Neves, Kleber; Ferreira, Fernanda M.; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Gravett, Nadine; Bennett, Nigel C.; Kaswera, Consolate; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Manger, Paul R.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana
Quantitative analysis of the cellular composition of rodent, primate and eulipotyphlan brains has shown that non-neuronal scaling rules are similar across these mammalian orders that diverged about 95 million years ago, and therefore appear to be conserved in evolution, while neuronal scaling rules appear to be free to vary in evolution in a clade-specific manner. Here we analyze the cellular scaling rules that apply to the brain of afrotherians, believed to be the first clade to radiate from the common eutherian ancestor. We find that afrotherians share non-neuronal scaling rules with rodents, primates and eulipotyphlans, as well as the coordinated scaling of numbers of neurons in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Afrotherians share with rodents and eulipotyphlans, but not with primates, the scaling of number of neurons in the cortex and in the cerebellum as a function of the number of neurons in the rest of the brain. Afrotheria also share with rodents and eulipotyphlans the neuronal scaling rules that apply to the cerebral cortex. Afrotherians share with rodents, but not with eulipotyphlans nor primates, the neuronal scaling rules that apply to the cerebellum. Importantly, the scaling of the folding index of the cerebral cortex with the number of neurons in the cerebral cortex is not shared by either afrotherians, rodents, or primates. The sharing of some neuronal scaling rules between afrotherians and rodents, and of some additional features with eulipotyphlans and primates, raise the interesting possibility that these shared characteristics applied to the common eutherian ancestor. In turn, the clade-specific characteristics that relate to the distribution of neurons along the surface of the cerebral cortex and to its degree of gyrification suggest that these characteristics compose an evolutionarily plastic suite of features that may have defined and distinguished mammalian groups in evolution. PMID:24596544
Kleber eNeves; Fernanda eMeireles Ferreira; Fernanda eTovar-Moll; Nadine eGravett; Bennett, Nigel C.; Consolate eKaswera; Emmanuel eGilissen; Paul eManger; Suzana eHerculano-Houzel
Quantitative analysis of the cellular composition of rodent, primate and eulipotyphlan brains has shown that nonneuronal scaling rules are similar across these mammalian orders that diverged about 95 million years ago, and therefore appear to be conserved in evolution, while neuronal scaling rules appear to be free to vary in evolution in a clade-specific manner. Here we analyze the cellular scaling rules that apply to the brain of afrotherians, believed to be the first clade to radiate from ...
Neves, Kleber; Ferreira, Fernanda M.; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Gravett, Nadine; Bennett, Nigel C.; Kaswera, Consolate; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Manger, Paul R.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana
Quantitative analysis of the cellular composition of rodent, primate and eulipotyphlan brains has shown that non-neuronal scaling rules are similar across these mammalian orders that diverged about 95 million years ago, and therefore appear to be conserved in evolution, while neuronal scaling rules appear to be free to vary in evolution in a clade-specific manner. Here we analyze the cellular scaling rules that apply to the brain of afrotherians, believed to be the first clade to radiate from...
Evgeny I Rogaev
Full Text Available Phylogenetic relationships between the extinct woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius, and the Asian (Elephas maximus and African savanna (Loxodonta africana elephants remain unresolved. Here, we report the sequence of the complete mitochondrial genome (16,842 base pairs of a woolly mammoth extracted from permafrost-preserved remains from the Pleistocene epoch--the oldest mitochondrial genome sequence determined to date. We demonstrate that well-preserved mitochondrial genome fragments, as long as approximately 1,600-1700 base pairs, can be retrieved from pre-Holocene remains of an extinct species. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the Elephantinae clade suggests that M. primigenius and E. maximus are sister species that diverged soon after their common ancestor split from the L. africana lineage. Low nucleotide diversity found between independently determined mitochondrial genomic sequences of woolly mammoths separated geographically and in time suggests that north-eastern Siberia was occupied by a relatively homogeneous population of M. primigenius throughout the late Pleistocene.
Full Text Available Although the basic morphological characteristics of neurons in the cerebellar cortex have been documented in several species, virtually nothing is known about the quantitative morphological characteristics of these neurons across different taxa. To that end, the present study investigated cerebellar neuronal morphology among eight different, large-brained mammalian species comprising a broad phylogenetic range: afrotherians (African elephant, Florida manatee, carnivores (Siberian tiger, clouded leopard, cetartiodactyls (humpback whale, giraffe and primates (human, common chimpanzee. Specifically, several neuron types (e.g., stellate, basket, Lugaro, Golgi, and granule neurons; N = 317 of the cerebellar cortex were stained with a modified rapid Golgi technique and quantified on a computer-assisted microscopy system. There was a 64-fold variation in brain mass across species in our sample (from clouded leopard to the elephant and a 103-fold variation in cerebellar volume. Most dendritic measures tended to increase with cerebellar volume. The cerebellar cortex in these species exhibited the trilaminate pattern common to all mammals. Morphologically, neuron types in the cerebellar cortex were generally consistent with those described in primates (Fox et al., 1967 and rodents (Palay and Chan-Palay, 1974, although there was substantial quantitative variation across species. In particular, Lugaro neurons in the elephant appeared to be disproportionately larger than those in other species. To explore potential quantitative differences in dendritic measures across species, MARSplines analyses were used to evaluate whether species could be differentiated from each other based on dendritic characteristics alone. Results of these analyses indicated that there were significant differences among all species in dendritic measures.
Pedro Furtado De Mattos Ribeiro
Full Text Available The olfactory bulb is an evolutionarily old structure that antedates the appearance of a six-layered mammalian cerebral cortex. As such, the neuronal scaling rules that apply to scaling the mass of the olfactory bulb as a function of its number of neurons might be shared across mammalian groups, as we have found to be the case for the ensemble of non-cortical, non-cerebellar brain structures. Alternatively, the neuronal scaling rules that apply to the olfactory bulb might be distinct in those mammals that rely heavily on olfaction. The group previously referred to as Insectivora includes small mammals, some of which are now placed in Afrotheria, a base group in mammalian radiation, and others in Eulipotyphla, a group derived later, at the base of Laurasitheria. Here we show that the neuronal scaling rules that apply to building the olfactory bulb differ across eulipotyphlans and other mammals such that eulipotyphlans have more neurons concentrated in an olfactory bulb of similar size than afrotherians, glires and primates. Most strikingly, while the cerebral cortex gains neurons at a faster pace than the olfactory bulb in glires, and afrotherians follow this trend, it is the olfactory bulb that gains neurons at a faster pace than the cerebral cortex in eulipotyphlans, which contradicts the common view that the cerebral cortex is the fastest expanding structure in brain evolution. Our findings emphasize the importance of not using brain structure size as a proxy for numbers of neurons across mammalian orders, and are consistent with the notion that different selective pressures have acted upon the olfactory system of eulipotyphlans, glires and primates, with eulipotyphlans relying more on olfaction for their behavior than glires and primates. Surprisingly, however, the neuronal scaling rules for primates predict that the human olfactory bulb has as many neurons as the larger eulipotyphlan olfactory bulbs, which questions the classification of
Bob Jacobs; Busisiwe C Maseko; Albert Lewandowski; Mary Ann Raghanti; Bridget Wicinski; William Hopkins; Bertelsen, Mads F; Timothy Walsh; Roger Reep; Sherwood, Chet C.
Although the basic morphological characteristics of neurons in the cerebellar cortex have been documented in several species, virtually nothing is known about the quantitative morphological characteristics of these neurons across different taxa. To that end, the present study investigated cerebellar neuronal morphology among eight different, large-brained mammalian species comprising a broad phylogenetic range: afrotherians (African elephant, Florida manatee), carnivores (Siberian tiger, clo...
Jacobs, Bob; Johnson, Nicholas L.; Wahl, Devin; Schall, Matthew; Busisiwe C Maseko; Lewandowski, Albert; Raghanti, Mary A.; Wicinski, Bridget; Butti, Camilla; Hopkins, William D.; Bertelsen, Mads F; Walsh, Timothy; Roberts, John R.; Reep, Roger L.; Hof, Patrick R
Although the basic morphological characteristics of neurons in the cerebellar cortex have been documented in several species, virtually nothing is known about the quantitative morphological characteristics of these neurons across different taxa. To that end, the present study investigated cerebellar neuronal morphology among eight different, large-brained mammalian species comprising a broad phylogenetic range: afrotherians (African elephant, Florida manatee), carnivores (Siberian tiger, clou...
Harington, C. R.; Mol, Dick; van der Plicht, Johannes
The Muirkirk Mammoth, found in 1895 2.4 km northeast of the village of Muirkirk in southern Ontario, is the most complete woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) skeleton known from Canada. Approximate tusk measurements and extreme wear on the sixth molars indicate it is best referred to an old male.
Muhs, Daniel R.; Simmons, Kathleen R.; Groves, Lindsey T.; McGeehin, John P.; Randall Schumann, R.; Agenbroad, Larry D.
Fossils of Columbian mammoths (Mammuthus columbi) and pygmy mammoths (Mammuthus exilis) have been reported from Channel Islands National Park, California. Most date to the last glacial period (Marine Isotope Stage [MIS] 2), but a tusk of M. exilis (or immature M. columbi) was found in the lowest marine terrace of Santa Rosa Island. Uranium-series dating of corals yielded ages from 83.8 ± 0.6 ka to 78.6 ± 0.5 ka, correlating the terrace with MIS 5.1, a time of relatively high sea level. Mammoths likely immigrated to the islands by swimming during the glacial periods MIS 6 (~ 150 ka) or MIS 8 (~ 250 ka), when sea level was low and the island-mainland distance was minimal, as during MIS 2. Earliest mammoth immigration to the islands likely occurred late enough in the Quaternary that uplift of the islands and the mainland decreased the swimming distance to a range that could be accomplished by mammoths. Results challenge the hypothesis that climate change, vegetation change, and decreased land area from sea-level rise were the causes of mammoth extinction at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary on the Channel Islands. Pre-MIS 2 mammoth populations would have experienced similar or even more dramatic changes at the MIS 6/5.5 transition.
Hautier, Lionel; Stansfield, Fiona J.; Allen, W. R. Twink; Asher, Robert J
We provide here unique data on elephant skeletal ontogeny. We focus on the sequence of cranial and post-cranial ossification events during growth in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Previous analyses on ossification sequences in mammals have focused on monotremes, marsupials, boreoeutherian and xenarthran placentals. Here, we add data on ossification sequences in an afrotherian. We use two different methods to quantify sequence heterochrony: the sequence method and event-paring/Pars...
Partial DNA sequences of cytochrome b gene (mtDNA) were successfully retrieved from Late Pleistocene fossil bone of Mammuthus primigenius collected from the Xiguitu County (Yakeshi), Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and from Zhaodong, Harbin of Heilongjiang Province in northern China. Two ancient DNA fragments ( 109 bp and 124 bp) were authenticated by reproducible experiments in two different laboratories and by phylogenetic analysis with other Elephantidae taxa. Phylogenetic analysis using these sequences and published data in either separate or combined datasets indicate unstable relationship among the woolly mammoth and the two living elephants, Elephas and Loxodonta. In addition to the short sequences used to attempt the long independent evolution of Elephantidae terminal taxa, we suggest that a high intra-specific diversity existed in Mammuthus primigenius crossing both spatial and temporal ranges, resulting in a complex and divergent genetic background for DNA sequences so far recovered. The high genetic diversity in the extinct woolly mammoth can explain the apparent instability of Elephantidae taxa on the molecular phylogenetic trees and can reconcile the apparent paradox regarding the unresolved Elephantidae trichotomy.
Helgen Kristofer M
Full Text Available Abstract An issue arising from recent progress in establishing the placental mammal Tree of Life concerns the nomenclature of high-level clades. Fortunately, there are now several well-supported clades among extant mammals that require unambiguous, stable names. Although the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature does not apply above the Linnean rank of family, and while consensus on the adoption of competing systems of nomenclature does not yet exist, there is a clear, historical basis upon which to arbitrate among competing names for high-level mammalian clades. Here, we recommend application of the principles of priority and stability, as laid down by G.G. Simpson in 1945, to discriminate among proposed names for high-level taxa. We apply these principles to specific cases among placental mammals with broad relevance for taxonomy, and close with particular emphasis on the Afrotherian family Tenrecidae. We conclude that no matter how reconstructions of the Tree of Life change in years to come, systematists should apply new names reluctantly, deferring to those already published and maximizing consistency with existing nomenclature.
Wang, Y.; Newsom, L.; Belmecheri, S.; Culleton, B.; Williams, J. W.
St. Paul Island, AK, part of the Pribilofs, is an island remnant of the Bering Land Bridge, a possible coastal Picea refugium at the last glacial maximum, and a Holocene refugium for Mammuthus primigenius. A prior pollen record from Lake Hill indicates that St. Paul was predominantly herb tundra during the last glacial maximum followed by a shrub tundra in the early Holocene (Colinvaux, 1980). Subsequently, three radiocarbon dates on bones from Qagnax Cave indicate a last appearance of Mammuthus primigenius of 6.5 ka on St. Paul (Veltre et al. 2008). In March 2013, our team retrieved a 13.5 m composite core from Lake Hill to refine the extinction timing chronology, assess environmental change during the extinction interval, and test hypotheses about vegetation-megafauna feedback. This paper reports the results from modern botanical survey and analyses of fossil pollen, Sporormiella and other coprophilous spores, anchored by a new radiocarbon chronology consisting of seven AMS dates. Presently, bryophytes, Equisetum, Poaceae, Juncaceae, Salix and Viola commonly occur at the lake margin, accompanied increasingly by sedge meadow taxa with greater distance from the water's edge, especially Cyperaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae, Lupinus, Rubus and Valeriana. Sporormiella is consistently present in low abundances (2%, ~700 grains/cm3) in the late glacial and early Holocene until a drop to zero at 6,050 yr BP, remaining absent during the middle and late Holocene when it reappears at 1904 AD. The timing of Sporormiella decline and reappearance match well to the youngest mammoth bone date and the historic reintroduction of reindeer (1911 AD) on St. Paul Island. After 11 ka, major pollen types include Apiaceae, Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Artemisia and Salix, with lower abundances of Betula, Alnus and Ericaceae, consistent with herb tundra with some shrubs. Degraded Picea pollen grains are found at 12,240 yr BP in very low concentrations (223 grains/cm3), indicating long
@@ What is a mammal? Mammals are warm-blooded animals that have a backbone.Mammals are the only animals that feed their babies with mother's milk.All mammals are warm-blllded.That means they keep the same body temperature all the time.
Solis-Pichardo, G.; Perez-Crespo, V.; Schaaf, P. E.; Arroyo-Cabrales, J.
Asserting mobility of ancient humans is a major issue for anthropologists. For more than 25 years, Sr isotopes have been used as a resourceful tracer tool in this context. A comparison of the 87Sr/86Sr ratios found in tooth enamel and in bone is performed to determine if the human skeletal remains belonged to a local or a migrant. Sr in bone approximately reflects the isotopic composition of the geological region where the person lived before death; whereas the Sr isotopic system in tooth enamel is thought to remain as a closed system and thus conserves the isotope ratio acquired during childhood. Sr isotope ratios are obtained through the geologic substrate and its overlying soil, from where an individual got hold of food and water; these ratios are in turn incorporated into the dentition and skeleton during tissue formation. In previous studies from Teotihuacan, Mexico we have shown that a three-step leaching procedure on tooth enamel samples is important to assure that only the biogenic Sr isotope contribution is analyzed. The same Sr isotopic tools can function concerning ancient animal migration patterns. To determine or to discard the mobility of prairie mammoths (Mammuthus columbi) found at Laguna de las Cruces, San Luis Potosi, México the leaching procedure was applied on six molar samples from several fossil remains. The initial hypothesis was to use 87Sr/86Sr values to verify if the mammoth population was a mixture of individuals from various herds and further by comparing their Sr isotopic composition with that of plants and soils, to confirm their geographic origin. The dissimilar Sr results point to two distinct mammoth groups. The mammoth population from Laguna de Cruces was then not a family unit because it was composed by individuals originated from different localities. Only one individual was identified as local. Others could have walked as much as 100 km to find food and water sources.
Describes the distinctive characteristics of mammals and compares modern mammals with their prehistoric relatives as well as with other animal groups. Includes activities and ready-to-copy games, illustrations, and diagrams of wolves, vertebrates, and past and present mammals. (ML)
Pointer Marie A
Full Text Available Abstract Background When simple sequence repeats are integrated into functional genes, they can potentially act as evolutionary ‘tuning knobs’, supplying abundant genetic variation with minimal risk of pleiotropic deleterious effects. The genetic basis of variation in facial shape and length represents a possible example of this phenomenon. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2, which is involved in osteoblast differentiation, contains a functionally-important tandem repeat of glutamine and alanine amino acids. The ratio of glutamines to alanines (the QA ratio in this protein seemingly influences the regulation of bone development. Notably, in domestic breeds of dog, and in carnivorans in general, the ratio of glutamines to alanines is strongly correlated with facial length. Results In this study we examine whether this correlation holds true across placental mammals, particularly those mammals for which facial length is highly variable and related to adaptive behavior and lifestyle (e.g., primates, afrotherians, xenarthrans. We obtained relative facial length measurements and RUNX2 sequences for 41 mammalian species representing 12 orders. Using both a phylogenetic generalized least squares model and a recently-developed Bayesian comparative method, we tested for a correlation between genetic and morphometric data while controlling for phylogeny, evolutionary rates, and divergence times. Non-carnivoran taxa generally had substantially lower glutamine-alanine ratios than carnivorans (primates and xenarthrans with means of 1.34 and 1.25, respectively, compared to a mean of 3.1 for carnivorans, and we found no correlation between RUNX2 sequence and face length across placental mammals. Conclusions Results of our diverse comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that QA ratio does not consistently correlate with face length across the 41 mammalian taxa considered. Thus, although RUNX2 might function as a ‘tuning knob’ modifying face
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high...
Cristol, Daniel A.
Gives introductory information about the study of small mammals including the selection and use of harmless live-traps, handling and identification, techniques for observation and trapping in the wild, and safety measures. Suggests useful references for teachers wishing to develop a small mammal study program for their students. (JHZ)
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Small mammal traps were placed in the Baring division and in the Edmunds division of Moosehom National Wildlife Refuge. There were a total of 98 traps set for up to...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This checklist contains 46 species which may be found on Stillwater Wildlife Management Area. A key to mammalian families based on Hall's Mammals of Nevada is...
An international group of 32 scientists has critically reviewed the scientific literature on exposure and effects of environmental contaminants in wild mammals. The underlying theme of this text is encompassed by the following four questions: What exactly do we know about environmental contaminants in mammals? What are the commonalities and differences between mammal orders/species in the effects that contaminants have? How and to what degree of accuracy can we predict the adverse effects of environmental contaminants on mammalian wildlife? How significant are contaminant insults compared with other density-independent and -dependent factors such as habitat loss, climatic factors and disease? The book is organized three topical sections including introductory chapters that provide a background on environmental contaminants and the mammalian orders, eight taxonomic chapters discussing all aspects of the exposure to and effects of contaminants in mammalian orders, and four thematic chapters that review and discuss generic issues including biomarkers, prediction and extrapolation of exposure and effects, hazard and risk assessment, and the relative significance of contaminants on mammals compared with other commonly encountered stressors. A final a summary chapter identifies phylogenetic trends, critical data gaps, and overarching research needs. Although the absolute number of toxicological studies in domesticated and wild mammals eclipses that wildlife species, a detailed examination of our knowledge base reveals that information for 'wild' birds is actually greater than that for 'wild' mammals. Of the various mammalian taxa, ecotoxicological data is most noticeably lacking for marsupials and monotremes. In contrast, rodents (comprising 43% of all mammal species) have been studied extensively, despite evidence of their tolerance to some organochlorine compounds, rodenticides, and even radionuclides. Mammalian species at greatest risk of exposure include those that
Ortiz, R. M.
Osmoregulation in marine mammals has been investigated for over a century; however, a review of recent advances in our understanding of water and electrolyte balance and of renal function in marine mammals is warranted. The following topics are discussed: (i) kidney structure and urine concentrating ability, (ii) sources of water, (iii) the effects of feeding, fasting and diving, (iv) the renal responses to infusions of varying salinity and (v) hormonal regulation. The kidneys of pinnipeds and cetaceans are reniculate in structure, unlike those of terrestrial mammals (except bears), but this difference does not confer any greater concentrating ability. Pinnipeds, cetaceans, manatees and sea otters can concentrate their urine above the concentration of sea water, but only pinnipeds and otters have been shown to produce urine concentrations of Na+ and Cl- that are similar to those in sea water. This could afford them the capacity to drink sea water and not lose fresh water. However, with few exceptions, drinking is not a common behavior in pinnipeds and cetaceans. Water balance is maintained in these animals via metabolic and dietary water, while incidental ingestion and dietary salt may help maintain electrolyte homeostasis. Unlike most other aquatic mammals, sea otters commonly drink sea water and manatees frequently drink fresh water. Among the various taxonomic groups of marine mammals, the sensitivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system appears to be influenced by the availability of Na+. The antidiuretic role of vasopressin remains inconclusive in marine mammals, while the natriuretic function of atrial natriuretic peptide has yet to be examined. Ideas on the direction of future studies are presented.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for terrestrial mammals in Louisiana. Vector polygons in this data set represent terrestrial mammal...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine...; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB005 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.../2\\ W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501, has applied in due form for a permit to take marine mammals in... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as...
... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Permit No. 14334, issued on August 17, 2009 (74 FR... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XP18 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing...
... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). Permit No. 14534, issued on July 2, 2010 (75 FR 39665... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing...
... in the Federal Register (76 FR 4091) that Dr. Burns had requested a permit to collect/receive, import... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA165 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... ] scientific research on marine mammal parts. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available...
... December 9, 2010, notice was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 76703) that a request for a permit... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA078 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.... Environmental Research and Services, Fairbanks, AK, to conduct research on marine mammals in Alaska....
... published in the Federal Register (76 FR 30919) that a request for a permit to conduct research on humpback... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB065 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16...
A baseline study of the marine mammals of northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca was undertaken from November 1977 to September 1979 emphasizing certain aspects of the biology of the harbor seal, which is the most abundant marine mammal in this area. The local abunda...
Turvey, Samuel T; Fritz, Susanne A
Although the recent historical period is usually treated as a temporal base-line for understanding patterns of mammal extinction, mammalian biodiversity loss has also taken place throughout the Late Quaternary. We explore the spatial, taxonomic and phylogenetic patterns of 241 mammal species exti...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for the northern river otter in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data set represent terrestrial mammal...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for river otters in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data set represent the terrestrial mammal...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for brown bears in Western Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent terrestrial mammal...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for dolphins and manatees in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for whales and dolphins in American Samoa. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal...
Full Text Available Epigenetic information can be passed on from one generation to another via DNA methylation, histone modifications and changes in small RNAs, a process called epigenetic memory. During a mammal’s lifecycle epigenetic reprogramming, or the resetting of most epigenetic marks, occurs twice. The first instance of reprogramming occurs in primordial germ cells and the second occurs following fertilization. These processes may be both passive and active. In order for epigenetic inheritance to occur the epigenetic modifications must be able to escape reprogramming. There are several examples supporting this non-Mendelian mechanism of inheritance including the prepacking of early developmental genes in histones instead of protamines in sperm, genomic imprinting via methylation marks, the retention of CenH3 in mammalian sperm and the inheritance of piwi-associated interfering RNAs. The ability of mammals to pass on epigenetic information to their progeny provides clear evidence that inheritance is not restricted to DNA sequence and epigenetics plays a key role in producing viable offspring.
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply:...
... Register (75 FR 39915) that a request for a permit to conduct research on gray whales (Eschrictius robustus... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Science Center, Newport, OR has been issued a permit to conduct research on marine...
... (75 FR 68757), notice of receipt of an application to amend Permit No. 781-1824 was published... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ66 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National...
... No. 14241, issued on July 15, 2009 (74 FR 3668), authorizes the permit holder to conduct research on...) issued on July 27, 2010 (75 FR 47779): (1) Included authorization for collection of a skin and blubber... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XO45 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National...
The proportions of the leg bones change as the size of an animal becomes larger since the mass of the animal increases at a faster rate than the cross-sectional area of its leg bones. For the case of elastic similarity (in which the longitudinal stress in the legs remains constant in animals of all sizes), the diameter d and length L of the femur should be related as d = A L3/2. For geometric similarity (in which all dimensions are scaled by the same factor), d = A L. For animals with femora longer than 20 cm, we find the power law relationship to be d = A Lb with b = 1.13 +/- 0.06 for extant mammals (the largest mammal being Loxodonta africana with a 1.00-m-long femur) and b = 1.18 +/- 0.02 for dinosaurs (the largest dinosaur being Brachiosaurus brancai with a 2.03-m-long femur). These data show that extinct dinosaurs and extant animals scale in the same basic manner. The large sauropods (with femora twice as long as found in elephants) scale in a manner consistent with extrapolation of the scaling shown by extant mammals. These results argue that extinct dinosaurs moved in a manner very similar to extant mammals.
A few years ago a new and interesting mammal, which is exceedingly rare, even in its native haunts, was brought to the then Resident of Palembang, Mr. A. Pruys van der Hoeven. This gentleman who is not only an eager sportsman, but also well-versed in natural history, recognised it to be new to scien
The high rate of deforestation over the Andean forests has generated a large proportion of fragmented landscapes in the country. The distribution of oak groves in the country was determined based on ecosystem maps. Charala and Encino oak groves patches are the largest ones found at the east Andes and like others, due to the unfair use of these resources, have suffered a fragmentation process. Fifty-five species of mammals included in 10 orders and 14 families were found in these forests. Chiroptera and Rodentia were the most representative groups. Anthropic processes had produced a 68.1% loss of the habitat and constitute the main threat for these forests. The sizes of the patches were evaluated for three mammal species categories. The patches' area are not favorable for large-size species, intermediately to favorable to medium-size species and are favorable for small-size species. It is suggested that patches' area effect over mammal species could relate to the decrease of species richness and of each fragment area. There are good connections between patches (only five isolated), allowing the presence of a greater species diversity. There is also a bleak plateau zone between connected patches increasing their connectivity and offering different habitats and resources for some mammal species
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data on marine mammal strandings are collected by the Southeast Marine Mammal Stranding Network. Basic data on the location, species identification, animal...
... with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 and implementing regulations (50 CFR parts 18 and 216... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully...
Chiu, Ching-Sang; Collins, Curtis; Joseph, John; Margolina, Tetyana; Stimpert, Alison; Miller, Chris
The Marine Mammal Group within the Ocean Acoustics Laboratory at NPS is involved with a range of research studying marine mammal acoustics , both sound production and effects of anthropogenic sound on marine mammals. A sampling of our research is described below.
Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael; Morin, Philip A
such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an oppor- tunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have...... focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes...... in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such ‘presence only’ studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC maintains data in three NODC Standard Format Marine Mammal Data Sets: Marine Mammal Sighting and Census (F127); Marine Mammal Specimens (F025); Marine Mammal...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Trappin is a multifunctional host-defense peptide that has antiproteolytic, antiinflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. The numbers and compositions of trappin paralogs vary among mammalian species: human and sheep have a single trappin-2 gene; mouse and rat have no trappin gene; pig and cow have multiple trappin genes; and guinea pig has a trappin gene and two other derivativegenes. Independent duplications of trappin genes in pig and cow were observed recently after the species were separated. To determine whether these trappin gene duplications are restricted only to certain mammalian lineages, we analyzed recently-developed genome databases for the presence of duplicate trappin genes. Results The database analyses revealed that: 1 duplicated trappin multigenes were found recently in the nine-banded armadillo; 2 duplicated two trappin genes had been found in the Afrotherian species (elephant, tenrec, and hyrax since ancient days; 3 a single trappin-2 gene was found in various eutherians species; and 4 no typical trappin gene has been found in chicken, zebra finch, and opossum. Bayesian analysis estimated the date of the duplication of trappin genes in the Afrotheria, guinea pig, armadillo, cow, and pig to be 244, 35, 11, 13, and 3 million-years ago, respectively. The coding regions of trappin multigenes of almadillo, bovine, and pig evolved much faster than the noncoding exons, introns, and the flanking regions, showing that these genes have undergone accelerated evolution, and positive Darwinian selection was observed in pig-specific trappin paralogs. Conclusion These results suggest that trappin is an eutherian-specific molecule and eutherian genomes have the potential to form trappin multigenes.
P. O. Nameer
Full Text Available A checklist of mammals of Kerala State is presented in this paper. Accepted English names, scientific binomen, prevalent vernacular names in Malayalam, IUCN conservation status, endemism, Indian Wildlife (Protection Act schedules, and the appendices in the CITES, pertaining to the mammals of Kerala are also given. The State of Kerala has 118 species of mammals, 15 of which are endemic to Western Ghats, and 29 species fall under the various threatened categories of IUCN.
Víctor Pacheco; Richard Cadenillas; Edith Salas; Carlos Tello; Horacio Zeballos
We present an annotated list for all land, aquatic and marine mammals known to occur in Peru and their distribution by ecoregions. We also present species conservation status according to international organizations and the legal conservation status in Peru. At present, we record 508 species, in 13 orders, 50 families, and 218 genera, making Peru the third most diverse country with regards to mammals in the New World, after Brazil and Mexico, and the fifth most diverse country for mammals in ...
... inducing mild temporary threshold shift (TTS), the mildest form of hearing impairment (a non-injurious... to disturb a marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild by causing disruption of behavioral... FR 32379). That notice described, in detail, Statoil's proposed activity, the marine mammal...
The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) released a report on 27 April indicating that U.S. Navy sonar transmissions may have played a role in the stranding of more than 150 melon-headed whales on 3 July 2004 off the coast of Kauai, Hawaii. At the time of the stranding, which resulted in one whale death, the Navy was preparing to conduct sonar activities as part of a military exercise. The report notes that six naval surface vessels transiting to the area on the previous night intermittenly transmitted mid-frequency active sonar. That activity is ``a plausible, if not likely, contributing factor'' to the stranding event. There was no significant weather, natural oceanographic event, or known biological factors that would explain the animals' movement into the bay nor the group's continued presence in the bay, according to report lead author Teri Rowles, NOAA marine mammal veterinarian.
Full Text Available Abstract Some 63 species have been recorded in Albania from 1950 to 1994, with the exclusion of Cetacea. Another 15 species, including 5 found on the eastern border between Albania and Greece, are considered probably present. Hence 78 species could occur in Albania. According to IUCN red list of threatened animals, 8 species are defined as vulnerable, 15 as lower risk and one (the Mediterranean monk seal as critically endangered. In Albania, the legal protection of mammals includes all bat species, carnivores (except the stone marten, the red fox and the wolf, the chamois, the roe deer and the Mediterranean monk seal. General information on the distributional pattern and the population size is reported for some species, mainly carnivores.
Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, A
eutherian mammals had an endotheliochorial placenta or a haemochorial one. Research has been stimulated by improved understanding of the relations between the orders of mammals provided by molecular phylogenetics. In part, the uncertainties arise from doubt about how to root the mammalian tree. Resolution...
James C. Russell
Full Text Available The diversity of introduced mammals and their introduction history varies greatly across the Western Indian Ocean (WIO islands, from ancient introductions in the past millennia on islands off the East coast of Africa where extant terrestrial native mammal communities exist, to very recent invasions in the past decades on islands in the Mascarene archipelago. We compile the distribution of 16 introduced mammal taxa on 28 island groups comprising almost 2000 islands. Through an exhaustive literature review and expert consultation process we recorded all mammal eradications, and species recoveries which could be attributed to introduced mammal eradication or control. All island groups have been invaded by mammals, and invasive cats and rats in particular are ubiquitous, but cultural contingency has also led to regional invasions by other mammals such as lemurs, civets and tenrecs. Mammal eradications have been attempted on 45 islands in the WIO, the majority in the Seychelles and Mauritius, and where successful have resulted in spectacular recovery of species and ecosystems. Invasive mammalian predator eradication or control in association with habitat management has led to improved conservation prospects for at least 24 species, and IUCN red-list down-listing of eight species, in the Mascarene Islands. Future island conservation prioritisation in the region will need to take account of global climate change and predicted sea-level rises and coastal inundation. Greater investment and prioritisation in island conservation in the region is warranted, given its high biodiversity values and the extent of invasions.
..., Aquatic Animal Program, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610 (Ruth Francis-Floyd... brevetoxin studies; develop a marine mammal histology database and atlas, marine mammal cell lines;...
Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.
Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.
Czech-Damal, Nicole U; Dehnhardt, Guido; Manger, Paul; Hanke, Wolf
Passive electroreception is a sensory modality in many aquatic vertebrates, predominantly fishes. Using passive electroreception, the animal can detect and analyze electric fields in its environment. Most electric fields in the environment are of biogenic origin, often produced by prey items. These electric fields can be relatively strong and can be a highly valuable source of information for a predator, as underlined by the fact that electroreception has evolved multiple times independently. The only mammals that possess electroreception are the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the echidnas (Tachyglossidae) from the monotreme order, and, recently discovered, the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) from the cetacean order. Here we review the morphology, function and origin of the electroreceptors in the two aquatic species, the platypus and the Guiana dolphin. The morphology shows certain similarities, also similar to ampullary electroreceptors in fishes, that provide cues for the search for electroreceptors in more vertebrate and invertebrate species. The function of these organs appears to be very similar. Both species search for prey animals in low-visibility conditions or while digging in the substrate, and sensory thresholds are within one order of magnitude. The electroreceptors in both species are innervated by the trigeminal nerve. The origin of the accessory structures, however, is completely different; electroreceptors in the platypus have developed from skin glands, in the Guiana dolphin, from the vibrissal system. PMID:23187861
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Food Habits Reference Collection, containing over 8000 specimens of cephalopod beaks and fish bones and otoliths, is...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples are collected from stranded marine mammals in the Southeastern United States. These tissue samples are examined histologically and evaluated to...
Han, Barbara A; Kramer, Andrew M; Drake, John M
As the frequency and prevalence of zoonotic diseases increase worldwide, investigating how mammal host distributions determine patterns of human disease and predicting which regions are at greatest risk for future zoonotic disease emergence are two goals which both require better understanding of the current distributions of zoonotic hosts and pathogens. We review here the existing data about mammalian host species, comparing and contrasting these patterns against global maps of zoonotic hosts from all 27 orders of terrestrial mammals. We discuss the zoonotic potential of host species from the top six most species-rich mammal groups, and review the literature to identify analytical and conceptual gaps that must be addressed to improve our ability to generate testable predictions about zoonotic diseases originating from wild mammals. PMID:27316904
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Three marine mammals were regularly observed at Amchitka Island: sea otters (Enhydra lutris), Steller's sea lions (Eumetopias jubata), and harbor seals (Phoca...
@@ Chinese and American researchers have found a 125-million-year-old new species of mammal from the diversified trove of Jehol Fauna. Their work on the discovery has been published in a recent issue of Nature.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database represents a summary of information on stranded marine mammals reported to NMFS throughout the State of Alaska in fulfillment of Title IV of the...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in South Atlantic (Florida to Maryland) waters from 1994 to the...
Full Text Available Abstract A synthesis on the status of the Italian mammals species is reported. For each order, faunistic and biogeographic data and conservation concern are considered. In addition, a list of endemic, rare and/or endangered mammal species, classified according to the new IUCN criteria is provided as well as the species and subspecies recently introduced in Italian territory.
J Bennie; JP Duffy; R Inger; KJ Gaston
The majority of mammal species are nocturnal, but many are diurnal (active during the day), crepuscular (active mostly during twilight), or cathemeral (active during hours of daylight and darkness). These different strategies for regulating activity over a 24-h cycle are associated with suites of adaptations to light or semidarkness. The biogeography of these time partitioning strategies is, however, poorly understood. We show that global patterns in mammal diversity with different diel activ...
Yale Conrey, Reesa C.; Mills, L. Scott
Small mammal populations separated by highways may be partially or completely isolated from one another due to low dispersal capabilities, low probability of surviving highway crossing attempts, and/or avoidance of areas adjacent to highways. Threats to small mammals are problematic at the ecosystem level because of their importance as seed dispersers and their role as prey for predators, such as marten, wolverine, and raptors. Our objective is to determine how movement and gene flow are affe...
Anna M Magera
Full Text Available Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1 publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2 abundance trends and recovery status, and (3 historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%, Significantly Decreasing (10%, Non-Significant Change (28% and Unknown (20%. Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n = 47, larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular
Astudillo, Leonardo; Therville, Nicole; Colacios, Céline; Ségui, Bruno; Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie; Levade, Thierry
Sphingolipids represent a major class of lipids that are essential constituents of eukaryotic cells. They are predominantly located in plasma membrane microdomains, and play an important structural role in regulating membrane fluidity. They are also bioactive effectors involved in diverse key cellular functions such as apoptosis and proliferation. The implication of some sphingolipids in cancer is well established whereas that of some others is still a matter of intense investigation. Glucosylceramide is the backbone of more than 300 structurally different glycosphingolipids including gangliosides and sulfatides, and is essential for mammalian development. Therefore, glucosylceramidases (also named GBA1, GBA2 and GBA3 β-glucosidases), the enzymes that hydrolyse β-glucosylceramide, play important functions. GBA1 is a lysosomal hydrolase whose deficiency causes Gaucher disease, the most prevalent inherited lysosomal storage disorder. GBA2 is a ubiquitous non-lysosomal glucosylceramidase whose mutations have been associated with some forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia. GBA3 is a cytosolic β-glucosidase, mostly present in the kidney, liver, spleen, intestine and lymphocytes of mammals, the function of which is still unclear. Whereas glucosylceramide synthase is implicated in multidrug resistance, the role of glucosylceramide breakdown in cancer is not yet fully appreciated. Defective GBA1 enzyme activity in humans, i.e., Gaucher disease, is associated with an increased risk of multiple myeloma and other malignancies. Putative molecular links between Gaucher disease and cancer, which might implicate the malignant cell and/or its microenvironment, are reviewed. The functions of GBA2 and GBA3 in cancer progression are also discussed. PMID:26582417
Prothero, Donald R
Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated. PMID:25236413
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Importation of birds or mammals. 216.83 Section 216.83 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.83 Importation of birds or mammals. No mammals or...
Bocherens, Hervé; Germonpré, Mietje
Two Belgian caves yielded very rich large mammal associations dating around 30 to 40,000 years ago: Goyet and Scladina cave (layer 1A). These sites are only 5 km apart but the cave entrances open on different valleys, in a quite diverse landscape ranging between open, unprotected uplands, steep cliffs and sheltered sun-exposed gorges, with the larger Meuse valley nearby. This mosaic scenery permitted during the Last Glacial a rich diversity of fossil flora and fauna. The faunal association includes a large diversity of taxa including Aurochs Bos primigenius, steppe bison Bison priscus, reindeer Rangifer tarandus, giant deer Megaloceros giganteus, horse Equus ferus, woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis, woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius, cave bear Ursus spelaeus, brown bear Ursus arctos, wolf Canis lupus, cave lion Panthera leo spelaea, and cave hyaena Crocuta crocuta spelaea. All the 90 studied bones and teeth yielded collagen with excellent collagen preservation, allowing reliable investigations of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotopic biogeochemistry. The combination of three different isotopic tracers allows to deciphering the effects of food selection and landscape use by different herbivorous and carnivorous taxa. This is the first study to include sulfur isotopic signatures in the study of late Quaternary large mammal palaeobiology. This new tracer yields evidence on mobility and differences in pasture areas, as different geological bedrock may exhibit various sulfur isotopic signatures that will pass on the herbivores and further on their predators. Using this feature in addition to the trophic information provided by carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures, it appears that for some species present in both sites, such as horse and woolly rhinoceros, the individuals found in each site probably did not use the same pasture areas. This seems to also the case for the overwhelmingly vegetarian cave bears. In addition, individuals from the same species
... species and stocks, ecosystem process changes, and marine ecological research. The SWFSC is the research... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC336 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Fisheries Research AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...
Hetem, Robyn S; Fuller, Andrea; Maloney, Shane K; Mitchell, Duncan
Most large terrestrial mammals, including the charismatic species so important for ecotourism, do not have the luxury of rapid micro-evolution or sufficient range shifts as strategies for adjusting to climate change. The rate of climate change is too fast for genetic adaptation to occur in mammals with longevities of decades, typical of large mammals, and landscape fragmentation and population by humans too widespread to allow spontaneous range shifts of large mammals, leaving only the expression of latent phenotypic plasticity to counter effects of climate change. The expression of phenotypic plasticity includes anatomical variation within the same species, changes in phenology, and employment of intrinsic physiological and behavioral capacity that can buffer an animal against the effects of climate change. Whether that buffer will be realized is unknown, because little is known about the efficacy of the expression of plasticity, particularly for large mammals. Future research in climate change biology requires measurement of physiological characteristics of many identified free-living individual animals for long periods, probably decades, to allow us to detect whether expression of phenotypic plasticity will be sufficient to cope with climate change. PMID:27583293
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC maintains data in three NODC Standard Format Marine Mammal Data Sets: Marine Mammal Sighting and Census (F127); Marine Mammal Specimens (F025); Marine Mammal...
Mattila, Tiina M; Bokma, Folmer
Is gradual microevolutionary change within species simultaneously the source of macroevolutionary differentiation between species? Since its first publication, Darwin's original idea that phenotypic differences between species develop gradually over time, as the accumulation of small selection-induced changes in successive generations has been challenged by palaeontologists claiming that, instead, new species quickly acquire their phenotypes to remain virtually unchanged until going extinct again. This controversy, widely known as the 'punctuated equilibrium' debate, remained unresolved, largely owing to the difficulty of distinguishing biological species from fossil remains. We analysed body masses of 2143 existing mammal species on a phylogeny comprising 4510 (i.e. nearly all) extant species to estimate rates of gradual (anagenetic) and speciational (cladogenetic) evolution. Our Bayesian estimates from mammals as well as separate sub-clades such as primates and carnivores suggest that gradual evolution is responsible for only a small part of body size variation between mammal species. PMID:18595835
Carla Grasiele Zanin Hegel
Full Text Available Among environmental impacts, fragmentation of habitat for agriculture and livestock has led to a distortion of the natural environment and increased rates of wildlife killed on roads. Weekly surveys of road-killed mammals were made along highway RS-135 (km 8-34 between May 2008 and May 2010. For each case, we recorded the species and location along the road. We collected 95 mammals belonging to 16 species and 12 families, with a frequency of 0.025 roadkills per kilometer. The most abundant species were Cerdocyon thous (22.11%, Nasua nasua (10.52%, Pseudalopex gymnocercus (9.47% and Cavia aperea (7.37%, which together comprised 49.5% of the cases. This study contributed with information on roadkill of wild mammals in RS-135 of Rio Grande do Sul.
Cothran, E.G.; Smith, M.H.; Wolff, J.O.; Gentry, J.B.
This book is designed to be used as a field guide, reference book, bibliography, and introduction to the basic biology and ecology of the 54 mammal species that currently or potentially exist on or near the Savannah River Site (SRS). For 50 of these species, we present basic descriptions, distinguishing morphological features, distribution and habitat preferences, food habits, reproductive biology, social behavior, ecological relationships with other species, and economic importance to man. For those species that have been studied on the SRS, we summarize the results of these studies. Keys and illustrations are provided for whole body and skull identification. A selected glossary defines technical terminology. Illustrations of tracks of the more common larger mammals will assist in field identifications. We also summarize the results of two major long-term SRS studies, The Forbearer Census'' and White-tailed Deer Studies''. A cross-indexed list of over 300 SRS publications on mammals classifies each publication by 23 categories such as habitat, reproduction, genetics, etc., and also for each mammal species. The 149 Master's theses and Ph.D. dissertations that have been conducted at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory are provided as additional references.
Cothran, E.G.; Smith, M.H.; Wolff, J.O.; Gentry, J.B.
This book is designed to be used as a field guide, reference book, bibliography, and introduction to the basic biology and ecology of the 54 mammal species that currently or potentially exist on or near the Savannah River Site (SRS). For 50 of these species, we present basic descriptions, distinguishing morphological features, distribution and habitat preferences, food habits, reproductive biology, social behavior, ecological relationships with other species, and economic importance to man. For those species that have been studied on the SRS, we summarize the results of these studies. Keys and illustrations are provided for whole body and skull identification. A selected glossary defines technical terminology. Illustrations of tracks of the more common larger mammals will assist in field identifications. We also summarize the results of two major long-term SRS studies, ``The Forbearer Census`` and ``White-tailed Deer Studies``. A cross-indexed list of over 300 SRS publications on mammals classifies each publication by 23 categories such as habitat, reproduction, genetics, etc., and also for each mammal species. The 149 Master`s theses and Ph.D. dissertations that have been conducted at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory are provided as additional references.
This book is designed to be used as a field guide, reference book, bibliography, and introduction to the basic biology and ecology of the 54 mammal species that currently or potentially exist on or near the Savannah River Site (SRS). For 50 of these species, we present basic descriptions, distinguishing morphological features, distribution and habitat preferences, food habits, reproductive biology, social behavior, ecological relationships with other species, and economic importance to man. For those species that have been studied on the SRS, we summarize the results of these studies. Keys and illustrations are provided for whole body and skull identification. A selected glossary defines technical terminology. Illustrations of tracks of the more common larger mammals will assist in field identifications. We also summarize the results of two major long-term SRS studies, ''The Forbearer Census'' and ''White-tailed Deer Studies''. A cross-indexed list of over 300 SRS publications on mammals classifies each publication by 23 categories such as habitat, reproduction, genetics, etc., and also for each mammal species. The 149 Master's theses and Ph.D. dissertations that have been conducted at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory are provided as additional references
R.L. de Swart (Rik); T.C. Harder (Timm); P.S. Ross (Peter); H.W. Vos (Helma); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)
textabstractIn recent years, serious disease outbreaks among seals and dolphins were attributed to infection with established or newly recognized morbilliviruses. The first identification of a morbillivirus as causative agent of mass mortality among marine mammals was in 1988, when the previously un
Up to this day I knew only a single Mammal, Sciurus prevostii, from Billiton, a small island, situated between Borneo and Banka. As the islands between Sumatra and Borneo bear a peculiar scientific interest with regard to the distribution of the animals and to the hypothesis concerning the relation
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for dolphin and manatees in Mississippi. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for marine mammals in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for small mammal species in coastal Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey. Vector polygons...
... time; (4) Upon repeated exposure, a marine mammal may exhibit diminishing responsiveness (habituation...; cessation of social interaction; alteration of movement or diving behavior; avoidance; habitat abandonment... passes overhead. The apparent frequency is increased while the aircraft approaches and is reduced...
Mass, Alla M; Supin, Alexander Ya
The eye of aquatic mammals demonstrates several adaptations to both underwater and aerial vision. This study offers a review of eye anatomy in four groups of aquatic animals: cetaceans (toothed and baleen whales), pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses), sirenians (manatees and dugongs), and sea otters. Eye anatomy and optics, retinal laminar morphology, and topography of ganglion cell distribution are discussed with particular reference to aquatic specializations for underwater versus aerial vision. Aquatic mammals display emmetropia (i.e., refraction of light to focus on the retina) while submerged, and most have mechanisms to achieve emmetropia above water to counter the resulting aerial myopia. As underwater vision necessitates adjusting to wide variations in luminosity, iris muscle contractions create species-specific pupil shapes that regulate the amount of light entering the pupil and, in pinnipeds, work in conjunction with a reflective optic tapetum. The retina of aquatic mammals is similar to that of nocturnal terrestrial mammals in containing mainly rod photoreceptors and a minor number of cones (however, residual color vision may take place). A characteristic feature of the cetacean and pinniped retina is the large size of ganglion cells separated by wide intercellular spaces. Studies of topographic distribution of ganglion cells in the retina of cetaceans revealed two areas of ganglion cell concentration (the best-vision areas) located in the temporal and nasal quadrants; pinnipeds, sirenians, and sea otters have only one such area. In general, the visual system of marine mammals demonstrates a high degree of development and several specific features associated with adaptation for vision in both the aquatic and aerial environments. PMID:17516421
Adams, L.W.; Geis, A.D.
(1) The study was designed to determine the effects of roads on the diversity, spatial distribution, and density of small mammals. (2) Forty species of small mammal (5859 individuals) were snap-trapped in the study. Data resulted from 144 360 trap-nights of effort for an average of 4.06 captures per 100 trap-nights. (3) Small mammal community structure and density were both influenced by roads. Community structure in right-of-way (ROW) habitat was different from that in adjacent habitat. Five species did not prefer ROW habitat: the golden mouse, dusky-footed woodrat, brush mouse, pinon mouse, and California red-backed vole. However, there were more species present in ROW habitat than in adjacent habitat. Grassland species generally preferred ROW habitat and many less habitat-specific species were distributed in ROW and adjacent habitat. (4) Small mammal density (all species combined) was greater in interstate ROW habitat than in adjacent habitat. This was also true individually for the eastern harvest mouse, white-footed mouse, meadow vole, prairie vole, vagrant shrew. Townsend's vole, and California vole. Small mammal density was less in county road ROWs than in adjacent habitat, probably because of the small size of these areas. The data indicate that ROW habitat and its accompanying edge are attractive no: only to grassland species but also to many less habitat-specific species that make use of the ROW-edge-adjacent habitat complex. (5) Mortality on interstate highways was greatest for those species with highest densities in ROW habitat, and did not appear to be detrimental to populations of these species.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NMFS Alaska Fisheries Science Center National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Marine Mammal Osteology Collection consists of approximately 2500 specimens...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissues and samples collected from marine mammals during investigation of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Unusual Mortality Event are tracked within this...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data on marine mammal strandings are collected by the Southeast Marine Mammal Stranding Network. Basic data on the location, species identification, animal...
Albers, P.H.; Linder, G.; Nichols, J.D.
We compared population estimates, body mass, movement, and blood chemistry of small mammals between conventionally tilled and no-till cornfields in Maryland and Pennsylvania to evaluate the effects of tillage practices and carbofuran exposure on small mammals.
Full Text Available The role of small mammal mycophagy as vectors of hypogeous fungi is well established. However, little is known about dispersal of gourmet truffle species by mammal vectors, or about the potential role of mycophagy in truffle plantations. We hypothesize that small mammal mycophagy contributes to the productivity of truffle plantations by providing inoculum for truffle mycelium establishment and mating. Spread of non-desired competitors of gourmet truffles is a potential adverse effect of small mammal mycophagy.
Brando, Sabrina I. C. A.
The aim of this paper is to illustrate how the training of marine mammals has facilitated improved marine mammal husbandry practices. The marine mammal community has seen many changes, refinements and improvements in animal care programs since the first marine mammals were brought in captivity in the early 19th century. Cross disciplinary fields such as veterinarian science, psychology, physiology and conservation biology have advanced the knowledge and care of the different species of cetace...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC184 Marine Mammals; File No. 17403 AGENCY... the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216)....
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA915 Marine Mammals; File No. 16621 AGENCY... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The applicant requests a...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA936 Marine Mammals; File No. 17011 AGENCY... INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972... marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). Section 104(c)(6) provides for photography for educational...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA938 Marine Mammals; File No. 17029 AGENCY... applied in due form for a permit to receive, import, export, possess, and conduct analyses marine mammal... is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16...
... August 17, 2009 (74 FR 44822), authorizes taking of marine mammals during continuation of a long-term... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC010 Marine Mammals; File No. 14325 AGENCY... amendment to Permit No. 14325-01 is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act...
... (77 FR 19646) that a request for a permit to import marine mammal parts for scientific research had... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB139 Marine Mammals; File No. 17178 AGENCY... 1208 Greate Road, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 to import marine mammal parts for scientific...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB139 Marine Mammals; File No. 17178 AGENCY... permit to import marine mammal parts for scientific research. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA641 Marine Mammals; File No. 16553 AGENCY... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ86 Marine Mammals; File No. 14525 AGENCY... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The applicant proposes to...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA626 Marine Mammals; File No. 16111 AGENCY... form for a permit to conduct research on marine mammals. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email comments... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Mammals; File No. 16314 AGENCY: National Marine.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection... importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The applicant requests a five-year permit to conduct...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA597 Marine Mammals; File No. 16443 AGENCY... analyses marine mammal specimens for scientific research. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or e-mail comments... the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC599 Marine Mammals; File No. 17845 AGENCY... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV58 Marine Mammals; File No. 15430 AGENCY... requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216)....
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA165 Marine Mammals; File No. 15510 AGENCY... form for a permit to receive, import, and export marine mammal parts for scientific research. DATES... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.),...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA160 Marine Mammals; File No. 15530 AGENCY... Research, 218 W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501, has applied in due form for a permit to take marine mammals... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC218 Marine Mammals; File No. 17298 AGENCY..., Connecticut 06355 , has applied in due form for a permit to collect, import, export, and receive marine mammal... requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C....
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC014 Marine Mammals; File No. 15777 AGENCY... to take marine mammals during scientific research in coastal waters and adjacent waters off the... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Importation of live wild mammals. 16.11... mammals. (a) The importation, transportation, or acquisition is prohibited of live specimens of: (1) Any... mammals under the terms and conditions set forth in § 16.22. (b) Upon the filing of a written...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC956 Marine Mammals; File No. 17030 AGENCY...., Oregon State University, Marine Mammal Institute, Hatfield Marine Science Center, 2030 SE ] Marine... marine mammals specimens for scientific research. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email comments must...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC067 Marine Mammals; File No. 17350 AGENCY... receive marine mammal parts for scientific research. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email comments must be... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et...
... importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The original permit, issued on February 9, 2006 (71 FR 8279...D, Marine Mammal Research Program Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O. Box 1106, Kailua, Hawaii... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA197 Marine Mammals; File No. 978-1791...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for terrestrial mammals in North Carolina. Vector polygons in this data set represent terrestrial mammal...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine mammals (seals) in the Hudson River. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal...
Full Text Available Twenty-seven species of arthropods were collected from 105 wild mammals, six wolves Canis lupus (Linnaeus, 1758 included. A total of 87 animals (82,8 % harboured some ectoparasites. Ticks were found in 60 % of the samples, fleas in 51.4 %, chewing-lice in 3.8 %, and others (Mesostigmata and hippoboscids in 3.8 %. Moreover, 42.5 % were single infestation and 57.5 % mixed. Some of the species were new records for a host in spanish country such as Trichodectes canis (De Géer, 1778, Ixodes trianguliceps (Birula, 1895, Ceralophyllus (Monopsyllus S. sciurorum (Schrank, 1803 and Paraceras melis melis (Walker, 1856 on several mammals. Two species were new records for Spain: Chaetopsylla matina (Jordan, 1925 and Archaeopsylla erinacei erinacei (Bouché, 1835.
Dormann, Carsten F; Gruber, Bernd; Winter, Marten; Herrmann, Dirk
Our ability to predict consequences of climate change is severely impaired by the lack of knowledge on the ability of species to adapt to changing environmental conditions. We used distribution data for 140 mammal species in Europe, together with data on climate, land cover and topography, to derive a statistical description of their realized climate niche. We then compared climate niche overlap of pairs of species, selected on the basis of phylogenetic information. In contrast to expectations, related species were not similar in their climate niche. Rather, even species pairs that had a common ancestor less than 1 Ma already display very high climate niche distances. We interpret our finding as a strong interspecific competitive constraint on the realized niche, rather than a rapid evolution of the fundamental niche. If correct, our results imply a very limited usefulness of climate niche models for the prediction of future mammal distributions. PMID:19828492
Xian, Yin; Nolte, Loren; Tantum, Stacy; Liao, Xuejun; Zhang, Yuan
Since the spectrogram does not preserve phase information contained in the original data, any algorithm based on the spectrogram is not likely to be optimum for detection. In this paper, we present the Short Time Fourier Transform detector to detect marine mammals in the time-frequency plane. The detector uses phase information for detection. We evaluate this detector by comparing it to the existing spectrogram based detectors for different SNRs and various environments including a known ocea...
Stockley, P; Parker, G.A.
Mammal life history traits relating to growth and reproduction are extremely diverse. Sibling rivalry may contribute to selection pressures influencing this diversity, because individuals that are relatively large at birth typically have an advantage in competition for milk. However, selection for increased growth rate is likely to be constrained by kin selection and physiological costs. Here, we present and test a model examining the ESS (evolutionarily stable strategy) balance between these...
Berta, Annalisa; Sumach, James L.; Kit M. Kovacs
The ever-popular field of biology that focuses on mammals that evolved to exploit the marine environment has spawned a suite of texts in the last decade. These have been dedicated to the evolution, systematics, morphology, anatomy, physiology, behaviour, sociobiology, ecology and conservation of this well-studied group. Berta et al.’s latest addition to this literature is an impressive advancement of their first edition (2003), and is certainly the only major authored work of its kind [the co...
Smith, F. A.; Lyons, S.K.; Ernest, S.K. Morgan; Jones, K E; Kaufman, D M; Dayan, T.; Marquet, P. A.; Haskell, J. P.
The purpose of this data set was to compile body mass information for all mammals on Earth so that we could investigate the patterns of body mass seen across geographic and taxonomic space and evolutionary time. We were interested in the heritability of body size across taxonomic groups (How conserved is body mass within a genus, family, and order?), in the overall pattern of body mass across continents (Do the moments and other descriptive statistics remain the same across geographic space?)...
Animals require cognitive maps for efficiently navigating in their natural habitat. Cognitive maps are a neuronal representation of their outside world. In mammals, place cells and grid cells have been implicated to form the basis of these neuronal representations. Place cells are active at one particular location in an environment and grid cells at multiple locations of the external world that are arranged in a hexagonal lattice.
More, Heather Louise
Terrestrial mammals span a wide range of sizes, with the largest elephant being several million times more massive than the smallest shrew. This huge size range results in small and large animals experiencing very different physical challenges, yet all animals must effectively interact with their environment to survive. In order to sense and respond to stimuli with similar speed and precision, small and large animals may need to control their movement in different ways. To begin to understand...
Red blood cells (RBCs), which constitute the most abundant cell type in the body, come in two distinct flavors- primitive and definitive. Definitive RBCs in mammals circulate as smaller, anucleate cells during fetal and postnatal life, while primitive RBCs circulate transiently in the early embryo as large, nucleated cells before ultimately enucleating. Both cell types are formed from lineage-committed progenitors that generate a series of morphologically identifiable precursors that enucleat...
Visconti, Piero; Pressey, Robert L; Giorgini, Daniele; Maiorano, Luigi; Bakkenes, Michel; Boitani, Luigi; Alkemade, Rob; Falcucci, Alessandra; Chiozza, Federica; Rondinini, Carlo
Current levels of endangerment and historical trends of species and habitats are the main criteria used to direct conservation efforts globally. Estimates of future declines, which might indicate different priorities than past declines, have been limited by the lack of appropriate data and models. Given that much of conservation is about anticipating and responding to future threats, our inability to look forward at a global scale has been a major constraint on effective action. Here, we assess the geography and extent of projected future changes in suitable habitat for terrestrial mammals within their present ranges. We used a global earth-system model, IMAGE, coupled with fine-scale habitat suitability models and parametrized according to four global scenarios of human development. We identified the most affected countries by 2050 for each scenario, assuming that no additional conservation actions other than those described in the scenarios take place. We found that, with some exceptions, most of the countries with the largest predicted losses of suitable habitat for mammals are in Africa and the Americas. African and North American countries were also predicted to host the most species with large proportional global declines. Most of the countries we identified as future hotspots of terrestrial mammal loss have little or no overlap with the present global conservation priorities, thus confirming the need for forward-looking analyses in conservation priority setting. The expected growth in human populations and consumption in hotspots of future mammal loss mean that local conservation actions such as protected areas might not be sufficient to mitigate losses. Other policies, directed towards the root causes of biodiversity loss, are required, both in Africa and other parts of the world. PMID:21844048
Morrison, Shaun F.; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Madden, Christopher J.
Thermogenesis, the production of heat energy, is an essential component of the homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature in mammals and birds during the challenge of low environmental temperature and plays a key role in elevating body temperature during the febrile response to infection. The primary sources of neurally regulated metabolic heat production are mitochondrial oxidation in brown adipose tissue, increases in heart rate and shivering in skeletal muscle. Thermogenesis is re...
Stockley, P; Parker, G A
Mammal life history traits relating to growth and reproduction are extremely diverse. Sibling rivalry may contribute to selection pressures influencing this diversity, because individuals that are relatively large at birth typically have an advantage in competition for milk. However, selection for increased growth rate is likely to be constrained by kin selection and physiological costs. Here, we present and test a model examining the ESS (evolutionarily stable strategy) balance between these constraints and advantages associated with increased prenatal growth in mammal sibling rivalry. Predictions of the model are supported by results of comparative analyses for the Carnivora and Insectivora, which demonstrate an increase in prenatal growth rate with increasing intensity of postnatal scramble competition, and a decrease in postnatal growth rate relative to size at birth. Because increased prenatal growth rates are predicted to select for reduced gestation length under certain conditions, our study also indicates that sibling rivalry may contribute to selection pressures influencing variation in altriciality and precociality among mammals. PMID:12237403
Full Text Available We present an annotated list for all land, aquatic and marine mammals known to occur in Peru and their distribution by ecoregions. We also present species conservation status according to international organizations and the legal conservation status in Peru. At present, we record 508 species, in 13 orders, 50 families, and 218 genera, making Peru the third most diverse country with regards to mammals in the New World, after Brazil and Mexico, and the fifth most diverse country for mammals in the World. This diversity includes 40 didelphimorphs, 2 paucituberculates, 1 manatee, 6 cingulates, 7 pilosa, 39 primates, 162 rodents, 1 rabbit, 2 soricomorphs, 165 bats, 34 carnivores, 2 perissodactyls, and 47 cetartiodactyls. Bats and rodents (327 species represent almost two thirds of total diversity (64% for Peru. Five genera and 65 species (12.8% are endemics to Peru, with the majority of these being rodents (45 species, 69,2%. Most of the endemic species are restricted to the Yungas of the eastern slope of the Andes (39 species, 60% followed by Selva Baja (14 species, 21.5%. The taxonomic status of some species is commented on, when those depart from accepted taxonomy. The marsupial Marmosa phaea; the rodents Melanomys caliginosus, M. robustulus, and Echinoprocta rufescens; the shrew Cryptotis equatoris; the bats Anoura fistulata, Phyllostomus latifolius, Artibeus ravus, Cynomops greenhalli, Eumops maurus, and Rhogeessa velilla; and the carnivore Nasuella olivacea are first records of species occurrence in Peru. Finally, we also include a list of 15 non-native species.
Moore, Colby; Moore, Michael; Trumble, Stephen; Niemeyer, Misty; Lentell, Betty; McLellan, William; Costidis, Alexander; Fahlman, Andreas
In 1940, Scholander suggested that stiffened upper airways remained open and received air from highly compressible alveoli during marine mammal diving. There are few data available on the structural and functional adaptations of the marine mammal respiratory system. The aim of this research was to investigate the anatomical (gross) and structural (compliance) characteristics of excised marine mammal tracheas. Here, we defined different types of tracheal structures, categorizing pinniped tracheas by varying degrees of continuity of cartilage (categories 1-4) and cetacean tracheas by varying compliance values (categories 5A and 5B). Some tracheas fell into more than one category along their length; for example, the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) demonstrated complete rings cranially, and as the trachea progressed caudally, tracheal rings changed morphology. Dolphins and porpoises had less stiff, more compliant spiraling rings while beaked whales had very stiff, less compliant spiraling rings. The pressure-volume (P-V) relationships of isolated tracheas from different species were measured to assess structural differences between species. These findings lend evidence for pressure-induced collapse and re-inflation of lungs, perhaps influencing variability in dive depth or ventilation rates of the species investigated. PMID:24311807
Newman, Lucy A; Robinson, Phyllis R
It has long been hypothesized that the visual systems of animals are evolutionarily adapted to their visual environment. The entrance many millions of years ago of mammals into the sea gave these new aquatic mammals completely novel visual surroundings with respect to light availability and predominant wavelengths. This study examines the cone opsins of marine mammals, hypothesizing, based on previous studies [Fasick et al. (1998) and Levenson & Dizon (2003)], that the deep-dwelling marine mammals would not have color vision because the pressure to maintain color vision in the dark monochromatic ocean environment has been relaxed. Short-wavelength-sensitive (SWS) and long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cone opsin genes from two orders (Cetacea and Sirenia) and an additional suborder (Pinnipedia) of aquatic mammals were amplified from genomic DNA (for SWS) and cDNA (for LWS) by PCR, cloned, and sequenced. All animals studied from the order Cetacea have SWS pseudogenes, whereas a representative from the order Sirenia has an intact SWS gene, for which the corresponding mRNA was found in the retina. One of the pinnipeds studied (harp seal) has an SWS pseudogene, while another species (harbor seal) appeared to have an intact SWS gene. However, no SWS cone opsin mRNA was found in the harbor seal retina, suggesting a promoter or splice site mutation preventing transcription of the gene. The LWS opsins from the different species were expressed in mammalian cells and reconstituted with the 11-cis-retinal chromophore in order to determine maximal absorption wavelengths (lambda(max)) for each. The deeper dwelling Cetacean species had blue shifted lambda(max) values compared to shallower-dwelling aquatic species. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that in the monochromatic oceanic habitat, the pressure to maintain color vision has been relaxed and mutations are retained in the SWS genes, resulting in pseudogenes. Additionally, LWS opsins are retained in the
Packard, Gary C
A perplexing problem confronting students of metabolic allometry concerns the convex curvature that seemingly occurs in log-log plots of basal metabolic rate (BMR) vs. body mass in mammals. This putative curvilinearity has typically been interpreted in the context of a simple power function, Y=a*Xb, on the arithmetic scale, with the allometric exponent, b, supposedly increasing steadily as a dependent function of body size. The relationship can be quantified in arithmetic domain by exponentiating a quadratic equation fitted to logarithmic transformations of the original data, but the resulting model is not in the form of a power function and it is unlikely to describe accurately the pattern in the original distribution. I therefore re-examined a dataset for 636 species of mammal and discovered that the relationship between BMR and body mass is well-described by a power function with an explicit, non-zero intercept and lognormal, heteroscedastic error. The model has an invariant allometric exponent of 0.75, so the appearance in prior investigations of a steadily increasing exponent probably was an aberration resulting from undue reliance on logarithmic transformations to estimate statistical models in arithmetic domain. Theoretical constructs relating BMR to body mass in mammals may need to be modified to accommodate a positive intercept in the statistical model, but they do not need to be revised, or rejected, at present time on grounds that the allometric exponent varies with body size. New data from planned experiments will be needed to confirm any hypothesis based on data currently available. PMID:26173580
María L. Sandoval
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Quantitative evaluations of species distributional congruence allow evaluating previously proposed biogeographic regionalization and even identify undetected areas of endemism. The geographic scenery of Northwestern Argentina offers ideal conditions for the study of distributional patterns of species since the boundaries of a diverse group of biomes converge in a relatively small region, which also includes a diverse fauna of mammals. In this paper we applied a grid-based explicit method in order to recognize Patterns of Distributional Congruence (PDCs and Areas of Endemism (AEs, and the species (native but non-endemic and endemic, respectively that determine them. Also, we relate these distributional patterns to traditional biogeographic divisions of the study region and with a very recent phytogeographic study and we reconsider what previously rejected as 'spurious' areas. Finally, we assessed the generality of the patterns found. The analysis resulted in 165 consensus areas, characterized by seven species of marsupials, 28 species of bats, and 63 species of rodents, which represents a large percentage of the total species (10, 41, and 73, respectively. Twenty-five percent of the species that characterize consensus areas are endemic to the study region and define six AEs in strict sense while 12 PDCs are mainly defined by widely distributed species. While detailed quantitative analyses of plant species distribution data made by other authors does not result in units that correspond to Cabrera's phytogeographic divisions at this spatial scale, analyses of animal species distribution data does. We were able to identify previously unknown meaningful faunal patterns and more accurately define those already identified. We identify PDCs and AEs that conform Eastern Andean Slopes Patterns, Western High Andes Patterns, and Merged Eastern and Western Andean Slopes Patterns, some of which are re-interpreted at the light of known patterns of the
... mammals in the Chukchi Sea are discussed in the Federal Register (78 FR 35508; June 12, 2013) notice for... in the Federal Register (78 FR 35508; June 12, 2013) notice for the proposed IHA. No changes have... verification (SSV) study conducted for Statoil in 2010 in the Chukchi Sea during the open water season of...
... ``strudel scours''. Information on these features is required for prospective pipeline planning. Two..., 2010 (75 FR 27708). That notice described, in detail, Shell's proposed activity, the marine mammal... application, the notice of proposed IHA (75 FR 27708; May 18, 2010) and this document), NMFS determined...
.... adult females; adult male bearded seals can be identified) and the type of reaction (i.e., tracking... take small numbers of marine mammals by harassment. Section 101(a)(5)(D) establishes a 45-day time... submitted a revised application on November 16, 2010. In response to the need for information on the...
... to PISCO to take marine mammals incidental to these same proposed activities (77 FR 72327, December 5... Study of Coastal Oceans (PISCO) at the University of California (UC) Santa Cruz for an Incidental...-out count of California sea lions between the Oregon/ California border and Point Conception as...
... to PISCO to take marine mammals incidental to these same proposed activities (77 FR 72327, December 5... Study of Coastal Oceans (PISCO) at the University of California (UC) Santa Cruz for an Incidental.../ California border and Point Conception as well as the Channel Islands found 141,842 individuals (Carretta...
... in June 2008 for the construction of the Port (73 FR 33400, June 12, 2008), which expired on June 30... Port operations on June 26, 2009 (74 FR 31926, July 6, 2009). This IHA became effective on July 1, 2009...; harp seal; and hooded seal. Table 3-1 in Neptune's application outlines the marine mammal species...
... has monitored commercial fireworks displays for potential impacts to marine life and habitats since... impact on marine mammal species or stocks and their habitat, as well as requirements pertaining to the... fishing) within a specified geographical region if certain findings are made and either regulations...
... manatee (Trichechus manatus) is managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and is not considered... AFB, published in the Federal Register on June 4, 2013 (78 FR 33357). During the 30-day public comment... mammal takes was fully explained in the IHA application, the Notice of Proposed IHA (78 FR 33357, June...
... Trichechus manatus West Indian Endangered. manatee. ] Potential Impacts to Marine Mammal Species With respect... for this activity, which was published in the Federal Register on Tuesday, July 14, 2009 (74 FR 33960... action contained in the proposed rule (74 FR 33960; July 14, 2009; pages 33961-33962) has not...
... water surface (depending on sea state). The total volume of the airgun(s) is not expected to exceed 760... primary noise sources from the drill rig itself were from mechanical plants, fluid discharges, pumping... mammal responses to seismic pulses from a 24 airgun array firing a total volume of either 5,085 in\\3\\...
... planned 3D seismic survey would occur in the nearshore waters of the Colville River Delta in the Alaskan... interpretation of sighting data. Some baleen whales show considerable tolerance of seismic pulses. However, when... take marine mammals, by harassment only, incidental to a marine 3-dimensional (3D) ocean bottom...
van Opzeeland, Ilse
In polar habitats, research on marine mammals including studies of the possible ecological consequences of anthropogenic impact is hampered by adverse climate conditions restricting human access to these regions. Marine mammals are known to produce sound in various behavioural contexts, rendering (hydro-)acoustic recording techniques, which are quasi-omnidirectional and independent of light and weather conditions, an apt tool for year round monitoring of marine mammal presence and behaviour i...
Marine mammals have long-term life and occupy the highest ecological niche in the marine ecosystem. Thus, higher concentration of hazardous chemicals are expected in marine mammals. In the present study, we review contamination of organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs, HCHs, etc.), heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, etc.) and butyltin (TBT, DBT and MBT) in marine mammals collected from the western North Pacific, and discuss the worldwide contamination of these chemicals
Rondinini, Carlo; Boitani, Luigi; Rodrigues, Ana S. L.; Brooks, Thomas M.; Pressey, Robert L.; Visconti, Piero; Baillie, Jonathan E. M.; Baisero, Daniele; Cabeza, Mar; Crooks, Kevin R.; Di Marco,Moreno; Redford, Kent H; Andelman, Sandy A.; Hoffmann, Michael; Maiorano, Luigi
The huge conservation interest that mammals attract and the large datasets that have been collected on them have propelled a diversity of global mammal prioritization schemes, but no comprehensive global mammal conservation strategy. We highlight some of the potential discrepancies between the schemes presented in this theme issue, including: conservation of species or areas, reactive and proactive conservation approaches, conservation knowledge and action, levels of aggregation of indicators...
Maness, Heather T D; Nollens, Hendrik H; Jensen, Eric D; Goldstein, Tracey; LaMere, Sarah; Childress, April; Sykes, John; St Leger, Judy; Lacave, Géraldine; Latson, F Ed; Wellehan, James F X
Five novel DNA-dependent DNA polymerase (Dpol) herpesviral sequences were generated using nested consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in clinical samples from a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), orca (Orcinus orca), California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), and a Phocid herpesvirus 2 (PhHV-2) isolate from a harbor seal (used as positive control). These novel sequences and other representative herpesvirus sequences were included in Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood analyses to illustrate the phylogeny of herpesviruses amongst the marine mammal host species and in comparison to those of other animals. All 19 novel and known marine mammal herpesviruses included in the analyses aligned with members of the Alphaherpesvirinae or Gammaherpesvirinae subfamilies. The novel harbor seal herpesvirus clustered with members of the Macavirus genus, subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae. The novel bottlenose dolphin herpesvirus clustered together in a monophyletic group with another delphinid alphaherpesvirus but could not be associated with an established genus. The orca herpesvirus also clustered with a delphinid alphaherpesvirus and formed a separate clade. The sea lion herpesvirus clustered with PhHV-2. PhHV-1 clustered with varicelloviruses and PhHV-2 clustered strongly in the Gammaherpesvirinae genus Percavirus. All cetacean gammaherpesviruses formed a monophyletic clade and could not be associated with an established gammaherpesviral genus. PMID:21055885
Carter, Anthony M; Enders, Allen C
Interest in insectivoran grade mammals has been reawakened by taxonomic changes that place tenrecs and golden moles in a new order and separate hedgehogs from moles, shrews and solenodons. This survey of their placentation shows there is great variation even within families. As an example three subfamilies of tenrec have been examined. The interhemal region is cellular hemomonochorial in Echinops and Microgale but endotheliochorial in Micropotamogale. Golden moles, which are placed in the same order, have hemodichorial placentation. Many insectivores have complex arrangements for histotrophic nutrition involving columnar trophoblast cells. These range from areolae in moles through complexly folded hemophagous regions in tenrecs to the trophoblastic annulus in shrews. Of these placental characters, few offer support to current phylogenies. However, the case for placing hedgehogs and gymnures in a separate order (Erinaceomorpha) is bolstered by the presence of interstitial implantation, amniogenesis by cavitation, a hemochorial barrier and a prominent spongy zone; these features do not occur in shrews, moles or solenodons (Soricomorpha). Three insectivoran grade mammals deserve close attention as they have been selected for genome sequencing. One of these, the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), has not been studied with current methodology and renewed investigation of this or the closely related genus Atelerix should be a priority. PMID:19876821
La Grange, L J; Marucci, G; Pozio, E
Trichinella zimbabwensis has been detected in wild and farmed Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) and in wild monitor lizards (Varanus niloticus) of several African countries, but it has never been detected in mammals in nature, in spite of its infectivity to rodents, pigs, foxes and monkeys under laboratory conditions. The aim of this work was to describe the first detection of T. zimbabwensis in a naturally infected lion (Panthera leo) of the Kruger National Park (KNP) of South Africa. The sequence of the expansion segment V, a highly variable non-coding sequence of the large subunit ribosomal RNA of the genus Trichinella, of larvae from the lion was identical to that of larvae of T. zimbabwensis collected from a Nile crocodile originating from the same locality as the lion, suggesting a possible transmission of this parasite between mammals and reptiles. The KNP proves to be a very interesting area for parasites of the genus Trichinella since three taxa (Trichinella nelsoni, Trichinella T8 and T. zimbabwensis) circulate among the wildlife of this protected area. PMID:19580688
A brief review is given of the hypothesis that density-dependent behavioral-endocrine negative feedbacks can regulate and often limit the growth of populations of many species of small mammals. Recent laboratory studies are summarized that show how stress, particularly psychogenic, which results in increased adrenocortical secretion also alters gonadotropin secretion and inhibits reproduction. Chronic stress due to crowding, immobilization, et al. inhibits the release of LH and FSH, particularly by abolishing the pulsatile release of LH, and also causes a rise in prolactin (at least acutely). Stimulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical system is accompanied by an inversely proportional inhibition of growth hormone secretion. Decreasing photoperiod enhances the sensitivity of the hypothalamus to inhibition of gonadotropin secretion by androgens and estrogens. Other endocrine responses to increased density or subordinate social rank also are summarized. How these facts fit into the negative feedback scheme is discussed, including the greatly prolonged effects of diminished lactation. The changed quality of the animals associated with changes in density discussed by Lidicker also can be explained by the above responses to density. Data on changes in growth and reproductive function which are consistent with the behavioral-endocrine feedback hypothesis are presented for several populations of small mammals, including some previously unpublished data for Microtus pennsylvanicus
Many mammals hibernate each year for about 6 months in autumn and winter and reproduce during spring and summer when they are generally not in torpor. I tested the hypothesis that the marsupial pygmy-possum ( Cercartetus nanus), an opportunistic nonseasonal hibernator with a capacity for substantial fattening, would continue to hibernate well beyond winter. I also quantified how long they were able to hibernate without access to food before their body fat stores were depleted. Pygmy-possums exhibited a prolonged hibernation season lasting on average for 310 days. The longest hibernation season in one individual lasted for 367 days. For much of this time, despite periodic arousals after torpor bouts of ˜12.5 days, energy expenditure was reduced to only ˜2.5% of that predicted for active individuals. These observations represent the first report on body-fat-fuelled hibernation of up to an entire year and provide new evidence that prolonged hibernation is not restricted to placental mammals living in the cold.
Small mammals are one of the groups commonly studied as an ecological unit in ecosystem analysis; the aggregation being justified on taxonomic or methodological grounds. Since small mammals include animals with habits of herbivory, omnivory, and carnivory, nocturnal and diurnal habits, living in a great variety of habitats, and adapted to conditions of life such as burrowing and flight, the collection is a diverse taxonomic aggregation and an unusually bad ecological grouping. For ecosystem analysis, groupings of organisms that have evolved in common with each other in the community seem more reasonable than aggregations based on taxonomic grounds. The depth of the problem is made clear when we examine the record and find that there are almost no studies of energy and material flow in terrestrial food chains. It is incredible that almost every study of a population considers that population as a receiver and donor of energy and materials acting independently. It would appear that aggregation of food chains into ecosystem components might be more fruitful than aggregation of independent populations
Harington, C R
This review deals only with the evolutionary history of core Arctic marine mammals: polar bear (Ursus maritimus), walrus (Odobenus rosmarus), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandica), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus), white whale (Delphinapterus leucas), and narwhal (Monodon monoceras). Sections on the evolutionary background of pinnipeds and whales help to provide a better perspective on these core species. Polar bears stemmed from brown bears about the Early to Middle Pleistocene. Fossils are rare; the earliest records are from approximately Early Weichselian deposits of Kew Bridge, London, and Svalbard. Existing Pacific and Atlantic walruses probably arose from splitting of a former Holarctic range during a Pleistocene glacial phase of extensive sea ice in the Canadian Arctic. The earliest known bearded seal remains are from Early to Middle Pleistocene deposits of Norfolk, England, and Cape Deceit, Alaska. Other Pleistocene fossils of this species are recorded from the North Sea, southwestern Sweden, and the Champlain Sea that existed in eastern North America approximately 12 000-10000 BP. The harp seal is the commonest pinniped in the Weichselian deposits of the southern North Sea. The earliest recorded fossil is from about 2 million years ago (2 Ma), from Ocean Point, Alaska. The earliest known Pleistocene ringed seal fossils are from last interglacial deposits near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska, and Thule, Greenland, although an earlier (3 Ma?) specimen from Malaspina, Alaska, has been reported. This species seems to have been relatively abundant along the coasts of Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, during the Last Glacial Maximum. The bowhead whale probably originated in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The earliest (mid-Wisconsinan) Canadian remains are from Ellesmere and Devon islands. More than 400 radiocarbon-dated bowhead remains have been used to reconstruct Holocene sea ice history in
The goal of the project was to study L-pipecolic acid metabolism in mammals. Initially, homogenized rabbit kidney cortices were incubated with L-[2,3,4,5,6-3H]pipecolic acid. Anion exchange resin was used to separate the reaction product from the substrate. When the radioactive product eluted from the anion exchange column was separated by citrate buffer column chromatography, only one major radioactive peak was found. This peak coeluted with authentic α-aminoadipic acid. When organelles from both kidney and liver were separated on Percoll gradients, L-pipecolic acid oxidation paralleled the mitochondrial marker glutamate dehydrogenase. L-Pipecolic acid oxidation was inhibited by rotenone and antimycin A and was found to occur in the soluble fraction of the mitochondria. FAD, glycerol, and phenazine ethosulfate all increased oxidative activity. L-Proline, and other compounds which are structurally similar to L-pipecolic acid did not inhibit oxidative activity
A selection of terrestrial mammals was surveyed in the SKB site investigation areas near Forsmark and Haallnaes between January and April 2012. The methods that were used include snow tracking along line transects, snow tracking along water, aerial survey and fecal pellet counts. The same species were found in 2012 as in previous surveys performed in 2002, 2003 and 2007. Some species show a large variation in density between years and it is difficult to draw any conclusions about their long term development. Several carnivores, i.e. lynx, fox and otter show a positive growth rate in both areas. The wild boar population is also growing whilst moose density remains fairly stable and roe deer are becoming less numerous
Full Text Available Meiotic recombination is initiated by the induction of programmed DNA double strand breaks (DSBs. DSB repair promotes homologous interactions and pairing and leads to the formation of crossovers (COs, which are required for the proper reductional segregation at the first meiotic division. In mammals, several hundred DSBs are generated at the beginning of meiotic prophase by the catalytic activity of SPO11. Currently it is not well understood how the frequency and timing of DSB formation and their localization are regulated. Several approaches in humans and mice have provided an extensive description of the localization of initiation events based on CO mapping, leading to the identification and characterization of preferred sites (hotspots of initiation. This review presents the current knowledge about the proteins known to be involved in this process, the sites where initiation takes place, and the factors that control hotspot localization.
Carter, Anthony; Enders, Allen
Interest in insectivoran grade mammals has been reawakened by taxonomic changes that place tenrecs and golden moles in a new order and separate hedgehogs from moles, shrews and solenodons. This survey of their placentation shows there is great variation even within families. As an example three...... nutrition involving columnar trophoblast cells. These range from areolae in moles through complexly folded hemophagous regions in tenrecs to the trophoblastic annulus in shrews. Of these placental characters, few offer support to current phylogenies. However, the case for placing hedgehogs and gymnures in a...... they have been selected for genome sequencing. One of these, the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), has not been studied with current methodology and renewed investigation of this or the closely related genus Atelerix should be a priority....
Xian, Yin; Tantum, Stacy; Liao, Xuejun; Zhang, Yuan
Since the spectrogram does not preserve phase information contained in the original data, any algorithm based on the spectrogram is not likely to be optimum for detection. In this paper, we present the Short Time Fourier Transform detector to detect marine mammals in the time-frequency plane. The detector uses phase information for detection. We evaluate this detector by comparing it to the existing spectrogram based detectors for different SNRs and various environments including a known ocean, uncertain ocean, and mean ocean. The results show that this detector outperforms the spectrogram based detector. Simulations are presented using the polynomial phase signal model of the North Atlantic Right Whale (NARW), along with the bellhop ray tracing model.
A special feature of tritium radiation is the very low energy of the beta particles (5.7 keV average, 18 keV maximum). This low energy results in very short particle ranges in tissue, ranges that are less than cell dimensions. Another result of the low energy is that the ionization density along beta-ray tracks (even though the tracks are short) is significantly greater than that associated with secondary electrons from gamma rays. The studies of tritium radiotoxicity reviewed, involving chronic 3HOH exposures in mammals, demonstrate in both mice and monkeys that biological effects can be measured following remarkably low levels of exposure --- levels in the range of serious practical interest to radiation protection. (Namekawa, K.)
Studies of tritium radiotoxicity involving chronic /sup 3/H0H exposures in mammals demonstrate in both mice and monkeys that biological effects can be measured following remarkably low levels of exposure - levels in the range of serious practical interest to radiation protection. These studies demonstrate also that deleterious effects of /sup 3/H beta radiation do not differ significantly from those of gamma radiation at high exposures. In contrast, however, at low exposures tritium is significantly more effective than gamma rays, rad for rad, by a factor approaching 3. This is important for hazard evaluation and radiation protection because knowledge concerning biological effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure has come mainly from gamma-ray data; and predictions based on gamma-ray data will underestimate tritium effects - especially at low exposures - unless the RBE is fully taken into account.
Waldien, David L.; Hayes, John P.
HIGHLIGHT: A variety of harvest methods promote diversity within forests while still generating income. For example, recent studies have shown that when dead wood is left on the forest floor during harvest, biodiversity increases. A new Cooperative Forest Ecosystem Research (CFER) program fact sheet summarizes how small mammals respond to dead wood in forests that are harvested with alternative methods. CFER is developing a series of fact sheets about responses to changes in young western Oregon forests. The fact sheets are designed to help resource managers balance management needs, including timber and wildlife. The USGS provides a primary source of financial support for CFER, a consortium of federal and state partners conducting research in support of the Northwest Forest Plan.
Interspecific competition has often been inferred from its results. In evolutionary time it has been responsible for patterns of regularity in the structure of mammalian communities, and in the morphological and ecological characteristics of the constituent species. In contemporary time it gives rise to reciprocal (complementary) numbers and distributions of two or more species. These inferences are strengthened by recent experimental demonstrations of competition between species of North American rodents. Recent observations and experiments are reviewed. The most thoroughly studied competitors are two species of microtine rodents, Microtus pennsylvanicus and Clethrionomys gapperi. Species which compete for space have been studied experimentally more often than have food competitors. Overt aggression is frequently implicated, but its importance in nature in relation to other means of interaction (e.g. through vocal or scent communication) is not known. The definitive study of competition for food between mammal species has yet to be performed
... was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 27717) that a request for a permit to conduct research on... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB173 Marine Mammals; File No. 16919 AGENCY... the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.),...
... published in the Federal Register (78 FR 18322) that a request for a permit to conduct research on the... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC580 Marine Mammals; File No. 17751 AGENCY... issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et...
... Federal Register (77 FR 2513) that a request for a permit to conduct commercial/educational photography of... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA936 Marine Mammals; File No. 17011 AGENCY... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.) and the regulations...
.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On March 14, 2011, notice was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 13603) that a... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA288 Marine Mammals; File No. 15748 AGENCY... Alaska SeaLife Center (ASLC), Seward, AK, to conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The...
..., 2009, notice was published in the Federal Register (74 FR 46745) that a request for a permit to conduct... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XR52 Marine Mammals; File No. 14534 AGENCY... research on marine mammals in the North Pacific Ocean. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents...
... the Federal Register (76 FR 18533) that a request for a permit to conduct research on humpback whales... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA888 Marine Mammals; File No. 15682 AGENCY... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et...
... INFORMATION: On May 20, 2010, notice was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 28239) that a request for a... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648- XA352 Marine Mammals; File No. 15537 AGENCY... public display permit application received from the Institute for Marine Mammal Studies (IMMS), P.O....
... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). Permit No. 14097, issued on July 7, 2010, (75 FR 40776... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX47 Marine Mammals; File No. 14097 AGENCY... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing...
... the Federal Register (77 FR 2512) that a request for a permit to conduct research on all species of... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA905 Marine Mammals; File No. 16599 AGENCY... Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal Foundation, 2240 Shelter Island Drive, 200, San Diego,...
.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On May 7, 2012, notice was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 26747) that a... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA288 Marine Mammals; File No. 15748 AGENCY... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing...
... published in the Federal Register (77 FR 41171) that a request for a permit to conduct research on the... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC100 Marine Mammals; File No. 17115 AGENCY... issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et...
... (77 FR 3744) that a request for a permit to import specimens for scientific research had been... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648- XA938 Marine Mammals; File No. 17029 AGENCY... 59851 to receive, import, export, and possess marine mammal specimens for scientific research....
... INFORMATION: On April 9, 2013, notice was published in the Federal Register (78 FR 21112) that a request for... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB161 Marine Mammals; File No. 14535 AGENCY... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.); and the regulations...
... (50 CFR parts 222-226). Permit No. 13927, issued on October 19, 2011 (76 FR 67151), authorizes the... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA774 Marine Mammals; File No. 13927 AGENCY... amendment to Permit No. 13927 is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of...
... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Permit No. 14330, issued on August 17, 2009 (74 FR... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA122 Marine Mammals; File No. 14330 AGENCY... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing...
..., 2011, notice was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 68718) that a request for a permit to receive... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA807-X Marine Mammals; File No. 16305 AGENCY..., Portland, ME 04104-9300, to receive, import, and export marine mammal and sea turtle biological samples...
... Register (77 FR 22563) that a request for a public display permit, had been submitted by the above-named... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB159 Marine Mammals; File No. 17217 AGENCY... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.) and the regulations governing...
...-01 (75 FR 58352) and will provide quantitative measurements of the amphibious hearing capabilities of... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA963 Marine Mammals; File No. 15142 AGENCY... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the...
... INFORMATION: On July 11, 2012, notice was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 40859) that a request for... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX47 Marine Mammals; File No. 14097 AGENCY... has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16...
... in the Federal Register (78 FR 2956) that a request for a permit to conduct research on non-listed... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC439 Marine Mammals; File No. 17005 AGENCY... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et...
... Federal Register (75 FR 64986) that a request for a permit to import northern fur seal (Callorhinus... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ86 Marine Mammals; File No. 14525 AGENCY...), 16111 Plummer St., North Hills, CA 91343, to import and export marine mammal specimens for...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA148 Marine Mammals; File No. 16000 AGENCY... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine...
... INFORMATION: On March 22, 2013, notice was published in the Federal Register (78 FR 17639) that a request for... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC544 Marine Mammals; File No. 17941 AGENCY... applicant. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act...
... FR 18724), authorizes the permit holder to investigate reproductive physiology of adult Steller sea... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XP18 Marine Mammals; File No. 14334 AGENCY... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing...
... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). On January 27, 2011 (76 FR 4867), notice... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA172 Marine Mammals; File No. 15453 AGENCY... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the...
... notice was published in the ] Federal Register (77 FR 31835) that a request for a permit to import and... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC095 Marine Mammals; File No. 17278 AGENCY... 02215, to import and receive marine mammal parts for scientific research. ADDRESSES: The permit...
... in the Federal Register (78 FR 15933) that a request for a permit to conduct research on the species... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC554 Marine Mammals; File No. 17952 AGENCY... the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.),...
Docherty, Douglas E.; Samuel, Michael D.; Nolden, Cherrie A.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Griffin, Kathryn M.
Twenty percent prevalence of West Nile virus antibody was found in free-ranging medium-sized Wisconsin mammals. No significant differences were noted in antibody prevalence with regard to sex, age, month of collection, or species. Our results suggest a similar route of infection in these mammals.
... published in the Federal Register (76 FR 21703) that a request for an amendment to Permit No. 14329 to... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Mammals; File No. 14329 AGENCY: National Marine... has been issued to the North Pacific Universities Marine Mammal Research Consortium...
.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On February 25, 2011, notice was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 10560) that... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA160 Marine Mammals; File No. 15330 AGENCY... Robin Baird, PhD, Cascadia Research, 218\\1/2\\ W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501 to take marine mammals...
... Register (75 FR 13730) that a request for a permit to conduct research on the species identified above had... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV40 Marine Mammals; File No. 14118 AGENCY... of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the...
... Register (73 FR 77630) that a request for a permit to conduct enhancement on the species identified above... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XM26 Marine Mammals; File No. 14186 AGENCY... Mammal Protection Act of 1972 as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.). Permit No. 14186 authorizes...
... FR 64247) that a request for a permit to conduct research on bottlenose dolphins had been submitted... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ51 Marine Mammals; File No. 15543 AGENCY... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.) and the regulations governing...
... seals and ringed seals as ``threatened'' under the Endangered Species Act (77 FR 76740). Because of the... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC853 Draft 2013 Marine Mammal Stock Assessment... Pacific regional marine mammal stock assessment reports (SARs) in accordance with the Marine...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC062 Draft 2012 Marine Mammal Stock Assessment..., and Pacific regional marine mammal stock assessment reports (SARs) in accordance with the Marine..., Silver Spring, MD 20910-3226, Attn: Stock Assessments. Instructions: All comments received are a part...
....D., Marine Mammal Research Program, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O. Box 1106, Kailua... part 216). The original permit, issued on May 17, 2007 (72 FR 29127) authorizes the permit holder to conduct acoustic studies on captive marine mammals at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology through...
... E. Nachtigall, Ph.D., Marine Mammal Research Program Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O. Box... was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 28422) that a request for a permit to conduct research on... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA384 Marine Mammals; File No. 16053...
Jeffrey Root, J
Exposures to West Nile virus (WNV) have been documented in a variety of wild mammals in both the New and Old Worlds. This review tabulates at least 100 mammal species with evidence of WNV exposure. Many of these exposures were detected in free-ranging mammals, while several were noted in captive individuals. In addition to exposures, this review discusses experimental infections in terms of the potential for reservoir competence of select wild mammal species. Overall, few experimental infections have been conducted on wild mammals. As such, the role of most wild mammals as potential amplifying hosts for WNV is, to date, uncertain. In most instances, experimental infections of wild mammals with WNV have resulted in no or low-level viremia. Some recent studies have indicated that certain species of tree squirrels (Sciurus spp.), eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), and eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) develop viremia sufficient for infecting some mosquito species. Certain mammalian species, such as tree squirrels, mesopredators, and deer have been suggested as useful species for WNV surveillance. In this review article, the information pertaining to wild mammal associations with WNV is synthesized. PMID:23212739
... Agriculture under the Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. Sec. Sec. 2131 - 59). In addition to determining whether... and welfare of marine mammals; that the proposed activity by itself, or in combination with other... accepted standards of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums and the Alliance for Marine Mammal Parks...
.... 808-1735, issued on June 27, 2007 (72 FR 36429), authorizes the permit holder to take humpback... distribution, biology, ecology, movement patterns, and behavior of these extremely rare marine mammals and... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU88 Marine Mammals; File No. 808-1735...
.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On January 8, 2010, notice was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 1029) that a... research on marine mammal population ecology, diet and nutrition, reproductive physiology, toxicology, and... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XT56 Marine Mammals; File No. 14486...
... the dietary preferences and feeding ecology of Antarctic marine mammals by analyzing seal and whale... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA386 Marine Mammals; File No. 15646 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...
...) movement patterns of marine mammal species most at risk; and (3) population structure based on a variety of... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC268 Marine Mammals; File No. 16239 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...
... parameters, trends in recruitment, and stock structure of marine mammals in U.S. waters of the western North... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC239 Marine Mammals; File No. 17355 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...
..., Marine Mammal Research Program Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O. Box 1106, Kailua, Hawaii 96734, has applied in due form for a permit to conduct scientific research on cetaceans stranded or in... Mammal Commission and its Committee of Scientific Advisors. Documents may be reviewed in the...
... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq... (lactating females), blubber, muscle, skin, muscle, hair, mucus membrane swabs, stomach lavage, tooth and... forwarding copies of the application to the Marine Mammal Commission and its Committee of Scientific...
... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended... (flipper tags, hair bleach or dye), morphometric measurement, tooth extraction, and stomach content... the Federal Register, NMFS is forwarding copies of the application to the Marine Mammal Commission...
.... ACTION: Notice; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that NMFS National Marine Mammal... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended... of body condition, collection of tissue samples (blood, blubber, muscle, skin, hair, vibrissae,...
Delsuc, Frédéric; Metcalf, Jessica L; Wegener Parfrey, Laura; Song, Se Jin; González, Antonio; Knight, Rob
Mammals have diversified into many dietary niches. Specialized myrmecophagous (ant- and termite-eating) placental mammals represent a textbook example of evolutionary convergence driven by extreme diet specialization. Armadillos, anteaters, aardvarks, pangolins and aardwolves thus provide a model system for understanding the potential role of gut microbiota in the convergent adaptation to myrmecophagy. Here, we expand upon previous mammalian gut microbiome studies by using high-throughput barcoded Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the composition of gut microbiota in 15 species representing all placental myrmecophagous lineages and their close relatives from zoo- and field-collected samples. We confirm that both diet and phylogeny drive the evolution of mammalian gut microbiota, with cases of convergence in global composition, but also examples of phylogenetic inertia. Our results reveal specialized placental myrmecophages as a spectacular case of large-scale convergence in gut microbiome composition. Indeed, neighbour-net networks and beta-diversity plots based on UniFrac distances show significant clustering of myrmecophagous species (anteaters, aardvarks and aardwolves), even though they belong to phylogenetically distant lineages representing different orders. The aardwolf, which diverged from carnivorous hyenas only in the last 10 million years, experienced a convergent shift in the composition of its gut microbiome to become more similar to other myrmecophages. These results confirm diet adaptation to be a major driving factor of convergence in gut microbiome composition over evolutionary timescales. This study sets the scene for future metagenomic studies aiming at evaluating potential convergence in functional gene content in the microbiomes of specialized mammalian myrmecophages. PMID:24118574
Ruth, J L; Fain, S R
The enforcement of wildlife laws and the captive breeding of threatened/endangered species requires the ability to identify individual animals. DNA profiles of a variety of large North American mammals, birds, and fish were generated using ten different oligonucleotide probes. The probes tested were four multilocus probes [33.6, 33.15, JE46, and (TGTC)5] and six 'human unilocus' probes [MS1 (D1S7), CMM101 (D14S13), YNH24 (D2S44), EFD52 (D17S26), TBQ7 (D10S28), and MS43 (D12S11). Each of the probes was chemically synthesized, and labeled by the attachment of alkaline phosphatase; after hybridization, the probes were detected by chemiluminescence catalyzed by the enzyme. Initial screening against zoo blots including samples of bear, wolf, large cat, wild sheep, deer, birds, marine mammals, and fish indicated that three multilocus probes [33.15, 33.6, (TGTC)5] gave informative patterns containing 15-40 bands for most or all of the animals tested, as did two of the 'human unilocus' probes (MS1 and CMM101). The other five probes appeared informative only in some species (for example, YNH24 against canids). Subsequent screenings of populations within species were used to determine genetic diversity by analysis of observed bandsharing (S). Large heterologous populations, such as white-tailed deer, exhibited highly diverse band patterns (S Mexican wolves, Tule elk, and Columbian white-tailed deer, exhibited much higher frequencies of bandsharing (0.6 < or = S < or = 0.95).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8400711
Taabazuing, Cornelius Y; Hangasky, John A; Knapp, Michael J
The ability to sense and adapt to changes in pO2 is crucial for basic metabolism in most organisms, leading to elaborate pathways for sensing hypoxia (low pO2). This review focuses on the mechanisms utilized by mammals and bacteria to sense hypoxia. While responses to acute hypoxia in mammalian tissues lead to altered vascular tension, the molecular mechanism of signal transduction is not well understood. In contrast, chronic hypoxia evokes cellular responses that lead to transcriptional changes mediated by the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), which is directly controlled by post-translational hydroxylation of HIF by the non-heme Fe(II)/αKG-dependent enzymes FIH and PHD2. Research on PHD2 and FIH is focused on developing inhibitors and understanding the links between HIF binding and the O2 reaction in these enzymes. Sulfur speciation is a putative mechanism for acute O2-sensing, with special focus on the role of H2S. This sulfur-centered model is discussed, as are some of the directions for further refinement of this model. In contrast to mammals, bacterial O2-sensing relies on protein cofactors that either bind O2 or oxidatively decompose. The sensing modality for bacterial O2-sensors is either via altered DNA binding affinity of the sensory protein, or else due to the actions of a two-component signaling cascade. Emerging data suggests that proteins containing a hemerythrin-domain, such as FBXL5, may serve to connect iron sensing to O2-sensing in both bacteria and humans. As specific molecular machinery becomes identified, these hypoxia sensing pathways present therapeutic targets for diseases including ischemia, cancer, or bacterial infection. PMID:24468676
Silvia A. Rosa
Full Text Available Our study focused on the putative effects of roads on small-mammal communities in a high desert region of southern Utah. Specifically, we tested whether or not roads create adjacent zones characterized by lower small- mammal densities, abundance, and diversity. We sampled abundance of small mammals at increasing distances from Interstate 15 during two summers. We recorded 11 genera and 13 species. We detected no clear abundance, density, or diversity effects relative to distance from the road. Only two of 13 species were never captured near roads. The abundance of the remaining 11 small mammal species was either similar at different distances from the road or higher closer to the road. We conclude that although roads may act as barriers and possible sources of mortality, adjacent zones of vegetation often provide favorable microhabitat in the desert landscape for many small mammals.
Erbe, Christine; Reichmuth, Colleen; Cunningham, Kane; Lucke, Klaus; Dooling, Robert
Underwater noise, whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, has the ability to interfere with the way in which marine mammals receive acoustic signals (i.e., for communication, social interaction, foraging, navigation, etc.). This phenomenon, termed auditory masking, has been well studied in humans and terrestrial vertebrates (in particular birds), but less so in marine mammals. Anthropogenic underwater noise seems to be increasing in parts of the world's oceans and concerns about associated bioacoustic effects, including masking, are growing. In this article, we review our understanding of masking in marine mammals, summarise data on marine mammal hearing as they relate to masking (including audiograms, critical ratios, critical bandwidths, and auditory integration times), discuss masking release processes of receivers (including comodulation masking release and spatial release from masking) and anti-masking strategies of signalers (e.g. Lombard effect), and set a research framework for improved assessment of potential masking in marine mammals. PMID:26707982
Bissonette, J.A.; Rosa, S.A.
Our study focused on the putative effects of roads on small-mammal communities in a high desert region of southern Utah. Specifically, we tested whether or not roads create adjacent zones characterized by lower small- mammal densities, abundance, and diversity. We sampled abundance of small mammals at increasing distances from Interstate 15 during two summers. We recorded 11 genera and 13 species. We detected no clear abundance, density, or diversity effects relative to distance from the road. Only two of 13 species were never captured near roads. The abundance of the remaining 11 small mammal species was either similar at different distances from the road or higher closer to the road. We conclude that although roads may act as barriers and possible sources of mortality, adjacent zones of vegetation often provide favorable microhabitat in the desert landscape for many small mammals. ?? 2009 by the author(s).
Information is presented on the possible impacts of small mammals in temperate forest ecosystems. Studies reviewed here suggest that small mammals have a minimal role in influencing forest ecosystem processes. Their effect on energy flow patterns and nutrient dynamics of forests appears minimal in view of the relatively small amounts of energy and nutrients acted upon by small mammals. Significant effects of small mammals as herbivores and granivores tend to be limited to early successional stages when trees are young and most susceptible to damage and when seed and seedling mortality are more likely to be of consequence. They appear to have a minimal impact on vegetation in mature forests. Small mammals are a major constituent in the diet of many avian and mammalian predators and may be important in maintaining higher trophic levels in forests. They may exert some influence on forest floor invertebrates, but the long-term effects of this action on forests are not understood
Foley, Nicole M; Springer, Mark S; Teeling, Emma C
Most molecular phylogenetic studies place all placental mammals into four superordinal groups, Laurasiatheria (e.g. dogs, bats, whales), Euarchontoglires (e.g. humans, rodents, colugos), Xenarthra (e.g. armadillos, anteaters) and Afrotheria (e.g. elephants, sea cows, tenrecs), and estimate that these clades last shared a common ancestor 90-110 million years ago. This phylogeny has provided a framework for numerous functional and comparative studies. Despite the high level of congruence among most molecular studies, questions still remain regarding the position and divergence time of the root of placental mammals, and certain 'hard nodes' such as the Laurasiatheria polytomy and Paenungulata that seem impossible to resolve. Here, we explore recent consensus and conflict among mammalian phylogenetic studies and explore the reasons for the remaining conflicts. The question of whether the mammal tree of life is or can be ever resolved is also addressed.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'. PMID:27325836
... nearshore marine and inland marine deeper waters (DoN 2001a). Behavior and Ecology--California sea lions... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA075 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a Test Pile Program AGENCY: National...
... harassed. Current NMFS practice (in relation to the MMPA) regarding exposure of marine mammals to sound is.... Effects to marine mammals from the specified activity are expected to result from underwater sound... southward parallel to the coast. Sea surface temperatures range from around 16 C in winter to 28 C in...
Williams, T M; Haun, J; Davis, R W; Fuiman, L A; Kohin, S
Among terrestrial mammals, the morphology of the gastrointestinal tract reflects the metabolic demands of the animal and individual requirements for processing, distributing, and absorbing nutrients. To determine if gastrointestinal tract morphology is similarly correlated with metabolic requirements in marine mammals, we examined the relationship between basal metabolic rate (BMR) and small intestinal length in pinnipeds and cetaceans. Oxygen consumption was measured for resting bottlenose dolphins and Weddell seals, and the results combined with data for four additional species of carnivorous marine mammal. Data for small intestinal length were obtained from previously published reports. Similar analyses were conducted for five species of carnivorous terrestrial mammal, for which BMR and intestinal length were known. The results indicate that the BMRs of Weddell seals and dolphins resting on the water surface are 1.6 and 2.3 times the predicted levels for similarly sized domestic terrestrial mammals, respectively. Small intestinal lengths for carnivorous marine mammals depend on body size and are comparatively longer than those of terrestrial carnivores. The relationship between basal metabolic rate (kcal day(-1)) and small intestinal length (m) for both marine and terrestrial carnivores was, BMR=142.5 intestinal length(1.20) (r(2)=0.83). We suggest that elevated metabolic rates among marine mammal carnivores are associated with comparatively large alimentary tracts that are presumably required for supporting the energetic demands of an aquatic lifestyle and for feeding on vertebrate and invertebrate prey. PMID:11440865
Jones, Holly P; Holmes, Nick D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Tershy, Bernie R; Kappes, Peter J; Corkery, Ilse; Aguirre-Muñoz, Alfonso; Armstrong, Doug P; Bonnaud, Elsa; Burbidge, Andrew A; Campbell, Karl; Courchamp, Franck; Cowan, Philip E; Cuthbert, Richard J; Ebbert, Steve; Genovesi, Piero; Howald, Gregg R; Keitt, Bradford S; Kress, Stephen W; Miskelly, Colin M; Oppel, Steffen; Poncet, Sally; Rauzon, Mark J; Rocamora, Gérard; Russell, James C; Samaniego-Herrera, Araceli; Seddon, Philip J; Spatz, Dena R; Towns, David R; Croll, Donald A
More than US$21 billion is spent annually on biodiversity conservation. Despite their importance for preventing or slowing extinctions and preserving biodiversity, conservation interventions are rarely assessed systematically for their global impact. Islands house a disproportionately higher amount of biodiversity compared with mainlands, much of which is highly threatened with extinction. Indeed, island species make up nearly two-thirds of recent extinctions. Islands therefore are critical targets of conservation. We used an extensive literature and database review paired with expert interviews to estimate the global benefits of an increasingly used conservation action to stem biodiversity loss: eradication of invasive mammals on islands. We found 236 native terrestrial insular faunal species (596 populations) that benefitted through positive demographic and/or distributional responses from 251 eradications of invasive mammals on 181 islands. Seven native species (eight populations) were negatively impacted by invasive mammal eradication. Four threatened species had their International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List extinction-risk categories reduced as a direct result of invasive mammal eradication, and no species moved to a higher extinction-risk category. We predict that 107 highly threatened birds, mammals, and reptiles on the IUCN Red List-6% of all these highly threatened species-likely have benefitted from invasive mammal eradications on islands. Because monitoring of eradication outcomes is sporadic and limited, the impacts of global eradications are likely greater than we report here. Our results highlight the importance of invasive mammal eradication on islands for protecting the world's most imperiled fauna. PMID:27001852
Norstrom, R J; Muir, D C
By 1976, the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (CHCs) had been demonstrated in fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), walrus (Obdobenus rosmarus divergens), beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in various parts of the Arctic. In spite of this early interest, very little subsequent research on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals was undertaken until the mid-1980s. Since that time, there has been an explosion of interest, resulting in a much expanded data base on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals. Except in the Russian Arctic, data have now been obtained on the temporospatial distribution of PCBs and other contaminants in ringed seal, beluga and polar bear. Contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) have also now been measured. On a fat weight basis, the sum of DDT-related compounds (S-DDT) and PCB levels are lowest in walrus (< 0.1 microgram/g), followed by ringed seal, (0.1-1 microgram/g range). Levels are an order of magnitude higher in beluga and narwhal (1-10 micrograms/g range). It appears that metabolism and excretion of S-DDT and PCBs may be less efficient in cetaceans, leading to greater biomagnification. Polar bears have similar levels of PCBs as cetaceans (1-10 micrograms/g), but with a much simpler congener pattern. DDE levels are lowest in polar bear, indicating rapid metabolism. Effects of age and sex on residue levels are found for all species where this was measured. Among cetaceans and ringed seal, sexually mature females have lower levels than males due to lactation. Although PCB levels in adult male polar bears are about twice as high as females, there is only a trivial age effect in either sex apart from an initial decrease from birth to sexual maturity (age 0-5). Comparison of levels of S-DDT and PCBs in Arctic beluga and ringed seal with those in beluga in the Gulf of St
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC maintains data in three NODC Standard Format Marine Mammal Data Sets: Marine Mammal Sighting and Census (F127); Marine Mammal Specimens (F025); Marine Mammal...
Apps, Peter James
Chemical communication via olfactory semiochemicals plays a central role in the social behaviour and reproduction of mammals, but even after four decades of research, only a few mammal semiochemicals have been chemically characterized. Expectations that mammal chemical signals are coded by quantitative relationships among multiple components have persisted since the earliest studies of mammal semiochemistry, and continue to direct research strategies. Nonetheless, the chemistry of mammal excretions and secretions and the characteristics of those semiochemicals that have been identified show that mammal semiochemicals are as likely to be single compounds as to be mixtures, and are as likely to be coded by the presence and absence of chemical compounds as by their quantities. There is very scant support for the view that mammal semiochemicals code signals as specific ratios between components, and no evidence that they depend on a Gestalt or a chemical image. Of 31 semiochemicals whose chemical composition is known, 15 have a single component and 16 are coded by presence/absence, one may depend on a ratio between two compounds and none of them are chemical images. The expectation that mammal chemical signals have multiple components underpins the use of multivariate statistical analyses of chromatographic data, but the ways in which multivariate statistics are commonly used to search for active mixtures leads to single messenger compounds and signals that are sent by the presence and absence of compounds being overlooked. Research on mammal semiochemicals needs to accommodate the possibility that simple qualitative differences are no less likely than complex quantitative differences to encode chemical signals.
Hinshaw, V S; Webster, R. G.; Easterday, B C; Bean, W J
The recent appearance of an avian influenza A virus in seals suggests that viruses are transmitted from birds to mammals in nature. To examine this possibility, avian viruses of different antigenic subtypes were evaluated for their ability to replicate in three mammals-pigs, ferrets, and cats. In each of these mammals, avian strains replicated to high titers in the respiratory tract (10(5) to 10(7) 50% egg infective doses per ml of nasal wash), with peak titers at 2 to 4 days post-inoculation...
Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Parker, Clayton R. (Inventor)
An apparatus is disclosed for enhancing tissue repair in mammals, with the apparatus comprising: a sleeve for encircling a portion of a mammalian body part, said sleeve comprising an electrically conductive coil capable of generating an electromagnetic field when an electrical current is applied thereto, means for supporting the sleeve on the mammalian body part; and means for supplying the electrically conductive coil with a square wave time varying electrical current sufficient to create a time varying electromagnetic force of from approximately 0.05 gauss to 0.05 gauss within the interior of the coil in order that when the sleeve is placed on a mammalian body part and the time varying electromagnetic force of from approximately 0.05 gauss to 0.05 gauss is generated on the mammalian body part for an extended period of time, tissue regeneration within the mammalian body part is increased to a rate in excess of the normal tissue regeneration rate that would occur without application of the time varying electromagnetic force.
Morris, Douglas W; Kotler, Burt P; Brown, Joel S; Sundararaj, Vijayan; Ale, Som B
Mammals are threatened with population decline and extinction. Numerous species require immediate conservation intervention. But our ability to identify species on the brink of decline, and to intervene successfully, depends on developing reliable leading indicators of population, community, and environmental change. Classic approaches, such as population and life history assessment, as well as indicator species, trail environmental change. Adaptive behaviors honed by natural selection to respond quickly to environmental changes represent true leading indicators that we can learn to apply to conservation and management. Excellent examples of useful behaviors for conservation include foraging behavior, patch use, and habitat selection. Comparisons among giving-up densities collected in artificial resource patches can effectively indicate the forager's predation costs, its habitat quality, mechanisms of coexistence, and environmental richness. Patterns of adaptive habitat use can similarly reveal the relative value of different types of habitat, the location, and amounts of source versus sink habitat in a landscape, the effects of human disturbance, and projections on future extinction risk. Each behavior is likely to change more quickly than population size. As useful as these and related indicators may be to managers and conservationists, similar behaviors can emerge from different causes, and immediate returns of behavior to fitness may cause rapid evolution of associated morphological and physiological traits. Conservation strategies will thereby often be most effective if they build on research programs targeting the processes influencing adaptive behaviors and that assess whether wild-type or novel behaviors are most likely to sustain populations into the future. PMID:19432655
St Leger, J A; Begeman, L; Fleetwood, M; Frasca, S; Garner, M M; Lair, S; Trembley, S; Linn, M J; Terio, K A
Nocardia spp. infections in mammals cause pyogranulomatous lesions in a variety of organs, most typically the lung. Members of the Nocardia asteroides complex are the most frequently recognized pathogens. Nine cases of nocardiosis in free-ranging pinnipeds and 10 cases of nocardiosis in cetaceans were evaluated. Host species included the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata, n = 8), leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx, n = 1), Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus, n = 4), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas, n = 4), and killer whale (Orcinus orca, n = 2). The most common presentation of nocardiosis in both pinnipeds and cetaceans was the systemic form, involving 2 or more organs. Organs most frequently affected were lung and thoracic lymph nodes in 7 of 9 cases in pinnipeds and 8 of 10 cases in cetaceans. Molecular identification and bacterial isolation demonstrated a variety of pathogenic species. N. asteroides, N. farcinica, N. brasiliensis, and N. otitisdiscaviarum are pathogenic for pinnipeds. In cetaceans N. asteroides, N. farcinica, N. brasiliensis, N. cyriacigeorgica, and N. levis are pathogenic. Hematoxylin and eosin and acid fast staining failed to reveal bacteria in every case, whereas modified acid fast and Grocott's methenamine silver consistently demonstrated the characteristic organisms. In both pinnipeds and cetaceans, juvenile animals were affected more often than adults. Hooded seals demonstrated more cases of nocardiosis than other pinnipeds. PMID:19261643
Lessa, Thais Borges; de Abreu, Dilayla Kelly; Bertassoli, Bruno Machado; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo
The diaphragm is a respiratory muscle that is primarily responsible for the respiratory function in normal individuals. In mammals, the diaphragm muscle has been studied from the early days of zoology, comparative and experimental anatomy, physiology, medicine, physics, and philosophy. However, even with these early advances in knowledge pertaining to the diaphragm, comprehensive morphological data on the diaphragm are still incomplete. In this review, we summarize the beginnings of the morphological description of the diaphragm, and we describe the current status of the known morphological and embryological features. In addition, we correlate how the impairment of the diaphragm muscle in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) can lead to patient deaths. DMD is the most common X-linked muscle degenerative disease and is caused by a lack of dystrophin protein. Dystrophin is an important muscle protein that links the cellular cytoskeleton with the extracellular matrix. In the absence of dystrophin, the muscle becomes susceptible to damage during muscle contraction. This review allows researchers to obtain an overview of the diaphragm, transcending the morphological data from animals described in conventional literature. PMID:27045597
Migaud, Martine; Butruille, Lucile; Duittoz, Anne; Pillon, Delphine; Batailler, Martine
During adulthood, the mammalian brain retains the capacity to generate new cells and new neurons in particular. It is now well established that the birth of these new neurons occurs in well-described sites: the hippocampus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, as well as in other brain regions including the hypothalamus. In this review, we describe the canonical neurogenic niches and illustrate the functional relevance of adult-born neurons of each neurogenic niche in the reproductive physiology. More specifically, we highlight the effect of reproductive social stimuli on the neurogenic processes and conversely, the contributions of adult-born neurons to the reproductive physiology and behavior. We next review the recent discovery of a novel neurogenic niche located in the hypothalamus and the median eminence and the compelling evidence of the link existing between the new-born hypothalamic neurons and the regulation of metabolism. In addition, new perspectives on the possible involvement of hypothalamic neurogenesis in the control of photoperiodic reproductive physiology in seasonal mammals are discussed. Altogether, the studies highlighted in this review demonstrate the potential role of neurogenesis in reproductive function and emphasize the importance of increasing our knowledge on the regulation processes and the physiological relevance of these adult-born neurons. This constitutes a necessary step toward a potential manipulation of these plasticity mechanisms. PMID:27177964
Full Text Available Placental invasiveness-the number of maternal tissue layers separating fetal tissues from maternal blood-is variable across mammalian species. Although this diversity is likely to be functionally important, variation in placental invasiveness remains unexplained. Here we test the hypothesis that increased risk of transplacental transmission of pathogens from the mother to the fetus promotes the evolution of non-invasive placentation, the most likely derived condition in eutherian mammals. Specifically, we predict that non-invasive placentation is associated with increased microparasite species richness relative to more invasive placental types, based on the assumption that higher numbers of microparasites in a population reflects greater risk of transplacental transmission to fetuses. As predicted, higher bacteria species richness is associated with non-invasive placentation. Protozoa species richness, however, shows the opposite pattern. Because invasive placentae facilitate the transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus, we propose that the ancestral condition of invasive placentation is retained under selection for protection of newborns from higher risk of postnatal protozoan infection. Hence, our findings suggest that a tradeoff exists between protection against bacterial infection prenatally and protozoan infection postnatally. Future studies are needed to investigate how maternal prevalence of infection and the relative pre- versus postnatal risk of fetal infection by different microparasite groups vary among mammalian hosts in relation to placental invasiveness.
Antonova Ekaterina Petrovna
Full Text Available Hibernation is one of the most striking examples of mammals’ phenotypic flexibility, allowing them to survive at low temperatures and in the conditions of insufficient food and water. During the torpor there is a decrease in both body temperature and metabolic rate that is accompanied by slowing respiration, significant drop of oxygen consumption as well as by the reduction of cerebral blood circulation and heart rate. In spite of a number of physiological adaptations to hibernation, the arousal from torpor is accompanied by the oxidative stress caused by the enormous rise of oxygen consumption. In these conditions, the antioxidant defense system which provides harmless transfer from torpor to arousal and vice versa, i.e., without any tissues’ oxidative damage, becomes especially important. Up to date, it is not fully elucidated how the antioxidant system acts during the periods of hibernation, but it deserves careful attention. In the review the information about the use of different strategies of antioxidant protection during hibernation in small mammals was collected
Poole, David C; Erickson, Howard H
Evolutionary forces drive beneficial adaptations in response to a complex array of environmental conditions. In contrast, over several millennia, humans have been so enamored by the running/athletic prowess of horses and dogs that they have sculpted their anatomy and physiology based solely upon running speed. Thus, through hundreds of generations, those structural and functional traits crucial for running fast have been optimized. Central among these traits is the capacity to uptake, transport and utilize oxygen at spectacular rates. Moreover, the coupling of the key systems--pulmonary-cardiovascular-muscular is so exquisitely tuned in horses and dogs that oxygen uptake response kinetics evidence little inertia as the animal transitions from rest to exercise. These fast oxygen uptake kinetics minimize Intramyocyte perturbations that can limit exercise tolerance. For the physiologist, study of horses and dogs allows investigation not only of a broader range of oxidative function than available in humans, but explores the very limits of mammalian biological adaptability. Specifically, the unparalleled equine cardiovascular and muscular systems can transport and utilize more oxygen than the lungs can supply. Two consequences of this situation, particularly in the horse, are profound exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia and hypercapnia as well as structural failure of the delicate blood-gas barrier causing pulmonary hemorrhage and, in the extreme, overt epistaxis. This chapter compares and contrasts horses and dogs with humans with respect to the structural and functional features that enable these extraordinary mammals to support their prodigious oxidative and therefore athletic capabilities. PMID:23737162
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; affirmative finding renewal. SUMMARY: The Assistant Administrator for Fisheries... Ecuador under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). This affirmative finding renewal will...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A vessel-based line visual transect survey was conducted for birds and marine mammals near the proposed Snohomish County PUD Admiralty Inlet tidal energy site...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The present distributional patterns of birds and mammals on the surface of the earth are the combined result of historic and current factors. The historic factors...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the status or marine mammals in the eastern north Pacific Ocean. Species covered are: sea otter, northern, Guadalupe fur seals, stellar,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys were conducted during the spring-summer of 2010 and seasonally during 2011-2012 to assess the abundance and spatial distribution of marine mammals...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of the Oregon OCS Data Release presents marine mammal observations from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) field activity 2014-607-FA in the Oregon Outer...