Odedina, Folakemi T; Rodrigues, Belmira
In this paper, we present six case studies describing innovative cancer advocacy programs in Africa. For each case study, an example of an advocacy activity, list of factors contributing to the success of the organization, and an example of an obstacle addressed by the organization are described.
Timbali technology incubator in the Mpumalanga region of South Africa seeks to help rural farmers whose livelihood has been undercut by high-volume large farms. Supported by government financing and fee-based services, Timbali is largely based on a franchise model. Its clients supply cut flowers to Amablom, Timbali's commercial arm. Individual clients can begin generating revenue almost im...
Presents the case study success story of a University of Port Elizabeth Advancement Program student named Elroy Africander. Underscores two significant components of student transition programs: the need for support for students' personal and emotional growth, and that practitioners should regularly assess the strengths and weaknesses of programs…
This case study presents the new career guidance helpline managed by the South African Qualifications Authority in South Africa, a middle-income country. The National Qualifications Framework and Career Advice Helpline represent a national equity-driven initiative using technology to expand access. The model has drawn on contemporary international…
The majority of the population in the continent of Africa depend on biomass as a source of energy. Woodfuel (charcoal and fuelwood), the most important source of energy, is a subject of major concern in developing countries mainly because of its increasing scarcity, and recently because of its importance to the debate on climate change as its use is associated with emission on the greenhouse gases (GHG's). The book discusses the biomass energy problem and the policy options for addressing it in Botswana and Rwanda. Though the studies mainly draw their material from the surveys undertaken in these countries, extensive use is made of the existing general literature on this subject. The two case studies on Botswana address the nature, extent, and policy implications of the fuelwood problem, including the extent to which it contributes to deforestation. The Rwanda case studies examine the seasonal and spatial variation of the consumption of biomass energy (woodfuel and residues) and the evolution of the energy policy process with particular reference to biomass energy. A number of policy recommendations are made which may not only be relevant to Botswana and Rwanda, but also to other developing countries in a similar situation. The book thus makes a valuable contribution to the scarce literature on energy and environment in Africa. The multi-disciplinarity of the book makes it more valuable to a large number of readers. It will be an important reference material for policy makers and researchers in Africa as well as other developing countries. AFREPREN The African Energy Policy Research Network (AFREPREN) promotes research on energy issues relevant to the formulation and implementation of policy by African governments. It also aims to build research capability as well as mobilize existing expertise to address both near- and long-term challenges faced by the energy sector in Africa. (UK)
Aim of this thesis is to critically look at various indicators that play a key role in food scarcity in Africa. These indicators are applied on a case of Ethiopia, a selected country in Africa. Consequently, a multidimensional Index of Sustenance of Ethiopia is created using all relevant indicators. Comparison of researched indicators that contribute to food scarcity is based on data from official sources. In the created Index both economic and non-economic indicators are merged while, based ...
A striking feature of South Africa`s trade liberalisation is that, until 1995, it did not involve any import liberalisation. The focus of earlier liberalisation was the reduction of anti-export bias, and, on the import side, the replacement of QRs with equivalent tariffs and other duties. This distinguishes the process in South Africa from that which has happened in other African liberalisations. A second distinction (and the two are in all likelihood connected) is that South Africa was not p...
Carolyn Jenkins; Michael Bleaney; Merle Holden
A striking feature of South Africa's trade liberalisation is that, until 2995, it did not involve any import liberalisation. The focus of earlier liberalisation wsa the reduction of the anti-export bias, and, on the import side, the replacement of QRs with equivalnet tariffs and other duties. This ditinguishes the process in South Africa from that which has happended in other African liberalisations. A seconddistinction (an the two are in in all liklihood conected) is that South Africa was no...
SAEON operates a shared research data infrastructure for its own data sets and for clients and end users in the Earth and Environmental Sciences domain. SAEON has a license to issue Digital Object Identifiers via DataCite on behalf of third parties, and have recently concluded development work to make a universal data deposit, description, and DOI minting facility available. This facility will be used to develop a number of end user gateways, including DataCite South Africa (in collaboration with National Research Foundation and addressing all grant-funded research in the country), DIRISA (Data-intensive Research Infrastructure for South Africa - in collaboration with Meraka Institute and Department of Science and Technology), and SASDI (South African Spatial Data Infrastructure). The RDA recently published Data Citation Recommendations , and this was used as a basis for specification of Digital Object Identifier implementation, raising two significant challenges: 1. Synchronisation of frequently harvested meta-data sets where version management practice did not align with the RDA recommendations, and 2. Handling sub-sets of and queries on large, continuously updated data sets. In the first case, we have developed a set of tests that determine the logical course of action when discrepancies are found during synchronization, and we have incorporated these into meta-data harvester configurations. Additionally, we have developed a state diagram and attendant workflow for meta-data that includes problem states emanating from DOI management, reporting services for data depositors, and feedback to end users in respect of synchronisation issues. In the second case, in the absence of firm guidelines from DataCite, we are seeking community consensus and feedback on an approach that caches all queries performed and subsets derived from data, and provide these with anchor-style extensions linked to the dataset's original DOI. This allows extended DOIs to resolve to a meta
Kaufman, J S; Owoaje, E E; Rotimi, C N; Cooper, R S
Studies of migrants and comparisons of rural versus urban communities are potentially informative study designs because they allow examination of genetically similar population subgroups exposed to diverse environmental conditions. These designs have been underused in Africa, where recent urbanization has created many situations in which nearby communities of common ethnicity and culture live under different social and economic circumstances. The International Study of Hypertension in Blacks (ICSHIB) conducted several overlapping surveys in Nigeria starting in 1993. These surveys were based primarily in the rural village of Idere and the urban community of Idikan, both inhabited by people defined ethnically as Oyo Yoruba and sharing a common language and culture. Survey teams collected standardized blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and some study participants provided 24-hr urine samples and questionnaire data on psychosocial stress and social integration. Rural and urban groups differed substantially in blood pressure and related characteristics. Age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension (blood pressure > or = 140/90 mm Hg) for participants aged 25 years and older was 7-8% in Idere and 24-27% in Idikan. The distributions of overweight, sodium/potassium ratio, perceived stress, and social integration scores all contributed to lower hypertension risk in Idere. The effects and interactions of these identified risk factors remain poorly understood, even among people who share a common genetic background, similar diet, and many other lifestyle features. Nonetheless, the rural-urban distinction is sufficiently salient to engender a nearly threefold difference in hypertension prevalence. This disparity in disease prevalence demonstrates the sensitivity of human beings to the environmental determinants of disease and provides a sobering example of the difficulty in identifying subtle genetic effects, which can be easily overwhelmed by small differences in
van Breda, John; Musango, Josephine; Brent, Alan
Purpose: This paper aims to improve the understanding of individual transdisciplinary PhD research in a developing country context, focusing on three individual PhD case studies in South Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Multiple-case method was used, and three completed transdisciplinary PhD research efforts undertaken at the Stellenbosch…
Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nawaz, Kathleen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
This case study reviews South Africa’s experience in considering the impacts of climate change action on development goals, focusing on the South African energy sector and development impact assessments (DIAs) that have and could be used to influence energy policy or inform the selection of energy activities. It includes a review of assessments—conducted by government ministries, technical partners, and academic institutes and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)—that consider employment, health, and water implications of possible energy sector actions, as well as multi-criteria impact assessments.
de-Graft Aikins Ama
Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the challenges and opportunities in establishing and sustaining north–south research partnerships in Africa through a case study of the UK-Africa Academic Partnership on Chronic Disease. Established in 2006 with seed funding from the British Academy, the partnership aimed to bring together multidisciplinary chronic disease researchers based in the UK and Africa to collaborate on research, inform policymaking, train and support postgraduates and create a platform for research dissemination. We review the partnership’s achievements and challenges, applying established criteria for developing successful partnerships. During the funded period we achieved major success in creating a platform for research dissemination through international meetings and publications. Other goals, such as engaging in collaborative research and training postgraduates, were not as successfully realised. Enabling factors included trust and respect between core working group members, a shared commitment to achieving partnership goals, and the collective ability to develop creative strategies to overcome funding challenges. Barriers included limited funding, administrative support, and framework for monitoring and evaluating some goals. Chronic disease research partnerships in low-income regions operate within health research, practice, funding and policy environments that prioritise infectious diseases and other pressing public health and developmental challenges. Their long-term sustainability will therefore depend on integrated funding systems that provide a crucial capacity building bridge. Beyond the specific challenges of chronic disease research, we identify social capital, measurable goals, administrative support, creativity and innovation and funding as five key ingredients that are essential for sustaining research partnerships.
Mutula, Stephen Mudogo
Purpose: This article aims to present experiences and the lessons learned from the University of Botswana (UB) library automation project. The implications of the project for similar libraries planning automation in sub Saharan Africa and beyond are adduced. Design/methodology/approach: The article is a case study of library automation at the…
Full Text Available Abstract Studies on injecting drug use in East Africa are reviewed. The existingstudies document the spread of heroin injection in Kenya and Tanzania, both countries where HIV rates are high. No data from Uganda on injecting drug use was found by the authors. A case study of the growth of heroin injection in a Kenyan coastal town is presented. The need for needle-exchange programmes and other prevention services is discussed.
Mavhungu Abel Mafukata
Full Text Available Since Sub-Saharan Africa's first independence in Ghana, the region has experienced massive and costly political and bureaucratic corruption within public service and administration. The causes of the corruption, its nature and form are wide and intertwined. In Sub-Saharan Africa, efforts to curb corruption have failed to discard it. The paper focused on the period from Nkruma in Ghana to Mutharika the 2nd in Malawi. This paper reviewed existing literature on political and bureaucratic corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa while on the other hand the paper employed key informant interviews to gather the required data to investigate, analyse and profile the genesis and evolution of corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa. The key informant interviews were employed to solicit public views and opinion from nineteen key informant participants (n=19 selected from 11 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. The paper found that corruption is legendary; has entrenched itself to becoming some sort of culture in the region, and has become the most difficult socio-economic challenge to resolve in the region despite the various anti-corruption efforts employed by stakeholders to curb it. It emerged through the study that law-enforcement efforts against corruption need some reinforcement in order to be effective and eficient in uprooting corruption in the region. If Sub-Saharan Africa fails to address its corruption challenge, its development prospects would seriously curtailed.
Grieco, E.; Chiti, T.; Valentini, R.
Among different regions of the world, Africa and particularly sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has contributed less than any other to the greenhouse gas emissions, but it is also the region most vulnerable and the least well equipped to the consequences. In SSA the role of land use change in controlling CO2 emissions may be more critical than in any other regions and perhaps the most uncertain component of the global carbon cycle. The most typical example of incomplete estimates will arise from the lack of reliable data for carbon pools. Three factors account for much of the rest of the uncertainty: (1) initial stocks of carbon in ecosystems affected by land-use change, (2) per hectare changes in carbon stocks in response to different types of land-use change, and (3) legacy effects; that is, the time it takes for carbon stocks to equilibrate following a change in land use. Considering the source of uncertainty and the lack of field data for SSA, the study has been located in Ghana (Jomoro district, Western Region) where forest is the only source of wood for domestic uses and deforestation annual rate was 2.2% for the period 2005-2010. This study analyze the above mentioned gaps by assessing: 1) initial carbon stocks (tropical rain forest), 2) per hectare changes in carbon stocks as consequence of deforestation followed by six different main land uses [tree plantations (rubber, coconut, cocoa, oil palm, mixed plantations) and a secondary forest], 3) dynamics of soil carbon stocks through the time considering chronosequences. When accounting changes in carbon stocks in the UNFCCC framework, it is required to consider 5 carbon pools that are: aboveground biomass, belowground biomass, litter, dead wood and soil. Within REDD+ mechanism it is clear that only aboveground pool has to be always considered, belowground biomass is recommended and the others are facultative. Evidence from official UNFCCC reports suggests that only a very small fraction of developing countries
This report summarizes the results of the project Projecting future energy demand: Balancing development, energy and climate priorities in large developing economies, which has been managed by UNEP Risoe Centre on behalf of UNEP DTIE. The report argues that starting from development objectives is critical to mitigation efforts in developing countries. Instead of defining local benefits as ancillary to mitigation, reductions of GHG emissions should be seen as the co-benefits of policies that drive local sustainable development. A development-focused approach seems more likely to be implemented than the imposition of GHG targets by the international community - especially as South Africa has adopted development targets such as the Millennium Development Goals and promoted the Johannesburg Plan of Action. The case studies presented take as their starting point development objectives, rather than climate change targets. The form of climate action which it investigates is sustainable development policies and measures. (BA)
Mavhungu Abel Mafukata
Since Sub-Saharan Africa's first independence in Ghana, the region has experienced massive and costly political and bureaucratic corruption within public service and administration. The causes of the corruption, its nature and form are wide and intertwined. In Sub-Saharan Africa, efforts to curb corruption have failed to discard it. The paper focused on the period from Nkruma in Ghana to Mutharika the 2nd in Malawi. This paper reviewed existing literature on political and bureaucratic corrupt...
Deperthes, Bidia D.; Meheus, André; O'Reilly, Kevin; Broutet, Nathalie
Preventing congenital syphilis is not technically difficult, however operational difficulties limit the effectiveness of programmes in many settings. This paper reports on programmes in Bolivia, Kenya, and South Africa. All three countries have established antenatal syphilis control programmes. Early antenatal syphilis screening and management of positive cases were difficult to implement since most women presented for their first antenatal clinic visit after 6 months of pregnancy. Most women...
Full Text Available The purpose of this case study was to relate part of the journey to appropriate education for two young children with physical disabilities in a low socio-economic peri-urban informal settlement – or ‘township’ – in South Africa. The part of the on-going journey described here spanned four-and-a-half years and included the two children, their families, their teachers, their community and a small team of rehabilitation professionals working for a non-profit organisation in the area. The rehabilitation professionals’ goals were to provide support for the children, their families, their current special care centre and the school(s they would attend in the future. The steps from the special care centre, to a mainstream early childhood development (ECD centre for both of them, and then on to (a a school for learners with special educational needs (LSEN for one child and (b a mainstream primary school for the other, are described. Challenges encountered on the way included parental fears, community attitudes and physical accessibility. Practical outcomes included different placements for the two children with implications and recommendations for prioritised parent involvement, individual approaches, interdisciplinary and community-based collaborations. Recommendations are given for clinical contexts, curricula and policy matters; for research and for scaling up such a programme through community workers.
The aim of this paper was to review the contribution of private institutions to higher education in Africa and use Monash South Africa as a case study. A literature search was conducted to gain perspective on the current situation with respect to private higher education institutions in Africa and how they are perceived in relation to public…
Nnamani, Nnamdi Hezekiah
Having effective human resources management strategies and practically applying it in an organization has a great impact on how competitive they will be in the business environment. The study titled “Effectiveness of Human Resources Management Strategies in the Organization; A case study on United Bank For Africa PLC”, was conducted to determine the success of the human resources management strategies of the UBA PLC and to also find out the relationship between these strategies and the overal...
Benjamin Manasoe; Ronald Mears
Attraction of new inward foreign direct investment (FDI) globally, especially in the developing countries, is problematic. Economic development practitioners have recently started to prioritise the retention and growing of existing investments to enhance their economic development agenda. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and investigate the relationship between inward FDI and investment aftercare in South Africa (SA). Only a few studies have been carried out on the topic at the global ...
Kousiakis, Sophia Alexandrina
At a time when youth unemployment is on the rise and the needs of youth are moving up on the agenda, the research aims to explore in particular the experiences of marginalized youth in South Africa. Through comparatively exploring the life-worlds of youth from rural, township and urban backgrounds and their participation in a youth employability programme, the study hopes to better understand the significance of special post-school training and approaches and youths perceptions four years af...
The recent surge in oil prices has created concern about its impacts on poor people in South Africa. The strong economic performance recorded over the period 1995-05 has not contributed to a substantial reduction in poverty in this country, particularly among women that tend to be overrepresented among poor households. Government management of an oil shock is important in reducing its adverse impacts in oil-importing countries. Thus, this study examines alternative policy responses to the rec...
Nair, Yugi; Campbell, Catherine
The importance of partnerships between marginalised communities and support agencies (from the public sector, private sector and civil society) is a pillar of HIV/AIDS management policy. Such alliances are notoriously difficult to promote and sustain. We present a case study focusing on the first stage of a project seeking to build partnerships to facilitate local responses to HIV/AIDS in a remote rural community in South Africa. To date the Entabeni project has been successful in its goal of...
This case study seeks to examine what organizing methods and ethos helped Equal Education (EE), a community-based youth organization, convince government officials to repair 500 broken windows at Luhlaza School in Khayelitsha, an impoverished township near Cape Town, South Africa. Through various methods, including petitions, op-ed articles, and a rally, the group succeeded in its campaign. EE takes inspiration from apartheid-era youth movements. In the burgeoning democracy of the "New" South...
There has been a renewed interest among donors and domestic policy makers in promoting agricultural development in Africa. Such renewed interest is evident in initiatives, such as the Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Program (CAADP), the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA), the New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition, and TerrAfrica. Yet, the choice of policy instruments that are most suitable to promote agricultural development in Africa remains subject to a co...
Full Text Available Abstract Background We determine efficient, equitable and mixed efficient-equitable allocations of a male circumcision (MC intervention reducing female to male HIV transmission in South Africa (SA, as a case study of an efficiency-equity framework for resource allocation in HIV prevention. Methods We present a mathematical model developed with epidemiological and cost data from the nine provinces of SA. The hypothetical one-year-long MC intervention with a budget of US$ 10 million targeted adult men 15–49 years of age in SA. The intervention was evaluated according to two criteria: an efficiency criterion, which focused on maximizing the number of HIV infections averted by the intervention, and an equity criterion (defined geographically, which focused on maximizing the chance that each male adult individual had access to the intervention regardless of his province. Results A purely efficient intervention would prevent 4,008 HIV infections over a year. In the meantime, a purely equitable intervention would avert 3,198 infections, which represents a 20% reduction in infection outcome as compared to the purely efficient scenario. A half efficient-half equitable scenario would prevent 3,749 infections, that is, a 6% reduction in infection outcome as compared to the purely efficient scenario. Conclusions This paper provides a framework for resource allocation in the health sector which incorporates a simple equity metric in addition to efficiency. In the specific context of SA with a MC intervention for the prevention of HIV, incorporation of geographical equity only slightly reduces the overall efficiency of the intervention.
Faeeqa Jaffer; James Garraway
“Under-preparedness” of students entering higher education is an issue that many academic institutions in South Africa are currently trying to address. Such students are seen as disadvantaged, lacking the skills, knowledge and/or language proficiency to navigate their way to success in higher education. This paper seeks to identify students’ understanding of the behaviour they should display in higher education and how this clashes with the expectations of academics, through the l...
Full Text Available The paper discusses a role of the remembrance policy in the reconstruction of national identity during the democratization. It includes unique theoretical consideration of this phenomenon and two case studies: post-authoritarian Spain and post-apartheid South Africa. Presented conclusions are a result of qualitative study of transitional politics of memory which focused on the use of remembrance narratives and interpretations of the past to support an establishment of new, democratic and inclusive identity. Considering these two cases, the paper offers an observation of the domination of future-oriented politics over the remembrance and dealing with the past during the transition.
Loock-Hattingh, M.M.; J. P. Beukes; van Zyl, P. G.; L. R. Tiedt
South Africa is one of the largest ferrochromium (FeCr) producers. Most FeCr is exported to developed countries. Therefore the impact of this industry is of national and international importance. Cr(VI) and conductivity of surface water in four case study areas, near five FeCr smelters were monitored for approximately 1 year. Results indicated that FeCr production in three case study areas had a negative influence on the Cr(VI) concentration and/or the conductivity of surface w...
Edward Danso Ansong; Emmanuel A. Affum; Hayfron-Acquah, James B.
This paper seeks to elucidate the various challenges ofInformation & Communication Technology (I.C.T) graduate unemploymentin the sub-Saharan Africa, and the remedies that canbe used to address those issues. This research postulates somefour modules of I.C.T graduates and categorized graduates ofI.C.T in one of such modules. The study again went further toanalyze the calibre of each category of I.C.T graduates who passout of the various tertiary institutions and their job prospects. Thepaper ...
This paper reviews and compares the condition of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) system in three countries in the East Africa region: Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania. The criteria used for the evaluation and the comparison of each system are based on the elements of the legal, administrative and procedural frameworks, as well as the context in which they operate. These criteria are adapted from the evaluation and quality control criteria derived from a number of literature sources. The study reveals that the EIA systems of Kenya and Tanzania are at a similar stage in their development. The two countries, the first to introduce the EIA concept into their jurisdiction in this part of Africa, therefore have more experience than Rwanda in the practice of environmental impact assessment, where the legislation and process requires more time to mature both from the governmental and societal perspective. The analysis of the administrative and procedural frameworks highlights the weakness in the autonomy of the competent authority, in all three countries. Finally a major finding of this study is that the contextual set up i.e. the socio-economic and political situation plays an important role in the performance of an EIA system. The context in developing countries is very different from developed countries where the EIA concept originates. Interpreting EIA conditions in countries like Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania requires that the analysis for determining the effectiveness of their systems should be undertaken within a relevant framework, taking into account the specific requirements of those countries.
Odigie, K. O.; Flegal, A. R.
Environmental changes (e.g., increasing rates of soil erosion) in East Africa have been attributed to local human activities and global climate change. However, reports on the impacts of these changes on the remobilization and transport of heavy metals, such as lead, in the environment are presently limited in literature. Therefore, this study was designed to chronicle the historic transport and deposition of lead in East Africa as recorded in the sediments of Lake Tanganyika. Sediment cores collected from regions with varying anthropogenic impacts of Lake Tanganyika were divided into sections, dated using excess lead-210, and analyzed for lead concentrations and isotopic composition. The results show that the amount of lead deposited in some regions of the lake increased recently (e.g., by more than 25% over the past two decades preceding 2000) which is consistent with regional changes in sediment accumulation rates in Lake Tanganyika. Temporal changes in the sources of that lead are being characterized by their isotopic compositions.
Larney, M; van Aardt, A M
The need for effective apparel waste management is motivated by the increasing cost and decreasing availability of landfill space and the dwindling of natural resources. The aim of this study was to identify the current solid waste disposal and recycling practices of the apparel industry in South Africa and to determine their attitude and willingness towards recycling, their perception of the feasibility thereof, barriers to recycling and marketing strategies that would be appropriate for products made from recycled materials. A structured questionnaire was mailed to apparel manufacturers in South Africa. The results indicated that most apparel manufacturers use landfills to dispose of their waste, while approximately half recycle some of the waste. They are fairly positive towards recycling, with consideration of economical feasibility. Phi-coefficients show no practically significant relationship between company size and the use of recycled materials. The most important barriers to recycling are lack of equipment and technology, lack of material to recycle and lack of consumer awareness. Marketing strategies for recycled products are recommended. It is concluded that consumer awareness and knowledge regarding recycled apparel products should be developed in order to ensure a market and that apparel manufacturers should be encouraged to recycle more extensively, in order to ensure that resources will not be exhausted unnecessarily and the environment will be preserved optimally. PMID:19710119
Edward Danso Ansong
Full Text Available This paper seeks to elucidate the various challenges ofInformation & Communication Technology (I.C.T graduate unemploymentin the sub-Saharan Africa, and the remedies that canbe used to address those issues. This research postulates somefour modules of I.C.T graduates and categorized graduates ofI.C.T in one of such modules. The study again went further toanalyze the calibre of each category of I.C.T graduates who passout of the various tertiary institutions and their job prospects. Thepaper concludes by identifying the major causes of the growingconcern on these challenges and measures that can address thegrowing phenomenon of I.C.T graduate un-employment acrossdeveloping countries.
Jourdan, F.; Bertrand, H.; Féraud, G.; Le Gall, B.; Watkeys, M. K.
Most of the studies on the large igneous provinces (LIPs) focus on Phanerozoic times, and in particular, those related to the disruption of Pangea (e.g. CAMP, Karoo, Parana-Etendeka) while Precambrian LIPs (e.g. Ventersdorpf, Fortescue) remain less studied. Although the investigation of Precambrian LIPs is difficult because they are relatively poorly preserved, assessment of their geochemical characteristics in parallel with younger overlapping LIP is fundamental for monitoring the evolution of the mantle composition through time. Recent 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of the Okavango giant dyke swarm (and related sills) in southern Africa showed that ~ 90% of the dykes were emplaced at 179 ± 1 Ma and belong to the Karoo large igneous province whereas ~ 10% of dykes yielded Proterozoic ages (~ 1-1.1 Ga). Here, we provide new major, trace and rare earth elements analyses of the low-Ti Proterozoic Okavango dyke swarm (PODS) that suggest, combined with age data, a cognate origin with the 1.1 Ga Umkondo large igneous province (UIP), southern Africa. The geochemical characteristics of the PODS and UIP basalts are comparable to those of overlapping low-Ti Karoo basalts, and suggest that both LIPs were derived from similar enriched mantle sources. A mantle plume origin for these LIPs is not easily reconciled with the geochemical dataset and the coincidence of two compositionally similar mantle plumes acting 900 Myr apart is unlikely. Instead, we propose that the Umkondo and Karoo large igneous provinces monitored the slight evolution of a shallow enriched lithospheric mantle from Proterozoic to Jurassic.
Background & Problem The author believes that there are important lessons to be learned from the states in Africa that have managed to achieve successful transitions from one-party regimes to multy-party regimes. However, Africa today displays countries that suffer from enormous problems and many of them are mired in political and economical development. A main theme of this thesis is the search for the differences, how can we explain the transitions and the outcomes of them? Purpose The ...
Abstract Background & Problem The author believes that there are important lessons to be learned from the states in Africa that have managed to achieve successful transitions from one-party regimes to multy-party regimes. However, Africa today displays countries that suffer from enormous problems and many of them are mired in political and economical development. A main theme of this thesis is the search for the differences, how can we explain the transitions and the outcomes of them? Pur...
Machanick, Philip; Bishop, Ozlem Tastan
The Research Unit in Bioinformatics at Rhodes University (RUBi), South Africa offers a Masters of Science in Bioinformatics. Growing demand for Bioinformatics qualifications results in applications from across Africa. Courses aim to bridge gaps in the diverse backgrounds of students who range from biologists with no prior computing exposure to computer scientists with no biology background. The programme is evenly split between coursework and research, with diverse modules from a range of dep...
This paper examines the evolution of gender equality as manifested and protected by the state in both Rwanda and South Africa since 1994. As a liberal democracy, South Africa should, in theory, allow for the influence of citizens in policy making and be held accountable for its shortcomings regarding its commitment to gender equality and ending violence against women. Evidence reveals that the South African state falls far short of these ideals, particularly in its relationships with women’s ...
Addy, Nii Antiaye
In Sub-Saharan Africa, the academic aims of curriculum reforms and the teaching roles related to them are similar, but non-teaching roles are likely to vary across countries. Taking an organization studies perspective, this article compares teachers' roles in reform along the Botswana-South Africa border. Though these teachers share language and…
Korte, Monika; Mandea, Mioara
Maps of magnetic and gravity field anomalies provide information about physical properties of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, helpful in understanding geological conditions and tectonic structures. Depending on data availability, whether from the ground, airborne, or from satellites, potential field anomaly maps contain information on different ranges of spatial wavelengths, roughly corresponding to sources at different depths. Focussing on magnetic data, we compare amplitudes and characteristics of anomalies from maps based on various available data and as measured at geomagnetic repeat stations. Two cases are investigated: southern Africa, characterized by geologically old cratons and strong magnetic anomalies, and the smaller region of Germany with much younger crust and weaker anomalies. Estimating lithospheric magnetic anomaly values from the ground stations' time series (repeat station crustal biases) reveals magnetospheric field contributions causing time-varying offsets of several nT in the results. Similar influences might be one source of discrepancy when merging anomaly maps from different epochs. Moreover, we take advantage of recently developed satellite potential field models and compare magnetic and gravity gradient anomalies of ˜ 200 km resolution. Density and magnetization represent independent rock properties and thus provide complementary information on compositional and structural changes. Comparing short- and long-wavelength anomalies and the correlation of rather large-scale magnetic and gravity anomalies, and relating them to known lithospheric structures, we generally find a better agreement in the southern African region than the German region. This probably indicates stronger concordance between near-surface (down to at most a few km) and deeper (several kilometres down to Curie depth) structures in the former area, which can be seen to agree with a thicker lithosphere and a lower heat flux reported in the literature for the southern
Metadata only record This paper examines the situation of agricultural development in African countries, specifically cases in Ghana, Sudan, Uganda, Zambia, and South Africa. The author asserts that inadequate institutional support and a lack of farmer involvement have contributed to low levels of improved technologies and technology adoption among small-scale farmers. The author also cites structural constraints and the process of agricultural development as significant components to cons...
Murphy, Daniel; Sharma, Arsh
This knowledge note is the first of three case studies that concerns scaling up access to electricity in Africa, Bangladesh, and Rwanda. Lighting Africa, a joint IFC and World Bank program launched in 2007, was the first private-sector-oriented effort to leverage new LED lighting technologies to build sustainable markets that provide safe, affordable, and modern off-grid lighting to commun...
Loock-Hattingh, M. M.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Tiedt, L. R.
South Africa is one of the largest ferrochromium (FeCr) producers. Most FeCr is exported to developed countries. Therefore the impact of this industry is of national and international importance. Cr(VI) and conductivity of surface water in four case study areas, near five FeCr smelters were monitored for approximately 1 year. Results indicated that FeCr production in three case study areas had a negative influence on the Cr(VI) concentration and/or the conductivity of surface waters. In the remaining case study areas, drinking water, originating from groundwater, was severely polluted with Cr(VI). The main factors causing pollution were surface run-off and/or seepage, while atmospheric deposition did not seem to contribute significantly. The extinction of diatoms during a severe Cr(VI) surface water pollution event (concentrations up to 216 µg/L) in one of the case study areas was also observed, which clearly indicates the ecological impact of such surface water pollution events.
Full Text Available New social movements in South Africa could play a prominent role in mobilizing the communities to reflect critically and address the repercussions of the neo-liberal agenda which manifests itself in perpetual exclusion of under-educated adults and provision of poor quality education.
Provides an overview of the clothing industry in South Africa and examines the activities of the South African Clothing and Textile Workers Union (SACTWU) and the Self Employed Women's Union (SEWU), highlighting their achievements and failures in representing and empowering workers in the informal economy.
Haitch, Russell; Miller, Donald
This article explores how storytelling can help create a space for transformational learning. In particular it looks at the role of storytelling in education for peace in Africa. It also touches on related issues, including the role of historic peace churches, the role of women, and the role of faith convictions, in the process of moving from…
Provides an overview of the street trading sector in South Africa, examines organizational issues and investigates the strategies of three organizations: the Informal Trade Management Board, the Gauteng Hawkers Association and the Self Employed Women's Union. Discusses how to strengthen the representation and voice of street traders.
Bothun, Gregory D.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a case study report of the development of data networks and initial connectivity in the Sub-Saharan African (SSA) region and how that development evolved into the formation of research and education (R&E) networks that enable new collaborations and curriculum potential.…
Van Niekerk, Ignatius Michael
This study examined the level of awareness, knowledge and practices of primary and secondary schools students with regard to waste management. Only a limited number of studies were found to evaluate school student’s awareness, knowledge and practice of waste management in South Africa. Literature was reviewed dealing with waste management awareness, knowledge and practices of school students and discussed at the hand of the principles, objectives and targets of the South Africa...
Brandt Hjertstedt, Amalia; Cetina, Hana
The purpose of this study is to examine and analyse how corruption can have different outcome on economic growth. A clear division can be seen in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia where corruption have different economic outcomes. The countries in this study are the following: Botswana, Nigeria, Kenya, South Africa, South Korea, Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia. The thesis composes of data over corruption indexes, annual growth in GDP, and socio-economic indicators such as political stab...
Nyarega, Samuel Osoro
Research Background: In the current era of technological revolution, business firm is seeking for innovation in the technologies to enhance the business and ensure long term growth. Disruptive innovation in the mobile industry has brought a revolution of mobile money transfer, which has increased growth of mobile industry drastically. Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of disruptive innovation in the mobile industry through a case study of mobile money trans...
Fourie, Anna W.; Van der Westhuizen, Philip C.; Mentz, Elsa
Career planning is an important aspect of Human Resource Development and Management. This research is centered on the question as to whether school principals in South Africa fulfill their management role with respect to the career development of female teachers. The results indicate that principals rated their involvement in the career development of female educators relatively high, whereas female educators do not experience the principals to be supportive in terms of the identi...
Provides an overview of the minibus taxi industry in South Africa and outlines the process of formalization that the industry has undergone since the mid-1990s. Investigates conditions of employment and examines the strategies of the South African National Taxi Council (SANTACO) and the South African Transport and Allied Worker's Union (SATAWU) in organizing and catering for informal workers and owners in the industry.
This research sets out sustainable millennium framework for managing entrepreneurship in developing countries. Research and conceptualizations which suggest that small businesses are key for economic growth and development may not be sufficient in fully explaining the construct. The research expounds a variety of concepts that attempt to put the millennium framework for managing entrepreneurship in perspective. Research has shown that Africa has more than 40% of the world’s natural resources ...
The need to develop locally-owned businesses in Africa has become an arguable necessity. This is apparent in the knowledge that the creation of an efficient and operable environment for enterprises and business is definitely in the interest of all in the society. An enabling environment for entrepreneurs can improve living standards, create a fair distribution of income, provide employment and promote growth. Africa’s business sector is largely made up of small, micro and medium scale enterpr...
Cornelius Chris Reynders; Harmony Musiyarira; Prvoslav Marjanovic
In a semi-arid water scarce country like South Africa, the efficient use of limited water resources and measures to extend the service value of these resources is a prerequisite for achieving sustainable development. The conventional supply-sided management approach to water supply causes increased wastewater generation with accompanied increased pollution loads requiring higher levels of mitigation environmental pollution. Where disposal of wastewater treatment effluent takes place in r...
Martin Bac; Anne-Marie Bergh; Etsane, Mama E.; Jannie Hugo
Background: The short timeframe of medical students’ rotations is not always conducive to successful, in-depth quality-improvement projects requiring a more longitudinal approach.Aim: To describe the process of inducting students into a longitudinal quality-improvement project,using the topic of the Mother- and Baby-Friendly Initiative as a case study; and to explore the possible contribution of a quality-improvement project to the development of student competencies.Setting: Mpumalanga clini...
Dottori, Francesco; Salamon, Peter; Feyen, Luc; Barbosa, Paulo
River floods are recognized as one of the major causes of economic damages and loss of human lives worldwide, and their impact in the next decades could be dramatically increased by socio-economic and climatic changes. In Africa, the availability of tools and models for predicting, mapping and analysing flood hazard and risk is still limited. Consistent, high-resolution (1km or less), continental-scale hazard maps are extremely valuable for local authorities and water managers to mitigate flood risk and to reduce catastrophic impacts on population and assets. The present work describes the development of a procedure for global flood hazard mapping, which is tested and applied over Africa to derive continental flood hazard maps. We derive a long-term dataset of daily river discharges from global hydrological simulations to design flood hydrographs for different return periods for the major African river network. We then apply a hydrodynamic model to identify flood-prone areas in major river catchments, which are merged to create pan-African flood hazard maps at 900m resolution. The flood map designed for a return period of 20 years is compared with a mosaic of satellite images showing all flooded areas in the period 2000-2014. We discuss strengths and limitations emerging from the comparison and present potential future applications and developments of the methodology.
Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is one of the major users of pesticides on the African continent. The Eastern Cape is the second largest province in South Africa. There has been growing concern about the occurrence of certain birth defects which seemed to have increased in the past few years. In this paper we investigate associations between exposure to agricultural chemicals and certain birth defects. Few such studies have been undertaken in the developing world previously. Methods Between September 2000 and March 2001 a case – control study was conducted among rural women in the area of the Eastern cape to investigate the association between women's exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of birth defects. Information on birth defects was obtained from the register of the Paediatrics Department at the Cecilia Makiwane Hospital in Mdantsane, one of the largest referral hospitals in the province. The cases were children who were diagnosed with selected birth defects. The controls were children born in the same areas as the cases. Exposure information on the mothers was obtained by interview concerning from their activities in gardens and fields. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results A total of 89 case mothers and 178 control mothers was interviewed. Babies with birth defects were seven times more likely to be born to women exposed to chemicals used in gardens and fields compared to no reported exposure (Odds Ratio 7.18, 95% CI 3.99, 13.25; and were almost twice as likely to be born to women who were involved in dipping livestock used to prevent ticks (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15, 3.14. They were also 6.5 times more likely to be born to women who were using plastic containers for fetching water (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.2, 27.9. Some of these containers had previously contained pesticides (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.06, 3.31. Conclusions These findings suggest a link between exposure to pesticides and certain birth defects among the
O. E. Ayinde
Full Text Available The study analyzed the price behavior of major staple foods in West Africa taking Nigeria as a case study (1966 – 2011. It described the trend of the major staple food prices and examined the linear relationship and interdependence of the major staple food prices in Nigeria. Secondary data were used for this study. The sources were; Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, and National Bureau of Statistics (NBS. These data were transformed from their nominal value to real value and analyzed using descriptive statistics, unit root test, Pearson correlation coefficient, granger-causality test and structural equation model. The study revealed that the prices of most of the major staple foods were at the maximum value between 1991 and 1993 while their prices were at the minimum value between 1978 and 1983. The study observed that the price of cowpea is most volatile seconded by maize. The results of the unit root test showed that all the variables studied were stationary. The prices of the major staple foods were linearly correlated; some were positively correlated while some were negatively correlated. Granger-causality test on the major staple foods prices showed that the prices of most staple foods were unidirectional while only few were bi-directional. The study further revealed that the prices of staple foods were interdependent. The study recommends political stability in the country as the major staple food prices reached maximum level during the period of 1993 presidential election crisis.
Cowden, J. R.; Watkins, D. W.; Mihelcic, J. R.; Fry, L. M.
Urban populations now exceed rural populations worldwide, creating unique challenges in providing basic services, especially in developing countries where informal or illegal settlements grow in peri-urban areas. West Africa is an acute example of the problems created by rapid urban growth, with high levels of urban poverty and low water and sanitation access rates. Although considerable effort has been made in providing improved water access and urban services to slum communities, research indicates that clean water access rates are not keeping up with urbanization rates in several areas of the world and that rapidly growing slum communities are beginning to overwhelm many prior water improvements projects. In the face of these challenges, domestic rainwater harvesting is proposed as a technologically appropriate and economically viable option for enhancing water supplies to urban slum households. However, assessing the reliability, potential health impacts, and overall cost-effectiveness of these systems on a regional level is difficult for several reasons. First, long daily rainfall records are not readily available in much of the developing world, including many regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Second, significant uncertainties exist in the relevant cost, water use, and health data. Third, to estimate the potential future impacts at the regional scale, various global change scenarios should be investigated. Finally, in addition to these technical challenges, there is also a need to develop relatively simple and transparent assessment methods for informing policy makers. A procedure is presented for assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting systems using a combination of scenario, sensitivity, and trade-off analyses. Using data from West Africa, simple stochastic weather models are developed to generate rainfall sequences for the region, which are then used to estimate the reliability of providing a range of per capita water supplies. Next, a procedure is
Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice
A mini-review of the reported biosensor research occurring in South Africa evidences a strong emphasis on electrochemical sensor research, guided by the opportunities this transduction platform holds for low-cost and robust sensing of numerous targets. Many of the reported publications centre on fundamental research into the signal transduction method, using model biorecognition elements, in line with international trends. Other research in this field is spread across several areas including: the application of nanotechnology; the identification and validation of biomarkers; development and testing of biorecognition agents (antibodies and aptamers) and design of electro-catalysts, most notably metallophthalocyanine. Biosensor targets commonly featured were pesticides and metals. Areas of regional import to sub-Saharan Africa, such as HIV/AIDs and tuberculosis diagnosis, are also apparent in a review of the available literature. Irrespective of the targets, the challenge to the effective deployment of such sensors remains shaped by social and economic realities such that the requirements thereof are for low-cost and universally easy to operate devices for field settings. While it is difficult to disentangle the intertwined roles of national policy, grant funding availability and, certainly, of global trends in shaping areas of emphasis in research, most notable is the strong role that nanotechnology, and to a certain extent biotechnology, plays in research regarding biosensor construction. Stronger emphasis on collaboration between scientists in theoretical modelling, nanomaterials application and or relevant stakeholders in the specific field (e.g., food or health monitoring) and researchers in biosensor design may help evolve focused research efforts towards development and deployment of low-cost biosensors. PMID:26848700
Full Text Available A mini-review of the reported biosensor research occurring in South Africa evidences a strong emphasis on electrochemical sensor research, guided by the opportunities this transduction platform holds for low-cost and robust sensing of numerous targets. Many of the reported publications centre on fundamental research into the signal transduction method, using model biorecognition elements, in line with international trends. Other research in this field is spread across several areas including: the application of nanotechnology; the identification and validation of biomarkers; development and testing of biorecognition agents (antibodies and aptamers and design of electro-catalysts, most notably metallophthalocyanine. Biosensor targets commonly featured were pesticides and metals. Areas of regional import to sub-Saharan Africa, such as HIV/AIDs and tuberculosis diagnosis, are also apparent in a review of the available literature. Irrespective of the targets, the challenge to the effective deployment of such sensors remains shaped by social and economic realities such that the requirements thereof are for low-cost and universally easy to operate devices for field settings. While it is difficult to disentangle the intertwined roles of national policy, grant funding availability and, certainly, of global trends in shaping areas of emphasis in research, most notable is the strong role that nanotechnology, and to a certain extent biotechnology, plays in research regarding biosensor construction. Stronger emphasis on collaboration between scientists in theoretical modelling, nanomaterials application and or relevant stakeholders in the specific field (e.g., food or health monitoring and researchers in biosensor design may help evolve focused research efforts towards development and deployment of low-cost biosensors.
Full Text Available This article argues that perceived risk is an inhibitor for the emerging domestic market to develop a culture of going on holiday, which is necessary for the sustainable development of tourism in South Africa. Entrenching a culture of travel can be expedited through appropriate package tours in the same way as it stimulated domestic travel in former Eastern European societies. Packaged tours provide convenience, and both psychological and financial security in a single transaction which can be considered a surrogate for the benefit of risk avoidance when visiting friends and relatives. A survey was conducted in the most promising region, namely the province Gauteng, among the potential market to identify the importance of decision factors for domestic packaged tours. The most important perceived decision criteria were cancellation possibility, affordability, and safety whilst on tour and the three least important were radio promotion, train transport and proximity. The results may be used by the National Department of Tourism to promote domestic tourism, as well as by new and small tour operators to improve decision-making and render competition more knowledge-based. It would thus serve the needs of both tourist buyers and tourism sellers and contribute to sustainable development.
Zarrouk, Neïla; Bennaceur, Raouf
Since the Earth is permanently bombarded with energetic cosmic rays particles, cosmic ray flux has been monitored by ground based neutron monitors for decades. In this work an attempt is made to investigate the decomposition and reconstructions provided by Morlet wavelet technique, using data series of cosmic rays variabilities, then to constitute from this wavelet analysis an input data base for the neural network system with which we can then predict decomposition coefficients and all related parameters for other points. Thus the latter are used for the recomposition step in which the plots and curves describing the relative cosmic rays intensities are obtained in any points on the earth in which we do not have any information about cosmic rays intensities. Although neural network associated with wavelets are not frequently used for cosmic rays time series, they seems very suitable and are a good choice to obtain these results. In fact we have succeeded to derive a very useful tool to obtain the decomposition coefficients, the main periods for each point on the Earth and on another hand we have now a kind of virtual NM for these locations like North Africa countries, Maroc, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Cairo. We have found the aspect of very known 11-years cycle: T1, we have also revealed the variation type of T2 and especially T3 cycles which seem to be induced by particular Earth's phenomena.
Full Text Available Background: The short timeframe of medical students’ rotations is not always conducive to successful, in-depth quality-improvement projects requiring a more longitudinal approach.Aim: To describe the process of inducting students into a longitudinal quality-improvement project,using the topic of the Mother- and Baby-Friendly Initiative as a case study; and to explore the possible contribution of a quality-improvement project to the development of student competencies.Setting: Mpumalanga clinical learning centres, where University of Pretoria medical students did their district health rotations.Method: Consecutive student groups had to engage with a hospital’s compliance with specific steps of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding that form the standards for the Mother- and Baby-Friendly Initiative. Primary data sources included an on-site PowerPoint group presentation (n = 42, a written group report (n = 42 and notes of individual interviews in an end-of-rotation objectively structured clinical examination station (n = 139.Results: Activities in each rotation varied according to the needs identified through the application of the quality-improvement cycle in consultation with the local health team. The development of student competencies is described according to the roles of a medical expert in the CanMEDS framework: collaborator, health advocate, scholar, communicator, manager and professional. The exposure to the real-life situation in South African public hospitals had a great influence on many students, who also acted as catalysts for transforming practice.Conclusion: Service learning and quality-improvement projects can be successfully integrated in one rotation and can contribute to the development of the different roles of a medical expert. More studies could provide insight into the potential of this approach in transforming institutions and student learning.
Cornelius Chris Reynders
Full Text Available In a semi-arid water scarce country like South Africa, the efficient use of limited water resources and measures to extend the service value of these resources is a prerequisite for achieving sustainable development. The conventional supply-sided management approach to water supply causes increased wastewater generation with accompanied increased pollution loads requiring higher levels of mitigation environmental pollution. Where disposal of wastewater treatment effluent takes place in rivers and natural water bodies, the lack of adequate natural compensating capacity of such water bodies typically result in severe ecological damage of the aquatic environment. With a shift of emphasis to a sustainable demand side management approach (as opposed to a supply side one, the avoidance of water wastage and high wastewater generation represents both resource conservation and environmental protection friendly approaches and contribute to overall sustainability. The integrated nature of water supply and wastewater management systems require an approach that considers these systems holistically. A new paradigm for water management is therefore needed to ensure that the issues of waste disposal and pollution are dealt with in a sustainable manner taking into account the emerging objectives of modern society for resource conservation and environmental protection. A balance therefore has to be found between the uses of additional fresh water resources as a means of satisfying en ever increasing water demand on the one hand and alternative unconventional resource exploration and employment, without the risk of depletion of natural available fresh water resource flow, irreversible harm to the environment and social and economic constraints. This paper explores wastewater and grey water reuse as unconventional resources in a qualitative manner within this balancing equation. It further proposes a methodology for deriving monetary indicator values for wastewater
Sathaye, Jayant A.; Andrasko, Kenneth; Makundi, Willy; La Rovere, Emilio Lebre; Ravinandranath, N.H.; Melli, Anandi; Rangachari, Anita; Amaz, Mireya; Gay, Carlos; Friedmann, Rafael; Goldberg, Beth; van Horen, Clive; Simmonds, Gillina; Parker, Gretchen
The concept of joint implementation as a way to implement climate change mitigation projects in another country has been controversial ever since its inception. Developing countries have raised numerous issues at the project-specific technical level, and broader concerns having to do with equity and burden sharing. This paper summarizes the findings of studies for Brazil, India, Mexico and South Africa, four countries that have large greenhouse gas emissions and are heavily engaged in the debate on climate change projects under the Kyoto Protocol. The studies examine potential or current projects/programs to determine whether eight technical concerns about joint implementation can be adequately addressed. They conclude that about half the concerns were minor or well managed by project developers, but concerns about additionality of funds, host country institutions and guarantees of performance (including the issues of baselines and possible leakage) need much more effort to be adequately addressed. All the papers agree on the need to develop institutional arrangements for approving and monitoring such projects in each of the countries represented. The case studies illustrate that these projects have the potential to bring new technology, investment, employment and ancillary socioeconomic and environmental benefits to developing countries. These benefits are consistent with the goal of sustainable development in the four study countries. At a policy level, the studies' authors note that in their view, the Annex I countries should consider limits on the use of jointly implemented projects as a way to get credits against their own emissions at home, and stress the importance of industrialized countries developing new technologies that will benefit all countries. The authors also observe that if all countries accepted caps on their emissions (with a longer time period allowed for developing countries to do so) project-based GHG mitigation would be significantly
Shafiee Shahram; Divband Milad; Alimardani Mohammad
Goal of this research is to study Factor of Time of Scoring Goal in South Africa World Cup 2010 and its relationship with successful results for teams participating in this tournament. Research method is descriptive-analytical and its information was collected observationally and with a VCD, a 32-inch television set and datasheet. Statistical population and sample were considered equal to each other (N=n) and included study of 64 competitions held during tournament. Information was analyzed w...
Dube Partson; Muyengwa Goodwell; Battle Kimberly
Academic institutions need to exhibit the appropriate flexibility to meet the demands of industry. This descriptive study seeks to identify the problems both in the private sector and in the education sector with regards to engineer training and to utilise the strengths of both to provide a solution. The study highlights the current growth of the manufacturing sector and the continuing skills gap. It identifies the problems faced by the manufacturing industry and also changes that can be made...
Rahim M. Quazi
The impact of corruption on foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows has been analyzed by many recent studies. Corruption can either reduce FDI as a grabbing hand by raising uncertainty and transaction costs or facilitate FDI as a helping hand by "greasing" the wheels of commerce in the presence of a weak regulatory environment. Using the Feasible Generalized Least Squares (FGLS) methodology on 1995- 2011 panel data from 53 African countries, this study finds that corruption facilitates FDI in...
Mogadime, Dolana; Mentz, P. J.; Armstrong, Denise E.; Holtam, Beryl
The present article draws from the biographical narratives of three South African high school female principals which are part of a larger research study in which 26 aspiring and practicing women school leaders were interviewed. Narratives were constructed from in-depth interviews with each participant and analyzed for themes that provided…
Holdsworth, Michelle; El Ati, Jalila; Bour, Abdellatif; Kameli, Yves; Derouiche, Abdelfettah; Millstone, Erik; Delpeuch, Francis
Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity is a rapidly growing threat to public health in both Morocco and Tunisia, where it is reaching similar proportions to high-income countries. Despite this, a national strategy for obesity does not exist in either country. The aim of this study was to explore the views of key stakeholders towards a range of policies to prevent obesity, and thus guide policy makers in their decision making on a national level. Methods Using Multicriteria Mappin...
In Benin, in response to the declining soil fertility and its effects on food insecurity and natural resources, farmers supported by external agents such as researchers, extension services and NGOs have developed new soil fertility management practices. In this study, we trace the history of the development of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) initiatives in three different agro-ecological zones of Benin and highlight the different development phases and outcomes...
Although companies and organisations worldwide publish in-house journals, there is no comprehensive theory (including technical and normative dimensions) available on this important public relations instrument. In particular, no research is available on what the characteristics of excellent South African in-house journals are or ought to be. In this study a number of dimensions are thus introduced in order to help create a comprehensive framework for analysing in-house journals...
Viljoen, Ignatius M; Bornman, Riana; Bouwman, Hindrik
Amphibians are globally under pressure with environmental contaminants contributing to this. Despite caution aired more than 80 years ago of threats posed to amphibians by DDT spraying for disease vector control, no data have been published on concentrations or effects of DDT contamination in frogs from areas where DDT is actively sprayed to control the insect vectors of malaria. In this study, we sampled fat bodies of Xenopus laevis and Xenopus muelleri naturally occurring in an area where indoor residual spraying of DDT is employed and from adjacent, non-sprayed, areas. ΣDDT concentrations ranged between
This study explores the question of structural change and inclusive development in South Africa and Brazil. Using Census data from the two countries, the analysis combines a household level multidimensional indicator of well-being with the applications of growth incidence curves and a sectoral decomposition of change to provide insight into the relationship between the place of households in the economy as reflected by employment sector and geographical location, and the extent to which the r...
Cluver, L.; Boyes, M.; Orkin, M.; Pantelic, M; Molwena, T; Sherr, L.
BACKGROUND: Effective and scalable HIV prevention for adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa is needed. Cash transfers can reduce HIV incidence through reducing risk behaviours. However, questions remain about their effectiveness within national poverty-alleviation programmes, and their effects on different behaviours in boys and girls. METHODS: In this case-control study, we interviewed South African adolescents (aged 10-18 years) between 2009 and 2012. We randomly selected census areas in two ur...
Lucie Cluver, PhD; Mark Boyes, PhD; Mark Orkin, PhD; Marija Pantelic, MSc; Thembela Molwena; Lorraine Sherr, PhD
Background: Effective and scalable HIV prevention for adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa is needed. Cash transfers can reduce HIV incidence through reducing risk behaviours. However, questions remain about their effectiveness within national poverty-alleviation programmes, and their effects on different behaviours in boys and girls. Methods: In this case-control study, we interviewed South African adolescents (aged 10–18 years) between 2009 and 2012. We randomly selected census areas in two...
Nair, Yugi; Campbell, Catherine
The importance of partnerships between marginalised communities and support agencies (from the public sector, private sector and civil society) is a pillar of HIV/AIDS management policy. Such alliances are notoriously difficult to promote and sustain. We present a case study focusing on the first stage of a project seeking to build partnerships to facilitate local responses to HIV/AIDS in a remote rural community in South Africa. To date the Entabeni project has been successful in its goal of training volunteer health workers in home-based care, peer education, project management and procedures for accessing grants and services. The paper focuses on the project's other goal - to create external support structures for these volunteers (drawing on government departments, local NGOs and private-sector philanthropists). The partnership aims to empower volunteers to lead HIV-prevention and AIDS-care efforts, and to make public services more responsive to local needs. We illustrate how features of the local public-sector environment have actively worked against effective community empowerment. These include a rigid hierarchy, poor communication between senior and junior health professionals, lack of social development skills and the demoralisation and/or exhaustion of public servants dealing with multiple social problems in under-resourced settings. We outline the obstacles that have prevented private-sector involvement, suggesting a degree of scepticism about the potential for private-sector contributions to development in remote areas. We discuss how the project's most effective partners have been two small under-funded NGOs - run by highly committed individuals with a keen understanding of social-development principles, flexible working styles and a willingness to work hard for small gains. Despite many challenges, the partnership formation process has seen some positive achievements; we outline these and discuss the essential role played by an external change agent
PF Blaauw, I Botha, R Schenck and C Schoeman
Past research provided evidence of the negative effect that individual unemployment can have on subjective well-being. The persistent high levels of unemployment and poverty in South Africa have been well documented. Many people are forced into the informal economy, where they engage in a variety of survivalist activities such as day labouring. As no previous study has been conducted on the well-being of day labourers, the aim of this paper is to investigate the determinants of the well-being...
Chidebell Emordi, Chukwunonso
Energy poverty is pervasive in sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria, located in sub-Saharan West Africa, is the world's seventh largest oil exporting country and is a resource-rich nation. It however experiences the same levels of energy poverty as most of its neighboring countries. Attributing this paradox only to corruption or the "Dutch Disease", where one sector booms at the expense of other sectors of the economy, is simplistic and enervates attempts at reform. In addition, data on energy consumption is aggregated at the national level via estimates, disaggregated data is virtually non-existent. Finally, the wave of decentralization of vertically integrated national utilities sweeping the developing world has caught on in sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known of the economic and social implications of these transitions within the unique socio-technical system of the region's electricity sector, especially as it applies to energy poverty. This dissertation proposes a complex systems approach to measuring and mitigating energy poverty in Nigeria due to its multi-dimensional nature. This is done via a three-fold approach: the first section of the study delves into causation by examining the governance institutions that create and perpetuate energy poverty; the next section proposes a context-specific minimum energy poverty line based on field data collected on energy consumption; and the paper concludes with an indicator-based transition management framework encompassing institutional, economic, social, and environmental themes of sustainable transition within the electricity sector. This work contributes to intellectual discourse on systems-based mitigation strategies for energy poverty that are widely applicable within the sub-Saharan region, as well as adds to the knowledge-base of decision-support tools for addressing energy poverty in its complexity.
Patricia J. Zweig
Full Text Available The populations of many small towns in South Africa continue to expand unmatched by parallel economic growth, entrenching high levels of poverty. The town of Vredendal, located close to the national route between Namibia and Cape Town in South Africa, is a West Coast development node and an emergent industrial and processing area that continues to attract an influx of people seeking economic opportunities. This is challenging the capacity of the local municipality, which has a waiting list for state-provided low-cost housing units, whilst the provision of adequate infrastructure to meet growing local need is also a developmental concern. In the suburb of Vredendal North this has resulted in the proliferation of unplanned informal dwellings in the backyards of formalised low-cost housing areas. Largely overlooked by urban researchers, little is known or understood about small town backyard populations. This prompted a brief study of Vredendal North backyard dwellers commissioned by the local municipality to identify their everyday hazards and livelihood vulnerabilities to inform future development planning. A community workshop identified critical development needs and suggested that backyard dwellers in small towns experience similar living conditions and hazards to those in the cities, although underlain by some unique differences.
Bellows, Anne C; Lemke, Stefanie; Jenderedjian, Anna; Scherbaum, Veronika
This article addresses under-acknowledged barriers of structural violence and discrimination that interfere with women's capacity to realize their human rights generally, and their right to adequate food and nutrition in particular. Case studies from Georgia and South Africa illustrate the need for a human rights-based approach to food and nutrition security that prioritizes non-discrimination, public participation, and self-determination. These principles are frustrated by different types of structural violence that, if not seriously addressed, pose multiple barriers to women's economic, public, and social engagement. PMID:26139694
Semali, Ladislaus M.; Baker, Rose; Freer, Rob
Public and private universities in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, South Africa, and elsewhere in Africa, were experiencing all time high enrollments since the late 1990s. To address these demands, university administrators sought partnerships with universities of the global North to facilitate the necessary educational reform and curriculum…
P. F. Blaauw
Full Text Available The car guard industry in South Africa evolved out of the plight of the unemployed. Very little research has been done on the industry in South Africa. The first objective of this article is to address the lack of research and the second is to determine whether the car guard industry can provide a solution to the problem of unemployment. Car guards involved in this study were found to be generally low skilled, earning low income and working under harsh conditions for long hours. The majority of them held formal sector employment before becoming unemployed. Car guarding is not a solution to the plight of the unemployed. Training and skill development supplemented by accelerated economic growth are vital to bridge the gap between the formal and informal sectors. OpsommingDie motorwag-industrie in Suid Afrika het onstaan uit die lot van die massa werkloses in die land. Weinig navorsing is al oor die industrie gedoen. Die doelwit van die artikel is eerstens om die gebrek aan navorsing aan te vul en tweedens om te bepaal of die motorwagindustrie ’n oplossing vir die probleem van werkloosheid kan bied. Motorwagte in die studie is oor die algemeen laag geskoold, swak besoldig en werksaam vir lang ure onder moeilike omstandighede. Die meeste het ’n werk in die formele sektor van die ekonomie gehad voordat hulle werkloos geword het. Om ’n motorwag te wees kan nooit ’n oplossing vir werkloosheid wees nie. Opleiding en die ontwikkeling van noodsaaklike vaardighede teen ’n agtergrond van versnelde ekonomiese groei, is uiters noodsaaklik om die gaping tussen die informele en formele sektor te oorbrug.
Full Text Available This article discusses the issue of plurality in world Christianity. Considering two contemporary contexts, South Korea and Southern Africa, this article claims that the interreligious pluralities as evidenced in much of contemporary Christianity are tobe understood in continuity with some of the foundational experiences of the early church, especially in the city of Antioch. This plurality, which can also be described as hybridity, acquires intercultural theological significance when understood as inner interreligious dialogue. This is further described as a mostly subconscious process by which contemporary Christians continue to engage with their pre-Christian traditions. From a phenomenological point of view this process is demonstrable in Christian history. Theologically speaking it has the potential to debunk myths of Christian ‘purity’ and to expose fundamentalists’ assertions of their own ‘orthodoxy’ astantamount to wishful thinking. Finally, this article makes the case that this process of inner interreligious dialogue, when brought to the surface may positively enhance the quality of real outward dialogue with representatives of other faiths or systems of belief and value.
D van der Water
In this article, the ecumenical heritage of the United Congregational Church of Southern Africa is described by the General Secretary of that church. The early history of the UCCSA, related to the London Missionary Society, created a sense of self-awareness that led to the unification of racially divided congregational churches during 1967. This set the ground for the active involvement of the UCCSA in the political liberation processes in Southern Africa. In addition, the UCCSA 's continued ...
Full Text Available Goal of this research is to study Factor of Time of Scoring Goal in South Africa World Cup 2010 and its relationship with successful results for teams participating in this tournament. Research method is descriptive-analytical and its information was collected observationally and with a VCD, a 32-inch television set and datasheet. Statistical population and sample were considered equal to each other (N=n and included study of 64 competitions held during tournament. Information was analyzed with SPSS.18 software and indices of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics tests such as binomial and chi square were analyzed. Results showed that there was significant difference between two halves of competitions in terms of the number of scored goals. Increase of attack in the second 45 min led to more goals for teams. No significant difference was found between the scored goals and every 15 min and teams competed with opponents until the final minutes of competition. There was significant difference between positive results for the teams which scored the first goal and the teams which scored the first goal had more chance of victory. On the other hand, all teams which were ahead of the opponent in one goal in the final 30 min won at the end (P≤0/05.
Richardson, J. C.; Hodgson, D. M.; Wilson, A.; Carrivick, J. L.; Lang, A.
The ancient landscapes south of the Great Escarpment in southern Africa preserve large-scale geomorphological features despite their antiquity. This study applies and evaluates morphometric indices (such as hypsometry, long profile analysis, stream gradient index, and linear/areal catchment characteristics) to the Gouritz catchment, a large discordant catchment in the Western Cape. Spatial variation of morphometric indices were assessed across catchment (trunk rivers) and subcatchment scales. The hypsometric curve of the catchment is sinusoidal, and a range of curve profiles are evident at subcatchment scale. Hypsometric integrals do not correlate to catchment properties such as area, circularity, relief, and dissection; and stream length gradients do not follow expected patterns, with the highest values seen in the mid-catchment areas. Rock type variation is interpreted to be the key control on morphometric indices within the Gouritz catchment, especially hypsometry and stream length gradient. External controls, such as tectonics and climate, were likely diminished because of the long duration of catchment development in this location. While morphometric indices can be a useful procedure in the evaluation of landscape evolution, this study shows that care must be taken in the application of morphometric indices to constrain tectonic or climatic variation in ancient landscapes because of inherited tectonic structures and signal shredding. More widely, we consider that ancient landscapes offer a valuable insight into long-term environmental change, but refinements to geomorphometric approaches are needed.
The effect of predation by curlew sandpipers Calidris ferruginea L. and grey plovers Pluvialis squatarola (L.) on populations of nereid worms Ceratonereis keiskama (Day) and C. erythraeensis (Fauvel) was studied at the Berg River estuary, South Africa, by comparing observations of shorebird-foraging intensity with the results of a population study of two species of nereid worms within and outside bird exclosures. The study was carried out during the four-month period prior to northward migration of shorebirds. Population structure of the two nereid species differed considerably. Ceratonereis keiskama reproduced earlier than C. erythraeensis and only young individuals were present during the study. By contrast, old C. erythraeensis were available to the birds at the start of the experiment and young animals entered the population during the experiment. Despite selective predation on certain size classes of nereids by the birds, no significant changes in the population structure of either nereid were detected by the cage experiment. Numbers and biomass of both Ceratonereis spp. in paired controls and cages tracked each other and did not diverge as predicted. A consistent difference in the depth stratification of the two nereids may, however, have been due to predation pressure. Curlew sandpipers were calculated to remove 3112 nereids per m 2 during the three months, equivalent to 4.4. g (dry weight) per m 2. This represents 58% of the initial numbers and 77% of the initial biomass of nereids. Although predation on nereids by waders was exceptionally high at the Berg River estuary, any depletion in numbers or biomass of nereids caused by these predators was masked by the reproduction of the nereids. The fact that the predators' high energy requirements prior to northward migration coincide with the period of peak production of invertebrate prey makes the Berg River estuary an exceptionally favourable wintering area.
Education under apartheid in South Africa was characterised by racism and segregation. Since the first democratic election in 1994 a process of racial desegregation has begun in South African schools. However, desegregation is not the same as integration. Given the historical context of South Africa, simply mixing students from different racial groups in one school is likely to result in racial conflict and violence unless the structure and processes of schooling are changed at the same time. This article examines the experience of one school in South Africa which has not only desegregated its intake but has also attempted to democratise its management structures in order to teach democratic values through experience and in particular to foster a climate of mutual respect among students so as to decrease racial distrust. So far, the changes appear to be successful but there are a number of important lessons to be learned.
D van der Water
Full Text Available In this article, the ecumenical heritage of the United Congregational Church of Southern Africa is described by the General Secretary of that church. The early history of the UCCSA, related to the London Missionary Society, created a sense of self-awareness that led to the unification of racially divided congregational churches during 1967. This set the ground for the active involvement of the UCCSA in the political liberation processes in Southern Africa. In addition, the UCCSA 's continued exploration of further ecumenical endeavours is traced. The covenental theology of the UCCSA forms a unifying thread throughout these processes.
Mobility is a major factor of access to economic resources, education, health, and other key elements influencing women's empowerment. In the Middle East and North Africa's countries, like in many other developing economies, women's mobility is constrained not only by the limited, sometimes unaffordable transport supply but also by social and cultural factors that frame women's access to t...
This article presents a case study aimed at describing and exploring the needs for--and provision of--formal support in South African primary schools, examining, in particular, the significance of organisational development in addressing the needs of teachers. Educational projects are often focused on the needs of learners and learner well-being…
This paper sets out to explore the relationship between popular education and the changing South African political landscape through case study research of the Victoria Mxenge Housing Development Association. The research took place over an extended period of time from 1992-2003 and discusses how popular education was advocated by the South…
Gallagher, J.; Death, C.; Sabaratnam, Meera; Smith, K.
Africa has often been defined and represented by outsiders. In International Studies, the continent is frequently viewed as peripheral and uninteresting. This is clearly a problem, and an increasingly apparent one as the number of courses on Africa and IS grow, both in Africa and beyond. Many academics who run these courses are keen to challenge the continent’s traditional marginalisation and perceived dependency, but they are limited by the resources available to them, and the fact that many...
Joshua N. Edokpayi
Full Text Available Trace metals contamination of rivers and sediments remains a global threat to biodiversity and humans. This study was carried out to assess the variation pattern in trace metals contamination in Mvudi River water and sediments for the period of January–June 2014. Metal concentrations were analyzed using an inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer after nitric acid digestion. A compliance study for the water samples was performed using the guidelines of the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF of South Africa and the World Health Organization (WHO. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA sediment quality guidelines for marine and estuarine sediments and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment sediment guidelines (CCME for freshwater sediments were used to determine the possible toxic effects of the metals on aquatic organisms. pH (7.2–7.7 and conductivity (10.5–16.1 mS/m values complied with DWAF and WHO standards for domestic water use. Turbidity values in nephelometric turbidity units (NTU were in the range of 1.9–429 and exceeded the guideline values. The monthly average levels of trace metals in the water and sediments of Mvudi River were in the range of: Al (1.01–9.644 mg/L and 4296–5557 mg/kg, Cd (0.0003–0.002 mg/L and from below the detection limit to 2.19 mg/kg, Cr (0.015–0.357 mg/L and 44.23–149.52 mg/kg, Cu (0.024–0.185 mg/L and 13.22–1027 mg/kg, Fe (0.702–2.645 mg/L and 3840–6982 mg/kg, Mn (0.081–0.521 mg/L and 279–1638 mg/kg, Pb (0.002–0.042 mg/L and 1.775-4.157 mg/kg and Zn (0.031–0.261 mg/L and 14.481–39.88 mg/kg. The average concentrations of Al, Cr, Fe, Mn and Pb in the water samples exceeded the recommended guidelines of DWAF and WHO for domestic water use. High concentrations of Al and Fe were determined in the sediment samples. Generally, the concentrations of Cd, Cr and Cu in the sediments exceeded the corresponding effect range low
Nel, Johannes Hendrik
This research is on mines that struggle to obtain closure from the state departments. The closure process at the footprints of five Tailings Storage Facilities (TSFs) of a South African gold mine was investigated. They are situated in the Germiston, Brakpan, Springs and Nigel suburbs of the East Rand region of Johannesburg. Very limited scientific research has been done in South Africa on the management of mine closure. The most recent performed research was completed at Coal mines and on...
Douma, M.; Hawkins, H.S.; Vellema, S.
This series of Working Papers is a result of the Partnership Programme between the Netherlands’ Ministry of Foreign Affairs Government and Wageningen UR. The project ‘Inclusive Chains for Agro biodiversity IChA’ collaborated with partners in 5 countries: Colombia, Ghana, Namibia, South Africa and Thailand Two questions are pertinent to facilitate better practice and eventually better the market access within the Rooibos industry: 1) Is Right Rooibos effective economically, socially and enviro...
D'Haese, Marijke F.C.; Verbeke, Wim; Huylenbroeck, Guido Van; Kirsten, Johann F.; D'Haese, Luc
Commercial producers, brokers, exporters and spinners dominate the wool supply chain in South Africa. Until recently smallholder farmers in the Transkei region had limited access to a profitable market outlet for their wool. In response, the South African wool industry has taken the initiative to help local farmers by building shearing sheds, under which the local association can bulk the wool and trade directly with the brokers. More direct access to the wool brokers is a prerequisite for th...
Wikus Visser; Hossana Twinomurinzi
The literature on the effectiveness of e-government in developing countries towards improving public service delivery is littered with failure stories. Notwithstanding, the failures have not stopped most governments in developing countries from increasingly turning to ICT, most notably internet based models, as the preferred channel for citizen-centered service delivery. This paper investigated e-government within the developing country context of South Africa. We used the interpretive paradi...
In South Africa, the 1998 National Water Act has created two user-driven water resource management organisations, namely the Water User Association at the local level and the Catchment Management Agency at a larger catchment level. The paper investigates some challenges concerning the participation of smallholders in water resource management organisations involving also large-scale users. Specifically, the paper analyses the possible discrepancies between the needs of smallholders with regar...
This paper is about waste reclaiming in the Ekurhuleni Municipality, Gauteng Province, South Africa. It is about the role of informal settlements or shanty towns in waste management, particularly in prolonging the life of a landfill. It documents how government and local community partnerships contribute to waste minimization, in the short term and zero waste management, in the long run. This partnership, it is argued in the paper, contributes also to poverty alleviation for the communities w...
Fall, Matar; Marin, Philippe; Locussol, Alain; Verspyck, Richard
The Western and Central Africa has one of the longest experiences with public-private partnerships (PPPs) in the developing world, both for water supply and for combined power and water supply utilities. Cote d'Ivoire has a successful partnership dating from 1959, and over the last two decades as many as 15 countries (out of 23 in the region) have experimented with PPPs: eight for water su...
Odulaja, Adedapo; Kiros, Fassil G.
Small-scale farmers are known to produce the greater proportion of food consumed in the Third World, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The various national and international agricultural research centres located in these parts of the world have developed agricultural packages which have been proven, at experimental levels, to be highly productive. However, small-scale farmers in these areas continue to produce at levels far below the capacities of these packages as predicted from experimental...
This article discusses the issue of plurality in world Christianity. Considering two contemporary contexts, South Korea and Southern Africa, this article claims that the interreligious pluralities as evidenced in much of contemporary Christianity are tobe understood in continuity with some of the foundational experiences of the early church, especially in the city of Antioch. This plurality, which can also be described as hybridity, acquires intercultural theological significance when underst...
Full Text Available The literature on the effectiveness of e-government in developing countries towards improving public service delivery is littered with failure stories. Notwithstanding, the failures have not stopped most governments in developing countries from increasingly turning to ICT, most notably internet based models, as the preferred channel for citizen-centered service delivery. This paper investigated e-government within the developing country context of South Africa. We used the interpretive paradigm primarily because we wanted to increase our understanding of the phenomenon of e-government for public service delivery within the local South African context. The investigation focused on one of the governments primary service delivery programmes – social grants. The analysis of findings suggest that egovernment in South Africa is not aligned to the service delivery philosophy, Batho Pele, and is hence not effective in delivering on the public service delivery mandate. Batho Pele which literally means "people first" is similar to the UNDP Human Development Indicators for development. The contribution of this research can be extended to both practice and IS theory. The research highlights the need for ICT4D, particularly e-government in developing contexts, to firstly be aligned to the current over-arching government philosophies if they are to have any effective impact on service delivery. The practical contribution of the research is a possible framework that could be used to align e-government in South Africa to the government philosophy of service delivery.
Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Emina, Jacques B O
In sub-Saharan Africa, nutrition research has primarily focused on under-nutrition, particularly among vulnerable children. However, there is increasing evidence of an emerging nutrition transition with extremely high rates of obesity, and malnutrition in women may be a problem that is insufficiently recognized and inadequately documented. This analysis was based on the 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), which included 27,967 women aged 15-49 years. Individual-level data were collected for socio-demographic characteristics and aggregated to the country's 37 states. A Bayesian geo-additive mixed model was used to map the geographic distribution of under-nutrition at the state level, accounting for individual-level risk factors. The results reveal that 12.0% of the population were underweight, while 20.9% were either overweight or obese, based on BMI. The northern states of Sokoto and Yobe/Borno and the southern state of Delta had the highest prevalence of underweight, while states in the centre had the lowest underweight prevalence. Underweight women were more likely to be from poorer households compared with their counterparts from the richest wealth index, which were consistently associated with lower odds of being underweight (posterior odds ratio (POR) and 95% credible region (CR): 0.56 [0.46, 0.70]). On the other hand Muslim women (1.61 [1.10, 2.23]), those of traditional religion (2.12 [1.44, 3.00]), those from the Fulani ethnic group (2.90 [1.64, 5.55]) and those living in Yobe state were all consistently associated with higher odds of being underweight. This study demonstrates that underweight is a major public health problem in Nigeria affecting adult females in the northern states of Nigeria. Identifying risk factors and the need to account for sex, spatial and socio-cultural issues are crucial to develop and implement evidence-informed strategies and interventions for lifestyle health promotion. PMID:26448573
Full Text Available Abstract Background While decentralized and integrated primary mental healthcare forms the core of mental health policies in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, implementation remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to understand how the use of a common implementation framework could assist in the integration of mental health into primary healthcare in Ugandan and South African district demonstration sites. The foci and form of the services developed differed across the country sites depending on the service gaps and resources available. South Africa focused on reducing the service gap for common mental disorders and Uganda, for severe mental disorders. Method A qualitative post-intervention process evaluation using focus group and individual interviews with key stakeholders was undertaken in both sites. The emergent data was analyzed using framework analysis. Results Sensitization of district management authorities and the establishment of community collaborative multi-sectoral forums assisted in improving political will to strengthen mental health services in both countries. Task shifting using community health workers emerged as a promising strategy for improving access to services and help seeking behaviour in both countries. However, in Uganda, limited application of task shifting to identification and referral, as well as limited availability of psychotropic medication and specialist mental health personnel, resulted in a referral bottleneck. To varying degrees, community-based self-help groups showed potential for empowering service users and carers to become more self sufficient and less dependent on overstretched healthcare systems. They also showed potential for promoting social inclusion and addressing stigma, discrimination and human rights abuses of people with mental disorders in both country sites. Conclusions A common implementation framework incorporating a community collaborative multi-sectoral, task shifting
Laetitia C. Rispel
Full Text Available Background: Globally, flexible work arrangements – through the use of temporary nursing staff – are an important strategy for dealing with nursing shortages in hospitals. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the direct and indirect costs of agency nurses, as well as the advantages and the problems associated with agency nurse utilisation in two public sector hospitals in South Africa. Methods: Following ethical approval, two South African public sector hospitals were selected purposively. Direct costs were determined through an analysis of hospital expenditure information for a 5-year period from 2005 until 2010, obtained from the national transversal Basic Accounting System database. At each hospital, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the chief executive officer, executive nursing services manager, the maternity or critical care unit nursing manager, the human resource manager, and the finance manager. Indirect costs measured were the time spent on pre-employment checks, and nurse recruitment, orientation, and supervision. All expenditure is expressed in South African Rands (R: 1 USD=R7, 2010 prices. Results: In the 2009/10 financial year, Hospital 1 spent R38.86 million (US$5.55 million on nursing agencies, whereas Hospital 2 spent R10.40 million (US$1.49 million. The total estimated time spent per week on indirect cost activities at Hospital 1 was 51.5 hours, and 60 hours at Hospital 2. The estimated monetary value of this time at Hospital 1 was R962,267 (US$137,467 and at Hospital 2 the value was R300,121 (US$42,874, thus exceeding the weekly direct costs of nursing agencies. Agency nurses assisted the selected hospitals in dealing with problems of nurse recruitment, absenteeism, shortages, and skills gaps in specialised clinical areas. The problems experienced with agency nurses included their perceived lack of commitment, unreliability, and providing sub-optimal quality of patient care. Conclusion
Full Text Available Social work is a professional approach to ameliorating social problems. It is generally understood as a helping profession that utilizes professionally qualified personnel who use its knowledge base to help people tackle their social problems (Mupedziswa, 2005. Nevertheless, in developing countries, social work is a relatively young profession which was influenced by colonialism in its formation. The type of social work practiced in these countries largely mirrors the one that is being practiced in Britain, France and Portugal among others. Utilizing the continent of Africa as a case study, this article argues that social work practice in Africa tends to be curative or remedial in nature and is not adequately addressing people’s problems. It therefore proposes a paradigm shift from remedial to a social development paradigm if it is to make an impact in the 21st century.
Sanjay G Lala
Full Text Available Contact tracing, to identify source cases with untreated tuberculosis (TB, is rarely performed in high disease burden settings when the index case is a young child with TB. As TB is strongly associated with HIV infection in these settings, we used source case investigation to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed TB and HIV in the caregivers and household contacts of hospitalised young children diagnosed with TB in South Africa.Caregivers and household contacts of 576 young children (age ≤7 years with TB diagnosed between May 2010 and August 2012 were screened for TB and HIV. The primary outcome was the detection of laboratory-confirmed, newly-diagnosed TB disease and/or HIV-infection in close contacts.Of 576 caregivers, 301 (52·3% self-reported HIV-positivity. Newly-diagnosed HIV infection was detected in 63 (22·9% of the remaining 275 caregivers who self-reported an unknown or negative HIV status. Screening identified 133 (23·1% caregivers eligible for immediate anti-retroviral therapy (ART. Newly-diagnosed TB disease was detected in 23 (4·0% caregivers. In non-caregiver household contacts (n = 1341, the prevalence of newly-diagnosed HIV infection and TB disease was 10·0% and 3·2% respectively. On average, screening contacts of every nine children with TB resulted in the identification of one case of newly-diagnosed TB disease, three cases of newly diagnosed HIV-infection, and three HIV-infected persons eligible for ART.In high burden countries, source case investigation yields high rates of previously undiagnosed HIV and TB infection in the close contacts of hospitalised young children diagnosed with TB. Furthermore, integrated screening identifies many individuals who are eligible for immediate ART. Similar studies, with costing analyses, should be undertaken in other high burden settings-integrated source case investigation for TB and HIV should be routinely undertaken if our findings are confirmed.
Basu, Niladri; Ayelo, Paul Ahoumènou; Djogbénou, Luc S; Kedoté, Marius; Lawin, Herve; Tohon, Honesty; Oloruntoba, Elizabeth O; Adebisi, Nurudeen A; Cazabon, Danielle; Fobil, Julius; Robins, Thomas; Fayomi, Benjamin
Most in the Economic Community of West African States region are employed in the informal sector. While the informal sector plays a significant role in the region's economy, policymakers and the scientific community have long neglected it. To better understand informal-sector work conditions, the goal here is to bring together researchers to exchange findings and catalyze dialogue. The article showcases research studies on several economic systems, namely agriculture, resource extraction, transportation, and trade/commerce. Site-specific cases are provided concerning occupational health risks within artisanal and small-scale gold mining, aggregate mining, gasoline trade, farming and pesticide applications, and electronic waste recycling. These cases emphasize the vastness of the informal sector and that the majority of work activities across the region remain poorly documented, and thus no data or knowledge is available to help improve conditions and formulate policies and programs to promote and ensure decent work conditions. PMID:27231011
Full Text Available The paper compares two independent approaches to estimate soil moisture at the regional scale over a 4625 km2 catchment (Liebenbergsvlei, South Africa. The first estimate is derived from a physically-based hydrological model (TOPKAPI. The second estimate is derived from the scatterometer on board on the European Remote Sensing satellite (ERS. Results show a very good correspondence between the modelled and remotely sensed soil moisture, illustrated over two selected seasons of 8 months by regression R2 coefficients lying between 0.78 and 0.92. Such a close similarity between these two different, independent approaches is very promising for (i remote sensing in general (ii the use of hydrological models to back-calculate and disaggregate the satellite soil moisture estimate and (iii for hydrological models to assimilate the remotely sensed soil moisture.
Chattu, Vijay Kumar
HIV/AIDS has claimed millions of lives in the global workforce and continues to remain a threat to many businesses. An estimated 36.5 million of working people are living with HIV; the global workforce has lost 28 million people from AIDS since the beginning of the epidemic. In the absence of access to treatment, this number could grow to 74 million by 2015. The epidemic continues to affect the working population through absenteeism, sickness and death. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is an obligation that corporates have toward their employees, community and society. A review and documentation of one such CSR by Johnson & Johnson (a multinational company) for HIV/AIDS in Africa is presented here. Johnson & Johnson Company is involved in numerous projects around the world to combat the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The company is working to fight the spread of the disease and improve the quality of life for those living with the illness through various donations of its products and sponsorship of local programs. This case study also highlights different categories of CSR activities such as Cause Promotion, Cause related Marketing, Corporate Philanthropy, Corporate Social Marketing, Corporate Volunteering and Socially responsible business practices, which are discussed with specific examples from different countries in Africa. Conclusions: CSR of any business encompasses the economic, legal, ethical & discretionary expectation placed on the organization by society at a given point of time. CSR is therefore the obligation that corporations have toward their stakeholders and society in general which horizons beyond what is prescribed by law or union contracts. Johnson & Johnson has a proved history of being committed to caring for people and a good example of a company with a long history of citizenship and sustainability. PMID:25810667
Reynolds, Sally C; Bailey, Geoff N; King, Geoffrey C P
We examine the links between geomorphological processes, specific landscape features, surface water drainage, and the creation of suitable habitats for hominins. The existence of mosaic (i.e., heterogeneous) habitats within hominin site landscape reconstructions is typically explained using models of the riverine and gallery forest settings, or the pan or lake setting. We propose a different model: the Tectonic Landscape Model (TLM), where tectonic faulting and volcanism disrupts existing pan or river settings at small-scales (∼10-25 km). Our model encompasses the interpretation of the landscape features, the role of tectonics in creating these landscapes, and the implications for hominins. In particular, the model explains the underlying mechanism for the creation and maintenance of heterogeneous habitats in regions of active tectonics. We illustrate how areas with faulting and disturbed drainage patterns would have been attractive habitats for hominins, such as Australopithecus, and other fauna. Wetland areas are an important characteristic of surface water disturbance by fault activity; therefore we examine the tectonically-controlled Okavango Delta (Botswana) and the Nylsvley wetland (South Africa) as modern examples of how tectonics in a riverine setting significantly enhance the faunal and floral biodiversity. While tectonic landscapes may not have been the only type of attractive habitats to hominins, we propose a suite of landscape, faunal, and floral indicators, which when recovered together suggest that site environments may have been influenced by tectonic and/or volcanic activity while hominins were present. For the fossil sites, we interpret the faulting and landscapes around australopithecine-bearing sites of the Middle Awash (Ethiopia) and Makapansgat, Taung, and Sterkfontein (South Africa) to illustrate these relationships between landscape features and surface water bodies. Exploitation of tectonically active landscapes may explain why the
Full Text Available Background: In 2007, the South African government introduced the occupation-specific dispensation (OSD, a financial incentive strategy, to attract, motivate, and retain health professionals in the public sector. Implementation commenced with the nursing sector, but there have been unintended negative consequences. Objective: First, to examine implementation of the OSD for nurses using Hogwood and Gunn's framework that outlines ‘perfect implementation’ pre-conditions. Second, to highlight the conditions for the successful implementation of financial incentives. Methods: A qualitative case study design using a combination of a document review and in-depth interviews with 42 key informants. Results: The study found that there were several implementation weaknesses. Only a few of the pre-conditions were met for OSD policy implementation. The information systems required for successful policy implementation, such as the public sector human resource data base and the South African Nursing Council register of specialised nurses were incomplete and inaccurate, thus undermining the process. Insufficient attention was paid to time and resources, dependency relationships, task specification, and communication and coordination. Conclusion: The implementation of financial incentives requires careful planning and management in order to avoid loss of morale and staff grievances.
Malaria and tick-borne borreliosis are the two first causes of morbidity due to vector-borne diseases in a large part of Sudan-sahelian West Africa. They are also the two tropical diseases which have been the most affected by climatic change in recent years. In the case of tick-borne borreliosis it has been shown in Senegal that the persistence of drought since the years 70 has been associated with a considerable extension of the geographic range of diseases and the vector tick A-sonrai, a species that was in the past limited to the Sahara and Sahel. In the case of malaria, drought has strongly reduced in these same regions of Africa the distribution, abundance and infection rate of Anopheline mosquitoes, but without any significant reduction of the burden of malaria for most populations concerned. The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs only explain part of this phenomenon. (A.L.B.)
Fortuin-de Smit, Melony; Madhi, Shabir A.; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Zell, Elizabeth R; Whitney, Cynthia G.; Moore, David; Verwey, Charl; Varughese, Sheeba; Archary, Moherndran; Naby, Fathima; Dawood, Khathija; Naidoo, Ramola; Elliott, Gene; Hallbauer, Ute; Eley, Brian
Background. South Africa introduced 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in April 2009 using a 2 + 1 schedule (6 and 14 weeks and 9 months). We estimated the effectiveness of ≥2 PCV7 doses against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected and -uninfected children. Methods. IPD (pneumococcus identified from a normally sterile site) cases were identified through national laboratory-based surveillance. Specimens were serotyped by Quellung or p...
The characteristics of places where people live and work play an important role in explaining complex social, political, economic and demographic processes. In sub-Saharan Africa rapid urban growth combined with rising poverty is creating diverse urban environments inhabited by people with a wide variety of lifestyles. This research examines how spatial patterns of land cover in a southern portion of the West African country of Ghana are associated with particular characteristics of family organization and reproduction decisions. Satellite imagery and landscape metrics are used to create an urban context definition based on landscape patterns using a gradient approach. Census data are used to estimate fertility levels and household structure, and the association between urban context, household composition and fertility levels is modeled through OLS regression, spatial autoregressive models and geographically weighted regression. Results indicate that there are significant differences in fertility levels between different urban contexts, with below average fertility levels found in the most urbanized end of the urban context definition and above average fertility levels found on the opposite end. The spatial patterns identified in the association between urban context and fertility levels indicate that, within the city areas with lower fertility have significant impacts on the reproductive levels of adjacent neighborhoods. Findings also indicate that there are clear patterns that link urban context to living arrangements and fertility levels. Female- and single-headed households are associated with below average fertility levels, a result that connects dropping fertility levels with the spread of smaller nuclear households in developing countries. At the same time, larger extended family households are linked to below average fertility levels for highly clustered areas, a finding that points to the prevalence of extended family housing in the West African city.
Informing international UNFCCC technology mechanisms from the ground up: Using biogas technology in South Africa as a case study to evaluate the usefulness of potential elements of an international technology agreement in the UNFCCC negotiations process
Transfer of low carbon technologies to developing countries is 1 approach for tackling rising global emissions. An international technology transfer mechanism has been proposed under the UNFCCC; however, it remains unclear how this international mechanism would translate into local level technology implementation. This study uses biogas technology in South Africa to obtain empirical data inductively related to technology transfer. Observations and activities specific to the biogas sector in South Africa are put forward based on site visits and stakeholder discussions in South Africa, the UK, Germany and Sweden. This paper presents empirical findings on technology transfer in the biogas sector in South Africa and analyses the role of an international technology mechanism in supporting the uptake of biogas. Many of the barriers to biogas technology in South Africa are national level constraints such as lack of supportive policy environment, financial incentives and information sharing. This case study supports the argument that it will be unrealistic for international technology mechanisms to capture the necessary specificities of individual technologies at a country level. Therefore, as demonstrated through the example of biogas technology in South Africa, there is a need for both effective national and international engagement to support technology implementation. - Highlights: ► The UNFCCC technology mechanism aims to increase low carbon technology deployment. ► The interface of global technology frameworks and national implementation is unclear. ► Biogas is a widely used technology yet its uptake in South Africa (SA) is minimal. ► Empirical data is gathered from biogas sites in SA, UK, Germany and Sweden. ► Findings show biogas uptake in SA requires national and international support
Ndichu, J.; Blohmke, J.; Kemp, R.; Adeoti, J.; Obayelu, A.E.
This study investigates the uptake of energy efficiency (EE) measures in two important agro-industrial sectors in Sub-Saharan Africa, the cassava- and maize-processing industries in Nigeria and Kenya. These two countries represent regions with a weak environmental policy regime and rather weak innov
Capuano, Paolo; Sellerino, Mariangela; Di Ruocco, Angela; Kombe, Wilbard; Yeshitela, Kumelachew
Last decades, new records were set in the world for tornadoes, drought, wind, floods, wildfires and hot temperatures, testifying unusual weather and climate patterns with increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Extreme heat events are natural hazards affecting many regions in the world, nevertheless limited work has been done on the analysis and effects of extreme heat events in Africa, that is considered a continent particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In fact, the increase of temperature expected in the African continent during the 21st century is larger than the global mean warming, being about 3° to 4° C, about 1.5 times the global temperature increase (Christensen et al., 2007; Gualdi et al., 2012), with the subtropical regions projected to warm more than the tropical regions. Observations and downscaled model simulations (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 IPCC scenarios) are analyzed to describe heat wave characteristics in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), spanning the last five decades as well as that projected for the 21st century. Observed data are daily maximum and minimum temperature collected in the period 1961-2011; downscaled model simulations span up to 2050. Heat waves are defined following a peak over threshold approach by statistical comparison to historical meteorological baselines (site dependent), using a fixed absolute threshold. Projected future warming in the Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa shows a further increase in the heat waves parameters. Heat wave duration and hot days number are strictly correlated showing that the temperature rise could generate not only an increase of heat waves number but mainly a longer average duration, that can strongly affect the resilience capacity of the population, particularly the elder people. In fact, the impacts of heat waves on the society are determined also by temporal duration (Stephenson, 2008), in addition to their frequency, in fact the capacity of
Nxumalo, Armstrong Sibongiseni Terence
The main purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of EEA policy as a tool to manage gender diversity at the workplace. The research was based on a case study using Cederberg Municipality that is located in Western Cape Province in South Africa. The primary data was sourced from employees of the municipality using questionnaire, individual interviews and focus group discursions. The study showed that EEA policy was not so effective in achieving its intended objectiv...
Vaz, João M; Ferreira, José S; Dias-Ferreira, Celia
São Tomé and Principe archipelago in West Africa is a Small Island Developing State facing acute waste management problems. This article describes the implementation of selective collection of biowaste combined with composting in São Tomé, as a case-study of an innovative action in the framework of a Small Island Developing State. Collection was designed to gather 225 t y(-1), targeting non-domestic biowaste producers, namely local businesses, municipal markets and municipal green waste. A municipal composting plant was built using basic facilities and windrow composting. The total investment amounted to €50,000, mainly supported by external aid. Biowaste producers reacted very positively, source segregating enthusiastically. Irregular service - collection collapsed each time the old vehicle was repaired - together with political disengagement and unmotivated work force were the major constrains. Biowaste was intermittently delivered to the composting plant and yielded 2 t of compost from July to December 2013 and 10 t during 2014. Compost was sold as organic fertiliser to a touristic resource, to small farmers and to gardeners, at a market price slightly below production costs, meaning the process is not economically sustainable without support. Nevertheless, biowaste is one of the few waste fractions (other than glass) that can be turned into a product that has both market value and a real demand, showing the enormous potential of composting source-separated biowaste in this part of the world. PMID:26526021
Full Text Available This paper investigated how doctors in remote rural hospitals in South Africa use computer-mediated toolto communicate with experienced and specialist doctors for professional advice to improve on their clinicalpractices. A case study approach was used. Ten doctors were purposively selected from ten hospitals in theNorth West Province. Data was collected using semi-structured open ended interview questions. Theinterviewees were asked to tell in their own words the average number of patients served per week,processes used in consultation with other doctors, communication practices using computer-mediated tool,transmission speed of the computer-mediated tool and satisfaction in using the computer-mediatedcommunication tool. The findings revealed that an average of 15 consultations per doctor to a specialistdoctor per week was done through face to face or through telephone conversation instead of using acomputer-mediated tool. Participants cited reasons for not using computer-mediated tool forcommunication due to slow transmission speed of the Internet and regular down turn of the Internetconnectivity, constant electricity power outages and lack of e-health application software to support realtime computer-mediated communication. The results led to the recommendation of a hybrid cloudcomputing architecture for improving communication between doctors in hospitals.
Very little has been written on the growing number of urban disaster risk hotspots, or the integration of disaster risk reduction and human settlement planning in Africa aside from publications by the World Bank, United Nations and a few other international organisations. This book aspires to fill these gaps, and I recommend it as essential reading for any urban development or disaster management practitioner or academic concerned with risk reduction in African cities. I also recommended the ...
El Ayni, Foued; Cherif, Semia; Jrad, Amel; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika
Groundwater is the main source of water in Mediterranean, water-scarce, semiarid regions of Tunisia, Africa. In this study of the Korba coastal aquifer, 17 water wells were studied to assess their suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes. Assessment parameters include pH, salinity, specific ion toxicity, sodium adsorption ratio, nutrients, trace metals pollutants, and fecal indicators and pathogens. Results indicate that salinity of groundwater varied between 0.36 dS/m and 17.4 dS/m; in addition, its degree of restriction is defined as "none", "slight to moderate", and "severe" for 18, 23, and 59% of the studied wells, respectively. To control salts brought in by irrigation waters, the question arises as to how much water should be used to reach crop and soil requirements. To answer this question, a new approach that calculates the optimum amount of irrigation water considering the electrical conductivity of well water (ECw), field crops, and the semiarid meteorological local conditions for evapotranspiration and rainfall is developed. This is applied to the authors' case study area; barley and lettuce were selected among the commonly grown crops because they are high- and low-salinity tolerant, respectively. Leaching requirements were found to be independent of the crop selected, and depend only on the season, that is, 250 to 260 mm/month in the driest season, with a minimum of 47 mm/month though all seasons. A high bacteriological contamination appears in almost all samples. However, if disinfected and corrected for pH, all the well waters can be used for animal farming (including livestock and poultry), although only 29% could be used for human consumption. PMID:22953452
The goal of this study is to examine the environmental impacts of oil and gas exploration and production (E&P), the roles of legislation, and the environmental management strategies in the petroleum industry with respect to the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The study seeks to suggest sustainable solutions to the endemic economic, social, and environmental problems associated with oil and gas E&P in the region. The focus is on the environmental control in the upstream (E&P) operat...
Masehela, Boledi; Pillay, Venitha
This study seeks to understand the reasons that allow a parent, a principal and a teacher to maintain silence when young girls under their care are sexually abused. Put another way, it attempts to explain what it is about sexual abuse that makes these parties relinquish their role as protectors of innocent children. This paper, based on a larger…
Bhana Arvin; Ssebunnya Joshua; Petersen Inge; Baillie Kim
Abstract Background While decentralized and integrated primary mental healthcare forms the core of mental health policies in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), implementation remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to understand how the use of a common implementation framework could assist in the integration of mental health into primary healthcare in Ugandan and South African district demonstration sites. The foci and form of the services developed differed across the coun...
Lloyd James Segun Baiyegunhi
In a household or nations production system, social capital has been recognized as an input having major implications for project design as well as policy development. Using a structured questionnaire, household level data was obtained from a representative sample of 300 rural households in Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal. This study employed the conventional household economic behaviour model under constrained utility maximisation to examine the effect of social capital on the welfare of household, te...
Investments in planted forests in emerging markets are increasing and investors are looking for Sustainable and Responsible Investments (SRI) to integrate Environmental, Social And Governance (ESG) into the investment process. This study is presenting a first attempt to develop a framework to evaluate the ESG performance of investments in planted forests and to identify relations between the use of SRI tools and the financial performance of investments in planted forests. The analysi...
Lloyd James Segun Baiyegunhi
Full Text Available In a household or nations production system, social capital has been recognized as an input having major implications for project design as well as policy development. Using a structured questionnaire, household level data was obtained from a representative sample of 300 rural households in Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal. This study employed the conventional household economic behaviour model under constrained utility maximisation to examine the effect of social capital on the welfare of household, testing the hypothesis that the possession of social capital improves household welfare. The result shows that social capital endowments have a statistically significant positive effect on household welfare, in addition to the some household’s demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The study concluded that, access to social capital among other factors, is very crucial for improved rural household welfare and poverty reduction. It is therefore important for government to have knowledge of existing social groups and networks as this will improve the effectiveness of the present strategies aimed at reducing poverty.
Assandé Désiré Adom
Full Text Available In the past 50 years, a striking stylized fact has been the downward—or flat—trend of intra-African trade as a share of Africa’s total trade, while official development assistance (ODA has experienced a noticeable expansion. During the same period, economic growth performances have not been consistent and robust enough to put a dent in the poverty level across the African continent in general and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS in particular. Using a two-stage least square (TSLS estimation technique, this paper finds out that intra-ECOWAS trade stimulates per capita income growth substantially more than foreign aid, which rather constitutes an impediment to that growth in most specifications. Additionally, comparable results are obtained when the scope of the study is expanded to include trade of ECOWAS members with the rest of the world. As a result, it becomes appropriate to suggest policy recommendations encouraging increased cooperation among member states in an attempt to (i expand and build new cross-states infrastructures, aimed at boosting communications and telecommunications networks, (ii accelerate the trade facilitation process by addressing administrative red tapes that balloon both transaction costs and delays in the flows of goods across borders, seaports, and airports, and (iii develop and diversify the industrial base in member states.
Climate forecasts have been developed to assist decision making in sectors averse to, and affected by, climate risks, and agriculture is one of those. In agriculture and food security, climate information is now used on a range of timescales, from days (weather), months (seasonal outlooks) to decades (climate change scenarios). Former researchers have shown that when seasonal climate forecast information was provided to farmers prior to decision making, farmers adapted by changing their choice of planting seeds and timing or area planted. However, it is not always clear that the end-users' needs for climate information are met and there might be a large gap between information supplied and needed. It has been pointed out that even when forecasts were available, they were often not utilized by farmers and extension services because of lack of trust in the forecast or the forecasts did not reach the targeted farmers. Many studies have focused on the use of either seasonal forecasts or longer term climate change prediction, but little research has been done on the medium term, that is, 1 to 10 year future climate information. The agriculture and food system sector is one potential user of medium term information, as land use policy and cropping systems selection may fall into this time scale and may affect farmers' decision making process. Assuming that reliable information is provided and it is utilized by farmers for decision making, it might contribute to resilient farming and indeed to longer term food security. To this end, we try to determine the effect of medium term climate information on farmers' strategic decision making process. We explored the end-users' needs for climate information and especially the possible role of medium term information in agricultural system, by conducting interview surveys with farmers and agricultural experts. In this study, the cases of apple production in South Africa, maize production in Malawi and rice production in Tanzania
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller; Jensen, Stig
The chapter begins by arguing why it is interesting to study higher education and capacity building in Africa. Without essentialising Africa, we wish to contribute to a better understanding of the multi-faceted and dynamic development of contemporary universities in Africa. Then we explain our...... change in Africa – whose reality counts? And Part III: Creating and using academic knowledge in Africa – decolonising research?...
Dangor, Z; Hoff, L A; Scott, R
This study aims to address the problem of woman abuse in South Africa as a basis for program development for survivors of violence. It also presents documentation for the expansion of social, health, and legal services for abused women and children. Ethnographic interviews were conducted on 37 South African women from various community settings and institutions in the Johannesburg region. Two focus groups discussed issues from the interview data. Two aspects of woman abused in South Africa were revealed in this study, namely, the endemic culture of violence, and the existence of cheap labor of domestic workers. It was observed that women abuse and sexual assault are rampant because of the endemic culture of violence and by customs, culture, and tradition which tends to objectify women and make them feel like male property. Regarding child and elderly abuse, it appears that more cases are being reported in South Africa. This study confirms the need for national survey data and in-depth research with abused women themselves in order to acquire a clearer picture of the personal, familial, and societal costs of violence against women. Furthermore, acknowledgement of domestic violence and its overall burden on community stability and health is vital in implementing reforms in South Africa. PMID:12295438
Briscoe, J; Baltazar, J; Young, B
The problems and prospects in the use of case-control studies to assess the effects of improvements in environmental sanitation on diarrhoea morbidity are discussed on the basis of two field studies. It is concluded that an adequate design is available for assessing the effects of a single improvement on diarrhoeal disease. The estimates of effect appear to be valid and sufficiently precise. For addressing more complex questions of interactions, sample sizes would have to be increased substantially. The experience with two field studies suggests that there is hope that a simpler protocol may be feasible, in which only limited information is collected, in which few home visits are made, and in which analytical techniques are simple. Until more field studies have been conducted definitive conclusions cannot be reached on the applicability of such a simple, rapid and inexpensive approach. PMID:3403140
This paper is dedicated to explore the dynamic performance of energy efficiency in Africa, with panel data in country level, taking energy yield, power consumption, electricity transmission and distribution losses into account, the paper employ stochastic frontier mode,highlighting a dummy variable in energy output in terms of net imports of energy and power, which minify the deviation of estimated variables. The results show that returns of scale did not appear in energy and power industry in Africa, electricity transmission and distribution losses contribute most to GDP per unit of energy. In country level, Republic of Congo and Botswana suggest an obvious energy efficiency advantage. Energy efficiency in Mozambique and Democratic Republic of Congo are not very satisfying during the studying year
Full Text Available Tracking land surface dynamics over cloud prone areas with complex mountainous terrain is an important challenge facing the Earth Science community. One such region is the Lake Kivu region in Central Africa. We developed a processing chain to systematically monitor the spatio-temporal land use/land cover dynamics of this region over the years 1988, 2001, and 2011 using Landsat data, complemented by ancillary data. Topographic compensation was performed on Landsat reflectances to avoid the strong illumination angle impacts and image compositing was used to compensate for frequent cloud cover and thus incomplete annual data availability in the archive. A systematic supervised classification was applied to the composite Landsat imagery to obtain land cover thematic maps with overall accuracies of 90% and higher. Subsequent change analysis between these years found extensive conversions of the natural environment as a result of human related activities. The gross forest cover loss for 1988–2001 and 2001–2011 period was 216.4 and 130.5 thousand hectares, respectively, signifying significant deforestation in the period of civil war and a relatively stable and lower deforestation rate later, possibly due to conservation and reforestation efforts in the region. The other dominant land cover changes in the region were aggressive subsistence farming and urban expansion displacing natural vegetation and arable lands. Despite limited data availability, this study fills the gap of much needed detailed and updated land cover change information for this biologically important region of Central Africa. These multi-temporal datasets will be a valuable baseline for land use managers in the region interested in developing ecologically sustainable land management strategies and measuring the impacts of biodiversity conservation efforts.
R. C. Fox
Full Text Available Two destructive flood events occurred in rapid succession in the semi-arid Sneeuberg Mountains of the Karoo, South Africa in February 2011. The temporal and spatial characteristics of these two extreme events are examined in this paper through analysis of data from an unusually dense, and reliable, network of farm rain gauges. These analyses add to our understanding derived from existing rain gauge information. Comparisons are then made with patterns from a range of modeled products derived from remote sensed information: the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS. We found that the first flood event was widespread and precipitation was related strongly to altitude. The second was highly localised, with no relationship to altitude. Both had very sharply peaked rainfall intensities. These findings are of significance to the studies of flooding and landscape change in the area as such events have become more pronounced over the past 50 yr and it is likely that this trend will accelerate. The modeled patterns are derived largely from remote sensing and we found that they are reliable for drawing out monthly and annual variations but they make noticeable underestimates. They are poor estimates, however, both for the spatial distribution of precipitation, and the short term trends as they struggle to estimate the impact of topography and other local forcing factors. This finding corroborates information derived from other analyses at broader spatial scales using more widely spread, established rain gauge stations. Ten percent of southern Africa has been classified as mountainous and these areas provide much of our water resources so our findings are significant to water managers throughout this and similar mountainous regions.
Proven options available to Sri Lanka for large scale electricity generation in the future are coal-fired thermal, oil-fired thermal and Nuclear. Four case studies for groups participated are indicated. Case study for group 1 is comparison of the three options by taking into consideration the capital and recurrent expenditure involved. Environmental effects of the three options are also given. Case study for group 2 is economic comparison of three renewable energy based power generation system. Case study for group 3 is based on energy conservation, efficiency, improvement and demand management. Assuming that a continuous saving of 20 MW of demand from 1996 onwards is effective two projects are suggested to achieve this result. Case study for group 4 is a feasibility study for hydro power development of the Kukule Ganga (river) in Sri Lanka. Participants are required to evaluate one of the three optional development concepts which are technically feasible
Kelly, Valerie A.; Donovan, Cynthia
A major push supporting improved data collection and analysis is required if African countries are to successfully design and implement results- based Poverty Reduction Strategy Programs (PRSP) and the Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Program (CAADP) being promoted by the New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD). Over the years there have been many initiatives to build statistical capacity in Africa. Many problems have plagued these efforts, including inadequate funding an...
Spinks, James D.
North African climate is analyzed between 1979 and 2010 with an emphasis on August using the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) global dataset to investigate the effects of the subtropical anticyclones over North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula on the Africa easterly jet (AEJ). It was found that the AEJ encloses a core with a local wind maximum (LWM) in both West and East Africa, in which the west LWM core has a higher zonal wind speed. The strength of both cores is distinctly different by way of thermal wind balance. The variability of these synoptic weather features is higher in East Africa. The most noticeable variability of intensity occurred with easterly waves. Maintenance of easterly waves from the Arabian Peninsula into East Africa is dependent on strong zonal gradients from the AEJ. These zonal gradients were induced by the strengthening of the subtropical highs and the presence of a westerly jet in Central Africa and south of the Arabian Peninsula. During positive ENSO periods, these systems are generally weaker while in negative periods are stronger. The origins of an intense African easterly wave (AEW) and mesoscale convective system (MCS) in August 2004 (A04) were traced back to the southern Arabian Peninsula, Asir Mountains, and Ethiopian Highlands using gridded satellite (GridSat) data, ERA-I, and the WRF-ARW model. A vorticity budget was developed to investigate the dynamics and mechanisms that contribute to the formation of A04's vorticity perturbation.
Hendrickx, G; Napala, A; Dao, B; Batawui, K; Bastiaensen, P; De Deken, R; Vermeilen, A; Vercruysse, J; Slingenbergh, J H
This paper reports on an area wide study of all major variables determining the expression of trypanosomosis in cattle in the subhumid eco-zone of West Africa, taking Togo as an example. To enable systematic area-wide sampling, the country was divided in 311 grid-squares of 0.125 x 0.125 sides. Cross-sectional surveys were then conducted to generate maps or digital layers on cattle density, herd structure, ownership and breed. These data layers, except for the breed data, were subjected to a cluster analysis in order to define spatial patterns in animal husbandry systems. This analysis revealed two main systems: one is oriented towards integration with crop-agriculture and a second towards investment in cattle. These two systems could be further characterised by incorporating breed data. Zebu cattle and their crossbreeds are more favoured in the second system. The breed distribution map shows the actual situation but also serves to predict the outcome of progressive crossbreeding. An area wide trypanosomosis survey allowed the production of prevalence maps for Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax and the associated packed cell volume (PCV) values. A simple curvi-linear relationship was established between vector density and disease prevalence. The regression between disease prevalence and PCV for taurine and zebu plus crossbreeds separately, revealed that taurine cattle maintain a comparatively high PCV level particularly in high prevalence scenarios. The relationship between the average herd PCV and cattle density suggests that herd PCV value may provide a mirror for the number of animals not kept because of the prevailing risk. The regression between agricultural intensity and cattle density subsequently in areas with decreasing herd PCV values reveals that the level of integration of cattle in crop production decreases with a decreasing PCV. Thus, despite the presence of taurine animals in Togo, the omnipresence of tsetse in particular Glossina tachinoides, remains
with overall accuracies of 90% and higher. Subsequent change analysis between these years found extensive conversions of the natural environment as a result of human related activities. The gross forest cover loss for 1988--2001 and 2001--2011 periods was 216.4 and 130.5 thousand hectares, respectively, signifying significant deforestation in the period of civil war and a relatively stable and lower deforestation rate later, possibly due to conservation and reforestation efforts in the region. The other dominant land cover changes in the region were aggressive subsistence farming and urban expansion displacing natural vegetation and arable lands. Despite limited data availability, this study fills the gap of much needed detailed and updated land cover change information for this biologically important region of Central Africa. While useful on a regional scale, Landsat data can be inadequate for more detailed studies of land cover change. Based on an increasing availability of high resolution imagery and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data from manned and unmanned aerial platforms (analysis techniques. The classification framework was tested for a scene with both natural and cultural features and was found to be more than 90 percent accurate, sufficient for detailed land cover change studies.
Bonsor, H. C.; A M. Macdonald
The review of recharge studies was conducted as part of a one year DFID-funded research programme, aimed at improving understanding of the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources and local livelihoods – see http://www.bgs.ac.uk/GWResilience/. The review is one of a series of components within the project. The overall outputs of the project are: Two hydrogeological case studies in West and East Africa – which assess the storage and availability of groundwater in different aquifers a...
Bayen, P.; Sop, T. K.; Lykke, A. M.; Thiombiano, A.
Land degradation is an environmental problem which weakens agro-sylvo-pastoral productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. The most common manifestation of land degradation is the appearance of denuded land. We carried out an experiment to test the effect of three soil and water conservation techniques on survival and growth of Jatropha curcas seedlings transplanted onto two completely denuded lands in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of Burkina Faso. We implemented an experimental design with three replicates per restoration technique. A total of 174 seedlings were planted in each study site. The results showed that the soil water content varied according to the restoration technique used (df = 2; F = 53.21; p land in the Sahelian zone. Most of the plants died in the Sahel between April and May, which is the peak of the dry season; this may be an indication that J. curcas may not be as drought-resistant as suggested by the prolific literature which has reported on diverse claims surrounding this plant.
Mengistu, Haile; Tessema, Abera; Abiye, Tamiru; Demlie, Molla; Lin, Haili
Improved groundwater flow conceptualization was achieved using environmental stable isotope (ESI) and hydrochemical information to complete a numerical groundwater flow model with reasonable certainty. The study aimed to assess the source of excess water at a pumping shaft located near the town of Stilfontein, North West Province, South Africa. The results indicate that the water intercepted at Margaret Shaft comes largely from seepage of a nearby mine tailings dam (Dam 5) and from the upper dolomite aquifer. If pumping at the shaft continues at the current rate and Dam 5 is decommissioned, neighbouring shallow farm boreholes would dry up within approximately 10 years. Stable isotope data of shaft water indicate that up to 50 % of the pumped water from Margaret Shaft is recirculated, mainly from Dam 5. The results are supplemented by tritium data, demonstrating that recent recharge is taking place through open fractures as well as man-made underground workings, whereas hydrochemical data of fissure water samples from roughly 950 m below ground level exhibit mine-water signatures. Pumping at the shaft, which captures shallow groundwater as well as seepage from surface dams, is a highly recommended option for preventing flooding of downstream mines. The results of this research highlight the importance of additional methods (ESI and hydrochemical analyses) to improve flow conceptualization and numerical modelling.
Munro, S. A.; Fraser, G. C. G.; Snowball, J. D.
With the implementation of the South African National Water Act (NWA) currently underway, water intensive sectors, such as the irrigated agriculture sector, can expect reduced water allocations and an increase in water prices. Water footprints (WFs) are increasingly being recognised as a meaningful way by which to represent human appropriation of water resources. This study examines the green and blue WFs of a variety of citrus cultivars in the lower Sundays River Valley, Eastern Cape, South Africa. WFs were calculated across dry, humid and long-term average climates and comparisons were made to available global average benchmark WFs. An number of indicators were also explored including; water productivity (ton/m3), economic land productivity (R/ha) and economic water productivity (R/m3) across all three climatic years. Most applications of WF sustainability assessments have focused on examining physical water scarcity as a measure for determining environmental hotspots. This study, therefore, also calculates the marginal product value for the irrigation water using a non-parametric linear programming approach. Marginal product value of irrigation water is not only useful in assisting with water-allocation decision making, but also useful in demonstrating the effects of resource depletion and degradation, and is therefore a useful measure for determining economic water scarcity. The study highlights that both farmers and governments could reduce blue WF's through adopting measures to increase water efficiency and considering economic water and land productivity. It also demonstrates the importance of including both environmental and economic scarcity indicators into water management and planning strategies, and the importance of conducting WF assessments using more accurate, site specific data.
Sumaila I. Asuru
Full Text Available This study seeks to explore the significant contributions of the new philanthropy towards improving the conditions of smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan African, smallholder farmers’ understanding of philanthropy and to investigate the relationship that exists between philanthropy and smallholder farmers. The research is designed to uncover the needs and drivers of both philanthropy and smallholder farmers in relation to their interaction and the fulfilment of the philanthropic contract they have entered into. The main objective of the thesis is to consider the potential of philanthropy to rural transformation for poverty reduction. It focus is the involvement of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in rural development and poverty reduction in Ghana. Since 2006 the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (Gates Foundation has dedicated $1.7 billion to assisting smallholder farmers. The bulk of this investment has been delivered through programmes associated with the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA, which is also supported by the Rockefeller Foundation(Thompson, 2012. This study observed an inherent discrepancies and organisational miscalculations that have adverse influence on the effective collaboration and implementation of philanthropic support to the selected farmers. Untimely release of farming inputs as well as exceedingly unfavourable conditions for the attractions of loans makes it difficult for smooth farming. This exercise also established that both men and women intercrop their farms to ensure household food security and income. Household decisions on which medium of farming to pursue and on use of the income from farming are generally taken by men. Due to these, this research emphasise that philanthropic offering in Ghana should be looked at dispassionately bearing in mind the socio-culturally diverse nature of the country itself as well as key environmental factors that hugely contribute to poverty.
Lucie Cluver, PhD
Funding: UK Economic and Social Research Council, South African National Research Foundation, Health Economics and AIDS Research Division at University of KwaZulu-Natal, South African National Department of Social Development, Claude Leon Foundation, John Fell Fund, Nuffield Foundation, and Regional Interagency Task Team for Children affected by AIDS—Eastern and Southern Africa.
Owusu, Alex B.
The semi-arid Sub-Saharan region of Africa is in a state of permanent instability at a variety of spatio-temporal momentum. Efforts at sustaining and managing this fragile but all-important ecosystem and its processes require collecting, storing and analyzing multispatial and temporal data that are accurate and continuously updated in terms of changes (degradation), types and magnitude of change. Remote sensing techniques based on multispectral satellite-acquired data (AVHRR, Landsat TM and ETM+) have demonstrated an immense potential as a means to detect, quantify, monitor and map these changes. However, much of what satellite sensors can detect and capture, especially in the form of vegetation index (NDVI), do not tell the entire story about land degradation. This research used multispectral remote sensing data from three sensors (AVHRR, Landsat TM, and ETM+ and IKONOS) to detect and quantify the spatio-temporal land degradation (desertification) to validate the local observation and perception of desertification. The study also analyzes data on crop production in search of evidence proving or disproving degradation in the semi-arid sahel-sudan savannah transitional vegetation zone of the UER, Ghana. Multispectral satellite-acquired NDVI, from AVHRR, Landsat TM & ETM+, show that vegetation greenness is on the ascendancy, although there are pockets (localized degradation) signs of severe land degradation; field evidence suggests that the increasing NDVI is caused by vegetation succession where locally adapted horsetail grasses have been displaced by environmentally efficient, short-lived, quick maturing and dense grasses due to excessive burning, rapid population growth and inappropriate development policies. Local people's perceptions, supported by crop production data, suggest extensive land degradation. Other evidence includes food insecurity, diseases, rainfall variability and land extensification to marginal lands. Convergence of evidence suggests that
Full Text Available CIMMYT, with national programs, conducts selection of stress-tolerant genotypes under managed stress conditions; this investigation is expected to add information to the existing knowledge. Data sets used in this study comes from Intermediate to Late Hybrid Trails (ILHT conducted in five Eastern and Central Africa (ECA countries from 2008 to 2011. Trials, ranging from 18 in 2009 to 29 in 2010 were used. Trials are categorized into four management systems and two yield levels. Variance Components, broad sense heritability (H, Site Regression (SREG, Genotypic Regression (GREG, Completely Multiplicative Model (COMM and Factor Analytic (FA models were fitted. Results are discussed and compared with those stated in literature. We argue that it is preferable to first fit the fixed effect models before proceeding to the mixed effect model, as the former shows the level of complexity of the GE component and number of Axis required to explain it. The fixed effect model, SREG2, is preferable for trails targeting to compare hybrids with checks. From the GGE biplots it was noted that the first two PC did not account for sufficient percentage of variation for all years which witnessed complexity in the GE component for this data. Nevertheless, since PC1 accounted for large percentage of variation than PC2, the plot still gives some idea of which hybrids are favored and where. Most importantly, location of genotypes along PC1 can serve for judging yielding potential of the genotypes to guide in selection decision. Equivalence between Finlay – Wilkinson and GREG was established. The few environmental covariables obtained for 2009 was used to fit Partial Least Square (PLS regression. The result indicated complexity in the GE component, as PLS latent factors accounted for small percentage of variation. It was recommended to use information from SREG2, GREG2 and FA(1 models in order to identify stable genotype.
Dikeledi P. Malatji
Full Text Available The majority of rural households in developing countries own village chickens that are reared under traditional scavenging systems with few inputs and exposure to various parasitic infestations. Understanding of the village chicken farming system and its influence on helminth infestation is a prerequisite for optimal prevention and control strategies. This study investigated the village chicken production system and associated gastrointestinal parasites in 87 households from Limpopo (n = 39 and KwaZulu-Natal (n = 48 provinces of South Africa. A total of 191 village chicken faecal samples and 145 intestines were collected to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in villages of Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, respectively. The faecal floatation analysis of samples from Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces indicated infestations by Ascaridia galli (18.77%, Heterakis gallinarum (15.56% and Capillaria spp. (4.00%; tapeworms Choanotaenia infundibulum (2.10% and Raillietina cesticillus (6.00% and Eimeria spp. (29.46%. Mixed infestations were observed in five (4.90% samples from Limpopo province and in only four (4.49% from KwaZulu-Natal province, of which 1.12% were a mixture of C. infundibulum and Eimeria spp. and 3.37% a combination of H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp. In Limpopo, 2.94% of the chickens were positive for H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp., whilst 0.98% had A. galli and Capillaria spp. infestations. Further investigation is needed to understand the impact of gastrointestinal parasites on village chicken health and production and develop appropriate intervention and control strategies feasible for smallholder farmers.Keywords: Helminthes; Village chickens; Smallholder farming systems; Faecal samples
Malatji, Dikeledi P; Tsotetsi, Anna M; Van Marle-Koster, Este; Muchadeyi, Farai C
The majority of rural households in developing countries own village chickens that are reared under traditional scavenging systems with few inputs and exposure to various parasitic infestations. Understanding of the village chicken farming system and its influence on helminth infestation is a prerequisite for optimal prevention and control strategies. This study investigated the village chicken production system and associated gastrointestinal parasites in 87 households from Limpopo (n = 39) and KwaZulu-Natal (n = 48) provinces of South Africa. A total of 191 village chicken faecal samples and 145 intestines were collected to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in villages of Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, respectively. The faecal floatation analysis of samples from Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces indicated infestations by Ascaridia galli (18.77%), Heterakis gallinarum (15.56%) and Capillaria spp. (4.00%); tapeworms Choanotaenia infundibulum (2.10%) and Raillietina cesticillus (6.00%) and Eimeria spp. (29.46%). Mixed infestations were observed in five (4.90%) samples from Limpopo province and in only four (4.49%) from KwaZulu-Natal province, of which 1.12% were a mixture of C. infundibulum and Eimeria spp. and 3.37% a combination of H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp. In Limpopo, 2.94% of the chickens were positive for H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp., whilst 0.98% had A. galli and Capillaria spp. infestations. Further investigation is needed to understand the impact of gastrointestinal parasites on village chicken health and production and develop appropriate intervention and control strategies feasible for smallholder farmers. PMID:27247063
Magombeyi, Manuel S.; Taigbenu, Akpofure E.
Currently, Sub-Sahara is experiencing increased frequency of disasters either as floods or droughts which depletes the scarce resources available to sustain increasing populations. Success in preventing food shortages in the African continent can only be achieved by understanding the vulnerability and risk of the majority of smallholder farmers under rainfed and supplementary irrigation coupled with appropriate interventions. Increased frequency of floods, droughts and dry spells pose an increasing threat to the smallholder farmers’ food security and water resources availability in B72A quaternary catchment of the Olifants river basin in South Africa. This paper links maize crop yield risk and smallholder farmer vulnerability arising from droughts by applying a set of interdisciplinary indicators (physical and socio-economic) encompassing gender and institutional vulnerabilities. For the study area, the return period of droughts and dry spells was 2 years. The growing season for maize crop was 121 days on average. Soil water deficit during critical growth stages may reduce potential yields by up to 62%, depending on the length and severity of the moisture deficit. To minimize grain yield loss and avoid total crop failures from intra-seasonal dry spells, farmers applied supplementary irrigation either from river water or rainwater harvested into small reservoirs. Institutional vulnerability was evidenced by disjointed water management institutions with lack of comprehension of roles of higher level institutions by lower level ones. Women are most hit by droughts as they derived more than 90% of their family income from agriculture activities. An enhanced understanding of the vulnerability and risk exposure will assist in developing technologies and policies that conform to the current livelihood strategies of smallholder, resource-constrained farmers. Development of such knowledge base for a catchment opens avenues for computational modeling of the impacts of
Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the feasibility and appropriateness of enrolling controls for Burkitt lymphoma (BL from local health facilities in two regions in Uganda. Methods BL case data were compiled from two local hospitals with capacity to diagnose and treat BL in North-west and North-central regions of Uganda during 1997 to 2009. Local health facility data were compiled from children attending four representative local health facilities in the two regions over a two week period in May/June 2010. Age and sex patterns of BL cases and children at local facilities were compared and contrasted using frequency tables. Results There were 999 BL cases diagnosed in the study area (92% of all BL cases treated at the hospitals: 64% were from North-central and 36% from North-west region. The mean age of BL cases was 7.0 years (standard deviation [SD] 3.0. Boys were younger than girls (6.6 years versus 7.2 years, P = 0.004 and cases from North-central region were younger than cases from North-west region (6.8 years versus 7.3 years, P = 0.014. There were 1012 children recorded at the four local health facilities: 91% at facilities in North-central region and 9% from facilities in North-west region. Daily attendance varied between 1 to 75 children per day. The mean age of children at health facilities was 2.2 years (SD 2.8; it did not differ by sex. Children at North-central region facilities were younger than children at North-west region facilities (1.8 years versus 6.6 years, P Conclusions While many children attend local health facilities, confirming feasibility of obtaining controls, their mean age is much lower than BL cases. Health facilities may be suitable for obtaining young, but not older, controls.
The title of this thesis is “Understanding landscape dynamics over thousands of years : combining field and model work, with a case study in the Drakensberg Foothills, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa”. As the title clearly states, the overall objective is an increased knowledge of landscape dynamics thr
Alasdair Campbell; Igor Rudan
In sub-Saharan Africa, unacceptably high rates of mortality amongst women and children continue to persist. The emergence of research employing new genomic technologies is advancing knowledge on cause of disease. This review aims to identify birth cohort studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and to consider their suitability as a platform to support genetic epidemiological studies.
Full Text Available The argan tree is a slow growing tree exclusively endemic in the dry lowlands of Southwest Morocco. The argan forest constitutes a long time ignored specific biotope that has been declared a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 1998. The argan forest is particularly fragile to climate change. Forecasts show annual precipitation levels and prolonged drought periods that could severely threaten the future of the argan forest. In some places, the argan forest is already damaged, resulting in the retreat of the argan tree and the subsequent desert encroachment. An acceleration of this trend would have devastating consequences. In response, some twenty years ago, an ambitious, unique in Northern-Africa, and government-supported program was initiated in Morocco to rescue the argan tree via the sustainable development of the argan forest. Because in the late 1980s, sustainable development in developing countries was often considered as a utopia, the argan forest case represents a sign of progress, as it is also an interesting and unique experience in Africa. This review analyses the process followed, the measures taken, the pitfalls encountered, and the results obtained during the last two decades. It also points out the measures that still need to be taken before declaring the argan forest rescue mission is accomplished.
Louis V. Verchot
Full Text Available Biofuels are receiving growing negative attention. Direct and/or indirect land-use changes that result from their cultivation can cause emissions due to carbon losses in soils and biomass and could negate any eventual greenhouse gas (GHG reduction benefit. This paper evaluates the implications of land-use change emission on the climate-change mitigation potential of different biofuel production systems in 12 case studies in six countries. We calculated carbon debts created by conversion of different land-use types, ranging from annual cropland to primary forest. We evaluated case studies using three different biofuel crops: oil palm, Jatropha, and soybean. The time needed for each biofuel production system to pay back its carbon debt was calculated based on a life-cycle assessment of the GHG reduction potentials of the system. Carbon debts range from 39 to 1743.7 Mg C02 ha-1. The oil palm case studies created the largest carbon debts (472.8–1743.7 t C02 ha-1 because most of the area expansion came at the expense of dense tropical forest. The highest debt was associated with plantation on peatland. For all cases evaluated, only soybean in Guarantã do Norte and Alta Floresta, Brazil needed less than one human generation (30 years to repay the initial carbon debt. Highest repayment times were found for Jatropha (76–310 years and oil palm (59–220 years case studies. Oil palm established in peatlands had the greatest repayment times (206–220 years. High repayment times for Jatropha resulted from the combined effects of land-cover change and low CO2 emission reduction rate. These outcomes raise serious questions about the sustainability of biofuel production. The carbon implications of conversion of (semi-natural systems with medium to high biomass indicate that, in order to generate climate benefits, cultivation of biofuel feedstocks should be restricted to areas that already have low carbon content.
Farolfi, Stefano; Perret, Sylvain R.
South Africa has adopted an ambitious new water legislation that promotes equity, sustainability, representativity and economic performance through water management decentralization, new local and regional management institutions, water users' licensing, and the possible emergence of water rights' markets. This paper addresses the diversity of water users and uses that currently exists in rural areas, and especially focuses on the competition for water that may result from such a diversity in...
P. Bayen; T. K. Sop; Lykke, A.M.; Thiombiano, A.
Land degradation is an environmental problem which weakens agro-sylvo-pastoral productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. The most common manifestation of land degradation is the appearance of denuded land. We carried out an experiment to test the effect of three soil and water conservation techniques on survival and growth of Jatropha curcas seedlings transplanted onto two completely denuded lands in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of Burkina Faso. We implemented an experimental d...
P. Bayen; T. K. Sop; Lykke, A.M.; Thiombiano, A.
Land degradation is an environmental problem which weakens agro-silvo-pastoral productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa. The most common manifestation of land degradation is the appearance of denuded land. We carried out an experiment to test the effect of three soil and water conservation techniques on survival and growth of Jatropha curcas seedlings transplanted onto two completely denuded lands in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of Burkina Faso. We implemented ...
Ver Loren van Themaat, A. A. H.
Business transfers and accompanying business changes are a focal point for the tension between the protection of rights of employees, including their property rights in the job and their "right" to meaningful participation, and the interests of management in achieving its economic objectives effectively. A comparison of the law in the United States, South Africa and the United Kingdom can cast the divergent interests, which become conspicuous during corporate reorganisations, i...
Cantrell, Timothy Wendell
In this thesis the researcher argues that churches in Africa are being planted rapidly but are not growing to maturity, which produces troubling consequences. The Baptist Union of Southern Africa (BUSA) is then given as a representative case study of church planting in Afiica, because from 1990 they have seen as many as 413 new churches started. Yet there is growing concern over the stability of many of these young churches and their leaders. Key leaders in the BUSA are calling fo...
Lema, Valentino M
Unconsummated marriage is a condition where newly married couples are unable to achieve penile-vaginal intercourse for variable periods despite desire and several attempts to do so. Its exact cause(s) is/are unknown, but performance anxiety resulting from or leading to other conditions is reportedly the major etiological factor. It is thought to be more prevalent in traditional and conservative religious communities where premarital sexual exposure is strictly prohibited. Most publications on unconsummated marriage have originated from North America, European and Middle Eastern countries. There have not been any such reports from sub-Saharan Africa, which is home to diverse cultures and traditions regarding premarital sex and marriage. This paper presents a sample of four cases with unconsummated marriage managed by the author in his private clinic based in the city of Nairobi Kenya, over the past five years. Possible etiological factors and management approaches are discussed, with a review of relevant literature. PMID:25508052
Oppenheimer, M.; Licker, R.; Mastrorillo, M.; Bohra-Mishra, P.; Estes, L. D.; Cai, R.
Climate variability has been associated with a range of societal and individual outcomes including migration, violent conflict, changes in labor productivity, and health impacts. Some of these may be direct responses to changes in mean temperature or precipitation or extreme events, such as displacement of human populations by tropical cyclones. Others may be mediated by a variety of biological, social, or ecological factors such as migration in response to long-term changes in crops yields. Research is beginning to elucidate and distinguish the many channels through which climate variability may influence human behavior (ranging from the individual to the collective, societal level) in order to better understand how to improve resilience in the face of current variability as well as future climate change. Using a variety of data sets from South Africa, we show how climate variability has influenced internal (within country) migration in recent history. We focus on South Africa as it is a country with high levels of internal migration and dramatic temperature and precipitation changes projected for the 21st century. High poverty rates and significant levels of rain-fed, smallholder agriculture leave large portions of South Africa's population base vulnerable to future climate change. In this study, we utilize two complementary statistical models - one micro-level model, driven by individual and household level survey data, and one macro-level model, driven by national census statistics. In both models, we consider the effect of climate on migration both directly (with gridded climate reanalysis data) and indirectly (with agricultural production statistics). With our historical analyses of climate variability, we gain insights into how the migration decisions of South Africans may be influenced by future climate change. We also offer perspective on the utility of micro and macro level approaches in the study of climate change and human migration.
Verchot, Louis V.; Wouter M. J. Achten
Biofuels are receiving growing negative attention. Direct and/or indirect land-use changes that result from their cultivation can cause emissions due to carbon losses in soils and biomass and could negate any eventual greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction benefit. This paper evaluates the implications of land-use change emission on the climate-change mitigation potential of different biofuel production systems in 12 case studies in six countries. We calculated carbon debts created by conversion of d...
Ben Abdallah, Mohamed; AIT EL MEKKI Abdelkader; SIAM Gamal
This report presents the macro-effects of further trade integration between the European Union and respectively Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia in the horizon 2020. It put together three case studies which adopt a similar methodology based on both Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model and Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) analyses. Overall, the simulation results show that trade liberalisation leads to a general gain for the countries under review, with the effect being more pronounced when comb...
Sauvage, B.; F. Gheusi; V. Thouret; Cammas, J.-P.; Duron, J.; J. Escobar; Mari, C.; P. Mascart; Pont, V.
A meso-scale model was used to understand and describe the processes driving high ozone concentrations observed during both dry and monsoon seasons in monthly climatologies profiles over Lagos (Nigeria, 6.6° N, 3.3° E), obtained with the MOZAIC airborne measurements (ozone and carbon monoxide). This study focuses on ozone enhancements observed in the upper-part of the lower troposphere, around 3000 m. Two individual cases have been selected in the MOZAIC dataset as being repre...
Anyangwe, Stella C E; Mtonga, Chipayeni; Chirwa, Ben
The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to age-old problems. Extreme poverty is a cause and consequence of low income, food insecurity and hunger, education and gender inequities, high disease burden, environmental degradation, insecure shelter, and lack of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. It is also directly linked to unsound governance and inequitable distribution of public wealth. While many regions in the world will strive to attain the MDGs by 2015, most of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with major human development challenges associated with socio-economic disparities, will not. Zambia's MDG progress reports of 2003 and 2005 show that despite laudable political commitment and some advances made towards achieving universal primary education, gender equality, improvement of child health and management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is not likely that Zambia will achieve even half of the goals. Zambia's systems have been weakened by high disease burden and excess mortality, natural and man-made environmental threats and some negative effects of globalization such as huge external debt, low world prices for commodities and the human resource "brain drain", among others. Urgent action must follow political will, and some tried and tested strategies or "quick wins" that have been proven to produce high positive impact in the short term, need to be rapidly embarked upon by Zambia and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa if they are to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:16968967
Full Text Available The study examined how effective forms of communication are, or could be, impacting themore traditional forms of emergency and disaster management communication throughthe print and electronic media and how an integrated communication strategy involving allstakeholders could prove to be successful. This study was of an exploratory and descriptivenature, using a case study of the South Durban basin to demonstrate how media analysis,community discussions and internal and external evaluations of current practices in use bymajor industrial players in the basin has thus far failed to reach its full potential for effectivedisaster risk reduction. Strongly emerging from this study was the finding that, as a resultof these evaluations, new systems are now being planned to incorporate social media as anintegral part of an overall communication strategy, which could have far-reaching implicationsfor corporate communicators and strategic planners.
Full Text Available The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to age-old problems. Extreme poverty is a cause and consequence of low income, food insecurity and hunger, education and gender inequities, high disease burden, environmental degradation, insecure shelter, and lack of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. It is also directly linked to unsound governance and inequitable distribution of public wealth. While many regions in the world will strive to attain the MDGs by 2015, most of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with major human development challenges associated with socio-economic disparities, will not. ZambiaÃ¢Â€Â™s MDG progress reports of 2003 and 2005 show that despite laudable political commitment and some advances made towards achieving universal primary education, gender equality, improvement of child health and management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is not likely that Zambia will achieve even half of the goals. ZambiaÃ¢Â€Â™s systems have been weakened by high disease burden and excess mortality, natural and man-made environmental threats and some negative effects of globalization such as huge external debt, low world prices for commodities and the human resource Ã¢Â€Âœbrain drainÃ¢Â€Â, among others. Urgent action must follow political will, and some tried and tested strategies or Ã¢Â€Âœquick winsÃ¢Â€Â that have been proven to produce high positive impact in the short term, need to be rapidly embarked upon by Zambia and other countries in sub
Full Text Available Invasive alien plants have a long history of establishment in the national parks of South Africa.In particular, Opuntia stricta (sour prickly pear has invaded several protected areas in thecountry, threatening the biodiversity conservation mandate of these conservation areas. Thisarticle focuses on the economic estimation of O. stricta’s negative impacts in protected areas byusing Contingent Valuation surveys conducted amongst a sample of tourists in the PilanesbergNational Park (North West Parks and Tourism Board, South Africa. Tourists’ familiarity andawareness of selected invasive alien plants and their willingness to pay for the implementationof a control programme for O. stricta were assessed. The results show that many tourists arefamiliar with invasive alien plants and their (positive and negative impacts and, in particular,perceived the presence of O. stricta to be negative, due to the impacts on aesthetics and recreation.Socio-demographic characteristics, as well as individual attitudes and biocentric beliefs, have aninfluence on the willingness to contribute financially to a control programme for O. stricta. Theindividual willingness to pay assessment found that the majority of respondents (78% werewilling to pay a higher entrance fee (an additional R57.30 or $7.00 per day for a hypotheticalprogramme to control the invasion of O. stricta in the Pilanesberg National Park.Conservation implications: The willingness of tourists to pay for O. stricta managementprovides useful insights in the decision-making process of park management. The resultsare encouraging, since, in general, tourists are aware of the problem and are in support ofproviding additional economic input for preventing future alien plant invasions.
Paulin Houanye; Sibao Shen
At the end of the 20th century, when investors were actively seeking a favorable and secure place for their capital investment, the African continent rarely crossed their minds. Recent misgivings experienced by financial markets around the world and the increased demand of natural supplies forced investors to focus on Africa. This circumstance, for over a decade, has put all Africa, including both developed and industrialized countries in an embarrassing position with very low foreign investm...
Kenfack, Joseph; Bignom, Blaise
Central Africa owns important renewable energy potential, namely hydro, solar and biomass. This important potential is still suffering from poor development up to the point where the sub region is still abundantly using the fossil energy and biomass as main power source. This is harmful to the climate and the situation is still ongoing. The main cause of the poor use of renewable energy is the poor management of resources by governments who have not taken the necessary measures to boost the renewable energy sector. Since the region is experiencing power shortage, thermal plants are among other solutions planned or under construction. Firewood is heavily used in remote areas without a sustainability program behind. This solution is not environment friendly and hence is not a long term solution. Given the fact that the region has the highest hydro potential of the continent, up to one-quarter of the world's tropical forest, important oil production with poor purchase power, the aim of this paper is to identify actions for improved access to sustainable, friendly, affordable energy services to users as well as a significant improvement of energy infrastructure in Central Africa and the promotion of small hydro and other renewable energy. The work will show at first the potential for the three primary energy sources which are solar, biomass and hydro while showing where available the level of development, with an emphasis on small hydro. Then identified obstacles for the promotion of clean energy will be targeted. From lessons learned, suggestions will be made to help the countries develop an approach aiming at developing good clean energy policy to increase the status of renewable energy and better contribute to fight against climate change. Cameroon has a great renewable energy potential and some data are available on energy. From the overview of institutional structure reform of the Cameroon power sector and assessments, specific suggestions based on the weaknesses
Yazdanpanah, Masoud; Hayati, Dariush; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Zamani, Gholam Hosein
There is a high risk of serious water shortages in Middle-East and North African countries. To decrease this threat water conservation strategies are gaining overall importance and one main focus is now on farmer's behavior. Among other dimensions it is assumed that normative issues play an important role in predicting environmental oriented intentions and actual actions. To empirically test the possible interactions the Theory of Planned Behavior was used, revised and expanded for the specific case on water management issues and applied to Iranian farmers. The results could not validate the TPB framework which emphasizes the importance of perceived behavioral control for intention and actual behavior and findings are much more in line with the Theory of Reasoned Action. Normative inclinations as well as perception of risk are found to be important for intention as well as actual water conservation behavior. Additionally, the importance and linkages of the dimensions are found to be different between sub-groups of farmers, especially between traditional water management farmers and those who already using advanced water management strategies. This raises the question if one-fits-all behavioral models are adequate for practical studies where sub-groups may very much differ in their actions. Still, our study suggests that in the context of water conservation, normative inclination is a key dimension and it may be useful to consider the role of positive, self-rewarding feelings for farmers when setting up policy measures in the region. PMID:24513405
Full Text Available Over a period of three years, 360 teachers at 26 resource constrained schools in Cofimvaba, which lies in the Nciba district of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, have received training on how to integrate mobile tablets in their classrooms to support teaching and learning. The training modules combined the use of teaching strategies and fun with practical hands-on exercises which can be used in any type of subject for any grade when training teachers. Teachers embarked on a learning path attached to badges to reward their efforts and evidence of how they have applied their training in their classrooms. The purpose of this paper is to share this novel approach to teacher training in a unique context where schools are deprived of resources but still managed to successfully integrate mobile tablets in their classroom practices. These practices have changed the way teachers teach from standing with a textbook and chalk in front of a class sitting in rows, to standing with a tablet and learners are engaged in group work and using the tablets as a resource in a disconnected environment. The success of these training modules lies in the application of an approach of teach with and not to, earn as you learn and not just give technology, respect and humility, flexibility, innovation, creativity and co-creation.
Jooste, Antoinette; Marr, Sean M; Addo-Bediako, Abraham; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J
Clarias gariepinus is increasing in importance as a global aquaculture species with a 100 fold increase in production over the past decade but this species still remains one of the most important wild harvested freshwater food fish throughout rural Africa. However, this species has been shown to accumulate metals from contaminated inland waters. In this paper, the metal concentrations in muscle tissue of C. gariepinus from two main-stem impoundments in the Olifants River, Limpopo Basin, were measured and a desktop risk assessment based on the US-EPA methodology completed to evaluate whether long-term consumption of C. gariepinus from these impoundments may pose a health risk to rural communities. Our results show that metals are accumulating in the muscle tissue of C. gariepinus and have appeared to have increased in the last two decades. Risk assessment generated Hazard quotients (HQ) greater than 1 indicate that long term consumption of fish from these impoundments may cause adverse health impacts. We found that lead (HQ=9), antimony (HQ=14), cobalt (HQ=2) and chromium (HQ=1) at one impoundment and lead (HQ=2) at the other impoundment were above acceptable levels for weekly consumption of 150 g C. gariepinus muscle tissue. PMID:25463859
Full Text Available It is often acknowledged that African and other developing countries have a desperate need for quality scholarly information to advance their research output and to make a contribution to the world of scholarly communication. In terms of Africa, South Africa is the most significant producer of research output in sub-Saharan Africa and has, therefore by default, become a beacon of hope for Africa in the area of research production. This case study focuses on the contribution of Stellenbosch University (SU to the African research agenda through making its research output available via two different publishing models. The first model is the hosting and preservation of its research output via an institutional repository (the green route to open access. The second model is hosting and publishing open access journals, following one of two ‘streams’ in the gold route. In this paper, the authors contextualize open access. The two publishing models in support of the Strategic Plan for the Environment of the Vice Rector (Research are discussed as it applies to SU. The Library’s adoption of the role of ‘publisher’ is also examined. In the case of SU, Open Journal Systems (OJS is the software of choice for hosting open access online journals. The paper provides background on OJS, and also discusses the significance of OJS publishing for the University and its researchers. It concludes with the view that despite the perceived success of the Library and Information Service in making available research output in open access format, there are still many challenges that need to be overcome, and that this process is a continuous one and should remain so in order to continuously take advantage of opportunities offered by evolving technology.
Primus Che Chi
Full Text Available Maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity rates are particularly grim in conflict, post-conflict and other crisis settings, a situation partly blamed on non-availability and/or poor quality of emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC services. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers to effective delivery of EmONC services in post-conflict Burundi and Northern Uganda, in order to provide policy makers and other relevant stakeholders context-relevant data on improving the delivery of these lifesaving services.This was a qualitative comparative case study that used 42 face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews and 4 focus group discussions for data collection. Participants were 32 local health providers and 37 staff of NGOs working in the area of maternal health. Data was analysed using the framework approach.The availability, quality and distribution of EmONC services were major challenges across the sites. The barriers in the delivery of quality EmONC services were categorised into two major themes; human resources-related challenges, and systemic and institutional failures. While some of the barriers were similar, others were unique to specific sites. The common barriers included shortage of qualified staff; lack of essential installations, supplies and medications; increasing workload, burn-out and turnover; and poor data collection and monitoring systems. Barriers unique to Northern Uganda were demoralised personnel and lack of recognition; poor referral system; inefficient drug supply system; staff absenteeism in rural areas; and poor coordination among key personnel. In Burundi, weak curriculum; poor harmonisation and coordination of training; and inefficient allocation of resources were the unique challenges. To improve the situation across the sites, efforts are ongoing to improve the training and recruitment of more staff; harmonise and strengthen the curriculum and training; increase the number of EmONC facilities
Full Text Available A meso-scale model was used to understand and describe the processes driving high ozone concentrations observed during both dry and monsoon seasons in monthly climatologies profiles over Lagos (Nigeria, 6.6° N, 3.3° E, obtained with the MOZAIC airborne measurements (ozone and carbon monoxide. This study focuses on ozone enhancements observed in the upper-part of the lower troposphere, around 3000 m. Two individual cases have been selected in the MOZAIC dataset as being representative of the climatological ozone enhancements, to be simulated and analyzed with on-line Lagrangian backtracking of airmasses.
This study points out the role of baroclinic low-level circulations present in the Inter Tropical Front (ITF area. Two low-level thermal cells around a zonal axis and below 2000 m, in mirror symmetry to eachother with respect to equator, form near 20° E and around 5° N and 5° S during the (northern hemisphere dry and wet seasons respectively. They are caused by surface gradients – the warm dry surface being located poleward of the ITF and the cooler wet surface equatorward of the ITF.
A convergence line exists between the poleward low-level branch of each thermal cell and the equatorward low-level branch of the Hadley cell. Our main conclusion is to point out this line as a preferred location for fire products – among them ozone precursors – to be uplifted and injected into the lower free troposphere.
The free tropospheric transport that occurs then depends on the hemisphere and season. In the NH dry season, the African Easterly Jet allows transport of ozone and precursors westward to Lagos. In the NH monsoon (wet season, fire products are transported from the southern hemisphere to Lagos by the southeasterly trade that surmounts the monsoon layer. Additionally ozone precursors uplifted by wet convection in the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone can also mix to the ones uplifted by the baroclinic cell and be
Ocran, Mathew; Mlambo, Chipo
The paper investigates excess co-movement in asset prices in South Africa between 1995 and 2005 using the definition of excess comovement as correlation between two asset prices beyond what could be explained by key economic fundamentals. The results of the study suggest that there is excess co-movement between returns on equities and bonds in South Africa. The findings suggest that there are considerable noise traders on the financial market in South Africa. The result of this behaviour woul...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few empirical studies of research utilisation have been conducted in low and middle income countries. This paper explores how research information, in particular findings from randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews, informed policy making and clinical guideline development for the use of magnesium sulphate in the treatment of eclampsia and pre-eclampsia in South Africa. Methods A qualitative case-study approach was used to examine the policy process. This included a literature review, a policy document review, a timeline of key events and the collection and analysis of 15 interviews with policy makers and academic clinicians involved in these policy processes and sampled using a purposive approach. The data was analysed thematically and explored theoretically through the literature on agenda setting and the policy making process. Results Prior to 1994 there was no national maternal care policy in South Africa. Consequently each tertiary level institution developed its own care guidelines and these recommended a range of approaches to the management of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. The subsequent emergence of new national policies for maternal care, including for the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, was informed by evidence from randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews. This outcome was influenced by a number of factors. The change to a democratic government in the mid 1990s, and the health reforms that followed, created opportunities for maternal health care policy development. The new government was open to academic involvement in policy making and recruited academics from local networks into key policy making positions in the National Department of Health. The local academic obstetric network, which placed high value on evidence-based practice, brought these values into the policy process and was also linked strongly to international evidence based medicine networks. Within this context of
Post-apartheid South Africa is facing three major economic problems: (1) slack economic growth, (2) high and growing unemployment and (3) among the world¡¯s highest income inequality and poverty indices. South Africa is currently caught in a macro-economic straight-jacket of tight monetary, restrictive fiscal and a wage policy stance that raises NAIRU. The persistence of a sub-optimal ¡®market constellation¡¯ is created by an institutional setting of a non-accommodative Reserve Bank, a sector...
Full Text Available Michel Garenne,1–3 Kathleen Kahn,1,4,5 Mark A Collinson,1,4,5 F Xavier Gómez-Olivé,1,5 Stephen Tollman1,4,51MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 2Institut Pasteur, Epidémiologie des Maladies Emergentes, Paris, France; 3Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, UMI Résiliences, Centre Ile de France, Bondy, France; 4Centre for Global Health Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 5INDEPTH Network, East Legon, Accra, GhanaBackground: Uncertainty in the levels of global maternal mortality reflects data deficiencies, as well as differences in methods and definitions. This study presents levels and trends in maternal mortality in Agincourt, a rural subdistrict of South Africa, under long-term health and sociodemographic surveillance.Methods: All deaths of women aged 15 years–49 years occurring in the study area between 1992 and 2010 were investigated, and causes of death were assessed by verbal autopsy. Two case definitions were used: “obstetrical” (direct causes, defined as deaths caused by conditions listed under O00-O95 in International Classification of Diseases-10; and “pregnancy-related deaths”, defined as any death occurring during the maternal risk period (pregnancy, delivery, 6 weeks postpartum, irrespective of cause.Results: The case definition had a major impact on levels and trends in maternal mortality. The obstetric mortality ratio averaged 185 per 100,000 live births over the period (60 deaths, whereas the pregnancy-related mortality ratio averaged 423 per 100,000 live births (137 deaths. Results from both calculations increased over the period, with a peak around 2006, followed by a decline coincident with the national roll-out of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and antiretroviral treatment programs. Mortality increase from direct causes was
Lee, Jenny J.; Sehoole, Chika
This study examined mobility within the understudied region of southern Africa and particularly, the factors that drive and shape educational migration toward South Africa as a regional, continental, and global destination. Based on a survey administered to international students across seven South African universities, the findings revealed…
Machaka, Chiedza Lucia Amanda
This paper investigates the sustainability, trans-boundary protection of resources and mining with particular emphasis on the Coal of Africa case example. It explores the issues pertaining to the sustainability and trans-boundary protection of resources that were taken into account as part of the decision- making process with regard to mining by Coal of Africa in the Greater Mapungubwe area in South Africa. At the centre of the dispute was the mining of coal by Coal of Africa without obtainin...
Counted, Agina Victor
This study examines the role of the Christian God as an attachment figure, using the attachment language criteria of a strong and enduring affectionate bond. Respondents were 15 anxiously attached Christian youths, purposefully selected for in-depth interviews to explore their God attachment languag
Maeko, Mogale S A; Makgato, Moses
Skills training for Civil Technology learners in South African schools, is an aspect entrenched in the Civil Technology policy document in order to produce skilled personnel for a sustainable economy. Practical activities through the Practical Assessment Task (PAT) are national requirements for all practical-based subjects from grades 10–12 in South African schools. The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of Civil Technology practical activities in three South A...
Sumaila I. Asuru
This study seeks to explore the significant contributions of the new philanthropy towards improving the conditions of smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan African, smallholder farmers’ understanding of philanthropy and to investigate the relationship that exists between philanthropy and smallholder farmers. The research is designed to uncover the needs and drivers of both philanthropy and smallholder farmers in relation to their interaction and the fulfilment of the philanthropic contract they ...
Ian T. Little
Full Text Available Background: Grasslands are heavily utilised for livestock agriculture and the resultant degradation through mismanagement contributes to an estimated 60% of this biome being permanently transformed. This study focused on the impact of fire and grazing in moist highland grasslands.Objectives: To determine the contribution of burning frequency and grazing intensity combined (for domestic livestock and indigenous ungulates on vegetation structure heterogeneity and species diversity.Methods: Eight study sites under different management regimes were sampled over two summers. Vegetation structure characteristics and diversity data were collected monthly within multiple replicates in each study site. A disc pasture meter was used to assess standing biomass. Differences in vegetation structure characteristics, plant community composition and plant species assemblage structure across sites were statistically analysed using analyses of variance, indicator species analyses, multidimensional scaling ordinations and two-way cluster analyses.Results: The combination of heavy grazing and annual burning leads to a distinct plant community dominated by disturbance specialist species. Selective grazing by indigenous herbivores promotes a community of unpalatable species. This study illustrates that fenced indigenous herbivores, even at moderate stocking densities, have a greater detrimental impact on plant diversity and structure than do domestic livestock.Conclusion: Intensive grazing and burning have a detrimental impact on plant species diversity and structure. This also affects resultant palatability for grazing livestock and fenced game. To promote both grazing quality and ecological integrity we recommend a minimum sustainable ‘fodder capacity’ or standing phytomass of 5000 kg per large-animal unit per hectare for domestic livestock in moist highland grasslands.
Rodrigues, Anthony Joachim; Oyoo, Wandiga Shem; Odundo, Francis O; Wambu, Enos W
Socio-economic and medical information on Bondo sub-county community was studied to help establish the relationship between the water quality challenges, community health and water rights conditions. Health challenges have been linked to water quality and household income. A total of 1,510 households/respondents were studied by means of a questionnaire. About 69% of the households have no access to treated water. Although 92% of the respondents appear to be aware that treatment of water prevents waterborne diseases, the lowest income group and children share a high burden of waterborne diseases requiring hospitalization and causing mortality. Open defecation (12.3%) in these study areas contributes to a high incidence of waterborne diseases. The community's constitutional rights to quality water in adequate quantities are greatly infringed. The source of low-quality water is not a significant determinant of waterborne disease. The differences in poverty level in the sub-county are statistically insignificant and contribute less than other factors. Increased investment in water provision across regions, improved sanitation and availability of affordable point-of-use water purification systems will have major positive impacts on the health and economic well-being of the community. PMID:26042981
Liu, X.; Ekoungoulou, R.; Loumeto, J. J.; Ifo, S. A.; Bocko, Y. E.; Koula, F. E.
The study was aimed to estimate the carbon stocks of above- and below-ground biomass in Lesio-louna forest of Congo. The methodology of allometric equations was used to measure the carbon stocks of Lesio-louna natural forest. We are based precisely on the model II which is also called non-destructive method or indirect method of measuring carbon stocks. While there has been use of parameters such as the DBH and wood density. The research was done with 22 circular plots each 1256 m2. In the 22 plots studied, 19 plots are in the gallery forest and three plots in the secondary forest. Also, 22 circular plots were distributed in 5 sites studies of Lesio-louna forest, including: Inkou forest island, Iboubikro, Ngoyili, Blue lake and Ngambali. So, there are two forest types (secondary forest and gallery forest) in this forest ecosystem. In the 5 sites studied, we made measurements on a total of 347 trees with 197 trees for the class of 10-30 cm diameter, 131 trees for the class of 30-60 cm diameter and 19 trees in the diameter class > 60 cm. The results show that in the whole forest, average carbon stock for the 22 plots of the study was 168.601 t C ha-1 for AGB, or 81% and 39.551 t C ha-1 for BGB, or 19%. The total carbon stocks in all the biomass was 3395.365 t C for AGB, which is 3.395365 × 10-6 Gt C and 909.689934 t C for BGB, which was 9.09689934 × 10-7 Gt C. In this forest, the carbon stock was more important in AGB compared to BGB with respectively 3395.365 t C against 909.689934 t C. Plot10 (AGB = 363.899 t C ha-1 and BGB = 85.516 t C ha-1) was the most dominant in terms of carbon quantification in Lesio-louna.
Full Text Available The study was aimed to estimate the carbon stocks of above- and below-ground biomass in Lesio-louna forest of Congo. The methodology of allometric equations was used to measure the carbon stocks of Lesio-louna natural forest. We are based precisely on the model II which is also called non-destructive method or indirect method of measuring carbon stocks. While there has been use of parameters such as the DBH and wood density. The research was done with 22 circular plots each 1256 m2. In the 22 plots studied, 19 plots are in the gallery forest and three plots in the secondary forest. Also, 22 circular plots were distributed in 5 sites studies of Lesio-louna forest, including: Inkou forest island, Iboubikro, Ngoyili, Blue lake and Ngambali. So, there are two forest types (secondary forest and gallery forest in this forest ecosystem. In the 5 sites studied, we made measurements on a total of 347 trees with 197 trees for the class of 10–30 cm diameter, 131 trees for the class of 30–60 cm diameter and 19 trees in the diameter class > 60 cm. The results show that in the whole forest, average carbon stock for the 22 plots of the study was 168.601 t C ha−1 for AGB, or 81% and 39.551 t C ha−1 for BGB, or 19%. The total carbon stocks in all the biomass was 3395.365 t C for AGB, which is 3.395365 × 10–6 Gt C and 909.689934 t C for BGB, which was 9.09689934 × 10–7 Gt C. In this forest, the carbon stock was more important in AGB compared to BGB with respectively 3395.365 t C against 909.689934 t C. Plot10 (AGB = 363.899 t C ha−1 and BGB = 85.516 t C ha−1 was the most dominant in terms of carbon quantification in Lesio-louna.
according to the restoration technique used (df = 2; F = 53.21; p F = 74.48; p F = 8.91; p = 0.000 and study site (df = 1; F = 9.74; p = 0.003. Survival rate, diameter and seedling height were highest at the Sudanian site. At the Sahelian site, all seedlings died two years after establishment. These results suggest that Jatropha curcas is unsuited to denuded land in the Sahelian zone. Most of the plants died in the Sahel between April and May, which is the peak of the dry season; this may be an indication that Jatropha may not be as drought-resistant as suggested by the prolific literature which has reported on diverse claims surrounding this plant.
Boubakar Hassane, A.; Favreau, G.; Leduc, C.; Ousmane, B.; Soumaila, A.
The groundwater chemistry in the local vicinity of the city of Niamey was investigated in order to identify the origin of the groundwater mineralization and, in particular, to elucidate the impact of urbanization on the groundwater resources. Sources of pollution of concern in the urban area are solid waste and material deposited on the ground and latrines. Contaminants from these sources are mobilized and transported by recharge and lixiviation from rising groundwater levels. Piezometric data monitoring at 70 sites was conducted monthly from March 2004 to February 2005 to evaluate the seasonal variability of groundwater levels. Groundwater samples for chemical data were collected from the major aquifers in 74 dug wells, 14 boreholes and 1 spring for 2 years (232 samples in 4 campaigns). Data were also compiled from previous studies on groundwater, rain water, surface waters, latrines and soils. Geochemical data (major ions) are used to define groundwater groups, to map their distribution in the study area, and to evaluate their origin. We combined multivariate statistical methods, scatter diagrams, ionic ratios, and Piper diagrams to decipher the processes affecting the water chemistry at large (Niamey) and local (wells) scale. The piezometric time series revealed seasonal variability in all wells indicating that the study area is a recharge zone, which enhances the transfer of contaminants from the surface. The geochemical monitoring revealed high spatial and temporal variability in chemical parameters. Processes controlling the groundwater chemistry at large scales in the aquifers include atmospheric inputs (rainfall and dust) in the poorly mineralized formations, evapotranspiration in the soil layers, and alteration of silicates. Processes specific to individual wells are production of weak acids (H2CO3) and bases (HCO3-) in soil layers near pollutant sources, leaching of ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, NH4+, NO3-, Cl-, HCO3-, SO42-) from pollutants, ion exchange
Anja du Plessis
Full Text Available The integrity of the Blesbok Spruit catchment has been significantly compromised over the past decades, mainly due to the discharge of mining effluent and sewage. This research investigated the hydrological responses, in terms of water quality, in the event of land cover change within the catchment to make predictions on the future sustainability of the region’s water resources with the application of Partial Least Squares (PLS regression analysis. The quantification of hydrological responses in terms of water quality towards land cover changes has not been completed by previous research studies within the catchment. This research established the catchment’s present state of water quality and formulated PLS model equations to enable the prediction of future concentrations of specific water quality parameters in association with future land cover change. A change in land cover was found to have various negative influences. The retransformation of land cover into natural areas is accompanied with unintended and undesirable effects due to the degradation of the catchment’s buffering capabilities and the absence of the enforcement of the decommissioning of mining operations. For the Blesbok Spruit catchment to avoid a future water predicament, systematic and interdisciplinary measures need to be implemented according to these and other related findings, to ensure the future sustainability of the catchment and the region as a whole.
Akinseye, F. M.; Agele, S. O.; Traore, P. C. S.; Adam, M.; Whitbread, A. M.
The agroecological zones (AEZ) of Mali fall within the semi-arid climate, the ability to determine efficiently or predict accurately the onset of growing season (OGS), and length of growing season (LGS) cannot be over-emphasized due to highly variable rainfall pattern and the dependence of smallholder farmers practising on rainfed farming agriculture. In this study, we determined the most suitable method for predicting the onset date of rainfall across AEZ that fitted with the planting windows of major cereal crops (maize, millet, and sorghum). Using long-term daily rainfall records from 22 meteorological stations spread across AEZ of Mali, four (4) known methods were applied to determine the onset dates of the rain. The mean onset dates were statistically compared with the farmer's planting window for the selected weather stations to determine the suitable dates of OGS and LGS. The hypothesis considered a time lag minimum of 7 days between the mean onset date and traditional farmer sowing dates for the crops. Then, the preferred method was used to estimate OGS based on early, normal and late dates respectively across the stations. Also, the estimated LGS according to each zone was evaluated using probability distribution chart with duration to maturity for varieties of the same crops. The results showed that Def_4 was found appropriate for Sahelian and Sudano-Sahelian zones; Def_3 satisfied the criteria and exhibited superior capacity into farmer's average planting date over Sudanian and Guinea Savannah zones. These results have an important application in cropping systems in order to prevent crop failure and ensure a better choice of crop variety according to LGS under climate variability and change being experienced across Mali.
This paper examines growth rates of real GDP per capita during decolonization in sub-Saharan Africa. For each period considered, I divide the sample between those countries that gained independence during the period and those that either remained colonies or were already independent. These newly independent countries grew slower than the control group. However, a more refined categorization shows that decolonizers grew slower than those that received their independence previously but did not ...
Very little has been written on the growing number of urban disaster risk hotspots, or the integration of disaster risk reduction and human settlement planning in Africa aside from publications by the World Bank, United Nations and a few other international organisations. This book aspires to fill these gaps, and I recommend it as essential reading for any urban development or disaster management practitioner or academic concerned with risk reduction in African cities. I also recommended the ...
Asabere, Bernard Duah; Horellou, Cathy; Winkler, Hartmut; Jarrett, Thomas
South Africa has played a leading role in radio astronomy in Africa with the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO). It continues to make strides with the current seven-dish MeerKAT precursor array (KAT-7), leading to the 64-dish MeerKAT and the giant Square Kilometer Array (SKA), which will be used for transformational radio astronomy research. Ghana, an African partner to the SKA, has been mentored by South Africa over the past six years and will soon emerge in the field of radio astronomy. The country will soon have a science-quality 32m dish converted from a redundant satellite communication antenna. Initially, it will be fitted with 5 GHz and 6.7 GHz receivers to be followed later by a 1.4 - 1.7 GHz receiver. The telescope is being designed for use as a single dish observatory and for participation in the developing African Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Network (AVN) and the European VLBI Network. Ghana is earmarked to host a remote station during a possible SKA Phase 2. The loca...
Gear, J H
In this review of studies on the hemorrhagic fevers of Southern Africa carried out in the South African Institute for Medical Research, attention has been called to occurrence of meningococcal septicemia in recruits to the mining industry and South African Army, to cases of staphylococcal and streptococcal septicemia with hemorrhagic manifestations, and to the occurrence of plague which, in its septicemic form, may cause a hemorrhagic state. "Onyalai," a bleeding disease in tropical Africa, o...
Paul Tsietsi Monare
Full Text Available As in many other countries, gentrification and urban regeneration occurs across South Africa. Despite this, geographical research on gentrification in South Africa is limited. This study adds to the literature by presenting the case of Parkhurst, a Johannesburg surburb. The study found that Parkhurst displays numerous characteristics of gentrification. The housing stock has undergone extensive physical improvement, with almost one third renovated or under renovation. Property values have increased and the original residents have been displaced. Parkhurst has a demographic and a socio-economic profile typical of a gentrified suburb. It is populated by young, white, educated, weathy professionals people. In addition, gentrification has resulted in the conversion of residential into commercial space, with some residences converted into business premises. The result is a distinct linear commerical zone within the neigbourhood. Gentrification is also associated with a change in housing tenure from rentals to ownership, it was found that ownership was a common feature of Parkhurst. Overall, it was concluded that gentrification of the suburb has occurred over an extensive period of time and is now in a super-gentrification stage.
This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.
Złotorzycka, J; Modrzejewska, M
The following types ofteratology were found in the collection of 1278 individuals of Mallophaga coming from the birds of South Africa origin: deformity clypeus in Quadraceps kilimandjarensis (KELL.) from Stephanibyx coronatus (BURCH.), partial atrophy of one of the antennae of two males Q. kilimandjarensis and abdomen plates deformity of two females Q. kilimandjarensis, in male and female Quadraceps chorleyi TIMM. from Hoplopterus armatus (BURCH.), in female Saemundssonia africana TIMM. from Stephanibyx coronatus (BODD.) and male Plegadiphilus threskiornis (BEDF.) from Threskiornis aethiopicus (LATH.) the only representative of Amblycera (the other teratology belonged to Ischnocera suborder). Generally teratology was found in 0.70% of the collection. PMID:16888959
Ezezika Obidimma C
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1999, South Africa became the first African country to approve commercial production of subsistence genetically modified (GM maize. The introduction of GM crop technology is often met with skepticism by stakeholders including farmers. The involvement of the private sector in this process can further breed mistrust or misperceptions. To examine these issues more closely, the objective of this case study was to understand the role of trust in the public-private partnership (PPP arrangement involved in the development of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt maize in South Africa. Methods We conducted semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to obtain stakeholders’ understanding of trust in general as well as in the context of agricultural biotechnology (agbiotech PPPs. A thematic analysis of the interview transcripts, documents, reports and research articles was conducted to generate insights into the challenges to, and practices for, building trust among the partners and with the public. Results The findings of this study are organized into four main lessons on trust building. First, as the end users of GM technology, farmers must be engaged from the start of the project through field demonstrations and educational activities. Second, an effective technology (i.e., the seed is key to the success of an agbiotech PPP. Third, open communication and full disclosure between private sector companies and government regulatory bodies will build trust and facilitate the regulatory processes. Fourth, enforcing good agronomic practices, including appropriate management of the refuge areas, will serve the interests of both the farmers and the seed companies. Conclusions Trust has proven to be a critical factor determining the success of the Bt maize project in South Africa. Distrust of the private sector and of GM technology were cited as major barriers to building trust. The trust-building practices described in this case study have often
Ann-Sofie Roth; Per Becker
South Africa is a complex and dynamic society, with overwhelming and increasing problems with disaster risk in the vulnerable urban communities in and around its rapidly growing metropolitan centres. The purpose of this study is to improve the understanding of the challenges for disaster risk reduction in such communities. It focuses on the case of Imizamo Yethu, in the Western Cape, in order to build theory that is grounded in the empirical realities of stakeholders involved in disaster risk...
Brodersen, Søsser; Eghoff, Christian; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard
This paper analyses the shaping of citizens’ efforts to influence the environmental conditions in the local community based on a case study with a community-based organisation (CBO), whom is active in a South African township. The aim of the paper is - To show how this type of participation can be...... analysed by a social construction approach with focus on social-technical processes involving actors and their interpretation of the environmental problem and solutions - To discuss the outcome of this type of processes within the concept of ‘capacity development in environment’ (CDE) In relation to the...... concept of ‘participation’ we see such efforts of citizens as participation in the shaping of the local environment in the township. That is, we are not only focusing on the participation in well-defined projects, hearings etc., but also in the shaping of what is seen as problems and what is seen as...
Full Text Available Since the late 1980s a distinct form of focally-extensive mucoid to mucopurulent uterine body chronic placentitis, caused by nocardioformorganisms, has been recognised in horses in the USA state of Kentucky and possibly in other areas. This disease has led to increasing numbers of foal losses from late abortions, still-births, prematurity, or early neonatal deaths. The foals are usually not infected, but may be small or emaciated. Modes of infection and transmission are as yet unknown. Nocardia spp. and related nocardioformbacteria as causes of equine infertility, endometritis and foal death are briefly reviewed. A case of near full-term abortion involving a Friesian mare in the Pretoria district of Gauteng Province in South Africa during February 2000, with the same placental lesion as described in the Kentucky cases, is presented. Nocardioform organisms were visualised on impression smears and histological sections of affected foetal membranes, and were also cultured. The organism has been identified at the Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center of the University of Kentucky as an Amycolatopsis sp. of the less-commonly diagnosed group of nocardioforms causing placentitis in the USA. The organism was cultured from the uterus of the mare 18 days post-foaling, but after a 2-week course of oral trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole, based on antibiogram sensitivity testing, a uterine flush yielded no growth. A semen sample from the sire of the aborted foal did not yield any Gram-positive filamentous branching bacteria. The mare subsequently conceived to a single insemination.
J. C. Scheepers
Full Text Available Vegetation studies at various levels of detail and using various methods are briefly reviewed. The approach and procedures of the Zurich-Montpellier school of phytosociology as a standard methodology for regional studies has become increasingly recognized. Progress has been made in regional studies in the fynbos and woodland biomes. but grassland, forest and karoo vegetation have been much neglected. There have also been marked increases in activity over a wide range of additional vegetation studies including new fields of research, particularly ecosystem studies. However, there are still vast gaps in our knowledge of the basic vegetationa! resources of the country. A systematic regional-study programme is being launched to remedy these deficiencies in fundamental knowledge.
Herreid, Clyde Freeman
This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)
Full Text Available Background: Case-based education has a long history in the disciplines of education, business, law and the health professions. Research suggests that students who learn via a case-based method have advanced critical thinking skills and a greater ability for application of knowledge in practice. In medical education, case-based methodology is widely used to facilitate knowledge transfer from theoretical knowledge to application in patient care. Nursing education has also adopted case-based methodology to enhance learner outcomes and critical thinking.Objectives: The objectives of the study was to describe a decentralised nursing management education programme located in Durban, South Africa and describe the perceptions of nursing faculty facilitators regarding implementation of this teaching method.Method: Data was collected through the use of one-on-one interviews and also focus groups amongst the fifteen facilitators who were using a case-based curriculum to teach the programme content. The average facilitator was female, between 41 and 50 years of age, working part-time, educated with a baccalaureate degree, working as a professional nurse for between 11 and 20 years; slightly more than half had worked as a facilitator for three or more years.Results: The facilitators identified themes related to the student learners, the learning environment, and strengths and challenges of using facilitation to teach the content through cases. Decentralised nursing management educational programmes can meet the needs of nurses who are located in remote areas which are characterised by poor transportation patterns and limited resources and have great need for quality healthcare services.Conclusion: Nursing faculty facilitators need knowledgeable and accessible contact with centrally based full-time nursing faculty in order to promote high quality educational programmes.
Kerzner, Harold R
A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re
Full Text Available Background: Case-based education has a long history in the disciplines of education, business, law and the health professions. Research suggests that students who learn via acase-based method have advanced critical thinking skills and a greater ability for application of knowledge in practice. In medical education, case-based methodology is widely used to facilitate knowledge transfer from theoretical knowledge to application in patient care. Nursing education has also adopted case-based methodology to enhance learner outcomes and critical thinking.Objectives: The objectives of the study was to describe a decentralised nursing management education programme located in Durban, South Africa and describe the perceptions of nursing faculty facilitators regarding implementation of this teaching method.Method: Data was collected through the use of one-on-one interviews and also focus groups amongst the fifteen facilitators who were using a case-based curriculum to teach the programme content. The average facilitator was female, between 41 and 50 years of age,working part-time, educated with a baccalaureate degree, working as a professional nurse for between 11 and 20 years; slightly more than half had worked as a facilitator for three or more years.Results: The facilitators identified themes related to the student learners, the learning environment, and strengths and challenges of using facilitation to teach the content through cases. Decentralised nursing management educational programmes can meet the needs of nurses who are located in remote areas which are characterised by poor transportation patterns and limited resources and have great need for quality healthcare services.Conclusion: Nursing faculty facilitators need knowledgeable and accessible contact with centrally based full-time nursing faculty in order to promote high quality educational programmes.
Laurent, O.; Rapopo, M.; Stevens, G.; Moyen, J. F.; Martin, H.; Doucelance, R.; Bosq, C.
This study investigates the origin of the 2.69 Ga-old Matok pluton, emplaced in the Pietersburg block, northern Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa), forthwith after a major tectono-metamorphic event ascribed to continent-continent collision. The Matok pluton consists of diorites, granodiorites and monzogranites. Petrography and whole-rock major- and trace element compositions of the Matok samples are similar to those of post-collisional Fe-K suites, which are very common in Proterozoic terranes. These granitoids are particularly rich in FeOt, TiO2, P2O5, span a wide range of SiO2 contents and display elevated concentrations in K2O, Ba, HFSE and REE, with moderately fractionated REE patterns.
Though South Africa is considered to lie in a stable continental region, earthquakes are recorded and located daily. Large events have been recorded that resulted in severe damage to infrastructure in nearby towns, farms, underground mines and even death in some circumstances. Therefore, it is necessary that we consider the effects of these events in the design of our infrastructure. This mitigation is done by carrying out reliable seismic hazard and risk studies of our regions using state of the art methodologies. In South Africa, several regional seismic hazard studies have been carried out and published. Continental wide studies that include the South African region were also published by various scientists from the continent (e.g. GSHAP). However, to ensure that we conform to international best practice in such studies, more studies need and are being done to improve data, knowledge and methodologies used in the assessments. We continue to collect and improve collection methods of historical and instrumental seismicity data. Available geological information is being used to identify and characterize active or capable faults.
The water level of Lake Turkana, East Africa, has fluctuated widely since measurements began in the late 1880s. Lake level has ranged from 15 meters above to 5 meters below the 1968 datum over the last 105 years. This study was initiated to compare the historic record of lake level for Lake Turkana to several records of the isotopic composition of carbonates found in the lake sediments. The ubiquitous presence of inorganic carbonates in Lake Turkana sediments, both spatially and temporally, allows for an evaluation of the use of the isotopic composition of carbonates as a proxy for paleo-lake level. (author)
Ingólfur Pálsson 1980
This thesis is examining the drivers and effects of biofuel production in the countries of Sub Saharan Africa. More precisely, the thesis is concerned with the efficiency of the biofuel production as a development tool: can such projects respond to the needs of the population? On the case of Mozambique, the research conducted in course of writing this thesis examines the biofuel policies and processes against one of the fundamental rights of individuals – food security. As this is a resource ...
Eating disorders are commonly believed to be rare or nonexistent in Africa. However, due to exposure to Western culture, a rise in eating disorders among African women is reported in the literature. This case study describes a 17-year-old Ethiopian girl who meets the DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for bulimia nervosa and the Rome III Diagnostic Criteria for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders criteria for rumination syndrome. The article discusses the diagnostic delays, the difficu...
The case study of the concessioning of the Ifrikya railway is based in part on several recent actual case studies on railway concessioning in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, several features of the general context and data have been changed for pedagogical purposes. The Republic of Ifrikya should therefore be considered an entirely fictitious country and the description of conditions there sh...
Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano
a. Lisa Ann Richey, Roskilde University and Stefano Ponte, Danish Institute for International Studies - Brand Aid and Africa b. Fantu Cheru, Nordic Africa Institute - The Right to Consume: Compassion and the Intricate New Phase of Capitalism and Africa c. Rita Abrahamsen, University of Ottawa...
Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most vulnerable sectors to climate change. Farmers have been exposed to multiple stressors including climate change, and they have managed to adapt to those risks. The adaptation actions undertaken by farmers and their decision making are, however, only poorly understood. By studying adaptation practices undertaken by apple farmers in three regions: Nagano and Kazuno in Japan and Elgin in South Africa, we categorize the adaptation actions into two types: farmer initiated bottom-up adaptation and institution led top-down adaptation. We found that the driver which differentiates the type of adaptation likely adopted was strongly related to the farmers' characteristics, particularly their dependence on the institutions, e.g. the farmers' cooperative, in selling their products. The farmers who rely on the farmers' cooperative for their sales are likely to adopt the institution-led adaptation, whereas the farmers who have established their own sales channels tend to start innovative actions by bottom-up. We further argue that even though the two types have contrasting features, the combinations of the both types of adaptations could lead to more successful adaptation particularly in agriculture. This study also emphasizes that more farm-level studies for various crops and regions are warranted to provide substantial feedbacks to adaptation policy.
We study the lithospheric structure of Africa, Arabia and adjacent oceanic regions with fundamental-mode surface waves over a wide period range. Including short period group velocities allows us to examine shallower features than previous studies of the whole continent. In the process, we have developed a crustal thickness map of Africa. Main features include crustal thickness increases under the West African, Congo, and Kalahari cratons. We find crustal thinning under Mesozoic and Cenozoic rifts, including the Benue Trough, Red Sea, and East, Central, and West African rift systems. Crustal shear wave velocities are generally faster in oceanic regions and cratons, and slower in more recent crust and in active and formerly active orogenic regions. Deeper structure, related to the thickness of cratons and modern rifting, is generally consistent with previous work. Under cratons we find thick lithosphere and fast upper mantle velocities, while under rifts we find thinned lithosphere and slower upper mantle velocities. There are no consistent effects in areas classified as hotspots, indicating that there seem to be numerous origins for these features. Finally, it appears that the African Superswell has had a significantly different impact in the north and the south, indicating specifics of the feature (temperature, time of influence, etc.) to be dissimilar between the two regions. Factoring in other information, it is likely that the southern portion has been active in the past, but that shallow activity is currently limited to the northern portion of the superswell.
K. C. Oberlander
Full Text Available Oxalis L , commonly called sorrel,is a large and cosmopolitan taxon that has undergone spectacular speciation within southern Africa (± 270 taxa. and more specifically within the winter rainfall regions of the western Cape Region (CR. The main objective of this study w as to analyse the geographical distribution of Oxalis in South Africa in relation to currently defined phytogeographic units. The observed patterns of biodiversity and endemism within South African members of the genus show interesting disjunctions and concentrations of species. Oxalis is one of the few CR taxa that is shared between the core Fynbos and Succulent Karoo Biomes, and this study therefore provides a novel insight into evolutionary trends across, and not only w ithin. these phvtogeographic units. The major centre for diversity for Oxalis is situated on Table Mountain and the northern areas o f the Cape Peninsula (grid square 3318CD. Subsidiary centres are located in the Clanwilliam/Niewoudtville and Kamiesberg regions. The reported patterns in Western Cape suggest that Oxalis species richness has been generated and retained in areas w hich have been identified as core Fynbos (Table Mountain, Fynbos refugia during interglacials (Kamiesberg. and an ecotonal region which might switch between the two biome types (Clanwilliam/ Niewoudtville. Presumably these three types of areas would provide interesting material for DNA-based phylogenetic work, and a test of the climate change 'species-pump' hypothesis proposed by Midgley et al. (2001.
Davidson, O.R.; Mwakasonda, S.A.
This study focuses on the accessibility of electricity to the poor in South Africa and Zimbabwe as a means to improve understanding of the various factors that affect the provision of modern energy to the poor in these countries. The study examines the impact on the poor of power sector reforms. Specifically, it makes an assessment of the impact of the electrification programmes in the two countries. The situation in the two countries is discussed separately, followed by a comparative analysis. South Africa is the most industrialised country in Africa and it is endowed with a wide variety of natural resources. It is currently going through major changes in many spheres of its economy, including energy, following the democratic elections in 1994. An important consideration that is directing all aspects of government policy is the need to address the enormous disparities in income levels and living conditions betaveen the different racial groups, a result of apartheid. The rural areas are even more impoverished than urban ones. Alter the 1994 democratic elections, the South African Government launched the first phase of the National Electrification Programme (1994-99), aimed at increasing electrification from 36 per cent to about 66 per cent nationally by 2001 - 46 per cent rural and 80 per cent urban. By the end of 2001, 66.1 per cent of households were electrified, with more than 3.4 million connections made since 1994. Since then, several polities have been introduced in the electricity sector that are of direct relevance to this work. The most important of these concern the restructuring of the electricity supply industry and direct subsidies for the poor and disadvantaged. The South African Government established a National Electrification Fund to subsidise a portion of the capital costs of new electricity connections under the National Electrifcation Programme. The Fund derives its income not only from the electricity industry, but also from fiscal allocations
Murn, Campbell; Mundy, Peter; Virani, Munir Z; Borello, Wendy D; Holloway, Graham J; Thiollay, Jean-Marc
The White-headed Vulture Trigonoceps occipitalis (WhV) is uncommon and largely restricted to protected areas across its range in sub-Saharan Africa. We used the World Database on Protected Areas to identify protected areas (PAs) likely to contain White-headed Vultures. Vulture occurrence on road transects in Southern, East, and West Africa was adjusted to nests per km(2) using data from areas with known numbers of nests and corresponding road transect data. Nest density was used to calculate the number of WhV nests within identified PAs and from there extrapolated to estimate the global population. Across a fragmented range, 400 PAs are estimated to contain 1893 WhV nests. Eastern Africa is estimated to contain 721 nests, Central Africa 548 nests, Southern Africa 468 nests, and West Africa 156 nests. Including immature and nonbreeding birds, and accounting for data deficient PAs, the estimated global population is 5475 - 5493 birds. The identified distribution highlights are alarming: over 78% (n = 313) of identified PAs contain fewer than five nests. A further 17% (n = 68) of PAs contain 5 - 20 nests and 4% (n = 14) of identified PAs are estimated to contain >20 nests. Just 1% (n = 5) of PAs are estimated to contain >40 nests; none is located in West Africa. Whilst ranging behavior of WhVs is currently unknown, 35% of PAs large enough to hold >20 nests are isolated by more than 100 km from other PAs. Spatially discrete and unpredictable mortality events such as poisoning pose major threats to small localized vulture populations and will accelerate ongoing local extinctions. Apart from reducing the threat of poisoning events, conservation actions promoting linkages between protected areas should be pursued. Identifying potential areas for assisted re-establishment via translocation offers the potential to expand the range of this species and alleviate risk. PMID:26941945
Full Text Available South Africa has a high level of violence, as more people are killed by gunfire each year than in motor vehicle accidents, and the numbers are increasing. Regrettably, children are affected most by this epidemic. During 1997, a total of 142 children aged less than 14 years died from gunshot injuries while many more were injured. Here we present the case of an 11-year-old male street child who sustained a gunshot to the face, and illustrate the magnitude of the problem. The escalating epidemic of firearm-related injuries and deaths among children and adolescents in Cape Town, like in many other parts of the world, calls for concern. Further research is needed to understand firearm-related injuries among children and adolescents in South Africa, and to develop policies and programmes for effective prevention of situations such as this.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Maize is the most important staple food in Kenya; any reduction in production and yield therefore often becomes a national food security concern. To address the challenge posed by the maize stem borer, the Insect Resistant Maize for Africa (IRMA agricultural biotechnology public-private partnership (PPP project was launched in 1999. There were, however, pre-existing concerns regarding the use of genetic engineering in crop production and skepticism about private sector involvement. The purpose of this case study was to understand the role of trust in the IRMA partnership by identifying the challenges to, and practices for, building trust in the project. Methods Data were collected by conducting face-to-face, semi-structured interviews; reviewing publicly available project documents; and direct observations. The data were analyzed to generate recurring and emergent themes on how trust is understood and built among the partners in the IRMA project and between the project and the community. Results Clear and continued communication with stakeholders is of paramount importance to building trust, especially regarding competition among partners about project management positions; a lack of clarity on ownership of intellectual property rights (IPRs; and the influence of anti-genetic modification (GM organizations. Awareness creation about IRMA’s anticipated products raised the end users’ expectations, which were unfulfilled due to failure to deliver Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt-based products, thereby leading to diminished trust between the project and the community. Conclusions Four key issues have been identified from the results of the study. First, the inability to deliver the intended products to the end user diminished stakeholders’ trust and interest in the project. Second, full and honest disclosure of information by partners when entering into project agreements is crucial to ensuring progress in a project. Third
Plas, R.J. van der
This paper presents results of two recent World Bank efforts made in Kenya, Niger, and Cameroon to study the impact of two different renewable projects, one a Micro-Lights program involving about 500 lanterns and the second a survey of 410 households using solar electricity systems. The Micro-Lights program showed that users have distinct preferences in the style of the lamps, that they are willing to spend cash, and that they demand good quality. They may be initially satisfied, but rapidly want more from their purchases. The photoelectric system survey touched less than 1% of such households, and looked at user education, system size, satisfaction, expectations, age of system, appliances, and expectations.
Murn, Campbell; Mundy, Peter; Virani, Manir Z.; Borello, Wendy D.; Holloway, Graham J.; Thiollay, Jean-Marc
Abstract The White‐headed Vulture Trigonoceps occipitalis (WhV) is uncommon and largely restricted to protected areas across its range in sub‐Saharan Africa. We used the World Database on Protected Areas to identify protected areas (PAs) likely to contain White‐headed Vultures. Vulture occurrence on road transects in Southern, East, and West Africa was adjusted to nests per km2 using data from areas with known numbers of nests and corresponding road transect data. Nest density was used to cal...
du Toit-Prinsloo, Lorraine; Morris, Neil Kennith; Meyer, Pieter; Saayman, Gert
In South Africa bee stings are most commonly caused by either Apis mellifera capensis or A. mellifera scutellata, indigenous species which are notoriously aggressive when compared to European honey bees. According to Statistics South Africa, 109 deaths were documented for the period 2001-2011 as having been caused by hornets, wasps, and bees (ICD10-X26). This appears to be a small number but, as was reported in Australia, these statistics might be inaccurate due to either over- or underreporting of cases. We report 3 cases of fatalities due to bee stings, including one with postmortem features of diffuse intravascular coagulopathy. A brief overview of the venom of the honey bee, reactions following a bee sting and possible mechanisms of death are presented. Confirming the diagnosis in these cases may be very problematic for the forensic pathologist, as in many cases minimal history is available and both external and internal examination could fail to reveal any specific signs of bee sting or other obvious morphologic abnormalities. Thus, there is a need for reliable confirmatory or supportive diagnostic tests. PMID:26759134
This essay is a preliminary research note on “Security Sector Reform (SSR)" as part of peacebuilding in African countries. It looks at the cases of UN peacekeeping missions in Africa and identifies elements of SSR in them. First of all, this essay starts with recalling UN Secretary-General, Kofi Annan's Report in 1998 on conflict causes in Africa, while arguing that the theoretical foundation of SSR in Africa was prepared in the Report. Next, the essay summarizes the record of SSR related UN ...
Cobelens, F.G.J.; Joloba, M.L.; Lukoye, D
This thesis reports findings of six studies including two tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance surveys, a comparative study of HIV infection rates among patients enrolled in the survey and those under routine TB/HIV surveillance, two TB molecular epidemiological analyses and a systematic review and meta-analysis of drug-resistant TB in sub-Saharan Africa. It provides a general introduction to anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in the world and associated risk factors. Results from the drug resist...
Impacts of the diversity of traditional uses and potential economic value on food tree species conservation status: case study of African bush mango trees (Irvingiaceae) in the Dahomey Gap (West Africa).
Vihotogbé, R.; Kakai, R.G.; Bongers, F.; Andel, van T.; Berg, van den R.G.; Sinsin, B.; Sosef, M.S.M.
Background and aims – Bitter and sweet African bush mango trees belong to the family Irvingiaceae and produce valuable non-timber forest products in humid lowland areas of West and Central Africa. The bitter and sweet types are treated as distinct taxa at the variety or species level. They have not
Naidoo Sudeshni; Van As A
South Africa has a high level of violence, as more people are killed by gunfire each year than in motor vehicle accidents, and the numbers are increasing. Regrettably, children are affected most by this epidemic. During 1997, a total of 142 children aged less than 14 years died from gunshot injuries while many more were injured. Here we present the case of an 11-year-old male street child who sustained a gunshot to the face, and illustrate the magnitude of the problem. The escalating epidem...
In the last decade the African continent has been facing a number of incidences on Rhino Poaching and we may be heading to Rhino extinction. A number of strategies have been tried and tested to protect the rhinos in Africa. Based on previous strategies to protect rhinos very little has been achieved in combating rhino poaching. Using extensive literature review this study investigates whether the current conservation methods are still useful in addressing poaching. Literature reveals that mos...
van Averbeke, W.; Mohamed, S. S.
Diversity among smallholders farming 1.28ha plots at Dzindi Irrigation Scheme in the Thulamela Local Municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa is investigated by applying farming style theory. Farming styles refer to specific farming strategies, which are conscious responses of farmers to the prevailing ecological and socio-economic conditions. The specific objectives of the study were to identify and characterize styles of farming in the Dzindi community of smallholders, to provide an u...
Berrisford, Stephen; DeGroot, Dave; Kihato, Michael; Marrengane, Ntombini; Mhlanga, Zimkhitha; van den Brink, Rogier
This study analyzes the difficulties a poor community experienced in accessing peri-urban land in South Africa. This community, composed largely of laid-off farm workers, wanted to buy their own farm in a peri-urban area west of Johannesburg to establish a mixed-use settlement. The Ethembalethu 250 families started their own savings scheme to make their dream a reality. Millions of black ...
Makala J. Ngaka
Full Text Available Drought is a major disaster in South Africa in terms of total economic loss and number of people affected. This study investigated and analysed the preparedness, impact of and response by the farming community to the 2007/2008 drought using the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces of South Africa as case studies. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used in this study. Primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews with sampled recipients of the 2007/2008 drought relief scheme. These were analysed using MedCalc® software and various statistical tests and correlations were performed to test for statistical differences on key variables. Major findings of this study included inadequacy of the extension support service, particularly as a vehicle for disseminating early-warning information. The most significant impact was livestock losses, and t-test results supported the hypothesis that there was a significant difference in terms of drought impact for the three categories of farmers (i.e. small, medium and large scale, particularly with regard to the proportion of livestock lost. A Logit analysis showed that the decision to reduce livestock during drought was influenced by access to land and race. The main constraint to the drought relief scheme, as perceived by the respondents, was the turnaround time − they felt that the relief was provided long after the disaster had occurred.
The implementation of selected technologies to enhance the restoration of indigenous tree species in the deforested riparian areas in the Mapungubwe National Park, South Africa : a case study / Yolandi Els
Stretches of forest along the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers have been classified as a unique forest type in the vegetation of South Africa and are considered as being "critically endangered" by the South African Biodiversity Institute. Roughly 400 hectares of this riverine forest area inside the western section of the Mapungubwe National Park (MNP), a UNESCO World Heritage site, were deforested and therefore degraded due to previous agricultural cultivation practices. Given the extent...