Sample records for african american families

  1. An African-American family with dystonia.

    Puschmann, Andreas; Xiao, Jianfeng; Bastian, Robert W; Searcy, Jill A; LeDoux, Mark S; Wszolek, Zbigniew K


    The genetic cause of late-onset focal and segmental dystonia remains unknown in most individuals. Recently, mutations in Thanatos-associated protein domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1 (THAP1) have been described in DYT6 dystonia and associated with some cases of familial and sporadic late-onset dystonia in Caucasians. We are not aware of any previous descriptions of familial dystonia in African-Americans or reports of THAP1 mutations in African-Americans. Herein, we characterize an African-American (AA) kindred with late-onset primary dystonia, clinically and genetically. The clinical phenotype included cervical, laryngeal and hand-forearm dystonia. Symptoms were severe and disabling for several family members, whereas others only displayed mild signs. There were no accompanying motor or cognitive signs. In this kindred, age of onset ranged from 45 to 50 years and onset was frequently sudden, with symptoms developing within weeks or months. DYT1 was excluded as the cause of dystonia in this kindred. The entire genomic region of THAP1, including non-coding regions, was sequenced. We identified 13 sequence variants in THAP1, although none co-segregated with dystonia. A novel THAP1 variant (c.-237-3G>T/A) was found in 3/84 AA dystonia patient alleles and 3/212 AA control alleles, but not in 5870 Caucasian alleles. In summary, although previously unreported, familial primary dystonia does occur in African-Americans. Genetic analysis of the entire genomic region of THAP1 revealed a novel variant that was specific for African-Americans. Therefore, genetic testing for dystonia and future studies of candidate genes must take genetic background into consideration. PMID:21601506

  2. Family Support and Colorectal Cancer Screening among Urban African Americans

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Northouse, Laurel; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.


    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death among African Americans. Less than 50% of African Americans have had CRC screening. This study examined the relationships between family support and influence, cultural identity, CRC beliefs, and a screening informed decision among 129 urban African Americans. Family support (p < .01) significantly predicted CRC beliefs and CRC beliefs significantly predicted informed decision (p < .01). Based on study results, practitioners s...

  3. Work Stress in the Family Life of African Americans.

    Broman, Clifford L.


    Investigated the link between job-related stressors and family life among African Americans. Data from African Americans who participated in the America's Changing Lives survey indicated that job latitude positively affected marital harmony, and physical demands negatively affected marital harmony. Psychosocial demands, job bother, and chronic…

  4. Academic Growth Trajectories and Family Relationships among African American Youth

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; Lowe, Katie; McHale, Susan M.


    This study explored trajectories of African American youths’ academic functioning and assessed whether changes in parent-adolescent relationships were associated with changes in youths’ academic functioning. The data were drawn from a three-year longitudinal study of gender socialization and development in two-parent African American families and included 197 families. Findings revealed gender differences in achievement trajectories and indicated that boys not only had lower levels of academi...

  5. Sexual health communication within religious African-American families.

    Williams, Terrinieka T; Pichon, Latrice C; Campbell, Bettina


    While research suggests youth prefer parents and family members to serve as the primary sources of sexual health information, fear and discomfort around discussing sex with their parents may leave youth misinformed and underinformed. This study explored sexual heath communication within religious African-American families. Thirty adolescents participated in four focus groups, and 19 adults and 30 adolescents participated in six focus groups, at two predominantly African-American Christian churches in Flint, MI. All data were analyzed inductively using a constant comparison approach. Nearly all participants reported attending church weekly. Three themes emerged and are described: initiating sex talks, using mistakes as teaching tools, and clarifying prevention messages. Participants highlighted the need for religious parents to offer both religious and practical guidance to adolescents about sexual health. Findings from this study may be used to inform future sexual health promotion interventions for religious African-American families. PMID:24901449

  6. The Origins of African-American Family Structure.

    Ruggles, Steven


    Uses the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series to trace race differences in African American family structure between 1880 and 1980. Confirms a long-standing high incidence rate of single parenthood and children residing without their parents. Data also show blacks have had a consistently higher percentage of extended households than have whites.…

  7. Experiences and Learning Needs of African American Family Dementia Caregivers.

    Samson, Zoe Blake; Parker, Monica; Dye, Clinton; Hepburn, Kenneth


    Dementia family caregivers display significant rates of psychological and physical symptoms. African Americans (AAs) are disproportionately affected by dementia. African American caregivers display unique patterns of symptomology and responses to interventions designed to promote caregiver well-being. This study analyzed qualitative focus group data from 32 AA caregivers to explore how issues of race and culture may be incorporated into a culturally sensitive intervention for AA dementia family caregivers. Caregivers were asked scripted questions about their caregiving experiences and to suggest alterations to an existing psychoeducation program. Analysis revealed 4 key themes: the tradition of family care, caregiving and caregiving issues, culturally appropriate care, and navigating without a map. Suggestions for an educational program included a focus on developing caregiver skills and knowledge for caregiving, promotion of self-care, and reflection on the AA family and community as resources for care. PMID:26953236

  8. Family therapy with unmarried African American mothers and their adolescents.

    Becker, D; Liddle, H A


    Almost two-thirds of African American births are to unmarried mothers, and these single parents are among the most economically vulnerable in the United States. The effects of chronic stressors such as poverty can compromise the ability of these mothers to parent effectively, particularly during the developmental period of adolescence, typically a stressful phase of parenting. This article describes a multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) approach to working with African American adolescents who have drug and/or behavior problems. It is maintained that addressing the intrapersonal functioning of African American single mothers is vital if they are to re-establish the attachment bonds necessary for the maintenance of essential parental influence in the lives of their adolescents. Through systematic attention to the parent as an individual, leading to a balance between self-care and care for others, parental supervision is more easily achieved and relational impasses between parent and adolescent more equitably resolved. PMID:11802488

  9. Academic Growth Trajectories and Family Relationships among African American Youth

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; Lowe, Katie; McHale, Susan M.


    This study explored trajectories of African American youths’ academic functioning and assessed whether changes in parent-adolescent relationships were associated with changes in youths’ academic functioning. The data were drawn from a three-year longitudinal study of gender socialization and development in two-parent African American families and included 197 families. Findings revealed gender differences in achievement trajectories and indicated that boys not only had lower levels of academic achievement compared to girls, but also experienced steeper declines in school self-esteem during adolescence. Changes in parent-adolescent relationship quality were linked to changes in academic functioning: Increases in conflict were related to decreases in GPA, school bonding, and school self-esteem and increases in warmth were related to increases in school bonding and school self-esteem. PMID:27122959

  10. Seeing African Americans as Competent Parents: Implications for Family Counselors

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla


    One of the primary roles of parents is to guide and socialize children to make meaningful life choices. African American parents, in particular, have the additional tasks of preparing their children to thrive in an environment that has historically been hostile toward African Americans. Yet, many African American parents are often depicted as…

  11. African American Single Mothers Raising Sons: Implications for Family Therapy

    Gantt, Ann L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.


    Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of African American males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on African American single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of African American single…

  12. Family protective factors among urban African American youth.

    McCabe, K M; Clark, R; Barnett, D


    Examined the relations among family protective factors, stressful events, and behavioral adjustment of 64 African American 6th graders. The youths reported on family stressors, father-figure involvement, and kin support. Their primary caregivers reported on parenting, father-figure involvement, and family stressors. Teachers reported on child social skill deficits, acting out, and shy or anxious behavior. Based on regression analyses, stress exposure associated positively with child social skill deficits, acting out, and shy or anxious behavior. Parental warmth was associated negatively with shy or anxious behavior. Parental use of corporal punishment was associated positively with child acting out. For youth exposed to high numbers of family stressors, parental demandingness was associated negatively with child acting out and kin support was associated negatively with acting out and shy or anxious behavior, suggesting that these family factors partially shield children from the negative effects of stress. PMID:10353074

  13. Family matters: Familial support and science identity formation for African American female STEM majors

    Parker, Ashley Dawn

    This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical race feminism as the theoretical framework to answer the following questions: 1) What role does family play in the experiences of African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? 2) What factors impact the formation of science identity for African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? Purposive sampling was used to select the participants for this study. The researcher conducted in-depth interviews with 10 African American female undergraduate STEM major from a predominantly White and a historically Black institution with the state of North Carolina public university system. Findings suggest that African American families and science identity formation influence the STEM experiences of the African American females interviewed in this study. The following five themes emerged from the findings: (1) independence, (2) support, (3) pressure to succeed, (4) adaptations, and (5) race and gender. This study contributes to the literature on African American female students in STEM higher education. The findings of this study produced knowledge regarding policies and practices that can lead to greater academic success and persistence of African American females in higher education in general, and STEM majors in particular. Colleges and universities may benefit from the findings of this study in a way that allows them to develop and sustain programs and policies that attend to the particular concerns and needs of African American women on their campuses. Finally, this research informs both current and future African American female

  14. Stakeholder Perspectives on Barriers for Healthy Living for Low-Income African American Families

    Jones, Veronnie Faye; Rowland, Michael L.; Young, Linda; Atwood, Katherine; Thompson, Kirsten; Sterrett, Emma; Honaker, Sarah Morsbach; Joel E. Williams; Johnson, Knowlton; Davis, Deborah Winders


    Background: Childhood obesity is a growing problem for children in the United States, especially for children from low-income, African American families. Objective: The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand facilitators and barriers to engaging in healthy lifestyles faced by low-income African American children and their families. Methods: This qualitative study used semi-structured focus group interviews with eight African American children clinically identified as overwe...

  15. African American Families on Autism Diagnosis and Treatment: The Influence of Culture

    Burkett, Karen; Morris, Edith; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Anthony, Jean; Shambley-Ebron, Donna


    Cultural factors such as health care access and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom interpretations have been proposed as impacting delayed diagnosis and treatment for African American children with ASD. A qualitative study of urban African American families caring for their child with autism was conducted with 24 family members and 28 ASD…

  16. Trends in Themes of African American Family Research 1939-1989: A Synopsis.

    Davis, Lenwood G.


    Themes in research on African-American families between 1939 and 1989 are discussed, and the following recently developed themes are highlighted: (1) stress, (2) aging, (3) adoption, (4) prison, (5) polygamy, and (6) violence. Much more research is needed to provide better understanding of the African-American family. (SLD)

  17. Ethnic Differences in Family Stress Processes Among African-Americans and Black Caribbeans

    Goosby, Bridget J; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Bellatorre, Anna; Jackson, James S.


    Several theories of stress exposure, including the stress process and the family stress model for economically disadvantaged families, suggest that family processes work similarly across race/ethnic groups. Much of this research, however, treats African-Americans as a monolithic group and ignores potential differences in family stress processes within race that may emerge across ethnic groups. This study examines whether family stress processes differ intraracially in African-American and Bla...

  18. "Our Family Business Was Education": Professional Socialization among Intergenerational African-American Teaching Families

    Dingus, Jeannine E.


    Teacher socialization is primarily examined as an institutional-based phenomenon, with particular focus on individuals' PK-12 schooling experiences, teacher education programs, or workplace-based socialization. This study situates professional socialization experiences of African-American teachers within teaching families, examining how culturally…

  19. Long-Term Effects of the Strong African American Families Program on Youths' Alcohol Use

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Murry, Velma McBride; Brown, Anita C.


    Objective:This report extends earlier accounts by addressing the effects of the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program across 65 months. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) Rural African American youths randomly assigned to participate in SAAF would demonstrate lower rates of alcohol use than would control youths more than 5 years later, and…

  20. Family Adaptability and Cohesion and High Blood Pressure among Urban African American women

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Wu, Chun Yi


    African American women are at greater risk for complications related to high blood pressure. This study examined relationships between high blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, family adaptability, family cohesion and social support among 146 Urban African American women. Significant relationships were found between family adaptability and systolic blood pressure (p = .03) and between adaptability and pulse pressure (p ≤ .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely...

  1. A Review of Childrearing in African American Single Mother Families: The Relevance of a Coparenting Framework

    Jones, Deborah J.; Zalot, Alecia A.; Foster, Sarah E.; Sterrett, Emma; Chester, Charlene


    Clinical research on African American single mother families has focused largely on mother-child dyads, with relatively less empirical attention to the roles of other adults or family members who often assist with childrearing. This narrow definition of "family" fails to take into account the extended family networks which often provide support…

  2. The Trajectory of Coparenting Satisfaction in African American Families: The Impact of Sociocultural Stressors and Supports

    Riina, Elizabeth M.; McHale, Susan M.


    Based in family systems and ecological perspectives, this study expands the scope of coparenting research by: (a) charting the trajectory of coparenting satisfaction for mothers and fathers in two-parent African American families during their offspring's adolescence, and (b) examining the role of sociocultural stressors and supports for coparenting satisfaction. Participants were 192 African American mothers and fathers who reported on their coparenting satisfaction and both economic and cult...

  3. The Trajectory of Coparenting Satisfaction in African American Families: The Impact of Sociocultural Stressors and Supports

    Riina, Elizabeth M.; McHale, Susan M.


    Based in family systems and ecological perspectives, this study expands the scope of coparenting research by: (a) charting the trajectory of coparenting satisfaction for mothers and fathers in two-parent African American families during their offspring's adolescence, and (b) examining the role of sociocultural stressors and supports for coparenting satisfaction. Participants were 192 African American mothers and fathers who reported on their coparenting satisfaction and both economic and cultural stressors (economic strain and racial discrimination), and supports (socioeconomic resources and religiosity). Longitudinal growth curves revealed declines in coparenting satisfaction for fathers but not mothers over the course of offspring's adolescence. Findings were generally consistent with hypotheses that stressors were negatively, and supports, positively, related to average levels of coparenting satisfaction. Findings for racial discrimination and income differed by parent and highlighted gender dynamics within couple relationships. We discuss implications for understanding of normative family processes in African American families as these unfold within both family and broader sociocultural contexts. PMID:23066677

  4. Relational Factors and Family Treatment Engagement among Low-Income, HIV-Positive African American Mothers

    Mitrani, Victoria B.; Prado, Guillermo; Feaster, Daniel J.; Robinson-Batista, Carleen; Szapocznik, Josê


    Clinically derived hypotheses regarding treatment engagement of families of low-income, HIV-positive, African American mothers are tested using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Predictors are baseline family relational factors (family support, mother’s desire for involvement with family, and family hassles) and mother’s history of substance dependence. The study examines a subsample of 49 mothers enrolled in a clinical trial testing the efficacy of Structural Ecosystems...

  5. Parenting styles and child behavior in African American families of preschool children.

    Querido, Jane G; Warner, Tamara D; Eyberg, Sheila M


    Examined the relations between parenting styles and child behavior problems in African American preschool children. Participants were 108 African American female caregivers of 3- to 6-year-old children. Correlational analysis showed that parent-reported child behavior problems were associated with maternal education, family income, and parents' endorsement of authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, and permissive parenting. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the authoritative parenting style was most predictive of fewer child behavior problems. These results are consistent with previous findings with European American families and provide strong support for the cross-cultural validity of the authoritative parenting style. PMID:12056110

  6. Transactional Process of African American Adolescents' Family Conflict and Violent Behavior.

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Zimmerman, Marc A


    This is the first longitudinal study of urban African American adolescents that has examined bidirectional effects between their family conflict and violent behavior across all of high school. Structured interviews were administered to 681 students each year in high school at ages 15, 16 17, and 18 years. We used structural equation modeling to test a transactional model and found bidirectional effects between family conflict and violent behavior across the middle years of high school, while accounting for sex and socioeconomic status. Findings suggest a reciprocal process involving interpersonal conflict in African American families and adolescent engagement in youth violence. PMID:25400490

  7. Monitoring knowledge among family, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual partnership characteristics of African American adolescent females.

    Steiner, Riley J; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Rose, Eve; DiClemente, Ralph J


    Among 284 African American girls aged 14 to 17 years, frequent family monitoring knowledge was associated with a reduced likelihood of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and having a casual sex partner but was not associated with other partnership characteristics. Family monitoring may offer an additional STI prevention opportunity for this vulnerable population. PMID:25211255

  8. Influence of Family Perceptions of Acting White on Acculturative Stress in African American College Students

    Thompson, Keisha V.; Lightfoot, Nicole L.; Castillo, Linda G.; Hurst, Morgan L.


    This study examined family-oriented stressors on acculturative stress in 83 African American college students attending a predominately White university. Results showed that family pressure for participants not to acculturate, pressure to maintain ethnic group language, perception of Acting White, and acculturation level were related to higher…

  9. The Effects of Family Structure on African American Adolescents' Marijuana Use

    Mandara, Jelani; Rogers, Sheba Y.; Zinbarg, Richard E.


    The relationship between family structure and marijuana use throughout adolescence was assessed among 1,069 African Americans from the NLSY. A model was also tested suggesting that the effects of family structure on marijuana use would be mediated by poverty, neighborhood quality, and adolescents' self-control. As most prior studies have found,…

  10. Fun & Fit, Phase I: A Program for Overweight African American and Hispanic American Children from Low-Income Families

    Meaney, Karen S.; Hart, Melanie A.; Griffin, L. Kent


    Fun & Fit is a program designed to create positive physical activity experiences and to promote healthy lifestyle choices among overweight children from low-income African American and Hispanic American families. The program is a collaborative project between Texas Tech University and the Lubbock Independent School District funded through a grant…

  11. Cancer and African Americans

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  12. Novel PRRT2 mutation in an African-American family with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia

    Hedera Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, heterozygous mutations in PRRT2 (Chr 16p11.2 have been identified in Han Chinese, Japanese and Caucasians with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia. In previous work, a paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia locus was mapped to Chr 16p11.2 - q11.2 in a multiplex African-American family. Methods Sanger sequencing was used to analyze all four PRRT2 exons for sequence variants in 13 probands (9 Caucasian, 1 Caucasian-Thai, 1 Vietnamese and 2 African-American with some form of paroxysmal dyskinesia. Results One patient of mixed Caucasian-Thai background and one African-American family harbored the previously described hotspot mutation in PRRT2 (c.649dupC, p.R217Pfs*8. Another African-American family was found to have a novel mutation (c.776dupG, p.E260*. Both of these variants are likely to cause loss-of-function via nonsense-mediated decay of mutant PRRT2 transcripts. All affected individuals had classic paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia phenotypes. Conclusions Heterozygous PRRT2 gene mutations also cause paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia in African-Americans. The c.649dupC hotspot mutation in PRRT2 is common across racial groups.

  13. Family, Self, and Sociocultural Contributions to Body-Image Attitudes of African-American Women.

    Harris, Shanette M.


    Factors that influenced body-image attitudes were studied in 90 African American college women. Data analyses indicated that self and sociocultural variables were associated with evaluation of physical appearance, fitness, and investment in health. The relationship of family variables to body-image attitude is discussed. (SLD)

  14. Maternal Resources, Parenting Practices, and Child Competence in Rural, Single-Parent African American Families.

    Brody, Gene H.; Flor, Douglas L.


    Tested a model linking maternal/family characteristics to child cognitive and psychosocial competence in African-American 6- to 9-year olds in rural single-mother-headed households. Found that maternal education, religiosity, and financial resources were linked with parenting style, mother-child relationship, and maternal school involvement.…

  15. Parent Mentoring and Child Anticipatory Guidance with Latino and African American Families

    Farber, Michaela L. Z.


    Poor health and developmental outcomes for children are linked to scarcity of economic resources, various barriers in the delivery of health services, and inadequate parenting. To mitigate such adverse effects and address the needs of 50 high-risk, low-income Latino and African American families receiving well-baby care at an urban primary care…

  16. Predictors of Coparenting Relationship Quality in African American Single Mother Families: An Ecological Model

    Sterrett, Emma; Jones, Deborah J.; Forehand, Rex; Garai, Emily


    Nonmarital coparents, or adults who assist mothers with childrearing, play a significant role in the lives of African American single mothers and their children. Yet relatively little research has examined correlates of the quality of the coparenting relationship in these families. Using a broad ecological framework, the current study examined…

  17. Examining Relationships between Ethnic Identity, Family Environment, and Psychological Outcomes for African American Adolescents

    Street, Jalika; Harris-Britt, April; Walker-Barnes, Chanequa


    Ethnic identity has been linked to a number of healthy psychological outcomes for African American adolescents. The levels of conflict and cohesion in the family environment have also been found to be predictive of adolescent mental health. This study examined whether the ethnic identity and levels of conflict and cohesion in the family…

  18. Book review: the impact of racism on African American families: literature as social science by Paul C. Rosenblatt

    Bradbury, Janine


    In focusing on what literature can tell us about various aspects of African American life, including housing, earnings, assets, unemployment, household violence, teen pregnancy and encounters with the criminal justice system, Paul C. Rosenblatt hopes to fill a gap in the existing literature. Engaging with novels written by African American authors, this book seeks to explore their rich depictions of African American family life, showing how these can contribute to our sociological knowledg...

  19. Impact of Familial Factors and Psychopathology on Suicidality Among African American Adolescents

    Joe, Sean; Clarke, Jenell; Ivey, Asha Z.; Kerr, David; King, Cheryl A.


    Racial differences in familial factors, psychopathology, perceptions of social support, and socioeconomic status were examined in a matched sample of African American and White suicidal adolescents (N = 90) during a psychiatric hospitalization. Exploratory analyses suggest that significant differences were found in family support and its association with psychopathology, but most noteworthy were the many similarities between the two adolescent groups. The results presented in this study repre...

  20. Structural Ecosystems Therapy for HIV-Seropositive African American Women: Effects on Psychological Distress, Family Hassles, and Family Support

    Szapocznik, Jose; Feaster, Daniel J.; Mitrani, Victoria B.; Prado, Guillermo; Smith, Lila; Robinson-Batista, Carleen; Schwartz, Seth J.; Mauer, Magaly H.; Robbins, Michael S.


    This study tests the efficacy of Structural Ecosystems Therapy (SET), a family-ecological intervention, in improving psychosocial functioning when compared with an attention-comparison person-centered condition and a community control condition. A sample of 209 HIV-seropositive, urban, low-income, African American women was randomized into 1 of…

  1. Family MAASAI (Maintaining African-American Survival Achievement Integrity) Rites of Passage After-School Prevention Program. Operational Manual.

    Ford, Jerome, Comp.; Jackson, Anthony, Comp.; James, D'Borah, Comp.; Smith, Bryce, Comp.; Robinson, Luke, Comp.; Cherry, Jennifer, Comp.; Trotter, Jennie, Comp.; Harris, Archie, Comp.; Lenior, Sheila, Comp.; Bellinger, Mary Anne, Comp.

    Family MAASAI is a multiservice substance abuse prevention and intervention program for African American at-risk urban youth. The program commemorates the Maasai people of Africa and uses MAASAI as an acronym that stands for Maintaining African American Survival, Achievement, and Integrity. Cultural awareness, pride, and respect for self, elders,…

  2. Parent – Adolescent Relationship Qualities and Adolescent Adjustment in Two-Parent African American Families

    Stanik, Christine E.; Riina, Elizabeth M.; McHale, Susan M.


    Using multi-informant data from 134 two-parent African American families, the goals of this study were to (a) describe parent – adolescent warmth and shared time as a function of parent and youth gender and (b) assess links between these indices of relationship quality and adolescent adjustment. Mixed-model ANCOVAs revealed that mothers reported warmer relationships with adolescents than fathers, and both parents reported warmer relationships with younger versus older offspring. Interparental differences in time spent with sons and daughters and older and younger siblings were also found. Tests of multilevel models indicated that greater maternal warmth was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and less risky behavior for sons, and more paternal warmth and shared time with fathers were associated with less risky behavior in youth. Discussion highlights the utility of cultural ecological and family systems perspectives for understanding parent-adolescent relationships and youth adjustment in African American families. PMID:24532863

  3. African American Gay Family Networks: An Entry Point for HIV Prevention.

    Horne, Sharon G; Levitt, Heidi M; Sweeney, Kristin Kay; Puckett, Julia A; Hampton, Martavius L


    Gay families are constructed support networks that gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals of color form, often in response to societal marginalization and rejection from biological families. Research on these family structures has been scarce, with little focus on the experience of African American gay family networks in the South. The current grounded theory qualitative study focused on the experiences of 10 African American male and transgender individuals between the ages of 18 and 29 from gay families in the Mid-South, and explored the ways these families addressed safe-sex issues and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk prevention. Results revealed that families can play a role in either increasing HIV risk (e.g., ignoring HIV issues, encouraging such unsafe behaviors as exchanging sex for money or drugs, stigmatizing HIV-positive people) or decreasing it (e.g., intensive, family-level prevention efforts at safe-sex practices and family support for HIV treatment adherence). The potential of these family networks for HIV prevention and adherence efforts is considered. PMID:24992185

  4. Obesity and African Americans

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  5. Workplace discrimination predicting racial/ethnic socialization across African American, Latino, and Chinese families.

    Hagelskamp, Carolin; Hughes, Diane L


    Informed by Kohn and Schooler's (1969) occupational socialization framework, this study examined linkages between racial/ethnic minority mothers' perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination in the workplace and adolescents' accounts of racial/ethnic socialization in the home. Data were collected from 100 mother-early adolescent dyads who participated in a longitudinal study of urban adolescents' development in the Northeastern United States, including African American, Latino, and Chinese families. Mothers and adolescents completed surveys separately. We found that when mothers reported more frequent institutional discrimination at work, adolescents reported more frequent preparation for bias messages at home, across racial/ethnic groups. Mothers' experiences of interpersonal prejudice at work were associated with more frequent cultural socialization messages among African American and Latino families. Chinese youth reported fewer cultural socialization messages when mothers perceived more frequent interpersonal prejudice at work. Findings are discussed in the context of minority groups' distinct social histories and economic status in the United States. PMID:25133408

  6. Influences of Family Environment and Meditation Efficacy on Hemodynamic Function among African American Adolescents*

    Barnes, Vernon A.; Gregoski, Mathew J.; Tingen, Martha S.; Treiber, Frank A.


    This study examined the impact of breathing awareness meditation (BAM) compared to health education (HE) and lifeskills training (LS) upon resting systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) within the context of potential moderating factors of family environment and expectancy of benefit. 186 African American adolescents (mean age: 15.1±0.7 yrs) were randomly assigned by school to three-month BAM, LS, or HE interventions. Laboratory resting blood pressur...

  7. The Experience of Sexual Risk Communication in African American Families Living With HIV

    Cederbaum, Julie A.


    Mother-daughter communication plays an influential role in adolescent development. The impact of maternal HIV infection on family communication is not clear. This study explores how living with HIV impacts sexual risk communication between mothers and daughters and whether maternal HIV status influences adolescent choices about engagement in HIV risk behaviors. Data were collected from 12 African American women and 10 of their adolescent daughters through focus groups. Both mothers and daught...

  8. Coparenting Experiences in African American Families: An Examination of Single Mothers and their Non-Marital Coparents

    Gonzalez, Michelle; Jones, Deborah J.; Parent, Justin


    African American youth from single mother homes continue to be overrepresented in statistics on risk behavior and delinquency, a trend that many be attributed to father-absence, socioeconomic disadvantage, and compromises in parenting more typical of single than two-parent families. Yet, this risk-focused perspective ignores a long-standing strength of the African American community, the involvement and potential protective impact of extended family members in childrearing. This study describ...

  9. Financial strain, parenting behaviors, and adolescents' achievement: testing model equivalence between African American and European American single- and two-parent families.

    Gutman, L M; Eccles, J S


    This study tested the equivalence of a theoretical model of parenting behaviors linking financial strain to adolescents' achievement for African American and European American families and for single- and two-parent families. The sample included an economic cross-section of African American (n = 387) and European American families (n = 230) from single- (n = 171) and two-parent (n = 446) homes. Multi-group analyses revealed no significant differences in the structural equation models between the African American and European American families, or between the single- and two-parent families. Results demonstrated that negative parent-adolescent relationships and parental school involvement mediated the relation between financial strain and adolescents' academic achievement. PMID:10621967

  10. Discrimination concerns and expectations as explanations for gendered socialization in African American families.

    Varner, Fatima; Mandara, Jelani


    Discrimination concerns and parental expectations were examined as mediators of the relations between gender and parenting practices among 796 African American mothers of 11- to 14-year-olds from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study. Mothers of sons had more concerns about racial discrimination impacting their adolescents' future, whereas mothers of daughters had more gender discrimination concerns. Racial discrimination concerns, but not gender discrimination concerns, were related to lower maternal academic and behavioral expectations. Maternal expectations were related to mothers' responsiveness, rule enforcement, monitoring, and parent-adolescent conflict. The relations between gender and parenting practices were partially explained through mothers' racial discrimination concerns and expectations. These findings demonstrate the importance of contextual factors on African American family processes. PMID:23199216

  11. Longitudinal Effects of Family Factors on Alcohol Use among African American and White Non-Hispanic Males during Middle School

    Horton, E. Gail; Gil, Andres


    This study examined the longitudinal effects of five family factors (familism, parent derogation, parent-child communication, family alcohol problems, and family drug problems) on intensity of alcohol use among a sample of 451 African American and White non-Hispanic males from early to mid-adolescence (sixth through eighth grades). Results…

  12. Sibling Relationships and Adolescent Adjustment: Longitudinal Associations in Two-Parent African American Families.

    Whiteman, Shawn D; Solmeyer, Anna R; McHale, Susan M


    Sibling relationships have been described as love-hate relationships by virtue of their emotional intensity, but we know little about how sibling positivity and negativity operate together to affect youth adjustment. Accordingly, this study charted the course of sibling positivity and negativity from age 10 to 18 in African American sibling dyads and tested whether changes in relationship qualities were linked to changes in adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Participants were consecutively-born siblings [at Time 1, older siblings averaged 14.03 (SD = 1.80) years of age, 48 % female; younger siblings averaged 10.39 (SD = 1.07) years of age, 52 % female] and two parents from 189 African American families. Data were collected via annual home interviews for 3 years. A series of multi-level models revealed that sibling positivity and sibling negativity declined across adolescence, with no significant differences by sibling dyad gender constellation. Controlling for age-related changes as well as time-varying parent-adolescent relationship qualities, changes in sibling negativity, but not positivity, were positively related to changes in adolescents' depressive symptoms and risky behaviors. Like parent-adolescent relationships, sibling relationships displayed some distancing across adolescence. Nevertheless, sibling negativity remained a uniquely important relational experience for African American adolescents' adjustment. PMID:25893573

  13. Family health advocacy: an empowerment model for pregnant and parenting African American women in rural communities.

    Baffour, Tiffany D; Jones, Maurine A; Contreras, Linda K


    The model of family health advocacy built firmly upon principles of empowerment theory seeks to help individuals, families, and communities to improve their circumstances by incorporating multiple levels of intervention. The goal of family health advocacy is to improve the well-being of pregnant women and mothers of children younger than 2 years by providing social support and health education about risk factors related to infant mortality and prematurity. This program primarily targets rural African American women, a group at high risk. Advocacy and referral for needed medical and social services are provided. This article presents a comprehensive model of health advocacy, including social marketing strategies, recruitment efforts, and curriculum development. PMID:16775472

  14. Literacy Practices in the Homes of African American Families and the Perceived Affects on the Language and Literacy Development of Their Children

    Davis, Delilah A.


    The purpose of this study was to explore the tenacities, practices, and discourse of family-based literacy practices and their connection in African American families. It scrutinized the influence of the practices of African American families on the multiple contexts of literacy practices in their passageway across the school-community periphery.…

  15. A Qualitative Analysis of Family Support and Interaction among African American College Students at an Ivy League University

    Barnett, Marina


    The support that the African American college students from predominantly White campuses get from the families and other kinship networks is analyzed. It is concluded that the family support helps in reducing stress level among college students and provides an emotional support to them.

  16. Feasibility of an 8-week African American Web-based Pilot Program Promoting Healthy Eating Behaviors: Family Eats

    To assess log-on rates and change in mediating variables achieved from a web-based nutrition intervention for African American families, a parent and 9- to 12-year-old daughter (n=67 families) completed questionnaires measuring dietary change mediating variables. Overall log-on rate was 59%. Signifi...

  17. Heart Disease and African Americans

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  18. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    ... African American > Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 times the infant mortality rate ... birthweight as compared to non-Hispanic white infants. African Americans had almost twice the sudden infant death syndrome ...

  19. Meaningful Learning with African American Families: The Freedom Quilt FunPacks

    Powell-Mikle, Angiline; Patton, Mary Martin


    Despite some characterization as being uninvolved in the education of their children, African American parents have always valued education and recognized it as the key to economic and political freedom. Despite laws in the United States prohibiting the education of slaves, African Americans were the first southerners to campaign for universal,…

  20. Work Socialization and Adolescents' Work-Related Values in Single-Mother African American Families

    Toyokawa, Teru; McLoyd, Vonnie C.


    This study examined African American mothers' work socialization messages in relation to adolescents' work-related values. Moderation effects of mother-adolescent relation quality on the linkage between maternal socialization messages and adolescents' outcomes were also examined. Participants were 245 single African American mothers and their…

  1. African Americans and Glaucoma

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't ...

  2. Diabetes in African Americans

    Marshall, M.


    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of t...

  3. Maternal resources, parenting practices, and child competence in rural, single-parent African American families.

    Brody, G H; Flor, D L


    A family process model was tested that linked maternal education, maternal religiosity, and the adequacy of family financial resources to cognitive and psychosocial competence in the mothers' children. The sample included 156 6- to 9-year-old African American children living in single-mother-headed households in rural areas, 82% of whom lived in poverty. The distal variables of maternal education, maternal religiosity, and adequacy of financial resources were linked with the proximal variables of "no nonsense" parenting, mother-child relationship quality, and maternal involvement in the child's school activities. The proximal variables were, in turn, indirectly linked with children's cognitive competence, social competence, and internalizing problems through their association with the children's development of self-regulation. PMID:9680686

  4. African American Suicide

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...

  5. Influences of Family Environment and Meditation Efficacy on Hemodynamic Function among African American Adolescents*

    Barnes, Vernon A.; Gregoski, Mathew J.; Tingen, Martha S.; Treiber, Frank A.


    This study examined the impact of breathing awareness meditation (BAM) compared to health education (HE) and lifeskills training (LS) upon resting systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) within the context of potential moderating factors of family environment and expectancy of benefit. 186 African American adolescents (mean age: 15.1±0.7 yrs) were randomly assigned by school to three-month BAM, LS, or HE interventions. Laboratory resting blood pressure (BP), Family Relations Index (FRI) and expectancy of benefit evaluations were conducted at pre- and post-intervention. Higher expectancy of benefit from any of the three interventions resulted in greater reductions in SBP. A two-way interaction indicated that BAM group subjects who came from positive family environments exhibited greater decreases in SBP. A two-way interaction indicated that BAM and LS subjects who came from positive family environments exhibited greater DBP decreases. A two-way interaction indicated that BAM subjects who came from positive family environments exhibited a greater HR decrease (all p<.05). Expectancy of intervention benefits beneficially impacted success of behavioral interventions aimed at reducing SBP. Positive family environments in combination with either BAM or LS appear to have a beneficial impact upon hemodynamic function in AA adolescents. PMID:22328869

  6. Evaluation findings from genetics and family health history community-based workshops for African Americans

    Manswell Butty, Jo-Anne; Richardson, Finie; Mouton, Charles P.; Royal, Charmaine D. M.; Green, Rodney D.; Munroe, Kerry-Ann


    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation and effectiveness of community education workshops to change genetics and health-related knowledge, intentions, and behavior of urban African Americans. Eight workshops were held and 183 participants consented to participate in the study. A majority of the participants were African American (97%) and female (84%) and just over half were 65 years and older (60%), and had some high school or were high school graduates (52%). The commun...

  7. Needs and Concerns of Family Caregivers of American Indians, African Americans, and Caucasians With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Scarton, Lisa J; Bakas, Tamilyn; Poe, G Doug; Hull, Margie A; Ongwela, Loice A; Miller, Wendy R


    Although type 2 diabetes is a chronic illness affecting the entire family, scant literature exists in this area. This study's purpose was to identify needs of family caregivers of persons with type 2 diabetes across cultures. Using a semi-structured interview guide with open-ended questions, a convenience sample of 33 family caregivers of American Indians (n = 14), African Americans (n = 11), and Caucasians (n = 8) with type 2 diabetes were interviewed by telephone. Qualitative content analysis was conducted based on five pre-determined categories derived from an existing conceptual model. Results were similar across groups and provided support for the conceptual model with themes emerging within the five pre-determined categories: (a) information about type 2 diabetes, (b) managing emotions and behaviors, (c) physical care, (d) instrumental care, and (e) personal responses to caregiving. No additional themes emerged. Although small and exploratory, findings provide information that may be useful to the future development of culturally based interventions. PMID:25505159

  8. Maternal resources, parenting, and dietary patterns among rural African American children in single-parent families.

    Lee, E Juanita; McBride Murry, Velma; Brody, Gene; Parker, Veronica


    A correlation study was designed to test the hypothesis that maternal education, perceived family resources, and the importance of family routines would be related to children's dietary patterns. Additionally, the study examined the hypothesis that dietary patterns would be associated with children's cognitive and physical abilities. The sample for this study included 159 African American single-mother families with a 6- to 9-year-old child living in rural areas, most of whom lived in poverty. Children's eating patterns were assessed using a self-report questionnaire administered to the mother in an interview format. Children's cognitive ability was measured by several subscales from the Woodcock Johnson Psycho-Educational Instrument and the Harter Perceived Competence Scale for children. For male children, the mother's higher education was related to more adequate eating patterns at home, and more perceived family resources were related to the likelihood of taking vitamin supplements. For female children, greater milk intake was positively related to cognitive outcomes, including applied problem, passage comprehension, calculation, synonym identification, antonym identification, and quantitative concept scores. Milk intake was clearly related to more optimal cognitive development. The results of this study support the literature related to the importance of nutrition for cognitive and physical abilities in children. PMID:11860595

  9. Validation of a Multidimensional Assessment of Parenting Styles for Low-Income African-American Families with Preschool Children.

    Coolahan, Kathleen; McWayne, Christine; Fantuzzo, John; Grim, Suzanne


    Examined the construct and concurrent validity of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire-Head Start (PBQ-HS) with low-income African-American families with preschoolers, and whether parenting styles differed by caregiver characteristics. Derived Active-Responsive, Active-Restrictive, and Passive-Permissive parenting dimensions; the last differed…

  10. Sharing Information about Peer Relations: Parent and Adolescent Opinions and Behaviors in Hmong and African American Families

    Brown, B. Bradford; Bakken, Jeremy P.; Nguyen, Jacqueline; Von Bank, Heather G.


    Despite sharing similar attitudes regarding the information about peers that parents have a right to know, the strategies African American and Hmong families use to seek or censor information about peers diverge because of ethnic differences in emphasis on trust, nurturing autonomy, respect for parental authority, and maintaining cultural…

  11. Family Planning Knowledge: The Role of Social Networks and Primary Care Providers as Information Sources for African American Women

    Blackstock, Oni J.; Mba-Jonas, Adamma; Sacajiu, Galit M.


    Disparities in the rates of unintended pregnancy have increased for low-income African American women as compared to other groups due, in part, to declining contraception use. Women obtain family planning information from diverse sources, which may ultimately influence contraceptive decision making. For this qualitative study, we conducted…

  12. Family, peer, and neighborhood influences on academic achievement among African-American adolescents: one-year prospective effects.

    Gonzales, N A; Cauce, A M; Friedman, R J; Mason, C A


    Using a 1-year prospective design, this study examined the influence of family status variables (family income, parental education, family structure), parenting variables (maternal support and restrictive control), peer support, and neighborhood risk on the school performance of 120 African American junior high school students. In addition to main effects of these variables, neighborhood risk was examined as a moderator of the effects of parenting and peer support. Family status variables were not predictive of adolescent school performance as indexed by self-reported grade point average. Maternal support at Time 1 was prospectively related to adolescent grades at Time 2. Neighborhood risk was related to lower grades, while peer support predicted better grades in the prospective analyses. Neighborhood risk also moderated the effects of maternal restrictive control and peer support on adolescent grades in prospective analyses. These findings highlight the importance of an ecological approach to the problem of academic underachievement within the African American Community. PMID:8864209

  13. Parental Perceptions of Home Internet Use among Rural African American Families

    Smith, Jeananne Oldham


    Despite the growth of home Internet use over the past decade, disparities still exist among certain socioeconomic groups of the population. Rural, lower socioeconomic and African Americans fall further behind in technology access than any other group. The purpose of this ex post facto qualitative study was to investigate parental perceptions…

  14. Development and Validation of the Adolescent Racial and Ethnic Socialization Scale (ARESS) in African American Families

    Brown, Tiffany L.; Krishnakumar, Ambika


    Racial and ethnic socialization are an integral part of African American parenting strategies. Varied conceptualizations and operationalizations of racial and ethnic socialization exist within the literature with limited evidence of the validity of existing measures. The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive definition of racial and…

  15. Identity Transformation and Family Caregiving: Narratives of African American Teen Mothers

    Brubaker, Sarah Jane; Wright, Christie


    This article explores connections between informal caregiving and identity transformation as experienced by pregnant teens. Based on in-depth interviews with 51 African American teen mothers, the article examines teens' pregnancy narratives as an example of narrative repair, illuminating how attending to processes that connect one's identity to…

  16. Family and Sociodemographic Predictors of School Readiness among African American Boys in Kindergarten

    Baker, Claire E.; Cameron, Claire E.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Grissmer, David


    Research Findings: Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999, were used to examine the relation between parenting, sociodemographic characteristics, and school readiness among (N = 1,136) African American boys in kindergarten. Parenting was defined as parenting style (i.e., warmth and control), home learning…

  17. Discrimination Concerns and Expectations as Explanations for Gendered Socialization in African American Families

    Varner, Fatima; Mandara, Jelani


    Discrimination concerns and parental expectations were examined as mediators of the relations between gender and parenting practices among 796 African American mothers of 11- to 14-year-olds from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study. Mothers of sons had more concerns about racial discrimination impacting their adolescents' future,…

  18. Transitions to Engagement among Low-Income Cohabiting African American Couples: A Family Perspective for Policy

    Chaney, Cassandra; Monroe, Pamela


    With passage of the Welfare Reform Law of 1996, various national, state, and local programs were created to encourage marriage, particularly among low-income African American cohabiting couples with children. However, policy makers know little about the deterrents to marriage for members of this group. More specifically, there is a lack of data…

  19. Daughter-Father Relationships and Adolescent Psychosocial Functioning in Low-Income African American Families.

    Coley, Rebekah Levine


    Examines the role of biological and social fathers in the lives of low-income African American adolescent girls. Analyses indicated that daughters' perceptions of anger and alienation from fathers was related to greater emotional and behavioral problems for adolescents, whereas perceptions of trust and communication with fathers were not…

  20. "Mom Made Me Do It": The Role of Family in African Americans' Decisions to Enroll in Doctoral Education

    McCallum, Carmen M.


    Large disparities exist among African Americans and other cultural groups in doctoral degree enrollment and degree attainment. To address this concern, scholars have focused on why African Americans do not pursue doctoral degrees. Although informative, this deficit perspective does not explain the factors that encourage African Americans to enroll…

  1. Processes Linking Social Class and Racial Socialization in African American Dual-Earner Families

    Crouter, Ann C.; Baril, Megan E.; Davis, Kelly; McHale, Susan M.


    We examined the links between social class, occupational self-direction, self-efficacy, and racial socialization in a sample of 128 two-parent African American couples raising adolescents. A series of multivariate, multilevel models revealed that mothers’ SES was connected to self-efficacy via its association with occupational self-direction; in turn, self-efficacy partially explained the association between occupational self-direction and racial socialization. The link between maternal self-...

  2. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  3. "It’s like Big Mama’s house": Examining Extended Family Influences on the Dietary Behaviors of African American Children

    Brown, Natasha A.; Thornton, Rachel L. J.; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Surkan, Pamela J.; Levine, David M.


    The family environment plays an important role in influencing children’s dietary behaviors. Traditionally, African American extended family members play a key role in child socialization. We examine the role of extended families in how children are socialized to adopt dietary norms. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 24 individuals across eight family units to elicit information regarding the influences of culture and families on children’s dietary behaviors. Findings sugg...

  4. Cigarette Smoking among African American Youth from Single Mother Homes: Examining the Roles of Maternal Smoking and Positive Parenting within an Extended Family Framework

    Foster, Sarah E.; Zalot, Alecia A.; Jones, Deborah J.


    The current study examined the main and interactive effects of three family context variables, maternal smoking, positive parenting behavior, and the quality of the mother's relationship with another adult or family member who assists with parenting (i.e., coparent), and adolescent smoking among African American youth from single mother homes. The…

  5. Body Size and Social Self-Image among Adolescent African American Girls: The Moderating Influence of Family Racial Socialization

    Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.


    Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the…

  6. Immunizations and African Americans

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease ... 13 to 17 years who ever received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, 2014 - Males # doses ... 240-453-2882 Office of Minority Health Resource Center Toll Free: 1-800-444-6472 / Fax: ...

  7. Parenting and preschooler attachment among low-income urban African American families.

    Barnett, D; Kidwell, S L; Leung, K H


    This study examined the parental correlates of child attachment in a preschool-aged, economically disadvantaged, urban, African American sample. Sixty-nine 4- to 5-year-olds and their primary caregivers participated in the Strange Situation assessment procedure. Based on Cassidy and Marvin's classification system for preschoolers, 61% of the children were classified as securely attached, with girls being significantly more likely to be securely attached than boys (74% versus 45%). The majority of the insecure attachments were of the avoidant variety. Consistent with attachment theory, parents of securely attached children were rated as significantly more warm and accepting and less controlling with their children than were parents of insecurely attached preschoolers. Relative to parents of securely attached preschoolers, parents of children judged to be insecurely attached reported being more likely to use corporal punishment and less likely to use verbal reminders when their children misbehaved. Parenting was associated with attachment over and above the effects of child sex. PMID:9914645

  8. Mother-adolescent conflict in African American and European American families: the role of corporal punishment, adolescent aggression, and adolescents' hostile attributions of mothers' intent.

    MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol; Lindsey, Eric W; Frabutt, James M; Chambers, Jessica Campbell


    The present study examined mothers' use of corporal punishment and adolescents' aggression as predictors of mother-youth conflict during early adolescence. Particular attention was given to the potential mediating role that adolescents' hostile attributions of intent (HAI) regarding mothers' behavior might play in connections between corporal punishment, youth aggression, and mother-adolescent conflict for European American (EA) and African American (AA) youth. Data were collected from 268 12- to 14-year-olds (154 European American; 114 African American; 133 girls; 135 boys) and their mothers over a period of 2 years. Questionnaires completed by both mothers and adolescents were used to assess maternal corporal punishment and adolescent aggression, and interviews concerning hypothetical situations were used to assess adolescent HAI in year one. In both year one and year two mother-adolescent conflict was observed in a laboratory interaction session. Data revealed that adolescent HAI mediated the link between maternal corporal punishment and mother-adolescent conflict for EA, but not AA youth. Adolescents' HAI mediated the link between adolescent aggression and mother-adolescent conflict for both EA and AA families. PMID:25086461

  9. The Role of Coparents in African American Single-Mother Families: The Indirect Effect of Coparent identity On Youth Psychosocial Adjustment

    Parent, Justin; Jones, Deborah J.; Forehand, Rex; Cuellar, Jessica; Shoulberg, Erin K.


    The majority (67%) of African American youth live in single-parent households, a shift in the family structure that has been linked to increased risk for both internalizing and externalizing problems behaviors. Although the majority of single mothers endorse the assistance of another adult or family member in childrearing, relatively little is known about who is engaged in this non-marital coparenting role (i.e., grandmother, father/social father, aunt, and female family friend) and how it re...

  10. Facilitators and barriers to hypertension self-management in urban African Americans: perspectives of patients and family members

    Flynn SJ


    Full Text Available Sarah J Flynn,1,2 Jessica M Ameling,1,2 Felicia Hill-Briggs,1–3 Jennifer L Wolff,4,5 Lee R Bone,1,3 David M Levine,1,4 Debra L Roter,3 LaPricia Lewis-Boyer,1,2 Annette R Fisher,6 Leon Purnell,6 Patti L Ephraim,2,7 Jeffrey Barbers,1,2 Stephanie L Fitzpatrick,1,2 Michael C Albert,1,8 Lisa A Cooper,1,2 Peter J Fagan,9,10 Destiny Martin,1 Hema C Ramamurthi,1,2 L Ebony Boulware1,2,7 1Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Health, Behavior, and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 4Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5Division of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 6Community and Provider Advisory Board, Johns Hopkins Center to Eliminate Cardiovascular Health Disparities, Baltimore, MD, USA; 7Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 8Johns Hopkins Community Physicians, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA; 9Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 10Johns Hopkins HealthCare LLC, Glen Burnie, MD, USA Introduction: We aimed to inform the design of behavioral interventions by identifying patients’ and their family members’ perceived facilitators and barriers to hypertension self-management. Materials and methods: We conducted focus groups of African American patients with hypertension and their family members to elicit their views about factors influencing patients’ hypertension self-management. We recruited African American patients with hypertension (n = 18 and their family members (n = 12 from an urban, community-based clinical

  11. Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans

    ... American > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans Among African Americans, chronic liver disease is a ... white women. At a glance – Cancer Rates for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100,000 – ...

  12. Long-Term Patterns of Drug Use Among an Urban African-American Cohort: The Role of Gender and Family

    Doherty, Elaine Eggleston; Green, Kerry M.; Reisinger, Heather Schacht; Ensminger, Margaret E.


    Cross-sectional analyses and the little existing longitudinal analyses on substance use over the life course have been integral in providing information about the epidemiology of substance use in the United States. However, it is unclear whether these estimates provide an accurate portrayal of long-term substance use patterns among African-American men and women who have grown up in an inner city environment. The current study uses longitudinal data from a community cohort of African-American...

  13. Exploring the Role of Parental Monitoring of Peers on the Relationship between Family Functioning and Delinquency in the Lives of African American and Hispanic Adolescents

    Dillon, Frank R.; Pantin, Hilda; Robbins, Michael S.; Szapocznik, Jose


    This cross-sectional study explores potential mediating effects of parental monitoring of peers on three adolescent problem behaviors (externalizing behavior, drug use, sexual risk behavior) among juvenile delinquents and their families. Participants are 190 African American and Hispanic adolescents and parent guardians enrolled in a family…

  14. Knowledge about type 2 diabetes risk and prevention of African-American and Hispanic adults and adolescents with family history of type 2 diabetes

    The purpose of this study was to assess type 2 diabetes knowledge, perceptions, risk factor awareness, and prevention practices among African-American and Hispanic families with a history of diabetes. Ninth and tenth grade Houston area students who had a parent who spoke English or Spanish and had a...

  15. Financial Resources, Parent Psychological Functioning, Parent Co-Caregiving, and Early Adolescent Competence in Rural Two-Parent African-American Families.

    Brody, Gene H.; And Others


    Examined relationships between family financial resources, academic competence, and socioemotional adjustment during early adolescence. Subjects were 90 African American youths and their married parents in the rural South. Found that parents with greater financial resources were less depressed and more optimistic, and their children were better…

  16. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Apr 18, ... of getting those diseases are even higher for African-Americans. The good news is, African-Americans can ...

  17. Mothers' Academic Gender Stereotypes and Education-Related Beliefs about Sons and Daughters in African American Families

    Wood, Dana; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Okeke-Adeyanju, Ndidi


    The role of African American mothers' academic gender stereotype endorsement in shaping achievement-related expectations for and perceptions of their own children was examined. Mothers (N = 334) of 7th and 8th graders completed measures of expectations for their children's future educational attainment, perceptions of their children's academic…

  18. Maternal Control and Sensitivity, Child Gender, and Maternal Education in Relation to Children's Behavioral Outcomes in African American Families

    Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Briggs, Rahil D.; McClowry, Sandra G.; Snow, David L.


    This study examined relationships between mother-child interactions and children's behaviors in 119 urban African American mothers and their 6-7 year old children. Interactions during a cooking task and a follow-up child clean-up task were videotaped. Principal components analyses of behaviors during the cooking task yielded two factors in mothers…

  19. The Mommy and Me Play Program: a pilot play intervention for low-income, African American preschool families.

    Wright, Linnie Green


    In this study the author examined the effects of a dyadic, mother-paired play intervention-The Mommy and Me Play Program-an innovative intervention program designed using a live-action modeling technique in which mothers serve as "natural helpers" to each other. By identifying natural strengths in mothers and employing opportunities for scaffolded learning, this intervention aimed to enhance mother-child play interactions and children's social and emotional competence. Fifty mother-child dyads from a single, low-income, African American, urban community were assessed in this study on measures of mother-child play interactions and children's social and emotional competency. Results from this pilot were not statistically significant, but provide important information regarding future research with this intervention program. These preliminary findings indicated that mothers with fewer play skills pre-intervention demonstrated improvement in their play skills post-intervention beyond other intervention participants; and children of those same mothers showed the greatest decrease in angry and aggressive behaviors in the classroom when compared to other participating children from pre- to post-intervention. Implications for research and practice in community-based, intervention work with low-income, ethnic-minority families are discussed. PMID:25747586

  20. Contributions of family environment and parenting processes to sexual risk and substance use of rural African American males: a 4-year longitudinal analysis.

    Murry, Velma M; Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie G; Gibbons, Frederick X


    This study sought to identify factors that forecast sexual risk and alcohol or other substance use patterns among 411 rural African American males as they transitioned from middle childhood to late adolescence. In addition, an exploration was undertaken to examine the contribution of both risk and protective factors in distinguishing rural African American males at highest risk for engaging in risky sexual behavior and elevated substance use from those with relatively low risk of engaging in these behaviors. Findings revealed that exposure to negative life events during middle childhood has prognostic significance for rural African American males' susceptibility to engaging in HIV-related risk behaviors as they transition into adolescence and young adulthood. High-risk engaging males had significantly higher means on susceptibility to risk and marginally significantly higher means on substance-using peer affiliation. High-risk rural African American males also reported lower means on involved-vigilant parent than the normative group (low-risk group). However, economic hardship, family stress, parental psychological functioning, and harsh and inconsistent parenting did not emerge as significant predictors of high- or low-risk group membership. The implication for future research and preventive interventions is discussed. PMID:23889021

  1. Family Structure and Psychosocial Correlates among Urban African-American Adolescent Males.

    Zimmerman, Marc A.; And Others


    Substance use and delinquency, well-being, and social support were compared across 5 family constellations among 254 adolescent black males. The only difference found was that subjects living in single-mother households reported more parental support than those from other family structures. Data on father/male role model relationships challenged…

  2. Black Moms and “White Motherhood Society”: African-American Middle-Class Mothers’ Perspectives on Work, Family and Identity

    Dow, Dawn


    African-American middle-class mothers have historically been structurally, culturally, and economically excluded from the practices related to hegemonic frameworks of mothering and parenting that have been described and critiqued by family and work life scholars. Collectively these frameworks make three theoretical assumptions: 1) mothers are principally responsible for raising children, 2) working outside of the home conflicts with being a mother and 3) middle-class mothers share beliefs ab...

  3. African American Students' Attitudes toward Entrepreneurship Education.

    Ede, Fred O.; Panigrahi, Bhagaban; Calcich, Stephen E.


    A survey of 171 African-American students found that 72% came from nonentrepreneurial family backgrounds; only 24.5% intended to start their own businesses, there were no gender differences in entrepreneurship attitudes, and seniors and those from entrepreneurial backgrounds were more favorable toward entrepreneurship. (SK)

  4. African American College Women's Suicide Buffers.

    Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.


    To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…

  5. Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans

    The EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans is a free comprehensive multimedia curricula for health professionals caring for persons with cancer and their families.

  6. Mental Health and African Americans

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease Diabetes Heart Disease Hepatitis HIV/AIDS Immunizations Infant Heath & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and Tissue Donation Stroke Stay Connected ...

  7. Neighborhood & Family Effects on Learning Motivation among Urban African American Middle School Youth

    Whitaker, Damiya; Graham, Camelia; Severtson, Stevan Geoffrey; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Latimer, William


    Motivational theorists in psychology have moved away from individual-based approaches to socio-cognitive and socio-ecological models to explain student engagement and motivation for learning. Such approaches consider, for example, the influence of family and neighborhood environments as important constructs in youth behavior. In this study, links…

  8. The Experience of Sexual Risk Communication in African American Families Living with HIV

    Cederbaum, Julie A.


    Mother-daughter communication plays an influential role in adolescent development. The impact of maternal HIV infection on family communication is not clear. This study explores how living with HIV impacts sexual risk communication between mothers and daughters and whether maternal HIV status influences adolescent choices about engagement in HIV…

  9. Vitamin D and African Americans

    Vitamin D insufficiency is more prevalent among African Americans than other Americans and, in North America, most young, healthy blacks do not achieve optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations at any time of the year. This is primarily due to the fact that pigmentation reduces vitamin D...

  10. The Healthy African American Families' risk communications initiative: using community partnered participatory research to address preterm birth at the local level.

    Jones, Loretta; Wright, Kynna; Wright, Aziza; Brown, Neysa Dillon; Broussard, Marsha; Hogan, Vijaya


    Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant death for African Americans and is significantly associated with lifelong morbidity. Primary prevention efforts using medical strategies to reduce the rates of preterm birth have been unsuccessful. Using community partnered participatory processes, the Healthy African American Families project in Los Angeles developed a multilevel, risk communications strategy to promote awareness about preterm birth in the local community. Participants included community members, community-based organizations, local government, healthcare providers, and national-level advocates. The initiative focused on increasing social support for pregnant women, providing current information on preterm birth risks, and improving quality of health services. The initiative includes components addressing community education, mass media, provider education, and community advocacy. Products include 100 Intentional Acts of Kindness toward a Pregnant Woman, a doorknob brochure on signs and symptoms of preterm labor, and an education manual on preterm birth and other African American health issues. Cooperation, affiliation, and community self-help were key aspects of the planning process and the health promotion products. Additional community benefits included increased leadership and skills development. The process and products described here may be useful in other communities and for addressing other health outcomes in communities of color. PMID:20629244

  11. Sample Size and Repeated Measures Required in Studies of Foods in the Homes of African-American Families123

    Stevens, June; Bryant, Maria; Wang, Chin-Hua; Cai, Jianwen; Bentley, Margaret E.


    Measurement of the home food environment is of interest to researchers because it affects food intake and is a feasible target for nutrition interventions. The objective of this study was to provide estimates to aid the calculation of sample size and number of repeated measures needed in studies of nutrients and foods in the home. We inventoried all foods in the homes of 80 African-American first-time mothers and determined 6 nutrient-related attributes. Sixty-three households were measured 3...

  12. Translating Culture: Contemporary African American Poetry

    Kristina Kočan Šalamon


    The paper interrogates cultural specifics of contemporary African American poetry and exhibits translation problems when translating this poetic work. African American writers have always included much of their cultural heritage in their writing and this is immediately noticed by a translator. The cultural elements, such as African American cuisine, attire and style in general, as well as spiritual and religious practices, often play a significant role for African American poets who are procl...

  13. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano


    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  14. Wellness among African American Counselors

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl


    Although there are various definitions of wellness, few conceptual definitions have addressed the contextual dimensions of wellness relative to African American counselors. The authors present an overview of generic models of wellness, discuss factors that both inhibit and promote wellness, offer some culture-specific models of wellness, and…

  15. Perceptions of African American and European American Teachers on the Education of African American Boys

    Bacon, Ellen; Banks, Joy; Young, Kathryn; Jackson, Francesina R.


    The authors interviewed 27 teachers (16 African American and 11 European American) on instructional factors contributing to overidentification of behavior problems in African American boys. Interviews focused on teachers' perspectives of effective teachers, teacher-student relationships, and communication styles. Analysis of the interviews showed…

  16. Developing programs for african families, by african families

    Halliday, Jennifer A; Green, Julie; Mellor, David;


    Obesity is an emerging problem for African migrants in Australia, but few prevention programs incorporate their cultural beliefs and values. This study reports on the application of community capacity-building and empowerment principles in 4 workshops with Sudanese families in Australia. Workshop...... effects of physical activity and nutrition to improve health within communities while reducing intergenerational and gender role family conflicts.......Obesity is an emerging problem for African migrants in Australia, but few prevention programs incorporate their cultural beliefs and values. This study reports on the application of community capacity-building and empowerment principles in 4 workshops with Sudanese families in Australia. Workshop...

  17. Unique and protective contributions of parenting and classroom processes to the adjustment of African American children living in single-parent families.

    Brody, Gene H; Dorsey, Shannon; Forehand, Rex; Armistead, Lisa


    The unique contributions that parenting processes (high levels of monitoring with a supportive, involved mother-child relationship) and classroom processes (high levels of organization, rule clarity, and student involvement) make to children's self-regulation and adjustment were examined with a sample of 277 single-parent African American families. A multi-informant design involving mothers, teachers, and 7- to 15-year-old children was used. Structural equation modeling indicated that parenting and classroom processes contributed uniquely to children's adjustment through the children's development of self-regulation. Additional analyses suggested that classroom processes can serve a protective-stabilizing function when parenting processes are compromised, and vice versa. Further research is needed to examine processes in both family and school contexts that promote child competence and resilience. PMID:14717257

  18. Development of an Innovative Process Evaluation Approach for the Families Improving Together (FIT) for Weight Loss Trial in African American Adolescents

    Alia, Kassandra; Wilson, Dawn K.; McDaniel, Tyler; St. George, Sara M.; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Smith, Kelsey; Heatley, VaShawn; Wise, Courtney


    This study demonstrates how a multi-theoretical, multilevel process evaluation was used to assess implementation of Families Improving Together (FIT) for weight loss intervention. FIT is a randomized controlled trial evaluating a culturally tailored, motivational plus family-based program on weight loss in African American adolescents and their parents. Social Cognitive, Self Determination, Family Systems theories and cultural tailoring principles guided the conceptualization of essential elements across individual/family, facilitator, and group levels. Data collection included an observational rating tool, attendance records, and a validated psychosocial measure. Results. Attendance records (0=absent, 1=present, criteria=≥70%) indicated that 71.5% of families attended each session. The survey (1=false, 6=true, criteria=≥4.5) indicated that participants perceived a positive group climate (M=5.16, SD=.69). A trained evaluator reported that facilitator dose delivered (0=no, 1=yes, criteria=≥75%) was high (99.6%), and fidelity (1=none to 4=all, criteria=≥3) was adequate at facilitator (M=3.63, SD=.41) and group levels (M=3.35, SD=.49). Five cultural topics were raised by participants related to eating (n=3) and physical activity (n=2) behaviors and were integrated as part of the final curriculum. Discussion. Results identify areas for program improvement related to delivery of multi-theoretical and cultural tailoring elements. Findings may inform future strategies for implementing effective weight loss programs for ethnic minority families. PMID:25614139

  19. African American Diaspora

    Angela Brown


    The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that le...

  20. Brief report: Explaining differences in depressive symptoms between African American and European American adolescents.

    Mrug, Sylvie; King, Vinetra; Windle, Michael


    African American adolescents report more depressive symptoms than their European American peers, but the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. This study examines whether risk factors in individual, family, school, and community domains explain these differences. African American and European American adolescents participating in the Birmingham Youth Violence Study (N = 594; mean age 13.2 years) reported on their depressive symptoms, pubertal development, aggressive and delinquent behavior, connectedness to school, witnessing violence, and poor parenting. Primary caregivers provided information on family income and their education level, marital status, and depression, and the adolescents' academic performance. African American adolescents reported more depressive symptoms than European American participants. Family socioeconomic factors reduced this difference by 29%; all risk factors reduced it by 88%. Adolescents' exposure to violence, antisocial behavior, and low school connectedness, as well as lower parental education and parenting quality, emerged as significant mediators of the group differences in depressive symptoms. PMID:26580552

  1. Characterizing the admixed African ancestry of African Americans

    Zakharia, Fouad; Basu, Analabha; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Go, Alan S.; Hlatky, Mark A.; Iribarren, Carlos; Knowles, Joshua W.; Li, Jun; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Sidney, Steven; Southwick, Audrey; Myers, Richard M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Risch, Neil


    Abstract Background Accurate, high-throughput genotyping allows the fine characterization of genetic ancestry. Here we applied recently developed statistical and computational techniques to the question of African ancestry in African Americans by using data on more than 450,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 94 Africans of diverse geographic origins included in the...

  2. Urban African American Pre-Adolescent Social Problem Solving Skills: Family Influences and Association with Exposure to Situations of Sexual Possibility

    Traube, Dorian E.; Chasse, Kelly Taber; McKay, Mary M.; Bhorade, Anjali M.; PAIKOFF, ROBERTA; Young, Stacie D.


    The results of two studies focusing on the social problem solving skills of African American preadolescent youth are detailed. In the first study data from a sample of 150 African American children, ages 9 to 11 years, was used to examine the association between type of youth social problem solving approaches applied to hypothetical risk situations and time spent in unsupervised peer situations of sexual possibility. Findings revealed that children with more exposure to sexual possibility sit...

  3. Process Evaluation of the Project SHINE Intervention for African American Families: An Integrated Positive Parenting and Peer Monitoring Approach to Health Promotion.

    St George, Sara M; Wilson, Dawn K; McDaniel, Tyler; Alia, Kassandra A


    This study describes the process evaluation of Project SHINE, a randomized family-based health promotion intervention that integrated parenting and peer monitoring for improving sedentary behavior, physical activity, and diet in African American families. Adolescent-parent dyads (n = 89) were randomized to a 6-week behavioral, positive parenting, and peer monitoring skills intervention or a general health education comparison condition. Process evaluation included observational ratings of fidelity, attendance records, psychosocial measures, and qualitative interviews. Results indicated that the intervention was delivered with high fidelity based on facilitator adherence (>98% of content delivered) and competent use of theoretically based behavior change and positive parenting skills (100% of ratings >3 on a 1-4 scale). Although only 43% of peers attended the "bring a friend" session, overall attendance was high (4.39 ± 1.51 sessions) as was the retention rate (88%). Parents in the intervention condition reported significant improvements in communication related to adolescents' engagement in health behaviors both on their own and with peers. These findings were supported by qualitative themes related to improvements in family communication and connectedness. This study provides an innovative example of how future family-based health promotion trials can expand their process evaluation approaches by assessing theoretically relevant positive parenting variables as part of ongoing monitoring. PMID:27084025

  4. African American Fathers' Contributions to Children's Early Academic Achievement: Evidence from Two-Parent Families from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort

    Baker, Claire E.


    Research Findings: This study utilized a large sample ("N" = 750) of 2-parent families from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort to examine the contributions of African American fathers' home literacy involvement, play activities, and caregiving at 24 months to children's reading and math achievement in…

  5. Female genital mutilation in African and African American women's literature

    Darja Marinšek


    Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.

  6. A Qualitative Examination of the Maternal Racial Socialization of African American Preschool Children

    Edwards, Adrienne Laney


    The salience of racial socialization among African American families has received considerable attention in the literature; however, few scholars have examined how the process of racial socialization unfolds in families with very young children. This study investigated how African American mothers of preschool-age children approached the process of racial socialization. I interviewed African American mothers who were at least age 18 (N=12) with biological children between the ages of three an...

  7. LGBT African-American Individuals and African-American Same-Sex Couples

    Gates, Gary J.; Kastanis, Angel


    An estimated 1,018,700 or 3.7 percent of African-American adults consider themselves lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) and 34 percent of African-American same-sex couples are raising children. Currently, the estimated 84,000 African-American individuals in same-sex couples tend to live in areas where there are higher proportions of African-Americans. For example, a quarter of African-American same-sex couples live in Georgia, New York, North Carolina, and Maryland. The rep...

  8. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David


    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  9. Cancer and the African American Experience

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.

  10. African Americans in the Early Republic.

    Nash, Gary B.


    Discusses five topics on African Americans that are essential to studying United States History in the years between 1760 and 1830: (1) African Americans in the Revolutionary War ; (2) the rise of free black communities; (3) early abolitionism; (4) the spread of slavery; and (5) black resistance to slavery. (CMK)

  11. African-American Student Achievement Research Project.

    Wagstaff, Mark; Melton, Jerry; Lawless, Brenda; Combs, Linda

    Data from the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) reveal that gains in performance for the African American student population of Region VII of the state's educational system were not keeping pace with the performance of African Americans in the rest of Texas. This study investigated practices in school districts in the region in which…

  12. The Perpetual Homelessness of College Experiences: Tensions between Home and Campus for African American Women

    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle


    There is an ongoing debate about whether African American students need to sever ties with their families to be successful in college. Adding nuance to this debate, this ethnographic study examines African American women's experiences of navigating family relationships in a predominantly White institution. The women described multiple pressures…


    Zohaib eSohail


    Full Text Available Major depression is a very common disabling disorder. Although the relationship between race and depression is complex, depression affects all races, all ethnic and geographic locations as well as all age groups. The prevalence of depression in African Americans is controversial, due to the paucity of research. The deficit in the knowledge and skills in treating depression in African Americans have not been adequately addressed so far. Inadequate and insufficient data on African Americans contributes to the problems of under diagnoses, misdiagnosis and under treatment of depression. This article will highlight the existing problem of depression in Afro American with a focus on diagnostic and treatment issues.

  14. Men Do Matter: Ethnographic Insights on the Socially Supportive Role of the African American Uncle in the Lives of Inner-City African American Male Youth

    Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.


    This article examines the role of the African American uncle as a vital yet overlooked form of social support and social capital in the lives of adolescent African American male sons living in single-female-headed households. Research rarely examines the affective roles and functions of men in Black families; moreover, poor urban Black male youth…

  15. My Iowa Journey: The Life Story of the University of Iowa's First African American Professor. Singular Lives: The Iowa Series in North American Autobiography.

    Hubbard, Philip G.

    This autobiography recounts the life story of an African American educator at the University of Iowa from 1965 to 1991, as its first African American professor and then as its first African American administrator. The book recounts his childhood and family relations, his student years at the university and his graduation as an electrical engineer,…

  16. Relational Variables and Life Satisfaction in African American and Asian American College Women

    Berkel, LaVerne A.; Constantine, Madonna G.


    The authors explored associations among relationship harmony, perceived family conflicts, relational self-concept, and life satisfaction in a sample of 169 African American and Asian American college women. As hypothesized, higher relational self-concept, or the extent to which individuals include close relationships in their self-concepts, and…

  17. The genetic structure and history of Africans and African Americans

    Tishkoff, Sarah A; Reed, Floyd A; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.


    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic p...

  18. Psychocultural Correlates of Mental Health Service Utilization Among African American and European American Girls.

    Yasui, Miwa; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Keenan, Kate


    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of cultural factors (ethnic identity, perceived discrimination), family relations, and child problem type on mental health service utilization in a community sample of 1,480 adolescent girls (860 African American, 620 European American) between ages 15 and 17 years enrolled in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Results revealed ethnic identity, caregiver attachment, and conduct disorder were related to service use among African American girls. Among European American girls, correlate patterns differed by clinical need. Findings highlight the need for research on health disparities to examine racially specific influences on service utilization. PMID:25380787

  19. Home Literacy Environment of African American Head Start Children

    Janese Daniels


    Full Text Available Researchers have documented culturally specific family literacy practices in which low-income families engage, which are often a function of the context in which the family is currently embedded.  These practices are well documented in ethnographic literature. Although this evidence exists, its utility is limited due to small sample sizes and lack of quantitative documentation on their contribution to children’s language and literacy development.  This study attempted to quantify those culturally specific family literacy practices.  51 low-income African-American mother-child dyads participated.  The contribution of multiple literacy practices was examined in relation to child language and literacy outcomes.  Most low-income African-American families engaged in multiple literacy practices.  Recommended areas for future research directions are discussed.

  20. 76 FR 6519 - National African American History Month, 2011


    ... imagined, African Americans have strengthened our Nation by leading reforms, overcoming obstacles, and... of African Americans to our Nation's history and identity. This year's theme, ``African Americans and... enslaved within rebellious areas, he also opened the door for African Americans to join the Union...

  1. Parental Perspectives on Antismoking Discussions With Adolescents in Rural African American Households, May 2004-January 2005

    Butler, Susan; Crozier Kegler, Michelle; Escoffery, Cam


    Introduction The purpose of this study was to use qualitative interviews to examine antismoking discussions African American parents and adult family members have with adolescent children. This study is one of the first studies to examine the content of family discussions about not smoking among rural African American families from the perspective of parents and extended family members. Methods Interview topics included discussions with their children, how their children reacted to those disc...

  2. African and non-African admixture components in African Americans and an African Caribbean population.

    Murray, Tanda; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Rafaels, Nicholas; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Faruque, Mezbah U; Watson, Harold R; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia M; Barnes, Kathleen C


    Admixture is a potential source of confounding in genetic association studies, so it becomes important to detect and estimate admixture in a sample of unrelated individuals. Populations of African descent in the US and the Caribbean share similar historical backgrounds but the distributions of African admixture may differ. We selected 416 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate and compare admixture proportions using STRUCTURE in 906 unrelated African Americans (AAs) and 294 Barbadians (ACs) from a study of asthma. This analysis showed AAs on average were 72.5% African, 19.6% European and 8% Asian, while ACs were 77.4% African, 15.9% European, and 6.7% Asian which were significantly different. A principal components analysis based on these AIMs yielded one primary eigenvector that explained 54.04% of the variation and captured a gradient from West African to European admixture. This principal component was highly correlated with African vs. European ancestry as estimated by STRUCTURE (r(2)=0.992, r(2)=0.912, respectively). To investigate other African contributions to African American and Barbadian admixture, we performed PCA on approximately 14,000 (14k) genome-wide SNPs in AAs, ACs, Yorubans, Luhya and Maasai African groups, and estimated genetic distances (F(ST)). We found AAs and ACs were closest genetically (F(ST)=0.008), and both were closer to the Yorubans than the other East African populations. In our sample of individuals of African descent, approximately 400 well-defined AIMs were just as good for detecting substructure as approximately 14,000 random SNPs drawn from a genome-wide panel of markers. PMID:20717976

  3. The Concrete Jungle: City Stress and Substance Abuse among Young Adult African American Men

    Seth, Puja; Murray, Colleen C.; Braxton, Nikia D.; DiClemente, Ralph J


    Substance use is prevalent among African American men living in urban communities. The impact of substance use on the social, psychological, and physical health of African American men has important public health implications for families, communities, and society. Given the adverse consequences of alcohol and drug abuse within communities of color, this study evaluated the relationship between city stress, alcohol consumption, and drug use among African American men. Eighty heterosexual, Afr...

  4. African-American culture and AIDS prevention. From barrier to ally.

    Bowser, B P


    African Americans make up an increasing proportion of persons with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). I identify and describe cultural elements such as oral traditions, multiple naming, a collective identity, extended families, and sexuality influenced by myth and exaggeration that condition African Americans' reactions to AIDS prevention. I also offer suggestions on how these cultural elements can be used for effective AIDS prevention efforts in African-American communities.

  5. "Do You Want Somebody Treating Your Sister Like That?": Qualitative Exploration of How African American Families Discuss and Promote Healthy Teen Dating Relationships

    Akers, Aletha Y.; Yonas, Michael; Burke, Jessica; Chang, Judy C.


    The article discusses a study conducted between December 2007 and March 2008 that involved 19 gender-stratified focus groups with African American parents and adolescents from Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, to explore the process and content of parent-adolescent communication about sex. Discussions about intimate partner violence (IPV) and…

  6. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Full Text Available ... the African-American that we treat this as what it is -- an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction ... being ignorant to prostate cancer -- and not knowing what it was -- that was my first, first, first- ...

  7. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Full Text Available ... runs higher. We really don't know. But I would strongly suggest to the African-American that ... then my dad four months later. And then I was told by doctors that I should be ...

  8. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Full Text Available ... Walker: The researchers don't know exactly why. It is suggested that maybe our diet, maybe our ... African-American that we treat this as what it is -- an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction to ...

  9. The African American Wellness Village in Portland, Ore

    McKeever, Corliss; Koroloff, Nancy; Faddis, Collaine


    More than 80% of African Americans in Oregon reside in the Portland metropolitan area; African Americans comprise 1.7% of the state's population. Although relatively small, the African American population in the state experiences substantial health disparities. The African American Health Coalition, Inc was developed to implement initiatives that would reduce these disparities and to promote increased communication and trust between the African American community and local institutions and or...

  10. African American Culture and Hypertension Prevention

    Peters, Rosalind M.; Aroian, Karen J.; Flack, John M.


    A qualitative study was done to explore attitudes and beliefs of African Americans regarding hypertension-preventive self-care behaviors. Five focus groups, with 34 participants, were held using interview questions loosely based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Analysis revealed themes broadly consistent with the TPB, and also identified an overarching theme labeled “circle of culture.” The circle is a metaphor for ties that bind individuals within the larger African American communit...

  11. African names for American plants

    Andel, van T.R.


    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves, pie

  12. Cultural Capital in the Village: The Role African-American Families Play in the Education of Children

    Louque, Angela; Latunde, Yvette


    There is an old adage that says it takes a village to raise a child. The key principles of the village concept may include influences and interactions of families, home environments, schools, and communities. The interconnectedness of these constituents may positively or negatively impact one another and the sustainment of the village, with all…

  13. Racial Identity Development and Academic Achievement of Academically Gifted African American Students: Implications for School Counselors

    Spencer, Natalie F.; Dowden, Angel Riddick


    Gifted African American students are underrepresented and underserved in gifted education. The current article provides an overview of proper identification, racial identity development implications, psycho-social concerns and the importance of family involvement in the development of gifted African American students. A case study is presented to…

  14. The Role of Gender in the Racial and Ethnic Socialization of African American Adolescents

    Brown, Tiffany L.; Linver, Miriam R.; Evans, Melanie


    Scholars in the field of African American family studies recognize the influence of gender on socialization. However, few studies investigate how gender influences the racial and ethnic socialization of African American youth. To examine the role of gender (both caregiver and adolescent) in socialization practices, data were obtained from 218…

  15. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    Wells, Tesia Denis


    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…

  16. African Literature and the American University.

    Priebe, Richard

    While African literature appears to be firmly established in American colleges and universities, its expansion, and in some cases its continuance, is threatened by two factors: racialism and departmental conservatism. As demands for courses in black literature can be met by an increased supply of scholars in Afro-American literature, fewer schools…

  17. “Do You Want Somebody Treating Your Sister Like That?”: Qualitative Exploration of How African American Families Discuss and Promote Healthy Teen Dating Relationships

    Akers, Aletha Y.; Yonas, Michael; Burke, Jessica; Chang, Judy C.


    The article discusses a study conducted between December 2007 and March 2008 that involved 19 gender-stratified focus groups with African American parents and adolescents from Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, to explore the process and content of parent–adolescent communication about sex. Discussions about intimate partner violence (IPV) and healthy relationships emerge inductively as critical topics in these conversations. The authors use a grounded theory approach to content analysis to iden...

  18. How much striving is too much? John Henryism active coping predicts worse daily cortisol responses for African-American but not White female dementia family caregivers

    Merritt, Marcellus M.; McCallum, T. J.; Fritsch, Thomas


    The John Henryism active coping (JHAC) hypothesis suggests that striving with life challenges predicts increased risk for cardiovascular disease for those with scarce coping resources. This study examined the moderating role of JHAC in the associations of 1) caregiver status and 2) care recipient functional status with diurnal salivary cortisol patterns among 30 African-American (AA) and 24 White female dementia caregivers and 63 noncaregivers (48 AAs).

  19. African American Educational Leadership in the School Superintendency

    Smith, Eva C.


    African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…

  20. Disease Management to Promote Blood Pressure Control Among African Americans

    Brennan, Troyen; Spettell, Claire; Villagra, Victor; Ofili, Elizabeth; McMahill-Walraven, Cheryl; Lowy, Elizabeth J.; Daniels, Pamela; Quarshie, Alexander; Mayberry, Robert


    African Americans have a higher prevalence of hypertension and poorer cardiovascular and renal outcomes than white Americans. The objective of this study was to determine whether a telephonic nurse disease management (DM) program designed for African Americans is more effective than a home monitoring program alone to increase blood pressure (BP) control among African Americans enrolled in a national health plan.

  1. Smoking Cessation Intervention Preferences Among Urban African Americans: A Mixed Methods Approach.

    Baker, Cathy J; Palmer, Sheena D; Lee, Chia-Wen Vianne


    African Americans suffer disproportionately from smoking-related morbidity and mortality and make more quit attempts but report less success in quitting. Smokers tend to identify more strongly with African American culture. Qualitative interviews were conducted to elicit perceptions toward smoking and intervention content. Seventy-one African American smokers recruited from community locations participated. The majority stated they would not use any cessation aids if trying to quit smoking, despite the availability of free nicotine replacement. Acculturative stress scores were significantly higher in younger participants and those with higher income. Higher African American acculturation did not predict smoking cessation intervention preference. Family and social relationships were cited as both reasons for wanting to quit and reasons for continuing to smoke. Based on these findings, interventions for urban African Americans should address household members continuing to smoke, social/family connections, stress management, and cultural identification in urban areas. PMID:26809884

  2. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update.

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank


    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  3. The uncoupling protein 1 gene, UCP1, is expressed in mammalian islet cells and associated with acute insulin response to glucose in African American families from the IRAS Family Study

    Sharma Arun J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variants of uncoupling protein genes UCP1 and UCP2 have been associated with a range of traits. We wished to evaluate contributions of known UCP1 and UCP2 variants to metabolic traits in the Insulin Resistance and Atherosclerosis (IRAS Family Study. Methods We genotyped five promoter or coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 239 African American (AA participants and 583 Hispanic participants from San Antonio (SA and San Luis Valley. Generalized estimating equations using a sandwich estimator of the variance and exchangeable correlation to account for familial correlation were computed for the test of genotypic association, and dominant, additive and recessive models. Tests were adjusted for age, gender and BMI (glucose homeostasis and lipid traits, or age and gender (obesity traits, and empirical P-values estimated using a gene dropping approach. Results UCP1 A-3826G was associated with AIRg in AA (P = 0.006 and approached significance in Hispanic families (P = 0.054; and with HDL-C levels in SA families (P = 0.0004. Although UCP1 expression is reported to be restricted to adipose tissue, RT-PCR indicated that UCP1 is expressed in human pancreas and MIN-6 cells, and immunohistochemistry demonstrated co-localization of UCP1 protein with insulin in human islets. UCP2 A55V was associated with waist circumference (P = 0.045 in AA, and BMI in SA (P = 0.018; and UCP2 G-866A with waist-to-hip ratio in AA (P = 0.016. Conclusion This study suggests a functional variant of UCP1 contributes to the variance of AIRg in an AA population; the plausibility of this unexpected association is supported by the novel finding that UCP1 is expressed in islets.

  4. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  5. Metabolic Syndrome in African Americans: Views on Making Lifestyle Changes

    Kirkendoll, Kenya D.; Clark, Patricia C.; Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; Igho-Pemu, Priscilla; Mullis, Rebecca M.; Dunbar, Sandra B.


    This study explores African American adults’ understanding of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and their motivations for making lifestyle changes. African Americans have a greater risk for components of MetS, such as hypertension.

  6. Culturally competent practice with African American juvenile sex offenders.

    Venable, Victoria M; Guada, Joseph


    African American juveniles adjudicated for sexual offenses may struggle with the mistrust of both the judicial and treatment systems. Unlike general mental health services, juvenile sex offender treatment is often mandated by the court or child welfare services, thus these youths and their families must engage in the treatment process. Without clinicians and services that can acknowledge and respond to a minority youth's experience in a sensitive, culturally competent manner, there could be significant resistance to treatment. Traditional treatment approaches fail to prioritize issues involving cultural competence. This article addresses the unique challenges of African American juvenile sex offenders and makes recommendations for creating culturally competent practice for these youth and their families. PMID:24641684

  7. Correlates of Polyvictimization Among African American Youth: An Exploratory Study.

    Elsaesser, Caitlin M; Voisin, Dexter R


    African American adolescents are exposed to high rates of community violence, and recent evidence indicates that these youth may also be at high risk of polyvictimization. Guided by an ecological approach, this study explored individual, familial, and extra-familial correlates of single and multiple forms of violence exposures (i.e., witnessing verbal parental aggression, witnessing or being a victim of community violence exposures) among a sample of 563 urban African American adolescents. Findings indicated that boys reported higher levels of polyvictimization than girls. In addition, the correlates of violence exposures varied by typology and gender. These findings support the development and use of gender-oriented approaches for identifying youth at risk of various types of violence exposures. PMID:25392381

  8. Situational Stability and Variability in African American Racial Identity.

    Shelton, J. Nicole; Sellers, Robert M.


    Investigated the stable and situational properties of African American racial identity using the Multidimensional Model of Racial Identity (MMRI). African American undergraduate students completed the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity, which assessed dimensions of the MMRI. African American racial identity had stable and situational…

  9. An Exploration of African American Students' Attitudes toward Online Learning

    Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea


    The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…

  10. Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising.


    The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

  11. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.


    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  12. Legacy of a Pioneer African American Educator

    Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew


    Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…

  13. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    Mazama, Ama


    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  14. African American Vernacular English and Rap Music



    African American Vernacular English (AAVE) is the language spoken by almost 20 milion speakers al over the world. It is also used frequently in rap lyrics. Studying the origin and grammar rules of AAVE is a very important topic in today's English Language and English Teaching Studies.

  15. Educational Resilience in African American Adolescents

    Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips


    The purpose of this article was to examine factors within the school context that facilitates educational resilience among African American high school students. The authors expected academic self-esteem to be positively associated with future expectations (academic and general). They expected perceptions of school-based social support to have…

  16. The myth of meritocracy and African American health.

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H


    Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans. PMID:20724679

  17. "Brothers Gonna Work It Out:" Understanding the Pedagogic Performance of African American Male Teachers Working with African American Male Students

    Brown, Anthony L.


    Drawing from ethnographic data, this paper explores how African American male teachers working with African American male students performed their pedagogy. This paper highlights how teachers' understanding of African American males social and educational needs shaped their pedagogical performance. Interestingly however, teachers' performance was…

  18. Infant-feeding practices among African American women: social-ecological analysis and implications for practice.

    Reeves, Elizabeth A; Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L


    Despite extensive evidence supporting the health benefits of breastfeeding, significant disparities exist between rates of breastfeeding among African American women and women of other races. Increasing rates of breastfeeding among African American women can contribute to the improved health of the African American population by decreasing rates of infant mortality and disease and by enhancing cognitive development. Additionally, higher rates of breastfeeding among African American women could foster maternal-child bonding and could contribute to stronger families, healthier relationships, and emotionally healthier adults. The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to use the social-ecological model to explore the personal, socioeconomic, psychosocial, and cultural factors that affect the infant feeding decision-making processes of African American women and (b) to discuss the implications of these findings for clinical practice and research to eliminate current disparities in rates of breastfeeding. PMID:24810518

  19. Koreans in the Hood: Conflict with African Americans.

    Kim, Kwang Chung, Ed.

    The essays in this collection examine relationships between the Korean American and African American communities in Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York. The contrast between the economic power and lack of political power of Korean Americans and the political power and lack of economic power of African Americans is traced. Essays 2-5 cover Los…

  20. The landscape of recombination in African Americans

    Anjali G Hinch; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D; Chen, Gary K.; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Akylbekova, Meggie; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.


    Recombination, together with mutation, is the ultimate source of genetic variation in populations. We leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing-over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantl...

  1. The Reflection of Race and Law in African American Literature

    Peter Schneck


    Full Text Available Since the law has been crucial in defining and delineating the dimensions of African American experience both in slavery and in freedom, the encounter with the American legal system and its representatives has left a strong imprint on African American cultural and literary memory and expression. The article sketches out a few aspects and features which characterize the reflection of law and race in African American culture and literature.

  2. Online Health Information and Low-Literacy African Americans

    Birru, Mehret S; Steinman, Richard A.


    African Americans with low incomes and low literacy levels disproportionately suffer poor health outcomes from many preventable diseases. Low functional literacy and low health literacy impede millions of Americans from successfully accessing health information. These problems are compounded for African Americans by cultural insensitivity in health materials. The Internet could become a useful tool for providing accessible health information to low-literacy and low-income African Americans. O...

  3. The Reflection of Race and Law in African American Literature

    Peter Schneck


    Since the law has been crucial in defining and delineating the dimensions of African American experience both in slavery and in freedom, the encounter with the American legal system and its representatives has left a strong imprint on African American cultural and literary memory and expression. The article sketches out a few aspects and features which characterize the reflection of law and race in African American culture and literature.

  4. Beliefs and perceived norms concerning body image among African-American and Latino teenagers.

    Barroso, Cristina S; Peters, Ronald Joseph; Johnson, Regina Jones; Kelder, Steven H; Jefferson, Troy


    Focus groups, utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior, examined the beliefs and perceived norms regarding body image in a sample of urban African-American and Latino teenagers (N = 83, 18-19 years old) from Texas. Cultural eating (behavioral belief) explained the acceptance and tolerance of overweight. Popularity of hip-hop fashion and limited income explicated peer and familial normative beliefs, respectively. Thinness equated HIV infection in African-Americans (parental normative belief). Barriers to healthy eating and active living (control beliefs) included willpower, laziness, fast food, and excessive work. Findings can guide the development and implementation of culturally appropriate obesity interventions for African-American and Latino adolescents. PMID:20453045

  5. Who wants to adopt and who wants to be adopted: a sample of American families and sub-Saharan African orphans.

    Balding, Christopher; Feng, Yan; Atashband, Armita


    The debate between pro- and anti-international adoption advocates relies heavily on rhetoric and little on data analysis. To better understand the state of orphans and potential adopters in this debate, we utilize the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) to study who adopts internationally and the status of orphaned children in sub-Saharan Africa. According to NSFG data adopters are church going, highly educated, stable families aware of the challenges faced by international adoption, with high rates of infertility and rates of child abuse half the population average. According to the DHS data, orphans in sub-Saharan Africa suffer from significantly higher deprivation, reduced schooling and increased levels of stunting and underweight reported than their cohort. Using this data, we estimate conservatively that that 1 50 000 orphans from our sample of sub-Saharan African countries died from their 5-year birth cohort. Given the large number of families seeking to adopt and the high number of orphan deaths, it seems counterproductive to restrict international adoptions given the significantly lower risks faced by children in adopted families compared with remaining orphaned. PMID:25769738


    Sims, Regina C.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Ayotte, Brian J.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Edwards, Christopher L.; Allaire, Jason C.


    The current analysis examined (a) if measures of psychological well-being predict subjective memory, and (b) if subjective memory is consistent with actual memory. Five hundred seventy-nine older African Americans from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging completed measures assessing subjective memory, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, locus of control, and verbal and working memory. Higher levels of perceived stress and greater externalized locus of control predicted poorer subjecti...

  7. Obesity and Pulmonary Function in African Americans

    Mehari, Alem; Afreen, Samina; Ngwa, Julius; Setse, Rosanna; Thomas, Alicia N.; Poddar, Vishal; Davis, Wayne; Polk, Octavius D.; Hassan, Sheik; Thomas, Alvin V.


    Background Obesity prevalence in United States (US) adults exceeds 30% with highest prevalence being among blacks. Obesity is known to have significant effects on respiratory function and obese patients commonly report respiratory complaints requiring pulmonary function tests (PFTs). However, there is no large study showing the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and PFTs in healthy African Americans (AA). Objective To determine the effect of BMI on PFTs in AA patients who did not have...

  8. Exploring Maternal and Child Effects of Comorbid Anxiety Disorders among African American Mothers with Depression

    Boyd, Rhonda C; Tervo-Clemmens, Brenden


    Comorbid depression and anxiety disorders are commonly experienced in mothers. Both maternal depression and anxiety as well as their comorbidity has been shown to increase psychopathology in children, however, there is limited research focusing on African American families. The aim of this study is to examine whether comorbid anxiety disorders are associated with maternal depression severity, kinship support, and child behavioral problems in a sample of African American mothers with depressio...

  9. Phonological Awareness Skills in Young African American English Speakers

    Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton


    The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…

  10. The Mediating and Moderating Effects of Parent and Peer Influences upon Drug Use among African American Adolescents

    Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Abell, Melissa


    This study recruited 567 African American youth (mean age = 15.27 years; 65.1% girls) to examine the role of parent and peer contexts on drug use among African American adolescents. Data were collected on demographics, drug refusal efficacy, drug use, and various psychosocial factors including family and peer factors. When controlling for age and…

  11. Risk and Protective Factors for Alcohol and Marijuana Use among African-American Rural and Urban Adolescents

    Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Belgrave, Faye Z.


    The purpose of this study was to examine individual, family, peer, and community risk and protective factors associated with past-30-days alcohol and marijuana use among African-American adolescents living in rural and urban communities. This study used data collected from 907 tenth- and twelfth-grade African-American students who completed the…

  12. Demographics of African-American vs. European-Heritage Mothers of Newborns with Down Syndrome

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.


    Although important for public health policy, ethnic/racial disparities have rarely been examined among families of young children with Down syndrome. This study compared 144 African-American mothers with 726 European-heritage mothers of newborns with Down syndrome using official birth records in one American state from 1990 through 2002; outcome…

  13. The college life experiences of African American women athletes.

    Sellers, R M; Kuperminc, G P; Damas, A


    The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes, 250 African American women nonathletes, and 628 African American men student athletes from a national sample of 39 NCAA Division I universities. Overall, African American women student athletes are performing adequately academically, integrating socially within the university, perceiving some social advantage as the result of being athletes, and are fairly satisfied with their life. Their experiences seem most consistent with African American women nonathletes. Results are discussed in the context of potential policy recommendations as well as the need for more research on this particular population. PMID:9485580

  14. Expanding the Obesity Research Paradigm to Reach African American Communities

    Shiriki K. Kumanyika, PhD, MPH


    Full Text Available Obesity is more prevalent among African Americans and other racial and ethnic minority populations than among whites. The behaviors that determine weight status are embedded in the core social and cultural processes and environments of day-to-day life in these populations. Therefore, identifying effective, sustainable solutions to obesity requires an ecological model that is inclusive of relevant contextual variables. Race and ethnicity are potent stratification variables in U.S. society and strongly influence life contexts, including many aspects that relate to eating and physical activity behaviors. This article describes a synthesis initiated by the African American Collaborative Obesity Research Network (AACORN to build and broaden the obesity research paradigm. The focus is on African Americans, but the expanded paradigm has broader implications and may apply to other populations of color. The synthesis involves both community and researcher perspectives, drawing on and integrating insights from an expanded set of knowledge domains to promote a deeper understanding of relevant contexts. To augment the traditional, biomedical focus on energy balance, the expanded paradigm includes insights from family sociology, literature, philosophy, transcultural psychology, marketing, economics, and studies of the built environment. We also emphasize the need for more attention to tensions that may affect African American or other researchers who identify or are identified as members of the communities they study. This expanded paradigm, for which development is ongoing, poses new challenges for researchers who focus on obesity and obesity-related health disparities but also promises discovery of new directions that can lead to new solutions.

  15. Liver Transplantation Outcomes Among Caucasians, Asian Americans, and African Americans with Hepatitis B

    Bzowej, Natalie; Han, Steven; Degertekin, Bulent; Keeffe, Emmet B.; Emre, Sukru; Brown, Robert; Reddy, Rajender; Lok, Anna S


    Several previous studies found that Asians transplanted for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection had worse post-transplant outcomes than Caucasians. Data on post-transplant outcomes of African Americans and waitlist outcomes of Asian Americans and African Americans with hepatitis B are scant. The aim of this study was to compare waitlist and post-transplant outcomes among Asian Americans, African Americans, and Caucasians who had HBV-related liver disease. Data from a retrospective-prospective s...

  16. Reading the (In)visible Race: African-American Subject Representation and Formation in American Literature

    Hollingsworth, Lauren Colleen


    This project began with the intention to examine the connection between the aesthetic and the political in American literature's construction of African-American subjectivity, or the relationship between resistance and representation in literary portrayals of the African-American subject. I was specifically interested in the moments in American literature where the convergence between aesthetic form and political practice creates a particular crisis in representation for African-American subj...

  17. Older African American Women’s Lived Experiences with Depression

    Ward, Earlise C.; Mengesha, Maigenete; Issa, Fathiya


    Little is known about older African American women’s lived experiences with depression. What does depression mean to this group? What are they doing about their depression? Unfortunately, these questions are unanswered. This study examined older African American women’s lived experiences with depression and coping behaviours. The common sense model provided the theoretical framework for present study. Thirteen community-dwelling African American women aged 60 and older (M =71 years) participa...

  18. Transgenerational Consequences of Racial Discrimination for African American Health

    Goosby, Bridget J.; Heidbrink, Chelsea


    Disparities in African American health remain pervasive and persist transgenerationally. There is a growing consensus that both structural and interpersonal racial discrimination are key mechanisms affecting African American health. The Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor posits that the persistent stress of experiencing discrimination take a physical toll on the health of African Americans and is ultimately manifested in the onset of illness. However, the degree to which the health...

  19. African Americans, hypertension and the renin angiotensin system.

    Williams, SF; Nicholas, SB; Vaziri, ND; Norris, KC


    African Americans have exceptionally high rates of hypertension and hypertension related complications. It is commonly reported that the blood pressure lowering efficacy of renin angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors is attenuated in African Americans due to a greater likelihood of having a low renin profile. Therefore these agents are often not recommended as initial therapy in African Americans with hypertension. However, the high prevalence of comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovas...

  20. African American women and breastfeeding: an integrative literature review.

    Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S


    The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended. PMID:23445372

  1. African American legislators' perceptions of firearm violence prevention legislation.

    Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A


    Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills. PMID:25301589

  2. Violence exposure and teen dating violence among African American youth.

    Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda


    This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence. PMID:25287413

  3. How Religious, Social, and Cultural Capital Factors Influence Educational Aspirations of African American Adolescents

    Al-Fadhli, Hussain M.; Kersen, Thomas Michael


    Data from 2008 Monitoring the Future were used to test how well religious, family, and cultural social capital influenced 8th and 10th grade student aspirations, future plans, and prior academic experience. This study focused only on a sample of 4,273 African American students. Results indicated a strong association between family social capital…

  4. Marriage Expectations among African American Couples in Early Adulthood: A Dyadic Analysis

    Barr, Ashley B.; Simons, Ronald L.


    Using Family and Community Health Study data consisting of 168 unmarried, primarily African American couples, the current study sought to understand the dyadic interplay among school, work, and partner-specific marriage expectations in early adulthood. Drawing on the economic prospects, adult transitions, and work-family literatures, the authors…

  5. Raising Cultural Awareness of Second Grade African American Students Using Mexican American Children's Literature

    Pugh, Sandra Lyniece


    An increase in the Mexican American population within the predominantly African American community and school was the basis of this qualitative study. The purpose of the study was to introduce African American second grade students to authentic Mexican and Mexican American children's literature. Interactive read-alouds of nonfiction and realistic…


    Pert, Calvert; Bhuyan, Sanjib


    The prominence of FAFH on consumers food expenditure raises some important questions, particularly those related to the health impact of such a trend. This is particularly true among African-Americans because on average African Americans are twice as likely as white Americans to develop Type 2 diabetes, which has been known to have some correlation with ones diet. There is a plethora of studies focusing on FAFH by American consumers. However, there are very few studies that focus exclusively ...

  7. Africans and Black Americans in the United States: Social Distance and Differential Acculturation.

    Emoungu, Paul-Albert


    Presents an exploratory examination of the causes of social distance characterizing the association between Africans and African Americans. African American's perceptions about Africa and Africans are assessed through anecdotes and impressions, and thoughts and criticisms of Africans about African Americans are considered. A social science…

  8. It's All About Relationships: African-American and European-American Women's Hotel Management Careers

    Farrar, Angela L.


    Among the 44000-plus general managers employed in United States' hotels in 1993, there were only 100 women, 15 African-Americans, and three African-American women. Additionally, less than 0.5 percent of corporate hospitality managers were women. Given this relative underrepresentation of European-American women and African-Americans, combined with the increasing diversity of hotel clientele and service p...

  9. European-American and African-American Mothers' Emotion Socialization Practices Relate Differently to Their Children's Academic and Social-Emotional Competence

    Nelson, Jackie A.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Perry, Nicole B.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart


    The current study examines whether the relation between mothers' responses to their children's negative emotions and teachers' reports of children's academic performance and social-emotional competence are similar or different for European-American and African-American families. Two hundred mothers (137 European-American, 63…

  10. Social Achievement Goals: Validation among Rural African American Adolescents

    Jones, Martin H.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Shim, Sungok Serena; Hart, Caroline O.


    Little extant research attempts to understand why rural African Americans engage in social relationships with peers in school. This is somewhat surprising as rural students' peer interactions often affect their scholastic desires, and peers can alter African Americans' academic performance. Hence, the current study examined both the…

  11. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang


    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  12. Counseling Groups for African American Women: A Focus on Spirituality.

    Williams, Carmen Braun; Frame, Marsha Wiggins; Green, Evelyn


    Explains cultural and spiritual traditions within African American women's experience that form the foundation for group counseling strategies. Reviews literature regarding African American women's experience in groups. Explains group interventions such as art, music, dance, imagery, journaling, and rituals that can help transcend, empower, and…

  13. African Americans Respond Poorly to Hepatitis C Treatment

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004


    African Americans have a significantly lower response rate to treatment for chronic hepatitis C than non-Hispanic Whites, according to a new study led by Duke University Medical Center researchers. Some African Americans--19 percent--did respond to the drug combination of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. But in non-Hispanic Whites with the…

  14. 78 FR 34241 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013


    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-13643 Filed 6-5-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... June 6, 2013 Part III The President Proclamation 8992--African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013... May 31, 2013 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013 By the President of the United States...

  15. Asthma Management Disparities: A Photovoice Investigation with African American Youth

    Evans-Agnew, Robin


    Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…

  16. Teaching Experiences of African American Educators in the Rural South

    Polidore, Ellene; Edmonson, Stacey L.; Slate, John R.


    A scarcity of research exists regarding the voices of African American teachers who taught in the rural South. In this study, we report the life experiences, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings of three female African American educators as they pertain to their experiences teaching before, during, and after desegregation. Three female African…

  17. Perspectives of African Americans on Lung Cancer: A Qualitative Analysis

    Lathan, Christopher S.; Waldman, Laura Tesler; Browning, Emily; Gagne, Joshua; Emmons, Karen


    This qualitative study suggests that African American smokers are aware of the relationship between smoking and lung cancer and are interested in smoking-cessation treatment. These data also indicate that lung cancer disparities are unlikely to be associated with differential willingness to receive care but that African Americans may perceive financial and insurance barriers to lung cancer treatment.

  18. Language Learning and Use by African American Children.

    Battle, Dolores E.


    This article reviews recent investigations of the development of phonology, morphology, semantics, and pragmatics in the development of speech and language by African American children. Clinical implications are offered to aid the distinction between normal language development using features of African American English and language disorders.…

  19. African American Youth Unemployment: Current Trends and Future Prospects.

    Hunter, Herbert M.


    Examines African American employment trends compared with increases or decreases in economic growth and Federal welfare spending during the 1970s and 1980s, focusing primarily on unemployment and labor force participation rates among African American youth. Studies the impact of structural unemployment, racial discrimination, and immigration on…

  20. African American English: Implications for School Counseling Professionals

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Barto, Heather H.; Booker, Beverly L.; Smith, Kim V.; Barna, Jennifer; Maiden, Brian S.; Zegley, Linda; Felder, Monique T.


    African American English (AAE) refers to the systematic, rule-governed linguistic patterns of found among African Americans. This article provides an overview of AAE. More specifically, the article enumerates the historical underpinnings associated with AAE, identifies a representative set of AAE characteristics, reviews relevant research, and…

  1. Academic Achievement and the Third Grade African American Male

    Shropshire, Delia F. B.


    The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent teaching style relates to third grade African American male academic achievement. The problem in this study addressed the factors affecting the academic achievement of the African American third grade male. This problem led the researcher to investigate the teaching styles of the…

  2. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane


    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  3. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming


    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  4. African Americans Who Teach German Language and Culture.

    Fikes, Robert Jr.


    A large number of black scholars have pursued advanced degrees in the German language, history, and culture. Describes the history of African American interest in the German language and culture, highlighting various black scholars who have studied German over the years. Presents data on African Americans in German graduate programs and examines…

  5. African American Homeschooling and the Question of Curricular Cultural Relevance

    Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey


    Homeschooling, and academic interest in this phenomenon, have increased tremendously over the last decade. The surge of African American involvement in the homeschool movement has also become noticeable. However, there continues to be a general paucity of research on the motivations of African American parents that choose homeschooling. In order…

  6. 20 African-Americans Your Students Should Meet

    Bardeen, Tara


    There is more to Black History Month than honoring Martin Luther King Jr. Black History Month is a time to honor the significant contributions of African-Americans throughout history. This article presents 20 super-achievers new generation of African-Americans heroes students should meet: (1) Kimberly Oliver; (2) John Lewis; (3) Rita Dove; (4)…

  7. Expecting the Unexpected: a Comparative Study of African-American Women's Experiences in Science during the High School Years

    Hanson, Sandra L.; Johnson, Elizabeth Palmer

    Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) for the years 1988 to 1992 are used to explore the science experiences of young African-American women during the high school years. The comparison groups we use in trying to understand these experiences involve White women (for a race contrast) and African-American men (for a gender contrast). Within the context of a critical feminist perspective, it is argued that gender is constructed in a different way in White and African-American communities. Instead of expecting a disadvantage for young African-American women because of their gender and minority statuses, it is suggested that unique gender ideologies and work-family arrangements in the African-American community give these young women the resources and agency that allow them to compete with their White female counterparts and their African-American male counterparts in the science domain. Results from our analyses of the NELS data confirm these expectations. We find that on a majority of science measures, African-American women do as well as - and sometimes better than - White women and African-American men. For example, there are no differences between African-American women and men on attitudes toward science. And when compared with White women, African-American women tend to have more positive attitudes. When disadvantages appear for these young African-American women, they are more likely to be race effects then gender effects. The minimal gender effects in the science experiences of young African-Americans is in contrast to the more frequent male advantage in the White sample. A careful examination of family and individual resources shows that African-American families compensate for disadvantages on some resources (e.g., family socioeconomic status) by providing young women with an excess of other resources (e.g., unique gender ideologies, work expectations, and maternal expectations and involvement). And, unlike White parents, they sometimes

  8. Africans in the American Labor Market.

    Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan


    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845

  9. Gendered Resource Returns: African American Institutions and Political Engagement

    Robnett, Belinda


    While numerous studies discuss the importance of black churches and race-based organizations to African American political participation, few of them systematically analyze the gendered nature of such engagement. Employing data from the 1994 National Black Politics Survey, this study compares the influence of church-based activities and race-based organizational participation on African American men’s and women’s electoral and non-electoral political participation, and finds that 1) African ...

  10. Applying ethnic equivalence and cultural values models to African-American teens' perceptions of parents.

    Lamborn, Susie D; Felbab, Amanda J


    This study evaluated both the parenting styles and family ecologies models with interview responses from 93 14- and 15-year-old African-American adolescents. The parenting styles model was more strongly represented in both open-ended and structured interview responses. Using variables from the structured interview as independent variables, regression analyses contrasted each model with a joint model for predicting self-esteem, self-reliance, work orientation, and ethnic identity. Overall, the findings suggest that a joint model that combines elements from both models provides a richer understanding of African-American families. PMID:12972272

  11. African Americans,hypertension and the renin angiotensin system

    Sandra; F; Williams; Susanne; B; Nicholas; Nosratola; D; Vaziri; Keith; C; Norris


    African Americans have exceptionally high rates of hypertension and hypertension related complications. It is commonly reported that the blood pressure lowering efficacy of renin angiotensin system(RAS) inhibitors is attenuated in African Americans due to a greater likelihood of having a low renin profile. Therefore these agents are often not recommended as initial therapy in African Americans with hypertension. However, the high prevalence of comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease makes treatment with RAS inhibitors more compelling. Despite lower circulating renin levels and a less significant fall in blood pressure in response to RAS inhibitors in African Americans, numerous clinical trials support the efficacy of RAS inhibitors to improve clinical outcomes in this population, especially in those with hypertension and risk factors for cardiovascular and related diseases. Here, we discuss the rationale of RAS blockade as part of a comprehensive approach to attenuate the high rates of premature morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension among African Americans.

  12. Chronic Pain in Older African American Grandparent Caregivers.

    Booker, Staja Q


    African American grandparent caregiving is increasing, and evidence shows that grandparent caregiving influences health and its management. As older adults age, their potential of experiencing chronic pain increases, and this is profound given that physiological research shows that African Americans, aside from aging, may have a predisposition for developing chronic pain. Research shows older African Americans experience significant chronic pain, but few have discussed the implications of managing chronic pain in older African Americans who have added parental responsibility. Many older African Americans receive home healthcare services and there is a unique role for home healthcare clinicians in caring for this vulnerable population. This article discusses the impact of pain on caregiving, challenges in pain management, and practice and policy implications to assist home healthcare clinicians maintain the safety and protection of both the older grandparent and grandchildren. PMID:27243429

  13. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South.

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher


    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results. PMID:26223562

  14. Conceptualizing the African American Mathematics Teacher as a Key Figure in the African American Education Historical Narrative

    Clark, Lawrence M.; Jones Frank, Toya; Davis, Julius


    Background/Context: Historians and researchers have documented and explored the work and role of African American teachers in the U.S. educational system, yet there has been limited attention to the specific work, role, and experiences of African American mathematics teachers. To meaningfully and responsibly conceptualize the role of African…

  15. Attachment Style Differences and Depression in African American and European American College Women: Normative Adaptations?

    Cooley, Eileen L.; Garcia, Amber L.


    This study examined ethnic differences in attachment styles and depression among African American and European American college women. African American women reported less favorable views of others, which suggests that attachment styles emphasizing caution in relationships may be normative and adaptive for these women. There were no differences…

  16. Ready to die: a postmodern interpretation of the increase of African-American adolescent male suicide.

    Willis, Leigh A; Coombs, David W; Cockerham, William C; Frison, Sonja L


    African-Americans have typically registered lower rates of suicide than other ethnic groups. In the last 20 years this pattern has changed, particularly among young African-Americans between the ages of 15 and 19 (National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Mortality Statistics, 1998, Atlanta, GA). Today, young African-American males are as likely to commit suicide as their White counterparts. To date, the research conducted regarding this phenomenon has been inconclusive and existing suicide interventions appear to have no effect on reducing this behavior among young African-Americans. This paper synthesizes classical (Durkheim, Suicide, 1979, Free Press, New York) and postmodern (Beck, Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity, 1992, Sage, London; Bauman, Modernity and Ambivalence, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1991) social theories in order to provide a more complete theoretical explanation for the increase in the suicide rate among adolescent African-American males. Postmodern society is typified by: (1) institutional deconstruction; (2) decreased collectivism; (3) increased normlessness and helplessness; and (4) exacerbated personal risk for stress. It is therefore possible to hypothesize that postmodernity characteristically loosens the bonds between the individual and society, thereby increasing vulnerability to depression, related pathologies (such as substance abuse), and suicide. African-Americans tend to be more affected/vulnerable because they are concentrated in resource-poor, low income areas, and institutions that provided social support (family, religious, community) and protected individuals from societal risk factors, have gradually been dissolving in postmodern societies. We argue that young African-American males of today are more exposed to stressors which increase psychological distress thus increasing depression and related pathological behaviors such as suicide. The main reason behind this increase is found in the inability of

  17. Disparities in colorectal cancer in African-Americans vs Whites: Before and after diagnosis

    Anastasios Dimou; Kostas N Syrigos; Muhammad Wasif Saif


    There are differences between African-American and white patients with colorectal cancer, concerning their characteristics before and after diagnosis. Whites are more likely to adhere to screening guidelines. This is also the case among people with positive family history. Colorectal cancer is more frequent in Blacks. Studies have shown that that since 1985, colon cancer rates have dipped 20% to 25% for Whites, while rates have gone up for African-American men and stayed the same for African-American women. Overall, African-Americans are 38% to 43% more likely to die from colon cancer than are Whites. Furthermore, it seems that there is an African-American predominance in right-sited tumors. African Americans tend to be diagnosed at a later stage, to suffer from better differentiated tumors, and to have worse prognosis when compared with Whites. Moreover, less black patients receive adjuvant chemotherapy for resectable colorectal cancer or radiation therapy for rectal cancer. Caucasians seem to respond better to standard chemotherapy regimens than African- Americans. Concerning toxicity, it appears that patients of African-American descent are more likely to develop 5-FU toxicity than Whites, possibly because of their different dihydropyridine dehydrogenase status. Last but not least, screening surveillance seems to be higher among white than among black long-term colorectal cancer survivors. Socioeconomic and educational status account for most of these differences whereas little evidence exists for a genetic contribution in racial disparity. Understanding the nature of racial differences in colorectal cancer allows tailoring of screening and treatment interventions.

  18. A Comparison of African American and Cuban American Adolescent Juvenile Offenders: Risky Sexual and Drug Use Behaviors.

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Malow, Robert M; Ergon-Pérez, Emma; Samuels, Deanne; Rojas, Patria; Khushal, Sarah R; Jean-Gilles, Michèle


    Racial and ethnic disparities exist in HIV seroconversion rates, with African American and Hispanic youth in the 13-19-year-old age group representing 61% and 21% of new AIDS cases, respectively. The aim of this study was to examine sexual and drug use behaviors among a sample of 138 African American and Cuban American juvenile offenders. Cuban American adolescents showed higher levels of unprotected sex, higher levels of sex while using drugs, and higher levels of drug/alcohol use in the three and six months prior to confinement. These differences may be explained by multiple factors, including differences in acculturation levels among the Cuban American adolescents, differences in health messages targeted at the two groups, and family mores and norms. PMID:19096724

  19. Is Native American R Y-Chromosome of African Origin?

    Clyde Winters


    Controversey surrounds the phylogeography and origin of the R haplotype among Native Americans. Some researchers have suggested that Europeans spread this haplotype among Native Americans. The purpose of this study was to determine the origin of the R-M173 y-chromosome among Native Americans . It is the third most frequent y-chromosome possessed by Native Americans. Native Americans with the highest frequency of R-M173 haplotypes like the Ojibwa and Seminoles mated frequently with African mal...

  20. The concrete jungle: city stress and substance abuse among young adult African American men.

    Seth, Puja; Murray, Colleen C; Braxton, Nikia D; DiClemente, Ralph J


    Substance use is prevalent among African American men living in urban communities. The impact of substance use on the social, psychological, and physical health of African American men has important public health implications for families, communities, and society. Given the adverse consequences of alcohol and drug abuse within communities of color, this study evaluated the relationship between city stress, alcohol consumption, and drug use among African American men. Eighty heterosexual, African American men, 18 to 29 years old, completed psychosocial risk assessments that assessed substance use and city stress. Multiple logistic regression analyses, controlling for age, indicated that participants reporting high levels of urban stress, relative to low levels of urban stress, were more likely to report a history of marijuana use (AOR = 5.19, p = .05), history of ecstasy and/or GHB use (AOR = 3.34, p = .04), having family/friends expressing strong concerns about their illicit drug use (AOR = 4.06, p = .02), and being unable to remember what happened the night before due to drinking (AOR = 4.98, p = .01). African American men living within the confines of a stressful urban environment are at increased risk for exposure to and utilization of illicit substances. Culturally competent public health interventions for substance use/abuse should address psychological factors, such as stress and neighborhood violence. PMID:22739803

  1. Factors Associated with Pregnancy among Incarcerated African American Adolescent Girls.

    Gray, Simone C; Holmes, Kristin; Bradford, Denise R


    The purpose of this study was to examine the social and behavioral factors associated with pregnancy history among a sample of African American adolescent girls recruited from a short-term juvenile detention center in order to better understand the needs of this vulnerable population. Data were collected from a sample of 188 detained African American, 13-17-year-old girls in Atlanta, Georgia, who participated in a larger HIV prevention study. An audio computer-assisted self-interviewing survey was completed by participants to obtain information on socioecological factors to include individual, parental/familial, sexual risk, psychosocial, and substance use factors. Among the 188 participants, 25.5 % reported a history of pregnancy. A multivariable logistic regression model showed that girls with a history of pregnancy were more likely to live in a household receiving government aid, use hormonal contraceptives at last sex, participate in sex trading, have casual sex partners, have condomless sex in the past 90 days, and have a history of physical abuse. Girls with no history of pregnancy were more likely to have been incarcerated at least twice and to have previously used alcohol. Detention-based interventions and pregnancy prevention programs for this vulnerable population may benefit by addressing factors related to sexual behavior and development, substance use, individual background, and psychosocial health. PMID:27271026

  2. Dietary Fat Intake among Urban, African American Adolescents

    Di NOIA, JENNIFER; Schinke, Steven P.; Contento, Isobel R.


    This study examined commonly consumed high-fat food sources to estimate dietary fat intake among 314 urban, African American adolescents (mean age (SD) = 12.57 (.98) years; 66% female; 91% African American non-Hispanic; and 9% African American Hispanic). Youths’ fat intake was measured using the Block Fat Screener. Most (77%) participants had diets very high in fat (i.e., 40% to 50% of energy). Mean frequencies of consumption revealed youths’ preferences for the following high-fat food items:...

  3. The Nurturant Fathering Scale: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis with an African American Sample of College Students

    Doyle, Otima; Pecukonis, Edward; Harrington, Donna


    Objective: The objective of this study was to test the factor structure of the "Nurturant Fathering Scale" (NFS) among an African American sample in the mid-Atlantic region that have neither Caribbean heritage nor immigration experiences but who do have diverse family structures (N = 212). Method: A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted…

  4. A Strategy of Responsible Militancy: A Template for Today's African-American Youth.

    Washington, Robert O.


    Proposes a strategy for African-Americans of responsible militancy comprised of an individual determination to excel, a high degree of positive self-determination, and political confrontation of harmful policies and practices. Emphasizes the restoration of pride in the family and community. (FMW)

  5. The Longitudinal Effect of Drug Use on Productivity Status of Nonmetropolitan African American Young Adults

    Roldós, María Isabel


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal effect of marijuana and heavy alcohol use on the productivity status of nonmetropolitan African American young adults. This analysis was based on secondary data from the Family and Community Health Study. For alcohol, the study evaluated the effects on productivity status for…

  6. Applying Ethnic Equivalence and Cultural Values Models to African-American Teens' Perceptions of Parents.

    Lamborn, Susie D.; Felbab, Amanda J.


    Study evaluated both the parenting styles and family ecologies models with interview responses from African American adolescents. Analyses contrasted each model with a joint model for predicting self esteem, self reliance, work orientation, and ethnic identity. Overall, findings suggest that a joint model that combines elements from both models…

  7. Interpersonal Identity and Social Capital: The Importance of Commitment for Low Income, Rural, African American Adolescents

    Kerpelman, Jennifer; White, Lloyd


    Social capital may be particularly important for the well-being and future opportunities of African American adolescents living in low income families. In this study, linkages between interpersonal identity formation and adolescents' perceptions of social capital quality were examined in a cross-sectional study of 374 low income, rural, African…

  8. Antecedents and Consequences of Psychiatric Disorders in African-American Adolescents

    Jin, Run; Ge, Xiaojia; Brody, Gene H.; Simons, Ronald L.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.


    This study included three waves of data, collected from approximately 890 African-American children and their families. Antecedents and consequences of psychiatric disorders among this population were examined. Children's temperament, pubertal timing, and experience of stressful life events were tested as antecedents of psychiatric disorders.…

  9. Risk and Protective Effects of Sibling Relationships among African American Adolescents

    Soli, Anna R.; McHale, Susan M.; Feinberg, Mark E.


    This study investigated associations between sibling relationships and adjustment among 179 African American adolescent siblings (controlling for family factors) and tested moderating effects of familism values and birth order. Two-level random intercept models revealed that familism values moderated sibling relationship-adjustment linkages,…

  10. Intervention with African American Premature Infants: Four-Month Results of an Early Intervention Program

    Teti, Douglas M.; Black, Maureen M.; Viscardi, Rose; Glass, Penny; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Baker, Linda; Cusson, Regina; Reiner Hess, Christine


    This study evaluates the efficacy of an early intervention program targeting African American mothers and their premature, low birth weight infants at 3 to 4 months' corrected age from four neonatal intensive care units, 173 families are recruited (84 intervention, 89 control). The 8-session, 20-week intervention consists of a psychoeducational…