Yibo Liu; Xianjin Huang; Xiaofeng Zhao
A spatial autocorrelation analysis method is adopted to process the spatial dynamic change of industrial Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) discharge in China over the past 15 years. Studies show that amount and intensity of industrial COD discharges are on a decrease, and the tendency is more remarkable for discharge intensity. There are large differences between inter-provincial discharge amount and intensity, and with different spatial differentiation features. Global spatial autocorrelation ana...
With ever growing urgency, climate change mitigation is fast becoming a priority for China. A successful policy of implementing and expanding sustainable development and the use of renewable energy is therefore vital. As well as long-term and near-term targets for installed capacity of renewable energy, in its 12th five-year plan, China has created strict and ambitious carbon intensity targets for each province. This study proposes an inter-provincial clean development mechanism to assist in meeting these targets. This mechanism will create potential co-benefits of assisting in sustainable development in lesser developed provinces, increasing local air quality and supporting the growth of China's renewable energy sector. This paper also highlights the potential that this inter-provincial clean development mechanism has in accelerating the growth of the domestic solar photovoltaics (PV) sector, for which the market in China is still in its infancy. - Highlights: ► We recognise the necessity for each province in China to reduce its GHG emissions. ► We assess the potential of a national scale a CDM style mechanism for China. ► We consider the effect that the national CDM could have on solar PV in China
Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Nazemi, Ali; Wheater, Howard
The trans-boundary Saskatchewan River Basin supports livelihoods and the economy of the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Water users include irrigated agriculture, hydropower, potash mining, urban centers, and ecosystem services. Water availability in Saskatchewan is highly dependent on the flows from the upstream province of Alberta. These flows mostly originate from the Rocky Mountains headwaters and are highly regulated, due to intensive water use and redistribution before they get to the Alberta/Saskatchewan border. Warming climate and increasing water demands in Alberta have changed the incoming flow characteristics from Alberta to Saskatchewan. It is critical to assess the performance and the viability of Saskatchewan's water resources system under uncertain future inter-provincial inflows. For this purpose, a possible range of future changes in the inflows from Alberta to Saskatchewan is considered in this study. The considered changes include various combinations of shifts in the timing of the annual peak and volumetric change in the annual flow volumes. These shifts are implemented using a copula-based stochastic simulation method to generate multiple realizations of weekly flow series at two key locations of inflow to Saskatchewan's water resources system, in a way that the spatial dependencies between weekly inflows are maintained. Each flow series is of 31-years length and constitutes a possible long term water availability scenario. The stochastically generated flows are introduced as an alternative to the historical inflows for water resources planning and management purposes in Saskatchewan. Both historical and reconstructed inflows are fed into a Sustainability-oriented Water Allocation, Management, and Planning (SWAMP) model to analyze the effects of inflow changes on Saskatchewan's water resources system. The SWAMP model was developed using the System Dynamics approach and entails irrigation/soil moisture, non-irrigation uses and economic
Full Text Available This paper analyses the cooperation mechanism of the inter provincial scientific research from the perspective of symbiosis theory by adopting the research methods including literature analysis,social network analysis,mathematical statistics and calculating analysis.The result indicates that there exists the symbiosis in inter provincial sports scientific research among the symbiosis units (Except of Tibet and Taiwan.However,the degrees of symbiosis and correlation are varied in between.Provinces are inclined to select cooperative partners abundant in scientific paper,which shows a regular regional distribution.Symbiosis model mainly refers to the symmetric reciprocity model,but still there is asymmetric reciprocity model.The symbiosis environment presents the feature of large number of research groups and high degree of different schools.The symbiosis interface consists of media interface and non media interface.Therefore,the paper suggests constructing a symbiont of coordinated regional integration with three layers:the Core Layer (Beijing,Shanghai and Guangdong,the Radiation Center Layer (Tianjin,Jiangsu,Zhenjiang,Fujian,Anhui,Shandong,Henan,Liaoning and Hubei and the Margin Layer (the rest 22 provinces.
The economic impact of the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) was examined using an inter provincial input-output model (IPIO) consisting of 10 provincial input-output matrix sets and 2 territorial IO matrix sets which were then interconnected through inter provincial trade flow. Changes in any province, industry or commodity will impact on other provinces, industries and commodities. The AHPP will cause investment and production of pipeline services to increase. Investment will require additional products from the economy that can come from domestic industries or imported from foreign markets. The purchase and installation of pipeline and any preparation costs would be associated with non-residential structure investment. The report refers to both machinery and equipment capital expenditures, and pipeline cost-of-service. Direct, indirect and induced effects were also examined. The construction phase impact for the Yukon segment of the AHPP will be $2,138 million from structures investment, and $1,231 million from machinery and equipment investment. For the British Columbia segment, the construction phase impact will be $1,711 million from structures investment and $927 million from machinery and equipment investment. The construction phase is expected to generate 50,000 person-years of employment in the Canadian economy over a 10 year construction period, with peak construction occurring in 2006. The construction phase is expected to generate $3,446 million of Gross Domestic Product for Canada, of which $2,318 million will be split between Yukon and British Columbia. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs
Purpose: This article aims to analyze inter-provincial disparities of rural education and the convergence rate, and to discuss the effects of compulsory education reform after 2001. Design/methodology/approach: The article estimates the rural average education years and education Gini coefficients of China's 31 provinces (municipalities) beside…
陈超; 刘家明; 马海涛; 王润; 周彬; 陈楠
依据《中国国内旅游抽样调查资料2008》,利用中国农村居民旅游流的内在联系特性,构建旅游流空间网络结构,采用社会网络分析方法,结合运用GIS空间分析和数理统计等技术,对农民旅游空间的网络节点中心性与结构洞分析,对旅游空间的整体网络的密度、中心势、核心—边缘结构、凝聚子群分析.结果表明:①中国农民旅游流网络密度低,随时间发生微弱增密态势,旅游空间的节点呈现“东部沿海密、内陆疏、偏远地区游离”的格局,网络整体结构比较松散而且不均衡；②网络中心势内向高于外向,旅游目的地集中度高于客源地,东部沿海旅游节点兼具客源地与目的地功能,内陆与偏远地区基本是单一的旅游客源地或目的地；③网络核心—边缘空间结构的核心区辐射能力弱,仅限于部分边际省域,中心度指数高的节点占据网络的核心位置,具备核心竞争优势,东部沿海旅游点入度普遍高于内陆与偏远地区,点出度与出游力成正对应；④网络区域集聚子群各自形成核心、边缘旅游空间,内部联系紧密,构成与子群相对应的核心旅游地,形成5个区域集聚子群.构建以省域为节点的农民旅游空间网络结构并进行深度分析,为中国农民旅游空间均衡发展和旅游通达性提供理论和实践指导.%According to the related data from the sample survey of Chinese domestic tourists in 2008, the authors construct the intrinsic relationship and the spatial network structure of inter-provincial tourist flows of Chinese farmers. Based on social network analysis, GIS spatial analysis and mathematical analysis, the authors examine the node indicators of centrality and structural holes of inter-provincial spatial network of the domestic farmer tourist flows. First, the network density of inter-provincial farmer tourist flows is low, but it tends to increase at a slow rate with the time
张丽; 吕康银; 王文静
This text used Gravity Model based on inter-provincial panel data to study the influence of local fiscal expenditure on population migration in China.The results demonstrates the influence of local fiscal expenditure on migraton is significant,the gravity%以第四次人口普查和2005年1%人口抽样调查中我国省际人口迁移的数据为样本,采用个体固定效应模型,对地方财政支出对人口迁移的影响进行检验。结果表明,地方财政支出差异对我国省际人口迁移的作用是显著的,当迁入地的财政支出增加时迁入人数也会增加,中部省份的财政支出对人口迁入的作用要大于东、西部地区;另外,相对于地方政府基本建设支出,文教、卫生和社会保障支出差异对人口迁移的影响更大。
This paper establishes an evaluation index system to analyze inter -provincial differences of offshore engineering equipment indus-try ,according to the yearbook of shipping industry of china and DEA method ,which is used to measure relative efficiency .Three combina-tions of evaluation indexes are given to evaluate relative efficiency of production of offshore platforms ,R&D project ,and driving effects on correlative industries correlative industries .On the base of C2 R model and BC2 model ,empirical analysis is made to illustrate how to use the evaluation result to analyze problems and make countermeasures for a province’s offshore engineering equipment industry .%根据评价相对有效性的DEA方法和《中国船舶工业年鉴》的统计指标，构建了省际海洋工程装备产业的评价指标体系，设计了三套评价指标组合，用于评价平台类产品生产的相对效率、科技研发的相对效率、相关产业的相对影响力。收集指标数据，并利用DEA方法中的C2 R模型和BC2模型对有关省份进行实例分析，进而探讨了评价结果参数在有关省份海洋工程装备产业发展问题分析与发展对策研究中的应用。
This paper assesses the advantages and disadvantages of the French and British public expenditure management systems as used in Africa. The main differences are in budget execution and government accounting. In both francophone and anglophone Africa, there are common weaknesses in the application of the inherited systems, which appear to dominate any distinct features of the individual systems. Desirable reforms in both systems will only be successful if they are accompanied by measures that ...
基于中国1998—2009年的省际面板数据，通过构建动态面板模型，运用系统GMM实证检验宏观税负与财政民生支出的数量关系。结果显示：宏观税负上升带动了财政民生支出绝对额的小幅增长，但对财政民生支出份额的影响在统计上并不显著，这表明中国的宏观税负与财政民生支出的协调性不容乐观，财政民生支出强度不足不应主要归因于政府财力规模不足。因此，囿于宏观税负高低之争并无实质意义，关键在于实现宏观税负与财政民生支出的协调和匹配，确保财政收入更好地“取之于民，用之于民”。%Based on the inter-provincial panel data from 1998 to 2009 in China, system GMM is advanced to analyze the quantitative relationship between macro tax burden and financial expenditure of people's livelihood by building the inter-provincial dynamic panel data model. The result reveals that the rising of macro tax burden can contribute to the slight increase of financial expenditure of people's livelihood in absolute terms. But the effect of macro tax burden on the expenditure share is not statistically significant, which indicates the coordination be- tween macro tax burden and financial expenditure of people' livelihood is hardly optimistic. However, the inadequate financial expenditure should not be mainly attributed to the government financial scale. Therefore, it is of no real significance to discuss the level of macro tax burden. It is essential to coordinate macro tax burden and financial expenditure of people's livelihood and ensure that the financial revenue is take from the people and is used in the interest of the people.
Seranne, M; Seranne, Michel; Anka, Zahie
The comparative review of 2 representative segments of Africa continental margin: the equatorial western Africa and the SW Africa margins, helps in analysing the main controlling factors on their development. Early Cretaceous active rifting S of the Walvis Ridge resulted in the formation of the SW Africa volcanic margin. The non-volcanic rifting N of the Walvis ridge, led to the formation of the equatorial western Africa margin, with thick and extensive, synrift basins. Regressive erosion of SW Africa prominent shoulder uplift accounts for high clastic sedimentation rate in Late Cretaceous - Eocene, while dominant carbonate production on equatorial western Africa shelf suggests little erosion of a low hinterland. The early Oligocene climate change had contrasted response in both margins. Emplacement of the Congo deep-sea fan reflects increased erosion in equatorial Africa, under the influence of wet climate, whereas establishment of an arid climate over SW Africa induced a drastic decrease of denudation, and ...
城市家庭住房自有率的省际差异及其影响因素--基于“六普”数据的研究%Inter-provincial Difference on Homeownership Rates of Urban Households in China and Its Influential Factors--research based on the“Sixth National Population Census”data
中国城市家庭住房自有率的整体上升趋势日渐受到关注，但少有对住房自有率地区差异的研究。在使用“六普”数据，建立多元线性回归方程模型，对中国城市家庭住房自有率的省际差异及其影响因素研究中发现，城市家庭住房自有率在不同省份之间呈现较大差异；房价收入比、流动人口比例和失业率对其均有显著负向影响；65岁及以上人口比例、已婚人口比例、家庭规模对其则均有显著正向影响。最后讨论了以上研究发现的政策涵义。%The overall upward trend on homeownership rates of urban households in China has attracted increasing attention,while the researches on the regional differences of homeownership rates are rare. Putting this as a breakthrough,using the“sixth national population census”data, establishing the multiple linear regression equation model,the inter-provincial difference on homeownership rates of urban households in China and its influential factors are researched in this paper. The main conclusions are: firstly, there exist large differences on the homeownership rates of urban households between different provinces. secondly,housing price to income ratio,the proportion of immigration,unemployment rate are all have significant negative impacts on the homeownership rates. thirdly,the proportion of age 65 and above population,the proportion of married population, the size of urban households are all have significant positive impacts on the homeownership rates. At last,the policy implications from the above conclusions are discussed.
Full Text Available Many diseases in Africa can be prevented with appropriate public health interventions. This study aimed to assess the bibliometric characteristics of public health related research articles published by researchers in African institutions from 1991 to 2005. Data used in this study were obtained from the online version of the ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded. Articles published between 1991 and 2005 that had the phrase ‘public health’ in the title, author keywords or abstract, and had at least one author whose contact address was in an African country, were selected for analysis. The annual number of public health related articles published by African researchers significantly increased from 28 articles in 1991 to 135 articles in 2005, a 382% increase. International collaboration also increased: from 45% of articles having international collaborators during 1991–1995, to 52% during1996–2000, and to 67% during 2001–2005. Collaborations were mostly with European and North American countries. Keywords, subject categories and collaboration patterns of articles varied across regions, reflecting differences in needs and collaboration networks. Public health related research output, as well as international collaborations, have been increasing in Africa. Regional variation observed in this study may assist policymakers to facilitate the advancement of public health research in different regions of Africa, and could be useful for international organisations in identifying needs and to allocate research funding. Future bibliometric analyses of articles published by African researchers, can consider conducting regional comparisons using standardised methods, as well as describing the overall patterns, in order to provide a more comprehensive view of their bibliometric characteristics.
Naumann, Gustavo; Dutra, Emanuel; Barbosa, Paulo; Pappenberger, Florian; Wetterhall, Fredrik
This study investigates the potential of implementing different drought indicators to improve drought monitoring capabilities at continental scale. Several global and continental datasets based on re-analysis, gridded observation, and remote sensing data were tested. At regional level the capabilities of each indicator and dataset on five regions on the African continent (Oum er-rbia, Blue Nile, Upper Niger, Limpopo and the Great Horn of Africa) were compared. The five precipitation datasets used were the ERA - Interim reanalysis (0.5°x0.5° resolution from 1979 to 2010), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite monthly rainfall product 3B43 (0.25°x0.25° resolution from 1998 to 2010), the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) gridded precipitation dataset V.5 (1°x1° resolution from 1901 to 2010), the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Global Monthly Merged Precipitation Analyses (2.5°x2.5° resolution from 1979 to 2010), and the Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP, 2.5°x2.5° resolution from 1979 to 2010). The set of indicators proposed included Standardized Precipitation index (SPI), Standardized Precipitation-Evaporation Index (SPEI), Standardized Run-off index (SRI), Soil Moisture Anomalies (SMA). A comparison of the annual cycle and monthly precipitation time series shows a general agreement in the timing of the peaks including the Great Horn of Africa where there are two rainy seasons. The main differences are observed thus in the ability to represent the magnitude of the wet seasons and extremes. Moreover, for the areas that are under drought, all the datasets agree with the certain time of onset and recovery but there are sometimes disagreements on the area affected. The agreement between datasets depends on the threshold selected to define the drought conditions. The comparison between SPI estimations suggest that the main sources of uncertainties (due by lack of ground information
Giday, Nigussie M.; Katamzi, Zama T.; McKinnell, Lee-Anne
This paper aims to show the results of an ionospheric tomography algorithm called Multi-Instrument Data Analysis System (MIDAS) over the South African region. Recorded data from a network of 49-53 Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers over the South African region was used as input for the inversion. The inversion was made for April, July, October and December representing the four distinct seasons (Autumn, Winter, Spring and Summer respectively) of the year 2012. MIDAS reconstructions were validated by comparing maximum electron density of the F2 layer (NmF2) and peak height (hmF2) values predicted by MIDAS to those derived from three South African ionosonde measurements. The diurnal and seasonal trends of the MIDAS NmF2 values were in good agreement with the respective NmF2 values derived from the ionosondes. In addition, good agreement was found between the two measurements with minimum and maximum coefficients of determination (r2) between 0.84 and 0.96 in all the stations and validation days. The seasonal trend of the NmF2 values over the South Africa region has been reproduced using this inversion which was in good agreement with the ionosonde measurements. Moreover, a comparison of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2012) model NmF2 values with the respective ionosonde derived NmF2 values showed to have higher deviation than a similar comparison between the MIDAS reconstruction and the ionosonde measurements. However, the monthly averaged hmF2 values derived from IRI 2012 model showed better agreement than the respective MIDAS reconstructed hmF2 values compared with the ionosonde derived hmF2 values.The performance of the MIDAS reconstruction was observed to deteriorate with increased geomagnetic conditions. MIDAS reconstructed electron density were slightly elevated during three storm periods studied (24 April, 15 July and 8 October) which was in good agreement with the ionosonde measurements.
Full Text Available The establishment of Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF curves for precipitation remains a powerful tool in the risk analysis of natural hazards. Indeed the IDF-curves allow for the estimation of the return period of an observed rainfall event or conversely of the rainfall amount corresponding to a given return period for different aggregation times. There is a high need for IDF-curves in the tropical region of Central Africa but unfortunately the adequate long-term data sets are frequently not available. The present paper assesses IDF-curves for precipitation for three stations in Central Africa. More physically based models for the IDF-curves are proposed. The methodology used here has been advanced by Koutsoyiannis et al. (1998 and an inter-station and inter-technique comparison is being carried out. The IDF-curves for tropical Central Africa are an interesting tool to be used in sewer system design to combat the frequently occurring inundations in semi-urbanized and urbanized areas of the Kinshasa megapolis.
Francis, Shelley A.; Katz, Mira L.
Worldwide, cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among women. Even though women in developing countries account for approximately 85 % of the cervical cancer cases and deaths, disparities in cervical cancer rates are also documented in developed countries like the United States (U.S.). Recently, formative research conducted in the U.S. and developing countries like South Africa have sought to gain a better understanding of the knowledge, beliefs, and attitude...
Adeline S.A. du Toit; Nisha Sewdass
Orientation: This article compared competitive intelligence activities in Brazil, Malaysia, Morocco and South Africa.Research purpose: The purpose was to determine how these countries can use competitive intelligence to increase their competitiveness in the global economy.Motivation for the study: Competitive intelligence is a challenge in developing economies.Research design, approach and method: A questionnaire survey was sent to competitive intelligence professionals in the four study coun...
Sami Bibi; Abdel Rahmen El Lahga
It is common to argue that poverty is a multidimensional issue. Yet, few studies have included the various dimensions of deprivation to yield a broader and fuller picture of poverty. The present paper discusses the ethical foundations of the main approaches dealing with multidimensional poverty measures. An illustration of these measures to household data from Egypt and South Africa is proposed using complete and partial bidimensional poverty orderings. JEL classification: D31, D63, I32
Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Hemme, Torsten
Population growth, urbanisation and increased per capita milk consumption are main reasons for recent increasing milk demand in Africa. Due to globalisation, it is important to know how competitive various production systems are, especially as most governments promote local production and disfavour dairy imports. The TIPI-CAL (Technology Impact, Policy Impact Calculations model) was used to analyse and compare costs and returns of predominant dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon. Results show that, as farms grew larger in size, family resources (especially land and labour) became insufficient and there was need for their acquisition from external sources. Though extensive dairy farming systems had the lowest cost of milk production (<20 US-$ per 100 kg milk), their input productivities and milk yields were lower, leading to very low net cash returns from dairying. Large intensive farms in South Africa had relatively low costs (<30 US-$ per 100 kg milk) and a high Return on Investment (ROI) due to a higher efficiency of input utilisation. It was concluded that, intensification of dairy farming and simultaneously increasing the scale of production will greatly increase productivity of farm inputs, thus recommended for development of the dairy sector in African countries. PMID:19082756
Sultan, B.; Lobell, D. B.; Biasutti, M.; Guan, K.; Roudier, P.; Piani, C.
Climate change is likely to stress food production in many parts of the developing world over the next few decades. In areas such as West Africa, where poor communities are highly dependent on the direct use of local natural resources, the effects of climate change on food security could be particularly devastating. Given these concerns, there is great interest in identifying and investing in technologies or practices that could help farmers adapt to climate variability and change. Recent studies found a robust agreement across the various climate models of the IPCC Coupled Models Inter-comparison Program ensemble on the seasonal distribution of Sahel rainfall changes (with a drying of the early season and positive rainfall anomaly at the end) in contrast with a large uncertainty for summertime rainfall totals. These changes will therefore certainly impact agriculture strategy (selection of new cultivars, later sowing) and output. This study estimates such impacts by using a series of climate scenarios as input for two crop models for multiple locations within West Africa. Simulations are run for the two major crops in the region - sorghum and millets. Building on the above simulations, we then simulate different scenarios of adaptation that could be used to cope with climate changes.
Paeth, H.; Born, K. [Meteorological Inst., Univ. of Bonn (Germany); Podzun, R.; Jacob, D. [Max-Planck-Inst. for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany)
In this study, a 25-year regional climate model run over West Africa is evaluated and examined with respect to causes of interannual rainfall variability related to the West African Monsoon. West African rainfall has been subject to strong interannual and decadal variability throughout the past 50 years. Known driving forces for this variability are large-scale changes in Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), variability due to global atmospheric circulation changes, like for instance variability related to El Nino-Southern Oscillation, but also regional and local-scale changes in land use and vegetation cover. The interaction of these impact factors with West African synoptic and subsynoptic processes is still not completely understood. One reason for this lack of knowledge is that basic features of West African climate, including the African Easterly Jet (AEJ), African Easterly Waves (AEWs) as well as monsoon dynamics, are very complex multiscale phenomena. Climate modeling in West Africa requires the ability to simulate these effects, which can only be achieved by mesoscale atmospheric models. Using the regional climate model REMO from the Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, a 25-year dynamical downscaling study was undertaken in order to evaluate a tool, which will then be used for the examination of causes of rainfall variability in West Africa. The model was used on a 0.5 grid over North Africa northward of 15 S. The model evaluation leads to some confidence in the reliability of the modeled climate. A detailed examination of composites of selected wet and dry years in the Guinean coast region elucidates the role of SST forcing and external atmospheric forcing for interannual rainfall variability. In general, abundant monsoonal rainfall comes along with warm tropical Atlantic SSTs, enhanced latent heat fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere and stronger surface wind convergence near the Guinean Coast. This is accompanied by large
Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and extracted rainfall in the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP in Central Africa between latitudes 15°S and 20°N and longitudes 0°E and 31°E. Monthly NDVI and GPCP datasets for the period 1982–2000 have been used. The Index of Segmentation of Fourier Components (ISFC has been applied on the NDVI dataset to segment Central Africa into four bioclimatic ecoregions (BCERs. In order to compare the differential response of vegetation growth to rainfall, an analysis of the inter-annual, intra-annual and seasonal variability for each BCER has been carried out, and the correlations between NDVI and rainfall have been assessed. The plot of the annual cycles of both variables revealed a coherent onset, peak and decay, with a time lag of 1 month for almost all the zones, except the zones, semi-desert and steppe, where a season of short and intense rainfall was observed. The correlation coefficients computed between the two variables are relatively high, especially in brush-grass savannah, where they reach up to 0.90 at a time lag of 1 month. The phenological transition points and phases show that the range between the +1 and
J. E. Burgess
Full Text Available The interaction of metals and biological materials is of interest for reasons such as metal recovery, toxicity and production of high-value products such as gold and platinum nanoparticles. Understanding the way in which metals interact with the biomass surface and intracellular components provides insights into the biosorption and bioaccumulation processes and increases the potential for process optimisation. Three technologies are available for the qualitative visualisation of metal–biomass interactions in South Africa, namely, micro-PIXE, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays. Each technique provides unique information and has specific shortcomings which should be taken into account when selecting the appropriate technology. This paper focuses on evaluating the various techniques.
Sinclair, S.; Pegram, G. G. S.
In this paper we compare two independent soil moisture estimates over South Africa. The first estimate is a Soil Saturation Index (SSI) provided by automated real-time computations of the TOPKAPI hydrological model, adapted to run as a collection of independent 1 km cells with centres on a grid with a spatial resolution of 0.125°, at 3 h intervals. The second set of estimates is the remotely sensed ASCAT Surface Soil Moisture product, temporally filtered to yield a Soil Wetness Index (SWI). For the TOPKAPI cells, the rainfall forcing used is the TRMM 3B42RT product, while the evapotranspiration forcing is based on a modification of the FAO56 reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0). ET0 is computed using forecast fields of meteorological variables from the Unified Model (UM) runs done by the South African Weather Service (SAWS); the UM forecast fields were used, because reanalysis is not done by SAWS. To validate these ET0 estimates we compare them with those computed using observed meteorological data at a network of weather stations; they were found to be unbiased with acceptable scatter. Using the rainfall and evapotranspiration forcing data, the percentage saturation of the TOPKAPI soil store is computed as a Soil Saturation Index (SSI), for each of 6984 unconnected uncalibrated TOPKAPI cells at 3 h time-steps. These SSI estimates are then compared with the SWI estimates obtained from ASCAT. The comparisons indicate a good correspondence in the dynamic behaviour of SWI and SSI for a significant proportion of South Africa.
Full Text Available In this paper we compare two independent soil moisture estimates over South Africa. The first estimate is a Soil Saturation Index (SSI provided by automated real-time computations of the TOPKAPI hydrological model, adapted to run as a collection of independent 1 km cells with centres on a grid with a spatial resolution of 0.125°, at 3 h intervals. The second set of estimates is the remotely sensed ASCAT Surface Soil Moisture product, temporally filtered to yield a Soil Wetness Index (SWI. For the TOPKAPI cells, the rainfall forcing used is the TRMM 3B42RT product, while the evapotranspiration forcing is based on a modification of the FAO56 reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0. ET0 is computed using forecast fields of meteorological variables from the Unified Model (UM runs done by the South African Weather Service (SAWS; the UM forecast fields were used, because reanalysis is not done by SAWS. To validate these ET0 estimates we compare them with those computed using observed meteorological data at a network of weather stations; they were found to be unbiased with acceptable scatter. Using the rainfall and evapotranspiration forcing data, the percentage saturation of the TOPKAPI soil store is computed as a Soil Saturation Index (SSI, for each of 6984 unconnected uncalibrated TOPKAPI cells at 3 h time-steps. These SSI estimates are then compared with the SWI estimates obtained from ASCAT. The comparisons indicate a good correspondence in the dynamic behaviour of SWI and SSI for a significant proportion of South Africa.
Full Text Available Three independent datasets of Radiation Budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA spanning two decades are compared: the Scanner Narrow Field of View data (from ERBE, ScaRaB, and CERES instruments, 1985–2005, the ERBS Nonscanner Wide Field of View data (1985–1998 and the simulated broadband fluxes from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP-FD, 1983–2004. The analysis concerns the shortwave (SW reflected flux, the longwave (LW emitted flux and the net flux at the Top Of the Atmosphere (TOA over Africa and the surrounding oceans (45° S–45° N/60° W–60° E, a region particularly impacted by climate variability. For each month, local anomalies are computed with reference to the average over this large region, and their differences between the 2002–2005 and 1985–1989 periods are analysed. These anomalies are, for a large part, independent on the general observed trends (about 2.5 W m−2 per decade, which may be affected by possible calibration drifts. Although the regional flux anomalies can be related to calibration through the scene identification and the choice of the anisotropy correction, this effect is limited if the calibration drifts remains reasonable. Large inter-annual variations are observed locally. Over a part of the South East Atlantic (35°–10° S/10° W–10° E, including the marine low cloud area off Angola, there is a decrease of the yearly means of net flux estimated to 2.2, 3 and 6 W m−2 respectively for the Scanner, Nonscanner and ISCPP-FD data. Over a narrow strip of the Sahel Zone, the net flux increases by about 5 W m−2. We believe that these observations are real. They could be due to the impact of calibration drift but only if the drifts were significant (>4% and correlated between the datasets, which is highly improbable.
A. Ben Rehouma
Full Text Available Three independent datasets of Radiation Budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA spanning two decades are compared: the Scanner Narrow Field of View data (from ERBE, ScaRaB, and CERES instruments, 1985–2005, the ERBS Nonscanner Wide Field of View data (1985–1998 and the simulated broadband fluxes from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP-FD, 1983–2004. The analysis concerns the shortwave (SW reflected flux, the longwave (LW emitted flux and the net flux at the Top Of the Atmosphere (TOA over Africa and the surrounding oceans (45° S–45° N/60° W–60° E, a region particularly impacted by climate variability. For each month, local anomalies are computed with reference to the average over this large region, and their differences between the 2002–2005 and 1985–1989 periods are analysed. These anomalies are relative values and are mostly independent on the absolute observed trends (about 2.5 Wm−2 per decade which may be affected by possible calibration drifts. Large inter-annual variations are observed locally. Over a part of the South East Atlantic (35°–10° S/10° W–10° E, including the marine low cloud area off Angola, there is a decrease of the yearly means of net flux estimated to 2.2, 3 and 6 Wm−2 respectively for the Scanner, Nonscanner and ISCPP-FD data. Over a narrow strip of the Sahel Zone, the net flux increases by about 5 Wm−2.
China s engagement in Africa is increasing, and an important part of their engagement consists of development assistance. This has raised lively debate across the world, as critics claim that the Chinese engagement is not beneficial to Africa. My thesis thus seeks to identify what characterizes Chinese development policy in Africa and how this compares to that of the West. It is operationalized as an exploratory case study of the development policies of China and the UK in Zambia, in which th...
Fascetti, Fabio; Pierdicca, Nazzareno; Pulvirenti, Luca; Crapolicchio, Raffaele; Muñoz-Sabater, J.
A comparison between ASCAT/H-SAF and SMOS soil moisture products was performed in the frame of the EUMETSAT H-SAF project. The analysis was extended to the whole H-SAF region of interest, including Europe and North Africa, and the period between January 2010 and November 2013 was considered. Since SMOS and ASCAT soil moisture data are expressed in terms of absolute and relative values, respectively, different approaches were adopted to scale ASCAT data to use the same volumetric soil moisture unit. Effects of land cover, quality index filtering, season and geographical area on the matching between the two products were also analyzed. The two satellite retrievals were also compared with other independent datasets, namely the NCEP/NCAR volumetric soil moisture content reanalysis developed by NOAA and the ERA-Interim/Land soil moisture produced by ECMWF. In situ data, available through the International Soil Moisture Network, were also considered as benchmark. The results turned out to be influenced by the way ASCAT data was scaled. Correlation between the two products exceeded 0.6, while the root mean square difference did not decrease below 8%. ASCAT generally showed a fairly good degree of correlation with ERA, while, as expected considering the different kinds of measurement, the discrepancies with respect to local in situ data were large for both satellite products.
Caso, Alex; Rey de Castro, Jorge; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo
In order to determine sleep habits in bus drivers and their relationship to accidents in the city of Arequipa, Peru, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a non-probabilistic sample of 166 drivers. Driving hours per day were 9.4 ± 3.7. 54% (89) drive over 4 hours without stopping; 74% (123) drive at night; and 87% (145) sleep on the bus. 75% reported fatigue while driving (124). 27% (45) had drowsiness; 24% (40) reported having been in or on the verge of an accident while driving. Sleepiness or fatigue while driving was common in this population and their driving and rest habits could contribute to this. PMID:25597722
Cecile Nieuwenhuizen; Elana Swanepoel
Problem investigated: The objective of this study was to assess the differences in the levels of entrepreneurial intent and its antecedents of the master’s business students who had no exposure to entrepreneurial education from two culturally different countries, South Africa and Poland. A validated entrepreneurial intent instrument was administered to final-year master’s business management students from a university in South Africa and a university in Poland.Methodology: A cross-sectional s...
Waddell, K M; Reeves, B C; Johnson, G J
Background: Extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with a posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL) is the preferred method of cataract surgery in developed countries. However, intracapsular cataract extraction (ICCE) with an anterior chamber lens (AC IOL) may be appropriate in rural Africa. A randomised controlled trial was carried out to compare these surgical strategies.
Full Text Available Problem investigated: The objective of this study was to assess the differences in the levels of entrepreneurial intent and its antecedents of the master’s business students who had no exposure to entrepreneurial education from two culturally different countries, South Africa and Poland. A validated entrepreneurial intent instrument was administered to final-year master’s business management students from a university in South Africa and a university in Poland.Methodology: A cross-sectional survey design with two samples, one from each country, was used. A previously validated questionnaire developed from Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behaviour model was administered. The results were factor analysed and new scales extracted. These refined scales were used to assess the differences between the two countries. A total of 182 questionnaires were collected from the two universities, University of Johannesburg in South Africa and Krakow Business School in Poland.Findings/implications: From the t-tests statistically significant differences between the two groups were found on 10 of the newly defined scales. Except on one scale, the South African students scored higher than the Polish students.Originality/value of research: This is the first study comparing differences between master’s business management students from two culturally diverse countries, South Africa and Poland, in terms of entrepreneurial intent and its antecedents.Conclusion: Possible reasons for the differences were offered as gleaned from other research, but further research is required to identify the determining factors for the differences.
J. Sevitz; A.C. Brent; A.B. Fourie
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The conventional consumer carrier bags have recently received considerable attention in South Africa. The choice of material for these bags, based on environmental preferences in the South African context, could significantly influence the local manufacturing industry. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), an environmental management tool, has been applied to objectively evaluate and compare the overall environmental impacts of the complete life cycles (from raw material ext...
In this article two series of biographies written for children, and dealing with prominent personalities in Kenya and South Africa, are compared. In the line of argumentation developed the aim is to examine the main features in these biographies, and to indicate the importance of biographies in the general field of children’s literature. By examining a sample text from each series the specific ways in which the authors mould these personalities into heroes of their countries are scrutinised. ...
Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano
a. Lisa Ann Richey, Roskilde University and Stefano Ponte, Danish Institute for International Studies - Brand Aid and Africa b. Fantu Cheru, Nordic Africa Institute - The Right to Consume: Compassion and the Intricate New Phase of Capitalism and Africa c. Rita Abrahamsen, University of Ottawa...
Full Text Available In resource-constrained settings and in the context of HIV-infected patients requiring intensive care, value-laden decisions by critical care specialists are often made in the absence of explicit policies and guidelines. These are often based on individual practitioners’ knowledge and experience, which may be subject to bias. We reviewed published information on legislation and practices related to intensive care unit (ICU admission in India, Brazil and South Africa, to assess access to critical care services in the context of HIV. Each of these countries has legal instruments in place to provide their citizens with health services, but they differ in their provision of ICU care for HIV-infected persons. In Brazil, some ICUs have no admission criteria, and this decision vests solely on the ‘availability, and the knowledge and the experience’ of the most experienced ICU specialist at the institution. India has few regulatory mechanisms to ensure ICU care for critically ill patients including HIV-infected persons. SA has made concerted efforts towards non-discriminatory criteria for ICU admissions and, despite the shortage of ICU beds, HIV-infected patients have relatively greater access to this level of care than in other developing countries in Africa, such as Botswana. Policymakers and clinicians should devise explicit policy frameworks to govern ICU admissions in the context of HIV status. S Afr J HIV Med 2013;14(1:15-16. DOI:10.7196/SAJHIVMED.887
Full Text Available The paper compares two independent approaches to estimate soil moisture at the regional scale over a 4625 km2 catchment (Liebenbergsvlei, South Africa. The first estimate is derived from a physically-based hydrological model (TOPKAPI. The second estimate is derived from the scatterometer on board on the European Remote Sensing satellite (ERS. Results show a very good correspondence between the modelled and remotely sensed soil moisture, illustrated over two selected seasons of 8 months by regression R2 coefficients lying between 0.78 and 0.92. Such a close similarity between these two different, independent approaches is very promising for (i remote sensing in general (ii the use of hydrological models to back-calculate and disaggregate the satellite soil moisture estimate and (iii for hydrological models to assimilate the remotely sensed soil moisture.
Hendriks, Sheryl L; van der Merwe, Corné; Ngidi, Mjabuliseni S; Manyamba, Christopher; Mbele, Mondli; McIntyre, Angela M; Mkandawire, Elizabeth; Molefe, Queeneth N; Mphephu, Mulalo Q; Ngwane, Lithle
ASTRACT The development of national food security information systems is constrained by a lack of guidance on which indicators to use. This paper compares food security indicators across two seasons (summer and winter) in one of the most deprived areas of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The results show that only anthropometric indicators are sensitive enough to differentiate levels of food insecurity. The lack of consistent classification across indicators means that surveys must use a combination of food consumption and experience of hunger measures backed up by anthropometric measures. Targeting interventions is difficult if the measures cannot be relied on. Further investigation is needed to identify a suite of appropriate indicators for a national information and surveillance system. PMID:26789552
In order to evaluate the usefullness of cold-extractable uranium as a tool of uranium prospecting in stream sediments of the southwestern Karoo, South Africa, ten orientation studies were conducted near known mineralisation jointly by the Atomic Energy Board and the Geological Survey of South Africa. These indicate that the topography determines the nature of the dispersion. In areas of moderate to high relief the total uranium content of the stream sediment gives dispersion trains up to about 500 m from the mineralisation, and peak-to-background ratios of about 3. The use of cold-extractable uranium doubles the length of the dispersion, and peak-to-background ratios are greater than 10 and may be as high as 35. In areas of low relief, the total uranium content of the sediment gives low anomalies, with short dispersion downstream. Cold-extractable uranium gives anomalies 500-1 000 m from the mineralisation. This is interpreted to be due to the longer residence time of the clay minerals in the stream. In order to test the applicability of cold-extractable uranium on a regional scale, 720 samples were collected at a density of one sample per square kilometre. Statistical treatment of the data shows the U content of the stream sediments, to be log-normally distributed. For cold-extractable uranium, polymodal distributions, apparently representing background and anomalous samples, can be separated with a high rate of success, and meaningful threshold values can be assigned. This is not the case for the total uranium content of the stream sediments
Full Text Available Acacia xanthophloea (the ‘fever tree’ is a popular medicinal species that is traded widely in South Africa. Although it occurs throughout southern Africa, there is increasing pressure on its riverine and marshy habitats. This study compares the impact of harvesting on an A. xanthophloea population located on private land near Komatipoort, Mpumalanga, with two protected populations situated within the Kruger National Park. The densities of the harvested and protected populations were similar (84±8 trees/ha and 85±20 trees/ha, respectively. There were fluctuations in the quotients between frequencies of trees in successive diameter classes, which is common in savanna where high levels of fire, mega-herbivore and anthropogenic disturbance are experienced. The extent of stem damage (stripping of bark and breakage by elephants in the protected area was significantly higher than the extent of harvesting on private land, although the degree of damage was relatively low, with only 7 % of the populations having been damaged at rates >26 %. The degree of harvesting on private land was relatively low, with the majority of trees having been harvested at rates of less than 10 % of the stem below 2 m. Despite this, ringbarking had occurred (4 %. The basal diameters and heights were significantly lower in the protected population than in the harvested one, suggesting that over time elephant impact was the more severe disturbance. Acacia xanthophloea exhibited high resilience to disturbance, with all the elephant damaged trees and harvested individuals surviving. However, the mean bark thickness measured in local markets (6.3±1.4 mm was significantly lower than that measured in either the harvested (12.4±1.0 mm or the KNP (10.3±0.8 mm populations. As harvesters tend to select the largest individuals in a population to maximise their financial returns, this could mean that smaller individuals are being harvested, and/or bark is not being given
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ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The conventional consumer carrier bags have recently received considerable attention in South Africa. The choice of material for these bags, based on environmental preferences in the South African context, could significantly influence the local manufacturing industry. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA, an environmental management tool, has been applied to objectively evaluate and compare the overall environmental impacts of the complete life cycles (from raw material extraction to final disposal of consumer plastic and paper carrier bags in South Africa. Paper bags have a higher carrying capacity compared to plastic bags and different use ratios were subsequently evaluated. Plastic bags have a lower environmental impact for use ratios of up to 2.5 plastic bags to one paper bag. Above this ratio the conclusions are not reliable. Paper bags would need to increase its recycled content significantly to be competitive in terms of environmental impacts. The re-use of thicker plastic, as proposed by the new plastic bag legislation, has the potential to significantly lower the impact of plastic bags.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die konvensionele gebruikersdrasakke het onlangs aansienlike aandag in Suid Afrika ontvang. Die keuse van materiaal vir hierdie sakke, wat gebaseer is op omgewingsvoorkeure in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks, kan 'n wesenlike invloed uitoefen op die plaaslike vervaardigingsindustrie. Lewenssiklusanalise (LCA, 'n omgewingsbestuurgereedskap, is aangewend vir 'n objektiewe evaluasie en vergelyking van die algehele omgewingsimpakte van die totale lewenssiklus (vanaf grondstofekstraksie tot finale wegdoening van gebruikersplastiek- en papierdrasakke in Suid-Afrika. Aangesien papiersakke 'n hoër drakapasiteit het in vergelyking met plastieksakke, is verskillende gebruiksverhoudings evalueer. Plastieksakke het 'n laer omgewingsimpak vir gebruiksverhoudings tot en met 2.5 plastieksakke vir elke papiersak. Die gevolgtrekkings
Joska, J A; Witten, J; Thomas, K G; Robertson, C; Casson-Crook, M; Roosa, H; Creighton, J; Lyons, J; McArthur, J; Sacktor, N C
Screening for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is important to improve clinical outcomes. We compared the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the mini-mental state examination, International HIV dementia scale (IHDS), Montreal cognitive assessment, Simioni symptom questionnaire and cognitive assessment tool-rapid version (CAT-rapid) to a gold standard neuropsychological battery. Antiretroviral-experienced participants from Cape Town, South Africa, and Baltimore, USA, were recruited. The sensitivity and specificity of the five tools, as well as those of the combined IHDS and CAT-rapid, were established using 2 × 2 contingency tables and ROC analysis. More than a third (65165) had symptomatic HAND. In detecting HIV-D, the CAT-Rapid had good sensitivity (94 %) and weak specificity (52 %) (cut-point ≤10), while the IHDS showed fair sensitivity (68 %) and good specificity (86 %) (cut-point ≤10). The combined IHDS and CAT-rapid showed excellent sensitivity and specificity for HIV-D at a cut-off score of ≤16 (out of 20; 89 and 82 %). No tool was adequate in screening for any HAND. The combination IHDS and CAT-rapid tool appears to be a good screener for HIV-D but is only fairly sensitive and poorly specific in screening for any HAND. Screening for milder forms of HAND continues to be a clinical challenge. PMID:26860536
Full Text Available Vegetative propagation of trees remains understudied in Africa. Such methods however provide potential for producing trees and shrubs with high social and economic value. Air layering is one of these techniques and can be used in Uganda for the domestication of underutilized multipurpose trees. The main purposes of this trial were to compare the growth rates of 30 Solanecio mannii plants grown from seed and 30 plants grown from air layering, and to observe the main morphological differences that affected the growth and root system of those 60 plants. This 24-month preliminary and prospective trial was conducted to compare the growth characteristics of seedlings and air layers, by measuring their height, diameter, precocity to flower and fruit, and their root system quality. Air layers were stronger, quickly reaching maturity but showing weakness in their root systems, while seedlings seemingly smaller and slower showed more stability with a well-structured root system. Air layering could be used to reproduce desirable genotypes. Due to their unbalanced root system observed in the field after two years, the air layers, once transplanted into a nursery, should be propagated by cuttings or grafting only.
Full Text Available In this article two series of biographies written for children, and dealing with prominent personalities in Kenya and South Africa, are compared. In the line of argumentation developed the aim is to examine the main features in these biographies, and to indicate the importance of biographies in the general field of children’s literature. By examining a sample text from each series the specific ways in which the authors mould these personalities into heroes of their countries are scrutinised. Furthermore the way in which gender is represented in the two series is also examined and it is argued that both men and women form part of any country’s gallery of heroes. Underlying the main argument of the article is the contention that biographies are important in perpetuating the stories of the two countries’ heroes: also in teaching the history of each country to the young. A general motif of hard work resonates in these works, and therefore it is asserted that individuals’ biographies can be used as anecdotes to communicate with and to inspire and encourage young readers. The authors of the biographies actually intervene by presenting children with role models. Furthermore these role models are not abstract fictional characters but real human beings who made great sacrifices for their countries – people with whom children are thus able to identify.
Impoinvil, Daniel E.; Ahmad, Sajjad; Troyo,Adriana; Keating, Joseph; Githeko, Andrew K.; Mbogo, Charles M.; Kibe, Lydiah; Githure, John I.; GAD, ADEL M.; Hassan, Ali N.; Orshan, Laor; Warburg, Alon; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Sánchez-Loría, Victoria M.; Velit-Suarez, Rosanna
Mosquito control programs at seven urban sites in Kenya, Egypt, Israel, Costa Rica, and Trinidad are described and compared. Site-specific urban and disease characteristics, organizational diagrams, and strengths, weaknesses, obstacles and threats (SWOT) analysis tools are used to provide a descriptive assessment of each mosquito control program, and provide a comparison of the factors affecting mosquito abatement. The information for SWOT analysis is collected from surveys, focus group discu...
Bollig, C.; Mengistu, G; Sharma, A.; W. Alemu; D. Moema; Tesfaye, M.; Sivakumar, V.
We present the first scientific results from the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research–National Laser Centre (CSIR-NLC) mobile LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) and its validation and comparison with other ground-based and space-borne measurements. The LIDAR results are compared with aerosol extinction measurements from the Stratosphere Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE) II, optical depth derived from sun photometers employed under the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and backscatter c...
Emmanuel I. Agaba
Full Text Available Background: Postgraduate training is aimed at equipping the trainee with the necessary skills to practise as an expert. Non-nephrology specialist physicians render the bulk of pre-end-stage renal disease care for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. We sought to ascertain the knowledge of CKD amongst non-nephrology specialist physicians who serve as trainers and examiners for a training, accrediting and certifying body in postgraduate medicine in West Africa. We also compared the knowledge of family physicians and non-nephrology internists. Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to non-nephrology specialist physicians who serve as examiners for the West African College of Physicians.Results: Only 19 (27.5% of the respondents were aware of the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiatives guidelines for CKD management. Twenty five (36.2% of the respondents had adequate knowledge of CKD. There was no significant difference in the proportion of family physicians and non-nephrology internists who had adequate knowledge of CKD (27.3% vs. 40.4% respectively; p = 0.28. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus were identified by all of the physicians as risk factors for CKD. Non-nephrology internists more frequently identified systemic lupus erythematosus as a risk factor for CKD, urinalysis with microscopy as a laboratory test for CKD evaluation, and bone disease as a complication of CKD than family physicians.Conclusion: There is a lack of adequate CKD knowledge amongst non-nephrology specialist physicians, since many of them are unaware of the CKD management guidelines. Educational efforts are needed to improve the knowledge of CKD amongst non-nephrology specialist physicians. Guidelines on CKD need to be widely disseminated amongst these physicians.
Zahn, Ryan; Grosso, Ashley; Scheibe, Andrew; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Ketende, Sosthenes; Dausab, Friedel; Iipinge, Scholastica; Beyrer, Chris; Trapance, Gift; Baral, Stefan
In 1994, South Africa approved a constitution providing freedom from discrimination based on sexual orientation. Other Southern African countries, including Botswana, Malawi, and Namibia, criminalize same-sex behavior. Men who have sex with men (MSM) have been shown to experience high levels of stigma and discrimination, increasing their vulnerability to negative health and other outcomes. This paper examines the relationship between criminalization of same-sex behavior and experiences of human rights abuses by MSM. It compares the extent to which MSM in peri-urban Cape Town experience human rights abuses with that of MSM in Gaborone, Botswana; Blantyre and Lilongwe, Malawi; and Windhoek, Namibia. In 2008, 737 MSM participated in a cross-sectional study using a structured survey collecting data regarding demographics, human rights, HIV status, and risk behavior. Participants accrued in each site were compared using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Encouragingly, the results indicate MSM in Cape Town were more likely to disclose their sexual orientation to family or healthcare workers and less likely to be blackmailed or feel afraid in their communities than MSM in Botswana, Malawi, or Namibia. However, South African MSM were not statistically significantly less likely experience a human rights abuse than their peers in cities in other study countries, showing that while legal protections may reduce experiences of certain abuses, legislative changes alone are insufficient for protecting MSM. A comprehensive approach with interventions at multiple levels in multiple sectors is needed to create the legal and social change necessary to address attitudes, discrimination, and violence affecting MSM. PMID:26764467
Full Text Available We present the first scientific results from the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research–National Laser Centre (CSIR-NLC mobile LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR and its validation and comparison with other ground-based and space-borne measurements. The LIDAR results are compared with aerosol extinction measurements from the Stratosphere Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE II, optical depth derived from sun photometers employed under the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET and backscatter coefficients simulated from weather balloon humidity measurements.
Full Text Available Background: Understanding how lay people perceive the causes of mortality and their associated risk factors is important for public health. In resource-limited settings, where verbal autopsy (VA is used as the most expedient method of determining cause of death, it is important to understand how pre-existing concepts of cause of death among VA-informants may influence their VA-responses and the consequential impact on cause of death assessment. This study describes the agreement between VA-derived causes of death and informant-perceived causes and associated influential factors, which also reflects lay health literacy in this setting. Method: Using 20 years of VA data (n=11,228 from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS site in rural South Africa, we explored the agreement between the causes of death perceived by the VA-informants and those assigned by the automated Inter-VA tool. Kappa statistics and concordance correlation coefficients were applied to measure agreement at individual and population levels, respectively. Multivariable regression models were used to explore factors associated with recognised lay perceptions of causes of mortality. Results: Agreement between informant-perceived and VA-derived causes of death at the individual level was limited, but varied substantially by cause of death. However, agreement at the population level, comparing cause-specific mortality fractions was higher, with the notable exception of bewitchment as a cause. More recent deaths, those in adults aged 15–49 years, deaths outside the home, and those associated with external causes showed higher concordance with InterVA. Conclusion: Overall, informant perception of causes of death was limited, but depended on informant characteristics and causes of death, and to some extent involved non-biomedical constructs. Understanding discordance between perceived and recognised causes of death is important for public health planning; low
Henderiks, J.; Bollmann, J.
In Holocene deep-sea sediments, the relative abundance of different morphotypes within the coccolithophore genus Gephyrocapsa is closely correlated with sea sur- face temperature (Bollmann, 1997). Based on this relationship, a regional temperature transfer function was established using a set of 35 Holocene sediments from the NE Atlantic, covering a temperature range from 14C to 24C. Using this approach, ab- solute annual mean sea surface temperatures for a given location can be calculated from the relative abundance of two Gephyrocapsa morphotypes, Gephyrocapsa Cold and Gephyrocapsa Equatorial, with a standard deviation of +/-1.06C. A global regres- sion model (N=110) was applied as well, which calculates absolute mean sea surface temperatures from the relative abundance of three Gephyrocapsa morphotypes, with a standard deviation of +/-1.78C. Using both calibration models, we have estimated sea surface temperatures during the Last Glacial Maximum in a dispersed set of eigh- teen well-dated gravity cores off NW Africa (16-35N; 20-8W). The regional model revealed that annual mean temperatures during the LGM were 4 to 6C colder than today in the Canary Islands region, with lowest temperatures (14-15.5C) off-shore Morocco and south of the volcanic islands, likely due to intensified upwelling related to stronger trade winds. These values are consistent with estimates from the CLIMAP Project (1981) and other paleotemperature reconstructions for the same region. In con- trast, offshore Cape Blanc, our temperature estimates for the LGM are significantly warmer (Ttoday -LGM <4C) than proposed by CLIMAP (Ttoday -LGM 6-10C). Nevertheless, our results support temperature reconstructions based on alkenones that also indicate rather small temperature changes (Ttoday -LGM <3C) in this area (e.g. Zhao et al., 2000). Glacial sea surface temperature estimates derived from the global calibration are on average 1C warmer than those derived from the regional model. However, the
Recounts a teacher's experiences on a trip to Africa. Describes her pleasant moments with her fellow travelers; her appreciation of the natural setting; her visit to an impoverished native school; and her confrontation with a Maasai warrior. (TB)
THE big story out of Africa in 2011 was the referendum in southern Sudan.That culminated in the birth of a new country,the Republic of South Sudan,which joins the struggling band of developing nations.Africa's newest independent country is high on the hope of prosperity,wary about conflict,dogged with corruption,poverty and hunger,but nonetheless independent.
Full Text Available When opening this conference, Professor Lizette Rabe quoted a statistic that struck a chord with me.
In a six-month period between March and August 2000, the TransAfrica Forum in the USA had counted 89 stories on Africa published by The New York Times and Washington Post. Of the 89, 75 were negative, and 63 of the 89 were about conflict in Africa.
What this statistic does is to portray in a small way the massive problem of how Africa is reported by the Western media, and which we, the African media, sometimes reflect and amplify in our reporting of the continent, by mimicking the Western media.
No right-thinking African will ever deny that conflict does happen in Africa. However, the problem with the negative reporting is that it does not put the raw facts in context.
Africa is a continent of 53 countries. It is the most variegated continent on Earth. Conflict is part and parcel of human nature, of life. In that context, Africans would not be human if conflict did not happen on this huge, variegated continent.
Antonios H. Tzamaloukas
Full Text Available Background: Postgraduate training is aimed at equipping the trainee with the necessary skills to practise as an expert. Non-nephrology specialist physicians render the bulk of pre-end-stage renal disease care for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. We sought to ascertain the knowledge of CKD amongst non-nephrology specialist physicians who serve as trainers and examiners for a training, accrediting and certifying body in postgraduate medicine in West Africa. We also compared the knowledge of family physicians and non-nephrology internists.Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to non-nephrology specialist physicians who serve as examiners for the West African College of Physicians.Results: Only 19 (27.5% of the respondents were aware of the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiatives guidelines for CKD management. Twenty five (36.2% of the respondents had adequate knowledge of CKD. There was no significant difference in the proportion of family physicians and non-nephrology internists who had adequate knowledge of CKD (27.3% vs. 40.4% respectively; p = 0.28. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus were identified by all of the physicians as risk factors for CKD. Non-nephrology internists more frequently identified systemic lupus erythematosus as a risk factor for CKD, urinalysis with microscopy as a laboratory test for CKD evaluation, and bone disease as a complication of CKD than family physicians.Conclusion: There is a lack of adequate CKD knowledge amongst non-nephrology specialist physicians, since many of them are unaware of the CKD management guidelines. Educational efforts are needed to improve the knowledge of CKD amongst non-nephrology specialist physicians. Guidelines on CKD need to be widely disseminated amongst these physicians.Connaissances des spécialistes des maladies rénales chroniques : Une comparaison des internistes et des médecins de famille en Afrique de l’OuestContexte: La formation de troisi
Grenfell, S. E.; Grenfell, M. C.; Rowntree, K. M.; Ellery, W. N.
The aim of this research was to investigate the dynamics of valley formation, sediment delivery and channel pattern in two climatically contrasting fluvial sedimentary systems in South Africa. Each system comprised a network of headwater valley fills and floodplains underlain by sedimentary Karoo Supergroup rocks that are intersected by resistant dolerite dykes and sills. The Seekoei River Floodplain and Gordonville valley fill site in the Great Karoo, however, experience less than half the annual precipitation of the Nsonge River Floodplain and Hlatikhulu valley fill in the KwaZulu-Natal Drakensberg Foothills. Furthermore, rainfall is more variable in the Karoo. Despite climatic differences, headwater valley fills were geomorphically similar. In contrast, floodplains in the two regions were vastly different, even when the same downstream control (a resistant dolerite intrusion crossing the drainage line) was considered. Upstream of a dolerite dyke, the Nsonge River is highly sinuous and located in a wide floodplain that has been carved by lateral planation of the underlying bedrock. In comparison, the Seekoei River, located upstream of a dolerite sill, is discontinuous and characterized by floodouts and avulsing distributaries that undergo periods of bedrock incision, followed by infilling.It is likely that this disparity is caused by the inability of infrequent, unsustained flows to develop meanders and, thus, adjust the channel planform to changes in discharge, sediment load and valley slope. Flow variability, thus, exercises a strong control on channel pattern and causes floodouts in headwater settings and the semi-arid Karoo floodplain. As a result, sediment transport in the Seekoei River is likely to be episodic, and net retention of sediment in the semi-arid floodplain is greater than in the sub-humid Nsonge River Floodplain, where sediment depth is limited.
This paper reports that South Africa's main reason for entering the international nuclear market is, and always has been, to sell its uranium abroad. From 1939-45 South Africa took part in the war against Nazi Germany, and the South African government of the time sought to help the Allied war effort in all ways that were practical. Later, during the Cold War, it tried to help build up the West's nuclear arsenal. In 1944, the British government secretly asked General Smuts---prime minister of South Africa since 1939 and a member of Churchill's War Cabinet---to survey South Africa's deposits of uranium. The survey, carried out with U.S. and British help, showed that the deposits were large, generally low-grade, but, in most cases, associated with gold and therefore could be profitably mined. In 1951, South Africa became a significant producer, with lucrative contracts for the sale of all its output to the U.S.-U.K.-Canada Joint Development Agency and one of the three main suppliers to the U.S. nuclear weapons program. In time, government controls eased and uranium production and marketing became a purely commercial operation
Devey, Richard Michael
Rural South Africa shows high levels poverty, inequality and unemployment and land reform is one strategy adopted to address these problems. However, the land reform programme appears to have limited success in meeting the objectives of poverty reduction, reducing inequality and creating employment. The main research question is ‘How has the implementation of market-based land reform (MBLR), within the three delivery models, contributed to agrarian change in South Africa?’ Sources of data use...
A year highlighted by a new nation,regime change,famine and hopes for climate change solutions THE big story out of Africa in 2011 was the referendum in southern Sudan.That culminated in the birth of a new country,the Republic of South Sudan,which joins the struggling band of developing nations.
Huo Weidong; Deng Guoying; Wang Peng; Yang Xiaojun
As a social phenomenon closely related to development of economy, the population is always the focus of economists' attention. Based on the fifth census in 2001, this paper analyzes labor migration in Hubei Province and establishes an econometric model to analyze the pull according to the push and pull theory, which is the famous theory on the population flow and migration. It points out that the per capita consumption and the employment rate attract strongly the rural labors and makes a deep exploration into the ensuing problems. Such conclusion is a special reference to the decision-making of government. The government can provide some guidance to the rural labors according to the per capita consumption and the employment rate in order to avoid the futility of blind migration.
Abstract Background There is a highly inequitable distribution of health workers between public and private sectors in South Africa, partly due to within-country migration trends. This article elaborates what South African medical specialists find satisfying about working in the public and private sectors, at present, and how to better incentivize retention in the public sector. Methods Seventy-four qualitative interviews were conducted - among specialists and key informants - based in one pu...
R, Jewkes; Y, Sikweyiya; K, Dunkle; R, Morrell
Background Studies of rape of women seldom distinguish between men’s participation in acts of single and multiple perpetrator rape. Multiple perpetrator rape (MPR) occurs globally with serious consequences for women. In South Africa it is a cultural practice with defined circumstances in which it commonly occurs. Prevention requires an understanding of whether it is a context specific intensification of single perpetrator rape, or a distinctly different practice of different men. This paper a...
Cornish, Flora; Campbell, Catherine
Peer education is a community-based intervention being implemented worldwide as an approach to HIV prevention. However, its results are inconsistent, with little consensus on why some projects succeed while others fail. Considering peer education as an ‘intervention-incontext’, we systematically compare the context and the implementation of two peer education interventions run by sex workers, one in India and one in South Africa, which produced contrasting outcomes. In so doing, we aim to ide...
Lehmann, S. B.; Levin, N. E.; Stynder, D. D.; Bishop, L. C.; Forrest, F.; Braun, D. R.
The Plio-Pleistocene transition marks a change in the Earth's climate from relative global warmth to colder temperatures with the initiation of glacial-interglacial cycles. Proxy records from marine cores off SW Africa archive changes in ocean upwelling and terrestrial vegetation that suggest increased aridity across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Today, the SW African coast has a Winter Rainfall Zone (WRZ) and is dominated by C3 vegetation, which results from the regional high-pressure system and upwelling in the Benguela Current. While marine records provide an integrated perspective on regional responses to global climate change, terrestrial paleoclimate records are needed to assess the effects of these changes in a heterogeneous environment like southern Africa. Archeological and paleontological sites can provide useful proxies of paleoclimate, but many southern African sites are poorly dated or postdate the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Langebaanweg (LBW, ~5 Ma) and Elandsfontein (EFT, ~1.0-0.6 Ma) are sites on the SW coast of South Africa that are rich in fossil mammals and represent landscapes where surface water was more prevalent than it is in today's dry coastal environment. Fossil teeth of large herbivores (e.g. hippopotamids, giraffids, bovids, rhinocerotids, suids and equids) are preserved at both sites and enable isotopic studies of vegetation and climate across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. In this study, carbon and oxygen isotopic data are reported for 100 fossil teeth (11 herbivore taxa) at EFT and are compared to published isotopic data from early Pliocene teeth from LBW for many of the same genera. δ13C values of the EFT tooth enamel range from 13 to 8‰ (VPDB) and δ18O values range from -2 to +3‰ (VPDB). Among the EFT data, there are consistent differences in the distribution of both δ13C and δ18O values among the sampled taxa. When the EFT and LBW isotopic results are compared, δ13C values from the two sites are similar within each
"Postcolonial" Chapter I - The borders in Africa: an overview 1.1 The critical issues of European borders in Africa 1.2 Pre-colonial Africa and the value of land 1.3 The appearance of arbitrary lines 1.4 Africa after the borders 1.5 Borders as lines of instability Chapter II - Beyond the Nation-State 2.1 The...... concept of nation-state: a comparison between Europe and Africa 2.2 Giving new meaning to the concept of "migration": why not in Africa? 2.3 Why is that an urgent matter? 2.4 Migrants and social policies Chapter III - Saying Europe, meaning Eurafrica 3.1 The accounts with the past 3.2 Eurafrica, profile......Available at: - http://ebook.edizionieiffel.com/product.php?id_product=36 or on AMAZON at: http://www.amazon.it/Europa-Africa-Anatomia-Marco-Zoppi-ebook/dp/B01DPSBE6C/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1460205243&sr=8-1&keywords=marco+zoppi The book title translates as: "Europe and Africa: anatomy of an...
Africa Development Indicators 2006 is the latest annual report from the World Bank on social and economic conditions across the continent. It was revamped this year to better report and monitor the challenges and transformations in Africa. Africa Development Indicators has evolved from a single data book, and this year consists of three independent but complementary products: this book, which brings together an essay and key outcome indicators for Africa, the Little Data Book on Africa 2006, ...
Madhavan, Sangeetha; Roy, Kevin
In this paper, we examine how low income black men in South Africa and the US work with their kin to secure fathering and ensure the well-being of children. We use ethnographic and life history data on men who fathered children from 1992-2005 to demonstrate how fathers’ roles as kin workers enable them to meet culturally-defined criteria for responsible fatherhood in two contexts marked by legacies of racism, increasing rates of incarceration and HIV/AIDS, and a web of interlocking inequaliti...
The 1960s and 1970s were decades in which China and Africa began a friendship that was built around Beijing’s political backing and developmental aid to a crop of emerging indepen- dent African nations.In the 1980s and 1990s,China shifted its focus by devoting more efforts to establishing a rapport with big powers and neighboring countries to create a sound environment for self-development.Since the turn of the cen- tury,however,the African continent has been rediscovered by China as a strategic partner in many areas.As the Chinese market has flourished,so too has the African economy,which maintained a growth momentum in recent years and has achieved a modest prosperity rarely seen in its history. He Fan,Deputy Director of the Research Center on International Finance affiliated to the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences shared his comments about this partnership on blog on the eve of the New Year.
Davidson, Bruce; Sidell, Jonathan; Rhodes, Jeffrey; Cliff, Geremy
We have assessed the fatty acid profiles of the hearts and different muscle tissues from nine large shark species (Carcharhinus limbatus (blacktip), Carcharhinus obscurus (dusky), Carcharhinus brevipinna (spinner), Carcharhinus leucas (Zambezi/bull), Galeocerdo cuvier (tiger), Sphyrna lewini (scalloped hammerhead), Sphyrna zygaena (smooth hammerhead), Carcharodon carcharias (great white) and Carcharias taurus (raggedtooth/grey nurse/sand tiger)) found off the east coast of South Africa. While there was generally little variation between the species, all species showed profiles rich in both n6 and n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to terrestrial commercial meats that have low n3. Thus, utilizing skeletal muscle tissues from sharks caught as part of the bycatch when fishing for teleosts would avoid unnecessary wastage of a potentially valuable resource, with all the possible health benefits of high quality protein combined with balanced polyunsaturates, although contamination with high levels of metabolic wastes, such as urea, may be a negative consideration. PMID:20694746
Chisholm, Linda; Chilisa, Bagele
This article examines how different histories and contexts of political and educational change in Botswana and South Africa have shaped the more regular classroom practice observed in Botswana. It does this through an interpretive synthesis and comparison of four key moments of educational change in Botswana and South Africa during the twentieth…
The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) in some parts of Africa in the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Countries specifically mentioned are Algeria, Angola, Nigeria, South Africa and Tunisia
Francis Teal; Stefan Dercon; Måns Söderbom
Firm-level data for the manufacturing sector in Africa, presented in this paper, shows very low levels of investment. A positive effect from profits onto investment is identified in a flexible accelerator specification of the investment function controlling for firm fixed effects. There is evidence that this effect is confined to smaller firms. A comparison with other studies shows that, for such firms, the profit effect is much smaller in Africa than in other countries. Reasons for the relat...
Jans, Christoph; Kaindi, Dasel Wambua Mulwa; Böck, Désirée; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Kouamé-Sina, Sylvie Mireille; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo
Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus are members of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) associated with human infections. SBSEC-related endocarditis was furthermore associated with rural residency in Southern Europe. SBSEC members are increasingly isolated as predominant species from fermented dairy products in Europe, Asia and Africa. African variants of Sii displayed dairy adaptations to lactose metabolism paralleling those of Streptococcus thermophilus including genome decay. In this study, the aim was to assess the prevalence of Sii and possibly other SBSEC members in dairy products of East and West Africa in order to identify their habitat, estimate their importance in dairy fermentation processes and determine geographic areas affected by this potential health risk. Presumptive SBSEC members were isolated on semi-selective M17 and SM agar media. Subsequent genotypic identification of isolates was based on rep-PCR fingerprinting and SBSEC-specific16S rRNA gene PCR assay. Detailed identification was achieved through application of novel primers enhancing the binding stringency in partial groES/groEL gene amplification and subsequent DNA sequencing. The presence of S. thermophilus-like lacS and lacZ genes in the SBSEC isolates was determined to elucidate the prevalence of this dairy adaptation. Isolates (n = 754) were obtained from 72 raw and 95 fermented milk samples from Côte d'Ivoire and Kenya on semi-selective agar media. Colonies of Sii were not detected from raw milk despite high microbial titers of approximately 106 CFU/mL on M17 agar medium. However, after spontaneous milk fermentation Sii was genotypically identified in 94.1% of Kenyan samples and 60.8% of Kenyan isolates. Sii prevalence in Côte d'Ivoire displayed seasonal variations in samples from 32.3% (June) to 40.0% (Dec/Jan) and isolates from 20.5% (June) to 27.7% (Dec/Jan) present at titers of 106–108
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a highly inequitable distribution of health workers between public and private sectors in South Africa, partly due to within-country migration trends. This article elaborates what South African medical specialists find satisfying about working in the public and private sectors, at present, and how to better incentivize retention in the public sector. Methods Seventy-four qualitative interviews were conducted - among specialists and key informants - based in one public and one private urban hospital in South Africa. Interviews were coded to determine common job satisfaction factors, both financial and non-financial in nature. This served as background to a broader study on the impacts of specialist ‘dual practice’, that is, moonlighting. All qualitative specialist respondents were engaged in dual practice, generally working in both public and private sectors. Respondents were thus able to compare what was satisfying about these sectors, having experience of both. Results Results demonstrate that although there are strong financial incentives for specialists to migrate from the public to the private sector, public work can be attractive in some ways. For example, the public hospital sector generally provides more of a team environment, more academic opportunities, and greater opportunities to feel ‘needed’ and ‘relevant’. However, public specialists suffer under poor resource availability, lack of trust for the Department of Health, and poor perceived career opportunities. These non-financial issues of public sector dissatisfaction appeared just as important, if not more important, than wage disparities. Conclusions The results are useful for understanding both what brings specialists to migrate to the private sector, and what keeps some working in the public sector. Policy recommendations center around boosting public sector resources and building trust of the public sector through including health workers
Eisele Thomas P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs and indoor-residual spraying have been scaled-up across sub-Saharan Africa as part of international efforts to control malaria. These interventions have the potential to significantly impact child survival. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST was developed to provide national and regional estimates of cause-specific mortality based on the extent of intervention coverage scale-up. We compared the percent reduction in all-cause child mortality estimated by LiST against measured reductions in all-cause child mortality from studies assessing the impact of vector control interventions in Africa. Methods We performed a literature search for appropriate studies and compared reductions in all-cause child mortality estimated by LiST to 4 studies that estimated changes in all-cause child mortality following the scale-up of vector control interventions. The following key parameters measured by each study were applied to available country projections: baseline all-cause child mortality rate, proportion of mortality due to malaria, and population coverage of vector control interventions at baseline and follow-up years. Results The percent reduction in all-cause child mortality estimated by the LiST model fell within the confidence intervals around the measured mortality reductions for all 4 studies. Two of the LiST estimates overestimated the mortality reductions by 6.1 and 4.2 percentage points (33% and 35% relative to the measured estimates, while two underestimated the mortality reductions by 4.7 and 6.2 percentage points (22% and 25% relative to the measured estimates. Conclusions The LiST model did not systematically under- or overestimate the impact of ITNs on all-cause child mortality. These results show the LiST model to perform reasonably well at estimating the effect of vector control scale-up on child mortality when compared against measured data from studies across a range of malaria transmission
Social Security Administration — This report, which is part of a four-volume series, provides a cross-national comparison of the social security systems in 48 countries in Africa. It summarizes the...
In this paper, the author presents the theory that for Africa to work towards reduction of global warming, it must first address its environmental problems; i.e. land use, deforestation, desertification, poverty and hunger. He argues that Africa should aim for growth in the productivity and quantity of energy use. The following suggestions were made: Africa must shift from low-quantity biomass to secondary sources in the short term; developed countries must avoid pushing experimental and frontier technologies on Africa; with financial and technical help, Africa could develop its largely untapped reserves of hydropower. Nuclear power should not be an option because reliable production is not possible at present
Hargreaves James R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate tools for assessing household wealth are essential for many health studies in developing countries. Household survey and participatory wealth ranking (PWR are two approaches to generate data for this purpose. Methods A household survey and PWR were conducted among eight villages in rural South Africa. We developed three indicators of household wealth using the data. One indicator used PWR data only, one used principal components analysis to combine data from the survey, while the final indicator used survey data combined in a manner informed by the PWR. We assessed internal consistency of the indices and assessed their level of agreement in ranking household wealth. Results Food security, asset ownership, housing quality and employment were important indicators of household wealth. PWR, consisting of three independent rankings of 9671 households, showed a high level of internal consistency (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.81, 95% CI 0.79–0.82. Data on 1429 households were available from all three techniques. There was moderate agreement in ranking households into wealth tertiles between the two indicators based on survey data (spearman rho = 0.69, kappa = 0.43, but only limited agreement between these techniques and the PWR data (spearman rho = 0.38 and 0.31, kappa = 0.20 and 0.17. Conclusion Both PWR and household survey can provide a rapid assessment of household wealth. Each technique had strengths and weaknesses. Reasons for differences might include data inaccuracies or limitations in the methods by which information was weighted. Alternatively, the techniques may measure different things. More research is needed to increase the validity of measures of socioeconomic position used in health studies in developing countries.
Major LPG projects planned or under way in Africa will increase the importance of that region's presence in world LPG trade. Supplies will nearly double between 1995 and 2005, at which time they will remain steady for at least 10 years. At the same time that exports are leveling, however, increasing domestic demand for PG is likely to reduce export-market participation by Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, and Libya. The growth of Africa's participation in world LPG supply is reflected in comparisons for the next 15--20 years. Total world supply of LPG in 1995 was about 165 million metric tons (tonnes), of which Africans share was 7.8 million tonnes. By 2000, world supply will grow to slightly more than 200 million tonnes, with Africa's share expected to increase to 13.2 million tonnes (6.6%). And by 2005, world LPG supply will reach nearly 230 million tonnes; Africa's overall supply volumes by that year will be nearly 16.2 million tonnes (7%). World LPG supply for export in 1995 was on order of 44 million tonnes with Africa supply about 4 million tonnes (9%). By 2005, world export volumes of LPG will reach nearly 70 million tonnes; Africa's share will have grown by nearly 10 million tonnes (14.3%)
Most sub-Saharan states cannot protect themselves from major military threats, especially extra-continental ones. From the perspective of the big international players the question is: should Africa be protected? In this collection of essays, the impact of Africa's global marginalisation is duly noted. This fundamental facet of Africa's security dilemma, however, is not analysed in any meaningful way. True, the usual malaises, including 'ethnic nationalism', are paraded, but there is no menti...
Poverty in Africa has been rising for the last quarter-century while it has been falling in the rest of the developing world. Africa's distinctive problem is that its economies have not been growing. The paper attempts to synthesize a range of recent research to account for this failure of the growth process. It argues that the reasons lie not in African peculiarities but rather in geographic features which globally cause problems but which are disproportionately pronounced in Africa. These f...
Full Text Available In 2007 Nevill, Venter, Meiswinkel & Nevill demonstrated that the pupae of five Culicoides species belonging to the Imicola complex of the subgenus Avaritia could readily be differentiated from one another using various morphological characters. Three of the described species, Culicoides bolitinos Meiswinkel 1989; Culicoides loxodontis Meiswinkel 1992 and Culicoides sp. # 107 (= C. kwagga, Meiswinkel, unpublished thesis 1995, were reared from the dung of large herbivores, which included buffaloes, elephants, white and black rhinoceroses and zebras. However, during that study a further two Avaritia species, neither of which belonged to the Imicola complex, were reared from dung and these are the subject of the present study. For the past 20 years the adults of these two new closely related species have been known as Culicoides sp. # 54 pale form (p.f. Meiswinkel and Culicoides sp. # 54 dark form (d.f. Meiswinkel. The taxonomic description and formal naming of the adults of these two species has yet to be done. The present description and comparison of their pupae show that they are two clearly distinct species; that there is no group of morphological characters that can be used to differentiate these two species from the previously described five species of the Imicola complex; and finally that there was no difference between the pupae of C. sp. # 54 d.f. nor C. sp. # 54 p.f. reared from the dung of different host animals.
Favennec, Jean-Pierre; Fattouh, Bassam; Khadduri, Walid; Copinschi, Philippe; Doucet, Gerald; Fall, Latsoucabé
Jean-Pierre Favennec on the importance of oil in Africa; Bassam Fattouh considers the history of foreign oil companies in Libya; Walid Khadduri looks at Algerian petroleum development and its imperfections; Philippe Copinschi assesses frustrated contested oil ambitions in Nigeria; Gerald Doucet and Latsoucabé Fall stress the importance of the Inga hydropower projects for Africa;
You, Danzhen; Hug, Lucia; Anthony, David
Until relatively recently, much of Africa has been among the economically least developed and least densely populated places on earth, replete with villages and rural communities. Africa is changing rapidly, in its economy, trade and investment; in climate change; in conflict and stability; in urbanization, migration patterns, and most of all in…
World Bank Group
The Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) Africa report describes the progress African countries are making on strengthening the quality of their policies and institutions. Some of the results from this report include: The overall quality of policies and institutions in countries in Sub-Saharan Africa was unchanged in 2014, but there was much variation in performance across co...
World Economic Forum; World Bank; African Development Bank
The Africa competitiveness report 2011 comes out as the world emerges from the most significant financial and economic crisis in generations. While many advanced economies are still struggling to get their economies back on a solid footing, Africa has, for the most part, weathered the storm remarkably well. The Africa competitiveness report focuses on harnessing Africa's underutilized reso...
Hoorweg, J.C.; Staudt Sexton, V.; Misiak, H.
This review of the development and current status of psychology in Africa focuses on Africa south of the Sahara, excluding South Africa. The author discusses the research topics which have attracted the attention of psychologists in Africa, including perception (illusions, pictorial representation a
Broich, T.; Szirmai, A.
This paper discusses the entry of China into the game of foreign finance in Africa. It analyses the scope, destination and sectoral distribution of Chinese financial flows and trade in comparison with Western patterns and trends of aid, foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade. China's foreign aid and manufacturing investment flow to Africa's physical infrastructure and productive sectors of agriculture and manufacturing fill the vacuum which emerged when Western financial flows shifted to o...
Dzimiri Nduna; Bouhaha Rym; Amor Mohamed B; Abu-Amero Khaled K; González Ana M; Cabrera Vicente M; Ennafaa Hajer; Elgaaïed Amel B; Larruga José M
Abstract Background The Strait of Gibraltar separating the Iberian Peninsula from North Africa is thought to be a stronger barrier to gene flow for male than for female lineages. However, the recent subdivision of the haplogroup H at mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) level has revealed greater genetic differentiation among geographic regions than previously detected. The dissection of the mtDNA haplogroup H in North Africa, and its comparison with the Iberian Peninsula and Near-East profiles would he...
Sami Zaki Moussa
This paper searches for the most effective technology for agricultural growth in Africa on the basis ofFAO data available during the last forty years. The paper discusses the challenges for agriculturalgrowth and evaluates the development assistance that was made by donors to the agricultural sector inAfrica in comparison to the sector’s performance and its growth during the last two decades. Ananalysis of the total versus per capita food production is conducted in relation to food exports an...
Aim of this thesis is to critically look at various indicators that play a key role in food scarcity in Africa. These indicators are applied on a case of Ethiopia, a selected country in Africa. Consequently, a multidimensional Index of Sustenance of Ethiopia is created using all relevant indicators. Comparison of researched indicators that contribute to food scarcity is based on data from official sources. In the created Index both economic and non-economic indicators are merged while, based ...
Chuhan-Pole, Punam; Francisco H.G. Ferreira; Calderon, Cesar; Christiaensen, Luc; Evans, David; Kambou, Gerard; Boreux, Sebastien; Korman, Vijdan; Kubota, Megumi; Buitano, Mapi
Africa’s Pulse is a biannual publication containing an analysis of the near-term macro-economic outlook for the region. It also includes a section focusing on a topic that represents a particular development challenges for the continent. It is produced by the Office of the Chief Economist for the Africa Region.This issue is an analysis of issues shaping Africa's economic future. Growth remains stable in Sub-Saharan Africa. Some countries are seeing a slowdown, but the region's economic pros...
Punam, Chuhan-Pole; Ferreira, Francisco H.G.
Africa’s Pulse is a biannual publication containing an analysis of the near-term macro-economic outlook for the region. It also includes a section focusing on a topic that represents a particular development challenges for the continent. It is produced by the Office of the Chief Economist for the Africa Region.This issue is an analysis of issues shaping Africa's economic future. Growth remains stable in Sub-Saharan Africa. Some countries are seeing a slowdown, but the region's economic pros...
Audrey Chouchane; Jean-Yves Duclos
Based on the methodology of Ravallionand Chen (2003), Kakwani and Pernia(2000) and Kakwani, Khandker and Son(2003) and using household survey data,we analyze poverty, inequality and pro-poorchanges in South Africa over the period1995-2005 and in Mauritius over theperiod 2001-2006. Conditions are verydifferent in these two countries. SouthAfrica is one of the least equal countries inthe developing world while inequality inMauritius is relatively low in comparison toother African countries. Sim...
The paper discusses the role of basic sciences in the development of technology. This is then tied up with the broader issue of the importance of scientific and technological knowledge in the socio-economic development of a country. Physics forms the basis for most of the natural and applied sciences and technology. The state of physics in Africa is reviewed. The need for regional and international cooperation in physics education and research in Africa is stressed. (author). 13 refs, 2 tabs
Richard B. Freeman; David L. Lindauer
Various arguments have been used to explain Sub-Saharan Africa's economic decline. We find that a stress on investments in education as a prerequisite for more rapid growth is misplaced; that greater openness is far from sufficient to insure economic progress; that income inequality and urban bias are not so extreme as to foreclose prospects for more rapid growth and poverty alleviation; and that the constraints imposed by Sub-Saharan Africa's human and physical geography are not core explana...
Hernes, Helga; Dalfelt, Arne; Berntsen, Terje; Holtsmark, Bjart; Næss, Lars Otto; Selrod, Rolf; Aaheim, H. Asbjørn
1. General observations Africa south of the Sahara is probably the most vulnerable region when it comes to the impact and consequences of climate changes. Yet the African continent runs a serious risk of being marginalized in the global dialogue on climate issues. Africa contributes little to the global emissions of CO2, and other greenhouse gases. The major focus of the Framework Convention on Climate Change is on abatement and mitigation of emissions rather than adaptation to the con...
Full Text Available Most sub-Saharan states cannot protect themselves from major military threats, especially extra-continental ones. From the perspective of the big international players the question is: should Africa be protected? In this collection of essays, the impact of Africa's global marginalisation is duly noted. This fundamental facet of Africa's security dilemma, however, is not analysed in any meaningful way. True, the usual malaises, including 'ethnic nationalism', are paraded, but there is no mention of the current debate on how Africa's 'ethnic' wars are interpreted by the international media, and its assumed impact on humanitarian and military intervention. If they have not done so already, the editors should read Tim Allen and Jean Seaton's new book, The Media of Conflict. Here the implications of the so-called second scramble for Africa, including the role of aid agencies and the International Monetary Fund, are scrutinised. Seaton and Allen reject the notion of mindless, primordial violence in Africa, and instead examine the repercussions of foreign intervention (most egregiously French meddling in Rwanda as well as the rational economic motivations of the assorted warlords.
Full Text Available The dawning of the 21st century generally brought new hope to African leaders and countless thousands of ordinary citizens of many countries on the continent. The first signs of a new turn of events shone through by the end of the last decade of the previous century. This was manifested by economic growth rates that started to pick up in a number of African states, by pro-democracy movements which in country after country succeeded in replacing authoritarian regimes, and by the winding down and termination of some of Africa’s most devastating wars. The results of this analysis confirm the above-mentioned positive political, economic and conflict trends in Africa. It is clearly a significant turn of events given the well-known political and economic predicament with which Africa is struggling. When this negative legacy and Cold War background of Africa is considered, the importance of present developments is clear to see. The identified heightened sense of purpose among the leaders and peoples of Africa and the changed mood and need among Africans to take charge of their own future that found expression in the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD are indeed significant and bode well for the future of the continent. A word of warning here is, however, necessary. Our conduct with Africa must be very cautious and we must guard against over-optimism and the exaggerated belief that Africa is now on a trajectory of sustained development and peace. We cannot generalise about Africa – for that the continent is just too big and diverse from a geographical, cultural, economic and political point of view.
Cauthen, Clay; Coombs, Cassandra R.
In 1891, the Virunga Mountains of Eastern Zaire were first acknowledged as volcanoes, and since then, the Virunga Mountain chain has demonstrated its potentially violent volcanic nature. The Virunga Mountains lie across the Eastern African Rift in an E-W direction located north of Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyamuragira and Mt. Nyiragongo present the most hazard of the eight mountains making up Virunga volcanic field, with the most recent activity during the 1970-90's. In 1977, after almost eighty years of moderate activity and periods of quiescence, Mt. Nyamuragira became highly active with lava flows that extruded from fissures on flanks circumscribing the volcano. The flows destroyed vast areas of vegetation and Zairian National Park areas, but no casualties were reported. Mt. Nyiragongo exhibited the same type volcanic activity, in association with regional tectonics that effected Mt. Nyamuragira, with variations of lava lake levels, lava fountains, and lava flows that resided in Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyiragongo, recently named a Decade volcano, presents both a direct and an indirect hazard to the inhabitants and properties located near the volcano. The Virunga volcanoes pose four major threats: volcanic eruptions, lava flows, toxic gas emission (CH4 and CO2), and earthquakes. Thus, the volcanoes of the Eastern African volcanic field emanate harm to the surrounding area by the forecast of volcanic eruptions. During the JSC Summer Fellowship program, we will acquire and collate remote sensing, photographic (Space Shuttle images), topographic and field data. In addition, maps of the extent and morphology(ies) of the features will be constructed using digital image information. The database generated will serve to create a Geographic Information System for easy access of information of the Eastem African volcanic field. The analysis of volcanism in Eastern Africa will permit a comparison for those areas from which we have field data. Results from this summer's work will permit
Whiteside, Alan; Patel C
ILO pub. Working paper, comparison of bilateral international agreements concerning black African migrant workers from countries of Southern Africa employed in South Africa R - covers recruitment, labour contracts, workers representation, remittances, tax deduction, administrative aspects of frontier crossing, health insurance, unemployment benefit, irregular migrants, and duration of agreements.
Books, Sue; Ndlalane, Thembi
Educational policy and practice has resided and continues to reside at the vortex of social and political strife in South Africa, as in the United States. Although school poverty and inequities among schools in the U.S. pale in comparison to conditions in South Africa, the two nations have much in common, including histories of state-sanctioned…
Whitelock, Patricia A
The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to ...
Amarasinghe, Ananda; Kuritsky, Joel N.; Letson, G. William; Margolis, Harold S
Reported incidence of dengue has increased worldwide in recent decades, but little is known about its incidence in Africa. During 1960–2010, a total of 22 countries in Africa reported sporadic cases or outbreaks of dengue; 12 other countries in Africa reported dengue only in travelers. The presence of disease and high prevalence of antibody to dengue virus in limited serologic surveys suggest endemic dengue virus infection in all or many parts of Africa. Dengue is likely underrecognized and u...
Kruger, Mariana; Hendricks, Marc; Davidson, Alan; Stefan, Cristina D; van Eyssen, Ann L; Uys, Ronelle; van Zyl, Anel; Hesseling, Peter
The majority of children with cancer live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with little or no access to cancer treatment. The purpose of the paper is to describe the current status of childhood cancer treatment in Africa, as documented in publications, dedicated websites and information collected through surveys. Successful twinning programmes, like those in Malawi and Cameroon, as well as the collaborative clinical trial approach of the Franco-African Childhood Cancer Group (GFAOP), provide good models for childhood cancer treatment. The overview will hopefully influence health-care policies to facilitate access to cancer care for all children in Africa. PMID:24214130
Emmanuel, Nikolas G.
peacekeeping operations in the region. It is important to add that the international community has frequently tried to facilitate the deployment of African armed forces with aid and training. From this reality, the following study goes beyond the current literature by focusing on the international factors...... behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...
Makani, Julie; Roberts, David J
This review of hematology in Africa highlights areas of current practice and the immediate needs for development and clinical research. Acute hematological practice is dominated by anemia, sickle cell disease, and the need to provide a safe and rapidly available supply of blood. There is a growing need for specialist services for bleeding and coagulation, hematological malignancy, and palliative care. There are many areas of practice where straightforward measures could yield large gains in patient care. There is an urgent need for good clinical research to describe the epidemiology, natural history, and management of hematological diseases in Africa. PMID:27040965
Full Text Available Librarians Leslie Christianson and Julie Watson from Marywood University have been working to educate Catholic nuns in Africa. Funded by a grant from the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, the Higher Education for Sisters in Africa (HESA project is a partnership between Marywood University and Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA in Nairobi, Kenya.
This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.
This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa
Garcia, Marito; Fares, Jean
Youth and Africa have received increased attention in recent policy discussions and World Bank work, as articulated in the Africa action plan and the World Development Report 2007: development and the next generation. The Africa action plan offers a framework to support critical policy and public action led by African countries to achieve well-defined goals, such as the Millennium Developm...
Hostland, Douglas; Marcelo M. Giugale
Much of Sub-Saharan Africa's post-independence macroeconomic history has been characterized by boom-bust cycles. Growth accelerations have been common, but short lived. Weak policy formulation and implementation led to large external and fiscal imbalances, excessive debt accumulation, volatile inflation, and sharp exchange rate fluctuations. This characterization changed, however, in the m...
Pigato, Miria; Tang, Wenxia
Economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has averaged roughly 5 percent per year over the past decade, improving living standards and bolstering human development indicators across the continent. Stronger public institutions, a supportive, private sector focused policy environment, responsible macroeconomic management, and a sustained commitment to structural reforms have greatly expand...
European powers imposed the nation-state on Africa through colonialism. But even after African independencies, mainstream discourses and government policies have amplified the idea that sedentariness and the state are the only acceptable mode of modernity. Migration is portrayed as a menace to the...
This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…
The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Photomontage,"…
Kramer, Beverley; Pather, Nalini; Ihunwo, Amadi O.
Anatomy departments across Africa were surveyed regarding the type of curriculum and method of delivery of their medical courses. While the response rate was low, African anatomy departments appear to be in line with the rest of the world in that many have introduced problem based learning, have hours that are within the range of western medical…
Bridgman, David; Adamali, Aref
The World Bank Group has been working on investment climate reform in Sub-Saharan Africa for nearly a decade, a period characterized by dramatic economic growth on the continent. Establishing links between such reform interventions and economic growth, however, is a complex problem. Although this note finds some connection between investment climate reform and economic growth, establishing ...
Brown, Barbara B.
Reports on the Third International Social Studies Conference held in Nairobi, Kenya, in 1994. Discusses democracy, educational reform efforts, and the importance of tourism to the Kenyan economy. Asserts that U.S. teachers must use accurate and nonstereotypical instructional materials in teaching about Africa. (CFR)
Huria, Ankur; Brenton, Paul
Economic activity in many African countries remains highly concentrated and exports are often dominated by mineral resources or a few primary products. The World Bank’s 2011 report on light manufacturing in Africa identified poor trade logistics performance as a constraint that especially penalized African exporters that relied on imported inputs, very often making them uncompetitive. The ...
The topic of the energy sector-and the petroleum sector in particular-in sub-Saharan Africa might well be considered an insignificant issue compared with many of the energy concerns which now command international attention. However, the World Bank believes that it is important for all those in international energy not to forget about the crucial problems facing Africa. They should become informed and concerned about these problems, and, hopefully, work together to bring about a satisfactory solution for an ongoing development dilemma. Simply put, the cost of imported energy to the African economy is exorbitantly high, sapping the resources needed to produce economic growth and social progress. This paper reports that, to address this issue, the World Bank is about to undertake a major initiative-two ground-breaking studies in the field of energy for sub-Saharan Africa. Both of these proposed studies are designed to find ways to reduce the burden of the cost of energy imports, mainly petroleum products, to this continent. One study will examine the design (and, subsequently, the implementation) of a rationalization scheme for the supply and distribution of petroleum products throughout sub-Saharan Africa. The other will consider the feasibility of transporting Nigeria's natural gas to neighbors to the west, all of which presently are importers of energy
After its introduction into Africa in the 1880s, rinderpest became the most feared and most devastating disease to afflict the continent's cattle and wildlife herds. Outbreaks of the classical disease in cattle caused mortality rates of 10 to 90 percent. So devastating was this 'cattle plague' that many countries worldwide made concerted efforts to stamp it out and, having once eliminated it, prevent its re-emergence. The disease was a serious threat to the livelihoods of millions of people in Africa. The presence or suspected presence in a country served as a major barrier to livestock trade, and many countries of the world, particularly in Africa, were denied access to valuable external livestock markets. This devastating blow to trade impoverished the pastoral peoples of Africa and dealt considerable blows to the economies of their countries. The present-day African Union3 Inter-African Bureau for Animal Resources (AUIBAR) 4 was established in 1951 with responsibility for eliminating rinderpest from Egypt and sub-Saharan Africa, where continual east-west cattle movements prevented effective control by individual countries. Since then, with the European Union (EU) as the main donor, AU-IBAR has coordinated the eradication of rinderpest from Africa through five main projects: Joint Project 15 (JP15), 1962 to 1976; the Pan African Rinderpest Campaign (PARC), 1986 to 1998; the Pan African Programme for the Control of Epizootics (PACE), 1999 to 2007; the African Wildlife Veterinary Project (AWVP), 2002 to 2003; and the Somali Ecosystem Rinderpest Eradication Coordination Unit (SERECU) project, 2006 to 2010. In tandem with rinderpest eradication, the need to strengthen veterinary services was addressed. From JP15 to SERECU, the main objective was the eradication of rinderpest from Africa. Alongside this main objective were other complementary and synergistic objectives. Under PARC, these were controlling contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) through mass
Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina
The paper shows recurrence plots obtained from time series of the level variations of four lakes in Africa (Nasser, Tana, Chad and Kainji). The data, coming from remote sensing, are provided by the United States Department of Agriculture. The recurrence plots allow a good visual comparison of the behaviours of local drainage basins.
Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina
The paper shows recurrence plots obtained from time series of the level variations of four lakes in Africa (Nasser, Tana, Chad and Kainji). The data, coming from remote sensing, are provided by the United States Department of Agriculture. The recurrence plots allow a good visual comparison of the behaviours of local drainage basins.
Broich, T.; Szirmai, A.
This paper discusses the entry of China into the game of foreign finance in Africa. It analyses the scope, destination and sectoral distribution of Chinese financial flows and trade in comparison with Western patterns and trends of aid, foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade. China's foreign aid
China is in Africa in a vigorous way,and doing business in several countries like Sudan,Congo DRC,Angola,South Africa,and Nigeria.In the short term,the relationship may appear to be mutually beneficial.This paper seeks to address the issue of Africa's perspectives on China-Africa Relations and the FOCAC and examine the concept of strategic partnerships,determine the state of China-Africa relations,examines FOCAC and draw conclusion as well as recommendation on possible ways and issues for future engageme...
Water scarcity is a matter of urgent, national, regional and international concern. For those people, usually women, who are responsible for the daily task of obtaining sufficient water for household use, water shortages are a perpetual worry. It is a situation which affects many individual families and communities throughout the arid and semi-arid regions of Africa. The isotope studies conducted thus far have proved that the majority of regional groundwater systems in northern Africa and the Sahel zone are paleowaters, replenished thousands of years ago, without the possibility of significant replenishment under present climatic conditions. Therefore, removal from such underground reservoirs will eventually deplete the resource. Mapping these paleowaters, and estimating their reservoir sizes, is a priority. (IAEA)
In this paper, I aim to evaluate whether increasing or decreasing the level of consociationalism in South Africa would be beneficial for the country's stability. Analysing South Africa's political structure since the implementation of free and fair elections, I review the effects of its current degree of consociationalism and debate the arguments of those who contest South Africa's current institutional framework and its capacity to govern.
Pinkovskiy, Maxim; Sala-i-Martin, Xavier
We present evidence that the recent African growth renaissance has reached Africa's poor. Using survey data on African income distributions and national accounts GDP, we estimate income distributions, poverty rates, and inequality indices for African countries for the period 1990-2011. Our findings are as follows. First, African poverty is falling rapidly. Second, the African countries for which good inequality data exist are set to reach the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) poverty reductio...
Hayes, Edward B
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic ...
Schaumburg-Müller, Henrik; Jeppesen, Søren; Langevang, Thilde
This working paper is a report from the workshop on Entrepreneurship Development arranged by the Centre for Business and Development Studies at CBS and the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs in September 2010. The objective of the workshop was to use the participants’ joint knowledge and experiences to discuss and provide conclusions on what role entrepreneurship development has played and can play to stimulate growth and employment in Africa. Entrepreneurship development is understood as the...
Yibin Mu; Peter Phelps; Janet Gale Stotsky
African bond markets have been steadily growing in recent years, but nonetheless remain undeveloped. African countries would benefit from greater access to financing and deeper financial markets. This paper compiles a unique set of data on corporate bond markets in Africa. It then applies an econometric model to analyze the key determinants of African government securities market and corporate bond market capitalization. Government securities market capitalization is directly related to bette...
Lul Raka; Monica Guardo
Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infec...
WHILE there are meaningful objections to the nature and structure of much of the new investment in African agriculture,it is dear that the introduction of new capital,skills and technology is an essential component in unlocking the continent's ultimate allure.Investments of $83 billion annually are said to be needed to elevate the developing world's agricultural sector.At least half of this amount is required in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) alone.
Despite repeated policy initiatives from donors and governments, the human and economic cost of continued lack of access to safe water and sanitation in sub-Saharan Africa remains high. Progress is in large part constrained by a persistent ‘financing gap’. This paper shows that a radical reorientation of policy is needed to achieve a significant increase in investment finance in order to raise access levels. Rather than continuing to pursue policies that have failed for the past two decades, ...
This paper comprises a report on the coal industry in the Republic of South Africa. Stresses the importance of coal in the South African economy (meets 75% of the country's energy requirements and is in second place in the South African exports table). Covers deposits, production and prices, exports policy; winning methods, productivity and the various grades of coal. Also includes data on investments and refers to synthetic fuels from coal (Sasol I, II, III processes).
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper highlights that cautious monetary and fiscal polices of South Africa during 1997 resulted in a return of financial investor confidence and capital inflows during 1997 and through April 1998. These policies helped the South African economy emerge successfully from the exchange market pressures of 1996 and weather the contagion from the East Asian crisis in the second half of 1997. Throughout 1997 and up until May 1998, inflation and market interest rates fell conside...
Emmanuel O D Addo-Yobo; Ashley Woodcock; Adorkor Allotey; Benjamin Baffoe-Bonnie; David Strachan; Adnan Custovic
Editors' Summary Background. The proportion of children with asthma is thought to be increasing worldwide, and particularly among children that live in more developed countries. However, it is not clear why this is, since many different aspects of lifestyle and the environment have been linked with the onset of asthma. In Africa, asthma has typically been thought of as being very uncommon, and indeed in many African dialects there is no word for asthma or the symptoms, such as wheezing, that ...
Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.
On july 13,2004,"Hail for China and Africa; A Chinese Cultural Tour of Africa" was launched in Prertoria,South Africa,Senior Officials from china and South Africa attended the opening ceremony,including Chinese State Councilor Madame Chen Zhili ,South Africa cultural minister,agricultural minister and mayor of Pretoria.
In Israel and South Africa: The Many Faces of Apartheid, Ilan Pappé offers an edited collection that seeks to expand upon controversial comparisons between the segregated political system of apartheid South Africa and that of contemporary Israel. Claire Constant welcomes this as a nuanced volume that seeks to learn from the struggles against apartheid in South Africa and to animate important discussions about the possibilities of finding a single-state solution.
Dennis, H.J.; Nell, Wilhelm T.
The Republic of South Africa covers an area of 122 million hectare of which 18 million hectare is potential land for cultivation. Eight percent of the potential arable land are under irrigation, which accounts for nearly half of the water requirement in South Africa. With a population of 42 million and an estimated annual population growth of 1,7%, urbanisation and industrialisation will increase the pressure on the availability of water resources and the allocation thereof in South Africa. T...
The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.
Review Article: Cold War in Southern Africa Gary Baines, Peter Vale (eds.) (2008), Beyond the Border War: New Perspectives on Southern Africaâ€™s Late-Cold War Conflicts , Pretoria: Unisa Press, ISBN 978 1 86888 456 8, xix + 342 pp. Sue Onslow (ed.) (2009), Cold War in Southern Africa: White Power, Black Liberation , Abingdon: Routledge, ISBN 978 0 415 47420 7, 253 pp. Vladimir Shubin (2008), The Hot â€œCold Warâ€ : The USSR in Southern Africa , London: Pluto Press, ISBN 978 0745324722, 320 p...
Denmark has one of Europe's longest historical records of contacts with Africa. This article looks at the continuity and breaks in Danish conceptualisations of Africa through Danish texts which engage with Africa in the past and the present....
Oyo, Benedict; Kalema, Billy Mathias
Africa is known for inadequate access to all sorts of human needs including health, education, food, shelter, transport, security, and energy. Before the emergence of massive open online courses (MOOCs), open access to higher education (HE) was exclusive of Africa. However, as a generally affordable method of post-secondary education delivery,…
International Monetary Fund
The external current account in South Africa has strengthened significantly in 1999, mainly owing to a large decline in imports. Compared with a deficit of about 1.5 percent of GDP in recent years, it is close to balance during the first three quarters of 1999. A resumption of investor confidence has led to an increase in international reserves and facilitated a decline in the net open forward position (NOFP). The external current account deficit has declined to 0.2 percent of GDP during the ...
change that was also expected and demanded by the international community. As a consequence of this change, South Africa is now trying to lead by example, trying to export particular values and norms to the rest of the continent, while at the same time carrying Africa’s banner on the international stage....... A state wanting to be recognized and perceived as a benign “peacemaker” cannot use military power in the same way as a pariah state. To cultivate a reputation as a benign power, it must use force in a way that is acceptable to its neighbours and the international community at large. The purpose of...
What lies at the core of both poor nutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa as well as an elevated percentage of the population living in extreme poverty is the inability of local countries to establish a foundation for long-term economic growth. The main reason for this is their inability to establish adequate governance systems, which commenced in the 1960s, when African countries successively obtained independence. Two former superpowers, both the USA and the USSR, have their share of blame in this...
Full Text Available Information on intoxication of livestock by plants in Brazil, in terms of cause, clinical signs and pathology, is compared with information on livestock poisoning by plants in South Africa. Plant poisoning, including mycotoxicosis, is considered to be one of three major causes of death in livestock in Brazil, which is one of the top beef producing countries in the world, with a cattle population of more than 200 million. Cattle production in South Africa is on a more modest scale, but with some 600 species of plants and fungi known to cause toxicity in livestock, as opposed to some 130 species in Brazil, the risk to livestock in South Africa appears to be much greater. The comparisons discussed in this communication are largely restricted to ruminants.
Maintains that many world geography and culture textbooks that deal with Africa present misinformation and misleading generalities. Reviews three recent textbooks--"Insights: Sub-Saharan Africa," by Ella C. Leppert, "People and Progress: A Global History," by Milton Finkelstein, and "World Cultures," by Clarence L. Van Steeg. (DB)
Møller, Nicolai Stahlfest
This paper will discuss the United States security policy towards Africa based on the National Security Strategy from 2006 and the founding of US Africa Command, the new military combatant command that is supposed to unify US military efforts on the African continent. The paper will discuss whether...
In Cape Town, South Africa, the first annual African Summer Theory Institute is being held. This is a three-week conference for university science students throughout the whole of Africa, co-sponsored by Perimeter Institute as part of international outreach initiatives (1 page).
World Bank, (WB)
This report provides an assessment of accounting and auditing practices in South Africa, within the broader context of institutional capacity available for ensuring high-quality financial reporting. National accounting and auditing standards in South Africa are developed on the basis of international standards; but lack of legal backing for accounting standards give rise to problems. South...
Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Overview of financing trends in Africa; Multilateral support - Bedrock of Africa's first generation energy projects; ECA insurance and financing; Bilateral development finance; Offshore commercial bank lending; Local commercial bank finance; Capital markets; Legal ramifications ; Risk factors; Conclusions. (Author)
Discusses the interplay of political, economic, social and cultural factors in the management of the performance of public and private organizations in Africa......Discusses the interplay of political, economic, social and cultural factors in the management of the performance of public and private organizations in Africa...
In this report, the authors propose an overview of the main perceivable orientations of the energy sector in African until 2050, and suggest some other perspectives and state some recommendations for new guidelines. In its first part, the report proposes an analysis of the present situation and identifies possible directions. Several issues are addressed: major challenges, African as a continent of energy divide, energy efficiency in Africa, situation of energy per sectors, per energies and per regions. The second part addresses the prospective dimension (by 2050): world context in 2050, Africa within this context, tomorrow's energy and economy for Africa. Appendices address the following topics: the Energizing Africa initiative, promotion of substitutes for wood, alternative fuels and energies for transport, energy in Africa per region and per source
The case study of the Office of External Activities in Cape Coast, Ghana has turned out to be a successful story in promoting research and capacity building of young scientists. The total involvement of many organizations show how laudable the idea has been. This centre has come to serve as a place to solve scientific problems as well as problems of national interest. It is foreseen that its activities can be a means to congregate African scientists to solve common problems. I think the bold step taken by OEA and some organs of ICTP, Trieste, Italy, Lund Institute of Technology, Sweden and Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata, Firenze, Italy has helped up and coming African scientists to come face to face with the challenges of Laser research. Such projects seem feasible and sustainable since experts in these areas can serve as contact persons in Africa to undertake common research using optical techniques. This project has made it possible to explore various areas in optics that can be used to solve problems peculiar to the continent. This ICAC programme in Cape Coast has been successful thanks to the cooperation of the organs of ICTP as well as various international organizations. It is hoped that scientists elsewhere will have the interest to collaborate with us in order to uplift the image of optics in the continent - Africa. (author)
Hulver, M.L.; Ziegler, A.M.; Rowley, D.B.; Sahagian, D.
Five stage-length maps (Valanginian, Aptian, Cenomanian, Coniacian, and Maestrichtian) of Africa integrate topography/bathymetry, lithofacies, tectonics, and climatically sensitive sediments. These reconstructions differ from currently available maps in their level of detail and accuracy, and in that computer routines were developed to plot all aspects of the maps, including lithofacies patterns. Bathymetric contours were determined from community paleoecology and from thermal subsidence models of the newly opening Atlantic and Indian oceans. Topographic contours have been estimated from uplift models of rift shoulders, as well as from the erosion and sedimentation record of both the internal and marginal basins. The uplift of rift shoulders from Nigeria to Sudan is suggested by the extensive Nubian and equivalent sandstones across north Africa. This Benue-Ngaoundere-Abu Gabra rift system approximately paralleled the paleoequator, and its shoulders must have experienced the high rainfall normally associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). In fact, these mountains would have served as a high level heat source, and would have pinned the ITCZ to their summits. Such a system tends to reduce seasonal excursions of the ITCZ, and may have influenced the high biological productivity represented by the oil source rocks of the Arabian peninsula. These sources also lie on the equator and could have resulted from a shelf incursion of the equatorial divergence zone, which is controlled by the ITCZ.
Africa is not only known for its spectacular diamond, gold, copper, chromium, platinum and phosphorus deposits but also for its uranium deposits. At least two uranium provinces can be distinguished - the southern, with the equatorial sub-province; and the south Saharan province. Uranium deposits are distributed either in cratons or in mobile belts, the first of sandstone and quartz-pebble conglomerate type, while those located in mobile belts are predominantly of vein and similar (disseminated) type. Uranium deposits occur within Precambrian rocks or in younger platform sediments, but close to the exposed Precambrian basement. The Proterozoic host rocks consist of sediments, metamorphics or granitoids. In contrast to Phanerozoic continental uranium-bearing sediments, those in the Precambrian are in marginal marine facies but they do contain organic material. The geology of Africa is briefly reviewed with the emphasis on those features which might control the distribution of uranium. The evolution of the African Platform is considered as a progressive reduction of its craton area which has been affected by three major Precambrian tectonic events. A short survey on the geology of known uranium deposits is made. However, some deposits and occurrences for which little published material is available are treated in more detail. (author)
For the second year running, a team from CERN comprising experts in the design and running of digital libraries has taken part in a workshop in Africa. The aim of the workshop, which was held in Morocco from 22 to 26 November 2010, was to pass on their expertise and help train librarians and IT engineers from five African countries. Participants of the training workshop at the National Centre for Scientific and Technical Research in Rabat (Morocco). Although digital libraries are rapidly expanding across the Globe, a large proportion of the professionals working in the field have not followed relevant training, which poses a real challenge. To help to remedy the situation and encourage the development of digital libraries in Africa, CERN and UNESCO organised a training workshop at the National Centre for Scientific and Technical Research in Rabat (Morocco) in November. "The success of the first CERN-UNESCO digital library school, which took place in Rwanda in 2009, encouraged...
Full Text Available This article provides an analysis of the BRICS as a whole and an analysis of each member’s policies in Africa. It exploresthe countries’ political and economic interests in Africa, the various patterns and strategies of each country’s cooperationwith Africa, and estimates the impact of BRICS aid and investment on the African economy and Africa’s development. TheBRICS countries have emerged as the new effective actors in the world arena. Their global economic weight and politicalinfluence continue to grow. Not only is the group focusing its attention on strengthening the internal ties of its members, but itis also focusing on assistance to Africa, as a way to implement the emerging powers efforts to change the existing world order.The BRICS is deepening its engagement with African countries, which gained great success in their development in recentyears. Its focus on Africa is determined by the important role of African resources and by the continent’s growing influencein the world economy and contemporary international relations. BRICS countries are major trade partners of Africa, andAfrica’s trade with BRICS members is growing faster than its trade with the traditional partners. Africa has become themain destination for BRICS development aid and investment. The BRICS is also focusing on African infrastructure. BRICScountries use soft power widely, through developing humanitarian ties with Africa, particularly in health care and education.The BRICS is also an active participant in peacekeeping and conflict resolution in Africa. Members currently tend tocompete in Africa, but they are taking steps toward collaboration. The BRICS contributes much to the African economy. Itspresence has become important for the continent and receives a positive response there.
Torquato, Joaquim Raul; Cordani, Umberto G.
In this work, the main evidence and conclusions regarding geological links between Brazil and Africa are summarized, with emphasis on the geochronological aspects. Taking into account the geographical position, as well as the similarities in the geochronological pattern, the following main provinces of the two continents are correlated: The Imataca and Falawatra complexes in the Guayana Shield and the Liberian Province of West Africa. The Paraguay-Araguaia and the Rockelide Fold Belts. The Sa˜o Luiz and the West African cratonic areas. The Caririan Fold Belt of northeastern Brazil and the Pan-Africa Belt of Nigeria and Cameroon. The JequiéComplex of Bahia, the Ntem Complex of Cameroon and similar rocks of Gabon and Angola. The Ribeira Fold Belt in Brazil and the West Congo and Damara Belts in West and South Africa. In addition, other geological links are considered, such as some of the major linear fault zones which can be traced across the margins of South America and Africa, in the pre-drift reconstructions. Correlations are also made of the tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Paranáand Karroo syneclises, and the Brazilian and African marginal basins around the South Atlantic, during their initial stages. Finally, several similarities in the tectonic evolution of South America and Africa, during and after the onset of drifting, are shown to be compatible with a recent origin for the South Atlantic floor, as required by sea-floor spreading and continental drift between South America and Africa.
JohnD.Bennett; NasserEnnih; S.FelixToteu
History and objectives,The ambitious and forward-looking decision to establish a pan-African geological society was taken during the course of a conference on African geology held in Ibadan, Nigeria in 1970. A Steering Committee was convened at that meeting under the Chairmanship of Professor Russell Black of the Department of Geology, Haile Selassie University, Addis Ababa, and the provisional constitution drafted by his Committee was approved at a second conference on African geology in Addis Ababa in 1973. Thus was the Geological Society of Africa (GSA.t) born. Its first President was Professor M O Owawoye (Nigeria) and Dr S M E1 Rabba (Sudan) became its first Secretary General.
Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica
Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can't withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease. PMID:27275217
Full Text Available Ebola viral disease (EVD is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can’t withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease.
Utzinger, Jürg; Brattig, Norbert W.; Kristensen, Thomas K.
, the current piece provides an umbrella for the 25-article collection, including current gaps and remaining research needs. Finally, post-CONTRAST initiatives are discussed and a speculative viewpoint is given on how schistosomiasis control/elimination will have evolved over the next several years....... countries through innovation, validation and application of new tools and locally adapted intervention strategies complementary to preventive chemotherapy. Moreover, CONTRAST articulated a research agenda for schistosomiasis elimination, framed by 10 key questions. Here, we provide a rationale for CONTRAST...... and discuss its overarching goal, the interrelated objectives, establishment and running of a research node network across Africa, partnership configuration and modus operandi of the project. A collection of 25 articles is presented that are grouped into five main themes: molecular, biological, spatial...
Ramaiya, Astha; Kiss, Ligia; Baraitser, Paula; Mbaruku, Godfrey; Hildon, Zoe
Worldwide, approximately 14 million mothers aged 15 - 19 years give birth annually. The number of teenage births in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) is particularly high with an estimated 50% of mothers under the age of 20. Adolescent mothers have a significantly higher risk of neonatal mortality in comparison to adults. The objective of this review was to compare perinatal/neonatal mortality in Sub Saharan Africa and it's associated risk factors between adolescents and adults. We systematically sear...
This presentation deals with the situation of a country in the small, developing league and is applicable to a large number of member states. It traces the progress made in South Africa at the Council for Geoscience (mainly its predecessor the Geological Survey of South Africa) since the late 1950s. First World countries have a capacity many times more than that of South Africa in terms of economic, scientific, technological and sociological capacity and for them the developments would occur normally in a number, even large number of institutions. In their case a reasonable comparison might be with a province, state or region. Only one of the verification technologies will be discussed
Robertson, Kevin; Liner, Jeff; Hakim, James; Sankalé, Jean-Louis; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott; Clifford, David; Diop, Amadou Gallo; Jaye, Assan; Kanmogne,Georgette; Njamnshi, Alfred; Langford, T. Dianne; Gemechu Weyessa, Tufa; Wood, Charles; Banda, Mwanza
In July 2009, the Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS at the National Institute of Mental Health organized and supported the meeting “NeuroAIDS in Africa.” This meeting was held in Cape Town, South Africa, and was affiliated with the 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. Presentations began with an overview of the epidemiology of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the molecular epidemiology of HIV, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), and HAND treatment. ...
The document reproduces the press release with a statement by Dr. J.W.L. de Villiers, Executive Chairman of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Limited, issued on 31 January 1984 and included in the letter received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of South Africa to the Agency on 31 January 1984. This statement refers to the transfer of nuclear material equipment and technology by South Africa to other countries and the Non-Proliferation Treaty
Full Text Available Africa is known for inadequate access to all sorts of human needs including health, education, food, shelter, transport, security, and energy. Before the emergence of massive open online courses (MOOCs, open access to higher education (HE was exclusive of Africa. However, as a generally affordable method of post-secondary education delivery, MOOCs place the developing countries at the centre of universal access to HE. This paper provides the strategy for MOOC implementation in the context of limited resources in Africa. The strategy is clustered under five baseline requirements: national accredited MOOC curriculum, electronic content development, development of an online and offline eLearning platform, establishment and funding of MOOC coordination units at public HEIs, and establishment of MOOC access hubs at strategic locations. Emerging from this paper is the insight that a new era of universal access to HE in Africa is achievable through MOOCs only if initial requirements are met by the respective governments.
Summary: With the fall of apartheid Mandela and his Government expressed the need to commit itself to the Southern African region arguing that South Africa cannot prosper in a continuous underdeveloped region. Mandela s Government expressed the importance of not dominating or using power strength towards its neighbours. The aim of this thesis was to investigate whether South Africa can be said to act as a benevolent regional hegemon in the Southern African Development Community (SADC). F...
Comparison of the lipid properties of healthy and pansteatitis-affected African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and the role of diet in pansteatitis outbreaks in the Olifants River in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.
Huchzermeyer, K D A; Osthoff, G; Hugo, A; Govender, D
Pansteatitis has been identified in wild populations of sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, inhabiting the same waters in the Olifants River Gorge in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Mesenteric and pectoral fat tissue was investigated microscopically and by fatty acid analysis in healthy and pansteatitis-affected catfish from both captive and wild populations. Variation in fatty acid composition between pectoral and mesenteric fat was noted. Composition of mesenteric fat differed between fish from various localities as a result of differences in diet. Pansteatitis in the captive population, resulting from ingestion of high amounts of dietary oxidized fat, reflected higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids within the mesenteric fat. Mesenteric fat of pansteatitis-affected wild catfish was characterized by an increase in moisture content, a decrease in fat content and a decrease in stearic and linoleic acids. The n-3 to n-6 fatty acid ratio of mesenteric fat was higher in pansteatitis-affected wild catfish than in healthy catfish from the same locality, reflecting higher polyunsaturated fat intake by pansteatitis-affected fish. The possible role of alien, invasive, phytoplankton-feeding silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes), in the aetiology of pansteatitis in both catfish and crocodiles in the Olifants Gorge is discussed. PMID:23634747
While the level of mineral exploration in much of Africa over the last ten to fifteen years has stagnated or declines, it has risen dramatically in South Africa. This chapter reviews this growth trend along with changes in the type of minerals sought through these exploration expenditures, and then identifies factors important to these shifts over time in the level and distribution of exploration expenditures. The chapter describes certain aspects of the South African mining industry which are important for exploration and which distinguish South Africa from other mineral-producing countries. Annual exploration expenditures for South Africa are shown in millions of current and constant (1982) and in figure 5-2 for the period from 1960 to 1983. The data include exploration for nonfuel minerals as well as two mineral fuels - uranium and coal
Crisis highlights deep-seated food security problems on the African continent Worsening famine in the Horn of Africa, which threatens the lives of millions in countries including Ethiopia, Djibouti,Kenya and Somalia,
I.P. van Staveren (Irene); A. Oduro (Amo)
textabstractDespite Africa's relatively commendable growth performance since 2000, growth has not been accompanied by structural transformations. First, there has been little diversification from agriculture into industry, particularly manufacturing. Second, the poverty headcount and inequality rema
Africa must be left to solve its own internal problems RECENTLY social unrest has spread widely in Arab countries in North Africa and the Middle East,which led to military actions against the Libyan regime by NATO.In addition,under the support of the UN peacekeepers and French forces,the former president of Cote d’Ivoire was arrested and power transferred to
The absolute and relative lack of infrastructure in Africa suggests that the continentâ€™s competitiveness could be boosted by scaling up investments in infrastructure. Such investments would facilitate domestic and international trade, enhance Africaâ€™s integration into the global economy and promote better human development outcomes, especially, by bringing unconnected rural communities into the mainstream economy. While there are yawning gaps in all infrastructure subsectors, inadequate e...
Ramirez, J. Martin
Africa faces three simultaneous problems that must be addressed; economic development, disease, and peace. Drawing on the work of Jeffrey Sachs and others, this article explains the nature of each of these problems and possible solutions. A comprehensive program of action is advocated with sustained commitment to support those nations that are truly using that support to free themselves from the vicious cycles of war, disease, and poverty that currently plague much of Africa.
Full Text Available South Africa’s membership of the BRICS has stirred controversy. A number of observers have argued that South Africa is too small in terms of economy and population to be considered an authentic member of this group. In this article, the author accepts that South Africa may have no place in the analytical construct that Jim O’Neill of Goldman Sachs invented in 2001, but also argues that South Africa is a valuable and legitimate member of the political construct that we know today as the BRIC(S. South Africa has the “soft power” needed to play a constructive role in the rebalancing of geopolitical power globally, and is a potential voice for the continent of Africa. However, South Africa’s position in the BRICS must be understood in terms of its own contested role as a leader in Africa; the ambiguous outcomes of the BRICS engagement with this continent; and the danger that the BRICS may become an exclusive self-selected grouping rather than a potent force for greater global equity.
D. I. Okoh
Full Text Available The development of a map of the ionosphere over South Africa is presented in this paper. The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model, South African Bottomside Ionospheric Model (SABIM, and measurements from ionosondes in the South African Ionosonde Network, were combined within their own limitations to develop an accurate representation of the South African ionosphere. The map is essentially in the form of a computer program that shows spatial and temporal representations of the South African ionosphere for a given set of geophysical parameters. A validation of the map is attempted using a comparison of Total Electron Content (TEC values derived from the map, from the IRI model, and from Global Positioning System (GPS measurements. It is foreseen that the final South African ionospheric map will be implemented as a Space Weather product of the African Space Weather Regional Warning Centre.
Chartier, Alex T.; Kinrade, Joe; Mitchell, Cathryn N.; Rose, Julian A. R.; Jackson, David R.; Cilliers, Pierre; Habarulema, John-Bosco; Katamzi, Zama; Mckinnell, Lee-Anne; Matamba, Tshimangadzo; Opperman, Ben; Ssessanga, Nicholas; Giday, Nigussie Mezgebe; Tyalimpi, Vumile; Franceschi, Giorgiana De; Romano, Vincenzo; Scotto, Carlo; Notarpietro, Riccardo; Dovis, Fabio; Avenant, Eugene; Wonnacott, Richard; Oyeyemi, Elijah; Mahrous, Ayman; Tsidu, Gizaw Mengistu; Lekamisy, Harvey; Olwendo, Joseph Ouko; Sibanda, Patrick; Gogie, Tsegaye Kassa; Rabiu, Babatunde; Jong, Kees De; Adewale, Adekola
ionospheric specification is necessary for improving human activities such as radar detection, navigation, and Earth observation. This is of particular importance in Africa, where strong plasma density gradients exist due to the equatorial ionization anomaly. In this paper the accuracy of three-dimensional ionospheric images is assessed over a 2 week test period (2-16 December 2012). These images are produced using differential Global Positioning System (GPS) slant total electron content observations and a time-dependent tomography algorithm. The test period is selected to coincide with a period of increased GPS data availability from the African Geodetic Reference Frame (AFREF) project. A simulation approach that includes the addition of realistic errors is employed in order to provide a ground truth. Results show that the inclusion of observations from the AFREF archive significantly reduces ionospheric specification errors across the African sector, especially in regions that are poorly served by the permanent network of GPS receivers. The permanent network could be improved by adding extra sites and by reducing the number of service outages that affect the existing sites.
Buah-Bassuah, P K
The case study of the Office of External Activities in Cape Coast, Ghana has turned out to be a successful story in promoting research and capacity building of young scientists. The total involvement of many organizations show how laudable the idea has been. This centre has come to serve as a place to solve scientific problems as well as problems of national interest. It is foreseen that its activities can be a means to congregate African scientists to solve common problems. I think the bold step taken by OEA and some organs of ICTP, Trieste, Italy, Lund Institute of Technology, Sweden and Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata, Firenze, Italy has helped up and coming African scientists to come face to face with the challenges of Laser research. Such projects seem feasible and sustainable since experts in these areas can serve as contact persons in Africa to undertake common research using optical techniques. This project has made it possible to explore various areas in optics that can be used to solve proble...
The first African School of Physics draws to a close tomorrow, and I’m proud that CERN has been a part of it. From an initiative launched by Fermilab scientist Christine Darve, the African School of Physics has grown to involve institutes and universities from all over Europe and the United States. It’s being hosted by South Africa’s National Institute for Theoretical Physics, NITheP, at Stellenbosch, and has attracted 150 applicants from all over the continent and beyond for the 65 places available. That alone makes it a success, even before NITheP Director Frederik Scholtz uttered his words of welcome nearly three weeks ago.. When I show people the map of where CERN’s users come from, it’s gratifying to see it spanning the world, and in particular to see southern hemisphere countries starting to join the global particle physics family. Africa, however, remains notable more for the number of countries that are not involved than for those that ...
Kathryn J Allan
Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an important but neglected bacterial zoonosis that has been largely overlooked in Africa. In this systematic review, we aimed to summarise and compare current knowledge of: (1 the geographic distribution, prevalence, incidence and diversity of acute human leptospirosis in Africa; and (2 the geographic distribution, host range, prevalence and diversity of Leptospira spp. infection in animal hosts in Africa.Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA guidelines, we searched for studies that described (1 acute human leptospirosis and (2 pathogenic Leptospira spp. infection in animals. We performed a literature search using eight international and regional databases for English and non-English articles published between January 1930 to October 2014 that met out pre-defined inclusion criteria and strict case definitions.We identified 97 studies that described acute human leptospirosis (n = 46 or animal Leptospira infection (n = 51 in 26 African countries. The prevalence of acute human leptospirosis ranged from 2 3% to 19 8% (n = 11 in hospital patients with febrile illness. Incidence estimates were largely restricted to the Indian Ocean islands (3 to 101 cases per 100,000 per year (n = 6. Data from Tanzania indicate that human disease incidence is also high in mainland Africa (75 to 102 cases per 100,000 per year. Three major species (Leptospira borgpetersenii, L. interrogans and L. kirschneri are predominant in reports from Africa and isolates from a diverse range of serogroups have been reported in human and animal infections. Cattle appear to be important hosts of a large number of Leptospira serogroups in Africa, but few data are available to allow comparison of Leptospira infection in linked human and animal populations. We advocate a 'One Health' approach to promote multidisciplinary research efforts to improve understanding of the animal to human transmission of leptospirosis on the
Industrialization and the monetary economy have changed the relationship between society and nature that characterized majority of African cultures. Modernization is raping the environment, and impersonal and formal attitudes are on the rise. To determine what African life would be like by the year 2000, 3 scenarios are proposed, based upon the relationship of lifestyle to the African people's most pressing needs and aspirations, and the ways in which these can be satisfied: 1) the prolongation of present tendencies. This means the continued exploitation of African raw materials, concurrent increase of energy imports with growth rates, and modernization pattern following the European or American model. Environmental damage is dealt with by a limited policy, mainly in smart areas and big agglomerations, and in certain tourist spots. 2) distributing benefits of development--the dominant countries redistribute benefits of development (e.g., improved terms of trade for Africa); the African economy, however is still directed to the outside, even if it is partly managed by African managers. Intermediate lifestyles are fostered by the money economy, and the African masses aspire for imported models. 3) environmental development--African society no longer depends on the world market but instead tries to meet the basic needs of its people, with the environment as the permanent focal point of reference. This necessitates the adoption of a tough strategy and new options in use of technology, in consumption levels, in cultural models, and in distribution of activities between town and country. Currently, the future environment and life styles of the African people are being decided by various centres of decision-making--big powers, multinationals, governments, local interests--without their being aware of it. It is not unreasonable to expect that a great public debate on whether to conform or to imitate, or to be independent, may soon unfold to determine the aspirations of the
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is believed to have begun in Rwanda with the transmission of green monkey virus to humans; the virus spread among prostitutes and truck drivers along the highways and then to the cities. In the most threatened areas, for example, Kinshasa in Zaire, 20% of the inhabitants are infected. 8% of pregnant women are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive. Social conditions are important. In Kenya prostitutes who work along the highways are carriers of socially transmitted diseases and genital sores. They are 60-80% HIV-positive. The better-off prostitutes at bars and hotels enjoy better health and fewer contacts and are 30% HIV-positive. It should be possible to develop a vaccine against the AIDS virus, but only a few virologists believe that this can be done within 10 years. Because HIV virus mutates rapidly, many different vaccines would have to be prepared. About 80 countries are cooperating with the World Health Organization to combat HIV and AIDS in Africa. Traveling and working abroad is beginning to be a problem. 15 countries have introduced restrictions on foreign visitors. Swedish midwives have an important role to play in fighting HIV. Their youth counseling activities can spread information about HIV and AIDS. Children who are in early stages of sexuality are probably the most important group to be influenced. It is already too late to begin informing 15-17 year olds about the disease. Midwives should probably be starting much sooner, perhaps even with 10-year olds. PMID:3692943
Fiander, A; Hughes, D
The main drawback for young doctors from developed countries working in Africa or other developing area, is the lack of supervision. Medical and nursing care standards are low, with poor facilities and infrastructure and the problems encountered are enormous. Attitudes and expectations will have to change and mistakes will inevitably occur. Additional frustrations are poor motivation of the local staff, lack of essential supplies and the doctor coming down with tropical diseases. However, much can be gained by this type of experience: basic skills will be improved and self-confidence gained in ones own judgement; technical abilities will grow because of limited resources and equipment, and the need to justify their use only when absolutely necessary. Management and administrative skills will also improve, and opportunities found for teaching and making little changes. The personal thanks and appreciation of the patients, despite their great poverty and their quiet suffering also adds to the experience. Valuable lessons can be learned from the nurses, both medically and culturally and they have been accepting and friendly. Planning for such an experience takes 1-2 years. It is hard to find suitable jobs and one should seek the advice of consultants or other experts with experience abroad. Organizations concerned with health in developing countries such as the Institute of Child Health, International Centre for Eye Health, Christian Medical Fellowship, are resources for obtaining positions. Placement may be with a missionary organization, nongovernmental organization, college program, or a hospital exchange. The best time is when the doctor has completed the specialist exams and has something specific to offer. A 2-year contract is a reasonable time period to plan for. Keeping up with the literature and some standard teaching tools are important and publishing the experiences gained will be valuable for others. Prepare for this by keeping records of work, including a
The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) Organisation announced in May 2012 that its members had agreed on a dual site solution for the SKA . South Africa's bid for hosting the SKA has caused a ramp up of radio astronomy in Africa. To develop technology towards the SKA, the South African SKA Project (SKA SA) built a protoype radio telescope in 2007, followed in 2010 the seven antenna Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7). Next is the 64 antenna MeerKAT, which will merge into SKA Phase 1 in Africa. As SKA Phase 2 is intended to add a high resolution capability with baselines out to 3000 km, the SKA SA brought in partner countries in Africa to host outstations. South Africa has been working with the partners to build capacity to operate the SKA and to benefit from it. The SA Department of Science and Technology (DST) developed a proposal to establish radio telescopes in the partner countries to provide hands-on learning and a capability for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) research. Redundant 30 m class satellite antennas are being incorporated in this project.
Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg
The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa.......The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa....
, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade......To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature...... by looking at the influence of spatial location and geographic scale on traders’ abilities to trade. In both cases, we argue that the value of social network analysis in exploring how traders have progressively adapted to social and spatial changes in economic activities has been greatly...
Olsen, Gorm Rye
For a number of years, there has been an international debate on whether and to what extent small member states can influence the common external policies of the European Union. Recent research on the role of small EU states concludes that these states are neither per se political dwarfs nor power...... affairs including North–South and specifically Africa policies. Five separate analyses are carried out addressing the question of Nordicization and Europeanization. Based on the empirical analyses, it is not possible to confirm the hypothesis that a Nordicization of the European Union's Africa policy has...... taken place. Rather, it appears adequate to talk about convergence of policies between the Nordics and the EU and therefore, the Africa policies of both actors are basically the result of Europeanization....
China's relations with African states have undergone significant changes in recent years. China has projected its relationship with Africa as one of equality and ‘mutual help’. Such perceptions of foreign policy stem from the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence and the shared experience of...... imperialist domination and economic underdevelopment. Moreover, various public statements by China's elites suggest that China is expected to play a much more prominent, even exceptional role in Africa. This purportedly entails moving beyond the hegemonic West's interventionist aid or security policies, and...... is also implicitly designed to highlight the West's shortcomings in promoting African economic growth or peace. Yet where does this perception of exceptionalism come from? Why does Beijing feel that it has to play a leading role in Africa's development? How can Beijing distinguish itself from the...
Page, John; Shimeles, Abebe
Growth and poverty reduction in Africa are weakly linked. This paper argues that the reason is that Africa has failed to create enough good jobs. Structural transformation - the relative growth of employment in high productivity sectors - has not featured in Africa's post-1995 growth story. As a result, the region's fastest growing economies have the least responsiveness of employment to growth. The role of development aid in this context is problematic. Across Africa more aid went to countri...
Samson A Fatokun
In this article, the author challenges the popular public conception that Christianity in Africa is a latecomer introduced only with the advent of colonialism. By tracing the origins of the Christian faith in both North and sub-Saharan Africa (including, North-Central and West Africa), this paper seeks to show that Christianity has been in Africa virtually since its inception and that the continent� s own adherents to this faith played an important role in the formation and advance of Christi...
Jeppesen, Soeren; Claire MAINGUY
Little is known about impact of FDI on economic development in Africa compared to other developing countries, which the paper seeks to address by focusing on examples of impact in Mali and South Africa. The arugment put forward is that the impact has to be identified at the level of the industry or sector and the level of the firm with regard to employment effect, income generation and skills development. The mining and electricity and railway sectors in Mali are investigated and compared to ...
Dengue outbreaks and epidemics have been reported in all regions of Africa, and it is believed that all four dengue virus serotypes are in circulation. Available data suggest that dengue is endemic to 34 African countries and that Aedes aegypti mosquitoes – the primary vector for dengue transmission – are known to be present in all but five countries. Whether populations in Africa are susceptible to dengue at the same rates as in Asia and Latin America is difficult to determine from the avail...
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Economic Issues paper examines economic development in South Africa during 1995â€“96. The paper highlights that in 1995, the economy of South Africa grew by 3.3 percent, the third consecutive year of economic growth, and it is expected to grow between 3Â½ and 4 percent in 1996. Some aspects of the unemployment problem are addressed in this paper. The paper also focuses on the implications for policy of the steps taken in 1994 and 1995 to establish an outward-oriented economy, af...
Adjei, Stephen Baffour
Programme (UNDP) as a universal benchmark for assessing gender inequality. It has been highlighted that agency is a necessary component in the conceptualisation and realisation of women empowerment particularly in Africa. The article further demonstrates that the GEM has capitalist, elitist and Eurocentric......This review discusses the religious and cultural challenges to the empowerment of women in some patriarchal societies in Africa. The article takes a critical reflection on some of the contextual deficiencies of the gender empowerment measure (GEM) developed by the United Nations Development...
Thisted, Karen Panum; Hansen, Michael W.
the poverty related development challenges endemic to Sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, this paper presents six tales of social enterprises from the Kenyan BOP, who all have managed to pursue a social agenda while at the same time achieving commercial viability. While the cases contribute to the BOP...... social enterprises is generation of social change through commercial means which is effectuated through innovative business model hybrids. At the bottom of pyramid (BOP) in developing Sub-Saharan Africa, the need for sustainable solutions is greater than ever and social enterprises are increasingly in...
Good, Pieter R.; Derudder, Ben; Witlox, Frank J.
Current regionalizations of Africa have limitations in that they are attribute-based and regions are delineated according to national boundaries. Taking the world city network approach as starting point, it is possible to use relational data (i.e., information about the relationships between cities) rather than attribute data, and moreover, it…
The little data book on Africa 2007 is a pocket edition of Africa Development Indicators 2007. It contains some 100 key indicators on economics, human development, governance, and partnership and is intended as a quick reference for users of the Africa Development Indicators 2007 book and African development indicators online. The country tables present the latest available data for World ...
Louvet, S.; Paturel, J. E.; Mahé, G.; Rouché, N.; Koité, M.
The climatic evolution of the Bani river watershed, the main tributary to the upper Niger River, is approached through the spatiotemporal variability of rainfall grids over the 1950-2006 period. The analyses are conducted, and their results compared, using four different methods of spatial interpolation of rainfall fields: the spline, kriging, weighted inverse distance, and nearest neighbor methods. The largest changes are observed for all of these grids, but differences—and in some cases divergent results—appear in the details. The analysis shows a substantial decline in rainfall, particularly marked in the center of the basin, during the 1970-2000 period with respect to the 1950-1969 period, and a slight upturn in the northern part, mainly since the beginning of the 1990s. The rainfall deficit can be attributed to a combination of factors: an earlier and drier end of the rainy season, less precipitation in the middle of the rainy season, more dry days and lower amounts of precipitation on rainy days. Two drought indices—the Effective Drought Index and Standardized Precipitation Index—revealed that the maximum duration of drought events increased most in the central part of the basin. Lastly, to supplement this comparison of methods of spatial interpolation of rainfall fields, the sensitivity of a hydrological model (GR2M) to rainfall data was tested. Given the distribution and density of rain gauge stations available in the Bani watershed, the kriging method is found to yield the best hydrological modeling performance.
Leirs, Herwig; Verhagen, Ron; Verheyen, Walter;
1. Rainfall data were collated for years preceding historical outbreaks of Mastomys rats in East Africa in order to test the hypothesis that such outbreaks occur after long dry periods. 2. Rodent outbreaks were generally not preceded by long dry periods. 3. Population dynamics of Mastomys...
Viviers, S.; Bosch, J.K.; Smit, vd M E.; Buijs, A.
Given growing interest in the phenomenon of Responsible Investing (RI), both locally and internationally, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the RI sector in South Africa. It focuses on the definition and characteristics of RI within the South African context; the size and nature
Zyl, Omri Van; Alexander, Trish; Graaf, Liezl De; Mukherjee, Kamal
The strategic application of information and communications technology (ICT) to the agricultural industry, the largest economic sector in most African countries, offers the best opportunity for economic growth and poverty alleviation on the continent. Food security is paramount for the survival of individuals, families, and ultimately nations, yet Africa's agriculture sector has been in de...
The tuberculosis situation in Africa in the AIDS era has become bleak. The tuberculosis incidence has increased in most sub-Saharan African countries, diagnosis has become more difficult, response to treatment, though initially good, is eventually less effective, and patient compliance, which has be
Lamont, Loraine; Pulver, A. Issac
This summer, sports-crazy South Africa, recently named by the "New York Times" as one of the "31 Places To Go in 2010," will become the first African nation to host the FIFA World Cup. Soccer fans making the trip will be rewarded with world-class facilities, modern infrastructure, and a nation of startling contrasts and spectacular beauty. For the…
Neerinckx, Simon; Bertherat, Eric; Leirs, Herwig
Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, but particularly in Africa. Despite the long-standing history of human plague, it is difficult to get a historical and recent overview of the general situation. We searched and screened available information sources on human plague occurrences in ...
Garrett, Carly Sporer
The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water Pressure,"…
The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…
The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…
World Economic Forum; World Bank; African Development Bank; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
The Africa Competitiveness Report 2015 comes out at a promising time for the continent: for 15 years growth rates have averaged over 5 percent, and rapid population growth holds the promise of a large emerging consumer market as well as an unprecedented labor force that - if leveraged - can provide significant growth opportunities. Moreover, the expansion of innovative business models, suc...
Fowler, Stuart; Mutua, Isaac N.
Africa is commonly seen as a continent of rampant political corruption, poverty, violence, and ethnic conflicts rising at times to genocide. There is some truth in this view although the real picture is diverse, with the situation varying considerably from country to country. However, the more important question seldom asked is: What are the…
Lawrence Anthony is a conservationist for whom actions speak far louder than words. An imposing figure, Anthony does not take "no" for an answer and uses his commitment, enthusiasm and indefatigable drive to change situations, both in his native South Africa and around the world. Anthony has worked tirelessly alongside tribal leaders over many…
The importance of modern energy provision in African development cannot be over-emphasised, as it is the nucleus of socio-economic development worldwide. However, large numbers of Africans depend instead on firewood and charcoal, reflecting the comparatively low level of industrialisation on the continent. Moving out of this stage requires a substantial increase in cost-effective and affordable energy sources, while minimising environmental hazards and ensuring social equitability and sustainability. For Africa to be competitive, its per capita primary energy needs to be increased. In comparison with the rest of the world, Africans are among the smallest consumers of primary energy. In addition, Africa has multiple energy technologies to satisfy the needs of 30% of the population, in urban areas. The rural areas, where the remaining 70% live, have limited energy choices. It must be a priority for African governments to ensure that the rural majority has access to the same choices as those who live in urban areas
"Raça", sexualidade e gênero na construção da identidade nacional: uma comparação entre Brasil e África do Sul "Race", sexuality and gender in the construction of national identity: a comparison between Brazil and South Africa
Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é trazer à cena um outro pólo de um esquema comparativo que tradicionalmente toma como referência os Estados Unidos e que aparece em muito menor destaque nas análises clássicas sobre as relações "raciais": a África do Sul. O foco desta comparação serão os relacionamentos afetivo-sexuais "inter-raciais" em ambos os países. Tais relacionamentos, sejam eles formais ou não, são tidos como uma espécie de sismógrafo do grau e extensão do preconceito e da discriminação "raciais" e fornecem um rico campo exploratório para o inter-cruzamento e análise sobre alguns arranjos possíveis entre "raça", sexualidade e gênero.The aim of this article is to shed light on another pole of a comparative system that usually takes the United States as reference, South Africa, which has had much less attention in Brazilian classical analyses on "racial" relations. The focus of this comparison are "inter-racial" affective-sexual relationships in both countries. Such relationships, formal or informal ones, are seen as a kind of seismograph for the degree and extension of "racial" prejudice and discrimination, and provide a rich exploratory field for the analyses on some possible combinations between "race", sexuality and gender.
South Africa's participation in the nuclear industry was limited to the production of uranium and research, with minor commercial activities. The commissioning of the Koeberg Nuclear power station in 1984 placed South Africa firmly on the path of commercial nuclear power generation. A unique locally developed uranium enrichment process wil enable South Africa to be self-sufficient in its nuclear-fuel needs. Uranium has always been of secondary importance to gold as a target commodity in the exploration of the quartz-pebble conglomerates. In the Witwatersrand Basin it is estimated that in excess of R300 million was spend on exploration during 1987. This was spend primarily in the search for gold but as many of the gold reefs are uraniferous, new uranium resources are being discovered concurrently with those of gold. Uranium mineralization is present in rocks which encompass almost the whole of the geological history of South Africa. Significant mineralization is restricted to five fairly well-defined time periods. Each period is characterized by a distinct type or combination of types of mineralization. Resource estimates are divided into separate categories that reflect different levels of confidence in the quantities reported. The resource categories are further separated into levels of exploitability based on the estimated cost of their exploitation. A major part (87%) of South Africa's uranium resources is present as a by-product of gold in the quartz-pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand Basin. The uranium resources in the RAR and EAR-I categories were 536 500 t u. Production during 1987 was 3963 t u. Although a production peaking at over 1100 t U/a is theoretically attainable, it is considered, from market projections, that a production ceiling of 10 000 t U/a would be more realistic
Rosalind E Howes
Full Text Available Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf. Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health
Howes, Rosalind E; Reiner, Robert C; Battle, Katherine E; Longbottom, Joshua; Mappin, Bonnie; Ordanovich, Dariya; Tatem, Andrew J; Drakeley, Chris; Gething, Peter W; Zimmerman, Peter A; Smith, David L; Hay, Simon I
Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health significance of Pv, as well
South Africa's participation in the nuclear industry was limited to the production of uranium and research, with minor commercial activities. The commissioning of the Koeberg Nuclear power station in 1984 placed South Africa firmly on the path of commercial nuclear power generation. A unique, locally developed uranium enrichment process will enable South Africa to be self-sufficient in its nuclear-fuel needs. Uranium has always been of secondary importance to gold as a target commodity in the exploration of the quartz-pebble conglomerates. In the Witwatersrand Basin it is estimated that in excess of R100 million was spent on exploration during 1985. This was spent primarily in the search for gold but as many of the gold reefs are uraniferous, new uranium resources are being discovered concurrently with those of gold. Uranium mineralization is present in rocks which encompass almost the whole of the geological history of South Africa. Significant mineralization is restricted to five fairly well-defined time periods. Each period is characterized by a distinct type or combination of types of mineralization. Resource estimates are divided into separate categories that reflect different levels of confidence in the quantities reported. The resource categories are further separated into levels of exploitability based on the estimated cost of their exploitation. A major part (87%) of South Africa's uranium resources is present as a by-product of gold in the quartz-pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand Basin. The uranium resources in the reasonably assured resources (RAR) and estimated additional resources - category I (EAR-I) catogories were 483 300 t U. Production during 1985 was 4880 t U. Although a production peaking at over 1200 t U/a is theoretically attainable, it is considered, from market projections, that a production ceilling of 10 000 t U/a would be more realistic
Ramaiya, Astha; Kiss, Ligia; Baraitser, Paula; Mbaruku, Godfrey; Hildon, Zoe
Background Worldwide, approximately 14 million mothers aged 15 – 19 years give birth annually. The number of teenage births in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) is particularly high with an estimated 50% of mothers under the age of 20. Adolescent mothers have a significantly higher risk of neonatal mortality in comparison to adults. The objective of this review was to compare perinatal/neonatal mortality in Sub Saharan Africa and it’s associated risk factors between adolescents and adults. Results We ...
A notable contrast in modern economic history has been the rapid economic growth of China and the slower and volatile economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. As the engagement between the two continues to grows, there will be a greater cross-fertilization of experiences. Total factor productivity comparisons suggest that capital accumulation in China coupled with more efficient factor usage...
Conclusion: In this study, diabetic patients preferred a teleophthalmology based screening over a traditional ophthalmologist-based screening. The use of teleophthalmology in Africa warrants further study and has the potential to become the screening model of choice. Cost effectiveness in comparison to an ophthalmologist-based screening also requires evaluation.
Loeb, Mitchell; Eide, Arne H.; Jelsma, Jennifer; Toni, Mzolisi ka; Maart, Soraya
The impact of disability on the living conditions of people living in specifically resource-poor areas in South Africa has not previously been addressed. This paper presents a comparison of people with a disability and their non-disabled peers with respect to some key poverty indicators among a sample of Xhosa speaking individuals in resource-poor…
Heath, Melissa Allen; Donald, David R.; Theron, Linda C.; Lyon, Rachel Crook
Worldwide, approximately 10% of the 34.2 million individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are under the age of 18. Additionally, 17.8 million children have experienced one or both parents dying of HIV/AIDS. In comparison to other countries, South Africa has the highest per capita of…
"This paper assesses the economy-wide impact of implementing and financing a universal or basic income grant (BIG) in South Africa. The various financing scenarios suggested by the proponents of the grant are presented, and these are compared using an applied general equilibrium model for the South African economy. The results indicate that the required changes in direct and indirect tax rates needed to finance the grant without increasing the government deficit are substantially higher than ...
You, Liang Zhi
In Sub-Saharan Africa, rainfall is highly variable and, in many places, plainly in sufficient. Although irrigation has the potential to boost agricultural yields by at least 50 percent, food production in the region is almost entirely rain-fed. The irrigated area, extending over 6 million hectares, makes up just 5 percent of the total cultivated area, compared to 37 percent in Asia and 14 ...
Wilmshurst, Jo M; Badoe, Eben; Wammanda, Robinson D; Mallewa, Macpherson; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Venter, Andre; Newton, Charles R
The first African Child Neurology Association meeting identified key challenges that the continent faces to improve the health of children with neurology disorders. The capacity to diagnose common neurologic conditions and rare disorders is lacking. The burden of neurologic disease on the continent is not known, and this lack of knowledge limits the ability to lobby for better health care provision. Inability to practice in resource-limited settings has led to the migration of skilled professionals away from Africa. Referral systems from primary to tertiary are often unpredictable and chaotic. There is a lack of access to reliable supplies of basic neurology treatments such as antiepileptic drugs. Few countries have nationally accepted guidelines either for the management of epilepsy or status epilepticus. There is a great need to develop better training capacity across Africa in the recognition and management of neurologic conditions in children, from primary health care to the subspecialist level. PMID:22019842
Botha, Gerda M; Viljoen, Christopher D
It is said that genetic modification (GM) of grain sorghum has the potential to alleviate hunger in Africa. To this end, millions of dollars have been committed to developing GM sorghum. Current developments in the genetic engineering of sorghum are similar to efforts to improve cassava and other traditional African crops, as well as rice in Asia. On closer analysis, GM sorghum is faced with the same limitations as 'Golden Rice' (GM rice) in the context of combating vitamin A deficiency (VAD) efficiently and sustainably. Thus, it is questionable whether the cost of developing GM sorghum can be justified when compared to the cost of investing in sustainable agricultural practice in Africa. PMID:18191263
Patrick Honohan; Stephen A. O'Connell
In post-independence sub-Saharan Africa, institutional arrangements for monetary policy have taken a variety of forms, although the historical evolution of many African financial systems has been similar. This paper identifies five different regimes and examines how they evolved over time. It focuses on how the alternative institutional arrangements have influenced the performance of monetary policy under fiscal pressure, and concludes that, although the trend appears to be toward more flexib...
Beegle, Kathleen; Christiaensen, Luc; Dabalen, Andrew; Gaddis, Isis
This report begins by evaluating Africa’s data landscape to monitor poverty. It maps out and assesses in detail the availability and quality of the data needed to track monetary poverty (expenditures, prices, GDP) and also reflects on the governance and political processes that underpin the current situation. Carrying the work from the first chapter forward, it then evaluates in whether poverty statistics in Africa look different, if one takes seriously issues of data comparability, data qual...
Corrans, Ian James; Svoboda, Jan
The use of magnetic separators in the various mineral processing facilities in South Africa is described. A large number are used to recover medium in dense medium plants. The manufacture of various types of magnetic separation machines by three local suppliers is highlighted. The potential use of highgradient and/or high–intensity magnetic separation in the recovery of gold, uranium, and phosphate minerals is discussed.
Adele D. Berndt
Full Text Available Sponsorships are regarded as a marketing communications activity. This is seem as an investment made by an organisation that need to be evaluated in terms of its return and contribution. Sport sponsorships have increased in South Africa since re-admittance to the international sports arena. There are various objectives for sponsorships. The identification of these objectives is important for the evaluation of sponsorships. The articles proposes some guidelines for the evaluation of sponsorships.
Mabogunje, O A; Lawrie, J H
12 cases of conjoined twins from West Africa were reported between 1936 and 1978. Eight sets were liveborn and were surgically separated either in local hospitals or abroad. Four were stillborn. Two new cases of stillborn conjoined twins were recently delivered at this hospital. The most common type and the ones most likely to be born alive were the omphalopagi. Surgical separation was successful in 5 cases but the twins separated at Zaria died about a month later. Emergency operations were p...
Abstract This paper contributes to the international research project ‘Capturing the Gains: Economic and Social Upgrading in Global Production Networks and Trade’. Its main aim is to analyse the operations of international airlines in Africa and assess the influence of the international aviation industry on the development of tourism in selected African states. Simultaneously, through an exploration of the different ways in which international airline groups can foster the development of the ...
This report is the first publication produced within the framework of the WEC's Africa Regional Action Plan as part of the 2005-2007 Work Programme. Presently, over 80% of the total energy consumption in Africa is based on traditional biomass used mostly for cooking. This lack of access to modern energy is holding back economic and social development for 1.6 billion people around the world. The situation is particularly grave in sub-Sahara Africa where over 80% of the population lives in rural areas and the average electrification rate is less than 5%. At least 50 million new connections are needed to provide electricity to supply the non-connected areas in Africa. The over 700 million potential customers represented by these new connections provide a major business opportunity. It is now widely recognised that development assistance, bilateral aid, multilateral financing institutions, a multitude of international aid agencies, NGOs and others have failed to make a significant difference. A new approach is required, otherwise the number of people without access to electricity will continue to grow, and none of the Millennium Development Goals set by the United Nations will be achieved. This regional report highlights key factors that affect cooperative energy projects. The geopolitical context, investment climate and appropriate regulation are just as important as the institutional and technical capacity required to execute many of these projects. The report identifies four key benefits of regional integration: improved security of supply and accessibility; increased economic efficiency; enhanced environmental quality and broader development of renewable resources.
South Africa has undergone a remarkable transformation since its democratic transition in 1994, but economic growth and employment generation have been disappointing. Most worryingly, unemployment is currently among the highest in the world. While the proximate cause of high unemployment is that prevailing wages levels are too high, the deeper cause lies elsewhere, and is intimately connected to the inability of the South African to generate much growth momentum in the past decade. High unemp...
ABSTRACT This dissertation addresses something which is extremely important for both individual enterprises as well as entire nations i.e. the ability to deliver quality goods and services. Notwithstanding its geographical distant location, South Africa is increasingly becoming a more important participant in the global economy and increasingly relying on export. Local businesses therefore need to meet international quality standards. For this matter this dissertation investigated the sta...
Svendsen, Mark; Ewing, Mandy; Msangi, Siwa
"The paper develops indicators to look at the performance of the irrigation sector in Sub-Saharan Africa, where demand for food is high and irrigation has a proven potential to boost levels of agricultural productivity. By looking at six indicator categories—institutional framework, water resource use, irrigation area, irrigation technology, agricultural productivity, and poverty and food security—we assess the potential for improving performance in the agricultural food security sector throu...
Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kinyua, A. M.; Piketh, S.; King, M.; Helas, G.
Long-range and inter-hemispheric transport of atmospheric aerosols over equatorial Africa has received little attention so far. Most aerosol studies in the region have focussed on emissions from rain forest and savanna (both natural and biomass burning) and were carried out in the framework of programs such as DECAFE (Dynamique et Chimie Atmospherique en Foret Equatoriale) and FOS (Fires of Savanna). Considering the importance of this topic, aerosols samples were measured in different seasons at 4420 meters on Mt Kenya and on the equator. The study is based on continuous aerosol sampling on a two stage (fine and coarse) streaker sampler and elemental analysis by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Continuous samples were collected for two seasons coinciding with late austral winter and early austral spring of 1997 and austral summer of 1998. Source area identification is by trajectory analysis and sources types by statistical techniques. Major meridional transports of material are observed with fine-fraction silicon (31 to 68 %) in aeolian dust and anthropogenic sulfur (9 to 18 %) being the major constituents of the total aerosol loading for the two seasons. Marine aerosol chlorine (4 to 6 %), potassium (3 to 5 %) and iron (1 to 2 %) make up the important components of the total material transport over Kenya. Minimum sulfur fluxes are associated with recirculation of sulfur-free air over equatorial Africa, while maximum sulfur concentrations are observed following passage over the industrial heartland of South Africa or transport over the Zambian/Congo Copperbelt. Chlorine is advected from the ocean and is accompanied by aeolian dust recirculating back to land from mid-oceanic regions. Biomass burning products are transported from the horn of Africa. Mineral dust from the Sahara is transported towards the Far East and then transported back within equatorial easterlies to Mt Kenya. This was observed during austral summer and coincided with the dying phase of 1997/98 El
Miller, Charlotte S.; Gosling, William D.
Terrestrial fossil pollen records are frequently used to reveal the response of vegetation to changes in both regional and global climate. Here we present a fossil pollen record from sediment cores extracted from Lake Bosumtwi (West Africa). This record covers the last c. 520 thousand years (ka) and represents the longest terrestrial pollen record from Africa published to date. The fossil pollen assemblages reveal dynamic vegetation change which can be broadly characterized as indicative of shifts between savannah and forest. Savannah formations are heavily dominated by grass (Poaceae) pollen (>55%) typically associated with Cyperaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae and Caryophyllaceae. Forest formations are palynologically more diverse than the savannah, with the key taxa occurring in multiple forest zones being Moraceae, Celtis, Uapaca, Macaranga and Trema. The fossil pollen data indicate that over the last c. 520 ka the vegetation of lowland tropical West Africa has mainly been savannah; however six periods of forest expansion are evident which most likely correspond to global interglacial periods. A comparison of the forest assemblage composition within each interglacial suggests that the Holocene (11-0 ka) forest occurred under the wettest climate, while the forest which occurred at the time of Marine Isotope Stage 7 probably occurred under the driest climate.
E S Nwauche
Full Text Available This article reviews the interpretation of section 6(2(aii of the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act which makes an administrator “biased or reasonably suspected of bias” a ground of judicial review. In this regard, the paper reviews the determination of administrative bias in South Africa especially highlighting the concept of institutional bias. The paper notes that inspite of the formulation of the bias ground of review the test for administrative bias is the reasonable apprehension test laid down in the case of President of South Africa v South African Rugby Football Union(2 which on close examination is not the same thing. Accordingly the paper urges an alternative interpretation that is based on the reasonable suspicion test enunciated in BTR Industries South Africa (Pty Ltd v Metal and Allied Workers Union and R v Roberts. Within this context, the paper constructs a model for interpreting the bias ground of review that combines the reasonable suspicion test as interpreted in BTR Industries and R v Roberts, the possibility of the waiver of administrative bias, the curative mechanism of administrative appeal as well as some level of judicial review exemplified by the jurisprudence of article 6(1 of the European Convention of Human Rights, especially in the light of the contemplation of the South African Magistrate Court as a jurisdictional route of judicial review.
There is a need in Africa to test prevailing theories and concepts in population studies to see how they apply to this culture. Most of the prevailing perspective on population issues can be influenced by development strategies and policies affecting demographic variables. So research designed to determine the longterm consequences of rural settlement policies on subsequent access to family planning or family planning policies are also needed, as are studies which zero in on the work and results of specific population projects. The following issues are considered worth special consideration in Africa, where the vast majority of women live in rural areas where family planning services will not reach for some time. The areas of investigation which seem most pertinent in sub-saharan Africa are: side effect of contraceptive devices and agents; infertility assessments, social and medical consequences of adolescent pregnancies, the means of offering effective population education in rural African areas, the possible effects of fertility control programs on demographic transition, and potential funding sources. PMID:12336771
Dlamini Thula Sizwe
Full Text Available Soybeans are a small but important and growing component of South Africa’s agricultural economy. Large-scale production of soybeans did not begin until the late 1990s in South Africa, and area planted to soybeans has expanded rapidly. Rising yields supported by a favourable agricultural policy environment backing the commercialisation and use of agricultural biotechnologies, has facilitated a smooth transition of commercial farmers from the production of traditional grains to soybean production and to be able to rotate soybeans with other grain crops to maximise profits. Although soybeans are produced in nearly all the 9 provinces in South Africa, there is significant variation in output from one province to the other. Using data from the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF, this paper examines the production efficiency of each province with respect to area under production, output and yield per hectare for the past 25 years. Despite the potential of the former homelands in soybean production, there is little progress owing to infrastructural problems and unfamiliarity with the crop. In order to improve production and consumption of soybeans in these areas of South Africa, it may help to set up soybean out-grower schemes, which will encourage smallholder farmers to pool their output and earn income from soybeans whilst learning the food value of the crop.
Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.
Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.