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UN agencies mark Chernobyl anniversary with launch of US$2.5-million project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the 24th of April 2009 four United Nations agencies marked the 23rd anniversary of the Chernobyl nuclear accident by launching a $2.5 million programme designed to meet the priority information needs of affected communities in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Funded by the UN Trust Fund for Human Security, this three-year initiative aims to translate the latest scientific information on the consequences of the accident into sound practical advice for residents of the affected territories. The project is a joint effort by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the World Health Organization (WHO)

2

Chernobyl and the international agencies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All the international agencies have become involved in the Chernobyl accident - as indeed have all national authorities. The major part of the work involves, quite rightly, the safety and design implications of the accident, but there are also radiological matters of international concern. The various international bodies are attempting to coordinate their efforts and in this article an indication is given of the specific Chernobyl related radiological programmes of each agency. IAEA: - The International Atomic Energy Agency was identified at an early stage of international discussions as the lead agency for the collection of information on all aspects of the accident. The radiological programme involves an attempt to collect monitoring data from all affected countries together with data on population distribution, production and consumption of important foodstuffs, and finally protective measures taken. The World Health Organisation, as another UN Agency, is also jointly involved in this task. The lAEA also intends to develop derived action levels for emergencies, or at least the methodology and data which will enable Member States to calculate derived values corresponding to the lAEA published principles for establishing intervention levels. UNSCEAR: The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation will take the data assembled by lAEA and WHO on levels of activity measured and will make an assessment of the population doses received as a result. of the accident. At present it is hoped that this will be published by the end of 1988 at the same time as other reports on the impact of sources of radiation, including routine operation of the nuclear fuel cycle. WHO: In early May, the World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe convened a group of experts to evaluate the immediate problems caused in various European countries by the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. The group advised WHO on the need for public health actions at that time, but did not attempt to draw any conclusions on the long-term impact of the accident. A second meeting late in June addressed three main topics: reconstruction of the concentration and deposition patterns over Europe by the application of both model predictions and measurements; development of a protocol for dose estimation to facilitate a uniform approach; and provision of a summary of preliminary dose estimates for different pathways of exposure

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Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. This report summerize the results from a post-Chernobyl research program on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in contaminated areas. Pathways, processes and factors determining the Cs-137 concentration in soil, plant, water, fish and wild animal were investigated. 84 refs., 40 figs., 20 tabs

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Chernobyl  

Science.gov (United States)

Brought online in 1978, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was considered a model plant throughout the USSR. Eight years later, that same plant experienced an explosion and meltdown that had disastrous consequences for local residents. This terrible incident caused serious damage to the global cause of establishing nuclear power as a viable alternative source of energy. This very thorough and well-designed site serves as an excellent gateway to information about the events surrounding that date, and more importantly, about the long-term effects of the event and the organizations that are intimately concerned with these affairs. The âÂÂFactsâ section is a good place to start, as it contains an overview of the incidents of 20 years ago, along with information about the consequences for the health of local residents and the environment. Another useful section is in the right-hand corner of the homepage provides news updates about projects, events, and meetings related to the events at Chernobyl. One of the most powerful areas of the site contains first-hand recollections about the events at Chernobyl, and it should not be missed. It is also worth noting that the site is available in Russian, German, and English.

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Chernobyl bibliography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time.

Carr, F. Jr.; Mahaffey, J.A.

1989-09-01

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Chernobyl bibliography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone ampersand Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time

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77 FR 23490 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Country of Origin Marking Requirements for Containers...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Information Collection Activities: Country of Origin Marking Requirements for Containers...the Paperwork Reduction Act: Country of Origin Marking Requirements for Containers...forms of information. Title: Country of Origin Marking Requirements for...

2012-04-19

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77 FR 6815 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Country of Origin Marking Requirements for Containers...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Information Collection Activities: Country of Origin Marking Requirements for Containers...collection requirement concerning Country of Origin Marking Requirements for Containers...information collection: Title: Country of Origin Marking Requirements for...

2012-02-09

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After Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

''After Chernobyl'' is an outline account of interesting information on the evacuation and relocation of the population within a 30 km zone around the power plant, of decontamination efforts' of the entombment of the reactor and of the firemen of Chernobyl, not all of whom survived. (author)

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Chernobyl silences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

20 years after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant explosion, this book presents the sanitary and ecological actuality of the accident, with direct testimonies translated from russian. It is also a reflexion of women and political men, scientists, philosophers and artists on the changes induced by Chernobyl on the information dissemination and the future of the accident. (A.L.B.)

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The enduring lessons of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major impacts of the Chernobyl accident fall into three categories: the physical impacts, in terms of health and environmental effects; the psycho-social impacts on the affected populations; and the influence of the accident on the nuclear industry worldwide. The physical impacts mark Chernobyl as the site of the most serious nuclear accident in history. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core released a cloud of radionuclides that contaminated large areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Hundreds of thousands of workers participated in efforts to mitigate the consequences of the accident, and many of these individuals were exposed to substantial radiation doses. The psycho-social impacts were also devastating. Over 100 000 people were evacuated immediately after the accident, and the total number of evacuees from severely contaminated areas eventually reached 350 000 people. While these resettlements helped to reduce the collective dose of radiation, it was deeply traumatic for those involved. The third impact I mentioned is the enormous influence of the Chernobyl accident on the nuclear industry. A decade earlier, the accident at Three Mile Island had already cast doubt on the ability of nuclear power plant operators to prevent severe accidents. Chernobyl had far greater impact; the accident emblazoned itself on public consciousness as proof positive that nuclear safety was an oxymoron. Some countries decided to reduce or terminate further construction of nuclear facilities, and the expansion of nuclear capacity came to a near standstill. It has taken nearly two decades of strong safety performance to repair the industry's reputation. From the time of the accident, the IAEA has been continuously involved in technical assistance and research projects to mitigate the environmental and health consequences in affected areas. Since 1990, more than $15 million has been disbursed through the IAEA technical cooperation programme on a broad range of these projects often in cooperation with other organizations represented here today. The Agency will continue those efforts, and we are committed to the 'UN Strategy for Recovery', launched in 2002. IAEA strongly supports the UN focus on developing new initiatives to address the human needs of the affected individuals, with a view to progressively restoring life to 'normal' to the degree possible

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Visit to Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Details of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant were given by Soviet experts at a special International Atomic Energy Agency meeting in Vienna, Austria, in August 1986. Several unanswered questions were made much clearer by a visit to the decontaminated and operating power plant at Chernobyl and by discussions with Soviet scientists. The visit gives us insights into the way the Soviets design their technology, the consequences of the accident, and the magnificent way they coped with the disaster. Although there are general conclusions to be drawn for the rest of the world, such as the realization that operators of technological systems can and will deliberately cut out safety systems, the primary specific conclusion is to be grateful that the West did not follow the Soviet route in its development of nuclear power

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Chernobyl, 14 years later  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) International cooperation, 7) More information about Chernobyl and 8) Glossary

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Emergency preparedness lessons from Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Emergency preparedness at nuclear power plants in the US has been considerably enhanced since the Three Mile Island accident. The Chernobyl accident has provided valuable data that can be used to evaluate the merit of some of these enhancements and to determine the need for additional improvements. For example, the USSR intervention levels of 25 rem and 75 rem for evacuation are contrasted with US Environmental Protection Agency protective action guides. The manner in which 135,000 persons were evacuated from the 30-km zone around Chernobyl is constrasted with typical US evacuation plans. Meteorological conditions and particulate deposition patterns were studied to infer characteristics of the radioactive plume from Chernobyl. Typical plume monitoring techniques are examined in light of lessons learned by the Soviets about plume behavior. This review has indicated a need for additional improvements in utility and government emergency plans, procedures, equipment, and training. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

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Chernobyl - a Canadian technical perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report we present the design review done to date in Canada by AECL. From the Canadian point of view it covers: 1) relevant information on the Chernobyl design and the accident, both as presented by the Soviets at the Post-Accident Review Meeting (PARM) held in Vienna from August 25-29, 1986, and as deduced from publicly available Soviet documentation; and 2) details of AECL's technical review of the CANDU PHWR (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) against the background of the Chernobyl accident, and implications of the Chernobyl accident. Reviews of operational aspects are underway by the Canadian electrical utilities and a review by the Canadian regulatory agency (the Atomic Energy Control Board) is near completion

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Chernobyl controversy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper is a criticism of the report by NRPB on their preliminary assessment of the Radiological Impact on the EEC's population of the Chernobyl accident. The criticism is presented by the Friends of the Earth radiation consultant. The incident of fatal cancers, risk estimates, radiation doses received by people, the effects of counter measures introduced to reduce doses received, and contaminated food, are all briefly discussed. (U.K.)

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After Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report discusses a number of effects of the Chernobyl-accident on public opinion about nuclear power. The analysis is based on a comparison of a survey conducted shortly after Chernobyl and a number of measurements in the Netherlands between 1982 and 1986. The conclusions can be summarized as follows: Attitudes towards nuclear power and especially towards building new stations have become much more negative after the disaster in Chernobyl. Although a majority of the population now wants to close existing nuclear power stations, there appears strong support for continuation of nuclear research. The structure of the nuclear debate has not changed fundamentally. Supporters and opponents have kept the same demographic characteristics. The arguments which distinguish them have not changed, except that the expectation of a serious accident has an increased impact on attitudes. A majority of the population felt the information after the accident not sufficient. Since 1982 attitudes towards coal also have become more negative, mainly as a consequence of the higher visibility of effects of acid rain. (Auth.)

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Accident at the Chernobyl AES and its consequences. Data prepared for the International Atomic Energy Agency Expert Conference (25-29 August 1986, Vienna)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report on the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant describes the plant and associated RBMK-1000 reactors and gives a chronology of the development of the accident. The causes of the accident are discussed as well as an analysis of the process of development of the accident. Also discussed are measures adopted to increase power plant safety and prevent development of similar accidents

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Chernobyl, 12 years later  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) The Franco-German cooperation, and 7) Glossary

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Chernobyl's legacy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The findings of the five year joint Chernobyl Research Programme undertaken by the European Union, the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Belarus, were presented at a conference in Minsk in March 1996. The overall impression from the conference is that the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident are relatively small. The total number of directly attributable deaths so far is 43. This includes: 28 reactor staff and firemen who died from acute radiation syndrome (ARS) with three others who died from other causes shortly after the accident; nine patients who have subsequently died from confirmed ARS; and three children who have died from thyroid cancer. Further deaths may occur with time amongst thyroid and ARS patients and it is always possible that there could be deaths in the long term from solid cancers which have a long induction time. A group of special interest for follow up are the workers involved in the emergency clean-up. There are no signs so far of an abnormal increase in childhood leukaemia or cancer, other than operable thyroid cancer, among the population living in the most contaminated areas. There are, however, disastrous social and economic effects for the people of Ukraine and Belarus and a great deal of concomitant psycho-somatic illness aggravated by the political upheavals of recent years. (U.K.)

 
 
 
 
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The enduring lessons of Chernobyl. International conference of the Chernobyl Forum, 6 September 2005, Vienna, Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a defining moment in the history of nuclear energy. The lessons of this tragedy are interwoven with a recurrent theme: namely, the importance of international cooperation. With its recently released document - entitled 'Chernobyl's Legacy' - the Chernobyl Forum has solidly reinforced that theme. The major impacts of Chernobyl fall into three categories: the physical impacts, in terms of health and environmental effects; the psychological and social impacts on the affected populations; and the influence of the accident on the nuclear industry worldwide. The physical impacts mark Chernobyl as the site of the most serious nuclear accident in history. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core released a cloud of radionuclides that contaminated large areas of Europe and, in particular, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Hundreds of thousands of people were exposed to substantial radiation doses, including workers from all three of these countries who participated in efforts to mitigate the consequences of the accident. The definitive numbers compiled in the Chernobyl Forum report are sobering: the 50 emergency rescue workers who died from acute radiation syndrome and related illnesses; the 4000 children and adolescents who contracted thyroid cancer - 9 of whom also died; and the hundreds of thousands of hectares of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres that were contaminated by environmental fallout. But as severe as these impacts were, the situation was made even worse by conflicting information and vast exaggerations - in press coverage and pseudo-scientific accounts of the accident - reporting, for example, fatalities in the tens or hundreds of thousands. The psychological and social impacts were also devastating. Over 100 000 people were immediately evacuated, and the total number of evacuees from contaminated areas eventually reached 350 000. While some of these resettlements were essential to reduce the collective dose of radiation, the experience was of course deeply traumatic for those involved. From the time of the accident, the IAEA has been continuously involved in technical cooperation and research projects to mitigate the environmental and health consequences in affected areas. Since 1990, we have spent more than $15 million on health care and monitoring, the development of new crops and agricultural guidelines, and other projects - often in cooperation with the organizations represented here today. But these efforts have not done nearly enough to address the human needs of the most affected populations. The Agency is committed to the UN Strategy for Recovery, and we agree with the recommendations of the Chernobyl Forum report. In particular, we stand ready to assist with the development of new initiatives that would help local populations regain control over their own livelihoods through assistance with safe food production techniques, improved primary health care, and encouragement of private sector investment and development

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Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The examination of the radioelements in macromicetae taken in the area of Como's Groane and in other areas near Lakes of Como and Maggiore and a few samples in Pine' di Trento are reported. A number of samples has been collected and analyzed at Joint Research Center, Ispra. A sampling of many pieces has been picked up by the Circolo Micologico Plinio il Vecchio and by the Unita' Sanitarie of Como and Varese. The various samples are subdivided for specie and the denomination for each one of them is given. The foundamental sampling is dated atumn 1986, a second sampling is made in autumn 1987. Gamma spectrometry has revealed the presence of many radiosotopes due to the Chernobyl fall-out. as Cs137, Cs134 and Ag110 (metastable); levels of Potassium 40, a natural radioactive element have been also measured. A discussion of results is presented and the comparison among data of the 1986 season and the 1987 one

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Chernobyl, 17 after  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This information document takes stock on the Chernobyl accident effects, 17 years after the reactor accident. The domains concerned are: the Chernobyl power plant, the sanitary consequences of the accident in the most exposed countries, the Chernobyl environment and the polluted regions management, the Chernobyl accident consequences in France; Some data and technical sheets on the RBMK reactors and the international cooperation are also provided. (A.L.B.)

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Lessons from Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dr Robert Gale, Los Angeles oncology specialist recounted what he considers the medical lessons of Chernobyl so far, the research challenges and oppurtunities remaining, assessments of the worldwide medical and political effects of the Chernobyl accident, and several insights into his own handling of and by Soviet officials and the American press. The Chernobyl accident has changed some previous medical thinking about radiation injury treatment and spawned several diagnostic and therapeutic innovations that have taught medicine valuable lessons

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Nuclear power after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The causes and progress of the accident at Chernobyl are described, and a comparison between the Chernobyl accident and the 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station is made. Significant similarities between Chernobyl and Three Mile Island include complacency of operators and industry, deliberate negation of safety systems, and a lack of understanding of their plant on the part of the operators, which shows the critical importance of the human element. The Chernobyl accident has implications for nuclear power in the United States; it will affect the research program of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, regulation of Department of Energy reactors, new reactor designs, and public attitudes

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The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations.

Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I.; Santillo, D.; Johnston, P.; Stringer, R.; Sadownichik, T. (eds.); Antipkin, Yu.G. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Arabskaya, L.P. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazyka, D.A. [Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)] (and others)

2006-04-15

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1. Chernobyl contamination through time and space.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl meltdown spread over 40% of Europe (including Austria, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, Romania, Great Britain, Germany, Italy, France, Greece, Iceland, Slovenia) and wide territories in Asia (including Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Emirates, China), northern Africa, and North America. Nearly 400 million people resided in territories that were contaminated with radioactivity at a level higher than 4 kBq/m(2) (0.11 Ci/km(2)) from April to July 1986. Nearly 5 million people (including, more than 1 million children) still live with dangerous levels of radioactive contamination in Belarus, Ukraine, and European Russia. Claims that the Chernobyl radioactive fallout adds "only 2%" to the global radioactive background overshadows the fact that many affected territories had previously dangerously high levels of radiation. Even if the current level is low, there was high irradiation in the first days and weeks after the Chernobyl catastrophe. There is no reasonable explanation for the fact that the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization (Chernobyl Forum, 2005) have completely neglected the consequences of radioactive contamination in other countries, which received more than 50% of the Chernobyl radionuclides, and addressed concerns only in Belarus, Ukraine, and European Russia. PMID:20002040

Yablokov, Alexey V; Nesterenko, Vassily B

2009-11-01

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The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations

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The message of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Public attitudes towards the accident at Chernobyl in April 1986 are discussed. Although affected by the radioactive fallout from Chernobyl, people in West Germany were still prepared to vote, only 3 months later, for political parties who would not change the nuclear situation, not for the 'Greens' who would. The whole issue is seen as a question of values and alternatives. (UK)

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Assisting the Return to Normal Life in Chernobyl-Affected Regions: The International Chernobyl Research and Information Network (ICRIN)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article describes the International Chernobyl Research and Information Network (ICRIN) project, a programme designed to meet the priority information needs of communities in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine which were affected by the 1986 nuclear accident. Its aim is to empower Chernobyl affected communities through targeted delivery of the most recent scientific information on the accident’s impacts, translated into practical advice, including recommendations on healthy lifestyles. Supported by a United Nations General Assembly resolution, the project is part of a broader effort by all United Nations agencies to help local communities return to normal life, under the United Nations Action Plan on Chernobyl to 2016. (author)

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Rehab Mark. Participant's Workbook.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual is the employer-focused component workbook of a vocational rehabilitation program. Goals of the RehabMark approach include increased exposure of the rehabilitation agency in the local community, expanded contributions by the agency to community members, and services benefiting numerous clients simultaneously. The first half of the…

Greenwood, Reed; And Others

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Chernobyl: the forgotten victims  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The longer-term consequences of the accident at Chernobyl are now, after 8 years, being realised in the tumours and solid cancers which are developing in the region. The Oncology Institute of Ukraine is poorly equipped so that many patients die when they could be treated. 'Clean', uncontaminated food, diagnostic equipment, radiation instruments, medicines and rehabilitation centres are urgently needed from the West. In spite of Chernobyl, the Ukrainian Parliament has voted to keep the Chernobyl 1 and 2 units going, and have lifted the moratorium on the construction of new nuclear plant. (UK)

33

Chernobyl: a documentary story  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This account of the Chernobyl disaster of April 1986 is based on interviews with many of the participants. Realising that the Chernobyl accident was to have a massive impact on the USSR and the world, the author felt impelled to travel to the designated danger zone around the reactor, to live there and to interview firemen, first-aid workers, party and government officials and local media representatives. The result is a variety of vivid eyewitness accounts that are unprecedented in their detail and frankness. These accounts show why the author considers the Chernobyl accident to be the most important event in the Soviet Union since World War II. The book, itself a product of glasnost, reveals how the Chernobyl accident was viewed from inside the Soviet Union. (author)

34

Chernobyl: fourteen years on  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current situation around Chernobyl is observed, special attention being paid to the status of SARCOPHAGUS and consequences for human health. The problem of low doses is reviewed, with an impact to what the hormesis is

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Chernobyl and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident of 26 April 1986 in Chernobyl with the immense activity release was a catastrophe which took many victims and will still take many. This fact should not be hidden. This brochure represents an attempt to reflect the poor information from Chernobyl in a generally understandable manner and to assess them. Its goal is especially to make clear why even in maximum accidents in German nuclear power plants there is no danger to the population. The effects of the radioactive substances released after the accident in Chernobyl on Germany are described and put into relation. All presentations and descriptions were kept as models and were simplified and are therefore incomplete. This brochure was not meant to be an educational book; it only tries to respond to the questions raised by the accident in Chernobyl in the minds of non-professionals thus taking away the fear and strengthening the confidence in the safety of German reactors. (orig.)

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Chernobyl': events and lessons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Information on the Chernobyl NPP accident problems is presented in the handbook. It based on the conclusions made by the Governmental Committee investigating accident reasons and its response, as well as on the Soviet report presented at IAEA experts conference. Special attention is paid to the problems on evacuation, radiation propagation, medical aspects, accident response and the 30-km area problem. Lessons gained after the Chernobyl accident are studied

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Chernobyl, 16 years later  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document on the Chernobyl site evolution is constituted around four main questions. What about the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor and the ''sarcophagus'' constructed around the reactor? What about the sanitary consequences of the accident on the liquidators asked to blot out the radiation and the around people exposed to radiation? What about the contaminated land around the power plant and their management? Concerning the France, what were the ''radioactive cloud'' sanitary consequences? (A.L.B.)

38

Chernobyl: tragedy of errors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The factors which were instrumented in producing a catastrophic prompt critical nuclear excursion at Chernobyl 4, on 26 April 1986, are discussed. The basic sequence of events leading to accident is detailed. The future of RBMK reactors is considered together with recommendations from the Vienna post-accident meeting in August. The effects on humans, both short-term and long-term are considered. The processes of cleaning up the Chernobyl Station and the surrounding area is outlined. (UK)

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Real and mythical consequences of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation describes the public Unacceptance of Nuclear Power as a consequence of Chernobyl Accident, an accident which was a severest event in the history of the nuclear industry. It was a shock for everybody, who has been involved in nuclear power programs. But nobody could expect that it was also the end romantic page in the nuclear story. The scale of the detriment was a great, and it could be compared with other big technological man-made catastrophes. But immediately after an accident mass media and news agencies started to transmit an information with a great exaggerations of the consequences of the event. In a report on the Seminar The lessons of the Chernobyl - 1' in 1996 examples of such incorrect information, were cited. Particularly, in the mass media it was declared that consequences of the accident could be compared with a results of the second world war, the number of victims were more than hundred thousand people, more than million of children have the serious health detriments. Such and other cases of the misconstruction have been called as myths. The real consequences of Chernobyl disaster have been summed on the International Conference 'One decade after Chernobyl' - 2, in April 1996. A very important result of the Chernobyl accident was a dissemination of stable unacceptance of the everything connected with 'the atom'. A mystic horror from invisible mortal radiation has been inspired in the masses. And from such public attitude the Nuclear Power Programs in many countries have changed dramatically. A new more pragmatic and more careful atomic era started with a slogan: 'Kernkraftwerk ? Nein, danke'. No doubt, a Chernobyl accident was a serious technical catastrophe in atomic industry. The scale of detriment is connected with a number of involved peoples, not with a number of real victims. In comparison with Bhopal case, earthquakes, crashes of the airplanes, floods, traffic accidents and other risky events of our life - the Chernobyl is not a most hazardous ones. Such psychological effects of the Chernobyl accident resulted from the lack of public information, the stress of relocation and the fear that any radiation exposures are damaging. Those affected people are believing that illnesses of all kinds are due to radiation. The spreading of such mistaken did influence on general public disapproval of Nuclear Power. This presentation includes also the data of real consequences for the health of concerned population

40

Space Radar Image of Chernobyl  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an image of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its surroundings, centered at 51.17 north latitude and 30.15 west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 16th orbit on October 1, 1994. The area is located on the northern border of the Ukraine Republic and was produced by using the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization. The differences in the intensity are due to differences in vegetation cover, with brighter areas being indicative of more vegetation. These data were acquired as part of a collaboration between NASA and the National Space Agency of Ukraine in Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences. NASA has included several sites provided by the Ukrainian space agency as targets of opportunity during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The Ukrainian space agency also plans to conduct airborne surveys of these sites during the mission. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located toward the top of the image near the Pripyat River. The 12-kilometer (7.44-mile)-long cooling pond is easily distinguishable as an elongated dark shape in the center near the top of the image. The reactor complex is visible as the bright area to the extreme left of the cooling pond and the city of Chernobyl is the bright area just below the cooling pond next to the Pripyat River. The large dark area in the bottom right of the image is the Kiev Reservoir just north of Kiev. Also visible is the Dnieper River, which feeds into the Kiev Reservoir from the top of the image. The Soviet government evacuated 116,000 people within 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) of the Chernobyl reactor after the explosion and fire on April 26, 1986. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Chernobyl, 13 years after  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is an annual report, regularly issued by IPSN, that presents the ecological and health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. The present status of the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant, which Ukraine engaged to stop definitively in year 2000, is summarized. The only reactor unit now in operation is Chernobylsk-3 Reactor which poses two safety questions: evolution of cracks in part of the tubing and behaviour of the pressure tubes. Although, some improvements in the RBMK reactor types were introduced, problems remain that make IPSN to stress the requirement of stopping this NPP completely. In the contaminated territories surrounding Chernobyl incidence rate of infant thyroid cancers continues to grow, reaching values 10 to 100 times higher than the natural rate. In France the IPSN analyzed 60,000 records carried out in 17 sites during May 1986 and April 1989. It was estimated that the individual dose received during 60 years (1986-2046) by the inhabitants of the most affected zone (eastern France) is lower than 1.5 mSv, a value lower than 1% of the natural cosmic and telluric radioactivity exposure for the same period. For the persons assumed to live in the most attacked forests (from eastern France) and nourishing daily with venison and mushrooms the highest estimate is 1 mSv a year. Concerning the 'hot spots', identified in mountains by IPSN and CRIIRAD, the doses received by excursionists are around 0.015 mSv. For an average inhabitant of the country the dose piled up in the thyroid due to iodine-131 fallout is estimated to 0.5-2 mSv for an adult and 6.5-16 mSv for an infant. These doses are 100 to 1000 times lower than the ones to which the infants living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl are exposed to. The contents of the report is displayed in the following six chapters: 1. Chernobyl in some figures; 2. The 'sarcophagus' and the reactors of the Chernobyl NPP; 3. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident;. 4. The impact of Chernobyl fallout in France; 5. Chernobyl's environment and the management of contaminated territories.; 6. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl

42

Chernobyl: closure by 2000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Discussions on the future of the Chernobyl nuclear plant between the Ukrainian government, the Group of Seven Industrial nations (GT) and the European Union (EU) are summarized. At the G7 meeting, a timetable for the closure of the entire station by 2000 was presented by Ukrainian officials. The timetable depends on financial commitments from Western governments. Without these, the project would take 10 to 15 years. Following this meeting, which took place on 16-17th May 1995. EU finance ministers authorized release of a ECU 85 million loan. On 23 May, the European Parliament's Committee on Research, Technology and Energy held a public hearing on the Chernobyl station. The primary topic was a feasibility study on the clean-up of Chernobyl 4 and plans for the sarcophagus. Other matters discussed included the effect of the delays and indecision in settling the plants's future. Safety improvements being made to other RBMKs were not being carried out at Chernobyl because of the expected closure. The replacement of the power now supplied to the Ukraine by the Chernobyl reactors is also an issue. The solution favoured by the Ukraine is to being on-line three VVER-1000s that are currently close to completion. Western governments find this solution difficult to accept, however. (UK)

43

Structural aspects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986 the world's worst nuclear power plant accident occurred at the Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the USSR. This paper presents a discussion of the design of the Chernobyl Power Plant, the sequence of events that led to the accident and the damage caused by the resulting explosion. The structural design features that contributed to the accident and resulting damage will be highlighted. Photographs and sketches obtained from various worldwide news agencies will be shown to try and gain a perspective of the extent of the damage. The aftermath, clean-up, and current situation will be discussed and the important lessons learned for the structural engineer will be presented. 15 refs., 10 figs

44

Healthy living after Chernobyl?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our food today is endangered not only through environmental poisons and the machinations of profit-hungry manufacturers but also, after the reactor disaster of Chernobyl, by radioactive materials. There is great uncertainty amongst consumers: Whan can I still eat? How can I best protect my children from food products contaminated by radioactivity or enriched with pollutants? Does it still make sense to buy organically produced foodstuffs? Which food products are low in pollutants? With this book the authors want to counteract general helplessness and help the reader with comprehensible and sound information as well as practical tips for eating and living healthily after Chernobyl. (orig.)

45

The post Chernobyl society  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The disaster from the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl that took place on April 26, 1986 is considered to be the worst ecologic disaster in Europe during the entire nuclear power producing history (estimated on the highest level, the seventh). The disaster had an poisonous impact on people's health and ambitions, it also gave birth to a new vision on the impact of the human factor on the universe. The post Chernobyl society is an alarming sign as regarding the human surviving perspectives, and a violent lesson on the 'global biography'. (author)

46

Stretch Marks  

Science.gov (United States)

... How to Manage a Serious Allergic Reaction Quiz: Baseball Injuries Stretch Marks KidsHealth > Teens > Body > Body Beautiful > ... marks also may occur if a person uses steroid-containing skin creams or ointments (such as hydrocortisone) ...

47

A cathedral for Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A containment shell will protect the Chernobyl reactor. The candidate enterprises for this containment shell construction, proposed gigantic buildings, which will be a great technical challenge. The author presents the project and wonders on the cost and the financing. (A.L.B.)

48

Chernobyl: The WHO helps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This booklet addresses concerns of the populations of the areas of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia affected by the Chernobyl accident. Answers to commonly asked questions comprise the bulk of the information, but the booklet also describes the WHO's work to study and mitigate the effects on the exposed populations

49

Chernobyl accident and Danmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

50

Wildlife in Chernobyl forests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article is a review of a book addressed Wormwood Forest: a natural history of Chernobyl which describes life in Europe's largest wildlife sanctuary in the region surrounding the Chernobyl station. Since the accident, the area has largely been a safe haven from hunters and farmers, allowing the wildlife to live in an undisturbed environment. Against this backdrop, the book describes in detail, a highly controversial programme that released an endangered species of horse into the zone. Lack of funding for such programmes makes it nearly impossible to administer them. The book blends reportage, popular science and encounters with the zone's few residents. The result is an account of a remarkable land, its people and animals seen through the eyes of the locals, the author and the zoologists, botanists and radiologists who travelled with her around the zone. The radiation is the book's ever-present protagonist, as the author describes in detail how it works itself through the entire food chain and environment. Along the author's journey through the affected regions of Belarus and Ukraine she debunks several myths surrounding Chernobyl and the nuclear industry in general. In fact, while there have been a small number of cases of mutations observed in some species, these are not as dramatic as the Chernobyl mythology.

51

Children of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report is given here of a visit to Poland last year, when the author made contact with Byelorussian families on a respite holiday from their towns and villages contaminated after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Their experiences belie the reassuring noises coming from the International Atomic Energy Authority. (author)

52

Science. Chernobyl-96. Abstracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The collection contains the results of Chernobyl accident investigation on the territory of Ukraine. The conference was devoted to the following problems: -equipment and dosimetry; - agriculture and forestry radioecology and environmental monitoring; - medical, biological and social consequences; - waste management; - 'Shelter' problems; - information and simulation technologies

53

The Chernobyl effect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In what way and to what extent does an event like the Chernobyl reactor accident influence the citizen's attitudes and political commitment. This book evolves a number of theses on these questions dealing above all with the determinants of political protest. Two investigations are presented in order to verify those theses: in 1982 and 1987 (some nine months after the Chernobyl reactor accident), the same persons were interviewed. In addition, representative surveys in the Federal Republic of Germany are analysed, in order to assess in general the impact of Chernobyl. From the contents: explanation model for political protest; Chernobyl effect: effect of critical events on the mobilization of political protest; discontent with nuclear energy use, political alienation and protest; internal incentives for protest: norms, readiness for aggression, and entertainment quality of protest; resources as determinants of political protest; sanctions and protest; social nets and political protest; verification of a central model of political protest, and problems encountered by research. Appendix: investigation plan and random sampling of the panel of nuclear power opponents. (orig./HP)

54

Chernobyl accident and Denmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

55

The Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP)

56

Mark Zimmermann  

Mark Zimmermann, Empa Building Science & Technology, ECBCS Technical \\Day, Oxford, November 18, 2009. Slide 1 ... Renovation of Residential Buildings. \\ECBCS Technical ..... state only renovations reconstruction. Society. Environment\\.

57

The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An AAEC Task Group was set up shortly after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to monitor and evaluate initial reports and to assess the implications for Australia. The Task Group issued a preliminary report on 9 May 1986. On 25-29 August 1986, the USSR released details of the accident and its consequences and further information has become available from the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and the World Health Organisation. The Task Group now presents a revised report summarising this information and commenting on the consequences from the Australian viewpoint

58

The consequences of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description is given of the Chernobyl IV Reactor its operation and safety system. The following issues are analyzed; 1: the errors of the operators that produced the accident in april 26, 1986; 2: the fallout caused by the first explosions, that has mainly incorporated I and Cs in the food chain; 3: the path of the Chernobyl cloud, its passing across the north and south of Europe, and the middle east; 4: measures to stop the accident, fire control, plant stabilization and recovery of the place; 5: a sarcophagus, a technical novelty, had to be built due to the difficulties of monitoring; 6: the problematic decontamination of the forested places, caused interesting programs to be developed. Afterwords the effects produced by high and low doses in the population, were studied. A group of experts, reached the conclusion that no corrective or improvement measures for the occidental safety mechanisms, were required. (M.E.L.)

59

The Chernobyl legacy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The legacy of the accident at Chernobyl is assessed. Eight years on the accident still influences the way people view nuclear power and it has had serious implications for the development of nuclear power across the world. In the Ukraine 135,000 people were evacuated from their homes near the reactor and the number of cancers predicted from the dispersed radioactivity is beginning to appear. The sarcophagus built around the reactor to contain the radioactive release is in danger of collapse giving rise to new fears of radiation hazards. Other RBMK and VVER reactors are still running because there is no money to close them down and replace them. In Britain some sheep still exceed the government limits for levels of radioactive cesium. One thing is certain - nuclear power could not survive another accident like Chernobyl. (UK)

60

Reflections on Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl and Three Mile Island reactor accidents are revealing some of the social costs of such failures, widespread opposition to nuclear power. As far as mortality and morbidity go, Chernobyl was probably a smaller incident than the chemical disaster at Bhopal. But nuclear people must accept the idea that a nuclear hazard is perceived as somehow different. Since nuclear energy will be needed to replace oil eventually, and the environmental impacts of properly operating nuclear power plants are far less than those of fossil fuelled power plants, this appears to be an appropriate time for the United States and other interested countries to start developing inherently safe nuclear power plants which will be acceptable to the public

 
 
 
 
61

Chernobyl: what sanitary consequences?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

62

Accidents - Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

63

Decontamination: DECOHA at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The DECOHA decontamination process is to be used on stainless steel at the Chernobyl site. The process offers the following advantages: low occupational exposure; minimum secondary waste production; universal applicability; and low capital and operating costs. The process uses fluoroboric acid (HBF4), which attacks almost every metal surface and all metal oxides, providing steady dissolution of the contaminated layer. It dissolves not only stainless steel but also carbon steel, aluminium, lead, and nickel alloys, eg Inconel 600, zircaloy etc. The plant supplied to Chernobyl offers novel possibilities for the decontamination of components and complete plant parts. Apart from the decontamination of dismantled parts, the process is also suitable for in-line decontamination of pipes or components (eg heat exchangers, steam generators) so that removing the item to be decontaminated is not always necessary. Plants for decontaminating cover plates and complete service plants using the DECOHA process are currently being planned. (author)

64

8 years after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident is the largest radiation catastrophe in its scale and prolonged consequences. Nearly 70% of radioactive materials released into the atmosphere as a result of the reactor accident have deposited at the territory of Belarus. 23% of the territory republic turned out to be contaminated with cesium 137 with radiation density 1 Ci/sq.km. 2.1 millions of people inhabited these areas in Belarus (about 20% population). More than 18000 sq.km of agricultural land (22%) and more than 20000 sq.km of forests (30% of the entire tract) have been contaminated with radionuclides. There is not a single branch of production which is not damaged by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. After-effects of the accident tell on health of people. The increase of diseases of cardiovascular, alimentary, nervous, musculoskeletal systems, mental and lung diseases is observed in the area of radioactive contamination. Lately, the rise of thyroid cancer rates in children (from 1986 until 1994 more than 250 cases) causes particular anxiety. Nowadays, thyroid cancer is precisely considered as the direct after-effect of the Chernobyl catastrophe. Frequency of children birth with defects is nearly twice as large in the areas with density of contamination with cesium 137 radionuclides exceeding 15 Ci/sq.km. The creation of the system of radiation control is one of the main problems in elimination of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. Radiometers with the ability to cbyl NPP. Radiometers with the ability to control over Republican permissible levels of radionuclide content in food product and water have been created in the Republic. The radiation situation have been studied and the contaminated areas have been mapped. The control over radioactive contamination of air, water, sediments in carried out. (author)

65

Chernobyl source term estimation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl source term available for long-range transport was estimated by integration of radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling and by reactor core radionuclide inventory estimation in conjunction with WASH-1400 release fractions associated with specific chemical groups. The model simulations revealed that the radioactive cloud became segmented during the first day, with the lower section heading toward Scandinavia and the upper part heading in a southeasterly direction with subsequent transport across Asia to Japan, the North Pacific, and the west coast of North America. By optimizing the agreement between the observed cloud arrival times and duration of peak concentrations measured over Europe, Japan, Kuwait, and the US with the model predicted concentrations, it was possible to derive source term estimates for those radionuclides measured in airborne radioactivity. This was extended to radionuclides that were largely unmeasured in the environment by performing a reactor core radionuclide inventory analysis to obtain release fractions for the various chemical transport groups. These analyses indicated that essentially all of the noble gases, 60% of the radioiodines, 40% of the radiocesium, 10% of the tellurium and about 1% or less of the more refractory elements were released. These estimates are in excellent agreement with those obtained on the basis of worldwide deposition measurements. The Chernobyl source term was several orders of magnitude greater than those associated with the Windscale and TMI reactor accidents. However, the 137Cs from the Chernobyl event is about 6% of that released by the US and USSR atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, while the 131I and 90Sr released by the Chernobyl accident was only about 0.1% of that released by the weapon tests. 13 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

66

Chernobyl source term estimation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Chernobyl source term available for long-range transport was estimated by integration of radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling and by reactor core radionuclide inventory estimation in conjunction with WASH-1400 release fractions associated with specific chemical groups. The model simulations revealed that the radioactive cloud became segmented during the first day, with the lower section heading toward Scandinavia and the upper part heading in a southeasterly direction with subsequent transport across Asia to Japan, the North Pacific, and the west coast of North America. By optimizing the agreement between the observed cloud arrival times and duration of peak concentrations measured over Europe, Japan, Kuwait, and the US with the model predicted concentrations, it was possible to derive source term estimates for those radionuclides measured in airborne radioactivity. This was extended to radionuclides that were largely unmeasured in the environment by performing a reactor core radionuclide inventory analysis to obtain release fractions for the various chemical transport groups. These analyses indicated that essentially all of the noble gases, 60% of the radioiodines, 40% of the radiocesium, 10% of the tellurium and about 1% or less of the more refractory elements were released. These estimates are in excellent agreement with those obtained on the basis of worldwide deposition measurements. The Chernobyl source term was several orders of magnitude greater than those associated with the Windscale and TMI reactor accidents. However, the {sup 137}Cs from the Chernobyl event is about 6% of that released by the US and USSR atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, while the {sup 131}I and {sup 90}Sr released by the Chernobyl accident was only about 0.1% of that released by the weapon tests. 13 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Gudiksen, P.H.; Harvey, T.F.; Lange, R.

1990-09-01

67

Chernobyl 25 years on  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief recall on radioactivity measurement units and on radioactivity itself, this report describes and comments the Chernobyl accident, its consequent releases, the scattering of the radioactive plume over Europe, the formation of radioactive deposits in Europe, the contamination of the different environments and of the food chain, the health impact in the most contaminated areas, the doses received in France and their associated risks. It finally draws some lessons from this accident

68

Chernobyl: a year after  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactivity measurements in the year after the Chernobyl accident, carried out by the Radioprotection Division of the Joint Research Centre of Ispra, are reported. Air at ground level and in grass, milk, wheat, meat, fishes and man have been measured. The evaluation of the 1987 individual dose equivalent due to the exposure of the population living in N.W. Italy is compared with the dose equivalent absorbed in the year following the accident

69

Chernobyl: radiation and disinformation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief review is presented of the accident at Chernobyl and the delay in reporting it. A hypothesis is suggested for the cause of the accident and subsequent increase in intensity as resulting from decomposition of water and release of hydrogen at the high temperatures reached. Comments are also made on radiation levels compared with those from natural background radiation and from mass-radiography. (V.J.H.)

70

Fallout From Chernobyl  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson plan reinforces the concept that changes to the environment in one place can often affect other, distant places. Students will read and analyze several articles describing consequences of the 1986 explosion and fire at a nuclear power plant in Chernobyl, Ukraine, a country which at that time was part of the Soviet Union. Students will then create a map showing which countries were affected by this disaster and how they were affected.

71

Post Chernobyl-5  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper gives the results of individual monitoring carried out on population after Chernobyl accident. After a brief description of measurement methods as well as instrumentation features, the results of I-131 contamination in thyroid and of beta-gamma emitters on people's skin and clothing are reported. From the information available it appears that people coming out from Kiev (U.S.S.R.) showed the higher contamination

72

Chernobyl - 10 years on. Proceedings of a conference organised by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident from an Irish perspective was the focus of a conference organised by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland to mark the tenth anniversary of the accident. The health consequences of Chernobyl were discussed along with presentations on such issues as the hazards to the Irish population from Sellafield; the radiation hazard posed by radon gas; radiation hazards in medicine, industry and education, and Ireland's National Emergency Plan for Nuclear Accidents

73

Marking Time  

Science.gov (United States)

Teachers say that they would gladly teach a day in the classroom if at the end of the day they could leave and have no marking. There is a common staffroom perception that mathematics teachers have it easy when it comes to marking. In arts subjects, setting an essay can be a fairly straightforward matter--a one-line question may suffice--but…

Foster, Colin

2011-01-01

74

Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

h, environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the United Nations in 2003 launched an Inter-Agency initiative, the Chernobyl Forum. The Forum's Secretariat, led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and several other international organizations collaborated with the governments of the affected countries. The purpose of the Chernobyl Forum was to review the consequences of the accident, issue technical reports and, based on this information, to provide authoritative statements and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. An additional purpose of the Forum was to provide the information in non-scientific, appropriate languages (Russian and English) to the affected populations. Under the Forum's auspices, the WHO's Radiation and Environmental Health Programme convened a series of international scientific expert meetings. They included scientists of international repute who had been conducting research on Chernobyl. This report is the outcome of WHO's contribution to the Forum. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) review of the scientific literature on Chernobyl health effects published in 2000 was used in this review and updated with more recent information. Many lessons have been learned from the Chernobyl accident and preparations have been made to respond to and mitigate future accidents. An international system of response to nuclear emergencies and radiological accidents has been established, including the WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Response Network. Over the past 20 years, people in the three affected countries have come a long way in Overcoming the consequences of the accident. Providing the public and key professionals with accurate information about the health and environmental consequences of the disaster should be a high priority. This report is the result of a sound scientific evaluation of the available evidence and provides a firm basis for moving forward

75

Chernobyl - 20 years and beyond  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In commemoration of the Chernobyl accident 20 years ago, the French society for radiation protection (S.F.R.P.) and the Belgian society for radiation protection (B.V.S.A.B.R.) organise jointly a one day colloquium in Brussels. This colloquium is divided in two parts: the first one concerns the technical and organisational aspects of the accident with the scenario and its global impact, the international environmental radioactivity information exchange through the Chernobyl experience, the European Union (E.U.) assistance to mitigate the Chernobyl accident consequences, the crisis communication and management and the lessons learned from them; the second part is devoted to the medical and humanitarian aspects through the thyroid cancers after Chernobyl accident, the health effects in the European Union (E.U.) and the psychological factors affecting health after the Chernobyl disaster. (N.C.)

76

Chernobyl - 20 years and beyond  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In commemoration of the Chernobyl accident 20 years ago, the French society for radiation protection (S.F.R.P.) and the Belgian society for radiation protection (B.V.S.A.B.R.) organise jointly a one day colloquium in Brussels. This colloquium is divided in two parts: the first one concerns the technical and organisational aspects of the accident with the scenario and its global impact, the international environmental radioactivity information exchange through the Chernobyl experience, the European Union (E.U.) assistance to mitigate the Chernobyl accident consequences, the crisis communication and management and the lessons learned from them; the second part is devoted to the medical and humanitarian aspects through the thyroid cancers after Chernobyl accident, the health effects in the European Union (E.U.) and the psychological factors affecting health after the Chernobyl disaster. (N.C.)

Lacronique, J.F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Deconinck, F.; Govaerts, P.; Eggermont, C. [SCK-CEN - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie, Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Cort, M. de [Institute for Environment and Sustainability, DG JRC EC (Italy); Joulia, J.P. [EuropeAid Co-operation Office, EC, Brussels (Belgium); Dal, A.H.; Balonov, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Kenigsberg, J. [Commission on Radiation protection, council of ministry (Belarus); Hindie, E. [Universites Paris, 75 (France); Havenaar, M. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands)

2006-07-01

77

Debate on the Chernobyl disaster: response to Dr. Sergei V. Jargin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stated purpose of Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment, published by the New York Academy of Sciences in 2009, was to challenge and answer publications on Chemobyl and its aftermath by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Until the independence of the WHO from the IAEA is assured, we can have little faith in their statements, whether it involves Chernobyl or Fukushima. PMID:22403908

Sherman, Janette D

2012-01-01

78

Geochemistry of Chernobyl radionuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at the Chernobyl NPP caused contamination of the most of Ukrainian and Byelorussian territory and of Briansk region (Russia). Over 80 radionuclides with half-life more then 5 hours and total activity amounted to almost 1.9*1018Bq were released into environment. Solid-phase are characteristic for the contaminated areas of Ukraine and condensation ones for those of Belarus. About 90% of solid-phase radioactive deposits are parts with radionuclide composition close to that of irradiated nuclear fuel. In the first post-accidental months the main mechanism of vertical dislocation of radionuclides of the Chernobyl fuel fallout was migration of radionuclides in a form of solid particles. In soil radioactive deposits are subjected to influence of soil solutions. The pace of 90Sr into the mobile form is measured by years another radionuclides release from particles with the same rate but relatively quickly transfer into immobile form. Owing to difference in immobilization rates in soils 90Sr is found at present on the whole in mobile form, 80-95% of activity of another radionuclides are found in immobile form. Grading of radionuclides caused by forms of nuclides occurs the river system. Owing to that, 90Sr transfers into soluble state and depletion of bottom sediments. Regional evacuation of 90Sr from contaminated drainage system into the river system of Dnieper is 5 times higher than of 137Cs. The first forecast of contamination of the river system after accident was based on geochemical behaviour of radionuclides of the Chernobyl fallout and subsequent events bore out it. Now forecast of natural decontamination of contaminated lands and counter measured are based on radiochemical knowledge

79

Chernobyl accident and Denmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. The event at the accident site, the release and dispersal of radioactive substances into the atmosphere and over Europe, is described. A discussion of the Danish organisation for nuclear emergencies, how it was activated and adapted to the actual situation, is given. A comprehensive description of the radiological contamination in Denmark following the accident and the estimated health effects, is presented. The situation in other European countries is mentioned. (author)

80

Radiation after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have tried not to succumb to a currently prevailing fashion which is to write about nothing but Chernobyl and nuclear power plants. Man encounters radiation also in other spheres of life, especially in medicine; those aspects maintain their rank in this book. The aim of it is to give an expert and scientific presentation of the entire field in a manner providing even to the expert a number of pieces of information and to the layman an intelligible overview. With 55 figs., 27 tabs

 
 
 
 
81

Evaluation investigation 'Chernobyl'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is an evaluation of the attitude of the Dutch government in response to the Chernobyl accident. It deals with measures taken by the government in order to minimize the (possible) effects, apparent shortcomings and how one has dealt with them, measures which can be taken at least by the Netherlands in case of a reactor accident given the presence of dozens of nuclear power plants in Europe. Good and less good aspects of the temporary organization are noted and some general recommendations are given. (Auth.)

82

Chernobyl, fifteen years after  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work has been constituted around four questions: the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor, and the sarcophagus around it; the health consequences of the accident on the persons that have worked on the damaged reactor and on the population in the countries the most exposed to fallout,; the situation of contaminated territories around the power plant and their management today; the last question concerns especially the France with the consequences of the radioactive cloud and what we know about the health risks induced by this event. (N.C.)

83

The accident of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

84

Chernobyl and pump cavitation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The outcome of studies by Atomic Energy of Canada in collaboration with the Nuclear Safety Analysis Centre provides a perspective regarding the influence of such factors as positive scram and pump cavitation in Chernobyl. In the absence of definitive plant information, several possible keys to the accident can be postulated. Looking at available information on likely plant conditions, and on the subsequent core damage, the simulations suggest the positive scram effect did have a role, in conjunction with void reactivity and flow rundown effects, in triggering the event. Pump cavitation, while of potential general significance, appears to be inconsistent with known information about the accident. (author)

85

Chernobyl and Soviet law  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article deals with problems after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl, especially concerning Soviet liability law. In the Soviet Union, article 450 of the Ukrainian Civil Code provides a strict liability which is relevant for the operation of a nuclear reactor, too. Particular problems, however, arise from the high degree of secrecy in Soviet atomic law. The author supposes that Soviet law has developed the principle of customary international law for the liability of nuclear damage. The enforcement of these claims, however, is still to be found. (CW)

86

Chernobyl, an opinion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After having recalled the circumstances of the Chernobyl accident, and given some indications of associated releases (iodine 131, caesium 134 and 137), the authors gives an overview of biological effects of radiations: generalities (doses, biological effects), results of epidemiological studies in terms of stochastic effects of radiations (for survivals of atomic explosions, in other epidemiological studies, in epidemiological studies related to thyroid), of relationship between dose and effect in the case of low doses (generalities, risk coefficients), and of extrapolation. In the next part, the authors discuss the health consequences of the accident in the former USSR and in the world: consequences noticed by the end of 2000 (non stochastic effects, stochastic effects like occurrence of thyroid cancers or of leukaemia, exposed populations, occurrence of other cancers), predictions of impacts and death on a long term due to stochastic effects (for thyroid cancers, leukaemia and other cancers), global assessment. Then, they discuss the impact of the Chernobyl accident: generalities, doses delivered to the whole body, thyroid cancers

87

The Chernobyl cloud would have stopped at the borders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author proposes a retrospective overview and analysis of information published either by involved agencies or by media after the Chernobyl accident about the presence or absence of radioactive fallouts in France. While defending Professor Pellerin, the author acknowledges some mistakes made by authorities in their communication, but also outlines that some realistic and clear information published by the SCPRI or the CIPR have been quickly forgotten by the media. The author analyses the different publications and communiques made by authorities, agencies and media over different periods: from April to May 1986, in 1999 when Professor Pellerin filed a defamation lawsuit against authors of a book, and when an ecologist politician was also sentenced. The author then proposes a discussion of health consequences of Chernobyl in France, and analyses the controversy on this issue during the 1997-2006 period. He comments the content of a report published in March 2006 by the IRSN scientific committee

88

Assessment of Chernobyl health consequences under the influence of public and other interests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl reactor accident on 26 April 1986 was the largest and most severe disaster in the history of civil nuclear technology involving radiation exposure and radioactive contamination of large areas in the NIS. Among the three countries Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, Belarus was mostly affected, because about 70% of the radioactive fallout was deposited on its territory. The radiation doses from various nuclides, to which the public as well as the liquidators were exposed during the first months, let expect serious health consequences for a large number of persons. During the first weeks after the accident, the authorities in Moscow released several orders of secrecy. Later, in July 1987 the order was given that acute and chronic diseases of liquidators, who were exposed to less than 50 rem, must not be attributed to the effects of ionizing radiation. In 1990, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized the International Chernobyl Project, with the participation of the Commission of the European Communities, the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO) and others, in order to investigate and assess the radiological situation in the three affected Soviet Republics. 200 scientists from the West and 500 from USSR were sent by their governments to participate. Concerning the health impact, the IAEA team under its chairman professor F. Mettler from USA concluded in 1991 that there were no health disorders that could be attributed directly to radiation exposure. IAEA favoured psychological stress and anxiety to be the cause of health disorders observed. This information was spread world wide. But in reality, at this time the number of thyroid cancer cases in children in Belarus was already 30 times higher than the average in the 10 years before Chernobyl. And IAEA and other international organizations did not want to take into account the findings and reports of Belarusian and Ukrainian scientists on the marked increase in thyroid cancers, BBC found out and published in 1996 an TV documentation that as far back as 1990 F. Mettler had analyzed in the USA the pathological slides of thyroid cancer of 20 Ukrainian children confirming the malignancy in all cases. But Mettler and his colleagues suppressed this fact and stated in their reports that there was none. As a result, international organizations and the UN did not s tart proper assistance programmes for t he people affected and valuable time was lost. A new report in 2000 by the UNSCEAR committee contained a evaluation of the consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl accident which concludes that there is no evidence of a major public health impact attributable to radiation exposure fourteen years after the accident, apart from a high level of (treatable, non-fatal) thyroid cancers in children. With this exception, the report states 'there is no scientific evidence of increases in over all cancer incidence or mortality or in non-malignant disorders that could be related to radiation exposure.' The statement of UNSCEAR ignores a large number of scientific publications on a several fold increase in thyroid cancers in adults, the large increase in non-malignant thyroid disorders and in other diseases. It should be noted that this UN committee does not consist of independently elected scientists, but only of those being sent as representatives of governments of the 21 nations, who have strong interest in the use of nuclear technology. And F. Mettler is still member of UNSCEAR and represents the interests of the US government. Two international research programmes on the health effects of Chernobyl are of special interest. In the Project 'International Cooperation for post Chernobyl NIS Thyroid Tissue, Nucleic Acid and Data Banks' the USA, the European Atomic Energy Community, Japan and WHO invited Belarus, Russia and Ukraine to form a collaborative research resource. In the description of the programme it is outlined that competition among scientific groups should be avoided, that the study of

89

The Chernobyl Trace in Belarus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is described the radiation contamination of territory of the Republic of Belarus in 1996 as result of the Chernobyl NPP accident. The maps and diagrams showing a radiation situation in the republic are given. 24 figs

90

Calculating Risk: Radiation and Chernobyl.  

Science.gov (United States)

Considers who is at risk in a disaster such as Chernobyl. Assesses the difficulty in translating information regarding radiation to the public and in determining the acceptability of technological risks. (NKA)

Gale, Robert Peter

1987-01-01

91

Bhopal and Chernobyl: some comparisons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An attempt is made to compare some aspects of the accidents at Bhopal and Chernobyl, their causes and consequences. There were design and management inadequacies in both cases, Maintenance inadequacies were plenty in Bhopal but not in Chernobyl. Written instructions were unsatisfactory in Bhopal. In Chernobyl the operators deliberately violated the instructions repeatedly; this compounded by the unsatisfactory nature of reactor design, led to the accident. Disaster management preparedness and emergency response were excellent at Chernobyl. At Bhopal the plant management was absolutely unprepared and contributed practically nothing to the emergency management; however, civil and military authorities did a splendid job. Immediate deaths in Bhopal are estimated to be 2,500 to 10,000 and the number affected 200,000. None of the plant staff were affected and all the casualties were in non-plant personnel living nearby. All the 31 deaths in Chernobyl were among the plant personnel. Although 135,000 persons living in a 30 Km zone round the reactor were evacuated and medically examined, none had to be hospitalised. The world scientific community seems to have forgotten Bhopal within a year or so after the accident, while Chernobyl continues to excite intense interest. Extensive knowledge of the biological effects of radiation helps to estimate the likely number of cancer and genetic effects from Chernobyl. Knowledge of Methyl iso cyanate (MIC) toxicology is woefully inadequatate (MIC) toxicology is woefully inadequate; recent evidence indicates the possibility of carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of MIC. Both at Bhopal and Chernobyl there are elaborate plans for detailed followup of the populations for several decades. (author). 17 refs., 3 tabs

92

Nuclear Energy Law after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication contains a serie of presentations on effects of the accident at Chernobyl from a legal viewpoint and the actions taken at the international and the national level. They illustrate the scope and seriousness of the challenges posed by an accident having a substantial impact on a large number of countries. Some papers deal with the Chernobyl accident itself, while others examine the current legislative and regulatory context, highlighting particular problem areas (NEA)

93

About Chernobyl - Twenty Years Later  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author discusses the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the information on its consequences so contradictory in the former USSR countries, the status of the effects observed, the forecasting concerning the onset of cancers in the coming years among the populations that were exposed to radiations, the public opinion facing the pessimists. He concludes on the lessons which can be drawn from Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

94

The social impact of the Chernobyl disaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book focuses on the broader ramifications of the Chernobyl disaster,such as the impact upon the environment, agriculture, health, the media and the arts. The author feels that there is much information not yet available about the accident, and he says the Soviet Government has essentially developed an official line that is patently untrue. Many of the key mistakes and short comings that figured prominently in the accident and that the Soviets have been reluctant to publicize are highlighted. The part that what might be termed the Soviet system played in the accident and events following the accident is explored. This is not limited just to the incompetence of the plant operators when the accident occurred but is extended to the system that placed unqualified operators on the staff of a nuclear power plant, produced the defective reactor design, was responsible for the poor quality of the initial construction, etc. The author contends that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) did not really press the Soviets for complete truthful reports because it was not expedient to do so as the Chernobyl accident threatened the global nuclear industry of which IAEA is a part

95

Chernobyl - the Pandora syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design background to the reactor at Chernobyl is given, followed by a detailed explanation and chronology of the events which led to the two explosions in April 1986. The effects, both short and long-term are given in terms of personnel casualties. The role of the Civil Defence in the immediate aftermath of the explosions is recounted. The emergency procedures carried out are listed. These included evacuation of the local populations and smothering of the reactor fire. The next stages, of pumping out water under the reactor and building a concrete platform under the reactor are detailed as far as information is known. When the reactor basement had been reinforced the whole reactor was entombed in concrete. The radiation dose rates to the nearby inhabitants and major cities further away are given. The radiation sources and units of measurement are explained. The corresponding cancer risk factors are given. The fallout progress, the doses and their consequences are shown. (U.K.)

96

Problems of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This collection includes the materials, in which are, from one hand, the results of previous years works aimed at mitigation of Chernobyl accident aftermath and decrease of 'Ukryttia' object impact to surrounding environment are generalized and summed up, and from another hand, decisions and technologies are seen that are aimed at decrease of nuclear and radiation safety during the works of converting 'Ukryttia' object into an ecologically safe system. over fifteen years passed from the accident moment a rich experience in overcoming the accident aftermath has been accumulated and a great volume of experimental and theoretical data was gained, that is becoming as a base for further developments and testing of new technologies of 'Ukryttia' object rad waste management, lowering of risks during the works of 'Ukryttia' object conversion, improvement of its nuclear and radiation safety

97

Global implications of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This editorial discusses the concern over the elevated background levels of radiation following an accident such as Chernobyl, and mentions especially the usefulness of monitoring programmes for marine organisms. The future of nuclear power is discussed with particular reference to the dangers of developing the nuclear industry in areas of social and political unrest, technical inexperience, and severe climatic conditions (e.g. floods, earthquakes, hurricanes etc.). It is pointed out that the difficulties of dealing with radioactive leaks are exacerbated in agriculturally-oriented poorly educated societies living at or near subsistence levels. Particular reference is made to the dilemma of Hong Kong in relation to the Chinese proposal to build a water cooled reactor at Daya Bay, a decision based on the prestige of high technology rather than need, in a country with enormous coal resources. (U.K.)

98

Challenger and Chernobyl: lessons and reflections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary cause of the Challenger accident was the failure of O-ring seals in the solid rocket booster, a subcomponent which had been known to be faulty for some time. When Hans Mark was the most senior engineering member of the NASA management executive team, he had asked for a complete review of these subcomponents; this was not done. The accident to the Chernobyl atomic reactor has not been publicly analyzed to the same extent as the Challenger explosion, and hence there must remain some speculation as to the detailed sequence of events. The lessons from both accidents are clear: faulty human understanding the the equipment and the lack of education, training and discipline were critical. The authors conclude that the Shuttle will fly again soon, and that political problems in the Soviet Union may be great and may force some changes. (author)

99

Consequences to health of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident in 1986 has been and still is the subject of great interest. Journalistic reports often contain exaggerations and undocumented statements and much uncertainty about the true consequences of the accident prevails in the population. This article reviews the current literature with the focus on reports from official commissions and documentation in the form of controlled studies. The fatal deterministic consequences comprise about 30 victims. The most important outcome is a marked increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in the most heavily contaminated area. Furthermore, pronounced psychosocial problems are dominant in the population of the contaminated area. Other significant and documented health consequences are not seen. (au)

100

Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a painful memory in the lives of the hundreds of thousands of people who were most affected by the accident. In addition to the emergency rescue workers who died, thousands of children contracted thyroid cancer, and thousands of other individuals will eventually die of other cancers caused by the release of radiation. Vast areas of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres were contaminated by environmental fallout. Hundreds of thousands of people were evacuated from these affected areas - forced to leave behind their homes, possessions, and livelihoods - and resettled elsewhere, in a traumatic outcome that has had long-lasting psychological and social impacts. The commemoration of the Chernobyl tragedy is taking place in many forums this month - in Minsk, in Kiev and in other locations. At the IAEA, it might be said that we have been responding to the accident and its consequences for twenty years, in a number of ways: first, through a variety of programmes designed to help mitigate the environmental and health consequences of the accident; second, by analyzing the lessons of what went wrong to allow such an accident to occur at all; and third, by working to prevent any such accident from occurring in the future. Building a strong and effective global nuclear safety regime is a central objective of our work. This requires effective international cooperation. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core, and discharged its contents in a cloud of radionuclides, made painfully clear that the safety risks associated with nuclear and radiological activities extend beyond national borders. International cooperation on nuclear safety matters - sharing information, setting clear safety standards, assisting with safety upgrades, and reviewing operational performance - has therefore become a hallmark of IAEA activity, particularly at a time when we are witnessing an expansion of nuclear power to meet increasing energy demands in many parts of the world. In 2001, after taking note of the conflicting views on the results of the accident, I called for the creation of a Chernobyl Forum, inviting the world's foremost scientific experts to conduct an exhaustive assessment of the health, environmental and social impacts of the accident. As with all IAEA programmes, we emphasized an impartial, fact based approach to the analysis of this difficult and highly charged topic. I was pleased that, after a long period of careful analysis, the parties involved - including the World Health Organization and seven other specialized United Nations agencies, as well as the Governments of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine - were able to achieve consensus on the set of authoritative reports that were issued last September. But the Chernobyl Forum had another purpose as well. My hope was that, by giving clear, impartial answers about the accident and its effects, we would be able to focus more effectively on present and future needs. Better international cooperation on assistance to the people and regions affected by the accident. Smarter approaches to safe food production and effective health care. Enhanced investments in the people concerned, in ways that would give them control over their own livelihoods. In short, it was my hope that, by answering questions about the past, we could restore a vision of a brighter future for the regions concerned. And that remains my hope. We will not soon forget the Chernobyl accident. We will not forget the emergency workers who gave their lives. We will not forget the health and environmental consequences. And we should never forget the lessons we learned regarding nuclear safety and international cooperation. In remembering the Chernobyl accident, we should renew our determination to ensure that such a tragedy will not happen again. But we must also remember the survivors, the individuals and communities who seek to move forward with their lives and the lives of their children. At this time of remembrance, they too deserve our att

 
 
 
 
101

The Chernobyl silences: the contaminated future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This analyse provides the sanitary actuality of the Chernobyl accident which occurred in 1986. Testimonies, politicians, scientists, philosophers and artists reflexions are provided. It wonders on the information evolution and the notion of ''accident'' since Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

102

Chernobyl NPP accident. Overcoming experience. Acquired lessons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of accident on the Chernobyl NPP unit 4. History of construction, causes of the accident and its consequences, actions for its mitigation are described. Modern situation with Chernobyl NPP decommissioning and transferring of 'Ukryttya' shelter into ecologically safe system are mentioned. The future of Chernobyl site and exclusion zone was discussed

103

Regulation and control by international organizations in the context of a nuclear accident. The International Atomic Energy Agency and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

IAEA and NEA rapidly reoriented their work programmes to respond to the problems raised by the Chernobyl accident. This chapter describes both Agencies' statutory responsabilities, their work in the areas of radiation protection, nuclear safety and nuclear liability and the actions they took post-Chernobyl to increase international co-operation for prevention and management of nuclear accidents and their consequences (NEA)

104

Chernobyl the health consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper focuses initially on selected aspects of the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, and then goes on to discuss some of the pitfalls involved in trying to assess the health detriment in isolation and without regard for the context in which it occurs. The accident on 26 April 1986 was unique. Two explosions, followed by a graphite fire in the destroyed reactor, not only dispersed radionuclides high into the atmosphere, but the fire was instrumental in ensuring the continued dispersion for about ten days. This prolonged discharge into the atmosphere combined with changes in wind direction ensured that radionuclides were widely distributed over Europe and were even detected throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The actual ground deposition was very variable, depending on may factors such as coincident rainfall during the passage of the plume, wind speed and direction, and the topography of the terrain. The mosaic distribution of the ground deposition became much more variable with distance from the site, and is responsible for the wide range of individual doses that characterises this accident. The paper details the health effects of the accident on those immediately involved, and also the delayed health effects, including increased incidence of thyroid cancer, among the populations of surrounding areas of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. It also discusses the widespread psychosocial detriment which resulted from the accident. Finally, the paper evaluated the efficacy of decontamination measures which were adopted in the affected areas in the years following the accident

105

The future since Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author reviews three books about energy policy, particularly in relation to nuclear energy. From these, which were all published before the Chernobyl disaster, the reviewer identifies two main problems relating to nuclear energy - immediate safety and disposal of nuclear waste. Risk analysis is seen as unhelpful in allaying public fears as it is the nature of the risk of nuclear accidents, rather than its numerical probability, that is frightening. A paper on the assessment of Best Practical Environmental Options (BPEO) for management of low and intermediate-level solid radioactive waste, is referred to when commenting on nuclear waste disposal. Ordinary people have two political obligations with respect to nuclear energy - first to demand knowledge and examine further reassuring information. Risks taken will then be taken with proper information obtained first. Secondly, to look beyond the short-term consequences of a nuclear programme. To fulfill these obligations policy-makers have to be educated to be open and honest about the nuclear future and to be seen to be looking further ahead than the immediate future. (U.K.)

106

Reports of the Chernobyl accident consequences in Brazilian newspapers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The public perception of the risks associated with nuclear power plants was profoundly influenced by the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl Power Plants which also served to exacerbate in the last decades the growing mistrust on the 'nuclear industry'. Part of the mistrust had its origin in the arrogance of nuclear spokesmen and in the secretiveness of nuclear programs. However, press agencies have an important role in shaping and upsizing the public awareness against nuclear energy. In this paper we present the results of a survey in reports of some Brazilian popular newspapers on Chernobyl consequences, as measured by the total death toll of the accident, to show the up and down dance of large numbers without any serious judgment. (author)

107

Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The collection reflects the results of researches and test-design activities in the exclusion area of the Chernobyl NPP, directed to elaborate the equipment and devices for scientific researches and elimination of the accident aftereffects at Chernobyl NPP and to study composition and structure of solid-phase bearers of the activity in the soil of the exclusion area, form transformation of decay products, radionuclide composition of the fuel precipitation in the nearest zone of Chernobyl NPP. Special attention is paid to medical-biological problems of the accident aftereffects influence on flora, fauna and human health, labour conditions and sick rate state of people working in the exclusion area. For scientists, experts working in the field of ecology, radioecology, atom energetics, radiology, radiochemistry, radiobiology and related fields. It may be useful for postgraduates and students

108

Post-Chernobyl emergency planning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is the result of a study ordered by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the National Swedish Institute of Radiation Protection to evaluate the measurements taken in Sweden in response to the Chernobyl accident. The enquiry was also given the task of suggesting improvements of the nuclear accidents emergency planning and other activities relevant to nuclear accidents. Detailed accounts are given of the course of events in Sweden at the Chernobyl accident and the steps taken by central or local authorities are discussed. Several alterations of the emergency planning are proposed and a better coordination of the affected organizations is suggested. (L.E.)

109

Radiation protection after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conference papers deal with the situation in radiation protection as regards the revision of the X-Ray Ordinance of 1973 and the Radiation Protection Ordinance of 1976 with reference to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on April 26, 1986. The introduction views radiation protection in the framework of general environmental protection. In the part 'Results' the quality factors that have been valid hitherto and play an important part in dose assessments are discussed in connection with an evaluation of radiobiological data, and proposals are made for a revision of those factors. A further important topic are the risks associated with prenatal radiation exposure with the resulting practical conclusions to be drawn by radiologists. Part 2, 'Concepts', is concerned with: Ethical, legal, and practical aspects of medical research and therapy using radioactive materials, the 'effective dose' concept with unexpected consequences after the very low limits laid down for non-stochastic effects, and the development of dose notions and measuring values. Part 3 finally points out that 'regulation' necessarily requires the acceptance of radiation hazards. This part reports on the state of discussions on the draft amendment to the Radiation Protection Ordinance, minimization of radiation by quality assurance, and known as well as new DIN Standards. Points due for revision in the X-Ray Ordinance are the classification of professionally exposed persons in their risk categories and the required measuring values for professional radiation exposure. The last part deals with reports on skin disease due to radiation treated at the Hornheide special clinic. (TRV) With 30 figs., 27 tabs

110

Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

111

Standby after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report is an investigation concerning strandby and actions by SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (National Institute of Radiation Protection) due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. It consists of a final report and two appendices. The final report is divided into two parts: 'I: Facts' and 'II: Analyzes'. 'Facts': The Swedish model for information: radio, press. Basic knowledge about ionizing radiation in the society. Resources for information. Need for information. Message forms for information. Announcements from the authorities in TV, radio, press, meeting, advertisements. Statements concerning the reactor accident and its consequences in Swedish mass media. How did the public recieve the information? 'Analyzis': Information responsibilities and policies. SSI information activities concerning radiologic accidents, conditions, methods and resources. Ditto for SKI, Swedish National Food Administration and the National Board of Agriculture. Appendix I: Information from authorities in the press three weeks after the Chernobyl accident: The material and the methods. The acute phase, the adoptation phase, the extension of the persective. What is said about the authorities in connection with Chernobyl? Appendix II: The fallout from Chernobyl, the authorities and the media coverage: The nationwide, regional and local coverage from radio and television. Ditto from the press. Topic and problem areas in reporting. Instructions from the authorities in media. Contribution in the media from people representing the authorities. Fallout in a chronologic perspective. (L.F.)

112

How we reacted to Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper reviews some of the problems of communication with the media and the public, as seen by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), during the two weeks after the Chernobyl reactor accident. The role of the NRPB in handling the radiation accident is summarized, including media relations, information supplied, public fears and radiation doses received. (UK)

113

Miners take stock after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Australia's uranium producers, already facing a tough market have been plunged further into the unknown following the accident at Chernobyl. The production of uranium in Australia is reviewed with emphasis on the three uranium miners -Queensland Mines, Energy Resources of Australia and Western Mining Corporation

114

Chernobyl - a Canadian technical perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986, the Number 4 reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the Soviet Union suffered a severe accident which destroyed the reactor core and led to a loss of life. The four reactors at this station are of the RBMK-1000 type - boiling-light-water cooled, graphite moderated, vertical pressure-tube reactors, each generating 1000 MW of electricity through two turbines. AECL has carefully studied the accident, and the design of Chernobyl, to see if anything has been overlooked in the CANDU design. This report reviews the results of that study, in particular the relevant features of the Chernobyl design which exacerbated the accident, and compares them to the CANDU 600 design. A number of issues (the sign of the void coefficent and the pressure-tube design) have also been given some international prominence in the post-Chernobyl analysis; these are discussed in this report and shown to be irrelevant to the CANDU design. Finally this report describes the subjects identified for further design follow-up in Canada

115

Project Chernobyl - Progress report 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences of the Chernobyl accident have been investigated by a comprehensive measuring program. Some of the results are presented. Dose commitments in Sweden, both collective and individual, are summed up. The measures which have been taken to reduce dose commitments are discussed. (G.B.)

116

Chernobyl its effect on Ireland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report reviews the results of the measurements made during the first six months after the Chernobyl accident to determine the extent of the resultant environmental contamination. Estimates are presented of the individual and collective doses received by the public during the first six months and the first year after the accident

117

Simulation of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The physical and structural drawbacks of RBMK reactors that led to the accident at Chernobyl unit 4 are analyzed. They are as follows: positive void reactivity coefficient and defects in the design of the reactor core protection system, Contribution of each drawback to the accident development is assessed. It is shown that the drawback in the design of control rods triggered the accident

118

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

119

Challenges to decision makers after urban contamination: The Chernobyl experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The real history of the Chernobyl decisions will probably be published in ten or fifty years after the death of the politicians who made those decisions and the soviet scientists who were there creating them. But that is not out of the possibility that real and tragic history will never be published at all. This is mainly because the most hard and responsible Chernobyl decisions which had to be made in the situation of acute time, skill and information deficit, had been marked by the stamp of time and society where all of us, including the authors, were living. Never before, and I hope very much, never in the future, has humanity faced the industrial nuclear-radiation accident with the scale like Chernobyl NPP accident. So it's extremely important to summarise and put together not only the scientific but human experience of the scientists which directly formed the large-scale decisions. It is very important to explain to society not only the scientific background of those decisions but also the scientists' personal views, their personal impressions as at the time of decision making as in eight years after the accident. (author)

120

The 1986 Chernobyl accident; Der Unfall von Tschernobyl 1986  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

April 26, 2011 marks the 25th anniversary of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the worst incident in the history of the peaceful utilization of nuclear power. While investigations of the course of events and the causes of the accident largely present a uniform picture, descriptions still vary widely when it comes to the impact on the population and the environment. This treatment of the Chernobyl accident constitutes a summary of facts about the initiation of the accident and the sequence of events that followed. In addition, measures are described which were taken to exclude any repetition of a disaster of this kind. The health consequences and the socio-economic impact of the accident are not discussed in any detail. The first section contains an introduction and an overview of the Soviet RBMK (Chernobyl) reactor line. In section 2, fundamental characteristics of this special type of reactor, which was exclusively built in the former Soviet Union, are discussed. This information is necessary to understand the sequence of accident events and provides an answer to the frequent question whether that accident could be transferred to reactors in this country. The third section outlines the history of the accident caused ultimately by a commissioning test never performed before. The section is completed by a brief description of radiological releases and the state of the plant after the accident when entombed in the ''sarcophagus.'' The different causes are then summarized and the modifications afterwards made to RBMK reactors are outlined. (orig.)

Kerner, Alexander; Stueck, Reinhard; Weiss, Frank-Peter [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching bei Muenchen, Koeln (Germany). Bereich Reaktorsicherheitsanalysen; Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

2011-02-15

 
 
 
 
121

Illuminating European Trade Marks?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An analysis of recent developments in European trade mark law and a consideration of the future for trade marks and harmonisation of trade mark law in Europe, with particular reference to less conventional trade marks.

Abbe E L Brown

2004-03-01

122

Long term consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe and remediation programmes in the Russian Federation [Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Government of the Russian Federation has charged the Russian Ministry for Emergencies (EMERCOM) with coordinating activities for the mitigation of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The Ministry has undertaken the function of a State customer of federal target programmes for eliminating effects of radiological emergencies and catastrophes. Federal ministries and agencies, as well as executive authorities of the Russian Federation are involved in implementing the programmes. Joint Russian-Belarus projects to mitigate effects of the Chernobyl catastrophe have been under way since 1998

123

Social Chernobyl participants condition in Lithuania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full texts: At the moment in Lithuania live almost 6 600 Chernobyl participants (persons witch were in attendance Chernobyl nuclear power station emergency ravage liquidation works and executing another works in 30 kilometers zone). About 770 died and 170 went to other nations. Thievery other fixed illnesses coherence with being in 30 kilometers zone. According 26 October, 1990 Republic of Lithuania government's resolution No. 325 intended that Chernobyl participants credit accomplishes Ministry of Social care but until now in the Republic there is not undivided database, consequently we use different institution's and social investigations information which is not circumstantial. Chernobyl participants social condition and medicine service control certificates, government's resolutions and Ministry of health care and work and Ministry's of health care requisitions. There is not a law which guarantees Chernobyl participants social rights. Supposedly that for in Lithuania there is not the logistics which could vouch medical facilities provision for Chernobyl participants. Until 2005 sanatorium treating of Chernobyl participants was pursuance through invalids till but this treatment was not available to everyone Chernobyl participant for two reasons: 1 - Vicinities doctors and GPs not all the time contemprorize illnesses with being in The nuclear power station of the Chernobyl zone. 2 - Invalids till was not fixing the number of the permissions to the sanatoriums for the Chernobyl participants. Since 13 September, 2005 by Republic of Lithuania government's resolution No. 998 municipal governments budget bankrolls once a year may offset eighteen-days sanatorium treatment for persons which were liquidating The nuclear power-station of the Chernobyl emergency ravage but Chernobyl participants should give Specialists committee inference. Another problem social security. Chernobyl participant's requirement supply if they ill or died according Government's 18 February, 1998 resolution No.198 Regarding onetime compensations and exemptions for persons witch experienced damage liquidating emergency of The nuclear power-station of Chernobyl. There is fixed amount of money (about 4114 EUR), witch is paying Chernobyl participant's family in case of his or her death but if for her or him will be diagnose, for example, 2nd group of invalidity and pay onetime compensation (about 1646 EUR) this amount will be calculate from the forethought compensation. De-facto Chernobyl participants children (which is 1224) since 1991 is tending by Republic centre of Chernobyl participants children in Vilnius but de jure our children are left beyond social care and especially beyond health care scheme attention line. Chernobyl participants children have not got juridical status. They are not mention neither Republican juridical certificate. Neither Chernobyl participants neither our children are not involved in Lithuanian health care programme witch was confirmed by Parliament of Republic of Lithuania on 2 July, 1998. To improve our conditions we are working hardly in many ways. Our work's main ways are: 1. Work with public office. Every year we are sending laws and prescripts additions and changes to The Republic of Lithuania President office Ministry of Health care and Ministry of social care and work. We prepared and proposed a law project for Parliament of Republic of Lithuania 'People witch suffered from, The nuclear power-station of Chernobyl emergency, social care' in April, 2005. 2. Work with Chernobyl participants and society. Every year we arranging anniversary of The nuclear power-station of Chernobyl. We publishing internet newspaper. We started to prosecute projects with students to remember the emergency of The nuclear power-station of Chernobyl. We annually make opportunity to get a pecuniary relief for Chernobyl participants

124

Chernobyl victims: realistic evaluation of medical consequences of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective assessment of early and delayed medical consequence of the Chernobyl accident is presented. Mortality of people due to acute radiation disease, burns and mechanical injuries are attributed to the early effects. Oncological and genetic diseases are considered as the delayed effects. Delayed radiation effects on the residents of contaminated territories were estimated by epidemiologic examination taking into account the dose due to radioactive fallout. Certain regions of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine were mostly exposed to contamination. Contamination density by 137Cs is considered and radiation doses due to natural sources and Chernobyl accident are compared. Disease incidence is analysed for carcinoma and genetic diseases. Health hazard caused by non-radiation accidental factors (psychological stress, victim psychology thrusting, groundless evacuation) is assessed

125

On the anniversary of Chernobyl: comparison of Zwentendorf with Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As an outcome of the catastrophe that occurred with Chernobyl Unit 4 in April 1986, a comparison is made between that plant and the one at Zwentendorf. The comparison includes details of the plants, diagrams of the arrangements, and cross-sections of the reactor layouts, in which differences exist principally in the reactor containment. The sequence of events from 26th April 1986 is given with comments. (A.G.P.)

126

Nuclear accidents - Chernobyl, a warning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is one of a number prepared by the Swedish KAMEDO organisation, a name derived from the Swedish for ''Organising Committee for Disaster Medicine''. The main task of KAMEDO, a State-supported institution, is to send qualified observers to the site of major disasters, their resultant reports being widely distributed on a national basis. In the following presentation, the author provides information on the Chernobyl nuclear accident based largely on a personal visit to Moscow, Kiev and the Chernobyl region in 1987. Amongst areas examined are the fire-fighting resources available prior to the accident, the mishap and its immediate results, the way the firemen fought and contained the conflagration, the resultant radiation injuries and general exposure levels, methods of treatment, and the evacuation of the people in the surrounding region. (author)

127

The Nordic Chernobyl data base  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NORDIC CHERNOBYL DATA BASE (NCDB) is established for scientific purposes. The aim is to collect valid data on radiation and radioactivity resulting from measurements made in the Nordic countries particularly after the Chernobyl accident. All information is stored in the so called C-base data system, which can handle input from a variety of sources, including multiple information on each sample. The system permits output to various other computer programs for furhter data treatment. The data base can be used from personal computers and as well as from VAX-computers. Data can be displayed in time- or geographical scales and they can be arranged so as to fit different system for statistical analysis. (author)

128

The reactor accident of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contamination, caused by the radioactivity released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl was measured in samples taken in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The radioactivity was determined in air, fodder, milk, vegetables, other plants, foodstuffs, soil, precipitations, drinking water, sludge and other samples. Results of measurements are reported which were received with considerably more than 1000 samples. The evaluation of the data will be presented in KfK 4140. (orig.)

129

Chernobyl: sorting fact from fiction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl, Ukraine is discussed, taking into account that details of the course of events have not yet been released by the USSR. The present picture that seems to be emerging of the events surrounding the accident is described. The features of the Soviet RBMK-1000 reactor are examined in connection with possible causes of the accident. A description is given of the USSR nuclear power programme, with reference to the RBMK and VVER reactors. (UK)

130

Monstrosities - an outcome of Chernobyl?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the western parts of Turkey, which have been particularly hard hidden by the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident, an extremely high number of malformations in newborns have been recorded. There is reason to attribute this to the high radioactivity level measured in this region after the accident. But most radiation experts refuse to accept any connection between the miscarriages or malformation and the reactor accident. (orig./HP)

131

Curium isotopes in Chernobyl fallout  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In nuclear reactors plutonium and transplutonium isotopes are produced by multiple neutron capture of uranium and plutonium and are important for the energy production and their composition reflects the core burnout. Under normal operation these elements are not released to the environment in significant amounts. There are accordingly very few areas or source terms where exotic transplutonium elements, such as curium isotopes, can be studied in the environment. The Chernobyl accident provided a complex spectrum of fission and activation products in fallout while the relative amounts, compared to the core inventory, of refractory elements such as transuranium and transplutonium elements were small. The major alpha-activity consisted of 242Cm (T1/2=163 d) that would have decayed after a few years. Presence of so called 'supported 242Cm' from the long-lived 242Amm (T1/2=141 a) in environmental samples, following fallout from the Chernobyl accident has been demonstrated. It has also been possible to assess the core burn up by using the data obtained for the Cm isotopes. The curium isotopes 243Cm (T1/2=29.1 a) and 244Cm (T1/2=18.1 a) cannot be resolved by conventional alpha-spectrometry. The assessment of these isotopes in environmental samples contaminated from the Chernobyl accident has been made by studying the effective half-life of the mixture of the isotopes. The data are compared with those previously obtained by high-resolution alpha-spectrometry and spectral deconvolution. (author)

132

Mobile Radiological Laboratories Intercomparison Measurements - Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In last decade different institutions in European countries have organised periodic intercomparison exercises of mobile radiological laboratories to improve the preparedness of emergency monitoring teams. The 12th Regular Workshop on Mobile Radiological Laboratories was held in Exclusion Zone of the Chernobyl NPP, Ukraine from September 13 to September 18, 1999 under the acronym MORAL-12. The European Centre of Technological Safety (TESEC), Kiev, Ukraine and J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia organised Intercomparison Measurements 99 jointly under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Nineteen teams from 9 countries and IAEA participated in the Workshop. Six field and personal and equipment contamination control exercises were prepared and conducted at two measuring sites with very different ambient dose rate levels. The Workshop pointed out that such exercises are very valuable for rapid, efficient and harmonised emergency response in case of nuclear or radiological emergency. The teams had an opportunity to test their ability to perform field measurements in the contaminated environment, and to report results on the spot, as well as to test their emergency preparedness and persistence. They gained new experiences for fieldwork under stress conditions. An overview and results of these intercomparison measurements are presented and lessons learned are discussed. (author)

133

Chernobyl operators mesmerized by mind-set  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This post mortem report is based mainly on the information presented by Soviet specialists to a post accident review conference organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna in August 1986, and an analysis of that information reported to a special session of the IAEA General Conference in early September 1986. The Chernobyl accident is blamed on operator mind-set - a situation where control room operators fix their minds on one interpretation of instrument readings and doggedly follow a set of procedures without fully appreciating what is actually happening in the plant. The background to, and the step-by-step sequence of, operator actions, the reasons for taking them, the operating procedures these violated and the consequences of the actions are described. The RBMK type reactor design is also described to show how the operations relate to this particular reactor design. The main reactor parameters are given. A diary of events, starting at 01.00h on 25 April 1986 and leading to explosions at about 01.24h on 26 April is set out. The damage to the reactor building and the subsequent actions to put out the fire caused by the explosions is described. By May 6 the actions had resulted in temperature stabilization at the reactor and a reduction to a low level of the radioactivity release. (UK)

134

LIDC - Reader Marking Process  

Science.gov (United States)

Slide 1LIDC Radiologists' MarkingsA Multiple Reader/ Multiple Session Process Blinded Read Each Radiologist reads independently (Blinded to other readers' markings) Unblinded Read Each Radiologist re-reads, but is shown their own blinded read markings

135

Chernobyl sufferers in Ukraine and their social problems: short outline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the historical review on the Chernobyl catastrophe. The state was badly prepared to a disaster of such a scale as Chernobyl and most of necessary decisions were drafted and taken immediately when they were needed. Fortunately in the initial period there were material and resources available and a mechanism of direction was in place. The mechanism was not perfect, and its quality was quickly deteriorating. The executive power of the USSR -Council of Ministers and numerous ministries- behaved practically independently from the Supreme Soviet Parliament until 1989. The first period was marked by attempts to hide and to diminish the consequences. The Law had been passed by the Parliament of Ukrainian SSR on 28 february, 1991. Later the Law underwent some serious amendments in 1992, 1993, 1996, mainly because an application of the Law revealed some economic miscounts. Some controversial provisions of the law, like the tax exempt status of the organizations working in the contaminated area, and the import laws for the Chernobyl organizations have been already revoked. In this paper we will pay special attention to informal non-governmental help from international community. Few projects of international organizations, very often quite negatively perceived by Ukrainian people, require separate analysis.The goal of these projects was to offer research assistance to respective Ukrainian institutions and thus these projects were to some extent not directly projects were to some extent not directly aimed at suffers, but at some medical problems. Intergovernmental assistance to suffers was quite limited. Ukrainian writers were the the first who begun campaign to disclose the truth of Chernobyl in Ukraine. In 1998 the first green' NGO was created in Ukraine. These NGOs played an important role of pressure groups. Often local politician were using supports from these groups in their election campaigns and legislative works. Separate investigation is needed to asses the role and results of activities of deferent charitable foundations and enterprises. This paper is based both on material published in the Soviet Union and Ukraine and on author's personal experiences. The report does not pretend to be a complete investigation of social activities in Ukraine related to Chernobyl disaster. (Y. Tanaka)

136

US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr

1992-04-01

137

The reactor accident at Chernobyl, U.S.S.R  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report gives the results of radiation measurements in Denmark following the accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, U.S.S.R. The results of the measurements as of 3 May show that the effect of the accident on Danish territory is comparable to 2 weeks of natural background radiation. The report has been prepared on behalf of a coordinating committee established by Danish authorities after the accident. The coordinating committee is chaired by the National Agency of Environmental Protection and consists of representatives from the National Board of Health, the National Food Agency, Risoe National Laboratory, the Civil Defense, the Meteorological Institute and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The report measurements were performed by the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene (part of the National Board of Health) and by Risoe National Laboratory. (author)

138

Wise men's lessons from Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper is concerned with the lessons to be learnt from the Chernobyl reactor accident, as discussed by the working group of the Watt Committee on Energy (U.K.). A summary of the group's recommendations for the United Kingdom are given. The advantages and disadvantages of the Soviet RBMK reactor are outlined, along with the Soviet operators' action during the accident. The distribution of the core contents by weather mechanisms is described. The need for a national plan for reactor accidents is strongly recommended. (U.K.)

139

The political landscape after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986, the most serious accident in the history of the peaceful use of nuclear energy happened in Chernobyl. The impact of the accident on the political discussion about nuclear energy was probably nowhere as great as in the Federal Republic of Germany. This contribution is an attempt to shed some light on these changes in the political landscape. It is as yet too early, however, to fully explain the reasons why the reaction to the accident was so strong in Germany. (orig.)

140

Chernobyl fallout in Great Britain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chernobyl deposition in the UK was sampled in May and October 1986 and in June of 1987. The sampling concentrated on grassy vegetation but in October 1986 other vegetation, soils and wildlife were included. Deposition patterns have been established and a greater degree of retention and recycling indicated for the organic soils of upland Britain. For wild animals concentration factors varied not only between species but with sex and age. Highest tissue concentrations were recorded in species feeding on heather (Blue hares and Grouse) and the lowest in rabbits feeding on grass over mineral soils. Radiocaesium was found in a carnivore (the fox) at the top of the food chain. (author)

 
 
 
 
141

10th anniversary of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Every issue has its defining event. There is no doubt that the single word which now embodies that difficult-to express unease felt by many people about nuclear power is Chernobyl. In this sense, April 26 1996 will be far more than an anniversary, just as Chernobyl was far more than a very serious accident which was nonetheless largely localised in its effects. It will be used by those who wish to the industry - the professional campaigners in the Green movement - and those who see an opportunity to sell newspapers or TV programmes - the professional exaggerators - to spread that unease as far as possible. The British Nuclear Industry Forum, which consists of seventy member companies at the heart of nuclear power in the UK, has convened a Task Force, with an international membership, in an attempt to make sure that we are ready for the anniversary, and to respond to the tactics of the opposition in as effective a way as possible. This paper outlines the general principles which have so far emerged from our discussions. There are two guiding principles to our approach. The first is that no matter how good a story is about Chernobyl, it is still a bad story. But secondly, this anniversary will be big news whether we like it or not, so we must make the best of it. In this sense the event brings with it opportunities to remind people of positive messages, on fuel diversity, on environment, and on Western efforts to help to improve the safety standards of the nuclear industry in the region, and the health of the people near Chernobyl. This leads to a position for the campaign which might appear paradoxical. We must be proactive but low-profile. We simply cannot afford to keep quiet and let the wildest claims about the effects of Chernobyl be spouted unchallenged. This does not simply mean generating responses to stories once they have been published. It means analysing press coverage of previous anniversaries to understand how the media are likely to treat it; it means a lot of behind-the-scenes work bringing journalists into contact with the true facts of the matter. If the nuclear power industry takes the lead in promulgating the data collected by the World Health Organisation and others, we and the information may well simply be disbelieved, and our own growing credibility will suffer. It follows that the industry must identify independent, relevant academics who are prepared to talk in public about the true situation and encourage the media to talk to them - even if such academics do not always take the same pro-nuclear line which we would ourselves. We must also address the problems of the region itself, and especially the safety both of the operating stations, and of the Chernobyl 'sarcophagus', in many ways a more urgent danger. Ile nuclear industry will run an ongoing campaign for money to be made available - we want to help, we ought to help, but we can't afford to-help. This sends two messages. First, that money has to be spent. This would both generate business for our companies, and reduce the risk of us all being closed down because of Chernobyl as another accident would be cased no matter where it happened. Secondly, that our own nuclear stations are safe - it can't happen here - and that we want to spread that safety more widely. The wider arguments for nuclear power can be introduced by comparing the disastrous environmental effects of the burning of coal and other fossil fuels in the Eastern bloc, and making the point that even accepting Chernobyl, nuclear power has brought the same benefits to the East as it has to the West. These principles must be turned into a campaign - an international campaign, with each country presenting the key messages in a key way. Chernobyl will not go away, so it has to be managed. The techniques we develop for the tenth anniversary will have application for many years to come

142

13. Decorporation of Chernobyl radionuclides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tens of thousands of Chernobyl children (mostly from Belarus) annually leave to receive treatment and health care in other countries. Doctors from many countries gratuitously work in the Chernobyl contaminated territories, helping to minimize the consequences of this most terrible technologic catastrophe in history. But the scale and spectrum of the consequences are so high, that no country in the world can cope alone with the long-term consequences of such a catastrophe as Chernobyl. The countries that have suffered the most, especially Ukraine and Belarus, extend gratitude for the help that has come through the United Nations and other international organizations, as well as from private funds and initiatives. Twenty-two years after the Chernobyl releases, the annual individual dose limit in heavily contaminated territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and European Russia exceed 1 mSv/year just because of the unavoidable consumption of locally contaminated products. The 11-year experience of the BELRAD Institute shows that for effective radiation protection it is necessary to establish the interference level for children at 30% of the official dangerous limit (i.e., 15-20 Bq/kg). The direct whole body counting measurements of Cs-137 accumulation in the bodies of inhabitants of the heavily contaminated Belarussian region shows that the official Dose Catalogue underestimates the annual dose burdens by three to eight times. For practical reasons the curative-like use of apple-pectin food additives might be especially helpful for effective decorporation of Cs-137. From 1996 to 2007 a total of more than 160,000 Belarussian children received pectin food additives during 18 to 25 days of treatment (5 g twice a day). As a result, levels of Cs-137 in children's organs decreased after each course of pectin additives by an average of 30 to 40%. Manufacture and application of various pectin-based food additives and drinks (using apples, currants, grapes, sea seaweed, etc.) is one of the most effective ways for individual radioprotection (through decorporation) under circumstances where consumption of radioactively contaminated food is unavoidable. PMID:20002057

Nesterenko, Vassily B; Nesterenko, Alexey V

2009-11-01

143

After Chernobyl, Creys-Malville?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author considers the announcement of the detection, at the Superphenix reactor on 31st March 1987, of a leakage of sodium coolant from a container (used to store the liquid sodium while the fuel rods are changed) in the light of assurances made following the disinformation about the Chernobyl disaster. He is critical of the director of the plant's comment that the sodium escaped 'drop by drop', when it appears the sodium was escaping at the rate of 500 kg per day. (G.T.H.)

144

Chernobyl record. The definitive history of the Chernobyl catastrophe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contents of Chernobyl Record have taken 14 years to compile and this period of time was necessary to enable information to be released from Soviet sources, measurements to be made in the environment, for estimation of radiation doses and for follow-up of the health of population groups which had been exposed. This time frame also includes the 10th anniversary conferences and the completion of joint projects of the European Commission, Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation. It has also enabled me to visit the power plant site, Chernobyl town and Pripyat relatively soon after the accident and also some 10 years later: December 1987 and June 1998. Without such visits some of the photographs in this Record could not have been obtained. Information is also contained in these pages of comparisons of various aspects of the Chernobyl accident with data from the Three Mile Island accident in the USA in 1979, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, the highly contaminated Techa river area in the Urals in Russia and the accident in Tokaimura, Japan in 1999. The first two chapters are introductory in that they describe terminology which is necessary for an understanding of the remaining chapters. Chapters 3-6 describes the early events: including those leading up to the explosion and then what followed in the immediate aftermath. Chapters 7-8 describe the Sarcophagus and the past and future of nuclear power for electricity generation, including the future of the Chernobyl power station. Chapters 9-11 consider the radiation doses received by various populations, including liquidators, evacuees and those living on contaminated territories: and the contamination of milk by 131I, and the contamination of other parts of the food chain by 137Cs. Chapters 12-14 describe the environmental impact of the accident, as does chapter 11. Chapters 15-18 detail the long-term effects on health, including not only the incidence of cancer, but also of non-malignant diseases and conditions, such as psychosocial illnesses. Chapter 19 is an English translation from 'Pravda' of a short memoir entitled 'My duty is to tell about this' by Academician Valery Legasov, the First Deputy Director of the Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Moscow, who committed suicide on the 2nd anniversary of the accident, April 1988. Previously he had been one of the leading Soviet proponents of the nuclear power option for electricity generation. Chapter 20 records the local history and culture of Ukrainian Polissya, the area which includes most of the 30 km zone. What was borne in mind throughout the research for this book, including the eye witness accounts, have been the words of Thomas Gradgrind in the Charles Dickens novel Hard Times: 'Now what I want to hear is facts'. This philosophy has, is believed to ensure that what follows is a balanced account of the accident and its aftermath, excluding media hype and biased accounts of self-interest groups, and debunking some of the myths which have surrounded Chernobyl

145

Chernobyl record. The definitive history of the Chernobyl catastrophe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contents of Chernobyl Record have taken 14 years to compile and this period of time was necessary to enable information to be released from Soviet sources, measurements to be made in the environment, for estimation of radiation doses and for follow-up of the health of population groups which had been exposed. This time frame also includes the 10th anniversary conferences and the completion of joint projects of the European Commission, Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation. It has also enabled me to visit the power plant site, Chernobyl town and Pripyat relatively soon after the accident and also some 10 years later: December 1987 and June 1998. Without such visits some of the photographs in this Record could not have been obtained. Information is also contained in these pages of comparisons of various aspects of the Chernobyl accident with data from the Three Mile Island accident in the USA in 1979, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, the highly contaminated Techa river area in the Urals in Russia and the accident in Tokaimura, Japan in 1999. The first two chapters are introductory in that they describe terminology which is necessary for an understanding of the remaining chapters. Chapters 3-6 describes the early events: including those leading up to the explosion and then what followed in the immediate aftermath. Chapters 7-8 describe the Sarcophagus and the past and future of nuclear power for electricity generation, including the future of the Chernobyl power station. Chapters 9-11 consider the radiation doses received by various populations, including liquidators, evacuees and those living on contaminated territories: and the contamination of milk by {sup 131}I, and the contamination of other parts of the food chain by {sup 137}Cs. Chapters 12-14 describe the environmental impact of the accident, as does chapter 11. Chapters 15-18 detail the long-term effects on health, including not only the incidence of cancer, but also of non-malignant diseases and conditions, such as psychosocial illnesses. Chapter 19 is an English translation from 'Pravda' of a short memoir entitled 'My duty is to tell about this' by Academician Valery Legasov, the First Deputy Director of the Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Moscow, who committed suicide on the 2nd anniversary of the accident, April 1988. Previously he had been one of the leading Soviet proponents of the nuclear power option for electricity generation. Chapter 20 records the local history and culture of Ukrainian Polissya, the area which includes most of the 30 km zone. What was borne in mind throughout the research for this book, including the eye witness accounts, have been the words of Thomas Gradgrind in the Charles Dickens novel Hard Times: 'Now what I want to hear is facts'. This philosophy has, is believed to ensure that what follows is a balanced account of the accident and its aftermath, excluding media hype and biased accounts of self-interest groups, and debunking some of the myths which have surrounded Chernobyl.

Mould, R.F

2000-07-01

146

Impressions of Chelyabinsk and Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An international delegation touring Russia and Ukraine was demonstrated the consequences of the accidents at the nuclear installations of Chelvabinsk and Chernobyl. On the site in Russia, an explosion of a tank filled with high level radioactive waste in 1957 released a radioactive cloud of approx. 20 million Ci, of which 90% rained down in the immediate vicinity, while 10% spread over an area of 23,000 square kilometers. 10,200 persons were resettled for this reason within two years. Among the population in the contaminated area, the cancer rate rose, but is still said to be lower than at other industrialized sites. At a distance of 44 km from the Chernobyl nuclear power plants, the new city of Pripyat has been established for 23,000 inhabitants. Planning work on additional nuclear generating units was stopped after the accident of unit 4. The complete loss of unit 4 has been felt by the USSR as a bigger economic disaster than the radioactive contamination of the environment. (orig.)

147

The Chernobyl accident and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper concerns the Chernobyl reactor accident, with emphasis on the design of the RBMK reactor and nuclear safety. A description is given of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, including details of the RMBK reactor and safety systems. Comments on the design of the RBMK by UK experts prior to the accident are summarized, along with post-accident design changes to improve RBMK safety. Events of the Chernobyl accident are described, as well as design deficiencies highlighted by the accident. Differences between the USSR and UK approaches to nuclear safety are commented on. Finally source terms, release periods and environmental consequences are briefly discussed. (UK)

148

The Chernobyl accidents: Causes and Consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this communication is to discuss the causes and the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. To facilitate the understanding of the events that led to the accident, the author gave a simplified introduction to the important physics that goes on in a nuclear reactor and he presented a brief description and features of chernobyl reactor. The accident scenario and consequences have been presented. The common contribution factors that led to both Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been pointed out.(author)

149

Cancer consequences of the Chernobyl accident: 20 years on  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

26 April 2006 marks the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. On this occasion, the World Health Organization (WHO), within the UN Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened an Expert Group to evaluate the health impacts of Chernobyl. This paper summarises the findings relating to cancer. A dramatic increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed among those exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated territories. Iodine deficiency may have increased the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodines, while prolonged stable iodine supplementation in the years after exposure may reduce this risk. Although increases in rates of other cancers have been reported, much of these increases appear to be due to other factors, including improvements in registration, reporting and diagnosis. Studies are few, however, and have methodological limitations. Further, because most radiation-related solid cancers continue to occur decades after exposure and because only 20 years have passed since the accident, it is too early to evaluate the full radiological impact of the accident. Apart from the large increase in thyroid cancer incidence in young people, there are at present no clearly demonstrated radiation-related increases in cancer risk. This should not, however, be interpreted to mean that no increase has in fact occurred: based on the experience of other populations exposed to ionising radiation, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Although it is expected that epidemiological studies will have difficulty identifying such a risk, it may nevertheless translate into a substantial number of radiation-related cancer cases in the future, given the very large number of individuals exposed. (rev0009i.

Cardis, Elisabeth [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon CEDEX 08 (France); Howe, Geoffrey [Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th Street, Room 1104, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Ron, Elaine [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Building EPS, MS 7238, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)] (and others)

2006-06-15

150

Origin of the Chernobyl myths and stereotypes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article describes the origin of main negative Chernobyl myths and stereotypes in Belarus' society which do not meet the reality, hinder the revival and development processes of affected territories. (authors)

151

Higher cancer risk continues after Chernobyl  

Science.gov (United States)

The study, which represents the first prospective examination of thyroid cancer risk in relation to the I-131 doses received by Chernobyl-area children and adolescents, appeared March 17, 2011, in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives.

152

Was pump cavitation the key to Chernobyl?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The claim that pump cavitation was an important factor in the reactor accident at Chernobyl is considered. A sequence of events, which differs from that given in the Vienna report, is proposed. (U.K.)

153

Current status and prospects for Chernobyl Ukritiye  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current status and prospects for Chernobyl Ukritiye (sarcophagus) are described, including the following issues: the accident; the sarcophagus; the radioactive inventory; the design basis criteria; the analysis of the present state; a way forward

154

DDG-NS statement at the opening of the international conference 'Chernobyl: Looking back to go forwards'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA, as a specialised nuclear-related technical UN agency, has been involved in the mitigation of the Chernobyl accident consequences since early May 1986 when former Director General Hans Blix had visited Chernobyl in order to observe the physical damage and to discuss further actions. The IAEA took on many projects related to technical assistance, technical co-operation and research - with several immediate and longer term goals: first, to mitigate the accident's radiological, environmental and health consequences; second, to improve the overall safety of other RBMK reactors; and third, to understand and disseminate globally those lessons that could be learned from the Chernobyl experience. The projects executed between 1986 and 2005 covered the full range of topics: radiation, waste and nuclear safety; monitoring human exposure; environmental restoration of contaminated land; treatment of people living in the affected areas; and development of special measures to reduce exposure levels. The largest project took place in 1990. Over a two year period, the Agency coordinated the efforts of some 200 international experts over a two year period to complete an independent assessment of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Many missions to the three most affected countries were conducted and many meetings were held. The Agency has also organized or supported numerous international meetings to foster information exchange and to promote further assessment of the accident's radiological consequences. The Agency continues its ongoing activities regarding the mitigation of the accident's radiological consequences as part of the UN strategy 'Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident - A Strategy for Recovery' launched in 2002. Further IAEA commitment in continued Chernobyl-related activities, mainly in nuclear and radiation safety fields, may involve the following areas: Safety of Shelter decommissioning, Safety of radioactive waste management in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, Safety of remediation of contaminated land, especially in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, - Radiation safety of general public residing in contaminated areas, Environmental monitoring and monitoring of human exposure in contaminated areas, and Safety of operating and new nuclear power plants

155

The Chernobyl accident: causes, effects and measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In consequence of the nuclear accident in Chernobyl the department for Nuclear Technology of the Dutch Royal Institute of Engineers (KIVI) organized three symposia (at 7th October 1986, 30th October 1986 and 20th January 1987). This book is a collection of the analyses and conclusions which were presented and discussed during these symposia and which give a survey of the technical and managerial aspects of the Chernobyl accident relevant for the Netherlands. (Auth.)

156

Radiation effects blamed on Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Strictly speaking, the nature of an epidemiological study would not permit the same causal links to be established as an experimental study does. Instead, it merely provides circumstantial evidence, from which some conclusions can be drawn as to the causative factors in the occurrences recorded. To summarize it may be stated that as fas as the Germans are concerned no scientific evidence has so far been provided to prove health impairments attributable to an added radiation load from the Chernobyl fallout. On the other hand, it can not be denied that there are indications of health damage in a few individuals unreasonably changing their eating habits for fear of radiation injuries. The question as to whether the event instilled a permanent feeling of unease in some population groups still remains largely obscure. (orig.)

157

Summary of Chernobyl followup research activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In NUREG-1251, ''Implications of the Accident at Chernobyl for Safety Regulation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plants in the United States,'' April 1989, the NRC staff concluded that no immediate changes in NRC's regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors were needed; however, it recommended that certain issues be considered further. NRC's Chernobyl followup research program consisted of the research tasks undertaken in response to the recommendations in NUREG-1251. It included 23 tasks that addressed potential lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl accident. This report presents summaries of NRC's Chernobyl followup research tasks. For each task, the Chernobyl-related issues are indicated, the work is described, and the staff's findings and conclusions are presented. More detailed reports concerning the work are referenced where applicable. This report closes out NRC's Chernobyl followup research program as such, but additional research will be conducted on some issues as needed. The report includes remarks concerning significant further activity with respect to the issues addressed

158

When Chernobyl came to Chilton  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When the Chernobyl accident occurred, there existed in the UK an organisation with respected and experienced scientific staff, well known to its 6,000 clients and to the media science correspondents. But because the public information campaigns of large commercial organisations were, and still are, beyond the financial resources of NRPB, it was not well known to the general public apart from those who take part in the nuclear debate. On 28 April, it all began to change. The accident at Chernobyl involved a large explosion in a nuclear reactor. The explosion blew the top off the plant and released a cloud of radioactive material which spread across Europe, north to Norway and south to the Mediterranean, with remnants travelling west as far as the British Isles. It dispersed and diluted as it travelled but as the radioactivity spread across the continent country after country was placed on alert. There had been no warning from the Soviet government and the advance of the cloud caught Russia's neighbours by surprise. There were many more calls from the media and a call to Sweden, it was clear that an accident had occurred in Russia. The next two days were dominated by requests from the media for information on all aspects of nuclear accidents - hypothetical and real. Then the calls from the public came, mainly about the risks of holidays in Europe but some from people concerned about relatives abroad. International connections are highly developed in radiological protecte highly developed in radiological protection and NRPB staff set about collecting information from contacts in western Europe as the radioactive cloud drifted across the continent

159

Chernobyl Conditioning Facility Detector Design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unattended monitoring systems (UNARM) are a cost effective way of safeguarding nuclear material. A fundamental component of such a monitoring system is the radiation (neutron and gamma) detectors since they respond to a direct attribute of the nuclear material. With the Chernobyl Conditioning Facility (CCF), detecting the motion of spent fuel, as it moves from storage pools - through the conditioning facility - and then to longer-term dry, is the goal. This paper summarizes the Monte Carlo modeling results (gamma ray and neutron transport) for the various detectors needed in the Chernobyl Unattended Monitoring System. In order to simplify detector maintenance in the acidic environment of the CCF, a standard, chemically sealed detector was designed: two 3 He tubes surrounded by lead that was then surrounded by polyethylene; furthermore, two ion chambers are located inside the polyethylene. The lead thickness was determined to keep gamma ray pulse pileup to an acceptable level when the detector was exposed to the maximum gamma dose rate possible. Variation in the polyethylene thickness was then modeled to optimize this thickness for the energy spectrum expected in the facility given the source fuel and the effect of reflection from within the rooms. This standard detector was positioned at various locations in the facility to determine what neutron sensitivity to expect at each location. The sensitivity of this detector to absorber rods and extension rods was modeled as well. Deviations from this standard were made for a few special monitoring situations: on the railroad car that takes the fuel from the reactor area to the CCF, in the room where the railroad car cannon attaches to the building, and for detectors embedded in concrete. The results of experimental benchmarking are presented as well

160

Chernobyl Conditioning Facility Detector Design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Unattended monitoring systems (UNARM) are a cost effective way of safeguarding nuclear material. A fundamental component of such a monitoring system is the radiation (neutron and gamma) detectors since they respond to a direct attribute of the nuclear material. With the Chernobyl Conditioning Facility (CCF), detecting the motion of spent fuel, as it moves from storage pools - through the conditioning facility - and then to longer-term dry, is the goal. This paper summarizes the Monte Carlo modeling results (gamma ray and neutron transport) for the various detectors needed in the Chernobyl Unattended Monitoring System. In order to simplify detector maintenance in the acidic environment of the CCF, a standard, chemically sealed detector was designed: two 3 He tubes surrounded by lead that was then surrounded by polyethylene; furthermore, two ion chambers are located inside the polyethylene. The lead thickness was determined to keep gamma ray pulse pileup to an acceptable level when the detector was exposed to the maximum gamma dose rate possible. Variation in the polyethylene thickness was then modeled to optimize this thickness for the energy spectrum expected in the facility given the source fuel and the effect of reflection from within the rooms. This standard detector was positioned at various locations in the facility to determine what neutron sensitivity to expect at each location. The sensitivity of this detector to absorber rods and extension rods was modeled as well. Deviations from this standard were made for a few special monitoring situations: on the railroad car that takes the fuel from the reactor area to the CCF, in the room where the railroad car cannon attaches to the building, and for detectors embedded in concrete. The results of experimental benchmarking are presented as well.

Tobin, Stephen J.; Halbig, James K.; Menlove, Howard O.; Rinard, Phillip M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States). Safeguards Science and Technology Group

2003-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

Psychosocial consequences of the Chernobyl disaster (A survey of Chernobyl accidental exposed and a non-exposed population sample)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of psychological factors in the aftermath of industrial disasters is being recognized increasingly. Two field studies (total N=3084) were conducted in two regions of the former Soviet Union, to investigate the long-term psychosocial consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster in 1986. A sub sample of the respondents (N=449) was studied using a standardized physical and psychiatric examination. The first study took place in the Gomel region (Belarus) in the direct vicinity of the damaged nuclear plant. A control study was conducted in the Tver region (the Russian Federation), about 250 km north-west of Moscow. The results of the study indicate significantly higher levels of psychological distress, poorer subjective health and higher medical consumption in the exposed population. These findings were most prominent in risk groups such as evacuated people and mothers with children. No significant differences in overall levels of psychiatric or physical morbidity were found. Radiation related diseases could not account for the poor health perception in the investigated sample. These results indicate that psychological factors following the Chernobyl disaster had a marked effect upon psychological well being, on perceived health and on subsequent illness behavior. Fears about future health play a key role in determining this response. The provision of adequate information to the public as well as to the public health services may be important to counteract these fears

162

Reconfiguring trade mark law  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross-border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law.

Elsmore, Matthew James

2013-01-01

163

Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment' (EGE). Working material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental effects of the 26 April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Even though it is now nearly 20 years after the accident and substantial monies have been spent on such evaluations, there are still many conflicting reports and rumours. This joint report has been developed with the full cooperation of the United Nations (UN) family of relevant organisations and with political representatives from the three more affected countries: Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation. In addition, recognised scientific experts from the three countries and additional international experts provided the basis for the preparation of reports for review by the actual members of the Chernobyl Forum. The - Chernobyl Forum - is a high-level political forum whose suggestion for existence was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO), and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. The organisational meeting of the Chernobyl Forum was held on 3-5 February 2003, at which time the decision was reached to establish the Forum as an ongoing entity of the above named organisations. Thus, the organisational meeting of the Forum decided to establish the Chernobyl Forum as a series of managerial, expert and public meetings in order to generate authoritative consensual statements on the health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident and the environmental consequences induced by the released radioactive materials, to provide advice on remediation and special health-care programmes, and to suggest areas where further research is required; and to accept the following Terms of Reference (TOR) of the Forum. The objectives of the Chernobyl Forum were defined as follows: To explore and refine the current scientific assessments on the long-term health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident, with a view to producing authoritative consensus statements focusing on: the health effects attributable to radiation exposure caused by the accident, the environmental consequences induced by the radioactive materials released due to the accident, e.g., contamination of foodstuffs, and additionally to address the consequences attributable to the accident although not directly related to the radiation exposure or radioactive contamination; To identify gaps in scientific research relevant to the radiation-induced or radioactive contamination-induced health and environmental impacts of the accident, and suggest areas where further work is required based on an assessment of the work done in the past, and bearing in mind ongoing work and projects; To provide advice on, and to facilitate implementation of scientifically sound programmes on mitigation of the accident consequences, including possible joint actions of the organizations participating in the Forum, such as: agricultural, economic and social life under safe conditions, special health care of the affected population, monitoring of the long-term human exposure to radiation, and addressing the environmental issues pertaining to the decommissioning of the Shelter and management of radioactive waste originating from the Chernobyl accident. The Chernobyl Forum itself continued as a high-level organisation of senior officials from UN agencies and the three more affected countries. The actual work has been accomplished by two expert groups: Expert Group -Environment - (EGE) and Expert Group 'Health' (EGH). Members of each of these two groups consisted of recognised international scientists, including those from the three more affected countries. Within the

164

Decades Later, Chernobyl Accident Yields Clues to Leukemia Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

... Email This Document Share Special Report Decades Later, Chernobyl Accident Yields Clues to Leukemia Risk Studies of cleanup workers from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant have revealed a link between ...

165

Random Marked Sets  

CERN Document Server

We introduce a new class of stochastic processes which are defined on a random set in R^d. These processes can be seen as a link between random fields and marked point processes. Unlike for random fields, the mark covariance function need in general not be positive definite. This implies that in many situations the use of simple geostatistical methods appears to be questionable. Surprisingly, for a special class of processes based on Gaussian random fields, we do have positive definiteness for the corresponding mark covariance function and mark correlation function.

Ballani, Felix; Schlather, Martin

2009-01-01

166

Introduction: geoscientific knowledgebase of Chernobyl and Fukushima  

Science.gov (United States)

Radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011) accidents is a multi-disciplinary geoscience problem. Just this session (GI1.4) contains presentations of (i) atmospheric transport for both short and long distances, (ii) aerosol physics and chemistry, (ii) geophysical measurement method and logistics, (iv) inversion method to estimate the geophysical source term and decay, (v) transport, migration, and sedimentation in the surface water system, (vi) transport and sedimentation in the ocean, (vii) soil chemistry and physics, (viii) forest ecosystem, (ix) risk assessments, which are inter-related to each other. Because of rareness of a severe accident like Chernobyl and Fukushima, the Chernobyl's 27 years experience is the only knowledgebase that provides a good guidance for the Fukushima case in understanding the physical/chemical processes related to the environmental radioactive contamination and in providing future prospectives, e.g., what we should do next for the observation/remediation. Unfortunately, the multi-disciplinary nature of the radioactive contamination problem makes it very difficult for a single scientist to obtain the overview of all geoscientific aspects of the Chernobyl experience. The aim of this introductory talk is to give a comprehensive knowledge of the wide geoscientific aspects of the Chernobyl contamination to Fukushima-related geoscience community.

Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Voitsekhovych, Oleg; Korobova, Elena; Stohl, Andreas; Wotawa, Gerhard; Kita, Kazuyuki; Aoyama, Michio; Yoshida, Naohiro

2013-04-01

167

The international Chernobyl project: Assessment of radiological consequences and evaluation of protective measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This brochure gives a brief account of the findings of the International Chernobyl Project. Further details will be found in the report ''The International Chernobyl Project: An Overview'' (INI22:066284/5) and in the Technical Report (INI23:011339). Measurements and assessments carried out under the project provided general corroboration of the levels of surface cesium-137 contamination reported in the official maps. The project also concluded that the official procedures for estimating radiation doses to the population were scientifically sound, although they generally resulted in overestimates of two- to threefold. The project could find no marked increase in the incidence of leukemia or cancer, but reported absorbed thyroid doses in children might lead to a statistically detectable rise in the incidence of thyroid tumors. Significant non-radiation-related health disorders were found, and the accident had substantial psychological consequences in terms of anxiety and stress

168

Chernobyl information: The ALARA backlash  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

at people considered as ambiguities. The concept of ALARA (As Low As Readily Achievable) is in the backbone of every ionising radiation expert, and a useful strategy for optimising dose burdens during controlled situations. In connection to the Chernobyl accident many advices to the public was given based on the ALARA principle. 'Rinse leafy vegetables' sounds at first very reasonable, cheap and innocent, but if the averted dose is low, such an advice should not be given. The individual dose-reduction should be weighted against all negative side effects, e.g. a jeopardized green vegetable industry, a loss of confidence in experts as the advice is not risk reductive enough etc. Radiation expert must learn from this that a proper optimisation must take into consideration all consequences of any proposed intervention or given advice. ALARA focuses on monetary costs versus radiation dose, and is much too narrow-sighted to be used after accidents involving a radioactive contamination. In order to avoid an information debacle in the future, the radiation protection community must learn to present risk information on the conditions of the receiver. Advices must be consistent, understandable and limited to what is really risk significant on the individual level. It must be observed that the ALARA principle may deleterious interfere with such an information strategy, as ALARA invites the expertise to advice on trivial risks. In doing so, experts and authorities lose credibility and the ear of the public. (author)

169

One decade after Chernobyl. Summing up the consequences of the accident. Proceedings of an international conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. Refs, figs, tabs

170

Chernobyl and the international liability regime  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors investigate whether Federal German citizens would have any success in claiming compensation for damage as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident in a Soviet court, and the answer is positive in terms of substantive law. Actions would have to be filed against the AES at Chernobyl to the Chernobyl county court, which would examine the claims according to Soviet (Ukrainian) civil law, and taking into account two aspects of liability, namely strict liability, and liability in tort. However, it would indeed be more realistic to expect that any such action would be dismissed by the court upon the directive of political authorities, as the Soviet Government certainly would have no interest at all to give any foreign citizen the chance to win a case in such a politically significant matter. (orig./HSCH)

171

Scientific and technical aspects of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The collection contains the presentations and scientific articles prepared for and discussed during the Conference titled '2001: International Cooperation For Chernobyl'. The materials outline the outcomes achieved while implementing Chernobyl site scientific-technical researches and projects, as well as activities aimed at enhancing the ChNPP safety, decommissioning and radwaste management. It also highlights the issues related to transforming the Unit Shelter into an ecologically safe system, represents the results of ecological researches in the Exclusion Zone, medical effects of the 1986 accident at Chernobyl NPP, together with social and economic problems the city of Slavutich faces now due to the early ChNPP Units decommissioning, and Slavutich business development opportunities under the circumstances of Special Economic Zone 'Slavutich'

172

Public acceptance of nuclear power after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Non-synonymous public acceptance of nuclear power in part of this situation, especially after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The Republic of Belarus has suffered from the Chernobyl accident most of all, as have other countries including Russia and Ukraine. Therefore, public opinion on nuclear power development in Belarus is very important in forming public acceptance in this field all over the world. Three polls on public acceptance on nuclear power development were provided in Belarus during 1995-1998, including the regions contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. Consideration of the results shows the general number of supporters of nuclear power decreased from 49.5% to 17.2% during this period. But at the same time, the number of the supporters increased among the highly educated people, young people and other categories of the population. The program of forming a favorable public opinion of nuclear power has been developed in the Republic of Belarus. (authors)

173

Latest report about health effects of the chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After twenty years of Chernobyl accident, the international conference was hold in Kyiv, Ukraine, 24-26, April in 2006. During the conference WHO declares the paper named health effects of the Chernobyl accident. The report look back the nuclear accident in the history, and then recite conclusion about health effects of the Chernobyl accident, which from doses received from the Chernobyl accident, thyroid cancer, non-thyroid solid cancer, leukemia, mortality, cataract and cardiovascular disease. The report is considered as milestone events in the studying of health effects of Chernobyl accident. (authors)

174

Dose estimates from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) responded to the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union by utilizing long-range atmospheric dispersion modeling to estimate the amount of radioactivity released (source term) and the radiation dose distribution due to exposure to the radioactive cloud over Europe and the Northern Hemisphere. In later assessments, after the release of data on the accident by the Soviet Union, the ARAC team used their mesoscale to regional scale model to focus in on the radiation dose distribution within the Soviet Union and the vicinity of the Chernobyl plant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

175

The Nordic Chernobyl data base project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chernobyl Data Base has been established with the purpose of collecting the large amount of data resulting from measurements made in several laboratories in the period following the Chernobyl accident. All information is stored in the C data base handling system developed especially for this kind of environmental data. The C base data handling system allows for easy input from a variety of sources and easy output to other computer programs for further data treatment. This paper describes the structures, codes and methods used and the present status of the project. (au)

176

Radioactive fallout swipe samples from Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper concerns the fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident measured in aircraft swipe samples, collected at Bombay from 2 May 1986 to 18 June 1986. Twenty isotopes were measured by high resolution gamma spectroscopy; and caesium isotopes, 132Te, 140Ba, 140La, 103Ru, and 99Mo were the major contributors to the activities measured in the samples. The isotope activity ratios relative to 137Cs, in five of the samples collected during May are given, together with estimates of the reactor fuel burn up. The release fraction data support a partial core melt at Chernobyl. (U.K.)

177

Higher cancer risk continues after Chernobyl;  

Science.gov (United States)

Nearly 25 years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine, exposure to radioactive iodine-131(I-131, a radioactive isotope) from fallout may be responsible for thyroid cancers that are still occurring among people who lived in the Chernobyl area and were children or adolescents at the time of the accident, researchers say. An international team of researchers led by the NCI found a clear dose-response relationship, in which higher absorption of radiation from I-131 led to an increased risk for thyroid cancer that has not seemed to diminish over time.

178

International Chernobyl project [AEA report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA have co-ordinated the first international assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the affected areas outside the 30km prohibited zone around the reactor. These areas have a total population of about 1 million people, living in approximately 2700 settlements. The main aim of the project was to answer the question 'Is it safe for the population to go on living in the affected areas?'. The project did not investigate radiological health effects among more than 100 000 people evacuated from the 30 km prohibited zone. Nor did it study effects among the emergency personnel temporarily brought into the region for accident management and recovery work (the so-called 'liquidators'). Project teams reviewed official data on environmental contamination from 500 settlements, data collection practices and reporting and also official information on radiation doses received by people living in seven settlements. Other project teams reviewed official data at key medical centres and institutes. Then they examined people both from surveyed contaminated settlement and from surveyed control settlements. The team concluded that there were significant non-radiation related health disorders in populations of both contaminated and control settlements. None of the disorders could be attributed directly to radiation exposure. In particular, no evidence was found for a significant increase in foetal abnormalities; infant and prenatal mortality rates had ; infant and prenatal mortality rates had fallen since the accident. Children were found to be generally healthy with no abnormalities in either thyroid stimulating or thyroid hormones. The accident had created substantial negative psychological consequences, manifesting themselves in terms of anxiety and stress due to continuing high levels of uncertainty. (author)

179

Chernobyl Forum: Forum Sharpens Focus on Human Consequences of Chernobyl Accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a concrete sarcophagus was built to enclose the remnants of the destroyed reactor. Now, nearly seventeen years later, engineers are faced with a new problem: the sarcophagus is literally falling apart. This site discusses events and topics of the February 2003 international forum on Chernobyl. Several documents are included on the site, including retrospectives and health analyses.

2003-01-01

180

Bite Mark Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bite mark analysis plays an important role in personal identi- fi cation in forensic odontology. They are commonly seen in violent crimes such as sexual assaults, homicides, child abuse, etc. Human bites are common on the face and are usually seen on prominent locations of the face such as the ears, nose and lips. Individual characteristics recorded in the bite marks such as fractures, rotations, attrition, and congenital malformations are helpful in identifying the individual who caused it. We are reporting the case of a 55-year-old lady with bite marks on her left ear, who was allegedly assaulted by the suspect. On the basis of characteristic features of the suspect’s dentition, it was concluded that the bite marks seen on the victim was most probably caused by the suspect.

SK Padmakumar

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
181

Stretch Marks (Striae)  

Science.gov (United States)

... with time. No treatment is needed. Stop using topical corticosteroid creams in that skin area. Over-the-counter creams are useless. When to Seek Medical Care See your doctor if stretch marks appear without ...

182

Mark Raidpere portreefotod Kielis  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Kieli Linnagaleriis avatud 2. Ars Baltica fototriennaalil 'Can You Hear Me?' esindab Eestit Mark Raidpere seeriaga 'Portreed 1998'. Näituse Eesti-poolne kuraator Anu Liivak, kataloogiteksti kirjutas Anders Härm. Tuntumaid osalejaid triennaalil Wolfgang Tillmans

1999-01-01

183

COMPUTER HARDWARE MARKING  

CERN Multimedia

As part of the campaign to protect CERN property and for insurance reasons, all computer hardware belonging to the Organization must be marked with the words 'PROPRIETE CERN'.IT Division has recently introduced a new marking system that is both economical and easy to use. From now on all desktop hardware (PCs, Macintoshes, printers) issued by IT Division with a value equal to or exceeding 500 CHF will be marked using this new system.For equipment that is already installed but not yet marked, including UNIX workstations and X terminals, IT Division's Desktop Support Service offers the following services free of charge:Equipment-marking wherever the Service is called out to perform other work (please submit all work requests to the IT Helpdesk on 78888 or helpdesk@cern.ch; for unavoidable operational reasons, the Desktop Support Service will only respond to marking requests when these coincide with requests for other work such as repairs, system upgrades, etc.);Training of personnel designated by Division Leade...

Groupe de protection des biens

2000-01-01

184

Chernobyl accident genesis and its syndrome abatement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Historical aspects of nuclear power engineering develoopment in the USSR are considered in brief. The reasons of occuring situation, which resulted in the Chernobyl-4 accident are analyzed. Possible directions of nuclear power development in our country including processing with stopped NPP as the first measure, are shown

185

Chernobyl: the actual facts and consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a first part, a Power Point presentation explains the technical reasons of the Chernobyl accident and recalls the environmental and health consequences on a short, middle and long term. In a second part, the author analyses the treatment by the media in France and shows how the population has been manipulated by nuclear opponents with the active complicity of some media

186

Consequences in Guatemala of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of the long distance between Guatemala and Chernobyl, the country did not undergo direct consequences of radioactive contamination in the short term. However, the accident repercussions were evident in the medium and long-term, mainly in two sectors, the economic-political and the environmental sectors

187

Slavutich - the town that loves Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the death of Pripyat, the town serving the Chernobyl station before the accident, new facilities were needed to house plant staff. The result was the construction of Slavutich, whose families now live under the threat of plant closure and and loss of the benefits of residing in one of the Ukraine's showpiece towns. (author)

188

Chernobyl: A first-hand account  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author, living in Moscow at the time, was traveling by night train to visit family in Kiev at the time of the chernobyl accident. He recalls a passenger in his compartment asking if anyone had noticed in the morning press about the explosion in Chernobyl. In Kiev, about 50 mi from Chernobyl by air, he noted on arrival that everyone was calm - the city quiet with no rumors or gossip. He contrasts this with the world being alert, in despair, full of alarm. On failure to reach old friends by phone, he thought they had left the city for at least 4-day vacations - May 1 and 2 holidays plus Saturday and Sunday. He continues to recount the life as usual situation aided and abetted by the governments lack of information and misinformation on the perilously dangerous radioactivity and extent of the disaster. He notes friends showing him a January 1986 copy of Izvestia with an article about the Chernobyl unit, several months before, being named winner in a competition among all nuclear power stations in the USSR

189

Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It summarizes the consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident, describes the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, the measurement strategies, the activity levels and doses and countermeasures and action levels used. Past and remaining problems are discussed and the major investigations and improvements are given. (author)

190

Realism and myths of Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication is one of the scientific-publicistic book on the Chernobyl accident. It contains earlier unknown facts and cases as well as analysis of modern scientific data. The book gives an information on complex medical and social problems resulted from the accident occured in April, 26, 1996

191

Decision conferencing and the International Chernobyl Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the International Chernobyl Project, five decision conferences were held with the Soviet authorities to identify the major factors driving decision making in relation to relocation and other protective measures which are being applied in the affected regions of Byelorussia, Ukraine and the Russian Federation. This report describes the running of those conferences and the conclusions reached from them. (Author)

192

Chernobyl health effects: radiation or stress?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While very high numbers of deaths and other illnesses have been attributed to the Chernobyl accident, sometimes deliberately to raise fears about nuclear energy, there is growing medical evidence that fear itself plays a part in causing the health problems. (author)

193

Meteorological data related to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents a detailed technical description of the JRC-Ispra comprehensive collection of meteorological information related to the Chernobyl accident and attempts an analysis of the data in order to perform an initial checking of their quality and facilitate a suitable and compact way of display

194

Radionuclide migration in the Chernobyl contamination zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is well known that fallout of 137Cs reaching the land soils with precipitation was rapidly and tightly sorbed to the fine fraction of sediment or soils. The majority of the 137Cs is retained in the top few centimetres of the soil or sediment profiles (Loughran et al, 1993, Owens et al, 1996). In the absence of strong variations in precipitation over a relatively small area the total bomb-derived 137Cs fallout can assumed to be spatial uniform. The Chernobyl 137Cs fallout was mostly connected with one or two rains. So the spatial variability of this 137Cs can be higher. Furthermore because the explosion on the Chernobyl nuclear plant happen together with fire, a lot of ashes particles with radionuclide were distributed within vast areas. So even microvariability of Chernobyl 137Cs can be very high in some places. The horizontal migration of 137Cs connects with soil erosion processes that dominate on the agricultural lands of the Central Russia. The main goal of this investigation is to evaluate the caesium-137 horizontal and vertical migration within typical landscape of the Central Russia 11 years after the Chernobyl accident

195

Nuclear energy in USSR after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author, one of the principal members of the government commission to study the causes of the Chernobyl disaster and head of the Soviet delegation to the Vienna Conference (August 1986), declares that for the USSR there is no alternative to nuclear energy. (G.T.H.)

196

The Chernobyl-4 entombment. Yesterday, today, tomorrow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A covering was constructed over the Chernobyl-4 reactor buidings for purposes of protecting the surrounding area. However, the remains of unit 4 were not hermetically enclosed. Questions remain as to the state of the covering and the interior of the reactor

197

Since Chernobyl: A World of Difference.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article chronicles the international collaboration behind the technological review and the subsequent upgrading of operational safety procedures at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants within the Soviet Union and various Eastern European countries in the aftermath of the tragedy at Chernobyl. (JJK)

Clamp, Alice

1991-01-01

198

Radiation risks and the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is given of the basic of radiation protection, including nomenclature and units and principles for protection at accidents. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Soviet Union and in Sweden is described, and the recommendations and protection measures applied in Sweden are presented. In particular, the radiation levels and restrictions concerning food are discussed. (L.E.)

199

Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Early on April 26, 1986, a major accident occurred at Unit 4 or the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the USSR. The plume of airborne radioactive fission products from the accident was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence northerly toward Scandinavia on April 26-29 and into Central Europe on April 29-30. It continued to spread and reached Japan and Korea on May 3 and the US on May 7. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data, which were obtained directly from official reports, have been utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Preliminary calculations indicate that the external collective dose equivalent to the population (approximately 1.75 x 108) in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident will be about 4 x 106 person-rem and that about half this population dose will be received by the smaller population (approximately 6 x 107) who were downwind or Chernobyl within the USSR during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week

200

Thyroid cancer in Belarus after Chernobyl: International thyroid project. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident has demonstrated what was always known but perhaps has not been as fully acknowledged as it might, namely that national or other geographical boundaries are no defence against radioactive fallout. Much (some 2.2 millions) of the approximately 10 million population of Belarus have been, and are still being, exposed to the radiation resulting from the accident. The most obvious adverse effect of the radiation is on the condition of the thyroid system in children. Now, only just over eight years after the accident, we are experiencing an increase in childhood thyroid cancer which is particularly marked in those closest to the site of the accident. In young children thyroid cancer is an extremely rare condition and thus although at present the numbers of cases (more than 250 since the accident) is not large in absolute terms it is a sufficiently important development to capture the interest of the international medical and scientific community and to give rise to considerable apprehension as to the future development of the outbreak. Although this increase in thyroid cancer has not been definitively attributed to the Chernobyl accident, and indeed a major aim of this project is to elucidate the cause of the cancer, the fact of the exposure of the population of Belarus to the isotopes of iodine at the time of accident, and what we have learned from the experience in the Marshall Islands following the testing of the first hydrogen bomb on Bikini Atoll lead us to consider the accident as the most likely cause of the increase. Belarus is a relatively small and newly independent country. By any standards the Chernobyl accident was a technological disaster of enormous proportions causing damage to the environment over vast land areas. Necessarily it must be a major concern for us and an issue to be considered in the planning of our future. Its impact on the future health of our nation must be assessed as objectively and dispassionately as possible and we therefore welcome the partnership of international collaboration that this project represents

 
 
 
 
201

ICA: Mark Bradford  

Science.gov (United States)

Mark Bradford, originator of the Open Studio, currently has a solo exhibition at the Institute of Contemporary Art (ICA) Boston. This exhibition website includes a short slideshow of eight of Bradford's works, audio commentary on about a dozen pieces (some also in the slideshow), an artist bio, and a video, "Mark Bradford: Paper" from the PBS series, Art21. Perhaps the most fun part of the website is the link to pinocchioisonfire.org, a 4-part web feature on Bradford, created at the Wexner Center for the Arts at Ohio State University. This web feature invites visitors to take a closer look at the artist, his studio, his processes, and his materials.

202

Chernobyl accident: Causes, consequences and problems of radiation measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General description of Chernobyl accident is given in the review. The accident causes are briefly described. Special attention is paid to radiation situation after the accident and radiation measurements problems. Some data on Chernobyl disaster are compared with the corresponding data on Fukushima accident. It is noted that Chernobyl and Fukushima lessons should be taken into account while developing further measures on raising nuclear industry safety. -- Highlights: ? The short comparative analysis of accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima is given. ? We note the great effect of ?-radiation on the radiation situation at Chernobyl. ? We discuss the problems of radiation measurements under these conditions. ? The impact of shelter on the radiation situation near Chernobyl NPS is described

203

THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results showed the improvement of psycho-emotional status and normalization of cardiovascular vegetative regulation after training prevention programs in Chernobyl disasters survivors. The studies show that the preventive programs for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects had the high effect. This displays the decrease of tempo of aging and the improving of physical and psychological health status of Chernobyl disaster survivors during preventive course.

Korobeynikov G.V.

2013-01-01

204

The reactor accident at Chernobyl and its implications of world-wide food trade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl reactor disaster of 26 April 1986 caused not only destruction, death, injury, and high level radioactive contamination in the zone around the nuclear power plant - it also caused wide-spread low level contamination in many countries of Easter and Central Europe. It is shown that although populations outside the disaster area were not exposed to serious danger, the confusion that arose not only among the general public but also among regulatory agencies, caused tremendous difficulties for food manufacturers and the food trade. 2 refs., 3 tabs, 3 figs

205

Thyroid carcinomas after Chernobyl; Cancers de la thyroide apres Tchernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The child thyroid cancers observed in the area of Chernobyl are associated to a massive irradiation of their thyroid. In France, the irradiation levels of the thyroid, coming from the exposure to ionizing radiations by radioisotopes released during the Chernobyl accident are 1000 to more than 10 000 times lower than these ones of Chernobyl. To these levels of irradiation, the international data show that there is no induction of thyroid cancers. (N.C.)

Bourguignon, M

1999-11-01

206

Rehab Mark. Trainer's Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual is written for trainers working in the RehabMark system of employer development in vocational rehabilitation services. Videotapes are available to accompany lectures and other training activities, and materials for transparencies are provided in an appendix. After an introductory chapter, the first half of the manual contains training…

Greenwood, Reed; And Others

207

Identification markings for gemstones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is described of providing permanent identification markings to gemstones such as diamond crystals by irradiating the cooled gemstone with protons in the desired pattern. The proton bombardment results in a reaction limited to a defined plane and converting the bombarded area of the plane into a different crystal lattice from that of the preirradiated stone. (author)

208

Radiation induced thyroid pathologies during the post-Chernobyl period  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An existing discrepancy between the prognostic estimation and real thyroid sickness rate due to radioiodine exposure from Chernobyl is an evidence of inaccuracy of radiation doses estimation. (authors)

209

Chernobyl: Chronicle of difficult weeks [videorecording  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1. Chernobyl : chronicle of difficult weeks. Shevchenko's film crew was the first in the disaster zone following the meltdown of the core of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. They shot continuously for more than three months. Portions of the film are exposed with white blotches - a radiation leakage. The film demonstrates how authorities and volunteers dealt with the accident, shows the efforts to get the fire under control, to take care of patients with radiation injuries, and to evacuate about 100,000 inhabitants of the area. 2. The BAM zone : permanent residents. The Baikal-Amur Mainline (BAM) railroad in Siberia is called the longest monument to the stagnation of the Brezhnev years. The film shows the lives and fates of the people in contrast to the marches and songs praising the project

210

Chernobyl: the effects on public health?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Dept. Nucleaire Medecine, 75 - Paris (France)

2003-07-01

211

The Chernobyl Catastrophe. Consequences on Human Health  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Twenty years after the Chernobyl disaster, the need for continued study of its far-reaching consequences remains as great as ever. Several million people (by various estimates, from 5 to 8 million) still reside in areas that will remain highly contaminated by Chernobyl's radioactive pollution for many years to come. Since the half-life of the major (though far from the only) radioactive element released, caesium-137 (137Cs), is a little over 30 years, the radiological (and hence health) consequences of this nuclear accident will continue to be experienced for centuries to come. This event had its greatest impacts on three neighbouring former Soviet republics: Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. The impacts, however, extended far more widely. More than half of the caesium-137 emitted as a result of the explosion was carried in the atmosphere to other European countries. At least fourteen other countries in Europe (Austria, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Slovenia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Italy, Bulgaria, Republic of Moldova and Greece) were contaminated by radiation levels above the 1 Ci/km{sup 2} (or 37 kBq/m{sup 2}), limit used to define areas as 'contaminated'. Lower, but nonetheless substantial quantities of radioactivity linked to the Chernobyl accident were detected all over the European continent, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, and in Asia. Despite the documented geographical extent and seriousness of the contamination caused by the accident, the totality of impacts on ecosystems, human health, economic performance and social structures remains unknown. In all cases, however, such impacts are likely to be extensive and long lasting. Drawing together contributions from numerous research scientists and health professionals, including many from the Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation, this report addresses one of these aspects, namely the nature and scope of the long-term consequences for human health. The range of estimates of excess mortality resulting from the Chernobyl accident spans an extremely wide range depending upon precisely what is taken into account. The most recent epidemiological evidence, published under the auspices of the Russian Academy of Sciences, suggests that the scale of the problems could be very much greater than predicted by studies published to date. For example, the 2005 IAEA report predicted that 4000 additional deaths would result from the Chernobyl accident. The most recently published figures indicate that in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine alone the accident resulted in an estimated 200,000 additional deaths between 1990 and 2004. Overall, the available data reveal a considerable range in estimated excess mortalities resulting from the Chernobyl accident, serving to underline the huge uncertainties attached to knowledge of the full impacts of the Chernobyl accident. This report includes some data, which have not been published before in the international arena. In combination with the extensive body of literature which has been published to date, these data indicate that 'official' figures (e.g. the IAEA 2005 evaluation) for morbidity (incidence of disease) and death arising as a direct result of the radioactive contamination released from Chernobyl may grossly underestimate both the local and international impact of the incident. Four population groups appear to have experienced the most severe health effects: (1) accident clean-up workers, or 'liquidators', including civilian and the military personnel drafted to carry out clean-up activities and construct the protective cover for the reactor; (2) evacuees from dangerously contaminated territories inside the 30-km zone around the power plant; (3) residents of the less (but still dangerously) contaminated territories; and (4) children born into the families from all of the above three groups.

Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I. (eds.)

2006-04-15

212

Lessons taught by the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On nuclear development, it is natural that safety is the most important condition. However, when occurring an accident in spite of earnest efforts on safety pursuit, it is essential for a technical developer to absorb some lessons from its contents as much as possible and show an attitude to use thereafter. The Chernobyl accident brought extraordinarily large damage in the history of nuclear technology development. Therefore, the edition group of the Japan Society of Atomic Energy introduced opinions of three groups of the Society (that is, groups on reactor physics, nuclear power generation, and human-machine system research) with some description on cause analysis of the accident and its result and effect. And, here was also shown four basic difference on design between RMBK type reactor in Chernobyl and LWR type reactor supplied in Japan. (G.K.)

213

Chernobyl today and compared to other disasters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The disaster in Unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl, now Ukraine, occurred fourteen years ago. Although much has been written about the accident, the public still has no proper yardstick by which to assess realistically the risk involved. This is true not only with respect to nuclear power plants of the type found in Germany and almost anywhere in the western world, but also in relation to non-nuclear disasters, which tend to be accepted by the public much more readily. As far as the number of persons killed or injured is concerned, the scope of the Chernobyl disaster turned out to be smaller than, or at least comparable to, other disasters. This is true even in comparison with other power generation technologies, for instance, accidents in coal mining or dam bursts. Even major railway accidents, airplane crashes, or the large number of people regularly killed in road traffic, are soon forgotten by the media. (orig.)

214

Chernobyl: The end of the nuclear dream  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chernobyl - once the name of an obscure Soviet nuclear plant in the Ukraine - has become a global household word because of the April 1986 explosion that destroyed one of its reactors and spread radioactive fallout over most of the northern hemisphere. A September 1986 study from the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory revealed that this disaster released as much radioactivity into the soil, air, and water as all the nuclear tests and bombs exploded since the 1940s. In this book by a team of correspondents from the London Observer, all the essential information is given: a description of Chernobyl town and its nuclear plant; a vivid account of the events surrounding the accident, in which many people acted heroically; the delays in reporting the disaster; the problems of evacuating people and of coping with the injured; the reactions in the Soviet Union and around the world; and the immediate and possible longterm effects of the release of so much radioactivity

215

The lesson of the Chernobyl disaster  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On april 26, 1986 a major nuclear disaster took place at 1 h 24 min local time, destroying the fourth reactor of the Chernobyl plant. Five years later the consequences of the disaster are still not fully known. Nevertheless the long term future of nuclear energy in the world is uncertain. Questions need to be answered by observing hard facts if emotional attitudes are not to prevail over reality. The reactor and its core were destroyed by an explosion, causing two radioactive jet emissions of iodine 131, followed by caesium 137. Both elements are mainly incorporated in the body via food. The Chernobyl disaster was a consequence of inadequate safety regulations and human error. Enforcement of strict regulations are likely to be highly effective in preventing a further catastrophe. However, governments should consider another possibility. What would be the consequences for public health if a terroristic act deliberately destroyed a nuclear power station.

Milhaud, G. (Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 Paris (FR))

1991-01-01

216

End of the Line for Chernobyl  

Science.gov (United States)

After a televised address to the nation, Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma gave the order today to shut down the last functioning reactor at Chernobyl, site of the world's worst nuclear accident in 1986. On April 26, 1986, flaws in the plant's cooling system and operator error set off an uncontrollable power surge and chemical explosions that blew the 1,000-ton cover off the top of Reactor Four. Thirty-one people, mostly fireman, were killed immediately after the explosion, and thousands more, including clean-up crew members and children, have since died from radiation-related illnesses. The health of millions more and the environment of Ukraine have most likely been negatively affected forever. The final shutdown of Chernobyl comes after years of intense international pressure and promises of substantial aid from the EU and the US to help with the cleanup and the construction of two replacement nuclear reactors.

De Nie, Michael W.

217

Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

NONE

2004-07-01

218

Decontamination: DECOHA at Chernobyl. [Radioactive decontamination process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The DECOHA decontamination process is to be used on stainless steel at the Chernobyl site. The process offers the following advantages: low occupational exposure; minimum secondary waste production; universal applicability; and low capital and operating costs. The process uses fluoroboric acid (HBF{sub 4}), which attacks almost every metal surface and all metal oxides, providing steady dissolution of the contaminated layer. It dissolves not only stainless steel but also carbon steel, aluminium, lead, and nickel alloys, eg Inconel 600, zircaloy etc. The plant supplied to Chernobyl offers novel possibilities for the decontamination of components and complete plant parts. Apart from the decontamination of dismantled parts, the process is also suitable for in-line decontamination of pipes or components (eg heat exchangers, steam generators) so that removing the item to be decontaminated is not always necessary. Plants for decontaminating cover plates and complete service plants using the DECOHA process are currently being planned. (author).

Beaujean, H.W. (ABC (Anlagen Bau Contor), Stutensee (Germany, F.R.)); Fiala-Goldiger, J.; Hanulik, J. (Recytec, Nyon (Switzerland))

1991-04-01

219

The Chernobyl accident: consequences and their overcoming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The estimation of radioecological, medico-biological, economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe has shown that unimaginable damage was incurred on Belarus and its territory became the zone of ecological calamity. The Chernobyl NPP catastrophe has led to the contamination of almost the fourth part of the territory of Belarus where there lived 2,2 million people. The damage caused to the republic by the catastrophe makes up 32 annual budgets of the republic of the pre-accident period in account for the 30-years period for its overcoming. Radioecological situation in Belarus is characterized by complexity and heterogeneous contamination of the territory by different radionuclides and their presence on all the components of the environment. It stipulates the plurality of ways of external and internal irradiation of the population and jeopardizes its health. There is registered the worsening of the population's health, of evacuated and inhabiting the contaminated areas as well, with increase of a number of somatic diseases, including oncological diseases, there are disorders in the metabolic processes and functions of the main systems of the organism. The demographic indices are decreasing. Particular concern causes the children's morbidity growth and genetic consequences of the accident. The contamination of agricultural lands has stipulated in the neighboring the Chernobyl NPP zone the impossibility of their use for food production. On the other lands it has been required to re-profile the farms and create new technologies of the agricultural production. There have been revealed the destructive tendencies in all spheres of the life activity of people who experienced radiation effects. The processes of social adaptation and socio-psychological support of the population require considerable optimization. In spite of that for ten years passed after the catastrophe the discrepancy of its estimations has not been overcome completely. At the same time, the accident consequences considered in this report show that the problems born by the Chernobyl catastrophe on April 26, 1986 will remain actual for long

220

Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive 131I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of 131I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 106 person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 107 person-rem (2 x 105 Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs

 
 
 
 
221

Chernobyl and the consequences for Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an introducing chapter the meteorological situation over Austria in the days after the Chernobyl accident is outlined. The following chapters are on measurement of contamination of environment, foodstuffs and fodder; on measures taken to minimize the radiation burden; a comparison with the fallout from nuclear weapons tests; a dose estimation to the population and finally, a comparison with contamination in some other european countries. 26 tabs., 117 figs. (qui)

222

Thyroid cancer and the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the Chernobyl accident of April 1986, there has been a continual increase in the numbers of reported cases of childhood thyroid carcinoma. An EC-supported consortium to study the pathology and molecular biology of the thyroid cancers is being coordinated from the University of Cambridge. This paper reports the findings of this study so far, together with its recommendations for further studies. (author)

223

Chernobyl GIS project in Belarus and Ukraine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Urged by the Chernobyl accident, Belarus and the Ukraine decided to create a joint Geographic Information System (GIS). Canada was asked for assistance. The creation of the system encompasses a pilot project and the full-scale project. In the contribution presented, the pilot project is highlighted, including its objectives, partners involved, system orientation, database design, expected results and applications, and future developments. (P.A.). 1 fig., 10 refs

224

Chernobyl - the radioactive plume and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The annual report 1986 of the United Kingdom Meterological Office is presented. The contents of the report contains a paper entitled 'Chernobyl - the radioactive plume and its consequences'. The paper is an account of the incident from a meteorological viewpoint. The account includes a description of the following topics:- the accident, during the first few days, the plume over Europe, loss processes, the plume over Britain, depositions, and the relation between emission and deposition. (U.K.)

225

Design of the RBMK-1000 in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Referring to the accident in the Chernobyl-4 reactor a short overview is given in this report of the most important information of this type of reactor. The information is mainly based on examination of Russian literature or originating from IAEA office in Vienna. Besides the author tries to give some insight on the Russian ideas about safety. The aim of this report is to enlighten those aspects of the reactor which could have contributed to the progress of the accident. (Auth.)

226

Experience from the nuclear accident in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present first part of the committee's report describes how the discharges spread from the reactor to Scandinavia and the situation as regards contamination in different parts of Norway. The report also deals with the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, and countermeasures and action levels used

227

Medical consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Ukraine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some aspects of health deterioration in population of Ukraine affected after the Chernobyl accident are presented. The survived population division in groups, peculiarities of morbidity incidence and prevalence are described. The dynamics of some medical demography parameters are discussed concerning adults and paediatric population. The precise values of incidence and prevalence for the main classes of diseases are shown in comparison of 1995-1996 to 1987. (author)

228

The legal issues of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to international law the Federal Republic of Germany has a right to claim compensations from the Soviet Union. This all the more as both states have signed the treaty of Nov. 13, 1979 which as part of the UN Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) is known as the ''Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution''. By civil law victims may sue a Kiev court for compensations or else sue for damages in the Federal Republic of Germany. It is very unlikely that the reactor management itself will pay any damages. According to the Atomic Energy Law, paragraph 38, 2 and paragraph 34, 1 p. 2 victims in the Federal Republic of Germany may claim compensations up to a maximum of 1 billion marks from the Federal Government. However, compensations may only be sued for if attempts to sue a Soviet court have failed. Compensations must be claimed at the Federal Administrative Board in Cologne. (HP)

229

Socio-economic consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe. Social protection of the citizens, affected owing to Chernobyl catastrophe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident on Chernobyl NPP has affected the destiny of 35 million people in Ukraine. The social protection of the population affected during Chernobyl catastrophe is founded on the Law of Ukraine 'About the status and social protection of citizens affected owing to Chernobyl catastrophe' (see further - 'Law'), and is the principal direction of activity and the subject of the special state attention to total complex of problems bound to Chernobyl catastrophe consequences elimination. The current legislation stipulates partial compensation of material losses connected with resettlement of the affected population. According to the current legislation in Ukraine about 50 kinds of aid, privileges and compensations are submitted to the affected citizens

230

Chernobyl: the plant that refuses to die  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite the cracking of the Sarcophagus enclosing Reactor 4 and recent observations of increased radiation inside, no decision on the future of the Chernobyl plant has been made. There is pressure from the G7 countries to close it down, but reluctance in Ukraine for a variety of reasons. Closure of the remaining functioning reactors at the plant would require new capacity to be substituted in order to meet the Ukraine's power demand and support its already ailing economy. Controversially, the Ukraine would like the new capacity to come from the completion of two VVER plants at Rovno and Khmelnitsky but it would embarrass the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development to be seen to be financing the replacement of Chernobyl by more nuclear reactors. Opposition to plant closure also comes from those concerned for the future of the town of Slavutich which houses the Chernobyl workforce of 6,000 and their families. The fear is that closure would mean a sudden slide into poverty for the 24,000 inhabitants. Moreover, should the workforce disappear, who would look after the Sarcophagus? It is the future of the Sarcophagus which should be the priority of all parties to the debate. Opinions differ on the consequences of the collapse of the present structure but they could constitute another disaster. (UK)

231

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Lithuania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl accident of 26 April, 1986, population dose assessment favours the view that the radiation risk of population effected by the early fallout would be different from that in regions contaminated later. Taking into account the short half-time of the most important radioactive iodine isotopes, thyroid disorders would be expected mainly to follow the early fallout distribution. At the time of accident at Unite 4 of the Chernobyl NPP, surface winds were from the Southeast. The initial explosions and heat carried volatile radioactive materials to the 1,5 km height, from where they were transported over the Western part of Belarus, Southern and Western part of Lithuania toward Scandinavian countries. Thus the volatile radioiodine and some other radionuclides were detected in Lithuania on the very first days after the accident. The main task of the work - to conduct short Half-time radioiodine and long half-time radiocesium dose assessment of Lithuanian inhabitants a result of the early Chernobyl accident fallout

232

The Cuban Chernobyl program. realities and perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In April of 1990 started the 'Cuban Chernobyl Program'. This program was designed to offers specialised medical attention and to develop a rehabilitation plan with children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. Up to the moment more than 21 500 children and adults had been assisted in the program, with a significant set of medical procedures done. Dosimetric, biomedical and psychological research had been also carried out as part of the program. The more significant medical attention activities include the treatment of 289 children with haematological disorders, including 6 bone marrow transplantation, more than 100 important surgical interventions, and the treatment of 117 children with solid tumors. The dosimetric results on more than 7000 children are including in a database with information on internal Cs 137 contamination, internal, external and total doses, children living location, and its contamination by Cs 137, and other significant information for radiological impact evaluation. The behaviour of all the medical information of the program in relation to the contamination of the land and the internal contamination of the children was analysed using this database. The program has accumulated an experience of interest for physicians, psychologists and in general persons interested in Chernobyl consequences

233

Health consequences [of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The World Health Organisation Conference on the Health Consequences of the Chernobyl and Other Radiological Accidents, held in Geneva last November, is reported. The lack of representation from the civil nuclear industry led often to one-sided debates instigated by the anti-nuclear lobbies present. Thyroid cancer in children as a result of the Chernobyl accident received particular attention. In Belarus, 400 cases have been noted, 220 in Ukraine and 60 in the Russian Federation. All have been treated with a high degree of success. The incidence of this cancer would be expected to follow the fallout path as the main exposure route was ingestion of contaminated foods and milk products. It was noted that the only way to confirm causality was if those children born since the accident failed to show the same increased incidence. Explanations were offered for the particular susceptibility of children to thyroid cancer following exposure to radiation. Another significant cause of concern was the health consequences to clean-up workers in radiological accidents. The main factor is psychological problems from the stress of knowing that they have received high radiation doses. A dramatic increase in psychological disorders has occurred in the Ukraine over the past ten years and this is attributed to stress generated by the Chernobyl accident, compounded by the inadequacy of the public advice offered at the time and the socio-economic uncertainties accompanying the breakup of the former USSR. (UK)

234

Surveillance of congenital malformations in Belarus. Chernobyl aftermath  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In order to study possible genetic effects of the Chernobyl accident in human population a comparative analysis of the prevalence at birth of congenital malformations (CM) was performed on region and area administrative levels basing on the data of Belarus registry of CM permanently functioning since 1979. An attempt was made to evaluate dose dependence of the effects under study. We analyzed time trends of the prevalence at birth of 9 so called 'mandatory registered' nosologic units of CM. These group of CM could be easily diagnosed within the neonatal period and were assigned for registration at creation of the registry. Over 12 thousand cases registered within the period of 1981 to 2004 in 4 regions as well as about 3 thousand cases found in 47 rayons highly contrasting by radiation exposure were scrutinized. No long-term impact of the Chernobyl release on prevalence rates of surveyed CM was shown. Since the middle 80-s a similar steady increasing trend was observed as in contaminated, as in control areas with a tendency to stabilization after middle 90-s. We fail to reveal a dose dependence for CM prevalence rates calculated for the whole post-accidental period. Nonetheless, during the first years after the accident situation in contaminated areas was notably different from those in the control. Within the period of 1987 to 1989 a significant access of CM prevalence was registered in the strict radiological control area (Cs 137 soil contamination over 5rol area (Cs 137 soil contamination over 555 kBq/m2) as compared to non-contaminated zone. Relative risk was estimated as RR1987-1989 = 1.57 with 95% confidence interval being 95%CI = [1.29; 1.89]. Before the accident no difference in prevalence rates was marked (RR1981-1986 = 0.93; 95%CI = [0.80; 1.09]); nor it was evident in the farther post-accidental period (RR1990-2004 = 0.99; 95%CI = [0.80; 1.09]). Anomalies with high contribution of dominant de novo mutations (polydactyly, reduction defects of limbs and multiple CM) played principal role in the revealed increase. For this CM group a correlation with the estimated effective dose values was observed within the corresponding time period, no such relationship was marked for other analyzed CM, however. Analysis of the farther period failed to reveal a similar association for any group of CM under study. Thus, adverse effect of the Chernobyl accident on fetal development could not be excluded only within the first years after the accident. Peculiarity of the group of anomalies, chosen for the study, limits the impact of screening effect; however, it could not be completely ruled out because of ecological study design. Obtained results need to be confirmed in consecutive series of case-control and cohort studies. Extensive implementation of prophylactics of CM in the early 90-s made it possible to maintain the CM prevalence rates among newborns at the pre-accidental values. Currently over 30% of mandatory registered CM and about 20% of all CM in Belarus are registered among fetuses aborted for genetic reasons. Nevertheless, rather high level of CM prevalence in the republic insists farther improvement of the prophylactics of malformed children birth. For this purpose similar measures seems to be appropriate as for the residents of contaminated, as non-contaminated areas, since currently no substantial difference in time trends are traceable. The most perspective way of improvement of CM prenatal diagnostics is enlargement of the group of women that undergo ultrasound screening of I and II trimesters in specialized centers of prenatal diagnostics

235

Stable marked point processes  

CERN Document Server

In many contexts such as queuing theory, spatial statistics, geostatistics and meteorology, data are observed at irregular spatial positions. One model of this situation involves considering the observation points as generated by a Poisson process. Under this assumption, we study the limit behavior of the partial sums of the marked point process $\\{(t_i,X(t_i))\\}$, where X(t) is a stationary random field and the points t_i are generated from an independent Poisson random measure $\\mathbb{N}$ on $\\mathbb{R}^d$. We define the sample mean and sample variance statistics and determine their joint asymptotic behavior in a heavy-tailed setting, thus extending some finite variance results of Karr [Adv. in Appl. Probab. 18 (1986) 406--422]. New results on subsampling in the context of a marked point process are also presented, with the application of forming a confidence interval for the unknown mean under an unknown degree of heavy tails.

McElroy, Tucker

2007-01-01

236

Stable marked point processes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In many contexts such as queuing theory, spatial statistics, geostatistics and meteorology, data are observed at irregular spatial positions. One model of this situation involves considering the observation points as generated by a Poisson process. Under this assumption, we study the limit behavior of the partial sums of the marked point process $\\{(t_i,X(t_i))\\}$, where X(t) is a stationary random field and the points t_i are generated from an independent Poisson random mea...

Mcelroy, Tucker; Politis, Dimitris N.

2007-01-01

237

Reporting on Radiation: A Content Analysis of Chernobyl Coverage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluates how well the media guided readers and viewers through the Chernobyl disaster. Concludes that the press and television did not provide enough radiation and risk information in their coverage of the Chernobyl accident, but what was provided was appropriate, even-handed, and conservative. (NKA)

Friedman, Sharon M.; And Others

1987-01-01

238

10 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Thyroid cancer and consequences of public health in the CIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor, governmental and international organisations have identified considerable effects on the health of the various affected groups. A dramatic - over 100-fold - increase in thyroid cancers among children in Belarus has been caused by papillary thyroid carcinomas that are marked by aggressive growth with early metastatic spread. As early as 1995, the number of new cases of thyroid cancer among adults was four times the mean figure in the period before 1986. In Oblast Gomel, the number of children with diabetes mellitus doubled between 1986 and the end of 1995. The number of recorded cases of thyroid cancer, particularly among children, by far exceeds the prognoses made on the basis of established radiation risk estimates, and points to a considerable underestimation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. (orig.)

239

International nuclear law in the 25 years between Chernobyl and Fukushima and beyond  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is dedicated both to legal developments since the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant 25 years ago and possible legal implications of the accidents at Fukushima Daiichi which occurred after Japan was struck by a devastating earthquake on 11 March 2011. Following the accident at Three Mile Island in 1979 and at Chernobyl in 1986, Fukushima will be remembered as the third major accident in the history of civilian nuclear power reactors. Yet Chernobyl was and remains the worst trauma in this history as a result of which nuclear developments slowed down significantly. Eventually, the industry emerged as a safer and stronger technology, particularly because the 25 years between Chernobyl and Fukushima were marked by an exceptional national and international commitment to nuclear safety and emergency preparedness so as to prevent accidents and minimise potential damages, if such occur. From a legal point of view it is safe to say that the nuclear industry is one of the most strictly regulated. However, it is equally safe to say that there is no zero risk technology and that accidents can happen. For several weeks after the tragic events in Japan the world's focus turned - justifiably so - to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power units. It was nevertheless astonishing to observe that the real tragedy, the terrible loss of lives, swept away villages, and the chaos following the breakdown of all kinds of infrastructure were treated as a sideshow compared with the dramatic images of explosions at the Fukushima Daiichi units and helicopters trying to drop seawater into the spent fuel pools. The live broadcasting of accidents might present one of the first lessons to be learnt in our Internet and 24-hour news channel era which did not exist at the time of Chernobyl. The international legal community will also face challenges as the accident has put 25 years of international co-operation and international nuclear law-making to its first serious test. The question will be if, where and how the international legal regime governing peaceful nuclear activities showed weaknesses. There is no room for the hasty setting up of new conventions; there are, however, lessons to be learnt which in turn will lead to the improvement of the international legal framework. It will take time and effort to understand and process the events. While this paper is being written, the reactors at Fukushima have yet to be stabilised; nevertheless a first glance at the key legal issues will be attempted. (author)

240

Old and new radionuclide presence in Romania after Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters  

Science.gov (United States)

Our laboratory measured the radionuclide presence in Transylvania region both after Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. The paper presents old and new data connected with these disasters obtained not only by us but also by others laboratories from Romania. It is an attempt to mark the mainly aspects regarding the radioactive contamination in our country connected with these catastrophes. After the Chernobyl accident the radioactive cloud passage over Romania on NE - SW direction brought relatively intesive radionuclide deposition. On this direction the highest deposition were found in the areas where this passage during April 30-st and May 1-st were accompanied by rainfalls. In the rain water and fresh sediment colected at May 1-st, 1986 and measured the next days, all radionuclide species from Chernobyl could be identified [1]. Additional measurements of 90Sr and 239/240Pu have been made several years later in different environmental samples (roof sediment, soil, pollen, sand, roof-water, street dust) collected in 1986 from Cluj-Napoca, Romania [2]. In the case of Fukushima disaster the air transport from west and north-west brought small quantities of radionuclides over the Romanian teritorry. Even if in this case the radioactive cloud was very dilluted, 131I could be clearly identified and measured in air, rain water and other products as: milk, vegetables, grass, fresh meat from the NW of Romania [3]. Measurements have been also conducted in Bucharest and Pitesti. During the last 5 years suplimentary 137Cs measurements were made in different areas as an attempt to use this radionuclide as soil and sediment tracer. [1]. C. Cosma, Some Aspects of Radioactive Contamination after Chernobyl Accident in Romania, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 251, 2, 221-226 (2002) [2]. C. Cosma, Strontium-90 Measurement without Chemical Separation in Samples after Chernobyl Accident, Spectrochimica Acta, Part B, 55, 1165-1171 (2000) [3]. C. Cosma, AR. Iurian, DC. Ni?, R. Begy R, C. Cîndea , Indicators of the Fukushima radioactive release in NW Romania, J Environ Radioact. 114:94-9. (2012) doi: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2011.11.020

Cosma, Constantin; Iurian, Andra; Nita, Dan; Pantelica, Ana; Prodan, Eugen

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
241

Mark Konold | Worldwatch Institute  

... He then moved to Jamaica and worked as a volunteer for a missionary group responsible for a high school, a local clinic, and an orphanage. It was there that he first became interested in the potential of renewable energy for creating robust growth in developing areas and the intersection of its technical, economic, and policy aspects. Mark holds a B.S. in Electrical Engineering from Marquette University and an M.A. in International Relations from the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS). As a ...

242

Mark Meigs. Mencken.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ce volume fait partie de la collection ‘Clefs Concours’, une série d’ouvrages qui offre aux étudiants des repères sur les sujets de civilisation du CAPES et de l’agrégation, des synthèses, « des outils de révision », bref les clés nécessaires pour mieux cerner le programme de civilisation américaine, en l’occurrence la Chrestomathy de H.L. Mencken. L’ouvrage de Mark Meigs se compose d’une introduction et d’un chapitre liminaire sur l’historiographie existante, d’une première partie posant les...

Anne Ollivier Mellios

2006-04-01

243

Mark Meigs. Mencken.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ce volume fait partie de la collection ‘Clefs Concours’, une série d’ouvrages qui offre aux étudiants des repères sur les sujets de civilisation du CAPES et de l’agrégation, des synthèses, « des outils de révision », bref les clés nécessaires pour mieux cerner le programme de civilisation américaine, en l’occurrence la Chrestomathy de H.L. Mencken. L’ouvrage de Mark Meigs se compose d’une introduction et d’un chapitre liminaire sur l’historiographie existante, d...

Anne Ollivier Mellios

2006-01-01

244

Ceremony marking Einstein Year  

CERN Multimedia

Sunday 13th November at 10:00amat Geneva's St. Peter's Cathedral To mark Einstein Year and the importance of the intercultural dialogue of which it forms a part, a religious service will take place on Sunday 13 November at 10 a.m. in St. Peter's Cathedral, to which CERN members and colleagues are warmly welcomed. Pastor Henry Babel, senior minister at the Cathedral, will speak on the theme: 'God in Einstein's Universe'. Diether Blechschmidt will convey a message on behalf of the scientific community.

2005-01-01

245

Mark III Nancay Radioheliograph  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A north-south array has been added to the Mark II Nancay Radioheliograph (Radioheliograph Group, 1977). This instrument gives at 169 MHz two one-dimensional images of the Sun in the east-west and north-south directions including measurement of the circular polarization ratio. The main performances of this instrument are high space and time resolutions, flexible on line data processing and the possibility of off-line interactive data reduction. The method of calibration is briefly described. A few observations are presented.

Bonmartin, J.; Bouteille, A.; Clavelier, B.; Issartel, M.P.; Kerdraon, A.; Lantos, M.F.; Lantos, P.; Mercier, C.; Pick, M.; Raoult, A. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 92 - Meudon-Bellevue (France))

1983-10-01

246

Isotopic marking and tracers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of radioactive isotopes as tracers in biology has been developed thanks to the economic generation of the required isotopes in accelerators and nuclear reactors, and to the multiple applications of tracers in the life domain; the most usual isotopes employed in biology are carbon, hydrogen, phosphorus and sulfur isotopes, because these elements are present in most of organic molecules. Most of the life science knowledge appears to be dependent to the extensive use of nuclear tools and radioactive tracers; the example of the utilization of radioactive phosphorus marked ATP to study the multiple reactions with proteins, nucleic acids, etc., is given

247

Proceeding of the 2-nd International Conference 'Long-term Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Disaster'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the second International conference 'Long-term health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster' in 1-6 June 1998 Kiev (Ukraine) the following problems were discussed: 1.Epidemiological aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 2.Clinical and biological effects of ionizing radiation; 3.Social and psychological aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster; 4.Rehabilitation of the Chernobyl disaster survivors

248

Americium and curium deposition in Finland from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

241Am and 244Cm were analysed from peat samples collected in Finland immediately after the Chernobyl accident. The separation method included co-precipitation, anion exchange and extraction chromatography. Activities of 241Am and 244Cm were measured by alpha spectrometry. The activity of Chernobyl-derived 241Am varied between 0.0115 and 9.32 Bq/m2 and that of 244Cm from 2 (reference date 1.5.1986). The origin of 241Am in Finland is predominantly from atmospheric nuclear tests. However, the geographical distribution of Chernobyl-americium is uneven and depending on a location even 100% of 241Am in peat originated from the Chernobyl accident. The deposition pattern of Chernobyl-derived 241Am and 244Cm resembles that of other refractory nuclides, such as 95Zr, 141Ce and 239,240Pu. (orig.)

249

Chernobyl is not everywhere. A critical review of emergency preparedness 10 years after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl shock had positive consequences for emergency preparedness. But have the right conclusions been drawn and the lessons really learnt? Some countries which were not ready when Chernobyl happened, have based their new concepts too closely on the Chernobyl scenario and do not seem to realize that a next accident may be completely different. Many concepts and developments are too academic and not adapted to the severe operational requirements of real emergency conditions. The information of the public still shows most of the deficiencies which were the cause of the only real 'catastrophic' consequences of Chernobyl outside the former Soviet Union: the information failure. A critical review of the developments in the various aspects of emergency preparedness, based on international comparisons (a.o. from NEA International Emergency exercise INEX-1 and both NEA and FS Workshops) shows both real improvements and mistakes or weak points and leads to the following positive and negative observations, conclusions and proposals for future action (given in short-hand form due to limited space). (author)

250

Consequences of Chernobyl accident in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Among nuclides emitted from the destroyed Chernobyl reactor only radioiodine and radiocesium were of serious health concern. The amount of iodine-131 released in this catastrophe was about 180 times lower than during the total release of this nuclide from 77 nuclear weapon tests performed in remote areas in the record year of 1962, and the release of cesium-137 was only five times lower. However, the bulk of Chernobyl emission was confined in time to only twelve days, and its geographical dispersion was much smaller and closer to populated areas than that of nuclear tests debris. Only a small part of cesium-137 and cesium-134 from the Chernobyl reactor reached the Southern Hemisphere, via stratospheric transport routes. Therefore, radiation doses received by the population from the Chernobyl radionuclides was in the affected areas higher than from the nuclear tests fallout. In part of Europe the doses received by children in the thyroid gland from iodine-131 radiation were high enough to expect an increase in thyroid cancers. In the contaminated regions of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the estimated thyroid doses in children could reach up to several thousand mSv. In a group of >100,000 persons evacuated during the first few weeks, the average thyroid dose in children under 3 years of age was about 1000 mSv, and in adults about 70 mSv. Between 1986 and 1995 about 700 thyroid cancers in children were reported from Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, most of which mayrus, Ukraine and Russia, most of which may be attributed to Chernobyl radiation. About 95% of these cancers are believed to be curable. The whole body dose from cloud passage, ground deposition and intake of cesium-137 and of other radionuclides was much smaller than thyroid doses, and do not pose a real risk to the population. The average lifetime (70 years) whole body doses in the most contaminated regions of Belarus ranged between 88 and 160 mSv, in Ukraine 84 and 120 mSv and in Russia 78 to 130 mSv. The average doses to 800,000 'liquidators' ranged between 170 mSv in 1986 and 15 mSv in 1989. Among the >100,000 evacuees the average whole body dose prior to evacuation was 15 mSv. The average lifetime Chernobyl whole body doses in European countries outside the former Soviet Union range from 0.006 mSv in Portugal to 2.4 mSv in Bulgaria. In the Northern Hemisphere the average Chernobyl lifetime dose is 0.14 mSv, i.e. about 0.08% of the natural dose. The average global whole body dose of natural radiation during 70 years is about 170 mSv, and 700 mSv in typically high background areas. Epidemiological studies from Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggest that no increase in cancer mortality should be expected at a single whole body dose (in addition to natural background radiation) of <200 mSv, delivered during a fraction of a second. Doses of about 200 mSv accumulated over tens of years of exposure would be even less effective. Ten years after the Chernobyl catastrophe the total radiation death toll is 31 - 38 persons, among them 3 persons were the members of the public. The total expected number of thyroid cancer deaths is about 500. In Poland, a country closest to Chernobyl outside the former Soviet Union, during two days, starting on the second day after arrival of radioactive cloud, 18.5 million persons were administered a prophylactic dose of stable iodine in form of 'Lugol solution', to block the uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid. This caused a thyroid dose reduction by a factor of up to 5, without any intra-thyroid side effects. Economic loses related to necessary and unnecessary remedial measures are estimated to reach in Belarus between 1986 and 2015 US$ 191.7 billion, of which US$ 86.32 billion are costs of financial and other compensation ('privileges') for peoples living at contaminated regions. It is estimated that in Ukraine in regions where 'Chernobyl radiation dose' is less than 1 mSv/year about 1.73 million persons receives the 'privileges'. Psychosomatic consequences of radiophobia induced by mass-media and policy of authorities in the contaminate

251

Lessons learnt from clean-up of urban area after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at Chernobyl NPP showed that huge territories including densely populated areas can be exposed to contamination as a result of unforeseen circumstances. The Chernobyl accident forced reconsidering of many regulations in the field of population protection and was a powerful incentive to development of many applied sciences. In 1992-1996, an international team of scientists carried out investigations on ECP-4 project 'Strategies of Decontamination'. Including of an independent sub-project 'Urban environment and countermeasures' into the project of French-German initiative on Chernobyl 'Radioecology' was the extension of work on study of urban environment contamination. The aim of the projects ware to synthesize the large body of experimental data received during elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident and in the course of special studies carried out in former USSR and later in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, and prediction on this basis of radionuclide behavior in the urban environment. In 2003 the EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) project was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Urban Remediation Working Group of the EMRAS has focused on the assessment of the effectiveness of countermeasures employed in urban settings after releases of radioactivity. This review considers results of principally Ukrainian, Russian, and Belarus researchers who worked on these projects. Over the 20-year period a number of publications have reviewed the effectiveness of countermeasures, particularly those used after the Chernobyl accident. The general principles of radiological protection are based on radiation doses, intervention levels and effective countermeasures. Decontamination of densely built-up cities constructed of various building materials with total surface area significantly exceeding the administrative city area is an extremely difficult task. In the Late-Phase Response, 'classical' radiological principles and criteria need detailed clarification. The specific aspect of this phase is the problem of social protection and social rehabilitation. The rehabilitation of the contaminated territories has been considered as a combination of measures directed at improvement of environmental conditions and the quality of life. While planning decontamination for the long term, it is important to take into account the contribution of external dose to the total (external and internal) dose. The materialization of the social aspect is a very important characteristic of this phase. Unfortunately, in spite of all the efforts, the negative consequences of the accident have not been completely overcome. Nevertheless, the data array that has been accumulated since the accident allows unbiased assessment of not only the errors but also the achievements of the stupendous work on minimization of the consequences of the accident and drawing conclusions important for the future. (author)

252

Health implications of the Chernobyl accident for Bulgaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimations of Chernobyl-related accidental exposures to the Bulgarian population indicated the doses received to be low-level. Possible deviations in individual subjects were likewise held to be within the low-level range. It was thus inferred that appearance of nonstochastic, threshold effects which become manifest after doses of a certain magnitude, were not to be expected as such effects are known to require doses well in excess of those attributable to the accident. So it is difficult to explain the increase in nonmalignant thyroid pathology noted for 1986 and 1987 and particularly marked in children, according to a recent analysis covering the period 1980-1990. The characteristics of radiation exposure experienced by the Bulgarian population point only to possible stochastic effects (carcinogenic or genetic) and some types of damage incurred during embryonic development. As regards carcinogenic risk predictions indicated that any accident-related malignancies would hardly be statistically demonstrable in a setting of high spontaneous frequencies. Attention is now centered on leukemias in children, myeloid leukemia in adults and non-Hodgkin lymphomas. No increase has been noted for the 1986-1990. Radiation-related lung cancer and breast cancer have a latent period of some 20-30 years, so that looking for them at this time does not appear to be warranted. Thyroid cancer which is closely related to 131-iodine exposure has thus far shown no elevation across the counhus far shown no elevation across the country. With respect to the genetic risk carried by the Chernobyl accident for our population predictions based on internationally accepted criteria indicated it to be extremely low-level in term of severe genetic effects. Our retrospective analysis of incidence of spontaneous abortions in 1986 and 1987 as well as of stillbirths, congenital malformations, perinatal and neonatal infant mortality in 1987 and 1988, revealed no deviations attributable to accidental radiation exposure. The group at highest risk from the accident was that of pregnant woman. The period from 8 to 15 gestation weeks has been found to be highly vulnerable to ionizing radiation. (author)

253

Final report on the Risoe monitoring programme after the Chernobyl accident for the period Oct 1, 1986 - Sept 30, 1987  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In cooperation with the National Agency of Environmental Protection in Denmark, Risoe National Laboratory has examined the radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl accident. The programme for these investigations was an expansion of the countrywide monitoring programme operated since 1962 by Risoe National Laboratory. The present report cover the period Oct 1, 1986 to Sept. 30, 1987. All types of environmental samples relevant for radioactive contamination has been analysed. Most samples were collected countrywide and all samples were analysed for radiocaesium (134Cs and 137Cs). Many samples were furthermore anlaysed for 90Sr and in a few samples transuranic elements (29,240Pu, 241Am and 242Cm) were determined. On the basis of the diet and wholebody measurements of radiocaesium the individual mean dose equivalent commitment from Danish diet consumed in the first two years after the Chernobyl accident was calculated to 27 ? Sv. (author)

254

Chernobyl: The true scale of the accident. 20 years later a UN report provides definitive answers and ways to repair lives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Authoritative figures regarding the effect of the Chernobyl accident presented in a landmark digest report, 'Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts', just released by the Chernobyl Forum. The digest, based on a three-volume, 600-page report and incorporating the work of hundreds of scientists, economists and health experts, assesses the 20-year impact of the largest nuclear accident in history. The Forum is made up of 8 UN specialized agencies, including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA), United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and the World Bank, as well as the governments of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. The Forum's report aims to help the affected countries understand the true scale of the accident consequences and also suggest ways the governments of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia might address major economic and social problems stemming from the accident. Members of the Forum, including representatives of the three governments, will meet September 6 and 7 in Vienna at an unprecedented gathering of the world's experts on Chernobyl, radiation effects and protection, to consider these findings and recommendations

255

The Chernobyl accident and its consequences.  

Science.gov (United States)

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the worst industrial accident of the last century that involved radiation. The unprecedented release of multiple different radioisotopes led to radioactive contamination of large areas surrounding the accident site. The exposure of the residents of these areas was varied and therefore the consequences for health and radioecology could not be reliably estimated quickly. Even though some studies have now been ongoing for 25 years and have provided a better understanding of the situation, these are yet neither complete nor comprehensive enough to determine the long-term risk. A true assessment can only be provided after following the observed population for their natural lifespan. Here we review the technical aspects of the accident and provide relevant information on radioactive releases that resulted in exposure of this large population to radiation. A number of different groups of people were exposed to radiation: workers involved in the initial clean-up response, and members of the general population who were either evacuated from the settlements in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant vicinity shortly after the accident, or continued to live in the affected territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Through domestic efforts and extensive international co-operation, essential information on radiation dose and health status for this population has been collected. This has permitted the identification of high-risk groups and the use of more specialised means of collecting information, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Because radiation-associated thyroid cancer is one of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, a particular emphasis is placed on this malignancy. The initial epidemiological studies are reviewed, as are the most significant studies and/or aid programmes in the three affected countries. PMID:21345660

Saenko, V; Ivanov, V; Tsyb, A; Bogdanova, T; Tronko, M; Demidchik, Yu; Yamashita, S

2011-05-01

256

Pseuchoneurotic disorders associated with the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This survey relied largely on random selection. As a rule, the attention of the specialists was directed to people with certain specific complaints. Psychogenic disorders observed in the area of the accident at the Chernobyl plant were followed and studied by a team of specialists from the USSR Ministry of Health, beginning on 29 April 1986. According to the nature of the observed stress effects and of the resultant psychic disorders, it was possible to delineate three periods: first the acute period of the disaster from the time of the accident, lasting about 10 days until completion of the evacuation of the population from the danger zone (5 May); second the intermediate delayed period, the period of comparatively early consequences (from 6 May to October 1986); and third, the period of remote consequences. In the course of the year, 1,572 people were examined. The data available indicate that the psychogenic disorders observed after the Chernobyl accident can be regarded as the consequence of a single process, the dynamics of which are determined on the one hand by the characteristics of the emergency situation and on the other by the traits and the degree of preparedness of the people involved. The special nature of the stress situation in all three periods - the threat to health - gave rise to certain characteristic clinical observations, primarily a high degree of somatization and hypochondria. An understanding of the psychological disorders affecting those who lived through the Chernobyl accident, and of their effects on the work capability and pattern of life of people at various stages after the accident, has made it possible to develop and implement a complex and refined system of prophylactic and medical measures. (author)

257

Radiocesium from Chernobyl fallout in Lake Constance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five years after the reactor accident at Chernobyl on April, 26th 1986 cesium radionuclides in the water of Lake Constance can only be detected in trace quantities. The precipitation of calcite in Lake Constance represents a self-cleaning mechanism, which caused a rapid transport of cesium radionuclides from the epilimnion into the sediment. There in 1990 the maximum of cesium radioactivity was found in a thin, well separated layer at 3 cm sediment depth. As a result of selective extraction experiments cesium radionuclides in sediment turned out to be almost completely irreversibly bound to clay mineral particles. (orig.)

258

Environmental consequences of Chernobyl in Western Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Europe as a whole the collective dose would be a few tens of percent higher. Using the risk factor recommended by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, the theoretical number of extra cancers predicted in western Europe due to the Chernobyl accident is of the order of 1000. This can be compared with the number of fatalities which would be expected over the next fifty years in western Europe as a result of radiation from natural sources, which is over half a million. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

259

Medical aspects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 11 to 13 May 1988, the All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine convened a Conference on Medical Aspects of the Chernobyl Accident in Kiev. This was the first conference on this subject with international participation held in the Soviet Union. There were 310 specialists representing Soviet scientific establishments and over 60 experts from 23 other countries and international organizations participated in the Conference. Participants at the Conference discussed medical aspects of accident mitigation, including therapeutic, psychological, demographic, epidemiological and dosimetric problems. These proceedings include 29 reports presented by Soviet scientists during the four sessions as well as summaries of discussions and opening addresses. Refs, figs and tabs

260

Radionuclide deposition from the Chernobyl cloud  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper investigates the radionuclide deposition over the United Kingdom from the radioactive cloud created by the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. The ranges of peak air and rain-water concentrations of radionuclides observed in the British Isles during 2-5 May 1986 are reported. also attempts are made to link the time variations of these levels to meteorological conditions. In particular, high levels measured on grass are linked to heavy rainfalls associated with thunderstorms embedded in the radioactive cloud. (U.K.)

 
 
 
 
261

ARAC response to the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the assessments provided by ARAC during the first two weeks after the Chernobyl reactor accident began. Results of this work and measurements made by European countries during that same period show that no major short-term acute health effects would be expected in Europe as a result of this accident. Statistical long-term health effects were not addressed in these studies. Both measured and calculated I-131 concentrations in milk in the US were over an order of magnitude below the USDA guideline of 15,000 pCi/l

262

Chernobyl and its consequences for Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

First there is a short version of 16 pages. Then a detailed account is given mainly on the activities of the Federal Environment Office and the radiation burden to the population. The chapter headings are 1) The Chernobyl reactor accident 2) The meteorological situation 3) Monitoring of the radioactive contamination in Austria 4) Aims of the radiation measurement activities 5) Initial situation in Austria and first measurements 6) Environmental control 7) Food control 8) Fodder 9) Measures taken to minimise the radiation burden - a chronology 10) Comparison with nuclear tests fallout 11) Dose estimation 12) Radioactive contamination in other European countries. (G.Q.)

263

The international Chernobyl project. Technical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains the findings of the International Chernobyl Project. Separate chapters deal with the history of the accident and the Soviet emergency measures, environmental contamination, radiation exposure of the population, health impact, and protective measures. The conclusions and recommendations of the Project are presented, and an annex gives the available data on cesium 137 and strontium 90 contamination levels in populated areas of the BSSR, the RSFSR and the UkrSSR from June/July 1989: these data were used to draw up the area contamination maps. Ref, figs and tabs

264

Transport of Chernobyl radionuclides in freshwater lakes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of the limnological character of lakes on the transport processes of longlived radionuclides from the Chernobyl fallout (Cs-134, Cs-137, Ru-106, Sb-125) is examplified at Lake Constance, a large hardwater lake, and Schreckensee and Vorsee from the same prealpine region, which are small lakes with high organic loads. For Cs radionuclides in Lake Constance adsorption at clay particles is the dominating process, whereas in the other lakes the interaction with organic substances plays an important role with respect to their ecological behavior. (author)

265

Chernobyl health effects: radiation or stress?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consideration is given to results of wide-scale examination of human population, subjected to the effect of radiation in result of Chernobyl accident. The examined contingents consisted of liquidators, evacuated from 30-km zone, people still living in contamination territories, children of irradiated parents and children, who received large radiation doses. High levels of respiratory system diseases, digestive system diseases, cardiovascular diseases and nervous system diseases were revealed for these people. It was revealed that stress, socio-economic and chemical factors played sufficient role in disease incidence. It is shown that fair of radiation may damage more, than radiation itself

266

Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The implementation of good known effective countermeasures at early stage could have substantially reduced the number of thyroid cancer cases after accident. U N Chernobyl Forum recommended long-term activity for mitigation Chernobyl's consequences - A Strategy for Recovery. For improvement this strategy must be create the modern system of the radiation protection based on the new international and national recommendations. The key issues of the Belarusian experience is discussed. (author)

267

Risk of thyroid cancer among Chernobyl liquidators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: While the increased risk of thyroid cancer is well demonstrated in people exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated areas around the Chernobyl power plant, following the accident which took place on 26 April 1986, the effect of exposure on adults remains unclear. A collaborative case-control study of thyroid cancer was set-up, nested within cohorts of Belarus, Russian and Baltic countries liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, to evaluate the radiation-induced risk of this disease among liquidators, and to assess the roles of screening and of radiation exposures in the observed increased thyroid cancer incidence among liquidators. The study population consisted of the cohorts of approximately 66,000 Belarus, 65,000 Russian and 15,000 Baltic countries liquidators who took part in the clean-up activities on the reactor site and in the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 1987. The liquidators were mainly exposed to external radiation, although substantial dose to the thyroid from iodine isotopes may have been received by liquidators who worked in May-June 1986 and by those who resided in the most contaminated territories of Belarus. Information was collected on study subjects by use of a standardized questionnaire that was administrated during a face-to-face interview with the study subject and/or a proxy (a relative or a colleague). The interview included questions on demographic factors, time, place and conditions of work as a liquidator and on potential risk and confounding factors for thyroid cancer. A method of analytical dose reconstruction, entitled RADRUE (Realistic Analytical Dose Reconstruction with Uncertainty Estimation) was developed within the study and applied to estimate individual doses to the thyroid from external radiation and related uncertainties for each subject. Approaches to derive individual thyroid dose estimates from inhaled and ingested iodine isotopes were also developed and implemented. 115 cases of thyroid cancer and 457 matched controls were included in the study. The main analyses were restricted to 107 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma and their 423 matched controls with reliable information on work in the Chernobyl area. Most subjects received low doses (median 69 mGy). The doses were much higher for women (median 196 mGy) than for men (median 64 mGy). Results of this study will be presented, together with their implications for radiation risk assessment and protection. (author)

268

Cesium-137 in grass from Chernobyl fallout  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Grass ecosystem was monitored for 137Cs, a relatively long-lived radionuclide, for about 16 years since the Chernobyl reactor accident occurred on April 26, 1986. Cesium-137 in grass gramineae or poaceae the species, ranged from 122.9 Bq kg-1 (September 4, 1986) to 5.8 mBq kg-1 (October 16, 2001) that is a range of five orders of magnitude. It was observed that there was a trend of decreasing 137Cs with time reflecting a removal half-time of 40 months (3 1/3 years), which is the ecological half-life, T ec of 137Cs in grassland

269

The Chernobyl accident and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The USSR power reactor programme is first described. The reasons for the accident at the Chernobyl-4 RBMK nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986, the sequence of events that took place, and the immediate and long-term consequences are considered. A description of the RBMK-type reactors is given and the design changes resulting from the experience of the accident are explained. The source terms describing the details of the radioactivity release associated with the accident and the environmental consequences are covered in the last two sections of the report. Throughout the text comments referring to the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate Safety assessment principles have been inserted. (U.K.)

270

Chernobyl fallout measurements in some Mediterranean biotas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactivity of various terrestrial vegetation leaves, lichens and seaweed was measured after the Chernobyl accident. The non-destructive measurements were performed by using both coaxial and planar HPGe detectors. The activity ratios of different isotopes of the same element, measured in vegetation samples agree well with the values found by other authors in airborne aerosols. The activation nuclide 110Agm is found in all samples with the same ratio 110Agm/137Cs (1.0+-0.2)x10-2, as in the soil deposition. (author)

271

Agency Theory  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex ante (“hidden characteristics”) as well as ex post information asymmetry (“hidden action”), and examines conditions under which various kinds of incentive instruments and monitoring arrangements can be deployed to minimize the welfare loss. Its clear predictions and broad applicability have allowed agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism.

Foss, Nicolai Juul

2013-01-01

272

Chernobyl caesium distribution in two forest soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl nuclear accident on April 26, 1986, affected a considerable part of Europe, including the Romanian territory too. As part of the environment, the forests, covering up to 30 % area of Romania, were contaminated by the radionuclides resulting from Chernobyl nuclear accident. Being a source of radionuclides for intake and habitat for some critical groups and also a secondary source of contamination (resuspension, erosion), forest radioecology is an increasing research topic. The distribution of radiocaesium with depth was analysed in the brown-reddish forest type soil of two forests. The profile with depth and the specific activity of each layer permit the assessment of: total deposition, migration rate and diffusion coefficient for Cs-137 and also Cs-134. The total deposition of Cs-137 is about 47 kBq/m2 for Magurele area and about 14 kBq/m2 for Naipu forest. The migration rate is more than 10 times greater in Naipu forest as in Magurele forest. The diffusion coefficients are similar, about 0.2 cm2/an. (author)

273

Molecular characteristics of the Chernobyl thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

, Chernobyl PTCs showed a clear age-correlated trend of mutant BRAF prevalence. Mutations are nearly exclusively found in adult patients being exceptionally rare in youngsters. In Chernobyl PTCs we found a significant difference in the mutation prevalence between childhood/adolescent and adult patient groups. Mutations of other genes implicated in thyroid carcinogenesis, such as of members of RAS and RAF families, Gsa, TP53 and some others did not display mutational patterns significantly differing between radiation-induced and spontaneous PTCs. As a whole, besides of some particular correlations, mutational and expression studies have not resulted in an identification of a distinctive molecular signature that might unambiguously be associated with radiation-induced thyroid tumors. To further improve our understanding of the basics of radiogenic cancer, an attempt was done to examine individual genetic characteristics of patients with radiation-associated PTCs. In a pilot study, we profiled a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several genes whose products are involved in the DNA damage pathway, TP53, ATM and HDM2. As a result, several SNPs displaying a significant association with radiation-related or spontaneous adult or childhood PTC have been documented. These findings demonstrate that molecular epidemiology approaches hold a promise in the problem of detection of the genetic traits potentially contributing to or modifying susceptibility to radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis in humans. Purposeful expansion of the molecular targets to be profiled in corresponding series may be of importance for identification of groups of radiation risk

274

The causes of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the man in the street Chernobyl epitomizes the danger of nuclear energy but when we examine the causes of this accident we see that this drama is not intrinsically linked to the production of electricity from nuclear fission. The author sees 2 components in the Chernobyl event: the accident itself and its sanitary consequences. The author considers 3 main causes to the accident: -) a design that makes the reactor difficult to control, -) a series of 6 humane failures or breaking of operating rules, and -) political reasons: the largest possible budget was dedicated to plutonium production so any improvement for safety was considered as costly and secondary, moreover the religion of secrecy which was well spread in the ancient Soviet Union, prevented any scientific from knowing all the information concerning this type of reactor. As for the sanitary consequences, the author considers direct causes and underlying causes. The lack of information for the local population, the delay taken for iodine distribution or for the interdiction of farm products consumption are included in the direct causes. The slowness of Soviet bureaucracy, tight budgets and politico-scientific disputes are quoted among the underlying causes. (A.C.)

275

Environmental stress reactions following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The widespread public anxiety and pessimism about the Chernobyl accident appears to be out of all proportion to the radiation induced health effects. The concept of stress is invoked to explain the widespread damage to general health and well-being. Stress can be defined as the process by which adverse mental experiences have negative effects on bodily functions. The mechanism is physiological, mediated through the autonomic nervous system and the endocrinological system. The International Chernobyl Project study was conducted by the International Advisory Committee in 1990 and published by the IAEA in 1991. The study found significant differences between 'contaminated' and 'clean' areas for symptoms attributable to stress; 45% (30% in 'clean' areas) of the people believed that they had an illness due to radiation exposure. The level of general health was found to be low and almost all ailments were attributed by the population to radiation. These effects (confirmed by other studies) were compounded by poor public understanding of radiation; initial secrecy; subsequent lack of effective communication; and the collapse of the centralize political and economic systems. Distrust of 'authorities' is widespread. One important study using a regression method has shown that 'economic situation' and 'attitude to the future' are better predictors of stress symptoms than contamination level. 61 refs, 2 tabs

276

The accident of Chernobyl's nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Soviet Union announced six major improvement measures for preventing another accident of the RBMK type nuclear reactor. The present study is aimed at technical evaluation of these measures. The structure, performances, nuclear-heat hydraulic power characteristics (coolant void coefficient, dynamic characteristic parameters, graphite exothermic reaction, etc.) of the Chernobyl's nuclear reactor are examined to determine the plant behaviors from 1 : 19 on April 26 until the accident and after 1 : 23 : 04. By using the FATRAC code and the EUREKA-2 code, which have been proposed previously, analysis is made of the changes in neutron flux, recirculation flow rate, steam separator pressure, water supply rate and steam separator water level for the period before the accident, and changes in thermal output, overall reactivity, void reactivity, Doppler reactivity and control reactivity for the period after the accident. Results show that the two codes can reproduce the values announced by the Soviet Union. Detaled analysis is also made for the above-mentioned parameters after the accident under various assumed conditions. Based on these analyses, some measures are proposed to effectively prevent serious damage under the same accident conditions as experienced in Chernobyl. (Nogami, K.)

277

Chernobyl fallout and cancer incidence in Finland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-five years have passed since the Chernobyl accident, but its health consequences remain to be well established. Finland was one of the most heavily affected countries by the radioactive fallout outside the former Soviet Union. We analyzed the relation of the estimated external radiation exposure from the fallout to cancer incidence in Finland in 1988-2007. The study cohort comprised all ? 3.8 million Finns who had lived in the same dwelling for 12 months following the accident (May 1986-April 1987). Radiation exposure was estimated using data from an extensive mobile dose rate survey. Cancer incidence data were obtained for the cohort divided into four exposure categories (the lowest with the first-year committed dose Chernobyl accident, with the possible exception of colon cancer among women. The largely null findings are consistent with extrapolation from previous studies suggesting that the effect is likely to remain too small to be empirically detectable and of little public health impact. PMID:24135935

Auvinen, Anssi; Seppä, Karri; Pasanen, Kari; Kurttio, Päivi; Patama, Toni; Pukkala, Eero; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Arvela, Hannu; Verkasalo, Pia; Hakulinen, Timo

2014-05-01

278

Doses of Chernobyl liquidators: Ukrainian prospective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The issue of doses received by Chernobyl clean-up workers (liquidators) remains controversial both in terms of dose values (individual and collective) and reliability of available data. This deficiency became particularly evident during preparation of the Ukrainian contribution to the UNSCEAR report. Analysis showed that available official dose records (ODR) are neither representative nor unbiased and, therefore, cannot be used to indicate the impact of Chernobyl exposure on this cohort (?230,000 individuals). Recent developments in the area of dosimetry for liquidators contributed to better understanding of this problem and added information regarding individual, group averaged, and collective doses to Ukrainian liquidators. It was established that majority (?95%) of existing ODR are related to one particular category of clean-up workers military liquidators. All other categories of Ukrainian liquidators either do not have recorded doses or their doses are not presented in the Chernobyl State Registry of Ukraine (SRU). The main sets of new doses were derived from reassessment of about 8,600 ODRs performed within Ukrainian-American Chernobyl Ocular Study (UACOS) and results of independent dose reconstructions using a time-and-motion method called Realistic Analytical Dose Reconstruction with Uncertainty Estimation (RADRUE) for about 1,000 subjects in the Ukrainian-American study of leukemia and related disorders among cleanup workers from Ukraine. A third source of independent dose assessments is the set of individual doses obtained using EPR spectroscopy of tooth enamel; such estimates have been performed for about 800 Ukrainian liquidators. Analysis of dosimetric information related to military liquidators, who comprise about the 48% of Ukrainian liquidators, showed that as a rule ODRs for persons in this category systematically overestimate actual doses. Quantification of this overestimation gives a clue to retrospective adjustment of doses, at least at group level. However, as anticipated, in about 10% of cases the dose records were artificially assigned. Analysis of such major discrepancies showed that the ratio of the number of overestimated doses to those that were underestimated is about 20:1. As a rule unrealistically high doses were assigned to some specific 'privileged' groups of military liquidators (i.e., commanders, logistics specialists, etc.). Such groups can, in principle, be isolated and excluded from analysis. Analysis of doses retrospectively reconstructed using the RADRUE technique shows that the second numerous category (?28%) were civilians sent on mission to the 30-km zone (CSOM). These liquidators performed a broad variety of tasks at various times and places; as a result the dose distribution for this category is very broad. About 10% of Ukrainian liquidators took part in clean-up activities in April-May 1986 and generally received higher doses. Another 10% of liquidators belong to 'mixed' category, which is characterized by several work sessions (missions) that were defined by differing roles (tasks) during Chernobyl clean-up. Other categories, like victims of the accident, early respondents, and professional atomic workers contribute ?1% of the total number of Ukrainian liquidators and their doses do not significantly affect the overall dose distribution. The data collected in the aforementioned studies allows reevaluation of dose distribution for Ukrainian liquidators. The new distribution is quite different from the previously circulated dose distribution derived from incomplete and biased ODRs stored in the SRU. (author)

279

Mark Harden's Artchive  

Science.gov (United States)

Curated by Mark Harden, the Artchive presents a useful collection of art images, text, and articles for art historians from armchair to professional levels. The Artchive itself contains some 2,300 scans of works by more than 200 artists, all accompanied by at least identifying titles, dates, artists's names, and a physical description of the original work. Harden believes that art reproductions require accompanying contextual information, and often he includes analysis and criticism by leading art historical scholars. Read Robert Hughes's short entry on the late Basquiat for a sample, or move to the Theory and Criticism section for excerpts from the canon of art history, such as E.H. Gombrich's analysis of Botticelli's Birth of Venus, or Meyer Schapiro on Cezanne. Harden employs the Web extremely effectively for presentation of art information; for example, the Schapiro Cezanne essay is divided into eight sections, each accompanied by an image of the work discussed. Other highlights of the site include Galleries, featuring changing online exhibitions; Juxtapositions, verbal/ visual commentaries on art written by Harden; and contributed reviews of commercially available art CD-ROM products.

280

Hymenoptera marking technique  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In true social hymenopterans, such as many species of bees, wasps and all species of ants, the main characteristics are the overlapping of generations, the care with the offspring and the division of labor among the members of the colony. The first biological feature means that in a same moment ther [...] e are groups of individuals, with variable ages, that execute different activities in the colony. In order to study the division of labor among the members of the colony, or to estimate the life span of these insects, or even to analyze any kind of behavior in non-social insects, it is necessary to know the exact age of each individual. For this reason, the insects must be identified soon after emergence. The identification of insects with numbers is an important technological improvement in behavioral studies, mainly in honeybee colonies. The aim of this scientific note is to describe an easy and cheaper technique for marking hymenopterans.

A. M., Pereira; J., Chaud-Netto.

 
 
 
 
281

Epilimnetic scavenging of Chernobyl radionuclides in Lake Constance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive debris from the Chernobyl reactor accident entered Lake Constance in southwestern Germany mainly through one rainfall episode on April 30, 1986. Nuclides scavenged by particles in a newly established epilimnion accumulated in traps deployed weekly (20 m depth) at a site in the Ueberlinger See, a northwestern bight of the lake. Activities of 137Cs and 103Ru (plus 106Ru, 125Sb, 110mAg, and 144Ce) in trapped material collected during the subsequent 21 weeks is here described by a two-stage scavenging model involving (1) nuclide transfer to 'reactive particles' with negligible mean settling rate and (2) their entrainment by large, rapidly settling particles dominated by chemically passive calcite formed seasonally in the epilimnion. The model employs first-order kinetics where forward rate coefficients depend on time-dependent concentrations of candidate 'reactive phases' such as total suspended matter (TSM), particulate inorganic matter (PIM), particulate organic matter (POM), and particulate aluminum (PAL). First-order, irreversible nuclide transfer to nonexchangeable portions or reactive phases is also included. Vertical transport is described by a time-dependent rate of particle settling through a vertically and horizontally well-mixed epilimnion of increasing depth. Model calculations reproduced observations well with PAL as the 'reactive phase' for 137Cs and POM for 103Ru. The unusual coincidence of a pulsed nuclide loading with conditions of thermal stratification and limited vertical water mass exchange, together with frequent measurement of important state variables, permitted successful evaluation of a reaction-kinetic model under markedly non-steady state conditions

282

Cumulative effects of protracted irradiation of Chernobyl exclusive zone plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The biological and radiobiological peculiarities of seeds and seedlings of the Rumex confertus and Lupinus polycolor plants, which grown during several generations in plots with different level of radionuclide pollution of the Chernobyl exclusive zone have been investigated

283

Chernobyl: Endless horror. Late effects of the reactor catastrophe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten years after the accident, the people of Chernobyl are trying to live a normal life, but the problems resulting from the catastrophe have not been solved. Some of them are just starting to emerge. (orig.)

284

Modeling the Dispersal and Deposition of Radionuclides: Lessons from Chernobyl.  

Science.gov (United States)

Described are theoretical models that simulate the dispersion of radionuclides on local and global scales following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Discusses the application of these results to nuclear weapons fallout. (CW)

ApSimon, H. M.; And Others

1988-01-01

285

Increased risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Chernobyl cleanup workers  

Science.gov (United States)

A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.

286

Management problems of this restricted zone around Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this brief report are consider the main problems of minimization of the consequences of the accident and management of actions provided at present in the Chernobyl zone at the territory of Ukraine in decade retrospect

287

Analysis and assessment of the available radiation-ecological monitoring system in Belarus following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Necessity of the creation of regional automatic radiation-ecological monitoring systems at the Belarussian territory contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident is substantiated. These systems will permit to provide the automatic acquisition of measured ata, their processing and data base storage, radiation-ecological examination and certification of territories and industrial objects, modern information techniques for solutions in planning, design and control of life sphere. Disadvantages in realization of radiation monitoring at the Belarussian territory are marked (unsatisfactory scientific-technical level of measuring instruments used and software-hardware for data accumulation, processing and presentation, inadequate volume of measurements, inaccessibility of information, etc.)

288

Incidence of thyroid cancer among children of the Ukraine in 1996 as compared to previous post-Chernobyl years  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1996 a high incidence rate of thyroid cancer has persisted in Ukraine among children aged under 15 years, which averaged, according to preliminary data, 0.44 case per 100 thousand children's population. The geographical distribution of thyroid cancer cases in children of Ukraine is mainly related, as in previous years, with the most affected regions following the Chernobyl accident. The highest incidence of thyroid cancer (over 80%) was observed in those patients who were aged under 5 years at the moment of the accident, being the most radiosensitive age group. Among thyroid tumors removed in 1996, as in previous years, papillary carcinomas prevail, which are characterized by marked invasive properties. (author)

289

Cs-137 releases from Sellafield and Chernobyl: lake sediment based evidence from West Cumbria, UK  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study has been made of the 134Cs and 137Cs content of sediments from Ponsonby Tarn, a shallow nutrient-rich lake situated 1.5 km east of Sellafield in Cumbria. Previous work in the area has estimated the deposition of 137Cs resulting from the 1957 fire at Windscale (now Sellafield) nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl accident in the area. Sediment cores obtained from the Tarn in 1988 were dated and cross-correlated using 210 Pb and compared with the results obtained from previous studies in 1980 (Eakins and Cambray, 1985) and 1986 (Bonnett and Cambray, in press). Sediment from the Tarn displayed marked changes between 1980 and 1988. Chernobyl-derived 134Cs inventories increased four-fold between 1986 and 1988 whilst the inventory of weapons test and Sellafield derived 137Cs showed only modest increases. Radionuclide and paleoecological (diatom and pollen analytical) data suggest that complex sediment accumulation patterns, hydraulic flushing and sediment focusing may account for some of the features evident in the Tarn. (author)

290

Conception of the fire warning system in the Chernobyl zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Classification of fire danger and radiation factors in the Chernobyl zone presented. Scenaries of fire emergence and aerial migration of radionuclides in the evacuation zone are analyzed with estimation of radiation conditions. Based on the analysis of fire risk in Chernobyl NPP zone a new conception of the fire warning system is suggested. A version of the block diagram of the system is presented and its composing units as well as conditions and the field of practical use are described

291

Chernobyl and the consequences for the Federal Republic of Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lecture reproduces the scenario which existed after the Chernobyl accident in the Federal Republic of Germany regarding the formation of consciousness and opinions. The unscientific discussions in various associations, groups and parties are traced back to the fact that some scientists have ventured on the slippery course of making announcements with apparent certainty on the subject of Chernobyl. Pseudo-competence and politically motivated 'know-all' attitudes at some of the Land authorities have led to total confusion. (DG)

292

About Chernobyl - Twenty Years Later; Propos sur Tchernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author discusses the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the information on its consequences so contradictory in the former USSR countries, the status of the effects observed, the forecasting concerning the onset of cancers in the coming years among the populations that were exposed to radiations, the public opinion facing the pessimists. He concludes on the lessons which can be drawn from Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

Tubiana, M

2006-07-01

293

Chernobyl and the safety of nuclear reactors in OECD countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report assesses the possible bearing of the Chernobyl accident on the safety of nuclear reactors in OECD countries. It discusses analyses of the accident performed in several countries as well as improvements to the safety of RBMK reactors announced by the USSR. Several remaining questions are identified. The report compares RBMK safety features with those of commercial reactors in OECD countries and evaluates a number of issues raised by the Chernobyl accident

294

Regulation of nuclear power in the UK after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper concerns the methods for regulating nuclear power in the United Kingdom, following the Chernobyl reactor accident. The article is taken from a paper presented to a conference entitled ''Nuclear risks - reassessing the principles and practice after Chernobyl'', London, 1986. A description of the regulation of nuclear sites is given, along with the assessment of new plants, old plant and modern standards, the assessment methods, and site inspection. (U.K.)

295

Radioiodine in the Tarapur environment due to Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioiodine due to Chernobyl accident fallout was first detected at Tarapur on 14th May in animal thyroids. This led to a complete study of 131I in all environmental matrices. The paper describes the levels of 131I in different environmental samples and reveals that the radiation hazard to the public due to Chernobyl accident fallout 131I activity levels are insignificant. (author)

296

Nuclear energy in Switzerland after Chernobyl - theses of SVA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In its theses on nuclear energy after Chernobyl, the Swiss Association for Atomic Energy (SVA) - in which all Swiss organizations promoting the safe use of nuclear energy co-operate - has summarized the most important arguments for further peaceful uses of atomic energy. The SVA theses will contribute to an evaluation of riks associated with nuclear energy in the discusssions of future energy sources following Chernobyl

297

Seeing the invisible laser markings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laser markings are widely used for identification and traceability. With the miniaturization of semiconductor devices, material removal in conventional deep laser markings is undesirable as it could cause contamination. Shallow laser markings 1-6 ?m in depth could be produced by melting and reshaping the material, with virtually no material removal, no debris and vapour free. However, with material modification, the planarity of the wafer is no longer maintained. We demonstrate here the production of 'invisible' laser markings with no material removal, no debris and vapour free and undetectable material modification. These 'invisible' markings were undetectable using sophisticated instruments, but they could be made clearly visible to our unaided naked eyes through the difference in condensation between the laser-marked and unmarked areas. (fast track communication)

298

One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident. Poster presentations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. To facilitate the discussions of the Conference, background papers were prepared for the Technical Symposium by teams of scientists from a round the world, who collaborated over a period of months to ascertain, consolidate and present the current state of knowledge in six key areas: clinically observed effects; thyroid effects; long term health effects; other health related effects; consequences for the environment; and the consequences in perspective: prognosis for the future. A background paper on the social, economic, institutional and political impact of the accident was prepared by Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The conclusions of the Forum on Nuclear Safety Aspects served as a background paper on this topic. Refs, figs, tabs

299

Chernobyl liquidators. The people and the doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

tric Registry, 76% of liquidators were 25-39 years old at the moment of arrival to the Chernobyl area. Only about 1% of liquidators was women. From the results of biodosimetry we know that the average accumulated dose estimation for the liquidator group is about 0.2 Gy. The official documented average dose from the Russian National Medical Dosimetric Registry is 0.13 Gy. However, the liquidator group contains some overexposed subgroups with a higher accumulated dose. Individual dosimetry is only available for small subgroups of liquidators, mostly professionals in radiation protection and specialised military units. These individuals do not, however, feature in most liquidator studies. Any epidemiological or medical follow-up to liquidators can only be successful if the relatively small groups of people with doses higher than 0.25 Gy can be identified. They are unlikely to exceed 7% of all liquidators. (author)

300

Chernobyl accidents observed on Ryukyu Islands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It was all of sudden that the atomic power plant accident occurred at Chernobyl, USSR, on April 26, 1986. Tremendous amount of radionuclides as fission product has been scattered into the atmosphere and caused enormous atmospheric contaminations not only on the European countries but also throughout the world. The radionuclides induced from the accident were also observed on Okinawa Island on May 5, 1986, two days after the observation on Japan mainland. The observed radionuclides are such as Mo-99, Te-132, I-131, 132, Cs-134, 137 and Ru-103 which were also observed on Japan mainland. The atmospheric contaminations were observed for almost a month showing 3 times of the contaminations on May 6, 15 and 24. The several survived nuclides are positively circulating, being accompanied with Jet Stream, throughout the would on the Northern Hemisphere. (author)

 
 
 
 
301

Public relations and the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1991-1993, a large-scale measuring programme was carried out in Germany to assess the radiation burden of the population in regions polluted due to the Chernobyl accident. The primary goal was to objectively inform the population about their actual radiation exposure, to reduce unjustified fears, and to enable countermeasures to be taken where appropriate. A comprehensive overview of the radiation situation was thus also obtained in the regions examined. Channels were sought and found in order to communicate with the more than 250 000 individuals involved in the programme as well as with scientific institutions and the public. Direct communication of the results to the persons examined by means of a certificate including a short explanation proved to be essential to create an atmosphere of trust. (P.A.)

302

Spa treatment of Chernobyl liquidators in Israel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the first experience gained in the use of the unique climate and spa of the Dead Sea for the treatment and rehabilitation of the Chernobyl liquidators at clinic near the city of Arad. Ninety-six patients were treated in Israel, in 40 of these radiation was the etiological factor of the disease: consequences of acute and chronic radiation disease, the astheno-neurotic syndrome, discirculatory encephalopathy, subatrophic laryngopharyngitis, and obstructive bronchitis. Eighty-eight patients had direct indications for treatment at the Dad Sea; locomotory, respiratory, and skin diseases. The course of treatment included the Dad Sea baths, mud applications, sun baths, climatotherapy, physiotherapy, massage, bioenergy therapy, inhalations, moisturizing creams, etc. An appreciable improvement with resolution of the principal symptoms was attained in 82% of patients, in 13% improvement with a significant abatement of the symptoms was achieved, whereas in 5% no apparent results were seen

303

Chernobyl and consequences for the Soviet agriculture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The region within a radius of 30 km around the Chernobyl reactor was declared a safety zone, from where people and livestock were evacuated. In this zone agricultural activities were stopped temporarily. The losses to Soviet agriculture are surprinsingly low, the reason being that in the Soviet Union radioactivity hazards are rated differently than in western countries. The Soviet radiation protection standards for man are accordingly. They allow a total body burden of 500 mrem a year, and a thyroid burden for children of 30 mrem. It is obvious that the authorities keep the quantitative losses for agriculture down. Of greater consequence could be the qualitative losses in so far as the soil of a large area will be contaminated on a long-term basis, radioactive contaminated crops have been and will continue to be harvested and fed, and contaminated food is and will be eaten. (orig./HSCH)

304

Radiant smiles everywhere - before the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The business reports presented by the Federal German electric utilities for 1985 are almost all simply brillant. Electricity consumption has been going up, some of the utilities even can boast about rates kept constant over the year. But before the printed business reports could be presented to the meetings of shareholders, a nasty cloud threw a dark shadow over all the brilliant results. The Chernobyl accident made some of the hymns over the nuclear electricity increases and nuclear power in general sound rather queer. Could we do without this energy source. Substituting nuclear power would yearly require: 28 million t of oil, or 41 million t of hard coal, or 142 million t of browncoal, or 38 thousand million cubic metres of natural gas. Extrapolating current conditions and assuming best achievements, renewable energy sources might be able to meet 6 p.c. of the primary energy demands by the year 2000. (orig./HP)

305

Radiation safety following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current status and development of the nuclear industry in Russian are intimately linked with the Chernobyl accident. The Three Mile Island-2 accident, 1979, USA turned out to be a strong impetus to revising approaches to ensuring nuclear safety. The Gosatomnadzor of Russian was established under the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation in 1991 an pursued the activities of its predecessor Gospromatomnadzor of the USSR aimed at improving the permissive and inspection activities. In contrast to its predecessors (Gosatomenergonadzor of the USSR, Gospromatomnadzor of the USSR), the Gosatomnadzor of Russia has been entitled with the responsibility both to regulate and supervise safety not only at NPPs, but also in the whole nuclear industry, including nuclear materials and fuel cycle facilities

306

External radiation contamination of plants from Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If one compares the values of natural external radiation contamination, which often vary greatly in a small space, with the calculated values, which are caused by emission from nuclear powerstations, then even with unfavourable assumptions, there is a differene of several orders of magnitude. Due to the Chernobyl accident, a huge outdoor experiment occurred (involuntarily), in which the local doserate increased greatly for a short time up to distances over 1500 km. The difference between this and natural background radiation is, however, small, compared with the difference betweeen this natural background radiation and radiation emitted from nuclear power stations. From this way of considering the situation, one can draw the conclusion that there is no causal connection between damage to forests and the emission of radioactive material from nuclear power stations. (orig.)

307

Chernobyl reactor accident - provisional results and consequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Those involved at present in the analysis and estimation of consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident are in a dilemma: While a worried and uncertain Western German public is calling for information the Soviet Union was practicing a rigorously restrictive information policy. Both the severity of the reactor accident and the complexity of events do urgently require the acquisition and evaluation of facts which will provide the basis for an objective factual discussion of issues and possible measures. The paper abstracted is trying to assess the alleged causes of the accident and estimate possible consequences. However, all attempts of that kind are based but on incomplete and dubious information as of May 21st, 1986.

Czakainski, M.

1986-06-01

308

ENC86: Under the shadow of Chernobyl?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

e detailed scientific material. There was an anti-nuclear demonstration at the conference headquarters on the Sunday evening which prevented some participants reaching the opening reception. This was organised by an umbrella anti-nuclear organisation calling itself 'Contratom'. The first social event having been substantially disrupted, it was noticeable that none of the technical sessions of the conference throughout the rest of the week were affected in the slightest. The views of the major speakers can be grouped into three areas. Firstly, what we can and should learn from Chernobyl; secondly, what effect the accident is likely to have in broad terms on the future of nuclear power; and, thirdly, what can be done by the nuclear industry to modify that effect

309

Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactor accident at unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine has deeply affected the living conditions of millions of people. Especially the health consequences have been of public concern up to the present and also been the subject of sometimes absurd claims. The current knowledge on the radiological consequences of the accident is reviewed. Though an increased hazard for some risk groups with high radiation exposure, e.g., liquidators, still cannot be totally excluded for the future, the majority of the population shows no statistically significant indication of radiation-induced illnesses. The contribution of the Research Center Juelich to the assessment of the post-accidental situation and psychological relief of the population is reported. The population groups still requiring special attention include, in particular, children growing up in highly contaminated regions and the liquidators of the years 1986 and 1987 deployed immediately after the accident. (author)

310

Observations on radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preliminary study of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident for the Department of the Environment was started in June 1986 which involved taking on an opportunistic basis, samples of air, rain, grass and soil in the UK. This study was integrated into a programme of other investigations funded by the Departments of Health and Social Security and of Energy including measurements on people, in air, deposition and soil overseas, on deposition to buildings and the derivation where possible of parameters of interest in accident assessment. This report is a comprehensive account of all these initial investigations and presented in fulfilment of the Preliminary Study under DoE contract PECD 7/9/359. (author)

311

Comprehensive analysis of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

elf-consistent evaluation of the accident it is necessary to use two dimensional (R-Z) multigroup kinetics and dynamics models developed in the last ten years for the analysis of reactivity accidents in fast reactors. It is important to reach a proper understanding of the various mechanisms that caused the Chernobyl accident and for this purpose an interdepartmental group in ENEA is working on a comprehensive analysis using classical computational models and codes for thermal reactors. A new tool is being implemented: the code NADYP-Water, a new version of the two dimensional space-time code NADYP. International co-operation on the subject is desirable. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

312

Validity of thyroid cancer incidence data following the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

The only clearly demonstrated cancer incidence increase that can be attributed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident is thyroid carcinoma in patients exposed during childhood or adolescence. Significant increases in thyroid disease were observed as soon as 4 y after the accident. The solid/follicular subtype of papillary carcinoma predominated in the early period after the accident. Morphological diagnosis of cancer in such cases, if no infiltrative growth is clearly visible, depends mainly on the nuclear criteria. Outdated equipment and insufficient quality of histological specimens impeded reliable evaluation of the nuclear criteria. Access to foreign professional literature has always been limited in the former Soviet Union. The great number of advanced tumors observed shortly after the accident can be explained by the screening effect (detection of previously neglected cancers) and by the fact that many patients were brought from non-contaminated areas and registered as Chernobyl victims. It is also worth noting that exaggeration of the Chernobyl cancer statistics facilitated the writing of dissertations, financing of research, and assistance from outside the former Soviet Union. "Chernobyl hysteria" impeded nuclear energy production in some countries, thus contributing to higher prices for fossil fuel. The concluding point is that since post-Chernobyl cancers tend on average to be in a later stage of tumor progression, some published data on molecular or immunohistochemical characteristics of Chernobyl-related cancers require reevaluation. PMID:22048494

Jargin, Sergei V

2011-12-01

313

Genetic and ecological studies of animals in Chernobyl and Fukushima.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in genetic and ecological studies of wild animal populations in Chernobyl and Fukushima have demonstrated significant genetic, physiological, developmental, and fitness effects stemming from exposure to radioactive contaminants. The few genetic studies that have been conducted in Chernobyl generally show elevated rates of genetic damage and mutation rates. All major taxonomic groups investigated (i.e., birds, bees, butterflies, grasshoppers, dragonflies, spiders, mammals) displayed reduced population sizes in highly radioactive parts of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. In Fukushima, population censuses of birds, butterflies, and cicadas suggested that abundances were negatively impacted by exposure to radioactive contaminants, while other groups (e.g., dragonflies, grasshoppers, bees, spiders) showed no significant declines, at least during the first summer following the disaster. Insufficient information exists for groups other than insects and birds to assess effects on life history at this time. The differences observed between Fukushima and Chernobyl may reflect the different times of exposure and the significance of multigenerational mutation accumulation in Chernobyl compared to Fukushima. There was considerable variation among taxa in their apparent sensitivity to radiation and this reflects in part life history, physiology, behavior, and evolutionary history. Interestingly, for birds, population declines in Chernobyl can be predicted by historical mitochondrial DNA base-pair substitution rates that may reflect intrinsic DNA repair ability. PMID:25124815

Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

2014-01-01

314

The Chernobyl accident ten years later  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986 at 1:23 AM a fire and explosion occurred at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Complex, located in the Ukraine, that resulted in the destruction of the reactor core and most of the building in which it was housed. Several environmental impacts resulting from the accident will be discussed in this paper, which will include the effects on plant and wild life, radioactive waste generated and stored or disposed of, effects of evacuations relating to residents within the subsequently established 10km and 30km control zones, impacts of the emergency containment structure (sarcophagus), and potential effects on world opinion and future development of nuclear power. As an immediate result of the fire, 31 people died (2 from the fire ampersand smoke, and 29 from excessive radiation); 237 cases of acute radiation sickness occurred; the total fatalities based upon induced chronic diseases as a result of the accident is unknown: more than 100,000 people were evacuated from within the subsequently established 30 km control zone; in excess of 50 million curies of radionuclides that included finely dispersed nuclear fuel, fragments of graphite, concrete and other building materials were released from the reactor into the environment; an estimated one million cubic meters of radioactive waste were generated (LLW, ILW, HLW); more than 5000 tons of materials (sand, boron, dolomite, cement, and lead) were used to put the fire out by helicopter; shutdown of the adjacent power plants were performed; and other environmental impacts occurred. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit No 4 is an RBMK-1000. It initiated operations in 1983, it was a 1000 MWe with a power output of 3200 MW(th), the reactor core contained 190 MT of fuel, with 1659 assemblies (plus 211 control rods), the average burnup rate was 10.3 MWd/kg, and the reactor operated on a continuous basis with maintenance and fuel reload performed during operations

315

Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on tred academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental health problems like depression in Fukushima patients. (note)

316

The reconstruction of thyroid dose following Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents the overview of several approaches in working out the methods of thyroid internal dose reconstruction following Chernobyl. One of these approaches was developed (IBPh, Moscow; MRRC, Obninsk; IRM, Minsk) using the correlations between the mean dose calculation based on I131 thyroid content measurements and Cs137 contamination of territories. The available data on I131 soil contamination were taken into account. The lack of data on I131 soil contamination was supposed to be compensated by I129 measurements in soil samples from contaminated territories. The semiempiric model was developed for dose reconstruction. The comparison of the results obtained by semiempiric model and empirical values are presented. The estimated values of average dose according semiempiric model were used for individual dose reconstruction. The IRH (St.-Petersburg) has developed the following method for individual dose reconstruction: correlation between the total I131 radioiodine incorporation in thyroid and whole body Cs137 content during first months after accident. The individual dose reconstruction is also mentioned to be performed using the data on individual milk consumption during first weeks after accident. For evaluation of average doses it is suggested to use the linear correlation: thyroid dose values based on radioiodine thyroid measurements vs Cs137 contamination, air kerma rate, mean I131 concentration in the milk. The method for retrospective reconstruction of thyroid dose caused by short-living iodine nuclides released after the Chernobyl accident has been developed by Research Centre, Juelich, Germany. It is based on the constant ratio that these nuclides have with the long-living I129. The contamination of soil samples by this nuclide can be used to assess thyroid doses. First results of I129 contamination values and derived thyroid doses are to be presented

317

Cancer effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today, nearly 20 years after the Chernobyl accident, there is (apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed in childhood and adolescence) no clearly demonstrated increase in the incidence of cancers in the most affected populations that can be attributed to radiation from the accident. Increases in incidence of cancers in general and of specific cancers (in particular breast cancer) have been reported in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, but much of the increase appears to be due to other factors, including improvements in diagnosis, reporting and registration. Recent findings indicate a possible doubling of leukaemia risk among Chernobyl liquidators and a small increase in the incidence of premenopausal breast cancer in the very most contaminated districts, which appear to be related to radiation dose. Both of these findings, however, need confirmation in well-designed analytical epidemiological studies with careful individual dose reconstruction. The absence of demonstrated increases in cancer risk, apart from thyroid cancer, is not proof that no increase has in fact occurred. Based on the experience of atomic bomb survivors, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Such an increase, however, is expected to be difficult to identify in the absence of careful large scale epidemiological studies with individual dose estimates. It should be noted that, given the large number of individuals exposed, the absolute number of cancer cases caused by even a small increase in the relative risk could be substantial, particularly in the future. At present, the prediction of the cancer burden related to radiation exposure. (author)

318

Report of the US Department of Energy's team analyses of the Chernobyl-4 Atomic Energy Station accident sequence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an effort to better understand the Chernobyl-4 accident of April 26, 1986, the US Department of Energy (DOE) formed a team of experts from the National Laboratories including Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The DOE Team provided the analytical support to the US delegation for the August meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and to subsequent international meetings. The DOE Team has analyzed the accident in detail, assessed the plausibility and completeness of the information provided by the Soviets, and performed studies relevant to understanding the accident. The results of these studies are presented in this report

319

The results of oological investigations in the 30-km area surrounding the Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigations were carried out with the purpose of clarification of probable changes in some oological characteristics in numerous birds nesting in hollows. The data were collected in 1990-1991 in plots of 30-km area surrounding the Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant where the different degree of radioactive contamination takes place (first plot 1.5 m R/h, second - 5-7 m R/h, third - 3 m R/h). The dimensions were analyzed on 1078 eggs of Parus major L., Parus caeruleus L., Sturnus vulgaris L., Hirundo rustica L., Muscicapa hypoleuca Pall. The obtained results were compared with those from literature. The general tendencies for all the species are marked: the mean value of egg length, the coefficient of variation of egg length and maximum diameter on contaminated plots are much higher than in control (from literature) or less contaminated plots. And vice versa, the mean value of egg maximum diameter is smaller. The shape is lengthened

320

Radionuclide from Chernobyl as tracers in the Neusiedlersee region: Physical foundations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radionuclide fallout after the Chernobyl accident can be viewed as surface marking and used to investigate scientifical problems like the penetration rate of noxious substances into the underground, sedimentation rate in surface waters or the investigation of ecological cycles. The region around the lake Neusiedlersee in eastern Austria (the lake being without drainage) is an intriguing model system, as the amount of radionuclides is conserved and is removed radioactive decay only. Some physical fundamentals of radionuclide concentration interpretations are outlined. In addition to the Neusiedlersee regions, sediments in the Danube river are considered. The most important isotopes are the long-lived strontium 90 and cesium 137. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

 
 
 
 
321

Chernobyl, 13 years after; Tchernobyl, 13 ans apres  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is an annual report, regularly issued by IPSN, that presents the ecological and health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. The present status of the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant, which Ukraine engaged to stop definitively in year 2000, is summarized. The only reactor unit now in operation is Chernobylsk-3 Reactor which poses two safety questions: evolution of cracks in part of the tubing and behaviour of the pressure tubes. Although, some improvements in the RBMK reactor types were introduced, problems remain that make IPSN to stress the requirement of stopping this NPP completely. In the contaminated territories surrounding Chernobyl incidence rate of infant thyroid cancers continues to grow, reaching values 10 to 100 times higher than the natural rate. In France the IPSN analyzed 60,000 records carried out in 17 sites during May 1986 and April 1989. It was estimated that the individual dose received during 60 years (1986-2046) by the inhabitants of the most affected zone (eastern France) is lower than 1.5 mSv, a value lower than 1% of the natural cosmic and telluric radioactivity exposure for the same period. For the persons assumed to live in the most attacked forests (from eastern France) and nourishing daily with venison and mushrooms the highest estimate is 1 mSv a year. Concerning the 'hot spots', identified in mountains by IPSN and CRIIRAD, the doses received by excursionists are around 0.015 mSv. For an average inhabitant of the country the dose piled up in the thyroid due to iodine-131 fallout is estimated to 0.5-2 mSv for an adult and 6.5-16 mSv for an infant. These doses are 100 to 1000 times lower than the ones to which the infants living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl are exposed to. The contents of the report is displayed in the following six chapters: 1. Chernobyl in some figures; 2. The 'sarcophagus' and the reactors of the Chernobyl NPP; 3. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident;. 4. The impact of Chernobyl fallout in France; 5. Chernobyl's environment and the management of contaminated territories.; 6. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl.

Regniault-Lacharme, Mireille; Metivier, Henri [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

1999-04-01

322

Agency doctorates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Staff members of the Agency working at the Seibersdorf laboratory are continuing to achieve high academic distinction. Two more - both Austrian - have now been awarded the degree of Doctor of Agriculture. Joachim Kramer, who is 26, graduated from the Hochschule fur Bodenkultur in 1967 with the degree of Diplom-Ingenieur and then started work in the plant breeding and genetics section of the laboratory under the direction of Dr. Knut Mikaelsen. The results of the research work he carried out were accepted as the subject of a thesis for which he has now been granted his doctorate. The doctoral promotion took place on 30 June, at a ceremony attended by Dr. Andre Finkelstein, Deputy Director General for Research and Isotopes. The subject of Dr. Kramer's thesis was a comprehensive study of the mutagenic effects of fast neutrons and gamma rays, and the influence of various modifying factors such as water content, oxygen and metabolic state of seeds at the time of irradiation. This work has contributed significantly to the understanding of the mechanisms by which these two types of ionizing radiation produce mutations in seeds. The knowledge gained will be of great importance in the efficient use of ionizing radiation in practical plant breeding. Paul Wassermann, who is 33 years old, joined the Agency in 1965. He, too, graduated from the Hochschule fur Bodenkultur as Diplom-Ingenieur in agriculture, having graduated with honours previously from the agricultural secondary schiously from the agricultural secondary school at Raumberg, Austria, in 1958. Dr. Wassermann's own words may be used to explain how he came to gain his doctorate. 'In October, 1966, I completed my studies at the Hochschule,' he writes. 'I was employed at the Agency laboratories in Seibersdorf, working in the plant and soils group. Encouraged by the interesting research which was performed there, a thesis entitled 'the Fate of Nitrogen in Submerged Rice Soils' was started, which finally led to the doctor's degree in Agriculture in June this year. 'The subject of this thesis is regarded as an economically important contribution to the problem of rice fertilization... Since rice is considered as the main grain crop in the world for human diet, developing countries in particular will gain from the achievements of these studies.' (author)

323

The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update  

Science.gov (United States)

The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

Eisler, R.

2003-01-01

324

MarkIT büroo = Offices of MarkIT  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Tallinnas Pärnu mnt. 102C asuvas büroohoones paikneva MarkIT büroo sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Kard Männil (SAB Miu Miu Miu) ja Loreida Hein (Studio La), nende tähtsamate tööde loetelu. Valge büroomööbel on sisearhitektide projekteeritud. Graafika on sisearhitektid ise joonistanud

2010-01-01

325

Names of Jesus in Mark’s story  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mark as narrator treats the concept “Messiah” as a description of Jesus’ identity, but this alone does not suffice: the title “Son of God” is added in order to describe Jesus’ identity more fully. According to Mark it is not the Twelve but some of the other followers who praise Jesus with the title of the “Blessed One who comes in the name of the Kyrios”. “Messiah” is the title the disciples give to Jesus, but the “narrated Jesus” subordinates the title “Messiah” to the title “Kyrios”. The aim of this article is to focus on Mark as narrative. The article argues that all events are presented from one perspective, that is the perspective of Jesus. This perspective is narrated by using names of Jesus. The article focuses on these names as used in the Gospel of Mark.

Y. Dreyer

2001-08-01

326

Transformations of humus and soil mantle in the urbanized areas of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presented are investigations into the demutation processes of the towns plant community in the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone (Pripyat, Chernobyl, Chernobyl-2). Demonstrated is the specific nature of the reduction of humus and soil mantle in the abandoned towns under the impact of the natural factors. 21 refs., 5 tab., 7 figs

327

The Chernobyl NPP decommissioning: Current status and alternatives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl accident of April 26, 1986, many contradictory decisions were taken concerning the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) future. The principal source of contradictions was a deadline for a final shutdown of the Chernobyl NPP units. Alterations in a political and socioeconomic environment resulted in the latest decision of the Ukrainian Authorities about 2000 as a deadline for a beginning of the Chernobyl NPP decommissioning. The date seems a sound compromise among the parties concerned. However, in order to meet the data a lot of work should be done. First of all, a decommissioning strategy has to be established. The problem is complicated due to both site-specific aspects and an absence of proven solutions for the RBMK-type reactor decommissioning. In the paper the problem of decommissioning option selection is considered taking into account an influence of the following factors: relevant legislative and regulatory requirements; resources required to carry out decommissioning (man-power, equipment, technologies, waste management infrastructure, etc.); radiological and physical status of the plant, including structural integrity and predictable age and weather effects; impact of planned activities at the destroyed unit 4 and within the 30-km exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP; planed use of the site; socio-economic considerations

328

Chromosome aberrations in Norwegian reindeer following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chromosome analyses were carried out on peripheral blood lymphocytes of semi-domestic reindeer in Norway which had been exposed to varying amounts of radiocesium emanating from the Chernobyl accident. The sampling was done in the period 1987-1990. The material included 192 reindeer, originating from four herds in central Norway, an area considerably affected by fallout from the Chernobyl accident, and from three herds in northern Norway which was unaffected by fallout from the accident. Significant heterogeneity in the distribution of chromosome aberrations between herds was observed. The pattern of chromosome aberration frequencies between herds was not related to the variation in radiocesium exposure from the Chernobyl accident. Other factors than the Chernobyl accident appear therefore to be of importance for the distribution of aberration frequencies found among present herds. Within the most contaminated area the reindeer born in 1986 showed significantly more chromosome aberrations than those born both before and after 1986. This could suggest that the Chernobyl accident fallout created an effect particularly among calves, during the immediate post-accident period in the most exposed areas

329

Safety analyses in the light of TMI and Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Probabilistic risk assessments of major reactor accidents must be based almost exclusively on theoretical models and experimental studies. Irrespective of conceptual differences, the major accidents in the US TMI-2 nuclear power plant in 1979 and in the Soviet nuclear power plant of Chernobyl in 1986 constitute the only realistic data base on which to gage the approaches and validities of well-known risk studies. The initiation and the development of both events is compared with the findings made in a number of safety analyses. It is seen, among other things, that as early as twenty-five years ago, on the basis of such studies, negative coolant density coefficients had been demanded, and introduced, in pressurized water and boiling water reactors in order to exclude accident sequences like the Chernobyl chain of events. In the Chernobyl type of reactor, which shows a number of deficiencies from the point of view of Western safety philosophy, not even this basic precondition of reactor safety was met. Major elements of both accidents are covered in the German Reactor Safety Study. Because of the considerable safety related differences between the Chernobyl reactor and Western reactor lines, simply transferring to Chernobyl any findings on the safety of Western reactors would be meaningless, however. (orig.)

330

Chernobyl-Related Cancer: Re-Evaluation Needed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There has been no clearly demonstrated cancer incidence increase that can be attributed to radiation from Chernobyl accident, except for the thyroid carcinoma in the individuals exposed in childhood and adolescence. The drastic increase of thyroid cancer started 4 years after the accident. The solid/follicular subtype of papillary thyroid carcinoma predominated in the early period after the accident. Histopathological diagnosis of cancer in such cases, if no infiltrative growth is visible, is based mainly on the nuclear criteria of papillary carcinoma. Outdated equipment of histopathological laboratories in early 1990s and insufficient quality of histological sections hindered reliable assessment of the nuclear criteria. Access to foreign professional literature has been limited in the former Soviet Union. Appearance of advanced tumors shortly after the accident can be explained by the screening effect with detection of neglected cancers and by the fact that patients were brought from other regions of the former Soviet Union and registered as Chernobyl-related cases. Further evidence in favor of the overestimation of thyroid cancer incidence after Chernobyl accident is discussed. The concluding point is that immunohistochemical and molecular-genetic tests performed within the scope of international studies were partly based on an inadequately selected material, and that supposedly specific features of radiogenic post-Chernobyl cancers characterize, on average, a later stadium of tumor progression. Therefore, some published data on molecular-genetic and other characteristics of post-Chernobyl malignancies require re-evaluation.

Sergei JARGIN

2010-05-01

331

IAEA and WANO Mark Anniversary of Fukushima Accident, Increase Cooperation, 5 March 2012, Vienna/London  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Next Sunday, 11 March 2012, marks the first anniversary of the devastating earthquake and tsunami that struck the east coast of Japan. One year on, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) are increasing their mutual cooperation to maximise nuclear safety efforts around the globe. The two organisations are revising their Memorandum of Understanding in light of the lessons learned from the Fukushima accident, and will be stepping up their efforts to share expertise and knowledge between operators and governments. There will be greater coordination between WANO peer reviews and IAEA OSART missions, in which international experts assess the safety of individual nuclear power plants, and discussions are under way to examine further areas to improve information sharing. This is in addition to the other work each organisation is doing to reinforce nuclear safety worldwide. IAEA Director General, Yukiya Amano said: 'The IAEA is delighted to strengthen its coordination and cooperation with WANO. One of the lessons of Fukushima is the need for strong and effective communication between governments, regulators and nuclear operators. The IAEA's Action Plan on Nuclear Safety underlines the need for all stakeholders to work together to put these lessons into practice as tangibly and swiftly as possible, to deliver concrete results. By working more closely together, we can help to ensure that practical experience is properly shared to reinforce nuclear safety everywhere'. Laurent Stricker, Chairman of WANO, commented: 'While the terrible events of last year had a major lasting impact on the industry, they have also served as the catalyst for huge change. WANO has shifted from primarily focusing on accident prevention, to an emphasis on both prevention and mitigation, and has redoubled its efforts to promote excellence in nuclear safety in each and every plant across the world. All nuclear plants have carefully analysed their ability to withstand and respond to both design basis and beyond design basis events since Fukushima, and improvements have already been made to severe accident management and emergency preparedness. This work will continue over the coming months and years'. Amano and Stricker agreed that further lessons would continue to be learned from the Fukushima accident, as they were from earlier accidents such as Chernobyl and Three Mile Island, and that strong cooperation between the IAEA and WANO would be a vital element in this process. (IAEA)

332

75 FR 70861 - Airworthiness Directives; Fokker Services B.V. Model F.28 Mark 0100, 1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Services B.V. Model F.28 Mark 0100, 1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000 Airplanes AGENCY...Fokker Services B.V. Model F28 Mark 1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000 airplanes, all...dated April 20, 2010 (for Model F28 Mark 1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000...

2010-11-19

333

Functional disorders of T-cell immunity at persons engaged in the Chernobyl emergency operations in a 10 years after the accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Functional disorders of T-cell immunity in persons engaged in Chernobyl emergency operations - 10 years after the accident. The results evaluating T-cell immunity of 148 liquidators of Chernobyl accident are presented. It was estimated that 10 years after the accident immuno phenotyping of peripheral blood lymphocytes did not reveal marked disturbance in lymphocyte subpopulation content in exposed group as compared with healthy control. Determination of cell proliferation in vitro indicated the decrease in DNA synthesis of T-lymphocytes stimulated with optimal and particularly suboptimal concentrations of polyclonal T-cell activators. Based on individual deviation of the results of T-lymphocyte proliferation the groups with high and low level of response were sorted out for future examination

334

The German Chernobyl project: Lessons learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents results and lessons learned by one of the so far largest assessments of a post-accidental situation. Funded by the Federal Republic of Germany the German Chernobyl Project investigated in the years 1991-1993 the radiological situation in contaminated regions of the Russian Federation, Belarus and Ukraine. Measurements included a mass screening of the population in order to determine the Cesium body burdens of 250,000+ individuals in more than 240 settlements as well as the evaluation of external doses in selected settlements with soil contaminations varying from less than 74 kBq/m2 to about 3700 kBq/m2 including some, where decontamination measures had previously been taken. Also in many settlements environmental monitoring was undertaken. For most individuals doses did not exceed the international annual limits set for the general population. Open and comprehensive communication of results was favourably accepted by the public. In a few settlements the radiological situation has been followed up till to date. (author)

335

Radiation damage aspects of the chernobyl accident  

Science.gov (United States)

During the night of 25 to 26 April 1986, the most severe nuclear accident occurred at the Chernobyl power station, about 150km north of Kiev, in the Ukraine. It resulted in the irradiation of 237 workers at dose levels justifying medical care. The most severe cases (115) were hospitalized in Moscow, with 20 patients with doses higher than 6 Gy. In most cases, the treatment was classical, based on transfusion of red cells and platelets, and heavy supportive therapy. For 19 patients with severe aplasia, transplantations of bone marrow (13) or foetal liver (6) were decided. Of these patients only one survived, which justifies the statement from U.S.S.R. physicians: after an accident the indications of grafting are limited and its risks may not justify its use. Most of the complications were related to radiation burns which involved 56 victims and resulted in fatal outcomes in at least 19 patients. The population was evacuated from a 30 km zone around the site; based on direct measurements and calculations, the collective dose was evaluated at 1.6 × 10 4 man Sv, with an individual average lower than 250 mSv. The European part of U.S.S.R. with 75 million persons is supposed to have received a collective dose likely to increase the natural mortality by less than 0.1%. The numbers with cancer in the Northern Hemisphere might increase by 0.004% over the next 50 years.

Parmentier, N.; Nenot, J. C.

336

Chernobyl fallout radionuclides in Lake Sniardwy, Poland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the introduction of Chernobyl radionuclides, in May 1986, to Lake Sniardwy, the largest lake in Poland, sediment cores and fish were periodically collected through 1989 and analysed for 144Ce, 134Cs and 137Cs. Within four months of the fallout, 134Cs had penetrated down to about 10 cm in one sediment core and, in cores collected from three sites, a year later, had penetrated from 14 to 24 cm. Rapid vertical transport is ascribed to mixing through strong coupling of wind-driven currents to sediments in this shallow, polymictic lake (5.8 m mean depth) and to biological activity. Profiles of 134Cs at several sites and changes in profiles over three years at one site were described by eddy diffusive mixing (3-20 cm2 year-1) of a layer of activity initially deposited on the sediment surface. The generally discontinuous nature of profiles of 144Ce is ascribed to its association with discreet 'hot' (nuclear fuel) particles. (author)

337

The Chernobyl accident - impact on Western Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The implications of the Chernobyl accident are outlined. For the USSR, 135,000 people had to be moved. Farming in these regions will cause difficult problems in the future. The contamination of 131I caused great problems in Western Europe the first month after the accident. The excess dose the first year after the accident was generally below 2 mSv. Over a 50-year period an increase over background of less than 1% is predicted. It is not possible to state if this irradiation has any health impact. Great problems were caused for the population in northern Scandinavia because of the reliance on reindeer breeding, hunting and fishing. Very few Lapps will, however, reach an effective dose equivalent of 5 mSv during 1986/1987. This is less than the natural background effective dose equivalent during a year for the average Swede. Therefore, the greatest problem seems to be the difficulty for the Lapps to sell their reindeer meat and lake fish. 40 refs.; 2 figs.; 11 tabs

338

Enhancing Chernobyl policies to promote development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Immediately after the Chernobyl catastrophe in April 1986 until 1991, Governments placed priority on preventing new nuclear explosions, evacuation, resettlement, cleanup and immediate medical treatment. In the second stage of handling the aftermath of the explosion, in 1991-2001, the first priority was to mitigate human consequences of the catastrophe and to respond to an unfolding public health crisis; the current legal and institutional framework for handling the disaster was established at this time. The present third stage started in 2002. It goes beyond minimizing the consequences of the catastrophe, rather aiming to maximize social and economic recovery, and sustainable human development of the affected population and territories. The new strategy under preparation stresses the need to put the affected communities and individuals on the road from welfare dependence to social and economic growth. This strategy mobilizes and supports the people of the affected communities in organizing self-governing structures to take the lead in planning, managing and implementing their own social, economic and ecological rehabilitation and development

339

Communications strategy for the Chernobyl Centre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Communications Strategy was developed for the International Chernobyl Centre (ICC) as part of a joint UK/Ukraine project, sponsored by the Department of Trade and Industry and NNC Limited. The Plan was developed during four weeks of workshop discussions in the UK between staff from the centre and experienced PR Professionals from NNC Limited. The requirements for a sustained communications activity at the ICC go much further than simply enhancing or promoting the Centre's scientific and technical activities. Raising sufficient awareness of the Centre among potential funding agents and commercial partners is critical to its future development as a major centre for international co-operation and research. It is only through establishing and developing effective communications that the Centre will become well enough known and understood both within the Ukraine, and internationally, to secure its long term future. However, as the workshop programme unfolded, it also became clear that communications was in itself a legitimate and necessary function of the Centre, and part of the foundations of its existence. The Centre has a fundamental role as an 'information exchange', collecting and communicating information from within the Ukraine to the rest of the world, and interpreting world interest and attitudes to the Ukraine Government and nuclear industry. As such compliments the efforts of individual power plant and corporate PR functions within the Ukraine nuclear energy sector

340

Four years after Chernobyl: the medical repercussions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear accident at Chernobyl accounted for an acute radiation syndrome in 237 persons on the site. Triage was the initial problem and was carried out according to clinical and biological criteria; evaluating the doses received was based on these criteria. Thirty one persons died and only 1 survived a dose higher than 6 Gy. Skin radiation burns which were due to inadequate decontamination, greatly worsened prognosis. The results of 13 bone marrow transplantations were disappointing, with only 2 survivors. Some time after the accident, these severely irradiated patients are mainly suffering from psychosomatic disorders, in the USSR, some areas have been significantly contaminated and several measures were taken to mitigate the impact on population: evacuating 135 000 persons, distributing prophylactic iodine, establishing standards and controls on foodstuff. Radiation phobia syndrome which developed in many persons, is the only sanitary effect noticed up to now. Finally, in Europe, there was only an increase in induced abortions and this was totally unwarranted. If we consider the risk of radiation induced cancer, an effect might not be demonstrated

 
 
 
 
341

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Styria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present results which document the contamination of Styria (Southern part of Austria) immediately after and in the years following the Chernobyl accident. The radioactivity and distribution of radionuclides in aerosols, rain water, soil, vegetation, animals and various samples of food are described in great detail. One of the key results is that the highest levels of contamination were found in two districts (Liezen, Deutschlandsberg), and the deposition rates for Cs-137 were determined to be in the range from 3 to about 80 kBq/m2. Of particular interest are studies concerning the migration and distribution of radionuclides in soil, the uptake of radiocesium by the aquatic vegetation and the existence of radionuclides in the natural ecosystem up to this day. Effective dose equivalents due to incorporated radiocesium was estimated to be 252.2 ?Sv for the adult population of Graz (capital of Styria) over the four years follwing the fallout. (authors) 17 papers are presented and are of INIS scope

342

Radiation exposure of the population around Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the population in large parts of northern Ukraine, the region around Chernobyl, was resettled, these people are now returning to their accustomed agricultural environment - illegally, but tolerated. In order for evacuated villages to be cleared for resettlement, the dose commitment due to continuous external and internal exposures of the persons returning must be determined. Examination concentrates on the fallout of reactor nuclides, the path of radionuclides through the food chain to people, and on present and post exposures. Special attention in this respect is paid to the deposition density of cesium. On the basis of the data collected so far, the village inhabitants considered in 1998/99 suffer an average external exposure of 0.7±0.2 mSv/a in addition to the natural external exposure of 0.8 mSv/a and, with a conversion factor of 0.038 mSv/a per kBq of 137 Cs whole body activity [8], 0.5±0.2 mSv/a (excluding inhabitants 17 and 18) of additional internal exposure, mainly as a function of mushroom intake. The ban on consumption of mushrooms and fruit growing in the forests, and education of the public about the reasons for it, could help to reduce the additional internal exposure further to approx. 0.1 mSv/a. (orig.)

343

Radiation exposure: Cytogenetic tests. Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forty test subjects who, either during or after the reactor accident of Chernobyl (26th April 1986), stayed at a building site at Shlobin 150 km away, were examined for spontaneously occurring as well as mitomycin C-induced Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCE). The building site staff, who underwent a whole-body radionuclide count upon their return to Austria (June through September 1986), were used for the cytogenetic tests. The demonstration of the SCE was made from whole-blood cultures by the fluorescence/Giemse technique. At last 20 Metaphases of the 2nd mitotic cycle were evaluated per person. The radiation doses of the test subjects were calculated by adding the external exposure determined on the building site, the estimated thyroid dose through I-131, and the measured incorporation of Cs-134 and Cs-137. The subjects were divided into two groups for statistical analysis: One was a more exposed group (proven stay at Shlobin between 26th April and 31st May 1986, mostly working in the open air) and the other a less exposed group for comparison (staying at Shlobin from 1st Juni 1986 and working mainly indoors). (orig.)

344

Radiation damage aspects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the night of 25 to 26 April 1986, the most severe nuclear accident occurred at the Chernobyl power stations. It resulted in the irradiation of 237 workers at dose levels justifying medical care. The most severe cases (115) were hospitalized in Moscow, with 20 patients with doses higher than 6 Gy. In most cases, the treatment was classical, based on transfusion of red cells and platelets, and heavy supportive therapy. For 19 patients with severe aplasia, transplantations of bone marrow (13) or foetal liver (6) were decided. Of these patients only one survived, which justifies the statement from U.S.S.R. physicians: after an accident the indications of grafting are limited and its risks may not justify its use. Most of the complications were related to radiation burns which involved 56 victims and resulted in fatal outcomes in at least 19 patients. The population was evacuated from a 30 km zone around the site; based on direct measurements and calculations, the collective dose was evaluated at 1.6 x 104 man Sv, with an individual average lower than 250 mSv. The European part of U.S.S.R. with 75 million persons is supposed to have received a collective dose likely to increase the natural mortality by less than 0.1%. The numbers with cancer in the Northern Hemisphere might increase by 0.004% over the next 50 years. (author)

345

Radiation exposure: cytogenetic tests - Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forty test subjects who, either during or after the reactor accident of Chernobyl (26th April 1986), stayed at a building site at Shlobin 150 km away, were examined for spontaneously occurring as well as mitomycin C-induced Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCE). The building site staff, who underwent a whole-body radionuclide count upon their return to Austria (June through September 1986), were used for the cytogenetic tests. The demonstration of the SCE was made from whole-blood cultures by the fluorescence/Giemse technique. At last 20 Metaphases of the 2nd mitotic cycle were evaluated per person. The radiation doses of the test subjects were calculated by adding the external exposure determined on the building site, the estimate thyroid dose through I-131, and the measured incorporation of Cs-134 and Cs-137. The subjects were divided into two groups for statistical analysis: One was a more exposed group (proven stay at Shlobin between 26th April and 31st May 1986, mostly working in the open air) and the other a less exposed group for comparison (staying at Shlobin from 1st Juni 1986 and working mainly indoors). (orig.)

346

Marks on the petroleum fiscality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document offers some marks on the petroleum fiscality in France: the taxes as the 'accises' and the 'TVA', the part of the taxes in the sale price at the service station, the comparison with other countries of Europe, the tax revenues and the Government budget. It provides also marks on the fuels prices formation (margins), the world petroleum markets (supply and demand) and the part of the petroleum companies on the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

347

Grasshopper Mark and Recapture (GMR)  

Science.gov (United States)

IThe Grasshopper Mark and Recapture (GMR) Activity is a method of estimating the population of grasshoppers and other animals. It can be part of an insect unit in any type of class. The GMR activity is conducted outside in the fall, in an open field that will remain undisturbed for 1-2 weeks. Students capture grasshoppers and mark them in a way that will not injure them. The marked grasshoppers from the first sample (M) are released where they were captured. Later a second sample from the same population is taken (p). Some individuals will be marked, or recaptured (m) from the first sampling, while others will be captured for the first time, be unmarked. The ratio of marked animals (m) to the total number of animals in the second sample (p) is assumed to be the same as the total number of marked animals (M) is to the total population size (P). Mathematically m/p = M/P. Therefore students can rearrange the equation to arrive at a numerical estimate of the total grasshopper population.

Carolyn Nevin (Hokes Bluff High School REV)

1995-06-30

348

Splitting the Notion of "Agent": Case-Marking in Early Child Hindi  

Science.gov (United States)

Two construals of agency are evaluated as possible innate biases guiding case-marking in children. A BROAD construal treats agentive arguments of multi-participant and single-participant events as being similar. A NARROWER construal is restricted to agents of multi-participant events. In Hindi, ergative case-marking is associated with agentive…

Narasimhan, Bhuvana

2005-01-01

349

Chernobyl: getting to the heart of the matter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the second of two linked articles on the aftermath of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident of 1986, the author explores the effects on local agriculture and the health of populations affected by the contamination from the fall-out, especially children. Agriculture around Chernobyl has resumed, with workers moving back from the cities to areas where radiation doses are similar to parts of Cornwall. Concern continues about the safety of milk from cows grazing contaminated grass and eating local mushrooms. The largest risk to children's health is not birth deformaties, but leukaemia, possibly in part due to iodine deficiency in their diet prior to contamination. Concern also continues about keeping power supplies going in areas heavily dependent on nuclear power. Reactor safety issues remaining operational RBMK reactors and the sarcophagus around Chernobyl-4 itself have yet to be resolved. (UK)

350

Improvement of practical Countermeasures: Preventive medication. Post-Chernobyl action  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident, which occurred on 26 April 1986, presented major challenges to the European Community with respect to the practical and regulatory aspects of radiation protection, public information, trade, particularly in food, and international politics. The Chernobyl accident was also a major challenge to the international scientific community which had to evaluate rapidly the radiological consequences of the accident and advise on the introduction of any countermeasures. Prior to the accident at Chernobyl, countermeasures to reduce the consequences of radioactive contamination had been conceived largely in the context of relatively small accidental releases and for application over relatively small areas. Less consideration had been given to the practical implications of applying such measures in case of a large source term and a spread over a very large area

351

Main principles of the Chernobyl' NPP zone development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is suggested to divide the Chernobyl' NPP zone into two parts, which are the alienation and evacuation (buffer) zones. The alienation zone includes the areas with greatest contamination around the Chernobyl' NPP. The population residence in this zone is forbidden. The watching method of working with short-time personnel residence is suggested to be used in this zone. The buffer zone is the territory out of the alienation zone boundaries including all settlements, from which the population is evacuated. Constant residence is permitted in the buffer zone for persons 50 and more years old with introduction of restrictions for diet and residence organization. The production activity in this zone includes operation of three units of the Chernobyl' NPP, works with the Ukrytie object and researches. Operations connected with radioactive waste processing and redisposal from places of storage is not recommended to be done. It is suggested to develop methods for local radioactive waste processing

352

Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meiosis, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

353

Chernobyl accident: the crisis of the international radiation community  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The information given in the present report about the Chernobyl accident and its radiological consequences indicates a serious crisis of the international radiation community. The following signs of this crises can be discerned: The international radiation community did not recognize the real reasons of the accident for a long time. It could not make a correct assessment of the damage to the thyroid of the affected populations of Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. Up to present time it rejects the reliable data on hereditary malformations. It is not able to accept reliable data on the increase in the incidence in all categories of people affected by the Chernobyl accident. The international radiation community supported the Soviet authorities in their attempts to play down the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for a long time. (author)

354

Geographic information systems for the Chernobyl decision makers in Ukraine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following numerous national and international studies conducted on the overall impact of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster, decision-makers of the affected countries have oriented their efforts on environmental clean-up and population safety. They have focused on activities leading to a better understanding of radionuclide contamination and to the development of effective environmental rehabilitation programs. Initial developments involved the use of domestic USSR technologies consisting of mainframe IBM computers and DEC minicomputers. Later, personal computers with imported software packages were introduced into the decision-making process. Following the breakup of the former USSR, the Ministry of Chernobyl was created in Ukraine in 1991. One of the Ministry's mandate was the elimination of the environmental after-effects of the Chernobyl disaster

355

Radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems following the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dynamics of radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems (1986-1990) is considered on the basis of observational data in the near and distant zones of the Chernobyl fallout (the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) cooling pond, the Pripyat River, the Dnieper reservoirs, and the Kopor inlet of the Gulf of Finland). Radionuclide accumulation in aquatic biota is analyzed. The results obtained indicate that the radioecological conditions in the water bodies under investigation were in a state of non-equilibrium over a long period of time following the Chernobyl accident. Reduction in the {sup 137}Cs concentration proceeded slowly in most of the aquatic ecosystems. The effect of trophic levels which consisted of increased accumulation of radiocaesium by predatory fish was observed in various parts of the contaminated area. (author).

Kryshev, I.I. [Institut Ehksperimental`noj Meteorologii, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-09-01

356

Radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dynamics of radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems (1986-1990) is considered on the basis of observational data in the near and distant zones of the Chernobyl fallout (the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) cooling pond, the Pripyat River, the Dnieper reservoirs, and the Kopor inlet of the Gulf of Finland). Radionuclide accumulation in aquatic biota is analyzed. The results obtained indicate that the radioecological conditions in the water bodies under investigation were in a state of non-equilibrium over a long period of time following the Chernobyl accident. Reduction in the 137Cs concentration proceeded slowly in most of the aquatic ecosystems. The effect of trophic levels which consisted of increased accumulation of radiocaesium by predatory fish was observed in various parts of the contaminated area. (author)

357

Improvement of practical countermeasures: preventive medication post-Chernobyl action  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Chernobyl accident, which occurred on 26 April 1986, presented major challenges to the European Community with respect to the practical and regulatory aspects of radiation protection, public information, trade, particularly in food, and international politics. The Chernobyl accident was also a major challenge to the international scientific community which had to evaluate rapidly the radiological consequences of the accident and advise on the introduction of any countermeasures. Prior to the accident at Chernobyl, countermeasures to reduce the consequences of radioactive contamination had been conceived largely in the context of relatively small accidental releases and for application over relatively small areas. Less consideration had been given to the practical implications of applying such measures in case of a large source term and a spread over a very large area.

Gerber, G. [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (BE)

1991-12-31

358

International Conference 'Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident. Future Outlook'. Abstracts proceeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This conference concludes a series of events dedicated to the 20 anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and promote an effective implementation of the accumulated international experience in the following areas: Radiation protection of the population and emergency workers, and the environmental consequences of Chernobyl accident; Medical and public health response to radiation emergencies; Strengthening radiological emergency management of radiation accidents; Economic and legal aspects of radioactive waste management and nuclear power plants decommissioning; Radioactive waste management: Chernobyl experience; Nuclear power plant decommissioning: Chernobyl NPP; Transformation of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system

359

Investigation on the causes and consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fully ten years have passed since Chernobyl accident. The worst incident in history occurred in Reactor No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. The cause of the accident was an overlap of the defects in the safety of nuclear reactor and serious violations of rules by its operators. However we can no longer deny the fact that people who suspect the safety of nuclear power generation have increased since the accident. It is likely that such tendency attributes to the information from the mass media intending to exaggerate the accident. So, the author attempted to further investigate the Chernobyl accident upon the tenth year after the accident aiming to promote the people's porper understanding on nuclear power generation. Previously, various measures for accident prevention have been taken in nuclear power stations not to actualize the potential troubles. Citing some examples the author demonstrated that any accidient such as Chernobyl accident never happen when at least one of the multiple measures for accident prevention which are taken on a basis of the concept of defense in depth is not broken. On the other hand, the people are exposed to many kinds of unexpected damages due to accidents or disasters in the daily life. The influences of Chernobyl accident on health were compared to those of accidents and disasters which we may daily encounter, in respect of lifetime detriment. And the lifetime detriment of Chernobyl accident was found to be similar or even smccident was found to be similar or even smaller than that due to the car accidents in Japan. (M.N.)

360

Terrestrial invertebrate population studies in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, Ukraine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 caused the release to atmosphere of substantial amounts of radioactivity. Precise estimates of the release vary. The USSR State Committee presented information to a meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986 indicating a release of some 2.9x105 TBq 137Cs and 2x105 TBq 90Sr, with a total fission/activation product release of 1.7x106 TBq. Other commentators suggest that up to double this amount may have been released. Estimates of deposition likewise vary, although it is probable that about half the released activity was deposited within 20 km of the release point, predominantly following two plume trajectories to the north and west. This resulted in the death of pine trees over 400 ha, the abandonment of 100,000 to 150,000 ha of agricultural land and the establishment of an exclusion zone extending to 30 km from the site. High levels of radionuclide contamination continue to prevail within the exclusion zone. Nonetheless, over the past fifteen years, re-colonisation has been widespread. Mixed deciduous woodlands, with a high proportion of birch (Betula spp.) and willow (Salix spp.), have become established in the forest areas, while agricultural land has succeeded to tall grassland and scrub. Field sites established in this study exhibited external gamma dose rates varying from 0.1 ?Sv h-1 to 140 ?Sv h-1. Corresponding mean concentrations of 137Cs in the top 20 cm of soil varied from about 6.102 to 3.106 Bq kg-1 dw. This study summarises observations over the period 2001 to 2004. Sub-surface activity, as measured by bait lamina penetration, appears to be inversely correlated with concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr in soil. Likewise, at the very highest levels of contamination, there is some loss of invertebrate diversity; although little associated change in overall biomass. Between years, population densities and species dominance vary significantly. This does not appear to correlate directly with levels of radiation exposure, but may provide indirect evidence for population fragility. Preliminary growth and breeding experiments on earthworms in soils from the region and matched soils spiked in the laboratory have proved variable. However, there is some (non-statistically significant) indication of depressed growth rates in all contaminated regimes compared to control populations. (author)

 
 
 
 
361

The ghost has left the bottle: One year after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several authors attempt to describe the public attitude in different countries a year after the accident in the Chernobyl-4 reactor. Even the Soviet Union is now faced with an antinuclear movement (M. Butenschoen); Cooperation between West Germany and the Soviet Union in the field of nuclear safety (W. Hoffmann); France intends a drastic raise of EC limiting values for radioactively contaminated food (Th. Hanke); There is a lack of knowledge concerning the ecological and social cost of social actions (O. Ulrich); How our radiation burden is influenced by accidents, bureaucracy, and consumption (A. Furtmayr-Schuh); Berlin study on genetic defects after Chernobyl contains incongruities (H. Engeln). (GL)

362

Thyroid nodularity and cancer among Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

after the accident. Workers served at Chernobyl for an average of 3 months. The average age was 32 years at the time of arrival at Chernobyl and 40 years at the time of thyroid examination. The mean documented radiation dose from external sources was 10.8 cGy. Biological indicators of exposure showed low correlations with documented dose, but did not indicate that the mean dose for the population was higher than the average documented dose. 47 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs

363

One year after Chernobyl - the world has changed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of the Chernobyl accidents for the antiatomic movement and nuclear power in Austria and other European countries is outlined. In the same number there several other very short contributions (without authors) whose content is indicated by the headings: The mentality of the proponents (of nuclear power). The callousness of the proponents. The feigned play of the atomic lobby shocks the Austrian public. West Germany on the march to an atomic state. First success against Wackersdorf (fuel reprocessing plant in West Germany). Temelin -the czechoslovakian Chernobyl/Cattenom- on the Austrian border. 5 figs., 1 tab. (qui)

364

Modelling atmospheric dispersal of the Chernobyl release across Europe  

Science.gov (United States)

At the time of the Chernobyl accident little was known about the magnitude and time pattern of the release from the damaged reactor. This paper describes the detective work done in the weeks following the accident to assess the release and its dispersal across Europe; also calculations done since the USSR presentations in Vienna at the end of August 1986 and some estimates of longer term collective dose commitment. To conclude some general remarks are made about the implications of the Chernobyl accident for technical support in emergency procedures for any future nuclear accident.

Apsimon, H. M.; Wilson, J. J. N.

1987-12-01

365

Environmental behaviour of radioactivity from Chernobyl: Brothers Water study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study has been carried out to examine the short term behaviour of Chernobyl derived radionuclides together with the longer term patterns of transport of weapons fallout derived 137Cs first studied on the Brothers Water catchment in the English Lake District in the 1970's. Chernobyl derived radiocaesium is observable in the soils and lake sediments of the catchment. 210Pb dating and diatom analysis were used to confirm that the lake sediments sampled were undisturbed. A simple box model is used to estimate radionuclide inventories in Brothers Water Lake sediments. Estimates derived using this model are reasonably consistent with estimates obtained from a variety of other sources. (author)

366

The accident in the Chernobyl reactor. Scenario and impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contribution is based to a great extent on the comprehensive report of the Radiation Protection Commission on the 'Impacts of the reactor accident in Chernobyl' on the Federal Republic of Germany. There is another detailed report meanwhile by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection on the radiation exposure of the population of the Federal Republic of Germany following the Chernobyl accident. Dealt with are the accident scenario, activity release, atmospheric transport of released activity, activity concentrations in air, soil and water in the Federal Republic of Germany, radiation exposure of the German population and appropriate evaluations, and radiation exposure and effects on health in the Soviet Union. (orig./HSCH)

367

Chernobyl bank of thyroid tissues in Russia: present and future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tissue banking is a principal way of creating a source of unique materials for biomedical investigations. After the Chernobyl accident, a corresponding Tissue Bank has been established in Russia in Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk. The international Chernobyl Tissue Bank that holds thyroid tissues and blood samples from patients who were in their childhood at the moment of accident is its essential and integral part. In this report, the current status, perspectives, future tasks and ways of the Tissue Bank development will be overviewed. (author)

368

Radiation impacts of the Chernobyl reactor accident in Hungary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental radiation monitoring to study the effect of the Chernobyl reactor accident on the contamination of the environment in Hungary comprised radioactivity determinations of aerosols, of samples of fallout, surface and drinking water, plants, milk and meat as well as the monitoring of human beings. Time dependent dose rates and activity concentrations based on total ?-disintegration and ?-spectrometric measurements are given. The spatial distribution of radioactivity in Hungary is determined. According to calculations of internal and external radiation exposures of the population, the effective dose increment in Hungary due to the Chernobyl reactor accident is regarded to be about 1 mSv. (V.N.)

369

Eye pathologies of Chernobyl clean-up workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diseases of the nervous system and sense organs have become the most significant pathologies of Chernobyl clean-up workers during the last four years. The aim of this work was to evaluate the incidence of eye disorders among Chernobyl clean-up workers to provide more information for health specialists. During the last 10 years, the most common eye pathology has been angiopathia retinae, followed by myopia and cataracta. Statistical analyses showed that the clean-up workers have higher risk to develop angiopathia retinae than the control group. (author)

370

Chernobyl-related Bladder Lesions: New Interpretation Required  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some aspects of practical pathology in the former Soviet Union, having a potential impact on the diagnostic quality, as well as possible mechanisms of false-positive diagnostics of malignant and premalignant lesions after the Chernobyl accident were discussed previously. In particular, overdiagnosis appears probable in regard to the bladder lesions detected in the radio-contaminated areas. Some studies on the post-Chernobyl bladder lesions are valuable but require new interpretation. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(2.000: 96-97

Sergei V. Jargin

2014-04-01

371

Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 ?Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

372

Radioactive residues from nuclear accidents in Kyshtym and Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive contamination of lands is one of the most dangerous forms of environmental pollution in Russia. In total up to 25% of Russia's territory has been subjected to some form of radioactive contamination, mainly owing to the large radiation accidents of Kyshtym (1957) and Chernobyl (1986). Data are presented on radioactive contamination of lands in the Urals following the Kyshtym accident and Karachai dust storm (1967) and in the European part of the Russian Federation following the Chernobyl disaster. A brief description is provided of the RADLEG information system, which collects data on radiation accidents and radiation contamination in the Russian Federation. (author)

373

Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

374

Plutonium in air at Warsaw after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As reported in 1986 by USSR the total initial core inventory of Chernobyl reactor was of about 4·1019 Bq of over 50 different radioisotopes at the time of accident. 1-2·1018 Bq of total activity was estimated to be released to the atmosphere. 239'240Pu and 238U are those with the longest half life time of released radioisotopes to the environment. The total core inventory of transuranium elements in Chernobyl reactor and calculated their release as for the date of 6th of May is presented in this paper

375

Chernobyl: The true scale of the accident. 20 years later a UN report provides definitive answers and ways to repair lives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of up to four thousand people could eventually die of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) accident nearly 20 years ago, an international team of more than 100 scientists has concluded. As of mid-2005, however, fewer than 50 deaths had been directly attributed to radiation from the disaster, almost all being highly exposed rescue workers, many who died within months of the accident but others who died as late as 2004. The new numbers are presented in a landmark digest report, 'Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts', just released by the Chernobyl Forum. The digest, based on a three-volume, 600-page report and incorporating the work of hundreds of scientists, economists and health experts, assesses the 20-year impact of the largest nuclear accident in history. The Forum is made up of 8 UN specialized agencies, including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA), United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and the World Bank, as well as the governments of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. The Forum's report aims to help the affected countries understand the true scale of the accident consequences and also suggest ways the governments of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia might address major economic and social problems stemming from the accident. Members of the Forum, including representatives of the three governments, will meet September 6 and 7 in Vienna at an unprecedented gathering of the world's experts on Chernobyl, radiation effects and protection, to consider these findings and recommendations

376

The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

- Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a difference in the trends when comparing exposed and unexposed oblasts. - Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain: Intelligence Assessment of Ukrainian children is measured by an adapted and normalised tool: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, WISC (the verbal, performance and full scale IQs). There are significant (p0.05). - General conclusions: At present stage, not all the possible effects of the Chernobyl accident have been studied: some of them may arise after a long latency period.The basic data that are supporting our present descriptive analyses are stored in our common HEDAC database. Final reports of all the sub-projects are available and most of our results are presented in our CD summarizing the workshop in Kiev on October 5 and 6, 2004. (author

377

25 years since Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental and food radioactivity surveillance in Romania, begun since the early 60's, with 47 laboratories from National Environment Radioactivity Surveillance Network (NERSN) in the framework of Ministry of Environmental and the network of 21 Radiation Hygiene Laboratories (RHL) from centers and institutes of the Ministry of Public Health. The surveillance was conducted by global beta and alpha measurements, necessary to make some quick decisions as well as gamma spectrometry to detect high and low resolution profile accident. Thus the two networks together and some departmental labs recorded from the first moments (since April 30, 1986) the presence of the contaminated radioactive cloud originated from Ukraine, after the nuclear accident on 26 April 1986 at Chernobyl NPP, on the Romanian territory. NERSN followed up the radioactive contamination of air (gamma dose rate, atmospheric aerosols and total deposition), surface water, uncultivated soil, and spontaneous vegetation while the RHL monitored the drinking water and food. Early notification of this event allowed local and central authorities to take protective measures like: administration of stable iodine, advertisements in media on avoiding consumption of heavily contaminated food, prohibition of certain events that took place outdoors, interdiction of drinking milk and eating milk products for one month long. Most radionuclides, fission and activation products (22 radionuclides), released during the accideradionuclides), released during the accident, have been determined in the environmental factors. A special attention was paid to radionuclides like Sr-90, I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137, especially in aerosol samples, where the maximum values were recorded on Toaca Peak (Ceahlau Mountain) on May, the first, 1986: 103 Bq/m3, I-131, 63 Bq/m3, Cs-137. The highest value of I-131 in drinking water, 21 Bq/l, was achieved on May, the third, 1986 in Bucharest and in cow milk exceeded the value of 3000 Bq/l. For sheep milk some sporadic values exceeding 10 000 Bq/l. After decrease of I-131 activity, especially by decay, a special attention was paid to cesium radionuclides (Cs-134 and Cs-137) detected in food (dairy, meat, vegetables and fruits, etc.) with activities of about 100 Bq/kg. The level of contamination of the environment, drinking water and food decreased over years after accident, so in the early 90's the measurement values returned to levels existing before the accident, excepting Cs-137. This radionuclide is still present in the environment, especially in soil. The lowest values are in the cultivated soil, and the highest in the uncultivated soil, forest soil and in some mountain areas. Although the transfer of Cs-137 in vegetation is low, yet it can be easily detected in some plants from natural ecosystems (spontaneous mushrooms, berries etc.) and quite difficult in food (at levels of mBq order). Current level of contamination of the environment and food in Romania after the Chernobyl nuclear accident is very low, making it difficult to highlight the two long-life contaminants, Cs-137 and Sr-90 that can be measured only by laboratories who have performing equipment and can perform radiochemical analyses. Quantifying the levels of contamination throughout Romania allowed assessing the doses received by the population and hence the analysing the effects (birth defects, leukemia and thyroid cancer) and carrying epidemiological studies on various types of diseases attributed to incorporation of radionuclides in particular in the target group of children. (authors)

378

RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures of fuel containing materials can be fairly useful for the entire world's nuclear community and can help make nuclear energy safer.

Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

2011-10-01

379

Observations on radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The accident to reactor 4 at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986 provided an opportunity to mount a wide range of investigations on the dispersion processes following a major atmospheric release of radionuclides. At Harwell measurements were made in air, rain, soil, grass, some foodstuffs and in staff of the laboratory. Radionuclides in the atmosphere were monitored through the existing network of air and rain stations used to sample fall-out from nuclear weapon testing both in the UK (in collaboration with the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB)) and world-wide. Deposition on the ground was determined from analysing soil samples, including many obtained from outside the UK throughout the northern hemisphere. A limited number of grass samples were examined from the immediate vicinity of Harwell, and a variety of foodstuffs were accepted from elsewhere for analysis. Most of these analyses were carried out using high resolution ..gamma.. spectrometry with germanium detectors. A limited number of analyses for actinides using ..cap alpha.. spectroscopy were undertaken, but generally the quantities of these radionuclides in the samples were too small to justify extensive use of this method. A small group of staff volunteered for measurement of radioiodine accumulated in the thyroid and additional measurements were carried out with the whole-body monitor on a standard group routinely measured at Harwell. The early measurements at Harwell were reported to the World Health Organisation and, through the NRPB, to government departments. However, the resulting international and national compilations of raw data are of limited value because the precise details of the measurements were inevitably absent. A more comprehensive account of the Harwell measurements, mainly those available up to the end of October 1986, is provided here as a contribution to a more systematic international evaluation of the consequences of the accident.

Cambray, R.S.; Cawse, P.A.; Garland, J.A.; Gibson, J.A.B.; Johnson, P.; Lewis, G.N.J.; Newton, D.; Salmon, L.; Wade, B.O.

1987-04-01

380

Radionuclide deposition from the Chernobyl cloud  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union created a cloud of radioactivity that affected a surprisingly large area of Europe. This letter concentrates on the main passage of this cloud over the United Kingdom and presents some results of preliminary investigations into the collected data on radioactivity levels in the air, in rain water, on grass and in milk, and attempts to link the time variations of these levels to meteorological conditions. In particular, we report that high levels measured on grass are linked to to heavy rainfalls associated with thunderstorms embedded in the radioactive cloud. The accident is believed to have begun at 01: 23 local time on Saturday 26 April (20:23 GMT on Friday 25 April) and to have ended on the following Wednesday or Thursday. By the Monday, countries throughout Europe had been alerted and possible trajectories of the plume were being estimated, based on standard meteorological data. In many cases, analyses and forecasts from numerical weather prediction models were being used. Trajectories calculated at the Meteorological Office early in the week indicated a possible risk to the United Kingdom, and this possibility was strengthened when, on Wednesday, enhanced radiation levels were reported in northern Italy, indicating a first arrival in the United Kingdom on Friday 2 May. Since then, more thorough analyses of the cloud movement have been carried out at the Meteorological Office and at many other centres throughout Europe, and the most probable path of the cloud that affected the United Kingdom is shown

 
 
 
 
381

Observations on radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident to reactor 4 at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986 provided an opportunity to mount a wide range of investigations on the dispersion processes following a major atmospheric release of radionuclides. At Harwell measurements were made in air, rain, soil, grass, some foodstuffs and in staff of the laboratory. Radionuclides in the atmosphere were monitored through the existing network of air and rain stations used to sample fall-out from nuclear weapon testing both in the UK (in collaboration with the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB)) and world-wide. Deposition on the ground was determined from analysing soil samples, including many obtained from outside the UK throughout the northern hemisphere. A limited number of grass samples were examined from the immediate vicinity of Harwell, and a variety of foodstuffs were accepted from elsewhere for analysis. Most of these analyses were carried out using high resolution ? spectrometry with germanium detectors. A limited number of analyses for actinides using ? spectroscopy were undertaken, but generally the quantities of these radionuclides in the samples were too small to justify extensive use of this method. A small group of staff volunteered for measurement of radioiodine accumulated in the thyroid and additional measurements were carried out with the whole-body monitor on a standard group routinely measured at Harwell. The early measurements at Harwell were reported to the World Health Organisation and, through the NRPB, to government departments. However, the resulting international and national compilations of raw data are of limited value because the precise details of the measurements were inevitably absent. A more comprehensive account of the Harwell measurements, mainly those available up to the end of October 1986, is provided here as a contribution to a more systematic international evaluation of the consequences of the accident. (author)

382

Cytogenetic analysis of Chernobyl cleanup workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biodosimetric analyses were performed of workers involved in clean-up operations following the Chernobyl accident. Blood samples were collected from 188 exposed workers who participated in the cleanup and from 69 subjects living in Russia but not involved in the cleanup activities. The samples were collected between September 1991 and May 1996 and shipped to Livermore for cytogenetic evaluation. Chromosome 1, 2, and 4 were painted simultaneously with whole-chromosome DNA probes, at at least 1500 metaphase cells (500 cell equivalents) were analyzed for structural aberrations from each subject. The PAINT system was used for the initial classification of all aberrations. Translocations were subsequently evaluated to determine whether they were reciprocal or non-reciprocal, and then enumerated according to the classical method which assumes all translocations are reciprocal. Univariate statistical analyses (including adjustments for age and smoking status) found greater frequencies of chromosome translocations among the exposed compared to controls (p?0.0001), regardless of the method of enumerating translocations. The difference in translocation frequencies between clean-up and control subjects was explainable by invoking an average population exposure to 12 ± 3 cGy. This estimate was based on an in vitro dose response curve with 137Cs exposure to human blood, and was obtained in our laboratory with the same painting probes. Differences between clean-up worrobes. Differences between clean-up workers and controls were seen for dicentrics and for total acentric fragments. Smoking was also associated with increased translocation frequencies. These results show the feasibility of performing retrospective biodosimetry by painting following low doses of ionizing radiation

383

Retrospective Dosimetry Method for Chernobyl Liquidators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Dosimetric information related to the population of Chernobyl liquidators is incomplete and uncertainties of all dose values are not determined. For any consideration of liquidators as a subject of epidemiological study, their doses should be evaluated by the means of retrospective dosimetry. According to request of the International Dosimetric Group (consortium established by the CEC-Russia-Belarus and Ukraine-USA-France case-control leukaemia studies) a new technique, called Soft Expert Assessment of Dose (SEAD) was developed. This technique is assignment of dose value (dose interval) to the given liquidator, basing on appointing him to one of the groups with known dose distribution and application of individualised modification factors which lead to the determination of the 'location' of his dose in this distribution, together with information on the uncertainty attached to that location. The questionnaire form developed by the International Dosimetric Group is used for interviewing a liquidator. Then, an expert analyses the completed questionnaire in order to assign a liquidator to one of the 18 groups that are representative of the universe of liquidators, and evaluate the values of dose-effecting factors. Since all information, particularly expert opinions, is rather qualitative by its nature, integration of this information into dose assessment is conducted by means of fuzzy set theory. The process of evaluation of dose is automated with a special soion of dose is automated with a special software code. The results of dose reconstructions by SEAD method were compared with results were received by the EPR-method, ADR-method and with official doses. The results of comparison were depended on the category of liquidators. (author)

384

Neutronic static analysis of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present analysis, estimates were made of the positive reactivity introduced through the growth of the coolant void fraction in a Graphite-water steam-generating reactor both at the average value of burnup given by the Soviets and at the maximum value. Using Monte Carlo models, various possible axial distribution of burnup, displacer models, conditions in the control channels and positions of the control rods were considered in calculating the insertion of positive reactivity with the fall of the manual and emergency control rods; that is the positive scram. The possibility of positive reactivity insertion due to the creation of a mixture of fuel, water and cladding in a number of central fuel channels has been examined. This situation corresponds to the explosion of these channels, and is considered in the present work as the cause of the second reactivity peak. At the level of the data presented in this study, vaporization of cooling water in the fuel channels can be considered as the cause of the Chernobyl accident. The accident began in the region of the channels close to the axis of the reactor and spread to its periphery. The positive reactivity due to insertion of the manual and emergency control rods - positive scram -played a marginal role in the development of the accident. Fracture of the fuel followed by bursting of the channels around the axis of the reactor, due to contact between the hot UO2 particles and the cooling water at th end of the first peak, could have started a mechanism capable of producing a second peak in reactivity, in the case of fuel damage extended to a sufficiently large portion of the core

385

Environmental radiation survey in Chernobyl area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was conducted to establish the technical and theoretical method of evaluating the effects of radiation on public based on the results of measurements and analysis of environmental radiation data in Chernobyl. Radiation level in the contaminated areas and the actual condition and characteristics of radiological fields were evaluated and analyzed. The method of collective dose equivalent evaluation of population was studied. This study was conducted between 1992 and 1995. The subjects were 50 houses from 7 villages (Kupovotie, Opachichi, Otashev, Illintsi, Parishev, Teremci, Ladizicchi) which are about 20 to 30 km distant from the accident reactor. Indoor ? radiation distributions were about 1/2 of that of outdoors. The outdoor radiation dose distributions of these areas were about 2 to 3 times higher than natural ? radiation level in Japan, and the indoor level, on the other hand, was almost the same. Average cumulative dose of the population (calculated by 30 days) was 67?Gy in autumn and 58?Gy in winter, and as for ? radiation, 42?Gy in autumn and 33?Gy in winter, showing difference of about 30% between autumn and winter. It is considered due to the effect of cumulative snow. Car borne survey was conducted to grasp the dose distribution of extended areas, and the following results were obtained: Highly contaminated area was admitted outside the 30 km area in the western and northern areas which were known as highly contaminated areas, and as for eastern areas, on the contrary, low dose distribution area was admitted within 30 km. (S.Y.)

386

Chernobyl fallout in southern and central Finland.  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the levels and distributions of radionuclides released in the Chernobyl accident, we sampled surface peat from 62 sites in Southern and Central Finland and measured 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 132Te, 140Ba, 103Ru, 90Sr, 141Ce, and 95Zr. The distribution of fallout activities was highly uneven, depending on movement of the contaminated air mass and rainfall distribution during the critical days. The highest values observed were 420 kBq m-2 of 131I and 70 kBq m-2 of 137Cs. The nuclide ratios showed wide and partly unexpected variations. The high-boiling-point, or nonvolatile, elements Ce and Zr were spread mostly on a 200-km-wide zone extending across Finland from southwest to northeast. The more volatile elements, I, Ce, and Te, showed quite a different, more widespread, fallout distribution, while an intermediate behavior was observed for Ba, Ru, and possibly Sr. These results can be explained by assuming that pulverized nuclear fuel material released in the reactor explosion on 26 April reached Finland via Poland and the Baltic Sea and traversed the country along the above-mentioned narrow zone, while volatile material, evaporated in the reactor fire from 26 April to 5 May, arrived in several waves and was consequently more widely and evenly spread. From their elemental melting and boiling points, Ru and Mo would appear to belong to the nonvolatile group and Sr to the volatile. Yet, their actual behaviors were opposite; Ru in particular was found in the nonvolatile as well as the volatile fallout, possibly because Ru activities were present in the fuel partly in the metallic state and partly as volatile oxides. PMID:1995514

Jantunen, M; Reponen, A; Kauranen, P; Vartiainen, M

1991-03-01

387

The Chernobyl accident - Causes and consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two explosions, one immediately following the other, in Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union signalled the worst disaster ever to befall the commercial nuclear power production industry. This accident, which occurred at 1:24 am on April 26, 1986, resulted from an almost incredible series of operational errors associated, ironically, with an attempt to enhance the capability of the reactor to safety accommodate station blackout accidents (i.e., accidents arising from a loss of station electrical power). Disruption of the core, due to a prompt criticality excursion, resulted in the destruction of the core vault and reactor building and the sudden dispersal of about 3% of the fuel from the core region into the environment. Lesser but significant releases of radioactivity continued through May 6, 1986, before attempts to contain the radioactivity and cool the remnants of the core were successful. The amount and composition of material released in the course of the accident remain somewhat uncertain, and inconsistencies in the release estimates are evident. The soviet estimates, in addition to the dispersal of about 3% of the fuel, include complete release of the noble gas core inventory, 20% of the fission product iodine inventory, 15% of the tellurium inventory, and 10-13% of the fission product cesium inventory. The iodine and cesium release estimates are not consistent with the noble gas values, and are as much as a factor of two less than are as much as a factor of two less than some estimates made by experts outside the Soviet Union

388

Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifty years of peaceful utilization of nuclear power were interrupted by the reactor accident in unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in Ukraine in 1986, a disruptive event whose consequences profoundly affected the way of life of millions of people, and which has moved the public to this day. Releases of radioactive materials contaminated large areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Early damage in the form of radiation syndrome was suffered by a group of rescue workers and members of the reactor operating crew, in some cases with fatal consequences, while the population does not, until now, show a statistically significant increase in the rate of late damage due to ionizing radiation expect for thyroid diseases in children. In particular, no increases in the rates of solid tumors, leukaemia, genetic defects, and congenital defects were detected. For some risk groups exposed to high radiation doses (such as liquidators) the hazard may still be greater, but the large majority of the population need not live in fear of serious impacts on health. Nevertheless, the accident shows major negative social and psychological consequences reinforced by the breakdown of the Soviet Union. This may be one reason for the observed higher incidence of other diseases whose association with the effects of radiation as a cause has not so far been proven. The measurement campaign conducted by the federal government in 1991-1993 addressed these very concerns of th1-1993 addressed these very concerns of the public in an effort to provide unbiased information about exposures detected, on the one hand, in order to alleviate the fears of the public and reduce stress and, on the other hand, to contribute to the scientific evaluation of the radiological situation in the regions most highly exposed. The groups of the population requiring special attention in the future include especially children growing up in highly contaminated regions, and the liquidators of 1986 and 1987 employed in the period immediately after the accident. (orig.)

389

46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.  

Science.gov (United States)

...column-stabilized unit, on each corner column, continuing to the footing or lower displacement hull. (b) The bottom of each mark...means the distance from the bottom of the keel or the lowest shell plate on the outer surface of the unit to the surface of...

2010-10-01

390

Long-term consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe and remediation programs in Russia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unprecedented scale of radiological emergency at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) has set us a package of the most difficult tasks aimed to eliminate negative consequences and remediate a normal life in contaminated areas. Due to the accident, above 56,000 square meters of the Russian Federation's territory, including about two million hectares of agricultural lands and about one million hectares of forest resources, were radioactively contaminated. The four regions, namely the Bryansk/Kaluga/Orel/Tula regions, were contaminated to the most extent. About three million people lived in those areas. More than 52,000 citizens were relocated in an organized way or resettled independently. Above 200,000 citizens of Russia were involved in elimination of emergency effects. The Russian Federation (RF) Government has charged EMERCOM of Russia to coordinate activities on mitigation of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The Ministry has undertaken the functions of a state customer of federal target programs for elimination of effects of radiological emergencies and catastrophes. Federal ministries and agencies, as well as executive authorities of the RF subjects are involved in implementation of the programs. Since 1998, joint Russian-Byelorussian projects to mitigate effects of the Chernobyl catastrophe have been under way. Large-scale work on radiological/medical/social protection for the citizens and remediation of the lands has been performed within the scope of federal target programs. Since 1991, more than 5 billion USD has been spent on the activities to eliminate consequences of the accident, as well as to pay out benefits and compensations. The key element of EMERCOM's policy is to comprehend the role of a radiation factor in the entire package of vital objectives. The result of it is that protective actions are directed towards the most contaminated areas and priority attention is focused on the development of a social sphere and health care. The main program trends are as follows: Social and economic remediation of the areas; Public health protection; Radiation monitoring; Public exposure dose reduction; Remediation of agricultural/forest lands; Information activity and social-and-psychological rehabilitation of the public. This speech summarizes the results of these activities

391

Swedish electricity policy after Chernobyl: the 1980 nuclear referendum revisited  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the incident at Three Mile Island in 1979, a nuclear referendum mandated that the government was to phase out all Swedish nuclear power. Recent indications were, however, that owing to institutional inertia and contrary political will, the referendum imperative was being eroded. It remains to be seen whether this tendency will be affected by Chernobyl

392

High levels of genetic change in rodents of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous reports of high rates of genetic mutation in voles living in the area of the Chernobyl reactor have been re-examined. Human errors in data manipulation were found and although high mutation rates were shown to occur in the target rodents than in the controls, the difference was not statistically significant. (UK)

393

Scientific decision of the Chernobyl accident problems (results of 1997).  

Science.gov (United States)

In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1997 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for ...

E. F. Konoplya, I. V. Rolevich

1998-01-01

394

Chernobyl radioactivity in grain produced in Greece in 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl radioactive cloud reached Greece in the first days of May 1986. During this period, the gain was in maximum growth; therefore, in absorbing the radionuclides it has become an excellent indicator of the deposited radioactivity. Measurements carried out in grain samples which were obtained from Greece are reported and some conclusions regarding population doses are presented

395

Chernobyl source term, atmospheric dispersion, and dose estimation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl source term available for long-range transport was estimated by integration of radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling, and by reactor core radionuclide inventory estimation in conjunction with WASH-1400 release fractions associated with specific chemical groups. These analyses indicated that essentially all of the noble gases, 80% of the radioiodines, 40% of the radiocesium, 10% of the tellurium, and about 1% or less of the more refractory elements were released. Atmospheric dispersion modeling of the radioactive cloud over the Northern Hemisphere revealed that the cloud became segmented during the first day, with the lower section heading toward Scandinavia and the uppper part heading in a southeasterly direction with subsequent transport across Asia to Japan, the North Pacific, and the west coast of North America. The inhalation doses due to direct cloud exposure were estimated to exceed 10 mGy near the Chernobyl area, to range between 0.1 and 0.001 mGy within most of Europe, and to be generally less than 0.00001 mGy within the US. The Chernobyl source term was several orders of magnitude greater than those associated with the Windscale and TMI reactor accidents, while the 137Cs from the Chernobyl event is about 6% of that released by the US and USSR atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. 9 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

396

On protecting the inexperienced reader from Chernobyl myths  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident continue to attract the attention of experts, decision-makers and the general public, and now these consequences have been given added relevance by the similar accident in 2011 at the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant (NPP) in Japan. Expert analysis of radiation levels and effects has been conducted by international bodies—UNSCEAR in 2008 and the Chernobyl Forum during 2003–5. At the same time, three Russian and Belarusian scientists, Yablokov, Nesterenko and Nesterenko (2009 Chernobyl. Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment (New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences)) published both in Russian and English a substantial review of the consequences of Chernobyl based mostly on Russian-language papers. In this book, they suggested a departure from analytical epidemiological studies in favour of ecological ones. This erroneous approach resulted in the overestimation of the number of accident victims by more than 800?000 deaths during 1987–2004. This paper investigates the mistakes in methodology made by Yablokov et al and concludes that these errors led to a clear exaggeration of radiation-induced health effects. Should similar mistakes be made following the 2011 accident at Fukushima-1 NPP this could lead quite unnecessarily to a panic reaction by the public about possible health effects and to erroneous decisions by the authorities in Japan. (opinion)es in Japan. (opinion)

397

Radiation-biological consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper points out essential aspects of the actual or potential impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident on human health in the areas immediately affected. In particular, radiation-induced diseases in the population are pointed out, which were caused by radioactive iodine. Epidemiological studies try to establish an increased incidence of leukaemia, lymphomas, and thyroid gland tumours. (DG)

398

Contamination of fishes in the Chernobyl exclusion zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of studies of radioactive contamination of fishes' organs and tissues of different ecological groups in water bodies within the Chernobyl exclusion zone have presented. The increase of Sr 90 specific activity in fish of closed water bodies have registered. (authors)

399

Chernobyl NPP long length waste cutting facility modernization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chernobyl NPP long length waste cutting facility modernization is implemented within the TACIS program as project U4.01/06W under European Commission patronage from 08/2009 with planned end in 11/2013. Main suppliers of the project are AMEC Nuclear International and AMEC Nuclear Slovakia together with Ukrainian subcontractor. The main goal of the project is design, development and manufacture of technological system for cutting of internal reactor components (fuel channels, control rods, neutron measurement channels, etc.) that have been used during operation of Units 1, 2 and 3. Design and manufacture of device for removal of graphite from fuel channels and control rods is also part of the project. On the present there are 47 thousand pieces of reactor components placed at all three shut down Chernobyl units. The length of these special components is from 6 till 22 meters with different level of activity according to operational history (including HLW with Co-60 activity till 1012 Bq/kg). On the present manufacture and testing of devices in Slovakia and Ukraine is running. After the testing the cutting chamber with assembled devices and systems will be installed in technological shaft at reactor hall of Chernobyl NPP Unit 2. The project should be finished after site functional testing of cutting facility and training of Chernobyl NPP operational personnel. (authors)

400

Chernobyl ''Sarcophagus'' safety analysis and proposals for modernization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Safety analysis and proposals for modernization of Chernobyl ''Sarcophagus'' are presented, including the following aspects: the state of Unit 4 after the accident; construction of the ''Sarcophagus''; inspections; structure state monitoring; transformation of the facility into a long-term safe system

 
 
 
 
401

Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

Kouts, H.

1986-09-24

402

Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

403

Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the detection of fallout in the United States from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. As part of its environmental surveillance program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintained detectors for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Following the reactor accident, additional air filters were set out. Several uncommon isotopes were detected at the time the plume passed into the US

404

Proteomics of field samples in radioactive Chernobyl area.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two serious nuclear accidents during the past quarter of a century contaminated large agricultural areas with radioactivity. The remediation and possible recovery of radio-contaminated areas for agricultural purposes require comprehensive characterization of plants grown in such places. Here we describe the quantitative proteomics method that we use to analyze proteins isolated from seeds of plants grown in radioactive Chernobyl zone. PMID:24136546

Klubicová, Katarína; Rashydov, Namik M; Hajduch, Martin

2014-01-01

405

Reassessing Nuclear Power: The Fallout from Chernobyl. Worldwatch Paper 75.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Chernobyl nuclear plant explosion on April 26, 1986, was the world's most serious nuclear power accident to date. This document examines the accident's impact on the world from a variety of perspectives. The first major section of the book provides a step-by-step account of the accident itself, beginning with the special testing that…

Flavin, Christopher

406

Redefining Glasnost in the Soviet Media: The Recontextualization of Chernobyl.  

Science.gov (United States)

Demonstrates that a review of news coverage and an analysis of two documentary films in the context of Soviet cultural values and political stakes suggests that the rhetorical reconstruction of Chernobyl contributed to the legitimation of nuclear power and the environment as public issues. (PRA)

Young, Marilyn J.; Launer, Michael K.

1991-01-01

407

Early measurements of the Chernobyl fallout in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl resulted in more radioactive fallout over Sweden than over other parts of western Europe. The National Defence Research Institute and the Swedish Geological Company took part in a combined effort to establish the fallout's impact on Sweden. A description on how this was done and what equipment was used is given

408

Atmospheric impact of Chernobyl reactor accident in Hungary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of meteorological conditions on radioactivity transport from Chernobyl through Europe to Hungary was analyzed. Based on the half-lives of the radionuclides environmental radioactivity concentrations could be prognostized. Radioactivities due to the accident were compared with those measured in the fifties when the non-proliferation treaty had not been concluded. (V.N.)

409

Shifting public perceptions of nuclear risk : Chernobyl's other legacy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The nuclear accident of Chernobyl led to the largest uncontrolled experiment in risk perception and management ever conducted. Charted here are the connections between the levels of radioactive fallout, the public policies various governments pursued in response, and the resulting perceptions about nuclear power on the part of the public.

Hohenemser, Christoph; Renn, Ortwin

1988-01-01

410

Post-Chernobyl scientific perspectives: Social/psychological effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous studies had shown that psychological problems associated with the Chernobyl accident were not decreasing with time. People experienced exposure to real risks, and resettled people often provided the highest risk ratings. Responses to a question about the ability to protect oneself from radioactive contamination were overall discouraging

411

How mobile robots have helped at Chernobyl and other accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of mobile robots at several recent accidents including Chernobyl is described. The robots assumed, with varying degrees of success, many of the tasks and missions that are normally conducted by the emergency response team. Lessons learned from the experiences, together with operational and performance problems are discussed. (U.K.)

412

Industrial-scale decontamination using the DECOHA process at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A decontamination facility with a throughput of 5,000 kg of stainless steel per day using the patented DECOHA technology is to be installed within the 30 km zone of Chernobyl. The chemical, physical, and operational characteristics of the facility are described. (author)

413

Health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An assessment of the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Northern Hemisphere is presented in this report. It relies heavily on the USSR report presented to the International Atomic Energy Agency. There are gaps in present knowledge and, in some areas, uncertainties may never be completely resolved. What is clearly apparent at this time, however, is that on a large regional scale, the estimates of collective dose have a reasonable level of confidence. The associated potential health impacts have also been projected, together with a range of estimates. A brief description of the tragic consequences to the heroic firefighting and rescue personnel is also provided, and valuable insights regarding acute exposures are developed. Much early effort was expended on estimation of the source term, especially for radiocesium and radioiodine. Several independent analyses are presented that are in reasonable agreement. Atmospheric transport of the radioactive material and its subsequent deposition provide a documented ''umbrella'' of the distributions that form the basic integration of this assessment. The estimates of radiological doses to selected Northern Hemisphere populations were employed in developing an integrated risk assessment of potential latent health effects using the most current models, parameters and risk coefficients. The estimates presented include lower- and upper-bound values, as well as the ''best'' or most realistic ranges. While many scientists believe that minuscule increases in risks to large populations are impossible to prove, it is essential that the magnitude of these possible risks be presented, if only to put an upper limit on the situation. It must be emphasized that while these are ''potential'' health effects, the values presented represent our best current assessment of the health and environmental detriment caused by the Chernobyl accident. 72 refs., 37 figs., 91 tabs

414

EP Profiles Inventor Mark Sherron  

Science.gov (United States)

This article profiles Mark Jerome Sherron, inventor of the ALLIES Line of electronic sensors for blind and visually-impaired people. Featuring the American Liquid Level Indicator electronic sensor (ALLI), Sherron's ALLIES product line also includes the Light Intensity Level Indicator (LILI), a multi-function electronic light sensor for electronic…

Williams, John M.

2006-01-01

415

Laser marking method and device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An object is disposed in laser beam permeating liquid or gaseous medium. Laser beams such as CW laser or pulse laser oscillated from a laser device are emitted to the object to apply laser markings with less degradation of identification and excellent corrosion resistance on the surface of the object simply and easily. Upon applying the laser markings, a liquid or gas as a laser beam permeating medium is blown onto the surface of the object, or the liquid or gas in the vicinity of the object is sucked, the laser beam-irradiated portion on the surface can be cooled positively. Accordingly, the laser marking can be formed on the surface of the object with less heat affection to the object. In addition, if the content of a nitrogen gas in the laser beam permeating liquid medium is reduced by degassing to lower than a predetermined value, or the laser beam permeating gaseous medium is formed by an inert gas, a laser marking having high corrosion resistance and reliability can be formed on the surface of the objective member. (N.H.)

416

Early-Modern "Speech" Marks  

Science.gov (United States)

This essay presents a revised history of the punctuation mark ["], drawn from the earliest communities who made it their own. By situating the development of ["] in its historical context, from first uses of the diple [diple] by the Greek scholar Aristarchus, it explains how it was the general applications which persisted into the sixteenth…

Blackburn, Nick

2011-01-01

417

Business Education Receives High Marks.  

Science.gov (United States)

A national survey of state superintendents of public instruction (n=35) and state directors of employment and training (n=28) gives business education programs, courses, and competencies high marks. Suggests that business educators should take advantage of this support by becoming more active in professional organizations. (JOW)

Yopp, Martha C.; Brumley, Debbie

1996-01-01

418

49 CFR 1520.13 - Marking SSI.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking SSI. 1520.13 Section 1520.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... PROTECTION OF SENSITIVE SECURITY INFORMATION § 1520.13 Marking SSI. (a) Marking of paper...

2010-10-01

419

Reconstruction of the Chernobyl emergency and accident management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1986 the most serious civil technological accident in the history of mankind occurred of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the former Soviet Union. As a direct result of the accident, the reactor was severely destroyed and large quantities of radionuclides were released. Some 800000 persons, also called 'liquidators' - including plant operators, fire-fighters, scientists, technicians, construction workers, emergency managers, volunteers, as well as medical and military personnel - were part of emergency measurements and accident management efforts. Activities included measures to prevent the escalation of the accident, mitigation actions, help for victims as well as activities in order to provide a basic infrastructure for this unprecedented and overwhelming task. The overall goal of the 'Project Chernobyl' of the Institute of Risk Research of the University of Vienna was to preserve for mankind the experience and knowledge of the experts among the 'liquidators' before it is lost forever. One method used to reconstruct the emergency measures of Chernobyl was the direct cooperation with liquidators. Simple questionnaires were distributed among liquidators and a database of leading accident managers, engineers, medical experts etc. was established. During an initial struggle with a number of difficulties, the response was sparse. However, after an official permit had been issued, the questionnaires delivered a we issued, the questionnaires delivered a wealth of data. Furthermore a documentary archive was established, which provided additional information. The multidimensional problem in connection with the severe accident of Chernobyl, the clarification of the causes of the accident, as well as failures and successes and lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl emergency measures and accident management are discussed. (authors)

420

Eleven years epidemiological investigation health effects among Chernobyl child victims  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiological register of Chernobyl child victims was created in 1986 in Scientific Centre for Radiation Medicine. It includes most important, risk groups: evacuated children from Chernobyl's zone; children who were exposed with doses on thyroid gland more than 2 Gy; children who were exposed in utero; children who were born from clean-up workers. The annual clinical observation program includes: physical examination, biochemical and hematological analysis, ultrasound of thyroid gland and abdomen, psychological tests for children, social observation for parents. For coding ICD-9 was used. The observations indicate a deterioration of health status among the children victims of the Chernobyl disaster. The healthy children's number decreased from 31 % in 1987 to 8 % in 1997. The number of the invalids more than 4 times higher in comparison Ukrainian children. The annual prevalence all diseases including incidence, new cases, dramatically increased (from 5890.6 0/00 in 1989 to 9148.3 0/00 in 1997). The annual amount all diseases increased from 27100 0/00 in 1989 to 51971 0/00 in 1997. Most important increasing was in such part as digestive tract (from 5294 0/00 in 1989 to 10782 0/00 in 1997), blood diseases (from 927 0/00 in 1989 to 1471 0/00 in 1997), diseases nervous system (from 2373 0/00 in 1989 to 4152 0/00 in 1997). Relative risk was calculated in comparison with same age Ukrainian children for most important disorders: peptic (6.4), cardiovascular (5.3), nervous system (6.2), immune (5.3). Such diseases as digestion organ diseases, nervous system, skin and cardiovascular diseases are more prevalent among victims with psychological impact. All children victims Chernobyl disaster are at risk for psychosomatic disorders. Psychosomatic health promotion program will minimize significantly population health impact after Chernobyl as for children as for Ukrainian adult people. (authors)

 
 
 
 
421

Primary disability and its structure at liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences in post-Chernobyl period  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary disability in persons participated in Chernobyl catastrophe liquidation was studied for 1986-1987, for 1988 and for 1994-2000. The structure of the disease caused the primary disability of those persons was analyzed. The primary invalidity indices were determined to increase for certain nosologic forms such as for the blood circulation disease, malignant neoplasms, eye pathology (authors)

422

Who wants a nuke after Chernobyl?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the Shearon Harris nuclear power plant in North Carolina has received a start-up permit from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its future is not yet assured. Since the facility still needs an operating permit, a growing number of local citizens are trying to block that permit through demonstrations, agency appeals, and the courts. The Coalition for Alternatives to Shearon Harris (CASH) has proposed converting the plant's boilers to use coal rather than radioactive fuel

423

The comparison of generic model predictions with Chernobyl fallout data on the transfer of radioiodine over the air-pasture-cow-milk pathway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data have been collected on concentrations of 131I in air, vegetation and milk from numerous locations receiving Chernobyl fallout. Time-integrated concentrations derived from these data are used to compare predictions from generic models used for routine environmental radiological assessments. In general, the models markedly overestimated the transfer of 131I over the air-grass-cow-milk pathway. The reasons for this overestimation of the dry deposition velocity assumed for elemental 131I, overestimation of the interception and retention of wet-deposited 131I by pasture vegetation and overestimation of the cow's diet-to-milk transfer coefficient appear to be most important. The low transfer of Chernobyl 131I from air to milk indicates that the direct inhalation of contaminated air by humans may be more important in determining the 131I exposure to large populations than the consumption of contaminated cow's milk. Radiological assessments conducted prior to the Chernobyl accident have typically assumed that 131I exposure would be dominated by the consumption of milk. The consumption of milk, however, is still of dominant importance for the exposure of critical population subgroups composed of infants and small children. (author)

424

Radiocesium and lead in the lichen species Parmelia sulcata sampled in three regions around Chernobyl: assessment of concentrations in 1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In summer 1990, four years after the Chernobyl accident, an IAEA coordinated survey was carried out in order to assess the radiological consequences and to study the possible effects of releases of (heavy) metals into the environment. Within the framework of this survey, lichens (Parmelia sulcata) were sampled in the Novozybkov, Bragin and Ovruc regions around Chernobyl and 137Cs and Pb levels were determined by ?-ray spectroscopy and Graphite Furnace-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF-AAS), respectively. The geographical distributions of 137Cs and Pb are markedly different. The Pb levels in lichens are relatively low and do not suggest cause for concern. The lichen 137Cs levels are one to two orders of magnitude higher than levels determined in 1986 in Poland, Greece or The Netherlands. Corrections for physical decay and biological half-life resulted in initial 1986 ''hot spot'' 137Cs levels in Parmelia sulcata measured up to 1630 kBq kg-1. Lichen 137Cs levels reflect 137Cs soil deposition data, except for soil deposition classes >15 kBq m-2, where use of lichen data may lead to underestimates of actual deposition. (Author)

425

TRIGA Mark II benchmark experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental results of pulse parameters and control rod worth measurements at TRIGA Mark 2 reactor in Ljubljana are presented. The measurements were performed with a completely fresh, uniform, and compact core. Only standard fuel elements with 12 wt% uranium were used. Special efforts were made to get reliable and accurate results at well-defined experimental conditions, and it is proposed to use the results as a benchmark test case for TRIGA reactors

426

Scientific decision of the Chernobyl accident problems (results of 1997)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1997 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and ground of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; optimisation of the system of measures for preservation of health of the victim population and development of ways for increase of it effectiveness; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, treatment and burial of radioactive wastes; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological monitoring in the republic and scientific methodical ways of it fulfilling; study of effects of low doze irradiation and combined influences, search of ways for correction of the diseases; delayed radiobiological and radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident; scientific ground and development of the complex programmes of rehabilitation of administrative regions on the contaminated territories; development of administration system of the social economical development of the territories having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; social support and socio-psychological rehabilitation of the population of Belarus; experimental development and scientific-and-engineering projects (development of special technologies and means for decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes, technologies for a safety of industrial activity in the contaminated territories, technologies of production of special medicinal preparations and food additives, etc.); detection, rescue and preservation of a historical and cultural heritage in regions having suffered after the Chernobyl accident. The institutes and establishments of a National academy of sciences of Belarus, Academy of agrarian sciences, Ministry for public health, Ministry for education and other ministries and departments took part in performance of researches. The new, original results allowing to estimate objectively medical, ecological and a socio economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to develop a number of measures for their minimization are submitted

427

Development of information resources package for the Chernobyl accident and its consequences by INIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident was a global catastrophe that captured global attention and as such literature on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences is an important subject covered by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. The INIS Database contains about 21000 bibliographic records and 9000 full text documents on this subject from 1986 up to August 2006. Based on these extensive resources INIS released a DVD that contained bibliographic references and full text documents as well a bibliometric study of the Chernobyl references on the occasion of the International Conference entitled 'Chernobyl: Looking Back to Go Forwards' held in Vienna on 6 and 7 September 2005. Subsequently, INIS decided to release Revision 1 of the DVD in August 2006 for the twentieth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident with additional value added information sources. This paper briefly discusses the bibliometric parameters of the references, the contents of DVD and the activities undertaken to produce the Chernobyl information resources package

428

49 CFR 15.13 - Marking SSI.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking SSI. 15.13 Section 15.13 Transportation...SECURITY INFORMATION § 15.13 Marking SSI. (a) Marking of paper records. In the case of paper records containing SSI, a covered person must mark the...

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429

49 CFR 1520.13 - Marking SSI.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking SSI. 1520.13 Section 1520.13 Transportation...SECURITY INFORMATION § 1520.13 Marking SSI. (a) Marking of paper records. In the case of paper records containing SSI, a covered person must mark the...

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430

The Academy of Medical Sciences scientific meeting: Radiation, health and Chernobyl London, 10 October 2001  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2001 marks the 15th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. The Academy of Medical Sciences thought it appropriate to present some of the findings from studies of the people who were exposed to fallout from the accident, and to discuss these in the light of recent advances in the understanding of the way in which radiation can interact with the genome. The meeting was organised by Dillwyn Williams, Cambridge, and Alec Jeffreys, Leicester, who ea