Boutayeb Abdesslam; Helmert Uwe
Abstract Background During the last decades, North African countries have substantially improved economic, social and health conditions of their populations in average. In all countries, human development in general and life expectancy, literacy and per capita income in particular have increased. However, improvement was not equally shared between groups of different milieu, regions or level of income. Social inequalities and health inequity have persisted or even worsened. Data are generally...
Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last decades, North African countries have substantially improved economic, social and health conditions of their populations in average. In all countries, human development in general and life expectancy, literacy and per capita income in particular have increased. However, improvement was not equally shared between groups of different milieu, regions or level of income. Social inequalities and health inequity have persisted or even worsened. Data are generally scarce and few studies were devoted to this topic in North Africa as a region. In this paper, we carry out a comparative study on the achievements of these countries, not only in terms of human development and its components but also in terms of inequalities' reduction and health equity. Method This study is based on data available for comparison between North African countries. The main data sources are provided by reports released by the World Health Organisation (WHO, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF, the World Bank, surveys such as Demographic Health Surveys (DHS and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS and finally recent papers published on equity in different countries of the region. Results and discussion There is no doubt that education, health and human development in general have improved in North Africa during the last decades. Improvement was, however, uneven and unequally enjoyed by different socioeconomic groups. Indeed, each country included in this study shows large urban-rural disparities, discrepancies between advantaged and disadvantaged regions and cities; and unacceptable differences between rich and poor. Health inequity is particularly seen through access to health services and infant mortality. Conclusion During the last decades, North African decision makers have endeavoured to improve social and economic conditions of their populations. Globally, health, education and living
Full Text Available Abstract Aims We examined, in a country of the African region, i the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS according to three definitions (ATP, WHO and IDF; ii the distribution of the MetS criteria; iii the level of agreement between these three definitions and iv we also examined these issues upon exclusion of people with diabetes. Methods We conducted an examination survey on a sample representative of the general population aged 25–64 years in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean, African region, attended by 1255 participants (participation rate of 80.3%. Results The prevalence of MetS increased markedly with age. According to the ATP, WHO and IDF definitions, the prevalence of MetS was, respectively, 24.0%, 25.0%, 25.1% in men and 32.2%, 24.6%, 35.4% in women. Approximately 80% of participants with diabetes also had MetS and the prevalence of MetS was approximately 7% lower upon exclusion of diabetic individuals. High blood pressure and adiposity were the criteria found most frequently among MetS holders irrespective of the MetS definitions. Among people with MetS based on any of the three definitions, 78% met both ATP and IDF criteria, 67% both WHO and IDF criteria, 54% both WHO and ATP criteria and only 37% met all three definitions. Conclusion We identified a high prevalence of MetS in this population in epidemiological transition. The prevalence of MetS decreased by approximately 32% upon exclusion of persons with diabetes. Because of limited agreement between the MetS definitions, the fairly similar proportions of MetS based on any of the three MetS definitions classified, to a substantial extent, different subjects as having MetS.
Giancarlo Cor�; Marco Giansoldati; Mario Volpe
This paper uses a multistage approach to investigate the role of Italy in the Northern African countries, both in terms of trade and investment. In particular, we show that Italian import flows for two typically Made in Italy industries, namely textile and clothing on one hand, and leather and footwear on the other hand, are strongly related not only to export flows of the same sector, but also to a set of variables capturing features of the Italian and the foreign country. In this way, we su...
Ani Wilson; Ugwunta David; Okwo Mary; Eneje Beatrice
This study examines the effect of telecommunication development on economic growth in five leading ICT developed countries for African region. Following previous studies, teledensity (or the penetration rate) is defined as the number of fixed-lines and mobile phone subscribers per 100 persons as a proxy to measure the development of the telecommunications sector, while economic growth is proxied by Gross domestic product at current prices (US dollars). After ensuring data stationarity, the Gr...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The implementation of the 58th World Health Assembly resolution on e-health will pose a major challenge for the Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO African Region due to lack of information and communications technology (ICT and mass Internet connectivity, compounded by a paucity of ICT-related knowledge and skills. The key objectives of this article are to: (i explore the key determinants of personal computers (PCs, telephone mainline and cellular and Internet penetration/connectivity in the African Region; and (ii to propose actions needed to create an enabling environment for e-health services growth and utilization in the Region. Methods The effects of school enrolment, per capita income and governance variables on the number of PCs, telephone mainlines, cellular phone subscribers and Internet users were estimated using a double-log regression model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the African Region. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries that comprise the Region. The data were obtained from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, the World Bank and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU sources. Results There were a number of main findings: (i the adult literacy and total number of Internet users had a statistically significant (at 5% level in a t-distribution test positive effect on the number of PCs in a country; (ii the combined school enrolment rate and per capita income had a statistically significant direct effect on the number of telephone mainlines and cellular telephone subscribers; (iii the regulatory quality had statistically significant negative effect on the number of telephone mainlines; (iv similarly, the combined school enrolment ratio and the number of telephone mainlines had a statistically significant positive relationship with Internet usage; and (v there were major inequalities in ICT connectivity between upper-middle, lower-middle and
Mwikisa Chris N
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is ample evidence in Asia and Latin America showing that past economic crises resulted in cuts in expenditures on health, lower utilization of health services, and deterioration of child and maternal nutrition and health outcomes. Evidence on the impact of past economic crises on health sector in Africa is lacking. The objectives of this article are to present the findings of a quick survey conducted among countries of the WHO African Region to monitor the effects of global financial crisis on funding for health development; and to discuss the way forward. Methods This is a descriptive study. A questionnaire was prepared and sent by email to all the 46 Member States in the WHO African Region through the WHO Country Office for facilitation and follow up. The questionnaires were completed by directors of policy and planning in ministries of health. The data were entered and analyzed in Excel spreadsheet. The main limitations of this study were that authors did not ask whether other relevant sectors were consulted in the process of completing the survey questionnaire; and that the overall response rate was low. Results The main findings were as follows: the response rate was 41.3% (19/46 countries; 36.8% (7/19 indicated they had been notified by the Ministry of Finance that the budget for health would be cut; 15.8% (3/19 had been notified by partners of their intention to cut health funding; 61.1% (11/18 indicated that the prices of medicines had increased recently; 83.3% (15/18 indicated that the prices of basic food stuffs had increased recently; 38.8% (7/18 indicated that their local currency had been devalued against the US dollar; 47.1% (8/17 affirmed that the levels of unemployment had increased since the onset of global financial crisis; and 64.7% (11/17 indicated that the ministry of health had taken some measures already, either in reaction to the global financing crisis, or in anticipation. Conclusion A rapid
Oucho, J O
This examination of emigration dynamics focuses on 13 countries extending from Eritrea to Zimbabwe and Mozambique on the eastern African mainland and on 5 Indian Ocean island nations. The first part of the study looks at the temporal, spatial, and structural perspectives of emigration dynamics. Part 2 considers international migration in the region according to Appleyard's typology (permanent settlers, labor migration, refugees, and illegal migrants) with the additional category of return migration. Measurement issues in emigration dynamics are discussed in part 3, and the demographic/economic setting is the topic of part 4. The demographic factors emphasized include spatial distribution, population density, population structure, population dynamics, demographic transition, and the relationship between internal and international migration. Other major topics of this section of the study are the economic base, the human resource base, population and natural resources, the sociocultural context (emigration, chain migration, return migration, and migration linkages and networks), political factors (including human rights, minority rights and security, regional integration and economic cooperation, and the impact of structural adjustment programs), and a prediction of future emigration dynamics. It is concluded that refugee flows remain a major factor in eastern African countries but the development of human resources in the northern portion of the region indicates development of potential labor migration from this area. Data constraints have limited measurement of emigration in this region and may contribute to the seeming indifference of most eastern African countries to emigration policies. Emigration in this region has been triggered by deteriorating economic and political conditions and is expected to increase. PMID:12347007
Khadiagala, Gilbert M.
Since the 1960s, African states have embraced regional integration as a vital mechanism for political cooperation and for pooling resources to overcome problems of small and fragmented economies. In building meaningful institutions for regionalism, however, Africans have faced the challenges of reconciling the diversities of culture, geography, and politics. As a result, African regional institutions are characterized by multiple and competing mandates and weak institutionalization. This stud...
Lalita A. Manrai; Manrai, Ajay K.
This paper reports the results of an extensive research study investigating the advertising media development trends for 15 print and broadcast media variables in 51 African countries for the 25-year period 1964-1988. Trend analysis was carried out for 5 geographical regions, 3 population size groups and 3 GNP/capita groups. The results support the propositions that both types of advertising media (i.e., print and broadcast) are developing fastest in Northern Region, and in countries with lar...
No incident related to the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials has been yet reported in the country. However, rumors relating to the orphaned sources exist due to buried radioactive waste and former radiotherapy activities. Illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive materials is a new threat for the law enforcement agents.This is contributed by absence of dedicated equipment for radiation detection either at the border or within the country, lack of awareness of agents in charge of enforcement control, porosity of the border, absence of a protocol for exchanging information between Customs, intelligence and Police Service
Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others
In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries.
In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries
Bossuroy, T.; Cogneau, Denis
This paper conceptualizes intergenerational occupational mobility between the farm and non-farm sectors in five African countries, measures it using nationally representative household survey data, and analyzes its determinants through a comparative method based on pooled logit regressions. We first analyze intergenerational gross mobility. Until the end of the 1980s, intergenerational flows toward the non-farm sector are high in Cote d'Ivoire and Guinea, flows toward the farm sector are more...
Full Text Available Internet development in Africa is constrained by poor telephone infrastructure, low international bandwidth and high dials up tariffs levied on internet users. This means in Africa we find actually app. 1% of worldwide internet users whereas population share of world population may be around 13%. Nearly half of the internet users are concentrated in South Africa. Another one percent of world users is located in the Middle East. Therefore it is understandable that Africa and the Arab world are latecomers in developing net based educational systems. However today donor organizations put strong emphasis on creating Virtual Campuses for African States (EC, Word Bank and Mediterranean countries or plan to incorporate selected African States to other institutional arrangements (Commonwealth of Nations, UNESCO. In what follows we will discuss five of these projects differing in scope, structure and funding namely the Virtual African University, the Avicenna Project, the Virtual Arab University, the Syrian Open University and the proposal for a Virtual University for the Small States. From the analysis of the respective projects some tentative conclusions will be derived.
Charles Kabwete Mulinda
Cooperation between China and African countries has often been portrayed as an economic one. Despite multiple exchanges in the area of culture and knowledge production, not much is written about chinese culture in Africa or knowledge production interaction between both China and African countries. Just to give an example, each African major town has chinese restaurants and Africans like chinese food. But food is seen as an economic asset, not a cultural one. Chinese cuisine is not enough take...
Full Text Available Background : Characteristics of intracranial aneurysms display ethnic variations. Data on this disease from the African continent is scarce and often conflicting. Aim : To describe site, age and gender distribution of intracranial aneurysms among Kenyans. Study Design and Setting : Retrospective study at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. Materials and Methods: All records of black African patients with a diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, the largest referral hospital in the Eastern and Central African region, over the period from January 1998 to December 2007 were examined for site, age and gender distribution. The data gathered were coded, analyzed with SPSS 11.50. Results : Fifty-six cases of intracranial aneurysms were analyzed. The posterior communicating artery was the most affected (35.7%, followed by the anterior communicating artery (26.8%, while the posterior cerebral artery was the least affected (2%. Multiple aneurysms were present in 2%. The mean age at presentation was 50.9 years (range 21-80 years and the gender distribution was equal. Conclusions : Intracranial aneurysms among Kenyans occur most commonly on the posterior communicating artery, in young individuals, and without gender bias. The distribution differs from that described in the literature and this requires search for risk factors.
This article is based on a prior report for the UN High Commissioner on Refugees on repatriation of Mozambican refugees in 1994. Official statistics revealed that 45% of all immigrants in South Africa, during 1992-94, came from European countries. 31.4% were from Asian countries and 18.4% were from African countries. Prior to about 1990, migrants tended to include contract workers recruited by big South African mining companies and other firms, or highly qualified professionals who worked in urban industrial and institutional areas. Although the number of illegal migrants from neighboring countries is not known, this population group draws the most attention. A 1993 survey of 6348 households of Mozambican refugees indicated that most left their home country due to war. Only 6.7% were economic and 2.4% were ecological migrants. Over 50% of all Mozambican refugees currently in South Africa, arrived during 1985-89. 47.2% are aged under 15 years. Refugee households average 4.38 persons/household. Household size varies with sex of the household head and area of residence. Family size was the largest in Gazankulu and the smallest in Winterveld. Family size tended to be lower among female-headed households. 79% had extended families in Mozambique. 48.3% of refugee household heads had 1-3 years of formal education, while 10.2% had none. 36.3% were unemployed and 35.1% were subsistence farmers. 89.3% wanted to return to Mozambique. National policy on migration needs to consider local needs and expectations, the economic opportunities and conditions of South Africans, and South Africa's regional position. PMID:12293724
This publication provides an outline of the African Regional Co-operation Agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology (AFRA). The agreement stems from an initiative of several African member states of the IAEA to get the agency to help establish an African regional arrangement which would be similar to arrangements which were already in place in the Asian and Latin American regions. Through this regional approach to development, AFRA seeks to accelerate moves toward self-sufficiency in scientific disciplines and appropriate technologies by coordinating intellectual and physical resources and disseminating innovative methods and practices in a cost-effective manner
Weaver, J. N.; Brownfield, M. E.; Bergin, M. J.
Coal has been reported in 11 of the 16 sub-Saharan countries discussed in this appraisal: Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, and Somalia. No coal occurrences have been reported in Gambia, Togo, Burkina, Chad, and Djibouti but coal may be present within these countries because neighboring countries do contain coal-bearing rocks. Most of these countries are undergoing desertification or will in the near future. Wood, directly or in the form of charcoal, constitutes two-thirds of the fuel used in Africa. Destruction of forest and shrub lands for fuel is occurring at an increasing rate because of desertification and increasing energy demands. The decline in biological productivity, coupled with concentration of population in areas where water is available and crops may be grown, leads to increasing shortages of wood for fuel. Part of the present and future energy needs of the sub-Saharan region could be met by use of indigenous coal and peat. Nine sedimentary basins, completely or partially within the sub-Saharan region, have the potential of either coal and/or peat deposits of economic value: 1- Senegal Basin, 2- Taoudeni Basin and Gao Trough, 3- Niger Basin, 4- Chad Basin, 5- Chari Basin, 6- Benue Trough (Depression), 7- Sudan Trough, 8- Plateau and Rift Belt, and 9- Somali Basin. Niger and Nigeria are the only countries in sub-Saharan Africa in which coal is presently being mined as a fuel source for powerplants and domestic use. Peat occurs in the deltas, lower river, and interdunal basin areas of Senegal, Mauritania, and Sudan. Peat can be used as an alternate fuel source and is currently being tested as a soil amendment in the agricultural sector. Coal and peat exploration and development studies are urgently required and should be initiated so the coal and peat utilization potential of each country can be determined. The overall objective of these studies is to establish, within the sub
MAHMOOD H. KHAN; Mohsin S. Khan
Agriculture remains a dominant sector in the economies of most African and several Asian countries. However, the poor performance of agriculture in Africa stands in sharp contrast to the robust agricultural growth in many Asian countries.2 In this regard, the experience of China is perhaps as impressive as it is relevant to many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. A general observation is that the productivity of land and labour has to rise through intensive agriculture, given the limited area o...
Full Text Available A large body of literature studies on the relationship between health care expenditure (HCE and GDP have been analyzed using data intensively from developed countries, but little is known for other regions. This paper considers a semiparametric panel data analysis for the study of the relationship between per capita HCE and per capita GDP for 42 African countries over the period 1995–2009. We found that infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births has a negative effect on per capita HCE, while the proportion of the population aged 65 is statistically insignificant in African countries. Furthermore, we found that the income elasticity is not constant but varies with income level, and health care is a necessity rather than a luxury for African countries.
The purpose of the research was to conduct a survey on family poultry to obtain information on disease prevalence, feeding practices, and the management of poultry housing in twelve African countries. The survey data were collected during both the wet and dry seasons and summarised (average and standard deviation) by country, village/region, season, and survey question. The disease data results show that three (greenish/bloody diarrhoea, swollen head, and coughing) of top four reported symptoms are part of Newcastle disease's presenting signs. Chick mortality was also higher in the wet season, when there is a higher incidence of Newcastle disease. This was also supported by the individual country data in that those countries with high chick mortality data also had low hatchability in the wet season with Egypt being the only exception. The types of housing used for shelter for family poultry was quite variable and presented a challenge to determine the level of cleaning/sanitation to assist in controlling Newcastle disease. On the one hand, a large percentage of households reported never cleaning the poultry house (e.g., Cameroon, Morocco, Mauritius, and Sudan). On the other hand, 34% of the responses to housing type were either trees or other forms of housing that would be difficult to clean i.e., old car, fence, surrounding wall, etc. Obviously, these results should be closely examined when instituting control programs for Newcastle disease. The large variety of available scavenged feed without any data on intake raises the question of how to balance the ration for the flock. Family poultry scientists need to determine a method to estimate intake which could assist in determining what supplementary feed is necessary if any. This challenge may be one of the most important aspects to family poultry management because of the importance of nutrition to poultry production with the added difficulty of providing balanced nutrition in an extensive system. (author)
This study investigates inflation persistence in annual CPI inflation collected between 1994 and 2014 for 46 African countries. We group these countries into panels according to whether they are inflation targeters or not and conduct estimations for pre and post inflation targeting periods. Interestingly enough, we find that inflation persistence was much higher for inflation targeters in periods before adopting their inflation targeting regimes and inflation persistence dropped by 40 percent...
Yepes, Maryam; Maurer, Jürgen; Stringhini, Silvia; Viswanathan, Barathi; Gedeon, Jude; Bovet, Pascal
Background: While obesity continues to rise globally, the associations between body size, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) seem to vary in different populations, and little is known on the contribution of perceived ideal body size in the social disparity of obesity in African countries. Purpose: We examined the gender and socioeconomic…
Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will provide specialized diagnostic equipment to help Sierra Leone in its efforts to combat an ongoing Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak, IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano announced today. Later, the support is planned to be extended to Liberia and Guinea. The support is in line with a UN Security Council appeal and responds to a request from Sierra Leone. The IAEA assistance will supplement the country's ability to diagnose EVD quickly using a diagnostic technology known as Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). The assistance, expected to be delivered in the coming weeks, initiates broader IAEA support to African Member States to strengthen their technological abilities to detect diseases transmitted from animals to humans - zoonotic diseases. The IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations have been at the forefront of developing RT-PCR, a nuclear-derived technology which allows EVD to be detected within a few hours, while other methods require growing on a cell culture for several days before a diagnosis is determined. Early diagnosis of EVD, if combined with appropriate medical care, increases the victims' chance of survival and helps curtail the spread of the disease by making it possible to isolate and treat the patients earlier. Health authorities in Sierra Leone and other affected countries are already applying RT-PCR, but their diagnostic capability is limited; there is a shortage of the diagnostic kits and other materials needed for the process and backup equipment is needed to avoid diagnostic downtime in case of equipment failure. The IAEA will support the most affected countries' sustained ability to detect the disease in cooperation with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Mission for Ebola Emergency Response. The IAEA, as part of its ongoing work, has helped 32 African countries and several other Member States develop skills
Makoae, Lucia N; Greeff, Minrie; Phetlhu, René D.; Uys, Leana R; Naidoo, Joanne R.; Kohi, Thecla W.; Dlamini, Priscilla S.; Chirwa, Maureen L.; Holzemer, William L
People living with HIV (PLWH) and their families are subjected to prejudice, discrimination and hostility related to the stigmatization of AIDS. This paper examines how PLWH cope with HIV-related stigma in the five southern African countries of Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. A descriptive, qualitative research design was used to explore the experience of HIV-related stigma of PLWH and nurses in 2004. Forty-three focus groups were conducted with 251 participants (114 n...
Greeff, Minrie; Chirwa, Maureen L.; Kohi, Thecla W.; Naidoo, Joanne R.; Makoae, Lucy N.; Dlamini, Priscilla S.; Kaszubski, Christopher; Cuca, Yvette P.; Uys, Leana R; Holzermer, William L
This study explored the demographic and social factors, including perceived HIV stigma, that influence job satisfaction in nurses from 5 African countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of nurses (n = 1,384) caring for patients living with HIV infection in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. Total job satisfaction in this sample was lower than 2 comparable studies in South Africa and the United Kingdom. The Personal Satisfaction subscale was the highest in this sa...
Asongu, Simplice A.
The goal of this paper is to assess how knowledge economy (KE) plays out in financial sector competition. It suggests a practicable way to disentangle the effects of different components of KE on various financial sectors. The variables identified under the World Bank’s four knowledge economy index (KEI) are employed. An endogeneity robust panel instrumental variable fixed-effects estimation strategy is employed on data from 53 African countries for the period 1996-2010. The following findin...
Simplice A, Asongu
How do government policies and institutions affect stock market performance? As stock markets grow broader and deeper in African countries, the question becomes more critical. Government quality dynamics of corruption-control, government-effectiveness, political-stability or no violence, voice & accountability, regulation quality and rule of law are instrumented with income-levels, religious-dominations, press-freedom degrees and legal-origins to account for stock market performance dynamics ...
This paper examines the impact of trade and political institutions on environmental quality in Africa and explores whether political institutions matter to the trade-environment relationship. We use data from a large group of African countries, covering the period 1990-2008 and two indicators of environmental quality: net forest depletion and CO2 emissions. The results from GMM-SYS estimates suggest that political institutions influence the relationship between trade and environmental quality...
Simon Appleton; John Hoddinott; Pramila Krishnan
This paper extends the Oaxaca-Ransom (1994) method for decomposing wage gaps to account for sectoral choice by men and women. We apply this method to data from three African countries. We find that differences between actual and gender-neutral returns accounts for much of the gender wage gap in Ethiopia and Uganda, rather less in Cote d'Ivoire. In all three countries, the wage gap is narrowed because women are over-represented in the higher-paying public sector. This result would not have bee...
Affinnih, Yahya H
-drug laws or legislation, or of establishing a drug control agency. They are also cooperating regionally to coordinate drug control measures and working with the Organization of African Unity (OAU). In addition, almost all the sub-Saharan African countries are signatories to all United Nations drug conventions. Since the drug problem in Africa has international origins, it will take concerted international cooperation and coordinated effort to combat the "social cancer" of drugs. PMID:11913904
Chirwa, Maureen L; Greeff, Minrie; Kohi, Thecla W; Naidoo, Joanne R; Makoae, Lucy N; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Kaszubski, Christopher; Cuca, Yvette P; Uys, Leana R; Holzemer, William L
This study explored the demographic and social factors, including perceived HIV stigma, that influence job satisfaction in nurses from 5 African countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of nurses (n = 1,384) caring for patients living with HIV infection in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. Total job satisfaction in this sample was lower than 2 comparable studies in South Africa and the United Kingdom. The Personal Satisfaction subscale was the highest in this sample, as in the other 2. Job satisfaction scores differed significantly among the 5 countries, and these differences were consistent across all subscales. A hierarchical regression showed that mental and physical health, marital status, education level, urban/rural setting, and perceived HIV stigma had significant influence on job satisfaction. Perceived HIV stigma was the strongest predictor of job dissatisfaction. These results provide new areas for intervention strategies that might enhance the work environment for nurses in these countries. PMID:19118767
Roos, Gina [Eskom (South Africa)
The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAandT). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa`s vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa`s commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)
The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEA and T). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa's vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa's commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)
Alsammani, Mohamed Alkhatim
The epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy is a major issue for public health. Primary infection in pregnant women can lead to serious sequelae. This review examined current sero-epidemiology and risks factor data for Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Arab and African countries. A systematic electronic search of published literature was conducted. Data were extracted from relevant studies. Seropositivity is high in both regions. African countries have higher seropositivity than Arab countries due to differences in risk factors. Data on T. gondii infection in pregnancy are scant in many countries, especially where there is lack of political stability. Identified risk factors included eating raw meat, proximity with cats, undercooked food, and increasing maternal age. Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in Arab and African countries is an underestimated health problem. Further research is needed. This report is a foundation for strategies and policies for intervention needed to combat the consequences of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:27605750
Patrick N. Osakwe
Since the Uruguay Round, African countries have been concerned about the rules and operations of the multilateral trading system and are beginning to realize that they have to be active in the negotiation process to protect their interests. Consequently, several countries in the region have been relatively more active in the Doha Round negotiations and have formed alliances with other developing countries to increase their bargaining power. This paper provides a critical assessment of Africa’...
Busse, Matthias; Großmann, Harald
The European Union is currently negotiating free trade agreements, called Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs), with African countries as part of the Cotonou Agreement between the European Union and African, Caribbean and Pacific countries. The paper empirically assesses the impact of the EPAs on trade flows and government revenue for 14 West African countries. The results indicate that the decline in import duties due to the preferential tariff elimination might be of some cause for concer...
1.1 Energy Poverty Energy Poverty is a term for a lack of access to electricity, heat or other forms of power. This more than often refers to the situation of peoples in the developing world. According to the records of the International Energy Agency (IEA), a detailed country-by-country database estimated that in 2009 the number of people without access to electricity was 1.4 billion or 20% of the world's population. Some 85% of those people live in rural areas. According to, current forecasts suggest the world will see an increase in global energy consumption of over 50% by 2030 with 70% of this growth in demand expected to come from developing countries. There is therefore the need to seek for a way of meeting this need within the time frame and doing so at an affordable price or rather with the most efficient allocation of resources. Nuclear energy can play a role in providing increased access to affordable energy in many parts of the world. There are growing concerns all over the world about energy security. This is partially due to the instability in the price of fossil fuel and to the political instability of most of the oil rich regions of the world. There arises therefore a need for means of meeting the increasingly growing energy demands of the nations while cutting down on the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. 1.2 The African Situation Presently, the only country on the African continent that has operational nuclear power plants is South Africa. South Africa has two nuclear power plants. Koeberg- 1 and Koeberg-2. Koeberg-1 started operation in 1984 and Koeberg-2 in 1985. Both are 900 MW(e) PWRs. The remaining nations across Africa are dependent largely on either hydro power plants, thermal or gas or a combination of both. However, there has been an increase in interest in nuclear electricity in a number of African countries. The list includes countries like Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Namibia, e.tc. These are countries whose economies are
Kamalo, Patrick Dongosolo; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Rennie, Stuart
Compensation for research-related injuries (RRIs) remains a challenge in the current environment of global collaborative biomedical research as exemplified by the continued reluctance of the US government, a major player in international biomedical research, to enact regulation for mandatory compensation for RRIs. This stance is in stark contrast to the mandatory compensation policies adopted by other democracies like the European Union (EU) countries. These positions taken by the USA and the EU create a nexus of confusion when research is exported to low-income and middle-income countries which have no laws guiding compensation for RRIs. In this paper, we begin by exploring the background to policies concerning RRIs, how they reflect on the traditional dispute resolution mechanisms in African societies, and how this compares with the no-fault compensation model. We then explore the underlying African ethical framework of Ubuntu in the sub-Saharan region, guiding traditional practices of dispute resolution and compensation, and how this framework can help to form the moral justification for no-fault compensation as the preferred compensation model for RRIs for African countries. Finally, we call upon countries in the African Union (AU), to adopt a no-fault policy for compensation of RRIs, and enact it into a regulatory requirement for insurance-based no-fault compensation for biomedical research, which will then be enforced by member states of the AU. PMID:27259545
This article deals with the fact that most children in Africa are taught in a language neither they nor their teachers master, resulting in poor education outcomes. While there are also donor interests and donor competition involved in retaining ex-colonial languages, as well as an African elite that may profit from this system, one of the main reasons why teaching in ex-colonial languages persists lies in the fact that a large proportion of the general public still believes that the best way to learn a foreign language is to have it as a language of instruction. By contrast, research studies conducted in Africa, as well as examples from Asian countries such as Sri Lanka and Malaysia, have shown that children actually learn mathematics and science much better in local and familiar languages. Though the recent World Bank Education Strategy policy paper is entitled Learning for All, it does not specify which language learning should take place in. A claim one often hears in countries of so-called Anglophone Africa is that English is the language of science and technology, and that teaching these subjects through English (instead of teaching English as a subject in its own right as a foreign language) is best. The monolingual island of Zanzibar is in fact about to reintroduce English as the language of instruction in maths and science from grade 5 onwards in primary school. The author of this paper suggests that when it comes to language policy, some African and some Asian countries could learn from each other.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa faces a human resources crisis in the health sector. Over the past two decades its population has increased substantially, with a significant rise in the disease burden due to HIV/AIDS and recurrent communicable diseases and an increased incidence of noncommunicable diseases. This increased demand for health services is met with a rather low supply of health workers, but this notwithstanding, sub-Saharan African countries also experience significant wastage of their human resources stock. Methods This paper is a desk review to illustrate suggestions that the way human resources for health (HRH are trained and deployed in Africa does not enhance productivity and that countries are unable to realize the full potential expected from the working life of their health workers. The paper suggests data types for use in measuring various forms of "wastage". Results "Direct" wastage – or avoidable increases in loss of staff through factors such as emigration and death – is on the rise, perhaps as a result of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. "Indirect" wastage – which is the result of losses in output and productivity from health professionals' misapplied skills, absenteeism, poor support and lack of supervision – is also common. HIV/AIDS represents a special cause of wastage in Africa. Deaths of health workers, fear of infection, burnout, absenteeism, heavy workloads and stress affect productivity. Conclusion The paper reviews strategies that have been proposed and/or implemented. It suggests areas needing further attention, including: developing and using indicators for monitoring and managing wastage; enhancing motivation and morale of health workers; protecting and valuing the health worker with enhanced occupational safety and welfare systems; and establishing the moral leadership to effectively tackle HIV/AIDS and the brain drain.
Makoae, Lucia N; Greeff, Minrie; Phetlhu, René D; Uys, Leana R; Naidoo, Joanne R; Kohi, Thecla W; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Chirwa, Maureen L; Holzemer, William L
People living with HIV (PLWH) and their families are subjected to prejudice, discrimination, and hostility related to the stigmatization of AIDS. This report examines how PLWH cope with HIV-related stigma in the five southern African countries of Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. A descriptive qualitative research design was used to explore the experience of HIV-related stigma of PLWH and nurses in 2004. A total of 43 focus groups were conducted with 251 participants (114 nurses, 111 PLWH, and 26 volunteers). In describing incidents of stigma, respondents reported strategies used or observed to cope with those incidents. Nurse reports of coping strategies that they used as well as observed in HIV-infected patients were coded. Coping strategies used by PLWH in dealing with HIV-related stigma were coded. A total of 17 different self-care strategies were identified: restructuring, seeing oneself as OK, letting go, turning to God, hoping, changing behavior, keeping oneself active, using humor, joining a support or social group, disclosing one's HIV status, speaking to others with same problem, getting counseling, helping others to cope with the illness, educating others, learning from others, acquiring knowledge and understanding about the disease, and getting help from others. Coping appears to be self-taught and only modestly helpful in managing perceived stigma. PMID:18328964
Makoae, Lucia N.; Greeff, Minrie; Phetlhu, René D.; Uys, Leana R.; Naidoo, Joanne R.; Kohi, Thecla W.; Dlamini, Priscilla S.; Chirwa, Maureen L.; Holzemer, William L.
People living with HIV (PLWH) and their families are subjected to prejudice, discrimination and hostility related to the stigmatization of AIDS. This paper examines how PLWH cope with HIV-related stigma in the five southern African countries of Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. A descriptive, qualitative research design was used to explore the experience of HIV-related stigma of PLWH and nurses in 2004. Forty-three focus groups were conducted with 251 participants (114 nurses, 111 PLWHs and 26 volunteers). In describing incidents of stigma, respondents reported strategies used or observed to cope with those incidents of stigma. Nurse reports of coping strategies that they used as well as coping strategies they observed as used by HIV-infected patients were coded. Coping strategies used by PLWH in dealing with HIV-related stigma were coded. Seventeen different self-care strategies were identified: restructuring, seeing oneself as OK, letting go, turning to God, hoping, changing behavior, keeping oneself active, using humor, joining a support or social group, disclosing one’s HIV status, speaking to others with same problem, getting counseling, helping others to cope with the illness, educating others, learning from others, acquiring knowledge and understanding about the disease, and getting help from others. Coping appears to be self-taught and only modestly helpful in managing perceived stigma. PMID:18328964
Oladimeji Idowu Oladele
Full Text Available This paper examined the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to extension systems in selected southern African countries of Malawi, Zambia, Swaziland, Mozambique, Lesotho and Botswana. This is predicated on the need for improved performance and reinvigoration of extension system for better services. Some of the strengths are development works to improve rural areas, extensive grassroots coverage, and use of committees for research and extension linkages, involvement of NGOs and private sector, and effective setting of extension administration units. On the other hand opportunities that can be explored are donor will fund well designed programme, expansion in the use of ICT, high involvement of farmers in extension planning, and potential for effective programme implementation. The threats to the extension systems are attempts to privatize extension services, weak feedback to research, and donor fatigue. The paper recommends that extension administrators, and policy makers should pay proper attention to the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to extension systems with a view of making extension services truly more responsive to local concerns and policy.
Gebregziabher, Fiseha Haile
This paper investigates the link between IMF-World Bank adjustment programs and long-run economic performance in 18 sub-Saharan African countries on a country-by-country basis for the period 1960 to 2009. The study reveals that only a handful of countries have shown positive and sustained results....... The traditional (first-generation) Fund-Bank adjustment package has been associated with resurgence of growth in GDP, export, and investment only in two countries (Ghana and Uganda). Most African economies remained on their pre-reform growth paths whereas some others saw their growth rates plummet...
Full text: The question that needs to be answered is how the the valorisation of cultural patrimony in Africa is being analysed and understood. In order to respond to this question, it is necessary to ask oneself what exactly is meant by 'African Cultural Patrimony'. How are we going to keep parameters from running into many directions when talking about patrimony? What public cultural politics are we to follow in order to valorize more effectively the concept of patrimony? The areas that need economic analysis are therefore very large ones, as are subsequent propositions which would allow us to arrive at a value for financing the conservation of such patrimony. The valorization of cultural patrimony needs to be put at the disposition of as large a public as possible. In order to do this work, it is necessary to distinguish between: - Historical monuments: comprised of private properties, public castles, historical buildings, and archaeological sites - Museums: By this we mean not only museum buildings and collections, and not only the research work performed by curators. We also mean museums as a country's mark of identity, showcasing the country's collections so that tourists will come, and allowing people worldwide to access the collections on their computers. Faced with these facts, it is obvious that not only does the State need to play an important role in these tasks, but in addition, territorial entities need to define and set standards for the conservation of cultural patrimony in such a way that financing is made available for the continuation of patrimony. Since creating ''cultural patrimony'' is above all a social construct, its valorization and its importance asks public and private actors to join together, because the fundamental thought is that patrimony creates outside interests. In other words, cultural patrimony stimulates other economic activities, and therefore it is necessary to recuperate part of these external gains in order to respond to the
HERMES, N; LENSINK, R
Most studies treat capital flight as an exclusively Latin American problem. This paper estimates capital flight for six African countries and shows that the emphasis on Latin American capital flight is not correct. It appears that the burden of capital flight is also important for many African count
Examines the place of Portuguese in Portugal's former African Colonies. Characterizes the postcolonial position of Portuguese in Africa as a complex relationship between Portuguese as the official language and the other languages of these countries. (Author/VWL)
Background In the present paper, we consider the impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries, showing that, beyond health issues, this disease should and must be seen as a global development concern, affecting all components of human development. Consequently, we stress the necessity of multidisciplinary approaches that model, estimate and predict the real impact of HIV/AIDS on human development of African countries in order to optimise the strategies proposed by national cou...
The proliferation of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) has not spared the African Continent. The formation of RTAs in Africa is championed by the Regional Integration agenda under the auspices of the Regional Economic Communities. The challenges that Customs Administrations face when their countries become members of RTAs depend on whether the RTA is Trade Creating or Diverting. It is the trade-creating RTA that presents the Customs Administration with the greater challenges. This paper looks ...
Hussein, Wafaa Mohamed; Anwar, Wagida A; Attaleb, Mohammed; Mazini, Loubna; Försti, Asta; Trimbitas, Roxana-Delia; Khyatti, Meriem
Cancer is typically classified as a leading non-communicable disease; however, infectious agents, such as Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human papilloma virus (HPV), contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of various cancers. Less developed countries, including countries of the North African (NA) region, endure the highest burden of infection-related cancers. The five most common infection-associated cancers in NA in order of incidence are bladder cancer, cervical cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. This review aims to outline the epidemiologic pattern of infection-associated cancers in five NA countries (namely: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt) highlighting the similarities and differences across the region. The present study employed an initial literature review of peer-reviewed articles selected from PubMed, ScienceDirect and World Health Organization (WHO) databases based on key word searches without restriction on publication dates. Original research articles and reports written in French, as well as data from institutional reports and regional meeting abstracts were also included in this extensive review. Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco were selected to be the focus of this review. PMID:27512409
Olga L. Kupika
Full Text Available The Rio+20 outcomes document, the Future We Want, enshrines green economy as one of the platforms to attain sustainable development and calls for measures that seek to address climate change and biodiversity management. This paper audits climate change policies from selected east and southern African countries to determine the extent to which climate change legislation mainstreams biodiversity and wildlife management. A scan of international, continental, regional and national climate change policies was conducted to assess whether they include biodiversity and/or wildlife management issues. The key finding is that many climate change policy–related documents, particularly the National Adaptation Programme of Actions (NAPAs, address threats to biodiversity and wildlife resources. However, international policies like the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol do not address the matter under deliberation. Regional climate change policies such as the East African Community, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa and African Union address biodiversity and/or wildlife issues whilst the Southern African Development Community region does not have a stand-alone policy for climate change. Progressive countries like Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia have recently put in place detailed NAPAs which are mainstream responsive strategies intended to address climate change adaptation in the wildlife sector.Keywords: mainstreaming, biodiversity, wildlife, climate change policy, east and southern Africa
Narsai, Kirti; Williams, Abeda; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje Kaija
Objective: Access to medicines has long been and remains a challenge in African countries. The impact of medicines registration policies in these countries poses a challenge for pharmaceutical companies wanting to register medicines in these countries. The recent AMRHI (African Medicines Registration Harmonisation Initiative) has increased the focus on the need for harmonisation. Medicines registration regulations differ across African countries. Anecdotal evidence, based on the experience of...
Watson, H K; Diaz-Chavez, R. A.
This paper synthesizes lessons learnt from research that aimed to identify land in the dryland regions of eight sub-Saharan African study countries where bioenergy feedstocks production has a low risk of detrimental environmental and socio-economic effects. The methodology involved using geographical information systems (GISs) to interrogate a wide range of datasets, aerial photograph and field verification, an extensive literature review, and obtaining information from a wide range of stakeh...
This article extends the recent findings of , , and by implementing recent bootstrap panel unit root tests and cointegration techniques to investigate the relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and real GDP for 12 Middle East and North African Countries (MENA) over the period 1981–2005. Our results show that in the long-run energy consumption has a positive significant impact on CO2 emissions. More interestingly, we show that real GDP exhibits a quadratic relationship with CO2 emissions for the region as a whole. However, although the estimated long-run coefficients of income and its square satisfy the EKC hypothesis in most studied countries, the turning points are very low in some cases and very high in other cases, hence providing poor evidence in support of the EKC hypothesis. CO2 emission reductions per capita have been achieved in the MENA region, even while the region exhibited economic growth over the period 1981–2005. The econometric relationships derived in this paper suggest that future reductions in CO2 emissions per capita might be achieved at the same time as GDP per capita in the MENA region continues to grow. - Highlights: ► We study the links between CO2 emissions, energy consumption and GDP in MENA region. ► Energy consumption has a positive correlation with CO2 emissions. ► GDP exhibits a quadratic relationship with CO2 emissions for the region as a whole. ► However, the turning points are low in some cases and high in other cases. ► Thus, not all countries need to sacrifice economic growth to decrease CO2 emissions.
Full Text Available Scale-up of malaria preventive and control interventions over the last decade resulted in substantial declines in mortality and morbidity from the disease in sub-Saharan Africa and many other parts of the world. Sustaining these gains will depend on the health system performance. Treatment provides individual benefits by curing infection and preventing progression to severe disease as well as community-level benefits by reducing the infectious reservoir and averting emergence and spread of drug resistance. However many patients with malaria do not access care, providers do not comply with treatment guidelines, and hence, patients do not necessarily receive the correct regimen. Even when the correct regimen is administered some patients will not adhere and others will be treated with counterfeit or substandard medication leading to treatment failures and spread of drug resistance. We apply systems effectiveness concepts that explicitly consider implications of health system factors such as treatment seeking, provider compliance, adherence, and quality of medication to estimate treatment outcomes for malaria case management. We compile data for these indicators to derive estimates of effective coverage for 43 high-burden Sub-Saharan African countries. Parameters are populated from the Demographic and Health Surveys and other published sources. We assess the relative importance of these factors on the level of effective coverage and consider variation in these health systems indicators across countries. Our findings suggest that effective coverage for malaria case management ranges from 8% to 72% in the region. Different factors account for health system inefficiencies in different countries. Significant losses in effectiveness of treatment are estimated in all countries. The patterns of inter-country variation suggest that these are system failures that are amenable to change. Identifying the reasons for the poor health system performance and
Chauvin, S.; GOLITIN, V.
Despite debt relief under the HIPC Initiative, African countries are still vulnerable to the risk of debt distress. The debt sustainability framework therefore remains an essential tool. The management of this tool must be flexible in order to take account of development goals and allow its adoption by emerging-country lenders.
Wilson, O. S.
Full Text Available The African Union by its declaration is committed to the total integration of all African states and unity of action based on shared values and common, development interests and goals. To this end, the challenges facing the African Union include the problems of infrastructures and inadequate social services. The African states are plagued by political instability, ethnic conflicts, refugees/ internally displaced persons and fragile civil institutions. These problems are compounded by globalization, New World Order and heavy burden of external debts that make life difficult and the future dim and gloomy. These challenges and struggles by the African leaders to face up to them have precipitated the writing of this research paper. In doing so, the study traced the historical concept, evolution and final emergence of the union. The research project carefully looked into the act establishing the AU and compared with the charter of the Organization of African Unity (OAU and appreciated the necessity of its establishment. The study has noted that AU was modelled after the European Union (EU and therefore, efforts have been made to study the two unions so that the AU will benefit from the experience of the EU. In concluding the study, it is recommended inter alia that African Union make peace and security a priority and harmonize general policies and Infrastructural development. The hope that this study will contribute its widow's might to the development of AU is imperative. We cannot afford to fail this time, as the consequences are better imagined than experienced.
This paper studies the structure and evolution of trade protection in the Middle East and North African (MENA) countries in the 1990s. MENA countries use tariffs and nontariff barriers, and tariff dispersion and nontariff barriers, as substitute protection measures. Tariff levels and tariff dispersion are complements. Excluding Tunisia, the cross-country correlation between tariff and nontariff barriers is -0.46. The correlation between tariff dispersion and nontariff barriers is -0.8. The pa...
Cabecinhas, Rosa; James H. Liu; Licata, Laurent; Klein, Olivier; Mendes, Júlio; Feijó, João; Niyubahwe, Aline
Data on social representations of world history have been collected everywhere in the world but sub-Saharan Africa. Two studies using open-ended data involving university students from six African countries fill this gap. In Study one, nominations from Cape Verde and Mozambique for the most important events in world history in the last 1000 years were dominated by war and politics, recency effects, and Western-centrism tempered by African socio-centrism on colonization and independence. The f...
Hindin, Michelle J
Preventing unwanted adolescent pregnancy is key for keeping girls in school, leading to a more productive and healthier workforce in sub-Saharan Africa. Gender norms are an important indicator of the status of women and more conservative gender norms are associated with experiencing domestic violence, and poorer maternal and reproductive health care. This paper examines the association between adolescent childbearing and norms towards wife beating in sub-Saharan Africa, and the role of education in moderating this association. Data come from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys-nationally representative cross-sectional surveys conducted every 5 years. Country-by-country multivariable logistic regressions were conducted in 25 countries, and country and regional estimates were obtained using meta-analytical techniques. More than half of sub-Saharan African adolescents have a child, with levels ranging from 23% in Rwanda to 69% in Niger. Between 12 and 87% of women believed wife beating is acceptable. In 20 of the 25 countries, women with a birth during adolescence were significantly more likely to believe wife beating is justified [OR = 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) 130-1.39]. After multivariate adjustment, the overall finding remains statistically significant [AOR = 1.09; 95% CI 105-1:13]. Education attenuates the observed association. Overall, the effects are strongest and most consistent in West Africa. Results suggest that women who have an adolescent birth more likely to hold more conservative attitudes. Working with adolescents to improve their attitudes on relationship expectations and the importance of furthering their education even after a pregnancy could be integrated into life skills and sexual education curricula. PMID:24158508
Moehl, J.; Machena, C.
The African Region consists of 48 countries and five island nations, most of which are practising some form of aquaculture, often at a very low level. Over half the countries report producing less than 100 mt annually. The largest producer is Nigeria (17 700 mt) followed by Madagascar (5 100 mt) and Zambia (4 700 mt). The 1997 combined aquaculture production of the region was 40 300 mt. Aquaculture is estimated to be 95 percent small scale, with fish ponds integrated into the m...
Application of sealed sources in agriculture, medicine and industry was used in many African countries without having any arrangements in place for managing the sources when their useful life was over. In Tanzania a substantial use of such sources was utilized. In the early days source management was not an area that was given the required attention hence a legacy associated with sealed sources became evident in many African countries and Tanzania was one of them. In the 90's Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission (TAEC), realized the scope of the waste problem and began to participate in an International Atomic Energy Agency Regional (IAEA) project on waste management. Tanzania in cooperation with IAEA initiated activities under the IAEA Technical Cooperation and the Regional projects 'Strengthening Waste Management Infrastructure, RAF/4/015'; and 'Sustaining the Waste Management Infrastructure RAF/3/005' which played a significant role. The first outcome of the project was realized in 1999, as the first 'Temporary Radioactive Waste Storage Facility' began to operate. This particular Storage facility gave the first impact as well as the need to develop this particular infrastructure further. As the project carried on, more and more orphan sources were recovered, collected and safely stored at the facility. As the use of nuclear technology was expanding and the identification of the extent of sealed sources in the countries became more defined, the need to develop a 'Central Radioactive Waste Management Facility' (CRWMF) was becoming more desired. The central radioactive waste storage facility was constructed and commissioned in 2005. The facility was more advanced and could be used for much longer periods of time, as one of the most advanced storage facility in the Region. At present a large number of disused sources from various industries as well as from different activities are being stored at the facility. Tanzanian authorities are also planning to initiate a
This paper is a first attempt at documenting efficiency levels in Africa's electricity firms, their evolution and the sources of this evolution. The analysis is based on a sample of 12 operators providing services in the 12 country members of the Southern Africa Power Pool. We focus on the changes in total factor productivity (TFP) of the largest operators in each country between 1998 and 2005. We then rely on a data envelopment analysis (DEA) decomposition to identify the sources of the changes in TFP. The results suggest fairly comparable levels of efficiency in the region and performance levels and evolution quite independent of the degree of vertical integration, the presence of a private actor or the main sources of energy supply. The analysis suggest that although the companies have not made significant improvements during the period of analysis in using their capital and human assets, they have done much better in adopting better technologies and better commercial practices. No clear correlation could be associated with the adoption of reforms during the last decade and data limitations impede a more refined assessment of the impact of reforms on efficiency at this stage
Stork, Christoph; Calandro, Enrico; Gillwald, Alison
While the 2007/8 African ICT access and usage survey demonstrated alarmingly little access to the Internet on on the continent together with a large-scale absence of computers and smart phones and compounded by the high cost of connectivity, (Gillwald & Stork 2008), the mobile phone is now the key entry point for Internet usage.1 Internet access has increased significantly across all countries as a result increasing Internet penetration to 15,5% across the ten African countries surveyed on ho...
, is illustrative of the African Union’s (AU) ambition when in 2002 it included in its formation an African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA). This was supposed to include both non-violent and robust control regimes mechanisms, providing the continent with an effective conflict management structure. The East...... challenges, been transformed from a grand idea into a real peace operations tool. This chapter starts with an apparent conundrum: Is it possible for weak and fragility-prone states to form and create effective regional security institutions? The logical answer would be no, since combining two weak units does....... Will it therefore ever be able to transform itself into an effective security management regime, with the ability to handle the challenges facing the region? The regional enmities between the states seem to be widespread, deep-rooted and nearly chronic in nature. In June 2015 the African Union and its member states...
Full Text Available Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to beresponsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea,vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection withprofuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever isendemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Somestudies indicate that 300,000 to 500,000 cases of Lassa fever and 5000 deaths occur yearly across WestAfrica. Studies reported in English, that investigated Lassa fever with reference to West Africa wereidentified using the Medline Entrez-PubMed search and were used for this review. The scarcity ofresources available for health care delivery system and the political instability that characterise theWest African countries would continue to impede efforts for the control of Lassa fever in the sub-region.There is need for adequate training of health care workers regarding diagnostics, intensive care ofpatients under isolation, contact tracing, adequate precautionary measures in handling infectiouslaboratory specimens, control of the vector as well as care and disposal of infectious waste.
Ogbu, O; Ajuluchukwu, E; Uneke, C J
Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to be responsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection with profuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever is endemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Some studies indicate that 300,000 to 500,000 cases of Lassa fever and 5000 deaths occur yearly across West Africa. Studies reported in English, that investigated Lassa fever with reference to West Africa were identified using the Medline Entrez-PubMed search and were used for this review. The scarcity of resources available for health care delivery system and the political instability that characterise the West African countries would continue to impede efforts for the control of Lassa fever in the sub-region. There is need for adequate training of health care workers regarding diagnostics, intensive care of patients under isolation, contact tracing, adequate precautionary measures in handling infectious laboratory specimens, control of the vector as well as care and disposal of infectious waste. PMID:17378212
Breakwell, Lucy; Gerber, A Russell; Greiner, Ashley L; Hastings, Deborah L; Mirkovic, Kelsey; Paczkowski, Magdalena M; Sidibe, Sekou; Banaski, James; Walker, Chastity L; Brooks, Jennifer C; Caceres, Victor M; Arthur, Ray R; Angulo, Frederick J
In the late summer of 2014, it became apparent that improved preparedness was needed for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in at-risk countries surrounding the three highly affected West African countries (Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia). The World Health Organization (WHO) identified 14 nearby African countries as high priority to receive technical assistance for Ebola preparedness; two additional African countries were identified at high risk for Ebola introduction because of travel and trade connections. To enhance the capacity of these countries to rapidly detect and contain Ebola, CDC established the High-Risk Countries Team (HRCT) to work with ministries of health, CDC country offices, WHO, and other international organizations. From August 2014 until the team was deactivated in May 2015, a total of 128 team members supported 15 countries in Ebola response and preparedness. In four instances during 2014, Ebola was introduced from a heavily affected country to a previously unaffected country, and CDC rapidly deployed personnel to help contain Ebola. The first introduction, in Nigeria, resulted in 20 cases and was contained within three generations of transmission; the second and third introductions, in Senegal and Mali, respectively, resulted in no further transmission; the fourth, also in Mali, resulted in seven cases and was contained within two generations of transmission. Preparedness activities included training, developing guidelines, assessing Ebola preparedness, facilitating Emergency Operations Center establishment in seven countries, and developing a standardized protocol for contact tracing. CDC's Field Epidemiology Training Program Branch also partnered with the HRCT to provide surveillance training to 188 field epidemiologists in Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, and Senegal to support Ebola preparedness. Imported cases of Ebola were successfully contained, and all 15 priority countries now have a stronger capacity to rapidly detect and contain
Okeyo Mwai A; Wurzinger Maria; Hanotte Olivier; Baumung Roswitha; Ndumu Deo B; Jianlin Han; Kibogo Harrison; Sölkner Johann
Abstract The study investigated the population structure, diversity and differentiation of almost all of the ecotypes representing the African Ankole Longhorn cattle breed on the basis of morphometric (shape and size), genotypic and spatial distance data. Twentyone morphometric measurements were used to describe the morphology of 439 individuals from 11 sub-populations located in five countries around the Great Lakes region of central and eastern Africa. Additionally, 472 individuals were gen...
Motari, Marion; Ota, Martin Okechukwu; Kirigia, Joses Muthuri
Background The increasing emphasis on research, development and innovation for health in providing solutions to the high burden of diseases in the African Region has warranted a proliferation of studies including clinical trials. This changing public health landscape requires that countries develop adequate ethics review capacities to protect and minimize risks to study participants. Therefore, this study assessed the readiness of national ethics committees to respond to challenges posed by a...
Wojczewski, Silvia; Poppe, Annelien; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Pentz, Stephen; Kutalek, Ruth
Background Migrant health workers fill care gaps in their destination countries, but they also actively engage in improving living conditions for people of their countries of origin through expatriate professional networks. This paper aims to explore the professional links that migrant health workers from sub-Saharan African countries living in five African and European destinations (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom) have to their countries of origin. Design Qualitative interviews were conducted with migrant doctors, nurses, and midwives from sub-Saharan Africa (N=66). A qualitative content analysis of the material was performed using the software ATLAS.ti. Results Almost all migrant health workers have professional ties with their countries of origin supporting health, education, and social structures. They work with non-governmental organizations, universities, or hospitals and travel back and forth between their destination country and country of origin. For a few respondents, professional engagement or even maintaining private contacts in their country of origin is difficult due to the political situation at home. Conclusions The results show that African migrant health workers are actively engaged in improving living conditions not only for their family members but also for the population in general in their countries of origin. Our respondents are mediators and active networkers in a globalized and transnationally connected world. The research suggests that the governments of these countries of origin could strategically use their migrant health workforce for improving education and population health in sub-Saharan Africa. Destination countries should be reminded of their need to comply with the WHO Global Code of Practice for the international recruitment of health professionals. PMID:26652910
Full Text Available Background: Migrant health workers fill care gaps in their destination countries, but they also actively engage in improving living conditions for people of their countries of origin through expatriate professional networks. This paper aims to explore the professional links that migrant health workers from sub-Saharan African countries living in five African and European destinations (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom have to their countries of origin. Design: Qualitative interviews were conducted with migrant doctors, nurses, and midwives from sub-Saharan Africa (N=66. A qualitative content analysis of the material was performed using the software ATLAS.ti. Results: Almost all migrant health workers have professional ties with their countries of origin supporting health, education, and social structures. They work with non-governmental organizations, universities, or hospitals and travel back and forth between their destination country and country of origin. For a few respondents, professional engagement or even maintaining private contacts in their country of origin is difficult due to the political situation at home. Conclusions: The results show that African migrant health workers are actively engaged in improving living conditions not only for their family members but also for the population in general in their countries of origin. Our respondents are mediators and active networkers in a globalized and transnationally connected world. The research suggests that the governments of these countries of origin could strategically use their migrant health workforce for improving education and population health in sub-Saharan Africa. Destination countries should be reminded of their need to comply with the WHO Global Code of Practice for the international recruitment of health professionals.
The African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries benefit from preferential market access to the European Union (EU) thanks to the EU-ACP Partnership Agreements and their eligibility to the EU’s Generalized System of Preferences and Everything But Arms initiative. Despite these trade preferences, ACP countries have not improved accordingly their trade performance into the EU. There is a growing concern emerging through the literature that non-tariff measures (NTMs) could constitute a seriou...
Zalloi, Mir Mahdi
Almost two-thirds of proven oil and a third of world natural gas resources are in the Persian Gulf countries. Unfortunately strategic region of Persian Gulf in the past three decades faced with many security challenges due to wars and political conflicts. For security in this region, there are several methods such as military treaties between regional countries or Military presence of foreign countries, but historical evidence has shown, none of them could not guarantee the stable security in this region. The regional cooperation between countries can be replaced to mentioned methods. IPI Gas pipeline is an objective sample for this regional cooperation.
De Villiers, Rian
The United Kingdom (particularly England) is the main developed country that recruits teachers from South Africa. This article provides an overview of teacher migration from South Africa to the United Kingdom over the past decade. The research focuses on the following aspects of migration: the recruitment of South African teachers; motivation for…
Kwasi Fosu, A.; Getachew, Y.Y.; Ziesemer, T.H.W.
This paper develops a model positing a nonlinear relationship between public investment and growth. The model is then applied to a panel of African countries using nonlinear estimating procedures. The growth-maximizing level of public investment is estimated at about 10 percent of GDP based on Syste
Full Text Available Is Africa’s current growth reducing inequality? What are the implications of growth on output performances in Africa? Does the effect of Africa’s growth on sectorial output have any implication for inequality in Africa? The study investigates the effect of shocks on a set of macroeconomic variables on inequality (measured by life expectancy and the implication of this on sectors that are perceived to provide economic empowerment in form of employment for people living in the African countries in our sample. Studies already find that growth in many African countries has not been accompanied with significant improvement in employment. Therefore inequality is subject to a counter cyclical trend in production levels when export destination countries experience a recession. The study also provides insight on the effect of growth on sectorial output for three major sectors in the African economy with the intent of analyzing the impact of growth on sectorial development. The method used in this study is Panel Vector Autoregressive (PVAR estimation and the obvious advantage of this method lies in the fact that it allows us to capture both static and dynamic interdependencies and to treat the links across units in an unrestricted fashion. Data is obtained from World Bank (WDI Statistics for the period 1985 to 2012 (28 years for 10 African Countries. Our main findings confirm strong negative relationship between GDP growth and life expectancy and also for GDP and the services and manufacturing sector considering the full sample.
Juselius, Katarina; Møller, Niels Framroze; Tarp, Finn
We comprehensively analyse the long-run effect of foreign aid (ODA) on key macroeconomic variables in 36 sub-Saharan African countries from the mid-1960s to 2007, using a well-specified cointegrated VAR model as statistical benchmark. Results provide broad support for a positive long-run impact of...
Oakland, Thomas; Callueng, Carmelo
This cross-national research examined temperament style preferences among children in three sub-Saharan African countries (i.e., Nigeria, South Africa, and Zimbabwe) and possible differences between them on four bipolar temperament styles: extroverted-introverted, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible. Children in these…
Yoder, P Stanley; Wang, Shanxiao; Johansen, Elise
The practice of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) has been documented in many countries in Africa and in several countries in Asia and the Middle East, yet producing reliable data concerning its prevalence and the numbers of girls and women affected has proved a major challenge. This study provides estimates of the total number of women aged 15 years and older who have undergone FGM/C in 27 African countries and Yemen. Drawing on national population-based survey data regarding FGM/C prevalence and census data regarding the number of women in each country, we find that almost 87 million girls and women aged 15 and older have been cut in these 28 countries. Producing reliable figures for the number of women affected by FGM/C in these countries allows researchers and program directors to better comprehend the impact of the practice and to mobilize resources for advocacy against it. PMID:23720002
Kassem; Barada; Abbas; Bitar; Mohamad; Abdul-Razak; Mokadem; Jana; Ghazi; Hashash; Peter; Green
Celiac disease(CD) is now recognized as a common disorder among Middle Eastern(ME) and North African(NA) populations.The aim of this review is to assess the available data regarding CD in the ME and NA and to compare this information with that of Western countries.A literature review was performed using the electronic databases PubMed and Medline(1950-2008) as search engines,and "celiac disease" was used as a Mesh term.The search was limited to ME and NA countries.The prevalence of CD in ME and NA countries...
The 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop was held from 10 May to 18 June 2002 at Hangzhou Regional Center for Small Hydro Power(HRC). Attended altogether 9 participants from 5 African countries, i.e. Burundi, Nigeria, South African, Tanzania and Tunisia. This is the second training workshop on SHP that HRC conducted for African countries.
Full Text Available The number of online services provided by Government and private sectors is increasing these days. On the same pattern various countries have their own portals to provide basic services to the citizens and other people of the world. Analysis of portals in Asia is the main theme of the paper. There are various indicators or attributes necessary for the implementation of e-services .Some of the indicators may be frequency of use of services, number of users, visitors, site hits, searchable option, accessibility, language option, performance, functionality, broken links, traffic analysis, and feedback. Out of these metrics taken into consideration here are Traffic analysis, feedback, accessibility, security and language option. The countries taken into consideration are India, China and Pakistan. Web portals of these countries will be analyzed in detail.
Matete, Ntlibi; Trois, Cristina
The aim of this paper is to describe the optimisation of Waste Minimisation/Zero Waste strategies into an already established integrated waste management system and to present a Zero Waste model for post-consumer waste for urban communities in South Africa. The research was undertaken towards the fulfilment of the goals of the Polokwane Declaration on Waste Management [DEAT, 2001. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Government of South Africa. Polokwane Declaration. Drafted by Government, Civil Society and the Business Community. National Waste Summit, Polokwane, 26-28 September 2001], which has set as its target the reduction of waste generation and disposal by 50% and 25%, respectively, by 2012 and the development of a plan for Zero Waste by 2022. Two communities, adjacent to the Mariannhill Landfill site in Durban, were selected as a case study for a comparative analysis of formal and informal settlements. Since the waste generated from these two communities is disposed of at the Mariannhill landfill, the impact of Zero Waste on landfill volumes could be readily assessed. A Zero Waste scheme, based on costs and landfill airspace savings, was proposed for the area. The case study demonstrates that waste minimisation schemes can be introduced into urban areas, in emerging countries, with differing levels of service and that Zero Waste models are appropriate to urban areas in South Africa. PMID:17714928
The aim of this paper is to describe the optimisation of Waste Minimisation/Zero Waste strategies into an already established integrated waste management system and to present a Zero Waste model for post-consumer waste for urban communities in South Africa. The research was undertaken towards the fulfilment of the goals of the Polokwane Declaration on Waste Management , which has set as its target the reduction of waste generation and disposal by 50% and 25%, respectively, by 2012 and the development of a plan for Zero Waste by 2022. Two communities, adjacent to the Mariannhill Landfill site in Durban, were selected as a case study for a comparative analysis of formal and informal settlements. Since the waste generated from these two communities is disposed of at the Mariannhill landfill, the impact of Zero Waste on landfill volumes could be readily assessed. A Zero Waste scheme, based on costs and landfill airspace savings, was proposed for the area. The case study demonstrates that waste minimisation schemes can be introduced into urban areas, in emerging countries, with differing levels of service and that Zero Waste models are appropriate to urban areas in South Africa
Rafnsson, S.B.; Bhopal, R.S.; Agyemang, C.; Fagot-Campagna, A.; Harding, S.; Hammar, N.; Hedlund, E.; Juel, K.; Primatesta, P.; Rosato, M.; Rey, G.; Wild, S.H.; Mackenbach, J.P.; Stirbu, I.; Kunst, A.E.
Background: Circulatory disease mortality inequalities by country of birth (COB) have been demonstrated for some EU countries but pan-European analyses are lacking. We examine inequalities in circulatory mortality by geographical region/COB for six EU countries. Methods: We obtained national death a
Full text: Viral, bacterial, protozoan and helminthic diseases of domestic livestock continue to be serious impediments to the agricultural economies of most developing countries. Many of these livestock pathogens have evolved sophisticated molecular mechanisms for evading or circumventing the mammalian immune system. These same pathogens frequently acquire resistance to drugs that are initially effective. African trypanosomes are protozoan parasites that cause the fatal diseases of ngana in cattle, surra in camels and horses and sleeping sickness in humans. They are the paradigm for a livestock pathogen in developing countries for which much is now known, yet little has been achieved in controlling or eliminating the disease. African trypanosomes were identified as the cause of trypanosomosis more than 100 years ago and in many ways are ideal pathogens to study in the laboratory. From the perspective of research on the parasites themselves, excellent laboratory rodent models for their infection exist. They can be readily grown in vitro in culture flasks. Their mechanism of immune evasion is known. The completed DNA sequence of their genome is nearly determined. They can be manipulated genetically in the laboratory - genes can be mutated and deleted from, or inserted into, their genome. They contain unique organelles and metabolic pathways not found in mammals that could potentially be exploited for new drug development. They are pathogens of humans as well as livestock, so they attract the interests and enormous resources of the medical research community. Advantages also exist from the standpoint of experiments on their animal hosts. Breeds of domestic cattle that are either 'trypanotolerant' or trypanosome-sensitive are well known and animals of each type have been cross-bred. The molecular basis of trypanosome-tolerance in at least one indigenous wild animal species (the Cape buffalo) has been elucidated. The reason some African trypanosome species are killed
Hassenforder, Emeline; Barreteau, Olivier; Daniell, Katherine Anne; Pittock, Jamie; Ferrand, Nils
This paper builds on the assumption that an effective approach to support the sustainability of natural resource management initiatives is institutional "bricolage." We argue that participatory planning processes can foster institutional bricolage by encouraging stakeholders to make their own arrangements based on the hybridization of old and new institutions. This papers aims at identifying how participatory process facilitators can encourage institutional bricolage. Specifically the paper investigates the specific contextual and procedural drivers of institutional dynamics in two case studies: the Rwenzori region in Uganda and the Fogera woreda in Ethiopia. In both cases, participatory planning processes were implemented. This research has three innovative aspects. First, it establishes a clear distinction between six terms which are useful for identifying, describing, and analyzing institutional dynamics: formal and informal; institutions and organizations; and emergence and change. Secondly, it compares the contrasting institutional dynamics in the two case studies. Thirdly, process-tracing is used to identify contextual and procedural drivers to institutional dynamics. We assume that procedural drivers can be used as "levers" by facilitators to trigger institutional bricolage. We found that facilitators need to pay particular attention to the institutional context in which the participatory planning process takes place, and especially at existing institutional gaps or failures. We identified three clusters of procedural levers: the selection and engagement of participants; the legitimacy, knowledge, and ideas of facilitators; and the design of the process, including the scale at which it is developed, the participatory tools used and the management of the diversity of frames.
Hassenforder, Emeline; Barreteau, Olivier; Daniell, Katherine Anne; Pittock, Jamie; Ferrand, Nils
This paper builds on the assumption that an effective approach to support the sustainability of natural resource management initiatives is institutional "bricolage." We argue that participatory planning processes can foster institutional bricolage by encouraging stakeholders to make their own arrangements based on the hybridization of old and new institutions. This papers aims at identifying how participatory process facilitators can encourage institutional bricolage. Specifically the paper investigates the specific contextual and procedural drivers of institutional dynamics in two case studies: the Rwenzori region in Uganda and the Fogera woreda in Ethiopia. In both cases, participatory planning processes were implemented. This research has three innovative aspects. First, it establishes a clear distinction between six terms which are useful for identifying, describing, and analyzing institutional dynamics: formal and informal; institutions and organizations; and emergence and change. Secondly, it compares the contrasting institutional dynamics in the two case studies. Thirdly, process-tracing is used to identify contextual and procedural drivers to institutional dynamics. We assume that procedural drivers can be used as "levers" by facilitators to trigger institutional bricolage. We found that facilitators need to pay particular attention to the institutional context in which the participatory planning process takes place, and especially at existing institutional gaps or failures. We identified three clusters of procedural levers: the selection and engagement of participants; the legitimacy, knowledge, and ideas of facilitators; and the design of the process, including the scale at which it is developed, the participatory tools used and the management of the diversity of frames. PMID:26188407
Sapkota, Shree Newas
Sapkota, Shree Newas. ‘’International exchange: an aperture to community development and self discover’’: Students’ exchange experiences from African countries. 65 pages. 1 appendix. Language: English. Autumn 2015. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences. Degree Programme in Social Services. Degree: Bachelor of Social Services. International exchange is a platform where a student encounters various diversities in order to increase his/her understanding of other culture, religion, communiti...
Munisi, Gibson; Randøy, Trond
This paper examines the extent to which publicly listed companies across Sub-Saharan African countries have adopted “good corporate governance” practices. We investigate the association of these practices with companies’ accounting performance and market valuation. The findings indicate that companies across Sub-Saharan Africa have only partly implemented good corporate governance practices. We find a positive association between our constructed index of good corporate governance practices an...
Frank Aragbonfoh Abumere
This paper is aimed at proposing a policy framework for the resolution or management of development-related conflicts in Sub-Saharan African countries. In many conflicts in SubSaharan Africa, development issues are contributory factors. In view of the linkage between conflicts and development issues in Sub-Saharan Africa, the paper asks whether there is any one resource, whether security apparatus or development policy, that is at once necessary and sufficient for the resolutio...
The conceptual framework is underpinned by network dynamics apparent in an institutional matrix of Olympic Movement partners. This research aims to provide insights on collaboration between multi-sectorial stakeholders in eight Southern African Development Countries (SADC). A Participatory Action Research (PAR) approach ensured that local voices are represented from eight stakeholder cohorts. A total of 156 interviews and four focus group discussions provided 420 typed page transcripts that w...
Eze R. C; Nkwede J
The focus of this study is the effects of globalization on African countries. Globalization is a positive force for development and poverty reduction. It has led to growing inequalities among nation states. This is a problem, which the study seeks to address. Though globalization is a worldwide issue the work shall be united to its economic and political effects. The study aims to examine the concept of globalization and its economic and political effects on Nigeria. The study will make recom...
Voxi Heinrich Amavilah
The illicit dealing in gemstones (including diamonds) is a fast growing activity in African countries which produce these minerals. Zaire and Angola are two extreme examples, but by no means exceptions. The preferred policy efforts to controlling the flow of illicit trade in gems have been legislative actions - the police man. However, the police man has invariably failed to do the intended job. As an alternative this analysis argues for an economic approach - the economic man. It suggests ho...
In the context of the Partnership Agreements between the European Union (EU) and the African, Caribbean, and Pacific countries, this study estimates ad valorem tariff equivalents of European food safety standards on imports of key horticultural and fish products from Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. The study uses an extension of the price-wedge method to account for imperfect substitution and factor endowment in monopolistic competition. The estimated tariff equivalents are 55% and 98% f...
Wojczewski, Silvia; Pentz, Stephen; Blacklock, Claire; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Kutalek, Ruth
Migration of health professionals is an important policy issue for both source and destination countries around the world. The majority of migrant care workers in industrialized countries today are women. However, the dimension of mobility of highly skilled females from countries of the global south has been almost entirely neglected for many years. This paper explores the experiences of high-skilled female African migrant health-workers (MHW) utilising the framework of Global Care Chain (GCC) research. In the frame of the EU-project HURAPRIM (Human Resources for Primary Health Care in Africa), the research team conducted 88 semi-structured interviews with female and male African MHWs in five countries (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, UK) from July 2011 until April 2012. For this paper we analysed the 34 interviews with female physicians and nurses using the qualitative framework analysis approach and the software atlas.ti. In terms of the effect of the migration on their career, almost all of the respondents experienced short-term, long-term or permanent inability to work as health-care professionals; few however also reported a positive career development post-migration. Discrimination based on a foreign nationality, race or gender was reported by many of our respondents, physicians and nurses alike, whether they worked in an African or a European country. Our study shows that in addition to the phenomenon of deskilling often reported in GCC research, many female MHW are unable to work according to their qualifications due to the fact that their diplomas are not recognized in the country of destination. Policy strategies are needed regarding integration of migrants in the labour market and working against discrimination based on race and gender. PMID:26068218
Full Text Available Migration of health professionals is an important policy issue for both source and destination countries around the world. The majority of migrant care workers in industrialized countries today are women. However, the dimension of mobility of highly skilled females from countries of the global south has been almost entirely neglected for many years. This paper explores the experiences of high-skilled female African migrant health-workers (MHW utilising the framework of Global Care Chain (GCC research. In the frame of the EU-project HURAPRIM (Human Resources for Primary Health Care in Africa, the research team conducted 88 semi-structured interviews with female and male African MHWs in five countries (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, UK from July 2011 until April 2012. For this paper we analysed the 34 interviews with female physicians and nurses using the qualitative framework analysis approach and the software atlas.ti. In terms of the effect of the migration on their career, almost all of the respondents experienced short-term, long-term or permanent inability to work as health-care professionals; few however also reported a positive career development post-migration. Discrimination based on a foreign nationality, race or gender was reported by many of our respondents, physicians and nurses alike, whether they worked in an African or a European country. Our study shows that in addition to the phenomenon of deskilling often reported in GCC research, many female MHW are unable to work according to their qualifications due to the fact that their diplomas are not recognized in the country of destination. Policy strategies are needed regarding integration of migrants in the labour market and working against discrimination based on race and gender.
Mohamed Abdelkareem; Farouk El-Baz
Despite the arid to hyperarid climate of the Great Sahara of North Africa, pluvial climates dominated the region. Radar data shed some light on the postulated Trans-African Drainage System and its relationship to active and inactive tributaries of the Nile basin. Interpretations of recent elevation data confirm a source of the river water from the Red Sea highlands did not connect the Atlantic Ocean across Tushka basin, highlands of Uwinate and Darfur, and Chad basin, but northward to the anc...
Longwe, Abiba; Smits, Jeroen
We study how the availability and use of family planning services in African countries influences the family planning situation of households and through this the educational participation of young children. A district panel dataset is used for 441 urban and rural areas within 233 districts of 25 countries. Path analysis shows that a decrease in the number of births is associated with an increase in educational participation in the area. The number of births is negatively associated with acceptance, knowledge and actual use of contraceptives in the area. As reversed causality and selection bias seem unlikely, the identified relationship probably is at least partially causal. Hence, investments in family planning services in poor areas are not only important because they allow women to plan their births better, but also because they may lead to higher primary enrolment rates and thus contribute to the region's future economic growth. PMID:24069749
Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J
Suboptimal complementary feeding practices have a detrimental impact on a child's growth, health and development in the first two years of life. They lead to child malnutrition, which contributes to the high prevalence of stunting (38%) and underweight (28%) reported for children semi-solid or soft foods across all four countries. Predictors for minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet included children aged 6-11 months, administrative/geographical region, poorer household income and limited access to media. The authors recommend that the four anglophone West African countries studied should prioritise efforts to improve complementary feeding practices in order to reduce child morbidity and mortality. Interventional studies on complementary feeding should target those from poor and illiterate households. PMID:26364789
Holmes, Mark J.
This paper investigates the nature of the short-run output-inflation trade-off and policy effectiveness in African less developed countries. Using a sample of thirteen countries over the period 1960-98, cointegration and error correction modelling suggest that the impacts on inflation and real output growth from a shock to nominal aggregate demand will be of the ratio one-sixth to five-sixths. Furthermore, this study finds that the short-run potency of demand-side policy on inflation (real ou...
Ndinga-Koumba-Binza, Hugues Steve
A number of historically French-speaking countries have adopted English as second or one of the official languages. This does not only pose a problem of multilingualism at State level as well as at social level, but it also questions the actual status of English as a language at both levels. In fact, English does not only have to compete with French, but also with native African languages. This article gives an insight into the status of English in Gabon – a French-speaking country in western...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Disaster-related mortality is a growing public health concern in the African Region. These deaths are hypothesized to have a significantly negative effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP. The objective of this study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to natural and technological disaster-related mortality in the WHO African Region. Methods The impact of disaster-related mortality on GDP was estimated using double-log econometric model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the WHO African Region. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries in the Region. The data was obtained from various UNDP and World Bank publications. Results The coefficients for capital (K, educational enrolment (EN, life expectancy (LE and exports (X had a positive sign; while imports (M and disaster mortality (DS were found to impact negatively on GDP. The above-mentioned explanatory variables were found to have a statistically significant effect on GDP at 5% level in a t-distribution test. Disaster mortality of a single person was found to reduce GDP by US$0.01828. Conclusions We have demonstrated that disaster-related mortality has a significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through capital investment, export promotion and increased educational enrolment, they should always keep in mind that investments made in the strengthening of national capacity to mitigate the effects of national disasters expeditiously and effectively will yield significant economic returns.
Kirigia, Joses M; Sambo, Luis G; Aldis, William; Mwabu, Germano M
BACKGROUND: Disaster-related mortality is a growing public health concern in the African Region. These deaths are hypothesized to have a significantly negative effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP). The objective of this study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to natural and technological disaster-related mortality in the WHO African Region. METHODS: The impact of disaster-related mortality on GDP was estimated using double-log econometric model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the WHO African Region. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries in the Region. The data was obtained from various UNDP and World Bank publications. RESULTS: The coefficients for capital (K), educational enrolment (EN), life expectancy (LE) and exports (X) had a positive sign; while imports (M) and disaster mortality (DS) were found to impact negatively on GDP. The above-mentioned explanatory variables were found to have a statistically significant effect on GDP at 5% level in a t-distribution test. Disaster mortality of a single person was found to reduce GDP by US$0.01828. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated that disaster-related mortality has a significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through capital investment, export promotion and increased educational enrolment, they should always keep in mind that investments made in the strengthening of national capacity to mitigate the effects of national disasters expeditiously and effectively will yield significant economic returns. PMID:15113453
Kohi, Thecla W; Portillo, Carmen J; Durrheim, Kevin; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Makoae, Lucy N; Greeff, Minrie; Chirwa, Maureen; Naidoo, Joanne; Uys, Leana R; Holzemer, William L
Nurse migration out of low-resource countries has occurred for many years, resulting in workforce shortages, particularly in countries with a high prevalence of HIV. A cross-sectional survey of 1,374 nurses from five African countries (Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania) was conducted. A logistic regression analysis resulted in a profile of odds ratios predicting increased odds of intent to migrate for nurses who were more experienced and working in urban hospitals. These data provide the first support that HIV stigma experienced by nurses through their association as providers for people living with HIV may also be contributing to their intent to migrate. The study contributes to a greater understanding of the complexity of nurse migration in Africa. PMID:20116298
Ya-anant, Nanthavan; Thiangtrongjit, Sutat
Regional cooperation in radioactive waste management (RWM) in the Asian and Oceanic countries has been successfully developing for more than 20 y. At present, the Asian and Oceanic countries recognise that there are several projects under the regional cooperation, such as the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), the Asian Nuclear Safety Network (ANSN) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regional projects. The FNCA on Radiation Safety and RWM is an effective mechanism for enhancing socio-economic development through active regional partnership in the peaceful and safe utilisation of nuclear technology. The ANSN Topical Group on RWM is established for exchanging, pooling, and sharing knowledge in the field of nuclear safety. For IAEA regional cooperation on RWM, such as IAEA-regional project RAS/3/009 Strengthening Infrastructure of RWM can provide and support Asian and Oceanic countries for national work plan, fellowships and scientific visits as well as expert services. PMID:21561940
Black, Robert; Fava, Fabio; Mattei, Niccolo; Robert, Vincent; Seal, Susan; Verdier, Valerie
production and the economy of this depressed areas. However, the problems bound to environmental protection must not be forgotten; priority should be given to monitor the risks of introduction of foreign species. Red biotechnologies potentially bring a vast domain of powerful tools and processes to achieve better human health, most notably improved diagnostics by molecular techniques, better targeting of pathogens and a better knowledge of their sensitivities to drugs to permit better treatment. Biosafety regulatory frameworks had been initiated in several countries, starting with primary biosafety law. However, disparate attitudes to the purpose of biosafety regulation (e.g., fostering informed decision-making versus 'giving the green-light for a flood of GMOs') currently prevent a needed consensus for sub-regional harmonisation. To date, most R&D funding has come from North America with some commercial interests from Asia, but African biotechnology workers expressed strong desire for (re-)engagement with interested parties from the European Union. Although in some of the visited countries there are very well qualified personnel in molecular biology and biosafety/regulation, the main message received is that human resources and capacity building in-house are still needed. This could be achieved through home-based courses and capacity-building including funds for post-degree research to motivate and retain trained staff. PMID:21763362
The Sub-Saharan countries are new to launch a nuclear power (NP) programme. If they are interested to consider this technology, they should be highly committed to develop the required basic infrastructure in stages; and should conduct important activities that need to be completed in phases. This include longer than 100 years of maintaining a sustainable national infrastructure throughout its operation, decommissioning and waste disposal. The major challenges to launch a NP programme in these countries are; lack of funding, inadequate technical know-how, lack of information on the available resources, low grid capacity of nations, lack of required organizations and physical component of the infrastructure. However, there are also encouraging aspects such as commitment to expand electric supply to rural areas, strategic shift to diversify energy sources, availability of uranium (thorium) reserves, availability of basic regulatory infrastructure in radiation protection and nuclear safety, and enhanced regional and international economic cooperation. In conclusion, the high level of poverty in Sub-Saharan countries mainly is due to lack of adequate energy and its poor coverage. It is vital to assert here that provision of sustainable and sufficient amount of energy in the region can greatly advance development, alleviate poverty and ensure stability. Besides, to come out of this cyclic challenge; countries based on regional economic cooperation and ideals of African Union, should interconnect their electricity grid like EAPP and commonly invest to launch NP programmes in relatively stable countries. Candid support of the international community is crucial, and IAEA should support and encourage such arrangements
Wamukonya, N. (ed.) [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (Denmark)
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) jointly with the Government of Kenya and the UN Department for Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) organised the 'African High-Level Regional Meeting on Energy and Sustainable Development' in Januar 2001 at UNEP headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose was to support the preparations for CSD 9 and enable African countries to discuss key issues related to energy for sustainable development in their regional context. This report presents the technical statements and papers prepared for the technical workshop. As the reader will quickly notice, the papers reflect the views of the range of experts who participated. Speakers and participants came from ministries or agencies dealing with energy issues, rural development and finance institutions, utilities, private enterprises, NGOs, and research institutions. The papers follow the thermes identified for the CSD 9 session but provide an Africa-specific perspective. In the region, increased access to energy is clearly still a major development issue and has strong links to another key theme - rural energy. A number of papers address these issues from the woodfuel or biomass side, as the majority of the rural population in African countries relies on this energy source and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. At the same time, improved access to commercial energy forms, particularly through rural electrification programmes, received much attention and several papers present new approaches and experience gained in this area. On the commercial energy supply side the major challenge facing most African countries is the need to reform institutional structures, especially in the power sector. These reforms are generally part of larger economic reform packages promoted by the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and other financial institutions. In the energy sector the reform process offers an opportunity to introduce more efficiency and competition
Mbugi, Erasto V.; Katale, Bugwesa Z.; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Keyyu, Julius D.; Kendall, Sharon L.; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Michel, Anita L.; Rweyemamu, Mark M.; Warren, Robin M.; Matee, Mecky I.; van Helden, Paul D.; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin
The aim of this study was to assess and characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genotypic diversity in Tanzania, as well as in neighbouring East and other several African countries. We used spoligotyping to identify a total of 293 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates (one isolate per patient) collected in the Bunda, Dar es Salaam, Ngorongoro and Serengeti areas in Tanzania. The results were compared with results in the SITVIT2 international database of the Pasteur Institute of Guadeloupe. Genotyping and phylogeographical analyses highlighted the predominance of the CAS, T, EAI, and LAM MTBC lineages in Tanzania. The three most frequent Spoligotype International Types (SITs) were: SIT21/CAS1-Kili (n = 76; 25.94%), SIT59/LAM11-ZWE (n = 22; 7.51%), and SIT126/EAI5 tentatively reclassified as EAI3-TZA (n = 18; 6.14%). Furthermore, three SITs were newly created in this study (SIT4056/EAI5 n = 2, SIT4057/T1 n = 1, and SIT4058/EAI5 n = 1). We noted that the East-African-Indian (EAI) lineage was more predominant in Bunda, the Manu lineage was more common among strains isolated in Ngorongoro, and the Central-Asian (CAS) lineage was more predominant in Dar es Salaam (p-value<0.0001). No statistically significant differences were noted when comparing HIV status of patients vs. major lineages (p-value = 0.103). However, when grouping lineages as Principal Genetic Groups (PGG), we noticed that PGG2/3 group (Haarlem, LAM, S, T, and X) was more associated with HIV-positive patients as compared to PGG1 group (Beijing, CAS, EAI, and Manu) (p-value = 0.03). This study provided mapping of MTBC genetic diversity in Tanzania (containing information on isolates from different cities) and neighbouring East African and other several African countries highlighting differences as regards to MTBC genotypic distribution between Tanzania and other African countries. This work also allowed underlining of spoligotyping patterns tentatively grouped within the newly designated EAI3-TZA
Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J
Suboptimal complementary feeding practices play a crucial role in the health and development of children. The objective of this research paper was to identify factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries, namely, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal. This study covered 22 376 children aged 6-23 months from the seven countries surveyed (Benin: 3732 children; Burkina Faso: 4205 children; Cote d'Ivoire: 2109 children, Guinea: 1944 children, Mali: 3798 children, Niger: 3451 children and Senegal: 3137 children). The most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the various countries were used as data sources. A set of individual-, household- and community-level factors were used to examine the four complementary feeding indicators. Multivariate analysis revealed that the youngest age bracket (6-11 months) of children, administrative/geographical region, mother's limited or non-access to the mass media, mothers' lack of contact with a health facility, rural residence, poor households and non-working mothers were the main factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding in the countries surveyed. Our findings highlight the need to consider broader social, cultural and economic factors when designing child nutritional interventions. PMID:26364790
Okunade, Albert A
The income elasticity of health care spending in the OECD countries tends toward luxury good values. Similar studies, based on more recent data, and capable of informing macroeconomic health policies of the African countries, do not currently exist. How the health care expenditure in Africa responds to changes in the Gross Domestic Products (GDP), Official Development Assistance (ODA), and other determinants, is also relevant for health policy because health care is a necessity in the 'basic needs' theory of economic development. This paper presents econometric model findings of the determinants of per-capita health expenditure (in PPPs) for 26 African countries, using the flexible Box-Cox model regression methods and 1995 cross-sectional data (sources: WRI, UNEP, UNDP, The World Bank). The economic and other determinants, capturing 74 percent of the variations in health expenditures, include per-capita GDP (in PPPs), ODA (US dollar), Gini income inequality index, population dependency ratio, internal conflicts, and the percentage of births attended by trained medical workers. Income inequality dampens, while the ODA and population per health personnel raise health care expenditure. The GDP elasticity of about 0.6 signals the tendency for health care to behave like a technical 'necessity'. Implications for sustainable basic health development policies are discussed. PMID:16379410
While the availability of electricity by itself is not a panacea for the economic and social problems facing Africa, the supply of electricity is nevertheless believed to be a necessary requirement for Africa's economic and social development. This paper tests the long-run and causal relationship between electricity consumption per capita and real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita for 17 African countries for the period 1971-2001 using a newly developed cointegration test proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001) and using a modified version of the Granger causality test due to Toda and Yamamoto (1995). The advantage of using these two approaches is that they both avoid the pre-testing bias associated with conventional unit root and cointegration tests. The empirical evidence shows that there was a long-run relationship between electricity consumption per capita and real GDP per capita for only 9 countries and Granger causality for only 12 countries. For 6 countries there was a positive uni-directional causality running from real GDP per capita to electricity consumption per capita; an opposite causality for 3 countries and bi-directional causality for the remaining 3 countries. The result should, however, be interpreted with care as electricity consumption accounts for less than 4% of total energy consumption in Africa and only grid-supplied electricity is taken into account
Full Text Available Background: The United Nations (UN Population Division constructs probabilistic projections for the total fertility rate (TFR using the Bayesian hierarchical model of Alkema et al. (2011, which produces predictive distributions of the TFR for individual countries. The UN is interested in publishing probabilistic projections for aggregates of countries, such as regions and trading blocs. This requires joint probabilistic projections of future countryspecific TFRs, taking account of the correlations between them. Objective: We propose an extension of the Bayesian hierarchical model that allows for probabilistic projection of aggregate TFR for any set of countries. Methods: We model the correlation between country forecast errors as a linear function of time invariant covariates, namely whether the countries are contiguous, whether they had a common colonizer after 1945, and whether they are in the same UN region. The resulting correlation model is incorporated into the Bayesian hierarchical model's error distribution. Results: We produce predictive distributions of TFR for 1990-2010 for each of the UN's primary regions. We find that the proportions of the observed values that fall within the prediction intervals from our method are closer to their nominal levels than those produced by the current model. Conclusions: Our results suggest that a substantial proportion of the correlation between forecast errors for TFR in different countries is due to the countries' geographic proximity to one another, and that if this correlation is accounted for, the quality of probabilistic projections of TFR for regions and other aggregates is improved.
Complete text of publication follows. Over the Southern African continent the geomagnetic field is weaker and changes more rapidly compared to other regions of the Earth. For this area series of geomagnetic field measurements exist since the 1950s. This unique data set allows us to obtain a detailed view of the geomagnetic field behavior in space and time by building a regional model. The data set consisting of repeat station surveys and observatory annual means is thoroughly cleaned by eliminating jumps and estimating external contributions in the original time series. Following the method proposed by Shure et. al. (1982) we use a system of representation similar to the harmonic splines. The technique has systematically been tested on synthetic data. The model derived from the available data covers the time span from 1960 to 2002 and gives a detailed view of the dramatical changes of the geomagnetic field in this region, including several geomagnetic jerks.
“What happens when an NGO admits failure ?” is the question asked by David Damberger, a member of Engineers Without Broaders, a canadian NGO. After the failure of his project in Malawi, he began to work on the learning of NGOs from possible failures. This project work will explore this idea of learning from some failures for western NGOs. The problem statement would be : “what and how NGOs can learn from their failure ?” It will focus only on projects in sub-saharan African countries beca...
Mkenda, Beatrice Kalinda
The paper tests whether the theory of Purchasing Power Parity holds in a selected sample of twenty African countries. The paper employs a panel unit root test to test whether the real exchange rates in the panel are mean reverting or not. The test employed is the Im et al (1997) test. Results show that the null of a unit root is rejected for the three real exchange rate indices, namely, the import-based and trade-weighted multilateral indices, and the bilateral indices, while for the export-b...
Stephenson, Rob; Elfstrom, K. Miriam; Winter, Amy
Despite efforts to increase HIV testing in the African region, the proportion of men who report ever having been tested for HIV remains low. Research has focused on individual level determinants of women's testing however little is known about factors associated with men's testing behavior. This analysis investigates community influences on HIV testing among men ages 15–54, using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from Chad, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe...
Pitman, J.P.; Wilkinson, R.L.; Basavaraju, S.V.; Von Finckenstein, B.G.; Sibinga, C.T.H.; Marfin, A.; Postma, M.J.; Mataranyika, M.N.; Tobias, J.L.
Background: Since 2004, several African countries, including Namibia, have received assistance from the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Aims: Gains have been documented in the safety and number of collected units in these countries, but the distribution of blood has not bee
Full Text Available For a given West African country, we constructed a model describing the spread of the deathly disease called Ebola hemorrhagic fever. The model was first constructed using the classical derivative and then converted to the generalized version using the beta-derivative. We studied in detail the endemic equilibrium points and provided the Eigen values associated using the Jacobian method. We furthered our investigation by solving the model numerically using an iteration method. The simulations were done in terms of time and beta. The study showed that, for small portion of infected individuals, the whole country could die out in a very short period of time in case there is not good prevention.
Rafnsson, Snorri B; Bhopal, Raj S; Agyemang, Charles;
. RESULTS: South Asians in Denmark, England and Wales and France experienced excess circulatory disease mortality (MRRs 1.37-1.91). Similar results were seen for Eastern Europeans in these countries as well as in Sweden (MRRs 1.05-1.51), for those of Middle Eastern origin in Denmark (MRR = 1.49) and France......BACKGROUND: Circulatory disease mortality inequalities by country of birth (COB) have been demonstrated for some EU countries but pan-European analyses are lacking. We examine inequalities in circulatory mortality by geographical region/COB for six EU countries. METHODS: We obtained national death...... sizes. The pattern for IHD mortality was similar to that for circulatory disease mortality. Two- to three-fold excess cerebrovascular disease mortality was found for several foreign-born groups compared with the local-born populations in some countries. CONCLUSIONS: Circulatory disease mortality varies...
During the “African Decade of Persons with Disabilities (2000-2009)”, East African countries witnessed significant achievements, especially in the development of law, collection of statistics and in funding. However, many persons with disability are still marginalised from opportunities in education, healthcare and employment.Purpose: With the pre-supposition that the lack of institutional capacities for implementing disability policies is the one major stumbling-block which hinders widesprea...
Asongu, Simplice; Amavilah, Voxi; Antonio R. Andrés
This paper develops an empirically-relevant framework (a) to examine whether or not the African business environment hinders or promotes the knowledge economy (KE), (b) to determine how the KE which emerges from such an environment affects economic growth, and (c) how growth in turn relates to the ‘inclusive development’ of 53 African countries during the 1996-2010 time period. The framework provides a modest guide to policymaking about, and further research into, such relationships. We impl...
Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Véronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga
In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential trainees and training institutions in nine French-speaking African countries. A needs assessment was conducted in the target countries according to four approaches: (1) Review at national level of health challenges. (2) Semi-directed interviews with heads of relevant training institutions. (3) Focus group discussions with key-informants. (4) A questionnaire-based study targeting health professionals identified as potential trainees. A needs assessment showed important public health challenges in the field of health workforce development among the target countries (e.g. unequal HRH distribution in the country, ageing of HRH, lack of adequate training). It also showed a demand for education and training institutions that are able to offer a training programme in health workforce development, and identified training objectives and core competencies useful to potential employers and future trainees (e.g. leadership, planning/evaluation, management, research skill). In combining various approaches our study was able to show a general demand for health managers who are able to plan, develop and manage a nation's health workforce. It also identified specific competencies that should be developed through an education and training program in public health with a focus on health workforce development. PMID:22453358
Doaa Mohamed Salman
Full Text Available This paper aims to test the validity of the causality between financial development and economic growth on energy consumption in three of North African countries. The study employs error coreection model and Granger causaility test to analyza a dataset for three North African countries covering a period from 1980 to 2010. The applied model is based on demand function for energy to assess the existing of causal relationship of energy with financial development, and economic growth, in Algeria, Egypt, and Tunisia. Empirical results provide a positive significant relating financial development and energy consumption in Algeria, and Tunisia. On the other hand, Egypt’s results show a negative significant relationship relating energy consumption and financial development. The paper is valuable to policy makers in North African countries in their pursuit for achieving economic growth as it clarifies the urge for the financial development reforms to stimulate investment and growth.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Regional Committee for Africa of the World Health Organization (WHO in 2001 expressed concern that some health-related studies undertaken in the Region were not subjected to any form of ethics review. In 2003, the study reported in this paper was conducted to determine which Member country did not have a national research ethics committee (REC with a view to guiding the WHO Regional Office in developing practical strategies for supporting those countries. Methods This is a descriptive study. The questionnaire was prepared and sent by diplomatic pouch to all the 46 Member States in the WHO African Region, through the WHO country representatives, for facilitation and follow up. The data were entered in Excel spreadsheet and subsequently exported to STATA for analysis. A Chi-Squared test (χ2 for independence was undertaken to test the relationship between presence/absence of Research Ethics Committee (REC and selected individual socioeconomic and health variables. Results The main findings were as follows: the response rate was 61% (28/46; 64% (18/28 confirmed the existence of RECs; 36% (10/28 of the respondent countries did not have a REC (although 80% of them reported that they had in place an ad hoc ethical review mechanism; 85% (22/26 of the countries that responded to this question indicated that ethical approval of research proposals was, in principle, required; and although 59% of the countries that had a REC expected it to meet every month, only 44% of them reported that the REC actually met on a monthly basis. In the Chi-Squared test, only the average population in the group of countries with a REC was statistically different (at 5% level of significance from that of the group of countries without a REC. Conclusion In the current era of globalized biomedical research, good ethics stewardship demands that every country, irrespective of its level of economic development, should have in place a functional research
Ricotta, Emily; Koenker, Hannah; Kilian, Albert; Lynch, Matthew
Background: Malaria in pregnancy is a major public health concern, contributing to roughly 11% of neonatal deaths and to 25% of all maternal deaths in some parts of the world. The World Health Organization has recommended priority interventions for malaria during pregnancy, including use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), but net distribution has shifted recently to a universal coverage paradigm rather than one targeting vulnerable populations. Methods: To determine whether and to what extent pregnant women are prioritized within the household for ITN use, we assessed national survey data from 2009–2013 in 10 African countries. Proportion of pregnant women who slept under an ITN the previous night and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared between countries. Within-country logistic regression examined whether pregnancy was significantly associated with ITN use the previous night compared with other risk groups, and the predicted probability of net use for each risk group was calculated holding other covariates constant. Results: A median 58% of households reported owning at least 1 ITN. On average, across all 10 countries, 35% of pregnant women in households with at least 1 ITN used a net. Households with universal coverage (at least 1 ITN per 2 people) had higher levels of net use among all family members; for example, 79% of pregnant women, on average, used a net in such households. In all countries, the predicted probability of ITN use by pregnant women was significantly higher than the probability of net use by most other household members except non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Conclusion: These findings suggest that both pregnant women and non-pregnant women of reproductive age are being prioritized within the household for net use. However, behavior change communication strategies are needed to achieve ITN use goals for pregnant women. PMID:25276574
Cabecinhas, Rosa; Liu, James H; Licata, Laurent; Klein, Olivier; Mendes, Júlio; Feijó, João; Niyubahwe, Aline
Data on social representations of world history have been collected everywhere in the world except sub-Saharan Africa. Two studies using open-ended data involving university students from six African countries fill this gap. In Study 1, nominations from Cape Verde and Mozambique for the most important events in world history in the past 1000 years were dominated by war and politics, recency effects, and Western-centrism tempered by African sociocentrism on colonization and independence. The first three findings replicated previous research conducted in other parts of the world, but the last pattern contrasted sharply with European data. Study 2 employed a novel method asking participants how they would begin the narration of world history, and then to describe a major transition to the present. Participants most frequently wrote about the evolution of humanity out of Africa, followed by war and then colonization as a beginning, and then replicated previous findings with war, colonization, and technology as major transitions to the present. Finally, when asked about how they foresaw the future, many participants expressed hope for peace and cooperation, especially those facing more risk of collective violence (Burundi and Congo). A colonial/liberation narrative was more predominant in the data from former Portuguese colonies (Angola, Cape Verde, and Guinea-Bissau) than from former Belgian colonies (Burundi and Congo). PMID:22044307
Juselius, Katarina; Møller, Niels Framroze; Tarp, Finn
. To investigate this we perform a comprehensive study of the long-run effect of foreign aid (ODA) on a set of key macroeconomic variables in 36 sub-Saharan African countries from mid-1960s to 2007. We use a well-specified (Cointegrated) VAR (CVAR) model as our statistical benchmark. It represents a......Studies of aid effectiveness abound in the literature, often with opposing conclusions. Since most time-series studies use data from the exact same publicly available data bases, our claim here is that such differences in results must be due to the use of different econometric models and methods...... much-needed general-to-specific approach which can provide broad confidence intervals within which empirically relevant claims should fall. Based on stringent statistical testing, our results provide broad support for a positive long-run impact of ODA flows on the macroeconomy. For example, we find a...
Eze R C
Full Text Available The focus of this study is the effects of globalization on African countries. Globalization is a positive force for development and poverty reduction. It has led to growing inequalities among nation states. This is a problem, which the study seeks to address. Though globalization is a worldwide issue the work shall be united to its economic and political effects. The study aims to examine the concept of globalization and its economic and political effects on Nigeria. The study will make recommendations for the win/ forward. The method used in this research will be secondary source of data collection and the content analysis method, which involves the use of newspapers, bulletins, journals and textbooks.
International Monetary Fund
Regional growth weakened in 2013 due to a fall in oil production in most countries. GDP growth is expected to pick-up in 2014 due to the recovery of oil production and the continuation of the implementation of public investment plans in most of CEMAC countries. Despite large spending of oil wealth during the last years, poverty, income inequality and unemployment remain high. The business climate is one of the most challenging in Africa. The regionâ€™s most pressing challenge is to implement ...
Oyebola Fatima Etudaiye-Muhtar; Rubi Ahmad
The issue of target leverage for corporate firms in developing countries has received little attention in extant literature, especially countries in Africa. Given the imperfection that exists in African financial markets that may limit firms access to external capital, this study investigates dynamic adjustment towards a target debt ratio. In addition, the study used a dynamic panel data estimation technique to determine adjustment costs and speed of adjustment in non-financial firms in selec...
Fuente, Ángel de la
This paper surveys the recent literature on convergence across countries and regions. I discuss the main convergence and divergence mechanisms identified in the literature and develop a simple model that illustrates their implications for income dynamics. I then review the existing empirical evidence and discuss its theoretical implications. Early optimism concerning the ability of a human capital-augmented neoclassical model to explain productivity differences across economies has been quest...
Venables, Anthony J.
Spatial inequality in developing countries is due to the natural advantages of some regions relative to others and to the presence of agglomeration forces, leading to clustering of activity. This paper reviews and develops some simple models that capture these first and second nature economic geographies. The presence of increasing returns to scale in cities leads to urban structures that are not optimally sized. This depresses the return to job creation, possibly retarding development. Looki...
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the national and regional (NUTS-2 employment performance and convergence for various aggregations of 27 European countries (EU-25, plus Romania and Bulgaria, mainly using the three employment rates (total, female, older worker adopted by the European Employment Strategy (EES. At the national level, this analysis confirmed the existence of considerable differences in employment performance between and within the various country aggregations. Empirical analysis highlighted the remarkable net job creations in the EU-15 (and EMU-12 for the period 1997-2003, accompanied by a (national convergence for all three employment indicators. As regards total employment rates, significant converging trends also emerge at the regional level for both EU-15 and EMU-12 aggregations. In the eight Central European Countries, new EU members (8 CEC-NM, a diverging trend in the total employment rate began in 1999, whereas converging dynamics were limited to the employment rate of older workers in the period 1998-2001. Regional analyses showed significant diverging dynamics in the total employment rates (1999-2003 for the eight CEC-NM regions. At the national level of analyses, the relationship between “progress in transition” and employment performance was also briefly examined. Results show that a simple, stable correlation does not exist. However, a weak U-shaped relationship existing in 1998 shifted downward and evolved toward a positive link in 2003. The main results of cluster analysis of the 53 regions of the ten CECs confirmed a high level of regional labour market diversification, and the fact that sector structure affects employment performance significantly
Lapão, Luís Velez; Silva, Andreia; Pereira, Natália; Vasconcelos, Paula; Conceição, Cláudia
Introduction: Ebola epidemics have shown to have significant impacts on many aspects of healthcare systems. African countries have been facing many difficulties while addressing Ebola epidemics, moreover due to both lack of resources and fragmented involvement of national and international entities. The participation of multiple organizations has created serious problems of coordination of aid and the operation of that aid on the ground. This paper aims at addressing the impact of Ebola epide...
Hilde van Vlaenderen; Mandisa Cakwe
African societies are currently going through a period of accelerated social change, charac terised by increasing population, rapid urbanisation, high regional, national and inter national migration and the assimilation of western values. These changes are increasingly eroding the clear gender role divisions, characteristic of traditional African society, leaving women with a greater personal responsibility to develop their identities. This article focuses on the identity formation of a group...
Dynes, Michelle; Tison, Laura; Johnson, Carla; Verani, Andre; Zuber, Alexandra; Riley, Patricia L
Sub-Saharan Africa carries the greatest burden of the HIV pandemic. Enhancing the supply and use of human resources through policy and regulatory reform is a key action needed to improve the quality of HIV services in this region. In year 3 of the African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives (ARC), a President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief initiative, 11 country teams of nursing and midwifery leaders ("Quads") received small grants to carry out regulatory improvement projects. Four countries advanced a full stage on the Regulatory Function Framework (RFF), a staged capability maturity model used to evaluate progress in key regulatory functions. While the remaining countries did not advance a full stage on the RFF, important gains were noted. The year-3 evaluation highlighted limitations of the ARC evaluation strategy to capture nuanced progress and provided insight into how the RFF might be adapted for future use. PMID:27086189
Full Text Available Cholera burden in Africa remains unknown, often because of weak national surveillance systems. We analyzed data from the African Cholera Surveillance Network (www.africhol.org.During June 2011-December 2013, we conducted enhanced surveillance in seven zones and four outbreak sites in Togo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Guinea, Uganda, Mozambique and Cote d'Ivoire. All health facilities treating cholera cases were included. Cholera incidences were calculated using culture-confirmed cholera cases and culture-confirmed cholera cases corrected for lack of culture testing usually due to overwhelmed health systems and imperfect test sensitivity. Of 13,377 reported suspected cases, 34% occurred in Conakry, Guinea, 47% in Goma, DRC, and 19% in the remaining sites. From 0-40% of suspected cases were aged under five years and from 0.3-86% had rice water stools. Within surveillance zones, 0-37% of suspected cases had confirmed cholera compared to 27-38% during outbreaks. Annual confirmed incidence per 10,000 population was <0.5 in surveillance zones, except Goma where it was 4.6. Goma and Conakry had corrected incidences of 20.2 and 5.8 respectively, while the other zones a median of 0.3. During outbreaks, corrected incidence varied from 2.6 to 13.0. Case fatality ratios ranged from 0-10% (median, 1% by country.Across different African epidemiological contexts, substantial variation occurred in cholera incidence, age distribution, clinical presentation, culture confirmation, and testing frequency. These results can help guide preventive activities, including vaccine use.
Full Text Available Despite the arid to hyperarid climate of the Great Sahara of North Africa, pluvial climates dominated the region. Radar data shed some light on the postulated Trans-African Drainage System and its relationship to active and inactive tributaries of the Nile basin. Interpretations of recent elevation data confirm a source of the river water from the Red Sea highlands did not connect the Atlantic Ocean across Tushka basin, highlands of Uwinate and Darfur, and Chad basin, but northward to the ancestral Nile Delta. Elements of topography and climate were considered. They show that the former segments of the Nile closely mirror present-day tributaries of the Nile basin in drainage geometry, landscape, and climate. A rainfall data interpolation scenario revealed that this basin received concurrent runoff from both flanks such as Gabgaba-Allaqi to the east and Tushka basin to the west, similar to present-day Sobat and White Nile tributaries, respectively. Overall the western tributaries such as those of Tushka basin and Howar lead to the Nile, which was (and still is the biggest river system in Africa.
Abdelkareem, Mohamed; El-Baz, Farouk
Despite the arid to hyperarid climate of the Great Sahara of North Africa, pluvial climates dominated the region. Radar data shed some light on the postulated Trans-African Drainage System and its relationship to active and inactive tributaries of the Nile basin. Interpretations of recent elevation data confirm a source of the river water from the Red Sea highlands did not connect the Atlantic Ocean across Tushka basin, highlands of Uwinate and Darfur, and Chad basin, but northward to the ancestral Nile Delta. Elements of topography and climate were considered. They show that the former segments of the Nile closely mirror present-day tributaries of the Nile basin in drainage geometry, landscape, and climate. A rainfall data interpolation scenario revealed that this basin received concurrent runoff from both flanks such as Gabgaba-Allaqi to the east and Tushka basin to the west, similar to present-day Sobat and White Nile tributaries, respectively. Overall the western tributaries such as those of Tushka basin and Howar lead to the Nile, which was (and still is) the biggest river system in Africa. PMID:26257941
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although human African trypanosomiasis (HAT is uncommon among patients from non-endemic countries (NEC, there has been an increase in the number of cases reported in recent years. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed. The number of incoming tourists to HAT endemic countries was obtained from the United Nations World Tourism Organization. All HAT cases diagnosed in patients from NEC were included. Immigrants and refugees were excluded. We compared patients during and after the colonial period, and analyzed the relationship between the number of incoming travellers and the number of HAT cases. RESULTS: Between 1902 and 2012, HAT was reported in 244 patients. Most HAT cases were reported before 1920, and after the year 2000. In the colonial era the average age of patients was lower (32.5±7.8 vs. 43.0±16.1 years, P<0.001, the proportion of females was lower (10.0% vs. 23.9%, P<0.01], most cases were diagnosed in expatriates, missionaries and soldiers (74.3%, and Gambian trypanosomiasis accounted for 86/110, (78% of cases. In the post-colonial era most patients 91/125 (72.8% were short-term tourists to game parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa (mainly in Tanzania; Rhodesian trypanosomiasis accounted for 94/123 (76.4% of cases. Between 1995 and 2010 there has been a constant linear increase in the number of incoming tourists to Tanzania, and HAT cases occurred in small outbreaks rather than following a similar linear pattern. CONCLUSIONS: In recent decades HAT patients from NEC are older, and more likely to be tourists who acquired the disease while visiting game-parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa. While Rhodesian trypanosomiasis is relatively uncommon among Africans, it now accounts for most cases reported among patients from NEC. Returning febrile travellers without an alternative diagnosis should be evaluated for HAT. Cases among travellers may serve as sentinels for Rhodesian trypanosomiasis "hot
This Centre was established at the beginning of 1963. The present Member States are: Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAR and Yemen. The aims of the Centre are: (a) to train specialists in radioisotope applications according to the needs of the host country and of the Member States, dealing more particularly with uses in hydrology, medicine, agriculture, industry, health physics and radiation protection; (b) to do research on applications in the fields interesting the host country and Member States, such as hydrology (ground water), tropical diseases, fertilizers and entomology; (c) to promote the development of radioisotope applications in the countries served by the Centre. Up to the present the Centre has trained more than 200 specialists and university professors from the Arab countries and some African States, working in medicine, agriculture, science, pharmacy, engineering and veterinary medicine, in order to help build up a team of scientists and specialists able to introduce the use of radioisotopes in these disciplines in the countries of the area. The Centre has undertaken research work aimed at the solution of some of the economic problems of the Arab countries through the use of radioisotopes in various fields, especially in: groundwater, agriculture, entomology and medicine. Groundwater studies have been undertaken in the UAR, Kuwait, Libya and the Sudan. Experiments on the fertilizer-water-soil-plant relationship have been carried out in the Sudan and the UAR and will shortly start in Iraq. The Centre has undertaken research to control the fruit-fly pest by using the sterile-male technique: similar research is carried out to eradicate the malaria-vector mosquito in some regions of the area. Basic medical research is undertaken by the Centre to study thyroid dysfunctions and bilharziasis and its complications in the Sudan, Iraq and the UAR. (author)
Full Text Available The process of revolutionary changes in the North African region in 2011 sparked the flame of hope for change and implementing reforms viewed through the lens of the West. The fall of the dictator and the process of democratic transition in Tunisia as a major commitment to a peaceful future for the whole region and coming closer to the Western-style concept of democracy. How unrealistic has this premise proved to be, it is illustrated by the recent development in Tunisia, Libya, as well as Syria. It is really important to ask, how the requirements and goals of the Arab revolution 2011 reflected into the actual change at the national political scene in various Islamic countries. Isn’t the call for democracy inspired by its western model, taking the form of the dictator’s subversion, revision of the constitution and observing human rights, particularly the freedom of speech and fighting for the abolition of the censorship, the reason for strengthening the effort of some political Islam groups (such as Salafiyya to obtain more influence in the society? Can the current sectarian violence in Libya be viewed as a new, slowly coming wave of violence in the name of fighting between different Islamic sects? Does the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood’s attitude restrain the real reform and transition to a new system in the country? And isn’t Tunisia becoming a victim of its own dream of better tomorrow after Ben Ali’s fall?
; and levering of African Union and regional economic communities to address the cross-border dimension of malaria control. It was agreed that countries needed to secure adequate domestic and external funding for sustained commitment to malaria elimination; strengthen national malaria control programmes in the context of broader health system strengthening; ensure free access to long-lasting insecticide treated nets and malaria diagnosis and treatment for vulnerable groups; strengthen human resource capacity at central, district and community levels; and establish strong logistics, information and surveillance systems. Conclusion It is critically important for countries to have a clear vision and strategy for malaria elimination; effective leadership of national malaria control programmes; draw lessons from other African countries that have succeeded to dramatically reduce the burden of malaria; and sustain funding and ongoing interventions.
Holzemer, William L; Makoae, Lucy N; Greeff, Minrie; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Kohi, Thecla W; Chirwa, Maureen L; Naidoo, Joanne R; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Uys, Yvette R
The aim of this article is to document the levels of HIV stigma reported by persons living with HIV infections and nurses in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland and Tanzania over a 1-year period. HIV stigma has been shown to negatively affect the quality of life for people living with HIV infection, their adherence to medication, and their access to care. Few studies have documented HIV stigma by association as experienced by nurses or other health care workers who care for people living with HIV infection. This study used standardised scales to measure the level of HIV stigma over time. A repeated measures cohort design was used to follow persons living with HIV infection and nurses involved in their care from five countries over a 1-year period in a three-wave longitudinal design. The average age of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs) (N=948) was 36.15 years (SD=8.69), and 67.1% (N=617) were female. The average age of nurses (N=887) was 38.44 years (SD=9.63), and 88.6% (N=784) were females. Eighty-four per cent of all PLHAs reported one or more HIV-stigma events at baseline. This declined, but was still significant 1 year later, when 64.9% reported experiencing at least one HIV-stigma event. At baseline, 80.3% of the nurses reported experiencing one or more HIV-stigma events and this increased to 83.7% 1 year later. The study documented high levels of HIV stigma as reported by both PLHAs and nurses in all five of these African countries. These results have implications for stigma reduction interventions, particularly focused at health care providers who experience HIV stigma by association. PMID:19936409
This paper examines the challenges in attaining environmentally sustainable development in some southern African developing countries, with main focus on environmentally degrading activities carried out by the poor rural communities as the only way of scaling down poverty. The typical examples include, among others, charcoal burning, firewood gathering and hunting. These activities are practiced by poor rural communities for commercial purposes, with the main market being the urban areas; whose population increase and the inability to afford electricity for domestic purposes have made the demand for charcoal and firewood to increase. While recognising the right for the basic needs for everyone, efforts have been made to reduce the pressure exerted by rural communities on to natural resources, and alternative income generating activities have been adopted. However, successes in these fields are still not observable. The paper also discusses the need for integrated approaches that might reduce the demand on natural forest resources-based energy, which consist of subsidized electricity, fast growing tree plantation, and energy efficiency, among others. (author)
Watson, H K; Diaz-Chavez, R A
This paper synthesizes lessons learnt from research that aimed to identify land in the dryland regions of eight sub-Saharan African study countries where bioenergy feedstocks production has a low risk of detrimental environmental and socio-economic effects. The methodology involved using geographical information systems (GISs) to interrogate a wide range of datasets, aerial photograph and field verification, an extensive literature review, and obtaining information from a wide range of stakeholders. The GIS work revealed that Africa's drylands potentially have substantial areas available and agriculturally suitable for bioenergy feedstocks production. The other work showed that land-use and biomass dynamics in Africa's drylands are greatly influenced by the inherent 'disequilibrium' behaviour of these environments. This behaviour challenges the sustainability concept and perceptions regarding the drivers, nature and consequences of deforestation, land degradation and other factors. An assessment of the implications of this behaviour formed the basis for the practical guidance suggested for bioenergy feedstock producers and bioenergy policy makers. PMID:22482033
Sherman, Charles B; Carter, E Jane; Braendli, Otto; Getaneh, Asqual; Schluger, Neil W
Despite an extensive burden of lung disease in East Africa, there are remarkably few pulmonary physicians in the region and no pulmonary subspecialty training programs. We developed a unique training program for pulmonary medicine in Ethiopia. The East African Training Initiative (EATI) is a 2-year fellowship program at Tikur Anbessa (Black Lion) Specialized Teaching Hospital, the largest public hospital in Ethiopia and the teaching hospital for the Addis Ababa University School of Medicine. The first year is devoted to clinical care and procedural skills. Lectures, conferences, daily inpatient and outpatient rounds, and procedure supervision by visiting faculty provide the clinical knowledge foundation. In the second year, training in clinical research is added to ongoing clinical training. Before graduation, fellows must pass rigorous written and oral examinations and achieve high marks on faculty evaluations. Funding derives from several sources. Ethiopian trainees are paid by the Ethiopian Ministry of Health and the Addis Ababa University School of Medicine. The World Lung Foundation and the Swiss Lung Foundation supply travel and housing costs for visiting faculty, who receive no other stipend. The first two trainees graduated in January 2015, and a second class of three fellows completed training in January 2016. All five presented research abstracts at the annual meetings of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease in 2014 and 2015. The EATI has successfully provided pulmonary medicine training in Ethiopia and has capacity for local leadership. We believe that EATI could be a model for other resource-limited countries. PMID:26991950
Full Text Available This study explores the fundamental driving forces of regional equity market integration in a trading bloc. The determinant factors are categorized into market attribute, economic fundamentals and world information. Our sample consists of 26 equity markets of five regional trading blocs, namely AFTA, CER, EFTA, EU and NAFTA over the period of January 1999 to August 2005. We measure market integration based on pricing errors as proposed by Korajczyk (1996 and Levine and Zervos (1998. Using panel regressions, our results show that equity integration in these trading blocs is driven internally, where only individual market volatility and economic fundamentals play a significant role in the process. Intrabloc trade is found to enhance regional equity market integration, supporting the notion that regional convergence extends beyond the trade sector that is promoted in the trade agreements. We also document regime shifting effects during stock market crises, where most of these markets became strongly integrated after a regional crisis, but integration was significantly weakened during a crisis that affected the world markets. Also, the level of equity market integration differs across trading blocs, where the blocs with a smaller number of country members are relatively more integrated.
Solarin Sakiru Adebola; Jauhari Dahalan
This study employs cointegration technique to determine the co-movement of ten national stock markets indexes in Africa. Using monthly indexes spanning February, 1997 to October, 2011, results demonstrate less than full cointegrating vectors, which suggest African stock markets are not fully integrated. Further findings indicate that big African stock markets indexes tend to influence fluctuations in small African markets indexes. Generally, these imply limited benefits accrue from portfolio ...
This work comprises three parts. The first part aims at presenting the energy situation of sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries grouped in five regions. Because of the demographic pressure and of the petroleum shocks, the commercial energy consumption is growing up rapidly and the energy prices are high for the end-users (because the energy is imported and paid in dollars, and the fiscality share is increased by governments in the case of prices drop in the international market). The important problem of wood fuel is considered, together with the energy-economic growth relations and the determining factors of the energy demand in SSA. Some econometric relations are tested. The second part analyzes the mechanisms generated by petroleum shocks and counter-shocks, and stresses first on the transfers induced by these fluctuations. Then, it presents some macro-economical models which try to integrate the effects of a petroleum shock and makes some calculations based on a decomposition of imports and exports global and partial coefficients. Some important conclusions are inferred from this study: 1 - the second petroleum shock strikes more seriously the oil importing SSA countries because they do not benefit from a favorable international context, like during the first shock (also because the second shock is accompanied by a dollar shock); 2 - the absence of symmetry in oil shocks-counter-shocks; 3 - the crisis of SSA countries is not only of petroleum origin but is also linked with the drop of the export incomes (which itself is partially explained by the impact of petroleum shocks on the industrialized economies), with their bad insertion in the world economy, and with unsuitable domestic economies. The third part proposes some solutions to attenuate the energy and economical difficulties of these countries. It is necessary to implement an energy planning mainly based on the mastery of the demand and on a better management of local resources. The policies of
Berg, Gunhild; Fuchs, Michael
This paper provides an overview of the state of access to bank financing for SMEs in five Sub-Saharan African countries and analyzes the drivers behind banks' involvement with SMEs. The paper builds on data collected through five in-depth studies in Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, and Tanzania between 2010 and 2012. The paper shows that the share of SME lending in the overall loan po...
Novignon Jacob; Nonvignon Justice
Abstract Background The burden of fevers remains enormous in sub-Saharan Africa. While several efforts at reducing the burden of fevers have been made at the macro level, the relationship between socioeconomic status and fever prevalence has been inconclusive at the household and individual levels. The purpose of this study was to examine how individual and household socioeconomic status influences the prevalence of fever among children under age five in four sub-Saharan African countries. Me...
Philippe Beaugrand; Montfort Mlachila; Boileau Loko
The paper reviews the principles and practical considerations involved in the choice between foreign and domestic financing of fiscal deficits, and derives a series of recommendations broadly applicable to Central and West African countries. The paper develops a simple analytical framework and shows that highly concessional external debt is usually a superior choice to domestic debt in terms of financial costs and risks, even in the face of a probable devaluation. The paper stresses the impor...
Baliamoune-Lutz, Mina; Ndikumana, Léonce
In this paper, we explore the argument that one of the causes for the limited growth effects of trade openness in Africa may be the weakness of institutions. We also control for several major factors and, in particular, for export diversification, using a newly developed dataset on Africa. Results from Arellano-Bond GMM estimations on panel data from African countries show that institutions play an important role in enhancing the growth effects of trade. Moreover, we find that the joint effec...
AMUSA, Lateef; Mohlala, Meriam; Monyeki, Makama Andries; Strydom, Gert Lukas
Leisure-time physical inactivity is a global public health concern affecting all people in different walks of life, including employees. This inactivity is associated with chronic diseases of lifestyle as well as low work capacity. The purpose of this study were twofold: to determine leisure-time physical activity- (LTPA), coronary risk-, health- and lifestyle profiles of some executive employees in selected African countries; and to determine the relationship between leisure-time physical ac...
Jabbar, Mohammad A.; Grace, Delia
In order to understand the current of safety standards and problems for animal source foods, a study was conducted in six sub-Saharan African countries - Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa and Tanzania. The objective was to review food safety policy and regulations and their implementation, food safety status in terms of a number of criteria e.g. nature of public health problems and regularity of testing such problems, prevalence of food-borne diseases of international and devel...
Tchouamou Njoya, Eric
Tourism is increasingly being promoted as an important source of economic growth especially in developing countries. While there are many elements that contribute to tourism growth, without an efficient air transport system, it is almost impossible for a number of landlocked and geographically isolated developing nations to expand and sustain domestic and international tourism. From the perspective of an African nation the most important question is whether the benefit of aviation expansion w...
Full Text Available To assess social inequalities in the use of antenatal care (ANC, facility based delivery (FBD, and modern contraception (MC in two contrasting groups of countries in sub-Saharan Africa divided based on their progress towards maternal mortality reduction. Six countries were included in this study. Three countries (Ethiopia, Madagascar, and Uganda had 4.5% average annual reduction rate while another three (Cameroon, Zambia, and Zimbabwe had >550 MMR in 2010 with only <1.5% average annual reduction rate. All of these countries had at least three rounds of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS before 2012. We measured rate ratios and differences, as well as relative and absolute concentration indices in order to examine within-country geographical and wealth-based inequalities in the utilization of ANC, FBD, and MC. In the countries which have made sufficient progress (i.e. Ethiopia, Madagascar, and Uganda, ANC use increased by 8.7, 9.3 and 5.7 percent, respectively, while the utilization of FBD increased by 4.7, 0.7 and 20.2 percent, respectively, over the last decade. By contrast, utilization of these services either plateaued or decreased in countries which did not make progress towards reducing maternal mortality, with the exception of Cameroon. Utilization of MC increased in all six countries but remained very low, with a high of 40.5% in Zimbabwe and low of 16.1% in Cameroon as of 2011. In general, relative measures of inequalities were found to have declined overtime in countries making progress towards reducing maternal mortality. In countries with insufficient progress towards maternal mortality reduction, these indicators remained stagnant or increased. Absolute measures for geographical and wealth-based inequalities remained high invariably in all six countries. The increasing trend in the utilization of maternal care services was found to concur with a steady decline in maternal mortality. Relative inequality declined overtime in countries
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to construct an index that captures the factors expected to affect a local economy's attractiveness to foreign investors. Problem statement: Following South Africa's reintegration into the world economy in 1994, foreign direct investment has been seen as a potential driver of growth and development. Concerns about the low investment rate in South Africa raise the possibility of augmenting domestic with foreign investment expenditure. The potential of technology spillovers and skills transfer from foreign direct investment have also been emphasised. As a result, Trade and Investment South Africa is involved in identifying, packaging and promoting investment opportunities. However, investments tend to be place-specific and this has lead to the decentralisation of foreign direct investment promotion. Currently the nine provincial development agencies are competing to attract investors and the larger local governments are also getting involved in the fray. This paper argues that some places have better potential to attract foreign investment than others. A first step to use scarce investment promotion resources more efficiently would be to measure the inward FDI potential of South African regions. Approach: This paper uses principal components analysis to construct an index that captures the factors expected to affect a local economy's attractiveness to foreign investors. This approach draws on UNCTAD's Inward FDI Potential Index and applies it to 354 magisterial districts in South Africa for the periods 1996, 2001 and 2006. The index creates a summary measure of FDI potential.Findings: The results show that different places present differential potential in urbanization and localization economies and market size. The high-potential locations are typically found in or around the major agglomerations, but there are a few smaller places on the periphery that offer FDI potential. Contribution: The index should aid
Uys, Leana; Chirwa, Maureen; Kohi, Thecla; Greeff, Minrie; Naidoo, Joanne; Makoae, Lucia; Dlamini, Priscilla; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Holzemer, William L
The study aim is to explore the results of an HIV stigma intervention in five African health care settings. A case study approach was used. The intervention consisted of bringing together a team of approximately 10 nurses and 10 people living with HIV or AIDS (PLHA) in each setting and facilitating a process in which they planned and implemented a stigma reduction intervention, involving both information giving and empowerment. Nurses (n = 134) completed a demographic questionnaire, the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-Nurses (HASI-N), a self-efficacy scale, and a self-esteem scale, both before and after the intervention, and the team completed a similar set of instruments before and after the intervention, with the PLHA completing the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument for PLHA (HASI-P). The intervention as implemented in all five countries was inclusive, action-oriented, and well received. It led to understanding and mutual support between nurses and PLHA and created some momentum in all the settings for continued activity. PLHA involved in the intervention teams reported less stigma and increased self-esteem. Nurses in the intervention teams and those in the settings reported no reduction in stigma or increases in self- esteem and self-efficacy, but their HIV testing behavior increased significantly. This pilot study indicates that the stigma experience of PLHA can be decreased, but that the stigma experiences of nurses are less easy to change. Further evaluation research with control groups and larger samples and measuring change over longer periods of time is indicated. PMID:20025515
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surgical conditions contribute significantly to the disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet there is an apparent neglect of surgical care as a public health intervention to counter this burden. There is increasing enthusiasm to reverse this trend, by promoting essential surgical services at the district hospital, the first point of contact for critical conditions for rural populations. This study investigated the scope of surgery conducted at district hospitals in three sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a retrospective descriptive study, field data were collected from eight district hospitals in Uganda, Tanzania, and Mozambique using a standardized form and interviews with key informants. Overall, the scope of surgical procedures performed was narrow and included mainly essential and life-saving emergency procedures. Surgical output varied across hospitals from five to 45 major procedures/10,000 people. Obstetric operations were most common and included cesarean sections and uterine evacuations. Hernia repair and wound care accounted for 65% of general surgical procedures. The number of beds in the studied hospitals ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 per 1,000 population. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study clearly indicate low levels of surgical care provision at the district level for the hospitals studied. The extent to which this translates into unmet need remains unknown although the very low proportions of live births in the catchment areas of these eight hospitals that are born by cesarean section suggest that there is a substantial unmet need for surgical services. The district hospital in the current health system in sub-Saharan Africa lends itself to feasible integration of essential surgery into the spectrum of comprehensive primary care services. It is therefore critical that the surgical capacity of the district hospital is significantly expanded; this will result in sustainable preventable morbidity and
Full Text Available Abstract Background While more and more West African countries are implementing public user fees exemption policies, there is still little knowledge available on this topic. The long time required for scientific production, combined with the needs of decision-makers, led to the creation in 2010 of a project to support implementers in aggregating knowledge on their experiences. This article presents a transversal analysis of user fees exemption policies implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Togo and Senegal. Methods This was a multiple case study with several embedded levels of analysis. The cases were public user fees exemption policies selected by the participants because of their instructive value. The data used in the countries were taken from documentary analysis, interviews and questionnaires. The transversal analysis was based on a framework for studying five implementation components and five actors’ attitudes usually encountered in these policies. Results The analysis of the implementation components revealed: a majority of State financing; maintenance of centrally organized financing; a multiplicity of reimbursement methods; reimbursement delays and/or stock shortages; almost no implementation guides; a lack of support measures; communication plans that were rarely carried out, funded or renewed; health workers who were given general information but not details; poorly informed populations; almost no evaluation systems; ineffective and poorly funded coordination systems; low levels of community involvement; and incomplete referral-evacuation systems. With regard to actors’ attitudes, the analysis revealed: objectives that were appreciated by everyone; dissatisfaction with the implementation; specific tensions between healthcare providers and patients; overall satisfaction among patients, but still some problems; the perception that while the financial barrier has been removed, other barriers persist; occasionally a
Objectives for establishing museums in African countries for the purpose of teaching African history, languages, literature, and art are presented. Section 1 of the report focuses on the museum as a basis for creating an awareness of history, developing cultural individuality, laying groundwork for an endogenous form of development, and serving as…
Okeyo Mwai A
Full Text Available Abstract The study investigated the population structure, diversity and differentiation of almost all of the ecotypes representing the African Ankole Longhorn cattle breed on the basis of morphometric (shape and size, genotypic and spatial distance data. Twentyone morphometric measurements were used to describe the morphology of 439 individuals from 11 sub-populations located in five countries around the Great Lakes region of central and eastern Africa. Additionally, 472 individuals were genotyped using 15 DNA microsatellites. Femoral length, horn length, horn circumference, rump height, body length and fore-limb circumference showed the largest differences between regions. An overall FST index indicated that 2.7% of the total genetic variation was present among sub-populations. The least differentiation was observed between the two sub-populations of Mbarara south and Luwero in Uganda, while the highest level of differentiation was observed between the Mugamba in Burundi and Malagarasi in Tanzania. An estimated membership of four for the inferred clusters from a model-based Bayesian approach was obtained. Both analyses on distance-based and model-based methods consistently isolated the Mugamba sub-population in Burundi from the others.
Payet, Rolph; Obura, David
The complex interactions between human activities and the environment at the interface of land and water is analyzed with a focus on the Somali Current (East Africa), and Indian Ocean Island States, subregions of the Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA). These 2 subregions contain some of the world's richest ecosystems, including the high biodiversity forests of Madagascar and the diverse coastal habitats of the eastern African coast. These ecosystems support local communities and national and regional economies. Current and future degradation of these systems, from water basins to continental shelves, affects the livelihoods and sustainability of the countries in the region, and long-term efforts to reduce poverty. The assessments determined that pollution and climate change are the primary environmental and social concerns in the Islands of the Indian Ocean, while freshwater shortage and unsustainable exploitation of fisheries and other living resources are the primary environmental and social concerns in East Africa. The GIWA approach, through assessing root causes of environmental concerns, enables the development of policy approaches for mitigating environmental degradation. This paper explores policy frameworks for mitigating the impacts, and reducing the drivers, of 3 environmental concerns--freshwater shortage; solid waste pollution; and climate change--addressing social and institutional causes and effects, and linking the subregions to broad international frameworks. The common theme in all 3 case studies is the need to develop integrated ecosystem and international waters policies, and mechanisms to manage conflicting interests and to limit threats to natural processes. PMID:15083647
Anne Marie Thow
Full Text Available Background: Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Design: Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Results: Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region – largely from Asia and the Middle East – are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. Conclusions: There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could
The aim of this paper is to present the North African public sector. In this paper the author also points out factors that led to revolution in 2011. Analysis is based on factors such as: corruption, nepotism and economic inefficiency.
Mumghamba, E G; Joury, E; Fatusi, O; Ober-Oluoch, J; Onigbanjo, R J; Honkala, S
Many low- and middle-income countries do not yet have policies to implement effective oral health programs. A reason is lack of human and financial resources. Gaps between resource needs and available health funding are widening. By building capacity, countries aim to improve oral health through actions by oral health care personnel and oral health care organizations and their communities. Capacity building involves achieving measurable and sustainable results in training, research, and provision of care. Actions include advancement of knowledge, attitudes and skills, expansion of support, and development of cohesiveness and partnerships. The aim of this critical review is to review existing knowledge and identify gaps and variations between and within different income levels in relation to the capacity building and financing oral health in the African and Middle East region (AMER). A second aim is to formulate research priorities and outline a research agenda for capacity building and financing to improve oral health and reduce oral health inequalities in the AMER. The article focuses on capacity building for oral health and oral health financing in the AMER of the IADR. In many communities in the AMER, there are clear and widening gaps between the dental needs and the existing capacity to meet these needs in terms of financial and human resources. Concerted efforts are required to improve access to oral health care through appropriate financing mechanisms, innovative health insurance schemes, and donor support and move toward universal oral health care coverage to reduce social inequality in the region. It is necessary to build capacity and incentivize the workforce to render evidence-based services as well as accessing funds to conduct research on equity and social determinants of oral health while promoting community engagement and a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26101338
Full Text Available During the “African Decade of Persons with Disabilities (2000-2009”, East African countries witnessed significant achievements, especially in the development of law, collection of statistics and in funding. However, many persons with disability are still marginalised from opportunities in education, healthcare and employment.Purpose: With the pre-supposition that the lack of institutional capacities for implementing disability policies is the one major stumbling-block which hinders widespread delivery of social services to persons with disabilities in low-income countries, this study makes a comparative analysis of institutional capacities in the disability sectors of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania.Method: The research methods adopted were a literature survey and a field survey. The framework for analysis consists of: 1 capacities and functions of disability units in central governments, 2 relationships between central and local governments in the disability sector, and 3 relationships between governments and organisations of persons with disability (DPOs. Special attention is paid to the status, roles and functions of national councils for disability (NCDs, the independent statutory bodies recently established in each of the three countries, with clear authority and duties for the implementation of disability policies. The NCDs enable multi-sectoral stakeholders to be involved in the implementation of disability policies; therefore, positive relationships between the governments and DPOs are essential for the smooth functioning of the NCDs.Results: While the result of the field survey in Tanzania reveals several effective approaches for the smooth operation of the NCD, further study is needed to verify whether these approaches would be applicable to other East African countries such as Kenya and Uganda.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.106
GEOTHERM programme supports geothermal energy world-wide. Geothermal energy, a chance for East African countries; GEOTHERM: BGR foerdert weltweit Nutzung geothermischer Energie. Geothermie - eine Chance fuer ostafrikanische Laender
Kraml, M.; Kessels, K.; Kalberkamp, U.; Ochmann, N.; Stadtler, C. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany)
The high geothermal potential of East Africa, especially of the Eastern Rift, is known for a long time. Since these pioneer studies, geothermal plants have been constructed at three sites in East Africa. Nevertheless, up to now geothermal has been a success story only in Kenya. The steam power plant Olkaria I in Kenya is running reliability since 25 years. Today, the country produces more than 12% of its electricity from geothermal. Now, Eritrea, Djibouti, Uganda, Tanzania and Ethiopia which are also situated along the East African Rift, are planning similar projects. The countries need to develop new energy sources because oil prices have reached a critical level. In the past, hydro power was regarded to be a reliable source of energy, but increased droughts changed the situation. Thus, the african states are searching for alternatives to be able to stabilise their energy supply and to cover the growing energy demand. There is much hope that the success of the Kenyan geothermal power plants will be repeated in the neighbouring countries. The East African countries have joined their forces to give impetus to the use of the regional geothermal resources. On behalf of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources supports the countries in realising their plans as part of the GEOTHERM Programme. Together with further donors (Iceland, France, USA, Global Environment Facility) the path will be paved for geothermal power plants in the above mentioned six East African countries. The following main steps are necessary: - Awareness raising of political decision makers about the advantages of including geothermal into the national power plans - Improvement of knowledge about potentials geothermal sites - Development of a regional equipment pool including the necessary geophysical equipment, laboratories, etc. - Training in geothermal exploration and plant maintenance, to minimise risks of site
Kirigia, Joses M; Sambo, Luis G; Aldis, W; Mwabu, Germano M
The WHO Africa region has the highest disaster mortality rate compared to the other five regions of the organization. Those deaths are hypothesized to have significantly negative effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP). The objective of this study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to natural and technological disaster-related mortality in the WHO African Region. We estimated the impact of disaster-related mortality on GDP using double-log econometric model and cross-sectional data (from the UNDP and the World Bank publications) on 45 out of 46 countries in the WHO African Region. The coefficients for capital (K), educational enrolment (EN), life expectancy (LE) and exports (X) had a positive sign; while imports (M) and disaster mortality (DS) were found to impact negatively on GDP. The abovementioned explanatory variables were found to have statistically significant effect on GDP at 5% level in a t-distribution test. Disaster mortality of a single person was found to reduce GDP by US$0.018. We have demonstrated that disaster mortality has a significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through capital investment, export promotion and increase in educational enrolment, they should always recall that investments in strengthening national capacity to mitigate the effects of national disasters expeditiously and effectively shall yield significant economic returns. PMID:17298162
Full Text Available The Southern African Development Community (SADC was formed to promote the political, economic and social wellbeing of the region. Some of the social objectives of the SADC are the promotion of social development and the alleviation of poverty, the enhancement of the quality of life of the peoples of Southern Africa, and the provision of support to the socially disadvantaged. In order to achieve these objectives, SADC member states have concluded a Treaty and various social protection-related instruments which aim to ensure that everyone in the region is provided with basic minimum social protection. Although the formation of the SADC (and the conclusion of some of its social protection-related instruments preceded both the minimum social protection floor concept and the Social Protection Floor Initiative, the Treaty and instruments can be seen as complying with the requirements of both the concept and the initiative within the region. This article analyses the extent to which the SADC social protection-related instruments fulfil a minimum social floor function at the SADC regional level. The positive and negative aspects of the SADC Treaty and social protection related instruments in this regard are evaluated. In addition, the article reviews the impact of the SADC social protection-related instruments in the setting up of social protection programmes aimed at ensuring a minimum social protection floor in some of the SADC countries. The successes of such country initiatives and the challenges faced are discussed. This is then followed by some concluding observations.
Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J
Stunting, a consequence of suboptimal complementary feeding practices, continues to be a significant public health problem in West Africa. This paper aimed to compare rates of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months between four Anglophone and seven Francophone West African countries. The data used for this study were the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys of the various countries, namely Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone (Anglophone countries), Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal (Francophone countries) conducted between 2006 and 2013. The analyses were limited to last-born children aged 6-23 months and covered 34 999 children: 12 623 in the Anglophone countries and 22 376 children in the Francophone countries. Complementary feeding indicators were examined using the method proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2008. Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among children aged 6-23 months in the Anglophone countries ranged from 55.3% (Liberia) to 72.6% (Ghana). The corresponding rates for the Francophone countries ranged from 29.7% (Mali) to 65.9% (Senegal). The average rate of minimum dietary diversity for the Anglophone countries was 32.0% while that of the Francophone countries was only 10.6%. While the minimum meal frequency rates ranged between 42.0% (Sierra Leone) and 55.3% (Nigeria) for the Anglophone countries, the corresponding rates for the Francophone countries ranged between 25.1% (Mali) and 52.4% (Niger). Both the Anglophone and the Francophone countries reported alarmingly low rates of minimum acceptable diet, with the two groups of countries averaging rates of 19.9% (Anglophone) and 5.5% (Francophone). The rates of all four complementary feeding indicators across all the 11 countries fell short of the WHO's requirement for optimal complementary feeding practices. Intervention studies using cluster-randomised controlled trials are needed in order to improve
Fadiga, Mohamadou L.; Mohanty, Samarendu; Pan, Suwen
This study uses a stochastic simulation approach based on a partial equilibrium structural econometric model of the world fiber market to examine the effects of a removal of U.S. cotton programs on the world market. The effects on world cotton prices and African export earnings were analyzed. The results suggest that on average an elimination of U.S. cotton programs would lead to a marginal increase in the world cotton prices thus resulting in minimal gain for cotton exporting countries in Af...
This study reviews the economics, logistics, and technology underlying the South African experiment of prepaid electricity. Although this experiment has resulted into benefiting large masses of small and dispersed consumers, it has also generated a set of new problems that could not be visualized at the inception of the experiment. The success of this program can be largely attributed to a number of factors, including a good marketing campaign, innovative tariff schedules, better planning and management, and so on. Lessons learned from this experiment are useful for policy-making purposes in other developing countries of Africa and Asia
Africa has over 350 higher education institutions with a variety of experiences and priorities. The primary objectives of these institutions are to produce white-collar workers, teachers, and the work force for mining, textiles, and agricultural industries. The state of higher education and scientific research in Africa have been discussed in several conferences. The proposals that are generated by these conferences advocate structural changes in higher education, North-South institutional linkages, mobilization of the African Diaspora and funding. We propose a model African Scientific Network that would facilitate and enhance international scientific partnerships between African scientists and their counterparts elsewhere. A recent article by James Lamout (Financial Times, August 2, 2001) indicates that emigration from South Africa alone costs $8.9 billion in lost human resources. The article also stated that every year 23,000 graduates leave Africa for opportunities overseas, mainly in Europe, leaving only 20,000 scientists and engineers serving over 600 million people. The International Organization for Migration states that the brain drain of highly skilled professionals from Africa is making economic growth and poverty alleviation impossible across the continent. In our model we will focus on a possible networking mechanism where the African Diaspora will play a major role in addressing the financial and human resources needs of higher education in Africa
The use of ionizing radiation and radioactive sources is on the increase in the African region. All the African countries are involved in one or more medical applications of ionizing radiation, either for diagnosis or therapy. Industrial applications are equally well spread, either in the form nuclear gauging, industrial radiography or nuclear well logging, especially in the oil producing states. Furthermore, the ravaging energy poverty in the region against the continuing rise in population, and the rising global demand for low carbon emitting energy supplies to fuel sustainable development have resulted in demand for nuclear electricity in the region and the global demand for uranium, with which Africa is well endowed. This widening scope and intensity of applications call for greater concerns for safety and security. Maximum benefits of these applications can only be delivered if they are supported by a well developed regulatory infrastructure, which will enable Member States to control and minimize the associated risks through a functional, effective and efficient regulatory regime. There is therefore the need for adequate attention to the development of regulatory infrastructures commensurate with the magnitude and nature of the associated risks to be controlled and enhancement of the performance of regulatory bodies. It is against this background that the IAEA in 1994 launched an Interregional Model Project, Strengthening Radiation Protection Infrastructure, whose main objective was to eliminate the shortcomings in the safety infrastructure and control of radiation sources of Member States, including African countries. With the completion of the Model Project in 2004, the IAEA had continued over the past five years to strengthen regulatory infrastructure through the ongoing five thematic regional projects. In an effort to consolidate the achievements of the Model Project and to optimize the assistance of the IAEA and from other partners, regulatory bodies in
An intercomparison exercise on the measurement of personal dose equivalent Hp(10) was jointly organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers through its Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory in the African region. This intercomparison exercise was aimed at verifying the performance of the individual monitoring services of the participants in order to assess their capabilities to measure the quantity Hp(10) in photon (gamma and X ray) fields helping them to comply with dose limitation requirements. The scope of this intercomparison was aimed at passive dosemeters, which determine the personal dose equivalent in photon radiation fields, mainly for thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence dosemeters. Twenty-seven countries from the Africa region and from outside Africa participated in this exercise. The intercomparison protocol, including the preparation of the dosemeters and the irradiation procedures, is described and the results are presented, analysed and discussed. (authors)
Schüth, C.; Rausch, R.
Most of the regional aquifers in arid countries were recharged many thousand years ago when the climate was much wetter than today. Therefore, most of the groundwater stored in the aquifers is fossil water. The aquifers are in a state of constant depletion as recent groundwater recharge is much smaller than the outflow. A prerequisite for the smart management of such groundwater resources is a sound understanding of the aquifer system based on reliable data and robust simulation models. Mathematical groundwater models are one of the tools available that can consider a complex array of aquifer variables and allow these variables to interact with themselves. Exploring these interactions with a model can reveal how an aquifer behaves. Once a model is working properly, it can be used to make predictions for managing groundwater resources, such as predicting how groundwater levels might respond to increased pumping or drought, testing different management scenarios etc. Furthermore, groundwater models describing regional aquifers in arid regions must be considered to be in a transient state and consider the entire extent of the aquifer. The introduction of artificial boundaries is not possible and lead to wrong estimations. Within the modeling process the reduction and estimation of uncertainties is required, which leads to the “inverse problem” in groundwater modeling. Strategies for the reduction and estimation of uncertainties are needed. Problems are (1) the ill-posedness of parameter estimation, (2) that no unique solution may exist, and (3) that measurement errors make the results unreliable. Ways out are the reduction of degrees of freedom by introducing geological ‘a priori’ knowledge as well as the joint use of head, flow and/or concentration measurements, and the estimation of uncertainty. This concept is demonstrated by examples of model development for regional aquifers on the Arabian Peninsula, e.g. ‘a priori’ knowledge is introduced into the
Messager, C. [Laboratoire des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement - Unite Mixte de Recherche 5564 CNRS-UJF-INPG-IRD, BP53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Gallee, H. [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et de Geophysique de l' Environnement - Unite propre FRE2192 CNRS, 54, rue Moliere, 38042 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Brasseur, O. [Cellule Interregionale de l' Environnement, 10-11, Avenue des Arts, 1210 Bruxelles (Belgium)
The influence on precipitation of regional sea surface temperature (SST) during a drought period of the West African monsoon is determined, using a regional climate model (RCM). The results from three simulations of two realistic dry years are compared. The first two experiments are initialised and nested respectively in 1983 and 1984 reanalysis data sets. The third experiment is a hybrid simulation of 1983 which is the same as the first experiment except that the SST field is the 1984 SST. Precipitation from the RCM is compared with several precipitation data sets and, as in observations, the RCM reasonably simulates the West African monsoon (seasonal cycle and monsoon sub-period) for the two different years. In particular, the model reproduces stage by stage the motion of the monsoon band well: installation phase, high rain period with abrupt northward shift of the rain band, and the retreat southward phase. Interannual variability and wet or dry tendencies are also represented. The most significant effect of SST is shown by the hybrid simulation, when the regional SST appears as a major factor in the seasonal and interannual monsoon precipitation regime over the African continent (up to 12 N) although this influence is modulated both by the surface conditions (soil and vegetation) and by the reanalysis flow introduced at the lateral boundaries. Dynamically, a warmer SST leads to a decrease in the magnitude of the African Easterly Jet and an increase in northward equivalent water content transport (from equator to 12 N). (orig.)
Santiago, Isabel De; Miguel, José Pereira; Antunes, Francisco
In this work, Health Communication is considered as an important discipline in medicine and health sciences for his role as true determinant of health. We highlight their contribution to health promotion and disease prevention. Thus, the Health Communication Plan (PCS): Preventing the spread of Ebola virus disease in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries - KISS & KEYWORDS methodology is a tool that aims to minimize the risk of infection by Ebola virus in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries and also train for a general improvement of health conditions of the local populations. In the PCS design are especially considered the social and cultural contexts of the target populations, especially the customs, traditions and religion. Health Communication is considered as an Essential Function of Public Health and its main is to provide a population-based approach. The target of communication actions are population groups in addition to the individual communication, target-audiences are people without access to the media, in Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde and Sao Tome and Principe. Under the communication plan uses the methodology, models and practices both by media professionals as health. A proximity approach and cultural mediation, previously identified key facts, are defined objectives; outlines to the Plan in concrete and its implementation methodology (target-audience and following intervention, materials to be used and key-messages and partners to mobilize) following the World Health Organisation standards. PMID:26061502
Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Ahmed, Salwa F.; Cappuccinelli, Piero; Klena, John D.
Introduction Aeromonads of medical importance have been reported from numerous clinical, food, and water sources, but identification of genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species from countries in North Africa and the Middle East are few. Methods In total 99 Aeromonas species isolates from different sources (diarrheal children [n=23], non-diarrheal children [n=16], untreated drinking water from wells [n=32], and chicken carcasses [n=28]) in Tripoli, Libya, were included in the present investigation. Genus identification was confirmed by biochemical analysis, and genospecies were determined using a combination of 16S rDNA variable region and gyrB sequence analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect genes encoding toxins from 52 of the isolates. Results We identified 44 isolates (44%) as A. hydrophila (3 [3.0%] subspecies anaerogenes, 23 [23%] subspecies dhakensis, and 18 [18%] subspecies ranae); 27 isolates (27%) as A. veronii; 23 isolates (23%) as A. caviae; and 5 isolates (5.0%) as other genospecies. The genes encoding aerolysin (aer), cytolytic enterotoxin (act), and A. hydrophila isolate SSU enterotoxin (ast) were detected in 45 (87%), 4 (7.7%), and 9 (17%) of the 52 isolates tested, respectively. The gene encoding an extracellular lipase (alt) was not detected. Conclusion The majority of aeromonads from Libya fall within three genospecies (i.e. A. hydrophila, A. veronii, and A. caviae), and genes coding for toxin production are common among them. PMID:25216211
Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh
Full Text Available Introduction: Aeromonads of medical importance have been reported from numerous clinical, food, and water sources, but identification of genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species from countries in North Africa and the Middle East are few. Methods: In total 99 Aeromonas species isolates from different sources (diarrheal children [n=23], non-diarrheal children [n=16], untreated drinking water from wells [n=32], and chicken carcasses [n=28] in Tripoli, Libya, were included in the present investigation. Genus identification was confirmed by biochemical analysis, and genospecies were determined using a combination of 16S rDNA variable region and gyrB sequence analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to detect genes encoding toxins from 52 of the isolates. Results: We identified 44 isolates (44% as A. hydrophila (3 [3.0%] subspecies anaerogenes, 23 [23%] subspecies dhakensis, and 18 [18%] subspecies ranae; 27 isolates (27% as A. veronii; 23 isolates (23% as A. caviae; and 5 isolates (5.0% as other genospecies. The genes encoding aerolysin (aer, cytolytic enterotoxin (act, and A. hydrophila isolate SSU enterotoxin (ast were detected in 45 (87%, 4 (7.7%, and 9 (17% of the 52 isolates tested, respectively. The gene encoding an extracellular lipase (alt was not detected. Conclusion: The majority of aeromonads from Libya fall within three genospecies (i.e. A. hydrophila, A. veronii, and A. caviae, and genes coding for toxin production are common among them.
This article discusses the findings from a qualitative study which examined educators' perceptions of their contributions to the quest for sustainable peace in Burundi and the African Great Lakes region. The study looked at how educators representing different ethnic backgrounds, academic preparation, and currently employed at different levels…
K. Peltzer; Mpofu, E
Objective: To determine the facture structure of the HIVAntibody Testing Attitude Scale (HTAS) in an Africanpopulation.Method: 760 first-year African university students fromNigeria, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe weresurveyed using the HIV Antibody Testing Attitude Scale.Factor structure was determined by using the principalcomponent analysis with varimax rotation.Results: Five components accounting for 51% of thetotal variance were identified. The first factor(eigenvalue: 5.11) accounted...
Katja Vintar Mally
Full Text Available The paper focuses on the main characteristics and the latest trends in China’s economic co-operation with Africa, especially regarding the geographical implications of trade volume and structure, foreign direct investment, and development assistance. The second part of the paper presents key findings of empirical research in Angola, highlighting Angolan perception of economic ties to China as well as attitudes towards Chinese immigrants and their role in African society and economy.
Reinhart, Carmen; Asea, Patrick
During the early 1990s much has been written about the return of foreign private capital to many of the larger Asian and Latin American countries. However, until 1992 there was little evidence that countries in sub-Saharan Africa were participating in this phenomenon. In this paper we use variance decompositions and impulse responses from vector autoregressions to shed light on the possible causes and consequences of capital inflows to four countries: Ghana, Kenya, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. We us...
This paper documents the nature and importance of agricultural trade flows between the six Irish Aid programme countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and Ireland and the EU-15 over the period 1995-2003. The six countries are: Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Mozambique and Lesotho. Agricultural exports from these countries are highly specialised, with coffee, tea and fish and fish products dominating. There is some evidence that improved market access to the EU under the Everything But Arms initi...
Pustovit, Nataliya; Schmitz, P. Michael
Agricultural protection in industrialized countries and price distortions in developing countries are accused to hamper economic and agricultural development and are partly responsible for poverty and hunger in the Third World. A multi-commodity multi-country comparative static trade model is used to simulate the impact of different policy scenarios in this typical second best world for the case of South Africa. Special emphasis is given to the disincentive effect of production and to endogen...
Watkins, David A.; Tulloch, Nathaniel L.; Anderson, Molly E.; Barnhart, Scott; Steyn, Krisela; Levitt, Naomi S.
Background People living with HIV (PLHIV) in African countries are living longer due to the rollout of antiretroviral drug therapy programs, but they are at increasing risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). However, there remain many gaps in detecting and treating NCDs in African health systems, and little is known about how NCDs are being managed among PLHIV. Developing integrated chronic care models that effectively prevent and treat NCDs among PLHIV requires an understanding of the curr...
As of 31 December 1996, notifications of acceptance of the extension of the African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) (see INFCIRC/377), had been received by the Director General from the Governments of 20 African countries. Niger, Libya and Mali are added at the list of 17 countries reported in the previous addition of the document (INFCIRC/377/Add.7). Pursuant to Article XIV.2 of the original Agreement, the extension entered into force on 4 April 1995, upon expiration of the original Agreement, and will remain in force for an additional period of 5 years, i.e. through 3 April 2000
Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated
Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: email@example.com [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Boada, Luis D. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Carranza, Cristina [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Arellano, José Luis Pérez [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)
Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated
increasing cases of pollution of farmlands, rivers, wells and the environment in general. Apart from all these, what is even becoming more worrisome is that none of all these oil firms operating in the region is able to account on how it disposes its industrial toxic waste generated as a result of its industrial activities within the region. Finally Geological strata are adversely destroyed by seismographic activities, Sea creatures are destroyed by oil pollution and Means of livelihood of revering dwellers are often threatened by pollution. RECOMMENDATIONS After identifying how the pollution in the Gulf of Guinea region is increasing in relation to the increasing petroleum activities, I have come up with the following suggestions/recommendations. 1. AFRICAN UNION RESOLUTION The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in conjunction with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) should use their capacity to be able to influence the African Union (AU) to pass a resolution banning the illegal dumping of radioactive waste, Gas flaring and Costal bunkering in this part of the world. 2. RESEARCH AND INVESTIGATION The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, in conjunction with the United Nations Environmental Agency, the International Atomic Energy Agency and with the corporation of the African Union should send team of researchers to come and investigate this trend on petroleum pollution in the Gulf of Guinea region and proffer possible solutions in checking the menace.
I. Sithole-Niang; Cohen, J; Zambrano, P.
Metadata only record This article reports on the progress of public research and development of 21 genetically modified food crops in the countries of Egypt, Kenya, South Africa, and Zimbabwe, and presents policy, institutional, and regulatory suggestions that would facilitate the cultivation of GM crops by smallholder farmers in these countries. Available in SANREM office, ES
Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.
Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.
Maria Sousa Galito
Full Text Available Cheickna Bounajim Cissé wrote an article in Mars 2013 in the Journal Les Afriques N. º 237, suggesting a new acronym, MANGANESE, for the nine African countries: Morocco, Angola, Namibia, Ghana, Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, South Africa and Ethiopia. According to Cissé, this group of African nations will be the fastest growing states in the region over the next few years. The purpose of this article is to test the pertinence of the acronym, discuss the credibility and reliability of the future prospects of these countries by comparing selected socioeconomic and sociopolitical indicators based on the latest global rankings and trends. Likewise, the potential of Cissé's claim will be assessed, especially in relationship to drug trafficking and terrorism that may put their recent sustainability in danger now and in the future.
Shukla, P.R.; Dhar, Subash
India began gas imports since 2004 through liquified natural gas (LNG) route. Imports through trans-country gas pipelines could help in bringing gas directly into the densely populated Northern part of India, which are far from domestic gas resources as well as coastal LNG terminals. The purpose ...
Robin, M; Page, P; Archer, D; Baylis, M
African horse sickness (AHS) is an arboviral disease of equids transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. The virus is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and official AHS disease-free status can be obtained from the World Organization for Animal Health on fulfilment of a number of criteria. AHS is associated with case fatality rates of up to 95%, making an outbreak among naïve horses both a welfare and economic disaster. The worldwide distributions of similar vector-borne diseases (particularly bluetongue disease of ruminants) are changing rapidly, probably due to a combination of globalisation and climate change. There is extensive evidence that the requisite conditions for an AHS epizootic currently exist in disease-free countries. In particular, although the stringent regulations enforced upon competition horses make them extremely unlikely to redistribute the virus, there are great concerns over the effects of illegal equid movement. An outbreak of AHS in a disease free region would have catastrophic effects on equine welfare and industry, particularly for international events such as the Olympic Games. While many regions have contingency plans in place to manage an outbreak of AHS, further research is urgently required if the equine industry is to avoid or effectively contain an AHS epizootic in disease-free regions. This review describes the key aspects of AHS as a global issue and discusses the evidence supporting concerns that an epizootic may occur in AHS free countries, the planned government responses, and the roles and responsibilities of equine veterinarians. PMID:27292229
Sunesen, Eva Rytter
and Latin American countries can be fully explained by structural characteristics rather than fixed regional effects. The implication of this finding is that countries that are lagging behind other developing countries in attracting foreign capital have the opportunity to implement policies aimed at...
UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre
This Innocenti Insight examines the social dynamics of the abandonment of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) in five countries - Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Senegal and the Sudan - and seeks to inform policies and programmes aimed at ending the practice. The experiences from the five countries documented in this Innocenti Insight provide evidence that the abandonment of FGM/C is possible when programmes and policies address the complex social dynamics associated with the practice and chall...
Background: Although numerous studies have found deleterious effects of inbreeding on childhood and pre-reproductive mortality, one question remains inadequately addressed: Dose inbreeding lead to increased childhood mortality rates in countries with high level of consanguinity? Methods: To evaluate the public health impact of inbreeding on offspring mortality, the association between mean of inbreeding coefficient (α) and sex specific child and adult mortality rates in 24 countries ...
Lecher, Shirley; Ellenberger, Dennis; Kim, Andrea A; Fonjungo, Peter N; Agolory, Simon; Borget, Marie Yolande; Broyles, Laura; Carmona, Sergio; Chipungu, Geoffrey; De Cock, Kevin M; Deyde, Varough; Downer, Marie; Gupta, Sundeep; Kaplan, Jonathan E; Kiyaga, Charles; Knight, Nancy; MacLeod, William; Makumbi, Boniface; Muttai, Hellen; Mwangi, Christina; Mwangi, Jane W; Mwasekaga, Michael; Ng'Ang'A, Lucy W; Pillay, Yogan; Sarr, Abdoulaye; Sawadogo, Souleymane; Singer, Daniel; Stevens, Wendy; Toure, Christiane Adje; Nkengasong, John
To achieve global targets for universal treatment set forth by the Joint United Nations Programme on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (UNAIDS), viral load monitoring for HIV-infected persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) must become the standard of care in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) (1). CDC and other U.S. government agencies, as part of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, are supporting multiple countries in sub-Saharan Africa to change from the use of CD4 cell counts for monitoring of clinical response to ART to the use of viral load monitoring, which is the standard of care in developed countries. Viral load monitoring is the preferred method for immunologic monitoring because it enables earlier and more accurate detection of treatment failure before immunologic decline. This report highlights the initial successes and challenges of viral load monitoring in seven countries that have chosen to scale up viral load testing as a national monitoring strategy for patients on ART in response to World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Countries initiating viral load scale-up in 2014 observed increases in coverage after scale-up, and countries initiating in 2015 are anticipating similar trends. However, in six of the seven countries, viral load testing coverage in 2015 remained below target levels. Inefficient specimen transport, need for training, delays in procurement and distribution, and limited financial resources to support scale-up hindered progress. Country commitment and effective partnerships are essential to address the financial, operational, technical, and policy challenges of the rising demand for viral load monitoring. PMID:26605986
Full Text Available Background: Although numerous studies have found deleterious effects of inbreeding on childhood and pre-reproductive mortality, one question remains inadequately addressed: Dose inbreeding lead to increased childhood mortality rates in countries with high level of consanguinity? Methods: To evaluate the public health impact of inbreeding on offspring mortality, the association between mean of inbreeding coefficient (α and sex specific child and adult mortality rates in 24 countries from Asia and Africa was analyzed. Results: Statistical analysis showed that countries with relatively higher rates of consanguineous marriages have higher mortality rates than the countries with lower consanguinity rates. Also, countries with relatively higher GDP per capita have lower mortality rates. After controlling the GDP per capita, significant positive correlations between α and child (Female: r=0.4355, df=21, P=0.038; Male: r=0.3991, df=21, P=0.059 mortality rates were observed. There was no significant correlation between α and adult (Female: r=0.2977, df=21, P=0.168; Male: r=0.2207, df=21, P=0.312 mortality rates, after controlling for GDP per capita. Conclusion: It is concluded that consanguinity influences child deaths rate independent of the GDP per capita and that a large proportion of deaths could be attributed to inbreeding in several countries due to high frequencies of consanguinity.
This chapter presents the experience of two African Regional Economic Commissions (RECs) - East African Community (EAC), Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) - who, with assistance from the UNDP, have moved towards developing and implementing regional strategies to increase access to modern energy services (UNDP, 2006a). The Johannesburg consensus: access to energy underpins development and poverty reduction The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI) includes an emerging international consensus on the role of energy in sustainable development: 1) Energy services are an essential input to economic development and social progress, notably to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Energy services are necessary for successful implementation of almost all sectoral development programmes, notably revenue generating activities, health, education, water, food security, agricultural development, etc. Increased access to energy fuels economic growth and poverty reduction. 'The lack of modern fuels and electricity in most developing countries entrenches poverty, constrains the delivery of social services, limits opportunities for women, and erodes environmental sustainability' (UN-Energy, 2005). 2) Under current economic conditions, provision of energy services to poor populations in many developing countries is not attractive to market actors. Experience in the decades before and after Johannesburg had amply demonstrated the positive and negative aspects of a purely market based approach to the provision of energy services. On the positive side, in the power sector for instance, privatization and deregulation had in many cases reduced expenditure of public funds in support of money losing public utilities. However, on the negative side, these attempts only rarely achieved improvement in the quality or reliability of service in urban areas (see Chapter 3). In almost no cases had they achieved improvement in the rates of access to electricity in rural
Full Text Available Archaeological research into the origins of the cattle-keeping people of southwestern Uganda has overturned long-held beliefs about the separate origins of the pastoral and agricultural populations of the region. Study of indigenous political development and nineteenth-century colonialism shows that the present-day ethnic identities, which fuelled the genocide in Rwanda in 1994, are recent constructions.
In March 2009 a regional meeting on national strategies concerning nuclear fuel cycle and high level radioactive waste (HLRW) was held in Budapest with the participation of Central and Eastern European countries, Russia and France. Following the meeting a Task Force was set-up with fuel cycle experts from different countries in order to analyse the possible fuel cycle strategies in the region. The Task Force produced an Opinion Paper in spring 2010 on the Regional Strategies Concerning Nuclear Fuel Cycle and HLRW in Central and Eastern European Countries with several recommendations. The Opinion Paper emphasizes that the countries in the Central and Eastern European region are small, and they have modest NPP capacities compared to large nuclear countries. Spent fuel reprocessing facilities are not available in the region, but Russia and France offer such services for these countries. Deep geological repositories are not in operation in any of these countries, and in some of the countries the geological conditions do not allow to design such facilities. For these reasons the countries of the region may need special services and a regional approach could produce common benefit for waste management. (author)
Wambebe Charles; Kirigia Joses M; Baba-Moussa Amido
Abstract Background The Regional Committee for Africa of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2001 expressed concern that some health-related studies undertaken in the Region were not subjected to any form of ethics review. In 2003, the study reported in this paper was conducted to determine which Member country did not have a national research ethics committee (REC) with a view to guiding the WHO Regional Office in developing practical strategies for supporting those countries. Methods Thi...
Osborn, Michelle; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf
This paper uses mixed methods to provide comparative evidence across four African countries and identify those aspects of the testing experience that are the most important components of clients' satisfaction with services. We analyze data from three sources: a survey of clients at health facilities that included closed-ended questions about specific services and interactions around testing; responses to open-ended questions about testing experiences that were part of the same survey; and semi-structured interviews with a subsample of respondents who described their experience of testing and being diagnosed with HIV. High levels of reported satisfaction are found in both the survey and interview. The critical factors contributing to client satisfaction included: the three C's of testing-counseling, consent, and confidentiality, client-provider interactions, convenience of location, "good services", and reliable test results. PMID:26872848
Kirigia, Joses M; Oluwole, Doyin; Mwabu, Germano M; Gatwiri, Doris; Kainyu, Lenity H
WHO African region has got the highest maternal mortality rate compared to the other five regions. Maternal mortality is hypothesized to have significantly negative effect on the gross domestic product (GDP). The objective of the current study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to maternal mortality in the WHO African Region. The burden of maternal mortality on GDP was estimated using a double-log econometric model. The analysis is based on cross-sectional data for 45 of the 46 Member States in the WHO African Region. Data were obtained from UNDP and the World Bank publications. All the explanatory variables included in the double-log model were found to have statistically significant effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP) at 5 % level in a t-distribution test. The coefficients for land (D), capital (K), educational enrollment (EN) and exports (X) had a positive sign; while labor (L), imports (M) and maternal mortality rate (MMR) were found to impact negatively on GDP. Maternal mortality of a single person was found to reduce per capita GDP by US $ 0.36 per year. The study has demonstrated that maternal mortality has a statistically significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through land reform programs, capital investments, export promotion and increase in educational enrollment, they should always remember that investment in maternal mortality-reducing interventions promises significant economic returns. PMID:17348747
Groot, S.P.T.; Mohlmann, J.L.; Garretsen, H.; De Groot,, P.A.J.
This paper investigates the impact of the recent global recession on European countries and regions. We first present several stylized facts as to the heterogeneous impact of the global recession on individual European countries and regions. We then offer an investigation of three main classes of explanations for spatial heterogeneity in the severity of the crisis. The first is the extent to which countries are integrated in the global economy via financial and trade linkages. A second class ...
The aim of this paper is to examine the dynamics of women in cross border trade along ECOWAS sub region. West African region is noted significantly for high volume of trade that goes on within its borders on daily basis, and it involves formal and informal trade. However, informal trade is an integral, but unrecognized component of ECOWAS economic activities. Over, sixty percent of women are into informal trading across ECOWAS sub region, yet, there is gap in literature on the dynamics of the...
Degboe Arnold N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD. This double burden of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases has long-term public health impact as it undermines healthcare systems. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the socio-cultural context of CVD risk prevention and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss risk factors specific to the SSA context, including poverty, urbanization, developing healthcare systems, traditional healing, lifestyle and socio-cultural factors. Methodology We conducted a search on African Journals On-Line, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases using combinations of the key country/geographic terms, disease and risk factor specific terms such as "diabetes and Congo" and "hypertension and Nigeria". Research articles on clinical trials were excluded from this overview. Contrarily, articles that reported prevalence and incidence data on CVD risk and/or articles that report on CVD risk-related beliefs and behaviors were included. Both qualitative and quantitative articles were included. Results The epidemic of CVD in SSA is driven by multiple factors working collectively. Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and smoking contribute to the increasing rates of CVD in SSA. Some lifestyle factors are considered gendered in that some are salient for women and others for men. For instance, obesity is a predominant risk factor for women compared to men, but smoking still remains mostly a risk factor for men. Additionally, structural and system level issues such as lack of infrastructure for healthcare, urbanization, poverty and lack of government programs also drive this epidemic and hampers proper prevention, surveillance and
Oryema, B.; Jurua, E.; D'ujanga, F. M.; Ssebiyonga, N.
This paper presents the annual, seasonal and diurnal variations in ionospheric TEC along the African equatorial region. The study also investigated the effects of a geomagnetic storm on ionospheric TEC values. Dual-frequency GPS derived TEC data obtained from four stations within the African equatorial region for the high solar activity year 2012 were used in this study. Annual variations showed TEC having two peaks in the equinoctial months, while minima values were observed in the summer and winter solstices. The diurnal pattern showed a pre-dawn minimum, a steady increase from about sunrise to an afternoon maximum and then a gradual fall after sunset to attain a minimum just before sunrise. Nighttime enhancements of TEC were observed mostly in the equinoctial months. There was comparably higher percentage TEC variability during nighttime than daytime and highest during equinoxes, moderate in winter and least during summer solstice. TEC was observed to exhibit a good correlation with geomagnetic storm indices.
Wirth, T. C.; Troxler, T.
As signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developing countries are required to produce greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories every two years. For many developing countries, including many of those in Africa, this is a significant challenge as it requires establishing a robust and sustainable GHG inventory system. In order to help support these efforts, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has worked in collaboration with the UNFCCC to assist African countries in establishing sustainable GHG inventory systems and generating high-quality inventories on a regular basis. The sectors we have focused on for these GHG inventory capacity building efforts in Africa are Agriculture and Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) as these tend to represent a significant portion of their GHG emissions profile and the data requirements and methodologies are often more complex than for other sectors. To support these efforts, the U.S. EPA has provided technical assistance in understanding the methods in the IPCC Guidelines, assembling activity data and emission factors, including developing land-use maps for representing a country's land base, and implementing the calculations. EPA has also supported development of various tools such as a Template Workbook that helps the country build the institutional arrangement and strong documentation that are necessary for generating GHG inventories on a regular basis, as well as performing other procedures as identified by IPCC Good Practice Guidance such as quality assurance/quality control, key category analysis and archiving. Another tool used in these projects and helps country's implement the methods from the IPCC Guidelines for the Agriculture and LULUCF sectors is the Agriculture and Land Use (ALU) tool. This tool helps countries assemble the activity data and emission factors, including supporting the import of GIS maps, and applying the equations from the IPPC Guidelines to
trajectories of the introduction of adjustment programs. The analysis reveals that only few countries have shown positive and sustained results. The traditional (first-generation) Fund-Bank adjustment package is linked with sustained increase in Gross Domestic Product, export and investment growth rates only...
Gerardo Colón-Otero; Sherry King; Vandelyn Smith; Carolyn Bieber; Julia Crook; Solberg, Lawrence A.; Robert Shannon; Perez, Edith A.
A prospective analysis of women with terminal breast cancer admitted to CHNE from November 2006-August 2007 evaluated anecdotal observations that African American (AA) women are likelier than Caucasian women to evidence loco-regional recurrences (LRR). Women with terminal breast cancer who were admitted to CHNE, a not-for-profit hospice serving over 90% of Northeast Florida hospice patients, were eligible for participation. 134 terminal breast cancer patients were assessed by hospice nurses f...
Banana is a crop of major importance in the African Great Lakes Region, because of the food and cash it provides to about 85% of the population. Despite the management efforts of smallholder farmers, on-farm banana yields are low. Low yields are mainly attributed to poor soil fertility and limited input use, drought or irregular rainfall, pests and diseases and inappropriate management practices. Relying on observations on banana plants, crop management, pests and soils in various agro-ecoreg...
This thesis starts by arguing that the civil conflicts that erupted in the African Great Lakes are rooted in a continuous pursuit of power, in which ethnic, regional and political identifiers are used by the contenders for power to rally community support. In an introductory chapter, I go back to the colonial era, drawing attention to Burundi and Rwanda, and then describe in more details Burundi's refugee crisis, ex-combatants' demobilization and the 2010 elections, all of which will be addre...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of fevers remains enormous in sub-Saharan Africa. While several efforts at reducing the burden of fevers have been made at the macro level, the relationship between socioeconomic status and fever prevalence has been inconclusive at the household and individual levels. The purpose of this study was to examine how individual and household socioeconomic status influences the prevalence of fever among children under age five in four sub-Saharan African countries. Methods The study used data from the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS from Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Sierra Leone with a total of 38,990 children below age five. A multi-level random effects logistic model was fitted to examine the socioeconomic factors that influence the prevalence of fever in the two weeks preceding the survey. Data from the four countries were also combined to estimate this relationship, after country-specific analysis. Results The results show that children from wealthier households reported lower prevalence of fever in Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya. Result from the combined dataset shows that children from wealthier households were less likely to report fever. In general, vaccination against fever-related diseases and the use of improved toilet facility reduces fever prevalence. The use of bed nets by children and mothers did not show consistent relationship across the countries. Conclusion Poverty does not only influence prevalence of fever at the macro level as shown in other studies but also the individual and household levels. Policies directed towards preventing childhood fevers should take a close account of issues of poverty alleviation. There is also the need to ensure that prevention and treatment mechanisms directed towards fever related diseases (such as malaria, pneumonia, measles, diarrhoea, polio, tuberculosis etc. are accessible and effectively used.
Roger J. Chin, MA, MPA
Full Text Available Background: HIV and AIDS continue to have a calamitous effect on individuals living on the continent of Africa. U.S. President George W. Bush implemented the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR with the objective of committing approximately $15 billion from 2004 through 2008 to assist with the reduction of the HIV pandemic worldwide. The majority of the PEPFAR policy and funding focused on 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa: Botswana, Cote d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. The policy question this research paper seeks to analyze is whether the PEPFAR funding (as a % of Gross Domestic Product (GDP allocated to the 12 countries in Africa had any effect on the decrease of HIV infection rates of males and females between the ages of 15 and 49. Methods: A fixed-effects panel regression analysis was conducted to determine if this association exists. This study examined the 12 African countries that received PEPFAR funding over the years 2002 to 2010; even though PEPFAR was only active from 2004 through 2008, this research included two years prior and two years after this timeframe in order to better estimate the effect of PEPFAR funding on HIV reduction. Results: The results illustrate that on average, ceteris paribus, for every 1 percentage point increase in PEPFAR funding per GDP a country received, the country’s HIV infection rate decreased by 0.355 percentage points. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: While the empirical findings in this study suggested that the correlation between PEPFAR funding and HIV reduction is statistically significant, the practical significance is perhaps less obvious. Arguably, the reduction rate should be higher given the extent of funding targeted to this project. The conclusion of this research provides suggestions on future research and the policy implications of PEPFAR.
Kouřilová, Sylvie; Hřebíčková, Martina
Stockholm: European Association of Social Psychology , 2011. s. 113-113. [EASP General Meeting /16./. 12.07.2011-15.07.2011, Stockholm] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : intergroup contact * border regions * intergroup attitudes Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
This is a critical reflection on the results of a study that the French International Center for Pedagogical Studies (CIEP) piloted in 2008-2009 in five sub-Saharan African countries which were implementing curriculum reforms adopting the "competency-based approach". The article refers to a seminar on this process and the ideas expressed…
Djingarey, Mamoudou H.; Diomandé, Fabien V. K.; Barry, Rodrigue; Kandolo, Denis; Shirehwa, Florence; Lingani, Clement; Novak, Ryan T.; Tevi-Benissan, Carol; Perea, William; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; LaForce, F. Marc
Background. A group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) was developed specifically for the African “meningitis belt” and was prequalified by the World Health Organization (WHO) in June 2010. The vaccine was first used widely in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger in December 2010 with great success. The remaining 23 meningitis belt countries wished to use this new vaccine. Methods. With the help of African countries, WHO developed a prioritization scheme and used or adapted existing immunization guidelines to mount PsA-TT vaccination campaigns. Vaccine requirements were harmonized with the Serum Institute of India, Ltd. Results. Burkina Faso was the first country to fully immunize its 1- to 29-year-old population in December 2010. Over the next 4 years, vaccine coverage was extended to 217 million Africans living in 15 meningitis belt countries. Conclusions. The new group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine was well received, with country coverage rates ranging from 85% to 95%. The rollout proceeded smoothly because countries at highest risk were immunized first while attention was paid to geographic contiguity to maximize herd protection. Community participation was exemplary. PMID:26553672
Nadhem, Selmi; Nejib, Hachicha D
This paper is focused on examining the number of deaths’ increases participation in the propagating the Ebola virus during the period ranging from March to October 2014. An application of the MGARCH-DCC model regressions on four countries has led to discover that the finding that human contact play a significant role in transmitting the Ebola virus. Our findings also reveal that Guinea has already suffered from a spread-like virus originating from Sierra Lione and Liberia. Noteworthy also, ot...
Ahmed, Salwa F.; Cappuccinelli, Piero; Klena, John D.; Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw
Introduction: Aeromonads of medical importance have been reported from numerous clinical, food, and water sources, but identification of genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species from countries in North Africa and the Middle East are few.Methods: In total 99 Aeromonas species isolates from different sources (diarrheal children [n=23], non-diarrheal children [n=16], untreated drinking water from wells [n=32], and chicken carcasses [n=28]) in Tripoli, Libya, were included in the pr...
Rao, B. Bhaskara; Vadlamannati, Krishna Chaitanya
The relationship between globalization and economic growth in the developing countries remains controversial. Liberals argue that globalization will lead to higher economic growth and prosperity. Skeptics contend the opposite, where globalization processes might lead to increased inequality and lower economic growth. Previous studies have examined this issue with single indicators such as trade openness or foreign direct investment (FDI) or aid etc. In this study we make use of a comprehensiv...
Speizer Ilene S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender-based violence is an important risk factor for adverse reproductive health (RH. Community-level violence may inhibit young women's ability to engage in safer sexual behaviors due to a lack of control over sexual encounters. Few studies examine violence as a contextual risk factor. Methods Using nationally representative data from five African countries, the association between community-level physical or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV and the circumstances of first sex (premarital or marital among young women (ages 20-29 was examined. Results In Mali, and Kenya bivariate analyses showed that young women who had premarital first sex were from communities where a significantly higher percentage of women reported IPV experience compared to young women who had marital first sex. Multivariate analyses confirmed the findings for these two countries; young women from communities with higher IPV were significantly more likely to have had premarital first sex compared to first sex in union. In Liberia, community-level IPV was associated with a lower risk of premarital sex as compared to first sex in union at a marginal significance level. There was no significant relationship between community-level IPV and the circumstances of first sex in the Democratic Republic of Congo or Zimbabwe. Conclusion These findings indicate that context matters for RH. Individualized efforts to improve RH may be limited in their effectiveness if they do not acknowledge the context of young women's lives. Programs should target prevention of violence to improve RH outcomes of youth.
Matimba, Alice; Woodward, Richmond; Tambo, Ernest; Ramsay, Michele; Gwanzura, Lovemore; Guramatunhu, Solomon
Tele-ophthalmology using portable retinal imaging technology, mobile phone and Internet connectivity offers a solution to improve access to diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening services in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries where the burden of diabetes is increasing and there is limited access to eye care services and specialists. The Zimbabwe Retinopathy Telemedicine Project (ZRTP) established routine DR screening at a hospital-based diabetic clinic in the urban capital city, Harare. A handheld 'point and shoot' digital camera operated by a trained nurse was used to acquire retina images of 203 diabetic patients. A secured 'store-and forward' approach was set up and used for sharing and transfer of images to a retinal specialist at a remote site for reading. This method enabled detection of non-macular DR (11%), diabetic macular oedema (5%), cataract (5%) and glaucoma (6%) among the patients screened. ZRTP demonstrated the utility of tele-ophthalmology for routine retinal screening for diabetic patients in Zimbabwe who have limited access to eye care services. In addition, ZRTP showed how tele-ophthalmology services can provide an empirical framework for providing patient education, and a platform for research in the detection of DR. This approach could be used as a model to address the DR challenges in other countries in SSA. PMID:26407990
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol drinking is linked to the development of breast cancer. However, there is little knowledge about the impact of alcohol consumption on breast cancer risk among African women. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study among 2,138 women with invasive breast cancer and 2,589 controls in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Uganda from 1998 to 2013. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on alcohol consumption, defined as consuming alcoholic beverages at least once a week for six months or more. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (aOR and 95% confidence interval (CI. RESULTS: Among healthy controls, the overall alcohol consumption prevalence was 10.4%, and the prevalence in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Uganda were 5.0%, 34.6%, and 50.0%, respectively. Cases were more likely to have consumed alcohol (aOR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.33-1.97. Both past (aOR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.19-2.00 and current drinking (aOR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.30-2.23 were associated with breast cancer risk. A dose-response relationship was observed for duration of alcohol drinking (P-trend <0.001, with 10-year increase of drinking associated with a 54% increased risk (95% CI: 1.29-1.84. CONCLUSION: We found a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk, suggesting that this modifiable risk factor should be addressed in breast cancer prevention programs in Africa.
Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV testing with counseling is an integral component of most national HIV and AIDS prevention strategies in southern Africa. Equity in testing implies that people at higher risk for HIV such as women; those who do not use condoms consistently; those with multiple partners; those who have suffered gender based violence; and those who are unable to implement prevention choices (the choice-disabled are tested and can have access to treatment. Methods We conducted a household survey of 24,069 people in nationally stratified random samples of communities in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. We asked about testing for HIV in the last 12 months, intention to test, and about HIV risk behaviour, socioeconomic indicators, access to information, and attitudes related to stigma. Results Across the ten countries, seven out of every ten people said they planned to have an HIV test but the actual proportion tested in the last 12 months varied from 24% in Mozambique to 64% in Botswana. Generally, people at higher risk of HIV were not more likely to have been tested in the last year than those at lower risk, although women were more likely than men to have been tested in six of the ten countries. In Swaziland, those who experienced partner violence were more likely to test, but in Botswana those who were choice-disabled for condom use were less likely to be tested. The two most consistent factors associated with HIV testing across the countries were having heard about HIV/AIDS from a clinic or health centre, and having talked to someone about HIV and AIDS. Conclusions HIV testing programmes need to encourage people at higher risk of HIV to get tested, particularly those who do not interact regularly with the health system. Service providers need to recognise that some people are not able to implement HIV preventive actions and may not feel empowered to get themselves
Arne H Eide
Full Text Available There is an increasing awareness among researchers and others that marginalized and vulnerable groups face problems in accessing health care. Access problems in particular in low-income countries may jeopardize the targets set by the United Nations through the Millennium Development Goals. Thus, identifying barriers for individuals with disability in accessing health services is a research priority. The current study aimed at identifying the magnitude of specific barriers, and to estimate the impact of disability on barriers for accessing health care in general. A population based household survey was carried out in Sudan, Namibia, Malawi, and South Africa, including a total of 9307 individuals. The sampling strategy was a two-stage cluster sampling within selected geographical areas in each country. A listing procedure to identify households with disabled members using the Washington Group six screening question was followed by administering household questionnaires in households with and without disabled members, and questionnaires for individuals with and without disability. The study shows that lack of transport, availability of services, inadequate drugs or equipment, and costs, are the four major barriers for access. The study also showed substantial variation in perceived barriers, reflecting largely socio-economic differences between the participating countries. Urbanity, socio-economic status, and severity of activity limitations are important predictors for barriers, while there is no gender difference. It is suggested that education reduces barriers to health services only to the extent that it reduces poverty. Persons with disability face additional and particular barriers to health services. Addressing these barriers requires an approach to health that stresses equity over equality.
In the present globalization era an increasing attention is paid to the ambiguous relationship between international migration, brain drain, and economic growth, but few papers analyzed the growth impact of skilled migration. The paper filled the research gap by building the first dataset on brain drain from seven countries of the western African Union (WAEMU) and highlighted the size of the brain loss toward Côte d?Ivoire and France. Burkina Faso shows a more severe brain drain to Cote d?Ivo...
The government of Bangladesh recognizes population as the principal socioeconomic problem of the country. It therefore recently launched a multisectoral population control program involving eight ministries in a move to expand its narrow, clinic-based birth control program to a multi-dimensional family welfare program. The government of China also places the highest priority upon curbing population growth, with family planning programs in place to postpone marriage, encourage spaces of 3-5 years between births, and promote the one-child family. The government is directly involved in organizing the nationwide family planning campaign through various mass media and the party leadership. The government of India's interest in and commitment to lowering population fertility and growth rates have been apparent in all development plans since 1951. Its Seventh Five-Year Plan for the period 1986-90 aims to establish a two-child family norm and replacement fertility by 2000. The plan also has the goal of 31 million sterilizations, 21.3 million IUD insertions, and 62.5 million conventional contraceptive users by 1990. Indonesia's population policy is designed to reduce the rate of population growth, redistribute the population away from the urban center, adjust economic factors, and increase family prosperity. The Republic of Korea's Fifth Five-Year Plan for 1982-86 gives greater emphasis to social development than did previous plans. The government understands that rates of population growth and fertility are too high, and is working to integrate population and development policies and programs into all relevant sectors. The government of Malaysia is paying attention to contraceptive and reproductive health research to ensure that the methods are efficient, safe, and socially acceptable, while the government of Nepal has adopted a population control program as an integral component of its development strategies. Reducing the rate of population growth was an objective of
Paxian, A.; Sein, D.; Panitz, H.-J.; Warscher, M.; Breil, M.; Engel, T.; Tödter, J.; Krause, A.; Cabos Narvaez, W. D.; Fink, A. H.; Ahrens, B.; Kunstmann, H.; Jacob, D.; Paeth, H.
The West African monsoon rainfall is essential for regional food production, and decadal predictions are necessary for policy makers and farmers. However, predictions with global climate models reveal precipitation biases. This study addresses the hypotheses that global prediction biases can be reduced by dynamical downscaling with a multimodel ensemble of three regional climate models (RCMs), a RCM coupled to a global ocean model and a RCM applying more realistic soil initialization and boundary conditions, i.e., aerosols, sea surface temperatures (SSTs), vegetation, and land cover. Numerous RCM predictions have been performed with REMO, COSMO-CLM (CCLM), and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) in various versions and for different decades. Global predictions reveal typical positive and negative biases over the Guinea Coast and the Sahel, respectively, related to a southward shifted Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and a positive tropical Atlantic SST bias. These rainfall biases are reduced by some regional predictions in the Sahel but aggravated by all RCMs over the Guinea Coast, resulting from the inherited SST bias, increased westerlies and evaporation over the tropical Atlantic and shifted African easterly waves. The coupled regional predictions simulate high-resolution atmosphere-ocean interactions strongly improving the SST bias, the ITCZ shift and the Guinea Coast and Central Sahel precipitation biases. Some added values in rainfall bias are found for more realistic SST and land cover boundary conditions over the Guinea Coast and improved vegetation in the Central Sahel. Thus, the ability of RCMs and improved boundary conditions to reduce rainfall biases for climate impact research depends on the considered West African region.
Mogstad, Magne; Langørgen, Audun; Aaberge, Rolf
Abstract: The standard practice in most OECD countries is to measure and evaluate poverty on the basis of a poverty line defined as a specific proportion of the median equivalent income within a country. However, this approach disregards regional differences in prices and needs within a country and may, therefore, provide an incomplete and even an incorrect picture of the extent as well as the geographical and demographical composition of the poor. To account for differences in...
Energy plays a critical role in sustainable human development. It impacts on poverty, population, health, the environment, investment in industrial and agricultural development, foreign exchange and even security; it also has a strong gender implication. Policies aimed at providing energy services in a sustainable manner open doors to the achievement of a wide array of other development goals. However, the manner in which the world currently produces and consumes energy is unsustainable. A key challenge is to incorporate strategies to limit the potential negative impact of human activity on the global climate. Recognising these issues, national governments, bilateral co-operation agencies, and international development institutions have made efforts to promote the provision of energy services in ways which contribute to sustainable development. However, a number of barriers continue to limit the adoption of existing options. Building on the 1997 UNDP publication, Energy after Rio: Prospects and Challenges, the present report analyses the energy situation of two particular country groupings of global interest, Sub-Saharan Africa and ACP Small Island Developing States. It goes on to identify the actions required by different role-players to increase the adoption of sustainable energy options in these two groups. This publication is the result of a joint EC/UNDP initiative which aims to intensify the global dialogue on sustainable energy issues and to provide a basis for future concrete cooperation activities. It is the intention of the report to support developing countries in implementing more effectively the objectives of Agenda 21, and to contribute to the follow up to the Rio Earth Summit and the work of the Commission on Sustainable Development in preparation for its 9th Session in 2001. Coming at a critical time in the work of the European Commission, with the ongoing negotiation of a new framework development agreement to replace Lome IV, the report is an
Black, R; F. Fava; Mattei, N.; Robert, Vincent; Seal, S; Verdier, Valérie
This review is based on a study commissioned by the European Commission on the evaluation of scientific, technical and institutional challenges, priorities and bottlenecks for biotechnologies and regional harmonisation of biosafety in Africa. Biotechnology was considered within four domains: agricultural biotechnologies ('Green'), industrial biotechnologies and biotechnologies for environmental remediation ('White'), biotechnologies in aquaculture ('Blue') and biotechnologies for healthcare (...
The region of Subsaharan Africa is the most underdeveloped area in the world. There is the highest number of the Least Developed Countries of the world. The backwardness of the African countries takes effect by the poverty and heavy political, economical and social problems. The local governments, foreign investors and international organizations can improve the situation in African The Least Developed Countries.
Pavela, Roman; Benelli, Giovanni
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a huge threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide, since they act as vectors for important parasites and pathogens, including malaria, filariasis and important arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile and Zika virus. No vaccines or other specific treatments are available against the arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes, and avoidance of mosquito bites remains the best strategy. African regions are usually hit most whose inhabitants are poor, and the use of repellent plants is the only efficient protection against vectors they have. Ethnobotanical knowledge of such plants and their use is usually passed on orally from one generation to another. However, it is also important to preserve this information in a written form, as well. Ethnobotanical research projects carried out in the regions of today's Ethiopia, South Africa, Nigeria, Kenya, and Tanzania indicate that the native inhabitants of the African study regions traditionally use 64 plant species, belonging to 30 families. Aromatic plants (i.e., Citrus spp., Eucalyptus spp., Lantana camara, Ocimum spp. and Lippia javanica) the most commonly used in all the study regions. Native people know three major methods of using repellent plants: (i) production of repellent smoke from burning plants, (ii) hanging plants inside the house or sprinkling leaves on the floor, (iii) the use of plant oils, juices from crushed fresh parts of the plants, or various prepared extracts applied on uncovered body parts. Overall, this review covers studies conducted only in a limited part of the African continent, highlighting the importance to undertake further research efforts to preserve the unique knowledge and traditions of the native tribes. PMID:27260568
Shunqiang; SUN; Lu; CHEN; Ya; LI
Through comparison of direct grain production subsidy system in typical countries and regions,such as the United States,EU,Japan and South Korea,this paper evaluated the performance of direct grain production subsidy system. On the basis of comparison and analysis,it summed up experience of the direct grain production subsidy system in typical countries and regions. Finally,it came up with countermeasures and recommendations for improving the direct grain production subsidy system in China.
Rosero, Grace Carolina Guevara
Theoretical approaches have been developed to examine the effect of agglomeration on growth. However, the understanding of the mechanisms of agglomeration in developing countries remains unaddressed. This paper aims to give empirical evidence of the role of agglomeration on the growth of Latin American regions. The study of the subcontinent is crucial because of the evidence of a rapid pace of urbanization process. Using a database with information of 162 regions of 8 Latin American countries...
Trends in the world's population and energy use during the past decades show dramatic increases; and the demand for electricity, mainly from developing countries, is expected to increase more rapidly than the demand for other forms of energy. Besides, concern of climate change led to the need for production of significant amount of 'safe and clean' energy which in turn favours to nuclear option. Other alternative renewable sources like solar and wind can assist but currently they are short of supplying the required high energy demand either economically or/and in substantial amount. Nuclear option therefore remains a possible (developed) technology to fill this energy gap; and many countries including developing one show interest to make use of this energy source. In this paper the economic situations and energy production of six East Africa Sub-Saharan developing countries, with total population of 240 million were assessed, and 6.8% and 2.9% average GDP and population growth respectively registered in the last four years; however, their energy production in 2008 (est.) was 17.662 billion kWh, which is the least in the world. The contribution of inadequate energy and its poor coverage in hampering development, increase poverty and unstability were also analyzed. To come out of this cyclic challenge; it is recommended that countries based on regional economic cooperation should interconnect their electricity grid like EAPP and cooperate to invest commonly or unilaterally to launch Nuclear Power Programmes in relatively stable countries. Candid support of the international community is crucial, and IAEA should support and encourage such arrangements. It is also noted that the best candidate to start NP programme in these countries would be the worldwide dominant water cooled reactors. However, for countries with low grid capacity and to carry out projects in remote areas which are far-away from national grid systems or to desalinate water, considerations for smaller