Sample records for african green monkey

  1. Analysis of prostate-specific antigen transcripts in chimpanzees, cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys.

    James N Mubiru

    Full Text Available The function of prostate-specific antigen (PSA is to liquefy the semen coagulum so that the released sperm can fuse with the ovum. Fifteen spliced variants of the PSA gene have been reported in humans, but little is known about alternative splicing in nonhuman primates. Positive selection has been reported in sex- and reproductive-related genes from sea urchins to Drosophila to humans; however, there are few studies of adaptive evolution of the PSA gene. Here, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR product cloning and sequencing, we study PSA transcript variant heterogeneity in the prostates of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis, and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops. Six PSA variants were identified in the chimpanzee prostate, but only two variants were found in cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys. In the chimpanzee the full-length transcript is expressed at the same magnitude as the transcripts that retain intron 3. We have found previously unidentified splice variants of the PSA gene, some of which might be linked to disease conditions. Selection on the PSA gene was studied in 11 primate species by computational methods using the sequences reported here for African green monkey, cynomolgus monkey, baboon, and chimpanzee and other sequences available in public databases. A codon-based analysis (dN/dS of the PSA gene identified potential adaptive evolution at five residue sites (Arg45, Lys70, Gln144, Pro189, and Thr203.

  2. Levofloxacin cures experimental pneumonic plague in African green monkeys.

    Robert Colby Layton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is considered a potential bioweapon due to rapid lethality when delivered as an aerosol. Levofloxacin was tested for primary pneumonic plague treatment in a nonhuman primate model mimicking human disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-four African Green monkeys (AGMs, Chlorocebus aethiops were challenged via head-only aerosol inhalation with 3-145 (mean = 65 50% lethal (LD(50 doses of Y. pestis strain CO92. Telemetered body temperature >39 °C initiated intravenous infusions to seven 5% dextrose controls or 17 levofloxacin treated animals. Levofloxacin was administered as a "humanized" dose regimen of alternating 8 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg 30-min infusions every 24-h, continuing until animal death or 20 total infusions, followed by 14 days of observation. Fever appeared at 53-165 h and radiographs found multilobar pneumonia in all exposed animals. All control animals died of severe pneumonic plague within five days of aerosol exposure. All 16 animals infused with levofloxacin for 10 days survived. Levofloxacin treatment abolished bacteremia within 24 h in animals with confirmed pre-infusion bacteremia, and reduced tachypnea and leukocytosis but not fever during the first 2 days of infusions. CONCLUSION: Levofloxacin cures established pneumonic plague when treatment is initiated after the onset of fever in the lethal aerosol-challenged AGM nonhuman primate model, and can be considered for treatment of other forms of plague. Levofloxacin may also be considered for primary presumptive-use, multi-agent antibiotic in bioterrorism events prior to identification of the pathogen.

  3. Bilateral ovarian cysts originating from rete ovarii in an African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops).

    Kim, Sung-Woo; Lee, Yong-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kim, Kyoung-Min; Lee, Young-Jeon; Jung, Kang-Jin; Chang, Kwon-Sik; Kim, Doo; Son, Hwa-Young; Reu, Dong-Suck; Chang, Kyu-Tae


    Ovarian cyst is common incidental finding in humans and many animals and includes follicular cysts, cystic rete ovarii and mesonephric duct cysts. Ovarian cyst is often associated with reproductive disorders in humans and animals. We found accidentally bilateral cystic masses in ovaries in an African green monkey. Grossly, the left and right ovarian cystic masses were single unilocular cystic structures measuring 0.6 and 1.8 cm in diameter, respectively. Histologically, both cysts were thin-walled structures that arose from the center of the ovary and displaced ovarian tissue peripherally. The cysts were lined by a single layer of nonciliated low cuboidal epithelium. Immunohistochemically, epithelial cells in the cysts were positive for cytokeratin, and the stromal cells were positive for smooth muscle actin but negative for vimentin. These results suggest that these ovarian cysts in an African green monkey are cystic rete ovarii. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cystic rete ovarii in African green monkeys and may be of value in relation to research of the pathogenesis and treatment of ovarian cyst. PMID:22673701

  4. Centromere protein B of African green monkey cells: gene structure, cellular expression, and centromeric localization.

    Yoda, K; Nakamura, T.; Masumoto, H; Suzuki, N.; Kitagawa, K; M. Nakano; Shinjo, A; Okazaki, T.


    Centromere protein B (CENP-B) is a centromeric DNA-binding protein which recognizes a 17-bp sequence (CENP-B box) in human and mouse centromeric satellite DNA. The African green monkey (AGM) is phylogenetically closer to humans than mice and is known to contain large amounts of alpha-satellite DNA, but there has been no report of CENP-B boxes or CENP-B in the centromere domains of its chromosomes. To elucidate the AGM CENP-B-CENP-B box interaction, we have analyzed the gene structure, express...

  5. Intestinal structural changes in African green monkeys after long term psyllium or cellulose feeding.

    Paulini, I; Mehta, T; Hargis, A


    Intestinal structure of male adult African Green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops ssp vervets) was studied after 3 1/2 yr of consuming diets containing 10% psyllium husk or cellulose. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) identified mild damage (cellular swelling and disarray, and microvillar denudation and disarray) at villous tips throughout the small intestine in the psyllium-fed monkeys. The cellulose group had similar duodenal damage. Differences were not found in colons by SEM. By light microscopy, jejunum had shorter villi with psyllium feeding, based upon villous height (P less than 0.05), and length around a sectioned villus (P less than 0.1), but not based upon the number of enterocytes per villus. Jejunal and ileal circular and longitudinal muscle layer thicknesses were increased in psyllium-fed monkeys. Colonic mucosal height was significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced and muscle layer thickness was mildly reduced in the psyllium-fed monkeys. Group differences were not found in intestinal weight or length or in the weight of small intestinal mucosal scrapings. Psyllium husk may cause epithelial cell loss and muscle layer hypertrophy in the jejunum and ileum and thinning of the colonic wall after prolonged feeding. PMID:3031252

  6. Chemical induction of endogenous retrovirus particles from the vero cell line of African green monkeys.

    Ma, Hailun; Ma, Yunkun; Ma, Wenbin; Williams, Dhanya K; Galvin, Teresa A; Khan, Arifa S


    Endogenous retroviral sequences are present in high copy numbers in the genomes of all species and may be expressed as RNAs; however, the majority are defective for virus production. Although virus has been isolated from various Old World monkey and New World monkey species, there has been no report of endogenous retroviruses produced from African green monkey (AGM) tissues or cell lines. We have recently developed a stepwise approach for evaluating the presence of latent viruses by chemical induction (Khan et al., Biologicals 37:196-201, 2009). Based upon this strategy, optimum conditions were determined for investigating the presence of inducible, endogenous retroviruses in the AGM-derived Vero cell line. Low-level reverse transcriptase activity was produced with 5-azacytidine (AzaC) and with 5'-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUdR); none was detected with sodium butyrate. Nucleotide sequence analysis of PCR-amplified fragments from the gag, pol, and env regions of RNAs, prepared from ultracentrifuged pellets of filtered supernatants, indicated that endogenous retrovirus particles related to simian endogenous type D betaretrovirus (SERV) sequences and baboon endogenous virus type C gammaretrovirus (BaEV) sequences were induced by AzaC, whereas SERV sequences were also induced by IUdR. Additionally, sequence heterogeneity was seen in the RNAs of SERV- and BaEV-related particles. Infectivity analysis of drug-treated AGM Vero cells showed no virus replication in cell lines known to be susceptible to type D simian retroviruses (SRVs) and to BaEV. The results indicated that multiple, inducible endogenous retrovirus loci are present in the AGM genome that can encode noninfectious, viruslike particles. PMID:21543506

  7. Effects of short-term niacin treatment on plasma lipoprotein concentrations in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops)

    Chauke, Chesa G.


    Niacin is the most effective drug available for raising levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. To evaluate its effects on plasma lipid concentrations, the authors administered a low dose of niacin to healthy, adult, female African green monkeys for 3 months. In the treated monkeys, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased by 43% from baseline, whereas concentrations of HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I increased by 49% and 34%, respectively. The results suggest that in this primate model, a low dose of niacin can effectively increase concentrations of HDL cholesterol.©2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Organisation of nucleosomal arrays reconstituted with repetitive African green monkey α-satellite DNA as analysed by atomic force microscopy

    Bussiek, Malte; Müller, Gabriele; Waldeck, Waldemar; Diekmann, Stephan; Langowski, Jörg


    Alpha-satellite DNA (AS) is part of centromeric DNA and could be relevant for centromeric chromatin structure: its repetitive character may generate a specifically ordered nucleosomal arrangement and thereby facilitate kinetochore protein binding and chromatin condensation. Although nucleosomal positioning on some satellite sequences had been shown, including AS from African green monkey (AGM), the sequence-dependent nucleosomal organisation of repetitive AS of this species has so far not bee...

  9. Multispecies Epidemiologic Surveillance Study after an Outbreak of Yersiniosis at an African Green Monkey Research Facility.

    Soto, Esteban; Loftis, Amanda; Boruta, Daniel; Rostad, Sara; Beierschmitt, Amy; McCoy, Matthew; Francis, Stewart; Berezowski, John; Illanes, Oscar; Recinos, Diego; Arauz, Maziel; Spencer, Dustine; Fraites, Trellor; Palmour, Roberta


    After an outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica at a NHP research facility, we performed a multispecies investigation of the prevalence of Yersinia spp. in various mammals that resided or foraged on the grounds of the facility, to better understand the epizootiology of yersiniosis. Blood samples and fecal and rectal swabs were obtained from 105 captive African green monkeys (AGM), 12 feral cats, 2 dogs, 20 mice, 12 rats, and 3 mongooses. Total DNA extracted from swab suspensions served as template for the detection of Y. enterocolitica DNA by real-time PCR. Neither Y. enterocolitica organisms nor their DNA were detected from any of these samples. However, Western blotting revealed the presence of Yersinia antibodies in plasma. The AGM samples revealed a seroprevalence of 91% for Yersinia spp. and of 61% for Y. enterocolitica specifically. The AGM that were housed in cages where at least one fatality occurred during the outbreak (clinical group) had similar seroprevalence to that of AGM housed in unaffected cages (nonclinical group). However, the nonclinical group was older than the clinical group. In addition, 25%, 100%, 33%, 10%, and 10% of the sampled local cats, dogs, mongooses, rats, and mice, respectively, were seropositive. The high seroprevalence after this outbreak suggests that Y. enterocolitica was transmitted effectively through the captive AGM population and that age was an important risk factor for disease. Knowledge regarding local environmental sources of Y. enterocolitica and the possible role of wildlife in the maintenance of yersiniosis is necessary to prevent and manage this disease. PMID:26678370

  10. A challenge to the ancient origin of SIVagm based on African green monkey mitochondrial genomes.

    Joel O Wertheim


    Full Text Available While the circumstances surrounding the origin and spread of HIV are becoming clearer, the particulars of the origin of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV are still unknown. Specifically, the age of SIV, whether it is an ancient or recent infection, has not been resolved. Although many instances of cross-species transmission of SIV have been documented, the similarity between the African green monkey (AGM and SIVagm phylogenies has long been held as suggestive of ancient codivergence between SIVs and their primate hosts. Here, we present well-resolved phylogenies based on full-length AGM mitochondrial genomes and seven previously published SIVagm genomes; these allowed us to perform the first rigorous phylogenetic test to our knowledge of the hypothesis that SIVagm codiverged with the AGMs. Using the Shimodaira-Hasegawa test, we show that the AGM mitochondrial genomes and SIVagm did not evolve along the same topology. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the SIVagm topology can be explained by a pattern of west-to-east transmission of the virus across existing AGM geographic ranges. Using a relaxed molecular clock, we also provide a date for the most recent common ancestor of the AGMs at approximately 3 million years ago. This study substantially weakens the theory of ancient SIV infection followed by codivergence with its primate hosts.

  11. Psyllium husk. II: Effect on the metabolism of apolipoprotein B in African green monkeys.

    McCall, M R; Mehta, T; Leathers, C W; Foster, D M


    Dietary psyllium's ability to reduce low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is presumably mediated by increased LDL catabolism and/or reduced LDL synthesis. To distinguish between these possibilities, apolipoprotein B (apo B) metabolism was studied in adult male African green monkeys consuming one of three semipurified diets: low-cholesterol cellulose (LCC), high-cholesterol cellulose (HCC), or high-cholesterol psyllium (HCP). 131I-labeled LDL and 125I-labeled VLDL were injected simultaneously into animals; blood samples were drawn at selected times and apo B specific activity determined in VLDL, IDL, and LDL. Based on a multicompartmental model, LDL apo B pool size and de novo apo B transport were elevated significantly in HCC animals compared with HCP and LCC animals. Differences in LDL transport, although not significant, paralleled differences observed in LDL apo B pool size. Fractional catabolic rates were similar among groups (HCC 0.040 +/- 0.010; HCP 0.042 +/- 0.009, and LCC 0.043 +/- 0.004 pools/h). These data suggest that dietary psyllium reduces plasma cholesterol concentrations by decreasing LDL synthesis. PMID:1322033

  12. Psyllium husk. I: Effect on plasma lipoproteins, cholesterol metabolism, and atherosclerosis in African green monkeys.

    McCall, M R; Mehta, T; Leathers, C W; Foster, D M


    Psyllium's effects on plasma and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, cholesterol metabolism, and diet-induced atherosclerosis were studied in adult male African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Animals were fed for 3.5 y one of three experimental diets: low-cholesterol cellulose (LCC), high-cholesterol cellulose (HCC), or high-cholesterol psyllium (HCP). The LCC and HCP groups had significantly (P less than 0.05) lower plasma cholesterol concentrations (39% lower) at 1 mo than did the HCC group. These responses persisted throughout the study. Plasma cholesterol changes were due to a reduction in intermediate-density and low-density lipoproteins; very-low and high-density-lipoprotein concentrations were similar among groups. Aortic atherosclerosis, evaluated as percent sudanophilia at 3.5 y, was lowest in the LCC group, intermediate in the HCP group, and highest in the HCC group. Cholesterol absorption, neutral steroid and fat excretion, HMGCoA reductase activity (in intestine and liver), and body weight were unrelated to psyllium's hypocholesterolemic effects. PMID:1322032

  13. Relation between phylogeny of African green monkey CD4 genes and their respective simian immunodeficiency virus genes

    Fomsgaard, Anders; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela C.; Diop, Ousmane;


    An apparent species-specific relatedness of SIVagm suggests a coevolution with their natural hosts. However, the exact species or subspecies classification of African green monkeys, AGM, is uncertain because current classification schemes rely on phenotype markers, while more definitive genetic...... data are lacking. In this study, the CD4 protein involved in tissue type recognition was gentically cloned and sequence from PBMC RNA from all AGM species, including Barbados green monkeys (BGM). Phylogenetic trees were constructed that also included genomic CD4 nucleotide sequences from patas, sooty......, tantalus, vervets, grivets, and sabaeus formed separate subgroups with BGM grouping closely with vervets. The branching order of the AGM species was related to that of their respective SIVagm env sequences. The study suggests a strong correlation between CD4 phylogeny and the susceptibility of the host...

  14. A Characterization of Aerosolized Sudan Virus Infection in African Green Monkeys, Cynomolgus Macaques, and Rhesus Macaques

    Donald K. Nichols


    Full Text Available Filoviruses are members of the genera Ebolavirus, Marburgvirus, and “Cuevavirus”. Because they cause human disease with high lethality and could potentially be used as a bioweapon, these viruses are classified as CDC Category A Bioterrorism Agents. Filoviruses are relatively stable in aerosols, retain virulence after lyophilization, and can be present on contaminated surfaces for extended periods of time. This study explores the characteristics of aerosolized Sudan virus (SUDV Boniface in non-human primates (NHP belonging to three different species. Groups of cynomolgus macaques (cyno, rhesus macaques (rhesus, and African green monkeys (AGM were challenged with target doses of 50 or 500 plaque-forming units (pfu of aerosolized SUDV. Exposure to either viral dose resulted in increased body temperatures in all three NHP species beginning on days 4–5 post-exposure. Other clinical findings for all three NHP species included leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, anorexia, dehydration, and lymphadenopathy. Disease in all of the NHPs was severe beginning on day 6 post-exposure, and all animals except one surviving rhesus macaque were euthanized by day 14. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST concentrations were elevated during the course of disease in all three species; however, AGMs had significantly higher ALT and AST concentrations than cynos and rhesus. While all three species had detectable viral load by days 3-4 post exposure, Rhesus had lower average peak viral load than cynos or AGMs. Overall, the results indicate that the disease course after exposure to aerosolized SUDV is similar for all three species of NHP.

  15. Plasmid-Chromosome Recombination of Irradiated Shuttle Vector DNA in African Green Monkey Kidney Cells.

    Mudgett, John Stuart


    An autonomously replicating shuttle vector was used to investigate the enhancement of plasmid-chromosome recombination in mammalian host cells by ultraviolet light and gamma radiation. Sequences homologous to the shuttle vector were stably inserted into the genome of African Green Monkey kidney cells to act as the target substrate for these recombination events. The SV40- and pBR322-derived plasmid DNA was irradiated with various doses of radiation before transfection into the transformed mammalian host cells. The successful homologous transfer of the bacterial ampicillin resistance (amp^{rm r}) gene from the inserted sequences to replace a mutant amp^->=ne on the shuttle vector was identified by plasmid extraction and transformation into E. coli host cells. Ultraviolet light (UV) was found not to induce homologous plasmid-chromosome recombination, while gamma radiation increased the frequency of recombinant plasmids detected. The introduction of specific double -strand breaks in the plasmid or prolonging the time of plasmid residence in the mammalian host cells also enhanced plasmid-chromosome recombination. In contrast, plasmid mutagenesis was found to be increased by plasmid UV irradiation, but not to change with time. Plasmid survival, recombination, and mutagenesis were not affected by treating the mammalian host cells with UV light prior to plasmid transfection. The amp^{rm r} recombinant plasmid molecules analyzed were found to be mostly the result of nonconservative exchanges which appeared to involve both homologous and possibly nonhomologous interactions with the host chromosome. The observation that these recombinant structures were obtained from all of the plasmid alterations investigated suggests a common mechanistic origin for plasmid -chromosome recombination in these mammalian cells.

  16. Nucleotide sequence analysis and enhancer function of long terminal repeats associated with an endogenous African green monkey retroviral DNA.

    Kessel, M; Khan, A S


    The nucleotide sequence and enhancer activity of the long terminal repeats (LTRs) associated with a cloned endogenous African green monkey (AGM) retroviral DNA designated as lambda-AGM-1 was studied. A unique feature of the endogenous AGM proviral LTRs was the presence of multiple copies of two types of directly repeating units in the U3 region: 16 8-base-pair (bp) repeats were present in the 5' LTR and 12 were present in the 3' LTR which were bound by a 6-bp perfect direct repeat; tandem dup...

  17. Homeostatic Cytokines Induce CD4 Downregulation in African Green Monkeys Independently of Antigen Exposure To Generate Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Resistant CD8αα T Cells

    Molly R Perkins; Briant, Judith A.; Calantone, Nina; Whitted, Sonya; Vinton, Carol L.; Klatt, Nichole R.; Ourmanov, Ilnour; Ortiz, Alexandra M.; Vanessa M Hirsch; Brenchley, Jason M.


    African green monkeys (AGMs; genus Chlorocebus) are a natural host of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVAGM). As they do not develop simian AIDS, there is great interest in understanding how this species has evolved to avoid immunodeficiency. Adult African green monkeys naturally have low numbers of CD4 T cells and a large population of major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted CD8αdim T cells that are generated through CD4 downregulation in CD4+ T cells. Mechanisms that drive this...

  18. Envelope-specific B-cell populations in African green monkeys chronically infected with simian immunodeficiency virus.

    Zhang, Ruijun; Martinez, David R; Nguyen, Quang N; Pollara, Justin; Arifin, Trina; Stolarchuk, Christina; Foulger, Andrew; Amos, Josh D; Parks, Robert; Himes, Jonathon E; Wang, Minyue; Edwards, Regina W; Trama, Ashley M; Vandergrift, Nathan; Colvin, Lisa; Dewar, Ken; Juretic, Nikoleta; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Ferrari, Guido; Liao, Hua-Xin; Permar, Sallie R


    African green monkeys (AGMs) are natural primate hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Interestingly, features of the envelope-specific antibody responses in SIV-infected AGMs are distinct from that of HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected rhesus monkeys, including gp120-focused responses and rapid development of autologous neutralization. Yet, the lack of genetic tools to evaluate B-cell lineages hinders potential use of this unique non-human primate model for HIV vaccine development. Here we define features of the AGM Ig loci and compare the proportion of Env-specific memory B-cell populations to that of HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected rhesus monkeys. AGMs appear to have a higher proportion of Env-specific memory B cells that are mainly gp120 directed. Furthermore, AGM gp120-specific monoclonal antibodies display robust antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and CD4-dependent virion capture activity. Our results support the use of AGMs to model induction of functional gp120-specific antibodies by HIV vaccine strategies. PMID:27381634

  19. Comparison of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVagmVer Replication and CD4+ T-Cell Dynamics in Vervet and Sabaeus African Green Monkeys

    Goldstein, Simoy; Brown, Charles R.; Ourmanov, Ilnour; Pandrea, Ivona; Buckler-White, Alicia; Erb, Christopher; Nandi, Jayashree S; Foster, Gabriel J.; Autissier, Patrick; Schmitz, Jörn E.; Hirsch, Vanessa M.


    The simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) naturally infect a wide range of African primates, including African green monkeys (AGM). Despite moderate to high levels of plasma viremia in naturally infected AGM, infection is not associated with immunodeficiency. We recently reported that SIVagmVer90 isolated from a naturally infected vervet AGM induced AIDS following experimental inoculation of pigtailed macaques. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the replication of this isolate in t...

  20. Insights into the dual activity of SIVmac239 Vif against human and African green monkey APOBEC3G.

    Ritu Gaur

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 Vif is essential for viral evasion of the host antiviral protein APOBEC3G (APO3G. The Vif protein from a distantly related African green monkey (Agm simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVagm is unable to suppress the antiviral activity of human APO3G but is active against Agm APO3G. SIVmac Vif on the other hand, possesses antiviral activity against both human and Agm APO3G. In this study, we were interested in mapping domains in SIVmac Vif that are responsible for its dual activity against human and Agm APO3G. We constructed a series of Vif chimeras by swapping domains in SIVmac Vif with equivalent regions from SIVagm Vif and determined their activity against human and Agm APO3G. We found that replacing any region in SIVmac Vif by corresponding fragments from SIVagm Vif only moderately reduced the activity of the chimeras against Agm APO3G but in all cases resulted in a severe loss of activity against human APO3G. These results suggest that the domains in SIVmac Vif required for targeting human and Agm APO3G are distinct and cannot be defined as linear amino acid motifs but rather appear to depend on the overall structure of full-length SIVmac Vif.

  1. Organisation of nucleosomal arrays reconstituted with repetitive African green monkey α-satellite DNA as analysed by atomic force microscopy

    Bussiek, Malte; Müller, Gabriele; Waldeck, Waldemar; Diekmann, Stephan


    Alpha-satellite DNA (AS) is part of centromeric DNA and could be relevant for centromeric chromatin structure: its repetitive character may generate a specifically ordered nucleosomal arrangement and thereby facilitate kinetochore protein binding and chromatin condensation. Although nucleosomal positioning on some satellite sequences had been shown, including AS from African green monkey (AGM), the sequence-dependent nucleosomal organisation of repetitive AS of this species has so far not been analysed. We therefore studied the positioning of reconstituted nucleosomes on AGM AS tandemly repeated DNA. Enzymatic analysis of nucleosome arrays formed on an AS heptamer as well as the localisation of mononucleosomes on an AS dimer by atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed one major positioning frame, in agreement with earlier results. The occupancy of this site was in the range of 45–50%, in quite good agreement with published in vivo observations. AFM measurements of internucleosomal distances formed on the heptamer indicated that the nucleosomal arrangement is governed by sequence-specific DNA-histone interactions yielding defined internucleosomal distances, which, nevertheless, are not compatible with a uniform phasing of the nucleosomes with the AGM AS repeats. PMID:17503032

  2. Relation between phylogeny of African green monkey CD4 genes and their respective simian immunodeficiency virus genes

    Fomsgaard, Anders; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela C.; Diop, Ousmane; Hansen, Jan; Mathiot, Christian; Corbet, Sylvie; Barré-Sinoussi, Francoise; Allan, Jonathan S.


    mangabeys, rhesus and pig-tail macaques, chimpanzees, and humans. Chimpanzees and humans consistently clustered together. Monkeys within the Cercopithecus genus formed a separate cluster which included pata monkeys, supporting its grouping as a member of Cercopithecus. Surprisingly, sooty mangabeys were...

  3. Cross-reactivity to human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus and molecular cloning of simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type III from African green monkeys.

    Hirsch, V.; Riedel, N.; Kornfeld, H; Kanki, P J; M Essex; Mullins, J I


    Simian T-lymphotropic retroviruses with structural, antigenic, and cytopathic features similar to the etiologic agent of human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV), have been isolated from a variety of primate species including African green monkeys (STLV-IIIAGM). This report describes nucleic acid cross-reactivity between STLV-IIIAGM and HTLV-III/LAV, molecular cloning of the STLV-IIIAGM genome, and evaluation...

  4. Inhibition of adaptive immune responses leads to a fatal clinical outcome in SIV-infected pigtailed macaques but not vervet African green monkeys.

    Jörn E Schmitz


    Full Text Available African green monkeys (AGM and other natural hosts for simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV do not develop an AIDS-like disease following SIV infection. To evaluate differences in the role of SIV-specific adaptive immune responses between natural and nonnatural hosts, we used SIV(agmVer90 to infect vervet AGM and pigtailed macaques (PTM. This infection results in robust viral replication in both vervet AGM and pigtailed macaques (PTM but only induces AIDS in the latter species. We delayed the development of adaptive immune responses through combined administration of anti-CD8 and anti-CD20 lymphocyte-depleting antibodies during primary infection of PTM (n = 4 and AGM (n = 4, and compared these animals to historical controls infected with the same virus. Lymphocyte depletion resulted in a 1-log increase in primary viremia and a 4-log increase in post-acute viremia in PTM. Three of the four PTM had to be euthanized within 6 weeks of inoculation due to massive CMV reactivation and disease. In contrast, all four lymphocyte-depleted AGM remained healthy. The lymphocyte-depleted AGM showed only a trend toward a prolongation in peak viremia but the groups were indistinguishable during chronic infection. These data show that adaptive immune responses are critical for controlling disease progression in pathogenic SIV infection in PTM. However, the maintenance of a disease-free course of SIV infection in AGM likely depends on a number of mechanisms including non-adaptive immune mechanisms.

  5. Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Measures During and After Pregnancy and Age- and Sex-Specific Reference Intervals in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus).

    Chichester, Lee; Gee, Melaney K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R


    Clinical decisions and experimental analyses often involve the assessment of hematology and clinical chemistry. Using clinical pathology to assess the health status of NHP in breeding colonies or data from studies than involve pregnancy can often be complicated by pregnancy status. This study had 2 objectives regarding the hematology and clinical chemistry of African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus): 1) to compare pregnant or recently postpartum animals with nonpregnant, nonlactating animals and 2) to create age- and sex-specific reference intervals. Subjects in this study were 491 AGM from the Vervet Research Colony of the Wake Forest University Primate Center. Results indicated that changes in BUN, serum total protein, albumin, ALP, GGT, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total CO2, globulins, lipase, amylase, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC, Hgb, and Hct occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals consistent with guidelines from the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology were established and further expand the understanding of how to define health in AGM on the basis of clinical pathology. The combination of understanding the changes that occur in pregnancy and postpartum and expansive reference intervals will help guide clinical and experimental decisions. PMID:26224434

  6. Innate immune responses and rapid control of inflammation in African green monkeys treated or not with interferon-alpha during primary SIVagm infection.

    Béatrice Jacquelin


    Full Text Available Chronic immune activation (IA is considered as the driving force of CD4(+ T cell depletion and AIDS. Fundamental clues in the mechanisms that regulate IA could lie in natural hosts of SIV, such as African green monkeys (AGMs. Here we investigated the role of innate immune cells and IFN-α in the control of IA in AGMs. AGMs displayed significant NK cell activation upon SIVagm infection, which was correlated with the levels of IFN-α. Moreover, we detected cytotoxic NK cells in lymph nodes during the early acute phase of SIVagm infection. Both plasmacytoid and myeloid dendritic cell (pDC and mDC homing receptors were increased, but the maturation of mDCs, in particular of CD16+ mDCs, was more important than that of pDCs. Monitoring of 15 cytokines showed that those, which are known to be increased early in HIV-1/SIVmac pathogenic infections, such as IL-15, IFN-α, MCP-1 and CXCL10/IP-10, were significantly increased in AGMs as well. In contrast, cytokines generally induced in the later stage of acute pathogenic infection, such as IL-6, IL-18 and TNF-α, were less or not increased, suggesting an early control of IA. We then treated AGMs daily with high doses of IFN-α from day 9 to 24 post-infection. No impact was observed on the activation or maturation profiles of mDCs, pDCs and NK cells. There was also no major difference in T cell activation or interferon-stimulated gene (ISG expression profiles and no sign of disease progression. Thus, even after administration of high levels of IFN-α during acute infection, AGMs were still able to control IA, showing that IA control is independent of IFN-α levels. This suggests that the sustained ISG expression and IA in HIV/SIVmac infections involves non-IFN-α products.

  7. Threats from the past: Barbados green monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus) fear leopards after centuries of isolation.

    Burns-Cusato, Melissa; Glueck, Amanda C; Merchak, Andrea R; Palmer, Cristin L; Rieskamp, Joshua D; Duggan, Ivy S; Hinds, Rebecca T; Cusato, Brian


    Ability to recognize and differentiate between predators and non-predators is a crucial component of successful anti-predator behavior. While there is evidence that both genetic and experiential mechanisms mediate anti-predator behaviors in various animal species, it is unknown to what extent each of these two mechanisms are utilized by the green monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus). Green monkeys on the West Indies island of Barbados offer a unique opportunity to investigate the underpinnings of anti-predator behaviors in a species that has been isolated from ancestral predators for over 350 years. In the first experiment, monkeys in two free-ranging troops were presented with photographs of an ancestral predator (leopard, Panthera pardus) and a non-predator (African Buffalo, Syncerus caffer). Relative to non-predator stimuli, images of a leopard elicited less approach, more alarm calls, and more escape responses. Subsequent experiments were conducted to determine whether the monkeys were responding to a leopard-specific feature (spotted fur) or a general predator feature (forward facing eyes). The monkeys showed similar approach to images of an unfamiliar non-predator regardless of whether the image had forward facing predator eyes or side facing non-predator eyes. However, once near the images, the monkeys were less likely to reach for peanuts near the predator eyes than the non-predator eyes. The monkeys avoided an image of spotted leopard fur but approached the same image of fur when the dark spots had been removed. Taken together, the results suggest that green monkey anti-predator behavior is at least partially mediated by genetic factors. PMID:26910174

  8. Systems Biology of the Vervet Monkey

    Jasinska, Anna J.; Schmitt, Christopher A.; Susan K Service; Cantor, Rita M.; Dewar, Ken; James D. Jentsch; Kaplan, Jay R; Turner, Trudy R.; Warren, Wesley C.; George M Weinstock; Woods, Roger P.; Freimer, Nelson B.


    Nonhuman primates (NHP) provide crucial biomedical model systems intermediate between rodents and humans. The vervet monkey (also called the African green monkey) is a widely used NHP model that has unique value for genetic and genomic investigations of traits relevant to human diseases. This article describes the phylogeny and population history of the vervet monkey and summarizes the use of both captive and wild vervet monkeys in biomedical research. It also discusses the effort of an inter...

  9. Development of a shaker culture of Buffalo green monkey kidney cells: potential use for detection of enteroviruses.

    Goldstein, G.; Guskey, L E


    Buffalo green monkey kidney cells were adapted to grow as shaker cultures. Replication of environmental and clinical isolates of poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and echovirus in these cultures was analyzed by plaque assay and compared with replication in Buffalo green monkey kidney cell monolayers and HEp-2 cell shaker cultures. Dose-response tests with various concentrations of Mahoney type 1 poliovirus indicated that Buffalo green monkey kidney cell shaker cultures could detect as little as 1 P...

  10. Development of a shaker culture of Buffalo green monkey kidney cells: potential use for detection of enteroviruses.

    Goldstein, G; Guskey, L E


    Buffalo green monkey kidney cells were adapted to grow as shaker cultures. Replication of environmental and clinical isolates of poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and echovirus in these cultures was analyzed by plaque assay and compared with replication in Buffalo green monkey kidney cell monolayers and HEp-2 cell shaker cultures. Dose-response tests with various concentrations of Mahoney type 1 poliovirus indicated that Buffalo green monkey kidney cell shaker cultures could detect as little as 1 PFU in an inoculum of 0.2 ml. These data suggest that Buffalo green monkey kidney cell shaker cultures can be effectively used for the detection of small quantities of enteroviruses from environmental sources. PMID:6289745

  11. Generation of transgenic cynomolgus monkeys that express green fluorescent protein throughout the whole body.

    Seita, Yasunari; Tsukiyama, Tomoyuki; Iwatani, Chizuru; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Matsushita, Jun; Azami, Takuya; Okahara, Junko; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Hitoshi, Seiji; Itoh, Yasushi; Imamura, Takeshi; Nishimura, Masaki; Tooyama, Ikuo; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Saitou, Mitinori; Ogasawara, Kazumasa; Sasaki, Erika; Ema, Masatsugu


    Nonhuman primates are valuable for human disease modelling, because rodents poorly recapitulate some human diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease amongst others. Here, we report for the first time, the generation of green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic cynomolgus monkeys by lentivirus infection. Our data show that the use of a human cytomegalovirus immediate-early enhancer and chicken beta actin promoter (CAG) directed the ubiquitous expression of the transgene in cynomolgus monkeys. We also found that injection into mature oocytes before fertilization achieved homogenous expression of GFP in each tissue, including the amnion, and fibroblasts, whereas injection into fertilized oocytes generated a transgenic cynomolgus monkey with mosaic GFP expression. Thus, the injection timing was important to create transgenic cynomolgus monkeys that expressed GFP homogenously in each of the various tissues. The strategy established in this work will be useful for the generation of transgenic cynomolgus monkeys for transplantation studies as well as biomedical research. PMID:27109065

  12. The subclavian artery and its branches in the small green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus

    Blagojević Zdenka M.


    Full Text Available Within experimental, human and veterinary medicine, more and more attention has been paid to experimental animals. One of them being the small green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus. The small green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus has a shod muzzle, small teeth, and is mostly of gray-greenish color; the lower pan of its neck, chest, belly and inner sides of its thoracic limbs being whitish. Its total length is about 110 cm, the tail being 50 cm long. On its head, on both sides, there are white hairs directed towards the neck, reminiscent of whiskers. The monkeys have large buccal sacs. The extremities and tail are more gray than the rest of the body. The skin of the face, ears and fore limbs is black. The digits are very long, whilst the thumb short. Cell cultures from the small green monkey are used for the cultivation of poliovirus in the manufacture of vaccines against poliomyelitis. In addition, kidney cultures from the same monkey serve for detection of the virus in biological material. This was the main reason that prompted us to undertake a study of one part of the monkey's cardiosvascular system and thus contribute to a better understanding of the structure of its body.

  13. Agricultural Biodiversity: African alternatives to a ‘green revolution’

    Andrew Mushita; Carol Thompson


    Although the global agricultural crises affect the African continent most adversely, African farmers and scientists offer successful alternatives to industrial monoculture. Andrew Mushita and Carol Thompson argue that while the ‘green revolution for Africa’ promotes private foreign ownership of genetically modified seeds and focuses on increased yields of a few crops, African alternatives honour farmers' rights and agricultural biodiversity, through innovative legislation and protocols, in or...

  14. Red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) hunt green pigeons (Treron calva) in the Kalinzu Forest in Uganda.

    Furuichi, Takeshi


    Red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) were observed hunting green pigeons (Treron calva) in the Kalinzu Forest in Uganda. During 2 h 39 min, I observed two cases of successful hunting and one case of unsuccessful hunting in a Ficus saussureana tree. Red-tailed monkeys stalked the pigeons until they were within 2-3 m, and then jumped and caught them. In both successful cases, blue monkeys (C. mitis) ran to the hunting site from adjacent trees in order to poach the prey, and the red-tailed monkeys fled. One of these red-tailed monkeys dropped the pigeon while fleeing, and the blue monkey climbed down from the tree to search for it. This is the first record of cercopithecoid monkeys hunting birds that are outside of the nest and moving freely, and also the first record of red-tailed monkeys hunting vertebrates. However rare it may be, the repeated hunting attempts using similar techniques and the immediate attempt of blue monkeys to poach the prey suggest that this type of hunting was not a one-time event that happened by chance. Blue monkeys and an adult chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in and around the fig tree did not attempt to hunt. The hunting of volant birds may be enabled by the small body size and the quick movements of red-tailed monkeys. PMID:16467957

  15. 卵磷脂对砷染毒非洲绿猴肾细胞细胞膜损伤的作用%Intervention effect of lecithin on cell membrane injury of African green monkey kidney exposed to sodium arsenite in vitro

    王婷婷; 张亚楼; 刘继文; 王生玲


    Objective To observe the lecithin's effect on membrane of African green monkey kidney cells (Vero) exposed to sodium arsenite(NaAsO2). Methods Vero cells cultured in vitro were divided into 4 groups:control group (saline), model group (2.20 mg/L NaAsO2), high eoncentration of lecithin and arsenic group (53.33mg/L lecithin + 2.20 mg/L NaAsO2), low eoncentration of lecithin and arsenic group( 13.32 mg/L lecithin + 2.20 mg/L NaAsO2), 6 bottles of cells in each group, medium was changed every 2 days, cultured for 120 h. Na+ ,K+-ATPase activities of membrane were measured by spectrophotometry, and membrane phospholipids composition including phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethano-lamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingmyelin (SM) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results The Na~, K+-ATPase activities of membrane of control group, model group, high concentration of lecithin and arsenic group, low concentration of lecithin and arsenic group were (0.962 ± 0.081) × 106, (0.544 ± 0.037) × 106, (0.647 ± 0.043) x 106, (0.550±Compared with control group, the Na+ ,K+-ATPase activities of other 3 groups were significantly reduced (all P 0.05). Compared with control group[(0.087 ± 0.003), (0.127 ± 0.053), (0.588 ± 0.105),(0.071 ± 0.029)g/L], PS, PE, PC, SM levels in model group[(0.051 ± 0.018), (0.073 + 0.030), (0.240 ±0.038), (0.047 ± 0.121 )g/L] were significantly lower(all P 0.05), but SM[(0.057 ± 0.004)g/L] significantly decreased(P 0.05]. Compared with model group,the levels of PS, PE, PC, SM in high concentration of lecithin and arsenic group were significantly higher(all P 0.05), and PC was significantly higher(P 0.05).与对照组[(0.087±0.003)、(0.127±0.053)、(0.588±0.105)、(0.07l±0.029)g/L]比较,砷模型组PS、PE、PC、SM水平[(0.051±0.018)、(0.073±0.030)、(0.240 4-0.038)、(0.047±0.121)g/L]均明显降低(P均0.05),而SM[(0.057±0.004)g/L]明显降低(P0.05).与砷模型组比较,卵磷脂高剂

  16. Standardized Full-Field Electroretinography in the Green Monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus)

    Bouskila, Joseph; Javadi, Pasha; Palmour, Roberta M;


    increasingly become a favorable non-human primate model for assessing ocular defects in humans. To test this model, we obtained full-field electroretinographic recordings (ERG) and normal values for standard responses required by the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV...... in humans and other non-human primate species (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis). These results validate the Green Monkey as an excellent non-human primate model, with potential to serve for testing retinal function following various manipulations such as visual deprivation or drug evaluation....

  17. Promoting Green Urban Development in African Cities

    World Bank Group


    The city of Kampala has undergone a period of rapid urbanization that has contributed to the degradation of the city’s natural environment. The urban environmental profile for Kampala has been prepared as the first component of the assignment promoting green urban development in Africa: enhancing the relationship between urbanization, environmental assets, and ecosystem services, a project...

  18. Chemical Induction of Endogenous Retrovirus Particles from the Vero Cell Line of African Green Monkeys▿

    Ma, Hailun; Ma, Yunkun; Ma, Wenbin; Williams, Dhanya K.; Galvin, Teresa A.; Khan, Arifa S.


    Endogenous retroviral sequences are present in high copy numbers in the genomes of all species and may be expressed as RNAs; however, the majority are defective for virus production. Although virus has been isolated from various Old World monkey and New World monkey species, there has been no report of endogenous retroviruses produced from African green monkey (AGM) tissues or cell lines. We have recently developed a stepwise approach for evaluating the presence of latent viruses by chemical induction (Khan et al., Biologicals 37:196–201, 2009). Based upon this strategy, optimum conditions were determined for investigating the presence of inducible, endogenous retroviruses in the AGM-derived Vero cell line. Low-level reverse transcriptase activity was produced with 5-azacytidine (AzaC) and with 5′-iodo-2′-deoxyuridine (IUdR); none was detected with sodium butyrate. Nucleotide sequence analysis of PCR-amplified fragments from the gag, pol, and env regions of RNAs, prepared from ultracentrifuged pellets of filtered supernatants, indicated that endogenous retrovirus particles related to simian endogenous type D betaretrovirus (SERV) sequences and baboon endogenous virus type C gammaretrovirus (BaEV) sequences were induced by AzaC, whereas SERV sequences were also induced by IUdR. Additionally, sequence heterogeneity was seen in the RNAs of SERV- and BaEV-related particles. Infectivity analysis of drug-treated AGM Vero cells showed no virus replication in cell lines known to be susceptible to type D simian retroviruses (SRVs) and to BaEV. The results indicated that multiple, inducible endogenous retrovirus loci are present in the AGM genome that can encode noninfectious, viruslike particles. PMID:21543506

  19. Promoting Green Urban Development in African Cities

    World Bank


    The city of eThekwini or Durban has undergone a period of rapid urbanization that has contributed to the degradation of the city’s natural environment. Climate change is placing further strains on the city’s ability to manage the urban environment. The urban environmental profile of eThekwini has been prepared as the first component of the assignment promoting green urban development in Af...

  20. The archetype enhancer of simian virus 40 DNA is duplicated during virus growth in human cells and rhesus monkey kidney cells but not in green monkey kidney cells

    Archetype SV40, obtained directly from its natural host, is characterized by a single 72-bp enhancer element. In contrast, SV40 grown in cell culture almost invariably exhibits partial or complete duplication of the enhancer region. This distinction has been considered important in studies of human tumor material, since SV40-associated tumor isolates have been described having a single enhancer region, suggesting natural infection as opposed to possible contamination by laboratory strains of virus. However, the behavior of archetypal SV40 in cultured cells has never been methodically studied. In this study we reengineered nonarchetypal 776-SV40 to contain a single 72-bp enhancer region and used this reengineered archetypal DNA to transfect a number of simian and human cell lines. SV40 DNA recovered from these cells was analyzed by restriction endonuclease analysis, PCR, and DNA sequencing. Reengineered archetype SV40 propagated in green monkey TC-7 or BSC-1 kidney cells remained without enhancer region duplication even after extensive serial virus passage. Archetype SV40 grown in all but one of the rhesus or human cell lines initially appeared exclusively archetypal. However, when virus from these cell types was transferred to green monkey cells, variants with partial enhancer duplication appeared after as little as a single passage. These findings suggest (1) that virus with a single 72-bp enhancer may persist in cultured cells of simian and human origin; (2) that variants with partially duplicated enhancer regions may arise within cell lines in quantities below limits of detection; (3) that these variants may enjoy a selective advantage in cell types other than those from which they arose (e.g., green monkey kidney cells); and (4) that certain cell lines may support a selective growth advantage for the variants without supporting their formation. Our data indicate that enhancer duplication may also occur in human as well as rhesus kidney cells. Thus, detection of

  1. Humans Can Pass Staph Germs to Monkeys

    ... page: Humans Can Pass Staph Germs to Monkeys Scientists found ... green monkeys in The Gambia were acquired from humans. Most of the human-to-monkey transmission likely ...

  2. Indiscriminate recombination in simian virus 40-infected monkey cells.

    Winocour, E; Keshet, I


    DNA transfection of African green monkey BSC-1 cells with simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA and bacterial virus phi X174 replicative form DNA ("cotransfection") yielded stocks containing SV40/phi X174 recombinant virus, which was detected by an infectious-center in situ plaque hybridization procedure and which was sensitive to anti-SV40 antiserum. The recombinant virus replicated during serial passage. Restriction endonuclease cleavage of the SV40/phi X174 DNA indicated that several different types ...

  3. Expression Patterns of Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors (KIR) of NK-Cell and T-Cell Subsets in Old World Monkeys

    Hermes, Meike; Albrecht, Christina; Schrod, Annette; Brameier, Markus; Walter, Lutz


    The expression of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) on lymphocytes of rhesus macaques and other Old World monkeys was unknown so far. We used our recently established monoclonal anti-rhesus macaque KIR antibodies in multicolour flow cytometry for phenotypic characterization of KIR protein expression on natural killer (NK) cells and T cell subsets of rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques, hamadryas baboons, and African green monkeys. Similar to human KIR, we found clonal expressio...

  4. No evidence for transmission of SIVwrc from western red colobus monkeys (piliocolobus badius badius to wild west african chimpanzees (pan troglodytes verus despite high exposure through hunting

    Liegeois Florian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses (SIVs are the precursors of Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIVs which have lead to the worldwide HIV/AIDS pandemic. By studying SIVs in wild primates we can better understand the circulation of these viruses in their natural hosts and habitat, and perhaps identify factors that influence susceptibility and transmission within and between various host species. We investigated the SIV status of wild West African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus which frequently hunt and consume the western red colobus monkey (Piliocolobus badius badius, a species known to be infected to a high percentage with its specific SIV strain (SIVwrc. Results Blood and plasma samples from 32 wild chimpanzees were tested with INNO-LIA HIV I/II Score kit to detect cross-reactive antibodies to HIV antigens. Twenty-three of the samples were also tested for antibodies to 43 specific SIV and HIV lineages, including SIVwrc. Tissue samples from all but two chimpanzees were tested for SIV by PCRs using generic SIV primers that detect all known primate lentiviruses as well as primers designed to specifically detect SIVwrc. Seventeen of the chimpanzees showed varying degrees of cross-reactivity to the HIV specific antigens in the INNO-LIA test; however no sample had antibodies to SIV or HIV strain - and lineage specific antigens in the Luminex test. No SIV DNA was found in any of the samples. Conclusions We could not detect any conclusive trace of SIV infection from the red colobus monkeys in the chimpanzees, despite high exposure to this virus through frequent hunting. The results of our study raise interesting questions regarding the host-parasite relationship of SIVwrc and wild chimpanzees in their natural habitat.

  5. A Novel Model of Lethal Hendra Virus Infection in African Green Monkeys and the Effectiveness of Ribavirin Treatment▿

    Rockx, Barry; Bossart, Katharine N.; Feldmann, Friederike; Geisbert, Joan B.; Hickey, Andrew C.; Brining, Douglas; Callison, Julie; Safronetz, David; Marzi, Andrea; Kercher, Lisa; Long, Dan; Broder, Christopher C.; Feldmann, Heinz; Geisbert, Thomas W


    The henipaviruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV), are emerging zoonotic paramyxoviruses that can cause severe and often lethal neurologic and/or respiratory disease in a wide variety of mammalian hosts, including humans. There are presently no licensed vaccines or treatment options approved for human or veterinarian use. Guinea pigs, hamsters, cats, and ferrets, have been evaluated as animal models of human HeV infection, but studies in nonhuman primates (NHP) have not been reporte...

  6. Global market integration increases likelihood that a future African Green Revolution could increase crop land use and CO2 emissions.

    Hertel, Thomas W; Ramankutty, Navin; Baldos, Uris Lantz C


    There has been a resurgence of interest in the impacts of agricultural productivity on land use and the environment. At the center of this debate is the assertion that agricultural innovation is land sparing. However, numerous case studies and global empirical studies have found little evidence of higher yields being accompanied by reduced area. We find that these studies overlook two crucial factors: estimation of a true counterfactual scenario and a tendency to adopt a regional, rather than a global, perspective. This paper introduces a general framework for analyzing the impacts of regional and global innovation on long run crop output, prices, land rents, land use, and associated CO2 emissions. In so doing, it facilitates a reconciliation of the apparently conflicting views of the impacts of agricultural productivity growth on global land use and environmental quality. Our historical analysis demonstrates that the Green Revolution in Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East was unambiguously land and emissions sparing, compared with a counterfactual world without these innovations. In contrast, we find that the environmental impacts of a prospective African Green Revolution are potentially ambiguous. We trace these divergent outcomes to relative differences between the innovating region and the rest of the world in yields, emissions efficiencies, cropland supply response, and intensification potential. Globalization of agriculture raises the potential for adverse environmental consequences. However, if sustained for several decades, an African Green Revolution will eventually become land sparing. PMID:25201962

  7. Input subsidies to improve smallholder maize productivity in Malawi: toward an african green revolution.

    Glenn Denning; Patrick Kabambe; Pedro Sanchez; Alia Malik; Rafael Flor; Rebbie Harawa; Phelire Nkhoma; Colleen Zamba; Clement Banda; Chrispin Magombo; Michael Keating; Justine Wangila; Jeffrey Sachs


    Recent hikes in food prices have created economic and social turmoil in many African countries. But in Malawi, fertilizer and seed subsidies have enabled small-scale farmers to improve maize productivity and achieve food security.

  8. Impacts of dust reduction on the northward expansion of the African monsoon during the Green Sahara period

    Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Messori, Gabriele; Zhang, Qiong


    The West African Monsoon (WAM) is crucial for the socio-economic stability of millions of people living in the Sahel. Severe droughts have ravaged the region in the last three decades of the 20th century, highlighting the need for a better understanding of the WAM dynamics. One of the most dramatic changes in the West African Monsoon (WAM) occurred between 15000-5000 yr BP, when increased summer rainfall led to the so-called "Green Sahara" and to a reduction in dust emissions from the region. However, model experiments are unable to fully reproduce the intensification and geographical expansion of the WAM during this period, even when vegetation over the Sahara is considered. Here, we use a fully coupled simulation for 6000 yr BP (Mid-Holocene) in which prescribed Saharan vegetation and dust concentrations are changed in turn. A closer agreement with proxy records is obtained only when both the Saharan vegetation changes and dust decrease are taken into account. The dust reduction strengthens the vegetation-albedo feedback, extending the monsoon's northern limit approximately 500 km further than the vegetation-change case only. We therefore conclude that accounting for changes in Saharan dust loadings is essential for improving model simulations of the WAM during the Mid-Holocene.

  9. Complex patterns of divergence among green-sensitive (RH2a African cichlid opsins revealed by Clade model analyses

    Weadick Cameron J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene duplications play an important role in the evolution of functional protein diversity. Some models of duplicate gene evolution predict complex forms of paralog divergence; orthologous proteins may diverge as well, further complicating patterns of divergence among and within gene families. Consequently, studying the link between protein sequence evolution and duplication requires the use of flexible substitution models that can accommodate multiple shifts in selection across a phylogeny. Here, we employed a variety of codon substitution models, primarily Clade models, to explore how selective constraint evolved following the duplication of a green-sensitive (RH2a visual pigment protein (opsin in African cichlids. Past studies have linked opsin divergence to ecological and sexual divergence within the African cichlid adaptive radiation. Furthermore, biochemical and regulatory differences between the RH2aα and RH2aβ paralogs have been documented. It thus seems likely that selection varies in complex ways throughout this gene family. Results Clade model analysis of African cichlid RH2a opsins revealed a large increase in the nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitution rate ratio (ω following the duplication, as well as an even larger increase, one consistent with positive selection, for Lake Tanganyikan cichlid RH2aβ opsins. Analysis using the popular Branch-site models, by contrast, revealed no such alteration of constraint. Several amino acid sites known to influence spectral and non-spectral aspects of opsin biochemistry were found to be evolving divergently, suggesting that orthologous RH2a opsins may vary in terms of spectral sensitivity and response kinetics. Divergence appears to be occurring despite intronic gene conversion among the tandemly-arranged duplicates. Conclusions Our findings indicate that variation in selective constraint is associated with both gene duplication and divergence among orthologs in African

  10. Ecosystem services of urban green spaces in African countries: perspectives and challenges

    Cilliers, Sarel; Cilliers, Juaneé; Lubbe, Rina; Siebert, Stefan


    The concept of ecosystem goods and services is increasingly used to describe how biodiversity and ecosystems are linked to human well-being and that it should be placed at the core of sustainable urban development. Predictions of a tremendous future increase of urbanization in Africa necessitate an investigation into the research on ecosystem goods and services in the urban green infrastructure of Africa. Ecosystem goods and services (ES) are described as the benefits humans de...

  11. Development and evaluation of a one-step SYBR-Green I-based real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection and quantification of Chikungunya virus in human, monkey and mosquito samples.

    Ummul Haninah, A; Vasan, S S; Ravindran, T; Chandru, A; Lee, H L; Shamala Devi, S


    This paper reports the development of a one-step SYBR-Green I-based realtime RT-PCR assay for the detection and quantification of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in human, monkey and mosquito samples by targeting the E1 structural gene. A preliminary evaluation of this assay has been successfully completed using 71 samples, consisting of a panel of negative control sera, sera from healthy individuals, sera from patients with acute disease from which CHIKV had been isolated, as well as monkey sera and adult mosquito samples obtained during the chikungunya fever outbreak in Malaysia in 2008. The assay was found to be 100-fold more sensitive than the conventional RT-PCR with a detection limit of 4.12x10(0) RNA copies/μl. The specificity of the assay was tested against other related viruses such as Dengue (serotypes 1-4), Japanese encephalitis, Herpes Simplex, Parainfluenza, Sindbis, Ross River, Yellow fever and West Nile viruses. The sensitivity, specificity and efficiency of this assay were 100%, 100% and 96.8% respectively. This study on early diagnostics is of importance to all endemic countries, especially Malaysia, which has been facing increasingly frequent and bigger outbreaks due to this virus since 1999. PMID:21399603

  12. Monkey Viperin Restricts Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Replication

    Fang, Jianyu; Wang, Haiyan; Bai, Juan; Zhang, Qiaoya; Li, Yufeng; Liu, Fei; Jiang, Ping


    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important pathogen which causes huge economic damage globally in the swine industry. Current vaccination strategies provide only limited protection against PRRSV infection. Viperin is an interferon (IFN) stimulated protein that inhibits some virus infections via IFN-dependent or IFN-independent pathways. However, the role of viperin in PRRSV infection is not well understood. In this study, we cloned the full-length monkey viperin (mViperin) complementary DNA (cDNA) from IFN-α-treated African green monkey Marc-145 cells. It was found that the mViperin is up-regulated following PRRSV infection in Marc-145 cells along with elevated IRF-1 gene levels. IFN-α induced mViperin expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner and strongly inhibits PRRSV replication in Marc-145 cells. Overexpression of mViperin suppresses PRRSV replication by blocking the early steps of PRRSV entry and genome replication and translation but not inhibiting assembly and release. And mViperin co-localized with PRRSV GP5 and N protein, but only interacted with N protein in distinct cytoplasmic loci. Furthermore, it was found that the 13–16 amino acids of mViperin were essential for inhibiting PRRSV replication, by disrupting the distribution of mViperin protein from the granular distribution to a homogeneous distribution in the cytoplasm. These results could be helpful in the future development of novel antiviral therapies against PRRSV infection. PMID:27232627

  13. Exploring the challenges associated with the greening of supply chains in the South African manganese and phosphate mining industry

    R.I. David Pooe


    Full Text Available As with most mining activities, the mining of manganese and phosphate has serious consequences for the environment. Despite a largely adequate and progressive framework for environmental governance developed since 1994, few mines have integrated systems into their supply chain processes to minimise environmental risks and ensure the achievement of acceptable standards. Indeed, few mines have been able to implement green supply chain management (GrSCM. The purpose of this article was to explore challenges related to the implementation of GrSCM and to provide insight into how GrSCM can be implemented in the South African manganese and phosphate industry. This article reported findings of a qualitative study involving interviews with 12 participants from the manganese and phosphate industry in South Africa. Purposive sampling techniques were used. Emerging from the study were six themes, all of which were identified as key challenges in the implementation of GrSCM in the manganese and phosphate mining industry. From the findings, these challenges include the operationalisation of environmental issues, lack of collaboration and knowledge sharing, proper application of monitoring and control systems,lack of clear policy and legislative direction, the cost of implementing GrSCM practices, and the need for strong leadership and management of change. On the basis of the literature reviewed and empirical findings, conclusions were drawn and policy and management recommendations were accordingly made.

  14. Effects of temperature, density and food quality on larval growth and metamorphosis in the north African green frog Pelophylax saharicus.

    Bellakhal, Meher; Neveu, André; Fartouna-Bellakhal, Mouna; Missaoui, Hechmi; Aleya, Lotfi


    The ectodermic status of Amphibians explains their heavy dependence at ambient temperatures and thus their sensitivity to global warming. Temperature is likely the main factor regulating their physiology by acting on the endocrine system, with consequences on development, growth and size at metamorphosis. All these parameters control survival in the wild and performances in raniculture. This study is, to our knowledge, the first report on the effects of temperature, density and protein level in food on the rearing of the North African green Frog Pelophylax saharicus. Results show that a temperature of 26 °C is optimal for maximum weight gain. The maximum metamorphosis rate is obtained between 24 and 26 °C. The highest yields occur at low densities from 1 to 10 tadpolesl(-1). The best survival rate and accelerated metamorphosis are obtained at a level of 35% protein in food whose impact on food intake and weight gain is low. The maximum weight attained by tadpoles at metamorphosis, however, is obtained with a level of 40% protein. These results justify examination of this species in the light of climate change and suggest new techniques for aquaculture. PMID:25436955

  15. Karyological and morphometric variation of the North African green frog Pelophylax saharicus (Anura in north-eastern Africa

    Nabil AMOR, Sarra FARJALLAH, Slim BEN-YACOUB, Paolo MERELLA, Khaled SAID


    Full Text Available Morphometric variation of Pelophylax saharicus was analysed using univariate and multivariate statistics, with both traditional and geometric morphometrics, based on 148 specimens from four different geographical localities in Tunisia and Algeria. The results show the existence of three morphotypes in Tunisia and one in Algeria, and indicate a significant degree of variation in morphometric characters between regions. Specimens from the southernmost region have the smallest body size and the greatest morphometric divergence from other populations. This pattern of morphometric variation probably results from phenotypic plasticity in response to local environmental factors. The results of our chromosomal study (C-, Ag-NOR-, endonuclease digestion, DAPI, CMA3 and Q-banding reveal this species to exhibit the plesiomorphic Pelophylax karyotype of 2n = 26 biarmed chromosomes and NORs on the eleventh pair. Similarities and differences of the North African green frog are discussed in relation to the different forms of data collected (chromosomal, morphometric, ecological [Current Zoology 56 (6: 678–686, 2010].

  16. Effects of dietary cellulose, psyllium husk and cholesterol level on fecal and colonic microbial metabolism in monkeys.

    Costa, M A; Mehta, T; Males, J R


    The effect of long-term feeding of dietary fiber and two levels of cholesterol on monkey colonic microbial metabolism was studied. Three groups of African green monkeys were fed for 3.5 yr purified diets containing 9.7% cellulose or psyllium husk and 0.8 mg cholesterol per kcal or 9.7% cellulose and 0.1 mg cholesterol per kcal. Total viable anaerobe and aerobe counts, microbial beta-glucuronidase activity, volatile fatty acid and ammonia nitrogen concentrations, dry matter and pH were determined in fecal and colonic samples. Compared to cellulose, psyllium husk feeding decreased (P less than 0.05) percentage dry matter, beta-glucuronidase (EC activity and pH, and increased (P less than 0.05) ammonia nitrogen and volatile fatty acid output in feces and in colon contents. In all groups, colonic beta-glucuronidase activity was greater (P less than 0.05) than in fecal samples. Microbial beta-glucuronidase activity, pH or percentage dry matter in the ascending colon was not different from that in the transcending or descending segments. The ratio of anaerobic to aerobic bacteria was lower in colon contents from monkeys fed psyllium husk compared to those fed cellulose. Total viable bacterial counts were lower in monkeys fed low cholesterol compared to high cholesterol diets. The results suggest that chronic intake of dietary psyllium husk resulted in greater colonic microbial metabolism compared to cellulose feeding. PMID:2547038

  17. green

    Elena Grigoryeva


    Full Text Available The “green” topic follows the “youngsters”, which is quite natural for the Russian language.Traditionally these words put together sound slightly derogatory. However, “green” also means fresh, new and healthy.For Russia, and for Siberia in particular, “green” architecture does sound new and fresh. Forced by the anxious reality, we are addressing this topic intentionally. The ecological crisis, growing energy prices, water, air and food deficits… Alexander Rappaport, our regular author, writes: “ It has been tolerable until a certain time, but under transition to the global civilization, as the nature is destroyed, and swellings of megapolises expand incredibly fast, the size and the significance of all these problems may grow a hundredfold”.However, for this very severe Siberian reality the newness of “green” architecture may turn out to be well-forgotten old. A traditional Siberian house used to be built on principles of saving and environmental friendliness– one could not survive in Siberia otherwise.Probably, in our turbulent times, it is high time to fasten “green belts”. But we should keep from enthusiastic sticking of popular green labels or repainting of signboards into green color. We should avoid being drowned in paper formalities under “green” slogans. And we should prevent the Earth from turning into the planet “Kin-dza-dza”.

  18. Persistently infected cultures as a source of hepatitis A virus.

    Simmonds, R S; Szücs, G.; Metcalf, T. G.; Melnick, J. L.


    Primary African green monkey kidney, continuous African green monkey kidney cell line BS-C-1, and buffalo green monkey kidney cultures were infected with a uniform inoculum of hepatitis A virus (HAV). Although both the cell line BS-C-1 and primary African green monkey kidney cultures produced useful amounts of virus, HAV was detected earlier and in greater quantities in primary African green monkey kidney cultures. A persistently infected primary African green monkey kidney culture was develo...

  19. macaque monkey

    Daniel L. Kimmel


    Full Text Available From human perception to primate neurophysiology, monitoring eye position is critical to the study of vision, attention, oculomotor control, and behavior. Two principal techniques for the precise measurement of eye position—the long-standing sclera-embedded search coil and more recent optical tracking techniques—are in use in various laboratories, but no published study compares the performance of the two methods simultaneously in the same primates. Here we compare two popular systems—a sclera-embedded search coil from C-N-C Engineering and the EyeLink 1000 optical system from SR Research—by recording simultaneously from the same eye in the macaque monkey while the animal performed a simple oculomotor task. We found broad agreement between the two systems, particularly in positional accuracy during fixation, measurement of saccade amplitude, detection of fixational saccades, and sensitivity to subtle changes in eye position from trial to trial. Nonetheless, certain discrepancies persist, particularly elevated saccade peak velocities, post-saccadic ringing, influence of luminance change on reported position, and greater sample-to-sample variation in the optical system. Our study shows that optical performance now rivals that of the search coil, rendering optical systems appropriate for many if not most applications. This finding is consequential, especially for animal subjects, because the optical systems do not require invasive surgery for implantation and repair of search coils around the eye. Our data also allow laboratories using the optical system in human subjects to assess the strengths and limitations of the technique for their own applications.

  20. Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 Expressing the Native or Soluble Fusion (F) Protein of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Confers Protection from RSV Infection in African Green Monkeys

    Tang, Roderick S.; MacPhail, Mia; Schickli, Jeanne H; Kaur, Jasmine; Robinson, Christopher L.; Lawlor, Heather A.; Guzzetta, Jeanne M.; Spaete, Richard R.; Haller, Aurelia A.


    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes respiratory disease in young children, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals, often resulting in hospitalization and/or death. After more than 40 years of research, a Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine for RSV is still not available. In this study, a chimeric bovine/human (b/h) parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) expressing the human PIV3 (hPIV3) fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) proteins from an otherwise bovine PIV3 (b...

  1. Post-Messinian evolutionary relationships across the Sicilian channel: Mitochondrial and nuclear markers link a new green toad from Sicily to African relatives

    Lo Brutto Sabrina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little attention has been paid to the consequences of the last landbridge between Africa and Sicily on Mediterranean biogeography. Previous paleontological and scarce molecular data suggest possible faunal exchange later than the well-documented landbridge in the Messinian (5.3 My; however, a possible African origin of recent terrestrial Sicilian fauna has not been thoroughly tested with molecular methods. To gain insight into the phylogeography of the region, we examine two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers (one is a newly adapted intron marker in green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup across that sea barrier, the Strait of Sicily. Results Extensive sampling throughout the western Mediterranean and North Africa revealed a deep sister relationship between Sicilian (Bufo siculus n.sp. and African green toads (B. boulengeri on the mitochondrial and nuclear level. Divergence times estimated under a Bayesian-coalescence framework (mtDNA control region and 16S rRNA range from the Middle Pliocene (3.6 My to Pleistocene (0.16 My with an average (1.83 to 2.0 My around the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, suggesting possible land connections younger than the Messinian (5.3 My. We describe green toads from Sicily and some surrounding islands as a new endemic species (Bufo siculus. Bufo balearicus occurs on some western Mediterranean islands (Corsica, Sardinia, Mallorca, and Menorca and the Apennine Peninsula, and is well differentiated on the mitochondrial and nuclear level from B. siculus as well as from B. viridis (Laurenti, whose haplotype group reaches northeastern Italy, north of the Po River. Detection of Calabrian B. balearicus haplotypes in northeastern Sicily suggests recent invasion. Our data agree with paleogeographic and fossil data, which suggest long Plio-Pleistocene isolation of Sicily and episodic Pleistocene faunal exchange across the Strait of Messina. It remains unknown whether both species (B. balearicus, B. siculus

  2. Visualization of the African swine fever virus infection in living cells by incorporation into the virus particle of green fluorescent protein-p54 membrane protein chimera

    Many stages of African swine fever virus infection have not yet been studied in detail. To track the behavior of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in the infected cells in real time, we produced an infectious recombinant ASFV (B54GFP-2) that expresses and incorporates into the virus particle a chimera of the p54 envelope protein fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The incorporation of the fusion protein into the virus particle was confirmed immunologically and it was determined that p54-EGFP was fully functional by confirmation that the recombinant virus made normal-sized plaques and presented similar growth curves to the wild-type virus. The tagged virus was visualized as individual fluorescent particles during the first stages of infection and allowed to visualize the infection progression in living cells through the viral life cycle by confocal microscopy. In this work, diverse potential applications of B54GFP-2 to study different aspects of ASFV infection are shown. By using this recombinant virus it was possible to determine the trajectory and speed of intracellular virus movement. Additionally, we have been able to visualize for first time the ASFV factory formation dynamics and the cytophatic effect of the virus in live infected cells. Finally, we have analyzed virus progression along the infection cycle and infected cell death as time-lapse animations

  3. Potential use of green macroalgae Ulva lactuca as a feed supplement in diets on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A; Younis, El-Sayed M I; Al-Asgah, Nasser A


    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of diet containing the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four experimental diets were formulated: D1 as a control group and D2, D3 and D4 which included 10%, 20% and 30% U. lactuca meal, respectively. 180 African catfish, weighing 9.59 ± 0.43 g, and with an average length of 11.26 ± 0.21, (mean ± SE) were divided into four groups corresponding to the different feeding regimes. The final body weight of the fish showed insignificant differences (P > 0.05) between the control and fish fed D2, whereas, there was a significant difference (P catfish fed a diet with U. lactuca included at 20% and 30% levels showed poorer growth and feed utilization than the control group and fish fed diets containing 10% of U. lactuca. PMID:27081367

  4. Habitual diets rich in dark-green vegetables are associated with an increased response to ω-3 fatty acid supplementation in Americans of African ancestry.

    O'Sullivan, Aifric; Armstrong, Patrice; Schuster, Gertrud U; Pedersen, Theresa L; Allayee, Hooman; Stephensen, Charles B; Newman, John W


    Although substantial variation exists in individual responses to omega-3 (ω-3) (n-3) fatty acid supplementation, the causes for differences in response are largely unknown. Here we investigated the associations between the efficacy of ω-3 fatty acid supplementation and a broad range of nutritional and clinical factors collected during a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in participants of African ancestry, randomly assigned to receive either 2 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + 1 g docosahexaenoic acid (n = 41) or corn/soybean oil placebo (n = 42) supplements for 6 wk. Food-frequency questionnaires were administered, and changes in erythrocyte lipids, lipoproteins, and monocyte 5-lipoxygenase-dependent metabolism were measured before and after supplementation. Mixed-mode linear regression modeling identified high (n = 28) and low (n = 13) ω-3 fatty acid response groups on the basis of changes in erythrocyte EPA abundance (P orange vegetables and legumes (P = 0.01) and a lower intake of vegetables (P = 0.02), particularly dark-green vegetables (P = 0.002). Because the findings reported here are associative in nature, prospective studies are needed to determine if dietary dark-green vegetables or nutrients contained in these foods can enhance the efficacy of ω-3 fatty acid supplements. This trial was registered at as NCT00536185. PMID:24259553

  5. Evaluation of Minerals, Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Mexican, Central American, and African Green Leafy Vegetables.

    Jiménez-Aguilar, Dulce M; Grusak, Michael A


    The green leafy vegetables Cnidoscolus aconitifolius and Crotalaria longirostrata are native to Mexico and Central America, while Solanum scabrum and Gynandropsis gynandra are native to Africa. They are consumed in both rural and urban areas in those places as a main food, food ingredient or traditional medicine. Currently, there is limited information about their nutritional and phytochemical composition. Therefore, mineral, vitamin C, phenolic and flavonoid concentration, and antioxidant activity were evaluated in multiple accessions of these leafy vegetables, and their mineral and vitamin C contribution per serving was calculated. The concentrations of Ca, K, Mg and P in these leafy vegetables were 0.82-2.32, 1.61-7.29, 0.61-1.48 and 0.27-1.44 mg/g fresh weight (FW), respectively. The flavonoid concentration in S. scabrum accessions was up to 1413 μg catechin equivalents/g FW, while the highest antioxidant activities were obtained in C. longirostrata accessions (52-60 μmol Trolox equivalents/g FW). According to guidelines established by the US Food and Drug Administration, a serving size (30 g FW) of C. longirostrata would be considered an excellent source of Mo (20 % or more of the daily value), and a serving of any of these green leafy vegetables would be an excellent source of vitamin C. Considering the importance of the minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants in human health and their presence in these indigenous green leafy vegetables, efforts to promote their consumption should be implemented. PMID:26490448

  6. Locomotor Anatomy and Behavior of Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus patas with Comparison to Vervet Monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops

    Adrienne L. Zihlman


    Full Text Available Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas living in African savanna woodlands and grassland habitats have a locomotor system that allows them to run fast, presumably to avoid predators. Long fore- and hindlimbs, long foot bones, short toes, and a digitigrade foot posture were proposed as anatomical correlates with speed. In addition to skeletal proportions, soft tissue and whole body proportions are important components of the locomotor system. To further distinguish patas anatomy from other Old World monkeys, a comparative study based on dissection of skin, muscle, and bone from complete individuals of patas and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops was undertaken. Analysis reveals that small adjustments in patas skeletal proportions, relative mass of limbs and tail, and specific muscle groups promote efficient sagittal limb motion. The ability to run fast is based on a locomotor system adapted for long distance walking. The patas’ larger home range and longer daily range than those of vervets give them access to highly dispersed, nutritious foods, water, and sleeping trees. Furthermore, patas monkeys have physiological adaptations that enable them to tolerate and dissipate heat. These features all contribute to the distinct adaptation that is the patas monkeys’ basis for survival in grassland and savanna woodland areas.

  7. Living in biological soil crust communities of African deserts-Physiological traits of green algal Klebsormidium species (Streptophyta) to cope with desiccation, light and temperature gradients.

    Karsten, Ulf; Herburger, Klaus; Holzinger, Andreas


    Green algae of the genus Klebsormidium (Klebsormidiales, Streptophyta) are typical members of biological soil crusts (BSCs) worldwide. The phylogeny and ecophysiology of Klebsormidium has been intensively studied in recent years, and a new lineage called superclade G, which was isolated from BSCs in arid southern Africa and comprising undescribed species, was reported. Three different African strains, that have previously been isolated from hot-desert BSCs and molecular-taxonomically characterized, were comparatively investigated. In addition, Klebsormidium subtilissimum from a cold-desert habitat (Alaska, USA, superclade E) was included in the study as well. Photosynthetic performance was measured under different controlled abiotic conditions, including dehydration and rehydration, as well as under a light and temperature gradient. All Klebsormidium strains exhibited optimum photosynthetic oxygen production at low photon fluence rates, but with no indication of photoinhibition under high light conditions pointing to flexible acclimation mechanisms of the photosynthetic apparatus. Respiration under lower temperatures was generally much less effective than photosynthesis, while the opposite was true for higher temperatures. The Klebsormidium strains tested showed a decrease and inhibition of the effective quantum yield during desiccation, however with different kinetics. While the single celled and small filamentous strains exhibited relatively fast inhibition, the uniserate filament forming isolates desiccated slower. Except one, all other strains fully recovered effective quantum yield after rehydration. The presented data provide an explanation for the regular occurrence of Klebsormidium strains or species in hot and cold deserts, which are characterized by low water availability and other stressful conditions. PMID:26422081




    A man was walking through a forest. He had a few caps in his hands. In the forest there were a lot of monkeys. The day was hot, so he decided to have a rest under a tree. I-le put one cap on his head and lay down to sleep.

  9. The effects of the African Green Revolution on nitrogen losses from two contrasting soil types in sub-Saharan Africa

    Tully, K. L.; Russo, T.; Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.


    Nearly 80% of countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) face problems of nitrogen (N) scarcity, which together with poverty causes food insecurity and malnutrition. The Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa has set a goal of increasing fertilizer use in the region six-fold by 2015. While there is substantial evidence that greater N fertilizer use will improve crop yields, it could lead to increased N leaching and elevated nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in surface water and groundwater reservoirs. However, it is unclear what the magnitude of impacts will be in SSA given historically low nutrient additions (of less than 5 kg N/ha/yr), highly degraded soils (due to years of nutrient and soil organic matter depletion), and a wide range of soil types on which increased fertilizer use is occurring. Current estimates of N dynamics and balances in SSA agriculture now rely on data from other regions with different soil types, soil fertility, and land management practices. To understand the influence of increased fertilizer use on water quality requires data from representative areas in SSA. Experimental maize plots were established in a randomized complete block design in both western Kenya (clayey soil) and mid-western Tanzania (sandy soil). Plots were amended with 0, 50, 75, and 200 kg N/ha/yr as mineral fertilizer. Tension lysimeters were installed at three depths in each treatment, and water was collected throughout the maize growing season. Soil water solutions were analyzed for NO3--N. Flow through the soil column at each soil depth, was modeled using VS2DT, a variably saturated flow and solute transport model, and water flux values were multiplied by measured NO3--N concentrations to estimate seasonal N leaching flux. Soil texture was a major driver of N losses, altering both the pathways and magnitude of losses. Clayey soils in western Kenya show an enormous potential for loss of NO3--N immediately following the onset of rains as they trigger high rates of N

  10. Monkeys Move Robotic Wheelchairs with Their Thoughts

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157593.html Monkeys Move Robotic Wheelchairs With Their Thoughts Scientists say technology might ... made it possible for monkeys to operate a robotic wheelchair using only the monkey's thoughts say the ...

  11. Resolution of the African hominoid trichotomy by use of a mitochondrial gene sequence

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences encoding the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene have been determined for five primate species, siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus), crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis), and green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops), and compared with published sequences of other primate and nonprimate species. Comparisons of cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene sequences provide clear-cut evidence from the mitochondrial genome for the separation of the African ape trichotomy into two evolutionary lineages, one leading to gorillas and the other to humans and chimpanzees. Several different tree-building methods support this same phylogenetic tree topology. The comparisons also yield trees in which a substantial length separates the divergence point of gorillas from that of humans and chimpanzees, suggesting that the lineage most immediately ancestral to humans and chimpanzees may have been in existence for a relatively long time

  12. Resolution of the African hominoid trichotomy by use of a mitochondrial gene sequence

    Ruvolo, M.; Disotell, T.R.; Allard, M.W. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Brown, W.M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States)); Honeycutt, R.L. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))


    Mitochondrial DNA sequences encoding the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene have been determined for five primate species, siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus), crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis), and green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops), and compared with published sequences of other primate and nonprimate species. Comparisons of cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene sequences provide clear-cut evidence from the mitochondrial genome for the separation of the African ape trichotomy into two evolutionary lineages, one leading to gorillas and the other to humans and chimpanzees. Several different tree-building methods support this same phylogenetic tree topology. The comparisons also yield trees in which a substantial length separates the divergence point of gorillas from that of humans and chimpanzees, suggesting that the lineage most immediately ancestral to humans and chimpanzees may have been in existence for a relatively long time.

  13. L-theanine attenuates abstinence signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys and elicits anxiolytic-like activity in mice

    Wise, Laura E.; Premaratne, Ishani D.; Gamage, Thomas F; Lichtman, Aron H.; Hughes, Larry D.; Harris, Louis S.; Aceto, Mario D.


    L-theanine, 2-Amino-4-(ethylcarbamoyl) butyric acid, an amino acid found in green tea (Camellia sinensis), is sold in the United States as a dietary supplement to reduce stress and improve cognition and mood. The observations that L-theanine has been shown to inhibit caffeine’s stimulatory effects and that caffeine produces precipitated withdrawal signs in opioid-addicted monkeys and some opioid withdrawal signs in some normal monkeys, suggest that L-theanine may suppress opioid withdrawal si...

  14. Monocyte tissue factor-dependent activation of coagulation in hypercholesterolemic mice and monkeys is inhibited by simvastatin.

    Owens, A Phillip; Passam, Freda H; Antoniak, Silvio; Marshall, Stephanie M; McDaniel, Allison L; Rudel, Lawrence; Williams, Julie C; Hubbard, Brian K; Dutton, Julie-Ann; Wang, Jianguo; Tobias, Peter S; Curtiss, Linda K; Daugherty, Alan; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Luyendyk, James P; Moriarty, Patrick M; Nagarajan, Shanmugam; Furie, Barbara C; Furie, Bruce; Johns, Douglas G; Temel, Ryan E; Mackman, Nigel


    Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. It also is associated with platelet hyperactivity, which increases morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanisms by which hypercholesterolemia produces a procoagulant state remain undefined. Atherosclerosis is associated with accumulation of oxidized lipoproteins within atherosclerotic lesions. Small quantities of oxidized lipoproteins are also present in the circulation of patients with coronary artery disease. We therefore hypothesized that hypercholesterolemia leads to elevated levels of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) in plasma and that this induces expression of the procoagulant protein tissue factor (TF) in monocytes. In support of this hypothesis, we report here that oxLDL induced TF expression in human monocytic cells and monocytes. In addition, patients with familial hypercholesterolemia had elevated levels of plasma microparticle (MP) TF activity. Furthermore, a high-fat diet induced a time-dependent increase in plasma MP TF activity and activation of coagulation in both LDL receptor-deficient mice and African green monkeys. Genetic deficiency of TF in bone marrow cells reduced coagulation in hypercholesterolemic mice, consistent with a major role for monocyte-derived TF in the activation of coagulation. Similarly, a deficiency of either TLR4 or TLR6 reduced levels of MP TF activity. Simvastatin treatment of hypercholesterolemic mice and monkeys reduced oxLDL, monocyte TF expression, MP TF activity, activation of coagulation, and inflammation, without affecting total cholesterol levels. Our results suggest that the prothrombotic state associated with hypercholesterolemia is caused by oxLDL-mediated induction of TF expression in monocytes via engagement of a TLR4/TLR6 complex. PMID:22214850

  15. Habitual Diets Rich in Dark-Green Vegetables Are Associated with an Increased Response to ω-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Americans of African Ancestry123

    O’Sullivan, Aifric; Armstrong, Patrice; Schuster, Gertrud U.; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Allayee, Hooman; Stephensen, Charles B.; Newman, John W.


    Although substantial variation exists in individual responses to omega-3 (ω-3) (n–3) fatty acid supplementation, the causes for differences in response are largely unknown. Here we investigated the associations between the efficacy of ω-3 fatty acid supplementation and a broad range of nutritional and clinical factors collected during a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in participants of African ancestry, randomly assigned to receive either 2 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + 1 g docosahe...

  16. An experimental social relation between two monkeys.

    Boren, J J


    A technique was developed for studying the reinforcement of one organism by another. Two pairs of monkeys served as subjects in adjoining but separate lever-pressing chambers. However, they were in visual, aural, and tactile contact with each other. After both pairs were trained to tolerate delays of reinforcement and one pair was trained under stimulus control to exchange reinforcements, monkey A of each pair pressed a lever to feed monkey B, and monkey B pressed to feed monkey A. The experiment sought to determine if this social interaction could be maintained. With a free responding procedure where the monkeys could work at any time in any order, the social relation proved unstable. After several oscillations in which one monkey did most of the responding and the other monkey did most of the eating, the reinforcement frequency for both pairs of animals decreased to very low levels. The final outcome would have been starvation had the experimenter not intervened. PMID:4961522

  17. Epidurography with metrizamide in Rhesus monkeys

    Epidurography with metrizamide was performed on 9 Rhesus monkeys; physiologic saline was substituted for metrizamide in 3 control monkeys. Metrizamide successfully outlined the epidural space without causing any adverse clinical effects or direct tissue injury. (Auth.)

  18. Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys

    ... Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys Easy-to-use ... News) -- A fast, inexpensive test that detects the Zika virus in monkeys might be useful for doctors ...

  19. Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys

    ... Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys Easy-to-use ... News) -- A fast, inexpensive test that detects the Zika virus in monkeys might be useful for doctors ...

  20. Building beyond the Evaluation Of Environmental Education and Sustainable Development in African Schools and Communities: The Women Global Green Action Network (WGGAN) Africa Perspective

    Enie, Rosemary Olive Mbone


    This article describes the Community Health Education and School Sanitation (CHESS) Project, an initiative by the Women Global Green Action Network International to support community-based environmental projects in Africa. The CHESS Project uses women, children and youth to develop more sustainable health and sanitation systems in urban and rural…

  1. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.


    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  2. Dietary Cholesterol Promotes Adipocyte Hypertrophy and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Visceral, But Not Subcutaneous, Fat in Monkeys

    Chung, Soonkyu; Cuffe, Helen; Marshall, Stephanie M.; McDaniel, Allison L.; Ha, Jung-Heun; Kavanagh, Kylie; Hong, Cynthia; Tontonoz, Peter; Temel, Ryan E.; Parks, John S


    Objective Excessive caloric intake is associated with obesity and adipose tissue dysfunction. However, the role of dietary cholesterol in this process is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether increasing dietary cholesterol intake alters adipose tissue cholesterol content, adipocyte size, and endocrine function in nonhuman primates. Approach and Results Age-matched, male African Green monkeys (n=5 per group) were assigned to one of three diets containing 0.002 (Lo), 0.2 (Med) or 0.4 (Hi) mg cholesterol/Kcal. After 10 weeks of diet feeding, animals were euthanized for adipose tissue, liver, and plasma collection. With increasing dietary cholesterol, free cholesterol (FC) content and adipocyte size increased in a step-wise manner in visceral, but not subcutaneous fat, with a significant association between visceral adipocyte size and FC content (r2=0.298; n=15; p=0.035). In visceral fat, dietary cholesterol intake was associated with: 1) increased pro-inflammatory gene expression and macrophage recruitment, 2) decreased expression of genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and lipoprotein uptake, and 3) increased expression of proteins involved in FC efflux. Conclusions Increasing dietary cholesterol selectively increases visceral fat adipocyte size, FC and macrophage content, and proinflammatory gene expression in nonhuman primates. Visceral fat cells appear to compensate for increased dietary cholesterol by limiting cholesterol uptake/synthesis and increasing FC efflux pathways. PMID:24969772

  3. Benefiting Africans



    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  4. Benefiting Africans


    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  5. Effects of dietary cellulose and psyllium husk on monkey colonic microbial metabolism in continuous culture.

    Costa, M A; Mehta, T; Males, J R


    The effects of inoculating an in vitro continuous culture system with primate colon contents compared to fecal material, and the effect of feeding these cultures psyllium husk, a fermentable, or cellulose, a less fermentable, dietary fiber were tested. Modified 500-ml Bellco culture chambers were continuously infused with buffered medium containing vitamin mix, deoxycholate, urea, hemin, casein and mucin. Cultures were fed a mixture of minerals, sucrose, starch and either psyllium husk or cellulose twice daily. Chambers were inoculated with fecal or colonic samples obtained from adult male African green monkeys fed the respective fiber source in a purified diet for more than 3 yr. After a 5-d stabilization period, samples were collected for total viable anaerobe and aerobe counts, microbial beta-glucuronidase (EC activity, volatile fatty acid (VFA) and ammonia nitrogen concentrations, dry matter, pH and oxidation-reduction potential. Inoculation with fecal material or colon contents produced similar results for the above mentioned characteristics; major differences were found due to the fiber treatments. Psyllium-fed cultures had lower pH (P less than 0.01) and higher VFA concentration (P less than 0.01) and beta-glucuronidase activity (P less than 0.10) than cellulose-fed cultures. The ratio of anaerobes to aerobes was lower (P less than 0.01) in psyllium-fed than in cellulose-fed cultures. These results indicate that feces can be used as an inoculum source for in vitro studies of changes in colonic microbial metabolism due to diet, and that dietary fiber source affects the colonic microbial population and metabolism. PMID:2547037

  6. Monkeys match and tally quantities across senses

    Jordan, Kerry E.; Maclean, Evan L.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.


    We report here that monkeys can actively match the number of sounds they hear to the number of shapes they see and present the first evidence that monkeys sum over sounds and sights. In Experiment 1, two monkeys were trained to choose a simultaneous array of 1-9 squares that numerically matched a sample sequence of shapes or sounds. Monkeys numerically matched across (audio-visual) and within (visual-visual) modalities with equal accuracy and transferred to novel numerical values. In Experime...

  7. El regimen alimentario de la rana verde de África del norte, Rana saharica - The food mode of north African green frog, Rana saharica - Le regime alimentaire de la grenouille verte d’afrique du nord, rana saharica



    Full Text Available ResumenPara la determinación del régimen alimentario de la rana verde de Áfricadel norte Rana (Pelophylax saharica, se recogieron 360 especímenes apartir de 2 lagos de la región Septentrional de Túnez desde el mes de abrilhasta el mes de septiembre. Constatamos que las presas pertenecenprincipalmente a los artrópodos, en particular los coleópteros (38.29% ylos dípteros (23.47%. Más de vez en cuando, algunos renacuajos yjuveniles de la misma especie así como otras presas acuáticas, se hantambién descubierto en el contenido estomacal. El número de presa máselevado (231 se observó en el mes de junio, mientras que la diversidadmás importante de las presas (3,1, se registró en el mes de mayo.SummaryFor the food mode determination of the North African green frog Rana(Pelophylax saharica, 360 specimens were collected from 2 lakes in theNorthern area of Tunisia since April until September. We noted that thepreys belong mainly to the Arthropods, particularly Coleopters (38.29%and Dipterous (23.47%. More occasionally, some tadpoles and youngfrogs belonging to the same species as well as other aquatic preys werealso discovered in the stomach contents. The highest number of prey(231 was observed in June, whereas the most important prey diversity(3,1 was recorded in May.

  8. Radioimmunoassay for rhesus monkey gonadotropins

    Heterologous double-antibody radioimmunoassay methods are described for the measurement of circulating levels of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) FSH and LH; the latter assay is also applicable to rhesus chorionic gonadotropin (CG) estimations. The FSH assay utilizes purified rat FSH for trace, either of two anti-human FSH antisera and a semipurified rhesus pituitary standard. The LH assay utilizes purified ovine LH for trace, an anti-human CG antiserum and the same rhesus pituitary standard. The use of these systems obviates the necessity of purifying rhesus gonadotropins which are required for the development of homologous radioimmunoassay systems. (U.S.)

  9. Pre-Columbian monkey tools.

    Haslam, Michael; Luncz, Lydia V; Staff, Richard A; Bradshaw, Fiona; Ottoni, Eduardo B; Falótico, Tiago


    Stone tools reveal worldwide innovations in human behaviour over the past three million years [1]. However, the only archaeological report of pre-modern non-human animal tool use comes from three Western chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) sites in Côte d'Ivoire, aged between 4.3 and 1.3 thousand years ago (kya) [2]. This anthropocentrism limits our comparative insight into the emergence and development of technology, weakening our evolutionary models [3]. Here, we apply archaeological techniques to a distinctive stone tool assemblage created by a non-human animal in the New World, the Brazilian bearded capuchin monkey (Sapajus libidinosus). Wild capuchins at Serra da Capivara National Park (SCNP) use stones to pound open defended food, including locally indigenous cashew nuts [4], and we demonstrate that this activity dates back at least 600 to 700 years. Capuchin stone hammers and anvils are therefore the oldest non-human tools known outside of Africa, opening up to scientific scrutiny questions on the origins and spread of tool use in New World monkeys, and the mechanisms - social, ecological and cognitive - that support primate technological evolution. PMID:27404235

  10. Cell tropism and pathogenesis of measles virus in monkeys



    Full Text Available Measles virus (MV is an enveloped negative strand RNA virus belonging to the family of Paramyxoviridae, genus Morbillivirus, and causes one of the most contagious diseases in humans. Experimentally infected non-human primates are used as animal models for studies of the pathogenesis of human measles. We established a reverse genetics system based on a highly pathogenic wild-type MV (IC-B strain. Infection of monkeys with recombinant MV strains generated by reverse genetics enabled analysis of the molecular basis of MV pathogenesis. In addition, recombinant wild-type MV strains expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein enable visual tracking of MV-infected cells in vitro and in vivo. To date, 3 different molecules have been identified as receptors for MV. Signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM, also called CD150, expressed on immune cells, is a major receptor for MV. CD46, ubiquitously expressed in all nucleated cells in humans and monkeys, is a receptor for vaccine and laboratory strains of MV. The newly identified nectin-4 (also called PVRL4 is an epithelial cell receptor for MV. The impact of MV receptor usage in vivo on disease outcomes is now under investigation.

  11. Nuclear weapon testing and the monkey business

    Reasons for India's total ban on the export of rhesus monkeys to U.S. have been explained. The major reason is that some of the animals were used in nuclear weapon related radiation experiments. This was a clear violation of a stricture in the agreement about supply of monkeys. The stricture prohibited the use of animals for research concerning military operations, including nuclear weapon testing. It is pleaded that a strict enforcement of strictures rather than a total ban on the export of monkeys would be better in the interest of advancement of knowledge in human medicine and disease control. (M.G.B.)

  12. Impacts of an African Green Revolution on Greenhouse Gases and Pollution Precursors: Nonlinear Trace N Gas Emission Responses to Incremental Increases in Fertilizer Inputs in a Western Kenyan Maize Field

    Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.


    Over the last several decades, agricultural soils in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa have become depleted of nitrogen (N) and other nutrients, creating challenges to achieving food security in many countries. At only 7 kg N ha-1 yr-1, average fertilizer application rates in the region are an order of magnitude lower than typical rates in the United States, and well below optimal levels. Increased use of nutrient inputs is a centerpiece of most African Green Revolution strategies, making it important to quantify the impacts of this change in practices as farmers begin moving towards 50-80 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Increased N inputs are invariably accompanied by losses of trace N gases to the atmosphere, including the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitric oxide (NO), a precursor to tropospheric ozone pollution. Several investigations of greenhouse gas emissions and one investigation of NO emissions from sub-Saharan agricultural systems have been conducted over the last 20 years, but they are few in number and were not designed to identify potentially important thresholds in the response of trace gas emissions to fertilization rate. Here we examine the response function of NO and N2O emissions to 6 different levels of inorganic fertilizer additions in a maize field in Yala, Kenya during the 2011 long rainy season. We used a randomized complete block design incorporating inorganic fertilizer treatments of 0, 50, 75, 100, 150, and 200 kg N ha-1 in 4 blocks. After each of 2 fertilizer applications, we measured trace gas fluxes daily, and conducted weekly measurements until trace gas emissions subsided to control levels. We fit the data to linear and exponential models relating N gas emissions to N input levels, and conducted a model comparison using AIC. Preliminary analysis suggests that NO emissions do respond in a non-linear fashion over the course of 67 days, as has been found in several commercial agroecosystems for N2O. Although N2O emissions responded linearly

  13. Cancer and African Americans

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  14. Physiology responses of Rhesus monkeys to vibration

    Hajebrahimi, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Alidoust, Leila; Arabian Hosseinabadi, Maedeh

    Vibration is one of the important environmental factors in space vehicles that it can induce severe physiological responses in most of the body systems such as cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, endocrine, and etc. This investigation was to assess the effect of different vibration frequencies on heart rate variability (HRV), electrocardiograms (ECG) and respiratory rate in Rhesus monkeys. Methods: two groups of rhesus monkey (n=16 in each group) was selected as control and intervention groups. Monkeys were held in a sitting position within a specific fixture. The animals of this experiment were vibrated on a table which oscillated right and left with sinusoidal motion. Frequency and acceleration for intervention group were between the range of 1 to 2000 Hz and +0.5 to +3 G during 36 weeks (one per week for 15 min), respectively. All of the animals passed the clinical evaluation (echocardiography, sonography, radiography and blood analysis test) before vibration test and were considered healthy and these tests repeated during and at the end of experiments. Results and discussions: Our results showed that heart and respiratory rates increased significantly in response to increased frequency from 1 to 60 Hz (p controls. There were no significant differences in heart and respiratory rate from 60 t0 2000 Hz among studied groups. All monkeys passed vibration experiment successfully without any arrhythmic symptoms due to electrocardiography analysis. Conclusion: Our results indicate that vibration in low frequency can effect respiratory and cardiovascular function in rhesus monkey. Keywords: Vibration, rhesus monkey, heart rate, respiratory rate

  15. Influence of trypanocidal therapy on the haematology of vervet monkeys experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense.

    Ngotho, Maina; Kagira, John M; Kariuki, Christopher; Maina, Naomi; Thuita, John K; Mwangangi, David M; Farah, Idle O; Hau, Jann


    The aim of this study was to characterise the sequential haematological changes in vervet monkeys infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and subsequently treated with sub-curative diminazene aceturate (DA) and curative melarsoprol (MelB) trypanocidal drugs. Fourteen vervet monkeys, on a serial timed-kill pathogenesis study, were infected intravenously with 10(4) trypanosomes of a stabilate T. b. rhodesiense KETRI 2537. They were treated with DA at 28 days post infection (dpi) and with MelB following relapse of infection at 140 dpi. Blood samples were obtained from the monkeys weekly, and haematology conducted using a haematological analyser. All the monkeys developed a disease associated with macrocytic hypochromic anaemia characterised by a reduction in erythrocytes (RBC), haemoglobin (HB), haematocrit (HCT), mean cell volume (MCV), platelet count (PLT), and an increase in the red cell distribution width (RDW) and mean platelet volume (MPV). The clinical disease was characteristic of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) with a pre-patent period of 3 days. Treatment with DA cleared trypanosomes from both the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The parasites relapsed first in the CSF and later in the blood. This treatment normalised the RBC, HCT, HB, PLT, MCV, and MPV achieving the pre-infection values within two weeks while RDW took up to 6 weeks to attain pre-infection levels after treatment. Most of the parameters were later characterised by fluctuations, and declined at one to two weeks before relapse of trypanosomes in the haemolymphatic circulation. Following MelB treatment at 140 dpi, most values recovered within two weeks and stabilised at pre-infection levels, during the 223 days post treatment monitoring period. It is concluded that DA and MelB treatments cause similar normalising changes in the haematological profiles of monkeys infected with T. b. rhodesiense, indicating the efficacy of the drugs. The infection related changes in haematology

  16. African dance

    Mumberson, Stephen


    The RE Open will be shown at the Mall Gallery London and the international section was judged by major practitioners and educators, print dealers and collectors, President of RE and Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum Dr Bren Unwin, John Purcell, Deborah Roslund, Colin Harrison, Dave Ferry, and Mark Hampson. Piece selected "African Dance" print.

  17. Malaria in cynomolgus monkeys used in toxicity studies in Japan

    Ohta, Etsuko; Nagayama, Yuko; Koyama, Naoki; Kakiuchi, Dai; Hosokawa, Satoru


    Plasmodium spp. protozoa cause malaria and are known to infect humans and a variety of animal species including macaque monkeys. Here we report both our experience with malaria recrudescence in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in a toxicity study and the results of a survey on Plasmodium infection in cynomolgus monkeys imported to Japan for laboratory use. A cynomolgus monkey from the toxicity study presented with severe anemia and Plasmodium protozoa in erythrocytes on a thin blood s...

  18. Radiation-induced emesis in monkeys

    To determine the emesis ED50 for 60Co radiation, 15 male rhesus monkeys were exposed to whole-body radiation doses ranging from 350 to 550 rad midline tissue dose. An up-and-down sequence of exposures was used. Step size between doses was 50 rad, and dose rate was 20 rad/min. There had been no access to food for 1 to 2 h. The ED50 +- SE was found to be 446 +- 27 rad. To determine the effect of motion on emesis ED50, six more monkeys were exposed to 60Co radiation as above, except that the chair in which they were seated was oscillated forward and backward 5 to 150 (pitch axis) at a variable rate not exceeding 0.3 Hz. Radioemesis ED50 +- SE with motion was 258 +- 19 rad, a value significantly lower (P < 0.01) than for stationary monkeys

  19. Green Chemistry

    Collison, Melanie


    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  20. Obesity and African Americans

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  1. Greene Machine

    Cavanagh, Sean


    The author of this article profiles the 37-year-old researcher Jay P. Greene and his controversial research studies on education. Most people learn early to trust the things they see first, but Greene adheres to a different creed. People are deceived by their own eyes. He believed that visual betrayal is as evident as it is in how people think…

  2. Metaphysical green

    Earon, Ofri


    “Sensation of Green is about the mental process like touching, seeing, hearing, or smelling, resulting from the immediate stimulation of landscape forms, plants, trees, wind and water. Sensation of Green triggers a feeling of scale, cheerfulness, calmness and peace. The spatial performance...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses....... The idea of the concept is a mutual participation of nature in architecture meaning that landscape features become tools to design a built space. The paper develops the concept further focusing on the scale of a single residential unit. The paper argues that the concept of Sensation of Green is flexible...

  3. Green lights

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    This study investigates the effect of drought on economic activity globally using remote sensing data. In particular, predicted variation in greenness is correlated with changes in the density of artificial light observed at night on a grid of 0.25 degree latitude-longitude pixels. I define drought...... as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted...... variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt...

  4. Green consumerism

    de Groot, Judith I.M.; Schuitema, Geertje; Garson, Carrie Lee

    Our presentation will focus on the influence of product characteristics and values on green consumerism. Although generally a majority of consumers support the idea of purchasing green products, we argue, based on social dilemma theory, that proself product characteristics and egoistic...... and biospheric values influence the importance of such ‘green’ product characteristics on purchasing intentions. In two within-subjects full-factorial experimental studies (N = 100 and N = 107), we found that purchase intentions of products were only steered by green characteristics if prices were low...... and the brand was familiar. Green product characteristics did not influence purchase intentions at all when these proself product characteristics were not fulfilled (i.e., high prices and unfamiliar brands). The importance of proself and green product characteristics on purchasing intentions was also...

  5. Aging: Lessons for Elderly People from Monkeys.

    Crockford, Catherine


    As life expectancy increases, health in the elderly is a growing issue. Health is linked to remaining socially active, but the elderly typically narrow their social networks. The social life of aging monkeys shows interesting parallels, indicating social patterns may be rooted in evolution. PMID:27404240

  6. Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang


    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People’s Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%–60% disease incidence); 5%–30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  7. Integrase of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus

    Snášel, Jan; Krejčík, Zdeněk; Jenčová, Věra; Rosenberg, Ivan; Ruml, Tomáš; Alexandratos, J.; Gustchina, A.; Pichová, Iva


    Roč. 272, č. 1 (2005), s. 203-216. ISSN 1742-464X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4055304 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : integrase * Mason-Pfizer monkey virus * HIV-1 Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  8. Agonism and dominance in female blue monkeys.

    Klass, Keren; Cords, Marina


    Agonistic behavior features prominently in hypotheses that explain how social variation relates to ecological factors and phylogenetic constraints. Dominance systems vary along axes of despotism, tolerance, and nepotism, and comparative studies examine cross-species patterns in these classifications. To contribute to such studies, we present a comprehensive picture of agonistic behavior and dominance relationships in wild female blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis), an arboreal guenon, with data from 9 groups spanning 18 years. We assessed where blue monkeys fall along despotic, tolerant, and nepotistic spectra, how their dominance system compares to other primates, primarily cercopithecines, and whether their agonistic behavior matches socioecological model predictions. Blue monkeys showed low rates of mainly low-intensity agonism and little counter-aggression. Rates increased with rank and group size. Dominance asymmetry varied at different organizational levels, being more pronounced at the level of interactions than dyad or group. Hierarchies were quite stable, had moderate-to-high linearity and directional consistency and moderate steepness. There was clear maternal rank inheritance, but inconsistent adherence to Kawamura's rules. There was little between-group variation, although hierarchy metrics showed considerable variation across group-years. Overall, blue monkeys have moderately despotic, moderately tolerant, and nepotistic dominance hierarchies. They resemble other cercopithecines in having significantly linear and steep hierarchies with a generally stable, matriline-based structure, suggesting a phylogenetic basis to this aspect of their social system. Blue monkeys most closely match Sterck et al.'s [1997] Resident-Nepotistic-Tolerant dominance category, although they do not fully conform to predictions of any one socioecological model. Our results suggest that socioecological models might better predict variation within than across clades, thereby

  9. A novel method for capturing and monitoring a small neotropical primate, the squirrel monkey (Saimiri collinsi).

    Stone, Anita I; Castro, Paulo H G; Monteiro, Frederico O B; Ruivo, Luana P; de Sousa e Silva Júnior, José


    Squirrel monkeys (genus Saimiri) are agile, arboreal primates that are seldom captured in the wild due to their small body size (captures and permanent identification of individuals, in order to monitor their behavior and health. Here we report on a novel trapping method successfully used to capture Saimiri collinsi, in Eastern Amazonia, Brazil. Our objective was to capture as many individuals as possible from one social group of approximately 50 individuals, ranging over 150 ha of terra firme forest. Captures occurred in November and December 2013. We habituated animals to feed on a large platform located in a 123.5 m(2) area enclosed by a green net (3 m high). Multiple individuals could freely enter and exit the area via four ropes affixed from surrounding trees to the platform. Once individuals were feeding inside the netted area on selected trapping days, the ropes were dropped remotely, eliminating their escape routes. We successfully trapped 21 different individuals of the social group (14 adults and 7 immatures) with this method. We conclude that this is a conceptually simple, effective method for trapping squirrel monkeys in most habitats, and possibly other small arboreal primates that live in large social groups. The present method was more effective than previous methods utilized to capture squirrel monkeys in the field, and has the advantages of: allowing for safe capture of several individuals simultaneously; enabling re-captures; releasing of animals as a group at the site of capture; use of soft netting which facilitates safe capture of the monkeys. PMID:25231238

  10. Green Nail Syndrome

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Green Nail Syndrome Share | Green nail syndrome (GNS) is an infection of the ... discoloration of nails, also known as chloronychia. The green discoloration varies from blue-green to dark green ...

  11. Green Roofs



    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  12. Behaviorally Green

    Sunstein, Cass; Reisch, Lucia A.


    or services and alternatives that are potentially damaging to the environment but less expensive? The answer may well depend on the default rule. Indeed, green default rules may be a more effective tool for altering outcomes than large economic incentives. The underlying reasons include the powers...... of suggestion, inertia, and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive to consumers. In deciding whether to establish green...... defaults, choice architects should consider consumer welfare and a wide range of other costs and benefits. Sometimes that assessment will argue strongly in favor of green defaults, particularly when both economic and environmental considerations point in their direction. But when choice architects lack...

  13. Automatically Green

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia


    environmentally-friendly products or services and alternatives that are potentially damaging to the environment but less expensive? The answer may well depend on the default rule. Indeed, green default rules may well be a more effective tool for altering outcomes than large economic incentives. The underlying...... reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...... to consumers. In deciding whether to establish green defaults, choice architects should consider both consumer welfare and a wide range of other costs and benefits. Sometimes that assessment will argue strongly in favor of green defaults, particularly when both economic and environmental considerations point...

  14. Automatically Green

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    environmentally-friendly products or services and alternatives that are potentially damaging to the environment but less expensive? The answer may well depend on the default rule. Indeed, green default rules may well be a more effective tool for altering outcomes than large economic incentives. The underlying...... reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...... to consumers. In deciding whether to establish green defaults, choice architects should consider both consumer welfare and a wide range of other costs and benefits. Sometimes that assessment will argue strongly in favor of green defaults, particularly when both economic and environmental considerations point...

  15. Green Coffee

    ... can stimulate the body. Some medications used for depression can also stimulate the body. Taking green coffee and taking some medications for depression might cause too much stimulation and serious side ...

  16. Green lasers

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin


    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  17. Green Economics

    David Pearce


    Economists assume that people are fundamentally greedy, though not exclusively so. If environmental improvement is to be achieved, it will require policies that use selfishness rather than opposing it. Such policies are to be found in the basics of green economics in which market signals are modified by environmental taxes and tradeable pollution certificates to 'decouple' the economic growth process from its environmental impact. Green economic policies avoid the infringements of human liber...

  18. Head Rotation Detection in Marmoset Monkeys

    Simhadri, Sravanthi

    Head movement is known to have the benefit of improving the accuracy of sound localization for humans and animals. Marmoset is a small bodied New World monkey species and it has become an emerging model for studying the auditory functions. This thesis aims to detect the horizontal and vertical rotation of head movement in marmoset monkeys. Experiments were conducted in a sound-attenuated acoustic chamber. Head movement of marmoset monkey was studied under various auditory and visual stimulation conditions. With increasing complexity, these conditions are (1) idle, (2) sound-alone, (3) sound and visual signals, and (4) alert signal by opening and closing of the chamber door. All of these conditions were tested with either house light on or off. Infra-red camera with a frame rate of 90 Hz was used to capture of the head movement of monkeys. To assist the signal detection, two circular markers were attached to the top of monkey head. The data analysis used an image-based marker detection scheme. Images were processed using the Computation Vision Toolbox in Matlab. The markers and their positions were detected using blob detection techniques. Based on the frame-by-frame information of marker positions, the angular position, velocity and acceleration were extracted in horizontal and vertical planes. Adaptive Otsu Thresholding, Kalman filtering and bound setting for marker properties were used to overcome a number of challenges encountered during this analysis, such as finding image segmentation threshold, continuously tracking markers during large head movement, and false alarm detection. The results show that the blob detection method together with Kalman filtering yielded better performances than other image based techniques like optical flow and SURF features .The median of the maximal head turn in the horizontal plane was in the range of 20 to 70 degrees and the median of the maximal velocity in horizontal plane was in the range of a few hundreds of degrees per

  19. Metabolism of lithocholic and chenodeoxycholic acids in the squirrel monkey

    Metabolism of lithocholic acid (LCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) was studied in the squirrel monkey to clarify the mechanism of the lack of toxicity of CDCA in this animal. Radioactive LCA was administered to squirrel monkeys with biliary fistula. Most radioactivity was excreted in the bile in the form of unsulfated lithocholyltaurine. The squirrel monkey thus differs from humans and chimpanzees, which efficiently sulfate LCA, and is similar to the rhesus monkey and baboon in that LCA is poorly sulfated. When labeled CDCA was orally administered to squirrel monkeys, less than 20% of the dosed radioactivity was recovered as LCA and its further metabolites in feces over 3 days, indicating that bacterial metabolism of CDCA into LCA is strikingly less than in other animals and in humans. It therefore appears that LCA, known as a hepatotoxic secondary bile acid, is not accumulated in the squirrel monkey, not because of its rapid turnover through sulfation, but because of the low order of its production

  20. Metabolism of lithocholic and chenodeoxycholic acids in the squirrel monkey

    Suzuki, H.; Hamada, M.; Kato, F.


    Metabolism of lithocholic acid (LCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) was studied in the squirrel monkey to clarify the mechanism of the lack of toxicity of CDCA in this animal. Radioactive LCA was administered to squirrel monkeys with biliary fistula. Most radioactivity was excreted in the bile in the form of unsulfated lithocholyltaurine. The squirrel monkey thus differs from humans and chimpanzees, which efficiently sulfate LCA, and is similar to the rhesus monkey and baboon in that LCA is poorly sulfated. When labeled CDCA was orally administered to squirrel monkeys, less than 20% of the dosed radioactivity was recovered as LCA and its further metabolites in feces over 3 days, indicating that bacterial metabolism of CDCA into LCA is strikingly less than in other animals and in humans. It therefore appears that LCA, known as a hepatotoxic secondary bile acid, is not accumulated in the squirrel monkey, not because of its rapid turnover through sulfation, but because of the low order of its production.

  1. The Green of Green Functions

    Challis, Lawrie; Sheard, Fred


    In 1828, an English miller from Nottingham published a mathematical essay that generated little response. George Green's analysis, however, has since found applications in areas ranging from classical electrostatics to modern quantum field theory.

  2. Differences of monkey and human overt attention under natural conditions

    Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Kruse, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Klaus-Peter; König, Peter


    Rhesus monkeys are widely used as animal models of human attention. Such research rests upon the assumption that similar mechanisms underlie attention in both species. Here, we directly compare the influence of low-level stimulus features on overt attention in monkeys and humans under natural conditions. We recorded eye-movements in humans and rhesus monkeys during free-viewing of natural images. We find that intrinsic low-level features, such luminance-contrast, texture-contrast and...

  3. Maintenance of microflora suppression in irradiated monkeys

    After at least two weeks of decontamination, rhesus monkeys were submitted to a total body irradiation of 8.5 Gy, followed by a bone marrow graft. In the following weeks, a number of colonizations were found. Twenty-seven colonizations were known to be present on the day of irradiation. Sixteen colonizations were due to microorganisms suppressed before irradiation. Thirty-two colonizations were considered as exogenous. Only a few colonizations in the irradiated animals could not be controlled. Irradiation caused severe diarrhoea in decontaminated animals, leading to a life-threatening loss of water and electrolytes. When this loss was corrected, the monkeys survived for prolonged periods following irradiation. The amount of food consumed, which contained antibiotics, had no effect on the faecal concentration. The addition of solid food particles, however, resulted in a much lower faecal concentration. No significant antibiotic serum levels were found. (orig.)

  4. Hemorrhoids: an experimental model in monkeys

    Plapler Hélio


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hemorrhoids are a matter of concern due to a painful outcome. We describe a simple, easy and reliable experimental model to produce hemorrhoids in monkeys. METHODS: 14 monkeys (Cebus apella were used. After general anesthesia, hemorrhoids were induced by ligation of the inferior hemorrhoidal vein, which is very alike to humans. The vein was located through a perianal incision, dissected and ligated with a 3-0 vicryl. The skin was sutured with a 4-0 catgut thread. Animals were kept in appropriate cages and evaluated daily. RESULTS: Nine days later there were hemorrhoidal piles in the anus in fifty percent (50% of the animals. Outcome was unremarkable. There was no bleeding and all animals showed no signs of pain or suffering. CONCLUSION: This is an affordable and reliable experimental model to induce hemorrhoids for experimental studies.

  5. Spontaneous pericardial mesothelioma in a rhesus monkey.

    Chandra, M; Mansfield, K G


    Spontaneous tumors in nonhuman primates are of great importance. A spontaneous pericardial mesothelioma was observed in an 18-year-old female rhesus monkey. Grossly, the visceral pericardium was multifocally irregular and thickened with tan discoloration and was soft in consistency. Histologically, the pericardium contained highly in-folded branching fronds lined by a single layer of cuboidal cells. Tumor invaded into approximately half of the thickness of the atrial and ventricular muscles. Tumor penetration was not observed into the atrial or ventricular cavity. Within the myocardium, neoplastic cells formed glandular structures which were lined by cuboidal to columnar cells. Neoplastic cells were weakly positive with PAS and strongly positive for colloid iron and alcian blue. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells were positive for both vimentin and cytokeratin and negative with CEA and Leu-M1, indicating mesothelial origin. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a spontaneous pericardial mesothelioma in a rhesus monkey. PMID:10475114

  6. Auditory looming perception in rhesus monkeys

    Ghazanfar, Asif A.; Neuhoff, John G.; Logothetis, Nikos K.


    The detection of approaching objects can be crucial to the survival of an organism. The perception of looming has been studied extensively in the visual system, but remains largely unexplored in audition. Here we show a behavioral bias in rhesus monkeys orienting to “looming” sounds. As in humans, the bias occurred for harmonic tones (which can reliably indicate single sources), but not for broadband noise. These response biases to looming sounds are consistent with an evolved neural mechanis...

  7. What do monkeys' music choices mean?

    Lamont, Alexandra M


    McDermott and Hauser have recently shown that although monkeys show some types of preferences for sound, preferences for music are found only in humans. This suggests that music might be a relatively recent adaptation in human evolution. Here, I focus on the research methods used by McDermott and Hauser, and consider the findings in relation to infancy research and music psychology. PMID:16006174

  8. A freely-moving monkey treadmill model

    Foster, Justin D.; Nuyujukian, Paul; Freifeld, Oren; Gao, Hua; Walker, Ross; Ryu, Stephen I.; Meng, Teresa H.; Murmann, Boris; Black, Michael J.; Shenoy, Krishna V.


    Objective. Motor neuroscience and brain-machine interface (BMI) design is based on examining how the brain controls voluntary movement, typically by recording neural activity and behavior from animal models. Recording technologies used with these animal models have traditionally limited the range of behaviors that can be studied, and thus the generality of science and engineering research. We aim to design a freely-moving animal model using neural and behavioral recording technologies that do not constrain movement. Approach. We have established a freely-moving rhesus monkey model employing technology that transmits neural activity from an intracortical array using a head-mounted device and records behavior through computer vision using markerless motion capture. We demonstrate the flexibility and utility of this new monkey model, including the first recordings from motor cortex while rhesus monkeys walk quadrupedally on a treadmill. Main results. Using this monkey model, we show that multi-unit threshold-crossing neural activity encodes the phase of walking and that the average firing rate of the threshold crossings covaries with the speed of individual steps. On a population level, we find that neural state-space trajectories of walking at different speeds have similar rotational dynamics in some dimensions that evolve at the step rate of walking, yet robustly separate by speed in other state-space dimensions. Significance. Freely-moving animal models may allow neuroscientists to examine a wider range of behaviors and can provide a flexible experimental paradigm for examining the neural mechanisms that underlie movement generation across behaviors and environments. For BMIs, freely-moving animal models have the potential to aid prosthetic design by examining how neural encoding changes with posture, environment and other real-world context changes. Understanding this new realm of behavior in more naturalistic settings is essential for overall progress of basic

  9. Rhesus monkeys know when they remember

    Hampton, Robert R.


    Humans are consciously aware of some memories and can make verbal reports about these memories. Other memories cannot be brought to consciousness, even though they influence behavior. This conspicuous difference in access to memories is central in taxonomies of human memory systems but has been difficult to document in animal studies, suggesting that some forms of memory may be unique to humans. Here I show that rhesus macaque monkeys can report the presence or absence...

  10. Monkey cortex through fMRI glasses

    Vanduffel, Wim; Zhu, Qi; Orban, Guy A.


    In 1998 several groups reported the feasibility of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments in monkeys, with the goal to bridge the gap between invasive nonhuman primate studies and human functional imaging. These studies yielded critical insights in the neuronal underpinnings of the BOLD signal. Furthermore, the technology has been successful in guiding electrophysiological recordings and identifying focal perturbation targets. Finally, invaluable information was obtained con...

  11. Monkey Gamer: Automatic profiling of Android games

    Santos, Javier; Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin; Prem Bianzino, Aruna


    Creation of smartphone applications has undergone a massive explosion in recent years and there is an urgent need for evaluation of their resource efficiency, trustworthiness and reliability. A large proportion of these apps are going to be within the gaming area. In this paper we classify game apps on the basis of their development process, their I/O process and their interaction level. We present Monkey Gamer, a software to automatically play a large class of Android games and collect execu...

  12. Malaria in cynomolgus monkeys used in toxicity studies in Japan.

    Ohta, Etsuko; Nagayama, Yuko; Koyama, Naoki; Kakiuchi, Dai; Hosokawa, Satoru


    Plasmodium spp. protozoa cause malaria and are known to infect humans and a variety of animal species including macaque monkeys. Here we report both our experience with malaria recrudescence in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in a toxicity study and the results of a survey on Plasmodium infection in cynomolgus monkeys imported to Japan for laboratory use. A cynomolgus monkey from the toxicity study presented with severe anemia and Plasmodium protozoa in erythrocytes on a thin blood smear and was subsequently diagnosed with symptomatic malaria. In this animal, congestion and accumulation of hemozoin (malaria pigment) in macrophages were noted in the enlarged and darkly discolored spleen. As a follow-up for the experience, spleen sections from 800 cynomolgus monkeys in toxicity studies conducted between 2003 and 2013 were retrospectively examined for hemozoin deposition as a marker of Plasmodium infection. The origin of the animals included Cambodia, China, Indonesia, and Vietnam. Hemozoin deposition was confirmed in 44% of all examined monkeys. Monkeys from Indonesia showed the highest incidence of hemozoin deposition (approx. 80%). A high prevalence of Plasmodium infection in laboratory monkeys was also confirmed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by using Plasmodium genus-specific primers. Although Japan is not a country with endemic malaria, it is important to be aware of the prevalence and potential impact of background infection with Plasmodium spp. and recrudescence of symptomatic malaria in imported laboratory monkeys on pharmaceutical toxicity studies. PMID:26989299

  13. Basic math in monkeys and college students.

    Jessica F Cantlon


    Full Text Available Adult humans possess a sophisticated repertoire of mathematical faculties. Many of these capacities are rooted in symbolic language and are therefore unlikely to be shared with nonhuman animals. However, a subset of these skills is shared with other animals, and this set is considered a cognitive vestige of our common evolutionary history. Current evidence indicates that humans and nonhuman animals share a core set of abilities for representing and comparing approximate numerosities nonverbally; however, it remains unclear whether nonhuman animals can perform approximate mental arithmetic. Here we show that monkeys can mentally add the numerical values of two sets of objects and choose a visual array that roughly corresponds to the arithmetic sum of these two sets. Furthermore, monkeys' performance during these calculations adheres to the same pattern as humans tested on the same nonverbal addition task. Our data demonstrate that nonverbal arithmetic is not unique to humans but is instead part of an evolutionarily primitive system for mathematical thinking shared by monkeys.

  14. Green banking

    Maja Drobnjaković


    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  15. Green times

    The authors, founding members of the ''Green Party'' have in mind to make a very personal contribution to a better understanding of the present political situation which, although it seems to have reached a deadlock, still offers positive chances and prospects. New approaches in policy are mentioned which may help to overcome the present state of resignation of many adolescents and adults. Among other things, they describe themselves setting out for new pathways, the ''Greens'' in Parliament, prospect for the future, opportunities of the ecologically oriented economic policy. Finally, they call upon the reader to think and develop further under the motto ''What we all can do''. (HSCH)

  16. Green networking

    Krief, Francine


    This book focuses on green networking, which is an important topic for the scientific community composed of engineers, academics, researchers and industrialists working in the networking field. Reducing the environmental impact of the communications infrastructure has become essential with the ever increasing cost of energy and the need for reducing global CO2 emissions to protect our environment.Recent advances and future directions in green networking are presented in this book, including energy efficient networks (wired networks, wireless networks, mobile networks), adaptive networ

  17. Heart Disease and African Americans

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  18. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    ... African American > Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 times the infant mortality rate ... birthweight as compared to non-Hispanic white infants. African Americans had almost twice the sudden infant death syndrome ...

  19. Not everything green has green

    Last week (March 2009) Slovak government extended the preferential treatment of renewable energy. Companies that will produce electricity from biomass, water, wind, solar and underground thermal springs, have guaranteed that they will receive a decently paid at least the next 15 years. It promises them a new government bill on the promotion of renewable energy. So far, the State guaranteed the purchase of green power for only one year in advance. And because it is more expensive than electricity from coal or uranium, green investment firms feared. Fifteen guarantees give assurance. The government will guarantee only purchase green electricity, but also biomethane to produce heat. So, who wants an ordinary agrarian biogas from waste and adjust to such a gas. Slovak gas industry will have to buy it into its network. Biomethane is not in domestic terms only on paper.

  20. Green pioneers.

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output. PMID:23763098

  1. Green marketing

    Kymlová, Šárka


    The thesis acquaints readers with the basic ideas of a new trend in marketing -- green marketing. It points out its particularities, historical evolution and potential application, including warning about common mistakes. The thesis aspires to bring an overview of the topic.

  2. Green Olympics


    @@ It seems all happened in a moment.White clouds float in blue sky,green trees are decorated by colorful flags with warm smiling images,and the building are taking a brand new appearance...Some magic must has been done to Beijing:it turns to a cleaner,healthier and more beautiful city.

  3. Going Green


    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  4. Effects of Permanent Separation from Mother on Infant Monkeys

    Suomi, Stephen; And Others


    A study designed to investigate the effects of permanent maternal separation in infant rhesus monkeys, 60, 90, and 120 days of age, and housed individually or in Paris. Monkeys separated at 90 days and housed individually showed the highest levels of disturbance. (DP)

  5. Evaluation of diabetes determinants in woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Burns, R.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jansen, W.L.; Ferket, P.R.; Heugten, E.


    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) are a threatened specie in the wild with limited successful management in captivity due to diagnosed hypertension and suspected diabetic conditions. Six woolly monkeys with known hypertension problems were tested to determine if diabetes mellitus and current dai

  6. Brain tumors induced by radiation in rhesus monkeys

    Two out of four pubescent rhesus monkeys, which received 1,500 rads of supervoltage X-irradiation, showed malignant brain tumors afer the survival of 52 and 102 weeks each. Since the incidence of spontaneous developing brain tumors in monkeys cited in the literatures was quite low, the tumors in the present series may have been radiation induced. (author)

  7. Serum Chemistry concentrations of captive Woolly Monkeys (Lagothrix Lagotricha)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Ferket, P.; Stoskopf, M.; Heugten, van E.


    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix sp.) are threatened species and numerous zoos have failed to sustain successful populations. The most common causes of death in captive woolly monkeys are related to pregnancy and hypertension. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate serum concentrations o

  8. Fatal Infection of a Pet Monkey with Human herpesvirus 1

    Huemer, Hartwig P.; Larcher, Clara; Czedik-Eysenberg, Thomas; Nowotny, Norbert; Reifinger, Martin


    Concerns have been raised about pet monkeys as a potential threat to humans. We report the opposite situation, a danger to pets that arises from humans. Similar to herpesvirus B (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1), which endangers humans but not its host species, Human herpesvirus 1 can act as a “killer virus” when crossing the species barrier to New World monkeys.

  9. Comparative studies of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) and titi monkeys (Callicebus) in travel tasks.

    Fragaszy, D M


    Squirrel and titi monkeys were observed in a series of experiments in which the subjects' task was to move to a distant goal along above-ground pathways. The pathways were entirely visible to the subjects in all experiments. However, visual cues along the pathways (in Experiment I) and physical and spatial properties of the pathways (in Experiments II and III) were varied systematically in order to determine what effect features had upon selection of travel paths for monkeys of each species. Marked performance differences between the species were evident in these experiments, including differences in latency to move past the choice point, proportion of trials in which the shortest route was chosen first, and changes over test sessions in frequency of initial choice of the shortest route. In particular, titis tended to move past the choice point more slowly than squirrel monkeys; to pay more attention to distant properties of the pathways prior to making a decision, especially after experience in the test setting; and to prefer habitual pathways when these were available, whereas squirrel monkeys preferred novel routes when these were available. The relative "optimality" of decision making in these tasks in relation to species-typical modes of traveling and foraging in natural habitats is discussed. An alternative view of decision making, in which optimality is not assumed to be the only decision-making strategy, is suggested as an appropriate vehicle for further investigation into the sources of short-term variability in choice behavior. PMID:7223106

  10. African Americans and Glaucoma

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't ...

  11. Diabetes in African Americans

    Marshall, M.


    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of t...

  12. Plasma Hormone Concentrations in Monkeys after Spaceflight

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Mukku, V. R.; Dotsenko, R.; Gosselink, K. L.; Bigbee, A. J.; Helwig, D.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)


    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 12.5 day spaceflight on the endocrine status of Rhesus monkeys. Male monkeys (three to four years old; 4 kg) were adapted to chair restraint and trained for 20 months. Blood samples were obtained from four control (C) and two flight (F) monkeys preflight (PF), post-flight (Recovery-R; days 0, 3, 11, and 17), and before and after a mission length simulation (S). Cortisol, T4, T3, testosterone (T), and IGF-1 were measured by RIA (radioimmunassay). Growth hormone (GH) was measured by an in vitro bioassay. Cortisol (16-34 ug/dl), T4 (3.9-7.4 ug/dl), and T (0.2-0.4 mg/ml) did not differ between F and C or between PF, R, and S samples. The low T values reflect the immaturity of the animals. In F, T3 fell from C levels of 208 +/- 4 ng/dl to 44 on R+0 and 150 on R+3, then returned to C. F showed a 55% decrease in GH at R+0 and decreases of 93, 89, and 80%, respectively, at R+3, 11, and 17. IGF-1 decreased from PF levels of 675 ng/ml to 365 (R+0) and 243 (R+3), but returned to C at R+11. GH and IGF-1 levels before and after S did not differ from each other or from C. The cause of the transitory decrease in T3 is unknown. The suppressed GH levels for 17 days after flight may reflect reduced proprioceptive input during flight. The faster recovery of IGF-1 suggests that factors other than reduced GH secretion are involved.

  13. Volume effects in Rhesus monkey spinal cord

    An experiment was conducted to test for the existence of a volume effect in radiation myelopathy using Rhesus monkeys treated with clinically relevant field sizes and fractionation schedules. Five groups of Rhesus monkeys were irradiated using 2.2 Gy per fraction to their spinal cords. Three groups were irradiated with 8 cm fields to total doses of 70.4, 77, and 83.6 Gy. Two additional groups were irradiated to 70.4 Gy using 4 and 16 cm fields. The incidence of paresis expressed within 2 years following the completion of treatment was determined for each group. Maximum likelihood estimation was used to determine parameters of a logistic dose response function. The volume effect was modeled using the probability model in which the probability of producing a lesion in an irradiated volume is governed by the probability of the occurrence of independent events. This is a two parameter model requiring only the estimates of the parameters of the dose-response function for the reference volume, but not needing any additional parameters for describing the volume effect. The probability model using a logistic dose-response function fits the data well with the D50 = 75.8 Gy for the 8-cm field. No evidence was seen for a difference in sensitivities for different anatomical levels of the spinal cord. Most lesions were type 3, combined white matter parenchymal and vascular lesions. Latent periods did not differ significantly from those of type 3 lesions in humans. The spinal cord exhibits a volume effect that is well described by the probability model. Because the dose response function for radiation myelopathy is steep, the volume effect is modest. The Rhesus monkey remains the animal model most similar to humans in dose response, histopathology, and latency for radiation myelopathy. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Distribution and abundance of sacred monkeys in Igboland, southern Nigeria.

    Baker, Lynne R; Tanimola, Adebowale A; Olubode, Oluseun S; Garshelis, David L


    Although primates are hunted on a global scale, some species are protected against harassment and killing by taboos or religious doctrines. Sites where the killing of sacred monkeys or the destruction of sacred groves is forbidden may be integral to the conservation of certain species. In 2004, as part of a distribution survey of Sclater's guenon (Cercopithecus sclateri) in southern Nigeria, we investigated reports of sacred monkeys in the Igbo-speaking region of Nigeria. We confirmed nine new sites where primates are protected as sacred: four with tantalus monkeys (Chlorocebus tantalus) and five with mona monkeys (Cercopithecus mona). During 2004-2006, we visited two communities (Akpugoeze and Lagwa) previously known to harbor sacred populations of Ce. sclateri to estimate population abundance and trends. We directly counted all groups and compared our estimates with previous counts when available. We also estimated the size of sacred groves and compared these with grove sizes reported in the literature. The mean size of the sacred groves in Akpugoeze (2.06 ha, n = 10) was similar to others in Africa south of the Sahel, but larger than the average grove in Lagwa (0.49 ha, n = 15). We estimated a total population of 124 Sclater's monkeys in 15 groups in Lagwa and 193 monkeys in 20 groups in Akpugoeze. The Akpugoeze population was relatively stable over two decades, although the proportion of infants declined, and the number of groups increased. As Sclater's monkey does not occur in any official protected areas, sacred populations are important to the species' long-term conservation. Despite the monkeys' destruction of human crops, most local people still adhere to the custom of not killing monkeys. These sites represent ideal locations in which to study the ecology of Sclater's monkey and human-wildlife interactions. PMID:19408287

  15. Which senses play a role in nonhuman primate food selection? A comparison between squirrel monkeys and spider monkeys.

    Laska, Matthias; Freist, Pamela; Krause, Stephanie


    In order to optimize foraging efficiency and avoid toxicosis, animals must be able to detect, discriminate, and learn about the predictive signals of potential food. Primates are typically regarded as animals that rely mainly on their highly developed visual systems, and little is known about the role that the other senses may play in food selection. It was therefore the aim of the present study to assess which senses are involved in the evaluation of food by two species of New World primates: the squirrel monkey and the spider monkey. To this end, six animals per species were repeatedly presented with both familiar and novel food items, and their behavior was videotaped and analyzed. To obtain a further indication of the relative importance of visual and chemosensory cues, the animals were also presented with familiar food items that were experimentally modified in color, odor, or both color and odor. The results demonstrate that squirrel monkeys and spider monkeys use olfactory, gustatory, and tactile cues in addition to visual information to evaluate novel food, whereas they mainly inspect familiar food items visually prior to consumption. Our findings also show that in both species the use of nonvisual cues decreased rapidly with repeated presentations of novel food, suggesting a fast multimodal learning process. Further, the two species clearly differ in their relative use of nonvisual cues when evaluating novel or modified food, with spider monkeys relying more on olfactory cues than squirrel monkeys, and squirrel monkeys relying more on tactile cues compared to spider monkeys. PMID:17146790

  16. African American Suicide

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...

  17. Green Computing

    K. Shalini


    Full Text Available Green computing is all about using computers in a smarter and eco-friendly way. It is the environmentally responsible use of computers and related resources which includes the implementation of energy-efficient central processing units, servers and peripherals as well as reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste .Computers certainly make up a large part of many people lives and traditionally are extremely damaging to the environment. Manufacturers of computer and its parts have been espousing the green cause to help protect environment from computers and electronic waste in any way.Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as Possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

  18. Greening Indonesia

    Sihombing, Samuel


    For hundreds years, most of farmers in Indonesia have their own system of farming and they were so closed to the nature. Even farmers co-exist with nature by mutual need. The natural farming principal is done by a very stick ritual religious in every moment of their life. Farming is a part of faith. Unfortunately, this natural farming principal dramatically decreasead and even disappeared with the appereance of the green revolution policy which supported by the regime of Government.

  19. Green Gold

    The main purpose of this work is to offer a general panoramic of the processes or experiences pilot that are carried out in the Project Green Gold, as strategy of environmental sustainability and organizational invigoration in Choco, especially in the 12 communities of the municipalities of Tado and Condoto. It is also sought to offer a minimum of information on the techniques of handmade production and to show the possibilities to carry out in a rational way the use and use of the natural resources. The Project Green Gold is carried out by the Corporation Green Gold (COV) and co-financed with resources of international and national character, the intervention of the financial resources it achievement mainly for the use of clean processes in the extraction stages and metals benefit. The project is centered primarily in the absence of use of products or toxic substances as the mercury, fair trade, organizational invigoration, execution of 11 approaches and certification of the metals Gold and Platinum. The COV, it has come executing the proposal from the year 2001 with the premise of contributing to the balance between the rational exploitation of the natural resources and the conservation of the environment in the Choco. In the project they are used technical handmade characteristic of the region framed inside the mining activity and production activities are diversified in the productive family units. Those producing with the support of entities of juridical character, specify the necessary game rules for the extraction and products commercialization

  20. Can Rhesus Monkey Learn Executive Attention?

    Jessica Bramlett-Parker


    Full Text Available A growing body of data indicates that, compared to humans, rhesus monkeys perform poorly on tasks that assess executive attention, or voluntary control over selection for processing, particularly under circumstances in which attention is attracted elsewhere by competing stimulus control. In the human-cognition literature, there are hotly active debates about whether various competencies such as executive attention, working memory capacity, and fluid intelligence can be improved through training. In the current study, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta completed an attention-training intervention including several inhibitory-control tasks (a Simon task, numerical Stroop task, global/local interference task, and a continuous performance task to determine whether generalized improvements would be observed on a version of the Attention Network Test (ANT of controlled attention, which was administered before and after the training intervention. Although the animals demonstrated inhibition of prepotent responses and improved in executive attention with practice, this improvement did not generalize to the ANT at levels consistently better than were observed for control animals. Although these findings fail to encourage the possibility that species differences in cognitive competencies can be ameliorated through training, they do advance our understanding of the competition between stimulus-control and cognitive-control in performance by nonhuman and human primates.

  1. Can Rhesus Monkey Learn Executive Attention?

    Bramlett-Parker, Jessica; Washburn, David A


    A growing body of data indicates that, compared to humans, rhesus monkeys perform poorly on tasks that assess executive attention, or voluntary control over selection for processing, particularly under circumstances in which attention is attracted elsewhere by competing stimulus control. In the human-cognition literature, there are hotly active debates about whether various competencies such as executive attention, working memory capacity, and fluid intelligence can be improved through training. In the current study, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) completed an attention-training intervention including several inhibitory-control tasks (a Simon task, numerical Stroop task, global/local interference task, and a continuous performance task) to determine whether generalized improvements would be observed on a version of the Attention Network Test (ANT) of controlled attention, which was administered before and after the training intervention. Although the animals demonstrated inhibition of prepotent responses and improved in executive attention with practice, this improvement did not generalize to the ANT at levels consistently better than were observed for control animals. Although these findings fail to encourage the possibility that species differences in cognitive competencies can be ameliorated through training, they do advance our understanding of the competition between stimulus-control and cognitive-control in performance by nonhuman and human primates. PMID:27304969

  2. Vestibuloocular reflex of rhesus monkeys after spaceflight

    Cohen, Bernard; Kozlovskaia, Inessa; Raphan, Theodore; Solomon, David; Helwig, Denice; Cohen, Nathaniel; Sirota, Mikhail; Iakushin, Sergei


    The vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) of two rhesus monkeys was recorded before and after 14 days of spaceflight. The gain (eye velocity/head velocity) of the horizontal VOR, tested 15 and 18 h after landing, was approximately equal to preflight values. The dominant time constant of the animal tested 15 h after landing was equivalent to that before flight. During nystagmus induced by off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR), the latency, rising time constant, steady-state eye velocity, and phase of modulation in eye velocity and eye position with respect to head position were similar in both monkeys before and after flight. There were changes in the amplitude of modulation of horizontal eye velocity during steady-state OVAR and in the ability to discharge stored activity rapidly by tilting during postrotatory nystagmus (tilt dumping) after flight: OVAR modulations were larger, and tilt dumping was lost in the one animal tested on the day of landing and for several days thereafter. If the gain and time constant of the horizontal VOR exchange in microgravity, they must revert to normal soon after landing. The changes that were observed suggest that adaptation to microgravity had caused alterations in way that the central nervous system processes otolith input.

  3. Spaceflight and immune responses of rhesus monkeys

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Morton, Darla S.; Swiggett, Jeanene P.; Hakenewerth, Anne M.; Fowler, Nina A.


    The effects of restraint on immunological parameters was determined in an 18 day ARRT (adult rhesus restraint test). The monkeys were restrained for 18 days in the experimental station for the orbiting primate (ESOP), the chair of choice for Space Shuttle experiments. Several immunological parameters were determined using peripheral blood, bone marrow, and lymph node specimens from the monkeys. The parameters included: response of bone marrow cells to GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor), leukocyte subset distribution, and production of IFN-a (interferon-alpha) and IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma). The only parameter changed after 18 days of restraint was the percentage of CD8+ T cells. No other immunological parameters showed changes due to restraint. Handling and changes in housing prior to the restraint period did apparently result in some restraint-independent immunological changes. Handling must be kept to a minimum and the animals allowed time to recover prior to flight. All experiments must be carefully controlled. Restraint does not appear to be a major issue regarding the effects of space flight on immune responses.

  4. Thermoregulatory responses of rhesus monkeys during spaceflight.

    Sulzman, F M; Ferraro, J S; Fuller, C A; Moore-Ede, M C; Klimovitsky, V; Magedov, V; Alpatov, A M


    This study examines the activity, axillary temperature (T(ax)), and ankle skin temperature (Tsk) of two male Rhesus monkeys exposed to microgravity in space. The animals were flown on a Soviet biosatellite mission (COSMOS 1514). Measurements on the flight animals, as well as synchronous flight controls, were performed in the Soviet Union. Additional control studies were performed in the United States to examine the possible role of metabolic heat production in the T(ax) response observed during the spaceflight. All monkeys were exposed to a 24-h light-dark cycle (LD 16:8) throughout these studies. During weightlessness, T(ax) in both flight animals was lower than on earth. The largest difference (0.75 degree C) occurred during the night. There was a reduction in mean heart rate and Tsk during flight. This suggests a reduction in both heat loss and metabolic rate during spaceflight. Although the circadian rhythms in all variables were present during flight, some differences were noted. For example, the amplitude of the rhythms in Tsk and activity were attenuated. Furthermore, the T(ax) and activity rhythms did not have precise 24.0 hour periods and may have been externally desynchronized from the 24-h LD cycle. These data suggest a weakening of the coupling between the internal circadian pacemaker and the external LD synchronizer. PMID:1523235

  5. Explicit information reduces discounting behavior in monkeys

    John ePearson


    Full Text Available Animals are notoriously impulsive in common laboratory experiments, preferring smaller, sooner rewards to larger, delayed rewards even when this reduces average reward rates. By contrast, the same animals often engage in natural behaviors that require extreme patience, such as food caching, stalking prey, and traveling long distances to high quality food sites. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that standard laboratory delay discounting tasks artificially inflate impulsivity by subverting animals’ common learning strategies. To test this idea, we examined choices made by rhesus macaques in two variants of a standard delay discounting task. In the conventional variant, post-reward delays were uncued and adjusted to render total trial length constant; in the second, all delays were cued explicitly. We found that measured discounting was significantly reduced in the cued task, with discount rates well below those reported in studies using the standard uncued design. When monkeys had complete information, their decisions were more consistent with a strategy of reward rate maximization. These results indicate that monkeys, and perhaps other animals, are more patient than is normally assumed, and that laboratory measures of delay discounting may overstate impulsivity.

  6. From green architecture to architectural green

    Earon, Ofri


    The paper investigates the topic of green architecture from an architectural point of view and not an energy point of view. The purpose of the paper is to establish a debate about the architectural language and spatial characteristics of green architecture. In this light, green becomes an adjective...... that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics...... of green architecture. The paper argues that this greenification of facades is insufficient. The green is only a skin cladding the exterior envelope without having a spatial significance. Through the paper it is proposed to flip the order of words from green architecture to architectural green...

  7. The Thatcher illusion in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    Nakata, Ryuzaburo; Osada, Yoshihisa


    Like humans, Old World monkeys are known to use configural face processing to distinguish among individuals. The ability to recognize an individual through the perception of subtle differences in the configuration of facial features plays an important role in social cognition. To test this ability in New World monkeys, this study examined whether squirrel monkeys experience the Thatcher illusion, a measure of face processing ability in which changes in facial features are difficult to detect in an inverted face. In the experiment, the monkeys were required to distinguish between a target face and each of the three kinds of distracter faces whose features were altered to be different from those of the target. For each of the pairs of target and distracter faces, four rotation-based combinations of upright and inverted face presentations were used. The results revealed that when both faces were inverted and the eyes of the distracter face were altered by rotating them at an angle of 180° from those of the target face, the monkeys' discrimination learning was obstructed to a greater extent than it was under the other conditions. Thus, these results suggest that the squirrel monkey does experience the Thatcher illusion. Furthermore, it seems reasonable to assume that squirrel monkeys can utilize information about facial configurations in individual recognition and that this facial configuration information could be useful in their social communications. PMID:22411620

  8. Green shopping

    Thøgersen, John


    Findings suggesting that consumers buy “green” products, such as organic foods, for selfish reasons are usually accepted at face value. In this article, the author argues that the evidence backing this claim is questionable and that it reflects post hoc rationalizations and self-presentation biases......’s beliefs about intangible private benefits in a way that justifies (bolsters) one’s purchasing decision. A survey study among a representative sample of approximately 4,000 respondents from four European countries (Denmark, Germany, United Kingdom, and Italy) confirmed that this is exactly what “green...

  9. Green Housing

    Johnson Eriksson, Christian


    The Building is a combination of a green house and multi familyhousing building. The building´s courtyard is transformed in to a winter garden and creates an climate controlled environment with exotic vegitation blooming all year around. The courtyard is working as an extra livingroom with nice public walks in different levels were people can relax, exercise and socialise. The heat generated from the winter garden can be reused and recycled in to the floor slabs. It can also be deposited into...

  10. African N Assessment

    Bekunda, M.; Galford, G. L.; Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.


    Africa's smallholder agricultural systems face unique challenges in planning for reducing poverty, concurrent with adaptation and mitigation to climate change. At continental level, policy seeks to promote a uniquely African Green Revolution to increase crop yields and food production, and improve local livelihoods. However, the consequences on the environment and climate are not clear; these pro-economic development measures should be linked to climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, and research is required to help achieve these policy proposals by identifying options, and testing impacts. In particular, increased nitrogen (N) inputs are essential for increasing food production in Africa, but are accompanied by inevitable increases in losses to the environment. These losses appear to be low at input levels promoted in agricultural development programs, while the increased N inputs both increase current food production and appear to reduce the vulnerability of food production to changes in climate. We present field and remote sensing evidence from Malawi that subsidizing improved seed and fertilizers increases resilience to drought without adding excess N to the environment. In Kenya, field research identified thresholds in N2O losses, where emissions are very low at fertilization rates of less than 200 kg ha-1. Village-scale models have identified potential inefficiencies in the food production process where the largest losses of reactive N occur, and which could be targeted to reduce the amount of N released to the environment. We further review some on-going research activities and progress in Africa that compare different methods of managing resources that target resilience in food production and adaptation to climate change, using nutrient N as an indicator, while evaluating the effects of these resource management practices on ecosystems and the environment.



    @@ What is the green tea? The green tea belongs to the type of non-fermenting tea, with a quality feature of "clear tea infusion with green leaves"; this type of tea has the biggest output in China, and the basic processing procedure of the green tea is divided into three steps: heating, rubbing and drying. According to the different processing technologies, the green tea is divided into fried green tea, baked green tea, steamed green tea and dried green tea. The steamed green tea is to heat the tea by steaming; to heat the tea by pan-frying can be divided into frying, baking and drying, which is called heating by frying, heating by baking and heating by drying. West LakeLongjing, Xinyang Maojian, Bi Luochun, and Sanbeixiang belong to fried green tea; Mount Huang Maofeng, Youjiyuluo, and Luhai pekoe belong to baked green tea;Enshiyulu belongs to steamed green tea.

  12. Green shipping management

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E


    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  13. Green chemistry

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  14. Green chemistry

    The depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and the involvement of greenhouse gases in the global warming has led to change the industrial and energy policies of most developed countries. The goal is now to reserve petroleum to the uses where it cannot be substituted, to implement renewable raw materials obtained from plants cultivation, and to consider the biodegradability of molecules and of manufactured objects by integrating the lifetime concept in their expected cycle of use. The green chemistry includes the design, development and elaboration of chemical products and processes with the aim of reducing or eliminating the use and generation of harmful compounds for the health and the environment, by adapting the present day operation modes of the chemical industry to the larger framework of the sustainable development. In addition to biofuels, this book reviews the applications of green chemistry in the different industrial processes in concern. Part 1 presents the diversity of the molecules coming from renewable carbon, in particular lignocellulose and the biotechnological processes. Part 2 is devoted to materials and treats of the overall available technological solutions. Part 3 focusses on functional molecules and chemical intermediates, in particular in sugar- and fats-chemistry. Part 4 treats of biofuels under the aspects of their production and use in today's technologies. The last part deals with the global approaches at the environmental and agricultural levels. (J.S.)

  15. Green Manufacturing

    Patten, John


    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  16. Human TOP1 residues implicated in species specificity of HIV-1 infection are required for interaction with BTBD2, and RNAi of BTBD2 in old world monkey and human cells increases permissiveness to HIV-1 infection

    Cutler Mary


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host determinants of HIV-1 viral tropism include factors from producer cells that affect the efficiency of productive infection and factors in target cells that block infection after viral entry. TRIM5α restricts HIV-1 infection at an early post-entry step through a mechanism associated with rapid disassembly of the retroviral capsid. Topoisomerase I (TOP1 appears to play a role in HIV-1 viral tropism by incorporating into or otherwise modulating virions affecting the efficiency of a post-entry step, as the expression of human TOP1 in African Green Monkey (AGM virion-producing cells increased the infectivity of progeny virions by five-fold. This infectivity enhancement required human TOP1 residues 236 and 237 as their replacement with the AGM counterpart residues abolished the infectivity enhancement. Our previous studies showed that TOP1 interacts with BTBD1 and BTBD2, two proteins which co-localize with the TRIM5α splice variant TRIM5δ in cytoplasmic bodies. Because BTBD1 and BTBD2 interact with one HIV-1 viral tropism factor, TOP1, and co-localize with a splice variant of another, we investigated the potential involvement of BTBD1 and BTBD2 in HIV-1 restriction. Results We show that the interaction of BTBD1 and BTBD2 with TOP1 requires hu-TOP1 residues 236 and 237, the same residues required to enhance the infectivity of progeny virions when hu-TOP1 is expressed in AGM producer cells. Additionally, interference with the expression of BTBD2 in AGM and human 293T target cells increased their permissiveness to HIV-1 infection two- to three-fold. Conclusions These results do not exclude the possibility that BTBD2 may modestly restrict HIV-1 infection via colocation with TRIM5 variants in cytoplasmic bodies.

  17. Analysis of the virogenes related to the rhesus monkey endogenous type C retrovirus in monkeys and apes.

    Tainsky, M A


    Molecular hybridization studies were carried out by using a [3H]complementary DNA (cDNA) probe to compare the endogenous type C retrovirus of rhesus monkeys (MMC-1) with other known retroviruses and related sequences in various primate DNAs. The genomic RNA of the endogenous type C retrovirus of stumptail monkeys (MAC-1) was found to be highly related to the MMC-1 cDNA probe, whereas the other retroviral RNAs tested showed no homology. Related sequences were found in Old World monkey DNAs and...

  18. Keep children away from macaque monkeys!

    Bréhin, Camille; Debuisson, Cécile; Mansuy, Jean-Michel; Niphuis, Henk; Buitendijk, Hester; Mengelle, Catherine; Grouteau, Erick; Claudet, Isabelle


    To warn physicians and parents about the risk of macaque bites, we present two pediatric cases (a 4-year-old boy and a 10-year-old girl) of bites sustained while on holiday. The young boy developed febrile dermohypodermitis and was hospitalized for IV antibiotic treatment. He received an initial antirabies vaccine while still in the holiday destination. Except for local wound disinfection and antibiotic ointment, the girl did not receive any specific treatment while abroad. Both were negative for simian herpes PCR. When travelling in countries or cities with endemic simian herpes virus, parents should keep children away from monkeys. Travel agencies, pediatricians and family physicians should better inform families about the zoonotic risk. PMID:26984356

  19. Developmental changes of cognitive vocal control in monkeys.

    Hage, Steffen R; Gavrilov, Natalja; Nieder, Andreas


    The evolutionary origins of human language are obscured by the scarcity of essential linguistic characteristics in non-human primate communication systems. Volitional control of vocal utterances is one such indispensable feature of language. We investigated the ability of two monkeys to volitionally utter species-specific calls over many years. Both monkeys reliably vocalized on command during juvenile periods, but discontinued this controlled vocal behavior in adulthood. This emerging disability was confined to volitional vocal production, as the monkeys continued to vocalize spontaneously. In addition, they continued to use hand movements as instructed responses during adulthood. This greater vocal flexibility of monkeys early in ontogeny supports the neoteny hypothesis in human evolution. This suggests that linguistic capabilities were enabled via an expansion of the juvenile period during the development of humans. PMID:27252457


    LINZhong-Ming; LIUChang-Guan; CHENHui-Qing; LIWei-Kang; XURui-Ying


    Interceptives arc defined as agents which interrupt pregnancy after implantation.Epostane, a potent 3β-hydroxysteruid dehydrogenase inhibitor, possessed interceptive activities in rats and rhesus monkeys. In rats, day 10 and day 11 of pregnancy were the

  1. jMonkeyEngine 3.0 cookbook

    Edén, Rickard


    If you are a jMonkey developer or a Java developer who is interested to delve further into the game making process to expand your skillset and create more technical games, then this book is perfect for you.

  2. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis social learning

    LM Hopper


    Full Text Available Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus. To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran “open diffusion” tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23. Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the “Slide-box”. Two thirds (67% of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a ‘ghost’ display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions and paired controls (28% were successful but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys’ learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert

  3. Comparison of Plasmodium falciparum infections in Panamanian and Colombian owl monkeys.

    Rossan, R N; Harper, J S; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A; Christensen, H A


    Parameters of blood-induced infections of the Vietnam Oak Knoll, Vietnam Smith, and Uganda Palo Alto strains of Plasmodium falciparum studied in 395 Panamanian owl monkeys in this laboratory between 1976-1984 were compared with those reported from another laboratory for 665 Colombian owl monkeys, studied between 1968-1975, and, at the time, designated Aotus trivirgatus griseimembra. The virulence of these strains was less in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, as indicated by lower mortality rates of the Panamanian monkeys during the first 30 days of patency. Maximum parasitemias of the Vietnam Smith and Uganda Palo Alto strain, in Panamanian owl monkeys dying during the first 15 days of patent infection, were significantly higher than in Colombian owl monkeys. Panamanian owl monkeys that survived the primary attack had significantly higher maximum parasitemias than the surviving Colombian owl monkeys. Peak parasitemias were attained significantly earlier after patency in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, irrespective of the strain of P. falciparum. More Panamanian than Colombian owl monkeys evidenced self-limited infection after the primary attack of either the Vietnam Smith or Uganda Palo Alto strain. The duration of the primary attacks and recrudescences were significantly shorter in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys. Mean peak parasitemias during recrudescence were usually higher in Panamanian owl monkeys than in Colombian monkeys. Differences of infection parameters were probably attributable, in part, to geographical origin of the two monkey hosts and parasite strains. PMID:3914842

  4. African Otter Workshop

    Jan Reed-Smith; Hughes Akpona; Grace Yoxon


    All concerned thought this was an excellent workshop with important progress made towards creating a viable beginning of an African Otter Network. There is a long road ahead but the 2015 African Otter Workshop is a start on developing range country partners, activists and researchers as well as collaborating on issue identification and resolution which will assist in preserving at least some refugia for Africa’s otters. A list of actions was agreed on, including the creation of an African Ott...

  5. African and non-African admixture components in African Americans and an African Caribbean population.

    Murray, Tanda; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Rafaels, Nicholas; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Faruque, Mezbah U; Watson, Harold R; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia M; Barnes, Kathleen C


    Admixture is a potential source of confounding in genetic association studies, so it becomes important to detect and estimate admixture in a sample of unrelated individuals. Populations of African descent in the US and the Caribbean share similar historical backgrounds but the distributions of African admixture may differ. We selected 416 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate and compare admixture proportions using STRUCTURE in 906 unrelated African Americans (AAs) and 294 Barbadians (ACs) from a study of asthma. This analysis showed AAs on average were 72.5% African, 19.6% European and 8% Asian, while ACs were 77.4% African, 15.9% European, and 6.7% Asian which were significantly different. A principal components analysis based on these AIMs yielded one primary eigenvector that explained 54.04% of the variation and captured a gradient from West African to European admixture. This principal component was highly correlated with African vs. European ancestry as estimated by STRUCTURE (r(2)=0.992, r(2)=0.912, respectively). To investigate other African contributions to African American and Barbadian admixture, we performed PCA on approximately 14,000 (14k) genome-wide SNPs in AAs, ACs, Yorubans, Luhya and Maasai African groups, and estimated genetic distances (F(ST)). We found AAs and ACs were closest genetically (F(ST)=0.008), and both were closer to the Yorubans than the other East African populations. In our sample of individuals of African descent, approximately 400 well-defined AIMs were just as good for detecting substructure as approximately 14,000 random SNPs drawn from a genome-wide panel of markers. PMID:20717976

  6. Performing monkeys of Bangladesh: characterizing their source and genetic variation.

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Akhtar, Sharmin; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn


    The acquisition and training of monkeys to perform is a centuries-old tradition in South Asia, resulting in a large number of rhesus macaques kept in captivity for this purpose. The performing monkeys are reportedly collected from free-ranging populations, and may escape from their owners or may be released into other populations. In order to determine whether this tradition involving the acquisition and movement of animals has influenced the population structure of free-ranging rhesus macaques in Bangladesh, we first characterized the source of these monkeys. Biological samples from 65 performing macaques collected between January 2010 and August 2013 were analyzed for genetic variation using 716 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA. Performing monkey sequences were compared with those of free-ranging rhesus macaque populations in Bangladesh, India and Myanmar. Forty-five haplotypes with 116 (16 %) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected among the performing monkeys. As for the free-ranging rhesus population, most of the substitutions (89 %) were transitions, and no indels (insertion/deletion) were observed. The estimate of the mean number of pair-wise differences for the performing monkey population was 10.1264 ± 4.686, compared to 14.076 ± 6.363 for the free-ranging population. Fifteen free-ranging rhesus macaque populations were identified as the source of performing monkeys in Bangladesh; several of these populations were from areas where active provisioning has resulted in a large number of macaques. The collection of performing monkeys from India was also evident. PMID:26758818

  7. Real-Time Dopamine Measurement in Awake Monkeys

    Schluter, Erik W.; Mitz, Andrew R.; Cheer, Joseph F.; Averbeck, Bruno B.


    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is often used to measure real-time dopamine (DA) concentrations in awake, behaving rodents. Extending this technique to work in monkeys would provide a platform for advanced behavioral studies and a primate model for preclinical research. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of DA recordings in two awake monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using a mixture of techniques adapted from rodent, primate and brain slice work. We developed a long carbon fiber electr...

  8. The renal microvasculature of the monkey: an anatomical investigation.

    Horacek, M J; Earle, A M; Gilmore, J. P.


    Twelve monkeys, Macaca fascicularis and Macaca mulatta, were investigated to study their renal microvasculature. After death, all monkeys were perfused with heparinised isotonic saline to flush their vascular systems. The kidneys were then perfused with silicone rubber and examined. The silicone rubber injections allowed description of afferent arterioles and several efferent vascular patterns observed in the subcapsular, midcortical, and inner cortical regions. The medullary vasculature was ...

  9. Longitudinal Analysis of Early Stage Sarcopenia in Aging Rhesus Monkeys

    McKiernan, Susan H; Colman, Ricki; Lopez, Marisol; Beasley, T.Mark; Weindruch, Richard; Aiken, Judd M.


    We present a longitudinal study using the rhesus monkey to determine biochemical and histological changes in vastus lateralis (VL) muscle fibers and whether these changes correlate with muscle mass loss. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to determine body weight, body fat and to estimate upper leg muscle mass in twelve adult male rhesus monkeys over 12 years. Muscle mass (MM) was evaluated at years six, nine and twelve of the study. Concurrently, VL muscle biopsy samples were co...

  10. Facial expression recognition in rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta

    Parr, Lisa A.; Heintz, Matthew


    The ability to recognize and accurately interpret facial expressions is critically important for nonhuman primates that rely on these nonverbal signals for social communication. Despite this, little is known about how nonhuman primates, particularly monkeys, discriminate between facial expressions. In the present study, seven rhesus monkeys were required to discriminate four categories of conspecific facial expressions using a matching-to-sample task. In experiment 1, the matching pair showed...

  11. Covert Shifts of Spatial Attention in the Macaque Monkey

    Caspari, Natalie; Janssens, Thomas; Mantini, Dante; Vandenberghe, Rik; Vanduffel, Wim


    In the awake state, shifts of spatial attention alternate with periods of sustained attention at a fixed location or object. Human fMRI experiments revealed the critical role of the superior parietal lobule (SPL) in shifting spatial attention, a finding not predicted by human lesion studies and monkey electrophysiology. To investigate whether a potential homolog of the human SPL shifting region exists in monkeys (Macaca mulatta), we adopted an event-related fMRI paradigm that closely resemble...

  12. Preference transitivity and symbolic representation in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella.

    Elsa Addessi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Can non-human animals comprehend and employ symbols? The most convincing empirical evidence comes from language-trained apes, but little is known about this ability in monkeys. Tokens can be regarded as symbols since they are inherently non-valuable objects that acquire an arbitrarily assigned value upon exchange with an experimenter. Recent evidence suggested that capuchin monkeys, which diverged from the human lineage 35 million years ago, can estimate, represent and combine token quantities. A fundamental and open question is whether monkeys can reason about symbols in ways similar to how they reason about real objects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examined this broad question in the context of economic choice behavior. Specifically, we assessed whether, in a symbolic context, capuchins' preferences satisfy transitivity--a fundamental trait of rational decision-making. Given three options A, B and C, transitivity holds true if A > or = B, B > or = C and A > or = C (where > or = indicates preference. In this study, we trained monkeys to exchange three types of tokens for three different foods. We then compared choices monkeys made between different types of tokens with choices monkeys made between the foods. Qualitatively, capuchins' preferences revealed by the way of tokens were similar to those measured with the actual foods. In particular, when choosing between tokens, monkeys displayed strict economic preferences and their choices satisfied transitivity. Quantitatively, however, values measured by the way of tokens differed systematically from those measured with the actual foods. In particular, for any pair of foods, the relative value of the preferred food increased when monkeys chose between the corresponding tokens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that indeed capuchins are capable of treating tokens as symbols. However, as they do so, capuchins experience the cognitive burdens imposed by symbolic




    Blood serum samples from 33 red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) were examined. Three different phenotypes were found and denominated A, B, and C. Four serums could not be classified because their transferrin apparently did not bind iron-59, possibly owing to saturation. A difference was observed in the electrophoretic migration and pattern of the transferrins in these monkeys compared with those of other primates. PMID:14197564

  14. Green Phosphors

    Singh, Vijay; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Rao, J. L.; Dhoble, S. J.; Kim, S. H.


    Manganese-doped LaMgAl11O19 powder has been prepared by an easy combustion method. Powder x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy have been used to characterize the as-prepared phosphor. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of LaMgAl11O19:Mn2+ phosphor exhibits six-line hyperfine structure centered at g ≈ 1.973. The number of spins participating in resonance ( N) and the paramagnetic susceptibility ( χ) for the resonance signal at g ≈ 1.973 have been calculated as a function of temperature. The photoluminescence spectrum exhibits green emission at 516 nm, which is attributed to 4T1 → 6A1 transition of Mn2+ ions. From EPR and luminescence studies, it is observed that Mn2+ ions occupy Mg2+ sites and Mn2+ ions are located at tetrahedral sites in the prepared phosphors.

  15. Frustrative nonreward and pituitary-adrenal activity in squirrel monkeys.

    Lyons, D M; Fong, K D; Schrieken, N; Levine, S


    Little is known about frustration-induced changes in stress physiology in humans and nonhuman primates. Here we assess in two experiments with squirrel monkeys plasma levels of pituitary-adrenal stress hormones in conditions designed to provoke frustrative nonreward. In the first experiment 18 prepubertal monkeys were trained to feed from one of eight sites, and then tested without food at any of the sites. These monkeys responded with significant increases in cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). In the second experiment 18 adult monkeys were trained to feed from one of eight sites, and then tested after food was moved to a different foraging site. Nine monkeys found food at the relocated site, discontinued foraging at the previously baited site, and responded with decreases in cortisol. The other nine monkeys failed to find the relocated site, initially increased their visits to the previously baited site, and responded with elevations in cortisol and ACTH. In keeping with comparable findings in rats, our observations indicate that frustrative nonreward elicits ACTH-stimulated secretion of cortisol in primates. PMID:11239675

  16. Green Roofs and Green Building Rating Systems



    Full Text Available The environmental benefits for green building from the Leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED and Ecology, Energy, Waste, and Health (EEWH rating systems have been extensively investigated; however, the effect of green roofs on the credit-earning mechanisms is relatively unexplored. This study is concerned with the environmental benefits of green roofs with respect to sustainability, stormwater control, energy savings, and water resources. We focused on the relationship between green coverage and the credits of the rating systems, evaluated the credits efficiency, and performed cost analysis. As an example, we used a university building in Keelung, Northern Taiwan. The findings suggest that with EEWH, the proposed green coverage is 50–75%, whereas with LEED, the proposed green coverage is 100%. These findings have implications for the application of green roofs in green building.

  17. The green building envelope: vertical greening

    Ottelé, M.


    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve the environment in urban areas and is becoming a key design consideration in modern building developments. Vertical greening of structures offers large surfaces with vegetation and at the same time...

  18. Central Region Green Infrastructure

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This Green Infrastructure data is comprised of 3 similar ecological corridor data layers ? Metro Conservation Corridors, green infrastructure analysis in counties...

  19. The green building envelope: vertical greening

    Ottelé, M.


    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  20. The Determinants of Green Radical and Incremental Innovation Performance: Green Shared Vision, Green Absorptive Capacity, and Green Organizational Ambidexterity

    Yu-Shan Chen


    Full Text Available This study proposes a new concept, green organisational ambidexterity, that integrates green exploration learning and green exploitation learning simultaneously. Besides, this study argues that the antecedents of green organisational ambidexterity are green shared vision and green absorptive capacity and its consequents are green radical innovation performance and green incremental innovation performance. The results demonstrate that green exploration learning partially mediates the positive relationships between green radical innovation performance and its two antecedents—green shared vision and green absorptive capacity. In addition, this study indicates that green exploitation learning partially mediates the positive relationships between green incremental innovation performance and its two antecedents—green shared vision and green absorptive capacity. Hence, firms have to increase their green shared vision, green absorptive capacity, and green organisational ambidexterity to raise their green radical innovation performance and green incremental innovation performance.

  1. Keeping African Masks Real

    Waddington, Susan


    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  2. Empowering African States


    China helps bring lasting peace and stability to Africa African think tanks expressed a high opinion of China’s role in helping build African peace and security at the first meeting of the China-Africa Think Tanks Forum. The

  3. African Literature as Celebration.

    Achebe, Chinua


    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and dignity. (AF)

  4. Green nanotechnology

    Smith, Geoff B.


    Nanotechnology, in particular nanophotonics, is proving essential to achieving green outcomes of sustainability and renewable energy at the scales needed. Coatings, composites and polymeric structures used in windows, roof and wall coatings, energy storage, insulation and other components in energy efficient buildings will increasingly involve nanostructure, as will solar cells. Nanostructures have the potential to revolutionize thermoelectric power and may one day provide efficient refrigerant free cooling. Nanomaterials enable optimization of optical, opto-electrical and thermal responses to this urgent task. Optical harmonization of material responses to environmental energy flows involves (i) large changes in spectral response over limited wavelength bands (ii) tailoring to environmental dynamics. The latter includes engineering angle of incidence dependencies and switchable (or chromogenic) responses. Nanomaterials can be made at sufficient scale and low enough cost to be both economic and to have a high impact on a short time scale. Issues to be addressed include human safety and property changes induced during manufacture, handling and outdoor use. Unexpected bonuses have arisen in this work, for example the savings and environmental benefits of cool roofs extend beyond the more obvious benefit of reduced heat flows from the roof into the building.

  5. A comparative assessment of hand preference in captive red howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus and yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys, Sapajus xanthosternos.

    Nasibah Sfar

    Full Text Available There are two major theories that attempt to explain hand preference in non-human primates-the 'task complexity' theory and the 'postural origins' theory. In the present study, we proposed a third hypothesis to explain the evolutionary origin of hand preference in non-human primates, stating that it could have evolved owing to structural and functional adaptations to feeding, which we refer to as the 'niche structure' hypothesis. We attempted to explore this hypothesis by comparing hand preference across species that differ in the feeding ecology and niche structure: red howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus and yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys, Sapajus xanthosternos. The red howler monkeys used the mouth to obtain food more frequently than the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys. The red howler monkeys almost never reached for food presented on the opposite side of a wire mesh or inside a portable container, whereas the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys reached for food presented in all four spatial arrangements (scattered, on the opposite side of a wire mesh, inside a suspended container, and inside a portable container. In contrast to the red howler monkeys that almost never acquired bipedal and clinging posture, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys acquired all five body postures (sitting, bipedal, tripedal, clinging, and hanging. Although there was no difference between the proportion of the red howler monkeys and the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys that preferentially used one hand, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys exhibited an overall weaker hand preference than the red howler monkeys. Differences in hand preference diminished with the increasing complexity of the reaching-for-food tasks, i.e., the relatively more complex tasks were perceived as equally complex by both the red howler monkeys and the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys. These findings suggest that species-specific differences in feeding ecology and niche structure can influence

  6. A comparative assessment of hand preference in captive red howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus and yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys, Sapajus xanthosternos.

    Sfar, Nasibah; Mangalam, Madhur; Kaumanns, Werner; Singh, Mewa


    There are two major theories that attempt to explain hand preference in non-human primates-the 'task complexity' theory and the 'postural origins' theory. In the present study, we proposed a third hypothesis to explain the evolutionary origin of hand preference in non-human primates, stating that it could have evolved owing to structural and functional adaptations to feeding, which we refer to as the 'niche structure' hypothesis. We attempted to explore this hypothesis by comparing hand preference across species that differ in the feeding ecology and niche structure: red howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus and yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys, Sapajus xanthosternos. The red howler monkeys used the mouth to obtain food more frequently than the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys. The red howler monkeys almost never reached for food presented on the opposite side of a wire mesh or inside a portable container, whereas the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys reached for food presented in all four spatial arrangements (scattered, on the opposite side of a wire mesh, inside a suspended container, and inside a portable container). In contrast to the red howler monkeys that almost never acquired bipedal and clinging posture, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys acquired all five body postures (sitting, bipedal, tripedal, clinging, and hanging). Although there was no difference between the proportion of the red howler monkeys and the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys that preferentially used one hand, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys exhibited an overall weaker hand preference than the red howler monkeys. Differences in hand preference diminished with the increasing complexity of the reaching-for-food tasks, i.e., the relatively more complex tasks were perceived as equally complex by both the red howler monkeys and the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys. These findings suggest that species-specific differences in feeding ecology and niche structure can influence the perception of

  7. Male-directed infanticide in spider monkeys (Ateles spp.).

    Alvarez, Sara; Di Fiore, Anthony; Champion, Jane; Pavelka, Mary Susan; Páez, Johanna; Link, Andrés


    Infanticide is considered a conspicuous expression of sexual conflict amongst mammals, including at least 35 primate species. Here we describe two suspected and one attempted case of intragroup infanticide in spider monkeys that augment five prior cases of observed or suspected infanticide in this genus. Contrary to the typical pattern of infanticide seen in most primate societies, where infants are killed by conspecifics independent of their sex, all eight cases of observed or suspected infanticide in spider monkeys have been directed toward male infants within their first weeks of life. Moreover, although data are still scant, infanticides seem to be perpetrated exclusively by adult males against infants from their own social groups and are not associated with male takeovers or a sudden rise in male dominance rank. Although the slow reproductive cycles of spider monkeys might favor the presence of infanticide because of the potential to shorten females' interbirth intervals, infanticide is nonetheless uncommon among spider monkeys, and patterns of male-directed infanticide are not yet understood. We suggest that given the potentially close genetic relationships among adult males within spider monkey groups, and the need for males to cooperate with one another in territorial interactions with other groups of related males, infanticide may be expected to occur primarily where the level of intragroup competition among males outweighs that of competition between social groups. Finally, we suggest that infanticide in spider monkeys may be more prevalent than previously thought, given that it may be difficult for observers to witness cases of infanticide or suspected infanticide that occur soon after birth in taxa that are characterized by high levels of fission-fusion dynamics. Early, undetected, male-biased infanticide could influence the composition of spider monkey groups and contribute to the female-biased adult sex ratios often reported for this genus. PMID

  8. No sustainable green policy

    The explosive growth of the market for green electricity in the Netherlands and the tenability of the ecotax were hot news in the previous weeks. Attention is paid to the notion of green electricity and a change of the value of green certificates. Both factors resulted in a price for green electricity which is lower than the price for grey electricity

  9. Gene therapy for red-green colour blindness in adult primates

    Mancuso, Katherine; Hauswirth, William W; Li, Qiuhong; Connor, Thomas B.; Kuchenbecker, James A.; Mauck, Matthew C.; Neitz, Jay; Neitz, Maureen


    Red-green colour blindness, which results from the absence of either the long- (L) or middle- (M) wavelength-sensitive visual photopigments, is the most common single locus genetic disorder. Here, the possibility of curing colour blindness using gene therapy was explored in experiments on adult monkeys that had been colour blind since birth. A third type of cone pigment was added to dichromatic retinas, providing the receptoral basis for trichromatic colour vision. This opened a new avenue to...

  10. Concentric scheme of monkey auditory cortex

    Kosaki, Hiroko; Saunders, Richard C.; Mishkin, Mortimer


    The cytoarchitecture of the rhesus monkey's auditory cortex was examined using immunocytochemical staining with parvalbumin, calbindin-D28K, and SMI32, as well as staining for cytochrome oxidase (CO). The results suggest that Kaas and Hackett's scheme of the auditory cortices can be extended to include five concentric rings surrounding an inner core. The inner core, containing areas A1 and R, is the most densely stained with parvalbumin and CO and can be separated on the basis of laminar patterns of SMI32 staining into lateral and medial subdivisions. From the inner core to the fifth (outermost) ring, parvalbumin staining gradually decreases and calbindin staining gradually increases. The first ring corresponds to Kaas and Hackett's auditory belt, and the second, to their parabelt. SMI32 staining revealed a clear border between these two. Rings 2 through 5 extend laterally into the dorsal bank of the superior temporal sulcus. The results also suggest that the rostral tip of the outermost ring adjoins the rostroventral part of the insula (area Pro) and the temporal pole, while the caudal tip adjoins the ventral part of area 7a.

  11. Microsatellite polymorphisms of Sichuan golden monkeys

    PAN Deng; LI Ying; HU Hongxing; MENG Shijie; MEN Zhengrning; FU Yunxin; ZHANG Yaping


    Previous study using protein electrophoresis shows no polymorphism in 44 nuclear loci of Sichuan golden monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana), which limits our understandings of its population genetic patterns in the nuclear genome. In order to obtain sufficient information, we scanned 14 microsatellite loci in a sample of 32 individuals from its three major habitats (Minshan, Qinling and Shennongjia). A considerable amount of polymorphisms were detected. The average heterozygosities in the local populations were all above 0.5. The differentiations among local populations were significant. There was evidence of geneflow among subpopulations, but geneflow between Qinling and Shennongjia local populations was the weakest. Minshan and Qinling populations might have gone through recent bottlenecks. The estimation of the ratio of the effective population sizes among local populations was close to that from census sizes. Comparisons to available mitochondria data suggested that R. roxellana's social structures played an important role in shaping its population genetic patterns. Our study showed that the polymorphism level of R. roxellana was no higher than other endangered species; therefore, measures should be taken to preserve genetic diversity of this species.

  12. Patterns of mineral lick visitation by spider monkeys and howler monkeys in Amazonia: are licks perceived as risky areas?

    Link, Andres; Galvis, Nelson; Fleming, Erin; Di Fiore, Anthony


    Mineral licks--also known as "salados," "saladeros," or "collpas"--are specific sites in tropical and temperate ecosystems where a large diversity of mammals and birds come regularly to feed on soil. Although the reasons for vertebrate geophagy are not completely understood, animals are argued to obtain a variety of nutritional and health benefits from the ingestion of soil at mineral licks. We studied the temporal patterns of mineral lick use by white-bellied spider monkey (Ateles belzebuth) and red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) in a lowland rain forest in Amazonian Ecuador. Using camera and video traps at four different mineral licks, combined with behavioral follows of one group of spider monkeys, we documented rates of mineral lick visitation by both primate species and the relative frequency and intensity of mineral lick use by spider monkeys. On the basis of 1,612 days and 888 nights of mineral lick monitoring, we found that A. belzebuth and A. seniculus both visit mineral licks frequently throughout the year (on average ∼14% of days for both species), and mineral lick visitation was influenced by short-term environmental conditions (e.g. sunny and dry weather). For spider monkeys, the area surrounding the lick was also the most frequently and most intensively used region within the group's home range. The fact that spider monkeys spent long periods at the lick area before coming to the ground to obtain soil, and the fact that both species visited the lick preferentially during dry sunny conditions (when predator detectability is presumed to be relatively high) and visited simultaneously more often than expected by chance, together suggest that licks are indeed perceived as risky areas by these primates. We suggest that howler and spider monkeys employ behavioral strategies aimed at minimizing the probability of predation while visiting the forest floor at risky mineral lick sites. PMID:21328597

  13. Plasmodium simium/Plasmodium vivax infections in southern brown howler monkeys from the Atlantic Forest

    Daniela Camargos Costa; Vanessa Pecini da Cunha; Gabriela Maria Pereira de Assis; Júlio César de Souza Junior; Zelinda Maria Braga Hirano; Mércia Eliane de Arruda; Flora Satiko Kano; Luzia Helena Carvalho; Cristiana Ferreira Alves de Brito


    Blood infection by the simian parasite, Plasmodium simium, was identified in captive (n = 45, 4.4%) and in wild Alouatta clamitans monkeys (n = 20, 35%) from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. A single malaria infection was symptomatic and the monkey presented clinical and haematological alterations. A high frequency of Plasmodium vivax-specific antibodies was detected among these monkeys, with 87% of the monkeys testing positive against P. vivax antigens. These findings highlight the po...

  14. The renal vascular system of the monkey: a gross anatomical description.

    Horacek, M J; Earle, A M; Gilmore, J. P.


    This study was conducted on two species of monkeys, Macaca fascicularis and Macaca mulatta, to describe their gross renal vascular morphology. After death, twelve monkeys were perfused with isotonic saline to flush their vascular systems. The monkeys were then perfused either with latex or methyl methacrylate, or both, one into the arterial and the other into the venous system. The results indicated that there were six to eight arterial segments in the monkey kidney, each supplied by a segmen...

  15. Endocrine responses in the rhesus monkey during acute cold exposure

    Lotz, W.G.; Saxton, J.L. (Naval Aerospace Medical Research Lab., Pensacola, FL (United States))


    The authors studied five young male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), 3.4 to 6.7 kg, to determine the relationship between fluid balance hormones and urine production during acute, dry cold exposure. Each monkey served as its own control in duplicate experimental sessions at 6C or 26C. A 6-h experimental session consisted of 120 min equilibration at 26C, 120 min experimental exposure, and 120 min recovery at 26C. Urinary and venous catheters were inserted on the morning of a session. Rectal (Tre) and skin temperatures were monitored continuously. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min of exposure, and at 60 min postexposure. Plasma was analyzed for arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone (PA), and osmolality. Urine samples were analyzed for osmolality, electrolytes, and creatinine. Mean Tre was 1.6C lower after 120 min at 6C than at 26C. Urine volume and osmolality were not altered by cold exposure, as they are in humans and rats. Vasopressin and PA increased sharply, with mean plasma levels in monkeys exposed to cold more than threefold and tenfold, respectively, the levels in monkeys exposed at 26C. In contrast, ANF, PRA, and plasma osmolality were not significantly changed by cold exposure. The absence of a cold-induced diuresis in the monkey may be related to the marked increase in plasma AVP level.

  16. Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls

    Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt


    Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

  17. Chronic experimental infection by Trypanosoma cruzi in Cebus apella monkeys

    A. Riarte


    Full Text Available Twenty young male Cebus apella monkeys were infected with CAl Trypanosoma cruzi strain and reinfected with CA l or Tulahuen T.cruzi strains, with different doses and parasite source. Subpatent parasitemia was usually demonstrated in acute and chronic phases. Patent parasitemia was evident in one monkey in the acute phase and in four of them in the chronic phase after re-inoculations with high doses of CAl strain. Serological conversion was observed in all monkeys; titers were low, regardless of the methods used to investigate anti-T. cruzi specific antibodies. Higher titers were induced only when re-inoculations were perfomed with the virulent Tulahuén strain or high doses of CAl strain. Clinical electrocardiographic and ajmaline test evaluations did not reveal changes between infected and control monkeys. Histopathologically, cardiac lesions were always characterized by focal or multifocal mononuclear infiltrates and/or isolated fibrosis, as seen during the acute and chronic phases; neither amastigote nests nor active inflammation and fibrogenic processes characteristic of human acute and chronic myocarditis respectively, were observed. These morphological aspects more closely resemble those found in the "indeterminate phase" and contrast with the more diffuse and progressive pattern of the human chagasic myocarditis. All monkeys survived and no mortality was observed.

  18. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.


    peacekeeping operations in the region. It is important to add that the international community has frequently tried to facilitate the deployment of African armed forces with aid and training. From this reality, the following study goes beyond the current literature by focusing on the international factors...... behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  19. Reading the African context

    Musonda Bwalya


    There is so much alienation, pain and suffering in our today�s world. In this vein, African Christianity, a voice amongst many voices, should seek to be a transformational religion for the whole of life, affecting all facets of human life towards a fuller life of all in Africa. This article sought to highlight and point to some of the major societal challenges in the African context which African Christianity, as a life-affirming religion, should continue to embrace, re-embrace and engag...

  20. Capitalism and African business cultures

    Taylor, Scott D.


    Scholars and practitioners once commonly linked 'African culture' to a distinctive 'African capitalism', at odds with genuine capitalism and the demands of modern business. Yet contemporary African business cultures reveal that a capitalist ethos has taken hold within both state and society. The success and visibility of an emergent, and celebrated, class of African big business reveals that business and profit are culturally acceptable. Existing theories of African capitalism are ill-equippe...


    Bhurelal Patidar; Dinesh Kumar Gupta; Prakash Garg


    -Green marketing is a phenomenon which has developed particular import in the modern market. This concept has enabled for the re-marketing and packing of existing products which already adhere to such guidelines. Additionally, the development of green marketing has opened the door of opportunity for companies to co-brand their products into separate line, lauding the green-friendliness of some while ignoring that of others. Such marketing techniques as will be explained are as...

  2. Unrecognized "AIDS" in Monkeys, 1969-1980: Explanations and Implications.

    Hammett, Theodore M; Bronson, Roderick T


    AIDS was recognized in humans in 1981 and a simian form was described in the years 1983 to 1985. However, beginning in the late 1960s, outbreaks of opportunistic infections of AIDS were seen in monkeys in the United States. This apparent syndrome went unrecognized at the time. We have assembled those early cases in monkeys and offer reasons why they did not result in earlier recognition of simian or human AIDS, including weaknesses in understanding disease mechanisms, absence of evidence of human retroviruses, and a climate of opinion that devalued investigation of infectious disease and immunologic origins of disease. The "epistemological obstacle" explains important elements of this history in that misconceptions blocked understanding of the dependent relationship among viral infection, immunodeficiency, and opportunistic diseases. Had clearer understanding of the evidence from monkeys allowed human AIDS to be recognized earlier, life-saving prevention and treatment interventions might have been implemented sooner. PMID:27077355

  3. A more consistent intraluminal rhesus monkey model of ischemic stroke

    Bo Zhao; Fauzia Akbary; Shengli Li; Jing Lu; Feng Ling; Xunming Ji; Guowei Shang; Jian Chen; Xiaokun Geng; Xin Ye; Guoxun Xu; Ju Wang; Jiasheng Zheng; Hongjun Li


    Endovascular surgery is advantageous in experimentally induced ischemic stroke because it causes fewer cranial traumatic lesions than invasive surgery and can closely mimic the pathophysiol-ogy in stroke patients. However, the outcomes are highly variable, which limits the accuracy of evaluations of ischemic stroke studies. In this study, eight healthy adult rhesus monkeys were randomized into two groups with four monkeys in each group:middle cerebral artery occlusion at origin segment (M1) and middle cerebral artery occlusion at M2 segment. The blood lfow in the middle cerebral artery was blocked completely for 2 hours using the endovascular microcoil placement technique (1 mm × 10 cm) (undetachable), to establish a model of cerebral ischemia. The microcoil was withdrawn and the middle cerebral artery blood lfow was restored. A revers-ible middle cerebral artery occlusion model was identiifed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and neurological evaluation. The results showed that the middle cerebral artery occlusion model was successfully established in eight adult healthy rhesus monkeys, and ischemic lesions were apparent in the brain tissue of rhesus monkeys at 24 hours after occlusion. The rhesus monkeys had symp-toms of neurological deifcits. Compared with the M1 occlusion group, the M2 occlusion group had lower infarction volume and higher neurological scores. These experimental ifndings indicate that reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion can be produced with the endovascular microcoil technique in rhesus monkeys. The M2 occluded model had less infarction and less neurological impairment, which offers the potential for application in the ifeld of brain injury research.

  4. Molecular systematics and biogeography of the Neotropical monkey genus, Alouatta.

    Cortés-Ortiz, L; Bermingham, E; Rico, C; Rodríguez-Luna, E; Sampaio, I; Ruiz-García, M


    We take advantage of the broad distribution of howler monkeys from Mexico to Argentina to provide a historical biogeographical analysis on a regional scale that encompasses the entire Neotropics. The phylogenetic relationships among 9 of the 10 recognized Alouatta species were inferred using three mitochondrial and two nuclear genes. The nuclear gene regions provided no phylogenetic resolution among howler monkey species, and were characterized by very low levels of sequence divergence between Alouatta and the Ateles outgroup. The mtDNA genes, on the other hand, produced a well-resolved phylogeny, which indicated that the earliest split among howler monkeys separated cis- and trans-Andean clades. Eight monophyletic mtDNA haplotype clades were identified, representing six named species in South America, including Alouatta seniculus, Alouatta sara, Alouatta macconelli, Alouatta caraya, Alouatta belzebul, and Alouatta guariba, and two in Mesoamerica, Alouatta pigra and Alouatta palliata. Molecular clock-based estimates of branching times indicated that contemporary howler monkey species originated in the late Miocene and Pliocene, not the Pleistocene. The causes of Alouatta diversification were more difficult to pin down, although we posit that the initial cis-, trans-Andean split in the genus was caused by the late Miocene completion of the northern Andes. Riverine barriers to dispersal and putative forest refuges can neither be discounted nor distinguished as causes of speciation in many cases, and one, the other or both have likely played a role in the diversification of South American howler monkeys. Finally, we estimated the separation of Mesoamerican A. pigra and A. palliata at 3Ma, which corresponds to the completion date of the Panama Isthmus promoting a role for this earth history event in the speciation of Central American howler monkeys. PMID:12470939

  5. Genomic diversity and evolution of papillomaviruses in rhesus monkeys.

    Chan, S. Y.; Bernard, H U; Ratterree, M.; Birkebak, T A; Faras, A J; Ostrow, R S


    We are studying the diversity of and relationships among papillomaviruses (PVs) to understand the modes and timescales of PV evolution and in the hope of finding animal PVs that may serve as model systems for disease caused by human PVs (HPVs). Toward this goal, we have examined 326 genital samples from rhesus monkeys and long-tailed macaques with a PCR protocol optimized for detecting genital HPV types. In 28 of the rhesus monkey samples, we found amplicons derived from 12 different and nove...

  6. Virulence of Avian Influenza A Viruses for Squirrel Monkeys

    Murphy, Brian R.; Hinshaw, Virginia S.; Sly, D. Lewis; London, William T.; Hosier, Nanette T.; Wood, Frank T.; Webster, Robert G.; Chanock, Robert M.


    Ten serologically distinct avian influenza A viruses were administered to squirrel monkeys and hamsters to compare their replication and virulence with those of human influenza A virus, A/Udorn/307/72 (H3N2). In squirrel monkeys, the 10 avian influenza A viruses exhibited a spectrum of replication and virulence. The levels of virus replication and clinical response were closely correlated. Two viruses, A/Mallard/NY/6874/78 (H3N2) and A/Pintail/Alb/121/79 (H7N8), resembled the human virus in t...

  7. "Zeroing" in on mathematics in the monkey brain.

    Beran, Michael J


    A new study documented that monkeys showed selective neuronal responding to the concept of zero during a numerical task, and that there were two distinct classes of neurons that coded the absence of stimuli either through a discrete activation pattern (zero or not zero) or a continuous one for which zero was integrated with other numerosities in the relative rate of activity. These data indicate that monkeys, like humans, have a concept of zero that is part of their analog number line but that also may have unique properties compared to other numerosities. PMID:26494578

  8. Reproductive function of monkeys subjected to chronic irradiation

    Marked functional disorders have been detected in reproductive glands of eight female monkeys (as compared to twelve control animals) subjected to protracted (up to eight years) irradiation (cumulative doses 826-3282 R). Irradiated monkeys exhibited a drastically decreased reproductive capacity, early menopause and sterility. Irradiation of preadolescent animals inhibited, in most cases, the puberty processes and disturbed sex cycles. Structural disorders in sex glands, inhibition of the processes of maturation and ovulation of folloculi, death of the mass of germ cells, atypical vegetations of the integmentary epithelium, sclerosing and cystic degeneration of the glandular tissue have been revealed

  9. Prevalence and genetic diversity of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in wild-living red colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus badius badius) from the Taï forest, Côte d'Ivoire SIVwrc in wild-living western red colobus monkeys.

    Locatelli, Sabrina; Liegeois, Florian; Lafay, Bénédicte; Roeder, Amy D; Bruford, Michael W; Formenty, Pierre; Noë, Ronald; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine


    Numerous African primates are infected with simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs). It is now well established that the clade of SIVs infecting west-central African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) represent the progenitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), whereas HIV-2 results from different cross-species transmissions of SIVsmm from sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys). We present here the first molecular epidemiological survey of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVwrc) in wild-living western red colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus badius badius) which are frequently hunted by the human population and represent a favourite prey of western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus). We collected faecal samples (n=88) and we assessed individual discrimination by microsatellite analyses and visual observation. We tested the inferred 53 adult individuals belonging to two neighbouring habituated groups for presence of SIVwrc infection by viral RNA (vRNA) detection. We amplified viral polymerase (pol) (650 bp) and/or envelope (env) (570 bp) sequences in 14 individuals, resulting in a minimal prevalence of 26% among the individuals sampled, possibly reaching 50% when considering the relatively low sensitivity of viral RNA detection in faecal samples. With a few exceptions, phylogenetic analysis of pol and env sequences revealed a low degree of intragroup genetic diversity and a general viral clustering related to the social group of origin. However, we found a higher intergroup diversity. Behavioural and demographic data collected previously from these communities indicate that red colobus monkeys live in promiscuous multi-male societies, where females leave their natal group at the sub-adult stage of their lives and where extra-group copulations or male immigration have been rarely observed. The phylogenetic data we obtained seem to reflect these behavioural characteristics. Overall, our results indicate that

  10. Adaptation of the Panama II strain of Plasmodium falciparum to Panamanian owl monkeys.

    Rossan, R N; Baerg, D C


    The Panama II strain of Plasmodium falciparum, acquired at the second passage level in splenectomized Colombian owl monkeys, was adapted to owl monkeys of Panamanian origin. Patent infections were induced in 22 of 27 unaltered and 20 of 21 splenectomized recipients during 19 serial passages. The infections were significantly more virulent in splenectomized than normal Panamanian owl monkeys, however recrudescences in seven normal monkeys achieved peak parasitemias 48 times greater than in the primary attack. These results describe the first reproducible infections of indigenous falciparum malaria in Panamanian owl monkeys. PMID:3310680

  11. Auditory Function in Rhesus Monkeys: Effects of Aging and Caloric Restriction in the Wisconsin Monkeys Five Years Later

    Fowler, Cynthia G.; Chiasson, Kirstin Beach; Leslie, Tami Hanson; Thomas, Denise; Beasley, T. Mark; Kemnitz, Joseph W; Weindruch, Richard


    Caloric restriction (CR) slows aging in many species and protects some animals from age-related hearing loss (ARHL), but the effect on humans is not yet known. Because rhesus monkeys are long-lived primates that are phylogenically closer to humans than other research animals are, they provide a better model for studying the effects of CR in aging and ARHL. Subjects were from the pool of 55 rhesus monkeys aged 15–28 years who had been in the Wisconsin study on CR and aging for 8–13.5 years. Di...


    Applying a Lightweight Green Roof System to a building can achieve in managing storm water runoff, decreasing heat gain, yielding energy savings, and mitigating the heat island effect. Currently, Most green roof systems are considerably heavy and require structural reinforceme...

  13. Green Connections Network

    City of San Francisco — Green Connections aims to increase access to parks, open spaces, and the waterfront by envisioning a network of ���green connectors�۪ ��� city streets that will be...


    Arthi; S. Bulomine Reg; Anthony Rahul Golden.S


    In today's business world environmental issues plays an important role in marketing. All most all the governments around the world have concerned about green marketing activities that they have attempted to regulate them. There has been little attempt to academically examine environmental or green marketing. It introduces the terms and concepts of green marketing, briefly discuss why going green is important and also examine some of the reason that organizations are adopting a...

  15. Sleeping sites choice by a wild group of howler monkeys (Alouatta belzebul) in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil

    Martin‑Klimoczko, Lucille; Meunier, Hélène; Moura, Antonio


    Study of primates sleeping habits is important to understand their behaviour and adaptations. Red-handed howler monkey is a new world monkey which is classified as Vulnerable in the IUCN red list. The present study aims to understand the choice of sleeping trees by these monkeys to facilitate the establishment of an adapted conservation plan. Indeed, data were collected in a fragmented landscape of the Atlantic Forest, following a wild monkey group from dawn to dusk. Trees criteria and monkey...

  16. Show Me the Green

    Norbury, Keith


    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  17. EPA's Green Roof Research

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  18. Green roof Malta

    Gatt, Antoine; Duca, Edward


    In Malta, buildings cover one third of the Island, leaving greenery in the dirt track. Green roofs are one way to bring plants back to urban areas with loads of benefits. Antoine Gatt, who manages the LifeMedGreenRoof project at the University of Malta, tells us more.

  19. Public Libraries Going Green

    Miller, Kathryn


    Going green is now a national issue, and patrons expect their library to respond in the same way many corporations have. Libraries are going green with logos on their Web sites, programs for the public, and a host of other initiatives. This is the first book to focus strictly on the library's role in going green, helping you with: (1) Collection…

  20. What Is Green?

    Pokrandt, Rachel


    Green is a question with varying answers and sometimes no answer at all. It is a question of location, resources, people, environment, and money. As green really has no end point, a teacher's goal should be to teach students to question and consider green. In this article, the author provides several useful metrics to help technology teachers…

  1. The Green Man

    Watson-Newlin, Karen


    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  2. The green agenda

    Calder, Alan


    This business guide to Green IT was written to introduce, to a business audience, the opposing groups and the key climate change concepts, to provide an overview of a Green IT strategy and to set out a straightforward, bottom line-orientated Green IT action plan.

  3. Monkey-derived monoclonal antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum

    Stanley, H.A.; Reese, R.T.


    A system has been developed that allows efficient production of monkey monoclonal antibodies from owl monkeys. Splenocytes or peripheral blood lymphocytes from monkeys immune to the human malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, were fused with P3X63 Ag8.653 mouse myelomas. The resulting hybridomas were screened by an indirect fluorescent antibody test for the production of monkey monoclonal antibodies (mAb) reactive with P. falciparum. Most of the mAb reacted with the P. falciparum merozoites and immunoprecipitated a parasite-derived glycoprotein having a relative molecular weight of 185,000. These mAb gave a minimum of five different immunoprecipitation patterns, thus demonstrating that a large number of polypeptides obtained when parasitized erythrocytes are solubilized share epitopes with this large glycoprotein. In addition, mAb were obtained that reacted with antigens associated with the infected erythrocyte membrane. One of these mAb bound a M/sub r/ 95,000 antigen. Radioimmunoprecipitation assays using /sup 125/T-antibodies were done.

  4. Monkey hybrid stem cells develop cellular features of Huntington's disease

    Lorthongpanich Chanchao


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pluripotent stem cells that are capable of differentiating into different cell types and develop robust hallmark cellular features are useful tools for clarifying the impact of developmental events on neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease. Additionally, a Huntington's cell model that develops robust pathological features of Huntington's disease would be valuable for drug discovery research. Results To test this hypothesis, a pluripotent Huntington's disease monkey hybrid cell line (TrES1 was established from a tetraploid Huntington's disease monkey blastocyst generated by the fusion of transgenic Huntington's monkey skin fibroblast and a wild-type non-transgenic monkey oocyte. The TrES1 developed key Huntington's disease cellular pathological features that paralleled neural development. It expressed mutant huntingtin and stem cell markers, was capable of differentiating to neural cells, and developed teratoma in severely compromised immune deficient (SCID mice. Interestingly, the expression of mutant htt, the accumulation of oligomeric mutant htt and the formation of intranuclear inclusions paralleled neural development in vitro , and even mutant htt was ubiquitously expressed. This suggests the development of Huntington's disease cellular features is influenced by neural developmental events. Conclusions Huntington's disease cellular features is influenced by neural developmental events. These results are the first to demonstrate that a pluripotent stem cell line is able to mimic Huntington's disease progression that parallels neural development, which could be a useful cell model for investigating the developmental impact on Huntington's disease pathogenesis.

  5. Present and potential distribution of Snub-nosed Monkey

    Nüchel, Jonas; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    Snub-nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus), a temperate-subtropical East Asian genus. We use species distribution modeling to assess the following question of key relevancy for conservation management of Rhinopithecus; 1. Which climatic factors determine the present distribution of Rhinopithecus within...

  6. Play Initiating Behaviors and Responses in Red Colobus Monkeys

    Worch, Eric A.


    Red colobus monkeys are playful primates, making them an important species in which to study animal play. The author examines play behaviors and responses in the species for its play initiation events, age differences in initiating frequency and initiating behavior, and the types of social play that result from specific initiating behaviors. Out…

  7. ‘‘What's wrong with my monkey?''

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter


    acceptable to use animals as models of human disease; whether it is acceptable to genetically modify animals; and whether these animals' being monkeys makes a difference. The analysis considers the prospect of transgenic marmoset studies coming to replace transgenic mouse studies and lesion studies in...

  8. Prospective and Retrospective Metacognitive Abilities in Rhesus Monkeys

    Jennifer Ding


    Full Text Available Metacognition refers to a knowledge of one’s own cognitive abilities and one’s aptitude to alter these abilities if necessary. Previous research from our lab shows that monkeys exhibit metacognitive abilities by accurately judging their own performance on perceptual and serial working memory tasks. The present study includes two phases during which a monkey makes retrospective and prospective judgments of confidence. In the retrospective phase of this experiment, the subject completes a recall task, and then judges his performance on the test phase by choosing from high and low-risk confidence choices. In the prospective task, the monkey makes his confidence judgment before the test, instead judging how well he learned during the study phase. An analysis of results indicates that monkeys can immediately transfer the ability to make metacognitive judgments from the serial working memory tasks in previous experiments to retrospective and prospective recall tasks in the present study. These findings underline the similarity between the non-human primate and human abilities to make confidence judgments. Further, they are the first evidence to date of a non-human primate making a prospective judgment of future performance, suggesting that the ability to use a metacognitive state to control one’s actions is not uniquely human.

  9. Toxoplasmosis in a colony of New World monkeys

    Dietz, H.H.; Henriksen, P.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi;


    In a colony of New World monkeys five tamarins (Saguinus oedipus, Saguinus labiatus and Leontopithecus rosal. rosal.), three marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix pygmaea) and one saki (Pithecia pithecia) died suddenly. The colony comprised 16 marmosets, 10 tamarins and three sakis. The ma...

  10. Individual differences in rhesus monkeys' demand for drugs of abuse.

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Hall, Amy; Winger, Gail


    A relatively small percentage of humans who are exposed to drugs of abuse eventually become addicted to or dependent on those drugs. These individual differences in likelihood of developing drug addiction may reflect behavioral, neurobiological or genetic correlates of drug addiction and are therefore important to model. Behavioral economic measures of demand establish functions whose overall elasticity (rate of decrease in consumption as price increases) reflects the reinforcing effectiveness of various stimuli, including drugs. Using these demand functions, we determined the reinforcing effectiveness of five drugs of abuse (cocaine, remifentanil, ketamine, methohexital and ethanol) in 10 rhesus monkeys with histories of intravenous drug-taking. There was a continuum of reinforcing effectiveness across the five drugs, with cocaine and remifentanil showing the most reinforcing effectiveness. There was also a continuum of sensitivity of the monkeys; two of the 10 animals, in particular, showed greater demand for the drugs than did the remaining eight monkeys. In addition, monkeys that demonstrated greater demand for one drug tended to show greater demand for all drugs but did not show a similar relatively greater demand for sucrose pellets. These findings suggest that the tendency to find drugs to be reinforcing is a general one, not restricted to particular drugs and also, that a minority of animals show a substantially enhanced sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of drugs. The possibility that differences in responsiveness to the reinforcing effects of drugs may form the basis of individual differences in drug-taking in humans should be considered. PMID:21762288