Sample records for age

  1. Aging.

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun


    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  2. Aging Skin

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from Varicose Veins ...

  3. Rural Aging

    ... Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics View more Rural Aging The nation's population is aging, and with that change comes increased healthcare needs. ... Disease Control and Prevention report, The State of Aging and Health in America 2013 , the population 65 ...

  4. Arterial Ageing

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Park, Sung-Ha


    Arterial ageing is characterized by age associated degeneration and sclerosis of the media layer of the large arteries. However, besides ageing, clinical conditions, which enhance oxidative stress and inflammation act to accelerate the degree of arterial ageing. In this review, we summarized the pathophysiology and contributing factors that accelerate arterial ageing. Among them, we focused on hypertension, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vascular inflammation which are modifiabl...

  5. Skin Aging

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  6. Aging mechanisms

    Takahashi, Yoshiko; Kuro-o, Makoto; Ishikawa, Fuyuki


    Aging (senescence) has long been a difficult issue to be experimentally analyzed because of stochastic processes, which contrast with the programmed events during early development. However, we have recently started to learn the molecular mechanisms that control aging. Studies of the mutant mouse, klotho, showing premature aging, raise a possibility that mammals have an “anti-aging hormone.” A decrease of cell proliferation ability caused by the telomeres is also t...

  7. Happy Aging



    Aging is a normal physiological process in human life.The decline in the ability to repair and regenerate predisposes the aging person to develop disabling problems in the cardiovascular and skeletal systems.Full awareness of aging problems and advocations on the means to prevent their occurrence are mounting.European and US groups rely on scientific,target-oriented means to treat aging manifestations. Oriental medicine aims at prevention,using nutrition and exercise to maintain internal harmony.

  8. Population Aging

    Weil, David N.


    Population aging is primarily the result of past declines in fertility, which produced a decades long period in which the ratio of dependents to working age adults was reduced. Rising old-age dependency in many countries represents the inevitable passing of this %u201Cdemographic dividend.%u201D Societies use three methods to transfer resources to people in dependent age groups: government, family, and personal saving. In developed countries, families are predominant in supporting children, w...

  9. Creative Aging.

    Ager, Charlene Lee; And Others


    Explores some divergent attitudes toward aging, negative as well as positive. Presents a neurophysiological framework to support the belief that aging is an active and creative process. Explores physical, psychological, and sociological aspects, and identifies three factors in the creative aging process. (Author/JAC)

  10. Skin Aging

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  11. Ageing Polulations

    Christiansen, Terkel; Lauridsen, Jørgen Trankjær; Bech, Mickael


    An ageing society is characterised by an increasing median age of the population. The purpose of this chapter is to document the existing knowledge about the association between population ageing and health care expenditure, and to supplement this overview by a summary of our original research. S...

  12. Successful ageing

    Kusumastuti, Sasmita; Derks, Marloes G M; Tellier, Siri;


    curvilinear pattern with the lowest point at middle age but increases thereafter up to very old age. OBJECTIVE: To shed further light on this paradox, we reviewed the existing literature on how scholars define successful ageing and how they weigh the contribution of health and functioning to define success....... METHODS: We performed a novel, hypothesis-free and quantitative analysis of citation networks exploring the literature on successful ageing that exists in the Web of Science Core Collection Database using the CitNetExplorer software. Outcomes were visualized using timeline-based citation patterns. The......BACKGROUND: Ageing is accompanied by an increased risk of disease and a loss of functioning on several bodily and mental domains and some argue that maintaining health and functioning is essential for a successful old age. Paradoxically, studies have shown that overall wellbeing follows a...

  13. Skin aging:

    Puizina-Ivić, Neira


    There are two main processes that induce skin aging: intrinsic and extrinsic. A stochastic process that implies random cell damage as a result of mutations during metabolic processes due to the production of free radicals is also implicated. Extrinsic aging is caused by environmental factors such as sun exposure, air pollution, smoking, alcohol abuse, and poor nutrition. Intrinsicaging reflects the genetic background and depends on time. Various expressions of intrinsic aging include smooth, ...

  14. Ageing management

    Ageing management is generally defined in a broad sense covering not only ageing management of hardware (structures, systems and components), but also management issues such as keeping up with developments in state-of-the-art technology and the latest management practices. The importance assigned to traditional ageing management, in terms of issues related to hardware degradation problems, is clearly very high. The other aspects, for example developments in engineering or management, are considered important as well, but are less emphasized. Plant ageing management is composed of the following necessary elements, which are all linked together: understanding and knowledge of ageing-related damage mechanisms, including benchmarking of the consequences of damage mechanisms into macroscopic behaviour of materials and structures under applicable conditions; predictive models to extrapolate behaviour of systems, structures or components up to a defined time; qualified methods for detection and surveillance of ageing degradation; qualified mitigation, repair and replacements measures; reliable plant documentation, including optimisation of the ageing management programme based on current understanding and knowledge and periodic self-assessment; availability of a technical service and knowledge base. The subject of plant ageing management has gained increasing attention over the past years, notably as more nuclear power plants across the world are being considered for lifetime extension. In this context, the NEA has conducted numerous technical studies to assess the impact of ageing mechanisms on safe and reliable plant operation. International research activities have also been initiated or are under way to provide the technical basis for decision making. This article provides an overview of some of the activities and accomplishments of the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) Working Group on the Integrity and Ageing of Components and Structures

  15. Healthy Ageing

    Schans, Cees van der


    Presentatie gehouden bij de bijeenkomst voor het Regionaal Genootschap Fysiotherapie Het Noorden op 10 februari te Marum, over het belang van fysieke activiteit voor healthy ageing en de rol van de fysiotherapeut hierin

  16. Martian ages

    The subjects of this paper are a discussion of the methodology of relative age determination by impact crater statistics, a comparison of currently proposed Martian impact chronologies for the determination of absolute ages from crater frequencies, a report on our work of dating Martian volcanoes and erosional features by impact crater statistics, and an attempt to understand the main features of Martian history through a synthesis of our crater frequency data and those published by other authors. Two cratering chronology models are presented and used for inference of absolute ages from crater frequency data: model 1, with nearly equal Martian and lunar cratering rates around (ca.) 4- to 10-km crater sizes, and model II. equivalent to model I for ages >3.5 x 109 years but with a factor of 2 higher Martian cratering rate at ages 9 years. Those model cratering chronologies are applied to the data. The interpretation of all crater frequency data available and tractable by our methodology leads to a global Martian geological history that is characterized essentially by two epochs of activity. The division between the two epochs is measured at a cumulative crater frequency value for 1-km craters (crater retention age) of N(1) = 8 x 10-4 (km-2) corresponding to an absolute age of ca. 3 x 109 years (applying model I cratering chronology) and of ca. 1.5 x 109 years (applying model II cratering chronology). In the ancient epoch all major events like emplacement of the plains lavas, the piling up of most volcanic constructs, and large-scale erosion of channels and mensae (highland/northern lowland boundary) have taken place. During the younger epoch, only the big Tharsis shield volcanoes were active, and some minor erosion took place. This means that Mars is not a youthful planet but an ancient one with respect to most of its surface features

  17. Premature aging

    The hypothesis that radiation may accelerate aging phenomenon has been studied extensively, using the population of A-bomb survivors. In this paper, non-specific radiation-induced premature aging is discussed with a review of the literature. Cardiac lipofuscin, papillary fibrosis, aortic extensibility, hexamine/collagen ratio in the skin and aorta, testicular changes, giant hepatic cell nucleus, and neurofibril changes have so far been studied pathologically in the context of A-bomb radiation. Only testicular sclerosis has been found to correlate with distance from the hypocenter. Suggestive correlation was found to exist between the hexamine/collagen ratio in the skin and aorta and A-bomb radiation. Grip strength and hearing ability were decreased in the group of 100 rad and the group of 50-99 rad, respectively. The other physiological data did not definitely correlate with A-bomb radiation. Laboratory data, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, α and β globulin levels, phytohemagglutinin reaction, T cell counts, erythrocyte glycophorin-A, the incidence of cerebral stroke, ischemic heart disease, and cataract were age-dependent and correlated with A-bomb radiation. These findings indicated that the occurrence of arteriosclerosis-related diseases, changes in immunological competence, and some pathological and physiological findings altered with advancing age, suggesting the correlation with A-bomb radiation. In general, it cannot be concluded that there is a positive correlation between A-bomb radiation and the premature aging. (N.K.) 51 refs

  18. Successful ageing

    Bülow, Morten Hillgaard; Söderqvist, Thomas


    prevention strategies; and the importance of individual, societal and scientific conceptualisations and understandings of ageing. By presenting an account of the recent historical uses, interpretations and critiques of the concept, the article unfolds the practical and normative complexities of ‘ successful......Since the late 1980s, the concept of ‘ successful ageing’ has set the frame for discourse about contemporary ageing research. Through an analysis of the reception to John W. Rowe and Robert L. Kahn's launch of the concept of ‘ successful ageing’ in 1987, this article maps out the important themes...

  19. Aging Differently

    Zajitschek, Felix; Jin, Tuo; Colchero, Fernando;


    Diet effects on age-dependent mortality patterns are well documented in a large number of animal species, but studies that look at the effects of nutrient availability on late-life mortality plateaus are lacking. Here, we focus on the effect of dietary protein content (low, intermediate, and high...... statistical approach based on Bayesian inference of age-specific mortality rates and found a deceleration of late-life mortality rates on all diets in males but only on the intermediate (standard) diet in females. The difference in mortality rate deceleration between males and females on extreme diets...

  20. Age management

    Kratochvilová, Markéta


    The Bachelor‘s thesis focuses on Age Management and its areas of influence. This term is most often discussed in connection with a problem which is currently common for all European Union countries – the ageing of society. In the near future, the structure of society is very likely to be altered drastically as a consequence of this phenomenon and due to the severity of the effects, it is necessary to begin addressing this problem. The first part of the thesis concerns itself with processing d...

  1. Age Spots

    ... for treating age spots include: Improved appearance. Enhanced self-esteem. Promotion of better skin health. What you need ... 480px View Render 320px View Connect with ASDS: Facebook LinkedIn YouTube Twitter Quick Links About ASDS Advocacy ...

  2. Healthy ageing

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Bartels, Else Marie;


    The study employed mechanical stretching in vitro of sections of abdominal aorta of elderly mice to investigate any benefits of oral treatment with alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) on arterial elasticity. Eighteen female mice (50-weeks-old) were assigned to a control (2% w/v) Na2-AKG or (2% w/v) a Ca-AK...... investigation as a candidate for therapies targeting arterial stiffening with age....

  3. Aging Perspectives

    Cosco, Theodore D; David Brehme; Nora Grigoruta; Lisa-Katrin Kaufmann; Liis Lemsalu; Ruth Meex; Angela Schuurmans; Neslihan Sener


    Despite the proliferation of successful ageing (SA) research, the literature is dominated by researcher-driven Anglophone conceptualisations. To date, lay perspectives of SA have not been examined in Europe or Turkey. The current study aims to conduct a mixed-methods examination of conceptualisations of SA in seven underrepresented countries. Using snowball sampling via social media sites, an online survey consisting of established closed-ended and open-ended items – translated into seven lan...

  4. Golden Age


      Sometimes, a moment can announce the end of an age. The gold market is like that. Within two transaction days, the gold slumped by 13%and saw a 25%tumble from the high point in August 2011. According to the classic investment theory, a 20%-above decline means the shift from“a bull”to“a bear”market.   The super bear market of gold has lasted a dozen years. But the bull-to-bear shift was completed within only 20 minutes. Wall Street’s analysts and ordinary Chinese people had different understandings to the golden age.   Expecting a bear market, Wall Street continuously dumped gold, resulting in a diving of gold price. Seeing the benefits, leisure Chinese madams made a gold rush, causing a slight bounce of gold price. On April 23, renowned investment bank Goldman Sachs suspended the short sale. So,“Chinese aunts”beating back Wall Street’s analysts became the hottest topic online for the time being.   What are the decisive factors for the crash of gold price? Will the gold market complete a real bull-to-bear shift? Will the golden age of gold be farther or nearer?

  5. Aging Perspectives

    Theodore D Cosco


    Full Text Available Despite the proliferation of successful ageing (SA research, the literature is dominated by researcher-driven Anglophone conceptualisations. To date, lay perspectives of SA have not been examined in Europe or Turkey. The current study aims to conduct a mixed-methods examination of conceptualisations of SA in seven underrepresented countries. Using snowball sampling via social media sites, an online survey consisting of established closed-ended and open-ended items – translated into seven languages – was administered. Grounded theory methods and descriptive statistics were used to analyse qualitative and quantitative data, respectively.

  6. Ice ages

    The Earth's climate undergoes great changes in cycles of 104 to 105 years. Deep sea sediments contain proof of these changes. The critical parameter is the O18/O16 isotope ratio. The astronomical theory is discussed of ice ages based on the changes in the shape of the Earth's orbit around the sun. Forecasts for the future are given - in the coming years the climate is expected to get warmer owing to increased CO2 levels in the atmosphere, and then a long cooler period is expected to follow. (M.D.)

  7. Aging Blepharoplasty

    Inchang Cho


    Full Text Available In performing upper blepharoplasty in the elderly, looking younger and keeping the eyelidsharmonious with the rest of the face have to be achieved at the same time. The most importantgoal in upper blepharoplasty for aging is correcting the drooping upper eyelid skin, and inthis process, the surgeon may or may not create a double eyelid fold. The pros and cons haveto be fully discussed with the patient, but the author personally prefers creating a doublefold unless the patient refuses, because it is efficient in correcting and preventing furtherdrooping of the skin. In most patients, the brow is elevated to compensate for the droopingeyelid, and when the drooping is corrected, brow ptosis may ensue. The surgeon has to preparefor these consequences before performing the procedure, and estimate the exact amountof skin to be excised. In the elderly, the skin and the orbicularis oculi muscle is thin, with adecreased amount of subcutaneous fat and retro-orbicularis oculi fat, and in most cases,excision of the skin alone is enough to correct the deformity. Removing large portions ofsoft tissue may also prolong the recovery period. Unlike younger patients, the lower skinflap should not be stretched too much in the elderly, as it may create an aggressive lookingappearance. A few wrinkles in the lower flap should remain untouched to create a naturallook. In this article, the author’s own methods of performing an aging blepharoplasty aredescribed specifically, with a step-by-step guide and surgical tips.

  8. Aging blepharoplasty.

    Cho, Inchang


    In performing upper blepharoplasty in the elderly, looking younger and keeping the eyelids harmonious with the rest of the face have to be achieved at the same time. The most important goal in upper blepharoplasty for aging is correcting the drooping upper eyelid skin, and in this process, the surgeon may or may not create a double eyelid fold. The pros and cons have to be fully discussed with the patient, but the author personally prefers creating a double fold unless the patient refuses, because it is efficient in correcting and preventing further drooping of the skin. In most patients, the brow is elevated to compensate for the drooping eyelid, and when the drooping is corrected, brow ptosis may ensue. The surgeon has to prepare for these consequences before performing the procedure, and estimate the exact amount of skin to be excised. In the elderly, the skin and the orbicularis oculi muscle is thin, with a decreased amount of subcutaneous fat and retro-orbicularis oculi fat, and in most cases, excision of the skin alone is enough to correct the deformity. Removing large portions of soft tissue may also prolong the recovery period. Unlike younger patients, the lower skin flap should not be stretched too much in the elderly, as it may create an aggressive looking appearance. A few wrinkles in the lower flap should remain untouched to create a natural look. In this article, the author's own methods of performing an aging blepharoplasty are described specifically, with a step-by-step guide and surgical tips. PMID:24086798

  9. Skin Care and Aging

    ... Home » Skin Care and Aging Heath and Aging Skin Care and Aging Dry Skin and Itching Bruises Wrinkles Age Spots ... doctor. For More Information About Skin Care and Aging American Academy of Dermatology 1-866-503-7546 ( ...

  10. Population aging and legal retirement age

    Lacomba, Juan Antonio; Lagos, Francisco Miguel


    This paper analyzes the effects of population aging on the preferred legal retirement age. What is revealed is the crucial role that the indirect ???macro??? effects resulting from a change in the legal retirement age play in the optimal decision. Two Social Security systems are studied. Under a defined contribution scheme aging lowers the preferred legal retirement age. However, under a defined pension scheme the retirement age is delayed. This result shows the relevance of correctly c...

  11. Aging and Aged in Organized Crime.

    Amir, Menachem


    Examines problems of the aged in organized crime, basing discussion on organized crime bosses over age 60 operating in Italy, the United States, and Israel. Looks at problems stemming from normative system in organized crime, role of the aged, intergenerational problems, fears of the aged, excuses and justifications, standards of life, and…

  12. Oral Health and Aging

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold H. Epstein, ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  13. Skin Care and Aging

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Skin Care and Aging How Aging Affects Skin Your skin changes with age. It ... if they bother you. See additional resources on aging skin, including information on treatment options, specific conditions, ...

  14. The Biology of Aging.

    Sprott, Richard L.; And Others


    Thirteen articles in this special issue discuss aging theories, biomarkers of aging, aging research, disease, cancer biology, Alzheimer's disease, stress, oxidation of proteins, gene therapy, service delivery, biogerontology, and ethics and aging research. (SK)

  15. Avoiding Aging? Social Psychology's Treatment of Age

    Barrett, Anne E.; Redmond, Rebecca; von Rohr, Carmen


    Population aging, in conjunction with social and cultural transformations of the life course, has profound implications for social systems--from large-scale structures to micro-level processes. However, much of sociology remains fairly quiet on issues of age and aging, including the subfield of social psychology that could illuminate the impact of…

  16. Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health

    ... address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Sexual health Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) Sexual health ... to discuss with your doctor. Sexual Health and Aging: Keep the Passion Alive (Copyright © Mayo Foundation) - This ...

  17. Administration on Aging

    ... Federal Initiatives Career Opportunities Contact Us Administration on Aging (AoA) The Administration on Aging (AOA) is the ... themselves. Back to top Older Americans Act and Aging Network To meet the diverse needs of the ...

  18. Aging changes in sleep

    ... this page: // Aging changes in sleep To use the sharing features ... cycle is repeated several times during the night. AGING CHANGES With aging, sleep patterns tend to change. ...

  19. Spectral ageing a new age perspective

    Rawlings, S; Rawlings, Katherine M Blundell & Steve


    We present an up-to-date critique of the physical basis for the spectral ageing method. We find that the number of cases where this method may be meaningfully applied to deduce the ages of classical double radio sources is small indeed. This critique is much more than merely a re-expression of anxieties about the calibration of spectral ageing (which have been articulated by others in the past).

  20. New concept of age(ing: Prospective age

    Devedžić Mirjana


    Full Text Available While the last century was the century of world population growth, according to demographers, the XXI century will be century of population aging. Statistics undoubtedly show that number of elderly will continue it’s growth in the future. If old age is seen as period of life with reduced physical and mental capabilities and increased disability, and demographic aging as increase of dependent population, trends are quite disturbing, at least in certain societal segments. In developed countries, this population category is no longer treated as passive or as a "burden of society" and efforts are made for better social inclusion of older people. In contrast to growing interest in this phenomenon, the concepts that define the aging of the population remained stagnant. The aim of this paper is to introduce into domestic literature the term "prospective age" as a dynamic category which is more affected with socio-historical conditions, not only with biological as traditional definition of aging suggested. Papers written by Sanderson and Scherbov offer new methodological options for study of population aging, because it takes into account the biometric rather than chronological approach. Calculation of prospective years is a simple operation that requires pair of the same number of remained life expectancy from life tables for two different periods (the year of concern is index, and the one we are comparing with is standard year, so that phrase "40s is the new 30s" or "70s the new 60s" gets scientific foundation. Average remaining years of life represent a realistic indicator suggesting increased capacity, activity and vitality of individuals, which is due to accepted demographic parameters still considered old. „Prospective threshold“ is defined as the age when life expectancy falls below 15 years (it is subjective choice made by Sanderson and Scherbov, which is also used in this paper and during the elaboration of these ideas three demographic

  1. Aging of gaseous detectors

    This paper makes an overview of developments in the wire chamber aging field since the wire chamber aging workshop held at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California on January 16--17, 1986. The author discusses new techniques to analyze the gas impurities and the wire aging products, wire ''nonaging'' in clean systems, wire aging in systems containing various impurities, various examples of problems which can ''prime'' surfaces prior to the occurrence of the aging, and some recent aging experience with the ''SSC micro-straw tubes.'' 35 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Visual Signs of Ageing

    Helle Rexbye


    Full Text Available Consumer culture has placed the ageing body in a dilemma of representation. Physical appearance has become increasingly important as a symbol of identity, and at the same time society idealizes youth. This study explores visual ageing empirically. By using photographs of older persons (70+ as starting point, it is explored how visual age is assessed and interpreted. It is shown that informants read age in a spread of stages and categories. Main age indicators are biological markers: skin, eyes, and hair colour, but supplemented by vigour, style, and grooming. Furthermore, in-depth interviews indicate that visual age is mainly interpreted into categories and moral regulations rooted in early modernity. Subsequently the question of a postmodern perspective of visual ageing is discussed in this article. The empirical findings in the study question a postmodern fluidity of visual signs – at least when the concern is signs of ageing.

  3. National Institute on Aging

    ... Join Our Mailing List Email The Leader in Aging Research NIA, one of the 27 Institutes and ... broad scientific effort to understand the nature of aging and to extend the healthy, active years of ...

  4. Aging changes in immunity

    ... cells and antibodies that destroy these harmful substances. Aging Changes and Their Effects on the Immune System ... Prevention To decrease the risks from immune system aging: Get the flu and pneumonia vaccines, and any ...

  5. NIA Aging Cell Repository

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To facilitate aging research on cells in culture, the NIA provides support for the NIA Aging Cell Repository, located at the Coriell Institute for Medical Research...

  6. Corrected Age for Preemies

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Preemie > Corrected Age ...

  7. Alaska Radiometric Ages

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Alaska Radiometric Age file is a database of radiometric ages of rocks or minerals sampled from Alaska. The data was collected from professional publications...

  8. Aging changes in immunity

    ... this page: // Aging changes in immunity To use the sharing features ... cells and antibodies that destroy these harmful substances. Aging Changes and Their Effects on the Immune System ...

  9. Memory and Aging

    Memory and Aging Losing keys, misplacing a wallet, or forgetting someone’s name are common experiences. But for people nearing or over age 65, such memory lapses can be frightening. They wonder if they ...

  10. Components of aging

    Wiegand, Iris


    Age-related cognitive decline has been linked to a reduction in attentional resources that are assumed to result from alterations in the aging brain. A core ability that is subject to age-related decline is visual attention, which enables individuals to select the most important information for conscious processing and action. However, visual attention is considered a conglomerate of various functions and the specific components underlying age differences in performance remain little understo...

  11. Optimal Aging and Death

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan; Strulik, Holger

    representative consumer is subject to physiological aging. In modeling aging we draw on recent research in the fields of biology and medicine. The speed of the aging process, and thus the time of death, are endogenously determined by optimal health investments. We calibrate the model to US data and proceed to...

  12. Optimal Aging and Death

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger


    This study introduces physiological aging into a simple model of optimal intertemporal consumption. In this endeavor we draw on the natural science literature on aging. According to the purposed theory, the speed of the aging process and the time of death are endogenously determined by optimal...

  13. Age and Farmer Productivity

    Tauer, Loren W.


    Farmer productivity by age was estimated, allowing for differences because of efficiency and returns to scale. Using Census of Agriculture data, estimates vary by state, but returns to scale average 1.07. Efficiency increases average 4.5 percent every ten years of age, to the age interval 35 to 44, and then decreases at that same rate.

  14. Peroxisomes in yeast ageing

    Kumar, Sanjeev


    Ageing is characterized by the progressive decline in cellular functions that eventually leads to death. In human, ageing is associated with several age-related diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Over the years, research performed in several simpler sho

  15. PerformAge

    Fristrup, Tine


    ), I do not want to paint a uniformly rosy picture of aging and old age, but unfold an opening up of life taking the heroines and heroes of aging life to the open road in search of themselves and new roles in life as a quest of self-knowledge, self-development – a role for the future. Different...

  16. Hodgkin's disease and age

    Specht, L.; Nissen, N.I.


    modality, stage, and total tumour burden, whereas age had no prognostic significance. With regard to death from Hodgkin's disease only age and total tumour burden had independent significance. The significance of age would seem to stem from the fact that some older patients could not be given adequate...

  17. Osteoclasts prefer aged bone

    Henriksen, K; Leeming, Diana Julie; Byrjalsen, I;


    We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling of...... aged bones....

  18. Ageing Management of CARR

    The paper introduced the ageing management of CARR, including the ageing management system, instances of ageing components, difficulties we met and follow up plan, and put forward some suggestions on strengthening and promoting ageing management. We hope to enhance international exchange and collaboration. It is a great challenge to do research on how to manage ageing effectively in the beginning of life, but it will enhance the safety of reactor operation, extend the life of the reactor and improve the quality of operation, making this work very meaningful

  19. Can aging be 'drugged'?

    Riera, Celine E; Dillin, Andrew


    The engines that drive the complex process of aging are being identified by model-organism research, thereby providing potential targets and rationale for drug studies. Several studies of small molecules have already been completed in animal models with the hope of finding an elixir for aging, with a few compounds showing early promise. What lessons can we learn from drugs currently being tested, and which pitfalls can we avoid in our search for a therapeutic for aging? Finally, we must also ask whether an elixir for aging would be applicable to everyone, or whether we age differently, thus potentially shortening lifespan in some individuals. PMID:26646496

  20. Carcinogenesis and aging

    This 2-voluem set discusses the problem of inter-relation between carcinogenesis and aging, and the phenomenon of age-related increase in cancer incidence in animals and humans. Covered topics include current concepts in mechanisms of carcinogenesis and aging; data on chemical, radiation, ultraviolet-light, hormonal and viral carcinogenesis in aging; data on the role of age-related shifts in the activity of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes; binding of carcinogens with macromolecules; DNA repair; tissue proliferation; and immunity and homono-metabolic patterns in realization of initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis

  1. Heart Age PSA (:60)


    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the September 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Your heart age is the age of your heart and blood vessels as a result of your risk factors for heart attack and stroke. If you smoke or have high blood pressure, your heart age will be much higher than your actual age. Learn what you can do to lower your heart age and keep it low.  Created: 9/1/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/1/2015.

  2. Wages, productivity and aging

    Dostie, Benoît


    In this article, we estimate age based wage and productivity differentials using linked employer-employee Canadian data from the Workplace and Employee Survey 1999-2003. Data on the firm side is used to estimate production functions taking into account the age profile of the firm's work-force. Data on the workers' side is used to estimate wage equations that also depend on age. Results show concave age-wage and age-productivity profiles. Wage-productivity comparisons show that the productivit...

  3. UV, stress and aging.

    Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Leduc, Cedric; Verbeke, Alix; Toussaint, Olivier


    Skin is a model of choice in studies on aging. Indeed, skin aging can be modulated by internal and external factors, reflecting its complexity. Two types of skin aging have been identified: intrinsic, mainly genetically determined and extrinsic-also called "photo-aging"-resulting on the impact of environmental stress and more precisely of UV rays. Simplified in vitro models, based on cellular senescence, have been developed to study the relationship between UV and aging. These models vary on the cell type (fibroblasts or keratinocytes, normal or immortalized) and the type of UV used (UVA or UVB). PMID:23467762

  4. On aging and aged care in Serbia.

    Sevo, G; Davidovic, M; Erceg, P; Despotovic, N; Milosevic, D P; Tasic, M


    Serbia is a demographically old nation, with 17.4 % of its residents being aged 65 years and older in 2011. The previous two decades of turbulent history have significantly affected the demographic picture of this country, and their ramifications remain visible in Serbia's economic, political, cultural, and health spheres. Major demographic forces behind population aging in Serbia can be attributed to lower fertility rates, migrations, and declining mortality (reflecting improvements in overall health leading to a longer life expectancy). In Serbia, low fertility and migrations appear to play major roles, although the relative contribution of recent migrations cannot be measured with accuracy. Patterns of demographic aging vary considerably across different geographic, socioeconomic, and cultural settings. The common denominator throughout present day Serbia is extensive political and economic transition. One would expect that, given sufficient time, this process will result in improved population health, and yet, at this stage outcomes of major health care reform in Serbia are somewhat perplexing. For the second consecutive year, Serbia's health care system has been ranked at the very bottom of the scale among 34 European countries. It is then no surprise that the elderly represent particularly vulnerable population segment. This paper discusses some of the issues relevant to these demographic patterns of aging and aged care in contemporary Serbia, focusing on the period after 2000. PMID:25943380

  5. Aging male syndrome

    Valer Donca


    Full Text Available Aging Male Syndrome is a medical condition through which men could pass between the ages of 35 and 65, when testosterone levelsin their body decline considerably. Androgen deficiency in the aging male has become a topic of increasing interest and debate throughout theworld. In contrast to female menopause, the process of aging in the male genital system is slow and highly variable between individuals. Thecharacteristic symptoms of Aging Male Syndrome include weakness, depression, fatigue and changes in body hair and skin, decreased sexualdesire, decreased lean body mass accompanied by increased visceral fat, decreased bone mineral density. Aging Male Syndrome is usually diagnosedby testing the blood for testosterone levels. The usual treatment method for Aging Male Syndrome includes testosterone injections,testosterone patches, testosterone gels and oral preparations.

  6. Skin mirrors human aging.

    Nikolakis, Georgios; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C


    Abstract Aged skin exhibits disturbed lipid barrier, angiogenesis, production of sweat, immune functions, and calcitriol synthesis as well as the tendency towards development of certain benign or malignant diseases. These complex biological processes comprise endogenous and exogenous factors. Ethnicity also markedly influences the phenotype of skin aging. The theories of cellular senescence, telomere shortening and decreased proliferative capacity, mitochondrial DNA single mutations, the inflammation theory, and the free radical theory try to explain the biological background of the global aging process, which is mirrored in the skin. The development of advanced glycation end-products and the declining hormonal levels are major factors influencing intrinsic aging. Chronic photodamage of the skin is the prime factor leading to extrinsic skin aging. The deterioration of important skin functions, due to intrinsic and extrinsic aging, leads to clinical manifestations, which mirror several internal age-associated diseases such as diabetes, arterial hypertension and malignancies. PMID:25436743

  7. Active ageing technologies

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    physical and productive activity; e.g. that a game of billiards is a technology of active aging. Thus, active aging is enacted in the socio-material practices of the technologies in this paper. The paper contributes with a strengthening of the concept of active aging, by focusing on entangled practices and...... elderly. As part of this rearticulation of old age, many new technologies take form. This paper uses a wide concept of technologies (devices, regimes, strategies and ways of doing) and argues that technologies form active aging subjectivities, and on the other hand, that these subjectivities in their...... socio-material practices form active aging. Hence, active aging is a mutual entanglement (Callon and Rabeharisoa 2004) between technologies, practices and subjectivities. The paper is based on four months of participant observations and 17 in-depth interviews with elderly persons conducted at three...

  8. Healthy Aging in China

    Smith, James P.; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui


    China has aged rapidly and the rate is accelerating in decades to come. We review positive and negative forces for healthy aging in China now and in the future. The most positive force is the spectacular growth in education over time especially for Chinese women, which should improve all dimensions of cognitive and physical health and eliminate vast gender disparities in healthy aging that currently exist.

  9. The aging lung

    Lowery EM


    Full Text Available Erin M Lowery,1 Aleah L Brubaker,2 Erica Kuhlmann,1 Elizabeth J Kovacs31Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine at Loyola University Medical Center, 2Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, 3Department of Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USAAbstract: There are many age-associated changes in the respiratory and pulmonary immune system. These changes include decreases in the volume of the thoracic cavity, reduced lung volumes, and alterations in the muscles that aid respiration. Muscle function on a cellular level in the aging population is less efficient. The elderly population has less pulmonary reserve, and cough strength is decreased in the elderly population due to anatomic changes and muscle atrophy. Clearance of particles from the lung through the mucociliary elevator is decreased and associated with ciliary dysfunction. Many complex changes in immunity with aging contribute to increased susceptibility to infections including a less robust immune response from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Considering all of these age-related changes to the lungs, pulmonary disease has significant consequences for the aging population. Chronic lower respiratory tract disease is the third leading cause of death in people aged 65 years and older. With a large and growing aging population, it is critical to understand how the body changes with age and how this impacts the entire respiratory system. Understanding the aging process in the lung is necessary in order to provide optimal care to our aging population. This review focuses on the nonpathologic aging process in the lung, including structural changes, changes in muscle function, and pulmonary immunologic function, with special consideration of obstructive lung disease in the elderly.Keywords: aging, lung, pulmonary immunology, COPD

  10. Aging and cosmetic enhancement

    Honigman, Roberta; David J. Castle


    Obsession with a youthful appearance has become commonplace in modern society and has resulted in an upswing in cosmetic procedures trying to reverse the aging process. We selectively review the literature on aging and cosmetic surgery, with particular regard for the aging face. We pay attention to psychosocial aspects of response to such cosmetic procedures, both in terms of outcome and with respect to risk factors for a poor outcome.

  11. We Are Ageing

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Kolovou, Vana; Mavrogeni, Sophie


    Ageing and longevity is unquestioningly complex. Several thoughts and mechanisms of ageing such as pathways involved in oxidative stress, lipid and glucose metabolism, inflammation, DNA damage and repair, growth hormone axis and insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF), and environmental exposure have been proposed. Also, some theories of ageing were introduced. To date, the most promising leads for longevity are caloric restriction, particularly target of rapamycin (TOR), sirtuins, hexarelin and ...

  12. Optimal Aging and Death

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger


    This study introduces physiological aging into a simple model of optimal intertemporal consumption. In this endeavor we draw on the natural science literature on aging. According to the purposed theory, the speed of the aging process and the time of death are endogenously determined by optimal...... health investments. At the same time, physiological aspects of the aging process influence optimal savings and health investment. We calibrate the model for the average US male in 2000 and proceed to show that the calibrated model accounts well for the cross-country link between labor productivity and...

  13. Age, wage and productivity

    van Ours, J.C.; Stoeldraijer, L.


    Previous empirical studies on the effect of age on productivity and wages find contradicting results. Some studies find that if workers grow older there is an increasing gap between productivity and wages, i.e. wages increase with age while productivity does not or does not increase at the same pace. However, other studies find no evidence of such an age related pay-productivity gap. We perform an analysis of the relationship between age, wage and productivity using a matched worker-firm pane...

  14. Hodgkin's disease and age

    Specht, L; Nissen, N I


    506 unselected, previously untreated patients with Hodgkin's disease were treated at the Finsen Institute between 1969 and 1983. The prognostic significance of age, sex, stage, systemic symptoms, histologic subtype, number of involved nodal regions, total tumour burden (peripheral + intrathoracic...... modality, stage, and total tumour burden, whereas age had no prognostic significance. With regard to death from Hodgkin's disease only age and total tumour burden had independent significance. The significance of age would seem to stem from the fact that some older patients could not be given adequate...

  15. Telomeres and reproductive aging.

    Keefe, David L; Liu, Lin


    Infertility, miscarriage and aneuploid offspring increase with age in women, and meiotic dysfunction underlies reproductive aging. How aging disrupts meiotic function in women remains unclear, but as women increasingly delay having children, solving this problem becomes an urgent priority. Telomeres consist of a (TTAGGG)(n) repeated sequence and associated proteins at chromosome ends, mediate aging in mitotic cells and may also mediate aging during meiosis. Telomeres shorten both during DNA replication and from the response to oxidative DNA damage. Oocytes do not divide in adult mammals, but their precursors do replicate during fetal oogenesis; eggs ovulated from older females have traversed more mitotic cell cycles before entering meiosis during fetal oogenesis than eggs ovulated from younger females. Telomeres also would be expected to shorten from inefficient DNA repair of oxidative damage, because the interval between fetal oogenesis and ovulation is exceptionally prolonged in women. We have tested the hypothesis that telomere shortening disrupts meiosis by shortening telomeres experimentally in mice, which normally do not exhibit age-related meiotic dysfunction. Interestingly, mouse telomeres are much longer than human telomeres, but genetic or pharmacological shortening of mouse telomeres recapitulates in mice the human reproductive aging phenotype as the mouse telomeres reach the length of telomeres from older women. These observations led us to propose a telomere theory of reproductive aging. Moreover, chronological oxidative stress increases with reproductive aging, leading to DNA damage preferentially at (TTAGGG)(n) repeats. Finally, if telomeres shorten with aging, how do they reset across generations? Telomerase could not play a significant role in telomere elongation during early development, because this enzyme is not active until the blastocyst stage, well after the stage when telomere elongation takes place. Rather, telomeres lengthen during the

  16. Nutrients, Microglia Aging, and Brain Aging

    Zhou Wu; Janchun Yu; Aiqin Zhu; Hiroshi Nakanishi


    As the life expectancy continues to increase, the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) becomes a big major issue in the world. After cellular activation upon systemic inflammation, microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, start to release proinflammatory mediators to trigger neuroinflammation. We have found that chronic systemic inflammatory challenges induce differential age-dependent microglial responses, which are in line with the impairment of learning and ...

  17. Biodemography of human ageing

    Vaupel, James W


    Human senescence has been delayed by a decade. This finding, documented in 1994 and bolstered since, is a fundamental discovery about the biology of human ageing, and one with profound implications for individuals, society and the economy. Remarkably, the rate of deterioration with age seems to be...

  18. Aging, Trade, and Migration

    Chisik, Richard; Onder, Harun; Qirjo, Dhimitri


    This study considers the role of demand-driven changes arising from population aging and how they affect the pattern of international trade as well as trade and immigration policy. An aging society can see a welfare-reducing reduction in its share of manufacturing output and this reduction is magnified by a decrease in trade costs (an increase in globalization). Immigration can ameliorate ...

  19. Biology of ageing

    Rattan, Suresh


    Living systems owe their survival and health to a series of complex biochemical pathways of maintenance and repair. These defense systems create the homeodynamic space of an individual, which is characterized by stress tolerance, molecular damage control and continuous remodeling. Ageing, age-rel...

  20. Healthy ageing through music

    Perkins, Rosie; Bisschop Boele, E.H.; Smilde, Rineke


    Presentation in session ‘Healthy Ageing through Music’. Presentations: - Rineke Smilde: Music and Dementia - Evert Bisschop Boele: Creative Workshops with the Elderly - Rosie Burt-Perkins: Healthy ageing through instrumental music learning World Conference ISME, Thessaloniki, Greece, 20/7/2012

  1. The ageing spine

    This book contain 15 selections. Some of the titles are: Effects of age on the appearance of magnetic resonance images of the spine; Potential for image analysis in quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of the aging spine; Potential of x-ray diffraction computed tomography for discriminating between normal and osteoporotic bone; and Spinal fusion in the elderly

  2. The age of Schumpeter

    Giersch, Herbert


    The centenary of Schumpeter's birth coincides with a revival of Schumpeterian economics. Could the third quarter of this Century justly be called the age of Keynes (Hicks, 1974), the fourth quarter has a fair chance of becoming the age of Schumpeter. Before giving substance to this proposition, I shall present a Short introduction to Schumpeter's life, work and paradigm.

  3. Age, Wage and Productivity

    van Ours, J.C.; Stoeldraijer, L.


    Previous empirical studies on the effect of age on productivity and wages find contradicting results. Some studies find that if workers grow older there is an increasing gap between productivity and wages, i.e. wages increase with age while productivity does not or does not increase at the same pace

  4. A Respectable Old Age.

    Swensen, Clifford H.


    Contrasts the relatively abundant information on the young with the paucity of research knowledge on the aged, and asserts that psychologists have too few solutions to coping with the problems of aging. Suggests the integration of older adults into all aspects of society through structural change. (Author/AOS)

  5. Aging, longevity and health

    Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Sander, Miriam; Wewer, Ulla M.;


    Session included speeches by Ralf Hemmingsen, Ulla Wewer, and Lene Juel Rasmussen and Keynote Addresses by four world renowned aging researchers: Povl Riis (The Age Forum), Bernard Jeune (University of Southern Denmark), George Martin (University of Washington, USA) and Jan Vijg (Albert Einstein School of...

  6. COOEE bitumen: chemical aging

    Lemarchand, Claire A; Dyre, Jeppe C; Hansen, Jesper S


    We study chemical aging in "COOEE bitumen" using molecular dynamic simulations. The model bitumen is composed of four realistic molecule types: saturated hydrocarbon, resinous oil, resin, and asphaltene. The aging reaction is modelled by the chemical reaction: "2 resins $\\rightarrow$ 1 asphaltene". Molecular dynamic simulations of four bitumen compositions, obtained by a repeated application of the aging reaction, are performed. The stress autocorrelation function, the fluid structure, the rotational dynamics of the plane aromatic molecules, and the diffusivity of each molecule, are determined for the four different compositions. The aging reaction causes a significant dynamics slowdown, which is correlated to the aggregation of asphaltene molecules in larger and dynamically slower nanoaggregates. Finally, a detailed description of the role of each molecule types in the aggregation and aging processes is given.

  7. Parylene C Aging Studies.

    Achyuthan, Komandoor; Sawyer, Patricia Sue.; Mata, Guillermo Adrian; White II, Gregory Von; Bernstein, Robert


    Parylene C is used in a device because of its conformable deposition and other advantages. Techniques to study Parylene C aging were developed, and %22lessons learned%22 that could be utilized for future studies are the result of this initial study. Differential Scanning Calorimetry yielded temperature ranges for Parylene C aging as well as post-deposition treatment. Post-deposition techniques are suggested to improve Parylene C performance. Sample preparation was critical to aging regimen. Short-term (~40 days) aging experiments with free standing and ceramic-supported Parylene C films highlighted %22lessons learned%22 which stressed further investigations in order to refine sample preparation (film thickness, single sided uniform coating, machine versus laser cutting, annealing time, temperature) and testing issues (%22necking%22) for robust accelerated aging of Parylene C.

  8. Snubber aging assessment

    Snubbers are safety-related devices used to restrain undesirable dynamic loads at various piping and equipment locations in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Each snubber must accommodate a plant's normal thermal movements and be capable of restraining the maximum off-normal dynamic loads postulated for its specific location. The effects of snubber aging and the environments and mechanisms that degrade snubber performance need to be better understood. This paper describes the Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program in-plant aging research conducted to enhance the understanding of snubber aging and its consequences. Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff and their subcontractors, Lake Engineering and Wyle Laboratories, visited eight sites (encompassing thirteen plants) to conduct interviews with NPP staff and to collet snubber aging, testing, and maintenance data. The research methodology, evaluations, results, conclusions, and recommendations are described in the paper. Effective methods for service-life monitoring of snubbers are included in the recommendations. (orig.)

  9. Gene and Aging

    DD Farhud


    Full Text Available "nCollection of multiple processes that increase the chronological age of an organism leading to death is defined as aging, and even though important, it is poorly understood. Recent research has shown that aging is due to biochemical and genetic changes, in interaction with environmental effects, including diet and nutrition. Most knowledge on aging is based on ge­netic model system, but its molecular mechanisms are still not very clear. Discoveries in molecular biology have made way to look for candidate genes influencing lifespan. Furthermore, new investigations have stressed on the roles of mitochondria as the major generators and direct targets of reactive oxygen species. This paper reviews some recent literature on genes and ag­ing in model system, then discusses the role of mitochondria and nutrients in human aging.

  10. Overview of facial aging.

    Beer, Kenneth; Beer, Jacob


    Facial aging is a multidimensional, multifactorial process. The aging face has traditionally been treated by each specialty in a different manner. However, by understanding the process from the perspective of different specialties, each physician may better treat the spectrum of facial aging. Whether or not the facial plastic surgeon injects products to restore volume, uses lasers to resurface the epidermis and dermis, incorporates cosmeceuticals to enhance and maintain improvements in the skin integrity and appearance, or relaxes muscles with botulinum toxins, he or she can best advise patients and address facial aging by having a functional understanding of these various modalities. With this knowledge, the facial plastic surgeon can parse the component of facial aging that enables him or her to correct each with the appropriate treatment. PMID:20024868

  11. Epigenetics and aging

    Pal, Sangita; Tyler, Jessica K.


    Over the past decade, a growing number of studies have revealed that progressive changes to epigenetic information accompany aging in both dividing and nondividing cells. Functional studies in model organisms and humans indicate that epigenetic changes have a huge influence on the aging process. These epigenetic changes occur at various levels, including reduced bulk levels of the core histones, altered patterns of histone posttranslational modifications and DNA methylation, replacement of canonical histones with histone variants, and altered noncoding RNA expression, during both organismal aging and replicative senescence. The end result of epigenetic changes during aging is altered local accessibility to the genetic material, leading to aberrant gene expression, reactivation of transposable elements, and genomic instability. Strikingly, certain types of epigenetic information can function in a transgenerational manner to influence the life span of the offspring. Several important conclusions emerge from these studies: rather than being genetically predetermined, our life span is largely epigenetically determined; diet and other environmental influences can influence our life span by changing the epigenetic information; and inhibitors of epigenetic enzymes can influence life span of model organisms. These new findings provide better understanding of the mechanisms involved in aging. Given the reversible nature of epigenetic information, these studies highlight exciting avenues for therapeutic intervention in aging and age-associated diseases, including cancer. PMID:27482540

  12. [Normal aging and cognition].

    Ska, Bernadette; Joanette, Yves


    It is now well documented that normal aging modifies the cognitive functioning and most observations suggest that cognition evolves in the direction of deterioration. The more frequently impaired functions are memory, attention and visual-spatial abilities. On the other hand, some abilities seem to increase, such as vocabulary. Considering the aging effect on cognition, questions remain regarding directionality, universality and reversibility. A great variability in aged related impacts is observed among subjects and among cognitive domains. Some individuals evolved more rapidly than others. Some cognitive functions are more affected by aging than others. General and specific factors are hypothesized to explain the aged related cognitive decline. Among them, educational level, health, cognitive style, life style, personality, are likely to modulate the aged related cognitive evolution by influencing attentional resources and cerebral plasticity. Cognitive resources are essential to develop adaptative strategies. During the life span, resources are activated and increased by learning and training. Considering the role of cognitive resources, successful aging is dependent on several conditions : absence of disease leading to a loss of autonomy, maintenance of cognitive and physical activities, and active and social engaged lifestyle. PMID:16527210

  13. Three ages of Venus

    Wood, Charles A.; Coombs, Cassandra R.


    A central question for any planet is the age of its surface. Based on comparative planetological arguments, Venus should be as young and active as the Earth (Wood and Francis). The detection of probable impact craters in the Venera radar images provides a tool for estimating the age of the surface of Venus. Assuming somewhat different crater production rates, Bazilevskiy et al. derived an age of 1 + or - 0.5 billion years, and Schaber et al. and Wood and Francis estimated an age of 200 to 400 million years. The known impact craters are not randomly distributed, however, thus some area must be older and others younger than this average age. Ages were derived for major geologic units on Venus using the Soviet catalog of impact craters (Bazilevskiy et al.), and the most accessible geologic unit map (Bazilevskiy). The crater counts are presented for (diameters greater than 20 km), areas, and crater densities for the 7 terrain units and coronae. The procedure for examining the distribution of craters is superior to the purely statistical approaches of Bazilevskiy et al. and Plaut and Arvidson because the bins are larger (average size 16 x 10(6) sq km) and geologically significant. Crater densities define three distinct groups: relatively heavily cratered (Lakshmi, mountain belts), moderately cratered (smooth and rolling plains, ridge belts, and tesserae), and essentially uncratered (coronae and domed uplands). Following Schaber et al., Grieve's terrestrial cratering rate of 5.4 + or - 2.7 craters greater than 20 km/10(9) yrs/10(6) sq km was used to calculate ages for the geologic units on Venus. To improve statistics, the data was aggregated into the three crater density groups, deriving the ages. For convenience, the three similar age groups are given informal time stratigraphic unit names, from youngest to oldest: Ulfrunian, Sednaian, Lakshmian.

  14. Forever young or ageing naturally?

    Van Hees, R.P.J.; Naldini, S.


    Age and ageing can be felt as negative occurrences. For monuments however, old age is traditionally considered to be a positive quality. Without a certain age the nomination of monument hardly applies. Ageing can be seen as the work of time, which has always been valued: ageing was sometimes even ar

  15. Growth hormone and aging

    Bartke, Andrzej; Brown-Borg, Holly; Kinney, Beth; Mattison, Julie; Wright, Chris; Hauck, Steven; Coschigano, Karen; Kopchick, John


    The potential usefulness of growth hormone (GH) as an anti-aging therapy is of considerable current interest. Secretion of GH normally declines during aging and administration of GH can reverse age-related changes in body composition. However, mutant dwarf mice with congenital GH deficiency and GH resistant GH-R-KO mice live much longer than their normal siblings, while a pathological elevation of GH levels reduces life expectancy in both mice and men. We propose that the actions of GH on gro...

  16. Vitamin D and Aging

    Gallagher, J. Christopher


    Aging affects the formation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D; calcitriol), the active form of vitamin D. Production of 1,25(OH)2D is reduced by 50% as a result of an age-related decline in renal function, although serum 1,25(OH)2D levels are maintained in part by secondary hyperparathyroidism. Aging also causes a decrease in calcium absorption that precedes the decrease in 1,25(OH)2D by 10 to 15 years. Because 1,25(OH)2D is dependent on an adequate supply of the substrate vitamin D, the...

  17. [Epidermal aging and anti-aging strategies].

    Wohlrab, J; Hilpert, K; Wolff, L


    Epithelial senescence is a complex process depending on intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors (e.g., UV or IR light, tobacco smoke) and must be seen in the context of the aging process especially of the corium and the subcutis. Morphological alterations become apparent in the form of epithelial atrophy, structural changes within the basal membrane, and a decrease in cell count of melanocytes and Langerhans cells. Signs of cellular senescence are reduced proliferation of keratinocytes, cumulation of dysplastic keratinocytes, various mutations (e.g., c-Fos/c-Jun, STAT3, FoxO1), as well as multiple lipid or amino acid metabolic aberrations (e.g., production of advanced glycation endproducts). This causes functional changes within the physical (lipid deficiency, water distribution dysfunction, lack of hygroscopic substances), chemical (pH conditions, oxygen radicals), and immunological barrier. Prophylactically, barrier-protective care products, antioxidant substances (e.g., vitamin C, B3, E, polyphenols, flavonoids), sunscreen products/measurements, and retinoids are used. For correcting alterations in aged epidermis, chemical peelings (fruit acids, β-hydroxy acid, trichloroacetic acid, phenolic compounds), non-ablative (IPL, PDL, Nd:YAG) as well as ablative (CO2, Erbium-YAG) light-assisted methods are used. PMID:26636143

  18. Aging Random Walks

    Böttcher, S


    Aging refers to the property of two-time correlation functions to decay very slowly on (at least) two time scales. This phenomenon has gained recent attention due to experimental observations of the history dependent relaxation behavior in amorphous materials (``Glasses'') which pose a challenge to theorist. Aging signals the breaking of time-translational invariance and the violation of the fluctuation dissipation theorem during the relaxation process. But while the origin of aging in disordered media is profound, and the discussion is clad in the language of a well-developed theory, systems as simple as a random walk near a wall can exhibit aging. Such a simple walk serves well to illustrate the phenomenon and some of the physics behind it.

  19. HEU age determination

    A technique has been developed to determine the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Age which is defined as the time since the HEU was produced in an enrichment process. The HEU age is determined from the ratios of relevant uranium parents and their daughters viz 230Th/234U and 231Pa/235U. Uranium isotopes are quantitatively measured by their characteristic gammas and their daughters by alpha spectroscopy. In some of the samples where HEU is enriched more than 99%, the only mode of HEU age determination is by the measurement of 231Pa since there is negligible quantity of 230Th due to very low atom concentrations of 234U in the sample. In this paper we have presented data and methodology of finding the age of two HEU samples

  20. Global Health and Aging

    ... 9 12 16 18 20 22 25 4 Global Health and Aging Preface The world is facing ... stages of economic development and with varying resources. Global efforts are required to understand and find cures ...

  1. Sleep and Aging

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Sleep and Aging About Sleep We all look forward to a good night's ... health and quality of life. Two Types of Sleep There are two types of sleep: non-rapid ...

  2. Sleep and Aging: Insomnia

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Sleep and Aging Insomnia Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint at ... at greater risk for falling. Health Issues and Insomnia Disorders that cause pain or discomfort during the ...

  3. Ageing and skills

    Desjardins, Richard; Warnke, Arne Jonas

    The relationship between ageing and skills is becoming an important policy issue, not least in the context of population ageing. Data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) will potentially add considerably to the understanding of the relationship between...... ageing and foundation skills. In particular, the fact that data from the 1994-1998 International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) and the 2003-2007 Adult Literacy and Lifeskills Survey (ALL) will be linked with PIAAC offers a unique opportunity to examine trends over time at the cohort level for a wide range...... of countries. Specifically, repeated measures will enable an analysis of whether there is skill gain and skill loss over the lifespan of cohorts and overtime between cohorts. This is especially important because age-skill profiles observed on the basis of a single cross-section are difficult to...

  4. Ageing of research reactors

    Historically, many of the research institutions were centred on a research reactor facility as main technological asset and major source of neutrons for research. Important achievements were made in time in these research institutions for development of nuclear materials technology and nuclear safety for nuclear energy. At present, ageing of nuclear research facilities among these research reactors and ageing of staff are considerable factors of reduction of competence in research centres. The safe way of mitigation of this trend deals with ageing management by so called, for power reactors, Plant Life Management and new investments in staff as investments in research, or in future resources of competence. A programmatic approach of ageing of research reactors in correlation with their actual and future utilisation, will be used as a basis for safety evaluation and future spending. (author)

  5. Forest Stand Age

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Source data for forest stand age were obtained from the USDA Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) DataMart and were projected for future scenarios based on selected...

  6. Cellular Homeostasis and Aging.

    Hartl, F Ulrich


    Aging and longevity are controlled by a multiplicity of molecular and cellular signaling events that interface with environmental factors to maintain cellular homeostasis. Modulation of these pathways to extend life span, including insulin-like signaling and the response to dietary restriction, identified the cellular machineries and networks of protein homeostasis (proteostasis) and stress resistance pathways as critical players in the aging process. A decline of proteostasis capacity during aging leads to dysfunction of specific cell types and tissues, rendering the organism susceptible to a range of chronic diseases. This volume of the Annual Review of Biochemistry contains a set of two reviews addressing our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying aging in model organisms and humans. PMID:27050288

  7. Stress, Inflammation and Aging

    Lavretsky, Helen; Newhouse, Paul A.


    This editorial provides a summary of the state of research on stress-related changes associated with aging and discuss how factors such as inflammation and sex steroid alterations may interact with psychosocial stress to affect the risk for mood and cognitive disturbance in older individuals. The authors provide an integrated summary of four studies reported in this issue of the journal and views on future direction in stress and aging research and interventions targeting resilience to stress.

  8. Evolution and Ageing

    de Oliveira, S. Moss; Alves, Domingos; Martins, J. S. Sa


    The idea of this review is to connect the different models of evolution to those of biological ageing through Darwin's theory. We start with the Eigen model of quasispecies for microevolution, then introduce the Bak-Sneppen model for macroevolution and, finally, present the Penna model for biological ageing and some of its most important results. We also explore the concept of coevolution using this model.


    Francisco M. Lagos; Juan Antonio Lacomba


    We analyze the relationship between wage distribution, degree of redistribution of the Social Security and effective retirement age. We develop a two-staged political economy model. In the first stage government chooses the redistribution level of the Social Security Program, according to three different criteria. In second stage the retirement age is elected through a majority voting process by agents with different wages, knowing exactly the redistribution level and voting accordingly. We a...

  10. Modulating aging and longevity

    Rattan, Suresh

    Provides information and an evaluation of a variety of approaches tried for modulating aging and longevity, including dietary supplementation with antioxidants, vitamins and hormones, genetic engineering, life-style alterations, and hormesis through mild stress. After decades of systematic...... mild stress. The goal of research on ageing is not to increase human longevity regardless of the consequences, but to increase active longevity free from disability and functional dependence...

  11. Aging and sexuality.

    Holzapfel, S.


    Recent research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. In men, greater physical stimulation is required to attain and maintain erections, and orgasms are less intense. In women, menopause terminates fertility and produces changes ste...

  12. Age Discrimination in Italy

    Olga Rymkevitch; Claudia Villosio


    The Framework Directive on Equal Treatment in Employment and Occupation (2000/78/EC) included age as one of its prohibited grounds of discrimination. Member States were required to transpose this Directive by December 2003. In Italy age discrimination was explicitly regulated by means of Legislative Decree no. 216, 9 July 2003. The Decree introduced the new specific prohibition of discrimination, defining its application, exceptions and remedies. The purpose of this paper is to explore, in a ...

  13. Classifier in Age classification

    B. Santhi; R.Seethalakshmi


    Face is the important feature of the human beings. We can derive various properties of a human by analyzing the face. The objective of the study is to design a classifier for age using facial images. Age classification is essential in many applications like crime detection, employment and face detection. The proposed algorithm contains four phases: preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection and classification. The classification employs two class labels namely child and Old. This st...

  14. Exercise, Inflammation and Aging

    Jeffrey A Woods; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Martin, Stephen A.; Kistler, Brandon M.


    Aging results in chronic low grade inflammation that is associated with increased risk for disease, poor physical functioning and mortality. Strategies that reduce age-related inflammation may improve the quality of life in older adults. Regular exercise is recommended for older people for a variety of reasons including increasing muscle mass and reducing risk for chronic diseases of the heart and metabolic systems. Only recently has exercise been examined in the context of inflammation. This...

  15. Brain atrophy during aging

    Age-related brain atrophy was investigated in thousands of persons with no neurologic disturbances using X-CT and NMR-CT. Brain atrophy was minimal in 34-35 years old in both sexes, increased exponentially to the increasing age after 34-35 years, and probably resulted in dementia, such as vascular or multi-infarct dementia. Brain atrophy was significantly greater in men than in women at all ages. Brain volumes were maximal in 34-35 years old in both sexes with minimal individual differences which increased proportionally to the increasing age. Remarkable individual differences in the extent of brain atrophy (20 - 30 %) existed among aged subjects. Progression of brain atrophy was closely related to loss of mental activities independently of their ages. Our longitudinal study has revealed that the most important factors promoting brain atrophy during aging was the decrease in the cerebral blood flow. We have classified brain atrophy into sulcal and cisternal enlargement type (type I), ventricular enlargement type (type II) and mixed type (type III) according to the clinical study using NMR-CT. Brain atrophy of type I progresses significantly in almost all of the geriatric disorders. This type of brain atrophy progresses significantly in heavy smokers and drinkers. Therefore this type of brain atrophy might be caused by the decline in the blood flow in anterior and middle cerebral arteries. Brain atrophy of type II was caused by the disturbance of cerebrospinal fluid circulation after cerebral bleeding and subarachnoid bleeding. Brain atrophy of type III was seen in vascular dementia or multi-infarct dementia which was caused by loss of brain matter after multiple infarction, and was seen also in dementia of Alzheimer type in which degeneration of nerve cells results in brain atrophy. NMR-CT can easily detect small infarction (lacunae) and edematous lesions resulting from ischemia and hypertensive encephalopathy. (J.P.N.)

  16. Cognitive aging in zebrafish.

    Lili Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-related impairments in cognitive functions represent a growing clinical and social issue. Genetic and behavioral characterization of animal models can provide critical information on the intrinsic and environmental factors that determine the deterioration or preservation of cognitive abilities throughout life. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Behavior of wild-type, mutant and gamma-irradiated zebrafish (Danio rerio was documented using image-analysis technique. Conditioned responses to spatial, visual and temporal cues were investigated in young, middle-aged and old animals. The results demonstrate that zebrafish aging is associated with changes in cognitive responses to emotionally positive and negative experiences, reduced generalization of adaptive associations, increased stereotypic and reduced exploratory behavior and altered temporal entrainment. Genetic upregulation of cholinergic transmission attenuates cognitive decline in middle-aged achesb55/+ mutants, compared to wild-type siblings. In contrast, the genotoxic stress of gamma-irradiation accelerates the onset of cognitive impairment in young zebrafish. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings would allow the use of powerful molecular biological resources accumulated in the zebrafish field to address the mechanisms of cognitive senescence, and promote the search for therapeutic strategies which may attenuate age-related cognitive decline.

  17. [Strategies for successful ageing].

    Orozco Ríos, Adriana Martha; López Velarde Peña, Tatiana; Martínez Gallardo Prieto, Lorenza


    There has been an increase in the interest of anti-ageing medicine in the last few years, with a growth in the industry of products that promise to prolong life and restore all the suffering or "defects" produced by age. The understanding of ageing has changed over the years, giving rise to the possibility of intervening in different metabolic and cellular pathways, and thus, delaying the appearance of the degenerative chronic diseases that appear with age, and that are finally the causing factors of the vulnerability that leads to our death. It is hoped that we can help the clinician to orientate their patients, who, due to the overwhelming amount of information they receive by the Internet, arrive at the clinic full of questions, waiting to receive absolute answer from their physician in order to increase their longevity and quality of life. This article presents an analysis of the physical activity, diets, supplements and drugs that are being investigated as anti-ageing measures and of the many clinical studies that have produced encouraging, measurable and reproducible results. PMID:26656211

  18. Aging and dark adaptation.

    Jackson, G R; Owsley, C; McGwin, G


    Older adults have serious difficulty seeing under low illumination and at night, even in the absence of ocular disease. Optical changes in the aged eye, such as pupillary miosis and increased lens density, cannot account for the severity of this problem, and little is known about its neural basis. Dark adaptation functions were measured on 94 adults ranging in age from the 20s to the 80s to assess the rate of rod-mediated sensitivity recovery after exposure to a 98% bleach. Fundus photography and a grading scale were used to characterize macular health in subjects over age 49 in order to control for macular disease. Thresholds for each subject were corrected for lens density based on individual estimates, and pupil diameter was controlled. Results indicated that during human aging there is a dramatic slowing in rod-mediated dark adaptation that can be attributed to delayed rhodopsin regeneration. During the second component of the rod-mediated phase of dark adaptation, the rate of sensitivity recovery decreased 0.02 log unit/min per decade, and the time constant of rhodopsin regeneration increased 8.4 s/decade. The amount of time to reach within 0.3 log units of baseline scotopic sensitivity increased 2.76 min/decade. These aging-related changes in rod-mediated dark adaptation may contribute to night vision problems commonly experienced by the elderly. PMID:10748929

  19. Stress, Aging and Thirst

    Greenleaf, John E.


    After growth during adolesence, total body water decreases progressively with aging from 65% of body weight to about 53% of body weight in the 70th decade; a majority of the loss occurs from the extracellular volume, from 42% to about 25%, respectively. Cellular volume also reaches equilibrium in the 70th decade at about 25% of body weight. Various stresses such as exercise, heat and attitude exposure, ad prior dehydration attenuate voluntary fluid intake (involuntary dehydration). Voluntary fluid intake appears to decrease with aging (involuntary dehydration in this sense aging can be considered as a stress. Kidney function and muscle mass (80% water) decrease somewhat with aging, and voluntary fluid intake (thirst) is also attenuated. Thirst is stimulated by increasing osmolality (hypernatremia) of the extracellular fluid and by decreased extracellular volume (mainly plasma volume) which act to increase intracellular fluid volume osmolality to activiate drinking. The latter decreases fluid compartment osmolality which ' It terminates drinking. However, this drinking mechanism seems to be attenuated with aging such that increasing plasma osmolality no longer stimulates fluid intake appropriately. Hypernatremia in the elderly has been associated all too frequently with greater incidence of bacterial infection and increased mortality. Involuntary dehydration can be overcome in young men by acclimation to an intermittent exercise-in-heat training program. Perhaps exercise training in the elderly would also increase voluntary fluid intake and increase muscle mass to enhance retention of water.

  20. The relationship between dental age, bone age and chronological age in underweight children

    Vinod Kumar; Karthik Venkataraghavan; Ramesh Krishnan; Kavitha Patil; Karishma Munoli; Sandhya Karthik


    Background and Objective: The knowledge of bone age and dental age is of great importance for pediatrician and pediatric dentist. It is essential for a pediatric dentist to formulate treatment plan and it is a source of complementary information for pediatrician. There are few studies, which showed the relationship between dental age, bone age and chronological age in underweight children. Therefore, objective of this study was to determine and compare dental age, bone age and chronological a...

  1. Signatures of aging

    Cornwall, J.; Dyson, F.; Garwin, R.; Hammer, D.; Happer, W.; Lewis, N.; Schwitters, R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.


    The Department of Energy and its three weapons laboratories (LANL, LLNL, and SNL) have developed a Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program (SSMP) in response to their designated mission of maintaining an effective, i.e. reliable and safe, nuclear deterrent without underground nuclear tests (UGTs). The need to ensure the effectiveness of an aging stockpile presents new challenges of major importance. In this study we review what is known about the aging of critical constituents, particularly the high explosives, polymers, and metals in the enduring stockpile. We discuss data that are required to provide a fuller understanding of aging, and how to obtain that data as a basis for anticipating and addressing potential stockpile problems. Our particular concern is problems that may arise in the short term, i.e. within the next 5 to 10 years, and their implied requirements for preventive maintenance and remanufacture.

  2. Cancer and aging

    Pedersen, Jacob K; Engholm, Gerda; Skytthe, Axel;


    Epidemiological cancer data shed light on key questions within basic science, clinical medicine and public health. For decades, Denmark has had linkable health registers that contain individual level data on the entire population with virtually complete follow-up. This has enabled high quality...... studies of cancer epidemiology and minimized the challenges often faced in many countries, such as uncertain identification of the study base, age misreporting, and low validity of the cancer diagnoses. However, methodological challenges still remain to be addressed, especially in cancer epidemiology...... studies among the elderly and the oldest-old. For example, a characteristic pattern for many cancer types is that the incidence increases up to a maximum at about ages 75-90 years and is then followed by a decline or a leveling off at the oldest ages. It has been suggested that the oldest individuals may...

  3. Ageing Management Program Database

    The aspects of plant ageing management (AM) gained increasing attention over the last ten years. Numerous technical studies have been performed to study the impact of ageing mechanisms on the safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. National research activities have been initiated or are in progress to provide the technical basis for decision making processes. The long-term operation of nuclear power plants is influenced by economic considerations, the socio-economic environment including public acceptance, developments in research and the regulatory framework, the availability of technical infrastructure to maintain and service the systems, structures and components as well as qualified personnel. Besides national activities there are a number of international activities in particular under the umbrella of the IAEA, the OECD and the EU. The paper discusses the process, procedure and database developed for Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) surveillance of ageing process of Nuclear power Plant Krsko.(author)

  4. Glucose and Aging

    Ely, John T. A.


    When a human's enzymes attach glucose to proteins they do so at specific sites on a specific molecule for a specific purpose that also can include ascorbic acid (AA) at a high level such as 1 gram per hour during exposure. In an AA synthesizing animal the manifold increase of AA produced in response to illness is automatic. In contrast, the human non-enzymatic process adds glucose haphazardly to any number of sites along available peptide chains. As Cerami clarified decades ago, extensive crosslinking of proteins contributes to loss of elasticity in aging tissues. Ascorbic acid reduces the random non-enyzmatic glycation of proteins. Moreover, AA is a cofactor for hydroxylase enzymes that are necessary for the production and replacement of collagen and other structural proteins. We will discuss the relevance of ``aging is scurvy'' to the biochemistry of human aging.

  5. Redox theory of aging

    Dean P. Jones


    Full Text Available Metazoan genomes encode exposure memory systems to enhance survival and reproductive potential by providing mechanisms for an individual to adjust during lifespan to environmental resources and challenges. These systems are inherently redox networks, arising during evolution of complex systems with O2 as a major determinant of bioenergetics, metabolic and structural organization, defense, and reproduction. The network structure decreases flexibility from conception onward due to differentiation and cumulative responses to environment (exposome. The redox theory of aging is that aging is a decline in plasticity of genome–exposome interaction that occurs as a consequence of execution of differentiation and exposure memory systems. This includes compromised mitochondrial and bioenergetic flexibility, impaired food utilization and metabolic homeostasis, decreased barrier and defense capabilities and loss of reproductive fidelity and fecundity. This theory accounts for hallmarks of aging, including failure to maintain oxidative or xenobiotic defenses, mitochondrial integrity, proteostasis, barrier structures, DNA repair, telomeres, immune function, metabolic regulation and regenerative capacity.

  6. Age and Value Orientations

    Asya Kh. Kukubayeva


    Full Text Available The present article deals with value orientations and their role in men’s lives, particularly, in young people’s lives. This notion was introduced by the American theoretical sociologist T. Parsons, one of the creators of modern theoretical sociology. The scientist made an attempt to construct the structural and analytical theory of social action, combining personal interests (needs and aims and situation, it takes place in. The issue of value orientations remains acute for psychology. Herein we have considered several most important works, relating to the considered issue. Age aspects of young people’s value orientations are of peculiar interest to us. When analyzing this phenomenon, one should take into consideration the psychological formations, inhere for a certain age. In fact every age has its unique structure, which may change when passing from one development stage to another. Basing on this fact, we’ve considered the values, depending on the age features of the youth, relying upon the works of the scientists, working with different categories of the youth, such as: teenagers, students, children of different nationalities. It is not surprising that most scientists have come to the conclusion that the chief role in value orientation belongs to a family, originates in relations with parents and teachers. The positive reinforcement to the future develops throughout life in accordance with a lifestyle of a family, society and political situation in a state.Life orientations as a type of value orientations show different types of young people’s preferences. Value structure of its consciousness has its own specific character, depending on the age peculiarities. The dynamics of the transition from one age to another is accompanied with the reappraisal of values, eventually, influencing the life strategy of the future generation

  7. Nutrition and Ageing.

    Minuti, Andrea; Patrone, Vania; Giuberti, Gianluca; Spigno, Giorgia; Pietri, Amedeo; Battilani, Paola; Ajmone Marsan, Paolo


    The world elderly population is rapidly increasing. This demographic change represents a new challenge for the society and demands for a multisectorial intervention to promote a long, healthy, and active life span. Between the factors that contribute in fostering a long healthy life, the nutritional regime plays a central role and is recognized as a major factor in the onset of chronic diseases. A better understanding of the interaction between nutrition and ageing is essential to unravel the mechanisms responsible for these positive/negative effects and to identify diet components promoting the quality of life in the old age and to contribute to the prevention of late-life disabilities. At Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, the research activity in food science is focusing on four main objectives: food quality, food safety, functional foods and diet balancing. These objectives are the target of multidisciplinary ongoing and future research activities for a better understanding of the link between diet and ageing. Briefly, the different activities are addressed to the study of the following subjects: the most relevant factors affecting food choices and habits of old aged persons; the effects of long term low dose supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid in mouse; the use of low glycemic index and high resistant starch foods to prevent diabetes and obesity; the adjuvant effect of food bacteria for vaccination; the role of food ingredients in disease; the immunosuppression effect of mycotoxins, and its relevance in ageing people; the production of sustainable and natural antioxidant ingredients to encourage a healthy diet. Our research projects emphasize an holistic and integrated approach that, by bringing together complementary research groups, can combine the collective expertise and thus provide a comprehensive assessment of the role of nutrition in healthy ageing people. PMID:26630518

  8. Genome instability and aging.

    Vijg, Jan; Suh, Yousin


    Genome instability has long been implicated as the main causal factor in aging. Somatic cells are continuously exposed to various sources of DNA damage, from reactive oxygen species to UV radiation to environmental mutagens. To cope with the tens of thousands of chemical lesions introduced into the genome of a typical cell each day, a complex network of genome maintenance systems acts to remove damage and restore the correct base pair sequence. Occasionally, however, repair is erroneous, and such errors, as well as the occasional failure to correctly replicate the genome during cell division, are the basis for mutations and epimutations. There is now ample evidence that mutations accumulate in various organs and tissues of higher animals, including humans, mice, and flies. What is not known, however, is whether the frequency of these random changes is sufficient to cause the phenotypic effects generally associated with aging. The exception is cancer, an age-related disease caused by the accumulation of mutations and epimutations. Here, we first review current concepts regarding the relationship between DNA damage, repair, and mutation, as well as the data regarding genome alterations as a function of age. We then describe a model for how randomly induced DNA sequence and epigenomic variants in the somatic genomes of animals can result in functional decline and disease in old age. Finally, we discuss the genetics of genome instability in relation to longevity to address the importance of alterations in the somatic genome as a causal factor in aging and to underscore the opportunities provided by genetic approaches to develop interventions that attenuate genome instability, reduce disease risk, and increase life span. PMID:23398157

  9. The aging male project

    Farid Saad


    With an increasing life expectancy and a decreasing reproduction rate, the population structure changes. A Jenapharm R & D program investigates the endocrinology of aging men. In men, a decrease in production of sex steroids and other hormones with age can be observed. The typical patterns of daily rhythmicity become less distinct. This is part of a very complex picture in which not only isolated hormones are involved, but also the influence of hormones on each other. Many factors from th...

  10. Religion and aging.

    Margaret Hall, C


    Life history data and cultural values are used to suggest ways in which personal and social beliefs influence the quality of experiences of aging. Central questions are the extent to which an individual can select beliefs that lead to a longer, more meaningful life and the special influence that religion may have in enhancing aging. Responsiveness to needs of the elderly is a necessary component of enlightened planning for the future. Secularization and industrialization have diminished roles and expectations for the elderly. Religion may be an effective means to identify these concerns and improve the quality of life of older people. PMID:24307195

  11. Aging changes in the face

    ... this page: // Aging changes in the face To use the sharing ... Changes in face with age References Brodie SE. Aging and disorders of the eye. In: Fillit HM, ...

  12. IGBT accelerated aging data set.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Preliminary data from thermal overstress accelerated aging using the aging and characterization system. The data set contains aging data from 6 devices, one device...

  13. Aging of Organic Nanowires

    Balzer, Frank; Schiek, Manuela; Osadnik, Andreas;


    attribute, making them especially interesting for light generation in OLEDs and for light-harvesting devices such as solar cells. Functionalization of the molecules allows the customization of optical and electrical properties. However, aging of the wires might lead to a considerable decrease in device...

  14. Bronze Age Acrobats

    Iversen, Rune


    immaterial, ritual and cosmological exchange that characterized the second and early firstmillennium BC.Beliefs and ritual practices went hand in hand with the adoption of a series of elite items and an aristocratic lifestyle, thereby creating a unique and fascinating European Bronze Age....

  15. Time perception and age.

    Ferreira, Vanessa Fernanda Moreira; Paiva, Gabriel Pina; Prando, Natália; Graça, Carla Renata; Kouyoumdjian, João Aris


    Our internal clock system is predominantly dopaminergic, but memory is predominantly cholinergic. Here, we examined the common sensibility encapsulated in the statement: "time goes faster as we get older". Objective To measure a 2 min time interval, counted mentally in subjects of different age groups. Method 233 healthy subjects (129 women) were divided into three age groups: G1, 15-29 years; G2, 30-49 years; and G3, 50-89 years. Subjects were asked to close their eyes and mentally count the passing of 120 s. Results The elapsed times were: G1, mean = 114.9 ± 35 s; G2, mean = 96.0 ± 34.3 s; G3, mean = 86.6 ± 34.9 s. The ANOVA-Bonferroni multiple comparison test showed that G3 and G1 results were significantly different (P < 0.001). Conclusion Mental calculations of 120 s were shortened by an average of 24.6% (28.3 s) in individuals over age 50 years compared to individuals under age 30 years. PMID:27097002

  16. Curcumin and aging

    Curcumin has been used commonly as a spice, food additive, and an herbal medicine worldwide. Known as a bioactive polyphenolic, curcumin has a broad range of beneficial properties to human health. Recently, active research on curcumin with respect to aging and related traits in model organisms has d...

  17. Estrogens and aging skin

    Thornton, M. Julie


    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity...

  18. Ageing and safety

    Ageing is a continuous process which cannot be reversed but which can be controlled by replacing components. However, the replacement of some components may be impossible or uneconomical; therefore, monitoring and in-service inspections must be increased. The combination of replacement of components and increased monitoring should make possible the total control of ageing. In this connection, it can be said that it is necessary to produce components and systems which are appropriate to the useful life of the facility, otherwise safety will be affected; that the materials used should be carefully selected so as to reduce activation problems; that in any new design, the need for components, systems and programmes for decontamination of the facility must be taken into account; that in order to control ageing, the increase in the level of monitoring and the replacement of components should be planned as a function of time; and that maintaining a constant level of design monitoring and increasing the rate of component replacement alone does not constitute control of ageing. It is not possible to replace all the components and those which cannot be replaced (reactor vessel, steam generators, pressurizer, heat exchangers, etc.) would present a high risk of failure if the monitoring of them were not stepped up so as to allow timely corrective action to be taken. (author)

  19. Taste perception with age

    Mojet, J.


    Keywords: age, thresholds, supra-threshold intensities, pleasantness, optimally preferred concentration, olfactory deprivation,signal-to-noise ratio

    This thesis


    Mishchykha, Larysa


    The article focuses on the problem of a personality’s creative longevity. It is concluded that creative activity in the period of late ontogenesis should facilitate improvement of (a personality’s) life quality in the final period and, consequently, should become one of the significant factors of productive old age.

  1. CETA and the Aging.

    Schram, Sanford F.; Osten, David F.


    To assess the impact of the 1973 Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) on older worker's problems, article examines CETA's history, options, and authority. Finds major systemic factors that encourage local prime sponsors to understate aging populations' needs. Concludes there is a need for substantial CETA changes to effectively serve…

  2. Psychological Aspects of Aging.

    Mooney, Craig M.


    Psychological aspects of aging, based on gerontological hypotheses and research, are presented under three headings: intellectual abilities; emotional capacities; and motor capabilities. Consequences are discussed. Well-being throughout life depends on fulfillment of fundamental human needs; existential needs for nourishment, stimulation, rest,…

  3. A Bittersweet Age


    They are the first generation bom under the one-child policy that came into eifect about 30 years ago. Today this post-80s generation are mostly aged between 20-28 and lead independent lives. Their unique family environment is a far cry from that of their parents’ generation, and has helped shape a personality of

  4. Helping You Age Well

    ... Need and When / A Note on Complementary Medicines / Nutrition and the Aging Eye / In The Genes? Searching for Methuselah Winter 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 1 Page 9 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & Players Friends of the ...

  5. Chromium and aging

    Aging is associated with increased blood glucose, insulin, blood lipids, and fat mass, and decreased lean body mass leading to increased incidences of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Improved chromium nutrition is associated with improvements in all of these variables. Insulin sensitivity de...

  6. Protein oxidation and ageing

    Linton, S; Davies, Michael Jonathan; Dean, R T


    of redox-active metal ions that could catalyse oxidant formation. As a result of this decrease in antioxidant defences, and increased rate of ROS formation, it is possible that the impact of ROS increases with age. ROS are known to oxidise biological macromolecules, with proteins an important target...

  7. Aging and the intestine

    Laurie Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson


    Over the lifetime of the animal, there are many changes in the function of the body's organ systems. In the gastrointestinal tract there is a general modest decline in the function of the esophagus, stomach, colon,pancreas and liver. In the small intestine, there may be subtle alterations in the intestinal morphology, as well as a decline in the uptake of fatty acids and sugars.The malabsorption may be partially reversed by aging glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2) or dexamethasone.Modifications in the type of lipids in the diet will influence the intestinal absorption of nutrients: for example, in mature rats a diet enriched with saturated as compared with polysaturated fatty acids will enhance lipid and sugar uptake, whereas in older animals the opposite effect is observed. Thus, the results of studies of the intestinal adaptation performed in mature rats does not necessarily apply in older animals. The age-associated malabsorption of nutrients that occurs with aging may be one of the several factors which contribute to the malnutrition that occurs with aging.

  8. Ageing in communal place

    Aarhus, Rikke; Ballegaard, Stinne Aaløkke; Grönvall, Erik;


    In this paper we adopt the position that design of social media for the elderly and virtual senior communities may be informed by studying `real´senior communities. Since current research efforts target the role of social media and virtual communities for supporting seniors ageing in place, i.e. in...

  9. Bioethics and aging

    Domingo Castillo


    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss some concepts related to bioethics and ageing, specifically with regard to health and disease. Considerations on medical practice are made by referring to Kant and Heidelberg school of thought. Perception of time in the elderly and issues such as euthanasia and death are mentioned.

  10. Ageing management in Sweden

    Since the adoption of the 1997 act of parliament concerning the abolishment of nuclear power in Sweden plant lives are no longer limited until 2010 as they were following the referendum in 1980. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) has therefore in its most recent general regulations from 2004 introduced requirements for nuclear power plants to develop ageing management programmes which should have been in place by the end of 2005. Since SKI:s role is not to provide detailed regulations but to ensure that the licensees take the full responsibility for the safety of their plants the detailed contents of the programmes have not been stipulated by SKI. An ageing management programme should coordinate the plant efforts in other programmes such as maintenance, monitoring, inspection, environmental qualification, chemistry, periodic testing and surveillance programmes that should already exist. In this way an integrated and long term approach to these issues can be ensured and become a natural part in the overall management of the plant. To this end it is important that the ageing management programme, as all other central programmes and processes, is documented in the quality assurance system, overall management system and is included in the underlying safety analysis report of the plant. Once the ageing management programmes have been established SKI is planning to assess them specifically through a combination of inspection and document reviews during 2008 and 2009. Thereafter it is anticipated that the major regulatory effort will be concentrated to the assessment of the periodic safety reviews to determine the effectiveness of the programmes and whether further specific regulatory action is required. SKI will also continue its active involvement in national and international research efforts to improve the understanding of ageing and degradation mechanisms. (author)

  11. Perceived age as clinically useful biomarker of ageing: cohort study

    Christensen, Kaare; Thinggaard, Mikael; McGue, Matt;


    young men, and 11 older women (assessors); 1826 twins aged >or=70. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Assessors: perceived age of twins from photographs. Twins: physical and cognitive tests and molecular biomarker of ageing (leucocyte telomere length). RESULTS: For all three groups of assessors, perceived age was...

  12. Adult Graduates' Negotiations of Age(ing) and Employability

    Siivonen, Päivi; Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka


    In this article, we will explore Finnish adult graduates' social positioning in relation to age and ageing, and the new discursive framing of employability that is firmly expressed in national as well as in European policy agendas. Age is here understood as a social construction and ageing as a lifelong process. We will analyse our joint interview…

  13. Unmaking old age : political and cognitive formats of active ageing.

    Lassen, A.J.; Moreira, T.


    Active ageing is a policy tool that dominates the way the ageing society has been constituted during the last decades. The authors argue that active ageing is an attempt at unmaking the concept of old age, by engaging in the plasticity of ageing in various ways. Through a document study of the different epistemes, models and forms used in the constitution of active ageing policies, the authors show how active ageing is not one coordinated set of policy instruments, but comes in different form...

  14. Aging trends -- the Philippines.

    Biddlecom, A E; Domingo, L J


    This report presents a description of the trends in growth of the elderly population in the Philippines and their health, disability, education, work status, income, and family support. The proportion of elderly in the Philippines is much smaller than in other Southeast Asian countries, such as Singapore and Malaysia. The elderly population aged over 65 years increased from 2.7% of total population in 1990 to 3.6% in 1990. The elderly are expected to comprise 7.7% of total population in 2025. The proportion of elderly is small due to the high fertility rate. Life expectancy averages 63.5 years. The aged dependency ratio will double from 5.5 elderly per 100 persons aged 15-64 years in 1990 to 10.5/100 in 2025. A 1984 ASEAN survey found that only 11% of elderly rated their health as bad. The 1990 Census reveals that 3.9% were disabled elderly. Most were deaf, blind, or orthopedically impaired. 16% of elderly in the ASEAN survey reported not seeing a doctor even when they needed to. 54% reported that a doctor was not visited due to the great expense. In 1980, 67% of men and 76% of women aged over 60 years had less than a primary education. The proportion with a secondary education in 2020 is expected to be about 33% for men and 33% for women. 66.5% of men and 28.5% of women aged over 60 years were in the formal labor force in 1990. Women were less likely to receive cash income from current jobs or pensions. 65% of earnings from older rural people was income from agricultural production. 60% of income among urban elderly was from children, and 23% was from pensions. Family support is provided to the elderly in the form of coresidence. In 1988, 68% of elderly aged over 60 years lived with at least one child. Retirement or nursing homes are uncommon. The Philippines Constitution states that families have a duty to care for elderly members. PMID:12292274

  15. Natural radioactivity, age estimation

    The life in the earth depends totally on the sun. The universe was born from great explosion, the Big Bang. Practically all the materials in the nature contain radioactive nuclides. The sources that give them origin can be categorized as: 1. Cosmogenic s 2. primordial 3. anthropogenic. The application for the first and two groups of natural radionuclides it is the age estimation. Although some of the primitive ones has application in therapy of oncological patient. 1: The three groups of age estimation methods, for nuclear phenomenons are: 1. Measure of the radioactive decline of the primitive isotopes, by accumulation of stable isotopes. 2. use of the descendants of radioactive isotopes of the families of the Uranium or of the Th. 3. Measure of the cosmogenic s isotopes

  16. Aging management of Cirus

    Cirus, a 40 MWt tank type research reactor located at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, is in operation since 1960. In Cirus, heavy water is used as moderator, demineralized light water as primary coolant and natural uranium metal as fuel. The average availability factor had been about 70% till the year 1990 where after it started decreasing due to frequent problems with equipment and components. Systematic aging studies were therefore undertaken to assess the condition of structures, systems and components. Based on these studies, refurbishing requirements were identified and a detailed plan was drawn up for refurbishing. The reactor was shut down in October 1997 for execution of refurbishing jobs. A summary is presented of the results of aging studies and the refurbishing plans. Details of core unloading to facilitate refurbishing and some of the important jobs in the primary coolant system relating to pressure testing of primary coolant pipelines and repairs to identified leaky sections are discussed. (author)

  17. Aging, exercise, and attention.

    Hawkins, H L; Kramer, A F; Capaldi, D


    The authors investigated the relationship among aging, attentional processes, and exercise in 2 experiments. First they examined age differences on 2 attentional tasks, a time-sharing task and an attentional flexibility task. Young adults alternated attention between 2 sequenced tasks more rapidly and time-shared the processing of 2 tasks more efficiently than older adults. They then investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on the same 2 attentional tasks in older adults. Following the 10-week exercise program, older exercisers showed substantially more improvement in alternation speed and time-sharing efficiency than older controls. Interestingly, this exercise effect was specific to dual-task processing. Both groups of subjects showed equivalent effects on single-task performance. These results indicate that aerobic exercise can exert a beneficial influence on the efficiency of at least 2 different attentional processes in older adults. PMID:1466833

  18. The Great Ice Age

    Ray, Louis L.


    The Great Ice Age, a recent chapter in the Earth's history, was a period of recurring widespread glaciations. During the Pleistocene Epoch of the geologic time scale, which began about a million or more years ago, mountain glaciers formed on all continents, the icecaps of Antarctica and Greenland were more extensive and thicker than today, and vast glaciers, in places as much as several thousand feet thick, spread across northern North America and Eurasia. So extensive were these glaciers that almost a third of the present land surface of the Earth was intermittently covered by ice. Even today remnants of the great glaciers cover almost a tenth of the land, indicating that conditions somewhat similar to those which produced the Great Ice Age are still operating in polar and subpolar climates.

  19. Constipation in old age.

    Gallagher, Paul


    The prevalence of constipation increases with age. However, constipation is not a physiological consequence of normal ageing. Indeed, the aetiology of constipation in older people is often multifactorial with co-morbid diseases, impaired mobility, reduced dietary fibre intake and prescription medications contributing significantly to constipation in many instances. A detailed clinical history and physical examination including digital rectal examination is usually sufficient to uncover the causes of constipation in older people; more specialized tests of anorectal physiology and colonic transit are rarely required. The scientific evidence base from which to develop specific treatment recommendations for constipation in older people is, for the most part, slim. Constipation can be complicated by faecal impaction and incontinence, particularly in frail older people with reduced mobility and cognitive impairment; preventative strategies are important in those at risk.

  20. Blood rheology and aging

    Başkurt, Oğuz K.; Simmonds, Michael J. ; Meiselman, Herbert J.


    Journal of Geriatric Cardiology (2013) 10: 291301 ©2013 JGC All rights reserved;; | Journal of Geriatric Cardiology Review  Open Access  Blood rheology and aging Michael J. Simmonds1, Herbert J. Meiselman2, Oguz K. Baskurt3 1Heart Foundation Research Centre, Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222, Australia 2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Keck School of Medicine, University of S...

  1. Communication and Aging

    Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Bourgeois, Michelle S.; Baylor, Carolyn R.


    Interpersonal communication has been described as a critical tool for life adjustment, linking people to their environment.1 When communication disorders are present these links can be easily broken. Communication disorders form a diverse group of conditions that vary in terms of type, severity, and co-occurrence with other symptoms that limit mobility, vision, endurance, or cognition. Although communication disorders affect people of all ages, the prevalence and complexity of these condition...

  2. Anthropocene Age Wicked Challenges

    Edgeman, Rick; Wu, Zhaohui


    weather events, drought, and desertification; threatened food supplies; water pollution, air pollution, and soil contamination; and the connection of these to disease, violence, and terrorism. Wicked challenges are discussed in relation to enterprise excellence, sustainability, resilience and robustness......Grand global challenges, including wicked human caused or influenced ones key to sustainability, characterize the Anthropocene Age. Among these are climate change driven by increased methane and CO2 in the atmosphere; consequent global warming and increasing intensity and incidence of extreme...

  3. The aging lung

    Lowery EM; Brubaker AL; Kuhlmann E; Kovacs EJ


    Erin M Lowery,1 Aleah L Brubaker,2 Erica Kuhlmann,1 Elizabeth J Kovacs31Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine at Loyola University Medical Center, 2Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, 3Department of Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USAAbstract: There are many age-associated changes in the respiratory and pulmonary immune system. These changes include decreases in the volume of the thoracic cavity, reduced lung volume...

  4. Diabetes in the Aged

    Grobin, Wulf


    In keeping with the already known high prevalence of diabetes among residents of the Jewish Home for the Aged, Toronto, annual screening disclosed an average incidence of 25.5% of abnormal glucose tolerance (two-hour post-glucose blood sugars above 140 mg./100 ml.) in residents not known to be diabetic. Forty-five (47%) of the 94 residents with abnormal screening values were considered subsequently to be diabetic according to our criteria. Long-term follow-up, particularly of 81 residents initially normoglycemic in 1964-5, confirmed that the natural course of glucose tolerance in this population was one of progressive deterioration. By contrast, improvement amounting to remission has been demonstrated in nine out of 20 residents several years after they had been declared diabetic, and is thought to have been induced by dietotherapy. Moderate hyperglycemia per se did not cause symptoms in these almost always keto-resistant and usually aglycosuric aged diabetics, who often claimed they felt better when hyperglycemic. Hypoglycemia was an ever present danger when anti-diabetic medication was used; it was the main reason for undertreatment. So far, data from our long-term study have not shown morbidity to be markedly increased in the diabetics, and mortality was found to be evenly distributed among diabetic and non-diabetic male residents. However, in the females there was a clear correlation between mortality rate and the diminished glucose tolerance. What may appear as overdiagnosis of diabetes in the aged is recommended in the hope that early institution of dietary treatment will delay the development of clinical diabetes and the need for anti-diabetic agents. This, in turn, would prevent iatrogenic hypoglycemia. It would also reduce the severity and frequency of spontaneous hypoglycemia which, we believe, occurs more commonly in the early phase of diabetes in the aged than is generally realized. PMID:5476778

  5. Old age and poverty

    Vuković Drenka


    Full Text Available The process of demographic changes in Serbia is followed by discussions on the need to provide safety at old age and solve the problems of poverty and social exclusion of older citizens. In the current state there are no mechanisms that guarantee an adequate life standard at old age, the consequence of which is a high poverty rate, deteriorating health and limited access to social programs. The results of the Survey on life standard from 2002 and 2007 show that poverty among population in general and pensioners has decreased, while the poverty risk among people older than 65 has increased twice. The restrictive methods of the reforms cause a change in the relation between the pensions and the earnings, so that more and more pensioners receive below average, i.e. minimal pensions. Not all old people are covered by pension insurance so that a significant number (around 400.000 does not have a safe monthly income at all. The state program of financial aid is of modest size and does not provide help to all of the poor. Welfare aid decreases the risk of poverty, but it do not guarantee an adequate level of material security at old age. The low level of minimal and average pensions, the decline of participation in the average earnings and the strict criteria of the social security system have brought to awareness the necessity of 'social pensions' and various help and support programs for the elderly. .

  6. The little ice age

    Grove, J.M.


    The Little Ice Age, a period of glacier expansion in alpine regions that began sometime between the twelfth and sixteenth centuries and lasted until late in the nineteenth century, was recorded not only in glacial features dated by geologic techniques but also in historical documents such as field sketches, land values, and weather records, especially in the Alps. Indirect evidence of its impact in other parts of the world includes the records of sea-ice extent near Iceland and Greenland, the fate of the Viking settlements in Greenland, and many other suggestions that the climate was colder in the recent past than it is today. Jean Grove's book is an authoritative, superbly documented, and excellently written summary of the abundant evidence of climatic change during the last few centuries in the context of broader climatic variations of the last 10,000 years. This summary provides a much-needed perspective for considering the magnitude and frequency of natural climatic variations in the past, given predictions for the future. In the final chapter, Grove notes that natural climatic variations, including another minor ice age, might be expected in the future but at the end of the Little Ice Age coincided with the increased burning of fossil fuels during the industralization of Europe and North America. This coincidence does indeed suggest that modern scientists already have had a significant impact on the global climate.

  7. [Resilience in old age].

    Cárdenas-Jiménez, Andrea; López-Díaz, Alba L


    The aim of this study was to characterise and analyse articles published on resilience and old-age from 1990-2006. After a systematic search of five databases (Academic Search Premier-Ebsco Host, Medline, Psyc Articles, Ovid and Science Direct) 33 pieces of literature were included in the analysis. The selected articles had 31 different definitions of resilience, from eight disciplines, mainly health-related fields. It was also found that the research studied the association of resilience with individual (68 variables) and social/environmental factors (17 variables); the most frequent were age and health self-perception. Cultural and religious values were of special interest amongst the latter variables. The literature review demonstrated that resilience in old age is a topic having increasing research interest; this has been linked to various individual, social and cultural factors. However, this is a rapidly developing area that requires that a unified definition be established and that a theoretical and intervention model be created. PMID:22031004

  8. Space age. Final report



    Space age had its world premiere at the large-screen Spaceport Theater at Cape Canaveral/Kennedy Spaceport. The first program was screened for invited guests who, that morning, also witnessed a launch of the Space Shuttle. Since that mission carried the first Japanese astronaut, it was a nice tie-in to the substantial co-production participation of space age by NHK Japan. A special press conference for the series and a twenty-minute preview reel was screened for journalists who were also at the Cape for the shuttle launch. Numerous first-hand newspaper articles were generated. CNN ran part of the preview reel. The first episode in the series, `The Quest for Planet Mars,` then ran twice a day for a week, prior to the Public Broadcasting Service broadcast on an Imax format screen at the Spaceport theater. The program was seen by thousands of visitors. Space age also had a special premier at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC with some 400 special guests, including scientists and government agency representatives.

  9. Ageing changes in the eye

    Salvi, S M; Akhtar, S; Currie, Z


    Ageing changes occur in all the structures of the eye causing varied effects. This article attempts to review the parameters of what is considered within the “normal limits” of ageing so as to be able to distinguish those conditions from true disease processes. Improving understanding of the ageing changes will help understand some of the problems that the ageing population faces.

  10. Immune Dysfunction in Aged Horses.

    McFarlane, Dianne


    The aging process in people is associated with changes in adaptive and innate immune responses. Similar changes occur in aged horses. Age-related progressive impairment in the ability to respond to pathogen challenge and an increased inflammatory reactivity may predispose geriatric horses to many diseases of old age. Specific recommendations for immune modification of older horses, including an age-appropriate vaccination schedule, are not currently available. In addition, the effect of old age on risk of infectious disease is poorly documented. More work is needed to better understand the interactions of age on immunity, vaccine response, and disease risk in horses. PMID:27329495

  11. The aging male project

    Farid Saad


    Full Text Available With an increasing life expectancy and a decreasing reproduction rate, the population structure changes. A Jenapharm R & D program investigates the endocrinology of aging men. In men, a decrease in production of sex steroids and other hormones with age can be observed. The typical patterns of daily rhythmicity become less distinct. This is part of a very complex picture in which not only isolated hormones are involved, but also the influence of hormones on each other. Many factors from the external and intemal environment mediated by neurotransmitters constantly affect the highly sensitive hormonal balance. Therefore, aging has also been defined as "the gradual dysfunction of homeostatic processes". Declining testosterone (T levels are involved in 'andropausal' symptoms in men: loss of libido, erectile dysfunction, insulin receptor resistance, obesity, osteoporosis, disturbances of lipid metabolism, myocardial and circulatory disturbances, impaired well-being and mood. Data are derived from studies in hypogonadal men treated by T replacement. In such parients under T treatment libido increases, fat mass decreases, muscle strenth, bone mineral density and erythropoesis increase. Whether the symptoms of andropause in aging men could successfully be treated by T substitution remains to be investigated. Negative effects of T, especially on the prostate and the cardiovascular system, are under discussion. There is increasing evidence that low T levels seem to be a risk factor for both the prostate and the cardiovascular system. Jenapharm's new testosterone undecanoate formulation for intramuscular injection can be administered every three months. T levels remain within the physiologic range. No supraphysiologic peaks occur. In women, estrogens have beneficial non-genital effects. Studies concentrate on synthetic estrogens for men without feminizing properties such as gynecomastia and reduced testicular size. Several derivatives of 17-

  12. Age aspects of habitability

    Safonova, M.; Murthy, J.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.


    A `habitable zone' of a star is defined as a range of orbits within which a rocky planet can support liquid water on its surface. The most intriguing question driving the search for habitable planets is whether they host life. But is the age of the planet important for its habitability? If we define habitability as the ability of a planet to beget life, then probably it is not. After all, life on Earth has developed within only ~800 Myr after its formation - the carbon isotope change detected in the oldest rocks indicates the existence of already active life at least 3.8 Gyr ago. If, however, we define habitability as our ability to detect life on the surface of exoplanets, then age becomes a crucial parameter. Only after life had evolved sufficiently complex to change its environment on a planetary scale, can we detect it remotely through its imprint on the atmosphere - the so-called biosignatures, out of which the photosynthetic oxygen is the most prominent indicator of developed (complex) life as we know it. Thus, photosynthesis is a powerful biogenic engine that is known to have changed our planet's global atmospheric properties. The importance of planetary age for the detectability of life as we know it follows from the fact that this primary process, photosynthesis, is endothermic with an activation energy higher than temperatures in habitable zones, and is sensitive to the particular thermal conditions of the planet. Therefore, the onset of photosynthesis on planets in habitable zones may take much longer time than the planetary age. The knowledge of the age of a planet is necessary for developing a strategy to search for exoplanets carrying complex (developed) life - many confirmed potentially habitable planets are too young (orbiting Population I stars) and may not have had enough time to develop and/or sustain detectable life. In the last decade, many planets orbiting old (9-13 Gyr) metal-poor Population II stars have been discovered. Such planets had had

  13. Mathematical Model of Age Aggression

    Golovinski, P. A.


    We formulate a mathematical model of competition for resources between representatives of different age groups. A nonlinear kinetic integral-differential equation of the age aggression describes the process of redistribution of resources. It is shown that the equation of the age aggression has a stationary solution, in the absence of age-dependency in the interaction of different age groups. A numerical simulation of the evolution of resources for different initial distributions has done. It ...

  14. AgeFactDB—the JenAge Ageing Factor Database—towards data integration in ageing research

    Hühne, Rolf; Thalheim, Torsten; Sühnel, Jürgen


    AgeFactDB ( is a database aimed at the collection and integration of ageing phenotype data including lifespan information. Ageing factors are considered to be genes, chemical compounds or other factors such as dietary restriction, whose action results in a changed lifespan or another ageing phenotype. Any information related to the effects of ageing factors is called an observation and is presented on observation pages. To provide concise access to the complete info...

  15. Interpreting spotted dolphin age distributions

    Barlow, Jay; Hohn, Aleta A.


    Previous work has determined the age distribution from a sample of spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) killed in the eastern Pacific tuna purse-seine fishery. In this paper we examine the usefulness of this age distribution for estimating natural mortality rates. The observed age distribution has a deficiency of individuals from 5-15 years and cannot represent a stable age distribution. Sampling bias and errors in age interpretation are examined as possible causes of the "dip" in the obs...

  16. Dominant perceptions on the age

    Komatina Slavica


    Contemporary developed society, despite the fact that it is constantly and intensively ageing, is characterized by deeply rooted numerous negative stereotypes on old people and old age as a life period. The study of dominant perceptions on the age of Belgrade population takes not only the universal character of negative connotation of old age into consideration, but also the concrete unfavorable social context. The delicate problematic of stereotypes on old age and old people has been analyze...

  17. [Relationships among self concept, perception of aging and physical aging].

    Lee, Y H; Kim, M S; Choi, Y H


    Although everyone grows old, perception about the aging process and aging as measured physiologically vary widely. Perceptions of aging have psychologically influence on physical aging. This study was to examine the relationships between, self-concept, perception of aging, and physical aging in the elderly and to contribute to the theory development which may direct nursing intervention to promote well-being of the aged. Subjects were 70 women residents of a nursing home for the elderly in Seoul. Data collection was done from May 15 to June 15, 1988 using interview schedules and mechanical instruments. The instruments were selected items from the Health Self Concept Scale developed by Jacox and Stewart for self concept, and Secord and Jourad's Body Cathexis Scale and Osgood's Semantic Differential Scale for perception of aging. Physical aging was measured by mechanical instruments, inspection, questions, and palpation. The data were analysed for mean, t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson Correlation Coefficient using an S.P.S.S computerized program. The results of the analysis were as follows. 1. The mean level of self concept for the subject group was 16.97 (SD = +/- 6.17) in a range from 6-30. The mean level of perception of aging was 39.6. (SD = +/- 6.51) in a range from 13-65. The mean level of physical aging was 14.09 (SD = +/- 2.05) in a range from 8-40. 2. Relationships among self-concept, perception of aging, and physical aging. 1) There was a positive relationship between self-concept and perception of aging (r = 0.4461, p = 0.000). 2) There was a negative relationship between physical aging and perception of aging (r = -0.2975, p = 0.006). 3) There was a tendency toward a negative relationship between physical aging and self-concept, but not a significant relationship (r = -0.1033, p = 0.197). 3. 1) No general characteristic variables were related to self concept. 2) The general characteristic variable related to the level of perception of aging was religion (t = 4

  18. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho


    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef. PMID:27200180

  19. Unmaking old age: political and cognitive formats of active ageing

    Lassen, Aske Juul; Moreira, Tiago


    different epistemes, models and forms used in the constitution of active ageing policies, the authors show how active ageing is not one coordinated set of policy instruments, but comes in different formats. In the WHO, active ageing configures individual lifestyle in order to expand the plasticity of ageing......, based on epidemiological and public health conventions. In the EU, active ageing reforms the retirement behaviour of populations in order to integrate the plasticity of ageing into the institutions, based on social gerontological and demographic conventions. These conventional arrangements are cognitive...

  20. Molecular Inflammation: Underpinnings of Aging and Age-related Diseases

    Chung, Hae Young; Cesari, Matteo; Anton, Stephen; Marzetti, Emanuele; Giovannini, Silvia; Seo, Arnold Young; Carter, Christy; Yu, Byung Pal; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan


    Recent scientific studies have advanced the notion of chronic inflammation as a major risk factor underlying aging and age-related diseases. In this review, low-grade, unresolved, molecular inflammation is described as an underlying mechanism of aging and age-related diseases, which may serve as a bridge between normal aging and age-related pathological processes. Accumulated data strongly suggest that continuous (chronic) up-regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators (e.g., TNF-α, IL-1β, 6, CO...

  1. School Starting Age and the Crime-Age Profile

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne


    This paper uses register-based data to investigate the effects of school starting age on crime. Through this, we provide insights into the determinants of crime-age profiles. We exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a...... discontinuity in school starting age for children born around New Year. Our analysis speaks against a simple invariant crime-age profile as is popular in criminology: we find that higher school starting age lowers the propensity to commit crime at young ages. We also find effects on the number of crimes...

  2. The new electricity age

    Weinhold, Michael; Willnow, Klaus


    A sustainable energy system requires optimal integration of all components resulting in an integrated energy system. To setup the integrated energy system three steps have to be completed: 1. Optimal selection and allocation of the Energy Mix 2. Efficiency increase along all steps of the energy conversion chain 3. Holistic optimization across infrastructures and across regions using Smart Grid Technologies Due to greater complexity caused by growing demand for electricity and decentralized generation only end-to-end intelligence from power plants via networks to end-use applications, so-called smart grid technologies will enable the integrated energy system and thus the New Electricity Age.

  3. Ageing in Communal Place

    Aarhus, Rikke; Ballegaard, Stinne Aaløkke; Grönvall, Erik;


    In this paper we adopt the position that design of social media for the elderly and virtual senior communities may be informed by studying ‘real’ senior communities. Since current research efforts target the role of social media and virtual communities for supporting seniors ageing in place, i...... how these findings apply to designers of social media technologies. .......e. in their homes, housing communities seem a natural place to begin this enquiry. We conducted observations and informal interviews in six different senior dwellings. In this paper we present the key findings from these visits related to social interaction and the formation of communities and explicate...

  4. The pedagogicalization of ageing societies

    Fristrup, Tine


    Transformations' in' the' age'profile'of' a'population' are' a' response' to' political' and' economic' structures' and' in' relation' to' public'services'older'people'become'a'burden'to'the'younger'work) ing'people.'The'construction'of'a'social'problem'in'relation'to'popu) lation' ageing' becomes......'way'of'controlling'the'processes'of'subjectification'in'old' age'as'the'socialization'of'an'ageing'person'in'relation'to'the'disci) plining' of' population' ageing:' becoming' a' subject' to' active' and' healthy'ageing.'The'future'of'ageing'societies'depends'on'the'plas) ticity' of' the' individual' performance' underlying' people’s' personal' responsibility......' a' social' pedagogical' problem' involving' a' focus' on' social' pedagogical' interventions' throughout' the' life' course.'In'order'to'shape'the'future'of'society,'the'perspective'on' ageing'and'old'age'has'shifted'from'being'a'determined'process'to' becoming' a'modifiable' process' focusing' on...

  5. Check valves aging assessment

    In support of the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has carried out an assessment of several check value diagnostic monitoring methods, in particular, those based on measurements of acoustic emission, ultrasonics, and magnetic flux. The evaluations have focussed on the capabilities of each method to provide information useful in determining check valve aging and service wear effects, check valve failures, and undesirable operating modes. This paper describes the benefits and limitations associated with each method and includes recent laboratory and field test data, including data obtained from the vendors who recently participated in a comprehensive series of tests directed by a nuclear industry users group. In addition, as part of the ORNL Advanced Diagnostic Engineering Research and Development Center (ADEC), two novel nonintrusive monitoring methods were developed that provide several unique capabilities. These methods, based on external ac- an dc-magnetic monitoring are also described. None of the examined methods could, by themselves, monitor both the instantaneous position and motion of check valve internals and valve leakage; however, the combination of acoustic emission monitoring with one of the other methods provides the means to determine vital check valve operational information

  6. [Feeding and aging].

    Sánchez Zaplana, Isabel; Maestre González, Elena


    Aging is characterized by an increase in relative population of 65 years and older, and can say that, in our country, it is a phenomenon demographic, political, social and health. Several studies have shown that the nutritional status of the general population and the elderly, in particular, is a valid indicator to predict longevity and quality of life of this group of people. The World Health Organization (who) pointed out that the elderly population is a group nutritionally very vulnerable as a result of anatomical and physiological changes associated with aging. Between 35-40 of the elderly has some kind of altered nutrition or malnutrition: protein or protein-energy malnutrition, selective deficiency of vitamins and minerals, inadequate water intake, obesity, etc. The best way to promote the quality of life and prevent disease is a proper diet, also called healthy eating, adapted to the special circumstances which older persons may present without forgetting gastronomy is not incompatible with health. In this article, some tips are also available for preparing and cooking food, as well as culinary strategies to introduce them in the daily menu. PMID:23909217

  7. Aging in language dynamics.

    Animesh Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Human languages evolve continuously, and a puzzling problem is how to reconcile the apparent robustness of most of the deep linguistic structures we use with the evidence that they undergo possibly slow, yet ceaseless, changes. Is the state in which we observe languages today closer to what would be a dynamical attractor with statistically stationary properties or rather closer to a non-steady state slowly evolving in time? Here we address this question in the framework of the emergence of shared linguistic categories in a population of individuals interacting through language games. The observed emerging asymptotic categorization, which has been previously tested--with success--against experimental data from human languages, corresponds to a metastable state where global shifts are always possible but progressively more unlikely and the response properties depend on the age of the system. This aging mechanism exhibits striking quantitative analogies to what is observed in the statistical mechanics of glassy systems. We argue that this can be a general scenario in language dynamics where shared linguistic conventions would not emerge as attractors, but rather as metastable states.

  8. Smoking and cognitive change from age 11 to age 80

    Deary, Ian J; Pattie, Alison; M. D. Taylor; Whiteman, Martha C; Starr, John M; Lawrence J Whalley


    Age related cognitive decline affects people’s quality of life and their ability to live independently. A recent review stated, "[we] are aware of no studies on the relationship between smoking and cognitive decline associated with normal aging or studies of the effect of smoking on cognition in normally aging individuals." Some previous studies examined smoking in relation to pathological cognitive aging, but lacked cognitive data before the initiation of smoking, and used crude clinical cog...

  9. Perceived age as a biomarker of ageing: a clinical methodology

    Gunn, David A; Murray, Peter G; Tomlin, Cyrena C;


    facial ageing is detailed. The methodology utilises facial photographs of subjects to present images to large numbers of age assessors who are primarily nationals of the country of study origin. In five observational studies in five different countries involving 874 female subjects it was found that...... measure when large numbers of adult age assessors are used and can be utilised globally in studies to investigate facial ageing....

  10. Changing Attitudes towards Ageing and the Aged amongst Psychology Students

    Fonseca, Antonio; Goncalves, Daniela; Martin, Ignacio


    Society is ageing. In Europe, the ageing of the population is a recurrent and discussed theme. The impact of the ageing of the population is varied and transversal in different fields. The increase in the number of elderly people implies an increase in the levels of dependence and, consequently, more sanitary, physical, and human resources. Also,…

  11. Employment Age Discrimination on Women



    Employment age discrimination against women is not an unusual phenomenon in China.Through describing the present situation and negative effect of this phenomenon,this paper claims laws are very important weapon to eliminate age discrimination against women.

  12. Aging changes in the senses

    ... ency/article/004013.htm Aging changes in the senses To use the sharing features on this page, ... enable JavaScript. As you age, the way your senses (hearing, vision, taste, smell, touch) give you information ...

  13. Aging changes in body shape

    ... and both sexes. Height loss is related to aging changes in the bones, muscles, and joints. People ... lifetime. Your lifestyle choices affect how quickly the aging process takes place. Some things you can do ...

  14. Aging changes in hormone production

    ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ... produce the same amount at a slower rate. AGING CHANGES The hypothalamus is located in the brain. ...

  15. Large for gestational age (LGA)

    ... this page: // Large for gestational age (LGA) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Large for gestational age means that a fetus or ...

  16. MedlinePlus: Healthy Aging

    ... Health screening - women - over 65 Related Health Topics Exercise for Seniors Nutrition for Seniors Seniors' Health National Institutes of Health The primary NIH organization for research on Healthy Aging is the National Institute on Aging Languages ...

  17. Personality Plasticity After Age 30

    Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T.; McCrae, Robert R.


    Rank-order consistency of personality traits increases from childhood to age 30. After that, different summaries of the literature predict a plateau at age 30, or at age 50, or a curvilinear peak in consistency at age 50. These predictions were evaluated at group and individual levels using longitudinal data from the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory over periods of up to 42 years. Consistency declined toward a non-zero asymptote with increasing time-interval. Although some scales showed increasing stability after age 30, the rank-order consistencies of the major dimensions and most facets of the Five-Factor Model were unrelated to age. Ipsative stability, assessed with the California Adult Q-Set, was also unrelated to age. These data strengthen claims of predominant personality stability after age 30. PMID:16861305

  18. Organizational Climate for Successful Aging.

    Zacher, Hannes; Yang, Jie


    Research on successful aging at work has neglected contextual resources such as organizational climate, which refers to employees' shared perceptions of their work environment. We introduce the construct of organizational climate for successful aging (OCSA) and examine it as a buffer of the negative relationship between employee age and focus on opportunities (i.e., beliefs about future goals and possibilities at work). Moreover, we expected that focus on opportunities, in turn, positively predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and motivation to continue working after official retirement age. Data came from 649 employees working in 120 companies (M age = 44 years, SD = 13). We controlled for organizational tenure, psychological climate for successful aging (i.e., individuals' perceptions), and psychological and organizational age discrimination climate. Results of multilevel analyses supported our hypotheses. Overall, our findings suggest that OCSA is an important contextual resource for successful aging at work. PMID:27458405

  19. Cognition and brain functional aging

    Hui-jie LI


    Full Text Available China has the largest population of elderly adults. Meanwhile, it is one of the countries showing fastest aging speed in the world. Aging processing is always companied with a series of brain structural and functional changes, which result in the decline of processing speed, working memory, long-term memory and executive function, etc. The studies based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI found certain aging effects on brain function activation, spontaneous activity and functional connectivity in old people. However, few studies have explored the brain functional curve during the aging process while most previous studies explored the differences in the brain function between young people and old people. Delineation of the human brain functional aging curve will promote the understanding of brain aging mechanisms and support the normal aging monitoring and early detection of abnormal aging changes. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.03.005

  20. Aging changes in the breast

    ... this page: // Aging changes in the breast To use the sharing ... chap 18. Minaker KL. Common clinical sequelae of aging. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  1. Aging changes in the lungs

    ... this page: // Aging changes in the lungs To use the sharing ... out (exhaled). Watch this video about: Gas exchange AGING CHANGES IN YOUR BODY AND THEIR AFFECTS ON ...

  2. Aging changes in body shape

    ... this page: // Aging changes in body shape To use the sharing ... and both sexes. Height loss is related to aging changes in the bones, muscles, and joints. People ...

  3. 7 Steps to Aging Well

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section 7 Steps to Aging Well Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... Exercise: A Guide from the National Institute on Aging is a publication from NIA that has strength, ...

  4. Aging changes in the kidneys

    ... this page: // Aging changes in the kidneys and bladder To use ... in the reproductive system can affect bladder control. Aging Changes and Their Effects on the Kidneys and ...

  5. Aging changes in hormone production

    ... this page: // Aging changes in hormone production To use the sharing ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ...

  6. Personality plasticity after age 30.

    Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T; McCrae, Robert R


    Rank-order consistency of personality traits increases from childhood to age 30. After that, different summaries of the literature predict a plateau at age 30, or at age 50, or a curvilinear peak in consistency at age 50. These predictions were evaluated at group and individual levels using longitudinal data from the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory for periods of up to 42 years. Consistency declined toward a nonzero asymptote with increasing time interval. Although some scales showed increasing stability after age 30, the rank-order consistencies of the major dimensions and most facets of the Five-Factor Model were unrelated to age. Ipsative stability, assessed with the California Adult Q-Set, also was unrelated to age. These data strengthen claims of predominant personality stability after age 30. PMID:16861305

  7. Nutrition and aging.

    Noel, Mary; Reddy, Mohan


    Nutritional concerns are common among older adults seen in the primary care office. The food pyramid for people over the age of 70 years is a useful starting point for discussions about what reasonably healthy older adults should be eating and drinking. If there is a decline in the ability to perform IADLs or if there is a decrease in appetite or the discovery of unintended weight loss, careful assessment followed by targeted interventions may improve health outcomes and the quality of life. Restrictive diets are often not well tolerated, especially by frail older adults. Dietary recommendations blending the elements of the pyramid and the essential components of accepted medical nutritional therapy that are most consistent with the patient's lifelong eating patterns are most likely to succeed. PMID:16140121

  8. Analyzing an Aging ISS

    Scharf, R.


    The ISS External Survey integrates the requirements for photographic and video imagery of the International Space Station (ISS) for the engineering, operations, and science communities. An extensive photographic survey was performed on all Space Shuttle flights to the ISS and continues to be performed daily, though on a level much reduced by the limited available imagery. The acquired video and photo imagery is used for both qualitative and quantitative assessments of external deposition and contamination, surface degradation, dynamic events, and MMOD strikes. Many of these assessments provide important information about ISS surfaces and structural integrity as the ISS ages. The imagery is also used to assess and verify the physical configuration of ISS structure, appendages, and components.

  9. Glycoconjugate changes in aging and age-related diseases.

    Ando, Susumu


    The significance of glycosphingolipids and glycoproteins is discussed in their relation to normal aging and pathological aging, aging with diseases. Healthy myelin that looks stable is found to be gradually degraded and reconstructed throughout life for remodeling. An exciting finding is that myelin P0 protein is located in neurons and glycosylated in aging brains. In pathological aging, the roles of glycosphingolipids and glycoproteins as risk factors or protective agents for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases are discussed. Intensive studies have been performed aiming to remove the risks from and to restore the functional deficits of the brain. Some of them are expected to be translated to therapeutic means. PMID:25151390

  10. Radiation and aging

    Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) specimens were obtained from 3 women aged in their 6th decade and 5 men in their 8th decade, who were exposed to A-bomb at ≤ 3,000 m from the hypocenter in Nagasaki, and were analyzed for the frequency of DRG neurons with lipofuscin (LP), neuromelanin (NM), and eosinophilic granule (EG). The neurons for the men in the A-bomb group showed an increase of LP and a decrease of NM compared with those in age- and sex-matched control group, with significant differences (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01). The frequency of neurons with EG tended to be slightly higher for the men in the A-bomb group than in the control group; however, this was not statistically significant. For the women, there was a tendency toward a higher frequency of neurons with LP in the A-bomb group than in the control group, although no statistically significant difference emerged from this limited material. Regarding NM and EG for the women, DRG neurons showed no significant difference between the groups. Both men and women showed similar trends for the frequency of DRG neurons without pigments; no significant difference was observed between the groups. Regarding the sum of DRG neurons with large amounts of LP and with mixed LP and EG, the frequency of neurons was significantly higher for the men in the A-bomb group than in the control group, although this was not significant for the women. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Age-related oral changes.

    Mckenna, Gerald


    Age-related oral changes are seen in the oral hard and soft tissues as well as in bone, the temporomandibular joints and the oral mucosa. As older patients retain their natural teeth for longer, the clinical picture consists of normal physiological age changes in combination with pathological and iatrogenic effects. Clinical Relevance: With an ageing population retaining more of its natural teeth for longer, dental professionals should expect to observe oral age changes more frequently.

  12. Farmer Productivity at Various Ages

    Tauer, Loren W.


    The productivity of farmers at six different age cohorts was computed by estimating production functions using 1987 census data. The results suggest that farmers of different ages operate with slightly different technologies and use various inputs at different efficiencies. Compared with previous 1978 estimates, the productivity of middleaged farmers appears to be even greater than the productivity of younger and older farmers. The average age of U.S. farmers exceeds the age of highest produc...

  13. Aging and Functional Brain Networks

    Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D.


    Aging is associated with changes in human brain anatomy and function and cognitive decline. Recent studies suggest the aging decline of major functional connectivity hubs in the “default-mode” network (DMN). Aging effects on other networks, however, are largely unknown. We hypothesized that aging would be associated with a decline of short- and long-range functional connectivity density (FCD) hubs in the DMN. To test this hypothesis we evaluated resting-state datasets corresponding to 913 hea...

  14. The clinical pharmacology of ageing

    Swift, C G


    The ageing of populations and individuals continues to be as vital, yet to some extent as neglected, a topic in pharmacology and therapeutics as was first realised about 30 years ago. In parallel with the realisation of the predicted demographic shifts in both the developed and developing world, there have since been major developments in the basic biological concepts of ageing, in the physiology of ageing, in the study of pathogenetic mechanisms underlying a variety of age-associated disorde...

  15. Lithuanian Population Aging Factors Analysis

    Agnė Garlauskaitė; Rasa Zabarauskaitė


    The aim of this article is to identify the factors that determine aging of Lithuania’s population and to assess the influence of these factors. The article shows Lithuanian population aging factors analysis, which consists of two main parts: the first describes the aging of the population and its characteristics in theoretical terms. Second part is dedicated to the assessment of trends that influence the aging population and demographic factors and also to analyse the determinants of the agin...

  16. Personality Plasticity After Age 30

    Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T.; McCrae, Robert R.


    Rank-order consistency of personality traits increases from childhood to age 30. After that, different summaries of the literature predict a plateau at age 30, or at age 50, or a curvilinear peak in consistency at age 50. These predictions were evaluated at group and individual levels using longitudinal data from the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory over periods of up to 42 years. Consistency declined toward a non-zero asymptote with increasing t...

  17. Bone age in cerebral palsy

    Miranda, Eduardo Régis de Alencar Bona; Palmieri, Maurício D'arc; de Assumpção, Rodrigo Montezuma César; Yamada, Helder Henzo; Rancan, Daniela Regina; Fucs, Patrícia Maria de Moraes Barros


    Objective To compare the chronological age and bone age among cerebral palsy patients in the outpatient clinic and its correlation with the type of neurological involvement, gender and functional status. Methods 401 patients with spastic cerebral palsy, and ages ranging from three months to 20 years old, submitted to radiological examination for bone age and analyzed by two independent observers according Greulich & Pyle. Results In the topographic distribution, there was a significant delay (p

  18. Pathophysiology of ageing, longevity and age related diseases

    Santoni Angela


    Full Text Available Abstract On April 18, 2007 an international meeting on Pathophysiology of Ageing, Longevity and Age-Related Diseases was held in Palermo, Italy. Several interesting topics on Cancer, Immunosenescence, Age-related inflammatory diseases and longevity were discussed. In this report we summarize the most important issues. However, ageing must be considered an unavoidable end point of the life history of each individual, nevertheless the increasing knowledge on ageing mechanisms, allows envisaging many different strategies to cope with, and delay it. So, a better understanding of pathophysiology of ageing and age-related disease is essential for giving everybody a reasonable chance for living a long and enjoyable final part of the life.

  19. [Vitamin E in the aged].

    Pentimone, F; del Corso, L; Laghi, G


    Aging is a multifactorial process still incompletely known. The role of oxidative damage to cell membranes, as an important phase of the process, is underlined by the recent literature. We emphasize the value of vitamin E as an antioxidant agent supplied by suitable diets in middle age and by cheap tablets in the aged. PMID:8001337

  20. Modern biological theories of aging

    These proceedings contain 30 papers grouped under the headings of: Theories of aging: A perspective; Evolution of life span in placental mammals; Developmentally programmed aging; Free-radical damage; Error catastrophe; DNA Damage and repair; and Organ systems as pacemakers of aging

  1. Is the Age Problem Resolved?

    Ali Akbar Navabi; Nematollah Riazi


    The cosmological, astrophysical, and nucleocosmochronological methods for estimating the age of the universe and the corresponding uncertainties are comparatively studied in the present paper.We are led to the conclusion that the newmeasurements of cosmological parameters, and the recent estimates of the age of globular clusters have led to the gradual disappearance of the age problem from the arena of modern cosmology.

  2. Dominant perceptions on the age

    Komatina Slavica


    Full Text Available Contemporary developed society, despite the fact that it is constantly and intensively ageing, is characterized by deeply rooted numerous negative stereotypes on old people and old age as a life period. The study of dominant perceptions on the age of Belgrade population takes not only the universal character of negative connotation of old age into consideration, but also the concrete unfavorable social context. The delicate problematic of stereotypes on old age and old people has been analyzed mostly indirectly, through questions on the beginning of old age, advantages and difficulties which we experience during ageing, the first subjective conscious encounter with one’s own ageing, the concept of ideal old age, changes in the persons traits and directly through questions on dominant negative perceptions which prevail on old people in our surrounding. Ageing in the Belgrade milieu is most commonly identified with illness and with the decline of physical potentials, and at the same time a number of other negative qualifications of old age as well. Research results indicate to a pronounced ambivalent standpoint towards ageing, to different observation of one’s own to old age of other people, to different consideration of old age among the sexes and to obvious aversion towards old people. This is expected, taking into consideration that living and ageing are developing nowadays under aggressive influence of contemporary mass culture which affirms youth, beauty, physical strength, health as dominant values, namely everything that is contrary to ageing and old age. On the other hand, our society is today confronted with, as well as in the near past, exceptional political, economic and cultural difficulties which cause specific problems with various age groups, as well as the lowering of the level of mutual endurance and tolerance. The atmosphere of straining the old people and emergence of new antagonisms causes the intensification of

  3. Ageing management for research reactors

    During the past several years, ageing of research reactor facilities continues to be an important safety issue. Despite the efforts exerted by operating organizations and regulatory authorities worldwide to address this issue, the need for an improved strategy as well as the need for establishing and implementing a systematic approach to ageing management at research reactors was identified. This paper discusses, on the basis of the IAEA Safety Standards, the effect of ageing on the safety of research reactors and presents a proactive strategy for ageing management. A systematic approach for ageing management is developed and presented together with its key elements, along with practical examples for their application. (author)

  4. Age determination and geological studies

    Two hundred and eight potassium-argon age determinations carried out on Canadian rocks and minerals are reported. Each age determination is accompanied by a description of the rock and mineral concentrate used; brief interpretative comments regarding the geological significance of each age are also provided where possible. The experimental procedures employed are described in brief outline and the constants used in the calculation of ages are listed. Two geological time-scales are reproduced in tabular form for ready reference and an index of all Geological Survey of Canada K-Ar age determinations published in this format has been prepared using NTS quadrangles as the primary reference

  5. Technical approach to aging management

    Systematic and effective control of age-related degradation of safety-related components, systems, and structures in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is an important challenge to plant operators. Several data bases, available to provide guidance on aging management, are summarized. However, the ultimate consideration is: How effectively is aging management being implemented at individual plants? Illustrated here is a specific strategy that served to develop the technical data base for the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. The strategy is comprehensive, systematic, and adaptable. Effective aging management at NPPs could be facilitated by a parallel strategy. The elements of a strategy are suggested

  6. Skin aging and oxidative stress

    Sayeeda Ahsanuddin


    Full Text Available Skin aging occurs through two main pathways, intrinsic and extrinsic. These pathways have significant interaction in contributing to the aging phenotype, which includes skin laxity, wrinkling, pigmentation irregularities, and the appearance of neoplastic skin lesions. Here, we review the critical role that oxidative stress plays in skin aging, including its effects on signaling pathways involved in skin matrix formation and degradation, proteasome activity, as well as DNA structure. Furthermore, we discuss the recent literature surrounding the prevention and treatment of skin aging. Although current research is suggestive of the role of antioxidants in anti-aging skin therapies, further research is much needed to explore its role in humans.

  7. Deuteronation and aging.

    Olgun, Abdullah; Oztürk, Kamile; Bayir, Selda; Akman, Serif; Erbil, M Kemal


    Deuterium has one proton and one neutron in its atomic nucleus, but hydrogen has only proton. The natural abundance of deuterium is 1 per approximately 6600 hydrogen atoms. Therefore deuterated water (both HOD + D(2)O [heavy water]) abundance is 1 per approximately 3300 water molecules. One dissociation product of deuterated and heavy water is deuteron (proton + neutron, D(+), H(2)OD(+)/D(3)O(+)). Because heavy water has a lower ionization constant than water, the D(+)/H(+) ratio is approximately 1/15,000 in biological fluids. O-D bond length is shorter than O-H, and D-O-D angle is lesser than H-O-H. Once a deuteron exchanges with proton on the water-exposed surface of a macromolecule, it can lead to a conformational change and the reverse exchange will be less likely. Deuteron bonds are stronger than proton bonds. Therefore an increase of deuteronated macromolecules can be expected in due course of time. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted a pilot study and measured the D/H ratio in the tails of three Sprague-Dawley rats at different ages (4 weeks, 5 weeks, and >1-year old) by elemental analysis coupled with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS) technique. To prevent the effect of daily water consumption, the homogenized tails were lyophilized before analysis. The results, as mean of several measurements, of 4 weeks, 5 weeks, and >1-year-old rats were per thousand-94 +/- 9.56, per thousand-101.71 +/- 6.89, per thousand-83.68 +/- 3.46 delta((2)H) relative to VSMOW, respectively. Although there is a slight increase in >1-year-old rat, the difference among the animals was not significant. We propose that, before reaching to a final conclusion about the accumulation of deuterium with aging, the measurements should be done not in whole tissue samples but in purified macromolecules from a larger set of animals. PMID:17460204

  8. Health screening - women - over age 65

    Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

  9. Health screening - men - ages 40 to 64

    Health maintenance visit - men - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - men - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - men - ages 40 to 64; Men's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - men - ages ...

  10. Health screening - women - ages 40 to 64

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 to 64; Women's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  11. Health screening - women - ages 18 to 39

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 to 39; Women's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  12. Health screening - men age 65 and older

    Health maintenance visit - men - over age 65; Physical exam - men - over age 65; Yearly exam - men - over age 65; Checkup - men - over age 65; Men's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - men - over ...

  13. Quantifying the shape of aging

    Wrycza, Tomasz F; Missov, Trifon I; Baudisch, Annette


    aging rates, suggest the shape of aging as a novel and valuable alternative concept for comparative aging research. The concept of shape captures the direction and degree of change in the force of mortality over age, which—on a demographic level—reflects aging. We 1) provide a list of shape properties...... that are desirable from a theoretical perspective, 2) suggest several demographically meaningful and non-parametric candidate measures to quantify shape, and 3) evaluate performance of these measures based on the list of properties as well as based on an illustrative analysis of a simple dataset. The...... shape measures suggested here aim to provide a general means to classify aging patterns independent of any particular mortality model and independent of any species-specific time-scale. Thereby they support systematic comparative aging research across different species or between populations of the same...

  14. Exercise and the Aging Endothelium

    Saeid Golbidi


    Full Text Available The endothelium plays a critical role in the maintenance of cardiovascular health by producing nitric oxide and other vasoactive materials. Aging is associated with a gradual decline in this functional aspect of endothelial regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis. Indeed, age is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is in part an important factor in the increased exponential mortality rates from vascular disease such as myocardial infarction and stroke that occurs in the ageing population. There are a number of mechanisms suggested to explain age-related endothelial dysfunction. However, recent scientific studies have advanced the notion of oxidative stress and inflammation as the two major risk factors underlying aging and age-related diseases. Regular physical activity, known to have a favorable effect on cardiovascular health, can also improve the function of the ageing endothelium by modulating oxidative stress and inflammatory processes, as we discuss in this paper.

  15. Ages and Ages: The Multiplication of Children's "Ages" in Early Twentieth-Century Child Psychology

    Beauvais, Clementine


    This paper explores the trend, between 1905 and the late 1920s in UK and US child psychology, of "discovering," labelling and calculating different "ages" in children. Those new "ages"--from mental to emotional, social, anatomical ages, and more--were understood as either replacing, or meaningfully related to,…

  16. Wisdom comes with age?


    ‘A relativistic generalization of the Navier-Stokes equations to quark-gluon plasmas’ – the work of a CERN physicist perhaps? No, actually it is the title of a high school student’s project! Thirteen of the world’s brightest young scientific minds were recently treated to a tour of CERN. The Bulletin finds out more. The Intel ISEF students during their visit to CERN.Thirteen science wunderkinds came to CERN for a three-day visit on 29 June. The high school students, aged between 16 and 18, were all winners of this year’s Intel International Science and Engineering Fair (Intel ISEF), the world’s largest pre-college science competition. As part of their prize they won a visit to CERN organized by the CERN openlab collaboration (see box). "The whole trip has been incredible, and this is my first time in Europe as well so that makes it even more exciting," said Ryan Alexander, just 16 years old, who won in the Energy and Tr...

  17. Aging and operation results

    The correlation between the different accelerated aging methods and operation reality has to be done with solid and representative elements in matter of tests as well as in operating experience. In 1990 in France, the first unit will be 13 years operating, there will be 34 units of 900 MW PWR and 18 units of 1300 MW PWR in operation. The total of experience will be equivalent to 400 reactor-years. Only computerised means permit to collect all corresponding events, to manage them and to draw a lot of conclusions. One describes these computerised applications explaining the different events collected, data input and interrogating possibilities. The first application, called ''events file'', records all important events in nuclear plants. For each of these events, an event reporting format is set up as soon as first informations are known and then is put into the file. An updating is performed when the event is better known and analyzed. Interrogating programs allow no specialist to access easily to this data bank. So it is possible to collect events of the same nature, of the same equipments or of the same systems. The second application called S.R.D.F. (fiability data bank system) collects all maintenance operations on certain mechanical and electrical equipment. These two computerized applications complete on another in the way they allow to do fiability and availability studies for some equipments or for some elements of a nuclear plant

  18. Ageing and water homeostasis

    Robertson, David; Jordan, Jens; Jacob, Giris; Ketch, Terry; Shannon, John R.; Biaggioni, Italo


    This review outlines current knowledge concerning fluid intake and volume homeostasis in ageing. The physiology of vasopressin is summarized. Studies have been carried out to determine orthostatic changes in plasma volume and to assess the effect of water ingestion in normal subjects, elderly subjects, and patients with dysautonomias. About 14% of plasma volume shifts out of the vasculature within 30 minutes of upright posture. Oral ingestion of water raises blood pressure in individuals with impaired autonomic reflexes and is an important source of noise in blood pressure trials in the elderly. On the average, oral ingestion of 16 ounces (473ml) of water raises blood pressure 11 mmHg in elderly normal subjects. In patients with autonomic impairment, such as multiple system atrophy, strikingly exaggerated pressor effects of water have been seen with blood pressure elevations greater than 75 mmHg not at all uncommon. Ingestion of water is a major determinant of blood pressure in the elderly population. Volume homeostasis is importantly affected by posture and large changes in plasma volume may occur within 30 minutes when upright posture is assumed.

  19. Active ageing and the unmaking of old age

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    -private innovation partnership (PPIP) that developed technologies catering to the active late life. A thorough analysis of active ageing entails studying what precisely active ageing tries to solve. I approach ageing as a matter of concern, a term proposed by Bruno Latour to describe how myriad practices and...... analysis of active ageing has changed throughout the project, I demonstrate how method, theory, and analysis intersect. Part 1 ends with my proposal of fibres as a tool to study matters of concern. In part 2, I dedicate a chapter to each of the three entangled formations. In chapter 5, I examine how...... article A, I describe how I participated in the innovation process of new technologies that cater to active ageing, and show how a specific kind of late life is assumed in such innovation processes. In article B, I portray active ageing as multiple knowledge-driven policy formats, which intend to unmake...

  20. PGC-1α in aging and anti-aging interventions

    Anderson, Rozalyn; Prolla, Tomas


    Deregulation of mitochondrial function is a common feature in multiple aspects of aging. In addition to playing a role in aging-associated disease, decline in mitochondrial energy metabolism is likely to be important in the development of metabolic disease. Furthermore, altered mitochondrial function is a conserved feature in caloric restriction – a dietary intervention that delays aging in diverse species. The transcriptional co-activator PGC-1α is a critical regulator of mitochondrial energ...

  1. "Is old age stigma? Ageing identity in Lithuania"

    Rapolienė, Grazina


    While population ageing is attracting ever more attention of international scientific community and social policy, its cultural and communicative aspects remain underinvestigated. The goal of the dissertation is to investigate the old age (ageing) identity in Lithuania, applying the sociological concept of stigma. In the pursuit of this goal, the research areas of stigma and ageism are connected, highlighting their common denominator - discrimination. The following questions are raised: wheth...

  2. Transgender, aging and old age - Do transgender people get old?

    Pedro Paulo Sammarco Antunes; Elisabeth Frohlich Mercadante


    This study is aimed to understand transgender aging context in Brazil. Normal and abnormal were especially created by biological sciences. For being considered deviants, transgender people are not seen as human beings. They end up living in violent environments. Their life expectancy is low. Many of them do not believe to reach old age. They face a lot of prejudice and death threat. Those who get to what we call old age are considered survivals. This investigation was able to show satisfactor...

  3. Aging and functional brain networks

    Tomasi D.; Tomasi, D.; Volkow, N.D.


    Aging is associated with changes in human brain anatomy and function and cognitive decline. Recent studies suggest the aging decline of major functional connectivity hubs in the 'default-mode' network (DMN). Aging effects on other networks, however, are largely unknown. We hypothesized that aging would be associated with a decline of short- and long-range functional connectivity density (FCD) hubs in the DMN. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated resting-state data sets corresponding to 913 healthy subjects from a public magnetic resonance imaging database using functional connectivity density mapping (FCDM), a voxelwise and data-driven approach, together with parallel computing. Aging was associated with pronounced long-range FCD decreases in DMN and dorsal attention network (DAN) and with increases in somatosensory and subcortical networks. Aging effects in these networks were stronger for long-range than for short-range FCD and were also detected at the level of the main functional hubs. Females had higher short- and long-range FCD in DMN and lower FCD in the somatosensory network than males, but the gender by age interaction effects were not significant for any of the networks or hubs. These findings suggest that long-range connections may be more vulnerable to aging effects than short-range connections and that, in addition to the DMN, the DAN is also sensitive to aging effects, which could underlie the deterioration of attention processes that occurs with aging.

  4. Evolution of ageing since Darwin

    Michael R. Rose; Molly K. Burke; Parvin Shahrestani; Laurence D. Mueller


    In the late 19th century, the evolutionary approach to the problem of ageing was initiated by August Weismann, who argued that natural selection was more important for ageing than any physiological mechanism. In the mid-twentieth century, J. B. S. Haldane, P. B. Medawar and G. C. Williams informally argued that the force of natural selection falls with adult age. In 1966, W. D. Hamilton published formal equations that showed mathematically that two ‘forces of natural selection’ do indeed decline with age, though his analysis was not genetically explicit. Brian Charlesworth then developed the required mathematical population genetics for the evolution of ageing in the 1970’s. In the 1980’s, experiments using Drosophila showed that the rate of ageing evolves as predicted by Hamilton’s ‘forces of natural selection’. The discovery of the cessation of ageing late in life in the 1990’s was followed by its explanation in terms of evolutionary theory based on Hamilton’s forces. Recently, it has been shown that the cessation of ageing can also be manipulated experimentally using Hamilton’s ‘forces of natural selection’. Despite the success of evolutionary research on ageing, mainstream gerontological research has largely ignored both this work and the opportunity that it provides for effective intervention in ageing.

  5. Reliability methods and ageing management

    The aim of nuclear power plant ageing management is to maintain an adequate safety level through the planned and possibly extended lifetime of a plant. The technical definition of ageing is the following : ageing is the continuous time-dependent degradation of materials due to normal service conditions, which include normal operation and transient conditions (IAEA 1990). A logical concern for extending the life of nuclear power plants is whether plants age in such a way as to be significantly less safe as they get older. Generally, the overall reactor plant performance is used as a way of measuring the effect of plant aging. The performance indicators are : - number of scrams while critical; - number of selected safety system actuations; - number of significant operating events; - number of safety system failures; - forced outage rates; - number of equipment-forced outages; - collective radiation exposure per plant. Reliability methods are essential in the integration of component-specific ageing and degradation studies with the plant or system level analyses. Reliability based approaches together with the use of plant operating experience have an important role in all stages of ageing analyses. The phases of ageing analyses are (generally speaking): the identification of critical components, identification and evaluation of ageing effects and development of mitigation methods. The probabilistic safety analysis, PSA, is an efficient system analysis method, which is used to assess risk of operation of nuclear power plants. This paper promotes the use of reliability methods and a system analysis approach in nuclear power plant ageing management. (authors)


    Mihai Robert, PAŞNICU


    The paper aims to shed light on the policies and consequences of the current retirement age in Romania. The retirement age has been repeatedly incremented in Romania in the last couple of years in order to try to compensate for the fact that the country has a low general employment rate, only 30% of the population, while having 20% of the total population aged 65+. By using an econometric model we will first prove the existence of an optimal retirement age that might vary for each and every o...

  7. Active Aging Promotion: Results from the Vital Aging Program

    Mariagiovanna Caprara


    Full Text Available Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants’ satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished.

  8. Electrical Aging Phenomena of Power Cables Aged by Switching Impulses

    L.Cao; A.Zanwar; S.Grzybowski


    Due to the insufficient information regarding the aging phenomenon of cables caused by switching impulses,we aged 15 kV XLPE and EPR cable samples by 10000 switching impulses in experiments and tested them.Plus in order to compare the aging phenomenon under multi-stress conditions,additional EPR cable samples were aged by rated AC voltage and current with switching impulses superimposed.We used measurements of partial discharge parameters to monitor the cables' conditions during their aging process,and the AC breakdown voltages measurement to evaluate the cables after aging.Moreover,the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements revealed the changes of insulation materials after aging.The measurement results confirm that the accelerated aging of cable samples had taken place.The impacts of each individual aging factor are shown through the selected measurements and comparison.The study also helps to assess the reliability of the XLPE and EPR cables under similar condition while serving in power systems.

  9. Mars Ice Age, Simulated


    December 17, 2003This simulated view shows Mars as it might have appeared during the height of a possible ice age in geologically recent time.Of all Solar System planets, Mars has the climate most like that of Earth. Both are sensitive to small changes in orbit and tilt. During a period about 2.1 million to 400,000 years ago, increased tilt of Mars' rotational axis caused increased solar heating at the poles. A new study using observations from NASA's Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey orbiters concludes that this polar warming caused mobilization of water vapor and dust into the atmosphere, and buildup of a surface deposit of ice and dust down to about 30 degrees latitude in both hemispheres. That is the equivalent of the southern Unites States or Saudi Arabia on Earth. Mars has been in an interglacial period characterized by less axial tilt for about the last 300,000 years. The ice-rich surface deposit has been degrading in the latitude zone of 30 degrees to 60 degrees as water-ice returns to the poles.In this illustration prepared for the December 18, 2003, cover of the journal Nature, the simulated surface deposit is superposed on a topography map based on altitude measurements by Global Surveyor and images from NASA's Viking orbiters of the 1970s.Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey are managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington.

  10. Age estimation in the living

    Larsen, Sara Tangmose; Thevissen, Patrick; Lynnerup, Niels;


    A radiographic assessment of third molar development is essential for differentiating between juveniles and adolescents in forensic age estimations. As the developmental stages of third molars are highly correlated, age estimates based on a combination of a full set of third molar scores are...... statistically complicated. Transition analysis (TA) is a statistical method developed for estimating age at death in skeletons, which combines several correlated developmental traits into one age estimate including a 95% prediction interval. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of TA in the...... living on a full set of third molar scores. A cross sectional sample of 854 panoramic radiographs, homogenously distributed by sex and age (15.0-24.0 years), were randomly split in two; a reference sample for obtaining age estimates including a 95% prediction interval according to TA; and a validation...