to radiations, the public opinion facing the pessimists. He concludes on the lessons which can be drawn from Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

  11. Bhopal and Chernobyl: some comparisons

    An attempt is made to compare some aspects of the accidents at Bhopal and Chernobyl, their causes and consequences. There were design and management inadequacies in both cases, Maintenance inadequacies were plenty in Bhopal but not in Chernobyl. Written instructions were unsatisfactory in Bhopal. In Chernobyl the operators deliberately violated the instructions repeatedly; this compounded by the unsatisfactory nature of reactor design, led to the accident. Disaster management preparedness and emergency response were excellent at Chernobyl. At Bhopal the plant management was absolutely unprepared and contributed practically nothing to the emergency management; however, civil and military authorities did a splendid job. Immediate deaths in Bhopal are estimated to be 2,500 to 10,000 and the number affected 200,000. None of the plant staff were affected and all the casualties were in non-plant personnel living nearby. All the 31 deaths in Chernobyl were among the plant personnel. Although 135,000 persons living in a 30 Km zone round the reactor were evacuated and medically examined, none had to be hospitalised. The world scientific community seems to have forgotten Bhopal within a year or so after the accident, while Chernobyl continues to excite intense interest. Extensive knowledge of the biological effects of radiation helps to estimate the likely number of cancer and genetic effects from Chernobyl. Knowledge of Methyl iso cyanate (MIC) toxicology is woefully inadequate; recent evidence indicates the possibility of carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of MIC. Both at Bhopal and Chernobyl there are elaborate plans for detailed followup of the populations for several decades. (author). 17 refs., 3 tabs

  12. Some problems of invalids of Chernobyl

    The consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe caused health disorders of the liquidators, and as a result many of them became handicapped. The rate of health disorders among the invalids of Chernobyl is a few times higher than that of other citizens of the country. The invalids of Chernobyl need constant support, social help, medical rehabilitation and qualified medical care. Invalids of Chernobyl suffered from the consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe most of all. We are turning to foreign charity organizations for help in creating the Center of Psychological Support and organizing working places with flexible hours for Invalids of Chernobyl. (Authors)

  13. Health effects from Chernobyl

    There are many misconceptions of the effects on health from the accident at Chernobyl. The 1996 conference in Vienna held one decade after the event, and more recent material being examined by UNSCEAR, provide a more soundly-based view. Apart from an increase in thyroid cancer in some of those people exposed as children, there is no evidence of a major public health impact to date from radiation exposures caused by the accident. There is no increase in leukemia attributable to radiation exposure, the most likely indicator, even in the group of radiation workers. Definitive studies of the health status of the various groups involved have been difficult to carry out because of the socio-economic conditions. Clearly, their continuation is going to need further international cooperation. (author)

  14. Chernobyl health effects

    On 26 April 1986, a few short minutes were not enough to destroy one of the four nuclear reactors at Chernobyl and cause, over the next few weeks, the deaths of 31 people from among the staff, rescuers and firefighters who had dealt with the accident and prevented the spread of the catastrophe to the other three reactors on the site. The experts and the authorities soon recognized that the consequences of this event for the environment and for the surrounding populations would last several decades. Forecast estimates from very diverse sources of the nature and extent of these consequences came thick and fast, particularly in the years 1986 and 1987. Unfortunately, they differed so greatly in both time and space that they lacked all credibility. As the news spread through the public, it could only worsen a social climate which was already seriously upset by the effects of the catastrophe itself. 55 refs

  15. Environmental radioactivity from Chernobyl

    A broadly based programme of environmental measurements following the Chernobyl accident is summarised and discussed. Levels of radionuclides in air and atmospheric deposition were increased substantially for a period of some weeks following the accident. The quantity of 137Cs in surface soils was doubled in some regions of the North and West of the UK. Observations of the rates of deposition and resuspension, and weathering from grass, a river catchment and buildings, provided confirmation of several aspects of the environmental behaviour of 137Cs, and extended understanding of these processes. Levels of 137Cs in imported crops and in individuals in S. England, and the brief increase in external radiation, were generally low, confirming that the dose to the regional population was small. (author)

  16. Problems of Chernobyl

    This collection includes the materials, in which are, from one hand, the results of previous years works aimed at mitigation of Chernobyl accident aftermath and decrease of 'Ukryttia' object impact to surrounding environment are generalized and summed up, and from another hand, decisions and technologies are seen that are aimed at decrease of nuclear and radiation safety during the works of converting 'Ukryttia' object into an ecologically safe system. over fifteen years passed from the accident moment a rich experience in overcoming the accident aftermath has been accumulated and a great volume of experimental and theoretical data was gained, that is becoming as a base for further developments and testing of new technologies of 'Ukryttia' object rad waste management, lowering of risks during the works of 'Ukryttia' object conversion, improvement of its nuclear and radiation safety

  17. Ten years after Chernobyl

    As was amply demonstrated during the EU/IAEA/WHO Summing-up-Conference in Vienna, Austria, April 8-12, 1996, the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident were, fortunately, not as serious as frequently presented in the media: 28 people died from acute radiation syndrome in 1986, 14 more of possibly radiation-related causes since. Of the <1000 thyroid cancers in children, 90 to 95% are curable. There have so far been no other demonstrable increases in the former Soviet Union, as well as in Western Europe, of leukemias, solid cancers, or genetic defects, nor are any to be expected in the future. Even among the open-quotes liquidatorsclose quotes with doses ∼100 mSv, of the ∼150 additional expected leukemias during the 10 yr after the accident, none have been observed. The economical, social, and political consequences, however, both in the former Soviet Union and in Western Europe, have been very substantial. Whole countries developed an hysterical 'radiation sickness.' As A. Merkel, the German Minister of Environment and Reactor Safety, who chaired the conference, pointed out, 'the radiation sensitivity of societies far exceeds that of individuals.' It is obvious that important groups in Ukraine, Belaurus, and Russia try to blame a large fraction of all economic, social, and health problems during the last decade, which are substantial (∼ 6 yr less life expectancy, twice the homicides and traffic deaths, increased alcoholism, and so forth), on radiation of the Chernobyl accident in an effort to attract more support. Western scientists refute such claims but admit large non-radiation-related problems caused by the accident

  18. Marking Time

    Foster, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Teachers say that they would gladly teach a day in the classroom if at the end of the day they could leave and have no marking. There is a common staffroom perception that mathematics teachers have it easy when it comes to marking. In arts subjects, setting an essay can be a fairly straightforward matter--a one-line question may suffice--but…

  19. The Chernobyl cloud would have stopped at the borders

    The author proposes a retrospective overview and analysis of information published either by involved agencies or by media after the Chernobyl accident about the presence or absence of radioactive fallouts in France. While defending Professor Pellerin, the author acknowledges some mistakes made by authorities in their communication, but also outlines that some realistic and clear information published by the SCPRI or the CIPR have been quickly forgotten by the media. The author analyses the different publications and communiques made by authorities, agencies and media over different periods: from April to May 1986, in 1999 when Professor Pellerin filed a defamation lawsuit against authors of a book, and when an ecologist politician was also sentenced. The author then proposes a discussion of health consequences of Chernobyl in France, and analyses the controversy on this issue during the 1997-2006 period. He comments the content of a report published in March 2006 by the IRSN scientific committee

  20. Challenger and Chernobyl: lessons and reflections

    The primary cause of the Challenger accident was the failure of O-ring seals in the solid rocket booster, a subcomponent which had been known to be faulty for some time. When Hans Mark was the most senior engineering member of the NASA management executive team, he had asked for a complete review of these subcomponents; this was not done. The accident to the Chernobyl atomic reactor has not been publicly analyzed to the same extent as the Challenger explosion, and hence there must remain some speculation as to the detailed sequence of events. The lessons from both accidents are clear: faulty human understanding the the equipment and the lack of education, training and discipline were critical. The authors conclude that the Shuttle will fly again soon, and that political problems in the Soviet Union may be great and may force some changes. (author)

  1. Chernobyl NPP accident. Overcoming experience. Acquired lessons

    This book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of accident on the Chernobyl NPP unit 4. History of construction, causes of the accident and its consequences, actions for its mitigation are described. Modern situation with Chernobyl NPP decommissioning and transferring of 'Ukryttya' shelter into ecologically safe system are mentioned. The future of Chernobyl site and exclusion zone was discussed

  2. Psychological state of the Chernobyl invalids

    We have conducted an extensive research studying the impact of the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe upon the psychological state of the liquidators, evacuees and invalids of Chernobyl. More than 600 people who suffered from the tragedy in Chernobyl have been interviewed face to face. This report presents the unique findings of the survey conducted

  3. Stretch Marks

    ... completely without the help of a dermatologist or plastic surgeon. These doctors may use one of many types of treatments — from actual surgery to techniques like microdermabrasion and laser treatment — to reduce the appearance of stretch marks. These techniques are expensive and ...

  4. Chernobyl the health consequences

    This paper focuses initially on selected aspects of the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, and then goes on to discuss some of the pitfalls involved in trying to assess the health detriment in isolation and without regard for the context in which it occurs. The accident on 26 April 1986 was unique. Two explosions, followed by a graphite fire in the destroyed reactor, not only dispersed radionuclides high into the atmosphere, but the fire was instrumental in ensuring the continued dispersion for about ten days. This prolonged discharge into the atmosphere combined with changes in wind direction ensured that radionuclides were widely distributed over Europe and were even detected throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The actual ground deposition was very variable, depending on may factors such as coincident rainfall during the passage of the plume, wind speed and direction, and the topography of the terrain. The mosaic distribution of the ground deposition became much more variable with distance from the site, and is responsible for the wide range of individual doses that characterises this accident. The paper details the health effects of the accident on those immediately involved, and also the delayed health effects, including increased incidence of thyroid cancer, among the populations of surrounding areas of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. It also discusses the widespread psychosocial detriment which resulted from the accident. Finally, the paper evaluated the efficacy of decontamination measures which were adopted in the affected areas in the years following the accident

  5. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    The collection reflects the results of researches and test-design activities in the exclusion area of the Chernobyl NPP directed to elaborate the equipment and devices for scientific researches and elimination of the accident after effects at the Chernobyl NPP and to study composition and structure of solid-phase bearers of the activity in the soil of the exclusion area, form transformation of decay products, radionuclide composition of the fuel precipitation in the nearest zone of the Chernobyl NPP. Special attention is paid to medical-biological problems of the accident after effects influence on flora, fauna and human health, labour conditions and sick rate of people working in the exclusion area

  6. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    The collection reflects the results of researches and test-design activities in the exclusion area of the Chernobyl NPP, directed to elaborate the equipment and devices for scientific researches and elimination of the accident aftereffects at Chernobyl NPP and to study composition and structure of solid-phase bearers of the activity in the soil of the exclusion area, form transformation of decay products, radionuclide composition of the fuel precipitation in the nearest zone of Chernobyl NPP. Special attention is paid to medical-biological problems of the accident aftereffects influence on flora, fauna and human health, labour conditions and sick rate state of people working in the exclusion area. For scientists, experts working in the field of ecology, radioecology, atom energetics, radiology, radiochemistry, radiobiology and related fields. It may be useful for postgraduates and students

  7. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    The techniques currently used in off-site consequence modelling are applied to the Chernobyl accident. Firstly, the time dependent spread of radioactive material across the European continent is considered, followed by a preliminary assessment of the dosimetric impact (in terms of collective and mean individual doses) on the various countries of Eastern and Western Europe. The consequences of the accident in the USSR are also discussed. Finally, the likely implications of the Chernobyl event on research in the field of environmental consequence assessment are outlined. (author)

  8. Chernobyl - considerations of an insurer

    The author underlines the insurers' reactions after the Chernobyl accident. Firstly, their reactions as providers of security for loss and destruction in power plants and for third party liability: offers of financial cover have not been affected - quite the contrary - since 26 April 1986. He then refers to their consideration of the detrimental consequences: Chernobyl has revealed a new aspect of nuclear incidents - the addition of various types of expenditure quite apart from compensation of personal injury or property may considerably increase their economic impact (NEA)

  9. Post-Chernobyl emergency planning

    This report is the result of a study ordered by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the National Swedish Institute of Radiation Protection to evaluate the measurements taken in Sweden in response to the Chernobyl accident. The enquiry was also given the task of suggesting improvements of the nuclear accidents emergency planning and other activities relevant to nuclear accidents. Detailed accounts are given of the course of events in Sweden at the Chernobyl accident and the steps taken by central or local authorities are discussed. Several alterations of the emergency planning are proposed and a better coordination of the affected organizations is suggested. (L.E.)

  10. Chernobyl catastrophe: An unexpected result

    Six years ago, the Chernobyl-4 reactor has exploded. During 10 days , an important part of radioactive products of reactor heart has been ejected in the atmosphere, shaping a radioactive cloud whose the trajectories and fall-outs on all Europe have worried the public opinion. The author, J.C. Nenot and R. Coulon, 6 years after, take stock of the ecological, agricultural and sanitary consequences and if the ecological effects are in a good issue of regression, even near to Chernobyl, on the other hand in medical and sanitary scopes stay uncertainties. 8 refs., 4 figs

  11. Chernobyl reactor accident

    Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

  12. Reports of the Chernobyl accident consequences in Brazilian newspapers

    The public perception of the risks associated with nuclear power plants was profoundly influenced by the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl Power Plants which also served to exacerbate in the last decades the growing mistrust on the 'nuclear industry'. Part of the mistrust had its origin in the arrogance of nuclear spokesmen and in the secretiveness of nuclear programs. However, press agencies have an important role in shaping and upsizing the public awareness against nuclear energy. In this paper we present the results of a survey in reports of some Brazilian popular newspapers on Chernobyl consequences, as measured by the total death toll of the accident, to show the up and down dance of large numbers without any serious judgment. (author)

  13. Miners take stock after Chernobyl

    Australia's uranium producers, already facing a tough market have been plunged further into the unknown following the accident at Chernobyl. The production of uranium in Australia is reviewed with emphasis on the three uranium miners -Queensland Mines, Energy Resources of Australia and Western Mining Corporation

  14. Chernobyl - a Canadian technical perspective

    On April 26, 1986, the Number 4 reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the Soviet Union suffered a severe accident which destroyed the reactor core and led to a loss of life. The four reactors at this station are of the RBMK-1000 type - boiling-light-water cooled, graphite moderated, vertical pressure-tube reactors, each generating 1000 MW of electricity through two turbines. AECL has carefully studied the accident, and the design of Chernobyl, to see if anything has been overlooked in the CANDU design. This report reviews the results of that study, in particular the relevant features of the Chernobyl design which exacerbated the accident, and compares them to the CANDU 600 design. A number of issues (the sign of the void coefficent and the pressure-tube design) have also been given some international prominence in the post-Chernobyl analysis; these are discussed in this report and shown to be irrelevant to the CANDU design. Finally this report describes the subjects identified for further design follow-up in Canada

  15. Chernobyl its effect on Ireland

    This report reviews the results of the measurements made during the first six months after the Chernobyl accident to determine the extent of the resultant environmental contamination. Estimates are presented of the individual and collective doses received by the public during the first six months and the first year after the accident

  16. The Chernobyl accident. Appendix B

    In appendix B, the models introduced in chapter 6 are applied to the study of the Chernobyl accident. This event is very important in the teaching of nuclear engineering, and I have included in this Appendix a relatively detailed description of the accident. However, the analysis is limited to the physics of the relevant phenomena. (author)

  17. Cell damage seen from Chernobyl

    The 30 kilometer radius forbidden zone around the Chernobyl atomic plant serves as a sobering reminder of the world's worst nuclear accident. But for former Soviet biologists, it's also a unique natural laboratory. And one scientist, Nadejda Gulaya of Kiev's Pallaguine Institute of Biochemistry, has been doing studies that she claims offer surprising evidence of Chernobyl's after-effects. Prolonged exposure to radioactive fallout from the 1986 accident, she says, has caused damage to cell membranes in both animals and humans. For the past year, Gulaya has been comparing tissues from animals such as mink, pigs, and rodents inhabiting the Chernobyl area with those from other parts of Ukraine. Her conclusion: Exposure to radiation has, in many cases, caused alterations to membrane phospholipids. These changes, are similar to those that disrupt cellular metabolism following exposure to oxidizing free radicals. Gulaya also has preliminary data from human studies. She claims to have found similar alterations in the neurons of people who have died since being exposed to Chernobyl radiation. That leads her to speculate that the frequent psychiatric disorders may not just be from mental stress or radiophobia, but might reflect actual damage to the central nervous system

  18. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

  19. Standby after the Chernobyl accident

    The report is an investigation concerning strandby and actions by SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (National Institute of Radiation Protection) due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. It consists of a final report and two appendices. The final report is divided into two parts: 'I: Facts' and 'II: Analyzes'. 'Facts': The Swedish model for information: radio, press. Basic knowledge about ionizing radiation in the society. Resources for information. Need for information. Message forms for information. Announcements from the authorities in TV, radio, press, meeting, advertisements. Statements concerning the reactor accident and its consequences in Swedish mass media. How did the public recieve the information? 'Analyzis': Information responsibilities and policies. SSI information activities concerning radiologic accidents, conditions, methods and resources. Ditto for SKI, Swedish National Food Administration and the National Board of Agriculture. Appendix I: Information from authorities in the press three weeks after the Chernobyl accident: The material and the methods. The acute phase, the adoptation phase, the extension of the persective. What is said about the authorities in connection with Chernobyl? Appendix II: The fallout from Chernobyl, the authorities and the media coverage: The nationwide, regional and local coverage from radio and television. Ditto from the press. Topic and problem areas in reporting. Instructions from the authorities in media. Contribution in the media from people representing the authorities. Fallout in a chronologic perspective. (L.F.)

  20. Studies of Cancer Risk among Chernobyl liquidators

    Kesminiene, A.; Cardis, E.; Tenet, V.; Chekin, S.; Ivanov, V. K.; Kurtinaitis, J.; Malakhova, I.; Polyakov, S.; Stengrevics, A.; Tekkel, M.

    2004-07-01

    Two cae-control studies among Chernobyl liquidators- one of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), the other of thyroid cancer risk were carried out in Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russia. These studies were coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The specific objective of these studies was to estimate the radiation induced risk of these diseases among liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, and, in particular, to study the effect of exposure protraction and radiation type on the risk of radiation induced cancer in the low to medium (0-500 mSv) radiation dose range. The study population consisted of the approximately 15.000 Baltic countries, 66 000 Balarus and 65 000 Russian liquidators who worked in the 30 km zone in 1986-1987, and who were registered in the Chernobyl registry of these countries. The studies included cases diagnosed in 1993-1998 for all countries but Belarus, where the study period was extended until 2000. for controls were selected in each country from the national cohort for each case, mateched on age, gender and region of residence. Information on study subjects was obtained through face-to-face interview using a standardised questionnaire with questions on demographic factors, time place and conditions of work as a liquidator and potential risk and confoundinf factors for the tumours of interest. Ocerall 126 cases of leukaemia and NHL, 119 cases of thyroid cancer and 1060 controls were interviewed. Individual estimates of kerma in air and of dose to the bone marrow and related uncertainties were derived for each subject in the leukaemia and NHL study, using a method of analytical dose reconstruction developed whiting the study. Estimates of individual doses to the thyroid from external exposures, I-131 and long-lived isotopes were derived for all subjects in the thyroid case-control study. Dose-response analyses have been carried out. Resulting risk estimates will be presented and compared to risk estimates

  1. Studies of Cancer Risk among Chernobyl liquidators

    Two cae-control studies among Chernobyl liquidators- one of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), the other of thyroid cancer risk were carried out in Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russia. These studies were coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The specific objective of these studies was to estimate the radiation induced risk of these diseases among liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, and, in particular, to study the effect of exposure protraction and radiation type on the risk of radiation induced cancer in the low to medium (0-500 mSv) radiation dose range. The study population consisted of the approximately 15.000 Baltic countries, 66 000 Balarus and 65 000 Russian liquidators who worked in the 30 km zone in 1986-1987, and who were registered in the Chernobyl registry of these countries. The studies included cases diagnosed in 1993-1998 for all countries but Belarus, where the study period was extended until 2000. for controls were selected in each country from the national cohort for each case, mateched on age, gender and region of residence. Information on study subjects was obtained through face-to-face interview using a standardised questionnaire with questions on demographic factors, time place and conditions of work as a liquidator and potential risk and confoundinf factors for the tumours of interest. Ocerall 126 cases of leukaemia and NHL, 119 cases of thyroid cancer and 1060 controls were interviewed. Individual estimates of kerma in air and of dose to the bone marrow and related uncertainties were derived for each subject in the leukaemia and NHL study, using a method of analytical dose reconstruction developed whiting the study. Estimates of individual doses to the thyroid from external exposures, I-131 and long-lived isotopes were derived for all subjects in the thyroid case-control study. Dose-response analyses have been carried out. Resulting risk estimates will be presented and compared to risk estimates

  2. Challenges to decision makers after urban contamination: The Chernobyl experience

    The real history of the Chernobyl decisions will probably be published in ten or fifty years after the death of the politicians who made those decisions and the soviet scientists who were there creating them. But that is not out of the possibility that real and tragic history will never be published at all. This is mainly because the most hard and responsible Chernobyl decisions which had to be made in the situation of acute time, skill and information deficit, had been marked by the stamp of time and society where all of us, including the authors, were living. Never before, and I hope very much, never in the future, has humanity faced the industrial nuclear-radiation accident with the scale like Chernobyl NPP accident. So it's extremely important to summarise and put together not only the scientific but human experience of the scientists which directly formed the large-scale decisions. It is very important to explain to society not only the scientific background of those decisions but also the scientists' personal views, their personal impressions as at the time of decision making as in eight years after the accident. (author)

  3. Chernobyl, 14 years later; Tchernobyl, 14 ans apres

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) International cooperation, (7) More information about Chernobyl and (8) Glossary.

  4. Chernobyl victims: realistic evaluation of medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Objective assessment of early and delayed medical consequence of the Chernobyl accident is presented. Mortality of people due to acute radiation disease, burns and mechanical injuries are attributed to the early effects. Oncological and genetic diseases are considered as the delayed effects. Delayed radiation effects on the residents of contaminated territories were estimated by epidemiologic examination taking into account the dose due to radioactive fallout. Certain regions of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine were mostly exposed to contamination. Contamination density by 137Cs is considered and radiation doses due to natural sources and Chernobyl accident are compared. Disease incidence is analysed for carcinoma and genetic diseases. Health hazard caused by non-radiation accidental factors (psychological stress, victim psychology thrusting, groundless evacuation) is assessed

  5. Social Chernobyl participants condition in Lithuania

    Full texts: At the moment in Lithuania live almost 6 600 Chernobyl participants (persons witch were in attendance Chernobyl nuclear power station emergency ravage liquidation works and executing another works in 30 kilometers zone). About 770 died and 170 went to other nations. Thievery other fixed illnesses coherence with being in 30 kilometers zone. According 26 October, 1990 Republic of Lithuania government's resolution No. 325 intended that Chernobyl participants credit accomplishes Ministry of Social care but until now in the Republic there is not undivided database, consequently we use different institution's and social investigations information which is not circumstantial. Chernobyl participants social condition and medicine service control certificates, government's resolutions and Ministry of health care and work and Ministry's of health care requisitions. There is not a law which guarantees Chernobyl participants social rights. Supposedly that for in Lithuania there is not the logistics which could vouch medical facilities provision for Chernobyl participants. Until 2005 sanatorium treating of Chernobyl participants was pursuance through invalids till but this treatment was not available to everyone Chernobyl participant for two reasons: 1 - Vicinities doctors and GPs not all the time contemprorize illnesses with being in The nuclear power station of the Chernobyl zone. 2 - Invalids till was not fixing the number of the permissions to the sanatoriums for the Chernobyl participants. Since 13 September, 2005 by Republic of Lithuania government's resolution No. 998 municipal governments budget bankrolls once a year may offset eighteen-days sanatorium treatment for persons which were liquidating The nuclear power-station of the Chernobyl emergency ravage but Chernobyl participants should give Specialists committee inference. Another problem social security. Chernobyl participant's requirement supply if they ill or died according Government's 18 February

  6. Belorussian population health state following the Chernobyl accident

    Environmental radioactivity peculiarities at the Belarussian territory resulted from the Chernobyl accident are analysed. Main risk systems for human health and trends of potential pathology formation are determined. Growth in the disease incidence in adults and especially in children is marked. It covers thyroid cancer (due to 131I intake in the early period of the accident), chronic neoplasms in hematopoietic and lymphatic systems, immune system, digestive system, cardiovascular and neuromental diseases. Attention is paid to the genetic radiation effects, pregnancy and delivery pathology. 2 tabs

  7. Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident

    nuclear power to meet increasing energy demands in many parts of the world. In 2001, after taking note of the conflicting views on the results of the accident, I called for the creation of a Chernobyl Forum, inviting the world's foremost scientific experts to conduct an exhaustive assessment of the health, environmental and social impacts of the accident. As with all IAEA programmes, we emphasized an impartial, fact based approach to the analysis of this difficult and highly charged topic. I was pleased that, after a long period of careful analysis, the parties involved - including the World Health Organization and seven other specialized United Nations agencies, as well as the Governments of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine - were able to achieve consensus on the set of authoritative reports that were issued last September. But the Chernobyl Forum had another purpose as well. My hope was that, by giving clear, impartial answers about the accident and its effects, we would be able to focus more effectively on present and future needs. Better international cooperation on assistance to the people and regions affected by the accident. Smarter approaches to safe food production and effective health care. Enhanced investments in the people concerned, in ways that would give them control over their own livelihoods. In short, it was my hope that, by answering questions about the past, we could restore a vision of a brighter future for the regions concerned. And that remains my hope. We will not soon forget the Chernobyl accident. We will not forget the emergency workers who gave their lives. We will not forget the health and environmental consequences. And we should never forget the lessons we learned regarding nuclear safety and international cooperation. In remembering the Chernobyl accident, we should renew our determination to ensure that such a tragedy will not happen again. But we must also remember the survivors, the individuals and communities who seek to move forward with

  8. Tracking the cloud from Chernobyl

    In the aftermath of the accident at Chernobul nuclear power station, many scientists are studying how the radionuclides from the reactor's core dispersed across Europe and became deposited on the ground. A group in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Imperial College have developed a computer model, MESOS, specifically to study the transport of pollutants in the atmosphere over very large distances. In the past, this model has been used to study the potential consequences of hypothetical accidents at nuclear power plants in neighbouring countries. Now it has been used to estimate where the radioactivity from Chernobyl went. The Chernobyl model is explained and some estimates from the MESOS model are presented. By comparing the model estimates with observations a full assessment of the environmental consequences of the accident will be possible. It should be possible to find out the way in which pollutants travel long distances, how they are deposited on the ground and their transport through food chains. (U.K.)

  9. Monstrosities - an outcome of Chernobyl?

    In the western parts of Turkey, which have been particularly hard hidden by the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident, an extremely high number of malformations in newborns have been recorded. There is reason to attribute this to the high radioactivity level measured in this region after the accident. But most radiation experts refuse to accept any connection between the miscarriages or malformation and the reactor accident. (orig./HP)

  10. Chernobyl: Insight from the inside

    The author dispenses with the usual detachment of historical analysis and tells what happened in Chernobyl in April through the unshielded and horrified perceptions and largely unedited language of those who were there. A common thread running through the book is the duplicity of Soviet officials, particularly in reference to the 650,000 emergency workers. The author maintains that the accident would have been avoided if the reactor design had not been inherently flawed, unadmitted by Soviet officials

  11. The reactor accident of Chernobyl

    The contamination, caused by the radioactivity released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl was measured in samples taken in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The radioactivity was determined in air, fodder, milk, vegetables, other plants, foodstuffs, soil, precipitations, drinking water, sludge and other samples. Results of measurements are reported which were received with considerably more than 1000 samples. The evaluation of the data will be presented in KfK 4140. (orig.)

  12. Chernobyl reactor transient simulation study

    This paper deals with the Chernobyl nuclear power station transient simulation study. The Chernobyl (RBMK) reactor is a graphite moderated pressure tube type reactor. It is cooled by circulating light water that boils in the upper parts of vertical pressure tubes to produce steam. At equilibrium fuel irradiation, the RBMK reactor has a positive void reactivity coefficient. However, the fuel temperature coefficient is negative and the net effect of a power change depends upon the power level. Under normal operating conditions the net effect (power coefficient) is negative at full power and becomes positive under certain transient conditions. A series of dynamic performance transient analysis for RBMK reactor, pressurized water reactor (PWR) and fast breeder reactor (FBR) have been performed using digital simulator codes, the purpose of this transient study is to show that an accident of Chernobyl's severity does not occur in PWR or FBR nuclear power reactors. This appears from the study of the inherent, stability of RBMK, PWR and FBR under certain transient conditions. This inherent stability is related to the effect of the feed back reactivity. The power distribution stability in the graphite RBMK reactor is difficult to maintain throughout its entire life, so the reactor has an inherent instability. PWR has larger negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, therefore, the PWR by itself has a large amount of natural stability, so PWR is inherently safe. FBR has positive sodium expansion coefficient, therefore it has insufficient stability it has been concluded that PWR has safe operation than FBR and RBMK reactors

  13. Regulation and control by international organizations in the context of a nuclear accident. The International Atomic Energy Agency and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    IAEA and NEA rapidly reoriented their work programmes to respond to the problems raised by the Chernobyl accident. This chapter describes both Agencies' statutory responsabilities, their work in the areas of radiation protection, nuclear safety and nuclear liability and the actions they took post-Chernobyl to increase international co-operation for prevention and management of nuclear accidents and their consequences (NEA)

  14. Reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant-Block 4. Effects, countermeasures and consequences

    The findings of the Summary Report on the Chernobyl accident issued by IAEA in September 1986 (International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG): Summary Report on the Post-Accident Review Meeting on the Chernobyl Accident. Safety Series No. 78-INSAG-1 Vienna, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Sept. 1986) are updated, reviewing more recent publications providing more complete information on the events both within and outside the plant. The available information on the resulting radioactive pollution of agriculture and the food chain is discussed considering also the consequences for the future in comparison with the other sources of radioactivity in the environment. 21 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  15. Fallout from Chernobyl [Letters to the editor

    Six brief letters discuss the possible health effects of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident including an increase in thyroid cancer in children in Belarus, chromosomal abnormalities in workers from Latvia who cleared up the Chernobyl accident site, an increased trisomy 21 in Berlin but a lack of increased childhood leukaemia incidence in Greece. (UK)

  16. Fallout from Chernobyl [Letters to the editor

    Williams, E.D. (Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Abelin, T.; Egger, M. (Bern Univ. (Switzerland)) (and others)

    1994-11-12

    Six brief letters discuss the possible health effects of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident including an increase in thyroid cancer in children in Belarus, chromosomal abnormalities in workers from Latvia who cleared up the Chernobyl accident site, an increased trisomy 21 in Berlin but a lack of increased childhood leukaemia incidence in Greece. (UK).

  17. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit trademark) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report

  18. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr

    1992-04-01

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

  19. The Chernobyl reactor accident source term: Development of a consensus view

    In August 1986, scientists from the former Soviet Union provided the nuclear safety community with an impressively detailed account of what was then known about the Chernobyl accident. This included assessments of the magnitudes, rates, and compositions of radionuclide releases during the ten days following initiation of the accident. A summary report based on the Soviet report, the oral presentations, and the discussions with scientists from various countries was issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency shortly thereafter. Ten years have elapsed since the reactor accident at Chernobyl. A great deal more data is now available concerning the events, phenomena, and processes that took place. The purpose of this document is to examine what is known about the radioactive materials released during the accident. The accident was peculiar in the sense that radioactive materials were released, at least initially, in an exceptionally energetic plume and were transported far from the reactor site. Release of radioactivity from the plant continued for about ten days. A number of more recent publications and results from scientists in Russia and elsewhere have significantly improved our understanding of the Chernobyl source term. Because of the special features of the reactor design and the pecularities of the Chernobyl accident, the source term for the Chernobyl accident is of limited applicability of the safety analysis of other types of reactors

  20. Chernobyl sufferers in Ukraine and their social problems: short outline

    This paper describes the historical review on the Chernobyl catastrophe. The state was badly prepared to a disaster of such a scale as Chernobyl and most of necessary decisions were drafted and taken immediately when they were needed. Fortunately in the initial period there were material and resources available and a mechanism of direction was in place. The mechanism was not perfect, and its quality was quickly deteriorating. The executive power of the USSR -Council of Ministers and numerous ministries- behaved practically independently from the Supreme Soviet Parliament until 1989. The first period was marked by attempts to hide and to diminish the consequences. The Law had been passed by the Parliament of Ukrainian SSR on 28 february, 1991. Later the Law underwent some serious amendments in 1992, 1993, 1996, mainly because an application of the Law revealed some economic miscounts. Some controversial provisions of the law, like the tax exempt status of the organizations working in the contaminated area, and the import laws for the Chernobyl organizations have been already revoked. In this paper we will pay special attention to informal non-governmental help from international community. Few projects of international organizations, very often quite negatively perceived by Ukrainian people, require separate analysis.The goal of these projects was to offer research assistance to respective Ukrainian institutions and thus these projects were to some extent not directly aimed at suffers, but at some medical problems. Intergovernmental assistance to suffers was quite limited. Ukrainian writers were the the first who begun campaign to disclose the truth of Chernobyl in Ukraine. In 1998 the first green' NGO was created in Ukraine. These NGOs played an important role of pressure groups. Often local politician were using supports from these groups in their election campaigns and legislative works. Separate investigation is needed to asses the role and results of activities

  1. Health effects of Chernobyl: newer perspectives

    On the 26th of April 1986, the 4th unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the former Soviet Union exploded, following a scheduled but not-well-planned testing of a turbo-generator prior to a shutdown of the reactor. This led to a release of large amounts of radioactive material into the atmosphere, resulting in a cloud not only over in the Soviet Union, but due to prevailing meteorological condition, over the Eastern Europe as well. Over the past ten years, a large number of agencies in the areas of human health and hygiene, agriculture and veterinary sciences in addition to those involved in radiation protection and radiation safety have studied the impact of the accident. These studies were also extended to evaluate and mitigate the consequences. The accident has been a warning, and has provided lessons in mitigating the consequences of any industrial accident. Newer perspectives have emerged in the area of early diagnosis and treatment of the acute effects of radiation. Research in the areas of genetics, molecular biology and radiation biology will contribute to better medical care in future. (author). 3 tabs

  2. Assessment of Chernobyl health consequences under the influence of public and other interests

    The Chernobyl reactor accident on 26 April 1986 was the largest and most severe disaster in the history of civil nuclear technology involving radiation exposure and radioactive contamination of large areas in the NIS. Among the three countries Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, Belarus was mostly affected, because about 70% of the radioactive fallout was deposited on its territory. The radiation doses from various nuclides, to which the public as well as the liquidators were exposed during the first months, let expect serious health consequences for a large number of persons. During the first weeks after the accident, the authorities in Moscow released several orders of secrecy. Later, in July 1987 the order was given that acute and chronic diseases of liquidators, who were exposed to less than 50 rem, must not be attributed to the effects of ionizing radiation. In 1990, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized the International Chernobyl Project, with the participation of the Commission of the European Communities, the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO) and others, in order to investigate and assess the radiological situation in the three affected Soviet Republics. 200 scientists from the West and 500 from USSR were sent by their governments to participate. Concerning the health impact, the IAEA team under its chairman professor F. Mettler from USA concluded in 1991 that there were no health disorders that could be attributed directly to radiation exposure. IAEA favoured psychological stress and anxiety to be the cause of health disorders observed. This information was spread world wide. But in reality, at this time the number of thyroid cancer cases in children in Belarus was already 30 times higher than the average in the 10 years before Chernobyl. And IAEA and other international organizations did not want to take into account the findings and reports of Belarusian and

  3. 10th anniversary of Chernobyl

    Every issue has its defining event. There is no doubt that the single word which now embodies that difficult-to express unease felt by many people about nuclear power is Chernobyl. In this sense, April 26 1996 will be far more than an anniversary, just as Chernobyl was far more than a very serious accident which was nonetheless largely localised in its effects. It will be used by those who wish to the industry - the professional campaigners in the Green movement - and those who see an opportunity to sell newspapers or TV programmes - the professional exaggerators - to spread that unease as far as possible. The British Nuclear Industry Forum, which consists of seventy member companies at the heart of nuclear power in the UK, has convened a Task Force, with an international membership, in an attempt to make sure that we are ready for the anniversary, and to respond to the tactics of the opposition in as effective a way as possible. This paper outlines the general principles which have so far emerged from our discussions. There are two guiding principles to our approach. The first is that no matter how good a story is about Chernobyl, it is still a bad story. But secondly, this anniversary will be big news whether we like it or not, so we must make the best of it. In this sense the event brings with it opportunities to remind people of positive messages, on fuel diversity, on environment, and on Western efforts to help to improve the safety standards of the nuclear industry in the region, and the health of the people near Chernobyl. This leads to a position for the campaign which might appear paradoxical. We must be proactive but low-profile. We simply cannot afford to keep quiet and let the wildest claims about the effects of Chernobyl be spouted unchallenged. This does not simply mean generating responses to stories once they have been published. It means analysing press coverage of previous anniversaries to understand how the media are likely to treat it; it means

  4. Chernobyl fallout in Great Britain

    Chernobyl deposition in the UK was sampled in May and October 1986 and in June of 1987. The sampling concentrated on grassy vegetation but in October 1986 other vegetation, soils and wildlife were included. Deposition patterns have been established and a greater degree of retention and recycling indicated for the organic soils of upland Britain. For wild animals concentration factors varied not only between species but with sex and age. Highest tissue concentrations were recorded in species feeding on heather (Blue hares and Grouse) and the lowest in rabbits feeding on grass over mineral soils. Radiocaesium was found in a carnivore (the fox) at the top of the food chain. (author)

  5. An ill wind from Chernobyl

    This article discusses the effects that the poisonous dust emanating from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor explosion of 1986 had on human, animal and plant population in the Soviet Union and across Europe. One of the chief criticisms raised is of governments, inside and outside the Soviet Block restricting information about danger to people or, in some cases, denying any consequences. This has led to widespread public opinion against nuclear programmes for power generation, and calls for adequate and appropriate compensation for victims of the accident. (UK)

  6. Chernobyl, 12 years later; Tchernobyl, douze ans apres

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3) Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) The Franco-German cooperation, and (7) Glossary.

  7. Chernobyl record. The definitive history of the Chernobyl catastrophe

    The contents of Chernobyl Record have taken 14 years to compile and this period of time was necessary to enable information to be released from Soviet sources, measurements to be made in the environment, for estimation of radiation doses and for follow-up of the health of population groups which had been exposed. This time frame also includes the 10th anniversary conferences and the completion of joint projects of the European Commission, Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation. It has also enabled me to visit the power plant site, Chernobyl town and Pripyat relatively soon after the accident and also some 10 years later: December 1987 and June 1998. Without such visits some of the photographs in this Record could not have been obtained. Information is also contained in these pages of comparisons of various aspects of the Chernobyl accident with data from the Three Mile Island accident in the USA in 1979, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, the highly contaminated Techa river area in the Urals in Russia and the accident in Tokaimura, Japan in 1999. The first two chapters are introductory in that they describe terminology which is necessary for an understanding of the remaining chapters. Chapters 3-6 describes the early events: including those leading up to the explosion and then what followed in the immediate aftermath. Chapters 7-8 describe the Sarcophagus and the past and future of nuclear power for electricity generation, including the future of the Chernobyl power station. Chapters 9-11 consider the radiation doses received by various populations, including liquidators, evacuees and those living on contaminated territories: and the contamination of milk by 131I, and the contamination of other parts of the food chain by 137Cs. Chapters 12-14 describe the environmental impact of the accident, as does chapter 11. Chapters 15-18 detail the long-term effects on health, including not only the incidence of cancer, but also of non-malignant diseases and

  8. Chernobyl record. The definitive history of the Chernobyl catastrophe

    Mould, R.F

    2000-07-01

    The contents of Chernobyl Record have taken 14 years to compile and this period of time was necessary to enable information to be released from Soviet sources, measurements to be made in the environment, for estimation of radiation doses and for follow-up of the health of population groups which had been exposed. This time frame also includes the 10th anniversary conferences and the completion of joint projects of the European Commission, Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation. It has also enabled me to visit the power plant site, Chernobyl town and Pripyat relatively soon after the accident and also some 10 years later: December 1987 and June 1998. Without such visits some of the photographs in this Record could not have been obtained. Information is also contained in these pages of comparisons of various aspects of the Chernobyl accident with data from the Three Mile Island accident in the USA in 1979, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, the highly contaminated Techa river area in the Urals in Russia and the accident in Tokaimura, Japan in 1999. The first two chapters are introductory in that they describe terminology which is necessary for an understanding of the remaining chapters. Chapters 3-6 describes the early events: including those leading up to the explosion and then what followed in the immediate aftermath. Chapters 7-8 describe the Sarcophagus and the past and future of nuclear power for electricity generation, including the future of the Chernobyl power station. Chapters 9-11 consider the radiation doses received by various populations, including liquidators, evacuees and those living on contaminated territories: and the contamination of milk by {sup 131}I, and the contamination of other parts of the food chain by {sup 137}Cs. Chapters 12-14 describe the environmental impact of the accident, as does chapter 11. Chapters 15-18 detail the long-term effects on health, including not only the incidence of cancer, but also of non

  9. Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health'

    Twenty years have passed since the worst nuclear reactor accident in the world occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The radioactive contamination which resulted from the explosion and fire in the first few days spread over large areas of neighbouring Belarus and the Russian Federation, with most of the fallout in Belarus. While national and local authorities did not immediately disclose the scale of the accident, the mitigation measures, such as distribution of potassium iodine pills, food restriction, and mass evacuation from areas where the radioactive contamination was greatest, undoubtedly reduced the health impact of the radiation exposure and saved many lives. The accident caused severe social and economic disruption and had significant environmental and health impact. This was aggravated by the political and economical changes in the three affected states related to the break-down of the Soviet Union. In the aftermath of the accident the international scientific and medical community collaborated closely with national experts dealing with health effects of the accident in the affected countries. There is a substantial body of international collaborative projects on the situation, which should lead to advancement in radiation sciences. However, considerable speculation and disinformation remains about the possible health impact of the accident for the millions of affected people. To address the health, environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the United Nations in 2003 launched an Inter-Agency initiative, the Chernobyl Forum. The Forum's Secretariat, led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and several other international organizations collaborated with the governments of the affected countries. The purpose of the Chernobyl Forum was to review the consequences of the accident, issue technical reports and, based

  10. Chernobyl: Anatomy of the explosion

    On Friday, 26 April 1986, it was planned to shut down the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station, U.S.S.R., for periodic maintenance. The procedure supplied the opportunity to perform a further experiment; operation of the turbine in free rotation regime, which occurs when the steam is cut down while the turbine is still running. It so happened that carrying out this experiment turned out to be the worst accident in the history of nuclear power industry. The first part of the article proceeds to a second by second detailed analysis of the causes of the catastrophe. The analysis uses official data and reports. The author covers the sequence of events, which led up to two explosions in the second hour of that tragic morning. In the second part of the article, the author provides hints and suggestions, so that 'the tragedy of Chernobyl does not become a useless lesson'. With regard to what, so far, has been published, the novelty of the article may be a diagram showing the excessive changes that affected the main parameters (power, water flow through circulating pumps, steam pressure in separators, and length of the immersed part of control rods) in the fourth unit during the last seconds before the explosion. If may be noteworthy to mention that the curves supplied here are based on data stored in the computer 'SCALA'. 2 figs

  11. Impressions of Chelyabinsk and Chernobyl

    An international delegation touring Russia and Ukraine was demonstrated the consequences of the accidents at the nuclear installations of Chelvabinsk and Chernobyl. On the site in Russia, an explosion of a tank filled with high level radioactive waste in 1957 released a radioactive cloud of approx. 20 million Ci, of which 90% rained down in the immediate vicinity, while 10% spread over an area of 23,000 square kilometers. 10,200 persons were resettled for this reason within two years. Among the population in the contaminated area, the cancer rate rose, but is still said to be lower than at other industrialized sites. At a distance of 44 km from the Chernobyl nuclear power plants, the new city of Pripyat has been established for 23,000 inhabitants. Planning work on additional nuclear generating units was stopped after the accident of unit 4. The complete loss of unit 4 has been felt by the USSR as a bigger economic disaster than the radioactive contamination of the environment. (orig.)

  12. Genetic effects of the Chernobyl accident

    Genetic radiation effects resulted from the Chernobyl accident were considered for the population of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Techniques of the assessment of genetic risk of exposure of a man was discussed. Results of cytogenetic examination of the population were presented as well as health state of pregnants and newborns following the Chernobyl accident. Elevated level of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of peripheric blood in participants of the Chernobyl accident response and in population of contaminated zones. This fact testifies on the real genetic injury in cells due to accident. Growth of intrauterine losses in pregnancy, congenital anomalies, hereditary diseases in descendants of exposed parents. 17 figs

  13. Malignant neoplasms on the territories of Russia damaged owing to the Chernobyl accident

    The work presents the results of descriptive analysis of development of onco epidemiological situation in six of the most polluted regions owing to the Chernobyl accident in 1981-1994. The growth of malignancies incidence is marked in all territories as well as in the Russian Federation as a whole. The most adverse tendencies have been revealed in the Bryansk, Orel, Ryazan regions. It is marked that the formation of a structure, levels and trends of the malignancies incidence has been occurring under influence of a complex of factors usual up to the accident. The analysis of the data from the specialized cancer-register evidences that the incidence of thyroid malignancies is actively growing in the population of the Bryansk region. The probability of connection of growth of the thyroid cancer incidence in children of the Bryansk region with the Chernobyl accident is reasonably high, but should be confirmed through the application of methods of analytical epidemiology

  14. Chernobyl - state of the art; Chernobyl - o estado da arte

    Souza, Daiane C.B. de; Vicente, Roberto; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Borges, Jessica F.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Souza, Carla D.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Benega, Marcos A.G.; Souza, Anderson S. de; Silva, Thais H. da, E-mail: dcsouza@ipen.br, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.br, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.br, E-mail: rtiezzi@ipen.br, E-mail: carladdsouza@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: marcosagbenega@ipen.br, E-mail: bteigarodrigues@gmail.com, E-mail: thaishunk@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This article aims to analyze what has been done so far in relation to damage caused by the accident and the state of art in Chernobyl, as well as the impact on radiation protection applied safety nuclear power plants. In the first part of the work a data survey was done through a bibliographic review and the in the second part data was collected during a visit, in June 2013 at the crash site, when was observed dose values in the affected areas and the works of repairs that have been made in the sarcophagus and surroundings as well as in official reports available through active international bodies. The main results indicate significant improvements in radiation protection systems.

  15. Cancer consequences of the Chernobyl accident: 20 years on

    Cardis, Elisabeth [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon CEDEX 08 (France); Howe, Geoffrey [Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th Street, Room 1104, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Ron, Elaine [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Building EPS, MS 7238, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)] (and others)

    2006-06-15

    26 April 2006 marks the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. On this occasion, the World Health Organization (WHO), within the UN Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened an Expert Group to evaluate the health impacts of Chernobyl. This paper summarises the findings relating to cancer. A dramatic increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed among those exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated territories. Iodine deficiency may have increased the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodines, while prolonged stable iodine supplementation in the years after exposure may reduce this risk. Although increases in rates of other cancers have been reported, much of these increases appear to be due to other factors, including improvements in registration, reporting and diagnosis. Studies are few, however, and have methodological limitations. Further, because most radiation-related solid cancers continue to occur decades after exposure and because only 20 years have passed since the accident, it is too early to evaluate the full radiological impact of the accident. Apart from the large increase in thyroid cancer incidence in young people, there are at present no clearly demonstrated radiation-related increases in cancer risk. This should not, however, be interpreted to mean that no increase has in fact occurred: based on the experience of other populations exposed to ionising radiation, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Although it is expected that epidemiological studies will have difficulty identifying such a risk, it may nevertheless translate into a substantial number of radiation-related cancer cases in the future, given the very large number of individuals exposed. (rev0009i.

  16. The ecology of the Chernobyl catastrophe. Scientific outlines of an international programme of collaborative research

    The Chernobyl disaster was the largest civil nuclear catastrophe of all time. When reactor number 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant exploded on 26 April 1986, it permanently changed the lives of more than 4 million people living in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, shaking the fabric of an area almost the size of England, and triggering a whole swathe of environmental, economic, social, medical and political repercussions. At first the Soviet Union tackled the aftermath alone but, by 1990, with the process of change associated with perestroika, the three affected states of Belarus, Ukraine and the Federation of Russia appealed to the international community for solidarity and help. In co-operation with other agencies of the United Nations system, the UNESCO Chernobyl Programme was launched , with the formal signing of an agreement in January 1991 between the three republics and UNESCO. Since then, some twenty projects have been carried out in UNESCO's various fields of competence - education, science, culture and communication. The volume reviews eight years of study on the impact of Chernobyl on natural ecosystems, agro-ecosystems, human ecology, biological diversity, and genetic and socio-economic systems. It comprises eight chapters. The first three chapters discuss the effects of the high levels of radionuclides released from the Chernobyl reactor on the environment, on natural ecosystems and on agro-ecosystems. The fourth chapter, on human ecology, covers both the human effects at the time of the disaster and those still continuing today. Chapters five and six describe the impact of radionuclide release on biological diversity and genetic systems respectively. The socioeconomic effects of the catastrophe are discussed in chapter seven. Each of these seven chapters ends with scientific hypotheses and research recommendations, with a final chapter providing a detailed description of the setting up and aims of the multinational and multidimensional Chernobyl

  17. Chernobyl: The bitter taste of wormwood [videorecording

    A vivid account of the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, the far-reaching effects of radioactivity, monitoring radiation, evacuation of victims, etc. The video deals mainly with the impact and consequences of the accident in Sweden and Ukraine

  18. Increased leukemia risk in Chernobyl cleanup workers

    A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.

  19. Alpha emitters in Chernobyl hot particles

    The alpha radioactive component of hot particles from the Chernobyl fallout was analysed for cases studied previously by gamma spectroscopy. Correlations established from the absolute alpha activity determination and high resolution analysis provided information on actinides release during accident and on some aspects of the Chernobyl reactor fuel composition. Unexpected features revealed during the analysis of one specific particle are presented. 11 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs. (author)

  20. Migration of Chernobyl plutonium in soils

    Various geochemically linked landscapes were studied for the distribution of Chernobyl plutonium in soils. Significant behaviour of the Chernobyl plutonium may be observed only in case of its fall out with finely dispersed fuel. Within the areas polluted with the volatile ejection products, the plutonium migration forecast may be based on previous estimations obtained for the forest and forest-steppe zones. (author) 6 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  1. Fright from Chernobyl; Skremselet fra Tsjernobyl

    2011-07-01

    Research on nuclear power be defined through catastrophes, said Norwegian experts. The worst of them throwing after 25 years still an equally long and dark shadow. 25 years since the Chernobyl accident. The article has fact boxes on the three major reactor accidents, Chernobyl with RBMK reactor; Three Mile Island with PWR and BWR reactor at Fukushima. Points out the danger by untrained personnel deal with risky situations. (AG)

  2. Alpha emitters in Chernobyl hot particles

    Broda, R.; Kubica, B.; Szeglowski, Z.; Zuber, K. (Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland))

    1989-01-01

    The alpha radioactive component of hot particles from the Chernobyl fallout was analyzed for cases studied previously by gamma spectroscopy. Correlations established from the absolute alpha activity determination and high resolution analysis provided information on the release of actinides during the accident and on some aspects of the Chernobyl reactor fuel composition. Unexpected features revealed during the analysis of one specific particle are presented. (orig.).

  3. Radiation effects blamed on Chernobyl

    Strictly speaking, the nature of an epidemiological study would not permit the same causal links to be established as an experimental study does. Instead, it merely provides circumstantial evidence, from which some conclusions can be drawn as to the causative factors in the occurrences recorded. To summarize it may be stated that as fas as the Germans are concerned no scientific evidence has so far been provided to prove health impairments attributable to an added radiation load from the Chernobyl fallout. On the other hand, it can not be denied that there are indications of health damage in a few individuals unreasonably changing their eating habits for fear of radiation injuries. The question as to whether the event instilled a permanent feeling of unease in some population groups still remains largely obscure. (orig.)

  4. Chernobyl - state of the art

    This article aims to analyze what has been done so far in relation to damage caused by the accident and the state of art in Chernobyl, as well as the impact on radiation protection applied safety nuclear power plants. In the first part of the work a data survey was done through a bibliographic review and the in the second part data was collected during a visit, in June 2013 at the crash site, when was observed dose values in the affected areas and the works of repairs that have been made in the sarcophagus and surroundings as well as in official reports available through active international bodies. The main results indicate significant improvements in radiation protection systems

  5. Summary of Chernobyl followup research activities

    In NUREG-1251, ''Implications of the Accident at Chernobyl for Safety Regulation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plants in the United States,'' April 1989, the NRC staff concluded that no immediate changes in NRC's regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors were needed; however, it recommended that certain issues be considered further. NRC's Chernobyl followup research program consisted of the research tasks undertaken in response to the recommendations in NUREG-1251. It included 23 tasks that addressed potential lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl accident. This report presents summaries of NRC's Chernobyl followup research tasks. For each task, the Chernobyl-related issues are indicated, the work is described, and the staff's findings and conclusions are presented. More detailed reports concerning the work are referenced where applicable. This report closes out NRC's Chernobyl followup research program as such, but additional research will be conducted on some issues as needed. The report includes remarks concerning significant further activity with respect to the issues addressed

  6. Chernobyl reactor accident: medical management

    Chernobyl reactor accident on 26th April, 1986 is by far the worst radiation accident in the history of the nuclear industry. Nearly 500 plant personnel and rescue workers received doses varying from 1-16 Gy. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was seen only in the plant personnel. 499 individuals were screened for ARS symptoms like nausea, vomitting, diarrhoea and fever. Complete blood examination was done which showed initial granulocytosis followed by granulocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Cytogenetic examinations were confirmatory in classifying the patients on the basis of the doses received. Two hundred and thirty seven cases of ARS were hospitalised in the first 24-36 hrs. No member of general public suffered from ARS. There were two immediate deaths and subsequently 28 died in hospital and one of the cases died due to myocardial infarction, making a total of 31 deaths. The majority of fatal cases had whole body doses of about 6 Gy, besides extensive skin burns. Two cases of radiation burns had thermal burns also. Treatment of ARS consisted of isolation, barrier nursing, replacement therapy with fluid electrolytes, platelets and RBC transfusions and antibiotic therapy for bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Bone marrow transplantations were given to 13 cases out of which 11 died due to various causes. Radiation burns due to beta, gamma radiations were seen in 56 cases and treated with dressings, surgical excision, skin grafting and amputation. Oropharangeal syndrome, producing extensive mucous in the oropharynx, was first seen in Chernobyl. The patients were treated with saline wash of the mouth. The patients who had radioactive contamination due to radioactive iodine were given stable iodine, following wash with soap, water and monitored. Fourteen survivors died subsequently due to other causes. Late health effects seen so far include excess of thyroid cancer in the children and psychological disorders due to stress. No excess leukemia has been reported so

  7. Chernobyl accident. Exposures and effects

    The Chernobyl accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986 happened during an experimental test of the electrical control system as the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance. The operators, in violation of safety regulations, had switched off important control systems and allowed the reactor to reach unstable, low-power conditions. A sudden power surge caused a steam explosion that ruptured the reactor vessel and allowed further violent fuel-steam interactions that destroyed the reactor and the reactor building. The Chernobyl accident was the most serious to have ever occurred in the nuclear power industry. The accident caused the early death of 30 power plant employees and fire fighters and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine inhabited by several million people. Radionuclides released from the reactor that caused exposure of individuals were mainly iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Iodine-131 has a short radioactive half-life (8 days), but it can be transferred relatively rapidly through milk and leafy vegetables to humans. Iodine becomes localized in the thyroid gland. For reasons of intake of these foods, size of thyroid gland and metabolism, the thyroid doses are usually greater to infants and children than to adults. The isotopes of caesium have relatively long half-lives (caesium-134: 2 years; caesium-137: 30 years). These radionuclides cause long-term exposures through the ingestion pathway and from external exposure to these radionuclides deposited on the ground. In addition to radiation exposure, the accident caused long-term changes in the lives of people living in the contaminated regions, since measures intended to limit radiation doses included resettlements, changes in food supplies, and restrictions in activities of individuals and families. These changes were accompanied by major economic, social and political changes in the affected countries resulting

  8. A realistic evaluation of Chernobyl effects on health; Une evaluation realiste des effets de Tchernobyl sur la sante

    Jaworowski, Z. [Laboratoire de Protection Radiologique Central, Varsovie (Poland)

    1999-02-01

    The fear of radiations reinforced by terrifying stories in newspapers and unqualified policies has provoked a great number of psychosomatic illness in the area of Chernobyl. A specialist of radiations reviews the situation and takes to pieces the wrong presuppositions of radiations monitoring agencies. (N.C.)

  9. Chernobyl

    This report relates the Chernobylsk accident, why following a succession of technical malfunctions and human errors, reactor no. 4 of the Chernobylsk nuclear power plant explodes on April 26. 1986. Radioactive dust, aerosols and gases (including caesium and iodine) are ejected into atmosphere. The regions worst hit are in the immediate vicinity of the plant, but deposits are very uneven, producing a leopard spot type of pattern. Propelled by easterly winds, the radioactive cloud disperses increasingly, scattering deposits over the whole of Europe. At the beginning of May, the cloud arrives in France. the eastern portion of the country is most strongly affected. Ground, water and agriculture are contaminated by caesium deposits in Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation. About the contamination in France, ground contamination is slight, fourteen years later, however, it is still detectable. Relative to the impact on health in the vicinity of Chernobylsk plant, it is hard to assess this impact. Among children in Southern Belarus, the number of thyroid cancers has risen one hundred-fold. In France, the doses delivered represents generally less than 1% of the average annual dose from radioactivity of natural origin. But some of the doses received were higher. Today, the protective sarcophagus covering the damaged reactor is fragile. Reactor no.3, still in operation, continues to pose a risk but the shutdown is provided for december 2000. (N.C.)

  10. Psychosocial consequences of the Chernobyl disaster (A survey of Chernobyl accidental exposed and a non-exposed population sample)

    The importance of psychological factors in the aftermath of industrial disasters is being recognized increasingly. Two field studies (total N=3084) were conducted in two regions of the former Soviet Union, to investigate the long-term psychosocial consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster in 1986. A sub sample of the respondents (N=449) was studied using a standardized physical and psychiatric examination. The first study took place in the Gomel region (Belarus) in the direct vicinity of the damaged nuclear plant. A control study was conducted in the Tver region (the Russian Federation), about 250 km north-west of Moscow. The results of the study indicate significantly higher levels of psychological distress, poorer subjective health and higher medical consumption in the exposed population. These findings were most prominent in risk groups such as evacuated people and mothers with children. No significant differences in overall levels of psychiatric or physical morbidity were found. Radiation related diseases could not account for the poor health perception in the investigated sample. These results indicate that psychological factors following the Chernobyl disaster had a marked effect upon psychological well being, on perceived health and on subsequent illness behavior. Fears about future health play a key role in determining this response. The provision of adequate information to the public as well as to the public health services may be important to counteract these fears

  11. Stakeholders and radiological protection: lessons from Chernobyl 20 years after

    Twenty years after the major accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, the radioactive contamination continues to have an important impact on lives in the vicinity, and to a lesser extent in areas such as Western Europe and beyond. The purpose of this report is not to address clinical or environmental studies, but to look at how people are coping with the difficulties they still face. Commissioned by the Committee for Radiation Protection and Public Health of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the report focuses on the role of radiological protection and how this discipline has been deployed to help people manage their lives. Although the topic of this report concerns radioactivity and nuclear power, it can also be very useful to policy makers and experts dealing with the aftermath of wide-scale disasters, regardless of their causes (natural, accidental or malicious). Whilst we all hope never to see another event causing contamination on the scale that followed Chernobyl, it is prudent to be prepared. Hence this report also describes many of the problems that could need to be faced in the longer term by technical specialists, should such a contamination event occur, and presents ways of dealing with them. This report will provide readers with insights into how to plan better for this type of event, in particular beyond the immediate response phase. (author)

  12. DDG-NS statement at the opening of the international conference 'Chernobyl: Looking back to go forwards'

    The IAEA, as a specialised nuclear-related technical UN agency, has been involved in the mitigation of the Chernobyl accident consequences since early May 1986 when former Director General Hans Blix had visited Chernobyl in order to observe the physical damage and to discuss further actions. The IAEA took on many projects related to technical assistance, technical co-operation and research - with several immediate and longer term goals: first, to mitigate the accident's radiological, environmental and health consequences; second, to improve the overall safety of other RBMK reactors; and third, to understand and disseminate globally those lessons that could be learned from the Chernobyl experience. The projects executed between 1986 and 2005 covered the full range of topics: radiation, waste and nuclear safety; monitoring human exposure; environmental restoration of contaminated land; treatment of people living in the affected areas; and development of special measures to reduce exposure levels. The largest project took place in 1990. Over a two year period, the Agency coordinated the efforts of some 200 international experts over a two year period to complete an independent assessment of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Many missions to the three most affected countries were conducted and many meetings were held. The Agency has also organized or supported numerous international meetings to foster information exchange and to promote further assessment of the accident's radiological consequences. The Agency continues its ongoing activities regarding the mitigation of the accident's radiological consequences as part of the UN strategy 'Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident - A Strategy for Recovery' launched in 2002. Further IAEA commitment in continued Chernobyl-related activities, mainly in nuclear and radiation safety fields, may involve the following areas: Safety of Shelter decommissioning, Safety of radioactive waste management in the Chernobyl

  13. Chernobyl information: The ALARA backlash

    The risk information to the public failed after the Chernobyl accident, also in countries where radiation protection authorities and experts initially enjoyed public confidence. In contrast to many other large accidents, the responsibility for the information failure stays mainly with the authorities and experts themselves, not with the mass media. Many factors together caused the radiation risk information from SSI (Swedish Radiation Protection Institute), and its sister authorities in many other countries, to be confusing and inadequate, despite the best of intentions. The two major malefactors were the handling of food contamination restrictions and the short-sighted risk optimisation by applying the ALARA principle. In addition, the assurance that the Chernobyl contamination was fairly harmless made no sense to the layman, as a massive array of controlling procedures was enforced simultaneously. The food regulations became unfortunately focused on becquerel per kilogram limits instead of the primary goal, a dose reduction per year, corresponding to an yearly intake of Cs-137. The lesson learned is that the risk significant long-term intake ambition must be understood and digested by laymen and media, before any secondary limits, e.g. the activity concentration of foodstuffs expressed as becquerel per kg, for controlling or trading purposes, are introduced. As it were, the experts and authorities lost credibility, due to what people considered as ambiguities. The concept of ALARA (As Low As Readily Achievable) is in the backbone of every ionising radiation expert, and a useful strategy for optimising dose burdens during controlled situations. In connection to the Chernobyl accident many advices to the public was given based on the ALARA principle. 'Rinse leafy vegetables' sounds at first very reasonable, cheap and innocent, but if the averted dose is low, such an advice should not be given. The individual dose-reduction should be weighted against all negative

  14. Chernobyl from the point of view of disaster sociology

    Some social aspects of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus are considered. The information system of publications on this theme is analyzed. The influence of various factors of the Chernobyl accident on social changes in the areas of radioactive contamination is investigated. The Chernobyl subculture formation process in the contaminated areas is considered. Practical recommendations of sociologists on the elimination of the Chernobyl catastrophe effects are given. 12 refs

  15. Chernobyl after five years and over

    On April 26th 1986 the catastrophe occurred at the nuclear electric power generation system. The first inkling of the accident was known through the Swedish monitoring station about the radioactive fallout. It was also in 1986 that the USSR gave an idea of an earlier accident which happened in 1957. The Chernobyl reactor has pressure tubes and is a pressure vessel reactor. Graphite is used as an industrial material. In western reactors in USA with the increase in heat, power generation comes down. The international AEC discussed the Chernobyl comprehensively and came out with conclusion of deficiency in design which was accepted by the Soviet side without any demur. In 1970, in UK an accident has been reported with pressurized reactor. In 1987, Chernobyl was discussed under the chair of Eugene Volkov by USSR. In 1989, another conference was arranged at Sicily. The first annual nuclear safety met at Minsk in 1990 (June); USSR/USA meet on Chernobyl was also held at Solchin in 1989. A future meeting on Chernobyl was held at Paris in July 1991. In all these meetings, it is emphasized that more training and safety culture establishment was necessary by the international nuclear safety advisory group on safety. (author). 2 refs., 1 tab

  16. Radionuclide migration in the Chernobyl contamination zone

    It is well known that the Chernobyl fallout of 137 reaching the land soils with precipitation was rapidly and tightly sorbed to the fine fraction of sediment or soils. The majority of the 137Cs is retained in the top few centimetres of the soil or sediment profiles. In the absence of strong variations in precipitation over a relatively small area the total bomb-derived 137Cs fallout can assumed to be spatial uniform. The Chernobyl 137Cs fallout was mostly connected with one or two rains. So the spatial variability of this 137Cs can be higher. Furthermore because the explosion of the Chernobyl nuclear plant happened together with fire lot of ashes particles with radionuclide were distributed within vast areas. So even microvariability of Chernobyl 137Cs can be very high in some places. The horizontal migration of 137Cs connects with soil erosion processes that dominate on the agricultural lands of the Central Russia. The main goal of this investigation is to evaluate the caesium-137 horizontal and vertical migration within typical landscape of the Central Russia 11 years after the Chernobyl accident. (author). 7 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Introduction: geoscientific knowledgebase of Chernobyl and Fukushima

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Voitsekhovych, Oleg; Korobova, Elena; Stohl, Andreas; Wotawa, Gerhard; Kita, Kazuyuki; Aoyama, Michio; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2013-04-01

    Radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011) accidents is a multi-disciplinary geoscience problem. Just this session (GI1.4) contains presentations of (i) atmospheric transport for both short and long distances, (ii) aerosol physics and chemistry, (ii) geophysical measurement method and logistics, (iv) inversion method to estimate the geophysical source term and decay, (v) transport, migration, and sedimentation in the surface water system, (vi) transport and sedimentation in the ocean, (vii) soil chemistry and physics, (viii) forest ecosystem, (ix) risk assessments, which are inter-related to each other. Because of rareness of a severe accident like Chernobyl and Fukushima, the Chernobyl's 27 years experience is the only knowledgebase that provides a good guidance for the Fukushima case in understanding the physical/chemical processes related to the environmental radioactive contamination and in providing future prospectives, e.g., what we should do next for the observation/remediation. Unfortunately, the multi-disciplinary nature of the radioactive contamination problem makes it very difficult for a single scientist to obtain the overview of all geoscientific aspects of the Chernobyl experience. The aim of this introductory talk is to give a comprehensive knowledge of the wide geoscientific aspects of the Chernobyl contamination to Fukushima-related geoscience community.

  18. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Galstyan I.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS, developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

  19. Leukaemia incidents after Chernobyl accident

    Romania and especially its Eastern territory were among the most heavily affected area after Chernobyl accident. The objective of our study was to investigate whether or not the nuclear accident determined an increased number of leukaemia cases. The specific rates of leukaemia incidents by age group were calculated in 588167 children aged 0-6 years in April 1986 and 99917 children which have been exposed 'in utero'. The rates of 1989-1994 period were compared with the rates of 1980-1985 period. The incidence rates were lower in the exposed group than that in controls for children under 1 year (20.52/105 inh vs 23.11/105 inh), 1-3 years (13.26/105 inh vs 16.11/105 inh) and 4-6 years (9.58/105 inh vs 10.58/105 inh). The cohort of 'in utero' exposed children presented a leukaemia incidences insignificantly higher than that before the accident (23.10/105 inh vs 15.93/105 inh)

  20. Chernobyl - ethical and environmental considerations

    The paper summarises briefly the main facts of the Chernobyl incident, the reactions to it, and the consequences in terms of global atmospheric pollution. Meteorological conditions determined the pattern of fallout, which over the United Kingdom for Cs137 varied in the ratio 10 : 4000 Bq/m2 (on grass). There has been poor understanding by the media and the public of the quantitative aspects, aggravated by the differing characteristics of the several radionuclides (15 are listed), and the different units used in the USSR and the UK. Very complete information on fallout in the British Isles was obtained from meteorological data and the atmospheric dispersion models operated at Imperial College. Transfer through food chains depended on the variety of circumstances: the monitoring programmes and control measures were found to be in need of improvement, as no criteria existed for the amounts that justify intervention in the supply of foodstuffs to the public. Long-term effects in the UK of the measured radiation from this incident, in terms of deaths per year attributed to cancer are given and compared with other health hazards. The disaster has underlined the responsibilities of top management and of professional engineers, the need to promote a 'safety culture', and the value of effective organisation, the international exchange of experience, and the role of the media in improving public information. (author)

  1. Chernobyl. Disaster and its legacy

    Hundreds of thousands of people have been helping to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident, but there still are many areas in which many people have to live with the risks induced by elevated environmental radioactivity. The authors of the book have been participating in the measuring programme of the Federal Republic of Germany, intended to measure and map the radiation exposure of the population and the environment in the states of the former Soviet Union affected by the disaster. Due to their participation in biophysical and medical measuring programmes, the authors are familiar with the situation on site. Their report is intended to give the general reader a picture of the causes and progress of the reactor accident of April 1986, and of its longlasting effects on human health and the food chain. The information presented is based on authentic material and data and reveals the biologic, medical and social consequences as well as the related scientific and ecologic problems. (orig./HP)

  2. Phytoremediation of Chernobyl Contaminated Land

    Most of the land within a 10 km radius of the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant is still heavily contaminated by the 1986 accident. In 1998, a 3 year investigation of the potential of willow vegetation systems to stabilise the contaminated land and thereby reduce the dispersion of radionuclides was initiated under the PHYTOR project. During the first year, a number of screening tests were carried out on the contaminated flood plain of the river Pripyat. Survival of new willow plantations was tested at several locations. Except for the predominantly moist peaty soil in the vicinity of Yanov (where survival was nearly 100%), survival was low (0-30%). Notwithstanding, willows are found everywhere on the Pripyat flood plains: 7-8 year old plantations exist on the upper terraces and 1-2 year old saplings cover the newly deposited alluvial sands. For these willows radiocaesium transfer factors ranged from 10-4 and 10-3 m2.kg-1 and strontium transfer factors from 10-3 and 10-2 m2.kg-1. Biomass production was low: 70-100 kg.ha-1.y-1. Therefore, the radionuclide immobilisation in the biomass was insignificant. Even when based on the exchangeable caesium fraction, less then 0.1% for radiocaesium and less than 1% for radiostrontium became incorporated into the wood. Nevertheless, establishment of willow would reduce resuspension and erosion of soil and sediment. (author)

  3. Laser marking method and laser marking device

    For distinguishable control for members such as fuel rods while following after the flow of transportation/storage/utilization, it is necessary to apply marking directly to cladding tubes. However, in a marking method for using letter pattern-masking, it is necessary to prepare and exchange various kinds of letter pattern masking corresponding to the marking letters, and the marking operation is not efficient. Then, laser beams are irradiated under focussing on the surface of an object, and the laser beams are scanned while being controlled to oxidize the surface of the object thereby applying bar code-like markings. The surface of the object at the periphery of the starting point of the laser beam scanning is coated with a mask having a predetermined thickness to conduct marking. The device can be simplified, the marking operation can be improved, occurrence of fine pores so called spikes can be prevented previously, and melting damage of the mask can be prevented since the laser beams are not focused on the surface of the mask. (N.H.)

  4. Scientific and technical aspects of Chernobyl

    The collection contains the presentations and scientific articles prepared for and discussed during the Conference titled '2001: International Cooperation For Chernobyl'. The materials outline the outcomes achieved while implementing Chernobyl site scientific-technical researches and projects, as well as activities aimed at enhancing the ChNPP safety, decommissioning and radwaste management. It also highlights the issues related to transforming the Unit Shelter into an ecologically safe system, represents the results of ecological researches in the Exclusion Zone, medical effects of the 1986 accident at Chernobyl NPP, together with social and economic problems the city of Slavutich faces now due to the early ChNPP Units decommissioning, and Slavutich business development opportunities under the circumstances of Special Economic Zone 'Slavutich'

  5. Post-Chernobyl scientific perspectives: Thyroid effects

    The population in the area around Chernobyl, particularly southern Belarus and northern Ukraine, was exposed to high levels of fallout from the Chernobyl accident including large amounts of radioactive iodine. As the thyroid gland concentrates iodine, it was exposed to higher levels of radiation than other body tissues. The radioactive isotope of iodine, iodine-131, has been extensively and safely used in the treatment of thyrotoxicosis. Thus, the report of increased numbers of thyroid carcinoma in children in areas exposed to fallout from Chernobyl was surprising to some, both because of the previous lack of thyroid carcinoma in patients treated with radioactive iodine, and because of the very short time (four years) between exposure and the start of the increase

  6. The international Chernobyl project: Assessment of radiological consequences and evaluation of protective measures

    This brochure gives a brief account of the findings of the International Chernobyl Project. Further details will be found in the report ''The International Chernobyl Project: An Overview'' (INI22:066284/5) and in the Technical Report (INI23:011339). Measurements and assessments carried out under the project provided general corroboration of the levels of surface cesium-137 contamination reported in the official maps. The project also concluded that the official procedures for estimating radiation doses to the population were scientifically sound, although they generally resulted in overestimates of two- to threefold. The project could find no marked increase in the incidence of leukemia or cancer, but reported absorbed thyroid doses in children might lead to a statistically detectable rise in the incidence of thyroid tumors. Significant non-radiation-related health disorders were found, and the accident had substantial psychological consequences in terms of anxiety and stress

  7. Latest report about health effects of the chernobyl accident

    After twenty years of Chernobyl accident, the international conference was hold in Kyiv, Ukraine, 24-26, April in 2006. During the conference WHO declares the paper named health effects of the Chernobyl accident. The report look back the nuclear accident in the history, and then recite conclusion about health effects of the Chernobyl accident, which from doses received from the Chernobyl accident, thyroid cancer, non-thyroid solid cancer, leukemia, mortality, cataract and cardiovascular disease. The report is considered as milestone events in the studying of health effects of Chernobyl accident. (authors)

  8. The Nordic Chernobyl data base project

    Chernobyl Data Base has been established with the purpose of collecting the large amount of data resulting from measurements made in several laboratories in the period following the Chernobyl accident. All information is stored in the C data base handling system developed especially for this kind of environmental data. The C base data handling system allows for easy input from a variety of sources and easy output to other computer programs for further data treatment. This paper describes the structures, codes and methods used and the present status of the project. (au)

  9. Consequences and problems of the Chernobyl accident

    The data on epidemic situation in connection with the Chernobyl accident, based on the personal medical and dosimetric information on all the persons, subjected to radiation effect, and included in the Russian state medicodosimetric register, are presented. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident become the cause for origination of serious radiation injures by 134 persons (with lethal outcome by 37 patients) and also remote radiation stochastic effects by children (thyroid gland cancer) and by liquidators (thyroid gland leucosis and cancer). The permanent stress and other unfavorable factors conditioned aggravation of chronical and increase in somatic diseases and psychoneurotic disorders

  10. The Chernobyl disaster - ten years on

    Large areas of Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine are contaminated with very high levels of radioactivity from the fallout of the Chernobyl reactor accident. The most affected areas are in the vicinity of Chernobyl, and east of Gomel (in Belarus), where much of the radioactive plume came down. The article describes the contamination with cesium 137 and iodine 131, as well as the immediate countermeasures taken after the accident, and the long-term action for decontamination of the polluted soil. Information is given on the radiation dose received by the population, in particular the thyroid doses, and prognostic data on thyroid cancer incidence. (orig.)

  11. International Chernobyl project [AEA report

    The IAEA have co-ordinated the first international assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the affected areas outside the 30km prohibited zone around the reactor. These areas have a total population of about 1 million people, living in approximately 2700 settlements. The main aim of the project was to answer the question 'Is it safe for the population to go on living in the affected areas?'. The project did not investigate radiological health effects among more than 100 000 people evacuated from the 30 km prohibited zone. Nor did it study effects among the emergency personnel temporarily brought into the region for accident management and recovery work (the so-called 'liquidators'). Project teams reviewed official data on environmental contamination from 500 settlements, data collection practices and reporting and also official information on radiation doses received by people living in seven settlements. Other project teams reviewed official data at key medical centres and institutes. Then they examined people both from surveyed contaminated settlement and from surveyed control settlements. The team concluded that there were significant non-radiation related health disorders in populations of both contaminated and control settlements. None of the disorders could be attributed directly to radiation exposure. In particular, no evidence was found for a significant increase in foetal abnormalities; infant and prenatal mortality rates had fallen since the accident. Children were found to be generally healthy with no abnormalities in either thyroid stimulating or thyroid hormones. The accident had created substantial negative psychological consequences, manifesting themselves in terms of anxiety and stress due to continuing high levels of uncertainty. (author)

  12. Chernobyl birds have smaller brains.

    Anders Pape Møller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals living in areas contaminated by radioactive material from Chernobyl suffer from increased oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants. Therefore, normal development of the nervous system is jeopardized as reflected by high frequencies of developmental errors, reduced brain size and impaired cognitive abilities in humans. Alternatively, associations between psychological effects and radiation have been attributed to post-traumatic stress in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Here we used an extensive sample of 550 birds belonging to 48 species to test the prediction that even in the absence of post-traumatic stress, there is a negative association between relative brain size and level of background radiation. We found a negative association between brain size as reflected by external head volume and level of background radiation, independent of structural body size and body mass. The observed reduction in brain size in relation to background radiation amounted to 5% across the range of almost a factor 5,000 in radiation level. Species differed significantly in reduction in brain size with increasing background radiation, and brain size was the only morphological character that showed a negative relationship with radiation. Brain size was significantly smaller in yearlings than in older individuals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Low dose radiation can have significant effects on normal brain development as reflected by brain size and therefore potentially cognitive ability. The fact that brain size was smaller in yearlings than in older individuals implies that there was significant directional selection on brain size with individuals with larger brains experiencing a viability advantage.

  13. Laser Marking Methods

    Lazov, Lyubomir; Deneva, Hristina; Narica, Pavels

    2015-01-01

    Different methods for laser marking are systematized and discussed in the paper. Today in the practice there are many different methods that could be used to realise high quality on the workpiece of various materials with various shapes. Some materials could be marked only by marking or engraving without special requirements and difficulty, while for other materials one can choose the concrete method about the kind of material, marking type, and the specific needs of the production process an...

  14. Marking nut anaphylaxis.

    Fok, Jie Shen; Kral, Anita Christine; Hayball, John; Smith, William B

    2016-07-01

    Marking nut Semecarpus anacardium, so-called because it contains a pigment that has been used in the past to mark fabrics, is a known cause of contact hypersensitivity. It may be ingested as an ingredient of some traditional Hindi foods. We describe the first reported case of anaphylaxis to marking nut. PMID:27489793

  15. Fallout from Chernobyl and atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. Chernobyl in perspective

    Some results and experience gained so far in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident are discussed in the light of knowledge obtained from the studies of fallout from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. Cesium-137, which was an important radionuclide in the bomb fallout, was still more important after Chernobyl. For most Swedes the external irradiation from deposited Cs-137 was the dominating source of irradiation. Studies of Chernobyl fallout have given new information in the fate of contamination in the forest environment, lakes, urban areas, on shielding factors for houses etc. The releases from Chernobyl gave relatively lower dietary doses than expected form the same amount of Cs-137, released through nuclear weapons testing. However lake fish, moose and forest products have shown to be of greater importance than earlier realized. The main reason for the lower dietary doses from Chernobyl was the seasonal distribution of the fallout with deposition just before the start of the growing season. The various actions taken also reduced the intake of Cs-137 and Cs-134. Otherwise, there are no radical differences in the behaviour of cesium in the environment after the bombs and after Chernobyl. Differences may exist, primarily during the first year, due to different fallout conditions, where also the physical-chemical form of the fallout might have been of some importance. The average Swede will have an effective dose commitment of around 1 mSv from Chernobyl, which is about the same as from the bomb fallout. The highest doses due to Chernobyl area received by people living in high deposition areas (>80 kBq/m2 of CS-137) and consuming larger amounts of game animals, lake fish and reindeer. (66 refs.)

  16. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Results from the IPHECA pilot projects and related national programmes. Summary report from WHO 1995

    The main conclusions drawn from the investigations are that the Chernobyl accident caused psychosocial problems due to poor information just after the accident, and stresses and traumas inter alia due to forced relocation. A marked increase of thyroid cancer among children has been demonstrated. However, no significant increase in the frequency of leukemia has been observed., 2 figs, 3 tabs

  17. One decade after Chernobyl. Summing up the consequences of the accident. Proceedings of an international conference

    The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. Refs, figs, tabs

  18. Chernobyl today. Impressions and informations from a visit to the nuclear power plant in July 1995

    A visit to Chernobyl by Western experts was organized within the 1995 Nuclear Technology Conference. The region, which had been evacuated after the reactor accident in the Chernobyl-4 nuclear generating unit on April 26, 1986, now again offers employment to some 15,000 people. 120 scientific organizations are conducting studies in the protected zone. No indications of any consequences of the accident can be seen in the natural environment. As the manager of the power plant put it: 'This is a good region to live in.' In order to maintain this standard of living, the agencies responsible in Ukraine plan to repair unit 2, which has been down because of a fire in the turbine building since 1991, resynchronize it with the power grid, and run it up until 2002. Unit 1 is to be decommissioned in 1998; unit 3, in 2001. The biggest problem on site is the stability of the sarcophagus around unit 4. (orig./UA)

  19. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross......-border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law....

  20. Chernobyl - A chronicle of difficult weeks [videorecording

    The film demonstrates how authorities and volunteers dealt with the accident at the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl in the Ukraine. The efforts to get the fire under control, to take care of patients with radiation injuries, and to evacuate about 100,000 inhabitants of the area, are shown

  1. Decision conferencing and the International Chernobyl Project

    As part of the International Chernobyl Project, five decision conferences were held with the Soviet authorities to identify the major factors driving decision making in relation to relocation and other protective measures which are being applied in the affected regions of Byelorussia, Ukraine and the Russian Federation. This report describes the running of those conferences and the conclusions reached from them. (Author)

  2. Chernobyl: A first-hand account

    The author, living in Moscow at the time, was traveling by night train to visit family in Kiev at the time of the chernobyl accident. He recalls a passenger in his compartment asking if anyone had noticed in the morning press about the explosion in Chernobyl. In Kiev, about 50 mi from Chernobyl by air, he noted on arrival that everyone was calm - the city quiet with no rumors or gossip. He contrasts this with the world being alert, in despair, full of alarm. On failure to reach old friends by phone, he thought they had left the city for at least 4-day vacations - May 1 and 2 holidays plus Saturday and Sunday. He continues to recount the life as usual situation aided and abetted by the governments lack of information and misinformation on the perilously dangerous radioactivity and extent of the disaster. He notes friends showing him a January 1986 copy of Izvestia with an article about the Chernobyl unit, several months before, being named winner in a competition among all nuclear power stations in the USSR

  3. Chernobyl: the actual facts and consequences

    In a first part, a Power Point presentation explains the technical reasons of the Chernobyl accident and recalls the environmental and health consequences on a short, middle and long term. In a second part, the author analyses the treatment by the media in France and shows how the population has been manipulated by nuclear opponents with the active complicity of some media

  4. Meteorological data related to the Chernobyl accident

    This report presents a detailed technical description of the JRC-Ispra comprehensive collection of meteorological information related to the Chernobyl accident and attempts an analysis of the data in order to perform an initial checking of their quality and facilitate a suitable and compact way of display

  5. Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident

    It summarizes the consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident, describes the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, the measurement strategies, the activity levels and doses and countermeasures and action levels used. Past and remaining problems are discussed and the major investigations and improvements are given. (author)

  6. Fallout in Sweden from Chernobyl Part 1

    The fallout from Chernobyl as recorded by the Swedish network of 25 fixed gamma monitoring stations during the three days 27th, 28th and 29th of April 1986. The measurements are made 2.5 metres above the ground. (author)

  7. Sociological and medical aspects of Chernobyl accident

    The sociological survey data, the results of the state of health service in some districts of Gomel and Mogilev regions as well as of the completeness of the fulfillment of state resolutions concerning the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident after effects are given

  8. Radionuclide migration in the Chernobyl contamination zone

    It is well known that fallout of 137Cs reaching the land soils with precipitation was rapidly and tightly sorbed to the fine fraction of sediment or soils. The majority of the 137Cs is retained in the top few centimetres of the soil or sediment profiles (Loughran et al, 1993, Owens et al, 1996). In the absence of strong variations in precipitation over a relatively small area the total bomb-derived 137Cs fallout can assumed to be spatial uniform. The Chernobyl 137Cs fallout was mostly connected with one or two rains. So the spatial variability of this 137Cs can be higher. Furthermore because the explosion on the Chernobyl nuclear plant happen together with fire, a lot of ashes particles with radionuclide were distributed within vast areas. So even microvariability of Chernobyl 137Cs can be very high in some places. The horizontal migration of 137Cs connects with soil erosion processes that dominate on the agricultural lands of the Central Russia. The main goal of this investigation is to evaluate the caesium-137 horizontal and vertical migration within typical landscape of the Central Russia 11 years after the Chernobyl accident

  9. Consequences in Guatemala of the Chernobyl accident

    Because of the long distance between Guatemala and Chernobyl, the country did not undergo direct consequences of radioactive contamination in the short term. However, the accident repercussions were evident in the medium and long-term, mainly in two sectors, the economic-political and the environmental sectors

  10. Thyroid cancer in Belarus after Chernobyl: International thyroid project. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident

    The Chernobyl accident has demonstrated what was always known but perhaps has not been as fully acknowledged as it might, namely that national or other geographical boundaries are no defence against radioactive fallout. Much (some 2.2 millions) of the approximately 10 million population of Belarus have been, and are still being, exposed to the radiation resulting from the accident. The most obvious adverse effect of the radiation is on the condition of the thyroid system in children. Now, only just over eight years after the accident, we are experiencing an increase in childhood thyroid cancer which is particularly marked in those closest to the site of the accident. In young children thyroid cancer is an extremely rare condition and thus although at present the numbers of cases (more than 250 since the accident) is not large in absolute terms it is a sufficiently important development to capture the interest of the international medical and scientific community and to give rise to considerable apprehension as to the future development of the outbreak. Although this increase in thyroid cancer has not been definitively attributed to the Chernobyl accident, and indeed a major aim of this project is to elucidate the cause of the cancer, the fact of the exposure of the population of Belarus to the isotopes of iodine at the time of accident, and what we have learned from the experience in the Marshall Islands following the testing of the first hydrogen bomb on Bikini Atoll lead us to consider the accident as the most likely cause of the increase. Belarus is a relatively small and newly independent country. By any standards the Chernobyl accident was a technological disaster of enormous proportions causing damage to the environment over vast land areas. Necessarily it must be a major concern for us and an issue to be considered in the planning of our future. Its impact on the future health of our nation must be assessed as objectively and dispassionately as possible and

  11. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    Korobeynikov G.V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results showed the improvement of psycho-emotional status and normalization of cardiovascular vegetative regulation after training prevention programs in Chernobyl disasters survivors. The studies show that the preventive programs for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects had the high effect. This displays the decrease of tempo of aging and the improving of physical and psychological health status of Chernobyl disaster survivors during preventive course.

  12. New predictions for Chernobyl childhood thyroid cancers

    New, firmer predictions are presented for the number of childhood thyroid cancers caused by Chernobyl: between 3300 and 7600 over all time, with a central estimate of 4400. The high efficacy of medical treatment suggests that at least 70% of the sufferers should survive the illness, with 95% or better survival a realistic target given early and skilled surgery and treatment. In view of the reported lack of evidence for other long-term health effects and the comparatively small number of early deaths, the total figure for deaths attributable to the Chernobyl accident may currently be estimated as from a few hundreds to a few thousands, with one thousand as a reasonable central estimate. (author)

  13. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Dept. Nucleaire Medecine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  14. Chernobyl: Chronicle of difficult weeks [videorecording

    1. Chernobyl : chronicle of difficult weeks. Shevchenko's film crew was the first in the disaster zone following the meltdown of the core of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. They shot continuously for more than three months. Portions of the film are exposed with white blotches - a radiation leakage. The film demonstrates how authorities and volunteers dealt with the accident, shows the efforts to get the fire under control, to take care of patients with radiation injuries, and to evacuate about 100,000 inhabitants of the area. 2. The BAM zone : permanent residents. The Baikal-Amur Mainline (BAM) railroad in Siberia is called the longest monument to the stagnation of the Brezhnev years. The film shows the lives and fates of the people in contrast to the marches and songs praising the project

  15. Franco-German cooperation on Chernobyl

    This document presents the franco-german cooperation on Chernobyl. The purpose of this cooperation is to collect and validate all the data available in order to build a reliable and unbiased data-base. This cooperation is based on 3 axis and is funded with 6 million Ecus for 3 years. The 3 programmes are: i) the safety of the sarcophagus, ii) the radio-ecological consequences of the accident, and iii) the impact on health. The Chernobyl accident has had dramatic effects on the environment which were till now more or less under-estimated, the program on radio-ecological consequences will include information about the storage places of the wastes coming from the massive soil decontamination as well as information about the contamination of the artificial lake that was used to drain the low part of the reactor building and about the contamination of underground waters. (A.C.)

  16. Initiative for decommissioning of Chernobyl Nuclear Plant

    Construction of the New Safety Confinement (NSC) for the Chernobyl unit 4 started 2010, after about 25 years of Chernobyl accident and will complete summer of 2015. This project is being conducted by assistance of EU, USA and other countries including Japan. NSC can cover the whole facility of unit 4, and is installed various components or tools including big bridge crane for decommissioning unit 4 and has durability over 100 years. In addition to construction of NSC, various activities for preparing the decommissioning including developing the technology of monitoring the inside of destructive building and remote access technologies. The spent fuel storage facility and waste proposal facilities are also constructed.. These activities include many valuable information about how to smoothly conduct the decommissioning and it would be important to learn the above activities in conducting the post-processing activities on the Fukushima-Daiichi accident successfully. (author)

  17. Appearing consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    Full text: Chernobyl is the greatest world's tragedy after Chirosima. Global results of this tragedy is already being seen. They are the people who have received radiation dose. the first type of cancer 5 years after Chernobyl accident was the thyroid gland cancer, the reason of it, large quantities of radioactive iodine in the air, food products, milk of cattle and finally their collection in the thyroid gland cancer entering the human body. Period all of a sudden after 10 years completed the next latent type of cancer was leykoz. Giving rise to this type of cancer more sensitive to radiation of the body - a violation of the spinal brain function. After 20 years passing from the accident in the first generation one ill child must be born cause of undergoing to radiation father or mother from each three days in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine

  18. Information system 'Chernobyl' of EMERCOM of Russia

    Information system 'Chernobyl' of EMERCOM of Russia included the following: Central bank of generalized data, Bank of models, Information system for federal and local authorities. The analysis of many phenomena demanded retrospective data collection. In that way, banks of primary data were created and experience of analysis of directly accident information was acquired. The main element of the system-analytic support is the administrative information system of the Department for elimination of consequences of radiological and other disaster of EMERCOM of the Russian Federation. Administrative information system is intended for providing specialized program-technical complexes and systematized data related to the Chernobyl accident effects and measures on their elimination for heads and specialists of Central staff and territorial and regional administrative bodies, all other interested ministries, departments and organization

  19. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  20. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  1. Western reactors: how they compare with Chernobyl

    The author explains why western light water reactors are intrinsically more dangerous than the RBMK, Chernobyl design. It is also argued that for the fast breeder reactors (such as the PFR at Dounreay and the Super Phenix at Creys Melville) are more dangerous and could actually explode like an atomic bomb. This is contrary to official assurances that the Western reactors are of a safer design and more safely operated than the Chernobyl reactor, and so a similar accident could not happen here. The PWRs and BWRs are compared with the RBMK as to pressure vessels/no pressure vessel, fuel rods, reactor containment and containment building. The superiority of Western engineering and reactor operation is also disputed, with the Three Mile Island accident used as evidence. (U.K.)

  2. Chernobyl experience of emergency data management

    The use of the Chernobyl experience in emergency data management is presented. Information technologies for the generalization of practical experience in the protection of the population after the Chernobyl accident are described. The two main components of this work are the development of the administrative information system (AIS) and the creation of the central data bank. The current state of the AIS, the data bank and the bank of models is described. Data accumulated and models are used to estimate the consequences of radiation accidents and to provide different types of prognosis. Experience of accumulated analysis data allows special software to be developed for large-scale simulation of radiation consequences of major radiation accidents and to organize practical exercises. Some examples of such activity are presented. (orig.)

  3. Chernobyl experience of emergency data management

    Bolshov, L.; Linge, I.; Arutyunyan, R.; Ilushkin, A.; Kanevsky, M.; Kiselev, V.; Melikhova, E.; Ossipiants, I.; Pavlovsky, O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Nuclear Safety

    1997-10-01

    The use of the Chernobyl experience in emergency data management is presented. Information technologies for the generalization of practical experience in the protection of the population after the Chernobyl accident are described. The two main components of this work are the development of the administrative information system (AIS) and the creation of the central data bank. The current state of the AIS, the data bank and the bank of models is described. Data accumulated and models are used to estimate the consequences of radiation accidents and to provide different types of prognosis. Experience of accumulated analysis data allows special software to be developed for large-scale simulation of radiation consequences of major radiation accidents and to organize practical exercises. Some examples of such activity are presented. (orig.) 7 refs.

  4. The Chernobyl accident — an epidemiological perspective

    Cardis, E; Hatch, M.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since radioactive releases from the Chernobyl nuclear accident led to exposure of millions of people in Europe. Studies of affected populations have provided important new data on the links between radiation and cancer – particularly the risk of thyroid tumours from exposure to iodine isotopes - that are important not only for a fuller scientific understanding of radiation effects, but also for radiation protection.

  5. Natural Resources Damage from Chernobyl. Further Results

    This note reports the extent of some components of natural resources damage from the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, primarily losses in producer surplus in the reindeer industry in Lapland, Sweden. The damage suffered by Swedish moose hunters has been estimated earlier. The result is a lower boundary of natural resources damage amounting to SEK 736 million, or about SEK 112 per adult Swede. 6 refs

  6. Natural Resources Damage from Chernobyl. Further Results

    Soederqvist, T. [Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-07-01

    This note reports the extent of some components of natural resources damage from the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, primarily losses in producer surplus in the reindeer industry in Lapland, Sweden. The damage suffered by Swedish moose hunters has been estimated earlier. The result is a lower boundary of natural resources damage amounting to SEK 736 million, or about SEK 112 per adult Swede. 6 refs.

  7. Chernobyl -- the fallout and the farmer

    Following the Chernobyl accident an increase in the levels of airborne radioactivity was first detected in Ireland during the period 2nd-4th May, 1986. Heavy rainfall resulted in significant ground deposition of this activity, and the environmental monitoring programme set up by the Nuclear Energy Board ( now the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland) has determined the distribution and level of radionuclides in the major food items consumed by the Irish population

  8. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive 131I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of 131I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 106 person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 107 person-rem (2 x 105 Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs

  9. Chernobyl and the consequences for Austria

    In an introducing chapter the meteorological situation over Austria in the days after the Chernobyl accident is outlined. The following chapters are on measurement of contamination of environment, foodstuffs and fodder; on measures taken to minimize the radiation burden; a comparison with the fallout from nuclear weapons tests; a dose estimation to the population and finally, a comparison with contamination in some other european countries. 26 tabs., 117 figs. (qui)

  10. The Chernobyl accident--an epidemiological perspective.

    Cardis, E; Hatch, M

    2011-05-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since radioactive releases from the Chernobyl nuclear accident led to the exposure of millions of people in Europe. Studies of affected populations have provided important new data on the links between radiation and cancer-particularly the risk of thyroid tumours from exposure to iodine isotopes-that are important not only for a fuller scientific understanding of radiation effects, but also for radiation protection. It is now well documented that children and adolescents exposed to radioiodines from Chernobyl fallout have a sizeable dose-related increase in thyroid cancer, with the risk greatest in those youngest at exposure and with a suggestion that deficiency in stable iodine may increase the risk. Data on thyroid cancer risks to other age groups are somewhat less definitive. In addition, there have been reported increases in incidence and mortality from non-thyroid cancers and non-cancer end points. Although some studies are difficult to interpret because of methodological limitations, recent investigations of Chernobyl clean-up workers ('liquidators') have provided evidence of increased risks of leukaemia and other haematological malignancies and of cataracts, and suggestions of an increase in the risk of cardiovascular diseases, following low doses and low dose rates of radiation. Further careful follow-up of these populations, including the establishment and long-term support of life-span study cohorts, could provide additional important information for the quantification of radiation risks and the protection of persons exposed to low doses of radiation. PMID:21396807

  11. The Chernobyl Forum: major findings and recommendations

    Balonov, M.I. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: m.balonov@iaea.org

    2007-07-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986 was the most severe in the history of the nuclear industry, causing a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. The recently completed Chernobyl Forum concluded that after a number of years, along with reduction of radiation levels and accumulation of humanitarian consequences, severe social and economic depression of the affected regions and associated psychological problems of the general public and the workers had become the most significant problem to be addressed by the authorities. The majority of the affected land is now safe for life and economic activities. However, in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and in some limited areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine some restrictions on land-use should be retained for decades to come. Most of the 600,000 emergency and recovery operation workers and five million residents of the contaminated areas in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine received relatively minor radiation doses which are comparable with the natural background levels. Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed at a young age and some increase of leukaemia and solid cancer in most exposed workers, there is no clearly demonstrated increase in the somatic diseases due to radiation.

  12. Trauma management: Chernobyl in Belarus and Ukraine.

    Zhukova, Ekatherina

    2016-06-01

    Although the Chernobyl nuclear disaster happened in the Soviet Union in 1986, we still do not know how the most affected states - Ukraine and Belarus - have managed this tragedy since independence. Drawing on the concept of cultural trauma, this article compares Chernobyl narratives in Belarus and Ukraine over the past 28 years. It shows that national narratives of Chernobyl differ, representing the varying ways in which the state overcomes trauma. Our understanding of post-communist transformations can be improved by analysing trauma management narratives and their importance for new national identity construction. These narratives also bring new insights to our vision of cultural trauma by linking it to ontological insecurity. The article demonstrates how the state can become an arena of trauma process as it commands material and symbolic resources to deal with trauma. In general, it contributes to a better understanding of how the same traumatic event can become a source of solidarity in one community, but a source of hostility in another. PMID:27191056

  13. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Lithuania

    After the Chernobyl accident of 26 April, 1986, population dose assessment favours the view that the radiation risk of population effected by the early fallout would be different from that in regions contaminated later. Taking into account the short half-time of the most important radioactive iodine isotopes, thyroid disorders would be expected mainly to follow the early fallout distribution. At the time of accident at Unite 4 of the Chernobyl NPP, surface winds were from the Southeast. The initial explosions and heat carried volatile radioactive materials to the 1,5 km height, from where they were transported over the Western part of Belarus, Southern and Western part of Lithuania toward Scandinavian countries. Thus the volatile radioiodine and some other radionuclides were detected in Lithuania on the very first days after the accident. The main task of the work - to conduct short Half-time radioiodine and long half-time radiocesium dose assessment of Lithuanian inhabitants a result of the early Chernobyl accident fallout

  14. Chernobyl: the plant that refuses to die

    Despite the cracking of the Sarcophagus enclosing Reactor 4 and recent observations of increased radiation inside, no decision on the future of the Chernobyl plant has been made. There is pressure from the G7 countries to close it down, but reluctance in Ukraine for a variety of reasons. Closure of the remaining functioning reactors at the plant would require new capacity to be substituted in order to meet the Ukraine's power demand and support its already ailing economy. Controversially, the Ukraine would like the new capacity to come from the completion of two VVER plants at Rovno and Khmelnitsky but it would embarrass the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development to be seen to be financing the replacement of Chernobyl by more nuclear reactors. Opposition to plant closure also comes from those concerned for the future of the town of Slavutich which houses the Chernobyl workforce of 6,000 and their families. The fear is that closure would mean a sudden slide into poverty for the 24,000 inhabitants. Moreover, should the workforce disappear, who would look after the Sarcophagus? It is the future of the Sarcophagus which should be the priority of all parties to the debate. Opinions differ on the consequences of the collapse of the present structure but they could constitute another disaster. (UK)

  15. Health consequences [of the Chernobyl accident

    The World Health Organisation Conference on the Health Consequences of the Chernobyl and Other Radiological Accidents, held in Geneva last November, is reported. The lack of representation from the civil nuclear industry led often to one-sided debates instigated by the anti-nuclear lobbies present. Thyroid cancer in children as a result of the Chernobyl accident received particular attention. In Belarus, 400 cases have been noted, 220 in Ukraine and 60 in the Russian Federation. All have been treated with a high degree of success. The incidence of this cancer would be expected to follow the fallout path as the main exposure route was ingestion of contaminated foods and milk products. It was noted that the only way to confirm causality was if those children born since the accident failed to show the same increased incidence. Explanations were offered for the particular susceptibility of children to thyroid cancer following exposure to radiation. Another significant cause of concern was the health consequences to clean-up workers in radiological accidents. The main factor is psychological problems from the stress of knowing that they have received high radiation doses. A dramatic increase in psychological disorders has occurred in the Ukraine over the past ten years and this is attributed to stress generated by the Chernobyl accident, compounded by the inadequacy of the public advice offered at the time and the socio-economic uncertainties accompanying the breakup of the former USSR. (UK)

  16. The Cuban Chernobyl program. realities and perspectives

    Full text: In April of 1990 started the 'Cuban Chernobyl Program'. This program was designed to offers specialised medical attention and to develop a rehabilitation plan with children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. Up to the moment more than 21 500 children and adults had been assisted in the program, with a significant set of medical procedures done. Dosimetric, biomedical and psychological research had been also carried out as part of the program. The more significant medical attention activities include the treatment of 289 children with haematological disorders, including 6 bone marrow transplantation, more than 100 important surgical interventions, and the treatment of 117 children with solid tumors. The dosimetric results on more than 7000 children are including in a database with information on internal Cs 137 contamination, internal, external and total doses, children living location, and its contamination by Cs 137, and other significant information for radiological impact evaluation. The behaviour of all the medical information of the program in relation to the contamination of the land and the internal contamination of the children was analysed using this database. The program has accumulated an experience of interest for physicians, psychologists and in general persons interested in Chernobyl consequences

  17. 30 years life with Chernobyl, 5 years life with Fukushima. Health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima

    The IPPNW report on health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima covers the following issues: Part.: 30 years life with Chernobyl: Summarized consequences of Chernobyl, the accident progression, basic data of the catastrophe, estimation of health hazards as a consequence of the severe accident of Chernobyl, health consequences for the liquidators, health consequences for the contaminated population, mutagenic and teratogenic effects. Part B: 5 years life with Fukushima: The start of the nuclear catastrophe, emissions and contamination, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on human health, thyroid surveys in the prefecture Fukushima, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on the ecosystem, outlook.

  18. The legal issues of Chernobyl

    According to international law the Federal Republic of Germany has a right to claim compensations from the Soviet Union. This all the more as both states have signed the treaty of Nov. 13, 1979 which as part of the UN Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) is known as the ''Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution''. By civil law victims may sue a Kiev court for compensations or else sue for damages in the Federal Republic of Germany. It is very unlikely that the reactor management itself will pay any damages. According to the Atomic Energy Law, paragraph 38, 2 and paragraph 34, 1 p. 2 victims in the Federal Republic of Germany may claim compensations up to a maximum of 1 billion marks from the Federal Government. However, compensations may only be sued for if attempts to sue a Soviet court have failed. Compensations must be claimed at the Federal Administrative Board in Cologne. (HP)

  19. Surveillance of congenital malformations in Belarus. Chernobyl aftermath

    Full text: In order to study possible genetic effects of the Chernobyl accident in human population a comparative analysis of the prevalence at birth of congenital malformations (CM) was performed on region and area administrative levels basing on the data of Belarus registry of CM permanently functioning since 1979. An attempt was made to evaluate dose dependence of the effects under study. We analyzed time trends of the prevalence at birth of 9 so called 'mandatory registered' nosologic units of CM. These group of CM could be easily diagnosed within the neonatal period and were assigned for registration at creation of the registry. Over 12 thousand cases registered within the period of 1981 to 2004 in 4 regions as well as about 3 thousand cases found in 47 rayons highly contrasting by radiation exposure were scrutinized. No long-term impact of the Chernobyl release on prevalence rates of surveyed CM was shown. Since the middle 80-s a similar steady increasing trend was observed as in contaminated, as in control areas with a tendency to stabilization after middle 90-s. We fail to reveal a dose dependence for CM prevalence rates calculated for the whole post-accidental period. Nonetheless, during the first years after the accident situation in contaminated areas was notably different from those in the control. Within the period of 1987 to 1989 a significant access of CM prevalence was registered in the strict radiological control area (Cs 137 soil contamination over 555 kBq/m2) as compared to non-contaminated zone. Relative risk was estimated as RR1987-1989 = 1.57 with 95% confidence interval being 95%CI = [1.29; 1.89]. Before the accident no difference in prevalence rates was marked (RR1981-1986 = 0.93; 95%CI = [0.80; 1.09]); nor it was evident in the farther post-accidental period (RR1990-2004 = 0.99; 95%CI = [0.80; 1.09]). Anomalies with high contribution of dominant de novo mutations (polydactyly, reduction defects of limbs and multiple CM) played principal

  20. Thyroid consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident.

    Pacini, F; Vorontsova, T; Molinaro, E; Shavrova, E; Agate, L; Kuchinskaya, E; Elisei, R; Demidchik, E P; Pinchera, A

    1999-12-01

    It is well recognized that the use of external irradiation of the head and neck to treat patients with various non-thyroid disorders increases their risk of developing papillary thyroid carcinoma years after radiation exposure. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has also been reported in survivors of the atomic bombs in Japan, as well as in Marshall Island residents exposed to radiation during the testing of hydrogen bombs. More recently, exposure to radioactive fallout as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident has clearly caused an enormous increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus, Ukraine, and, to a lesser extent, in the Russian Federation, starting in 1990. When clinical and epidemiological features of thyroid carcinomas diagnosed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident are compared with those of naturally occurring thyroid carcinomas in patients of the same age group in Italy and France, it becomes apparent that the post-Chernobyl thyroid carcinomas were much less influenced by gender, virtually always papillary (solid and follicular variants), more aggressive at presentation and more frequently associated with thyroid autoimmunity. Gene mutations involving the RET proto-oncogene, and less frequently TRK, have been shown to be causative events specific for papillary cancer. RET activation was found in nearly 70% of the patients who developed papillary thyroid carcinomas following the Chernobyl accident. In addition to thyroid cancer, radiation-induced thyroid diseases include benign thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, with or without thyroid insufficiency, as observed in populations after environmental exposure to radioisotopes of iodine and in the survivors of atomic bomb explosions. On this basis, the authors evaluated thyroid autoimmune phenomena in normal children exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl accident. The results demonstrated an increased prevalence of circulating thyroid

  1. Mark 1 Test Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Mark I Test Facility is a state-of-the-art space environment simulation test chamber for full-scale space systems testing. A $1.5M dollar upgrade in fiscal year...

  2. Bite Mark Analysis

    SK Padmakumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bite mark analysis plays an important role in personal identi- fi cation in forensic odontology. They are commonly seen in violent crimes such as sexual assaults, homicides, child abuse, etc. Human bites are common on the face and are usually seen on prominent locations of the face such as the ears, nose and lips. Individual characteristics recorded in the bite marks such as fractures, rotations, attrition, and congenital malformations are helpful in identifying the individual who caused it. We are reporting the case of a 55-year-old lady with bite marks on her left ear, who was allegedly assaulted by the suspect. On the basis of characteristic features of the suspect’s dentition, it was concluded that the bite marks seen on the victim was most probably caused by the suspect.

  3. Marks of Metal Copenhell

    2015-01-01

    Planchebaseret udendørs udstilling på musikfestivalen Copenhell 18-20/6 2015. En mindre udgave af udstillingen Marks of Metal - Logodesign og visualitet i heavy metal. Udarbejdet i samarbejde med Mediemuseet.......Planchebaseret udendørs udstilling på musikfestivalen Copenhell 18-20/6 2015. En mindre udgave af udstillingen Marks of Metal - Logodesign og visualitet i heavy metal. Udarbejdet i samarbejde med Mediemuseet....

  4. COMPUTER HARDWARE MARKING

    Groupe de protection des biens

    2000-01-01

    As part of the campaign to protect CERN property and for insurance reasons, all computer hardware belonging to the Organization must be marked with the words 'PROPRIETE CERN'.IT Division has recently introduced a new marking system that is both economical and easy to use. From now on all desktop hardware (PCs, Macintoshes, printers) issued by IT Division with a value equal to or exceeding 500 CHF will be marked using this new system.For equipment that is already installed but not yet marked, including UNIX workstations and X terminals, IT Division's Desktop Support Service offers the following services free of charge:Equipment-marking wherever the Service is called out to perform other work (please submit all work requests to the IT Helpdesk on 78888 or helpdesk@cern.ch; for unavoidable operational reasons, the Desktop Support Service will only respond to marking requests when these coincide with requests for other work such as repairs, system upgrades, etc.);Training of personnel designated by Division Leade...

  5. Drosophila as a model object in to study Chernobyl NPP after

    Complete text of publication follows. Water extractions of soil probes, which were selected on areas with different density of radioactive pollutions near Chernobyl exclusion zone ('Apple-tree garden' (Chernobyl); 'Island' (the bank of the pond-cooler of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant); 'Torch' (the area of revegetation near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant); 'Red forest' (side of a road) and 'Red forest' (edge of a forest)) were investigated. Dosimetric metering of all studied areas was conducted. γ- and β-activities of soil probes were determined by spectrometry and radiochemistry methods. The contents of trace elements in the soil probes of areas the 'Appletree garden' and 'Island' were determined. Water extractions from soil were prepared according to standard method (ratio - 1 : 2,5). The mutagenicity of water extractions of soil was estimated using the test of frequency of the sex-linked lethal mutations of Drosophila melanogaster. Water extractions were directly adds to a nourishing medium instead of standard component - distilled water. The strain of wild type of Drosophila Canton-S and natural populations of Drosophila from Pyriatin and Chernobyl were used in our study. The natural populations of Chernobyl and Pyriatin were included in study for more fully estimation of influence of factor on genetic processes of Drosophila, because of presence of unspecific adaptations of natural populations from radioactive polluted territories (as was shown before). According to dosimetric analysis data radiation activity of all water extractions of soils did not exceed a natural background. The probes of soil from areas the 'Red forest' and the 'Torch' were marked the higher activity; total activity of them was over 110 Mbk/kg. It is possibly that this fact was the reason of the absence of descendants in all variants of experiments conducted on medium with water extraction the 'Red forest' and in a variant of experiments concerned on study of activity of water

  6. Chernobyl plume: commentary about a discharge; Nuage de Chernobyl: commentaires sur un non-lieu

    Anon

    2011-07-15

    The Paris appeal court has dismissed the charges against P. Pellerin who was the head of the SCIRP (service of protection against the ionizing radiations) at the time of the Chernobyl accident. The appeal court confirms that P.Pellerin never said that the Chernobyl plume stopped at the French border but instead he said that the Chernobyl plume entered the French territory but the radioactivity level was so low that it was unnecessary to take sanitary steps. P.Pellerin based his decision on the results of 6500 controls performed by the SCIRP in May and June 1986. Seven other European countries recommended not to take sanitary measures. The increase of thyroid cancers that has happened in all industrialized countries and that affect only adults, can not due to Chernobyl contamination because child's thyroid is far more sensitive than adult's. The increase of thyroid cancer is mainly due to a better detection of the tumors. (A.C.)

  7. Consequences of Chernobyl accident in Europe

    Full text: Among nuclides emitted from the destroyed Chernobyl reactor only radioiodine and radiocesium were of serious health concern. The amount of iodine-131 released in this catastrophe was about 180 times lower than during the total release of this nuclide from 77 nuclear weapon tests performed in remote areas in the record year of 1962, and the release of cesium-137 was only five times lower. However, the bulk of Chernobyl emission was confined in time to only twelve days, and its geographical dispersion was much smaller and closer to populated areas than that of nuclear tests debris. Only a small part of cesium-137 and cesium-134 from the Chernobyl reactor reached the Southern Hemisphere, via stratospheric transport routes. Therefore, radiation doses received by the population from the Chernobyl radionuclides was in the affected areas higher than from the nuclear tests fallout. In part of Europe the doses received by children in the thyroid gland from iodine-131 radiation were high enough to expect an increase in thyroid cancers. In the contaminated regions of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the estimated thyroid doses in children could reach up to several thousand mSv. In a group of >100,000 persons evacuated during the first few weeks, the average thyroid dose in children under 3 years of age was about 1000 mSv, and in adults about 70 mSv. Between 1986 and 1995 about 700 thyroid cancers in children were reported from Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, most of which may be attributed to Chernobyl radiation. About 95% of these cancers are believed to be curable. The whole body dose from cloud passage, ground deposition and intake of cesium-137 and of other radionuclides was much smaller than thyroid doses, and do not pose a real risk to the population. The average lifetime (70 years) whole body doses in the most contaminated regions of Belarus ranged between 88 and 160 mSv, in Ukraine 84 and 120 mSv and in Russia 78 to 130 mSv. The average doses to 800

  8. Proceeding of the 2-nd International Conference 'Long-term Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Disaster'

    On the second International conference 'Long-term health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster' in 1-6 June 1998 Kiev (Ukraine) the following problems were discussed: 1.Epidemiological aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 2.Clinical and biological effects of ionizing radiation; 3.Social and psychological aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster; 4.Rehabilitation of the Chernobyl disaster survivors

  9. International nuclear law in the 25 years between Chernobyl and Fukushima and beyond

    This paper is dedicated both to legal developments since the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant 25 years ago and possible legal implications of the accidents at Fukushima Daiichi which occurred after Japan was struck by a devastating earthquake on 11 March 2011. Following the accident at Three Mile Island in 1979 and at Chernobyl in 1986, Fukushima will be remembered as the third major accident in the history of civilian nuclear power reactors. Yet Chernobyl was and remains the worst trauma in this history as a result of which nuclear developments slowed down significantly. Eventually, the industry emerged as a safer and stronger technology, particularly because the 25 years between Chernobyl and Fukushima were marked by an exceptional national and international commitment to nuclear safety and emergency preparedness so as to prevent accidents and minimise potential damages, if such occur. From a legal point of view it is safe to say that the nuclear industry is one of the most strictly regulated. However, it is equally safe to say that there is no zero risk technology and that accidents can happen. For several weeks after the tragic events in Japan the world's focus turned - justifiably so - to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power units. It was nevertheless astonishing to observe that the real tragedy, the terrible loss of lives, swept away villages, and the chaos following the breakdown of all kinds of infrastructure were treated as a sideshow compared with the dramatic images of explosions at the Fukushima Daiichi units and helicopters trying to drop seawater into the spent fuel pools. The live broadcasting of accidents might present one of the first lessons to be learnt in our Internet and 24-hour news channel era which did not exist at the time of Chernobyl. The international legal community will also face challenges as the accident has put 25 years of international co-operation and international nuclear law-making to its first serious test. The

  10. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment' (EGE). Working material

    The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental effects of the 26 April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Even though it is now nearly 20 years after the accident and substantial monies have been spent on such evaluations, there are still many conflicting reports and rumours. This joint report has been developed with the full cooperation of the United Nations (UN) family of relevant organisations and with political representatives from the three more affected countries: Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation. In addition, recognised scientific experts from the three countries and additional international experts provided the basis for the preparation of reports for review by the actual members of the Chernobyl Forum. The - Chernobyl Forum - is a high-level political forum whose suggestion for existence was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO), and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. The organisational meeting of the Chernobyl Forum was held on 3-5 February 2003, at which time the decision was reached to establish the Forum as an ongoing entity of the above named organisations. Thus, the organisational meeting of the Forum decided to establish the Chernobyl Forum as a series of managerial, expert and public meetings in order to generate authoritative consensual statements on the health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident and the environmental consequences induced by the released radioactive materials, to provide advice on

  11. 10 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Thyroid cancer and consequences of public health in the CIS

    Ten years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor, governmental and international organisations have identified considerable effects on the health of the various affected groups. A dramatic - over 100-fold - increase in thyroid cancers among children in Belarus has been caused by papillary thyroid carcinomas that are marked by aggressive growth with early metastatic spread. As early as 1995, the number of new cases of thyroid cancer among adults was four times the mean figure in the period before 1986. In Oblast Gomel, the number of children with diabetes mellitus doubled between 1986 and the end of 1995. The number of recorded cases of thyroid cancer, particularly among children, by far exceeds the prognoses made on the basis of established radiation risk estimates, and points to a considerable underestimation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. (orig.)

  12. Environmental consequences of Chernobyl in Western Europe

    The accident at Chernobyl in April 1986 spread radioactive contamination throughout Europe. Using measurements of activity concentrations in the air, on the ground and in a range of foods, estimates of the doses received by the populations of western Europe have been made. For the European Community (EC) countries, the average individual effective doses accruing from the first year following the accident are estimated to range from less than a microsievert in Portugal to a few hundred microsieverts in the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and Greece. Elsewhere in western Europe, similar average individual effective doses have been estimated, up to a value of about 700 μSv for Austria. These values can be compared with the average effective dose of about 2000 μSv which the populations of western Europe receive each year from natural radiation. The restrictions placed on consumption of some foods are estimated to have been effective in reducing doses to the most exposed individuals by a factor of two in some countries. Throughout the EC, however, countermeasures are estimated to have reduced the collective effective dose by about 5%. The health impact on western Europe from the accident at Chernobyl can be assessed from the collective effective doses and the collective thyroid doses estimated together with the appropriate risk factors. For the EC the collective effective dose estimate is about 80,000 man Sv; considering western Europe as a whole the collective dose would be a few tens of percent higher. Using the risk factor recommended by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, the theoretical number of extra cancers predicted in western Europe due to the Chernobyl accident is of the order of 1000. This can be compared with the number of fatalities which would be expected over the next fifty years in western Europe as a result of radiation from natural sources, which is over half a million. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Chernobyl lesson and the nuclear power prospects

    At sixteen years from the disaster which made the commercial power reactor nr. 4 of the Chernobyl NPP known worldwide, the radiation effects and the consequences are still vivid. A basic statement is to be underlined, namely, the Chernobyl event was not an accident in a nuclear power plant being in an industrial, commercial state of operation but an accident following an experiment done on the reactor. Lack of professionalism, of nuclear safety culture, the outrageous violation of basic rules and regulations, established for the unit operation, represent some of the causes originating the Chernobyl disaster. One of the most unfair consequences enhanced by an incorrect mass media information and political manipulation was the ensuing antinuclear media campaign. The paper quotes recent monographs and United Nations Documents showing how the facts were distorted to render arguments and support for various political, economical or humanistic goals. Thus, over more than 15 years due to the hard controversies and irrational campaigns on a global scale the nuclear power was discredited. Practically, all the nuclear power plant constructions were either delayed or cancelled. Moreover, some governments have sustained even closing the existing nuclear stations. The author asks himself rhetorically whether somebody has considered and quantified the immense losses produced by such unmotivated policy or else the additional damage and abuse caused to our home planet by the additional burning of fossil fuels to replace the nuclear fuel burning in nuclear power plants. The paper ends by mentioning the environmental advantages and economic efficiency of that clean energy source which is the nuclear power

  14. Pseuchoneurotic disorders associated with the Chernobyl accident

    This survey relied largely on random selection. As a rule, the attention of the specialists was directed to people with certain specific complaints. Psychogenic disorders observed in the area of the accident at the Chernobyl plant were followed and studied by a team of specialists from the USSR Ministry of Health, beginning on 29 April 1986. According to the nature of the observed stress effects and of the resultant psychic disorders, it was possible to delineate three periods: first the acute period of the disaster from the time of the accident, lasting about 10 days until completion of the evacuation of the population from the danger zone (5 May); second the intermediate delayed period, the period of comparatively early consequences (from 6 May to October 1986); and third, the period of remote consequences. In the course of the year, 1,572 people were examined. The data available indicate that the psychogenic disorders observed after the Chernobyl accident can be regarded as the consequence of a single process, the dynamics of which are determined on the one hand by the characteristics of the emergency situation and on the other by the traits and the degree of preparedness of the people involved. The special nature of the stress situation in all three periods - the threat to health - gave rise to certain characteristic clinical observations, primarily a high degree of somatization and hypochondria. An understanding of the psychological disorders affecting those who lived through the Chernobyl accident, and of their effects on the work capability and pattern of life of people at various stages after the accident, has made it possible to develop and implement a complex and refined system of prophylactic and medical measures. (author)

  15. Accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its consequences

    In the early morning of April 26, 1986, as the culmination of an almost incredible series of errors that began 24 hours earlier, Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear complex, a so-called RBMK-1000 reactor, suffered the worst accident in the history of commercial nuclear power. There was an uncontrolled nuclear excursion, release of a large amount of energy, possibly comparable to hundreds of pounds of TNT, blowing the top off the reactor. There was no containment, in the traditional American sense, so the roof of the building was blown out, an unprecedented amount of radioactivity was released to the biosphere, and a graphite fire was ignited, which burned for days. The radiation that was released spread through Eastern Europe (the world first learned of it through Swedish observations), bringing with it both official and unofficial protests that the Soviet Union had made no announcement of the radiation release until they were, in effect, caught. In fact, after a few days, the Soviets seemed to recognize that nuclear safety is a matter of international concern, and became quite open in their search for cooperation. They invited officials of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to visit the area and to fly over the plant, and agreed, in the end, to make a complete disclosure of the details of the accident at a special meeting of IAEA in Vienna, August 25 to 29, 1986. In preparation for that meeting they distributed a lengthy (400 pages) report on the event. This paper reviews this report

  16. Thyroid carcinomas induced by Chernobyl nuclear accident

    The Chernobyl nuclear station accident is the unprecedented catastrophic accident in human nuclear industry with a large of quantity of radioactive nucleons resulting in contamination in many countries of the northern Hemisphere. After almost 20 years studying, it is approved that Belarus is the most serious affected country by the accident. Especially thyroid carcinomas in the people exposed to radioactive fall-out is considered to be the only one late radiation effect. RET gene in the happening of thyroid carcinomas is being paid close attention at present

  17. Children thyroid carcinoma and Chernobyl accident

    In Nuclear medicine diagnostic department of Kaunas Medical University Clinics 22 children (6-16 years of age), ill with thyroid carcinoma were examined. Bas ing on the data of Kaunas Medical University Clinic the incidence of children thyroid carcinoma did not increase after Chernobyl accident. Ratio of boys and girls was 4.5:1. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma was detected in 15 (68.2%)children, mixed carcinoma - 4 (18.2%), nondiferenciated -3 (13.6%) children. First stage of cancer was detected only in one patient (4.5%), second -16 (72.7%), third - 3 (13.6%), fourth stage - 2 (9.1%) patients. (author)

  18. ENC86: Under the shadow of Chernobyl?

    The combined meeting of the European Nuclear Society, the American Nuclear Society and FORATOM in Geneva from 1-6 June had the distinction of being the first major meeting of the nuclear industry after Chernobyl. It was so close that all the papers had been written before the accident. Nothing, in the sense that Chernobyl was not a western reactor, so in detail very little technical information will emerge which will affect western procedures for reactor design or safety assessment given the reviews that have occurred since Three Mile Island. We will expect to learn a great deal about the handling of emergencies, institutional and organisational arrangements, and potentially could learn a great deal of scientific and radiological interest, but these are all matters of detail, not principle, so nothing has changed. Everything, in the sense that the public perception has changed dramatically for the worse. The public has been shocked by the far-reaching effects of the accident. Whether the change is sufficient to challenge the future development of nuclear power is not yet clear, but the matter is certainly open for debate, at least in some countries. This dual view was reflected throughout the conference. The major speakers in the plenary sessions dwelt principally on the effects of Chernobyl. The speakers in the technical and numerous poster sessions did not, in general, have to make any changes to their presentations or to the detailed scientific material. There was an anti-nuclear demonstration at the conference headquarters on the Sunday evening which prevented some participants reaching the opening reception. This was organised by an umbrella anti-nuclear organisation calling itself 'Contratom'. The first social event having been substantially disrupted, it was noticeable that none of the technical sessions of the conference throughout the rest of the week were affected in the slightest. The views of the major speakers can be grouped into three areas. Firstly

  19. The Chernobyl murder. The nuclear Goulag

    The authors of this book are the Chernobyl victims of the 26 April 1986 nuclear accident: millions of poor farmers, contaminated young mothers and children which eat every days radionuclides; ''Liquidators'', sacrificed to stop the fire of the power plants; invalids and also doctors and scientists which refuse the nuclear lobby. This book presents the two Byelorussian scientists which have risk their career and their health to help the contaminated populations. This book takes stock on the today nuclear policy and becomes alarm in seeing the development of the nuclear program in many countries. (A.L.B.)

  20. Chernobyl health effects: radiation or stress?

    Consideration is given to results of wide-scale examination of human population, subjected to the effect of radiation in result of Chernobyl accident. The examined contingents consisted of liquidators, evacuated from 30-km zone, people still living in contamination territories, children of irradiated parents and children, who received large radiation doses. High levels of respiratory system diseases, digestive system diseases, cardiovascular diseases and nervous system diseases were revealed for these people. It was revealed that stress, socio-economic and chemical factors played sufficient role in disease incidence. It is shown that fair of radiation may damage more, than radiation itself

  1. Belarus and Chernobyl: The second decade

    Popular non-fiction book reflects recent views of the accident happened at Chernobyl 12 years ago. It presents some aspects of the state's huge work aimed at protecting public health and mitigating the consequences of the disaster in the Republic of Belarus. While preparing the publication the authors have used results of scientific studies conducted as per order of the Ministry for Emergencies by different bodies of the National Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Health, Academy of Agrarian Sciences, Ministry of Agriculture and Foodstuffs etc. It is intended for a broad readership

  2. Cesium-137 in grass from Chernobyl fallout

    Grass ecosystem was monitored for 137Cs, a relatively long-lived radionuclide, for about 16 years since the Chernobyl reactor accident occurred on April 26, 1986. Cesium-137 in grass gramineae or poaceae the species, ranged from 122.9 Bq kg-1 (September 4, 1986) to 5.8 mBq kg-1 (October 16, 2001) that is a range of five orders of magnitude. It was observed that there was a trend of decreasing 137Cs with time reflecting a removal half-time of 40 months (3 1/3 years), which is the ecological half-life, T ec of 137Cs in grassland

  3. Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection

    Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The

  4. Risk of thyroid cancer among Chernobyl liquidators

    Full text: While the increased risk of thyroid cancer is well demonstrated in people exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated areas around the Chernobyl power plant, following the accident which took place on 26 April 1986, the effect of exposure on adults remains unclear. A collaborative case-control study of thyroid cancer was set-up, nested within cohorts of Belarus, Russian and Baltic countries liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, to evaluate the radiation-induced risk of this disease among liquidators, and to assess the roles of screening and of radiation exposures in the observed increased thyroid cancer incidence among liquidators. The study population consisted of the cohorts of approximately 66,000 Belarus, 65,000 Russian and 15,000 Baltic countries liquidators who took part in the clean-up activities on the reactor site and in the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 1987. The liquidators were mainly exposed to external radiation, although substantial dose to the thyroid from iodine isotopes may have been received by liquidators who worked in May-June 1986 and by those who resided in the most contaminated territories of Belarus. Information was collected on study subjects by use of a standardized questionnaire that was administrated during a face-to-face interview with the study subject and/or a proxy (a relative or a colleague). The interview included questions on demographic factors, time, place and conditions of work as a liquidator and on potential risk and confounding factors for thyroid cancer. A method of analytical dose reconstruction, entitled RADRUE (Realistic Analytical Dose Reconstruction with Uncertainty Estimation) was developed within the study and applied to estimate individual doses to the thyroid from external radiation and related uncertainties for each subject. Approaches to derive individual thyroid dose estimates from inhaled and

  5. Medical aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    From 11 to 13 May 1988, the All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine convened a Conference on Medical Aspects of the Chernobyl Accident in Kiev. This was the first conference on this subject with international participation held in the Soviet Union. There were 310 specialists representing Soviet scientific establishments and over 60 experts from 23 other countries and international organizations participated in the Conference. Participants at the Conference discussed medical aspects of accident mitigation, including therapeutic, psychological, demographic, epidemiological and dosimetric problems. These proceedings include 29 reports presented by Soviet scientists during the four sessions as well as summaries of discussions and opening addresses. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Chernobyl and its consequences for Austria

    First there is a short version of 16 pages. Then a detailed account is given mainly on the activities of the Federal Environment Office and the radiation burden to the population. The chapter headings are 1) The Chernobyl reactor accident 2) The meteorological situation 3) Monitoring of the radioactive contamination in Austria 4) Aims of the radiation measurement activities 5) Initial situation in Austria and first measurements 6) Environmental control 7) Food control 8) Fodder 9) Measures taken to minimise the radiation burden - a chronology 10) Comparison with nuclear tests fallout 11) Dose estimation 12) Radioactive contamination in other European countries. (G.Q.)

  7. Lessons learnt from clean-up of urban area after Chernobyl accident

    The accident at Chernobyl NPP showed that huge territories including densely populated areas can be exposed to contamination as a result of unforeseen circumstances. The Chernobyl accident forced reconsidering of many regulations in the field of population protection and was a powerful incentive to development of many applied sciences. In 1992-1996, an international team of scientists carried out investigations on ECP-4 project 'Strategies of Decontamination'. Including of an independent sub-project 'Urban environment and countermeasures' into the project of French-German initiative on Chernobyl 'Radioecology' was the extension of work on study of urban environment contamination. The aim of the projects ware to synthesize the large body of experimental data received during elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident and in the course of special studies carried out in former USSR and later in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, and prediction on this basis of radionuclide behavior in the urban environment. In 2003 the EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) project was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Urban Remediation Working Group of the EMRAS has focused on the assessment of the effectiveness of countermeasures employed in urban settings after releases of radioactivity. This review considers results of principally Ukrainian, Russian, and Belarus researchers who worked on these projects. Over the 20-year period a number of publications have reviewed the effectiveness of countermeasures, particularly those used after the Chernobyl accident. The general principles of radiological protection are based on radiation doses, intervention levels and effective countermeasures. Decontamination of densely built-up cities constructed of various building materials with total surface area significantly exceeding the administrative city area is an extremely difficult task. In the Late-Phase Response, 'classical' radiological

  8. Identification markings for gemstones

    A method is described of providing permanent identification markings to gemstones such as diamond crystals by irradiating the cooled gemstone with protons in the desired pattern. The proton bombardment results in a reaction limited to a defined plane and converting the bombarded area of the plane into a different crystal lattice from that of the preirradiated stone. (author)

  9. Nanjing Massacre Marked

    马加芬

    2008-01-01

    Sirens(警报)wailed and a giant bell tolled on De- cember 13 as residents of the capital of Jiangsu Province, along with people in other parts of the nation, marked the 70th anniversary of one of the darkest days in China’s history: the Nanjing Massacre.

  10. 76 FR 33023 - Safety Advisory; Unauthorized Marking of Compressed Gas Cylinders

    2011-06-07

    ... Gas Cylinders AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION... undetermined number of certain (aluminum) cylinders were improperly marked and represented as DOT specification 3AL cylinders. The cylinders were neither marked nor certified by an authorized independent...

  11. Final report on the Risoe monitoring programme after the Chernobyl accident for the period Oct 1, 1986 - Sept 30, 1987

    In cooperation with the National Agency of Environmental Protection in Denmark, Risoe National Laboratory has examined the radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl accident. The programme for these investigations was an expansion of the countrywide monitoring programme operated since 1962 by Risoe National Laboratory. The present report cover the period Oct 1, 1986 to Sept. 30, 1987. All types of environmental samples relevant for radioactive contamination has been analysed. Most samples were collected countrywide and all samples were analysed for radiocaesium (134Cs and 137Cs). Many samples were furthermore anlaysed for 90Sr and in a few samples transuranic elements (29,240Pu, 241Am and 242Cm) were determined. On the basis of the diet and wholebody measurements of radiocaesium the individual mean dose equivalent commitment from Danish diet consumed in the first two years after the Chernobyl accident was calculated to 27 μ Sv. (author)

  12. The causes of the Chernobyl accident

    For the man in the street Chernobyl epitomizes the danger of nuclear energy but when we examine the causes of this accident we see that this drama is not intrinsically linked to the production of electricity from nuclear fission. The author sees 2 components in the Chernobyl event: the accident itself and its sanitary consequences. The author considers 3 main causes to the accident: -) a design that makes the reactor difficult to control, -) a series of 6 humane failures or breaking of operating rules, and -) political reasons: the largest possible budget was dedicated to plutonium production so any improvement for safety was considered as costly and secondary, moreover the religion of secrecy which was well spread in the ancient Soviet Union, prevented any scientific from knowing all the information concerning this type of reactor. As for the sanitary consequences, the author considers direct causes and underlying causes. The lack of information for the local population, the delay taken for iodine distribution or for the interdiction of farm products consumption are included in the direct causes. The slowness of Soviet bureaucracy, tight budgets and politico-scientific disputes are quoted among the underlying causes. (A.C.)

  13. Chernobyl and the 30-km zone

    The region contaminated as a consequence of the accident in unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station is subdivided into 4 different zones based on the level of contamination and the additional radiation dose to be expected by the people living there. The 30-km zone, which had been evacuated completely, is currently inhabited by some 100 ''returnees'' on Ukrainian territory, with approximately 3,500 employees of the Chernobyl nuclear power station and some 13,000 persons working there who are involved in studies of scientific problems (approx. 120 projects, most of them international), plus service, maintenance and guard staff, firefighters, forest workers and gamekeepers, etc. Most of these people live in the newly built town of Slavutich. Some concrete measures have already been taken for future use of the 30-km zone (creation of a shallow land burial site for radioactive waste and decommissioning waste at the VECTOR site, construction of an interim store for the fuel elements of the nuclear power plant), but also more extensive concepts have been developed (construction of a central fuel element store for Ukrainian nuclear power plants, shallow land burial of waste with higher contents of longlived radionuclides, perhaps construction of an underground repository), which even consider touristic ambitions. (orig.)

  14. Could the Chernobyl exclusion zone be recovered?

    Soon after the Chernobyl accident occurred an area of about 3200 km2 around the plant was evacuated and has been kept off limits since, except for people working at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and/or on some special tasks in the evacuated zone. In spite of the official ban that forbids evacuated persons to return to the exclusion zone, about 1000 people, the so-called 'samosyoly', including some children, have returned and settled back in their old homes. While the authorities are not approving of their return, they are not attempting to force these people out either. Are 'samosyoly' exposing themselves to unreasonable dangers and should they be forcefully removed from the area? Or should more areas in the exclusion zone, possibly even the city of Pripyat, be opened for voluntary (re)settlement? In this paper the present contamination levels in some parts of the exclusion zone are reviewed and problems associated with the potential repopulation (of some parts) of the exclusion zone are discussed. (author). 24 refs., 2 tabs., figs

  15. Environmental stress reactions following the Chernobyl accident

    The widespread public anxiety and pessimism about the Chernobyl accident appears to be out of all proportion to the radiation induced health effects. The concept of stress is invoked to explain the widespread damage to general health and well-being. Stress can be defined as the process by which adverse mental experiences have negative effects on bodily functions. The mechanism is physiological, mediated through the autonomic nervous system and the endocrinological system. The International Chernobyl Project study was conducted by the International Advisory Committee in 1990 and published by the IAEA in 1991. The study found significant differences between 'contaminated' and 'clean' areas for symptoms attributable to stress; 45% (30% in 'clean' areas) of the people believed that they had an illness due to radiation exposure. The level of general health was found to be low and almost all ailments were attributed by the population to radiation. These effects (confirmed by other studies) were compounded by poor public understanding of radiation; initial secrecy; subsequent lack of effective communication; and the collapse of the centralize political and economic systems. Distrust of 'authorities' is widespread. One important study using a regression method has shown that 'economic situation' and 'attitude to the future' are better predictors of stress symptoms than contamination level. 61 refs, 2 tabs

  16. Chernobyl caesium distribution in two forest soils

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident on April 26, 1986, affected a considerable part of Europe, including the Romanian territory too. As part of the environment, the forests, covering up to 30 % area of Romania, were contaminated by the radionuclides resulting from Chernobyl nuclear accident. Being a source of radionuclides for intake and habitat for some critical groups and also a secondary source of contamination (resuspension, erosion), forest radioecology is an increasing research topic. The distribution of radiocaesium with depth was analysed in the brown-reddish forest type soil of two forests. The profile with depth and the specific activity of each layer permit the assessment of: total deposition, migration rate and diffusion coefficient for Cs-137 and also Cs-134. The total deposition of Cs-137 is about 47 kBq/m2 for Magurele area and about 14 kBq/m2 for Naipu forest. The migration rate is more than 10 times greater in Naipu forest as in Magurele forest. The diffusion coefficients are similar, about 0.2 cm2/an. (author)

  17. Chernobyl: The true scale of the accident. 20 years later a UN report provides definitive answers and ways to repair lives

    Authoritative figures regarding the effect of the Chernobyl accident presented in a landmark digest report, 'Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts', just released by the Chernobyl Forum. The digest, based on a three-volume, 600-page report and incorporating the work of hundreds of scientists, economists and health experts, assesses the 20-year impact of the largest nuclear accident in history. The Forum is made up of 8 UN specialized agencies, including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA), United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and the World Bank, as well as the governments of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. The Forum's report aims to help the affected countries understand the true scale of the accident consequences and also suggest ways the governments of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia might address major economic and social problems stemming from the accident. Members of the Forum, including representatives of the three governments, will meet September 6 and 7 in Vienna at an unprecedented gathering of the world's experts on Chernobyl, radiation effects and protection, to consider these findings and recommendations

  18. Radioactive iodine-131 over Taiwan after the Chernobyl accident

    Two weeks after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, a substantial increase in radioactivity above normal background levels was observed in various samples taken in Taiwan, which is 7600 km from Chernobyl. The 131I concentrations in grass, rainwater, and milk were monitored continuously in succeeding weeks and correlations with weather conditions are discussed. Levels of radiation fallout over Taiwan due to the Chernobyl accident are much lower than the response levels recommended by local authorities and pose no danger to the public. (author)

  19. From Chernobyl to Fukushima: the effect of low doses

    This Power Point presentation describes the Fukushima's reactors, recalls some data about the earthquake and tsunami, and indicates their consequences for the operation of the power station (notably the loss of cooling means). It identifies some design errors for the Chernobyl's and Fukushima's power stations, outlines differences between these two cases. It gives assessment of doses receives by external irradiation around Fukushima, of the dose rate evolution, of the sea contamination. It gives some data about the Chernobyl accident (radioactivity evolution). After some data about health consequences of Chernobyl, health risks and more particularly biological risks associated to low doses are described. Protection measures are evoked, as well as psycho-social impacts

  20. A hygienic appraisal of the effect of hard metals on the ecological situation in the zone of active influence of the Chernobyl accident

    Data are presented on the distribution of a soil pollution by lead in Ukraine. They allow one to ear-mark territories located along the 'western trace' of the Chernobyl outburst as the most polluted ones in comparison with background and pre-accident lead levels as well as with other territories of Ukraine. We mark the principle difference in size and composition of element associations in ground before and after the accident. The content of elements reaches ten background levels, their distribution over area cannot be described by the normal or lognormal law, i.e., it is nonequilibrium. Available element associations are not natural (Pb-Ba, Nb-Zr, etc.) and probably reflect the spectrum of elements which were dispersed during the Chernobyl accident and/or through the liquidation period and caused the pollution of territories

  1. Chernobyl: disinformation. 2000 dead in Chernobyl: they were made by journalists

    After having briefly recalled the scenario which resulted in the Chernobyl accident, the differences between the Chernobyl reactor and the French graphite-based reactors, and that some modifications have been introduced in the alarm system of the Bugey reactor, the author reviews the chronology of events and information after the accident. He recalls the Soviet way to deal with the information, states that the authorities did not immediately understand the severity of the accident. He notably outlines and comments a statement reporting that 2.000 people died just after the accident. Thus, it appears that both sides could be criticized, the Russian side for its slow reaction, and the Western side for disinformation. He also denounces a fake documentary report made by a French journalist (images pretended to have been taken in Chernobyl had been in fact shot in an Italian factory). He also evokes the reactions of people in front of this kind information about risks of exposure. He analyses the content of an article written by a French journalist who denounced some kinds of plots elaborated by oil companies, by the USSR, by anti-nuclear activists

  2. Chernobyl liquidators. The people and the doses

    Belyakov, Oleg V. [Gray Laboratory Cancer Research Trust, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood (United Kingdom); Steinhaeusler, Friedrich [University of Salzburg, Institute of Physic and Biophysics, Salzburg (Austria); Trott, Klaus-Ruediger [Univ. of London, Queen Mary and Westfield College, St. Bartholomew' s and the Royal London Hospital School of Medicine and Dentistry, London (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the data available from the scientific literature concerning clean-up workers, or so-called liquidators, of the Chernobyl accident. There are several different definitions of liquidators: Legal definitions of 'liquidators'. Their importance rests on the fact that some state Chernobyl registers are based on these definitions. Definitions from various scientific reports. Definitions for the purpose, which have been published in scientific papers and books. The simplified definition of liquidators would be people who were directly involved in clean-up operations in the exclusion zone in 1986-1991. Estimations of the number of liquidators vary from 100 000 to 800 000 people. Four major cohorts of liquidators are now split among Russia (168,000 people), Belarus (63,500 people), Ukraine (123,536 people) and the Baltic States (about 15,000 people from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania). The definition of liquidator and the formation of cohort are the most critical factor in liquidator-related studies and not enough attention is paid to this matter by researchers. The term 'liquidator' describes a very heterogeneous group of people. Liquidators may be grouped according to work performed in the exclusion zone or affiliation to various organisations. The majority of liquidators in 1986-1987 were conscripts and reservists of the Soviet Union Army. According to data from Russian National Medical and Dosimetric Registry, 76% of liquidators were 25-39 years old at the moment of arrival to the Chernobyl area. Only about 1% of liquidators was women. From the results of biodosimetry we know that the average accumulated dose estimation for the liquidator group is about 0.2 Gy. The official documented average dose from the Russian National Medical Dosimetric Registry is 0.13 Gy. However, the liquidator group contains some overexposed subgroups with a higher accumulated dose. Individual dosimetry is only available for small

  3. Chernobyl liquidators. The people and the doses

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the data available from the scientific literature concerning clean-up workers, or so-called liquidators, of the Chernobyl accident. There are several different definitions of liquidators: Legal definitions of 'liquidators'. Their importance rests on the fact that some state Chernobyl registers are based on these definitions. Definitions from various scientific reports. Definitions for the purpose, which have been published in scientific papers and books. The simplified definition of liquidators would be people who were directly involved in clean-up operations in the exclusion zone in 1986-1991. Estimations of the number of liquidators vary from 100 000 to 800 000 people. Four major cohorts of liquidators are now split among Russia (168,000 people), Belarus (63,500 people), Ukraine (123,536 people) and the Baltic States (about 15,000 people from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania). The definition of liquidator and the formation of cohort are the most critical factor in liquidator-related studies and not enough attention is paid to this matter by researchers. The term 'liquidator' describes a very heterogeneous group of people. Liquidators may be grouped according to work performed in the exclusion zone or affiliation to various organisations. The majority of liquidators in 1986-1987 were conscripts and reservists of the Soviet Union Army. According to data from Russian National Medical and Dosimetric Registry, 76% of liquidators were 25-39 years old at the moment of arrival to the Chernobyl area. Only about 1% of liquidators was women. From the results of biodosimetry we know that the average accumulated dose estimation for the liquidator group is about 0.2 Gy. The official documented average dose from the Russian National Medical Dosimetric Registry is 0.13 Gy. However, the liquidator group contains some overexposed subgroups with a higher accumulated dose. Individual dosimetry is only available for small subgroups of liquidators

  4. Chernobyl: four years later: attitudes, risk management and communication

    Pligt, van der, J.; Midden, C.H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the impact that the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl has had on risk management and risk communication in relation to risk perception; decisions and coping with uncertainty; and public opinion, personal attitudes, and public policy.

  5. A perspective view of industrial disasters: (was Chernobyl the worst?)

    The paper surveys past industrial disasters and answers the question: ''was Chernobyl the worst?''. The disasters with which Chernobyl is compared are: Oppau, Germany (1921), Cleveland, U.S.A. (1944), Lugwigshafen (1948), Aberfan, U.K. (1966), Seveso, Italy (1976), Three Mile Island, U.S.A., (1979), Mississauga, Canada (1979), Mexico City, Mexico (1984), Bhopal, India (1984) and Basle, Switzerland (1986). Immediate fatalities as a measure of disaster, delayed fatalities, physical injuries as a measure, individual and societal shock, long term public anxiety, disruption of way of life, environmental damage, and property damage and other financial loss, are all discussed. The survey shows that if dominant criteria are those of death and injury then Chernobyl was not the worst. However, if environmental damage, financial loss, creation of public anxiety and disruption of way of life were dominant criteria, then Chernobyl could be rated the worst. (UK)

  6. Chernobyl: Endless horror. Late effects of the reactor catastrophe

    Ten years after the accident, the people of Chernobyl are trying to live a normal life, but the problems resulting from the catastrophe have not been solved. Some of them are just starting to emerge. (orig.)

  7. About Chernobyl - Twenty Years Later; Propos sur Tchernobyl

    Tubiana, M

    2006-07-01

    The author discusses the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the information on its consequences so contradictory in the former USSR countries, the status of the effects observed, the forecasting concerning the onset of cancers in the coming years among the populations that were exposed to radiations, the public opinion facing the pessimists. He concludes on the lessons which can be drawn from Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

  8. Health consequences of Chernobyl. 25 years after the reactor catastrophy

    The report is an evaluation of studies indicating health effects as a consequence of the reactor catastrophe in Chernobyl. The most exposed population include the cleaning personnel (liquidators), the population evacuated from the 30 km zone, the populations in highly contaminated regions in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, the European population in lass contaminated regions. The following issues are discussed: the liquidators, infant mortality, genetic and teratogenic damages, thyroid carcinoma and other thyroid diseases, carcinogenic diseases and leukemia, other diseases following the Chernobyl catastrophe.

  9. The Impact of Chernobyl on Health and Labour Market Performance

    Hartmut Lehmann; Jonathan Wadsworth

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from Ukraine we examine the extent of any long-lasting effects of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl disaster on the health and labour market performance of the adult workforce. The variation in the local area level of radiation fallout from the Chernobyl accident is considered as a random exogenous shock with which to try to establish its causal impact on poor health, labour force participation, hours worked and wages. There appears to be a significant positive ass...

  10. Chernobyl as viewed from the 90's [videorecording

    It is admitted in this film that after the Chernobyl accident there was a lot of unnecessary secrecy which created a great deal of confusion among the public. The film shows the investigations within the reactor and the efforts undertaken to put the remnants of the reactor into a safe state, including the construction of the sarcophagus which was built around it. The film also presents the radiological environmental monitoring, as well as the health aspects of Chernobyl

  11. Chernobyl and the safety of nuclear reactors in OECD countries

    This report assesses the possible bearing of the Chernobyl accident on the safety of nuclear reactors in OECD countries. It discusses analyses of the accident performed in several countries as well as improvements to the safety of RBMK reactors announced by the USSR. Several remaining questions are identified. The report compares RBMK safety features with those of commercial reactors in OECD countries and evaluates a number of issues raised by the Chernobyl accident

  12. Mental health of liquidators of the Chernobyl disaster

    The aim of our study was to characterize the clinical and psychological aspects of the Chernobyl disaster-related mental disorders. We evaluated both clinically and psychologically four hundred and fifty patients who were exposed to low doses of radiation resulting from the Chernobyl disaster. They did not suffer from radiation sickness. The investigations started four years after the catastrophe took place in 1990 and continue to the present day. (orig.)

  13. After the Chernobyl reactor accident: Just got away?

    The feeling of depression and insecurity experienced immediately after the Chernobyl reactor accident has gone by, and people go out for a walk again, and drink their milk. Are we happily aware we got away with it this time, or is it rather a feeling of resignation that makes us return to normal life? The Chernobyl disaster will only after some time be really assessed in its novel, global dimension. (orig.)

  14. The consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    After the decay of the iodine isotopes the measuring campaigns, in addition to the measuring of soil pollution and pollution of products, concentrated on the way of the cesium isotopes through the food chain, especially in crops, milk, meat and mother's milk. A special programme was developed for the analysis of foreign basic substances for teas, essences and tinctures. In connection with the incorporation measurements in the university hospital Eppendorf the measurement campaigns provided the data material in order to calculate with the aid of the computer program ECOSYS of the GSF the effective dose equivalent which the inhabitants of Hamburg additionally take up due to the accident of Chernobyl. Consequences with regard to measuring methods and social consequences are mentioned. (DG)

  15. Impact on London of the Chernobyl accident

    The radiation levels in London following the Chernobyl accident have been measured and are reported. The sampling programme of atmospheric dusts, water and milk is detailed. A few other items, eg food and ships arriving at Tilbury and Sheerness were also tested. The counting techniques are given. The results show that at its peak the additional activity contributed by the inhalation of the debris probably increased the radiation dose to an individual in London by about 40% of the natural dose for that period. The increased activity in milk gave rise to an additional dose and may continue to do so. However, the radioactive debris from the fallout was much less in London than other parts of the UK. (U.K.)

  16. Health protection measures after the Chernobyl accident

    The article describes the nutritional measures introduced to protect health after the Chernobyl accident, and the associated costs. The toal value of the reindeer meat, mutton, lamb and goat meat saved as a result of such measures in 1987 amounted to approx. NOK 250 million. The measures cost approx. NOK 60 million. The resulting reduction in the radiation dose level to which the population was exposed was 450 manSv. In 1988, mutton/lamb and goat meat valued at approx. NOK 310 million was saved from contamination by similar measures, which cost approx. NOK 50 million. The resulting dose level reduction was approx. 200 manSv. The relationship (cost/benefit ratio) between the overall cost of the measures taken to reduce radioactivity levels in food and the dose level reduction achieved was acceptable. 11 refs

  17. Spa treatment of Chernobyl liquidators in Israel

    This paper presents the first experience gained in the use of the unique climate and spa of the Dead Sea for the treatment and rehabilitation of the Chernobyl liquidators at clinic near the city of Arad. Ninety-six patients were treated in Israel, in 40 of these radiation was the etiological factor of the disease: consequences of acute and chronic radiation disease, the astheno-neurotic syndrome, discirculatory encephalopathy, subatrophic laryngopharyngitis, and obstructive bronchitis. Eighty-eight patients had direct indications for treatment at the Dad Sea; locomotory, respiratory, and skin diseases. The course of treatment included the Dad Sea baths, mud applications, sun baths, climatotherapy, physiotherapy, massage, bioenergy therapy, inhalations, moisturizing creams, etc. An appreciable improvement with resolution of the principal symptoms was attained in 82% of patients, in 13% improvement with a significant abatement of the symptoms was achieved, whereas in 5% no apparent results were seen

  18. Global impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    Radioactive material was deposited throughout the Northern Hemisphere as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station on 26 April 1986. On the basis of a large amount of environmental data and new integrated dose assessment and risk models, the collective dose commitment to the approximately 3 billion inhabitants is calculated to be 930,000 person-gray, with 97% in the western Soviet Union and Europe. The best estimates for the lifetime expectation of fatal radiogenic cancer would increase the risk from 0 to 0.02% in Europe and 0 to 0.003% in the Northern Hemisphere. By means of an integration of the environmental data, it is estimated that approximately 100 petabecquerels of cesium-137 (1 PBq = 10(15) Bq) were released during and subsequent to the accident

  19. Medical demographic consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    A demographic study was made of the population evacuated from the 30-km zone around the nuclear power plant and of the population living in areas over which the radioactive cloud passed and over which the plume was formed. For the farmers evacuated from 11,655 homes in the Chernobyl region, 7,000 new houses, built in the Kiev region, had already been provided within 5 months of the accident, and by the summer of 1987 another 5,000 houses were available. A study of the resettlement of the population carried out a year after the accident showed that more than 60% of those evacuated continued to live in the regions from which the evacuation had taken place; about 5% were resettled in other republics, and 20% within their own republic. (author). 7 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Chernobyl: Symptom of a worrying psychological epidemic

    The Chernobyl psychological epidemic was already latent well prior to 1986 fully broke out after the accident, and continues to spread. It must be halted. But how can we counter a belief which has taken on the appearance of reality. It is the unknown, linked to alarming symbols, which sustains fear. To get beyond this state, radioactivity, ionizing radiation and nuclear energy have to become as ordinary as air travel and electronic calculators. In a climate of confidence and openness, it should be possible to successfully communicate several solid scientific reference points by first targeting teachers, doctors, and journalists. Thirty years ago, nuclear energy was presented as a universal panacea (clean, safe, and renewable). Now things have swung to the other extreme, and it is presented as diabolical. We have shifted from a symbolically white level to a symbolically black level, and both are misleading. It is high time to rejoin the world of facts, a world full of shades of gray

  1. Public relations and the Chernobyl accident

    In 1991-1993, a large-scale measuring programme was carried out in Germany to assess the radiation burden of the population in regions polluted due to the Chernobyl accident. The primary goal was to objectively inform the population about their actual radiation exposure, to reduce unjustified fears, and to enable countermeasures to be taken where appropriate. A comprehensive overview of the radiation situation was thus also obtained in the regions examined. Channels were sought and found in order to communicate with the more than 250 000 individuals involved in the programme as well as with scientific institutions and the public. Direct communication of the results to the persons examined by means of a certificate including a short explanation proved to be essential to create an atmosphere of trust. (P.A.)

  2. Radiocaesium from Chernobyl in Swedish moose

    The 137Cs activity concentrations of muscle samples taken from moose collected from the central part of Sweden were determined. Pre-Chernobyl samples had a mean 137Cs activity concentration of 23 Bq kg−1. Samples collected during the hunting season (mainly October) had, on average, 760 Bq kg−1 in 1986 and 664 Bq kg−1 in 1987. No significant differences between various muscles (neck, thigh and leg) could be seen. The correlation between ground deposition of 137Cs and activity concentration in moose muscle was significant. There seems, however, to be other important parameters. One is the percentage of farmland within the home range of the moose—less farmland gives higher 137Cs activity concentrations

  3. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    The reactor accident at unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine has deeply affected the living conditions of millions of people. Especially the health consequences have been of public concern up to the present and also been the subject of sometimes absurd claims. The current knowledge on the radiological consequences of the accident is reviewed. Though an increased hazard for some risk groups with high radiation exposure, e.g., liquidators, still cannot be totally excluded for the future, the majority of the population shows no statistically significant indication of radiation-induced illnesses. The contribution of the Research Center Juelich to the assessment of the post-accidental situation and psychological relief of the population is reported. The population groups still requiring special attention include, in particular, children growing up in highly contaminated regions and the liquidators of the years 1986 and 1987 deployed immediately after the accident. (author)

  4. Chernobyl and consequences for the Soviet agriculture

    The region within a radius of 30 km around the Chernobyl reactor was declared a safety zone, from where people and livestock were evacuated. In this zone agricultural activities were stopped temporarily. The losses to Soviet agriculture are surprinsingly low, the reason being that in the Soviet Union radioactivity hazards are rated differently than in western countries. The Soviet radiation protection standards for man are accordingly. They allow a total body burden of 500 mrem a year, and a thyroid burden for children of 30 mrem. It is obvious that the authorities keep the quantitative losses for agriculture down. Of greater consequence could be the qualitative losses in so far as the soil of a large area will be contaminated on a long-term basis, radioactive contaminated crops have been and will continue to be harvested and fed, and contaminated food is and will be eaten. (orig./HSCH)

  5. Observations on radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident

    A preliminary study of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident for the Department of the Environment was started in June 1986 which involved taking on an opportunistic basis, samples of air, rain, grass and soil in the UK. This study was integrated into a programme of other investigations funded by the Departments of Health and Social Security and of Energy including measurements on people, in air, deposition and soil overseas, on deposition to buildings and the derivation where possible of parameters of interest in accident assessment. This report is a comprehensive account of all these initial investigations and presented in fulfilment of the Preliminary Study under DoE contract PECD 7/9/359. (author)

  6. Ceremony marking Einstein Year

    2005-01-01

    Sunday 13th November at 10:00amat Geneva's St. Peter's Cathedral To mark Einstein Year and the importance of the intercultural dialogue of which it forms a part, a religious service will take place on Sunday 13 November at 10 a.m. in St. Peter's Cathedral, to which CERN members and colleagues are warmly welcomed. Pastor Henry Babel, senior minister at the Cathedral, will speak on the theme: 'God in Einstein's Universe'. Diether Blechschmidt will convey a message on behalf of the scientific community.

  7. Proceedings of the international symposium on post-Chernobyl environmental radioactivity studies in East European countries

    The Chernobyl accident on 26th April 1986 reminded the world that the threat coming from nuclear power-plants is not fictitious. The societies of the neighbouring countries suffered a real shock caused not only by the accident itself, but also by the fact that information was restricted and hardly available. Even now, our knowledge about the scale and consequences of the accident is limited. After the accident many international organizations and institutions dealing with environment protection and others started to investigate different aspects of this case. As a result of this interest, many symposia and conferences have been organized. The aim has been not only to estimate the consequences of this single case, to investigate the level of environment protection or to elaborate the new, better methods of environment monitoring. Also moral, legal and psychological aspects of the situation are being investigated. The territory of Poland, lying close to the accident place, suffered its direct influence. Thus, not only government and scientific institutions deal with the subject, but there is also a growing interest of the society, which demands more and more reliable information about the Chernobyl accident effects. Many Central- and East-European countries are in similar situation. Following general interest of Chernobyl accident effects, the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin (Poland) and the Jozef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana (Yugoslavia) organized on 17-19th September 1990 in Kazimierz on the Vistula (Poland) a joint international conference having the character of workshop. The conference was organized on the basis of already existing scientific collaboration of these institutions with the co-operation of the European Community (Brussels, Belgium) and International Atomic Energy Agency (Vienna, Austria)

  8. Fuel particles still dominate the Chernobyl scene

    The uniqueness of the Chernobyl accident in 1986 from an environmental perspective lay in the fact that so much radioactive material was discharged to atmosphere in the form of solid particles of fuel ('hot particles'). Intact fuel particles can still be found on land in Belarus and Ukraine even ten years after the accident. On undisturbed land, there has been little downward migration and most of the particles and radionuclides leached from them are still within about 5 cm of the soil surface. For a given level of deposition, the soil-to-plant transfer on particle-contaminated land has apparently been less than where the radionuclides came from weapons fallout or were applied in aqueous solutions in controlled experiments. Soon after the accident, it was shown that radioisotopes of cesium and strontium would be leached at similar rates. However, the strontium would become increasingly available for root-uptake, but, on most soils, the cesium would be rapidly 'fixed' and its availability for root-uptake by plants would be limited. This indeed has proved to be the case. 137Cs levels in grass and arable crops have remained roughly constant since about 1990, but 90Sr levels have shown a consistent yearly increase. The presence of fuel particles on land inside a 30 km restriction zone around Chernobyl site will be a major consideration in any planning of land reclamation. Even beyond the 30 km zone, the presence of fuel particles is an important factor to consider in radioecological research, environmental monitoring, and remediation. (author) 2 tabs., 25 refs

  9. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  10. Editorial: Thyroid cancer and the Chernobyl accident

    The accident at the Chernobyl power station nearly 10 years ago was unprecedented in the exposure of a very large population to high levels of fallout including high levels of isotopes of iodine, predominantly 131I. An increase in incidence of childhood thyroid cancer was first observed in 1990 in Belarus and in the Ukraine, and the first reports in the Western literature were published in 1992. At a symposium in Nagasaki in June 1994, the numbers of cases that had occurred between 1990 and 1993 in Belarus, a country with a population of just over 10 million, was reported to be 233, and in the heavily contaminated northern parts of the Ukraine, with a population of about 7 million, 36 cases occurred in the same period. To put these figures into perspective, the number of childhood thyroid cancers registered in England and Wales over a 30-year period was 154, an average of 5 cases per yr in a population of 50 million people, with about 10 million children under 15 yr of age. The initial reports of such a great increase in childhood thyroid cancers in the areas exposed to fallout from Chernobyl were at first greeted in the West with some skepticism. The latent period between exposure and development of thyroid cancer was surprisingly short, based on experience with thyroid carcinomas developing after external radiation to the neck. The reliability of the figures based on the pathological diagnosis was questioned because the cases had not been confirmed by Western pathologists, and because the known high frequency of papillary microcarcinoms in adults raised the possibility that the reported incidence was resulted form increased ascertainment and not a true increase in incidence. 14 refs

  11. The reconstruction of thyroid dose following Chernobyl

    The report presents the overview of several approaches in working out the methods of thyroid internal dose reconstruction following Chernobyl. One of these approaches was developed (IBPh, Moscow; MRRC, Obninsk; IRM, Minsk) using the correlations between the mean dose calculation based on I131 thyroid content measurements and Cs137 contamination of territories. The available data on I131 soil contamination were taken into account. The lack of data on I131 soil contamination was supposed to be compensated by I129 measurements in soil samples from contaminated territories. The semiempiric model was developed for dose reconstruction. The comparison of the results obtained by semiempiric model and empirical values are presented. The estimated values of average dose according semiempiric model were used for individual dose reconstruction. The IRH (St.-Petersburg) has developed the following method for individual dose reconstruction: correlation between the total I131 radioiodine incorporation in thyroid and whole body Cs137 content during first months after accident. The individual dose reconstruction is also mentioned to be performed using the data on individual milk consumption during first weeks after accident. For evaluation of average doses it is suggested to use the linear correlation: thyroid dose values based on radioiodine thyroid measurements vs Cs137 contamination, air kerma rate, mean I131 concentration in the milk. The method for retrospective reconstruction of thyroid dose caused by short-living iodine nuclides released after the Chernobyl accident has been developed by Research Centre, Juelich, Germany. It is based on the constant ratio that these nuclides have with the long-living I129. The contamination of soil samples by this nuclide can be used to assess thyroid doses. First results of I129 contamination values and derived thyroid doses are to be presented

  12. The Chernobyl accident ten years later

    On April 26, 1986 at 1:23 AM a fire and explosion occurred at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Complex, located in the Ukraine, that resulted in the destruction of the reactor core and most of the building in which it was housed. Several environmental impacts resulting from the accident will be discussed in this paper, which will include the effects on plant and wild life, radioactive waste generated and stored or disposed of, effects of evacuations relating to residents within the subsequently established 10km and 30km control zones, impacts of the emergency containment structure (sarcophagus), and potential effects on world opinion and future development of nuclear power. As an immediate result of the fire, 31 people died (2 from the fire ampersand smoke, and 29 from excessive radiation); 237 cases of acute radiation sickness occurred; the total fatalities based upon induced chronic diseases as a result of the accident is unknown: more than 100,000 people were evacuated from within the subsequently established 30 km control zone; in excess of 50 million curies of radionuclides that included finely dispersed nuclear fuel, fragments of graphite, concrete and other building materials were released from the reactor into the environment; an estimated one million cubic meters of radioactive waste were generated (LLW, ILW, HLW); more than 5000 tons of materials (sand, boron, dolomite, cement, and lead) were used to put the fire out by helicopter; shutdown of the adjacent power plants were performed; and other environmental impacts occurred. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit No 4 is an RBMK-1000. It initiated operations in 1983, it was a 1000 MWe with a power output of 3200 MW(th), the reactor core contained 190 MT of fuel, with 1659 assemblies (plus 211 control rods), the average burnup rate was 10.3 MWd/kg, and the reactor operated on a continuous basis with maintenance and fuel reload performed during operations

  13. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-03-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  14. Chernobyl caesium distribution in two forest soils

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident on April 26, 1986 affected a considerable part of Europe, including the Romanian territory too. The soil acts as an integrator and the main part of the received radionuclides remains here. However, due to diffusion, leaching and runoff, activity of living organisms in soil, human activity and different other factors, the deposited radionuclides on the soil surface can be removed from the original deposition areas. Mainly, the transport of Cs-137 from soil to other environmental factors is intensively studied having in view the natural resource exploitation in radioactive contaminated areas, this radionuclide being one of the most important radioisotopes released by earlier nuclear weapon tests and nuclear accidents. Generally, migration rates of radionuclides in soil are evaluated by column and percolation experiments, in controlled conditions and using well-defined concentrations of the radionuclide. As part of the environment, the forests have been contaminated up to a depth of 30 cm by the radionuclides resulting from Chernobyl nuclear accident. As the forest is a source of radionuclides for intake and habitat for some critical groups and also a secondary source of contamination (resuspension, erosion), its radioecology became an increasing research topic. The depth distribution of radiocaesium was analysed in the brown-reddish forest type soil of two forests. The depth profile and the specific activity of each layer permit the assessment of total deposition, migration rate and diffusion coefficient for Cs-137 and Cs-134. The total deposition of Cs-137 is about 47 kBq/m2 for Magurele area and about 14 kBq/m2 for Naipu forest. The migration rate is more than 10 times higher in Naipu forest as compared to Magurele forest. The diffusion coefficients are similar, namely about 0.2 cm2/year. (authors)

  15. Incidence of thyroid cancer among children of the Ukraine in 1996 as compared to previous post-Chernobyl years

    In 1996 a high incidence rate of thyroid cancer has persisted in Ukraine among children aged under 15 years, which averaged, according to preliminary data, 0.44 case per 100 thousand children's population. The geographical distribution of thyroid cancer cases in children of Ukraine is mainly related, as in previous years, with the most affected regions following the Chernobyl accident. The highest incidence of thyroid cancer (over 80%) was observed in those patients who were aged under 5 years at the moment of the accident, being the most radiosensitive age group. Among thyroid tumors removed in 1996, as in previous years, papillary carcinomas prevail, which are characterized by marked invasive properties. (author)

  16. Radioecological transfer of 137Cs from ground deposition to man from Chernobyl debris and from nuclear weapons fallout in different Swedish populations

    A comparison of the estimated committed effective dose per unit activity deposition on ground was made between different critical groups in Sweden. The time-integrated aggregate transfer of 137Cs for the global fallout was 2-3 times higher than from Chernobyl debris for Swedish urban populations. For reindeer herders this difference is even more marked, with a factor of three to four higher time-integrated transfer factor of nuclear weapons fallout. Considering the transfer of Chernobyl 137Cs debris the time-integrated transfer factor appears to be more than 25 times higher for reindeer herders in Sweden than for the urban reference groups. An even more pronounced relative difference between the time integrated aggregate transfer was observed between reindeer herders and urban reference populations for the pre-Chernobyl fallout (a factor of 30). The projected committed effective dose from internal contamination of Chernobyl 137Cs per unit activity deposition is observed to be 2030 μSv/kBq m-2. The highest values in Sweden are obtained for reindeer herders with an estimated radioecological transfer of 0.5 mSv/kBq m-2. (au)

  17. Radioecological transfer of {sup 137}Cs from ground deposition to man from Chernobyl debris and from nuclear weapons fallout in different Swedish populations

    Raeaef, C.L. [Malmoe Univ. Hospital, Lund Univ., Dept. of Radiation Physics, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    A comparison of the estimated committed effective dose per unit activity deposition on ground was made between different critical groups in Sweden. The time-integrated aggregate transfer of {sup 137}Cs for the global fallout was 2-3 times higher than from Chernobyl debris for Swedish urban populations. For reindeer herders this difference is even more marked, with a factor of three to four higher time-integrated transfer factor of nuclear weapons fallout. Considering the transfer of Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs debris the time-integrated transfer factor appears to be more than 25 times higher for reindeer herders in Sweden than for the urban reference groups. An even more pronounced relative difference between the time integrated aggregate transfer was observed between reindeer herders and urban reference populations for the pre-Chernobyl fallout (a factor of 30). The projected committed effective dose from internal contamination of Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs per unit activity deposition is observed to be 2030 {mu}Sv/kBq m{sup -2}. The highest values in Sweden are obtained for reindeer herders with an estimated radioecological transfer of 0.5 mSv/kBq m{sup -2}. (au)

  18. Advertising Agencies

    Moeran, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Advertising agencies are the most significant organizations in the development of advertising and marketing worldwide. An advertising agency is an independent service company, composed of business, marketing and creative people, who develop, prepare, and place advertising in advertising media...... for their clients, the advertisers, who are in search of customers for their goods and services. Agencies thus mediate between three different but interlocking social groups: industry, media, and consumers. The history of advertising is largely the history of the advertising agencies that have served the needs....... This article is concerned with the origins, early developments, organization, compensation arrangements, and accounts of contemporary full-service advertising agencies....

  19. Chernobyl, 13 years after; Tchernobyl, 13 ans apres

    Regniault-Lacharme, Mireille; Metivier, Henri [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1999-04-01

    This is an annual report, regularly issued by IPSN, that presents the ecological and health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. The present status of the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant, which Ukraine engaged to stop definitively in year 2000, is summarized. The only reactor unit now in operation is Chernobylsk-3 Reactor which poses two safety questions: evolution of cracks in part of the tubing and behaviour of the pressure tubes. Although, some improvements in the RBMK reactor types were introduced, problems remain that make IPSN to stress the requirement of stopping this NPP completely. In the contaminated territories surrounding Chernobyl incidence rate of infant thyroid cancers continues to grow, reaching values 10 to 100 times higher than the natural rate. In France the IPSN analyzed 60,000 records carried out in 17 sites during May 1986 and April 1989. It was estimated that the individual dose received during 60 years (1986-2046) by the inhabitants of the most affected zone (eastern France) is lower than 1.5 mSv, a value lower than 1% of the natural cosmic and telluric radioactivity exposure for the same period. For the persons assumed to live in the most attacked forests (from eastern France) and nourishing daily with venison and mushrooms the highest estimate is 1 mSv a year. Concerning the 'hot spots', identified in mountains by IPSN and CRIIRAD, the doses received by excursionists are around 0.015 mSv. For an average inhabitant of the country the dose piled up in the thyroid due to iodine-131 fallout is estimated to 0.5-2 mSv for an adult and 6.5-16 mSv for an infant. These doses are 100 to 1000 times lower than the ones to which the infants living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl are exposed to. The contents of the report is displayed in the following six chapters: 1. Chernobyl in some figures; 2. The 'sarcophagus' and the reactors of the Chernobyl NPP; 3. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident;. 4. The impact of

  20. Mark-Recapture with Multiple Non-invasive Marks

    Bonner, Simon J.; Holmberg, Jason A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-invasive marks, including pigmentation patterns, acquired scars,and genetic mark- ers, are often used to identify individuals in mark-recapture experiments. If animals in a population can be identified from multiple, non-invasive marks then some individuals may be counted twice in the observed data. Analyzing the observed histories without accounting for these errors will provide incorrect inference about the population dynamics. Previous approaches to this problem include modeling data f...

  1. Vanadin i mark

    Larsson, Maja A; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2015-01-01

    Svensk järnmalm innehåller förhållandevis höga halter av metallen vanadin vilket medför att t.ex. masugnsslagg från stålindustrin också har förhöjda halter. Vanadin förekommer naturligt i jordar, men vid höga koncentrationer kan den orsaka toxicitet. Kunskapen om vanadins kemi och toxicitet i mark har dock varit bristfällig, vilket gör miljöriskbedömningar osäkra. I det här projektet var syftet att öka kunskapen om vanadins kemi och toxicitet. Detta gjordes dels genom att studera vanadins bin...

  2. Hymenoptera marking technique

    A. M. Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In true social hymenopterans, such as many species of bees, wasps and all species of ants, the main characteristics are the overlapping of generations, the care with the offspring and the division of labor among the members of the colony. The first biological feature means that in a same moment there are groups of individuals, with variable ages, that execute different activities in the colony. In order to study the division of labor among the members of the colony, or to estimate the life span of these insects, or even to analyze any kind of behavior in non-social insects, it is necessary to know the exact age of each individual. For this reason, the insects must be identified soon after emergence. The identification of insects with numbers is an important technological improvement in behavioral studies, mainly in honeybee colonies. The aim of this scientific note is to describe an easy and cheaper technique for marking hymenopterans.

  3. Statistical methods for the forensic analysis of striated tool marks

    Hoeksema, Amy Beth [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In forensics, fingerprints can be used to uniquely identify suspects in a crime. Similarly, a tool mark left at a crime scene can be used to identify the tool that was used. However, the current practice of identifying matching tool marks involves visual inspection of marks by forensic experts which can be a very subjective process. As a result, declared matches are often successfully challenged in court, so law enforcement agencies are particularly interested in encouraging research in more objective approaches. Our analysis is based on comparisons of profilometry data, essentially depth contours of a tool mark surface taken along a linear path. In current practice, for stronger support of a match or non-match, multiple marks are made in the lab under the same conditions by the suspect tool. We propose the use of a likelihood ratio test to analyze the difference between a sample of comparisons of lab tool marks to a field tool mark, against a sample of comparisons of two lab tool marks. Chumbley et al. (2010) point out that the angle of incidence between the tool and the marked surface can have a substantial impact on the tool mark and on the effectiveness of both manual and algorithmic matching procedures. To better address this problem, we describe how the analysis can be enhanced to model the effect of tool angle and allow for angle estimation for a tool mark left at a crime scene. With sufficient development, such methods may lead to more defensible forensic analyses.

  4. One decade after Chernobyl - The review of the results of an International Conference

    On 26 April 1986 the most serious accident in the history of the nuclear industry occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the former Soviet Union, near the current borders of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. The consequences attributed to this accident have been subjected to extensive scientific examination. Ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) jointly sponsored an International Conference to recapitulate the accident's consequences and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The Conference 'One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the accident', took place in the Austria Center Vienna, Austria, from 8 to 12 April 1996. This paper is a review of the Conference based on updating reports and keynote presented, background papers presented by expert panels and discussions of these by the Conference. The clinical observed effects, thyroid effects, long term health effects and psychological consequences are particularly addressed. (author)

  5. The Chernobyl accident 20 years on: an assessment of the health consequences and the international response.

    Baverstock, Keith; Williams, Dillwyn

    2007-01-01

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident the WHO and the International Atomic Energy Authority issued a reassuring statement about the consequences. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, assess the international response to the accident, and consider how to improve responses to future accidents. So far, radiation to the thyroid from radioisotopes of iodine has caused several thousand cases of thyroid cancer but very few deaths; exposed children were most susceptible. The focus on thyroid cancer has diverted attention from possible nonthyroid effects. The international response to the accident was inadequate and uncoordinated, and has been unjustifiably reassuring. Accurate assessment in future health effects is not currently possible in the light of dose uncertainties, current debates over radiation actions, and the lessons from the late consequences of atomic bomb exposure. Because of the uncertainties from and the consequences of the accident, it is essential that investigations of its effects should be broadened and supported for the long term. The United Nations should initiate an independent review of the actions and assignments of the agencies concerned, with recommendations for dealing with future international-scale accidents. These should involve independent scientists and ensure cooperation rather than rivalry. PMID:17680126

  6. One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident. Poster presentations

    The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. To facilitate the discussions of the Conference, background papers were prepared for the Technical Symposium by teams of scientists from around the world, who collaborated over a period of months to ascertain, consolidate and present the current state of knowledge in six key areas: clinically observed effects; thyroid effects; long term health effects; other health related effects; consequences for the environment; and the consequences in perspective: prognosis for the future. A background paper on the social, economic, institutional and political impact of the accident was prepared by Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The conclusions of the Forum on Nuclear Safety Aspects served as a background paper on this topic

  7. One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident. Poster presentations

    The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. To facilitate the discussions of the Conference, background papers were prepared for the Technical Symposium by teams of scientists from a round the world, who collaborated over a period of months to ascertain, consolidate and present the current state of knowledge in six key areas: clinically observed effects; thyroid effects; long term health effects; other health related effects; consequences for the environment; and the consequences in perspective: prognosis for the future. A background paper on the social, economic, institutional and political impact of the accident was prepared by Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The conclusions of the Forum on Nuclear Safety Aspects served as a background paper on this topic. Refs, figs, tabs

  8. Accident assessment for Chernobyl unit 3 from potential collapse of adjacent structures

    Gore, B.F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Simonov, I.M.; Kritsky, A.B. [Ministry for Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1998-09-01

    This study assessed the likelihood of a serious, explosive accident to be caused at Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) unit 3 by a collapse that might occur in the nearby shelter (Ukrytie) constructed over the destroyed unit 4 or in the intermediate building block V separating the two units. In order to determine quickly and economically the significance of the hazard to unit 3, the analysis was based on existing information and expert judgment. No new structural analysis calculations were performed. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) managed and directed the methodology of the study. The expert judgment assessments of likely scenarios and event probabilities were carried out by Ukrainian experts. Most of the project team was drawn from the State Scientific and Technical Center of the Ministry of Environmental Protection of Ukraine with support from personnel of the Chernobyl NPP, the Interbranch Agency of the Ukrainian Scientific and Technical Center, and the Ukrainian Nuclear Regulatory Administration. It was truly an international project; the PNNL project manager resided in Ukraine during the study and met regularly with the Ukrainian team to review progress and to discuss approach and methodology. Peer reviews were obtained from Ukrainian, US, and Canadian risk analysis and RBMK systems and operations experts. The full report of the study and its results was published by the Ukrainian team.

  9. Assistance fund for Chernobyl children: 11 year assistance in development of Ukrainian child hospitals

    The fund has large statistics of health conditions in children born in post-Chernobyl period. This statistics indicates a considerable increase of health anomalies in children. The highest level of oncological diseases was observed 5 years after Chernobyl accident

  10. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update

    Eisler, R.

    2003-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

  11. Shark Mark Recapture Database (MRDBS)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Shark Mark Recapture Database is a Cooperative Research Program database system used to keep multispecies mark-recapture information in a common format for...

  12. Russian National Chernobyl Register as information and and analytical for Chernobyl accident medical consequences estimation

    The paper is devoted to using of the National Radiation and Epidemiology Register basic part, namely the Russian State Medical-Dosimetric Register of the people affected by the Chernobyl accident, to estimate the medical consequences of the accident. First part of article presents the common description and current state of Register. The estimation of medical consequences of the accident for clean-up workers is given in second part. The prognosis of radiation effects and definition of basic epidemiology factors to propose optimal medicalrehabilitation measures is discussed

  13. Report of the US Department of Energy's team analyses of the Chernobyl-4 Atomic Energy Station accident sequence

    In an effort to better understand the Chernobyl-4 accident of April 26, 1986, the US Department of Energy (DOE) formed a team of experts from the National Laboratories including Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The DOE Team provided the analytical support to the US delegation for the August meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and to subsequent international meetings. The DOE Team has analyzed the accident in detail, assessed the plausibility and completeness of the information provided by the Soviets, and performed studies relevant to understanding the accident. The results of these studies are presented in this report

  14. Transformations of humus and soil mantle in the urbanized areas of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    Presented are investigations into the demutation processes of the towns plant community in the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone (Pripyat, Chernobyl, Chernobyl-2). Demonstrated is the specific nature of the reduction of humus and soil mantle in the abandoned towns under the impact of the natural factors. 21 refs., 5 tab., 7 figs

  15. SLARette Mark 2 system

    The SLAR (Spacer Location and Repositioning) program has developed the technology and tooling necessary to locate and reposition the fuel channel spacers that separate the pressure tube from the calandria tube in a CANDU reactor. The in-channel SLAR tool contains all the inspection probes, and is capable of moving spacers under remote control. The SLAR inspection computer system translates all eddy currents and ultrasonic signals from the in-channel tool into various graphic displays. The in-channel SLAR tool can be delivered and manipulated in a fuel channel by either a SLAR delivery machine or a SLARette delivery machine. The SLAR delivery machine consists of a modified fuelling machine, and is capable of operating under totally remote control in automatic or semi-automatic mode. The SLARette delivery machine is a smaller less automated version, which was designed to be quickly installed, operated, and removed from a limited number of fuel channels during regular annual maintenance outages. This paper describes the design and operation of the SLARette Mark 2 system. 5 figs

  16. Chernobyl-Related Cancer: Re-Evaluation Needed

    Sergei JARGIN

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been no clearly demonstrated cancer incidence increase that can be attributed to radiation from Chernobyl accident, except for the thyroid carcinoma in the individuals exposed in childhood and adolescence. The drastic increase of thyroid cancer started 4 years after the accident. The solid/follicular subtype of papillary thyroid carcinoma predominated in the early period after the accident. Histopathological diagnosis of cancer in such cases, if no infiltrative growth is visible, is based mainly on the nuclear criteria of papillary carcinoma. Outdated equipment of histopathological laboratories in early 1990s and insufficient quality of histological sections hindered reliable assessment of the nuclear criteria. Access to foreign professional literature has been limited in the former Soviet Union. Appearance of advanced tumors shortly after the accident can be explained by the screening effect with detection of neglected cancers and by the fact that patients were brought from other regions of the former Soviet Union and registered as Chernobyl-related cases. Further evidence in favor of the overestimation of thyroid cancer incidence after Chernobyl accident is discussed. The concluding point is that immunohistochemical and molecular-genetic tests performed within the scope of international studies were partly based on an inadequately selected material, and that supposedly specific features of radiogenic post-Chernobyl cancers characterize, on average, a later stadium of tumor progression. Therefore, some published data on molecular-genetic and other characteristics of post-Chernobyl malignancies require re-evaluation.

  17. Cancer following the Chernobyl nuclear accident: what we have learned

    Full text: Twenty years later, the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear plant in Ukraine remains the largest of its kind. Ukraine and Belarus in particular were heavily contaminated, principally with radioiodine which concentrate in the thyroid gland. Before Chernobyl, little was known about, the risk of thyroid cancer in those exposed to radioiodine as children, although there were some reports based on exposed adults. A number of epidemiologic studies have since been conducted to evaluate populations in Chernobyl-exposed areas. These have provided valuable information about the risks of Iodine-131 to children. I will summarize these studies and the lessons the international scientific and medical community have learned from this research on Chernobyl. Finally, I will describe progress with a seminal project: the Belarus-American Study of Thyroid Cancer and Other Thyroid Diseases following the Chernobyl Accident. This collaborative effort has involved screening a cohort of approximately 12,000 individuals exposed as young persons at two year intervals for three consecutive cycles. This is the first study, cohort in design, to be based on individual, measured doses and thus can provide the best quantitative estimate of the dose-response relationship between Iodine-131 and risk of thyroid cancer

  18. Thyroid cancer development in Chernobyl including new additional results

    Full text: We have been studying the etiology of thyroid cancer development among the exposed people in Hiroshima. In 1993, we have proposed the hypothesis of oncology model of thyroid cancer development in children following the nuclear power plant accident in Chernobyl, and then related studies has been done in Chernobyl and also in Hiroshima. Following findings are included. Urinary iodine level was lower in Chernobyl than in Hiroshima. Stimulation of ret oncogene in thyroid cancer tissues, and appearance of nuclear abnormalities of thyroid follicular cells were found higher rate among the exposed people. Sensitivity of TSH-receptor in thyroid tissues (TSH-R mRNA expression) was higher while young. Synergistic effect of TSH-R mRNA and ER mRNA expressions were found in both of normal tissues and cancer tissues in thyroid, but it was more apparent in cancer tissues. These findings gave the additional proofs on the hypothesis of thyroid cancer development in Chernobyl. Including these results, we like to present the importance of thyroid for the health of the exposed people in Chernobyl

  19. The Chernobyl accident - impact on Western Europe

    The implications of the Chernobyl accident are outlined. For the USSR, 135,000 people had to be moved. Farming in these regions will cause difficult problems in the future. The contamination of 131I caused great problems in Western Europe the first month after the accident. The excess dose the first year after the accident was generally below 2 mSv. Over a 50-year period an increase over background of less than 1% is predicted. It is not possible to state if this irradiation has any health impact. Great problems were caused for the population in northern Scandinavia because of the reliance on reindeer breeding, hunting and fishing. Very few Lapps will, however, reach an effective dose equivalent of 5 mSv during 1986/1987. This is less than the natural background effective dose equivalent during a year for the average Swede. Therefore, the greatest problem seems to be the difficulty for the Lapps to sell their reindeer meat and lake fish. 40 refs.; 2 figs.; 11 tabs

  20. Post Chernobyl safety review at Ontario Hydro

    It is generally recognized that the Chernobyl Unit 4 accident did not reveal any new phenomena which had not been previously identified in safety analyses. However, the accident provided a tragic reminder of the potential consequences of reactivity initiated accidents (RIAs) and stimulated nuclear plant operators to review their safety analyses, operating procedures and various operational and management aspects of nuclear safety. Concerning Ontario Hydro, the review of the accident performed by the corporate body responsible for nuclear safety policy and by the Atomic Energy Control Board (the Regulatory Body) led to a number of specific recommendations for further action by various design, analysis and operation groups. These recommendations are very comprehensive in terms of reactor safety issues considered. The general conclusion of the various studies carried out in response to the recommendations, is that the CANDU safety design and the procedures in place to identify and mitigate the consequences of accidents are adequate. Improvements to the reliability of the Pickering NGSA shutdown system and to some aspects of safety management and staff training, although not essential, are possible and would be pursued. In support of this conclusion, the paper describes some of the studies that were carried out and discusses the findings. The first part of the paper deals with safety design aspects. While the second is concerned with operational aspects

  1. Monitoring Minsk and Kiev students after Chernobyl

    In the first few days following the incident at Chernobyl, very little information was available on the size of the release of radioactivity and the potential for further releases. However, the monitoring data from Scandinavia indicated a release significantly greater than that associated with the 1957 Windscale accident. As a consequence, the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office decided to recall British students close to the affected area, mainly from around Minsk and Kiev. The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) decided, after consultation with interested parties, to be present at Heathrow Airport, London, to carry out monitoring of the students. NRPB stressed that the main purpose of the monitoring was to give reassurance to the students, and that we were expecting positive results in our measurements of radioiodine, but at a level that would give no cause for concern. We also hoped that our measurements would provide the first information of activity levels close to the incident area, so permitting some estimate of the severity of the release to be made. The portable radiation monitor for measuring radioiodine in thyroids was demonstrated with an 131I source containing a level of activity equivalent to that which, in a person's thyroid, would give the ICRP annual dose limit for a member of the public

  2. Ten years after the Chernobyl Accident

    About 5 percent of the total amount of cesium released from the Chernobyl reactor accident deposited in Sweden. The middle part of Sweden received the highest fallout. During the first period after the accident, cows in these areas were not allowed to graze. Due to the time of the year there were very few problems with cultivated crops, even during the first summer. Game, reindeer, fresh water fish, wild berries and mushrooms, however, were contaminated to a great extent and still after 10 years high concentrations of 137Cs can be found in these animals and in mushrooms, but to a lesser extent in wild berries. Intensive controls of the Cs content are still being carried out in reindeer at the time of slaughtering. During the last few years, hand instruments for estimation of the Cs content of live animals (reindeer mostly) has been available. This makes it possible to slaughter only animals estimated to have levels of Cs below the limit value. When offered for sale, the limit value for 137Cs is 300 Bq/kg for the 'basic foodstuffs' and for meat from game, reindeer, fresh water fish, nuts, wild berries and mushrooms 1500 Bq/kg. High levels of 137Cs will be found in reindeer and fresh water fish from some areas for many years in the future. 8 refs, 11 figs

  3. Four years after Chernobyl: the medical repercussions

    The nuclear accident at Chernobyl accounted for an acute radiation syndrome in 237 persons on the site. Triage was the initial problem and was carried out according to clinical and biological criteria; evaluating the doses received was based on these criteria. Thirty one persons died and only 1 survived a dose higher than 6 Gy. Skin radiation burns which were due to inadequate decontamination, greatly worsened prognosis. The results of 13 bone marrow transplantations were disappointing, with only 2 survivors. Some time after the accident, these severely irradiated patients are mainly suffering from psychosomatic disorders, in the USSR, some areas have been significantly contaminated and several measures were taken to mitigate the impact on population: evacuating 135 000 persons, distributing prophylactic iodine, establishing standards and controls on foodstuff. Radiation phobia syndrome which developed in many persons, is the only sanitary effect noticed up to now. Finally, in Europe, there was only an increase in induced abortions and this was totally unwarranted. If we consider the risk of radiation induced cancer, an effect might not be demonstrated

  4. Five years after Chernobyl: 1986 - 1991

    The accident to the fourth nuclear reactor at Chernobyl on 26th April 1986 had major impacts not only on the nuclear industries in the Soviet Union and elsewhere in the world but also on the daily life of those in the station and further afield. Some of the actions taken to safeguard the population outside the Soviet Union such as banning the sale of lamb from upland areas in the United Kingdom and the effects on the reindeer herds in Scandinavia inevitably received considerable publicity and interest. Material published by the popular media often fails to separate clearly opinion from fact or to give due weight to the important as compared to the trivial. The Watt Committee on Energy with a membership drawn from over 60 professional bodies covering a wide spectrum of technologies seemed to be ideally qualified to sift through the material and record what is known with reasonable certainty, indicate facts which have a general consensus of agreement among disinterested experts, and draw attention to areas where information is still not confirmed. (author)

  5. Human hair radioactivity in the Chernobyl area

    Studies of recent decades have shown that the elemental composition of human hair can be considered as an indicator of both internal and external human body status. However, there are only a few studies on human hair radioactivity. The Chernobyl accident necessitated the study of the hair of various groups of inhabitants of the contaminated area. Data on hair radioactivity and elemental composition allowed us to draw the following conclusions. (1) When account is taken of the simplicity of sampling and measurements of human hair activity in polluted areas can be used as a monitor for fast detection of the scale and area of pollution. (2) Measurement of hair α and β activity is useful for preliminary body burden determination while the whole body counter is inapplicable. (3) Study of activity along the hair strand allows dating of contamination with an accuracy of about 10 days and gives information about the removal of radioactivity from the body. (4) Determination of uranium could give additional information about the distance of nuclear fuel transport from the damaged reactor. (5) Elemental composition of hair and profiles along the strand reflect the influence of medical treatment and can be used to study post-accident health status. ((orig.))

  6. Radiation exposure: Cytogenetic tests. Chernobyl reactor accident

    Forty test subjects who, either during or after the reactor accident of Chernobyl (26th April 1986), stayed at a building site at Shlobin 150 km away, were examined for spontaneously occurring as well as mitomycin C-induced Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCE). The building site staff, who underwent a whole-body radionuclide count upon their return to Austria (June through September 1986), were used for the cytogenetic tests. The demonstration of the SCE was made from whole-blood cultures by the fluorescence/Giemse technique. At last 20 Metaphases of the 2nd mitotic cycle were evaluated per person. The radiation doses of the test subjects were calculated by adding the external exposure determined on the building site, the estimated thyroid dose through I-131, and the measured incorporation of Cs-134 and Cs-137. The subjects were divided into two groups for statistical analysis: One was a more exposed group (proven stay at Shlobin between 26th April and 31st May 1986, mostly working in the open air) and the other a less exposed group for comparison (staying at Shlobin from 1st Juni 1986 and working mainly indoors). (orig.)

  7. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Styria

    We present results which document the contamination of Styria (Southern part of Austria) immediately after and in the years following the Chernobyl accident. The radioactivity and distribution of radionuclides in aerosols, rain water, soil, vegetation, animals and various samples of food are described in great detail. One of the key results is that the highest levels of contamination were found in two districts (Liezen, Deutschlandsberg), and the deposition rates for Cs-137 were determined to be in the range from 3 to about 80 kBq/m2. Of particular interest are studies concerning the migration and distribution of radionuclides in soil, the uptake of radiocesium by the aquatic vegetation and the existence of radionuclides in the natural ecosystem up to this day. Effective dose equivalents due to incorporated radiocesium was estimated to be 252.2 μSv for the adult population of Graz (capital of Styria) over the four years follwing the fallout. (authors) 17 papers are presented and are of INIS scope

  8. Communications strategy for the Chernobyl Centre

    This Communications Strategy was developed for the International Chernobyl Centre (ICC) as part of a joint UK/Ukraine project, sponsored by the Department of Trade and Industry and NNC Limited. The Plan was developed during four weeks of workshop discussions in the UK between staff from the centre and experienced PR Professionals from NNC Limited. The requirements for a sustained communications activity at the ICC go much further than simply enhancing or promoting the Centre's scientific and technical activities. Raising sufficient awareness of the Centre among potential funding agents and commercial partners is critical to its future development as a major centre for international co-operation and research. It is only through establishing and developing effective communications that the Centre will become well enough known and understood both within the Ukraine, and internationally, to secure its long term future. However, as the workshop programme unfolded, it also became clear that communications was in itself a legitimate and necessary function of the Centre, and part of the foundations of its existence. The Centre has a fundamental role as an 'information exchange', collecting and communicating information from within the Ukraine to the rest of the world, and interpreting world interest and attitudes to the Ukraine Government and nuclear industry. As such compliments the efforts of individual power plant and corporate PR functions within the Ukraine nuclear energy sector

  9. Radiation exposure of the population around Chernobyl

    Although the population in large parts of northern Ukraine, the region around Chernobyl, was resettled, these people are now returning to their accustomed agricultural environment - illegally, but tolerated. In order for evacuated villages to be cleared for resettlement, the dose commitment due to continuous external and internal exposures of the persons returning must be determined. Examination concentrates on the fallout of reactor nuclides, the path of radionuclides through the food chain to people, and on present and post exposures. Special attention in this respect is paid to the deposition density of cesium. On the basis of the data collected so far, the village inhabitants considered in 1998/99 suffer an average external exposure of 0.7±0.2 mSv/a in addition to the natural external exposure of 0.8 mSv/a and, with a conversion factor of 0.038 mSv/a per kBq of 137 Cs whole body activity [8], 0.5±0.2 mSv/a (excluding inhabitants 17 and 18) of additional internal exposure, mainly as a function of mushroom intake. The ban on consumption of mushrooms and fruit growing in the forests, and education of the public about the reasons for it, could help to reduce the additional internal exposure further to approx. 0.1 mSv/a. (orig.)

  10. Brain damage in utero after Chernobyl accident

    Full text: The report presents research study results of neuropsychiatric consequences of the children exposed in utero, who were born just after the Chernobyl accident (between April 26, 1986 and February 26, 1987). The children were under investigation for three stages: in 1990-1992; 1994-1996; 2002-2004. We use the data on health state, IQ level tests and individual dose reconstruction data. First correlation between prenatal acute exposure after atomic bombing and intellectual level decrease was demonstrated by Japanese scientists. It is known that while the Chernobyl whole body irradiation doses are much lower than the Japanese doses, thyroid doses after the Chernobyl accident are significantly higher. During the first stage the five-year-old prenatally exposed children were under examination. The results showed much more somatic diseases and neurofunctional mental disorders. It was also established in this cohort that starting with the 0.3 Sv threshold dose thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level grown along with fetal thyroid dose increase. Thereupon the radiation-induced malfunction of the thyroid-pituitary system was suggested as an important biological mechanism in the genesis of mental disorders in prenatally irradiated children. The epidemiological WHO project 'Brain Damage in Utero' (IPHECA) was implemented in the second stage. The examination of prenatally exposed children from the contaminated territories (555 kBq/m2 and more) resulted in an increased frequency of moderate mental retardation, emotional and behavioral disorders. Increasing of borderline nervous and psychological disorders of parents from the main group was higher than from the control. However it was rather hard to treat these results because individual dosimetric data were not available. Only in the third stage reconstruction of individual doses of children born to mothers evacuated from the Chernobyl exclusion zone was carried out at taking internal and external exposure. It was

  11. The Chernobyl active phase: why the ''official view'' is wrong [Chernobyl accident

    The results of a new investigation into the active phase of the Chernobyl accident are summarised. This phase is defined as the period from the initial destruction of the core to the puzzling and very sharp drop in environmental radionuclide release about nine days later. The research was carried out at Chernobyl over 18 months in cooperation with scientists living there. Its objective was to examine the reliability of the official Soviet presentation at the IAEA post-accident review conference in August 1986. In order to reconstruct the events, four new spheres of information were brought together: a reappraisal of the effectiveness of the accident management actions taken to limit the consequences of the accident; a description of the remains of the reactor building and the solidified corium; results of radiochemical analyses of the melted fuel; and an analysis of radioisotope release dynamics. An alternative explanation for the bathtub shaped release curve has been arrived at and a rough release estimate made which confirms suspicions that the amount of radioactivity released into the environment was greater than that officially reported. (UK)

  12. Agency Theory

    Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting, and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....

  13. Agency Theory

    Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....

  14. Diplomatic agency

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    diplomatic agency has been conceptualized in International Relations theory (English School, game theory, Foreign Policy Analysis, constructivism, practice theory, post-positivism) before presenting and exemplifying major and overlapping types of diplomatic agency, including communication, negotiation and......Diplomatic agency is intriguing. On the one hand, diplomats are crucial to the management of day-to-day international relations and the negotiation of war and peace. On the other hand, most diplomatic action is highly constrained or invisible. This chapter provides an overview of the ways in which...... advocacy. It analyzes how professionalization, legalization, personalization and popularization of diplomacy have shaped diplomatic agency including how international law, bureaucracy, public diplomacy and new information technologies have impacted the scope and content of diplomatic agency. Finally, it...

  15. Scientific and technical aspects of international cooperation in Chernobyl

    The collection contains the presentations and scientific articles prepared for and discussed during the Conference titled '2000: International Cooperation For Chernobyl'. The materials outline the outcomes achieved while implementing Chernobyl site scientific-technical researches and projects, as well as activities aimed at enhancing the ChNPP safety, decommissioning and radwaste management. It also highlights the issues related to transforming the Unit Shelter into an ecologically safe system, represents the results of ecological researches in the Exclusion Zone, medical effects of the 1986 accident at Chernobyl NPP, together with social and economic problems the city of Slavutich faces now due to the early ChNPP Units decommissioning, and Slavutich business development opportunities under the circumstances of Special Economic Zone 'Slavutich'

  16. Main principles of the Chernobyl' NPP zone development

    It is suggested to divide the Chernobyl' NPP zone into two parts, which are the alienation and evacuation (buffer) zones. The alienation zone includes the areas with greatest contamination around the Chernobyl' NPP. The population residence in this zone is forbidden. The watching method of working with short-time personnel residence is suggested to be used in this zone. The buffer zone is the territory out of the alienation zone boundaries including all settlements, from which the population is evacuated. Constant residence is permitted in the buffer zone for persons 50 and more years old with introduction of restrictions for diet and residence organization. The production activity in this zone includes operation of three units of the Chernobyl' NPP, works with the Ukrytie object and researches. Operations connected with radioactive waste processing and redisposal from places of storage is not recommended to be done. It is suggested to develop methods for local radioactive waste processing

  17. Improvement of practical Countermeasures: Preventive medication. Post-Chernobyl action

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred on 26 April 1986, presented major challenges to the European Community with respect to the practical and regulatory aspects of radiation protection, public information, trade, particularly in food, and international politics. The Chernobyl accident was also a major challenge to the international scientific community which had to evaluate rapidly the radiological consequences of the accident and advise on the introduction of any countermeasures. Prior to the accident at Chernobyl, countermeasures to reduce the consequences of radioactive contamination had been conceived largely in the context of relatively small accidental releases and for application over relatively small areas. Less consideration had been given to the practical implications of applying such measures in case of a large source term and a spread over a very large area

  18. Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident

    In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meiosis, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Geographic information systems for the Chernobyl decision makers in Ukraine

    Following numerous national and international studies conducted on the overall impact of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster, decision-makers of the affected countries have oriented their efforts on environmental clean-up and population safety. They have focused on activities leading to a better understanding of radionuclide contamination and to the development of effective environmental rehabilitation programs. Initial developments involved the use of domestic USSR technologies consisting of mainframe IBM computers and DEC minicomputers. Later, personal computers with imported software packages were introduced into the decision-making process. Following the breakup of the former USSR, the Ministry of Chernobyl was created in Ukraine in 1991. One of the Ministry's mandate was the elimination of the environmental after-effects of the Chernobyl disaster

  20. Chernobyl: getting to the heart of the matter

    In the second of two linked articles on the aftermath of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident of 1986, the author explores the effects on local agriculture and the health of populations affected by the contamination from the fall-out, especially children. Agriculture around Chernobyl has resumed, with workers moving back from the cities to areas where radiation doses are similar to parts of Cornwall. Concern continues about the safety of milk from cows grazing contaminated grass and eating local mushrooms. The largest risk to children's health is not birth deformaties, but leukaemia, possibly in part due to iodine deficiency in their diet prior to contamination. Concern also continues about keeping power supplies going in areas heavily dependent on nuclear power. Reactor safety issues remaining operational RBMK reactors and the sarcophagus around Chernobyl-4 itself have yet to be resolved. (UK)

  1. Mark Kostabi soovib muuta inimesi õnnelikumaks / Kalev Mark Kostabi

    Kostabi, Kalev Mark, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Kalev Mark Kostabi oma sisekujunduslikest eelistustest, ameeriklaste ja itaallaste kodude sisekujunduse erinevustest, kunstist kui ruumikujunduse ühest osast, oma New Yorgi ja Rooma korterite kujundusest

  2. Functional disorders of T-cell immunity at persons engaged in the Chernobyl emergency operations in a 10 years after the accident

    Functional disorders of T-cell immunity in persons engaged in Chernobyl emergency operations - 10 years after the accident. The results evaluating T-cell immunity of 148 liquidators of Chernobyl accident are presented. It was estimated that 10 years after the accident immuno phenotyping of peripheral blood lymphocytes did not reveal marked disturbance in lymphocyte subpopulation content in exposed group as compared with healthy control. Determination of cell proliferation in vitro indicated the decrease in DNA synthesis of T-lymphocytes stimulated with optimal and particularly suboptimal concentrations of polyclonal T-cell activators. Based on individual deviation of the results of T-lymphocyte proliferation the groups with high and low level of response were sorted out for future examination

  3. International Conference 'Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident. Future Outlook'. Abstracts proceeding

    This conference concludes a series of events dedicated to the 20 anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and promote an effective implementation of the accumulated international experience in the following areas: Radiation protection of the population and emergency workers, and the environmental consequences of Chernobyl accident; Medical and public health response to radiation emergencies; Strengthening radiological emergency management of radiation accidents; Economic and legal aspects of radioactive waste management and nuclear power plants decommissioning; Radioactive waste management: Chernobyl experience; Nuclear power plant decommissioning: Chernobyl NPP; Transformation of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system

  4. Chernobyl, 16 years later; Tchernobyl, 16 ans apres

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    This document on the Chernobyl site evolution is constituted around four main questions. What about the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor and the ''sarcophagus'' constructed around the reactor? What about the sanitary consequences of the accident on the liquidators asked to blot out the radiation and the around people exposed to radiation? What about the contaminated land around the power plant and their management? Concerning the France, what were the ''radioactive cloud'' sanitary consequences? (A.L.B.)

  5. Cesium fallout in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    Results of country-wide measurements of 137Cs and 134 Cs in soil samples in Norway after the Chernobyl accident are reported. The results clearly demonstrates that municipalities in the central part of southern Norway, Troendelag and the southern part of Nordland, have been rather heavily contaminated. The total fallout of 137Cs and 134Cs from the Chernobyl accident in Norway is estimated to 2300 TBq and 1200 TBq, respectively. This is approximately 6% of the cesium activity released from the reactor

  6. The radioecological consequences of Chernobyl accident for fish

    The estimate of dynamics of radionuclides concentration in muscles of some game-fish from Kiev reservoir and likes in Bryansk region for period after Chernobyl accident was carried out. The concentration of 137Cs in fish has not exceeded the admissible concentration (600 Bq/kg ww) since 1993. The exceptions are the cooling-pond of Chernobyl NPP and Kozlanovskoe Lake where the concentration of 137Cs in fish's muscles exceeded the admissible level more than 5-6 times even in 1995. It was concluded that chronic irradiation of game-fish in water bodies outside 30-km zone would not affect the volume of fishing

  7. Radioactive fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident

    The Chernobyl accident had considerable consequences for Norway. Except for the areas in the former USSR, around Chernobyl some areas in Norway received fallout which gave the highest contamination levels. The natural and semi natural ecosystems will produce food products with high activity levels of radiocesium for several decennium. Cost-effective countermeasures were implemented, and they reduced the doses considerable, especially for critical groups. Doses received over the next 50 years will probably cause cancer in 500 persons. 63 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Experience of soil rehabilitation in the scenario of Chernobyl

    The Chernobyl post-accident scenario became nowadays a natural radioecology laboratory, where a wide range of decontamination methods can be applied, validated or developed. This paper presents the application of a soil rehabilitation technique, the removal of vegetation and associated soil, in the experimental fields of Bourakovka and Chistogalovka surrounding the Chernobyl NPP. The results obtained have shown soil decontamination factors higher than 90% for caesium and strontium. This technique involves the removal of deposited hot particles released at the accident, and the experience allowed a detailed study of one of them corresponding to a nuclear fuel fragment, probably generated at the beginning of the breakdown. 16 refs. (Author)

  9. Radionuclides in fish of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    The results of researches of the spices-specificity, accumulation dynamics, and distribution of 90Sr, 137Cs, and transuranic elements in fish of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone are analyzed. For fish of lakes of the left-bank flood plain of the Pripyat River, the increase of the specific activity of 90Sr is registered, which is presumably connected to the dynamics of physico-chemical forms of the radionuclide in soils and their wash out in water basins from the catchment territory. Now about 90 % of the internal dose rate of fish from closed aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone are caused by the 90Sr incorporation

  10. Eye pathologies of Chernobyl clean-up workers

    Diseases of the nervous system and sense organs have become the most significant pathologies of Chernobyl clean-up workers during the last four years. The aim of this work was to evaluate the incidence of eye disorders among Chernobyl clean-up workers to provide more information for health specialists. During the last 10 years, the most common eye pathology has been angiopathia retinae, followed by myopia and cataracta. Statistical analyses showed that the clean-up workers have higher risk to develop angiopathia retinae than the control group. (author)

  11. Environmental behaviour of radioactivity from Chernobyl: Brothers Water study

    A study has been carried out to examine the short term behaviour of Chernobyl derived radionuclides together with the longer term patterns of transport of weapons fallout derived 137Cs first studied on the Brothers Water catchment in the English Lake District in the 1970's. Chernobyl derived radiocaesium is observable in the soils and lake sediments of the catchment. 210Pb dating and diatom analysis were used to confirm that the lake sediments sampled were undisturbed. A simple box model is used to estimate radionuclide inventories in Brothers Water Lake sediments. Estimates derived using this model are reasonably consistent with estimates obtained from a variety of other sources. (author)

  12. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on radioactivity in Swedish reindeer

    Fallout radiocesium is effectively transferred to reindeer and the transfer is highly dependent on the season. The reduction of radiocesium from the soil-pasture-reindeer ecosystem has occurred with a higher rate after the Chernobyl fallout than after the nuclear weapons tests. Effective countermeasures have helped to prevent contamination of reindeer meat intended for human consumption. Nevertheless, the fallout from Chernobyl will probably remain a problem for reindeer husbandry in the contaminated parts of Sweden for a least 20 more years. 6 refs., 2 figs

  13. Radioactive waste management after NPP accident: Post-Chernobyl experience

    As a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident a very large amount of so-called 'Chernobyl waste' were generated in the territory of Belarus, which was contaminated much more than all other countries. These wastes relate mainly to two following categories: low-level waste (LLW) and new one 'Conventionally Radioactive Waste' (CRW). Neither regulations nor technology and equipment were sufficiently developed for such an amount and kind of waste before the accident. It required proper decisions in respect of regulations, treatment, transportation, disposal of waste, etc. (author)

  14. Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

  15. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France

    After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 μSv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

  16. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    Anne McNeilly

    2014-01-01

    The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson’s School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The “minimal-marking” concept (Haswell, 1983), which requires dramatically more student engagement, resulted in more successful learning outcomes for surface-level knowledge acquisition than the more traditional appro...

  17. 25 years since Chernobyl nuclear accident

    Environmental and food radioactivity surveillance in Romania, begun since the early 60's, with 47 laboratories from National Environment Radioactivity Surveillance Network (NERSN) in the framework of Ministry of Environmental and the network of 21 Radiation Hygiene Laboratories (RHL) from centers and institutes of the Ministry of Public Health. The surveillance was conducted by global beta and alpha measurements, necessary to make some quick decisions as well as gamma spectrometry to detect high and low resolution profile accident. Thus the two networks together and some departmental labs recorded from the first moments (since April 30, 1986) the presence of the contaminated radioactive cloud originated from Ukraine, after the nuclear accident on 26 April 1986 at Chernobyl NPP, on the Romanian territory. NERSN followed up the radioactive contamination of air (gamma dose rate, atmospheric aerosols and total deposition), surface water, uncultivated soil, and spontaneous vegetation while the RHL monitored the drinking water and food. Early notification of this event allowed local and central authorities to take protective measures like: administration of stable iodine, advertisements in media on avoiding consumption of heavily contaminated food, prohibition of certain events that took place outdoors, interdiction of drinking milk and eating milk products for one month long. Most radionuclides, fission and activation products (22 radionuclides), released during the accident, have been determined in the environmental factors. A special attention was paid to radionuclides like Sr-90, I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137, especially in aerosol samples, where the maximum values were recorded on Toaca Peak (Ceahlau Mountain) on May, the first, 1986: 103 Bq/m3, I-131, 63 Bq/m3, Cs-137. The highest value of I-131 in drinking water, 21 Bq/l, was achieved on May, the third, 1986 in Bucharest and in cow milk exceeded the value of 3000 Bq/l. For sheep milk some sporadic values exceeding 10

  18. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a

  19. Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health' (EGH). Working draft

    to that outcome, in particular, focusing on new studies which have appeared since the UNSCEAR 2000 report. This is followed by the assessment made by the various expert panels at their meetings, as described above. Within this assessment, each topic, e.g., epidemiology, biology, etc., is divided into a consensus, i.e., conclusions that the experts feel can reasonably be made at this time, followed by a section on gaps in knowledge, where important gaps are identified. Finally, a series of recommendations regarding future scientific research are provided within each discipline. Section 6 is devoted to a description of the various health systems operating in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine and is followed by recommendations that the expert group thought to be most appropriate in these areas. The objectives of this report are 1) to provide the scientific and lay community with an assessment of the current status of information regarding health consequences of the Chernobyl accident and 2) to provide appropriate authorities and agencies with a series of detailed recommendations for future directions both in research and with respect to the health systems operating in the three countries that have been most severely affected by the world's worst nuclear accident

  20. Hospice Agencies

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all Hospice Agencies that have been certified by Medicare. The list includes addresses, phone numbers, and date of original CMS certification, as well as...

  1. Teacher agency

    Priestley, M.; Biesta, G.; Robinson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    ]turn to the centrality of the teacher in school-based curriculum development. In many cases, this renewed emphasis on teachers is explicitly tied to change agendas, with teachers described as agents of change. And yet such change agentry (Fullan, 2003) and teacher agency more broadly are often......The concept of teacher agency has emerged in recent literature as an alternative means of understanding how teachers might enact practice and engage with policy (e.g. Lasky, 2005; Leander & Osbourne, 2008; Ketelaar et al., 2012; Priestley, Biesta & Robinson, 2013). But what is agency? Agency...... remains an inexact and poorly conceptualised construct in much of the literature, where it is often not clear whether the term refers to an individual capacity of teachers to act agentically or to an emergent ‘ecological’ phenomenon dependent upon the quality of individuals’ engagement with their...

  2. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    Fifty years of peaceful utilization of nuclear power were interrupted by the reactor accident in unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in Ukraine in 1986, a disruptive event whose consequences profoundly affected the way of life of millions of people, and which has moved the public to this day. Releases of radioactive materials contaminated large areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Early damage in the form of radiation syndrome was suffered by a group of rescue workers and members of the reactor operating crew, in some cases with fatal consequences, while the population does not, until now, show a statistically significant increase in the rate of late damage due to ionizing radiation expect for thyroid diseases in children. In particular, no increases in the rates of solid tumors, leukaemia, genetic defects, and congenital defects were detected. For some risk groups exposed to high radiation doses (such as liquidators) the hazard may still be greater, but the large majority of the population need not live in fear of serious impacts on health. Nevertheless, the accident shows major negative social and psychological consequences reinforced by the breakdown of the Soviet Union. This may be one reason for the observed higher incidence of other diseases whose association with the effects of radiation as a cause has not so far been proven. The measurement campaign conducted by the federal government in 1991-1993 addressed these very concerns of the public in an effort to provide unbiased information about exposures detected, on the one hand, in order to alleviate the fears of the public and reduce stress and, on the other hand, to contribute to the scientific evaluation of the radiological situation in the regions most highly exposed. The groups of the population requiring special attention in the future include especially children growing up in highly contaminated regions, and the liquidators of 1986 and 1987 employed in the period immediately

  3. Chernobyl fallout in southern and central Finland

    To study the levels and distributions of radionuclides released in the Chernobyl accident, we sampled surface peat from 62 sites in Southern and Central Finland and measured 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 132Te, 140Ba, 103Ru, 90Sr, 141Ce, and 95Zr. The distribution of fallout activities was highly uneven, depending on movement of the contaminated air mass and rainfall distribution during the critical days. The highest values observed were 420 kBq m-2 of 131I and 70 kBq m-2 of 137Cs. The nuclide ratios showed wide and partly unexpected variations. The high-boiling-point, or nonvolatile, elements Ce and Zr were spread mostly on a 200-km-wide zone extending across Finland from southwest to northeast. The more volatile elements, I, Ce, and Te, showed quite a different, more widespread, fallout distribution, while an intermediate behavior was observed for Ba, Ru, and possibly Sr. These results can be explained by assuming that pulverized nuclear fuel material released in the reactor explosion on 26 April reached Finland via Poland and the Baltic Sea and traversed the country along the above-mentioned narrow zone, while volatile material, evaporated in the reactor fire from 26 April to 5 May, arrived in several waves and was consequently more widely and evenly spread. From their elemental melting and boiling points, Ru and Mo would appear to belong to the nonvolatile group and Sr to the volatile. Yet, their actual behaviors were opposite; Ru in particular was found in the nonvolatile as well as the volatile fallout, possibly because Ru activities were present in the fuel partly in the metallic state and partly as volatile oxides

  4. Neutronic static analysis of Chernobyl accident

    In the present analysis, estimates were made of the positive reactivity introduced through the growth of the coolant void fraction in a Graphite-water steam-generating reactor both at the average value of burnup given by the Soviets and at the maximum value. Using Monte Carlo models, various possible axial distribution of burnup, displacer models, conditions in the control channels and positions of the control rods were considered in calculating the insertion of positive reactivity with the fall of the manual and emergency control rods; that is the positive scram. The possibility of positive reactivity insertion due to the creation of a mixture of fuel, water and cladding in a number of central fuel channels has been examined. This situation corresponds to the explosion of these channels, and is considered in the present work as the cause of the second reactivity peak. At the level of the data presented in this study, vaporization of cooling water in the fuel channels can be considered as the cause of the Chernobyl accident. The accident began in the region of the channels close to the axis of the reactor and spread to its periphery. The positive reactivity due to insertion of the manual and emergency control rods - positive scram -played a marginal role in the development of the accident. Fracture of the fuel followed by bursting of the channels around the axis of the reactor, due to contact between the hot UO2 particles and the cooling water at th end of the first peak, could have started a mechanism capable of producing a second peak in reactivity, in the case of fuel damage extended to a sufficiently large portion of the core

  5. Radioactive Waste Management In The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - 25 Years Since The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  6. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  7. Transformative Agency

    Majgaard, Klaus

    The purpose of this paper is to enhance the conceptual understanding of the mediatory relationship between paradoxes on an organizational and an individual level. It presents a concept of agency that comprises and mediates between a structural and individual pole. The constitution of this agency ...... achieved through narrative activity that oscillates between the poles and transforms paradoxes through the configuration of plots and metaphors. Empirical cases are introduced in order to illustrate the implications of this understanding....

  8. Terrestrial invertebrate population studies in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, Ukraine

    The Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 caused the release to atmosphere of substantial amounts of radioactivity. Precise estimates of the release vary. The USSR State Committee presented information to a meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986 indicating a release of some 2.9x105 TBq 137Cs and 2x105 TBq 90Sr, with a total fission/activation product release of 1.7x106 TBq. Other commentators suggest that up to double this amount may have been released. Estimates of deposition likewise vary, although it is probable that about half the released activity was deposited within 20 km of the release point, predominantly following two plume trajectories to the north and west. This resulted in the death of pine trees over 400 ha, the abandonment of 100,000 to 150,000 ha of agricultural land and the establishment of an exclusion zone extending to 30 km from the site. High levels of radionuclide contamination continue to prevail within the exclusion zone. Nonetheless, over the past fifteen years, re-colonisation has been widespread. Mixed deciduous woodlands, with a high proportion of birch (Betula spp.) and willow (Salix spp.), have become established in the forest areas, while agricultural land has succeeded to tall grassland and scrub. Field sites established in this study exhibited external gamma dose rates varying from 0.1 μSv h-1 to 140 μSv h-1. Corresponding mean concentrations of 137Cs in the top 20 cm of soil varied from about 6.102 to 3.106 Bq kg-1 dw. This study summarises observations over the period 2001 to 2004. Sub-surface activity, as measured by bait lamina penetration, appears to be inversely correlated with concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr in soil. Likewise, at the very highest levels of contamination, there is some loss of invertebrate diversity; although little associated change in overall biomass. Between years, population densities and species dominance vary significantly. This does not appear to correlate directly with

  9. Radiation-biological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    The paper points out essential aspects of the actual or potential impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident on human health in the areas immediately affected. In particular, radiation-induced diseases in the population are pointed out, which were caused by radioactive iodine. Epidemiological studies try to establish an increased incidence of leukaemia, lymphomas, and thyroid gland tumours. (DG)

  10. Contamination of fishes in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    The results of studies of radioactive contamination of fishes' organs and tissues of different ecological groups in water bodies within the Chernobyl exclusion zone have presented. The increase of Sr 90 specific activity in fish of closed water bodies have registered. (authors)

  11. Airborne Gamma-ray Measurements in the Chernobyl Plume

    Grasty, R. L.; Hovgaard, Jens; Multala, J.

    On 29 April 1986, the Geological Survey of Finland (GSF) survey aircraft with a gamma ray spectrometer flew through a radioactive plume from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The aircraft became contaminated and the gamma spectrometer measured radioactivity in the plume as well as radioactivity on ...

  12. Chernobyl radiation in Austria by far not overcome

    An overview of Chernobyl-caused contamination, mainly cesium 137, on soil, grass, mushrooms, milk, meat in different regions of Austria 1,5 years after the accident. The particular dangerousness of strontium 90 is outlined but no sufficient data on this isotope are available. 1 fig. (qui)

  13. Chernobyl: introduction to the general discussion - results of an inquiry

    The author reviews the developments in both international and national nuclear law resulting from the Chernobyl accident. The new international treaties as well as still being negotiated give rise to delicate questions, in particular regarding assignment of competence. On the other hand, developments in national nuclear law appear to be more important than expected (NEA)

  14. On protecting the inexperienced reader from Chernobyl myths

    The health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident continue to attract the attention of experts, decision-makers and the general public, and now these consequences have been given added relevance by the similar accident in 2011 at the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant (NPP) in Japan. Expert analysis of radiation levels and effects has been conducted by international bodies—UNSCEAR in 2008 and the Chernobyl Forum during 2003–5. At the same time, three Russian and Belarusian scientists, Yablokov, Nesterenko and Nesterenko (2009 Chernobyl. Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment (New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences)) published both in Russian and English a substantial review of the consequences of Chernobyl based mostly on Russian-language papers. In this book, they suggested a departure from analytical epidemiological studies in favour of ecological ones. This erroneous approach resulted in the overestimation of the number of accident victims by more than 800 000 deaths during 1987–2004. This paper investigates the mistakes in methodology made by Yablokov et al and concludes that these errors led to a clear exaggeration of radiation-induced health effects. Should similar mistakes be made following the 2011 accident at Fukushima-1 NPP this could lead quite unnecessarily to a panic reaction by the public about possible health effects and to erroneous decisions by the authorities in Japan. (opinion)

  15. Remote medical consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident in Armenia

    In result of global radio-ecological disaster at the Chernobyl NPP in Armenia there has appeared a great 'risk group' of persons, who had participated in liquidation of the accident consequences. The results of medical observation of this cohort carried out in dynamics in Scientific Center of Radiation Medicine and Burns during 25 years are brought in the work

  16. Problem of radioactive substances in the Chernobyl NPS exclusion zone

    This work deals with the problem of radioactive substances in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. The problems raise by the technical implementation of the confinement and burial of radioactive substances, decontamination products from the near zone of the accident, the contamination of the territory are indicated and some advices to cope with these problems are given. (O.L.). 2 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  17. Biological Effects 10 years after the Chernobyl NPS accident

    The radiological consequences of Chernobyl accident were analyzed. The mortality of infants in some towns in Poland was presented. The increase in the incidence of neoplasms, blood diseases and endocrine diseases infants was observed in 1986-1988. The increase in number of the Down syndrome during this time period was remarkable. Also the first notifications of neoplasms showed the trend to an increase

  18. Tumour and leukaemia morbidity in infants in Germany after Chernobyl

    Ten years after Chernobyl, a higher incidence of infant tumours and leukaemia was observed. This corresponds to the established latency periods after the occurence of a nuclear accident. Further, the types of tumour that have a higher incidence are known to be easily induced by radiation. However, further investigations are required also in other countries to make a valid statement. (orig.)

  19. Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident

    This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

  20. Dispersion of the radioactive cloud of Chernobyl over Europe

    The Chernobyl accident has been studied by an atmospheric tridimensional model. The long-range transport of radioactive airborne pollutants and their deposition over Europe has been calculated. The results obtained for the three weeks period starting rom the accident have been compared with some experimental data. (author)

  1. Airborne Gamma-ray Measurements in the Chernobyl Plume

    Grasty, R. L.; Hovgaard, Jens; Multala, J.

    1997-01-01

    On 29 April 1986, the Geological Survey of Finland (GSF) survey aircraft with a gamma ray spectrometer flew through a radioactive plume from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The aircraft became contaminated and the gamma spectrometer measured radioactivity in the plume as well as radioactivity on...

  2. Chernobyl and the problem of international obligations regarding nuclear accidents

    This paper analyses the way nuclear law was put to the test by the Chernobyl accident - in particular international nuclear law - so as to propose a train of thought which might contribute to adopting and revising the legal system presently in force or even new orientations. It deals only with that part of nuclear law which concerns accidents and their consequences (NEA)

  3. Chernobyl accident and health: end of first tenth anniversary

    Materials on medical and social-psychological aspects, caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident are presented. Comparative evaluation of the morbidity cases, frequency of tumor formation, mortality among the accident liquidators and the public of various age in the Ukraine, Belarus and Russian Federation is given

  4. On protecting the inexperienced reader from Chernobyl myths.

    Balonov, M I

    2012-06-01

    The health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident continue to attract the attention of experts, decision-makers and the general public, and now these consequences have been given added relevance by the similar accident in 2011 at the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant (NPP) in Japan. Expert analysis of radiation levels and effects has been conducted by international bodies--UNSCEAR in 2008 and the Chernobyl Forum during 2003-5. At the same time, three Russian and Belarusian scientists, Yablokov, Nesterenko and Nesterenko (2009 Chernobyl. Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment (New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences)) published both in Russian and English a substantial review of the consequences of Chernobyl based mostly on Russian-language papers. In this book, they suggested a departure from analytical epidemiological studies in favour of ecological ones. This erroneous approach resulted in the overestimation of the number of accident victims by more than 800 000 deaths during 1987-2004. This paper investigates the mistakes in methodology made by Yablokov et al and concludes that these errors led to a clear exaggeration of radiation-induced health effects. Should similar mistakes be made following the 2011 accident at Fukushima-1 NPP this could lead quite unnecessarily to a panic reaction by the public about possible health effects and to erroneous decisions by the authorities in Japan. PMID:22569279

  5. Chernobyl ''Sarcophagus'' safety analysis and proposals for modernization

    Safety analysis and proposals for modernization of Chernobyl ''Sarcophagus'' are presented, including the following aspects: the state of Unit 4 after the accident; construction of the ''Sarcophagus''; inspections; structure state monitoring; transformation of the facility into a long-term safe system

  6. Post-Chernobyl scientific perspectives: Social/psychological effects

    Previous studies had shown that psychological problems associated with the Chernobyl accident were not decreasing with time. People experienced exposure to real risks, and resettled people often provided the highest risk ratings. Responses to a question about the ability to protect oneself from radioactive contamination were overall discouraging

  7. Psychological consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation. Lessons of Chernobyl

    From the results of a survey among the population in areas of the former Soviet Union (Gomel region) which were affected by the nuclear reactor accident of Chernobyl it appears that fear for radiation can have a negative impact on the public health. The results of the survey can help governments to deal with the psychological effects of disasters. 3 refs

  8. Chernobyl radionuclides in a Black Sea sediment trap.

    Buesseler, K O; Livingston, H D; Honjo, S; Hay, B J; Manganini, S J; Degens, E; Ittekkot, V; Izdar, E; Konuk, T

    The Chernobyl nuclear power station accident released large quantities of vaporized radionuclides, and, to a lesser extent, mechanically released small (less than 1-10 micron) aerosol particles. The total release of radioactivity is estimated to be out of the order of 1-2 x 10(18) Bq (3-5 x 10(7) Ci) not allowing for releases of the xenon and krypton gases. The 137Cs releases of 3.8 x 10(16) Bq from Chernobyl can be compared to 1.3 x 10(18) Bq 137Cs released due to atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. Chernobyl-derived radionuclides can be used as transient tracers to study physical and biogeochemical processes. Initial measurements of fallout Chernobyl radionuclides from a time-series sediment trap at 1,071 m during June-September 1986 in the southern Black Sea are presented. The specific activities of 137Cs, 144Ce and 106Ru in the trap samples (0.5-2, 4-12 and 6-13 Bq g-1) are independent of the particle flux while their relative activities reflect their rates of scavenging in the order Ce greater than Ru greater than Cs. PMID:3670387

  9. The impact of the Chernobyl accident on Syria

    The radioactive releases from the Chernobyl accident reached Syria on 7 May 1986. Levels of radioactive contamination in milk, soil, grass, etc, were measured using gamma spectrometry. Population dose by a number of routes was calculated. Projected doses were below the emergency action levels. (author)

  10. Medical preparedness: Chernobyl as a model for southeastern Michigan

    The Detroit Chapter of Physicians for Social Responsibility developed a project to evaluate the potential response of the local medical community to a small nuclear disaster involving radiation injuries. The model was patterned after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster of April 26, 1986. They surveyed the potential response to a hypothetical disaster at the Enrico Fermi II nuclear reactor located south of Detroit

  11. Chernobyl, a catastrophe. Few elements for an assessment

    In this book, the authors present Chernobyl reactor accident, take stock of its causes and consequences on population (radiation doses received), food chain and environment, the programs of population relocation and of area decontamination in Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation and the radionuclide migrations (Cesium 137, strontium 90)

  12. Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident

    Kouts, H.

    1986-09-24

    This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

  13. Characterization of overlay mark fidelity

    Adel, Mike; Ghinovker, Mark; Poplawski, Jorge M.; Kassel, Elyakim; Izikson, Pavel; Pollentier, Ivan K.; Leray, Philippe; Laidler, David W.

    2003-05-01

    In this publication we introduce a new metric for process robustness of overlay metrology in microelectronic manufacturing. By straightforward statistical analysis of overlay metrology measurements on an array of adjacent, nominally identical overlay targets the Overlay Mark Fidelity (OMF) can be estimated. We present the results of such measurements and analysis on various marks, which were patterned using a DUV scanner. The same reticle set was used to pattern wafers on different process layers and process conditions. By appropriate statistical analysis, the breakdown of the total OMF into a reticle-induced OMF component and a process induced OMF component was facilitated. We compare the OMF of traditional box-in-box overlay marks with that of new gratingbased overlay marks and show that in all cases the grating marks are superior. The reticle related OMF showed an improvement of 30 % when using the new grating-based overlay mark. Furthermore, in a series of wafers run through an STI-process with different Chemical Mechanical Polish (CMP) times, the random component of the OMF of the new grating-based overlay mark was observed to be 40% lower and 50% less sensitive to process variation compared with Box in Box marks. These two observations are interpreted as improved process robustness of the grating mark over box in box, specifically in terms of reduced site by site variations and reduced wafer to wafer variations as process conditions change over time. Overlay Mark Fidelity, as defined in this publication, is a source of overlay metrology uncertainty, which is statistically independent of the standard error contributors, i.e. precision, TIS variability, and tool to tool matching. Current overlay metrology budgeting practices do not take this into consideration when calculating total measurement uncertainty (TMU). It is proposed that this be reconsidered, given the tightness of overlay and overlay metrology budgets at the 70 nm design rule node and below.

  14. Health examination of residents and its task after the Chernobyl Nuclear power plant accident

    Described is the outline of health effects after the Chernobyl Accident (CA, Apr. 26, 1986) and of health examination/its future task, for learning to make use of means for the recent Fukushima Accident (FA). Total released radioactivity of the Level 7 CA is estimated to amount to 5.20 million TBq, 6-10 times as high as the same level of FA. Different from the Fukushima, no rapid means were taken by old Soviet Union to restrict the distribution and ingestion of contaminated foods, which was the major cause of internal radioiodine exposure. Afterward, in 1990s, WHO, European and other countries began to investigate CA, and markedly increased incidence of thyroid cancer was shown by health examination of 160 thousands children by a project of Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation. In 2006, WHO and IAEA evaluated published literatures to summarize health effects related directly or possibly unrelated to CA: as for thyroid cancer, its prevalence tended to move in adolescence or older, and surgery and therapy for metastasis with radioiodine were significantly effective to improve their prognosis; however, their long term follow-up and treatment are continuously needed. Not observed was the increased incidence of leukemia, which is different from A-bomb survivors, and other cancers as well as benign diseases, but resident's concern about their health and effects on the next generation is increasing. Currently, systems of self-monitoring of foods are being established by residents around Chernobyl. Instructions and means learned from CA and A-bomb experiences are applied to this FA, but assurance of health of all these concerned people should be a future task against its fading with time. (T.T.)

  15. 75 FR 81587 - Coding of Design Marks in Registrations

    2010-12-28

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Coding of Design Marks in Registrations AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and... old paper search designations. DATES: Comments must be received by January 27, 2011 to...

  16. Chernobyl: The true scale of the accident. 20 years later a UN report provides definitive answers and ways to repair lives

    A total of up to four thousand people could eventually die of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) accident nearly 20 years ago, an international team of more than 100 scientists has concluded. As of mid-2005, however, fewer than 50 deaths had been directly attributed to radiation from the disaster, almost all being highly exposed rescue workers, many who died within months of the accident but others who died as late as 2004. The new numbers are presented in a landmark digest report, 'Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts', just released by the Chernobyl Forum. The digest, based on a three-volume, 600-page report and incorporating the work of hundreds of scientists, economists and health experts, assesses the 20-year impact of the largest nuclear accident in history. The Forum is made up of 8 UN specialized agencies, including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA), United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and the World Bank, as well as the governments of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. The Forum's report aims to help the affected countries understand the true scale of the accident consequences and also suggest ways the governments of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia might address major economic and social problems stemming from the accident. Members of the Forum, including representatives of the three governments, will meet September 6 and 7 in Vienna at an unprecedented gathering of the world's experts on Chernobyl, radiation effects and protection, to consider these findings and recommendations

  17. Radioactive airborne particles from Chernobyl forest fires

    The spring and summer, 1992 within 30-km zone near Chernobyl NPP were very hot and dry. That lead to forest fires in May (4 ... 9,23 ... 25), July (28 ... 30) and August (10...12). The Cs-137 soil contamination density (SCD) was equal to 1...400 Ci/km2 at various forest sections of combustion. The stationary air samplers with capacity of 1500 m3/h were used for the monitoring of aerosol emissions during fires. These samplers were situated at a distance of 5...10km from fires boundaries. Smoke particles were collected by the fibrous filters FPP-15-1,5 (Russia). After exposure the activity of aerosols of Cs which deposited by a filter was measured by a gamma-spectrometer. For the separation of Sr-90 and isotopes of Pu the radiochemical analysis was used. It was found that the concentration of Cs-137 increased up to 10...100 times compare with open-quotes backgroundclose quotes one even at several km from fires. The concentration of Cs-137 inside of combustion zone was estimated could exceed the Russian maximum permissible one both for population (0.49 nCi/m3) and for professionals (14 nCi/m3) if the SCD will be more than 0.5 and 7 Ci/km2, respectively. It was measured that Cs-137/Sr-90 and Cs-137/Pu-238 ratios increase in fire emissions. It is obviously, that such enrichment was a consequense of radioactive cesium evaporation at temperature more than 500 C. The experimental forest fire was carry out in August, 1993 in Bryansk region (Russia). The forest section with area 50x50 m was selected. The SCD of Cs-137 was equal to 30 Ci/km2. The Cs-137 concentration during the day before the experiment was equal to 0.16pCi/m3. The concentration was varied from 1.6 to 15 pCi/m3 during the experiment. For the determination of particle sizes the filter pack technique (Budyka et al, 1993) was used. It was found that particle size distribution was a bimodal in plume

  18. Ecological lessons from the Chernobyl accident.

    Bell, J N B; Shaw, G

    2005-08-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 not only caused serious ecological problems in both the Ukraine and Belarus, which continue to the present day, but also contaminated a large part of the higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere. In this paper an overview is given of the latter problems in upland UK, where ecological problems still remain some 17 years after initial contamination. Following deposition of radiocaesium and radioiodine in May 1986, measurements of radioactivity in grass and soil indicated a rapidly declining problem as the radioiodine decayed and the radiocaesium became immobilised by attachment to clay particles. However, these studies, as well as the advice received by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, were based on lowland agricultural soils, with high clay and low organic matter contents. The behaviour of radiocaesium in upland UK turned out to be dominated by high and persistent levels of mobility and bioavailability. This resulted in the free passage of radiocaesium through the food chain and into sheep. Consequently the Ministry banned the sale and movement of sheep over large areas of upland Britain, with bans remaining on some farms to the present day. Present day predictions suggest that these bans will continue in some cases for some years to come. The causes of radiocaesium mobility in upland areas have subsequently been the subject of intense investigation centred around vegetation and, in particular, soil characteristics. Soil types were identified which were particularly vulnerable in this respect and, where these coincided with high levels of deposition, sheep bans tended to be imposed. While much of the earlier work suggested that a low clay content was the main reason for continuing mobility, a very high organic matter content is now also believed to play a major role, this being a characteristic of wet and acidic upland UK soils. The overall message from this affair is the importance of a fundamental

  19. Eleven years epidemiological investigation health effects among Chernobyl child victims

    Korol, N.; Dukhota, T. [Scientific Centre for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1998-07-01

    Epidemiological register of Chernobyl child victims was created in 1986 in Scientific Centre for Radiation Medicine. It includes most important, risk groups: evacuated children from Chernobyl's zone; children who were exposed with doses on thyroid gland more than 2 Gy; children who were exposed in utero; children who were born from clean-up workers. The annual clinical observation program includes: physical examination, biochemical and hematological analysis, ultrasound of thyroid gland and abdomen, psychological tests for children, social observation for parents. For coding ICD-9 was used. The observations indicate a deterioration of health status among the children victims of the Chernobyl disaster. The healthy children's number decreased from 31 % in 1987 to 8 % in 1997. The number of the invalids more than 4 times higher in comparison Ukrainian children. The annual prevalence all diseases including incidence, new cases, dramatically increased (from 5890.6 0/00 in 1989 to 9148.3 0/00 in 1997). The annual amount all diseases increased from 27100 0/00 in 1989 to 51971 0/00 in 1997. Most important increasing was in such part as digestive tract (from 5294 0/00 in 1989 to 10782 0/00 in 1997), blood diseases (from 927 0/00 in 1989 to 1471 0/00 in 1997), diseases nervous system (from 2373 0/00 in 1989 to 4152 0/00 in 1997). Relative risk was calculated in comparison with same age Ukrainian children for most important disorders: peptic (6.4), cardiovascular (5.3), nervous system (6.2), immune (5.3). Such diseases as digestion organ diseases, nervous system, skin and cardiovascular diseases are more prevalent among victims with psychological impact. All children victims Chernobyl disaster are at risk for psychosomatic disorders. Psychosomatic health promotion program will minimize significantly population health impact after Chernobyl as for children as for Ukrainian adult people. (authors)

  20. Contribution of Chernobyl accident to human contamination with strontium-90

    The Romanian surveys performed after the Chernobyl accident pointed out the environmental and diet contamination with 90 Sr at levels of one-two orders of magnitude higher than prior to the accident. Given the 90 Sr osteo-tropism we have been interested in its accumulation in the human teeth and bone. The search on 90 Sr accumulation in human teeth evidenced concentrations of 10.8 - 330 mBq/g Ca in milk teeth of young children born during 1986 - 1987 subsequent to Chernobyl. These values were 10-600 times higher than those obtained for permanent or deciduous teeth of all the other age groups or of the same age group born before Chernobyl. There was more 90 Sr activity concentration in ribs than in femur. The highest values of 90 Sr content (mBq/g Ca) were of 75-122 in ribs and 74-120 in femur for 7-10 years old group. These individuals were 0-3 years old during the period of greatest deposition. This age is by far the most critical years due to the heaviest uptake. Smaller concentration values were recorded for the age group older than 55, respectively of 3-20 in ribs and 3.3-10.2 in femur. Our data suggest that the Chernobyl accident did not lead to the increase of 90 Sr accumulation in adults. From the collective equivalent doses of 1500 manSv for bone surfaces and 680 manSv for active red marrow, a potential number of 4 radiation-induced fatal cancers in the studied population (5,2 mil.inh) has been estimated as attributable to Chernobyl accident

  1. Eleven years epidemiological investigation health effects among Chernobyl child victims

    Epidemiological register of Chernobyl child victims was created in 1986 in Scientific Centre for Radiation Medicine. It includes most important, risk groups: evacuated children from Chernobyl's zone; children who were exposed with doses on thyroid gland more than 2 Gy; children who were exposed in utero; children who were born from clean-up workers. The annual clinical observation program includes: physical examination, biochemical and hematological analysis, ultrasound of thyroid gland and abdomen, psychological tests for children, social observation for parents. For coding ICD-9 was used. The observations indicate a deterioration of health status among the children victims of the Chernobyl disaster. The healthy children's number decreased from 31 % in 1987 to 8 % in 1997. The number of the invalids more than 4 times higher in comparison Ukrainian children. The annual prevalence all diseases including incidence, new cases, dramatically increased (from 5890.6 0/00 in 1989 to 9148.3 0/00 in 1997). The annual amount all diseases increased from 27100 0/00 in 1989 to 51971 0/00 in 1997. Most important increasing was in such part as digestive tract (from 5294 0/00 in 1989 to 10782 0/00 in 1997), blood diseases (from 927 0/00 in 1989 to 1471 0/00 in 1997), diseases nervous system (from 2373 0/00 in 1989 to 4152 0/00 in 1997). Relative risk was calculated in comparison with same age Ukrainian children for most important disorders: peptic (6.4), cardiovascular (5.3), nervous system (6.2), immune (5.3). Such diseases as digestion organ diseases, nervous system, skin and cardiovascular diseases are more prevalent among victims with psychological impact. All children victims Chernobyl disaster are at risk for psychosomatic disorders. Psychosomatic health promotion program will minimize significantly population health impact after Chernobyl as for children as for Ukrainian adult people. (authors)

  2. Reconstruction of the Chernobyl emergency and accident management

    Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1986 the most serious civil technological accident in the history of mankind occurred of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the former Soviet Union. As a direct result of the accident, the reactor was severely destroyed and large quantities of radionuclides were released. Some 800000 persons, also called 'liquidators' - including plant operators, fire-fighters, scientists, technicians, construction workers, emergency managers, volunteers, as well as medical and military personnel - were part of emergency measurements and accident management efforts. Activities included measures to prevent the escalation of the accident, mitigation actions, help for victims as well as activities in order to provide a basic infrastructure for this unprecedented and overwhelming task. The overall goal of the 'Project Chernobyl' of the Institute of Risk Research of the University of Vienna was to preserve for mankind the experience and knowledge of the experts among the 'liquidators' before it is lost forever. One method used to reconstruct the emergency measures of Chernobyl was the direct cooperation with liquidators. Simple questionnaires were distributed among liquidators and a database of leading accident managers, engineers, medical experts etc. was established. During an initial struggle with a number of difficulties, the response was sparse. However, after an official permit had been issued, the questionnaires delivered a wealth of data. Furthermore a documentary archive was established, which provided additional information. The multidimensional problem in connection with the severe accident of Chernobyl, the clarification of the causes of the accident, as well as failures and successes and lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl emergency measures and accident management are discussed. (authors)

  3. Regional distribution of Chernobyl-derived plutonium deposition in Finland

    The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in April 1986 caused a widely spread plume of radionuclides containing, amongst other materials, plutonium isotopes. The regional deposition of these nuclides in Finland has been assessed, based on samples of lichen, peat, precipitation, surface soil and grass. Unlike the deposition of transuranium elements from the weapons tests in the 1950's and the 1960's, the deposition in Finland from the Chernobyl accident was very unevenly distributed. Even then, the Chernobyl-derived deposition of 239,240Pu in the most contaminated regions of Finland was only around 10% of the global fallout from weapons tests. The total amount of 239,240Pu deposited in Finland was 1 x 1011 Bq (∼25 g), i.e., approximately half of a percent of the activity deposited in the 1950's and the 1960's. In addition to the alpha-emitting Pu isotopes, the Chernobyl plume also contained a significant amount of the beta-emitting 241Pu, which is the precursor of the long-lived alpha-emitter 241Am. The highest plutonium deposition values were found in a relatively narrow swath from the southwestern coast of Finland northeastwards across the country. This is related to the calculated route of the air parcel trajectory associated with the initial explosion of the Chernobyl reactor. The high deposition values found in the northeastern part of the plume route over Finland can be attributed to the simultaneous occurrence of precipitation. The relatively high plutonium deposition in the southwestern part of Finland occurred, however, without concurrent precipitation. This indicates that the plutonium was at least partly associated with relatively large particles having a substantial deposition velocity due to gravitational setting. (author)

  4. Thyroid exposure in Ukrainian and White Russian children following the Chernobyl disaster and the resultant risk of acquiring thyroid cancer

    After a presentation of the main strong and weak points of various studies on the risk of acquiring thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl disaster this study summarises the results of a recent ecological study. 175,800 measurements of 131I activity in the human thyroid gland performed in the contaminated regions of the Ukraine and White Russia during the first weeks after the Chernobyl disaster served as a starting point for this study on thyroid exposure in Ukrainian and White Russian children following the Chernobyl disaster and the resultant risk of acquiring thyroid cancer. More than 10 measurements were performed in each of altogether 1,114 locations. Age and sex-specific doses were calculated for each of these locations within the 1968-85 birth cohort. 95% of all dose values were within the range of 0.017 to 0.69 Gy. Since 1990 the incidence of thyroid cancer within the study area has increased at a markedly higher rate than one would expect on the basis of the cohort members' growing age. In the period from 1990 to 2001 1,091 cases of surgery for thyroid cancer were reported. The additional absolute risk per 104 PY Gy was calculated as 2.5 (95% CI: 2.3;2.9). The additional relative risk per dose was calculated as 10 (95% CI: 8;12) Gy-1. These results are consistent with risk values found for thyroid cancer after external exposure during childhood. Assuming that the calculated risk values also apply for the intervention level of 0.05 Gy at which iodine tablets are distributed in the event of a major release of radioiodide this means that within the period of 4 to 15 years following the exposure 3 additional cases of thyroid cancer are expected to occur within a collective of 20,000 children and adolescents. This is equivalent to a 50% increase in the spontaneous incidence of the disease

  5. INTERNATIONAL ASSESSMENTS OF IMPACTS OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT: THE CHERNOBYL FORUM (2003–2005 AND UNSCEAR (2005–2008

    M. I. Balonov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Radiological consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP were recently revisited by the UN Chernobyl Forum (2003-2005 and UNSCEAR (2005-2008. For the first time environmental impacts were considered in detail, including radioactive contamination of terrestrial and aquatic environments, application and effectiveness of countermeasures and effects on biota. Updated dosimetric data were presented for more than half a million of emergency and recovery operation workers, about 100 million inhabitants of the three most affected countries, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, and for 500 million inhabitants of other European countries. Several hundred of the emergency workers received high radiation doses; of whom 28 persons died in 1986 due to acute radiation sickness. Children at the time of the accident, who drank milk with high levels of radioactive iodine, received high doses to the thyroid. Since early 1990s there was the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among them. Also in 1990s there was some increase of leukaemia in most exposed workers. The UN Chernobyl Forum concluded that severe social and economic depression of the affected regions and associated psychological problems of the general public and the workers had become the most significant problem. The vast majority of the population need not live in fear of serious health consequences from the Chernobyl accident.

  6. Primary disability and its structure at liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences in post-Chernobyl period

    The primary disability in persons participated in Chernobyl catastrophe liquidation was studied for 1986-1987, for 1988 and for 1994-2000. The structure of the disease caused the primary disability of those persons was analyzed. The primary invalidity indices were determined to increase for certain nosologic forms such as for the blood circulation disease, malignant neoplasms, eye pathology (authors)

  7. Temporary Agency Workers: Social Characteristics and Employment

    Irina Kozina

    2012-01-01

    The article is devoted to new forms of employment being formed under conditions of agency work (or leasing labour). The human capital theory postulates that marginal social groups are mainly involved into temporary agency work which doesn’t provide workers with social guarantees. It can be found on the lowest step of the social ladder. So, social costs of increase in labour market flexibility may be very high and show up discrimination of agency workers, pushing them away from the labour mark...

  8. Long-term consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe and remediation programs in Russia

    Unprecedented scale of radiological emergency at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) has set us a package of the most difficult tasks aimed to eliminate negative consequences and remediate a normal life in contaminated areas. Due to the accident, above 56,000 square meters of the Russian Federation's territory, including about two million hectares of agricultural lands and about one million hectares of forest resources, were radioactively contaminated. The four regions, namely the Bryansk/Kaluga/Orel/Tula regions, were contaminated to the most extent. About three million people lived in those areas. More than 52,000 citizens were relocated in an organized way or resettled independently. Above 200,000 citizens of Russia were involved in elimination of emergency effects. The Russian Federation (RF) Government has charged EMERCOM of Russia to coordinate activities on mitigation of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The Ministry has undertaken the functions of a state customer of federal target programs for elimination of effects of radiological emergencies and catastrophes. Federal ministries and agencies, as well as executive authorities of the RF subjects are involved in implementation of the programs. Since 1998, joint Russian-Byelorussian projects to mitigate effects of the Chernobyl catastrophe have been under way. Large-scale work on radiological/medical/social protection for the citizens and remediation of the lands has been performed within the scope of federal target programs. Since 1991, more than 5 billion USD has been spent on the activities to eliminate consequences of the accident, as well as to pay out benefits and compensations. The key element of EMERCOM's policy is to comprehend the role of a radiation factor in the entire package of vital objectives. The result of it is that protective actions are directed towards the most contaminated areas and priority attention is focused on the development of a social sphere and health care. The main

  9. Health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    An assessment of the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Northern Hemisphere is presented in this report. It relies heavily on the USSR report presented to the International Atomic Energy Agency. There are gaps in present knowledge and, in some areas, uncertainties may never be completely resolved. What is clearly apparent at this time, however, is that on a large regional scale, the estimates of collective dose have a reasonable level of confidence. The associated potential health impacts have also been projected, together with a range of estimates. A brief description of the tragic consequences to the heroic firefighting and rescue personnel is also provided, and valuable insights regarding acute exposures are developed. Much early effort was expended on estimation of the source term, especially for radiocesium and radioiodine. Several independent analyses are presented that are in reasonable agreement. Atmospheric transport of the radioactive material and its subsequent deposition provide a documented ''umbrella'' of the distributions that form the basic integration of this assessment. The estimates of radiological doses to selected Northern Hemisphere populations were employed in developing an integrated risk assessment of potential latent health effects using the most current models, parameters and risk coefficients. The estimates presented include lower- and upper-bound values, as well as the ''best'' or most realistic ranges. While many scientists believe that minuscule increases in risks to large populations are impossible to prove, it is essential that the magnitude of these possible risks be presented, if only to put an upper limit on the situation. It must be emphasized that while these are ''potential'' health effects, the values presented represent our best current assessment of the health and environmental detriment caused by the Chernobyl accident. 72 refs., 37 figs., 91 tabs

  10. Agency doctorates

    Mr. Wen-chuan Li of China has become the first student to obtain a doctor's degree as a result of research work carried out in the Agency. Mr. Li, who is 33, graduated as a Bachelor of Agriculture at Taiwan Provincial Chung-hsing University in 1960 and in 1966 was granted a fellowship to study mutations in plant breeding at the Agency's Seibersdorf Laboratory near Vienna, under the direction of Dr. Knut Mikaelsen, a professor of the University of Bergen. The Hochschule fur Bodenkultur of Vienna accepted the research as being suitable for a thesis and have now granted the degree of Doctor of Agriculture. The subject of the thesis was modifying factors influencing the mutagenic effects of alkylating agents as compared with ionizing radiations in barley. Alkylating agents are involved in the use of chemicals as a means of changing the characteristics of seeds to bring about changes aimed at improving the quality of crops. Mr. Li's work is regarded as a significant contribution to the understanding of the mechanics by which mutations are induced, to the efficient use of chemicals and ionizing radiations in practical applications, and to the efforts of the Agency in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization to benefit food supplies. Mr. Li has now completed his fellowship with the Agency and has been appointed an Assistant Professor in Plant Breeding at Taiwan Provincial Chung-hsing University. The photograph, taken in the plastic hot house at Seibersdorf, shows him studying rice plants grown from seeds subjected to irradiation. Another noteworthy achievement is that of Mr. Karl-Franz Lacina, a security guard at the Agency's headquarters. At the age of 50 he has been accorded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Vienna University, the result of six years' work in his leisure time. The major subject was Arabic, with French and philosophy as supporting subject. (author)

  11. Eesti vajab riigiarhitekti / Mark Soosaar

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    2006-01-01

    Linnade tekkimisest Eestis, linnaehitusest ja linnaplaneerimisest. Pärnu muinsuskaitsealast ja uute korruselamute ehitamisest. Arhitektuuriameti loomise ja riigiarhitekti ametikoha vajalikkusest. Kommenteerivad Ülar Mark, Triin Ojari, Harry Liivrand, Karin Paulus

  12. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Radiological Protection and Human Health Div. (DRPH), Radiobiology and Epidemiology Dept., 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Kellerer, A.M. [Munchen Univ., Strahlenbiologisches Institut (Germany); Bazyka, D. [Chornobyl Center (CC), Kiev regoin (Ukraine)

    2006-07-01

    - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a

  13. Marks on the petroleum fiscality

    This document offers some marks on the petroleum fiscality in France: the taxes as the 'accises' and the 'TVA', the part of the taxes in the sale price at the service station, the comparison with other countries of Europe, the tax revenues and the Government budget. It provides also marks on the fuels prices formation (margins), the world petroleum markets (supply and demand) and the part of the petroleum companies on the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  14. Scientific decision of the Chernobyl accident problems (results of 1997)

    In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1997 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and ground of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; optimisation of the system of measures for preservation of health of the victim population and development of ways for increase of it effectiveness; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, treatment and burial of radioactive wastes; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological monitoring in the republic and scientific methodical ways of it fulfilling; study of effects of low doze irradiation and combined influences, search

  15. The comparison of generic model predictions with Chernobyl fallout data on the transfer of radioiodine over the air-pasture-cow-milk pathway

    Data have been collected on concentrations of 131I in air, vegetation and milk from numerous locations receiving Chernobyl fallout. Time-integrated concentrations derived from these data are used to compare predictions from generic models used for routine environmental radiological assessments. In general, the models markedly overestimated the transfer of 131I over the air-grass-cow-milk pathway. The reasons for this overestimation of the dry deposition velocity assumed for elemental 131I, overestimation of the interception and retention of wet-deposited 131I by pasture vegetation and overestimation of the cow's diet-to-milk transfer coefficient appear to be most important. The low transfer of Chernobyl 131I from air to milk indicates that the direct inhalation of contaminated air by humans may be more important in determining the 131I exposure to large populations than the consumption of contaminated cow's milk. Radiological assessments conducted prior to the Chernobyl accident have typically assumed that 131I exposure would be dominated by the consumption of milk. The consumption of milk, however, is still of dominant importance for the exposure of critical population subgroups composed of infants and small children. (author)

  16. Development of information resources package for the Chernobyl accident and its consequences by INIS

    The Chernobyl accident was a global catastrophe that captured global attention and as such literature on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences is an important subject covered by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. The INIS Database contains about 21000 bibliographic records and 9000 full text documents on this subject from 1986 up to August 2006. Based on these extensive resources INIS released a DVD that contained bibliographic references and full text documents as well a bibliometric study of the Chernobyl references on the occasion of the International Conference entitled 'Chernobyl: Looking Back to Go Forwards' held in Vienna on 6 and 7 September 2005. Subsequently, INIS decided to release Revision 1 of the DVD in August 2006 for the twentieth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident with additional value added information sources. This paper briefly discusses the bibliometric parameters of the references, the contents of DVD and the activities undertaken to produce the Chernobyl information resources package

  17. Accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Getting over the consequences and lessons learned

    The book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of the accident on the 4th Power Unit of the Chernobyl NPP. The power plant construction history, accident reasons, its consequences, the measures on its liquidation are represented. The current state of activity on the Chernobyl power unit decommission, the 'Shelter' object conversion into the ecologically safe system is described. The future of the Chernobyl NPP site and disposal zone is discussed

  18. 'The star called Wormwood': the cause and effect of the Chernobyl catastrophe

    The explosion of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in 1986 astounded the world. It was shocking not just because of the technical failure - unfortunately such things happen from time to time - but as a social and political failure. The Chernobyl catastrophe undermined and exposed the false, vicious and inhumane Soviet totalitarian system. The Chernobyl explosion initiated the disintegration of the corrupt Communist regime - a regime which had been deemed unshakeable in the USSR. (author)

  19. Creative agency

    McKinlay, Andrew Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is about the agency involved with creativity. I am concerned particularly with the process of Insight Based Problem Solving (IBPS). IBPS is a problem solving process that is associated with a particular phenomenal experience, of sudden enlightenment, where new content arrives when the individual problem solver is not intentionally considering the problem at hand. The moment of insight is intuitively involuntary and as I argue for in chapter 1, is not successfully incor...

  20. The Academy of Medical Sciences scientific meeting: Radiation, health and Chernobyl London, 10 October 2001

    2001 marks the 15th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. The Academy of Medical Sciences thought it appropriate to present some of the findings from studies of the people who were exposed to fallout from the accident, and to discuss these in the light of recent advances in the understanding of the way in which radiation can interact with the genome. The meeting was organised by Dillwyn Williams, Cambridge, and Alec Jeffreys, Leicester, who each chaired a session. In the first presentation, Roger Cox (NRPB) pointed out that although risk was usually presented on a population basis following radiation exposure, it was important to remember that inter-individual variation could be relevant when considering cancer risk to individuals. Eric Wright (Dundee) described clonal experiments using haemopoietic stem cells which illustrated that de novo genetic changes could arise in the progeny of surviving irradiated target cells. This induction of persistent transmissible genomic instability has been observed in vitro and in vivo and for a range of mutational endpoints. Two presentations were given by Yuri Dubrova (Leicester). In the first he described mouse studies which indicated that paternal irradiation could induce instability in hypervariable tandem repeat minisatellite loci in the germ line. Not only was this seen as an increase in paternally derived alleles in the F1, but the instability seemed to persist in the F1 germ line resulting in increased mutation frequencies in the F2 and subsequently in the F3 generation. Dillwyn Williams described the initial scepticism which greeted reports of increases in childhood thyroid cancer following the Chernobyl accident and how these only became accepted following confirmation of diagnoses by a number of western groups. It is now recognised that between 1990 and 1997 there was an approximate 30-fold increase in childhood thyroid cancer in the most heavily contaminated areas, although the number of cases has now started to

  1. International conference. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects

    Proceedings of the International Conference on the mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects was introduced.The questions connected with: 1. Mental health disorders biological basis after ionizing radiation influence; 2. Psychiatric aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 3. Social stress following contradictory information: ways for its overcoming; 4. Rehabilitation and prophylactic measures for mental and nervous disorders. Psycho social rehabilitation of survivors; 5. Psychosomatic effects and somato-neurological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster; 6. Psychosomatic health of children and adolescents survivors of the Chernobyl disaster; 7. Brain damage as result of prenatal irradiation

  2. 78 FR 58604 - Safety Advisory: Unauthorized Marking of Compressed Gas Cylinders

    2013-09-24

    ... Gas Cylinders AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION... unauthorized marking of high pressure compressed gas cylinders by Beauchesne Fire Equipment located at 21... and special permit cylinders as requalified in accordance with the Hazardous Materials...

  3. 77 FR 64590 - Safety Advisory: Unauthorized Marking of Compressed Gas Cylinders

    2012-10-22

    ... Gas Cylinders AGENCY: Pipeline and hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION... unauthorized marking of high pressure compressed gas cylinders by George Welding & Supply Co., Inc. located at... compressed gas cylinders with unauthorized Requalifier Identification Numbers (RIN). In addition,...

  4. Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident

    The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden

  5. International Union of Radioecology response to the Chernobyl radioecological situation

    International Union of Radioecology (UIR) main objective, as NGO and international scientific association of more than 500 members working in 255 organizations from 37 different countries, is to encourage the exchange of information and expertise in the field of radioecology, particularly in case of major accidental release of radioactive materials, such as the Chernobyl accident (1986 April, 26th) which based the problem of a contamination on a large scale. This primary objective of UIR is not restricted to information on the transfer of important radionuclides in the environment but includes information which can aid in understanding the impact of radiation exposure on populations of living organisms and ecosystems. The response of UIR to the Chernobyl accidental situation occurred in various members taking advantage of the structure and the potential of the organization

  6. On the transport of Chernobyl radioactivity to Eastern Canada

    A large number of radionuclides released by the Chernobyl nuclear reactor were detected in air and river water samples collected in the Quebec region of eastern Canada. Analysis of the data supports the view that three waves of airborne radioactivity entered eastern Canada between 6 May 1986 and the end of June 1986. The first two waves would have followed an Arctic route and arrived over Quebec on 6 May and around 14 May respectively. The third wave would have been carried by the prevailing winds across the Pacific Ocean and arrived over Quebec around 25-26 May. On 25 June and thereafter. Chernobyl radioactivity was undetectable in our air filters but was still being detected in the St Lawrence river in March 1987. (author)

  7. Social and economic impact of Chernobyl in Turkey

    The radiological impact of the Chernobyl accident in terms of doses to individuals in the various countries covered a wide range. The specific features of the release of radioactive material from the Chernobyl accident, particularly its relatively large duration and altitude reached by the radioactive plume, caused a widespread distribution of activity across Europe. Meteorological conditions and wind regimes during the period of release were the contributing factors. The varying distances from the source of release and long duration of the release in different directions resulted in uneven ground and foodchain contamination. Also, variable meteorological situation, characterized by frequent and localized heavy precipitation contributed to uneven deposition differs sometimes by one or two orders of magnitude between localities situated few tens of kilometers apart. In these circumstances, the doses to the individuals of critical groups appeared to be higher than the average individual dose over whole population

  8. Report of the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident

    The accident, which occurred on April 26 of 1986 at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic of the Soviet Union, was the unprecedented accident in terms of, among other things, structural damages given to the reactor, an amount of radioactive materials released to the environment, and a number of casualties resulting from the accident. Investigation and analysis of the accident were conducted at JAERI by forming the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident within the organization under which Task Group A was responsible for the design and characteristics of the reactor and the accident sequence and Task Group B was responsible for behavior of radioactive materials and radiological consequences to the environment. The present report is the summary of the investigations and analyses which were carried out by the committee. (author)

  9. 15 years after Chernobyl. Nuclear power and climate change?

    Fifteen years after two massive explosions and a subsequent fire released a giant radioactive cloud into the atmosphere over the Chernobyl nuclear power plant located in what used to be the USSR, 388 farms with 230,000 sheep in Wales, England and Scotland are still subject to restriction orders. The contamination levels stand at several hundred Becquerels of cesium per kilogram of meat, too much to be consumed by human beings. The sheep have to be moved for some time to low or non-contaminated pastures in order to allow the bodies to loose some of their radioactivity before they can be slaughtered. For many countries the 1986 Chernobyl catastrophe came a public turning point for the future of nuclear energy. (author)

  10. Chernobyl: what sanitary consequences?; Tchernobyl: quelles consequences sanitaires?

    Aurengo, A. [Assistance Publique, Hopitaux de Parix (AP-HP), 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-11-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  11. National Chernobyl registry of Russia: Radiation risks analysis

    Ten years have elapsed after the Chernobyl accident. The problem concerning the estimation of the total integral damage to life and health of people exposed to radiation remains very complicated. A negative influence of the Chernobyl included a spectrum of factors which may reinforce each other. In particular, to date there are no theoretical models or practical recommendations on integral estimating the contribution of social and psycho-emotional factors to the risks of diseases due to radiological accidents. On the other hand, for maximum effective rehabilitation of suffered people the ranging and impartial determination of contribution both of proper radiation and non-radiation components of influence are needed. Therefore, continuation of long-standing investigations is of great practical importance to diminish health consequences of the accident. 5 refs, 7 figs, 4 tabs

  12. Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs from Burgenland after Chernobyl

    About 500 samples of foodstuffs, drinking water and grass from Burgenland (an eastern province of Austria) were measured by the author's institution in May to August 1986. Burgenland and generally the east of Austria had, with respect to the Chernobyl fallout, an advantage against other parts of Austria, due to low rainfall and favorable winds in the days after the Chernobyl accident. The activities were generally below the legal limits for drinking water and higher than these in few cases in foodstuffs and grass. The legal limits for activity concentrations in foodstuffs and drinking water for the elements iodine 131, cesium 134, cesium 137 and strontium 90 are listed in an appendix. 2 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Chernobyl: the true, the possible and the false

    This report discusses the health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. It also highlights the misunderstanding associated with the use by the media of different radioactivity measurement units. It comments some figures about casualties, and the fact that some much higher figures are often stated. It evokes the issue of thyroid cancer in children of the region, discusses other possible public health consequences, the issue of congenital anomalies, the opinion of French physicists on the increase of thyroid cancers in France, and the question of the discrimination between spontaneous and radio-induced cancers. A second part discusses the risk of cancer and its perception in France: validity of the soil contamination assessment, possibility of an accident like Chernobyl and Fukushima in France

  14. The Chernobyl accident: bibliography of the science literature

    Information about the scientific publications in 1986-1995 on the problems of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident is presented in the book. A significant, unique actual material about results of radiation influence on men, animals, vegetative world and other components of an environment is collected to the present of time. Radiation dozes are determined and combined influence of the both radiation and chemical factors is investigated, clinical epidemiological and genetic estimation of a condition of health of the population is given. Agriculture technologies for conditions of radioactive contamination are developed and used. Normative base for both decontamination works and radioactive wastes storage is created. These and other problems are reflected in the publications described in the collection. The following sections are available: Radiobiology and radioecology (1445 refs.); Radiation medicine (703 refs.); Agriculture radiology (194 refs.); Decontamination and radioactive wastes storage (86 refs.); Economic consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident (36 refs.); Social and psychological problems (39 refs.)

  15. SOME HEALTH INDEXES OF CHERNOBYL LIQUIDATORS (DELAYED EFFECTS

    O. V. Baranova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Twelve to twenty years after the Chernobyl accident, liquidators that have been exposed to a wide range of doses (200-890 mSv show radiophobia. The achieved level of adaptation to life is associated with overstrain in emotional and somatic spheres. At relatively higher exposure levels, morbidity is increased, specially pathology of the cardiovascular system. Growth in the number of cataracts is absent, but involutional changes of retina vessels are increased. Suppression of innate and acquired humoral and cellular immunity and autoallergic shifts play significant role in the identified health problems. Disorders of immunity and health of the liquidators in the remote period after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant is due to the combined effect of low radiation doses, psychological stress and other factors of non-radiation nature.

  16. Belarus: Towards a new post-Chernobyl rehabilitation strategy

    Today, Belarus still has to deal with many problems that resulted owing to the extensive contamination of its territory after the Chernobyl accident. These problems remain omnipresent in everyday life of the affected population and have a continuous impact on the economic well being of the country. This paper describes the major changes that have been carried out in the rehabilitation strategies in Belarus since the Chernobyl accident. The evolution of the legal and administrative framework for rehabilitation and actions taken in this context over the past two decades are summarized. The continuing challenges faced by the population in the affected areas are discussed and the key principles underlying rehabilitation strategies (that are both practicable and accepted) are identified. The latter include openness, voluntary participation, collective decision-making and empowerment of local population and professionals. These principles have underpinned the development of recent national and international initiatives that are described. (authors)

  17. Ecosystem remediation in radioactively polluted areas. The Chernobyl experience

    The ecosystems of Chernobyl nuclear accident zone, having been deeply transformed by normal long-term agricultural and forestry activity, have been damaged by irradiation after the nuclear accident of 1986 and then influenced by post-accident countermeasures. Ecosystem remediation is being undertaken in this area, including maintenance of the forests, artificial afforestation, and processes of spontaneous self-restoration of the natural coenoses. Both natural and artificial remediation of the landscapes and ecosystems at the abandoned territory improves their capacity to retain radionuclides and their ability to stabilise the processes of redistribution of radionuclides and their spread in the environment. The Chernobyl zone is a territory of great importance for studying ecosystem remediation processes and elaborating on ecological engineering technologies to correct serious environmental problems arising from radionuclides release

  18. Chernobyl tenth anniversary: strategy for response, organisation, examples and results

    Each anniversary of the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, Ukraine, in April 1986, is accompanied by considerable activity on the part of the press and the anti-nuclear industry. In the course of such activity, many distortions of the true situation in the area are promulgated. It was clear to the nuclear industry that the tenth anniversary would be especially difficult. Hence the international nuclear community, under the leadership of the British Nuclear Industry Forum, constituted a Task Force to consider responses to the anniversary. This paper describes the essential steps in setting up the Task Force; discusses the main elements of the strategy which emerged, including the Chernobyl Fact Sheets, the identification of credible third parties who could explain key issues with the media, and the secondment of a British press officer to the plant to coordinate international visits; and evaluate press response to the anniversary in comparison with previous anniversaries. (author)

  19. Root causes of the Chernobyl accident: hindsight through years

    The objective of the article was not to evaluate the status of nuclear safety in this country. We wished to raise another question analysing the Chernobyl accident occurred in April 1986 is not the end in itself and the analysis must not be retrospective. The objective is to draw the normal for nuclear safety nowadays and in the future in order to prevent the very possibility of another accident entailing severe radiological consequences. In our opinion, discussions on any details of physical and thermohydraulic processes occurred in April 1986 can and even must be the matter of due consideration. There are all the reasons to state that no due conclusions were drawn in Ukraine further to the analysis of the Chernobyl accident causes

  20. Meeting psychological needs after Chernobyl: the Red Cross experience.

    Revel, J P

    2001-12-01

    The explosion that took place in reactor number 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on April 26, 1986 triggered the worst civilian nuclear disaster ever reported. Following requests for assistance by the Red Cross National Societies of Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia, the International Federation of Red Cross Societies set up the Chernobyl Humanitarian Assistance and Rehabilitation Program in 1990. Although the initial needs assessment mission mentioned psychological needs as an area of interest, it was not until 1997 that the first Psycho-Social Support pilot project started in Belarus. Objectives and strategy for the psycho-social support program are detailed, as well as the challenges currently faced by the program. The specific role of the media is also reviewed. Finally, the lessons learned from this experience are reviewed, and suggestions are made for future disaster planning. PMID:11778421

  1. Immediate medical consequences of nuclear accidents: lessons from Chernobyl

    The immediate medical response to the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station involved containment of the radioactivity and evacuation of the nearby population. The next step consisted of assessment of the radiation dose received by individuals, based on biological dosimetry, and treatment of those exposed. Medical care involved treatment of skin burns; measures to support bone marrow failure, gastrointestinal tract injury, and other organ damage (i.e., infection prophylaxis and transfusions) for those with lower radiation dose exposure; and bone marrow transplantation for those exposed to a high dose of radiation. At Chernobyl, two victims died immediately and 29 died of radiation or thermal injuries in the next three months. The remaining victims of the accident are currently well. A nuclear accident anywhere is a nuclear accident everywhere. Prevention and cooperation in response to these accidents are essential goals

  2. Aerial contamination agroecosystems following the accident at Chernobyl NPP

    The regularities of the aerial contamination of agricultural ecosystems are described in the early period after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The aerial contamination is shown to be caused by the development of the above-ground biomass of plants and fallout characteristics. A specific coefficient of primary retention varied between 0.7 and 1.89 for 131In and between 0.46 and 1.2 m2 kg-1 for 137Cs. The first half-life period varies from 9.7 to 13.4 days. The second period varies from 46.2 to 52.2 days. It has been found that parameters of aerial contamination from the Chernobyl accident well correlate with the results of observation in the period of global fallout

  3. Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. An overview of the report is provided. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general

  4. 15 years after Chernobyl. Nuclear power and climate change?

    Schneider, M

    2001-04-01

    Fifteen years after two massive explosions and a subsequent fire released a giant radioactive cloud into the atmosphere over the Chernobyl nuclear power plant located in what used to be the USSR, 388 farms with 230,000 sheep in Wales, England and Scotland are still subject to restriction orders. The contamination levels stand at several hundred Becquerels of cesium per kilogram of meat, too much to be consumed by human beings. The sheep have to be moved for some time to low or non-contaminated pastures in order to allow the bodies to loose some of their radioactivity before they can be slaughtered. For many countries the 1986 Chernobyl catastrophe came a public turning point for the future of nuclear energy. (author)

  5. The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece

    In this report the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The flow pattern to Greece of the radioactive materials released, the measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some estimations of the population doses and of the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

  6. About the causes and circumstances of the Chernobyl NPP accident

    The Chernobyl accident is the product of unsatisfactory solutions to scientific-technical, socio-economic and human problems. The documentarily recorded power excursion of the reactor and its rise velocity as well as the quick pressure rise in the separator drum admit the conclusion that the cause of the accident was the rapid power excursion of the reactor and not some external influence. (DG)

  7. Gene signature of the post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid cancer

    Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria; Rusinek, Dagmara; Oczko-Wojciechowska, Malgorzata; Kowalska, Malgorzata; Jarzab, Barbara [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Swierniak, Michal [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Medical University of Warsaw, Genomic Medicine, Department of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery, Warsaw (Poland); Dom, Genevieve; Maenhaut, Carine; Detours, Vincent [Universite libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Institute of Interdisciplinary Research, Bruxelles (Belgium); Unger, Kristian [Imperial College London Hammersmith Hospital, Human Cancer Studies Group, Division of Surgery and Cancer, London (United Kingdom); Helmholtz-Zentrum, Research Unit Radiation Cytogenetics, Munich (Germany); Bogdanova, Tetiana [Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kiev (Ukraine); Thomas, Geraldine [Imperial College London Hammersmith Hospital, Human Cancer Studies Group, Division of Surgery and Cancer, London (United Kingdom); Likhtarov, Ilya [Academy of Technological Sciences of Ukraine, Radiation Protection Institute, Kiev (Ukraine); Jaksik, Roman [Silesian University of Technology, Systems Engineering Group, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Informatics, Gliwice (Poland); Chmielik, Ewa [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Department of Tumour Pathology, Gliwice (Poland); Jarzab, Michal [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, IIIrd Department of Radiation Therapy, Gliwice (Poland); Swierniak, Andrzej [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Automatic Control, Gliwice (Poland)

    2016-07-15

    Following the nuclear accidents in Chernobyl and later in Fukushima, the nuclear community has been faced with important issues concerning how to search for and diagnose biological consequences of low-dose internal radiation contamination. Although after the Chernobyl accident an increase in childhood papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) was observed, it is still not clear whether the molecular biology of PTCs associated with low-dose radiation exposure differs from that of sporadic PTC. We investigated tissue samples from 65 children/young adults with PTC using DNA microarray (Affymetrix, Human Genome U133 2.0 Plus) with the aim of identifying molecular differences between radiation-induced (exposed to Chernobyl radiation, ECR) and sporadic PTC. All participants were resident in the same region so that confounding factors related to genetics or environment were minimized. There were small but significant differences in the gene expression profiles between ECR and non-ECR PTC (global test, p < 0.01), with 300 differently expressed probe sets (p < 0.001) corresponding to 239 genes. Multifactorial analysis of variance showed that besides radiation exposure history, the BRAF mutation exhibited independent effects on the PTC expression profile; the histological subset and patient age at diagnosis had negligible effects. Ten genes (PPME1, HDAC11, SOCS7, CIC, THRA, ERBB2, PPP1R9A, HDGF, RAD51AP1, and CDK1) from the 19 investigated with quantitative RT-PCR were confirmed as being associated with radiation exposure in an independent, validation set of samples. Significant, but subtle, differences in gene expression in the post-Chernobyl PTC are associated with previous low-dose radiation exposure. (orig.)

  8. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This report examines the scientific, organizational and financial aspects of the programme and describes the action taken by the WHO for its development

  9. Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl.

    Ginzburg, H M; Reis, E.

    1991-01-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to m...

  10. The psychological effects of Chernobyl on the victims

    Social and psychological post-effects of Chernobyl disaster have turned out one of the most unpredicted unexpectedness by scale and extent in the post-catastrophe period. Mass socio-psychological interviewing of all categories of the victims has been conducted by questionnaire. Survey method is the interview. There has been fixed the ''psychological tiredness'' due to permanent stress situation. Methods of mass and socio-psychological rehabilitation are limited effectiveness, without improving political and economical situation in the country

  11. Infant leukaemia after the Chernobyl accident; and reply

    In a correspondence concerning the incidence of infant leukemia in Germany and Greece, a disagreement is aired over the possible link between increased incidence and the fallout from Chernobyl reactor accident. Data are presented to demonstrate that observations made in Germany show no link between in utero exposure to ionising radiation from the fallout and increased infant leukemia. This conflicts with the findings published earlier by other researchers working on observations made in Greece. These researchers defend their initial conclusions. (UK)

  12. Infant leukaemia after the Chernobyl accident; and reply

    Michaelis, J.; Kaletsch, U. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Statistik und Dokumentation; Burkart, W.; Grosche, B. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene; Petridou, E.; Trichopoulos, D. [Harvard Center for Cancer Prevention, Boston, MA (United States); Dessypris, N.; Flytzani, V.; Haidas, S.; Kalmanti, M.; Koliouskas, D.; Kosmidis, H.; Piperopoulou, F.; Tzortzatou, F.

    1997-05-15

    In a correspondence concerning the incidence of infant leukemia in Germany and Greece, a disagreement is aired over the possible link between increased incidence and the fallout from Chernobyl reactor accident. Data are presented to demonstrate that observations made in Germany show no link between in utero exposure to ionising radiation from the fallout and increased infant leukemia. This conflicts with the findings published earlier by other researchers working on observations made in Greece. These researchers defend their initial conclusions. (UK).

  13. Twenty Two Years after Chernobyl Accident Medical Aspect

    Chernobyl accident is the most serious nuclear catastrophe in the recent era. About 600.000 victims intervene in this disaster. The most fatality was about one month after the accident 31 victims. The main cause was Acute Radiation Syndrome. After few weeks 115.000 persons evacuated from the contaminated areas with exposure dose from 0.07 to 2 Gy. The main Isotope exposure was iodine 131 and Cesium 137 with average exposure dose 7 and 10 mGy respectively

  14. Considerations on nuclear safety in France, two years after Chernobyl

    In the first part of the paper, we shall briefly describe the three different categories of actions decided on in the wake of Chernobyl: 1. Research and development: physical phenomena and design features implicated in the accident 2. Measures concerning all nuclear installations 3. Measures specific to pressurized water reactors. In the second part, we shall give more detailed results of an initial re-assessment of PWR reactivity accidents

  15. The decrease of radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident

    Six years after the Chernobyl accident the equivalent dose in Austria due to the reactor accident amounts to 0.025 mSv/year (this comprises 0.005 mSv from ingestion and 0.020 mSv from external irradiation). This is about 1% of the average natural radiation exposure of 2.4 mSv/year. Also published in Atomwirtschaft (2) v. 38 p. 138-145, Feb 1993

  16. Radiochemical regularities of migration mobility of Chernobyl' discharge radionuclides

    Data on the radionuclude (RN) migration in environment later the Chernobyl' accident are generalized. Introduction of fallout of the radioactive discharge into environment causes necessity to account and to study different factors of geochemical and physicochemical character determining further RN behaviour in the medium. For a well-founded forecast of the behaviour it is necessity to use a complex of radiochemical and physicochemical research, lying in the base of radiation monitoring of environment. 1 refs

  17. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl Sarcophagus waste management

    Sixteen years after the accident of unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP the Sarcophagus still remains one of the most dangerous nuclear facilities in the world. The ruin of the destroyed unit 4 and its surrounding Sarcophagus together are termed object Shelter, which still comprises about 96 % of the spent nuclear fuel. The big amount of irradiated nuclear fuel and radioactive waste may cause potential radiological hazards. Thus, a comprehensive and detailed description of all parameters having influence on the safety state of the Sarcophagus was needed. At the Vienna Chernobyl Conference in April 1996 Germany and France declared to support the international co-operation of institutions of the Ukraine, Belarus and Russia in view of a solution of the Chernobyl related issues. The first project identified within the French-German Initiative (FGI) was dedicated to the safety state of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus. This FGI project has been funded by the governments and by the electricity utilities of Germany and France, respectively, with 2 million Euro. The main aim of the project was to collect, analyse and verify all safety relevant data and to integrate these data in a comprehensive data base. The major fields of investigation were building constructions, systems and equipment, radiological situation, nuclear fuel, radioactive waste and environmental impact. In this paper in a first step the spent nuclear fuel and the correlating radiological hazards will be described briefly. In the following sections the FGI Sarcophagus project along with some results and practical applications to estimate the radiological risks as well as to support maintenance, waste management and stabilization measures will be presented

  18. Interview-survey of farmers. Experiences after the Chernobyl accident

    71 farm households in contaminated areas of Sweden were interviewed at visits to farms, where measurements of the contamination of pastures and fields had been made. The aim of the survey was to find out what remedial actions had been taken by the farmers, what their appreciation of the information from authorities was, how the Chernobyl accident had affected their situation, and if they were prepared to take similar actions in case of a new accident. 15 refs

  19. Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident

    Brownridge, James D

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

  20. 'Chernobyl feeling'. Psychic sequels of the ecological crisis

    In scientific debate on the devastation of the environment, the predominant aspects so far have been natural-scientific and economy-scientific ones. But the ecological crisis with the Chernobyl accident as its symbol is not an incident of nature: It is man-made. It has its preconditions in social phenomena such as economy, politics, and the subjective condition of individuals. This contribution studies psychological 'surveying' of environmental hazards, risk perception, and risk digestion by man. (DG)

  1. Studies of radiological consequences on the reports of Chernobyl accident

    1) Relation of radiation related quantities such as radioactivity, exposure, absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent and radiation protection standards were explained as easy as a beginner could understand. 2) Using published data including IAEA data in the report 'One Decade After Chernobyl (Summary of the Conference Results, 1996)' and some reports, outline of explosion, exposure dose and radiation effects which gave to the human body were briefly described and some rational ways for understanding the data were shown. (author)

  2. Lessons of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Insensitivity of radiation without measuring apparatus and health outcome observed in the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are major sources that make people fear the possible late effects of radiation exposure attributable to nuclear power plant accident. However, the health conditions of people in the last 20 years around Chernobyl indicated the necessity to review the risk assessment suggesting that effects of radiation exposure may considerably be different between the atomic bombing and nuclear power plant accident. (author)

  3. Gene signature of the post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid cancer

    Following the nuclear accidents in Chernobyl and later in Fukushima, the nuclear community has been faced with important issues concerning how to search for and diagnose biological consequences of low-dose internal radiation contamination. Although after the Chernobyl accident an increase in childhood papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) was observed, it is still not clear whether the molecular biology of PTCs associated with low-dose radiation exposure differs from that of sporadic PTC. We investigated tissue samples from 65 children/young adults with PTC using DNA microarray (Affymetrix, Human Genome U133 2.0 Plus) with the aim of identifying molecular differences between radiation-induced (exposed to Chernobyl radiation, ECR) and sporadic PTC. All participants were resident in the same region so that confounding factors related to genetics or environment were minimized. There were small but significant differences in the gene expression profiles between ECR and non-ECR PTC (global test, p < 0.01), with 300 differently expressed probe sets (p < 0.001) corresponding to 239 genes. Multifactorial analysis of variance showed that besides radiation exposure history, the BRAF mutation exhibited independent effects on the PTC expression profile; the histological subset and patient age at diagnosis had negligible effects. Ten genes (PPME1, HDAC11, SOCS7, CIC, THRA, ERBB2, PPP1R9A, HDGF, RAD51AP1, and CDK1) from the 19 investigated with quantitative RT-PCR were confirmed as being associated with radiation exposure in an independent, validation set of samples. Significant, but subtle, differences in gene expression in the post-Chernobyl PTC are associated with previous low-dose radiation exposure. (orig.)

  4. The Chernobyl accident: An overview of causes and effects

    After a brief description of the Chernobyl reactor and the accident, the activity release is assessed. Radiological effects in the immediate vicinity as well as in Europe are discussed, with particular emphasis on Switzerland. Results concerning food contamination are presented. Protective measures are described and an overview of the radiation dose distribution is given. A comparison with the doses from natural radiation and weapons fallout is made

  5. Chernobyl five years after. WHO to spearhead international programme

    In April 1990, an agreement was signed between the WHO and the USSR Ministry of Health to set up a long-term international programme to assist the populations affected by the Chernobyl accident, as well as to increase the body of scientific knowledge about radiation effects. The programme will deal with monitoring and treatment of the affected populations and will carefully examine emergency prevention issues. Funding will come primarily from voluntary contributions from WHO Member States

  6. Duodenal ulcer course in patients participated in Chernobyl accident response

    80 participants of Chernobyl accident response having duodenal ulcer exacerbation were examined. Their disease was the result of internal irradiation (due to ingestion of short-living radioisotopes) as well as other emergency factors. Data characterizing the specific course of duodenal ulcer in patients were presented. Conclusion was made on the expediency of microbiological and cytogenetic investigations with simultaneous assessment of the indices of somatic mutagenesis

  7. Poverty, not radiation: A new policy paradigm for Chernobyl

    This presentations outlines the past and present socio-economic policies regarding the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine and proposes policy changes that will alleviate economic problems in the affected areas. Recommendations to improve economic environment include: Revise legislation to encourage local economic development; Combine policy revision at national level with special measures at local level; Enable greater fiscal decentralization; Facilitate access to credit through trust funds, credit unions, cooperative banks; Adopt international product certification

  8. Chernobyl fallout in small mammals captured in Sweden

    An investigation was carried out aimed at studying the contamination of small mammals (orders Rodentia and Insectivora) following the Chernobyl fallout. The animals were captured in three differently contaminated areas and, for control, in an area with negligible fallout. The results obtained show that the activity in the captured animals varied and depended on surface deposition. The differences between the species are investigated and the influence of feeding habits on the contamination levels are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Dynamic of gastroduodenal bleeding distribution after Chernobyl catastrophe

    It was investigated the evidence of gastroduodenal bleeding between Belarus population from 1989 to 1996 period. 27981 occurrences of this disease were registered. The annual permanent growth of the disease was revealed. Between persons, having worked in the Chernobyl region in the first year after the catastrophe, it was found the ulcer disease distribution in 7 times greater than between the whole population. It was concluded about heavy course of ulcer disease in residents of Belarus in the modern conditions

  10. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This document reports on progress made to date in terms of technical management and coordination and financial aspects of the programme. It also provides information on future activities and discusses related issues

  11. Vastab Mark Lubotski / Mark Lubotski ; interv. Toomas Velmet

    Lubotski, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Hamburgi Muusikakõrgkooli viiuliprofessor Mark Lubotskist, kes viibis Tallinnas oktoobris 2008 ja oli IV rahvusvahelise Heino Elleri nimelise viiuldajate konkursi žürii esimeheks. Tema sidemetest Eesti muusikutega, pagemisest Läände, Heino Elleri nimelisest konkursist ja tööst žüriis

  12. Mark Napier / Mark Napier ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Napier, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Ameerika kunstnikust Mark Napierist (sünd. 1961) ja tema loomingust, 2001. a. tehtud meiliintervjuu kunstnikuga. Võrguteosest "The Digital Landfill" (1998), koos Andy Deckiga loodud tööst "GrafficJam" (1999), töödest "Shredder" (1998), "Feed", "Riot", "P-Soup" (2000), võrgukunstist ja muust

  13. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    Anne McNeilly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson’s School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The “minimal-marking” concept (Haswell, 1983, which requires dramatically more student engagement, resulted in more successful learning outcomes for surface-level knowledge acquisition than the more traditional approach of “teacher-corrects-all.” Results suggest it would be effective, not just for grammar, punctuation, and word usage, the objective here, but for any material that requires rote-memory learning, such as the Associated Press or Canadian Press style rules used by news publications across North America.

  14. The Chernobyl accident - did it affect pregnancy outcomes in Norway?

    The outcome of pregnancies in the county of Soer-Troendelag in Norway, during the 27 months preceding and 21 months after the Chernobyl accident has been analysed on the basis of time of conception. The analysis showed a significant decrease in the number of conceptions during the three months immediately after the accident (April - June 1986). This finding can be interpreted to mean fewer ''planned'' conceptions. The Chernobyl accident did not seem to have had any impact on the proportion of conceptions ending as spontaneous abortions or ectopic pregnancies. There was a significant drop in the proportion of pregnancies ending as induced abortions during the year after the accident compared with the year before. However, due to some variation during this year, it is difficult to draw any definite conclusions concerning the impact of the accident on induced abortions in this county. The proportion of pregnancies ending as births increased significantly during the year after the Chernobyl accident compared with the year before. 22 refs., 1 tab

  15. Economic and social aspects of the Chernobyl accident in Finland

    After the Chernobyl accident at no stage did the radiation situation in Finland require actual protective action, such as taking shelter indoors or in civil defence shelters. Civil defence plans for emergency situations include a warning level at 200 μSv/h (population has to stay indoors) and an alarm level at 2000 μSv/h (populaiton has to seek shelter immediately). Both levels are 'at the latest' levels, given as guidance in case regional or local authorities have to make the decision. The highest confirmed gamma radiation reading in Finland was 5 μSv/h. During the first days of the Chernobyl fail-out it also became evident that no large scale restrictions for use of foodstuffs were needed in the Nordic countries. Various mitigating actions were adopted in the days and weeks following Chernobyl, but mostly in the form of recommendations. The situation in Finland can serve to explain the various types of mitigating actions considered, how they were adopted, and to some extent give information on how efficient and how expensive the mitigating actions were

  16. Infant leukaemia after in utero exposure to radiation from Chernobyl

    There has been no documented increase in childhood leukaemia following the Chernobyl accident. However, different forms of childhood leukaemia may not be equally susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis. Infant leukaemia is a distinct form associated with a specific genetic abnormality. Outside the former Soviet Union, contamination resulting from the Chernobyl accident has been highest in Greece and Austria and high also in the Scandinavian countries. All childhood leukaemia cases diagnosed throughout Greece since 1 January 1980 have been recorded. Here we report that infants exposed in utero to ionizing radiation from the Chernobyl accident had 2.6 times the incidence of leukaemia compared to unexposed children (95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 5.1; P ∼ 0.003), and those born to mothers residing in regions with high radioactive fallout were at higher risk of developing infant leukaemia. No significant difference in leukaemia incidence was found among children aged 12 to 47 months. Preconceptional irradiation had no demonstrable effect on leukaemia risk at any of the studied age groups. (author)

  17. Childhood leukaemia in Romania and the Chernobyl accident

    Following the WHO recommendations, we focused our study on short-term consequence of the Chernobyl accident on childhood leukaemia. The present study was designed to show whether the frequency of leukaemia has increased during the time period following the nuclear accident. We studied the frequency of childhood leukaemia, its geographical distribution in Romania, and the possible changes of this distribution after the Chernobyl accident. For the period before the accident (1981-1985), the distribution of the cumulative mortality from leukaemia is shown. The mortality for the entire country was 13.54/100,000 for all age-groups (14.92 for the 0-4 years old age group, 15.68 for the 5-9, and 10.13 for 10-14). After the Chernobyl accident, the geographical distribution of cumulative mortality from childhood leukaemia has somewhat changed. The rate for the entire country was 13.24/100,000 (13.72 for 0-4 years old, 16.64 for 5-9 years old, and 9.83 for 10-14 years old). Four districts showed a greater increase of the mortality rate. The age distribution of the mortality in these districts during the two time periods, is shown. (author)

  18. The characterization and removal of Chernobyl debris in garden soils

    Severe nuclear accidents such as the one in Chernobyl in 1986 may give unacceptably high external radiation levels, which even in the late phase may make a resettlement of an evacuated population impossible unless action is taken to decrease the exposure. As the urban land areas to be reclaimed may be very large the cost of the dose reducing countermeasure to be used may be an important factor. In the Chernobyl debris the most important radionuclides concerning the long term external radiation were found to be Cs-137, Cs-134, and Ru-106. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the behaviour of these radionuclides in garden soils, and on this background to examine cost-effective methods by which a reduction of the dose from such areas to people living in urban or sub-urban environments can be achieved. The fixation of the radioactive cations in soil was investigated by means of soil profile sampling, soil texture analysis, and speciation experiments. It was found that most of the Chernobyl fallout caesium was extremely firmly fixed. Much of the ruthenium was more loosely bound, to organic material. The cost-effectiveness of some dose reducing countermeasures was examined on the background of small scale tests. Here it was found that about 95% of the activity could be removed with peelable fixatives based on PVA or lignin. (author) 1 tab., 7 ills., 25 refs

  19. Radioactivity in the Baltic sea following the Chernobyl accident

    The brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. has been used as a bioindicator for the investigation of the impact of the Chernobyl accident with respect to the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in the Baltic sea. The investigations were performed in July 1986, about two months after the accident, and in August-September 1987. In July 1986 the gamma-emitting radionuclides Cs-134, Cs-137, Ru-103, Ru-106 and Ag-110m were detected in F. vesiculosus along the Swedish east, south and southwest coasts. The activity concentrations of Cs-137 varied from 600 Bq/kg dw at the northern most locality (Simpnaes) to 20-25 Bq/kg dw at the south east coast. In August-September 1987 the activity concentrations of radiocesium had increased with a factor 2-3 at most localities off the Swedish east coast, compared with the results from 1986. Regarding transuranics and Tc-99 the impact was small and we did not observe any increase of these radionuclides in the algae. The later effects of the radionuclide contamination in the Baltic Sea, primarily cesium, from Chernobyl were studied at one locality on the Swedish south coast from April 1987 to November 1988. A pronounced increase in the activity concentrations was observed during 1988 indicating an outflow of water, containing relatively higher levels of Chernobyl derived radionuclides, from the Baltic Sea. (au)

  20. Chernobyl coverage: how the US media treated the nuclear industry

    This study attempted to uncover whether enough background information about nuclear power and the nuclear industries in the USA, USSR and Eastern and Western Europe had been included during the first two weeks of US coverage of the Chernobyl accident so that Americans would not be misled in their understanding of and attitudes toward nuclear power in general. It also sought to determine if reporters took advantage of the Chernobyl accident to attack nuclear technology or the nuclear industry in general. Coverage was analysed in five US newspapers and on the evening newscasts of the three major US television networks. Despite heavy coverage of the accident, no more than 25% of the coverage was devoted to information on safety records, history of accidents and current status of nuclear industries. Not enough information was provided to help the public's level of understanding of nuclear power or to put the Chernobyl accident in context. However, articles and newscasts generally balanced use of pro- and anti-nuclear statements, and did not include excessive amounts of fear-inducing and negative information. (author)