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UN agencies mark Chernobyl anniversary with launch of US$2.5-million project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the 24th of April 2009 four United Nations agencies marked the 23rd anniversary of the Chernobyl nuclear accident by launching a $2.5 million programme designed to meet the priority information needs of affected communities in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Funded by the UN Trust Fund for Human Security, this three-year initiative aims to translate the latest scientific information on the consequences of the accident into sound practical advice for residents of the affected territories. The project is a joint effort by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the World Health Organization (WHO)

2009-04-24

2

Chernobyl  

Science.gov (United States)

Brought online in 1978, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was considered a model plant throughout the USSR. Eight years later, that same plant experienced an explosion and meltdown that had disastrous consequences for local residents. This terrible incident caused serious damage to the global cause of establishing nuclear power as a viable alternative source of energy. This very thorough and well-designed site serves as an excellent gateway to information about the events surrounding that date, and more importantly, about the long-term effects of the event and the organizations that are intimately concerned with these affairs. The ĀFactsĀ section is a good place to start, as it contains an overview of the incidents of 20 years ago, along with information about the consequences for the health of local residents and the environment. Another useful section is in the right-hand corner of the homepage provides news updates about projects, events, and meetings related to the events at Chernobyl. One of the most powerful areas of the site contains first-hand recollections about the events at Chernobyl, and it should not be missed. It is also worth noting that the site is available in Russian, German, and English.

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Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26th 1986, the worst accident in the history of commercial nuclear power generation occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station some 60 miles north of Kiev in the Ukraine. This article describes the sequence of events that occurred and the consequences of the accident. There was extensive damage to the Unit 4 reactor and the building which housed it. Some 31 people have died as a result of the accident either directly or as a result of receiving lethal radiation doses. A significant release of fission products occurred, contaminating land around the station and requiring the evacuation of around 135,000 people from their homes. The radioactive cloud generated over many days was carried by winds to all parts of Europe where there was a varying degree of public concern. The contamination resulted in restrictions on the consumption of meat and vegetables. The latent health effects may not be statistically significant when viewed against the normal mortality rate over the next 40 years. (author)

1986-01-01

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Chernobyl bibliography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time.

Carr, F. Jr.; Mahaffey, J.A.

1989-09-01

5

Chernobyl disaster  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Chernobyl disaster is examined in chronological order from the experiment that led to the explosions, to the firefighting efforts, the release of radioactivity, its fallout, the evacuations from the contaminated zone and the long-term medical, ecological, economic and political repercussions. The sources of information are nearly all Soviet - the Ukranian and Russian press, Moscow and Kiev radio broadcasts, Soviet television documentaries and the report of the Soviet government commission to the International Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986. Reports by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, the Central Electricity Generating Board and the International Atomic Energy Agency have also been used. The latter chapters look at who was to blame for the accident, what impact the accident has had on Soviet society and why the Soviet government continues to expand its nuclear power programme.

Haynes, V.; Bojcun, M.

1988-01-01

6

Chernobyl`s legacy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The findings of the five year joint Chernobyl Research Programme undertaken by the European Union, the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Belarus, were presented at a conference in Minsk in March 1996. The overall impression from the conference is that the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident are relatively small. The total number of directly attributable deaths so far is 43. This includes: 28 reactor staff and firemen who died from acute radiation syndrome (ARS) with three others who died from other causes shortly after the accident; nine patients who have subsequently died from confirmed ARS; and three children who have died from thyroid cancer. Further deaths may occur with time amongst thyroid and ARS patients and it is always possible that there could be deaths in the long term from solid cancers which have a long induction time. A group of special interest for follow up are the workers involved in the emergency clean-up. There are no signs so far of an abnormal increase in childhood leukaemia or cancer, other than operable thyroid cancer, among the population living in the most contaminated areas. There are, however, disastrous social and economic effects for the people of Ukraine and Belarus and a great deal of concomitant psycho-somatic illness aggravated by the political upheavals of recent years. (U.K.).

Greenhalgh, G.

1996-07-01

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The enduring lessons of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major impacts of the Chernobyl accident fall into three categories: the physical impacts, in terms of health and environmental effects; the psycho-social impacts on the affected populations; and the influence of the accident on the nuclear industry worldwide. The physical impacts mark Chernobyl as the site of the most serious nuclear accident in history. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core released a cloud of radionuclides that contaminated large areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Hundreds of thousands of workers participated in efforts to mitigate the consequences of the accident, and many of these individuals were exposed to substantial radiation doses. The psycho-social impacts were also devastating. Over 100 000 people were evacuated immediately after the accident, and the total number of evacuees from severely contaminated areas eventually reached 350 000 people. While these resettlements helped to reduce the collective dose of radiation, it was deeply traumatic for those involved. The third impact I mentioned is the enormous influence of the Chernobyl accident on the nuclear industry. A decade earlier, the accident at Three Mile Island had already cast doubt on the ability of nuclear power plant operators to prevent severe accidents. Chernobyl had far greater impact; the accident emblazoned itself on public consciousness as proof positive that nuclear safety was an oxymoron. Some countries decided to reduce or terminate further construction of nuclear facilities, and the expansion of nuclear capacity came to a near standstill. It has taken nearly two decades of strong safety performance to repair the industry's reputation. From the time of the accident, the IAEA has been continuously involved in technical assistance and research projects to mitigate the environmental and health consequences in affected areas. Since 1990, more than $15 million has been disbursed through the IAEA technical cooperation programme on a broad range of these projects often in cooperation with other organizations represented here today. The Agency will continue those efforts, and we are committed to the 'UN Strategy for Recovery', launched in 2002. IAEA strongly supports the UN focus on developing new initiatives to address the human needs of the affected individuals, with a view to progressively restoring life to 'normal' to the degree possible

2005-01-01

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Chernobyl reactor accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described.

Malinauskas, A.P.; Buchanan, J.R.; Lorenz, R.A.; Yamashita, T.

1986-01-01

9

The Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at the Chernobyl Unit 4 power plant on April 26, 1986 was the worst accident in the history of commercial nuclear power anywhere in the world. It has been reviewed by a number of international bodies and several independent countries as well. The most notable reviews have been conducted by the International Atomic Energy Agency. This paper reports that the accident was caused by a combination of design weaknesses, human errors, and fundamental management weaknesses. The soviet report provided to the international community downplays the contribution of the design to the accident. However, there were many weaknesses. Human errors contributed substantially to the accident. The accident occurred when the operating staff at Chernobyl was attempting an experiment to verify the ability of one of the stations's turbines to provide emergency electricity.

1987-01-01

10

Chernobyl fantasy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several versions of technical reasons of Chernobyl accident, which have received a wide resonance in mass-media, and are seemed as reasonable for most public without any special education in reactor's physics, are discussed. Probable reasons of its origination are analysed, and its scientific groundlessness is shown

2002-01-01

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Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The monograph contains the catastrophe's events chronology, the efficiency assessed of those measures assumed for their localization as well as their environmental and socio-economic impact. Among materials of the monograph the results are presented of research on the radioactive contamination field forming as well as those concerning the investigation of biogeochemical properties of Chernobyl radionuclides and their migration process in the environment of the Ukraine. The data dealing with biological effects of the continued combined internal and external radioactive influence on plants, animals and human health under the circumstances of Chernobyl accident are of the special interest. In order to provide the scientific generalizing information on the medical aspects of Chernobyl catastrophe, the great part of the monograph is allotted to appraise those factors affecting the health of different population groups as well as to depict clinic aspects of Chernobyl events and medico-sanitarian help system. The National Programme of Ukraine for the accident consequences elimination and population social protection assuring for the years 1986-1993 and this Programme concept for the period up to the year 2000 with a special regard of the world community participation there.

1995-01-01

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Chernobyl, 14 years later  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) International cooperation, 7) More information about Chernobyl and 8) Glossary

2000-01-01

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Chernobyl - a Canadian technical perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this report we present the design review done to date in Canada by AECL. From the Canadian point of view it covers: 1) relevant information on the Chernobyl design and the accident, both as presented by the Soviets at the Post-Accident Review Meeting (PARM) held in Vienna from August 25-29, 1986, and as deduced from publicly available Soviet documentation; and 2) details of AECL's technical review of the CANDU PHWR (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) against the background of the Chernobyl accident, and implications of the Chernobyl accident. Reviews of operational aspects are underway by the Canadian electrical utilities and a review by the Canadian regulatory agency (the Atomic Energy Control Board) is near completion

1987-01-01

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Chernobyl eyewitness  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A Soviet reporter and three photographers present a visual survey of Chernobyl less than twenty-four hours after the nuclear disaster and interviews with survivors and rescue workers, many of whom are now dying. Photographs and text document the shutdown of nuclear reactors, the efforts of volunteers to drop sand on the reactor, the entombment of the leaking reactor in concrete, the evacuation of citizens from the region, and the crash efforts to construct emergency housing

1987-01-01

15

After Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report discusses a number of effects of the Chernobyl-accident on public opinion about nuclear power. The analysis is based on a comparison of a survey conducted shortly after Chernobyl and a number of measurements in the Netherlands between 1982 and 1986. The conclusions can be summarized as follows: Attitudes towards nuclear power and especially towards building new stations have become much more negative after the disaster in Chernobyl. Although a majority of the population now wants to close existing nuclear power stations, there appears strong support for continuation of nuclear research. The structure of the nuclear debate has not changed fundamentally. Supporters and opponents have kept the same demographic characteristics. The arguments which distinguish them have not changed, except that the expectation of a serious accident has an increased impact on attitudes. A majority of the population felt the information after the accident not sufficient. Since 1982 attitudes towards coal also have become more negative, mainly as a consequence of the higher visibility of effects of acid rain. (Auth.)

1986-01-01

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The Chernobyl disaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl disaster is examined in chronological order from the experiment that led to the explosions, to the firefighting efforts, the release of radioactivity, its fallout, the evacuations from the contaminated zone and the long-term medical, ecological, economic and political repercussions. The sources of information are nearly all Soviet - the Ukranian and Russian press, Moscow and Kiev radio broadcasts, Soviet television documentaries and the report of the Soviet government commission to the International Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986. Reports by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, the Central Electricity Generating Board and the International Atomic Energy Agency have also been used. The latter chapters look at who was to blame for the accident, what impact the accident has had on Soviet society and why the Soviet government continues to expand its nuclear power programme. (author)

1988-01-01

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Chernobyl, 12 years later  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) The Franco-German cooperation, and 7) Glossary

1998-01-01

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Chernobyl: A series of mistakes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chernobyl - does it mark the beginning of the end of nuclear energy. Or is it just a spectacular accident as the one at Harrisburg in 1979. Six months after the disaster in the Ukraine released the terrible radiation clouds, the article in hand starts a series intended to draw a balance: deadly experiments in an April night - damage all over Europe that sums up to billions - the Brokdorf nuclear power plant said to be the safest in the world.

Brunner, E.; Janssen, K.H.; Sontheimer, M.

1986-10-17

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The legacy of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The essential message in this book is that the true impact of the accident at Chernobyl is far greater than the Soviet government is willing to admit. The author says that he remains skeptical of the official version of the accident. The many key mistakes or shortcomings that figured prominently in the accident and that the Soviets have been reluctant to publicize are highlighted in this book. Problems with initial construction, the lack of instruments in the first hours and days after the accident to adequately measure the radiation level, the deliberate initial under-reaction to the accident, the evaluation fiasco, the mistakes made in taming the reactor fire, and the botched cleanup are all traced back to certain longstanding features of the Soviet system. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is faulted for helping the Soviets coverup the accident effects at the August 1986 IAEA International meeting by not questioning deeply enough the Soviet reports concerning the accident.

1990-01-01

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Chernobyl, 17 after  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This information document takes stock on the Chernobyl accident effects, 17 years after the reactor accident. The domains concerned are: the Chernobyl power plant, the sanitary consequences of the accident in the most exposed countries, the Chernobyl environment and the polluted regions management, the Chernobyl accident consequences in France; Some data and technical sheets on the RBMK reactors and the international cooperation are also provided. (A.L.B.)

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Chernobyl revisited  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Observations made on a visit to the Chernobyl area in July 1990 are reported. Although the main purpose of the visit was to try out thermoluminescence techniques on materials exposed to radiation during the accident, the observations reported here are of a more general nature covering the variations in dose rate and contamination of surfaces within the 30 km exclusion zone and in the deserted tow of Pripyat, and plant, animal and bird life. The most ubiquitous contamination in Pripyat is caesium, which has penetrated all porous surfaces and would probably be very difficult to remove from brick structures if rehabitation were ever contemplated. Recorded dose-rates varied considerably on and in different parts of buildings. Radiation measurements of external surfaces were typically in the range 1-10 ?Sv/h and an order of magnitude less within buildings. Grass verges were particularly badly contaminated; measurements up to 110 ?Sv/h were noted in the most polluted area of Pripyat. Ecologically, the area seems to have benefited from having been allowed to return to nature. Many birds and a wide variety of plants and trees were flourishing; some older pine trees showed evidence of damage, however. The only insects observed were peacock butterflies. (Author)

1991-01-01

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Chernobyl: What really happened  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author conducted interviews with Western analysts to reach a consensus view of the accident in 1986 at Chernobyl. This view is illustrated in this article. The Chernobyl RBMK reactor is described, as are the events surrounding the accident. Post-accident safety measures taken by the U.S.S.R. are discussed and critiques. Implications of the Chernobyl accident on RBMK reactor safety and on Soviet nuclear energy management capabilities are also addressed.

Sweet, W. (Atomic Energy, Proliferation and Arms Race (US))

1989-07-01

23

Chernobyl: the lessons learnt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the Chernobyl nuclear accident, a brief article examines the design of the Chernobyl reactor and the reasons why such a design would be unacceptable in any Western Country. The accident sequence is then described followed by a discussion of the consequences of the accident and the activities of the Defense Radiological Protection Service in the accident. Finally the lessons learnt from Chernobyl are outlined, particularly the medical lessons. (U.K.)

1988-01-01

24

The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations.

Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I.; Santillo, D.; Johnston, P.; Stringer, R.; Sadownichik, T. (eds.); Antipkin, Yu.G. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Arabskaya, L.P. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazyka, D.A. [Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)] (and others)

2006-04-15

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The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations

2006-01-01

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1. Chernobyl contamination through time and space.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl meltdown spread over 40% of Europe (including Austria, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, Romania, Great Britain, Germany, Italy, France, Greece, Iceland, Slovenia) and wide territories in Asia (including Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Emirates, China), northern Africa, and North America. Nearly 400 million people resided in territories that were contaminated with radioactivity at a level higher than 4 kBq/m(2) (0.11 Ci/km(2)) from April to July 1986. Nearly 5 million people (including, more than 1 million children) still live with dangerous levels of radioactive contamination in Belarus, Ukraine, and European Russia. Claims that the Chernobyl radioactive fallout adds "only 2%" to the global radioactive background overshadows the fact that many affected territories had previously dangerously high levels of radiation. Even if the current level is low, there was high irradiation in the first days and weeks after the Chernobyl catastrophe. There is no reasonable explanation for the fact that the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization (Chernobyl Forum, 2005) have completely neglected the consequences of radioactive contamination in other countries, which received more than 50% of the Chernobyl radionuclides, and addressed concerns only in Belarus, Ukraine, and European Russia.

Yablokov AV; Nesterenko VB

2009-11-01

27

Extended Essay Marking on Screen: Is Examiner Marking Accuracy Influenced by Marking Mode?  

Science.gov (United States)

In the UK and elsewhere, large-scale educational assessment agencies are shifting the mode of school examination marking towards having examiners mark examination scripts on screen rather than on paper. This shift has prompted questions about whether the mode of marking might influence examiner marking accuracy, particularly in relation to…

Johnson, Martin; Hopkin, Rebecca; Shiell, Hannah; Bell, John F.

2012-01-01

28

Radiation exposure and breast cancer: lessons from Chernobyl.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The lessons learned from the Chernobyl disaster have become increasingly important after the second anniversary of the Fukushima, Japan nuclear accident. Historically, data from the Chernobyl reactor accident 27 years ago demonstrated a strong correlation with thyroid cancer, but data on the radiation effects of Chernobyl on breast cancer incidence have remained inconclusive. We reviewed the published literature on the effects of the Chernobyl disaster on breast cancer incidence, using Medline and Scopus from the time of the accident to December of 2010. Our findings indicate limited data and statistical flaws. Other confounding factors, such as discrepancies in data collection, make interpretation of the results from the published literature difficult. Re-analyzing the data reveals that the incidence of breast cancer in Chernobyl-disaster-exposed women could be higher than previously thought. We have learned little of the consequences of radiation exposure at Chernobyl except for its effects on thyroid cancer incidence. Marking the 27th year after the Chernobyl event, this report sheds light on a specific, crucial and understudied aspect of the results of radiation from a gruesome nuclear power plant disaster.

Ogrodnik A; Hudon TW; Nadkarni PM; Chandawarkar RY

2013-04-01

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Radiation exposure and breast cancer: lessons from Chernobyl.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lessons learned from the Chernobyl disaster have become increasingly important after the second anniversary of the Fukushima, Japan nuclear accident. Historically, data from the Chernobyl reactor accident 27 years ago demonstrated a strong correlation with thyroid cancer, but data on the radiation effects of Chernobyl on breast cancer incidence have remained inconclusive. We reviewed the published literature on the effects of the Chernobyl disaster on breast cancer incidence, using Medline and Scopus from the time of the accident to December of 2010. Our findings indicate limited data and statistical flaws. Other confounding factors, such as discrepancies in data collection, make interpretation of the results from the published literature difficult. Re-analyzing the data reveals that the incidence of breast cancer in Chernobyl-disaster-exposed women could be higher than previously thought. We have learned little of the consequences of radiation exposure at Chernobyl except for its effects on thyroid cancer incidence. Marking the 27th year after the Chernobyl event, this report sheds light on a specific, crucial and understudied aspect of the results of radiation from a gruesome nuclear power plant disaster. PMID:23691737

Ogrodnik, Aleksandra; Hudon, Tyler W; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y

2013-04-01

30

Chernobyl: a documentary story  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This account of the Chernobyl disaster of April 1986 is based on interviews with many of the participants. Realising that the Chernobyl accident was to have a massive impact on the USSR and the world, the author felt impelled to travel to the designated danger zone around the reactor, to live there and to interview firemen, first-aid workers, party and government officials and local media representatives. The result is a variety of vivid eyewitness accounts that are unprecedented in their detail and frankness. These accounts show why the author considers the Chernobyl accident to be the most important event in the Soviet Union since World War II. The book, itself a product of glasnost, reveals how the Chernobyl accident was viewed from inside the Soviet Union. (author)

1989-01-01

31

Nuclear safety after Chernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A critique is presented of Nuclear Safety after Chernobyl (Environ. Sci. Technol. 1987, 21) by Christopher Flavin. An evaluation of the data used by Flavin has revealed numerous errors and inconsistencies. These errors and inconsistencies are evaluated.

Wilson, R.

1987-11-01

32

Chernobyl, 16 years later  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document on the Chernobyl site evolution is constituted around four main questions. What about the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor and the ''sarcophagus'' constructed around the reactor? What about the sanitary consequences of the accident on the liquidators asked to blot out the radiation and the around people exposed to radiation? What about the contaminated land around the power plant and their management? Concerning the France, what were the ''radioactive cloud'' sanitary consequences? (A.L.B.)

2002-01-01

33

The Chernobyl replacement project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper gives details of the Chernobyl replacement project. The background to the project is traced, and the debate over whether the K2/R4 designed nuclear power plant proves to be the 'least cost' option, and the funding position are discussed. The question of why the completion of K2/R4 has become linked to the closure of Chernobyl is posed. (UK)

Surrey, John; Thomas, Steve [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). SPRU

1999-07-01

34

Chernobyl': events and lessons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Information on the Chernobyl NPP accident problems is presented in the handbook. It based on the conclusions made by the Governmental Committee investigating accident reasons and its response, as well as on the Soviet report presented at IAEA experts conference. Special attention is paid to the problems on evacuation, radiation propagation, medical aspects, accident response and the 30-km area problem. Lessons gained after the Chernobyl accident are studied.

1989-01-01

35

The Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD through its history; La Agencia de Energia Nuclear de la OCDE, a traves de su historia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This year, 2008, marks the 50th Anniversary of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). During these years the Agency has adapted to the evolution of the world energy situation. At the beginning the Agency launches international collaboration projects to establish the technological bases required for nuclear energy, then helps member countries in the construction of nuclear power plants and later analyzes the safety criteria as a consequence of the Three Miles Island and Chernobyl accidents. Based on this experience, the NEA faces the X XI Century prepared to contribute, even more, to a better international collaboration for a safe, environmentally friendly and economical use of the nuclear energy. (Author)

Echavarri, L.

2008-07-01

36

Chernobyl, 13 years after  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is an annual report, regularly issued by IPSN, that presents the ecological and health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. The present status of the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant, which Ukraine engaged to stop definitively in year 2000, is summarized. The only reactor unit now in operation is Chernobylsk-3 Reactor which poses two safety questions: evolution of cracks in part of the tubing and behaviour of the pressure tubes. Although, some improvements in the RBMK reactor types were introduced, problems remain that make IPSN to stress the requirement of stopping this NPP completely. In the contaminated territories surrounding Chernobyl incidence rate of infant thyroid cancers continues to grow, reaching values 10 to 100 times higher than the natural rate. In France the IPSN analyzed 60,000 records carried out in 17 sites during May 1986 and April 1989. It was estimated that the individual dose received during 60 years (1986-2046) by the inhabitants of the most affected zone (eastern France) is lower than 1.5 mSv, a value lower than 1% of the natural cosmic and telluric radioactivity exposure for the same period. For the persons assumed to live in the most attacked forests (from eastern France) and nourishing daily with venison and mushrooms the highest estimate is 1 mSv a year. Concerning the 'hot spots', identified in mountains by IPSN and CRIIRAD, the doses received by excursionists are around 0.015 mSv. For an average inhabitant of the country the dose piled up in the thyroid due to iodine-131 fallout is estimated to 0.5-2 mSv for an adult and 6.5-16 mSv for an infant. These doses are 100 to 1000 times lower than the ones to which the infants living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl are exposed to. The contents of the report is displayed in the following six chapters: 1. Chernobyl in some figures; 2. The 'sarcophagus' and the reactors of the Chernobyl NPP; 3. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident;. 4. The impact of Chernobyl fallout in France; 5. Chernobyl's environment and the management of contaminated territories.; 6. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl

1999-01-01

37

Structural aspects of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On April 26, 1986 the world's worst nuclear power plant accident occurred at the Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the USSR. This paper presents a discussion of the design of the Chernobyl Power Plant, the sequence of events that led to the accident and the damage caused by the resulting explosion. The structural design features that contributed to the accident and resulting damage will be highlighted. Photographs and sketches obtained from various worldwide news agencies will be shown to try and gain a perspective of the extent of the damage. The aftermath, clean-up, and current situation will be discussed and the important lessons learned for the structural engineer will be presented. 15 refs., 10 figs.

Murray, R.C.; Cummings, G.E.

1988-09-02

38

Structural aspects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986 the world's worst nuclear power plant accident occurred at the Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the USSR. This paper presents a discussion of the design of the Chernobyl Power Plant, the sequence of events that led to the accident and the damage caused by the resulting explosion. The structural design features that contributed to the accident and resulting damage will be highlighted. Photographs and sketches obtained from various worldwide news agencies will be shown to try and gain a perspective of the extent of the damage. The aftermath, clean-up, and current situation will be discussed and the important lessons learned for the structural engineer will be presented. 15 refs., 10 figs.

1988-01-01

39

The Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP).

1986-01-01

40

Chernobyl: The WHO helps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This booklet addresses concerns of the populations of the areas of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia affected by the Chernobyl accident. Answers to commonly asked questions comprise the bulk of the information, but the booklet also describes the WHO's work to study and mitigate the effects on the exposed populations.

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Chernobyl accident and Danmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

1986-01-01

42

The Chernobyl source term  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl source term has been characterized by the Soviets as occurring in four phases: explosive releases, releases during uncovering of the core and graphite combustion, releases during core heat-up, and releases following stable core cooling. The authors discuss these releases in terms of some of the chemical and physical phenomena that could have been important during the accident.

1987-01-01

43

Chernobyl accident and Denmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

1986-01-01

44

Thyroid cancer around Chernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author`s presentation on thyroid cancer around Chernobyl will focus on four different things. First will be the time trends, or the pattern of thyroid cancer occurrence before and after the accident. It is now very well known that the increase in thyroid cancer in children in several areas has been unprecedented. Second, the author discusses thyroid cancer in general and patterns of thyroid cancer around the world before the Chernobyl accident, including differences by age and pathology. Third, the author presents relatively crude analyses of risk according to dose to the thyroid gland. And last, the author attempts to contrast the findings for thyroid cancer in relation to the internal radioiodine dose in Chernobyl studies with analyses of the effects of external dose on thyroid cancer incidence. The bottom line to be developed is similar to that presented by Elaine Ron with regard to effects of external dose on thyroid cancer. The similarities between the childhood finding from Chernobyl studies and external radiation studies appear more remarkable than the differences.

Beral, V. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)

1997-03-01

45

Science. Chernobyl-96. Abstracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The collection contains the results of Chernobyl accident investigation on the territory of Ukraine. The conference was devoted to the following problems: -equipment and dosimetry; - agriculture and forestry radioecology and environmental monitoring; - medical, biological and social consequences; - waste management; - 'Shelter' problems; - information and simulation technologies

1997-01-01

46

The Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The weather situation over Europe during the first days after the Chernobyl accident is described, and an estimation of the plume rise and the transport level of the emission from the reactor is given. The main characteristics of the radioactive cloud towards Norway are shown on trajectory maps. Maps showing the precipitation pattern in Norway during the relevant time period are also presented.

1986-01-01

47

After Chernobyl: has anything really changed?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at Cherhobyl highlighted the fact that there is no such thing as a nuclear free zone - radioactive fallout does not respect national boundaries. This being so, the need for international and European Law is emphasised. The role of the International agencies, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), International Atomic Energy Agency and Euratom is vital in enforcing international safety standards and procedures. The question of whether International law could or should have any new or additional roles in the regulation of nuclear energy is addressed. This is considered under the headings accident or incident prevention, accident management, third party liability, preventative measures and economic loss and environmental damage. It is concluded that not much has changed since Chernobyl - the international and European legal regimes would still not be adequate for a similar accident. (U.K.).

1988-01-01

48

The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An AAEC Task Group was set up shortly after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to monitor and evaluate initial reports and to assess the implications for Australia. The Task Group issued a preliminary report on 9 May 1986. On 25-29 August 1986, the USSR released details of the accident and its consequences and further information has become available from the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and the World Health Organisation. The Task Group now presents a revised report summarising this information and commenting on the consequences from the Australian viewpoint.

1986-05-09

49

Clinical radiobiology and Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Briefly described is the action of the medical team following the Chernobyl disaster as is the method of examination of people on the site of the accident and of the population in the Chernobyl vicinity. The radiation doses and the number of people irradiated are tabulated. Irradiation was due to gamma and beta radiations. Beta particles caused severe skin damage and upper respiratory tract and oesophagus damage. Care is described of acute radiation syndrome patients, i.e., car of the inner environment, blood transfusion, bone marrow transplantation, liver and spleen cell transfusion. Immune reactions against grafts were observed in some people irradiated with a dose higher than 6 Gy. (E.S.). 2 tabs

1987-01-01

50

Chernobyl: The aftermath  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear accident in Chernobyl prompted vehement and sometimes controversial public and political reaction in the Federal Republic of Germany, as it did elsewhere. What remained after the initial concern subsided? We at the IIUG feel obligated to make a contribution to the preservation and the improvement of our environmental quality, both in basic and specialized research aimed at environmental problems. It is time to take stock of the findings of our own work; we must access the feedback to and implementation of this research; the candidness and integrity of the scientific-economic-political community; superfluous knowledge or information gaps; structural obstacles and possible alternatives. This paper presents, in condensed form, the results of the 'post-Chernobyl' discussions at the IIUG, based on our work in various projects. (orig.).

1986-01-01

51

Chernobyl: what sanitary consequences?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

2001-01-01

52

Chernobyl and the consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The brochure contains the texts of a broadcasting series with the following subjects: 1) Brighter than a thousand suns - what happened at Chernobyl; 2) Radical assault on the genetic material - the effect of radiation; 3) It's the dose that counts - slight radiation and human health; 4) Nuclear fallout - contamination levels of water, soil and air; 5) Safety against bombing - how safe are German nuclear power plants; 6) Practical advice for consumers. (HP).

1986-01-01

53

Fallout From Chernobyl  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson plan reinforces the concept that changes to the environment in one place can often affect other, distant places. Students will read and analyze several articles describing consequences of the 1986 explosion and fire at a nuclear power plant in Chernobyl, Ukraine, a country which at that time was part of the Soviet Union. Students will then create a map showing which countries were affected by this disaster and how they were affected.

54

The Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The documentation aims at giving a clearly arranged account of facts, interrelations and comparative evaluations of general interest. It deals with the course of events, atmospheric dispersion and fallout of the substances released and discusses the basic principles of the metering of radioactive radiation, the calculation of body doses and comparative evaluations with the radioactive exposure and risks involved by other sources. The author intends to contribute to an objective discussion about the Chernobyl reactor accident and nuclear energy as such. (DG).

1986-01-01

55

Chernobyl: a year after  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The radioactivity measurements in the year after the Chernobyl accident, carried out by the Radioprotection Division of the Joint Research Centre of Ispra, are reported. Air at ground level and in grass, milk, wheat, meat, fishes and man have been measured. The evaluation of the 1987 individual dose equivalent due to the exposure of the population living in N.W. Italy is compared with the dose equivalent absorbed in the year following the accident

1989-01-01

56

The Chernobyl effect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In what way and to what extent does an event like the Chernobyl reactor accident influence the citizen's attitudes and political commitment. This book evolves a number of theses on these questions dealing above all with the determinants of political protest. Two investigations are presented in order to verify those theses: in 1982 and 1987 (some nine months after the Chernobyl reactor accident), the same persons were interviewed. In addition, representative surveys in the Federal Republic of Germany are analysed, in order to assess in general the impact of Chernobyl. From the contents: explanation model for political protest; Chernobyl effect: effect of critical events on the mobilization of political protest; discontent with nuclear energy use, political alienation and protest; internal incentives for protest: norms, readiness for aggression, and entertainment quality of protest; resources as determinants of political protest; sanctions and protest; social nets and political protest; verification of a central model of political protest, and problems encountered by research. Appendix: investigation plan and random sampling of the panel of nuclear power opponents. (orig./HP)[de] In welcher Weise und in welchem Ausmass beeinflusst ein Ereignis wie der Reaktorunfall von Tschernobyl die Einstellungen und das politische Engagement der Buerger. In diesem Buch werden zu dieser Frage eine Reihe von Thesen entwickelt, die sich vor allem mit den Determinanten politischen Protests befassen. Zur Ueberpruefung dieser Thesen werden zwei Untersuchungen vorgestellt: 1982 und 1987 (etwa neun Monate nach dem Reaktorunfall in Tschernobyl) wurden dieselben Personen befragt. Darueber hinaus werden repraesentative Umfragen in der Bundesrepublik analysiert, um generell die Wirkungen von Tschernobyl abzuschaetzen. Aus dem Inhalt: Erklaerungsmodell politischen Protests; Tschernobyl-Effekt: Wirkung kritischer Ereignisse auf die Mobilisierung politischen Protests; Unzufriedenheit mit der Nutzung der Kernenergie, politische Entfremdung und Protest; interne Anreize von Protest: Normen, Aggressionsbereitschaft und Unterhaltungswert von Protest; Ressourcen als Determinanten politischen Protests; Sanktionen und Protest; soziale Netzwerke und politischer Protest; Ueberpruefung eines Kernmodells politischen Protests und Probleme fuer die Forschung. Anhang: Untersuchungsplan und Stichprobe des Atomkraftgegner-Panels. (orig./HP)

1990-01-01

57

Lessons of Chernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dr. Bennett Ramberg discusses the nuclear plant safety attitude leading to the Chernobyl accident, he reviews the accident and its immediate impact, and he then considers its long-term impact on the nuclear power-generating industry worldwide. This paper is based on a talk given by Dr. Ramberg on May 4, 1987, at the Center for National Security Studies of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The presentation was followed by a question and answer session.

Ramberg, B.

1988-07-01

58

Chernobyl source term estimation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Chernobyl source term available for long-range transport was estimated by integration of radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling and by reactor core radionuclide inventory estimation in conjunction with WASH-1400 release fractions associated with specific chemical groups. The model simulations revealed that the radioactive cloud became segmented during the first day, with the lower section heading toward Scandinavia and the upper part heading in a southeasterly direction with subsequent transport across Asia to Japan, the North Pacific, and the west coast of North America. By optimizing the agreement between the observed cloud arrival times and duration of peak concentrations measured over Europe, Japan, Kuwait, and the US with the model predicted concentrations, it was possible to derive source term estimates for those radionuclides measured in airborne radioactivity. This was extended to radionuclides that were largely unmeasured in the environment by performing a reactor core radionuclide inventory analysis to obtain release fractions for the various chemical transport groups. These analyses indicated that essentially all of the noble gases, 60% of the radioiodines, 40% of the radiocesium, 10% of the tellurium and about 1% or less of the more refractory elements were released. These estimates are in excellent agreement with those obtained on the basis of worldwide deposition measurements. The Chernobyl source term was several orders of magnitude greater than those associated with the Windscale and TMI reactor accidents. However, the {sup 137}Cs from the Chernobyl event is about 6% of that released by the US and USSR atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, while the {sup 131}I and {sup 90}Sr released by the Chernobyl accident was only about 0.1% of that released by the weapon tests. 13 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Gudiksen, P.H.; Harvey, T.F.; Lange, R.

1990-09-01

59

Year one after Chernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The critical review of the situation one year after the reactor accident at Chernobyl. The author says that the hazards emanating from nuclear power stations still are disguised by the operators of such plant, and calls for more and more effective action borne by the current emotions in the public against nuclear power, in order to get closer to the goal of having all nuclear power stations shut down.

Scheer, J.

1987-05-01

60

Debate on the Chernobyl disaster: response to Dr. Sergei V. Jargin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The stated purpose of Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment, published by the New York Academy of Sciences in 2009, was to challenge and answer publications on Chemobyl and its aftermath by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Until the independence of the WHO from the IAEA is assured, we can have little faith in their statements, whether it involves Chernobyl or Fukushima.

Sherman JD

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Debate on the Chernobyl disaster: response to Dr. Sergei V. Jargin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stated purpose of Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment, published by the New York Academy of Sciences in 2009, was to challenge and answer publications on Chemobyl and its aftermath by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Until the independence of the WHO from the IAEA is assured, we can have little faith in their statements, whether it involves Chernobyl or Fukushima. PMID:22403908

Sherman, Janette D

2012-01-01

62

Chernobyl - 20 years and beyond  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In commemoration of the Chernobyl accident 20 years ago, the French society for radiation protection (S.F.R.P.) and the Belgian society for radiation protection (B.V.S.A.B.R.) organise jointly a one day colloquium in Brussels. This colloquium is divided in two parts: the first one concerns the technical and organisational aspects of the accident with the scenario and its global impact, the international environmental radioactivity information exchange through the Chernobyl experience, the European Union (E.U.) assistance to mitigate the Chernobyl accident consequences, the crisis communication and management and the lessons learned from them; the second part is devoted to the medical and humanitarian aspects through the thyroid cancers after Chernobyl accident, the health effects in the European Union (E.U.) and the psychological factors affecting health after the Chernobyl disaster. (N.C.)

2006-03-24

63

Chernobyl - 10 years on. Proceedings of a conference organised by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident from an Irish perspective was the focus of a conference organised by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland to mark the tenth anniversary of the accident. The health consequences of Chernobyl were discussed along with presentations on such issues as the hazards to the Irish population from Sellafield; the radiation hazard posed by radon gas; radiation hazards in medicine, industry and education, and Ireland's National Emergency Plan for Nuclear Accidents.

1996-04-30

64

RBMKs and Chernobyl-4  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Outline information is given on RBMK power plants - the USSR's RBMK programme, the design of Chernobyl-4, the accident at Chernobyl-4 and measures taken to improve RBMK safety. The RBMKs are graphite-moderated reactors with pressure-tube channels for the fuel. The reactor coolant is high-pressure water which boils as it passes through the fuel channels. A fundamental characteristic of an RBMK core is that it has a positive void coefficient. This is normally overcome by the control system but there is also a strict operating rule that RBMKs must not be operated for any length of time below 20% full power. This is to avoid problems of thermal-hydraulic instability, the increased effect of the positive void coefficient and danger of an overall positive power coefficient. This rule and others were disregarded and some safety systems were disconnected in setting up the conditions for a turbine-generator test in April 1986 at Chernobyl-4. Forty seconds after the start of the test the operators initiated emergency shutdown. Two to three seconds later the reactor became prompt critical and disaster resulted. It is ironical that insertion of the control rods to effect emergency shutdown probably triggered the power pulse which led to the subsequent explosions. Since then modifications have been made to RBMKs to ensure that such an accident cannot happen again and by late 1986 most of the RBMKs were back in service at full power. UK authorities have studied the RBMK design, the USSR report of the accident and other analyses, and have expressed their firm belief that no such accident could happen with any of the UK reactors. (author).

Haslam, R.J.

1988-06-01

65

RBMKs and Chernobyl-4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Outline information is given on RBMK power plants - the USSR's RBMK programme, the design of Chernobyl-4, the accident at Chernobyl-4 and measures taken to improve RBMK safety. The RBMKs are graphite-moderated reactors with pressure-tube channels for the fuel. The reactor coolant is high-pressure water which boils as it passes through the fuel channels. A fundamental characteristic of an RBMK core is that it has a positive void coefficient. This is normally overcome by the control system but there is also a strict operating rule that RBMKs must not be operated for any length of time below 20% full power. This is to avoid problems of thermal-hydraulic instability, the increased effect of the positive void coefficient and danger of an overall positive power coefficient. This rule and others were disregarded and some safety systems were disconnected in setting up the conditions for a turbine-generator test in April 1986 at Chernobyl-4. Forty seconds after the start of the test the operators initiated emergency shutdown. Two to three seconds later the reactor became prompt critical and disaster resulted. It is ironical that insertion of the control rods to effect emergency shutdown probably triggered the power pulse which led to the subsequent explosions. Since then modifications have been made to RBMKs to ensure that such an accident cannot happen again and by late 1986 most of the RBMKs were back in service at full power. UK authorities have studied the RBMK design, the USSR report of the accident and other analyses, and have expressed their firm belief that no such accident could happen with any of the UK reactors. (author)

66

Evaluation investigation 'Chernobyl'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is an evaluation of the attitude of the Dutch government in response to the Chernobyl accident. It deals with measures taken by the government in order to minimize the (possible) effects, apparent shortcomings and how one has dealt with them, measures which can be taken at least by the Netherlands in case of a reactor accident given the presence of dozens of nuclear power plants in Europe. Good and less good aspects of the temporary organization are noted and some general recommendations are given. (Auth.)

1986-01-01

67

Chernobyl's lengthening shadow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article reviews the April 26, 1986 nuclear disaster at Chernobyl. The information presented was gathered through talks between the author and scientists, citizens, and hospital workers in Belarus and Ukraine, as well as from library research. What is currently believed to have occurred at the time of the accident is related. The short and long term health effects of the accident as they are now understood are analyzed. The numbers of people evacuated and the location and severity of land contamination are described. Political and economic consequences of the accident are also explored. 2 refs.

1993-01-01

68

Nuclear power after Chernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Long lead times in planning and building power stations make it difficult to match installed electricity generating capacity with electricity demand. Figures on world generation of electricity, energy consumption, and the growth rate of electricity production are given. In 1986 15.6% of all electricity was produced in nuclear plants. By 2000 this is expected to rise to 20%. The nuclear reactors are listed country by country. The effect of the reactor accident at Chernobyl on the nuclear power industry worldwide is considered. In particular, the nuclear policy of France is discussed. The future of nuclear energy is likely to depend more on politics and subjective perception than on economics or safety.

Baum, V.

1987-11-01

69

Chernobyl' 94. Abstracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book contains materials of the 4th International Scientific and Technical Conference devoted to the results of 8-years work on Chernobyl accident consequences mitigation. Main results of research in radiation monitoring, applied radioecology, effect of radionuclides on biological objects in contaminated territories are presented. Information about waste management and medical consequences of the accident is given. Methodology and strategic of further research on radionuclides in environment and their influence on living organisms is determined. Large factual materials and its generalization may be usefull for scientists and practical workers in the field of radiation monitoring, radiology and medicine.

1994-01-01

70

Chernobyl - and then?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes how the different parties of the nuclear debate react to, and deal with, the information that arises on the issue, i.e. the process that leads to decision making. After the Chernobyl accident, a public enquiry was made, to form a base for decisions regarding the future energy policy of Sweden, including the phasing-out of nuclear power. The differing interpretations and uses of the results of this enquiry are studied, in the hope to clarify and separate factual and value-based appreciations of different energy policy alternatives

1990-01-01

71

The accident of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

1986-01-01

72

Chernobyl: the facts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In these Search Strategies, searchers from different countries and professions are given a question to answer, a budget of Pounds 50 and a time in which to produce their report. We hope that these blow-by-blow accounts, together with the hints and tips picked up along the way, will help readers to develop their own search strategies. Journalists are more and more coming to use online services and here the author gives a journalist's account of tracking down the elusive facts surrounding the Chernobyl disaster. (author).

1993-01-01

73

Chernobyl: the facts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In these Search Strategies, searchers from different countries and professions are given a question to answer, a budget of Pounds 50 and a time in which to produce their report. We hope that these blow-by-blow accounts, together with the hints and tips picked up along the way, will help readers to develop their own search strategies. Journalists are more and more coming to use online services and here the author gives a journalist's account of tracking down the elusive facts surrounding the Chernobyl disaster. (author).

Stanbridge, R. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden) Dept. of Journalism, Media and Communication Studies)

1993-08-01

74

Chernobyl, fifteen years after  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work has been constituted around four questions: the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor, and the sarcophagus around it; the health consequences of the accident on the persons that have worked on the damaged reactor and on the population in the countries the most exposed to fallout,; the situation of contaminated territories around the power plant and their management today; the last question concerns especially the France with the consequences of the radioactive cloud and what we know about the health risks induced by this event. (N.C.)

2001-01-01

75

Chernobyl accident and Denmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. The event at the accident site, the release and dispersal of radioactive substances into the atmosphere and over Europe, is described. A discussion of the Danish organisation for nuclear emergencies, how it was activated and adapted to the actual situation, is given. A comprehensive description of the radiological contamination in Denmark following the accident and the estimated health effects, is presented. The situation in other European countries is mentioned. (author).

1986-01-01

76

Lessons from Chernobyl.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Chernobyl disaster on April 26th, 1986, led to the emission of radioactive substances such as iodine-131 and radioactive cesium. As the Soviet Union did not control food distribution and intake, residents were exposed to high levels of internal radiation, leading to the internal radiation exposure of the thyroid gland by iodine-131. As a result, the number of people who had thyroid cancer increased drastically among those who had been under 15 years old at the time of the accident. The age predilection is about to move to 25 or older. However, there has been no scientific evidence of impacts for solid tumor other than thyroid cancer, leukemia, benign diseases, or inheritance including unborn babies. On the other hand, the accident was thought to have caused social unrest and mental damage which had far more impact than that caused by radiation exposure. In this paper, we would like to summarize the impacts on the health of the people in Chernobyl compared to those caused by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. PMID:22353657

Takamura, Noboru; Yamashita, Shunichi

2011-01-01

77

Lessons from Chernobyl.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Chernobyl disaster on April 26th, 1986, led to the emission of radioactive substances such as iodine-131 and radioactive cesium. As the Soviet Union did not control food distribution and intake, residents were exposed to high levels of internal radiation, leading to the internal radiation exposure of the thyroid gland by iodine-131. As a result, the number of people who had thyroid cancer increased drastically among those who had been under 15 years old at the time of the accident. The age predilection is about to move to 25 or older. However, there has been no scientific evidence of impacts for solid tumor other than thyroid cancer, leukemia, benign diseases, or inheritance including unborn babies. On the other hand, the accident was thought to have caused social unrest and mental damage which had far more impact than that caused by radiation exposure. In this paper, we would like to summarize the impacts on the health of the people in Chernobyl compared to those caused by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

Takamura N; Yamashita S

2011-01-01

78

Assessment of Chernobyl health consequences under the influence of public and other interests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl reactor accident on 26 April 1986 was the largest and most severe disaster in the history of civil nuclear technology involving radiation exposure and radioactive contamination of large areas in the NIS. Among the three countries Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, Belarus was mostly affected, because about 70% of the radioactive fallout was deposited on its territory. The radiation doses from various nuclides, to which the public as well as the liquidators were exposed during the first months, let expect serious health consequences for a large number of persons. During the first weeks after the accident, the authorities in Moscow released several orders of secrecy. Later, in July 1987 the order was given that acute and chronic diseases of liquidators, who were exposed to less than 50 rem, must not be attributed to the effects of ionizing radiation. In 1990, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized the International Chernobyl Project, with the participation of the Commission of the European Communities, the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO) and others, in order to investigate and assess the radiological situation in the three affected Soviet Republics. 200 scientists from the West and 500 from USSR were sent by their governments to participate. Concerning the health impact, the IAEA team under its chairman professor F. Mettler from USA concluded in 1991 that there were no health disorders that could be attributed directly to radiation exposure. IAEA favoured psychological stress and anxiety to be the cause of health disorders observed. This information was spread world wide. But in reality, at this time the number of thyroid cancer cases in children in Belarus was already 30 times higher than the average in the 10 years before Chernobyl. And IAEA and other international organizations did not want to take into account the findings and reports of Belarusian and Ukrainian scientists on the marked increase in thyroid cancers, BBC found out and published in 1996 an TV documentation that as far back as 1990 F. Mettler had analyzed in the USA the pathological slides of thyroid cancer of 20 Ukrainian children confirming the malignancy in all cases. But Mettler and his colleagues suppressed this fact and stated in their reports that there was none. As a result, international organizations and the UN did not s tart proper assistance programmes for t he people affected and valuable time was lost. A new report in 2000 by the UNSCEAR committee contained a evaluation of the consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl accident which concludes that there is no evidence of a major public health impact attributable to radiation exposure fourteen years after the accident, apart from a high level of (treatable, non-fatal) thyroid cancers in children. With this exception, the report states 'there is no scientific evidence of increases in over all cancer incidence or mortality or in non-malignant disorders that could be related to radiation exposure.' The statement of UNSCEAR ignores a large number of scientific publications on a several fold increase in thyroid cancers in adults, the large increase in non-malignant thyroid disorders and in other diseases. It should be noted that this UN committee does not consist of independently elected scientists, but only of those being sent as representatives of governments of the 21 nations, who have strong interest in the use of nuclear technology. And F. Mettler is still member of UNSCEAR and represents the interests of the US government. Two international research programmes on the health effects of Chernobyl are of special interest. In the Project 'International Cooperation for post Chernobyl NIS Thyroid Tissue, Nucleic Acid and Data Banks' the USA, the European Atomic Energy Community, Japan and WHO invited Belarus, Russia and Ukraine to form a collaborative research resource. In the description of the programme it is outlined that competition among scientific groups should be avoided, that the study of

1986-04-26

79

Chernobyl and the Slimbridge swans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioactivity measurements were carried out on 46 live Bewick swans to determine if they had ingested any of the Chernobyl fallout deposits. The swans migrate each autumn from their breeding grounds in Artic Russia to spend the winter at Slimbridge, United Kingdom. At the time of the Chernobyl accident, the swans were at least 2500 km from Chernobyl. However on their migratory flight in the autumn, the swans would have stopped for several days on the Baltic Sea/North Sea coasts, which are known to be contaminated with fallout from the initial Chernobyl plume. The measurements were made in January 1987 on swans in the Slimbridge area, and the levels of radioactivity were so low that detection was very difficult.

Hancock, R.; Woolam, P.

1987-11-01

80

Chernobyl. Answers to your questions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, this document takes stock on the existing information and enhance the elements which can be set with certainty. The accident is recalled and the environmental and biological effects are presented. (A.L.B.)

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

The social impact of the Chernobyl disaster  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book focuses on the broader ramifications of the Chernobyl disaster,such as the impact upon the environment, agriculture, health, the media and the arts. The author feels that there is much information not yet available about the accident, and he says the Soviet Government has essentially developed an official line that is patently untrue. Many of the key mistakes and short comings that figured prominently in the accident and that the Soviets have been reluctant to publicize are highlighted. The part that what might be termed the Soviet system played in the accident and events following the accident is explored. This is not limited just to the incompetence of the plant operators when the accident occurred but is extended to the system that placed unqualified operators on the staff of a nuclear power plant, produced the defective reactor design, was responsible for the poor quality of the initial construction, etc. The author contends that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) did not really press the Soviets for complete truthful reports because it was not expedient to do so as the Chernobyl accident threatened the global nuclear industry of which IAEA is a part.

Marples, D.R.

1988-01-01

82

Some problems of invalids of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe caused health disorders of the liquidators, and as a result many of them became handicapped. The rate of health disorders among the invalids of Chernobyl is a few times higher than that of other citizens of the country. The invalids of Chernobyl need constant support, social help, medical rehabilitation and qualified medical care. Invalids of Chernobyl suffered from the consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe most of all. We are turning to foreign charity organizations for help in creating the Center of Psychological Support and organizing working places with flexible hours for Invalids of Chernobyl. (Authors)

2003-04-25

83

Bhopal and Chernobyl: some comparisons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An attempt is made to compare some aspects of the accidents at Bhopal and Chernobyl, their causes and consequences. There were design and management inadequacies in both cases, Maintenance inadequacies were plenty in Bhopal but not in Chernobyl. Written instructions were unsatisfactory in Bhopal. In Chernobyl the operators deliberately violated the instructions repeatedly; this compounded by the unsatisfactory nature of reactor design, led to the accident. Disaster management preparedness and emergency response were excellent at Chernobyl. At Bhopal the plant management was absolutely unprepared and contributed practically nothing to the emergency management; however, civil and military authorities did a splendid job. Immediate deaths in Bhopal are estimated to be 2,500 to 10,000 and the number affected 200,000. None of the plant staff were affected and all the casualties were in non-plant personnel living nearby. All the 31 deaths in Chernobyl were among the plant personnel. Although 135,000 persons living in a 30 Km zone round the reactor were evacuated and medically examined, none had to be hospitalised. The world scientific community seems to have forgotten Bhopal within a year or so after the accident, while Chernobyl continues to excite intense interest. Extensive knowledge of the biological effects of radiation helps to estimate the likely number of cancer and genetic effects from Chernobyl. Knowledge of Methyl iso cyanate (MIC) toxicology is woefully inadequate; recent evidence indicates the possibility of carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of MIC. Both at Bhopal and Chernobyl there are elaborate plans for detailed followup of the populations for several decades. (author). 17 refs., 3 tabs.

1989-01-01

84

Comments on the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident was due to design shortcomings in the RBMK (boiling water, pressure tube, graphite moderated reactor). In particular it has the potential for a rapidly-acting positive power coefficient below 20% power. There was also operator mismanagement due in part to failures in training. It is explained why an accident like Chernobyl could not happen in the UK basically because UK reactor design is different and the operator training is better. (UK)

1987-01-01

85

Core fragments in Chernobyl fallout  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the finding of core fragments from Chernobyl fallout on clothing and shoes of Dutch travellers returning from the Soviet Union and Poland after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Data are presented on the fractional ?-ray activities for various radionuclides in hot particles collected from trousers [Kiev and NE Poland] and a shoe [Minsk]. The ? activity of the hot particle from the Minsk shoe, as well as the energy spectrum of these ? particles, is also reported. (UK).

1986-01-01

86

About Chernobyl - Twenty Years Later  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The author discusses the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the information on its consequences so contradictory in the former USSR countries, the status of the effects observed, the forecasting concerning the onset of cancers in the coming years among the populations that were exposed to radiations, the public opinion facing the pessimists. He concludes on the lessons which can be drawn from Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

2006-01-01

87

Environmental radioactivity from Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A broadly based programme of environmental measurements following the Chernobyl accident is summarised and discussed. Levels of radionuclides in air and atmospheric deposition were increased substantially for a period of some weeks following the accident. The quantity of 137Cs in surface soils was doubled in some regions of the North and West of the UK. Observations of the rates of deposition and resuspension, and weathering from grass, a river catchment and buildings, provided confirmation of several aspects of the environmental behaviour of 137Cs, and extended understanding of these processes. Levels of 137Cs in imported crops and in individuals in S. England, and the brief increase in external radiation, were generally low, confirming that the dose to the regional population was small. (author).

1992-01-01

88

Problems of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This collection includes the materials, in which are, from one hand, the results of previous years works aimed at mitigation of Chernobyl accident aftermath and decrease of 'Ukryttia' object impact to surrounding environment are generalized and summed up, and from another hand, decisions and technologies are seen that are aimed at decrease of nuclear and radiation safety during the works of converting 'Ukryttia' object into an ecologically safe system. over fifteen years passed from the accident moment a rich experience in overcoming the accident aftermath has been accumulated and a great volume of experimental and theoretical data was gained, that is becoming as a base for further developments and testing of new technologies of 'Ukryttia' object rad waste management, lowering of risks during the works of 'Ukryttia' object conversion, improvement of its nuclear and radiation safety.

2001-01-01

89

5. Nonmalignant diseases after the Chernobyl catastrophe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This section describes the spectrum and the scale of the nonmalignant diseases that have been found among exposed populations. Adverse effects as a result of Chernobyl irradiation have been found in every group that has been studied. Brain damage has been found in individuals directly exposed--liquidators and those living in the contaminated territories, as well as in their offspring. Premature cataracts; tooth and mouth abnormalities; and blood, lymphatic, heart, lung, gastrointestinal, urologic, bone, and skin diseases afflict and impair people, young and old alike. Endocrine dysfunction, particularly thyroid disease, is far more common than might be expected, with some 1,000 cases of thyroid dysfunction for every case of thyroid cancer, a marked increase after the catastrophe. There are genetic damage and birth defects especially in children of liquidators and in children born in areas with high levels of radioisotope contamination. Immunological abnormalities and increases in viral, bacterial, and parasitic diseases are rife among individuals in the heavily contaminated areas. For more than 20 years, overall morbidity has remained high in those exposed to the irradiation released by Chernobyl. One cannot give credence to the explanation that these numbers are due solely to socioeconomic factors. The negative health consequences of the catastrophe are amply documented in this chapter and concern millions of people.

Yablokov AV

2009-11-01

90

Chernobyl NPP accident. Overcoming experience. Acquired lessons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of accident on the Chernobyl NPP unit 4. History of construction, causes of the accident and its consequences, actions for its mitigation are described. Modern situation with Chernobyl NPP decommissioning and transferring of 'Ukryttya' shelter into ecologically safe system are mentioned. The future of Chernobyl site and exclusion zone was discussed

2006-01-01

91

Reports of the Chernobyl accident consequences in Brazilian newspapers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The public perception of the risks associated with nuclear power plants was profoundly influenced by the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl Power Plants which also served to exacerbate in the last decades the growing mistrust on the 'nuclear industry'. Part of the mistrust had its origin in the arrogance of nuclear spokesmen and in the secretiveness of nuclear programs. However, press agencies have an important role in shaping and upsizing the public awareness against nuclear energy. In this paper we present the results of a survey in reports of some Brazilian popular newspapers on Chernobyl consequences, as measured by the total death toll of the accident, to show the up and down dance of large numbers without any serious judgment. (author)

Vicente, Roberto; Oliveira, Rosana Lagua de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: rvicente@ipen.br, e-mail: rloliveira@ipen.br

2009-07-01

92

Chernobyl team seeks aid for fallout cleanup studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

British nuclear experts have begun raising international aid agency interest in financing studies into cleaning up vast areas of the Ukraine still contaminated with fallout from the Chernobyl reactor explosion in April 1986. In a new 11-month investigation of the area outside an 18.6-mile radius of Chernobyl, the experts identified 80 necessary studies estimated to cost $62 million. open-quotes That's just to get the system up and running. The total cost is much larger, but the authors don't yet know how much,close quotes says investigation coordinator Alan Eggleton of AEA Technology Ltd., Harwell, which led the study team. According to the report, radioactivity contaminated 19,000 sq miles of the Ukraine. The government is now spending some 12% of its income on mitigating the contamination, although most spending is for victim compensation and resettlement.

1993-01-01

93

Chernobyl the health consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper focuses initially on selected aspects of the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, and then goes on to discuss some of the pitfalls involved in trying to assess the health detriment in isolation and without regard for the context in which it occurs. The accident on 26 April 1986 was unique. Two explosions, followed by a graphite fire in the destroyed reactor, not only dispersed radionuclides high into the atmosphere, but the fire was instrumental in ensuring the continued dispersion for about ten days. This prolonged discharge into the atmosphere combined with changes in wind direction ensured that radionuclides were widely distributed over Europe and were even detected throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The actual ground deposition was very variable, depending on may factors such as coincident rainfall during the passage of the plume, wind speed and direction, and the topography of the terrain. The mosaic distribution of the ground deposition became much more variable with distance from the site, and is responsible for the wide range of individual doses that characterises this accident. The paper details the health effects of the accident on those immediately involved, and also the delayed health effects, including increased incidence of thyroid cancer, among the populations of surrounding areas of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. It also discusses the widespread psychosocial detriment which resulted from the accident. Finally, the paper evaluated the efficacy of decontamination measures which were adopted in the affected areas in the years following the accident.

1986-04-26

94

Chernobyl disaster: explosion, earthquake or?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possible causes of the Chernobyl disaster lying outside the object limits are discussed on the basis of the analysis of the seismograms wherein the events, preceding the reactor explosion, were fixed are discussed. It is noted that the energy level of the seismic event preceding the reactor explosion was very low. By the number of indications the seismic event preceding the reactor explosion in Chernobyl may be interpreted as an explosion but not as an earthquake. Three seismic stations were in operation in the Chernobyl region before and during the accident. Clearly expressed groups of the surface waves were observed by the visual analysis of the seismograms of all three stations. It is most probable that on April 26 1980 there took place the explosions (which by the energy level are analogous to the earthquake with K = 6) in the direct vicinity of the reactor vital communications which might provoke the irreversible process

1999-01-01

95

Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The collection reflects the results of researches and test-design activities in the exclusion area of the Chernobyl NPP directed to elaborate the equipment and devices for scientific researches and elimination of the accident after effects at the Chernobyl NPP and to study composition and structure of solid-phase bearers of the activity in the soil of the exclusion area, form transformation of decay products, radionuclide composition of the fuel precipitation in the nearest zone of the Chernobyl NPP. Special attention is paid to medical-biological problems of the accident after effects influence on flora, fauna and human health, labour conditions and sick rate of people working in the exclusion area

1994-01-01

96

Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The collection reflects the results of researches and test-design activities in the exclusion area of the Chernobyl NPP, directed to elaborate the equipment and devices for scientific researches and elimination of the accident aftereffects at Chernobyl NPP and to study composition and structure of solid-phase bearers of the activity in the soil of the exclusion area, form transformation of decay products, radionuclide composition of the fuel precipitation in the nearest zone of Chernobyl NPP. Special attention is paid to medical-biological problems of the accident aftereffects influence on flora, fauna and human health, labour conditions and sick rate state of people working in the exclusion area. For scientists, experts working in the field of ecology, radioecology, atom energetics, radiology, radiochemistry, radiobiology and related fields. It may be useful for postgraduates and students

1994-01-01

97

Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented.

1986-05-06

98

Project Chernobyl - Progress report 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences of the Chernobyl accident have been investigated by a comprehensive measuring program. Some of the results are presented. Dose commitments in Sweden, both collective and individual, are summed up. The measures which have been taken to reduce dose commitments are discussed. (G.B.)

1988-01-01

99

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

1990-11-02

100

Chernobyl its effect on Ireland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report reviews the results of the measurements made during the first six months after the Chernobyl accident to determine the extent of the resultant environmental contamination. Estimates are presented of the individual and collective doses received by the public during the first six months and the first year after the accident

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Standby after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report is an investigation concerning strandby and actions by SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (National Institute of Radiation Protection) due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. It consists of a final report and two appendices. The final report is divided into two parts: 'I: Facts' and 'II: Analyzes'. 'Facts': The Swedish model for information: radio, press. Basic knowledge about ionizing radiation in the society. Resources for information. Need for information. Message forms for information. Announcements from the authorities in TV, radio, press, meeting, advertisements. Statements concerning the reactor accident and its consequences in Swedish mass media. How did the public recieve the information? 'Analyzis': Information responsibilities and policies. SSI information activities concerning radiologic accidents, conditions, methods and resources. Ditto for SKI, Swedish National Food Administration and the National Board of Agriculture. Appendix I: Information from authorities in the press three weeks after the Chernobyl accident: The material and the methods. The acute phase, the adoptation phase, the extension of the persective. What is said about the authorities in connection with Chernobyl? Appendix II: The fallout from Chernobyl, the authorities and the media coverage: The nationwide, regional and local coverage from radio and television. Ditto from the press. Topic and problem areas in reporting. Instructions from the authorities in media. Contribution in the media from people representing the authorities. Fallout in a chronologic perspective. (L.F.)

1987-01-01

102

Chernobyl fallout on Ioannina, Greece  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper concerns fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident measured in NW Greece during April/May 1986. Gamma-ray spectra of fallout collected on air filters were obtained, from which 14 different nuclides were identified, but others remained unidentified. The relative gamma activity of each of the 14 isotopes was determined.

Alexandropoulos, N.G.; Alexandropoulos, T.; Anagnostopoulos, D.; Evangelou, E.; Kotsis, K.T.; Theodoridou, I.

1986-08-28

103

Chernobyl fallout on Ioannina, Greece  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper concerns fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident measured in NW Greece during April/May 1986. Gamma-ray spectra of fallout collected on air filters were obtained, from which 14 different nuclides were identified, but others remained unidentified. The relative gamma activity of each of the 14 isotopes was determined. (UK).

1986-01-01

104

Living with radiation - after Chernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Outline comment on the IAEA Vienna meeting of scientists, engineers and doctors to hear the first full report of the causes and consequences of the accident at Chernobyl, with particular reference to the medical response, population monitoring, post-irradiation therapy and deposition on soil and vegetation and incorporation of radioactive materials into foodstuffs.

1986-09-13

105

Chernobyl - a Canadian technical perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986, the Number 4 reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the Soviet Union suffered a severe accident which destroyed the reactor core and led to a loss of life. The four reactors at this station are of the RBMK-1000 type - boiling-light-water cooled, graphite moderated, vertical pressure-tube reactors, each generating 1000 MW of electricity through two turbines. AECL has carefully studied the accident, and the design of Chernobyl, to see if anything has been overlooked in the CANDU design. This report reviews the results of that study, in particular the relevant features of the Chernobyl design which exacerbated the accident, and compares them to the CANDU 600 design. A number of issues (the sign of the void coefficent and the pressure-tube design) have also been given some international prominence in the post-Chernobyl analysis; these are discussed in this report and shown to be irrelevant to the CANDU design. Finally this report describes the subjects identified for further design follow-up in Canada

1987-01-01

106

Stretch Marks (Striae)  

Science.gov (United States)

newsletter | contact Share | Stretch Marks (Striae) Information for adults A A A Striae (stretch marks) often follow weight gain or pregnancy. Overview Stretch marks (striae) are stripe-like skin marks that ...

107

Chernobyl, 14 years later; Tchernobyl, 14 ans apres  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) International cooperation, (7) More information about Chernobyl and (8) Glossary.

NONE

2000-07-01

108

The 1986 Chernobyl accident; Der Unfall von Tschernobyl 1986  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

April 26, 2011 marks the 25th anniversary of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the worst incident in the history of the peaceful utilization of nuclear power. While investigations of the course of events and the causes of the accident largely present a uniform picture, descriptions still vary widely when it comes to the impact on the population and the environment. This treatment of the Chernobyl accident constitutes a summary of facts about the initiation of the accident and the sequence of events that followed. In addition, measures are described which were taken to exclude any repetition of a disaster of this kind. The health consequences and the socio-economic impact of the accident are not discussed in any detail. The first section contains an introduction and an overview of the Soviet RBMK (Chernobyl) reactor line. In section 2, fundamental characteristics of this special type of reactor, which was exclusively built in the former Soviet Union, are discussed. This information is necessary to understand the sequence of accident events and provides an answer to the frequent question whether that accident could be transferred to reactors in this country. The third section outlines the history of the accident caused ultimately by a commissioning test never performed before. The section is completed by a brief description of radiological releases and the state of the plant after the accident when entombed in the ''sarcophagus.'' The different causes are then summarized and the modifications afterwards made to RBMK reactors are outlined. (orig.)

Kerner, Alexander; Stueck, Reinhard; Weiss, Frank-Peter [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching bei Muenchen, Koeln (Germany). Bereich Reaktorsicherheitsanalysen; Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

2011-02-15

109

Social Chernobyl participants condition in Lithuania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full texts: At the moment in Lithuania live almost 6 600 Chernobyl participants (persons witch were in attendance Chernobyl nuclear power station emergency ravage liquidation works and executing another works in 30 kilometers zone). About 770 died and 170 went to other nations. Thievery other fixed illnesses coherence with being in 30 kilometers zone. According 26 October, 1990 Republic of Lithuania government's resolution No. 325 intended that Chernobyl participants credit accomplishes Ministry of Social care but until now in the Republic there is not undivided database, consequently we use different institution's and social investigations information which is not circumstantial. Chernobyl participants social condition and medicine service control certificates, government's resolutions and Ministry of health care and work and Ministry's of health care requisitions. There is not a law which guarantees Chernobyl participants social rights. Supposedly that for in Lithuania there is not the logistics which could vouch medical facilities provision for Chernobyl participants. Until 2005 sanatorium treating of Chernobyl participants was pursuance through invalids till but this treatment was not available to everyone Chernobyl participant for two reasons: 1 - Vicinities doctors and GPs not all the time contemprorize illnesses with being in The nuclear power station of the Chernobyl zone. 2 - Invalids till was not fixing the number of the permissions to the sanatoriums for the Chernobyl participants. Since 13 September, 2005 by Republic of Lithuania government's resolution No. 998 municipal governments budget bankrolls once a year may offset eighteen-days sanatorium treatment for persons which were liquidating The nuclear power-station of the Chernobyl emergency ravage but Chernobyl participants should give Specialists committee inference. Another problem social security. Chernobyl participant's requirement supply if they ill or died according Government's 18 February, 1998 resolution No.198 Regarding onetime compensations and exemptions for persons witch experienced damage liquidating emergency of The nuclear power-station of Chernobyl. There is fixed amount of money (about 4114 EUR), witch is paying Chernobyl participant's family in case of his or her death but if for her or him will be diagnose, for example, 2nd group of invalidity and pay onetime compensation (about 1646 EUR) this amount will be calculate from the forethought compensation. De-facto Chernobyl participants children (which is 1224) since 1991 is tending by Republic centre of Chernobyl participants children in Vilnius but de jure our children are left beyond social care and especially beyond health care scheme attention line. Chernobyl participants children have not got juridical status. They are not mention neither Republican juridical certificate. Neither Chernobyl participants neither our children are not involved in Lithuanian health care programme witch was confirmed by Parliament of Republic of Lithuania on 2 July, 1998. To improve our conditions we are working hardly in many ways. Our work's main ways are: 1. Work with public office. Every year we are sending laws and prescripts additions and changes to The Republic of Lithuania President office Ministry of Health care and Ministry of social care and work. We prepared and proposed a law project for Parliament of Republic of Lithuania 'People witch suffered from, The nuclear power-station of Chernobyl emergency, social care' in April, 2005. 2. Work with Chernobyl participants and society. Every year we arranging anniversary of The nuclear power-station of Chernobyl. We publishing internet newspaper. We started to prosecute projects with students to remember the emergency of The nuclear power-station of Chernobyl. We annually make opportunity to get a pecuniary relief for Chernobyl participants

2006-01-01

110

US Department of Energy Chernobyl Database  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Chernobyl Database project is developing and maintaining an information to provide researchers with data and resource materials relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident of April 1986. The system is the official United States repository for Chernobyl data. The system includes a collection of Chernobyl-related documents, a database of bibliographic references, and a collection of radiological measurements records. In addition, projects have been developed to make the resources more accessible and easy to use. These products include a personal-computer-based bibliographic search system (ChernoLit{trademark}), two printed bibliographies, and a personal- computer-based radiological measurements database system (ChernoDat).

Kennedy, R.A.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Smith, S.K.; Carr, F. Jr.

1992-05-01

111

The reactor accident of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Karlsruhe region an effective dose equivalent is expected to be 60 ?Sv (6 mrem) for adults and 118 ?Sv (11,8 mrem) for a child, one year old, for the time between May 86 and May 87. These doses are caused by inhalation of radionuclides released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl, by the ?-radiation of deposited radionuclides and by the ingestion of contaminated food. The dose caused by as the uptake of natural radioactivity by food and inhaled air, the terrestrial and cosmic radiation achieves about 2200 ?Sv/a (220 mrem/a). During the first year after the reactor accident the additional dose will be about 5% of the natural annual exposure. During the following years the dose caused by radionuclides from Chernobyl will be negligible low. (orig.).

1986-01-01

112

The reactor accident of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contamination, caused by the radioactivity released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl was measured in samples taken in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The radioactivity was determined in air, fodder, milk, vegetables, other plants, foodstuffs, soil, precipitations, drinking water, sludge and other samples. Results of measurements are reported which were received with considerably more than 1000 samples. The evaluation of the data will be presented in KfK 4140. (orig.)

1986-01-01

113

Chernobyl accident and operator mistakes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of phychological analysis of operator errors during the Chernobyl NPP accident are presented. The first part of the work was carried out using the data contained in official documents, and the second one was made with application of the information from other independent sources. The official list of errors as a result was significantly decreased. The conclusion is made on the necessity of developing the objective technique for evaluation of the NPP operational personnel actions.

1991-01-01

114

The year one after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The critical review of the situation one year after the reactor accident at Chernobyl. The author says that the hazards emanating from nuclear power stations still are disguised by the operators of such plant, and calls for more and more effective action borne by the current emotions in the public against nuclear power, in order to get closer to the goal of having all nuclear power stations shut down. (DG)

1987-01-01

115

Chernobyl operators mesmerized by mind-set  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This post mortem report is based mainly on the information presented by Soviet specialists to a post accident review conference organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna in August 1986, and an analysis of that information reported to a special session of the IAEA General Conference in early September 1986. The Chernobyl accident is blamed on operator mind-set - a situation where control room operators fix their minds on one interpretation of instrument readings and doggedly follow a set of procedures without fully appreciating what is actually happening in the plant. The background to, and the step-by-step sequence of, operator actions, the reasons for taking them, the operating procedures these violated and the consequences of the actions are described. The RBMK type reactor design is also described to show how the operations relate to this particular reactor design. The main reactor parameters are given. A diary of events, starting at 01.00h on 25 April 1986 and leading to explosions at about 01.24h on 26 April is set out. The damage to the reactor building and the subsequent actions to put out the fire caused by the explosions is described. By May 6 the actions had resulted in temperature stabilization at the reactor and a reduction to a low level of the radioactivity release.

Rippon, S.

1986-12-01

116

Public responses to the Chernobyl accident  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The reactor accident at Chernobyl caught many European nations by surprise since most risk management institutions were unprepared for an accident of the magnitude and transnational character of Chernobyl. Although confusion and contradictory advice from these institutions dominated the risk managem...

Renn, Ortwin

117

The reactor accident at Chernobyl, U.S.S.R  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report gives the results of radiation measurements in Denmark following the accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, U.S.S.R. The results of the measurements as of 3 May show that the effect of the accident on Danish territory is comparable to 2 weeks of natural background radiation. The report has been prepared on behalf of a coordinating committee established by Danish authorities after the accident. The coordinating committee is chaired by the National Agency of Environmental Protection and consists of representatives from the National Board of Health, the National Food Agency, Risoe National Laboratory, the Civil Defense, the Meteorological Institute and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The report measurements were performed by the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene (part of the National Board of Health) and by Risoe National Laboratory. (author)

1986-01-01

118

Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty years have passed since the worst nuclear reactor accident in the world occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The radioactive contamination which resulted from the explosion and fire in the first few days spread over large areas of neighbouring Belarus and the Russian Federation, with most of the fallout in Belarus. While national and local authorities did not immediately disclose the scale of the accident, the mitigation measures, such as distribution of potassium iodine pills, food restriction, and mass evacuation from areas where the radioactive contamination was greatest, undoubtedly reduced the health impact of the radiation exposure and saved many lives. The accident caused severe social and economic disruption and had significant environmental and health impact. This was aggravated by the political and economical changes in the three affected states related to the break-down of the Soviet Union. In the aftermath of the accident the international scientific and medical community collaborated closely with national experts dealing with health effects of the accident in the affected countries. There is a substantial body of international collaborative projects on the situation, which should lead to advancement in radiation sciences. However, considerable speculation and disinformation remains about the possible health impact of the accident for the millions of affected people. To address the health, environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the United Nations in 2003 launched an Inter-Agency initiative, the Chernobyl Forum. The Forum's Secretariat, led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and several other international organizations collaborated with the governments of the affected countries. The purpose of the Chernobyl Forum was to review the consequences of the accident, issue technical reports and, based on this information, to provide authoritative statements and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. An additional purpose of the Forum was to provide the information in non-scientific, appropriate languages (Russian and English) to the affected populations. Under the Forum's auspices, the WHO's Radiation and Environmental Health Programme convened a series of international scientific expert meetings. They included scientists of international repute who had been conducting research on Chernobyl. This report is the outcome of WHO's contribution to the Forum. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) review of the scientific literature on Chernobyl health effects published in 2000 was used in this review and updated with more recent information. Many lessons have been learned from the Chernobyl accident and preparations have been made to respond to and mitigate future accidents. An international system of response to nuclear emergencies and radiological accidents has been established, including the WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Response Network. Over the past 20 years, people in the three affected countries have come a long way in Overcoming the consequences of the accident. Providing the public and key professionals with accurate information about the health and environmental consequences of the disaster should be a high priority. This report is the result of a sound scientific evaluation of the available evidence and provides a firm basis for moving forward

2006-01-01

119

Chernobyl, 12 years later; Tchernobyl, douze ans apres  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3) Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) The Franco-German cooperation, and (7) Glossary.

NONE

1998-04-01

120

Chernobyl fallout in Great Britain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chernobyl deposition in the UK was sampled in May and October 1986 and in June of 1987. The sampling concentrated on grassy vegetation but in October 1986 other vegetation, soils and wildlife were included. Deposition patterns have been established and a greater degree of retention and recycling indicated for the organic soils of upland Britain. For wild animals concentration factors varied not only between species but with sex and age. Highest tissue concentrations were recorded in species feeding on heather (Blue hares and Grouse) and the lowest in rabbits feeding on grass over mineral soils. Radiocaesium was found in a carnivore (the fox) at the top of the food chain. (author)

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Chernobyl radioactivity in Turkish tea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Radioactivity measurement of Turkish tea of 1986 crops is reported. The total cesium activity ranged from about 5500 Bq kg-1 up to 43600 Bq kg-1. Some other fission products from Chernobyl could be detected in the tea samples, e.g., 95Zr, 95Nb, 103Ru, 106Ru, 110mAg and 125Sb. In addition, some activity values found in tea from USSR are given. The transfer rate of cesium from tea leaves to tea water was found to be about 74%. (author) 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

1990-05-17

122

Chernobyl: Anatomy of the explosion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On Friday, 26 April 1986, it was planned to shut down the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station, U.S.S.R., for periodic maintenance. The procedure supplied the opportunity to perform a further experiment; operation of the turbine in free rotation regime, which occurs when the steam is cut down while the turbine is still running. It so happened that carrying out this experiment turned out to be the worst accident in the history of nuclear power industry. The first part of the article proceeds to a second by second detailed analysis of the causes of the catastrophe. The analysis uses official data and reports. The author covers the sequence of events, which led up to two explosions in the second hour of that tragic morning. In the second part of the article, the author provides hints and suggestions, so that 'the tragedy of Chernobyl does not become a useless lesson'. With regard to what, so far, has been published, the novelty of the article may be a diagram showing the excessive changes that affected the main parameters (power, water flow through circulating pumps, steam pressure in separators, and length of the immersed part of control rods) in the fourth unit during the last seconds before the explosion. If may be noteworthy to mention that the curves supplied here are based on data stored in the computer 'SCALA'. 2 figs.

1986-04-26

123

Mark Napier / Mark Napier ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Ameerika kunstnikust Mark Napierist (sünd. 1961) ja tema loomingust, 2001. a. tehtud meiliintervjuu kunstnikuga. Võrguteosest "The Digital Landfill" (1998), koos Andy Deckiga loodud tööst "GrafficJam" (1999), töödest "Shredder" (1998), "Feed", "Riot", "P-Soup" (2000), võrgukunstist ja muust

Napier, Mark

2006-01-01

124

Cancer consequences of the Chernobyl accident: 20 years on  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

26 April 2006 marks the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. On this occasion, the World Health Organization (WHO), within the UN Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened an Expert Group to evaluate the health impacts of Chernobyl. This paper summarises the findings relating to cancer. A dramatic increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed among those exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated territories. Iodine deficiency may have increased the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodines, while prolonged stable iodine supplementation in the years after exposure may reduce this risk. Although increases in rates of other cancers have been reported, much of these increases appear to be due to other factors, including improvements in registration, reporting and diagnosis. Studies are few, however, and have methodological limitations. Further, because most radiation-related solid cancers continue to occur decades after exposure and because only 20 years have passed since the accident, it is too early to evaluate the full radiological impact of the accident. Apart from the large increase in thyroid cancer incidence in young people, there are at present no clearly demonstrated radiation-related increases in cancer risk. This should not, however, be interpreted to mean that no increase has in fact occurred: based on the experience of other populations exposed to ionising radiation, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Although it is expected that epidemiological studies will have difficulty identifying such a risk, it may nevertheless translate into a substantial number of radiation-related cancer cases in the future, given the very large number of individuals exposed. (rev0009i.

Cardis, Elisabeth [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon CEDEX 08 (France); Howe, Geoffrey [Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th Street, Room 1104, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Ron, Elaine [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Building EPS, MS 7238, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)] (and others)

2006-06-15

125

Disturbances of the cognitive functions in the liquidators of Chernobyl disaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Experimental-psychological investigation into cognitive functions in 78 men (34-57 y.o.) participated in the Chernobyl accident response. Radiation dose to everybody was up to the threshold one. Stable organic alterations in the central nervous system functions of examined persons were found. Presence of local alterations (mostly pathological changes in diencephalic region and parietal-temporal sections of the cerebral right hemisphere cortex) are also marked

1998-01-01

126

Impact of the Chernobyl accident on Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we present and discuss measurements of radionuclide concentrations made in Turkey during the Chernobyl event and perform preliminary analyses of the internal and external doses associated with exposure to these materials. 15 refs., 1 tab

1987-01-01

127

Impact of the Chernobyl accident on Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, we present and discuss measurements of radionuclide concentrations made in Turkey during the Chernobyl event and perform preliminary analyses of the internal and external doses associated with exposure to these materials. 15 refs., 1 tab.

Fields, D.E.; Ozluoglu, N.; Yalcintas, M.G.

1987-01-01

128

Chernobyl forests: post, present and future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chernobyl accident created a unique ecological situation which influenced on all forest biocenoses element. Urgent actions for forest protection are needed. Their absence has negative impact on biological, sanitary and fire protection situation in forests

1999-01-01

129

78 FR 20295 - National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...Forest Service National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service...SUMMARY: The National Tree-Marking Paint Committee will meet in Awendaw, SC on...the handling and use of tree-marking paint by personnel of the Forest Service...

2013-04-04

130

Stakeholders and radiological protection: lessons from Chernobyl 20 years after  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty years after the major accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, the radioactive contamination continues to have an important impact on lives in the vicinity, and to a lesser extent in areas such as Western Europe and beyond. The purpose of this report is not to address clinical or environmental studies, but to look at how people are coping with the difficulties they still face. Commissioned by the Committee for Radiation Protection and Public Health of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the report focuses on the role of radiological protection and how this discipline has been deployed to help people manage their lives. Although the topic of this report concerns radioactivity and nuclear power, it can also be very useful to policy makers and experts dealing with the aftermath of wide-scale disasters, regardless of their causes (natural, accidental or malicious). Whilst we all hope never to see another event causing contamination on the scale that followed Chernobyl, it is prudent to be prepared. Hence this report also describes many of the problems that could need to be faced in the longer term by technical specialists, should such a contamination event occur, and presents ways of dealing with them. This report will provide readers with insights into how to plan better for this type of event, in particular beyond the immediate response phase. (author)

2006-01-01

131

A cost effective safeguards approach for the Chernobyl RBMK reaktor and separate spent fuel storage, based on unattended monitoring systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the safeguards approach elaborated by the Agency for the RBMK reactor units at the Chernobyl site as well as for the wet separate spent fuel storage. It addresses the technical difficulties encountered by the Agency in implementing the safeguards approach for the Chernobyl site in a most efficient and cost effective manner and describes how the French Support Programme (FRESPAS) assisted the Agency in fulfilling this requirement. FRESPAS designed, installed and commissioned an unattended spent fuel monitoring system at reactor unit 3 and separate spent fuel storage at the Chernobyl site. This system is complemented by a digital surveillance system (EMOSS), which both resulted in a cost effective safeguards approach for the site. The technical specifications for the unattended monitoring system defined by the inspectors are described in the paper as well as FRESPAS' involvement together with specialized French engineering companies such as EURISYS-MESURES, EDF-CLI, and DAMRI in order to guarantee the technical success of the task. Specific points such as grounding problems, design and installation of the detectors, reliability of the system and preliminary results are also discussed, in addition to the health and radiation safety conditions encountered by the French workers during the on-site installation. Finally, the paper highlights how the good cooperation between the IAEA, FRESPAS and Chernobyl operators permitted the completion of the task in less than one year. (author)

1999-01-01

132

Summary of Chernobyl followup research activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In NUREG-1251, ''Implications of the Accident at Chernobyl for Safety Regulation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plants in the United States,'' April 1989, the NRC staff concluded that no immediate changes in NRC's regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors were needed; however, it recommended that certain issues be considered further. NRC's Chernobyl followup research program consisted of the research tasks undertaken in response to the recommendations in NUREG-1251. It included 23 tasks that addressed potential lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl accident. This report presents summaries of NRC's Chernobyl followup research tasks. For each task, the Chernobyl-related issues are indicated, the work is described, and the staff's findings and conclusions are presented. More detailed reports concerning the work are referenced where applicable. This report closes out NRC's Chernobyl followup research program as such, but additional research will be conducted on some issues as needed. The report includes remarks concerning significant further activity with respect to the issues addressed.

1992-01-01

133

Radiation effects blamed on Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Strictly speaking, the nature of an epidemiological study would not permit the same causal links to be established as an experimental study does. Instead, it merely provides circumstantial evidence, from which some conclusions can be drawn as to the causative factors in the occurrences recorded. To summarize it may be stated that as fas as the Germans are concerned no scientific evidence has so far been provided to prove health impairments attributable to an added radiation load from the Chernobyl fallout. On the other hand, it can not be denied that there are indications of health damage in a few individuals unreasonably changing their eating habits for fear of radiation injuries. The question as to whether the event instilled a permanent feeling of unease in some population groups still remains largely obscure. (orig.)

1992-01-01

134

Chernobyl radioactivity persists in reindeer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Transfer of 137Cs in the soil-plant/lichen-reindeer food chain was studied in central (Ųstre Namdal) and southern Norway (Vågå) during 2000-2003. Reindeer from these areas have been continuously subjected to countermeasure application since the 1986 Chernobyl accident. In both areas no decline in 137Cs concentrations was detectable in reindeer slaughtered in autumn since 1995, or in reindeer slaughtered in winter since 1998-1999. Seasonal differences in 137Cs concentrations in reindeer have been less pronounced in recent years, with 137Cs concentrations occasionally higher in autumn than in winter. Soil-to-plant 137Cs transfer was significantly higher in Ųstre Namdal than in Vågå. Climatic influences on lichen growth and abundance, and on soil properties that influence the availability of 137Cs for plant uptake, are hypothesized to have a larger impact on long-term transfer of radiocaesium in the soil-plant/lichen-reindeer food chain than has been previously observed.

Skuterud L; Gaare E; Eikelmann IM; Hove K; Steinnes E

2005-01-01

135

Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment' (EGE). Working material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental effects of the 26 April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Even though it is now nearly 20 years after the accident and substantial monies have been spent on such evaluations, there are still many conflicting reports and rumours. This joint report has been developed with the full cooperation of the United Nations (UN) family of relevant organisations and with political representatives from the three more affected countries: Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation. In addition, recognised scientific experts from the three countries and additional international experts provided the basis for the preparation of reports for review by the actual members of the Chernobyl Forum. The - Chernobyl Forum - is a high-level political forum whose suggestion for existence was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO), and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. The organisational meeting of the Chernobyl Forum was held on 3-5 February 2003, at which time the decision was reached to establish the Forum as an ongoing entity of the above named organisations. Thus, the organisational meeting of the Forum decided to establish the Chernobyl Forum as a series of managerial, expert and public meetings in order to generate authoritative consensual statements on the health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident and the environmental consequences induced by the released radioactive materials, to provide advice on remediation and special health-care programmes, and to suggest areas where further research is required; and to accept the following Terms of Reference (TOR) of the Forum. The objectives of the Chernobyl Forum were defined as follows: To explore and refine the current scientific assessments on the long-term health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident, with a view to producing authoritative consensus statements focusing on: the health effects attributable to radiation exposure caused by the accident, the environmental consequences induced by the radioactive materials released due to the accident, e.g., contamination of foodstuffs, and additionally to address the consequences attributable to the accident although not directly related to the radiation exposure or radioactive contamination; To identify gaps in scientific research relevant to the radiation-induced or radioactive contamination-induced health and environmental impacts of the accident, and suggest areas where further work is required based on an assessment of the work done in the past, and bearing in mind ongoing work and projects; To provide advice on, and to facilitate implementation of scientifically sound programmes on mitigation of the accident consequences, including possible joint actions of the organizations participating in the Forum, such as: agricultural, economic and social life under safe conditions, special health care of the affected population, monitoring of the long-term human exposure to radiation, and addressing the environmental issues pertaining to the decommissioning of the Shelter and management of radioactive waste originating from the Chernobyl accident. The Chernobyl Forum itself continued as a high-level organisation of senior officials from UN agencies and the three more affected countries. The actual work has been accomplished by two expert groups: Expert Group -Environment - (EGE) and Expert Group 'Health' (EGH). Members of each of these two groups consisted of recognised international scientists, including those from the three more affected countries. Within the

1986-04-26

136

Psychosocial consequences of the Chernobyl disaster (A survey of Chernobyl accidental exposed and a non-exposed population sample)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of psychological factors in the aftermath of industrial disasters is being recognized increasingly. Two field studies (total N=3084) were conducted in two regions of the former Soviet Union, to investigate the long-term psychosocial consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster in 1986. A sub sample of the respondents (N=449) was studied using a standardized physical and psychiatric examination. The first study took place in the Gomel region (Belarus) in the direct vicinity of the damaged nuclear plant. A control study was conducted in the Tver region (the Russian Federation), about 250 km north-west of Moscow. The results of the study indicate significantly higher levels of psychological distress, poorer subjective health and higher medical consumption in the exposed population. These findings were most prominent in risk groups such as evacuated people and mothers with children. No significant differences in overall levels of psychiatric or physical morbidity were found. Radiation related diseases could not account for the poor health perception in the investigated sample. These results indicate that psychological factors following the Chernobyl disaster had a marked effect upon psychological well being, on perceived health and on subsequent illness behavior. Fears about future health play a key role in determining this response. The provision of adequate information to the public as well as to the public health services may be important to counteract these fears.

1996-01-01

137

Decades Later, Chernobyl Accident Yields Clues to Leukemia Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

... This Document Bookmark & Share Special Report Decades Later, Chernobyl Accident Yields Clues to Leukemia Risk Studies of cleanup workers from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant have revealed a link between ...

138

Chernobyl from the point of view of disaster sociology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some social aspects of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus are considered. The information system of publications on this theme is analyzed. The influence of various factors of the Chernobyl accident on social changes in the areas of radioactive contamination is investigated. The Chernobyl subculture formation process in the contaminated areas is considered. Practical recommendations of sociologists on the elimination of the Chernobyl catastrophe effects are given. 12 refs

1992-01-01

139

Random Marked Sets  

CERN Multimedia

We introduce a new class of stochastic processes which are defined on a random set in R^d. These processes can be seen as a link between random fields and marked point processes. Unlike for random fields, the mark covariance function need in general not be positive definite. This implies that in many situations the use of simple geostatistical methods appears to be questionable. Surprisingly, for a special class of processes based on Gaussian random fields, we do have positive definiteness for the corresponding mark covariance function and mark correlation function.

Ballani, Felix; Schlather, Martin

2009-01-01

140

Radioactive waste management in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: 25 years since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities in the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste-related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and, in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. PMID:21878768

Oskolkov, Boris Y; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zinkevich, Lubov I; Proskura, Nikolai I; Farfįn, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
141

Radioactive waste management in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: 25 years since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities in the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste-related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and, in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program.

Oskolkov BY; Bondarkov MD; Zinkevich LI; Proskura NI; Farfįn EB; Jannik GT

2011-10-01

142

Introduction: geoscientific knowledgebase of Chernobyl and Fukushima  

Science.gov (United States)

Radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011) accidents is a multi-disciplinary geoscience problem. Just this session (GI1.4) contains presentations of (i) atmospheric transport for both short and long distances, (ii) aerosol physics and chemistry, (ii) geophysical measurement method and logistics, (iv) inversion method to estimate the geophysical source term and decay, (v) transport, migration, and sedimentation in the surface water system, (vi) transport and sedimentation in the ocean, (vii) soil chemistry and physics, (viii) forest ecosystem, (ix) risk assessments, which are inter-related to each other. Because of rareness of a severe accident like Chernobyl and Fukushima, the Chernobyl's 27 years experience is the only knowledgebase that provides a good guidance for the Fukushima case in understanding the physical/chemical processes related to the environmental radioactive contamination and in providing future prospectives, e.g., what we should do next for the observation/remediation. Unfortunately, the multi-disciplinary nature of the radioactive contamination problem makes it very difficult for a single scientist to obtain the overview of all geoscientific aspects of the Chernobyl experience. The aim of this introductory talk is to give a comprehensive knowledge of the wide geoscientific aspects of the Chernobyl contamination to Fukushima-related geoscience community.

Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Voitsekhovych, Oleg; Korobova, Elena; Stohl, Andreas; Wotawa, Gerhard; Kita, Kazuyuki; Aoyama, Michio; Yoshida, Naohiro

2013-04-01

143

Phytoremediation of Chernobyl Contaminated Land  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most of the land within a 10 km radius of the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant is still heavily contaminated by the 1986 accident. In 1998, a 3 year investigation of the potential of willow vegetation systems to stabilise the contaminated land and thereby reduce the dispersion of radionuclides was initiated under the PHYTOR project. During the first year, a number of screening tests were carried out on the contaminated flood plain of the river Pripyat. Survival of new willow plantations was tested at several locations. Except for the predominantly moist peaty soil in the vicinity of Yanov (where survival was nearly 100%), survival was low (0-30%). Notwithstanding, willows are found everywhere on the Pripyat flood plains: 7-8 year old plantations exist on the upper terraces and 1-2 year old saplings cover the newly deposited alluvial sands. For these willows radiocaesium transfer factors ranged from 10-4 and 10-3 m2.kg-1 and strontium transfer factors from 10-3 and 10-2 m2.kg-1. Biomass production was low: 70-100 kg.ha-1.y-1. Therefore, the radionuclide immobilisation in the biomass was insignificant. Even when based on the exchangeable caesium fraction, less then 0.1% for radiocaesium and less than 1% for radiostrontium became incorporated into the wood. Nevertheless, establishment of willow would reduce resuspension and erosion of soil and sediment. (author)

2000-01-01

144

Scientific and technical aspects of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The collection contains the presentations and scientific articles prepared for and discussed during the Conference titled '2001: International Cooperation For Chernobyl'. The materials outline the outcomes achieved while implementing Chernobyl site scientific-technical researches and projects, as well as activities aimed at enhancing the ChNPP safety, decommissioning and radwaste management. It also highlights the issues related to transforming the Unit Shelter into an ecologically safe system, represents the results of ecological researches in the Exclusion Zone, medical effects of the 1986 accident at Chernobyl NPP, together with social and economic problems the city of Slavutich faces now due to the early ChNPP Units decommissioning, and Slavutich business development opportunities under the circumstances of Special Economic Zone 'Slavutich'.

2002-01-01

145

The international Chernobyl project: Assessment of radiological consequences and evaluation of protective measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This brochure gives a brief account of the findings of the International Chernobyl Project. Further details will be found in the report ''The International Chernobyl Project: An Overview'' (INI22:066284/5) and in the Technical Report (INI23:011339). Measurements and assessments carried out under the project provided general corroboration of the levels of surface cesium-137 contamination reported in the official maps. The project also concluded that the official procedures for estimating radiation doses to the population were scientifically sound, although they generally resulted in overestimates of two- to threefold. The project could find no marked increase in the incidence of leukemia or cancer, but reported absorbed thyroid doses in children might lead to a statistically detectable rise in the incidence of thyroid tumors. Significant non-radiation-related health disorders were found, and the accident had substantial psychological consequences in terms of anxiety and stress

1991-01-01

146

Dose estimates from the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) responded to the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union by utilizing long-range atmospheric dispersion modeling to estimate the amount of radioactivity released (source term) and the radiation dose distribution due to exposure to the radioactive cloud over Europe and the Northern Hemisphere. In later assessments, after the release of data on the accident by the Soviet Union, the ARAC team used their mesoscale to regional scale model to focus in on the radiation dose distribution within the Soviet Union and the vicinity of the Chernobyl plant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Lange, R.; Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.

1987-11-01

147

The Chernobyl disaster - ten years on  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large areas of Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine are contaminated with very high levels of radioactivity from the fallout of the Chernobyl reactor accident. The most affected areas are in the vicinity of Chernobyl, and east of Gomel (in Belarus), where much of the radioactive plume came down. The article describes the contamination with cesium 137 and iodine 131, as well as the immediate countermeasures taken after the accident, and the long-term action for decontamination of the polluted soil. Information is given on the radiation dose received by the population, in particular the thyroid doses, and prognostic data on thyroid cancer incidence. (orig.)

1996-01-01

148

Mark Raidpere portreefotod Kielis  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Kieli Linnagaleriis avatud 2. Ars Baltica fototriennaalil 'Can You Hear Me?' esindab Eestit Mark Raidpere seeriaga 'Portreed 1998'. Näituse Eesti-poolne kuraator Anu Liivak, kataloogiteksti kirjutas Anders Härm. Tuntumaid osalejaid triennaalil Wolfgang Tillmans

1999-01-01

149

Kunsti aastapreemia Mark Soosaarele  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

14. XI anti Pärnu Uue Kunsti Muuseumis Mark Soosaarele üle Pärnu linna kunsti aastapreemia (15000 krooni) näituse "Surm Mongoolia moodi", Kihnu-teemalise fotoalbumi ja autorifilmi "Nikolai tänav Pärnus" eest.

2001-01-01

150

Integrating research on thyroid cancer after Chernobyl--the Chernobyl Tissue Bank.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The only unequivocal radiological effect of the Chernobyl accident on human health is the increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed in childhood or early adolescence. In response to the scientific interest in studying the molecular biology of thyroid cancer after Chernobyl, the Chernobyl Tissue Bank was established. The project is supported by the governments of Ukraine and Russia, and financially supported (in total around US$3 million) by the European Commission, the National Cancer Institute of the USA and the Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation of Japan. The project began collecting a variety of biological samples from patients on 1 October 1988, and has supplied material to 21 research projects in Japan, the USA and Europe. The establishment of the Chernobyl Tissue Bank has facilitated co-operation between these research projects and the combination of clinical and research data provides a paradigm for cancer research in the molecular biological age.

Thomas GA; Bethel JA; Galpine A; Mathieson W; Krznaric M; Unger K

2011-05-01

151

[Cardiovascular changes based on ECG data in workers involved in the elimination of the sequelae of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

122 persons who had participated in the Chernobyl nuclear power station disaster control were passed through ECG examinations, as a result of which susceptibility to bradycardia was revealed. To exclude a marked vagal influence on the myocardium, orthostatic, atropine and ephedrine tests were performed. Weakened reactions to atropine and ephedrine indicated a secondary vagotomy caused by the lowered sensitivity of beta-adrenoreceptors.

Kovaleva LI; Liubchenko PN; Dubinina EV

1990-01-01

152

Consequences in Guatemala of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Because of the long distance between Guatemala and Chernobyl, the country did not undergo direct consequences of radioactive contamination in the short term. However, the accident repercussions were evident in the medium and long-term, mainly in two sectors, the economic-political and the environmental sectors

1997-01-01

153

Observations on the Chernobyl Disaster and LNT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Chernobyl accident was probably the worst possible catastrophe of a nuclear power station. It was the only such catastrophe since the advent of nuclear power 55 years ago. It resulted in a total meltdown of the reactor core, a vast emission of radionuclides, and early deaths of only 31 persons. ...

Jaworowski, Zbigniew

154

Decision conferencing and the International Chernobyl Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the International Chernobyl Project, five decision conferences were held with the Soviet authorities to identify the major factors driving decision making in relation to relocation and other protective measures which are being applied in the affected regions of Byelorussia, Ukraine and the Russian Federation. This report describes the running of those conferences and the conclusions reached from them. (Author)

1991-01-01

155

The Chernobyl-4 entombment. Yesterday, today, tomorrow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A covering was constructed over the Chernobyl-4 reactor buidings for purposes of protecting the surrounding area. However, the remains of unit 4 were not hermetically enclosed. Questions remain as to the state of the covering and the interior of the reactor.

Belyaev, S.T. [RRC, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1993-12-31

156

Nuclear power plants management from Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Three mile island and Chernobyl accidents developed a change for the operation and management of nuclear power plants. The present articles studies the state of the art the management of NPPs, the foundation of INPO and WANO and the future of operation in NPPs

1996-01-01

157

Chernobyl health effects: radiation or stress?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While very high numbers of deaths and other illnesses have been attributed to the Chernobyl accident, sometimes deliberately to raise fears about nuclear energy, there is growing medical evidence that fear itself plays a part in causing the health problems. (author).

Greenhalgh, G.

1995-11-01

158

Chernobyl health effects: radiation or stress?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While very high numbers of deaths and other illnesses have been attributed to the Chernobyl accident, sometimes deliberately to raise fears about nuclear energy, there is growing medical evidence that fear itself plays a part in causing the health problems. (author)

1995-01-01

159

Chernobyl: the actual facts and consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In a first part, a Power Point presentation explains the technical reasons of the Chernobyl accident and recalls the environmental and health consequences on a short, middle and long term. In a second part, the author analyses the treatment by the media in France and shows how the population has been manipulated by nuclear opponents with the active complicity of some media

2011-02-10

160

Meteorological data related to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents a detailed technical description of the JRC-Ispra comprehensive collection of meteorological information related to the Chernobyl accident and attempts an analysis of the data in order to perform an initial checking of their quality and facilitate a suitable and compact way of display.

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

76 FR 13192 - Mark E. Van Wormer: Debarment Order  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0479] Mark E. Van Wormer: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and...C Act) permanently debarring Mark E. Van Wormer, MD, from providing services in...We base this order on a finding that Dr. Van Wormer was convicted of a felony under...

2011-03-10

162

The PCB mark  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on October 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The requirements outlined at 40 CFR 761.40 through 761.45 specify marking requirements for most PCB items (i.e., any PCB Article, PCB Container, PCB Article Container, or PCB Equipment that contains PCBs). Most PCB items require PCB marks, which are defined as a descriptive name, instructions, cautions, or other information applied to PCB Items or other objects subject to these regulations. The marking regulations include requirements for PCB marks on PCB Items, storage areas, and temporary storage areas. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning marking requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

NONE

1994-12-01

163

Thyroid cancer in Belarus after Chernobyl: International thyroid project. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident has demonstrated what was always known but perhaps has not been as fully acknowledged as it might, namely that national or other geographical boundaries are no defence against radioactive fallout. Much (some 2.2 millions) of the approximately 10 million population of Belarus have been, and are still being, exposed to the radiation resulting from the accident. The most obvious adverse effect of the radiation is on the condition of the thyroid system in children. Now, only just over eight years after the accident, we are experiencing an increase in childhood thyroid cancer which is particularly marked in those closest to the site of the accident. In young children thyroid cancer is an extremely rare condition and thus although at present the numbers of cases (more than 250 since the accident) is not large in absolute terms it is a sufficiently important development to capture the interest of the international medical and scientific community and to give rise to considerable apprehension as to the future development of the outbreak. Although this increase in thyroid cancer has not been definitively attributed to the Chernobyl accident, and indeed a major aim of this project is to elucidate the cause of the cancer, the fact of the exposure of the population of Belarus to the isotopes of iodine at the time of accident, and what we have learned from the experience in the Marshall Islands following the testing of the first hydrogen bomb on Bikini Atoll lead us to consider the accident as the most likely cause of the increase. Belarus is a relatively small and newly independent country. By any standards the Chernobyl accident was a technological disaster of enormous proportions causing damage to the environment over vast land areas. Necessarily it must be a major concern for us and an issue to be considered in the planning of our future. Its impact on the future health of our nation must be assessed as objectively and dispassionately as possible and we therefore welcome the partnership of international collaboration that this project represents

1994-01-01

164

Utility earns high marks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stock analysts, utility industry consultants and management agree that Duke Power Co. has achieved a record of better-than-average economics, efficiency, availability, and reliability in the design, construction, completion, scheduling, and operation of both its nuclear and fossil plants. The company also exhibits an unusual frankness in its dealings with regulatory agencies and in cases involving investigative scrutiny.

Friedlander, G.D.

1984-01-01

165

78 FR 31872 - Waiver for Marking Sunken Vessels With a Light at Night  

Science.gov (United States)

...Waiver for Marking Sunken Vessels With a Light at Night AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...requirement to mark sunken vessels with a light at night if the Commandant determines that placing a light would be impractical and waiving the...

2013-05-28

166

Digitally Marking RSA Moduli  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The moduli used in RSA (see [5]) can be generated by many different sources. The generator of that modulus (assuming a single entity generates the modulus) knows its factorization. They would have the ability to forge signatures or break any system based on this moduli. If a moduli and the RSA parameters associated with it were generated by a reputable source, the system would have higher value than if the parameters were generated by an unknown entity. So for tracking, security, confidence and financial reasons it would be beneficial to know who the generator of the RSA modulus was. This is where digital marking comes in. An RSA modulus ia digitally marked, or digitally trade marked, if the generator and other identifying features of the modulus (such as its intended user, the version number, etc.) can be identified and possibly verified by the modulus itself. The basic concept of digitally marking an RSA modulus would be to fix the upper bits of the modulus to this tag. Thus anyone who sees the public modulus can tell who generated the modulus and who the generator believes the intended user/owner of the modulus is.

Johnston, A.M.

2000-10-09

167

Identification markings for gemstones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is described of providing permanent identification markings to gemstones such as diamond crystals by irradiating the cooled gemstone with protons in the desired pattern. The proton bombardment results in a reaction limited to a defined plane and converting the bombarded area of the plane into a different crystal lattice from that of the preirradiated stone. (author)

1980-01-01

168

Development instability of plants and radiation from Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Phenotypic measures of developmental instability were used to assess the hypothesis that radiation from Chernobyl in Ukraine directly affects the developmental processes of plants. Fluctuating asymmetry and the frequency of pheno-deviants in three species of plants. Robinia pseudoacacia. Sorbus aucuparia and Matricaria perforata, were assessed along a transect from the security zone of Chernobyl towards the largely uncontaminated area 225 km SE of Chernobyl. Measures of developmental instability decreased in a similar way for the three species with increasing distance from Chernobyl the level of developmental instability being three to four times as large near Chernobyl as in the control area. Developmental instability was positively related to the level of radiation by caesium-137 along the transect. In conclusion, radiation from Chernobyl has resulted in a reduced ability of plants to control the stability of their developmental processes. (au)

1998-01-01

169

Development instability of plants and radiation from Chernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Phenotypic measures of developmental instability were used to assess the hypothesis that radiation from Chernobyl in Ukraine directly affects the developmental processes of plants. Fluctuating asymmetry and the frequency of pheno-deviants in three species of plants. Robinia pseudoacacia. Sorbus aucuparia and Matricaria perforata, were assessed along a transect from the security zone of Chernobyl towards the largely uncontaminated area 225 km SE of Chernobyl. Measures of developmental instability decreased in a similar way for the three species with increasing distance from Chernobyl the level of developmental instability being three to four times as large near Chernobyl as in the control area. Developmental instability was positively related to the level of radiation by caesium-137 along the transect. In conclusion, radiation from Chernobyl has resulted in a reduced ability of plants to control the stability of their developmental processes. (au) 15 refs.

Moeller, A.P. [Univ. Pierre et Marie curie, Lab. d`Ecologie, Paris Cedex (France)

1998-04-01

170

THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results showed the improvement of psycho-emotional status and normalization of cardiovascular vegetative regulation after training prevention programs in Chernobyl disasters survivors. The studies show that the preventive programs for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects had the high effect. This displays the decrease of tempo of aging and the improving of physical and psychological health status of Chernobyl disaster survivors during preventive course.

Korobeynikov G.V.; Drojjin V.U.

2013-01-01

171

Harmonizing multiple choice question marks with essay marks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many examinations contain both a multiple choice question (MCQ) section, which has wide-marking and is often norm-based, and an essay or other section which is criterion-based and often close-marked. The necessary addition or averaging of the marks is unsatisfactory without adjustment. We propose a procedure that adjusts the MCQ marks to the essay marking scale by equating the interquartile ranges of the two sets of marks.

Ashby D; Baron DN

1986-07-01

172

Thyroid carcinomas after Chernobyl; Cancers de la thyroide apres Tchernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The child thyroid cancers observed in the area of Chernobyl are associated to a massive irradiation of their thyroid. In France, the irradiation levels of the thyroid, coming from the exposure to ionizing radiations by radioisotopes released during the Chernobyl accident are 1000 to more than 10 000 times lower than these ones of Chernobyl. To these levels of irradiation, the international data show that there is no induction of thyroid cancers. (N.C.)

Bourguignon, M

1999-11-01

173

Geochemistry of man-made radionuclides (hot particles) of the Chernobyl NPP and their ecological effect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Characteristics of the environmental behaviour of man-made radionuclides (hot particles) of the Chernobyl NPP are presented on the basis of experience in accident study in the Ukraine. It was shown that in first months after the accident hot particles limited radionuclide injection into surface and ground water and into biotic chains as well. Inadequacy of study of hot particle properties determining the dynamics of radionuclide evacuation is marked. Problem of the radioactive waste management at the Ukrainian territory is discussed. Ecological consequences of the accident are analysed as well as protection efficiency. 7 figs.; 11 tabs

1993-01-01

174

Stable marked point processes  

CERN Document Server

In many contexts such as queuing theory, spatial statistics, geostatistics and meteorology, data are observed at irregular spatial positions. One model of this situation involves considering the observation points as generated by a Poisson process. Under this assumption, we study the limit behavior of the partial sums of the marked point process $\\{(t_i,X(t_i))\\}$, where X(t) is a stationary random field and the points t_i are generated from an independent Poisson random measure $\\mathbb{N}$ on $\\mathbb{R}^d$. We define the sample mean and sample variance statistics and determine their joint asymptotic behavior in a heavy-tailed setting, thus extending some finite variance results of Karr [Adv. in Appl. Probab. 18 (1986) 406--422]. New results on subsampling in the context of a marked point process are also presented, with the application of forming a confidence interval for the unknown mean under an unknown degree of heavy tails.

McElroy, Tucker

2007-01-01

175

The Mark III spectrometer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the design, construction and performance of the Mark III, a new general purpose large solid angle spectrometer at SPEAR, the SLAC 2-8 GeV e+e- storage ring. The detector has been designed for the study of exclusive final states in e+e- annihilation, which requires large solid angle coverage combined with charged particle momentum resolution, particle identification, and photon detection efficiency at low energies. (orig.).

1984-01-01

176

End of the Line for Chernobyl  

Science.gov (United States)

After a televised address to the nation, Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma gave the order today to shut down the last functioning reactor at Chernobyl, site of the world's worst nuclear accident in 1986. On April 26, 1986, flaws in the plant's cooling system and operator error set off an uncontrollable power surge and chemical explosions that blew the 1,000-ton cover off the top of Reactor Four. Thirty-one people, mostly fireman, were killed immediately after the explosion, and thousands more, including clean-up crew members and children, have since died from radiation-related illnesses. The health of millions more and the environment of Ukraine have most likely been negatively affected forever. The final shutdown of Chernobyl comes after years of intense international pressure and promises of substantial aid from the EU and the US to help with the cleanup and the construction of two replacement nuclear reactors.

De Nie, Michael W.

177

Chernobyl: the effects on public health?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

2003-01-01

178

Western reactors: how they compare with Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The author explains why western light water reactors are intrinsically more dangerous than the RBMK, Chernobyl design. It is also argued that for the fast breeder reactors (such as the PFR at Dounreay and the Super Phenix at Creys Melville) are more dangerous and could actually explode like an atomic bomb. This is contrary to official assurances that the Western reactors are of a safer design and more safely operated than the Chernobyl reactor, and so a similar accident could not happen here. The PWRs and BWRs are compared with the RBMK as to pressure vessels/no pressure vessel, fuel rods, reactor containment and containment building. The superiority of Western engineering and reactor operation is also disputed, with the Three Mile Island accident used as evidence. (U.K.)

1986-01-01

179

Chernobyl: the effects on public health?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Dept. Nucleaire Medecine, 75 - Paris (France)

2003-07-01

180

The Chernobyl Catastrophe. Consequences on Human Health  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Twenty years after the Chernobyl disaster, the need for continued study of its far-reaching consequences remains as great as ever. Several million people (by various estimates, from 5 to 8 million) still reside in areas that will remain highly contaminated by Chernobyl's radioactive pollution for many years to come. Since the half-life of the major (though far from the only) radioactive element released, caesium-137 (137Cs), is a little over 30 years, the radiological (and hence health) consequences of this nuclear accident will continue to be experienced for centuries to come. This event had its greatest impacts on three neighbouring former Soviet republics: Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. The impacts, however, extended far more widely. More than half of the caesium-137 emitted as a result of the explosion was carried in the atmosphere to other European countries. At least fourteen other countries in Europe (Austria, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Slovenia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Italy, Bulgaria, Republic of Moldova and Greece) were contaminated by radiation levels above the 1 Ci/km{sup 2} (or 37 kBq/m{sup 2}), limit used to define areas as 'contaminated'. Lower, but nonetheless substantial quantities of radioactivity linked to the Chernobyl accident were detected all over the European continent, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, and in Asia. Despite the documented geographical extent and seriousness of the contamination caused by the accident, the totality of impacts on ecosystems, human health, economic performance and social structures remains unknown. In all cases, however, such impacts are likely to be extensive and long lasting. Drawing together contributions from numerous research scientists and health professionals, including many from the Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation, this report addresses one of these aspects, namely the nature and scope of the long-term consequences for human health. The range of estimates of excess mortality resulting from the Chernobyl accident spans an extremely wide range depending upon precisely what is taken into account. The most recent epidemiological evidence, published under the auspices of the Russian Academy of Sciences, suggests that the scale of the problems could be very much greater than predicted by studies published to date. For example, the 2005 IAEA report predicted that 4000 additional deaths would result from the Chernobyl accident. The most recently published figures indicate that in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine alone the accident resulted in an estimated 200,000 additional deaths between 1990 and 2004. Overall, the available data reveal a considerable range in estimated excess mortalities resulting from the Chernobyl accident, serving to underline the huge uncertainties attached to knowledge of the full impacts of the Chernobyl accident. This report includes some data, which have not been published before in the international arena. In combination with the extensive body of literature which has been published to date, these data indicate that 'official' figures (e.g. the IAEA 2005 evaluation) for morbidity (incidence of disease) and death arising as a direct result of the radioactive contamination released from Chernobyl may grossly underestimate both the local and international impact of the incident. Four population groups appear to have experienced the most severe health effects: (1) accident clean-up workers, or 'liquidators', including civilian and the military personnel drafted to carry out clean-up activities and construct the protective cover for the reactor; (2) evacuees from dangerously contaminated territories inside the 30-km zone around the power plant; (3) residents of the less (but still dangerously) contaminated territories; and (4) children born into the families from all of the above three groups.

Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I. (eds.)

2006-04-15

 
 
 
 
181

Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

NONE

2004-07-01

182

Franco-German cooperation on Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document presents the franco-german cooperation on Chernobyl. The purpose of this cooperation is to collect and validate all the data available in order to build a reliable and unbiased data-base. This cooperation is based on 3 axis and is funded with 6 million Ecus for 3 years. The 3 programmes are: i) the safety of the sarcophagus, ii) the radio-ecological consequences of the accident, and iii) the impact on health. The Chernobyl accident has had dramatic effects on the environment which were till now more or less under-estimated, the program on radio-ecological consequences will include information about the storage places of the wastes coming from the massive soil decontamination as well as information about the contamination of the artificial lake that was used to drain the low part of the reactor building and about the contamination of underground waters. (A.C.)

1998-01-01

183

Agency Theory  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex ante (“hidden characteristics”) as well as ex post information asymmetry (“hidden action”), and examines conditions under which various kinds of incentive instruments and monitoring arrangements can be deployed to minimize the welfare loss. Its clear predictions and broad applicability have allowed agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism.

Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

2013-01-01

184

Chernobyl: the inevitable results of secrecy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Chernobyl accident was the inevitable outcome of a combination of bad design, bad management and bad communication practices in the Soviet nuclear industry. We review the causes of the accident, its impact on Soviet society, and its effects on the health of the population in the surrounding areas. It appears that the secrecy that was endemic in the USSR has had profound negative effects on both technological safety and public health. (Author).

Shlyakhter, A.; Wilson, R. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Jefferson Physical Lab.)

1992-07-01

185

Chernobyl and the consequences for Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an introducing chapter the meteorological situation over Austria in the days after the Chernobyl accident is outlined. The following chapters are on measurement of contamination of environment, foodstuffs and fodder; on measures taken to minimize the radiation burden; a comparison with the fallout from nuclear weapons tests; a dose estimation to the population and finally, a comparison with contamination in some other european countries. 26 tabs., 117 figs. (qui).

1986-01-01

186

Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive /sup 131/I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of /sup 131/I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10/sup 6/ person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10/sup 7/ person-rem (2 x 10/sup 5/ Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

Hull, A.P.

1987-01-01

187

Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive 131I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of 131I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 106 person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 107 person-rem (2 x 105 Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

1987-01-01

188

Thyroid cancer and the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the Chernobyl accident of April 1986, there has been a continual increase in the numbers of reported cases of childhood thyroid carcinoma. An EC-supported consortium to study the pathology and molecular biology of the thyroid cancers is being coordinated from the University of Cambridge. This paper reports the findings of this study so far, together with its recommendations for further studies. (author).

1997-01-01

189

Thyroid cancer and the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following the Chernobyl accident of April 1986, there has been a continual increase in the numbers of reported cases of childhood thyroid carcinoma. An EC-supported consortium to study the pathology and molecular biology of the thyroid cancers is being coordinated from the University of Cambridge. This paper reports the findings of this study so far, together with its recommendations for further studies. (author).

Williams, E.D. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pathology

1997-12-01

190

Multidimensional analysis of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multidimensional analysis of the CHERNOBYL accident was carried out to identify the role of the design and operating features of the RMBK-1000 and thereby identify implications on other reactor concepts. The results show that assumptions regarding the pre-accident fuel burnup and flux distributions are major determinants of the size and shape of the power pulse, especially due to their influence on effective system void reactivity and on the amount, if any, of positive scram reactivity.

1988-01-01

191

Peculiarities and problems of Chernobyl NPP decommission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of peculiarities and analysis of main problems associated with Chernobyl NPP decommission has been carried out. A necessity of comprehensive approach to the today's solution of given problems is shown. In particular, the activity on 1-3 Units decommission and 'Ukryttia' conversion into an ecologically safe system is not coordinated enough. The basic conceptual principles for the solution of problem are offered, and the list of top-priority problems to be solved is given

2001-01-01

192

Medical consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Ukraine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some aspects of health deterioration in population of Ukraine affected after the Chernobyl accident are presented. The survived population division in groups, peculiarities of morbidity incidence and prevalence are described. The dynamics of some medical demography parameters are discussed concerning adults and paediatric population. The precise values of incidence and prevalence for the main classes of diseases are shown in comparison of 1995-1996 to 1987. (author).

1997-01-01

193

The Chernobyl accident--an epidemiological perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Twenty-five years have passed since radioactive releases from the Chernobyl nuclear accident led to the exposure of millions of people in Europe. Studies of affected populations have provided important new data on the links between radiation and cancer-particularly the risk of thyroid tumours from exposure to iodine isotopes-that are important not only for a fuller scientific understanding of radiation effects, but also for radiation protection. It is now well documented that children and adolescents exposed to radioiodines from Chernobyl fallout have a sizeable dose-related increase in thyroid cancer, with the risk greatest in those youngest at exposure and with a suggestion that deficiency in stable iodine may increase the risk. Data on thyroid cancer risks to other age groups are somewhat less definitive. In addition, there have been reported increases in incidence and mortality from non-thyroid cancers and non-cancer end points. Although some studies are difficult to interpret because of methodological limitations, recent investigations of Chernobyl clean-up workers ('liquidators') have provided evidence of increased risks of leukaemia and other haematological malignancies and of cataracts, and suggestions of an increase in the risk of cardiovascular diseases, following low doses and low dose rates of radiation. Further careful follow-up of these populations, including the establishment and long-term support of life-span study cohorts, could provide additional important information for the quantification of radiation risks and the protection of persons exposed to low doses of radiation.

Cardis E; Hatch M

2011-05-01

194

The Chernobyl Forum: major findings and recommendations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986 was the most severe in the history of the nuclear industry, causing a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. The recently completed Chernobyl Forum concluded that after a number of years, along with reduction of radiation levels and accumulation of humanitarian consequences, severe social and economic depression of the affected regions and associated psychological problems of the general public and the workers had become the most significant problem to be addressed by the authorities. The majority of the affected land is now safe for life and economic activities. However, in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and in some limited areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine some restrictions on land-use should be retained for decades to come. Most of the 600,000 emergency and recovery operation workers and five million residents of the contaminated areas in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine received relatively minor radiation doses which are comparable with the natural background levels. Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed at a young age and some increase of leukaemia and solid cancer in most exposed workers, there is no clearly demonstrated increase in the somatic diseases due to radiation

2007-01-01

195

Mark Meigs. Mencken.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ce volume fait partie de la collection ‘Clefs Concours’, une série d’ouvrages qui offre aux étudiants des repčres sur les sujets de civilisation du CAPES et de l’agrégation, des synthčses, « des outils de révision », bref les clés nécessaires pour mieux cerner le programme de civilisation américaine, en l’occurrence la Chrestomathy de H.L. Mencken. L’ouvrage de Mark Meigs se compose d’une introduction et d’un chapitre liminaire sur l’historiographie existante, d’une premičre partie posant les...

Anne Ollivier Mellios

2006-01-01

196

Agency doctorates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Mr. Wen-chuan Li of China has become the first student to obtain a doctor's degree as a result of research work carried out in the Agency. Mr. Li, who is 33, graduated as a Bachelor of Agriculture at Taiwan Provincial Chung-hsing University in 1960 and in 1966 was granted a fellowship to study mutations in plant breeding at the Agency's Seibersdorf Laboratory near Vienna, under the direction of Dr. Knut Mikaelsen, a professor of the University of Bergen. The Hochschule fur Bodenkultur of Vienna accepted the research as being suitable for a thesis and have now granted the degree of Doctor of Agriculture. The subject of the thesis was modifying factors influencing the mutagenic effects of alkylating agents as compared with ionizing radiations in barley. Alkylating agents are involved in the use of chemicals as a means of changing the characteristics of seeds to bring about changes aimed at improving the quality of crops. Mr. Li's work is regarded as a significant contribution to the understanding of the mechanics by which mutations are induced, to the efficient use of chemicals and ionizing radiations in practical applications, and to the efforts of the Agency in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization to benefit food supplies. Mr. Li has now completed his fellowship with the Agency and has been appointed an Assistant Professor in Plant Breeding at Taiwan Provincial Chung-hsing University. The photograph, taken in the plastic hot house at Seibersdorf, shows him studying rice plants grown from seeds subjected to irradiation. Another noteworthy achievement is that of Mr. Karl-Franz Lacina, a security guard at the Agency's headquarters. At the age of 50 he has been accorded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Vienna University, the result of six years' work in his leisure time. The major subject was Arabic, with French and philosophy as supporting subject. (author)

1970-01-01

197

Mark Rothko Web Feature  

Science.gov (United States)

Not a virtual exhibition, the Mark Rothko Web Feature by the National Gallery of Art is really a reference work, providing context and background information on the artist. The Web Feature was produced in conjunction with the exhibition, Mark Rothko, at the National Gallery from May 3 through August 16, 1998, now travelling to the Whitney Museum of American Art, September 17-November 29, 1998. The resemblance to a reference book is enhanced by the design of the site, which encourages visitors to page through images of over 30 paintings in chronological order. The Gallery has divided Rothko's career into five periods, and a highlighted navigational bar shows visitors where they are in the chronology. Rothko's explanations of the philosophies behind his work and photographs of the artist help to place the work in context. The actual application of the paint on the canvas is important in Rothko's work, as in that of other abstract expressionists, and some of this nuance is not visible in the Web Feature. In fact, three paintings reproduced as flat black squares, but it is doubtful that these pictures would reproduce any better in the type of art reference book the Web Feature emulates.

198

THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of train...

Korobeynikov G.V.; Drojjin V.U.

199

Lessons from Chernobyl and prognosis for Fukushima: radiological consequences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The following are considered: results of large-scale radiation epidemiological studies of the health effects of the Chernobyl accident, radiation risks for emergency workers and the affected population; and verification of ICRP risk models taking into account data on the Chernobyl accident and preliminary prognostic estimates of potential radiological consequences of the Fukushima disaster.

Ivanov VK

2012-03-01

200

Proceeding of the 2-nd International Conference 'Long-term Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Disaster'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] On the second International conference 'Long-term health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster' in 1-6 June 1998 Kiev (Ukraine) the following problems were discussed: 1.Epidemiological aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 2.Clinical and biological effects of ionizing radiation; 3.Social and psychological aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster; 4.Rehabilitation of the Chernobyl disaster survivors

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Mark Twain's Mississippi River  

Science.gov (United States)

In a very real way, Samuel Clemens cut his teeth on the Mississippi River as an apprentice steamboat captain in the late 1850s. Years later he would draw on these experiences for a number of the works he would write under the name, "Mark Twain". This multimedia website created at Northern Illinois University explores his time in and around Big Muddy through a number of interactive maps, historic images, and audio content. By clicking on the "Twain's Life and Works" section, visitors can read a number of essays written by Gregg Camfield of the University of the Pacific on such topics as the economic importance of the river during Twain's life, as well as other pieces on related topics. Moving along, visitors can perform detailed searches across the entire database and also listen to songs from the period, such as "Steamboat Bill".

202

Hymenoptera marking technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In true social hymenopterans, such as many species of bees, wasps and all species of ants, the main characteristics are the overlapping of generations, the care with the offspring and the division of labor among the members of the colony. The first biological feature means that in a same moment there are groups of individuals, with variable ages, that execute different activities in the colony. In order to study the division of labor among the members of the colony, or to estimate the life span of these insects, or even to analyze any kind of behavior in non-social insects, it is necessary to know the exact age of each individual. For this reason, the insects must be identified soon after emergence. The identification of insects with numbers is an important technological improvement in behavioral studies, mainly in honeybee colonies. The aim of this scientific note is to describe an easy and cheaper technique for marking hymenopterans.

A. M. Pereira; J. Chaud-Netto

2008-01-01

203

Chernobyl is not everywhere. A critical review of emergency preparedness 10 years after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Chernobyl shock had positive consequences for emergency preparedness. But have the right conclusions been drawn and the lessons really learnt? Some countries which were not ready when Chernobyl happened, have based their new concepts too closely on the Chernobyl scenario and do not seem to realize that a next accident may be completely different. Many concepts and developments are too academic and not adapted to the severe operational requirements of real emergency conditions. The information of the public still shows most of the deficiencies which were the cause of the only real 'catastrophic' consequences of Chernobyl outside the former Soviet Union: the information failure. A critical review of the developments in the various aspects of emergency preparedness, based on international comparisons (a.o. from NEA International Emergency exercise INEX-1 and both NEA and FS Workshops) shows both real improvements and mistakes or weak points and leads to the following positive and negative observations, conclusions and proposals for future action (given in short-hand form due to limited space). (author)

1996-01-01

204

Use of experimental plots for assessing Chernobyl-derived fallout of 137CS in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Caesium-137 (137Cs) is widely used for the determination of soil erosion and sedimentation rates. However, in Europe, if the additional inputs of 137Cs fallout associated with the Chernobyl accident have given a supplementary mark to know the chronological history of buried sediments in rivers or wetlands, they have considerably complicated the interpretation of 137Cs inventories used for estimating soil redistribution on slopes. In fact, determination of Chernobyl-derived fallout 137Cs is problematic because very few sites have been correctly sampled at the moment of the accident. During the ten years after, it was possible to estimate the fallout measuring the 134Cs activity for estimating 137Cs (137Cs /134Cs 2.0 at the time of the accident). But these measurements are extremely rare, whereas it should be the more accurate method to resolve this question. The more used solution is to use model based on atmospheric circulation and rain precipitation, the main part of fallout been due to atmospheric washing by the rain. Other solution is to compare 137Cs specific activity of soil samples collected after the accident and older samples. Then, we choose a set of soil samples collected on several experimental plots at different places in France, and sampled before and after the Chernobyl accident, to determine the part of contamination linked to this 137Cs fallout event with a simple comparison of their 137Cs specific activity. In fact, national French institutes working on agronomy maintain experimental plots, with varied surface area (1 m2 10 m2 or larger), for monitoring of soil physics and chemistry evolution. Nine sites were studied: two of them close to Paris, one 100 km east of Paris, 3 in Loire basin and 3 in south west, in the Pyrenees Atlantic. These measurements confirm the influence of the Chernobyl radioactive plume over the Paris Basin concerning the 137Cs fallout. The 137Cs specific activity is, on average, 25% (from 18 to 35% at Grignon) and 26% (9 to 43% at Versailles) higher in the samples collected after the Chernobyl accident (respectively 1993 et 1987) than those sampled before (1980 and 1981). On the east of Paris, from an experimental plot (115 m2) of the I.N.R.A. at Janvilliers (Marne), the soil sample dating from 1987 presents a 137Cs specific activity twice more important than the one collected in 1975. For the other sites (Pyrenees Atlantic and Landes as well as Loir et Cher), the increase of 137Cs specific activity is around 10 up to 15%. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the soil mineralogical composition does not noticeably affect the 137Cs retention. (author)

2004-01-01

205

10 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Thyroid cancer and consequences of public health in the CIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor, governmental and international organisations have identified considerable effects on the health of the various affected groups. A dramatic - over 100-fold - increase in thyroid cancers among children in Belarus has been caused by papillary thyroid carcinomas that are marked by aggressive growth with early metastatic spread. As early as 1995, the number of new cases of thyroid cancer among adults was four times the mean figure in the period before 1986. In Oblast Gomel, the number of children with diabetes mellitus doubled between 1986 and the end of 1995. The number of recorded cases of thyroid cancer, particularly among children, by far exceeds the prognoses made on the basis of established radiation risk estimates, and points to a considerable underestimation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. (orig.).

1996-01-01

206

Risk of hematological malignancies among Chernobyl liquidators.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A case-control study of hematological malignancies was conducted among Chernobyl liquidators (accident recovery workers) from Belarus, Russia and Baltic countries to assess the effect of low- to medium-dose protracted radiation exposures on the relative risk of these diseases. The study was nested within cohorts of liquidators who had worked around the Chernobyl plant in 1986-1987. A total of 117 cases [69 leukemia, 34 non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and 14 other malignancies of lymphoid and hematopoietic tissue] and 481 matched controls were included in the study. Individual dose to the bone marrow and uncertainties were estimated for each subject. The main analyses were restricted to 70 cases (40 leukemia, 20 NHL and 10 other) and their 287 matched controls with reliable information on work in the Chernobyl area. Most subjects received very low doses (median 13 mGy). For all diagnoses combined, a significantly elevated OR was seen at doses of 200 mGy and above. The excess relative risk (ERR) per 100 mGy was 0.60 [90% confidence interval (CI) -0.02, 2.35]. The corresponding estimate for leukemia excluding chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) was 0.50 (90% CI -0.38, 5.7). It is slightly higher than but statistically compatible with those estimated from A-bomb survivors and recent low-dose-rate studies. Although sensitivity analyses showed generally similar results, we cannot rule out the possibility that biases and uncertainties could have led to over- or underestimation of the risk in this study.

Kesminiene A; Evrard AS; Ivanov VK; Malakhova IV; Kurtinaitis J; Stengrevics A; Tekkel M; Anspaugh LR; Bouville A; Chekin S; Chumak VV; Drozdovitch V; Gapanovich V; Golovanov I; Hubert P; Illichev SV; Khait SE; Kryuchkov VP; Maceika E; Maksyoutov M; Mirkhaidarov AK; Polyakov S; Shchukina N; Tenet V; Tserakhovich TI; Tsykalo A; Tukov AR; Cardis E

2008-12-01

207

Risk of hematological malignancies among Chernobyl liquidators  

Science.gov (United States)

A case-control study of hematological malignancies was conducted among Chernobyl liquidators (accident recovery workers) from Belarus, Russia and Baltic countries in order to assess the effect of low-to-medium dose protracted radiation exposures on the relative risk of these diseases. The study was nested within cohorts of liquidators who had worked in 1986–87 around the Chernobyl plant. 117 cases (69 leukemia, 34 non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) and 14 other malignancies of lymphoid and hematopoietic tissue) and 481 matched controls were included in the study. Individual dose to the bone marrow and uncertainties were estimated for each subject. The main analyses were restricted to 70 cases (40 leukemia, 20 NHL and 10 other) and their 287 matched controls with reliable information on work in the Chernobyl area. Most subjects received very low doses (median 13 mGy). For all diagnoses combined, a significantly elevated OR was seen at doses of 200 mGy and above. The Excess Relative Risk (ERR) per 100 mGy was 0.60 (90% confidence interval (CI): ?0.02, 2.35). The corresponding estimate for leukemia excluding chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) was 0.50 (90%CI ?0.38, 5.7). It is slightly higher than, but statistically compatible with, those estimated from a-bomb survivors and recent low dose-rate studies. Although sensitivity analyses showed generally similar results, we cannot rule out the possibility that biases and uncertainties could have led to over or underestimation of the risk in this study.

Kesminiene, Ausrele; Evrard, Anne-Sophie; Ivanov, Viktor K.; Malakhova, Irina V.; Kurtinaitis, Juozas; Stengrevics, Aivars; Tekkel, Mare; Anspaugh, Lynn R.; Bouville, Andre; Chekin, Sergei; Chumak, Vadim V.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Gapanovich, Vladimir; Golovanov, Ivan; Hubert, Phillip; Illichev, Sergei V.; Khait, Svetlana E.; Krjuchkov, Viktor P.; Maceika, Evaldas; Maksyoutov, Marat; Mirkhaidarov, Anatoly K.; Polyakov, Semion; Shchukina, Natalia; Tenet, Vanessa; Tserakhovich, Tatyana I.; Tsykalo, Aleksandr; Tukov, Aleksandr R.; Cardis, Elisabeth

2010-01-01

208

Pseuchoneurotic disorders associated with the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This survey relied largely on random selection. As a rule, the attention of the specialists was directed to people with certain specific complaints. Psychogenic disorders observed in the area of the accident at the Chernobyl plant were followed and studied by a team of specialists from the USSR Ministry of Health, beginning on 29 April 1986. According to the nature of the observed stress effects and of the resultant psychic disorders, it was possible to delineate three periods: first the acute period of the disaster from the time of the accident, lasting about 10 days until completion of the evacuation of the population from the danger zone (5 May); second the intermediate delayed period, the period of comparatively early consequences (from 6 May to October 1986); and third, the period of remote consequences. In the course of the year, 1,572 people were examined. The data available indicate that the psychogenic disorders observed after the Chernobyl accident can be regarded as the consequence of a single process, the dynamics of which are determined on the one hand by the characteristics of the emergency situation and on the other by the traits and the degree of preparedness of the people involved. The special nature of the stress situation in all three periods - the threat to health - gave rise to certain characteristic clinical observations, primarily a high degree of somatization and hypochondria. An understanding of the psychological disorders affecting those who lived through the Chernobyl accident, and of their effects on the work capability and pattern of life of people at various stages after the accident, has made it possible to develop and implement a complex and refined system of prophylactic and medical measures. (author)

1986-04-29

209

The Chernobyl accident and its consequences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the worst industrial accident of the last century that involved radiation. The unprecedented release of multiple different radioisotopes led to radioactive contamination of large areas surrounding the accident site. The exposure of the residents of these areas was varied and therefore the consequences for health and radioecology could not be reliably estimated quickly. Even though some studies have now been ongoing for 25 years and have provided a better understanding of the situation, these are yet neither complete nor comprehensive enough to determine the long-term risk. A true assessment can only be provided after following the observed population for their natural lifespan. Here we review the technical aspects of the accident and provide relevant information on radioactive releases that resulted in exposure of this large population to radiation. A number of different groups of people were exposed to radiation: workers involved in the initial clean-up response, and members of the general population who were either evacuated from the settlements in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant vicinity shortly after the accident, or continued to live in the affected territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Through domestic efforts and extensive international co-operation, essential information on radiation dose and health status for this population has been collected. This has permitted the identification of high-risk groups and the use of more specialised means of collecting information, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Because radiation-associated thyroid cancer is one of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, a particular emphasis is placed on this malignancy. The initial epidemiological studies are reviewed, as are the most significant studies and/or aid programmes in the three affected countries.

Saenko V; Ivanov V; Tsyb A; Bogdanova T; Tronko M; Demidchik Y; Yamashita S

2011-05-01

210

Risk of thyroid cancer among Chernobyl liquidators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: While the increased risk of thyroid cancer is well demonstrated in people exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated areas around the Chernobyl power plant, following the accident which took place on 26 April 1986, the effect of exposure on adults remains unclear. A collaborative case-control study of thyroid cancer was set-up, nested within cohorts of Belarus, Russian and Baltic countries liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, to evaluate the radiation-induced risk of this disease among liquidators, and to assess the roles of screening and of radiation exposures in the observed increased thyroid cancer incidence among liquidators. The study population consisted of the cohorts of approximately 66,000 Belarus, 65,000 Russian and 15,000 Baltic countries liquidators who took part in the clean-up activities on the reactor site and in the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 1987. The liquidators were mainly exposed to external radiation, although substantial dose to the thyroid from iodine isotopes may have been received by liquidators who worked in May-June 1986 and by those who resided in the most contaminated territories of Belarus. Information was collected on study subjects by use of a standardized questionnaire that was administrated during a face-to-face interview with the study subject and/or a proxy (a relative or a colleague). The interview included questions on demographic factors, time, place and conditions of work as a liquidator and on potential risk and confounding factors for thyroid cancer. A method of analytical dose reconstruction, entitled RADRUE (Realistic Analytical Dose Reconstruction with Uncertainty Estimation) was developed within the study and applied to estimate individual doses to the thyroid from external radiation and related uncertainties for each subject. Approaches to derive individual thyroid dose estimates from inhaled and ingested iodine isotopes were also developed and implemented. 115 cases of thyroid cancer and 457 matched controls were included in the study. The main analyses were restricted to 107 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma and their 423 matched controls with reliable information on work in the Chernobyl area. Most subjects received low doses (median 69 mGy). The doses were much higher for women (median 196 mGy) than for men (median 64 mGy). Results of this study will be presented, together with their implications for radiation risk assessment and protection. (author)

1986-04-26

211

Chernobyl and its consequences for Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

First there is a short version of 16 pages. Then a detailed account is given mainly on the activities of the Federal Environment Office and the radiation burden to the population. The chapter headings are 1) The Chernobyl reactor accident 2) The meteorological situation 3) Monitoring of the radioactive contamination in Austria 4) Aims of the radiation measurement activities 5) Initial situation in Austria and first measurements 6) Environmental control 7) Food control 8) Fodder 9) Measures taken to minimise the radiation burden - a chronology 10) Comparison with nuclear tests fallout 11) Dose estimation 12) Radioactive contamination in other European countries. (G.Q.).

1986-01-01

212

Radioactive releases due to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General data on radioactive releases of the damaged Chernobyl NPP unit (ChNPP-4) are given. The method of its obtaining is described. These data are analyzed and revised on the basis of investigation results obtained in the USSR and abroad after August 1986 on the issues of the accident course and consequences. Fission and neutron activation products inventory data in the ChNPP-4 core before the accident are presented including isotopes of U and transuranic elements. Dynamics, physical and chemical processes of the radioactive releases formation are considered including urgent mitigation measures. Major scientific on-side and of-side investigations planned and performed are described.

1990-01-01

213

Medical aspects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 11 to 13 May 1988, the All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine convened a Conference on Medical Aspects of the Chernobyl Accident in Kiev. This was the first conference on this subject with international participation held in the Soviet Union. There were 310 specialists representing Soviet scientific establishments and over 60 experts from 23 other countries and international organizations participated in the Conference. Participants at the Conference discussed medical aspects of accident mitigation, including therapeutic, psychological, demographic, epidemiological and dosimetric problems. These proceedings include 29 reports presented by Soviet scientists during the four sessions as well as summaries of discussions and opening addresses. Refs, figs and tabs.

1988-05-13

214

ARAC response to the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the assessments provided by ARAC during the first two weeks after the Chernobyl reactor accident began. Results of this work and measurements made by European countries during that same period show that no major short-term acute health effects would be expected in Europe as a result of this accident. Statistical long-term health effects were not addressed in these studies. Both measured and calculated I-131 concentrations in milk in the US were over an order of magnitude below the USDA guideline of 15,000 pCi/l

1986-01-01

215

TRAC laboratory monitoring of Chernobyl radioactive debris  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A severe accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant number 4 in the Soviet Union on April 25, 1986. An explosion released large amounts of radioactive debris, primarily fission products, to the atmosphere. As winds carried debris from the Soviet Union, scientists in Europe and the United States reported detecting fission product activities in air samples. Monitoring by the Tracking Radioactive Atmospheric Contaminants (TRAC) mobile laboratory showed concentrations in the Southeastern United States were well below those considered hazardous. This document provides details of this monitoring effort.

Sigg, R.A.

1986-06-09

216

Learned from Chernobyl accident-intervention  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is considered that health and social damage as seen in the Chernobyl accident could be avoided by establishing a clear framework for intervention against contamination. The framework must be easy to understand to be accepted by all the people concerned. This study presented a process of decision-making on countermeasures against a regional-scale soil contamination. This process put an emphasis on 1) Clarification of responsibility and intervention principles, 2) Application of probabilistic techniques into individual dose estimation, 3) Reduction of social burden. Examples of decision-making were also presented for a simulated ground surface contamination. (author)

1997-01-01

217

Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The implementation of good known effective countermeasures at early stage could have substantially reduced the number of thyroid cancer cases after accident. U N Chernobyl Forum recommended long-term activity for mitigation Chernobyl's consequences - A Strategy for Recovery. For improvement this strategy must be create the modern system of the radiation protection based on the new international and national recommendations. The key issues of the Belarusian experience is discussed. (author)

2008-01-01

218

Chernobyl' 94. Additional collection of abstracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This additional collection of abstracts contains materials of the 4. International Scientific and Technical Conference devoted to the results of 8-year work on Chernobyl accident consequences mitigation. Main results of research in radiation monitoring, applied radioecology, effect of radionuclides on biological objects in contaminated territories are presented. Information about waste management and medical consequences of the accident is given. Methodology and strategic of further research mon radionuclides in environment and their influence on living organisms is determined. Large factual materials and its generalization may be useful for scientists and practical workers in the field of radiation monitoring, radiology and medicine.

1994-01-01

219

Geochemical consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Geochemical features of Cs, Sr, U, Pu behaviour in the zone of their hypergenesis are presented in the article. Necessary conditions for these elements filtration on the natural geochemical barriers are shown. Data of radionuclide composition of water for five years of observation in > and dissolved forms of radionuclides are described. Geologic and hydrogeologic conditions of the Chernobyl NPP site are shortly characterized. Radionuclide composition in the ground water of contaminated water pools is analyzed. It is proposed to cover by the law all ?-elements (Pu, Am, Np) and not only plutonium as it currently takes place.

1994-01-01

220

Chernobyl accident: monitoring for radioactivity in Scotland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident of 1986, this report details government monitoring of radioactivity in members of the Scottish population. Radiation exposure of animal foodsources is also monitored and reported here. The bulletin shows that doses received by the public are within internationally agreed reference levels, even when exposure from all pathways is considered. Highest exposure levels resulted from the consumption of indirectly contaminated foodstuffs such as milk. Where an individual consumed large quantities of such food stuffs, their radiation doses may be unacceptably high. (UK)

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Consensus growing on positive scram at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the 12 months since the Soviets presented their report on the Chernobyl accident, at a specialist IAEA Experts' Meeting in Vienna in August 1986, teams of nuclear safety specialists around the world have been assessing their description of the accident. Western views have all confirmed the plausibility of the Soviet description of events. The analyses of the potential role of positive scram (ie positive reactivity insertion caused by entry of the control rods themselves) as a factor in the accident are discussed. (U.K.).

1988-01-01

222

Transport of Chernobyl radionuclides in freshwater lakes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of the limnological character of lakes on the transport processes of longlived radionuclides from the Chernobyl fallout (Cs-134, Cs-137, Ru-106, Sb-125) is examplified at Lake Constance, a large hardwater lake, and Schreckensee and Vorsee from the same prealpine region, which are small lakes with high organic loads. For Cs radionuclides in Lake Constance adsorption at clay particles is the dominating process, whereas in the other lakes the interaction with organic substances plays an important role with respect to their ecological behavior. (author)

1992-01-01

223

Radiocesium from Chernobyl fallout in Lake Constance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five years after the reactor accident at Chernobyl on April, 26th 1986 cesium radionuclides in the water of Lake Constance can only be detected in trace quantities. The precipitation of calcite in Lake Constance represents a self-cleaning mechanism, which caused a rapid transport of cesium radionuclides from the epilimnion into the sediment. There in 1990 the maximum of cesium radioactivity was found in a thin, well separated layer at 3 cm sediment depth. As a result of selective extraction experiments cesium radionuclides in sediment turned out to be almost completely irreversibly bound to clay mineral particles. (orig.)

1991-01-01

224

Transport of Chernobyl radionuclides in freshwater lakes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The importance of the limnological character of lakes on the transport processes of longlived radionuclides from the Chernobyl fallout (Cs-134, Cs-137, Ru-106, Sb-125) is examplified at Lake Constance, a large hardwater lake, and Schreckensee and Vorsee from the same prealpine region, which are small lakes with high organic loads. For Cs radionuclides in Lake Constance adsorption at clay particles is the dominating process, whereas in the other lakes the interaction with organic substances plays an important role with respect to their ecological behavior. (author)

Lindner, G.; Greiner, I.; Grom, R. [Inst. fuer Innovation und Transfer, Fachhochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten, Weingarten (Germany)] [and others

1992-07-01

225

Chernobyl 90Sr in bilberries from Poland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of a detailed survey on the contamination of Polish forests 90Sr activity concentrations were determined in bilberries. Elevated 90Sr levels were found in several samples from north-eastern Poland. The calculated maximum 90Sr surface contamination was 2 kBq*m-2. The correlation between 90Sr and 137Cs concentrations in bilberries was good for two sets of samples originating from two geographical areas of Poland indicating the local differences in radionuclide depositions from Chernobyl fallout. (author).

1997-01-01

226

Hymenoptera marking technique  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In true social hymenopterans, such as many species of bees, wasps and all species of ants, the main characteristics are the overlapping of generations, the care with the offspring and the division of labor among the members of the colony. The first biological feature means that in a same moment there are groups of individuals, with variable ages, that execute different activities in the colony. In order to study the division of labor among the members of the colony, or to (more) estimate the life span of these insects, or even to analyze any kind of behavior in non-social insects, it is necessary to know the exact age of each individual. For this reason, the insects must be identified soon after emergence. The identification of insects with numbers is an important technological improvement in behavioral studies, mainly in honeybee colonies. The aim of this scientific note is to describe an easy and cheaper technique for marking hymenopterans.

Pereira, A. M.; Chaud-Netto, J.

2008-01-01

227

SLARette Mark 2 system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SLAR (Spacer Location and Repositioning) program has developed the technology and tooling necessary to locate and reposition the fuel channel spacers that separate the pressure tube from the calandria tube in a CANDU reactor. The in-channel SLAR tool contains all the inspection probes, and is capable of moving spacers under remote control. The SLAR inspection computer system translates all eddy currents and ultrasonic signals from the in-channel tool into various graphic displays. The in-channel SLAR tool can be delivered and manipulated in a fuel channel by either a SLAR delivery machine or a SLARette delivery machine. The SLAR delivery machine consists of a modified fuelling machine, and is capable of operating under totally remote control in automatic or semi-automatic mode. The SLARette delivery machine is a smaller less automated version, which was designed to be quickly installed, operated, and removed from a limited number of fuel channels during regular annual maintenance outages. This paper describes the design and operation of the SLARette Mark 2 system. 5 figs.

1992-01-01

228

Epigenetic marks in melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Melanoma is a highly heterogeneous cancer that comes in different flavors (lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma, acral lentiginous/mucosal melanoma and other less common subtypes including malignant cellular blue nevus, desmoplastic melanoma, nevoid melanoma, and animal-type melanoma) and colors (black/bluish or unpigmented). Pathologists have known for many years that melanoma displays notable changes in the nuclear architecture including thick chromatic rims, presence of mitosis, nuclear grooves, and more. It is now evident from other cancers that such changes reflect not only genomic alterations but also non-genomic changes in both the structure of DNA and the structure of chromatin to which the DNA is bound (nucleosomes). Although aberrant gene expression resulting from DNA methylation has been known for many years, genome alterations resulting from histone modifications became evident in the current decade. In prostate and other cancers, some histone marks have clinical diagnostic and/or prognostic value. Here, we review the current data on epigenetic research in melanoma skin cancers, discuss ways to modify the epigenetic landscape of melanoma for inhibiting its growth, and propose strategies for identifying novel melanoma markers.

Richards HW; Medrano EE

2009-02-01

229

Epigenetic marks in melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melanoma is a highly heterogeneous cancer that comes in different flavors (lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma, acral lentiginous/mucosal melanoma and other less common subtypes including malignant cellular blue nevus, desmoplastic melanoma, nevoid melanoma, and animal-type melanoma) and colors (black/bluish or unpigmented). Pathologists have known for many years that melanoma displays notable changes in the nuclear architecture including thick chromatic rims, presence of mitosis, nuclear grooves, and more. It is now evident from other cancers that such changes reflect not only genomic alterations but also non-genomic changes in both the structure of DNA and the structure of chromatin to which the DNA is bound (nucleosomes). Although aberrant gene expression resulting from DNA methylation has been known for many years, genome alterations resulting from histone modifications became evident in the current decade. In prostate and other cancers, some histone marks have clinical diagnostic and/or prognostic value. Here, we review the current data on epigenetic research in melanoma skin cancers, discuss ways to modify the epigenetic landscape of melanoma for inhibiting its growth, and propose strategies for identifying novel melanoma markers. PMID:19040501

Richards, Hunter W; Medrano, Estela E

2008-11-27

230

METHOD FOR MARKING PHARMACEUTICAL ARTICLES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method for marking pharmaceutical articles is characterised by comprising marking the pharmaceutical articles with an ink that is invisible under normal light conditions and that is visible under specific light conditions, such as under UV light.

GREUTERT FABRICE; ANTHOINE BERNARD

231

Polyurea Paint Marking Material Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pavement markings must endure the harsh airport environment. Standard waterborne, epoxy, methacrylate, and solvent base markings require frequent repainting causing the life-cycle cost to increase significantly. An elastomer material used on highways, cal...

H. M. Cyrus R. Frierson

2006-01-01

232

Abundance of birds in Fukushima as judged from Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of radiation on abundance of common birds in Fukushima can be assessed from the effects of radiation in Chernobyl. Abundance of birds was negatively related to radiation, with a significant difference between Fukushima and Chernobyl. Analysis of 14 species common to the two areas revealed a negative effect of radiation on abundance, differing between areas and species. The relationship between abundance and radiation was more strongly negative in Fukushima than in Chernobyl for the same 14 species, demonstrating a negative consequence of radiation for birds immediately after the accident on 11 March 2011 during the main breeding season in March–July, when individuals work close to their maximum sustainable level. - Highlights: ? Abundance of birds was negatively related to radiation in Chernobyl and Fukushima. ? Effects of radiation on abundance differed between Chernobyl and Fukushima and among species. ? For 14 species common to the two areas the effects of radiation on abundance were stronger in Fukushima than in Chernobyl. - The negative effect of radiation on abundance of birds in Fukushima exceeded that for the same species in Chernobyl.

2011-03-11

233

Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation doses to man in Sweden due to the Chernobyl accident originate mainly from external irradiation from deposited radionuclides and internal irradiation from consumption of radioactively contaminated food stuffs. Inhalation and external irradiation from the passing cloud give only a minor contribution to the total dose. As an average for the Swedish population the individual radiation dose during the first year amounts to about 0.1 mSv, i.e. 10% of the natural background radiation. In the most contaminated areas, however, the individual dose may become 30 times higher than the average dose. The dose committed over 50 years has estimated to be about six times as high as the first year dose. The collective dose for the Swedish population has been estimated to about 1300 manSv the first year after the accident and the corresponding dose over 50 years to 5000 to 7000 manSv. This could lead to 100 to 200 extra fatal cancers. Furthermore, no damages on man that can be related to Chernobyl fallout, e.g. pre-natal effects, have so far been observed in Sweden. Shortly after the accident, several research projects were initiated in Sweden in order to follow the distribution of radionuclides in the aquatic and terrestrial environment. The results which in many cases are preliminary, shows that the recovery of the ecosystem will take several decades. (author)

1990-01-01

234

Chernobyl accident: its causes and its consequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Chernobyl reactor accident occurred during the night of April 26th. Its exact causes were only known at the end of the month of August when an international conference, proposed by the Soviets, was held in Vienna. The Chernobyl reactor, which was moderated by graphite and cooled by water, had several weak points. A crew, which was carrying-out tests, cancelled six safety devices, some of which were essential. In these conditions, the reactor went out of control and this led to two explosions and a serious fire. The fire spread to the graphite and a part of the radioactivity in the reactor escaped into the atmosphere. The consequences of this accident which were well controlled by the authorities were serious in the neighbourhood of the reactor: 31 dead, 100 000 people evacuated and contaminated soil. The radioactive cloud resulting from the accident, pushed by the wind, travelled across Europe and provoked worry everywhere. In fact, the risks from such small doses of radioactivity are not significant; an evaluation of such risks is given in this article in comparison with the effects of small doses of chemical products which although they have analogous effects are considered as being inoffensive.

Gauvenet, A.

1986-11-01

235

The causes of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the man in the street Chernobyl epitomizes the danger of nuclear energy but when we examine the causes of this accident we see that this drama is not intrinsically linked to the production of electricity from nuclear fission. The author sees 2 components in the Chernobyl event: the accident itself and its sanitary consequences. The author considers 3 main causes to the accident: -) a design that makes the reactor difficult to control, -) a series of 6 humane failures or breaking of operating rules, and -) political reasons: the largest possible budget was dedicated to plutonium production so any improvement for safety was considered as costly and secondary, moreover the religion of secrecy which was well spread in the ancient Soviet Union, prevented any scientific from knowing all the information concerning this type of reactor. As for the sanitary consequences, the author considers direct causes and underlying causes. The lack of information for the local population, the delay taken for iodine distribution or for the interdiction of farm products consumption are included in the direct causes. The slowness of Soviet bureaucracy, tight budgets and politico-scientific disputes are quoted among the underlying causes. (A.C.)

2001-01-01

236

From Chernobyl to Fukushima: the effect of low doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Power Point presentation describes the Fukushima's reactors, recalls some data about the earthquake and tsunami, and indicates their consequences for the operation of the power station (notably the loss of cooling means). It identifies some design errors for the Chernobyl's and Fukushima's power stations, outlines differences between these two cases. It gives assessment of doses receives by external irradiation around Fukushima, of the dose rate evolution, of the sea contamination. It gives some data about the Chernobyl accident (radioactivity evolution). After some data about health consequences of Chernobyl, health risks and more particularly biological risks associated to low doses are described. Protection measures are evoked, as well as psycho-social impacts

2011-01-01

237

Chernobyl: analysis of the information given by the media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Alarmist information was given by the media after Chernobyl, causing public concern on nuclear energy. Electricite de France published a document 'Chernobyl, truth and falsehood' in March 1991, in order to give elements of critical analysis to the staff of the company. The information given was grouped in three parts: what is true, what is wrong and what is uncertain. This classification was established and explained on the basis of scientific and medical knowledge on the effects of ionizing radiation, the scanty international scientific publications about Chernobyl, the reports by international organizations and eyewitness accounts of western people who worked in humanitarian organizations. (author)

1992-01-01

238

Fukushima and Chernobyl. A first comparison of health hazards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After having evoked the heavy consequences of the Fukushima accident as an industrial disaster (destructions and reconstruction, dismantling costs), the author discusses the classification of this accident in comparison with that of Chernobyl in terms of radioactive releases and levels. He outlines the quality of decisions regarding emergency response regarding population rescue, protection and care. He discusses the medical and health consequences. He outlines the differences with the situation met on the Chernobyl site, comments the results of different health and epidemiological surveys performed about Chernobyl

2011-01-01

239

Proceedings of the international symposium on post-Chernobyl environmental radioactivity studies in East European countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Chernobyl accident on 26th April 1986 reminded the world that the threat coming from nuclear power-plants is not fictitious. The societies of the neighbouring countries suffered a real shock caused not only by the accident itself, but also by the fact that information was restricted and hardly available. Even now, our knowledge about the scale and consequences of the accident is limited. After the accident many international organizations and institutions dealing with environment protection and others started to investigate different aspects of this case. As a result of this interest, many symposia and conferences have been organized. The aim has been not only to estimate the consequences of this single case, to investigate the level of environment protection or to elaborate the new, better methods of environment monitoring. Also moral, legal and psychological aspects of the situation are being investigated. The territory of Poland, lying close to the accident place, suffered its direct influence. Thus, not only government and scientific institutions deal with the subject, but there is also a growing interest of the society, which demands more and more reliable information about the Chernobyl accident effects. Many Central- and East-European countries are in similar situation. Following general interest of Chernobyl accident effects, the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin (Poland) and the Jozef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana (Yugoslavia) organized on 17-19th September 1990 in Kazimierz on the Vistula (Poland) a joint international conference having the character of workshop. The conference was organized on the basis of already existing scientific collaboration of these institutions with the co-operation of the European Community (Brussels, Belgium) and International Atomic Energy Agency (Vienna, Austria)

2004-01-01

240

When Marking Tone Reduces Fluency:  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Should an alphabetic orthography for a tone language include tone marks? Opinion andpractice are divided along three lines: zero marking, phonemic marking and various reducedmarking schemes. This paper examines the success of phonemic tone marking for Dschang, aGrassfields Bantu language which uses tone to distinguish lexical items and some grammaticalconstructions. Participants with a variety of ages and educational backgrounds, and havingdifferent levels of exposure to the orthography were tested on location in the Western Provinceof Cameroon. All but one had attended classes on tone marking. Participants read texts whichwere marked and unmarked for tone, then added tone marks to the unmarked texts. Analysisshows that tone marking degrades reading fluency and does not help to resolve tonally ambiguouswords. Experienced writers attain an accuracy score of 83.5% in adding tone marks to a text, whileinexperienced writers score a mere 53%, which is not much better than chance. The experimentraises serious doubts about the suitability of the phonemic method of marking tone for languageshaving widespread tone sandhi effects, and lends support to the notion that a writing systemshould have `fixed word images'. A critical review of other experimental work on African toneorthography lays the groundwork for the experiment, and contributes to the establishment of auniform experimental paradigm.

Steven Bird

 
 
 
 
241

Chernobyl accidents, its consequences and problems of its mitigations. Abstracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problems discussed were devoted to: 1. Medical and biological aspects of the accident. 2. Agricultural works at contaminated territories. 3. Monitoring of contaminated regions. 4. Decontamination and safety of Chernobyl zone objects. 5. Social, economic and general problems

1994-01-01

242

The protective measures in SR Slovenia during the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The paper presents general philosophy applied in SR Slovenia during the Chernobyl accident, relevant data on its consequences, the protective measures undertaken in Slovenia and finally experiences gained due to that accident. (author). 1 fig

1987-01-01

243

Radiation induced thyroid pathologies during the post-Chernobyl period  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An existing discrepancy between the prognostic estimation and real thyroid sickness rate due to radioiodine exposure from Chernobyl is an evidence of inaccuracy of radiation doses estimation. (authors)

2009-01-01

244

Chernobyl Accident. Course of Events - Health Hazards - Consequences.  

Science.gov (United States)

In connection with the Chernobyl accident the report gives a description of the technical features of importance to the accident, the course of events, and the estimated health hazards in the local environment. Dissimilarities in western and Sovjet reacto...

J. O. Berg G. Christensen R. Lingjaerde H. Smidt Olsen P. I. Wethe

1986-01-01

245

Management problems of this restricted zone around Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this brief report are consider the main problems of minimization of the consequences of the accident and management of actions provided at present in the Chernobyl zone at the territory of Ukraine in decade retrospect.

1996-01-01

246

Spreading the message: the significance of CE-marking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Considerable time and resources have been invested in developing the Medical Device Directive. This article outlines some initiatives to publicize the meaning and importance of the CE mark to clinicians, users and patients, which have been developed by the United Kingdom Medical Devices Agency and industry. PMID:10180745

Kreuzer, M

1998-05-01

247

Spreading the message: the significance of CE-marking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Considerable time and resources have been invested in developing the Medical Device Directive. This article outlines some initiatives to publicize the meaning and importance of the CE mark to clinicians, users and patients, which have been developed by the United Kingdom Medical Devices Agency and industry.

Kreuzer M

1998-05-01

248

Comparisons of the emissions in the Windscale and Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contents are summarized under the following headings: 1) Windscale accident summary 2) Emission of 137Cs from Windscale 3) Emission of other fission products from Windscale 4) Environmental effects - iodine 5) Environmental effects - caesium. A bibliography is attached and where figures are available, comparisons are made with the Chernobyl fallout, including thyroid iodine burdens for U.K. students who were in Russia at the time of the Chernobyl accident, and milk measurements of Caesium 137 in the U.K. (UK).

1987-01-01

249

Mental health of liquidators of the Chernobyl disaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The aim of our study was to characterize the clinical and psychological aspects of the Chernobyl disaster-related mental disorders. We evaluated both clinically and psychologically four hundred and fifty patients who were exposed to low doses of radiation resulting from the Chernobyl disaster. They did not suffer from radiation sickness. The investigations started four years after the catastrophe took place in 1990 and continue to the present day. (orig.)

2001-01-01

250

After the Chernobyl reactor accident: Just got away  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The feeling of depression and insecurity experienced immediately after the Chernobyl reactor accident has gone by, and people go out for a walk again, and drink their milk. Are we happily aware we got away with it this time, or is it rather a feeling of resignation that makes us return to normal life. The Chernobyl disaster will only after some time be really assessed in its novel, global dimension.

Hauck, D.

1986-01-01

251

About Chernobyl - Twenty Years Later; Propos sur Tchernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author discusses the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the information on its consequences so contradictory in the former USSR countries, the status of the effects observed, the forecasting concerning the onset of cancers in the coming years among the populations that were exposed to radiations, the public opinion facing the pessimists. He concludes on the lessons which can be drawn from Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

Tubiana, M

2006-07-01

252

Chernobyl and the safety of nuclear reactors in OECD countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report assesses the possible bearing of the Chernobyl accident on the safety of nuclear reactors in OECD countries. It discusses analyses of the accident performed in several countries as well as improvements to the safety of RBMK reactors announced by the USSR. Several remaining questions are identified. The report compares RBMK safety features with those of commercial reactors in OECD countries and evaluates a number of issues raised by the Chernobyl accident

1987-01-01

253

Mental health of liquidators of the Chernobyl disaster  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of our study was to characterize the clinical and psychological aspects of the Chernobyl disaster-related mental disorders. We evaluated both clinically and psychologically four hundred and fifty patients who were exposed to low doses of radiation resulting from the Chernobyl disaster. They did not suffer from radiation sickness. The investigations started four years after the catastrophe took place in 1990 and continue to the present day. (orig.)

Kryzhanivska, L. [Ukrainian Inst. of Social and Forensic Psychiatry, Kiev (Ukraine)

2001-07-01

254

Epilimnetic scavenging of Chernobyl radionuclides in Lake Constance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive debris from the Chernobyl reactor accident entered Lake Constance in southwestern Germany mainly through one rainfall episode on April 30, 1986. Nuclides scavenged by particles in a newly established epilimnion accumulated in traps deployed weekly (20 m depth) at a site in the Ueberlinger See, a northwestern bight of the lake. Activities of 137Cs and 103Ru (plus 106Ru, 125Sb, 110mAg, and 144Ce) in trapped material collected during the subsequent 21 weeks is here described by a two-stage scavenging model involving (1) nuclide transfer to 'reactive particles' with negligible mean settling rate and (2) their entrainment by large, rapidly settling particles dominated by chemically passive calcite formed seasonally in the epilimnion. The model employs first-order kinetics where forward rate coefficients depend on time-dependent concentrations of candidate 'reactive phases' such as total suspended matter (TSM), particulate inorganic matter (PIM), particulate organic matter (POM), and particulate aluminum (PAL). First-order, irreversible nuclide transfer to nonexchangeable portions or reactive phases is also included. Vertical transport is described by a time-dependent rate of particle settling through a vertically and horizontally well-mixed epilimnion of increasing depth. Model calculations reproduced observations well with PAL as the 'reactive phase' for 137Cs and POM for 103Ru. The unusual coincidence of a pulsed nuclide loading with conditions of thermal stratification and limited vertical water mass exchange, together with frequent measurement of important state variables, permitted successful evaluation of a reaction-kinetic model under markedly non-steady state conditions.

1992-01-01

255

Validity of thyroid cancer incidence data following the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

The only clearly demonstrated cancer incidence increase that can be attributed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident is thyroid carcinoma in patients exposed during childhood or adolescence. Significant increases in thyroid disease were observed as soon as 4 y after the accident. The solid/follicular subtype of papillary carcinoma predominated in the early period after the accident. Morphological diagnosis of cancer in such cases, if no infiltrative growth is clearly visible, depends mainly on the nuclear criteria. Outdated equipment and insufficient quality of histological specimens impeded reliable evaluation of the nuclear criteria. Access to foreign professional literature has always been limited in the former Soviet Union. The great number of advanced tumors observed shortly after the accident can be explained by the screening effect (detection of previously neglected cancers) and by the fact that many patients were brought from non-contaminated areas and registered as Chernobyl victims. It is also worth noting that exaggeration of the Chernobyl cancer statistics facilitated the writing of dissertations, financing of research, and assistance from outside the former Soviet Union. "Chernobyl hysteria" impeded nuclear energy production in some countries, thus contributing to higher prices for fossil fuel. The concluding point is that since post-Chernobyl cancers tend on average to be in a later stage of tumor progression, some published data on molecular or immunohistochemical characteristics of Chernobyl-related cancers require reevaluation. PMID:22048494

Jargin, Sergei V

2011-12-01

256

Validity of thyroid cancer incidence data following the Chernobyl accident.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The only clearly demonstrated cancer incidence increase that can be attributed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident is thyroid carcinoma in patients exposed during childhood or adolescence. Significant increases in thyroid disease were observed as soon as 4 y after the accident. The solid/follicular subtype of papillary carcinoma predominated in the early period after the accident. Morphological diagnosis of cancer in such cases, if no infiltrative growth is clearly visible, depends mainly on the nuclear criteria. Outdated equipment and insufficient quality of histological specimens impeded reliable evaluation of the nuclear criteria. Access to foreign professional literature has always been limited in the former Soviet Union. The great number of advanced tumors observed shortly after the accident can be explained by the screening effect (detection of previously neglected cancers) and by the fact that many patients were brought from non-contaminated areas and registered as Chernobyl victims. It is also worth noting that exaggeration of the Chernobyl cancer statistics facilitated the writing of dissertations, financing of research, and assistance from outside the former Soviet Union. "Chernobyl hysteria" impeded nuclear energy production in some countries, thus contributing to higher prices for fossil fuel. The concluding point is that since post-Chernobyl cancers tend on average to be in a later stage of tumor progression, some published data on molecular or immunohistochemical characteristics of Chernobyl-related cancers require reevaluation.

Jargin SV

2011-12-01

257

The contamination of Slovenia after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this paper are shown some of the results of the measurement of the radiological contamination after Chernobyl accident. For instance, in Ljubljana the fallout of major radionuclides amounted to 140 kBq/m2 of 131 I, 26 kBq/m2 of 137 Cs, 11 kBq/m2 of 134 Cs, 5.33 kBq/m2 of 89 Sr and 0.420 kBq/m2 of 90 Sr and gradually decreased to about one half in the vicinity of the Krsko NPP. Also, the resultant free in air dose rate increased from 0.09 ?Gy/h before April 30th to a maximum value of 1.7 ?Gy/h on May 2 nd. 9 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tabs

1996-01-01

258

Health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The results of nine years of study of the 237 patients who suffered from acute radiation syndrome (ARS) as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident are reported. Thirty-eight of these patients have died, 28 in the acute period in 1986, 5 in 1987-90 and 5 in 1992-93. The reasons for death show no clear tendencies. They include: gangrene of the lung, organic disease of the brain and spinal chord, hypoplasia of haematopoeisis, coronary heart disease, sarcoma and an automobile accident. Investigations have been carried out on an annual obligatory basis of the patients' haemopoietic, immune, nervous and endocrine systems. An analysis of the data is presented. Histograms are included showing the incidence of digestive tract, nervous system, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders, the frequency and degree of disablement and serum prolactin concentration. The types of skin damage sustained by 39 of the patients are listed. (6 figures, 3 tables). (UK)

1995-01-01

259

Radiation epidemiology after the Chernobyl accident. Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The present proceedings give a review of epidemiological studies conducted into the reactor accident in Chernobyl comprising both the results of several studies carried out in the former Laender of the Federal Republic of Germany and results from those three Republics of the former Soviet Union which were most seriously affected, i.e. Russia, Byelorussia, and the Ukraine. Whilst the results obtained in Germany indicated no appreciable health effects in these regions, those from the three Republics directly affected suggest that the radiation exposure did have health impacts on the population. These include first of all an increased incidence of thyroid tumours in children as reported especially from Byelorussia. However, this was observed in Russia and the Ukraine as well, though not to the same extent. The report also considers the psychological situation of the population concerned. Additionally it is emphasized that the WHO is strongly interested in research as to the health effects of the reactor accident. (orig.)

1993-01-01

260

Accident at Chernobyl and the medical response  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author was in the Soviet Union in early June 1986, leading a medical lecture tour under an exchange program sponsored by Physicians for Social Responsibility. This provided an opportunity for extensive discussions with the Soviet physicians in charge of the medical response to Chernobyl, for a visit to Moscow Hospital number 6, the center of care for those acutely injured for observation of seven acutely irradiated patients and reviews of their clinical courses, and for discussion with the medical teams providing the acute care and planning the necessary long term epidemiologic and environmental investigations. This report is based on information provided by these sources and on data released in Moscow by Robert P. Gale, MD, the American physician from UCLA who, with his associates, flew to the Soviet Union within days to join the team already caring for irradiated victims of the accident.

Geiger, H.J.

1986-08-01

 
 
 
 
261

The consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the decay of the iodine isotopes the measuring campaigns, in addition to the measuring of soil pollution and pollution of products, concentrated on the way of the cesium isotopes through the food chain, especially in crops, milk, meat and mother's milk. A special programme was developed for the analysis of foreign basic substances for teas, essences and tinctures. In connection with the incorporation measurements in the university hospital Eppendorf the measurement campaigns provided the data material in order to calculate with the aid of the computer program ECOSYS of the GSF the effective dose equivalent which the inhabitants of Hamburg additionally take up due to the accident of Chernobyl. Consequences with regard to measuring methods and social consequences are mentioned. (DG).

1988-01-01

262

Impact on London of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation levels in London following the Chernobyl accident have been measured and are reported. The sampling programme of atmospheric dusts, water and milk is detailed. A few other items, eg food and ships arriving at Tilbury and Sheerness were also tested. The counting techniques are given. The results show that at its peak the additional activity contributed by the inhalation of the debris probably increased the radiation dose to an individual in London by about 40% of the natural dose for that period. The increased activity in milk gave rise to an additional dose and may continue to do so. However, the radioactive debris from the fallout was much less in London than other parts of the UK. (U.K.).

1986-01-01

263

Observations on radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preliminary study of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident for the Department of the Environment was started in June 1986 which involved taking on an opportunistic basis, samples of air, rain, grass and soil in the UK. This study was integrated into a programme of other investigations funded by the Departments of Health and Social Security and of Energy including measurements on people, in air, deposition and soil overseas, on deposition to buildings and the derivation where possible of parameters of interest in accident assessment. This report is a comprehensive account of all these initial investigations and presented in fulfilment of the Preliminary Study under DoE contract PECD 7/9/359. (author).

1987-01-01

264

AMS applied to Hiroshima and Chernobyl dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Two projects employing AMS are summarized and updated. One project employs AMS to measure 36Cl in concrete and other mineral samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki to help reconstruct neutron fluences received by the atom-bomb survivors. In this project, we have demonstrated a large discrepancy between the neutron activation measured in Hiroshima and predictions based on the current dosimetry system. This discrepancy has practical implications for radiation risk assessment and radiation protection standards. The other project employs AMS to measure 129I in soil and other environmental samples from Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. This is a proof-of-principle study to determine if the long lived 129I isotope (half life, 16 x 106 y) measured by AMS can be used to reconstruct deposition of the short lived 131I isotope from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident. This is required because 131I disappeared before adequate measurements could be made

1995-01-01

265

Spa treatment of Chernobyl liquidators in Israel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the first experience gained in the use of the unique climate and spa of the Dead Sea for the treatment and rehabilitation of the Chernobyl liquidators at clinic near the city of Arad. Ninety-six patients were treated in Israel, in 40 of these radiation was the etiological factor of the disease: consequences of acute and chronic radiation disease, the astheno-neurotic syndrome, discirculatory encephalopathy, subatrophic laryngopharyngitis, and obstructive bronchitis. Eighty-eight patients had direct indications for treatment at the Dad Sea; locomotory, respiratory, and skin diseases. The course of treatment included the Dad Sea baths, mud applications, sun baths, climatotherapy, physiotherapy, massage, bioenergy therapy, inhalations, moisturizing creams, etc. An appreciable improvement with resolution of the principal symptoms was attained in 82% of patients, in 13% improvement with a significant abatement of the symptoms was achieved, whereas in 5% no apparent results were seen

1997-01-01

266

Chernobyl fallout measurements in some Mediterranean biotas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactivity of various terrestrial vegetation leaves characteristic of Mediterranean countries was measured after the Chernobyl accident. Particular attention was paid to lichens and seaweed which are considered as bioindicators of radioactive contamination. The concentration of long-lived fission nuclides remaining three months after the accident were found to be enhanced in needle form leaves and lichens. The seaweed Sphaerococcus exhibits a strong specific activity for iodine and ruthenium elements and poor concentration for caesium nuclides. The activity ratios of different isotopes of the same element measured in vegetation samples agreed well with values found in airborne aerosols by other authors. The activation nuclide 110mAg was found in all samples with the same ratio as in the soil deposition (110mAg/137Cs = (1.0 ± 0.2) x 10-2). 13 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

1988-01-01

267

AMS applied to Hiroshima and Chernobyl dosimetry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two projects employing AMS are summarized and updated. One project employs AMS to measure {sup 36}Cl in concrete and other mineral samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki to help reconstruct neutron fluences received by the atom-bomb survivors. In this project, we have demonstrated a large discrepancy between the neutron activation measured in Hiroshima and predictions based on the current dosimetry system. This discrepancy has practical implications for radiation risk assessment and radiation protection standards. The other project employs AMS to measure {sup 129}I in soil and other environmental samples from Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. This is a proof-of-principle study to determine if the long lived {sup 129}I isotope (half life, 16 x 10{sup 6} y) measured by AMS can be used to reconstruct deposition of the short lived {sup 131}I isotope from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident. This is required because {sup 131}I disappeared before adequate measurements could be made.

Straume, T.; Marchetti, A.A.; Anspaugh, L.R. [Lawrence Livremore National Lab., CA (United States)

1995-12-01

268

Health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of nine years of study of the 237 patients who suffered from acute radiation syndrome (ARS) as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident are reported. Thirty-eight of these patients have died, 28 in the acute period in 1986, 5 in 1987-90 and 5 in 1992-93. The reasons for death show no clear tendencies. They include: gangrene of the lung, organic disease of the brain and spinal chord, hypoplasia of haematopoeisis, coronary heart disease, sarcoma and an automobile accident. Investigations have been carried out on an annual obligatory basis of the patients` haemopoietic, immune, nervous and endocrine systems. An analysis of the data is presented. Histograms are included showing the incidence of digestive tract, nervous system, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders, the frequency and degree of disablement and serum prolactin concentration. The types of skin damage sustained by 39 of the patients are listed. (6 figures, 3 tables). (UK).

Bebeshko, V.G.

1995-12-31

269

Results of 20-years observations on health of Ukrainian children suffered from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: One of the most adverse medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident was worsening of health in the children's population. The decrease in a proportion of practically healthy children (from 27,5% in 1986-1987. up to 7,2% in 2004), the increase in a number of children with chronic diseases (from 8,4% in 1986-1987 up to 77,8% in 2004) are observed, and the quantity of children-invalids among victims in 4 times exceeds the average population level in the Ukraine. The most adverse shifts were marked in teenagers with high radiation doses of the thyroid gland and those irradiated in utero. Among them the part of practically healthy ones does not exceed 2,8%. The statistical data on a state of health in the suffered children's population, testify that during all the postaccident period the steady trend to growth of morbidity parameters (with 455,4% in 1987 up to 1383,45% in 2004) takes place. In its structure, diseases of the respiratory organs; of the nervous system; of digestive organs; of the skin and subcutaneous cellular tissue; infectious diseases; diseases of blood and organs of hematogenesis are the leading ones now. The significant negative influence of the Chernobyl accident consequences on the children's immune system is noted. In 82,5% from them (39,5% in the control, p

2006-01-01

270

Epidemiologic studies based on the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are great opportunities in the post-Chernobyl experience for significant epidemiologic research, perhaps even more in the area of disaster research than in the area of the human health effects of ionizing radiation. But the potential opportunity for learning the effects of radioiodine on the thyroid is very great and has aroused widespread national and international investigative interest. The opportunities for significant epidemiologic research are, however, severely limited currently by the worsening economic situation in Belarus and Ukraine, where the greatest exposure occurred, and by the lack of personnel trained in appropriate methods of study, the lack of modern equipment, the lack of supplies, the poor communication facilities, and the difficulties of accurate dose estimation. the disadvantages may or may not outweigh the obvious advantages of large numbers, the extensive direct thyroidal measurements made shortly after the accident in 1986, the magnitude of the releases of radioiodine, and the retention of the former Soviet system of universal medical care. Both the European Commission (EC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have been working actively to strengthen the infrastructure of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. New scientific knowledge has yet to emerge from the extensive epidemiologic work but information of considerable public health significance has begun to accumulate. The bulk of the thyroid cancer has been shown to be valid by international pathology review; both EC and WHO representatives have declared the increase in thyroid cancer among children to have been caused in large part by Chernobyl. No increase in leukemia has been seen in the general population. The WHO pilot studies have shown no evidence of an increase in psychologic or neurologic complications among those exposed in utero. Ongoing epidemiologic work can be described by review of the inventory that the WHO has begun to maintain and publish. 20 refs., 7 tabs.

Beebe, G. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

1996-12-31

271

The reconstruction of thyroid dose following Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents the overview of several approaches in working out the methods of thyroid internal dose reconstruction following Chernobyl. One of these approaches was developed (IBPh, Moscow; MRRC, Obninsk; IRM, Minsk) using the correlations between the mean dose calculation based on I131 thyroid content measurements and Cs137 contamination of territories. The available data on I131 soil contamination were taken into account. The lack of data on I131 soil contamination was supposed to be compensated by I129 measurements in soil samples from contaminated territories. The semiempiric model was developed for dose reconstruction. The comparison of the results obtained by semiempiric model and empirical values are presented. The estimated values of average dose according semiempiric model were used for individual dose reconstruction. The IRH (St.-Petersburg) has developed the following method for individual dose reconstruction: correlation between the total I131 radioiodine incorporation in thyroid and whole body Cs137 content during first months after accident. The individual dose reconstruction is also mentioned to be performed using the data on individual milk consumption during first weeks after accident. For evaluation of average doses it is suggested to use the linear correlation: thyroid dose values based on radioiodine thyroid measurements vs Cs137 contamination, air kerma rate, mean I131 concentration in the milk. The method for retrospective reconstruction of thyroid dose caused by short-living iodine nuclides released after the Chernobyl accident has been developed by Research Centre, Juelich, Germany. It is based on the constant ratio that these nuclides have with the long-living I129. The contamination of soil samples by this nuclide can be used to assess thyroid doses. First results of I129 contamination values and derived thyroid doses are to be presented

1996-01-01

272

Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 4. Chernobyl accident consequences in the Ukraine and Russia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of scientific general conclusion and analysis of wide spectrum of radioecological investigations of the Chernobyl accident consequences within the territory of the Ukraine are given. Investigations were conducted in 1986-1992 and before the accident. Information on the environmental radioactivity in Russia due to the Chernobyl accident is also presented. Attention is paid to the population migration and results of statistical processing of population disease incidence in contaminated areas (illustrated by the Tula region). 39 figs.; 47 tabs

1993-01-01

273

Radioecological transfer of {sup 137}Cs from ground deposition to man from Chernobyl debris and from nuclear weapons fallout in different Swedish populations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparison of the estimated committed effective dose per unit activity deposition on ground was made between different critical groups in Sweden. The time-integrated aggregate transfer of {sup 137}Cs for the global fallout was 2-3 times higher than from Chernobyl debris for Swedish urban populations. For reindeer herders this difference is even more marked, with a factor of three to four higher time-integrated transfer factor of nuclear weapons fallout. Considering the transfer of Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs debris the time-integrated transfer factor appears to be more than 25 times higher for reindeer herders in Sweden than for the urban reference groups. An even more pronounced relative difference between the time integrated aggregate transfer was observed between reindeer herders and urban reference populations for the pre-Chernobyl fallout (a factor of 30). The projected committed effective dose from internal contamination of Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs per unit activity deposition is observed to be 2030 {mu}Sv/kBq m{sup -2}. The highest values in Sweden are obtained for reindeer herders with an estimated radioecological transfer of 0.5 mSv/kBq m{sup -2}. (au)

Raeaef, C.L. [Malmoe Univ. Hospital, Lund Univ., Dept. of Radiation Physics, Malmoe (Sweden)

2005-07-01

274

Radioecological transfer of 137Cs from ground deposition to man from Chernobyl debris and from nuclear weapons fallout in different Swedish populations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A comparison of the estimated committed effective dose per unit activity deposition on ground was made between different critical groups in Sweden. The time-integrated aggregate transfer of 137Cs for the global fallout was 2-3 times higher than from Chernobyl debris for Swedish urban populations. For reindeer herders this difference is even more marked, with a factor of three to four higher time-integrated transfer factor of nuclear weapons fallout. Considering the transfer of Chernobyl 137Cs debris the time-integrated transfer factor appears to be more than 25 times higher for reindeer herders in Sweden than for the urban reference groups. An even more pronounced relative difference between the time integrated aggregate transfer was observed between reindeer herders and urban reference populations for the pre-Chernobyl fallout (a factor of 30). The projected committed effective dose from internal contamination of Chernobyl 137Cs per unit activity deposition is observed to be 2030 ?Sv/kBq m-2. The highest values in Sweden are obtained for reindeer herders with an estimated radioecological transfer of 0.5 mSv/kBq m-2. (au)

2005-01-01

275

Method of remodeling stretch marks  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A cosmetic method of regenerating the skin in the region of a stretch mark is disclosed. The method comprises operating a source (16) of thermal energy with a low thermal time constant, and directing it at the surface of the skin adjacent to and within a stretch mark (101) forming first and second adjacent regions (111 and 112) of thermally-modified tissue. The first region (111) is adjacent to, and overlies, the second region (112), and the first region is thermally modified to a greater extent than the second region such that, following treatment, the width of the stretch mark (101) is reduced and the reticular architecture of the dermis in the stretch mark is at least partially restored. The method may include the application of adhesive strips to the edges of the stretch mark and or the application of collagenous fillers or fibroblasts prior to operation of the source of thermal energy.

GOBLE NIGEL MARK

276

Chernobyl, 13 years after; Tchernobyl, 13 ans apres  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is an annual report, regularly issued by IPSN, that presents the ecological and health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. The present status of the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant, which Ukraine engaged to stop definitively in year 2000, is summarized. The only reactor unit now in operation is Chernobylsk-3 Reactor which poses two safety questions: evolution of cracks in part of the tubing and behaviour of the pressure tubes. Although, some improvements in the RBMK reactor types were introduced, problems remain that make IPSN to stress the requirement of stopping this NPP completely. In the contaminated territories surrounding Chernobyl incidence rate of infant thyroid cancers continues to grow, reaching values 10 to 100 times higher than the natural rate. In France the IPSN analyzed 60,000 records carried out in 17 sites during May 1986 and April 1989. It was estimated that the individual dose received during 60 years (1986-2046) by the inhabitants of the most affected zone (eastern France) is lower than 1.5 mSv, a value lower than 1% of the natural cosmic and telluric radioactivity exposure for the same period. For the persons assumed to live in the most attacked forests (from eastern France) and nourishing daily with venison and mushrooms the highest estimate is 1 mSv a year. Concerning the 'hot spots', identified in mountains by IPSN and CRIIRAD, the doses received by excursionists are around 0.015 mSv. For an average inhabitant of the country the dose piled up in the thyroid due to iodine-131 fallout is estimated to 0.5-2 mSv for an adult and 6.5-16 mSv for an infant. These doses are 100 to 1000 times lower than the ones to which the infants living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl are exposed to. The contents of the report is displayed in the following six chapters: 1. Chernobyl in some figures; 2. The 'sarcophagus' and the reactors of the Chernobyl NPP; 3. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident;. 4. The impact of Chernobyl fallout in France; 5. Chernobyl's environment and the management of contaminated territories.; 6. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl.

Regniault-Lacharme, Mireille; Metivier, Henri [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

1999-04-01

277

Names of Jesus in Mark’s story  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mark as narrator treats the concept “Messiah” as a description of Jesus’ identity, but this alone does not suffice: the title “Son of God” is added in order to describe Jesus’ identity more fully. According to Mark it is not the Twelve but some of the other followers who praise Jesus with the title of the “Blessed One who comes in the name of the Kyrios”. “Messiah” is the title the disciples give to Jesus, but the “narrated Jesus” subordinates the title “Messiah” to the title “Kyrios”. The aim of this article is to focus on Mark as narrative. The article argues that all events are presented from one perspective, that is the perspective of Jesus. This perspective is narrated by using names of Jesus. The article focuses on these names as used in the Gospel of Mark.

Y. Dreyer

2001-01-01

278

MarkIT büroo = Offices of MarkIT  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Tallinnas Pärnu mnt. 102C asuvas büroohoones paikneva MarkIT büroo sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Kard Männil (SAB Miu Miu Miu) ja Loreida Hein (Studio La), nende tähtsamate tööde loetelu. Valge büroomööbel on sisearhitektide projekteeritud. Graafika on sisearhitektid ise joonistanud

2010-01-01

279

Mark-recapture with multiple, non-invasive marks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SUMMARY: Non-invasive marks, including pigmentation patterns, acquired scars, and genetic markers, are often used to identify individuals in mark-recapture experiments. If animals in a population can be identified from multiple, non-invasive marks then some individuals may be counted twice in the observed data. Analyzing the observed histories without accounting for these errors will provide incorrect inference about the population dynamics. Previous approaches to this problem include modeling data from only one mark and combining estimators obtained from each mark separately assuming that they are independent. Motivated by the analysis of data from the ECOCEAN online whale shark (Rhincodon typus) catalog, we describe a Bayesian method to analyze data from multiple, non-invasive marks that is based on the latent-multinomial model of Link et al. (2010, Biometrics 66, 178-185). Further to this, we describe a simplification of the Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm of Link et al. (2010, Biometrics 66, 178-185) that leads to more efficient computation. We present results from the analysis of the ECOCEAN whale shark data and from simulation studies comparing our method with the previous approaches.

J Bonner S; Holmberg J

2013-09-01

280

Radionuclide from Chernobyl as tracers in the Neusiedlersee region: Physical foundations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radionuclide fallout after the Chernobyl accident can be viewed as surface marking and used to investigate scientifical problems like the penetration rate of noxious substances into the underground, sedimentation rate in surface waters or the investigation of ecological cycles. The region around the lake Neusiedlersee in eastern Austria (the lake being without drainage) is an intriguing model system, as the amount of radionuclides is conserved and is removed radioactive decay only. Some physical fundamentals of radionuclide concentration interpretations are outlined. In addition to the Neusiedlersee regions, sediments in the Danube river are considered. The most important isotopes are the long-lived strontium 90 and cesium 137. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

CE Marking - the Essential Requirements  

Science.gov (United States)

The European Union (EU) harmonisation project introduced the CE marking of products to enable the free, unhindered movement of goods throughout the European market. The CE mark replaced the EC mark in the mid 1990s and is fundamental to the New Approach Directives. When a product falls within the scope of a New Approach Directive the manufacturer must comply with the 'goal setting' essential requirements of the directive, to follow one of the conformity assessment procedures provided for, and to draw up the technical documentation specified. Although not mandatory, a manufacturer can choose to satisfy the essential requirements through the application of European harmonised standards.

Playle, Mervyn

282

Transformations of humus and soil mantle in the urbanized areas of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presented are investigations into the demutation processes of the towns plant community in the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone (Pripyat, Chernobyl, Chernobyl-2). Demonstrated is the specific nature of the reduction of humus and soil mantle in the abandoned towns under the impact of the natural factors. 21 refs., 5 tab., 7 figs.

1998-01-01

283

Clanton Mark CV Redacted Final  

Science.gov (United States)

Text VersionPage 1. Mark Stuart Clanton, MD, MPH. Chief Medical Officer American Cancer Society High Plains Division 2433-A Ridgepoint ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

284

Environmental radionuclide distribution in Georgia after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Atmospheric Chernobyl-released radioactivity, assessed at about 2 x 10{sup 18} Bq, caused global environmental contamination. Contaminated air masses appeared in the Transcaucasian region in early May, 1986. Rains that month promoted intense radionuclide deposition all over Georgia. The contamination level of western Georgia considerably exceeded the contamination level of eastern Georgia. The Black Sea coast of Georgia suffered from the Chernobyl accident as much as did strongly contaminated areas of the Ukraine and Belarus`. Unfortunately, governmental decrees on countermeasures against the consequences of the Chernobyl accident at that time did not even refer to the coast of Georgia. The authors observed the first increase in radioactivity background in rainfall samples collected on May 2, 1986, in Tbilisi. {gamma}-Spectrometric measurements of aerosol filters, vegetation, food stuffs, and other objects, in addition to rainfall, persistently confirmed the occurrence of short-lived radionuclides, including {sup 131}I. At first, this fact seemed unbelievable, because the Chernobyl accident had occurred only 4-5 days earlier and far from Georgia. However, these arguments proved to be faulty. Soon, environmental monitoring of radiation in Georgia became urgent. Environmental radionuclide distribution in Georgia shortly after the Chernobyl accident, as well as the methods of analysis, are reported in this paper.

Mosulishvili, L.M.; Shoniya, N.I.; Katamadze, N.M. [Institute of Physics, Tbilisi, Georgia (Russian Federation)] [and others

1994-01-01

285

The Chernobyl NPP decommissioning: Current status and alternatives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After the Chernobyl accident of April 26, 1986, many contradictory decisions were taken concerning the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) future. The principal source of contradictions was a deadline for a final shutdown of the Chernobyl NPP units. Alterations in a political and socioeconomic environment resulted in the latest decision of the Ukrainian Authorities about 2000 as a deadline for a beginning of the Chernobyl NPP decommissioning. The date seems a sound compromise among the parties concerned. However, in order to meet the data a lot of work should be done. First of all, a decommissioning strategy has to be established. The problem is complicated due to both site-specific aspects and an absence of proven solutions for the RBMK-type reactor decommissioning. In the paper the problem of decommissioning option selection is considered taking into account an influence of the following factors: relevant legislative and regulatory requirements; resources required to carry out decommissioning (man-power, equipment, technologies, waste management infrastructure, etc.); radiological and physical status of the plant, including structural integrity and predictable age and weather effects; impact of planned activities at the destroyed unit 4 and within the 30-km exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP; planed use of the site; socio-economic considerations.

Mikolaitchouk, H. [Atomaudit Ltd., Kiev (Ukraine); Steinberg, N. [Atomaudit Ltd., Kiev (Ukraine)

1996-08-01

286

Thyroid cancer development in Chernobyl including new additional results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: We have been studying the etiology of thyroid cancer development among the exposed people in Hiroshima. In 1993, we have proposed the hypothesis of oncology model of thyroid cancer development in children following the nuclear power plant accident in Chernobyl, and then related studies has been done in Chernobyl and also in Hiroshima. Following findings are included. Urinary iodine level was lower in Chernobyl than in Hiroshima. Stimulation of ret oncogene in thyroid cancer tissues, and appearance of nuclear abnormalities of thyroid follicular cells were found higher rate among the exposed people. Sensitivity of TSH-receptor in thyroid tissues (TSH-R mRNA expression) was higher while young. Synergistic effect of TSH-R mRNA and ER mRNA expressions were found in both of normal tissues and cancer tissues in thyroid, but it was more apparent in cancer tissues. These findings gave the additional proofs on the hypothesis of thyroid cancer development in Chernobyl. Including these results, we like to present the importance of thyroid for the health of the exposed people in Chernobyl

2006-01-01

287

Cancer following the Chernobyl nuclear accident: what we have learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: Twenty years later, the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear plant in Ukraine remains the largest of its kind. Ukraine and Belarus in particular were heavily contaminated, principally with radioiodine which concentrate in the thyroid gland. Before Chernobyl, little was known about, the risk of thyroid cancer in those exposed to radioiodine as children, although there were some reports based on exposed adults. A number of epidemiologic studies have since been conducted to evaluate populations in Chernobyl-exposed areas. These have provided valuable information about the risks of Iodine-131 to children. I will summarize these studies and the lessons the international scientific and medical community have learned from this research on Chernobyl. Finally, I will describe progress with a seminal project: the Belarus-American Study of Thyroid Cancer and Other Thyroid Diseases following the Chernobyl Accident. This collaborative effort has involved screening a cohort of approximately 12,000 individuals exposed as young persons at two year intervals for three consecutive cycles. This is the first study, cohort in design, to be based on individual, measured doses and thus can provide the best quantitative estimate of the dose-response relationship between Iodine-131 and risk of thyroid cancer

2006-01-01

288

Health consequences of Chernobyl: the New York Academy of Sciences publishes an antidote to the nuclear establishment's pseudo-science.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In February 2010, the New York Academy of Sciences published the most complete and up-to-date collection of evidence, from independent, scientific sources all over the world, on the health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident. For 24 years, through a high-level, internationally coordinated cover-up of the world's most serious industrial accident, the nuclear lobby has deprived the world of a unique and critically important source of scientific information. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), mouthpiece of the nuclear establishment, has coordinated the cover-up through the dissemination and imposition of crude pseudo-science. Regrettably, the World Health Organization, a U.N. agency on which the world's people rely for guidance, is subordinate to the IAEA in matters of radiation and health, has participated in the cover-up, and stands accused of non-assistance to populations in danger. The new book on Chernobyl makes available huge amounts of evidence from independent studies undertaken in the affected countries, unique and valuable data that have been ignored by the international health establishment. This comprehensive account of the full dimensions of the catastrophe reveals the shameful inadequacy of current international assistance to the affected populations. It also demonstrates, once more, that future energy options cannot include nuclear power.

Katz AR

2010-01-01

289

BWR Mark I pressure suppression study: bench mark experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Computer simulations representative of the wetwell of Mark I BWR's have predicted pressures and related phenomena. However, calculational predictions for purposes of engineering decision will be possible only if the code can be verified, i.e., shown to compute in accord with measured values. Described in the report is a set of single downcomer spherical flask bench mark experiments designed to produce quantitative data to validate various air-water dynamic computations; the experiments were performed since relevant bench mark data were not available from outside sources. Secondary purposes of the study were to provide a test bed for the instrumentation and post-experiment data processing techniques to be used in the Laboratory's reactor safety research program and to provide additional masurements for the air-water scaling study

1977-01-01

290

Debate on the Chernobyl disaster: on the causes of Chernobyl overestimation.  

Science.gov (United States)

After the Chernobyl accident, many publications appeared that overestimated its medical consequences. Some of them are discussed in this article. Among the motives for the overestimation were anti-nuclear sentiments, widespread among some adherents of the Green movement; however, their attitude has not been wrong: nuclear facilities should have been prevented from spreading to overpopulated countries governed by unstable regimes and regions where conflicts and terrorism cannot be excluded. The Chernobyl accident has hindered worldwide development of atomic industry. Today, there are no alternatives to nuclear power: nonrenewable fossil fuels will become more and more expensive, contributing to affluence in the oil-producing countries and poverty in the rest of the world. Worldwide introduction of nuclear energy will become possible only after a concentration of authority within an efficient international executive. This will enable construction of nuclear power plants in optimally suitable places, considering all sociopolitical, geographic, geologic, and other preconditions. In this way, accidents such as that in Japan in 2011 will be prevented. PMID:22403906

Jargin, Sergei V

2012-01-01

291

Debate on the Chernobyl disaster: on the causes of Chernobyl overestimation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

After the Chernobyl accident, many publications appeared that overestimated its medical consequences. Some of them are discussed in this article. Among the motives for the overestimation were anti-nuclear sentiments, widespread among some adherents of the Green movement; however, their attitude has not been wrong: nuclear facilities should have been prevented from spreading to overpopulated countries governed by unstable regimes and regions where conflicts and terrorism cannot be excluded. The Chernobyl accident has hindered worldwide development of atomic industry. Today, there are no alternatives to nuclear power: nonrenewable fossil fuels will become more and more expensive, contributing to affluence in the oil-producing countries and poverty in the rest of the world. Worldwide introduction of nuclear energy will become possible only after a concentration of authority within an efficient international executive. This will enable construction of nuclear power plants in optimally suitable places, considering all sociopolitical, geographic, geologic, and other preconditions. In this way, accidents such as that in Japan in 2011 will be prevented.

Jargin SV

2012-01-01

292

Risk of thyroid cancer among chernobyl liquidators.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, the "liquidators" or clean-up workers were among those who received the highest radiation doses to the thyroid from external radiation. Some were also exposed to radioiodines through inhalation or ingestion. A collaborative case-control study nested within cohorts of Belarusian, Russian and Baltic liquidators was conducted to evaluate the radiation-induced risk of thyroid cancer. The study included 107 cases and 423 controls. Individual doses to the thyroid from external radiation and from iodine-131 ((131)I) were estimated for each subject. Most subjects received low doses (median 69 mGy). A statistically significant dose-response relationship was found with total thyroid dose. The Excess Relative Risk (ERR) per 100 mGy was 0.38 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10, 1.09]. The risk estimates were similar when doses from (131)I and external radiation were considered separately, although for external radiation the ERR was not statistically significantly elevated. The ERR was similar for micro carcinomas and larger size tumors, and for tumors with and without lymph node involvement. Although recall bias and uncertainties in doses could have affected the magnitude of the risk estimates, the findings of this study contribute to a better characterization the risk of thyroid cancer after radiation exposure in adulthood.

Kesminiene A; Evrard AS; Ivanov VK; Malakhova IV; Kurtinaitise J; Stengrevics A; Tekkel M; Chekin S; Drozdovitch V; Gavrilin Y; Golovanov I; Kryuchkov VP; Maceika E; Mirkhaidarov AK; Polyakov S; Tenet V; Tukov AR; Byrnes G; Cardis E

2012-11-01

293

The Chernobyl accident: Causes and consequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two explosions, one immediately following the other, in Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union signaled the worst disaster ever to befall the commercial nuclear power production industry. This accident, which occurred at 1:24 a.m. on April 26, 1986, resulted from an almost incredible series of operational errors associated, ironically, with an attempt to enhance the capability of the reactor to safely accommodate station blackout accidents (i.e., accidents arising from a loss of station electrical power). Disruption of the core, due to a prompt criticality excursion, resulted in the destruction of the core vault and reactor building and the sudden dispersal of about 3% of the fuel from the core region into the environment. Lesser but significant releases of radioactivity continued through May 6, 1986, before attempts to certain the radioactivity and cool the remnants of the core were successful. The amount and composition of material released in the course of the accident remain somewhat uncertain, and inconsistencies in the release estimates are evident. The Soviet estimates, in addition to the dispersal of about 3% of the fuel, include complete release of the noble gas core inventory, 20% of the fission product iodine inventory, 15% of the tellurium inventory, and 10 to 13% of the fission product cesium inventory. The iodine and cesium release estimates are not consistent with the noble gas values, and are as much as a factor of two less than some estimates made by experts outside the Soviet Union.

Malinauskas, A.P.

1987-01-01

294

Brain damage in utero after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: The report presents research study results of neuropsychiatric consequences of the children exposed in utero, who were born just after the Chernobyl accident (between April 26, 1986 and February 26, 1987). The children were under investigation for three stages: in 1990-1992; 1994-1996; 2002-2004. We use the data on health state, IQ level tests and individual dose reconstruction data. First correlation between prenatal acute exposure after atomic bombing and intellectual level decrease was demonstrated by Japanese scientists. It is known that while the Chernobyl whole body irradiation doses are much lower than the Japanese doses, thyroid doses after the Chernobyl accident are significantly higher. During the first stage the five-year-old prenatally exposed children were under examination. The results showed much more somatic diseases and neurofunctional mental disorders. It was also established in this cohort that starting with the 0.3 Sv threshold dose thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level grown along with fetal thyroid dose increase. Thereupon the radiation-induced malfunction of the thyroid-pituitary system was suggested as an important biological mechanism in the genesis of mental disorders in prenatally irradiated children. The epidemiological WHO project 'Brain Damage in Utero' (IPHECA) was implemented in the second stage. The examination of prenatally exposed children from the contaminated territories (555 kBq/m2 and more) resulted in an increased frequency of moderate mental retardation, emotional and behavioral disorders. Increasing of borderline nervous and psychological disorders of parents from the main group was higher than from the control. However it was rather hard to treat these results because individual dosimetric data were not available. Only in the third stage reconstruction of individual doses of children born to mothers evacuated from the Chernobyl exclusion zone was carried out at taking internal and external exposure. It was established that mean fetal dose (M±SD) was 65.4±33.9 mSv for the exposed group and 1.2±0.3 mSv - for the control, which was formed with Kiev residents. Prenatal brain doses were 19.2±11.3 mSv and 0.8±0.2 mSv for the exposed and control groups, respectively. Thyroid doses in utero were 760.4±631.8.1 mSv and 44.5±43.3 mSv for the exposed and control groups, correspondingly. The children having whole body prenatal dose more than 100 mSv made up 13,2% and 33,8% - having thyroid exposure dose in utero more than 1 Sv. It is worth mentioning that the frequency of somatic, neuropsychiatric and thyroid diseases was increasing in all the stages of the study. The third stage clearly demonstrates that the prenatally exposed children have significantly more nervous diseases and mental disorders. Children and their mothers were also examined with special psychological tests (WISC, the Achenbach and Rutter A(2), WAIS, SDS, PTSD, GHQ-28 and others). We revealed significant differences in intelligence, emotional and behavioral disorders of exposed children comparing to the control. The exposed children showed decreasing full-scale IQ along with decreasing verbal IQ. Although the frequency of performance/verbal intelligence discrepancies increased. No mental retardation was revealed. The exposed and evacuated mothers showed no differences of verbal abilities, but they had experienced much more real stress events. So they demonstrated more depression, PTSD, somatoform disorders, anxiety/insomnia, and social dysfunction. However, direct interdependence of the registered effects on the prenatally received doses is not revealed. The exception is IQ discrepancies of the prenatally irradiated children exceed 25 points. Thus, it is obviously true that somatic and mental health, intellectual development of the exposed in utero children have resulted not only from irradiation factor, but from a complex of psychosocial factors of catastrophe: theirs mothers' poor health and intellectual development level, experience in stress events, usual risk factors, and fetal irradiatio

2006-01-01

295

Communications strategy for the Chernobyl Centre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Communications Strategy was developed for the International Chernobyl Centre (ICC) as part of a joint UK/Ukraine project, sponsored by the Department of Trade and Industry and NNC Limited. The Plan was developed during four weeks of workshop discussions in the UK between staff from the centre and experienced PR Professionals from NNC Limited. The requirements for a sustained communications activity at the ICC go much further than simply enhancing or promoting the Centre's scientific and technical activities. Raising sufficient awareness of the Centre among potential funding agents and commercial partners is critical to its future development as a major centre for international co-operation and research. It is only through establishing and developing effective communications that the Centre will become well enough known and understood both within the Ukraine, and internationally, to secure its long term future. However, as the workshop programme unfolded, it also became clear that communications was in itself a legitimate and necessary function of the Centre, and part of the foundations of its existence. The Centre has a fundamental role as an 'information exchange', collecting and communicating information from within the Ukraine to the rest of the world, and interpreting world interest and attitudes to the Ukraine Government and nuclear industry. As such compliments the efforts of individual power plant and corporate PR functions within the Ukraine nuclear energy sector

2000-01-01

296

Chernobyl fallout measurements in some Mediterranean biotas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The radioactivity of various terrestrial vegetation leaves characteristic of Mediterranean countries has been measured after the Chernobyl accident. In addition, we paid particular attention to lichens and seaweed which are considered as bioindicators of radioactive contamination. Most measurements were performed non-destructively using both coaxial and planar HPGe detectors. For odd mass radionuclides having low energy lines, such as 125Sb or 141Ce the sensitivity of the planar HPGe detector is better than the coaxial detector. The concentration of long-lived fission nuclides remaining three months after the accident were found to be enhanced in needle form leaves and in lichens. The seaweed Sphaerococcus exhibits a strong specific activity for iodine and ruthenium elements and poor concentration for caesium nuclides. The activity ratios of different isotopes of the same element measured in vegetation samples agree well with values found in airborne aerosols by other authors. The activation nuclide 110mAg is found in all samples with the same ratio 110mAg/137Cs = (1.0 +/- 0.2).10(-2) as in the soil deposition.

Barci G; Dalmasso J; Ardisson G

1988-03-01

297

Chernobyl fallout measurements in some Mediterranean biotas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The radioactivity of various terrestrial vegetation leaves characteristic of Mediterranean countries has been measured after the Chernobyl accident. In addition, we paid particular attention to lichens and seaweed which are considered as bioindicators of radioactive contamination. Most measurements were performed non-destructively using both coaxial and planar HPGe detectors. For odd mass radionuclides having low energy lines, such as 125Sb or 141Ce the sensitivity of the planar HPGe detector is better than the coaxial detector. The concentration of long-lived fission nuclides remaining three months after the accident were found to be enhanced in needle form leaves and in lichens. The seaweed Sphaerococcus exhibits a strong specific activity for iodine and ruthenium elements and poor concentration for caesium nuclides. The activity ratios of different isotopes of the same element measured in vegetation samples agree well with values found in airborne aerosols by other authors. The activation nuclide 110mAg is found in all samples with the same ratio 110mAg/137Cs = (1.0 +/- 0.2).10(-2) as in the soil deposition. PMID:3363337

Barci, G; Dalmasso, J; Ardisson, G

1988-03-01

298

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Styria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We present results which document the contamination of Styria (Southern part of Austria) immediately after and in the years following the Chernobyl accident. The radioactivity and distribution of radionuclides in aerosols, rain water, soil, vegetation, animals and various samples of food are described in great detail. One of the key results is that the highest levels of contamination were found in two districts (Liezen, Deutschlandsberg), and the deposition rates for Cs-137 were determined to be in the range from 3 to about 80 kBq/m2. Of particular interest are studies concerning the migration and distribution of radionuclides in soil, the uptake of radiocesium by the aquatic vegetation and the existence of radionuclides in the natural ecosystem up to this day. Effective dose equivalents due to incorporated radiocesium was estimated to be 252.2 ?Sv for the adult population of Graz (capital of Styria) over the four years follwing the fallout. (authors) 17 papers are presented and are of INIS scope

1993-01-01

299

Human hair radioactivity in the Chernobyl area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Studies of recent decades have shown that the elemental composition of human hair can be considered as an indicator of both internal and external human body status. However, there are only a few studies on human hair radioactivity. The Chernobyl accident necessitated the study of the hair of various groups of inhabitants of the contaminated area. Data on hair radioactivity and elemental composition allowed us to draw the following conclusions. (1) When account is taken of the simplicity of sampling and measurements of human hair activity in polluted areas can be used as a monitor for fast detection of the scale and area of pollution. (2) Measurement of hair ? and ? activity is useful for preliminary body burden determination while the whole body counter is inapplicable. (3) Study of activity along the hair strand allows dating of contamination with an accuracy of about 10 days and gives information about the removal of radioactivity from the body. (4) Determination of uranium could give additional information about the distance of nuclear fuel transport from the damaged reactor. (5) Elemental composition of hair and profiles along the strand reflect the influence of medical treatment and can be used to study post-accident health status. ((orig.))

1994-01-01

300

Human hair radioactivity in the Chernobyl area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Studies of recent decades have shown that the elemental composition of human hair can be considered as an indicator of both internal and external human body status. However, there are only a few studies on human hair radioactivity. The Chernobyl accident necessitated the study of the hair of various groups of inhabitants of the contaminated area. Data on hair radioactivity and elemental composition allowed us to draw the following conclusions. (1) When account is taken of the simplicity of sampling and measurements of human hair activity in polluted areas can be used as a monitor for fast detection of the scale and area of pollution. (2) Measurement of hair [alpha] and [beta] activity is useful for preliminary body burden determination while the whole body counter is inapplicable. (3) Study of activity along the hair strand allows dating of contamination with an accuracy of about 10 days and gives information about the removal of radioactivity from the body. (4) Determination of uranium could give additional information about the distance of nuclear fuel transport from the damaged reactor. (5) Elemental composition of hair and profiles along the strand reflect the influence of medical treatment and can be used to study post-accident health status. ((orig.))

Kist, A.A. (Institute of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent, Ulughbek 702132 (Uzbekistan)); Radyuk, R.I. (Institute of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent, Ulughbek 702132 (Uzbekistan)); Zhuk, L.I. (Institute of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent, Ulughbek 702132 (Uzbekistan)); Pikul, V.P. (Institute of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent, Ulughbek 702132 (Uzbekistan)); Belyaev, A.D. (Institute of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent, Ulughbek 702132 (Uzbekistan))

1994-10-01

 
 
 
 
301

Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meiosis, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Burkart, W.; Grosche, B.; Schoetzau, A. [Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

1997-03-01

302

Scientific and technical aspects of international cooperation in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The collection contains the presentations and scientific articles prepared for and discussed during the Conference titled '2000: International Cooperation For Chernobyl'. The materials outline the outcomes achieved while implementing Chernobyl site scientific-technical researches and projects, as well as activities aimed at enhancing the ChNPP safety, decommissioning and radwaste management. It also highlights the issues related to transforming the Unit Shelter into an ecologically safe system, represents the results of ecological researches in the Exclusion Zone, medical effects of the 1986 accident at Chernobyl NPP, together with social and economic problems the city of Slavutich faces now due to the early ChNPP Units decommissioning, and Slavutich business development opportunities under the circumstances of Special Economic Zone 'Slavutich'

2001-01-01

303

Incidence Probability of Delayed Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the first international Conference on the long -term consequences of the Chernobyl disaster in 1995 at Kiev, and also during the 1996 International Conference at Vienna, Summing up the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the data regarding the delayed health consequences were mainly related to thyroid cancer, hereditary disorders, general morbidity, mortality and psychological disturbances. Contrary to expectations, the incidences of Leukemia and Soft Tissue tumors were similar to the spontaneous incident. The expected delayed effects, however, among the accident survivors, the liquidators and populations resident in contaminated areas would show higher incidence probability to Leukemia. These population groups have been continuously exposed to low level radiation both externally and internally. Application of the new ICRP concept of radiation-induced Detriment, and the Nominal Probability Coefficient for Cancer and hereditary effects for both workers and populations are used as the rationale to calculate the incidence probability of occurrence of delayed health effects of the Chernobyl accidents

2000-01-01

304

Geographic information systems for the Chernobyl decision makers in Ukraine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Following numerous national and international studies conducted on the overall impact of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster, decision-makers of the affected countries have oriented their efforts on environmental clean-up and population safety. They have focused on activities leading to a better understanding of radionuclide contamination and to the development of effective environmental rehabilitation programs. Initial developments involved the use of domestic USSR technologies consisting of mainframe IBM computers and DEC minicomputers. Later, personal computers with imported software packages were introduced into the decision-making process. Following the breakup of the former USSR, the Ministry of Chernobyl was created in Ukraine in 1991. One of the Ministry's mandate was the elimination of the environmental after-effects of the Chernobyl disaster

1997-01-01

305

Chernobyl: getting to the heart of the matter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the second of two linked articles on the aftermath of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident of 1986, the author explores the effects on local agriculture and the health of populations affected by the contamination from the fall-out, especially children. Agriculture around Chernobyl has resumed, with workers moving back from the cities to areas where radiation doses are similar to parts of Cornwall. Concern continues about the safety of milk from cows grazing contaminated grass and eating local mushrooms. The largest risk to children`s health is not birth deformaties, but leukaemia, possibly in part due to iodine deficiency in their diet prior to contamination. Concern also continues about keeping power supplies going in areas heavily dependent on nuclear power. Reactor safety issues remaining operational RBMK reactors and the sarcophagus around Chernobyl-4 itself have yet to be resolved. (UK).

North, Richard

1996-04-01

306

Chernobyl: The true scale of the accident. 20 years later a UN report provides definitive answers and ways to repair lives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of up to four thousand people could eventually die of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) accident nearly 20 years ago, an international team of more than 100 scientists has concluded. As of mid-2005, however, fewer than 50 deaths had been directly attributed to radiation from the disaster, almost all being highly exposed rescue workers, many who died within months of the accident but others who died as late as 2004. The new numbers are presented in a landmark digest report, 'Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts', just released by the Chernobyl Forum. The digest, based on a three-volume, 600-page report and incorporating the work of hundreds of scientists, economists and health experts, assesses the 20-year impact of the largest nuclear accident in history. The Forum is made up of 8 UN specialized agencies, including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA), United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and the World Bank, as well as the governments of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. The Forum's report aims to help the affected countries understand the true scale of the accident consequences and also suggest ways the governments of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia might address major economic and social problems stemming from the accident. Members of the Forum, including representatives of the three governments, will meet September 6 and 7 in Vienna at an unprecedented gathering of the world's experts on Chernobyl, radiation effects and protection, to consider these findings and recommendations

2005-09-05

307

International Conference 'Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident. Future Outlook'. Abstracts proceeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This conference concludes a series of events dedicated to the 20 anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and promote an effective implementation of the accumulated international experience in the following areas: Radiation protection of the population and emergency workers, and the environmental consequences of Chernobyl accident; Medical and public health response to radiation emergencies; Strengthening radiological emergency management of radiation accidents; Economic and legal aspects of radioactive waste management and nuclear power plants decommissioning; Radioactive waste management: Chernobyl experience; Nuclear power plant decommissioning: Chernobyl NPP; Transformation of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system

2006-01-01

308

Thyroid nodularity and cancer among Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Thyroid examinations, including palpation, ultrasound and, selectively, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, were conducted on nearly 2,000 Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia to evaluate the occurrence of thyroid cancer and nodular thyroid disease among men with protracted exposure to ionizing radiation. The examinations were conducted in four cities in Estonia during March-April 1995, 9 years after the reactor accident. The study population was selected from a predefined cohort of 4,833 cleanup workers from Estonia under surveillance for cancer incidence. These men had been sent to Chernobyl between 1986 and 1991 to entomb the damaged reactor, remove radioactive debris and perform related cleanup activities. A total of 2,997 men were invited for thyroid screening and 1,984 (66%) were examined. Estimates of radiation dose from external sources were obtained from military or other institutional records, and details about service dates and types of work performed while at Chernobyl were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Blood samples were collected for assay of chromosomal translocations in circulating lymphocytes and loss of expression of the glycophorin A (GPA) gene in erythrocytes. The primary outcome measure was the presence or absence of thyroid nodules as determined by the ultrasound examination. Of the screened workers, 1,247 (63%) were sent to Chernobyl in 1986, including 603 (30%) sent in April or May, soon after the accident. Workers served at Chernobyl for an average of 3 months. The average age was 32 years at the time of arrival at Chernobyl and 40 years at the time of thyroid examination. The mean documented radiation dose from external sources was 10.8 cGy. Biological indicators of exposure showed low correlations with documented dose, but did not indicate that the mean dose for the population was higher than the average documented dose. 47 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs

309

Terrestrial invertebrate population studies in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, Ukraine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 caused the release to atmosphere of substantial amounts of radioactivity. Precise estimates of the release vary. The USSR State Committee presented information to a meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986 indicating a release of some 2.9x10{sup 5} TBq {sup 137}Cs and 2x10{sup 5} TBq {sup 90}Sr, with a total fission/activation product release of 1.7x10{sup 6} TBq. Other commentators suggest that up to double this amount may have been released. Estimates of deposition likewise vary, although it is probable that about half the released activity was deposited within 20 km of the release point, predominantly following two plume trajectories to the north and west. This resulted in the death of pine trees over 400 ha, the abandonment of 100,000 to 150,000 ha of agricultural land and the establishment of an exclusion zone extending to 30 km from the site. High levels of radionuclide contamination continue to prevail within the exclusion zone. Nonetheless, over the past fifteen years, re-colonisation has been widespread. Mixed deciduous woodlands, with a high proportion of birch (Betula spp.) and willow (Salix spp.), have become established in the forest areas, while agricultural land has succeeded to tall grassland and scrub. Field sites established in this study exhibited external gamma dose rates varying from 0.1 {mu}Sv h{sup -1} to 140 {mu}Sv h{sup -1}. Corresponding mean concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in the top 20 cm of soil varied from about 6.10{sup 2} to 3.10{sup 6} Bq kg{sup -1} dw. This study summarises observations over the period 2001 to 2004. Sub-surface activity, as measured by bait lamina penetration, appears to be inversely correlated with concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in soil. Likewise, at the very highest levels of contamination, there is some loss of invertebrate diversity; although little associated change in overall biomass. Between years, population densities and species dominance vary significantly. This does not appear to correlate directly with levels of radiation exposure, but may provide indirect evidence for population fragility. Preliminary growth and breeding experiments on earthworms in soils from the region and matched soils spiked in the laboratory have proved variable. However, there is some (non-statistically significant) indication of depressed growth rates in all contaminated regimes compared to control populations. (author)

Jackson, D.; Stone, D.M. [Enviros, 61 The Shore, Leith, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Copplestone, D.; Gilhen, M.C. [Liverpool Univ., Environmental Research and Consultancy (United Kingdom)

2004-07-01

310

Effects of radioactive fallout on soil animal populations in the 30 km zone of the Chernobyl atomic power station.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies were carried out during July and September 1986, April 1987, and October 1988. Radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl atomic power station (APS) accident induced catastrophic effects on populations of small pine-litter faunae within the 3 km zone around the station. Effects on soil faunae were not so marked due to shielding by the soil, or on litter faunae at the edge of the 30 km zone due to distance from the source. Thirty-gray doses did not directly affect adult animals in the soil and litter, but impacted their eggs and juveniles. Resident populations recovered slowly during the first year after the accident. Insect migration into the contaminated area was the primary source of soil animal population recovery. After 2-2.5 years, marked differences between populations in the contaminated and control areas were no longer found. PMID:1574706

Krivolutzkii, D A; Pokarzhevskii, A D

1992-02-01

311

Effects of radioactive fallout on soil animal populations in the 30 km zone of the Chernobyl atomic power station.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies were carried out during July and September 1986, April 1987, and October 1988. Radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl atomic power station (APS) accident induced catastrophic effects on populations of small pine-litter faunae within the 3 km zone around the station. Effects on soil faunae were not so marked due to shielding by the soil, or on litter faunae at the edge of the 30 km zone due to distance from the source. Thirty-gray doses did not directly affect adult animals in the soil and litter, but impacted their eggs and juveniles. Resident populations recovered slowly during the first year after the accident. Insect migration into the contaminated area was the primary source of soil animal population recovery. After 2-2.5 years, marked differences between populations in the contaminated and control areas were no longer found.

Krivolutzkii DA; Pokarzhevskii AD

1992-02-01

312

Effects of radioactive fallout on soil animal populations in the 30 km zone of the Chernobyl atomic power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies were carried out during July and September 1986, April 1987 and October 1988. Radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl atomic power station (APS) accident induced catastrophic effects on populations of small pine-litter faunae within the 30km zone around the station. Effects on soil faunae were not so marked due to shielding by the soil, or on litter faunae at the edge of the 30km zone due to distance from the source. Thirty-gray doses did not directly affect adult animals in the soil and litter, but impacted their eggs and juveniles. Resident populations recovered slowly during the first year after the accident. Insect migration into the contaminated area was the primary source of soil animal population recovery. After 2-2.5 year, marked differences between populations in the contaminated and control areas were no longer found. (author). 5 refs.; 6 tabs

1992-01-01

313

Using the Chernobyl incident to teach engineering ethics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper discusses using the Chernobyl Incident as a case study in engineering ethics instruction. Groups of students are asked to take on the role of a faction involved in the Chernobyl disaster and to defend their decisions in a mock debate. The results of student surveys and the Engineering and Science Issues Test indicate that the approach is very popular with students and has a positive impact on moral reasoning. The approach incorporates technical, communication and teamwork skills and has many of the features suggested by recent literature.

Wilson WR

2013-06-01

314

[Thyroid cancer: lessons of chernobyl and prognosis for Fukushima].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Results of epidemiological studies of thyroid cancer incidence in Russia following the Chernobyl accident are presented in the article. Child population in territories contaminated with radionuclides who got thyroid dose from incorporated (131)I above 100-150 mGy, should be referred to a group at radiation risk. Prognostic estimates of increase in thyroid cancer incidence among the population living in close vicinity of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP were made with account for the Chernobyl data and recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

Ivanov VK; Tsyb AF

2013-01-01

315

One year after Chernobyl - the world has changed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of the Chernobyl accidents for the antiatomic movement and nuclear power in Austria and other European countries is outlined. In the same number there several other very short contributions (without authors) whose content is indicated by the headings: The mentality of the proponents (of nuclear power). The callousness of the proponents. The feigned play of the atomic lobby shocks the Austrian public. West Germany on the march to an atomic state. First success against Wackersdorf (fuel reprocessing plant in West Germany). Temelin -the czechoslovakian Chernobyl/Cattenom- on the Austrian border. 5 figs., 1 tab. (qui)

1987-01-01

316

Chernobyl, 16 years later; Tchernobyl, 16 ans apres  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document on the Chernobyl site evolution is constituted around four main questions. What about the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor and the ''sarcophagus'' constructed around the reactor? What about the sanitary consequences of the accident on the liquidators asked to blot out the radiation and the around people exposed to radiation? What about the contaminated land around the power plant and their management? Concerning the France, what were the ''radioactive cloud'' sanitary consequences? (A.L.B.)

NONE

2002-04-01

317

Radioactive fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident had considerable consequences for Norway. Except for the areas in the former USSR, around Chernobyl some areas in Norway received fallout which gave the highest contamination levels. The natural and semi natural ecosystems will produce food products with high activity levels of radiocesium for several decennium. Cost-effective countermeasures were implemented, and they reduced the doses considerable, especially for critical groups. Doses received over the next 50 years will probably cause cancer in 500 persons. 63 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

1994-01-01

318

Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

1990-01-01

319

Use of experimental plots for assessing Chernobyl-derived fallout of {sup 137}CS in France  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Caesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is widely used for the determination of soil erosion and sedimentation rates. However, in Europe, if the additional inputs of {sup 137}Cs fallout associated with the Chernobyl accident have given a supplementary mark to know the chronological history of buried sediments in rivers or wetlands, they have considerably complicated the interpretation of {sup 137}Cs inventories used for estimating soil redistribution on slopes. In fact, determination of Chernobyl-derived fallout {sup 137}Cs is problematic because very few sites have been correctly sampled at the moment of the accident. During the ten years after, it was possible to estimate the fallout measuring the {sup 134}Cs activity for estimating {sup 137}Cs ({sup 137}Cs /{sup 134}Cs 2.0 at the time of the accident). But these measurements are extremely rare, whereas it should be the more accurate method to resolve this question. The more used solution is to use model based on atmospheric circulation and rain precipitation, the main part of fallout been due to atmospheric washing by the rain. Other solution is to compare {sup 137}Cs specific activity of soil samples collected after the accident and older samples. Then, we choose a set of soil samples collected on several experimental plots at different places in France, and sampled before and after the Chernobyl accident, to determine the part of contamination linked to this {sup 137}Cs fallout event with a simple comparison of their {sup 137}Cs specific activity. In fact, national French institutes working on agronomy maintain experimental plots, with varied surface area (1 m{sup 2} 10 m{sup 2} or larger), for monitoring of soil physics and chemistry evolution. Nine sites were studied: two of them close to Paris, one 100 km east of Paris, 3 in Loire basin and 3 in south west, in the Pyrenees Atlantic. These measurements confirm the influence of the Chernobyl radioactive plume over the Paris Basin concerning the {sup 137}Cs fallout. The {sup 137}Cs specific activity is, on average, 25% (from 18 to 35% at Grignon) and 26% (9 to 43% at Versailles) higher in the samples collected after the Chernobyl accident (respectively 1993 et 1987) than those sampled before (1980 and 1981). On the east of Paris, from an experimental plot (115 m{sup 2}) of the I.N.R.A. at Janvilliers (Marne), the soil sample dating from 1987 presents a {sup 137}Cs specific activity twice more important than the one collected in 1975. For the other sites (Pyrenees Atlantic and Landes as well as Loir et Cher), the increase of {sup 137}Cs specific activity is around 10 up to 15%. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the soil mineralogical composition does not noticeably affect the {sup 137}Cs retention. (author)

Bonte, Ph.; Sogon, S.; Bourgeois, S.; Terce, M.; Morel, Ch. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, avenue de la Terrasse, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2004-07-01

320

The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a difference in the trends when comparing exposed and unexposed oblasts. - Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain: Intelligence Assessment of Ukrainian children is measured by an adapted and normalised tool: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, WISC (the verbal, performance and full scale IQs). There are significant (p0.05). - General conclusions: At present stage, not all the possible effects of the Chernobyl accident have been studied: some of them may arise after a long latency period.The basic data that are supporting our present descriptive analyses are stored in our common HEDAC database. Final reports of all the sub-projects are available and most of our results are presented in our CD summarizing the workshop in Kiev on October 5 and 6, 2004. (authors)

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures of fuel containing materials can be fairly useful for the entire world's nuclear community and can help make nuclear energy safer.

Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

2011-10-01

322

Radioactive Waste Management In The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - 25 Years Since The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures of fuel containing materials can be fairly useful for the entire world's nuclear community and can help make nuclear energy safer.

2011-10-01

323

25 years since Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Environmental and food radioactivity surveillance in Romania, begun since the early 60's, with 47 laboratories from National Environment Radioactivity Surveillance Network (NERSN) in the framework of Ministry of Environmental and the network of 21 Radiation Hygiene Laboratories (RHL) from centers and institutes of the Ministry of Public Health. The surveillance was conducted by global beta and alpha measurements, necessary to make some quick decisions as well as gamma spectrometry to detect high and low resolution profile accident. Thus the two networks together and some departmental labs recorded from the first moments (since April 30, 1986) the presence of the contaminated radioactive cloud originated from Ukraine, after the nuclear accident on 26 April 1986 at Chernobyl NPP, on the Romanian territory. NERSN followed up the radioactive contamination of air (gamma dose rate, atmospheric aerosols and total deposition), surface water, uncultivated soil, and spontaneous vegetation while the RHL monitored the drinking water and food. Early notification of this event allowed local and central authorities to take protective measures like: administration of stable iodine, advertisements in media on avoiding consumption of heavily contaminated food, prohibition of certain events that took place outdoors, interdiction of drinking milk and eating milk products for one month long. Most radionuclides, fission and activation products (22 radionuclides), released during the accident, have been determined in the environmental factors. A special attention was paid to radionuclides like Sr-90, I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137, especially in aerosol samples, where the maximum values were recorded on Toaca Peak (Ceahlau Mountain) on May, the first, 1986: 103 Bq/m3, I-131, 63 Bq/m3, Cs-137. The highest value of I-131 in drinking water, 21 Bq/l, was achieved on May, the third, 1986 in Bucharest and in cow milk exceeded the value of 3000 Bq/l. For sheep milk some sporadic values exceeding 10 000 Bq/l. After decrease of I-131 activity, especially by decay, a special attention was paid to cesium radionuclides (Cs-134 and Cs-137) detected in food (dairy, meat, vegetables and fruits, etc.) with activities of about 100 Bq/kg. The level of contamination of the environment, drinking water and food decreased over years after accident, so in the early 90's the measurement values returned to levels existing before the accident, excepting Cs-137. This radionuclide is still present in the environment, especially in soil. The lowest values are in the cultivated soil, and the highest in the uncultivated soil, forest soil and in some mountain areas. Although the transfer of Cs-137 in vegetation is low, yet it can be easily detected in some plants from natural ecosystems (spontaneous mushrooms, berries etc.) and quite difficult in food (at levels of mBq order). Current level of contamination of the environment and food in Romania after the Chernobyl nuclear accident is very low, making it difficult to highlight the two long-life contaminants, Cs-137 and Sr-90 that can be measured only by laboratories who have performing equipment and can perform radiochemical analyses. Quantifying the levels of contamination throughout Romania allowed assessing the doses received by the population and hence the analysing the effects (birth defects, leukemia and thyroid cancer) and carrying epidemiological studies on various types of diseases attributed to incorporation of radionuclides in particular in the target group of children. (authors)

1986-04-26

324

Ecological lessons from the Chernobyl accident.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 not only caused serious ecological problems in both the Ukraine and Belarus, which continue to the present day, but also contaminated a large part of the higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere. In this paper an overview is given of the latter problems in upland UK, where ecological problems still remain some 17 years after initial contamination. Following deposition of radiocaesium and radioiodine in May 1986, measurements of radioactivity in grass and soil indicated a rapidly declining problem as the radioiodine decayed and the radiocaesium became immobilised by attachment to clay particles. However, these studies, as well as the advice received by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, were based on lowland agricultural soils, with high clay and low organic matter contents. The behaviour of radiocaesium in upland UK turned out to be dominated by high and persistent levels of mobility and bioavailability. This resulted in the free passage of radiocaesium through the food chain and into sheep. Consequently the Ministry banned the sale and movement of sheep over large areas of upland Britain, with bans remaining on some farms to the present day. Present day predictions suggest that these bans will continue in some cases for some years to come. The causes of radiocaesium mobility in upland areas have subsequently been the subject of intense investigation centred around vegetation and, in particular, soil characteristics. Soil types were identified which were particularly vulnerable in this respect and, where these coincided with high levels of deposition, sheep bans tended to be imposed. While much of the earlier work suggested that a low clay content was the main reason for continuing mobility, a very high organic matter content is now also believed to play a major role, this being a characteristic of wet and acidic upland UK soils. The overall message from this affair is the importance of a fundamental understanding of biogeochemical pathways in different ecosystems when attempting to predict the impacts of large-scale contamination.

Bell JN; Shaw G

2005-08-01

325

Ecological lessons from the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 not only caused serious ecological problems in both the Ukraine and Belarus, which continue to the present day, but also contaminated a large part of the higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere. In this paper an overview is given of the latter problems in upland UK, where ecological problems still remain some 17 years after initial contamination. Following deposition of radiocaesium and radioiodine in May 1986, measurements of radioactivity in grass and soil indicated a rapidly declining problem as the radioiodine decayed and the radiocaesium became immobilised by attachment to clay particles. However, these studies, as well as the advice received by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, were based on lowland agricultural soils, with high clay and low organic matter contents. The behaviour of radiocaesium in upland UK turned out to be dominated by high and persistent levels of mobility and bioavailability. This resulted in the free passage of radiocaesium through the food chain and into sheep. Consequently the Ministry banned the sale and movement of sheep over large areas of upland Britain, with bans remaining on some farms to the present day. Present day predictions suggest that these bans will continue in some cases for some years to come. The causes of radiocaesium mobility in upland areas have subsequently been the subject of intense investigation centred around vegetation and, in particular, soil characteristics. Soil types were identified which were particularly vulnerable in this respect and, where these coincided with high levels of deposition, sheep bans tended to be imposed. While much of the earlier work suggested that a low clay content was the main reason for continuing mobility, a very high organic matter content is now also believed to play a major role, this being a characteristic of wet and acidic upland UK soils. The overall message from this affair is the importance of a fundamental understanding of biogeochemical pathways in different ecosystems when attempting to predict the impacts of large-scale contamination. (Author)

Bell, J.N.B.; Shaw, G. [Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot (United Kingdom). Dept. of Environmental Science and Technology

2005-08-01

326

Radionuclide deposition from the Chernobyl cloud  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union created a cloud of radioactivity that affected a surprisingly large area of Europe. This letter concentrates on the main passage of this cloud over the United Kingdom and presents some results of preliminary investigations into the collected data on radioactivity levels in the air, in rain water, on grass and in milk, and attempts to link the time variations of these levels to meteorological conditions. In particular, we report that high levels measured on grass are linked to to heavy rainfalls associated with thunderstorms embedded in the radioactive cloud. The accident is believed to have begun at 01: 23 local time on Saturday 26 April (20:23 GMT on Friday 25 April) and to have ended on the following Wednesday or Thursday. By the Monday, countries throughout Europe had been alerted and possible trajectories of the plume were being estimated, based on standard meteorological data. In many cases, analyses and forecasts from numerical weather prediction models were being used. Trajectories calculated at the Meteorological Office early in the week indicated a possible risk to the United Kingdom, and this possibility was strengthened when, on Wednesday, enhanced radiation levels were reported in northern Italy, indicating a first arrival in the United Kingdom on Friday 2 May. Since then, more thorough analyses of the cloud movement have been carried out at the Meteorological Office and at many other centres throughout Europe, and the most probable path of the cloud that affected the United Kingdom is shown

1986-04-26

327

Recent ?' results from Mark III  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Results on ?' decays from Mark III are presented. With a data sample of 240,000 ?' events, we measure ?' ? ?+?-?, ?' ? ??, ?' ? ??c, ?' ? ?4?±, ?' ? ?6?±, and perform a search for ?' ? ??. Implications of our measurements are discussed. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

1989-01-01

328

Brüssel Euroopa pealinnaks? / Ülar Mark  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Brüsseli Euroopa kvartali planeerimisvõistlusest, mille peakorraldaja oli Brüsseli pealinna piirkond koos Brüsseli linna ja Euroopa Komisjoniga. Eestist osales ˛üriis arhitekt Ülar Mark. Meeskonna Atelier Christian de Portzamparc võidutööst ja teiste teise vooru pääsenud nelja meeskonna (JDS / Julien De Smedt Architects, OMA / Office for Metropolitan Architecture, Xaveer De Geyter Architect, Fletcher Priest Architects) töödest

Mark, Ülar, 1968-

2009-01-01

329

Library Statistics Program: State Library Agency Report for FY 2006  

Science.gov (United States)

This report marks the first release of library statistics data from the Institute of Museum and Library Services. It contains data on state library agencies in the 50 states and the District of Columbia for state fiscal year (FY) 2006. The data were collected through the State Library Agencies (StLA) Survey, the product of a cooperative effort…

Institute of Museum and Library Services, 2007

2007-01-01

330

Health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An assessment of the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Northern Hemisphere is presented in this report. It relies heavily on the USSR report presented to the International Atomic Energy Agency. There are gaps in present knowledge and, in some areas, uncertainties may never be completely resolved. What is clearly apparent at this time, however, is that on a large regional scale, the estimates of collective dose have a reasonable level of confidence. The associated potential health impacts have also been projected, together with a range of estimates. A brief description of the tragic consequences to the heroic firefighting and rescue personnel is also provided, and valuable insights regarding acute exposures are developed. Much early effort was expended on estimation of the source term, especially for radiocesium and radioiodine. Several independent analyses are presented that are in reasonable agreement. Atmospheric transport of the radioactive material and its subsequent deposition provide a documented ''umbrella'' of the distributions that form the basic integration of this assessment. The estimates of radiological doses to selected Northern Hemisphere populations were employed in developing an integrated risk assessment of potential latent health effects using the most current models, parameters and risk coefficients. The estimates presented include lower- and upper-bound values, as well as the ''best'' or most realistic ranges. While many scientists believe that minuscule increases in risks to large populations are impossible to prove, it is essential that the magnitude of these possible risks be presented, if only to put an upper limit on the situation. It must be emphasized that while these are ''potential'' health effects, the values presented represent our best current assessment of the health and environmental detriment caused by the Chernobyl accident. 72 refs., 37 figs., 91 tabs

1987-01-01

331

Health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An assessment of the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Northern Hemisphere is presented in this report. It relies heavily on the USSR report presented to the International Atomic Energy Agency. There are gaps in present knowledge and, in some areas, uncertainties may never be completely resolved. What is clearly apparent at this time, however, is that on a large regional scale, the estimates of collective dose have a reasonable level of confidence. The associated potential health impacts have also been projected, together with a range of estimates. A brief description of the tragic consequences to the heroic firefighting and rescue personnel is also provided, and valuable insights regarding acute exposures are developed. Much early effort was expended on estimation of the source term, especially for radiocesium and radioiodine. Several independent analyses are presented that are in reasonable agreement. Atmospheric transport of the radioactive material and its subsequent deposition provide a documented ''umbrella'' of the distributions that form the basic integration of this assessment. The estimates of radiological doses to selected Northern Hemisphere populations were employed in developing an integrated risk assessment of potential latent health effects using the most current models, parameters and risk coefficients. The estimates presented include lower- and upper-bound values, as well as the ''best'' or most realistic ranges. While many scientists believe that minuscule increases in risks to large populations are impossible to prove, it is essential that the magnitude of these possible risks be presented, if only to put an upper limit on the situation. It must be emphasized that while these are ''potential'' health effects, the values presented represent our best current assessment of the health and environmental detriment caused by the Chernobyl accident. 72 refs., 37 figs., 91 tabs.

Goldman, M.; Catlin, R.J.; Anspaugh, L.

1987-06-01

332

Response of the European Communities to environmental contamination following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Soon after the Chernobyl accident the Council of Ministers and the Commission of the European Communities had to act urgently to set foodstuff intervention levels to avoid major trade conflicts between Member States. By 12 May 1986, imports into the European Community (EC) of a range of agricultural products originating in certain east European countries had been suspended until the end of that month. Subsequently maximum permitted total caesium level applicable to food imported into the EC were adopted: 370 Bq/kg for milk and infant food and 600 Bq/kg for other foodstuffs. These values are still valid. Moreover, to cope with future nuclear accidents the EC has adopted maximum permitted levels for four categories of radionuclides in baby food, dairy produce, liquid foodstuffs and other major foodstuffs. Also a list of minor foodstuffs has been established for which the levels applied will be 10 times those for other major foodstuffs. For animal feedingstuffs maximum permissible contamination levels have still to be adopted. However the necessary scientific data have already been collected. Other measures taken at the EC level are: (1) arrangements for the early exchange of information among Member States in the event of a radiological emergency; these complement the International Atomic Energy Agency Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident; (2) prohibition of the export of contaminated foodstuffs exceeding the EC maximum permitted levels; (3) revision of the 1985-1989 radiation protection research programme to include areas of further research for which the Chernobyl accident indicated a need; (4) proposal to the Council of Ministers of a regulation concerning the information to be given to the public regarding nuclear accidents. (author). 17 refs, 11 tabs

1986-05-12

333

Nuclear safety after Three Mile Island and Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, a book has been compiled from twenty papers covering important current issues concerned with the safety of modern nuclear power plants. The broad subject areas covered include design for safety, man-machine interactions, accident phenomenology, source terms and consequences and accident response. All twenty papers were selected and indexed separately. (U.K.).

1988-01-01

334

Chernobyl source term, atmospheric dispersion, and dose estimation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Chernobyl source term available for long-range transport was estimated by integration of radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling, and by reactor core radionuclide inventory estimation in conjunction with WASH-1400 release fractions associated with specific chemical groups. These analyses indicated that essentially all of the noble gases, 80% of the radioiodines, 40% of the radiocesium, 10% of the tellurium, and about 1% or less of the more refractory elements were released. Atmospheric dispersion modeling of the radioactive cloud over the Northern Hemisphere revealed that the cloud became segmented during the first day, with the lower section heading toward Scandinavia and the uppper part heading in a southeasterly direction with subsequent transport across Asia to Japan, the North Pacific, and the west coast of North America. The inhalation doses due to direct cloud exposure were estimated to exceed 10 mGy near the Chernobyl area, to range between 0.1 and 0.001 mGy within most of Europe, and to be generally less than 0.00001 mGy within the US. The Chernobyl source term was several orders of magnitude greater than those associated with the Windscale and TMI reactor accidents, while the /sup 137/Cs from the Chernobyl event is about 6% of that released by the US and USSR atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. 9 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Gudiksen, P.H.; Harvey, T.F.; Lange, R.

1988-02-01

335

Reassessing Nuclear Power: The Fallout from Chernobyl. Worldwatch Paper 75.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Chernobyl nuclear plant explosion on April 26, 1986, was the world's most serious nuclear power accident to date. This document examines the accident's impact on the world from a variety of perspectives. The first major section of the book provides a step-by-step account of the accident itself, beginning with the special testing that…

Flavin, Christopher

336

Grasshoppers' adaptation to elevated radioactivity in the Chernobyl exclusion zone  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The explosion of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 was categorized as the most severe nuclear accident in history, resulting in some of the most radioactively contaminated habitats on Earth. The consequence was an increased mutation and mortality rate in biota, which caused major damage on t...

Mortensen, Louise Hindborg

337

Elevated frequency of abnormalities in barn swallows from Chernobyl  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ever since the Chernobyl accident in 1986, that contaminated vast areas in surrounding countries with radiation, abnormalities and birth defects have been reported in human populations. Recently, several studies suggested that the elevated frequency of such abnormalities can be attributed to poverty...

Mųller, A.P; Mousseau, T.A; de Lope, F; Saino, N

338

Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

Kouts, H.

1986-09-24

339

Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the detection of fallout in the United States from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. As part of its environmental surveillance program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintained detectors for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Following the reactor accident, additional air filters were set out. Several uncommon isotopes were detected at the time the plume passed into the US. (TEM)

Beiriger, J.M.; Failor, R.A.; Marsh, K.V.; Shaw, G.E.

1987-08-01

340

Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident: thyroid diseases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An International Conference entitled `One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident` was held at the Vienna from 8 to 12 April 1996. The aim of conference was to seek a common and conclusive understanding of the nature and magnitude of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. It was concluded that a highly significant increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among those persons in the affected areas who were children in 1986 is the only clear evidence to data of a public health impact of radiation exposure as a result of the Chernobyl accident and both temporal and geographical distributions clearly indicate a relationship of the increase in incidence to radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident. To clarify the relationship between thyroid cancer and radioactive fallout more clearly, a long term prospective study (case-control/cohort) should be conducted in the highly risk groups and the analysis of accurate estimation of exposure dose to external and/or internal radiation is needed. (author)

Nagataki, Shigenobu; Ashizawa, Kiyoto [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

1997-03-01

 
 
 
 
341

Clinical Experiences with Radiation Induced Thyroid Cancer after Chernobyl  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The risk of developing thyroid cancer increases considerably after exposure to external or internal radiation, especially in children below the age of 10. After the Chernobyl reactor accident, the yearly incidence of childhood thyroid cancer in Belarus increased to approximately 40 per 1.000.000 in ...

Christoph Reiners

342

Malignancies in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident in 1986  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On 26 April 1986 an accident occurred in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant resulting in the release of large amount of radionuclides. Almost five percent of the total released caesium-137 was deposited in Sweden. The incidence of malignancies in the most affected counties in Sweden was investigated ...

Tondel, Martin

343

Dispersion of the radioactive cloud of Chernobyl over Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident has been studied by an atmospheric tridimensional model. The long-range transport of radioactive airborne pollutants and their deposition over Europe has been calculated. The results obtained for the three weeks period starting rom the accident have been compared with some experimental data. (author)

1991-01-01

344

Childhood leukemia in Belarus before and after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Childhood leukemia (ICD 204-208 [1]) incidence rates in the different regions of Belarus are reported for a period before and after the Chernobyl accident (1982-1994). There are, at this point, no recognizable trends towards higher rates. (orig.). With 13 figs.

Ivanov, E.P. [Research Institute of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, 160, Dolginovsky Tract, 223059 Minsk (Belarus); Tolochko, G.V. [Research Institute of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, 160, Dolginovsky Tract, 223059 Minsk (Belarus); Shuvaeva, L.P. [Research Institute of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, 160, Dolginovsky Tract, 223059 Minsk (Belarus); Becker, S. [Strahlenbiologisches Institut, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Schillerstrasse 42, D-80336 Muenchen (Germany); Nekolla, E. [Strahlenbiologisches Institut, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Schillerstrasse 42, D-80336 Muenchen (Germany); Kellerer, A.M. [Strahlenbiologisches Institut, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Schillerstrasse 42, D-80336 Muenchen (Germany)]|[Institut fuer Strahlenbiologie, GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Postfach 1129, D-85758 Oberschleissheim (Germany)

1996-05-01

345

Childhood leukemia in Belarus before and after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Childhood leukemia (ICD 204-208 [1]) incidence rates in the different regions of Belarus are reported for a period before and after the Chernobyl accident (1982-1994). There are, at this point, no recognizable trends towards higher rates. (orig.). With 13 figs

1996-01-01

346

High levels of genetic change in rodents of Chernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Previous reports of high rates of genetic mutation in voles living in the area of the Chernobyl reactor have been re-examined. Human errors in data manipulation were found and although high mutation rates were shown to occur in the target rodents than in the controls, the difference was not statistically significant. (UK).

Baker, R.J.; Bussche, R.A. van den; Wright, A.J. [and others

1997-11-06

347

Chernobyl: introduction to the general discussion - results of an inquiry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author reviews the developments in both international and national nuclear law resulting from the Chernobyl accident. The new international treaties as well as still being negotiated give rise to delicate questions, in particular regarding assignment of competence. On the other hand, developments in national nuclear law appear to be more important than expected (NEA).

1988-01-01

348

Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

1986-01-01

349

On protecting the inexperienced reader from Chernobyl myths  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident continue to attract the attention of experts, decision-makers and the general public, and now these consequences have been given added relevance by the similar accident in 2011 at the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant (NPP) in Japan. Expert analysis of radiation levels and effects has been conducted by international bodies—UNSCEAR in 2008 and the Chernobyl Forum during 2003–5. At the same time, three Russian and Belarusian scientists, Yablokov, Nesterenko and Nesterenko (2009 Chernobyl. Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment (New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences)) published both in Russian and English a substantial review of the consequences of Chernobyl based mostly on Russian-language papers. In this book, they suggested a departure from analytical epidemiological studies in favour of ecological ones. This erroneous approach resulted in the overestimation of the number of accident victims by more than 800?000 deaths during 1987–2004. This paper investigates the mistakes in methodology made by Yablokov et al and concludes that these errors led to a clear exaggeration of radiation-induced health effects. Should similar mistakes be made following the 2011 accident at Fukushima-1 NPP this could lead quite unnecessarily to a panic reaction by the public about possible health effects and to erroneous decisions by the authorities in Japan. (opinion)

350

Chernobyl ''Sarcophagus'' safety analysis and proposals for modernization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Safety analysis and proposals for modernization of Chernobyl ''Sarcophagus'' are presented, including the following aspects: the state of Unit 4 after the accident; construction of the ''Sarcophagus''; inspections; structure state monitoring; transformation of the facility into a long-term safe system.

1996-01-01

351

Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service worke...

Ginzburg, H M; Reis, E

352

Radiation-biological consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper points out essential aspects of the actual or potential impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident on human health in the areas immediately affected. In particular, radiation-induced diseases in the population are pointed out, which were caused by radioactive iodine. Epidemiological studies try to establish an increased incidence of leukaemia, lymphomas, and thyroid gland tumours. (DG)

1995-07-01

353

Chernobyl radioactivity in grain produced in Greece in 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl radioactive cloud reached Greece in the first days of May 1986. During this period, the gain was in maximum growth; therefore, in absorbing the radionuclides it has become an excellent indicator of the deposited radioactivity. Measurements carried out in grain samples which were obtained from Greece are reported and some conclusions regarding population doses are presented

1988-01-01

354

Three years after Chernobyl: Soviet public opposition grows  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Chernobyl accident (three years ago, on 26 April 1986), glasnost, and the rising tide of nationalism in the republics of the USSR have combined to put public acceptance at the top of the agenda for the Soviet nuclear industry. Widespread public opposition to nuclear power and measures to restore public confidence are reported. (author)

1986-04-26

355

Three years after Chernobyl: Soviet public opposition grows  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Chernobyl accident (three years ago, on 26 April 1986), glasnost, and the rising tide of nationalism in the republics of the USSR have combined to put public acceptance at the top of the agenda for the Soviet nuclear industry. Widespread public opposition to nuclear power and measures to restore public confidence are reported. (author).

Varley, J.

1989-04-01

356

Proteomics of field samples in radioactive chernobyl area.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two serious nuclear accidents during the past quarter of a century contaminated large agricultural areas with radioactivity. The remediation and possible recovery of radio-contaminated areas for agricultural purposes require comprehensive characterization of plants grown in such places. Here we describe the quantitative proteomics method that we use to analyze proteins isolated from seeds of plants grown in radioactive Chernobyl zone. PMID:24136546

Klubicovį, Katarķna; Rashydov, Namik M; Hajduch, Martin

2014-01-01

357

Proteomics of field samples in radioactive chernobyl area.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two serious nuclear accidents during the past quarter of a century contaminated large agricultural areas with radioactivity. The remediation and possible recovery of radio-contaminated areas for agricultural purposes require comprehensive characterization of plants grown in such places. Here we describe the quantitative proteomics method that we use to analyze proteins isolated from seeds of plants grown in radioactive Chernobyl zone.

Klubicovį K; Rashydov NM; Hajduch M

2014-01-01

358

Geoecological problems of surmounting of consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Evolution of biosphere caused by the anthropogenic activity leads to creation of 'technosphere'. This envelope of Earth is characterized with catastrophically development. Study of dynamics of environmental changes after the Chernobyl Catastrophe shows the powerful ability for self-clearing of biogeochemical cycles from artificial contaminants. Survival of biogeochemical cycling determines by the comparatively minor quantity of substance involved into biogeochemical flux

2006-01-01

359

The accident at Chernobyl: radiation doses and effects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four years ago next month, on April 26, 1986, a nuclear power plant in Chernobyl, Russia, exploded releasing tremendous amounts of radioactive substances into the atmosphere. This paper describes the types of radiation released, the levels of exposure, the number of people exposed and short-term effects observed.

Perry AR; Iglar AF

1990-03-01

360

Gamma spectroscopy analysis of hot particles from the Chernobyl fallout  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Analysis of the gamma radiation was performed for 65 radioactive particles from the Chernobyl fallout. Isotopic ratios for Ce and Ru isotopes as well as ratios of radioisotopes of various elements have been systematized. The analysis provided information concerning general features of processes leading to the hot particle formation. 9 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs. (author)

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Degradation Modeling of Polyurea Pavement Markings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyurea is a long life pavement marking material used for assets requiring long periods of uninterrupted accessibility. Knowing the performance characteristics of such markings is critical to asset management planning focused on maximizing marking materi...

J. D. Needham

2011-01-01

362

Eleven years epidemiological investigation health effects among Chernobyl child victims  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Epidemiological register of Chernobyl child victims was created in 1986 in Scientific Centre for Radiation Medicine. It includes most important, risk groups: evacuated children from Chernobyl's zone; children who were exposed with doses on thyroid gland more than 2 Gy; children who were exposed in utero; children who were born from clean-up workers. The annual clinical observation program includes: physical examination, biochemical and hematological analysis, ultrasound of thyroid gland and abdomen, psychological tests for children, social observation for parents. For coding ICD-9 was used. The observations indicate a deterioration of health status among the children victims of the Chernobyl disaster. The healthy children's number decreased from 31 % in 1987 to 8 % in 1997. The number of the invalids more than 4 times higher in comparison Ukrainian children. The annual prevalence all diseases including incidence, new cases, dramatically increased (from 5890.6 0/00 in 1989 to 9148.3 0/00 in 1997). The annual amount all diseases increased from 27100 0/00 in 1989 to 51971 0/00 in 1997. Most important increasing was in such part as digestive tract (from 5294 0/00 in 1989 to 10782 0/00 in 1997), blood diseases (from 927 0/00 in 1989 to 1471 0/00 in 1997), diseases nervous system (from 2373 0/00 in 1989 to 4152 0/00 in 1997). Relative risk was calculated in comparison with same age Ukrainian children for most important disorders: peptic (6.4), cardiovascular (5.3), nervous system (6.2), immune (5.3). Such diseases as digestion organ diseases, nervous system, skin and cardiovascular diseases are more prevalent among victims with psychological impact. All children victims Chernobyl disaster are at risk for psychosomatic disorders. Psychosomatic health promotion program will minimize significantly population health impact after Chernobyl as for children as for Ukrainian adult people. (authors)

1998-01-01

363

Electronic mark for medical care  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An electronic mark for medical care is a rectangular box body. Five transparent windows HL, JL, YS, GL and GM are arranged on panels of the box body and are covered by transparent plastic panels. An electronic mark circuit for medical care is mounted inside the box body and connected with a microprocessor control circuit (2) and an LED display circuit (3) via a power supply input circuit (1) and the microprocessor control circuit (2) is connected with the LED display circuit (3). The LED display circuit (3) controls the lighting time of a tricolor lamp panel via a PNP triode and obtains various colors through color blending of the primary colors with different intensities. Besides, a communication line is led in from Pin 2 of a J1, thereby conveniently controlling the electronic mark for medical care on a host computer. The utility model has the advantages that the workload of setting the nursing state of patients is greatly reduced, and unnecessary maintenance is eliminated.

JIANRONG WANG; XIAOHONG CHEN; HONGYING PI; CHANG WEI; YULING WANG; XIUQIN ZHU; TING DUAN

364

Four years after Chernobyl: the medical repercussions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The nuclear accident at Chernobyl accounted for an acute radiation syndrome in 237 persons on the site. Triage was the initial problem and was carried out according to clinical and biological criteria; evaluating the doses received was based on these criteria. Thirty one persons died and only 1 survived a dose higher than 6 Gy. Skin radiation burns which were due to inadequate decontamination, greatly worsened prognosis. The results of 13 bone marrow transplantations were disappointing, with only 2 survivors. Some time after the accident, these severely irradiated patients are mainly suffering from psychosomatic disorders, in the USSR, some areas have been significantly contaminated and several measures were taken to mitigate the impact on population: evacuating 135 000 persons, distributing prophylactic iodine, establishing standards and controls on foodstuff. Radiation phobia syndrome which developed in many persons, is the only sanitary effect noticed up to now. Finally, in Europe, there was only an increase in induced abortions and this was totally unwarranted. If we consider the risk of radiation induced cancer, an effect might not be demonstrated[fr] L'accident nucleaire de Tchernobyl a ete responsable d'un syndrome d'irradiation aigue chez 237 personnes presentes sur le site. Le probleme initial a ete celui du tri, effectue a partir de criteres cliniques et biologiques; ulterieurement affines, ils ont servi de base a l'evaluation des doses recues. Trente et une personnes sont decedees, une seule ayant survecu a une dose > 6 Gy. Le pronostic a ete considerablement aggrave par des brulures cutanees radiologiques, consecutives a une decontamination insuffisante. Les resultats des 13 greffes de moelle osseuse ont ete decevants, avec seulement 2 survivants. A distance de l'accident, ces grands irradies souffrent principalement de troubles psychosomatiques. En Union sovietique, certaines regions ont subi une contamination importante et diverses mesures ont permis d'en limiter l'impact sur les populations: evacuation de 135 000 personnes, prophylaxie iodee, instauration de normes et controles alimentaires. Le seul effet sanitaire note jusqu'a present est le developpement d'une radiophobie chez de nombreuses personnes. Enfin en Europe, on a uniquement constate une augmentation des avortements provoques, totalement injustifiee. Quant au risque de cancer radio-induit, il est peu probable qu'un quelconque effet soit demontrable dans l'avenir

1990-01-01

365

Thyroid exposure in Ukrainian and White Russian children following the Chernobyl disaster and the resultant risk of acquiring thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a presentation of the main strong and weak points of various studies on the risk of acquiring thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl disaster this study summarises the results of a recent ecological study. 175,800 measurements of 131I activity in the human thyroid gland performed in the contaminated regions of the Ukraine and White Russia during the first weeks after the Chernobyl disaster served as a starting point for this study on thyroid exposure in Ukrainian and White Russian children following the Chernobyl disaster and the resultant risk of acquiring thyroid cancer. More than 10 measurements were performed in each of altogether 1,114 locations. Age and sex-specific doses were calculated for each of these locations within the 1968-85 birth cohort. 95% of all dose values were within the range of 0.017 to 0.69 Gy. Since 1990 the incidence of thyroid cancer within the study area has increased at a markedly higher rate than one would expect on the basis of the cohort members' growing age. In the period from 1990 to 2001 1,091 cases of surgery for thyroid cancer were reported. The additional absolute risk per 104 PY Gy was calculated as 2.5 (95% CI: 2.3;2.9). The additional relative risk per dose was calculated as 10 (95% CI: 8;12) Gy-1. These results are consistent with risk values found for thyroid cancer after external exposure during childhood. Assuming that the calculated risk values also apply for the intervention level of 0.05 Gy at which iodine tablets are distributed in the event of a major release of radioiodide this means that within the period of 4 to 15 years following the exposure 3 additional cases of thyroid cancer are expected to occur within a collective of 20,000 children and adolescents. This is equivalent to a 50% increase in the spontaneous incidence of the disease

2005-01-01

366

Clinical aspects of the health disturbances in Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident clean-up workers (liquidators) from Latvia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The health status of some 6,000 workers from Latvia who went to clean-up the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) site following the explosion on 26 April 1986 has been analyzed. The data on these workers have been recorded in the Latvian State Register of Occupational disease patients and people exposed to ionizing radiation due to Chernobyl NPP accident (Latvian State Register) that was established in 1994. From these data, estimates have been made of external ionizing radiation to which these workers were exposed together with observations on the impact of exposure to heavy metals (especially lead and zinc) and radioactive isotopes released during the reactor 'meltdown'. These factors along with psycho-emotional and social-economic stresses account for a marked excess of mortality and morbidity in the group of CNPP accident clean-up workers compared with that of the non-exposed normal Latvian population adjusted for age and sex. The number of diseases or conditions in the CNPP accident clean-up workers has progressively risen from an average of 1.3 in 1986 to 10.9 in 2007. This exceeds for the Latvian population when adjusted for age and sex. The most serious conditions affect the nervous, digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, endocrine (especially thyroid) and immunological systems. While the morbidity associated with diseases of the respiratory and digestive systems has decreased in recent years that in the other systems is increasing. In recent years, there has been an increased occurrence of cancers affecting the thyroid, prostate and stomach. Clinical and laboratory investigations suggest that surviving CNPP accident clean-up workers exhibit signs of immuno-inflammatory reactions causing premature aging with evidence of autoimmune diseases and immunological deficiencies or abnormalities. It is suggested that the CNPP accident clean-up workers may have a specific syndrome, the 'Chernobyl post-radiation neurosomatic polypathy', due to sustained oxidant stress injury, as a result of exposure to radiation and lead.

Eglite ME; Zvagule TJ; Rainsford KD; Reste JD; Curbakova EV; Kurjane NN

2009-06-01

367

Accumulation of long-living radionuclides of the Chernobyl emission by meadow vegetation of the zone the Chernobyl NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Researches of transition of transuranium elements from soil in wild-growing kinds of plants and agricultural crops spent in natural ecosystems and agrocenosises to 30-km to the zone the Chernobyl NPP and in adjoining territories were carried out. (authors)

2009-01-01

368

Self-Agency  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pivotal to the mutual shaping of self and agency is the sense of agency, or agentive self-awareness. I offer a brief survey of recent models of how and where in the cognitive architecture the sense of agency is generated. I also argue that these models should be seen as complementary rather than as ...

Pacherie, Elisabeth

369

The comparison of generic model predictions with Chernobyl fallout data on the transfer of radioiodine over the air-pasture-cow-milk pathway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data have been collected on concentrations of 131I in air, vegetation and milk from numerous locations receiving Chernobyl fallout. Time-integrated concentrations derived from these data are used to compare predictions from generic models used for routine environmental radiological assessments. In general, the models markedly overestimated the transfer of 131I over the air-grass-cow-milk pathway. The reasons for this overestimation of the dry deposition velocity assumed for elemental 131I, overestimation of the interception and retention of wet-deposited 131I by pasture vegetation and overestimation of the cow's diet-to-milk transfer coefficient appear to be most important. The low transfer of Chernobyl 131I from air to milk indicates that the direct inhalation of contaminated air by humans may be more important in determining the 131I exposure to large populations than the consumption of contaminated cow's milk. Radiological assessments conducted prior to the Chernobyl accident have typically assumed that 131I exposure would be dominated by the consumption of milk. The consumption of milk, however, is still of dominant importance for the exposure of critical population subgroups composed of infants and small children. (author)

1988-01-01

370

Comparison of generic model predictions with Chernobyl fallout data on the transfer of radioiodine over the air-pasture-cow-milk pathway  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data have been collected on concentrations of /sup 131/I in air, vegetation and milk from numerous locations receiving Chernobyl fallout. Time-integrated concentrations derived from these data are used to compare predictions from generic models used for routine environmental radiological assessments. In general, the models markedly overestimated the transfer of /sup 131/I over the air-grass-cow-milk pathway. The reasons for this overestimation of the dry deposition velocity assumed for elemental /sup 131/I, overestimation of the interception and retention of wet-deposited /sup 131/I by pasture vegetation and overestimation of the cow's diet-to-milk transfer coefficient appear to be most important. The low transfer of Chernobyl /sup 131/I from air to milk indicates that the direct inhalation of contaminated air by humans may be more important in determining the /sup 131/I exposure to large populations than the consumption of contaminated cow's milk. Radiological assessments conducted prior to the Chernobyl accident have typically assumed that /sup 131/I exposure would be dominated by the consumption of milk. The consumption of milk, however, is still of dominant importance for the exposure of critical population subgroups composed of infants and small children.

Hoffman, F.O.; Amaral, Eliana; Mohrbacher, D.A.; Deming, E.J.

1988-01-01

371

Scientific decision of the Chernobyl accident problems (results of 1997)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1997 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and ground of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; optimisation of the system of measures for preservation of health of the victim population and development of ways for increase of it effectiveness; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, treatment and burial of radioactive wastes; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological monitoring in the republic and scientific methodical ways of it fulfilling; study of effects of low doze irradiation and combined influences, search of ways for correction of the diseases; delayed radiobiological and radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident; scientific ground and development of the complex programmes of rehabilitation of administrative regions on the contaminated territories; development of administration system of the social economical development of the territories having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; social support and socio-psychological rehabilitation of the population of Belarus; experimental development and scientific-and-engineering projects (development of special technologies and means for decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes, technologies for a safety of industrial activity in the contaminated territories, technologies of production of special medicinal preparations and food additives, etc.); detection, rescue and preservation of a historical and cultural heritage in regions having suffered after the Chernobyl accident. The institutes and establishments of a National academy of sciences of Belarus, Academy of agrarian sciences, Ministry for public health, Ministry for education and other ministries and departments took part in performance of researches. The new, original results allowing to estimate objectively medical, ecological and a socio economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to develop a number of measures for their minimization are submitted

1998-01-01

372

Development of information resources package for the Chernobyl accident and its consequences by INIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident was a global catastrophe that captured global attention and as such literature on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences is an important subject covered by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. The INIS Database contains about 21000 bibliographic records and 9000 full text documents on this subject from 1986 up to August 2006. Based on these extensive resources INIS released a DVD that contained bibliographic references and full text documents as well a bibliometric study of the Chernobyl references on the occasion of the International Conference entitled 'Chernobyl: Looking Back to Go Forwards' held in Vienna on 6 and 7 September 2005. Subsequently, INIS decided to release Revision 1 of the DVD in August 2006 for the twentieth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident with additional value added information sources. This paper briefly discusses the bibliometric parameters of the references, the contents of DVD and the activities undertaken to produce the Chernobyl information resources package

2005-09-07

373

Recent results for Mark III  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents recent results from the Mark III detector at SPEAR, in the open charm sector. The first topic discussed is the reanalysis of the direct measurement of the D hadronic branching fractions, where a detailed study has been made of the Cabibbo suppressed and multi-?0's D decays backgrounds in the double tag sample. Next, the Dalitz plot analysis of the D decays to K?? is presented, leading to the relative fractions of three-body versus pseudoscalarvector decays. 7 refs., 5 figs

1987-01-01

374

The Mark III vertex chamber  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design and construction of the new Mark III vertex chamber is described. Initial tests with cosmic rays prove the ability of track reconstruction and yield triplet resolutions below 50 ..mu..m at 3 atm using argon/ethane (50:50). Also performed are studies using a prototype of a pressurized wire vertex chamber with 8 mm diameter straw geometry. Spatial resolution of 35mm was obtained using dimethyl ether (DME) at 1 atm and 30 ..mu..m using argon/ethane (50/50 mixture) at 4 atm. Preliminary studies indicate the DME to adversely affect such materials as aluminized Mylar and Delrin.

Adler, J.; Bolton, T.; Bunnell, K.; Cassell, R.; Cheu, E.; Freese, T.; Grab, C.; Mazaheri, G.; Mir, R.; Odian, A.

1987-07-01

375

Recent results for Mark III  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents recent results from the Mark III detector at SPEAR, in the open charm sector. The first topic discussed is the reanalysis of the direct measurement of the D hadronic branching fractions, where a detailed study has been made of the Cabibbo suppressed and multi-..pi../sup 0/'s D decays backgrounds in the double tag sample. Next, the Dalitz plot analysis of the D decays to K..pi pi.. is presented, leading to the relative fractions of three-body versus pseudoscalarvector decays. 7 refs., 5 figs.

Brient, J.C.

1987-12-01

376

S-1 Mark IIA supercomputer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the S-1 Mark IIA Multiprocessor System. It is composed of up to 16 supercomputer class uniprocessors with multiple local caches, an extremely large, medium-latency high-bandwidth shared memory, and a low-latency synchronization mechanism for passing short messages. The system is applicable to a wide variety of applications, including large-scale physical simulation, real-time command and control and program development in a time-sharing environment. The hardware organization, its implications, and software supporting the efficient utilization of the multiprocessor are discussed.

Farmwald, P.M.

1983-06-20

377

Radiocesium and lead in the lichen species Parmelia sulcata sampled in three regions around Chernobyl: assessment of concentrations in 1990  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In summer 1990, four years after the Chernobyl accident, an IAEA coordinated survey was carried out in order to assess the radiological consequences and to study the possible effects of releases of (heavy) metals into the environment. Within the framework of this survey, lichens (Parmelia sulcata) were sampled in the Novozybkov, Bragin and Ovruc regions around Chernobyl and [sup 137]Cs and Pb levels were determined by [gamma]-ray spectroscopy and Graphite Furnace-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF-AAS), respectively. The geographical distributions of [sup 137]Cs and Pb are markedly different. The Pb levels in lichens are relatively low and do not suggest cause for concern. The lichen [sup 137]Cs levels are one to two orders of magnitude higher than levels determined in 1986 in Poland, Greece or The Netherlands. Corrections for physical decay and biological half-life resulted in initial 1986 ''hot spot'' [sup 137]Cs levels in Parmelia sulcata measured up to 1630 kBq kg[sup -1]. Lichen [sup 137]Cs levels reflect [sup 137]Cs soil deposition data, except for soil deposition classes >15 kBq m[sup -2], where use of lichen data may lead to underestimates of actual deposition. (Author).

Berg, G.J. van den; Ammerlaan, M.J.J.; Volkers, K.J.; Woroniecka, U.D.; Bruin, M. de; Wolterbeek, H.Th. (Interuniversitair Reactor Inst., Delft (Netherlands)); Tyssen, T.P.M. (Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands))

1992-01-01

378

Radiocesium and lead in the lichen species Parmelia sulcata sampled in three regions around Chernobyl: assessment of concentrations in 1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In summer 1990, four years after the Chernobyl accident, an IAEA coordinated survey was carried out in order to assess the radiological consequences and to study the possible effects of releases of (heavy) metals into the environment. Within the framework of this survey, lichens (Parmelia sulcata) were sampled in the Novozybkov, Bragin and Ovruc regions around Chernobyl and 137Cs and Pb levels were determined by ?-ray spectroscopy and Graphite Furnace-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF-AAS), respectively. The geographical distributions of 137Cs and Pb are markedly different. The Pb levels in lichens are relatively low and do not suggest cause for concern. The lichen 137Cs levels are one to two orders of magnitude higher than levels determined in 1986 in Poland, Greece or The Netherlands. Corrections for physical decay and biological half-life resulted in initial 1986 ''hot spot'' 137Cs levels in Parmelia sulcata measured up to 1630 kBq kg-1. Lichen 137Cs levels reflect 137Cs soil deposition data, except for soil deposition classes >15 kBq m-2, where use of lichen data may lead to underestimates of actual deposition. (Author)

1992-01-01

379

Eliminating the possibility at Chernobyl 4 of recriticality with positive feedback  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have recently published an article in which we discuss means by which plutonium and other fissile material stored underground could reach criticality with positive feedback and therefore explosive potential. The Chernobyl rubble involving hundreds of tons of material is similar in some respects to the systems analyzed in the paper, and the practices there to control criticality may well increase the probability of a second event at Chernobyl 4. This paper explores the Chernobyl situation and remedial actions are recommended.

Bowman, C.D.

1996-04-29

380

Eliminating the possibility at Chernobyl 4 of recriticality with positive feedback  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We have recently published an article in which we discuss means by which plutonium and other fissile material stored underground could reach criticality with positive feedback and therefore explosive potential. The Chernobyl rubble involving hundreds of tons of material is similar in some respects to the systems analyzed in the paper, and the practices there to control criticality may well increase the probability of a second event at Chernobyl 4. This paper explores the Chernobyl situation and remedial actions are recommended

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Getting over the consequences and lessons learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of the accident on the 4th Power Unit of the Chernobyl NPP. The power plant construction history, accident reasons, its consequences, the measures on its liquidation are represented. The current state of activity on the Chernobyl power unit decommission, the 'Shelter' object conversion into the ecologically safe system is described. The future of the Chernobyl NPP site and disposal zone is discussed

2006-01-01

382

Design of Arabic Diacritical Marks  

CERN Document Server

Diacritical marks play a crucial role in meeting the criteria of usability of typographic text, such as: homogeneity, clarity and legibility. To change the diacritic of a letter in a word could completely change its semantic. The situation is very complicated with multilingual text. Indeed, the problem of design becomes more difficult by the presence of diacritics that come from various scripts; they are used for different purposes, and are controlled by various typographic rules. It is quite challenging to adapt rules from one script to another. This paper aims to study the placement and sizing of diacritical marks in Arabic script, with a comparison with the Latin's case. The Arabic script is cursive and runs from right-to-left; its criteria and rules are quite distinct from those of the Latin script. In the beginning, we compare the difficulty of processing diacritics in both scripts. After, we will study the limits of Latin resolution strategies when applied to Arabic. At the end, we propose an approach t...

Hssini, Mohamed

2011-01-01

383

Design of Arabic Diacritical Marks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diacritical marks play a crucial role in meeting the criteria of usability of typographic text, such as: homogeneity, clarity and legibility. To change the diacritic of a letter in a word could completely change its semantic. The situation is very complicated with multilingual text. Indeed, the problem of design becomes more difficult by the presence of diacritics that come from various scripts; they are used for different purposes, and are controlled by various typographic rules. It is quite challenging to adapt rules from one script to another. This paper aims to study the placement and sizing of diacritical marks in Arabic script, with a comparison with the Latin's case. The Arabic script is cursive and runs from right-to-left; its criteria and rules are quite distinct from those of the Latin script. In the beginning, we compare the difficulty of processing diacritics in both scripts. After, we will study the limits of Latin resolution strategies when applied to Arabic. At the end, we propose an approach to resolve the problem for positioning and resizing diacritics. This strategy includes creating an Arabic font, designed in OpenType format, along with suitable justification in TEX.

Mohamed Hssini; Azzeddine Lazrek

2011-01-01

384

The Academy of Medical Sciences scientific meeting: Radiation, health and Chernobyl London, 10 October 2001  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2001 marks the 15th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. The Academy of Medical Sciences thought it appropriate to present some of the findings from studies of the people who were exposed to fallout from the accident, and to discuss these in the light of recent advances in the understanding of the way in which radiation can interact with the genome. The meeting was organised by Dillwyn Williams, Cambridge, and Alec Jeffreys, Leicester, who each chaired a session. In the first presentation, Roger Cox (NRPB) pointed out that although risk was usually presented on a population basis following radiation exposure, it was important to remember that inter-individual variation could be relevant when considering cancer risk to individuals. Eric Wright (Dundee) described clonal experiments using haemopoietic stem cells which illustrated that de novo genetic changes could arise in the progeny of surviving irradiated target cells. This induction of persistent transmissible genomic instability has been observed in vitro and in vivo and for a range of mutational endpoints. Two presentations were given by Yuri Dubrova (Leicester). In the first he described mouse studies which indicated that paternal irradiation could induce instability in hypervariable tandem repeat minisatellite loci in the germ line. Not only was this seen as an increase in paternally derived alleles in the F1, but the instability seemed to persist in the F1 germ line resulting in increased mutation frequencies in the F2 and subsequently in the F3 generation. Dillwyn Williams described the initial scepticism which greeted reports of increases in childhood thyroid cancer following the Chernobyl accident and how these only became accepted following confirmation of diagnoses by a number of western groups. It is now recognised that between 1990 and 1997 there was an approximate 30-fold increase in childhood thyroid cancer in the most heavily contaminated areas, although the number of cases has now started to decline. Examination of the pathology of the childhood thyroid cancers in Ukraine and Belarus has indicated a greater proportion of papillary cancers in comparison with childhood thyroid cancers in UK. The final presentation was given by Gerry Thomas, Cambridge, who outlined the international collaboration after Chernobyl which had led to the development of the tissue and nucleic acid bank of tumour and normal material from thyroid cancer patients. She outlined the ethical issues such as informed consent and the importance of the resource being established in the country supplying the material. Minsk, Obninsk and Kiev maintain their own tissue/nucleic acid banks and databases, with copies of all data being sent to the co-ordinating centre in Cambridge. The aim of the collaboration is to collect a resource of DNA and RNA for research from patients under 19 years of age at the time of the Chernobyl accident who have a confirmed diagnosis and the necessary documentation relating to sex, age and exposure. The project was launched in 2000 and applications are now invited for access to this material. The Academy of Medical Sciences was established to promote medical science across traditional disciplinary boundaries. This meeting provided a valuable forum for radiobiologists and epidemiologists to interact in the examination of current thinking on radiobiological mechanisms that might impact on radiation risk, and how this relates to observations of clinical outcomes. It is, therefore, unfortunate that the meeting appeared to have received little prior publicity and was not well attended.

2001-10-10

385

International conference. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proceedings of the International Conference on the mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects was introduced.The questions connected with: 1. Mental health disorders biological basis after ionizing radiation influence; 2. Psychiatric aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 3. Social stress following contradictory information: ways for its overcoming; 4. Rehabilitation and prophylactic measures for mental and nervous disorders. Psycho social rehabilitation of survivors; 5. Psychosomatic effects and somato-neurological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster; 6. Psychosomatic health of children and adolescents survivors of the Chernobyl disaster; 7. Brain damage as result of prenatal irradiation

1995-01-01

386

Chernobyl dose for population of areas radiocontaminated after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The parameters and consequences of the Chernobyl accident that took place on 26 April 1986 are of special interest, because it was an extremely serious accident of an operating power nuclear reactor, one of over four hundred in the world. The basic specific feature of this accident determining the complex character of radiation impact on man was the explosive destruction and subsequent high-temperature burning of the reactor, which caused not only the release of inert radioactive gases and radioisotopes of volatile elements (iodine, cesium, tellurium, etc.), but also the evaporation of refractory fission products (barium, strontium, etc.), and the dispersion of fuel particles. Another important feature of the radioactive contamination of the area as compared with that of the global fallout from nuclear weapons testing is a single or short-term deposition which nevertheless leads to long-term exposure of man by long-lived radionuclides. The third specific feature is the combined and strong influence of natural soil and climate factors, on the one hand, and of anthropogenic factors, basically, of wide-scale countermeasures. on the other hand, on the level of exposure of man. 20 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs.

Balonov, M.I. [Institute of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1996-12-31

387

Report of the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The accident, which occurred on April 26 of 1986 at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic of the Soviet Union, was the unprecedented accident in terms of, among other things, structural damages given to the reactor, an amount of radioactive materials released to the environment, and a number of casualties resulting from the accident. Investigation and analysis of the accident were conducted at JAERI by forming the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident within the organization under which Task Group A was responsible for the design and characteristics of the reactor and the accident sequence and Task Group B was responsible for behavior of radioactive materials and radiological consequences to the environment. The present report is the summary of the investigations and analyses which were carried out by the committee. (author)

1987-01-01

388

Concept for a melting plant at the Chernobyl site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the European TACIS program a feasibility study has been performed on the cleaning-up of the Chernobyl area from radioactively contaminated metallic material by melting process including recycling measures. The on-site evaluation showed an overall mass of metal scrap of min. 100,000 Mg with a maximum specific activity of 400 Bq/g (mainly Cs 137, Sr 90), based on 48 open depositories within the restricts area. The design work led to a throughput of the melting plant of approx. 10,000 Mg/yr, which will be equipped with an induction furnace and an electric arc furnace. The recycling concept proposes the manufacturing of casks and containers for storage and disposal of radioactive waste as well as the production of shielding equipment. The study report showed the technical feasibility of a site-specific melting plant and its suitability for the overall concept to handle the Chernobyl waste.

1995-01-01

389

Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden

1991-01-28

390

Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden.

Odlind, V. (Uppsala Univ. (SE)); Ericson, A. (National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm (SE))

1991-01-01

391

Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. An overview of the report is provided. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general

1987-01-01

392

Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs from Burgenland after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

About 500 samples of foodstuffs, drinking water and grass from Burgenland (an eastern province of Austria) were measured by the author's institution in May to August 1986. Burgenland and generally the east of Austria had, with respect to the Chernobyl fallout, an advantage against other parts of Austria, due to low rainfall and favorable winds in the days after the Chernobyl accident. The activities were generally below the legal limits for drinking water and higher than these in few cases in foodstuffs and grass. The legal limits for activity concentrations in foodstuffs and drinking water for the elements iodine 131, cesium 134, cesium 137 and strontium 90 are listed in an appendix. 2 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

1987-01-01

393

Belarus: Towards a new post-Chernobyl rehabilitation strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Today, Belarus still has to deal with many problems that resulted owing to the extensive contamination of its territory after the Chernobyl accident. These problems remain omnipresent in everyday life of the affected population and have a continuous impact on the economic well being of the country. This paper describes the major changes that have been carried out in the rehabilitation strategies in Belarus since the Chernobyl accident. The evolution of the legal and administrative framework for rehabilitation and actions taken in this context over the past two decades are summarized. The continuing challenges faced by the population in the affected areas are discussed and the key principles underlying rehabilitation strategies (that are both practicable and accepted) are identified. The latter include openness, voluntary participation, collective decision-making and empowerment of local population and professionals. These principles have underpinned the development of recent national and international initiatives that are described. (authors)

2003-10-03

394

Chernobyl - The ratchet turns again on safety and economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the effects of the Chernobyl disaster has been to make countries reassess their policy on nuclear power. For most, this means cancelling or postponing orders for new nuclear power plants. Further safety reviews and emergency system improvements are being made on existing reactors. When the situation returns to being more normal the nuclear industry will re-emerge but nuclear power will be more expensive. Not only will the construction costs be greater, but the stricter safety measures will make operating costs much higher. The process of increasing risk (because of the increasing number of reactors in operation) and widening safety precautions to meet that risk, has been going on for some time. Chernobyl has merely speeded up the process. The world position is reviewed and examples of this process are cited. The fast breeder programme is considered and also the problem of decommissioning. (U.K.)

1986-01-01

395

Chernobyl: pathology of the thyroid (facts and explanations)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Facts concerning the thyroid pathology in persons exposed to radiation following the Chernobyl accident are presented. Following 15 years after the Chernobyl accident, no criteria have been established with significance for differential diagnostics between the spontaneous thyroid pathology and that attributed to physical and social effects of the accident. The exception is the thyroid cancer in children. Epidemiological investigations provide evidence for the role of ionizing radiation in etiology of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents. Various interpretations of the thyroid pathology have been considered involving ecological, causal, spatial-temporal and functional aspects. The thyroid pathology is uneven over area, variable over time, multivariable, and systematic. Thus, special research programmes are needed with a complex approach

2001-01-01

396

Chernobyl: the true, the possible and the false  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report discusses the health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. It also highlights the misunderstanding associated with the use by the media of different radioactivity measurement units. It comments some figures about casualties, and the fact that some much higher figures are often stated. It evokes the issue of thyroid cancer in children of the region, discusses other possible public health consequences, the issue of congenital anomalies, the opinion of French physicists on the increase of thyroid cancers in France, and the question of the discrimination between spontaneous and radio-induced cancers. A second part discusses the risk of cancer and its perception in France: validity of the soil contamination assessment, possibility of an accident like Chernobyl and Fukushima in France

2011-01-01

397

Chernobyl: what sanitary consequences?; Tchernobyl: quelles consequences sanitaires?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

Aurengo, A. [Assistance Publique, Hopitaux de Parix (AP-HP), 75 - Paris (France)

2001-11-01

398

The evolutions of the nuclear industry after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] After having recalled the scenario of the Chernobyl accident, discussed the safety of nuclear power stations in eastern European countries, presented the both types of reactors present in these countries (RBMK and VVER), this report describes the current status of the Chernobyl site. Then it gives an overview of technical improvements brought to eastern European countries, of the lessons drawn from this accident for western power stations. It describes what could be a severe accident in a pressurized water reactor and a reactivity accident, as well as clear water stopper scenarios on PWR. It evokes the CABRI-CIP program, describes phenomena that could lead to a sudden confinement failure, discusses the case of fast-neutron reactors and of experimental reactors, the inhibitions of safeguard system. It evokes research studies, calculation codes, experimental programs, safety probability studies, the EPR safety, and the notion of safety calculation

2006-01-01

399

15 years after Chernobyl. Nuclear power and climate change?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fifteen years after two massive explosions and a subsequent fire released a giant radioactive cloud into the atmosphere over the Chernobyl nuclear power plant located in what used to be the USSR, 388 farms with 230,000 sheep in Wales, England and Scotland are still subject to restriction orders. The contamination levels stand at several hundred Becquerels of cesium per kilogram of meat, too much to be consumed by human beings. The sheep have to be moved for some time to low or non-contaminated pastures in order to allow the bodies to loose some of their radioactivity before they can be slaughtered. For many countries the 1986 Chernobyl catastrophe came a public turning point for the future of nuclear energy. (author)

Schneider, M

2001-04-01

400

Psychological reactions to cancer risks after the Chernobyl accident.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This is a report on an investigation of people's reactions to the Chernobyl accident. Interviews and mail surveys were conducted in July-September 1986 with pregnant women, parents of newborn children, farmers, adolescents and men who were not parents, in various areas of Sweden, differing as to the amount of Chernobyl fallout they had received. The accident had probably doubled the number of people who were negative to nuclear power in the most affected area. Radiation risks were highly salient in most groups. Areas differed in the expected direction, people in the more exposed areas being more concerned. Women were more worried and more negative to nuclear power than men while adolescents appeared to be the group least affected by the accident. Farmers were also strongly opposed to nuclear power and concerned about its risks. Nuclear attitude could be well accounted for by attitude statements and rated basic life values. It was quite stable over a 1 month period.

Sjöberg L; Drottz BM

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Dialectica Interpretation with Marked Counterexamples  

CERN Document Server

Goedel's functional "Dialectica" interpretation can be used to extract functional programs from non-constructive proofs in arithmetic by employing two sorts of higher-order witnessing terms: positive realisers and negative counterexamples. In the original interpretation decidability of atoms is required to compute the correct counterexample from a set of candidates. When combined with recursion, this choice needs to be made for every step in the extracted program, however, in some special cases the decision on negative witnesses can be calculated only once. We present a variant of the interpretation in which the time complexity of extracted programs can be improved by marking the chosen witness and thus avoiding recomputation. The achieved effect is similar to using an abortive control operator to interpret computational content of non-constructive principles.

Trifonov, Trifon

2011-01-01

402

ROLE OF MARK IN SPORTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advertising is the main form of promote goods and services on the market. It is a means of communication and multilateral consideration that transmit messages to the audience from identifiable sources. In Kotler's conception advertising is "any form of impersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services paid by a sponsor clarified". Brand is a name, a symbol, a drawing, a term or a combination thereof, designed to help identify a firm producing goods and services and to distinguish them from those of competitors. Role of advertising in brand image formation is complex, and while searching for alternative perspectives on the role and ability to create and influence public perception of the mark to suggest that advertising has two imaging functions.

Raul Boc?e; Ioan Fruja; Ioana Anda Milin; Iuliana Ioana Merce

2013-01-01

403

Cavernous hemangioma presenting marked hyperostosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors report here a case of hemangioma of the left parietal bone which presented headache and papilledema. This patient is a 37-year-old female who had, prior to admission, complained of increasing headache for one year and blurred vision for three months. She had no history of head injury. Local physical examinations revealed a slight bulging in her left parietal region which was insensitive to palpation and not adherent to the overlying scalp. Neurological examinations revealed bilateral papilledema and an incongruous bitemporal upper quadrant defect in the visual field. All the other neurological and laboratory data were normal. A plain skull roentogenogram showed a 9 x 9 cm osteolytic and characteristic honeycomb lesion in the parietal region. Systemic bone survey revealed a similar lesion in the right tibia which was not histologically examined. A marked accumulation of isotopes was detected on the bone scintigrams at both lesions. Selective external carotid angiograms demonstrated a tumor stain fed by the superficial temporal, occipital, and middle meningial arteries. CT scans of the brain and skull clearly showed a local thickening of and structural changes in the skull bone and also a mass effect on the brain and lateral ventricle. The lesioned bone was removed en bloc and replaced by an artificial bone. It was highly vascular, but not adherent to the overlying dura. The post-operative course was uneventful, and the headache and papilledema disappeared. Hemangioma of the skull presenting marked hyperostosis, as reported above, seems to be rare. In addition, in this case, skeletal angioma without any clinical manifestation was detected. Clinical and radiological pictures of the hemangioma of the skull and other bones were briefly discussed. (author).

1988-01-01

404

Infant leukemia in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Petridou et al. have reported an increase in infant leukemia in Greek children born between 1/7/86 and 31/12/87 and have linked this increase to in utero radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident. Subsequently, Michaelis et al. have reported a similar trend for Germany but found that it was not correlated to the levels of contamination. For Belarus, which was much more severely affected, a similar but much weaker trend is found. (orig.).

1998-01-01

405

[Morphologic characteristics of lymphocytes 6 years after the Chernobyl accident  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The examination of peripheral blood lymphocytes from persons exposed to low-dose radiation after the Chernobyl accident demonstrated that the exposure to radiation at the time of the accident and further living in the contaminated territory entail a significant increase in the number of cells with a large thick nucleus and scare cytoplasm. Such morphological picture may be attributed to stable adaptation typical for persistent activation of the general adaptation syndrome and is explained by adaptation-stress relations.

Novoderzhkina IuK; Shishkanova ZG; Pogorelov VM; Meshcheriakova LM; Samo?lova RS; Kovaleva LG; Kozinets GI

1995-05-01

406

The Chernobyl accident: An overview of causes and effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief description of the Chernobyl reactor and the accident, the activity release is assessed. Radiological effects in the immediate vicinity as well as in Europe are discussed, with particular emphasis on Switzerland. Results concerning food contamination are presented. Protective measures are described and an overview of the radiation dose distribution is given. A comparison with the doses from natural radiation and weapons fallout is made.

1986-01-01

407

The decrease of radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six years after the Chernobyl accident the equivalent dose in Austria due to the reactor accident amounts to 0.025 mSv/year (this comprises 0.005 mSv from ingestion and 0.020 mSv from external irradiation). This is about 1% of the average natural radiation exposure of 2.4 mSv/year. Also published in Atomwirtschaft (2) v. 38 p. 138-145, Feb 1993.

1993-01-01

408

Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident  

CERN Multimedia

This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

Brownridge, James D

2011-01-01

409

Cerebral basis of posttraumatic stress disorder following the Chernobyl disaster.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following radiation emergency has psychopathological, neurocognitive, and neurophysiological peculiarities is at issue. OBJECTIVE: The goal was to explore the features and cerebral basis of "radiation" PTSD in the survivors of the Chernobyl accident. Subjects and Methods The cross-sectional study included 241 people, 219 of whom have been diagnosed with PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) criteria, among them 115 clean-up workers of the Chernobyl accident (34 with acute radiation sickness), 76 evacuees from the Chernobyl exclusion zone, 28 veterans of the war in Afghanistan, and 22 healthy unexposed individuals. Psychometric examinations, neurocognitive assessments, computerized electroencephalography, and cerebral vascular Doppler were used. RESULTS: "Radiation" PTSD includes "flashforward" phenomena and anticipating stress (projection of fear and danger to the future); somatoform disorders (depression, trait and state anxiety); and neurocognitive deficit (impaired memory and attention, auditory-verbal memory and learning, proactive and retroactive interference, cerebellar and stem symptoms, intellectual changes). The intima-media component, thickness of common carotid arteries, and common and left internal carotid arteries stenosis rates are increased in the liquidators. Changes of bioelectrical brain activity as a decrease of beta- and theta-power, together with an increase of alpha-power, were found in the Chernobyl accident survivors with PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: PTSD following radiation emergency is characterized by comorbidity of psychopathology, neurocognitive deficit, and cerebrovascular pathology with increased risk of cerebral atherosclerosis and stroke. The cerebral basis of this PTSD is proposed to be an abnormal communication between the pyramidal cells of the neocortex and the hippocampus, and deep brain structures. It is recommended that a system of emergency and long-term psychological and psychiatric care be organized for the survivors in Fukushima Daichi, Japan.

Loganovsky KN; Zdanevich NA

2013-04-01

410

Chernobyl five years after. WHO to spearhead international programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In April 1990, an agreement was signed between the WHO and the USSR Ministry of Health to set up a long-term international programme to assist the populations affected by the Chernobyl accident, as well as to increase the body of scientific knowledge about radiation effects. The programme will deal with monitoring and treatment of the affected populations and will carefully examine emergency prevention issues. Funding will come primarily from voluntary contributions from WHO Member States

1991-01-01

411

The psychological effects of Chernobyl on the victims  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Social and psychological post-effects of Chernobyl disaster have turned out one of the most unpredicted unexpectedness by scale and extent in the post-catastrophe period. Mass socio-psychological interviewing of all categories of the victims has been conducted by questionnaire. Survey method is the interview. There has been fixed the ''psychological tiredness'' due to permanent stress situation. Methods of mass and socio-psychological rehabilitation are limited effectiveness, without improving political and economical situation in the country.

1997-01-01

412

Children of Chernobyl: A psycho-social empowerment project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The focus of this research has been to design and implement a social action project, using a Freirian Methodology for popular mental health among the victims of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear meltown disaster living in Belarus. Although Chernobyl is in the Ukraine, only 35 kilometers from Kiev, 70% of the 50 million curies of radiation from the 1986 Chernobyl meltdown fell on the Republic of Belarus. This continues to directly affect 2.4 million of the total population of 10 million people. These people, 800,000 of whom are children, still live in the radiated zones. They live with the knowledge that the food, the water, and the ground are slowly poisoning them through continued and ongoing exposure to radiation. While there has been some significant research on the medical effects of the disaster in the Ukraine, much more research needs to be done in Belarus. Very little research or treatment has responded to the emotional, mental health and psychosocial impacts of the disaster on individuals, families and communities. Following the introduction to the problem, a rationale for a new paradigm in Mental Health Treatment is presented in a chapter titled Liberation Psychology'. This chapter integrates fields of psychology, psychotherapy, social work, education, and community organization from a Freirian perspective. The Social Action Project is outlined and described in specific detail. The Social Action Project has led to medical, computer and school supplies being sent to Belarus. Workshops and training have been designed and implemented. Texts and manuals have been translated and published. Further, there is documentation of a joint conceptualization and design of this Children of Chernobyl' project with signed letters of agreement and a report of a fact finding mission to Belaraus. The Social Action Project is then evaluated with Future Planning discussed in the conclusion.

Kane, M.S.

1993-01-01

413

International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This report examines the scientific, organizational and financial aspects of the programme and describes the action taken by the WHO for its development

1991-01-01

414

Radiation monitoring of imported food to Saudi Arabia after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Saudi Arabia has been indirectly affected by the Chernobyl accident. Large amounts of food or products that may enter the food chain are daily imported from European countries. After April 27, the Saudi government assigned the responsibilities of radiation monitoring of imported food to some universities and governmental sectors. The nuclear engineering department at King Abdulaziz Univ. (KAU) has undertaken the monitoring duties for products coming to western and southern provinces of the country. The sampling and monitoring procedures and results are described.

1987-01-01

415

Reducing caesium contamination of food products in the Chernobyl area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the three former Soviet Republics most effected by contamination from the Chernobyl accident - Belarus, Russia and Ukraine - authorities have recently approved the widescale use of Prussian Blue to reduce the content of cesium-137 in milk and meat. This will allow significantly greater amounts of ''clean'' milk and meat to be made available to small farmers and their families and to rural communities in the three States. 1 graph, 3 tabs.

1993-01-01

416

Chernobyl accident causes: Overview of studies over the decade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten years have passed since the accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP and during this time its causes have been investigated by many teams of scientists both in Russia and abroad. This paper reviews such efforts over the past decade. Russian studies of 1986 through 1990 were covered in a paper presented at the European Nuclear Society Conference in Paris in March, 1991. 30 refs, figs.

1996-01-01

417

International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This document reports on progress made to date in terms of technical management and coordination and financial aspects of the programme. It also provides information on future activities and discusses related issues

1992-01-01

418

Interview-survey of farmers. Experiences after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

71 farm households in contaminated areas of Sweden were interviewed at visits to farms, where measurements of the contamination of pastures and fields had been made. The aim of the survey was to find out what remedial actions had been taken by the farmers, what their appreciation of the information from authorities was, how the Chernobyl accident had affected their situation, and if they were prepared to take similar actions in case of a new accident. 15 refs.

1994-01-01

419

'Chernobyl feeling'. Psychic sequels of the ecological crisis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In scientific debate on the devastation of the environment, the predominant aspects so far have been natural-scientific and economy-scientific ones. But the ecological crisis with the Chernobyl accident as its symbol is not an incident of nature: It is man-made. It has its preconditions in social phenomena such as economy, politics, and the subjective condition of individuals. This contribution studies psychological 'surveying' of environmental hazards, risk perception, and risk digestion by man. (DG)

1990-01-01

420

Chernobyl NPP accident and problem of americium 241  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The process of accumulation and decay of americium-241 formed in the Chernobyl NPP, unit 4 reactor by the moment of accident on April 26, 1986, has been analyzed. Ways of possible uptake of the nuclide by human organism have been considered, the maximum dose equivalent in 70 years for critical group of population residing on the boundary of the alienation zone has been assessed. 13 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Chernobyl fallout in small mammals captured in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation was carried out aimed at studying the contamination of small mammals (orders Rodentia and Insectivora) following the Chernobyl fallout. The animals were captured in three differently contaminated areas and, for control, in an area with negligible fallout. The results obtained show that the activity in the captured animals varied and depended on surface deposition. The differences between the species are investigated and the influence of feeding habits on the contamination levels are discussed. (orig.)

1989-01-01

422

Poverty, not radiation: A new policy paradigm for Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentations outlines the past and present socio-economic policies regarding the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine and proposes policy changes that will alleviate economic problems in the affected areas. Recommendations to improve economic environment include: Revise legislation to encourage local economic development; Combine policy revision at national level with special measures at local level; Enable greater fiscal decentralization; Facilitate access to credit through trust funds, credit unions, cooperative banks; Adopt international product certification

2005-01-01

423

The Chernobyl reactor accident and its consequences. 3. rev. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents a comprehensive survey of measured data explaining the radiation exposure in the Land Hessen, and a chronological survey of the decisions and measures taken by the Hessian regional government in response to the Chernobyl reactor accident. The measures for instance included selection of appropriate measuring methods and sites, checking of various environmental material, waste disposal surveillance, and dose assessments, and a range of monitoring programmes. (PW).

1987-01-01

424

The French-German initiative for Chernobyl Sarcophagus waste management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sixteen years after the accident of unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP the Sarcophagus still remains one of the most dangerous nuclear facilities in the world. The ruin of the destroyed unit 4 and its surrounding Sarcophagus together are termed object Shelter, which still comprises about 96 % of the spent nuclear fuel. The big amount of irradiated nuclear fuel and radioactive waste may cause potential radiological hazards. Thus, a comprehensive and detailed description of all parameters having influence on the safety state of the Sarcophagus was needed. At the Vienna Chernobyl Conference in April 1996 Germany and France declared to support the international co-operation of institutions of the Ukraine, Belarus and Russia in view of a solution of the Chernobyl related issues. The first project identified within the French-German Initiative (FGI) was dedicated to the safety state of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus. This FGI project has been funded by the governments and by the electricity utilities of Germany and France, respectively, with 2 million Euro. The main aim of the project was to collect, analyse and verify all safety relevant data and to integrate these data in a comprehensive data base. The major fields of investigation were building constructions, systems and equipment, radiological situation, nuclear fuel, radioactive waste and environmental impact. In this paper in a first step the spent nuclear fuel and the correlating radiological hazards will be described briefly. In the following sections the FGI Sarcophagus project along with some results and practical applications to estimate the radiological risks as well as to support maintenance, waste management and stabilization measures will be presented.

1996-04-00

425

Studies of radiological consequences on the reports of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] 1) Relation of radiation related quantities such as radioactivity, exposure, absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent and radiation protection standards were explained as easy as a beginner could understand. 2) Using published data including IAEA data in the report 'One Decade After Chernobyl (Summary of the Conference Results, 1996)' and some reports, outline of explosion, exposure dose and radiation effects which gave to the human body were briefly described and some rational ways for understanding the data were shown. (author)

1999-01-01

426

Infant leukaemia after the Chernobyl accident; and reply  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a correspondence concerning the incidence of infant leukemia in Germany and Greece, a disagreement is aired over the possible link between increased incidence and the fallout from Chernobyl reactor accident. Data are presented to demonstrate that observations made in Germany show no link between in utero exposure to ionising radiation from the fallout and increased infant leukemia. This conflicts with the findings published earlier by other researchers working on observations made in Greece. These researchers defend their initial conclusions. (UK).

Michaelis, J.; Kaletsch, U. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Statistik und Dokumentation; Burkart, W.; Grosche, B. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene; Petridou, E.; Trichopoulos, D. [Harvard Center for Cancer Prevention, Boston, MA (United States); Dessypris, N.; Flytzani, V.; Haidas, S.; Kalmanti, M.; Koliouskas, D.; Kosmidis, H.; Piperopoulou, F.; Tzortzatou, F.

1997-05-15

427

Measurement of the radioactivity of the channel DTD before Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The activity concentration of long loved fission and corrosion products and natural radionuclides has been measured in a selected part of the Danube-Tisa-Danube channel system which is not receiving liquid effluents from nuclear power plants. The comparison with the activities measured in the river danube did not show statistically significant differences. The results obtained describe the reference level of radioactivity for the evaluation of the contamination of the system caused by the Chernobyl accident. (author)

1987-01-01

428

On the RET Rearrangements in Chernobyl-Related Thyroid Cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a consensus that Chernobyl accident has induced thyroid cancer increase in children and adolescents. The UNSCEAR report concluded that no somatic disorders other than thyroid cancer were caused by radiation exposure due to the accident except for acute radiation sickness occurred to the people within the Power Plant at the time of the accident. A hypothesis is discussed in this paper that the increase of thyroid cancer was caused predominantly by the screening, overdiagnosis, and registration of nonirradiated persons as Chernobyl victims. A mechanism of thyroid cancer overdiagnosis is described that can be active even today, causing hypertherapy. Older neglected tumors found by the screening shortly after the Chernobyl accident or brought from noncontaminated areas were misclassified as aggressive radiation-induced cancers. Therefore, supposed markers of the radiation-induced thyroid cancer, such as the RET rearrangements, are probably associated with disease duration and tumor progression. The screening effect is obviously dependent on the basis level of medical surveillance: the higher the level, the smaller the screening effect. Absence of any significant increase of thyroid cancer after the Fukushima accident in spite of the vigorous screening would certify the high level of health care in Japan especially for children. PMID:22175034

Jargin, Sergei V

2011-11-20

429

Social aspects of the Chernobyl activity in Belarus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Chernobyl accident has caused heavy impact on the environment in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. It has also resulted in a significant worsening of the economic situation in the affected republics of the former USSR, as well as in disruption of social life in large territories, growing anxiety and fears among the people living in contaminated areas and significant medical effects on all categories of the people affected by the accident. The USSR authorities knew about the seriousness of the radiological situation caused by the Chernobyl accident from the very beginning. However, at the time of the accident, the Soviet Union was in a state of deep economic crisis and was unable to implement necessary measures to mitigate the radiological consequences of the accident. That was one of the reasons for the USSR to conceal the true information about the accident and its consequences from the Soviet people. The traditional Soviet policy of concealing all data on any unpleasant event happening in the Soviet Union had played a very important role too. The collapse of the USSR created the formal possibility to develop appropriate policy aimed at mitigation of the Chernobyl consequences in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. However, implementation of this policy has been limited due to lack of necessary material and financial means. These and other problems are the subject of the present report. (J.P.N.)

Malko, M.V. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Radiation Problems of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, Sosny (Belarus)

1998-03-01

430

Radioactivity in the Baltic sea following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. has been used as a bioindicator for the investigation of the impact of the Chernobyl accident with respect to the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in the Baltic sea. The investigations were performed in July 1986, about two months after the accident, and in August-September 1987. In July 1986 the gamma-emitting radionuclides Cs-134, Cs-137, Ru-103, Ru-106 and Ag-110m were detected in F. vesiculosus along the Swedish east, south and southwest coasts. The activity concentrations of Cs-137 varied from 600 Bq/kg dw at the northern most locality (Simpnaes) to 20-25 Bq/kg dw at the south east coast. In August-September 1987 the activity concentrations of radiocesium had increased with a factor 2-3 at most localities off the Swedish east coast, compared with the results from 1986. Regarding transuranics and Tc-99 the impact was small and we did not observe any increase of these radionuclides in the algae. The later effects of the radionuclide contamination in the Baltic Sea, primarily cesium, from Chernobyl were studied at one locality on the Swedish south coast from April 1987 to November 1988. A pronounced increase in the activity concentrations was observed during 1988 indicating an outflow of water, containing relatively higher levels of Chernobyl derived radionuclides, from the Baltic Sea. (au)

1991-01-01

431

Consequences and countermeasures in a nuclear power accident: Chernobyl experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the tragic accidents in Fukushima and Chernobyl, the nuclear power industry will continue to contribute to the production of electric energy worldwide until there are efficient and sustainable alternative sources of energy. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred 26 years ago in the former Soviet Union, released an immense amount of radioactivity over vast territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, extending into northern Europe, and became the most severe accident in the history of the nuclear industry. This disaster was a result of numerous factors including inadequate nuclear power plant design, human errors, and violation of safety measures. The lessons learned from nuclear accidents will continue to strengthen the safety design of new reactor installations, but with more than 400 active nuclear power stations worldwide and 104 reactors in the Unites States, it is essential to reassess fundamental issues related to the Chernobyl experience as it continues to evolve. This article summarizes early and late events of the incident, the impact on thyroid health, and attempts to reduce agricultural radioactive contamination. PMID:22853775

Kirichenko, Vladimir A; Kirichenko, Alexander V; Werts, Day E

2012-08-01

432

Social aspects of the Chernobyl activity in Belarus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident has caused heavy impact on the environment in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. It has also resulted in a significant worsening of the economic situation in the affected republics of the former USSR, as well as in disruption of social life in large territories, growing anxiety and fears among the people living in contaminated areas and significant medical effects on all categories of the people affected by the accident. The USSR authorities knew about the seriousness of the radiological situation caused by the Chernobyl accident from the very beginning. However, at the time of the accident, the Soviet Union was in a state of deep economic crisis and was unable to implement necessary measures to mitigate the radiological consequences of the accident. That was one of the reasons for the USSR to conceal the true information about the accident and its consequences from the Soviet people. The traditional Soviet policy of concealing all data on any unpleasant event happening in the Soviet Union had played a very important role too. The collapse of the USSR created the formal possibility to develop appropriate policy aimed at mitigation of the Chernobyl consequences in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. However, implementation of this policy has been limited due to lack of necessary material and financial means. These and other problems are the subject of the present report. (J.P.N.)

1998-01-01

433

Economic and social aspects of the Chernobyl accident in Finland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl accident at no stage did the radiation situation in Finland require actual protective action, such as taking shelter indoors or in civil defence shelters. Civil defence plans for emergency situations include a warning level at 200 ?Sv/h (population has to stay indoors) and an alarm level at 2000 ?Sv/h (populaiton has to seek shelter immediately). Both levels are 'at the latest' levels, given as guidance in case regional or local authorities have to make the decision. The highest confirmed gamma radiation reading in Finland was 5 ?Sv/h. During the first days of the Chernobyl fail-out it also became evident that no large scale restrictions for use of foodstuffs were needed in the Nordic countries. Various mitigating actions were adopted in the days and weeks following Chernobyl, but mostly in the form of recommendations. The situation in Finland can serve to explain the various types of mitigating actions considered, how they were adopted, and to some extent give information on how efficient and how expensive the mitigating actions were

1991-01-01

434

Consequences and countermeasures in a nuclear power accident: Chernobyl experience.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the tragic accidents in Fukushima and Chernobyl, the nuclear power industry will continue to contribute to the production of electric energy worldwide until there are efficient and sustainable alternative sources of energy. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred 26 years ago in the former Soviet Union, released an immense amount of radioactivity over vast territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, extending into northern Europe, and became the most severe accident in the history of the nuclear industry. This disaster was a result of numerous factors including inadequate nuclear power plant design, human errors, and violation of safety measures. The lessons learned from nuclear accidents will continue to strengthen the safety design of new reactor installations, but with more than 400 active nuclear power stations worldwide and 104 reactors in the Unites States, it is essential to reassess fundamental issues related to the Chernobyl experience as it continues to evolve. This article summarizes early and late events of the incident, the impact on thyroid health, and attempts to reduce agricultural radioactive contamination.

Kirichenko VA; Kirichenko AV; Werts DE

2012-09-01

435

Childhood leukaemia in Romania and the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the WHO recommendations, we focused our study on short-term consequence of the Chernobyl accident on childhood leukaemia. The present study was designed to show whether the frequency of leukaemia has increased during the time period following the nuclear accident. We studied the frequency of childhood leukaemia, its geographical distribution in Romania, and the possible changes of this distribution after the Chernobyl accident. For the period before the accident (1981-1985), the distribution of the cumulative mortality from leukaemia is shown. The mortality for the entire country was 13.54/100,000 for all age-groups (14.92 for the 0-4 years old age group, 15.68 for the 5-9, and 10.13 for 10-14). After the Chernobyl accident, the geographical distribution of cumulative mortality from childhood leukaemia has somewhat changed. The rate for the entire country was 13.24/100,000 (13.72 for 0-4 years old, 16.64 for 5-9 years old, and 9.83 for 10-14 years old). Four districts showed a greater increase of the mortality rate. The age distribution of the mortality in these districts during the two time periods, is shown. (author)

1996-01-01

436

Lead-free board marking as marking for environmental issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After the 1st of July 2006, most of electronic products should be free of materials defined by the European Directive of RoHS. This includes the use of lead. Basically, to distinguish products according to their content and as a documentation of the transition process towards the lead-free electronics, marking of electronic products to support the whole process chain is required. Based on RoHS requirements, scenarios for service and repair as well as collection and recycling of waste electronics will be discussed in this paper. Service has the aim to return products to its use with the same or a higher functionality. Repair is a process that enables the use of a product for a further period and can be combined with an upgrading. The possibility whether a product can be reused or not will be decided by an adapted collection process. At the end, if reuse is impossible or not economically realizable, the recycling of the material content is required. Investigation of the details of these processes to define the flow of different kinds of information is necessary. Different technical solutions should be analysed regarding a higher potential of good business. (orig.)

Stobbe, I. [TU Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Liong, B. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Reliability and Microintegration IZM, Berlin (Germany); Nimmo, K. [Soldertec/ITRI, St. Albans (United Kingdom)

2004-07-01

437

National Security Agency Careers  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Security Agency/Central Security Service (NSA/CSS) is home to America's codemakers and codebreakers. NSA/CSS is unique among the U.S. defense agencies because of its government-wide responsibilities. The NSA/CSS provides products and services to the Department of Defense, the Intelligence Community, government agencies, industry partners, and select allies and coalition partners. This Agency also enables Network Warfare operations to defeat terrorists and their organizations at home and abroad, consistent with U.S. laws and the protection of privacy and civil liberties.

438

Thermal treatment makes its mark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Thermal treatment is used successfully to fulfill Superfund site treatment under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) and underground storage tank (UST) regulations for petroleum product contamination of soil. The decision to use thermal treatment is based on cost and environmental regulations. For many organic wastes, thermal treatment has been designated as the best available control technology (BACT) by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In some instances, the waste generator or potentially responsible party (PRP) would benefit by owning and operating its own thermal processing facility. But, the permitting process for these facilities is expensive and time consuming, so most elect to have the remediation performed by an outside contractor. It is cost effective to ship Superfund and UST wastes to permanent, commercial incinerator facilities for disposal when the amount of material to be treated is less than 20,000 tons. For larger projects, however, bringing the thermal system to the remediation site is preferable. Thermal treatment of contaminated sites with mobile and transportable systems offers versatility and cost effectiveness

1993-01-01

439

Thermal treatment makes its mark  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermal treatment is used successfully to fulfill Superfund site treatment under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) and underground storage tank (UST) regulations for petroleum product contamination of soil. The decision to use thermal treatment is based on cost and environmental regulations. For many organic wastes, thermal treatment has been designated as the best available control technology (BACT) by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In some instances, the waste generator or potentially responsible party (PRP) would benefit by owning and operating its own thermal processing facility. But, the permitting process for these facilities is expensive and time consuming, so most elect to have the remediation performed by an outside contractor. It is cost effective to ship Superfund and UST wastes to permanent, commercial incinerator facilities for disposal when the amount of material to be treated is less than 20,000 tons. For larger projects, however, bringing the thermal system to the remediation site is preferable. Thermal treatment of contaminated sites with mobile and transportable systems offers versatility and cost effectiveness.

Sudnick, J.J.

1993-10-01

440

Determination of radionuclides in foods from Minsk, Belarus, from Chernobyl to the present  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been monitoring the food supply in the United States for radioactivity since 1961. This Radionuclide in Foods Program is maintained to allow the FDA to respond to any nuclear emergency that may affect the food supply. The Three Mile Island incident in 1979 was one of these. In 1986 the Chernobyl incident occurred. As a result, the FDA began extensive monitoring of imported foods, especially those from Europe. One of its sister agencies has personnel in the areas affected by the latter incident and requested that the FDA analyze selected food samples from these places. Since that time, they have requested on a periodic basis, selected food samples be analysed. One such city was Minsk in Belarus. This paper will discuss the radionuclides of interest such as iodine-131, cesium-134/137, strontium-90, ruthenium-106 and other short-lived ones. It will discuss the types of foods sampled and the methodology used in determining the concentrations found in these items. The results will be compared to the permissible levels allowed in the US. In addition it will show the lower limits of detection for each of the radionuclides of interest. (author)

2003-01-01