Clinical study of the factors affecting radioulnar deviation of the wrist joint
Kanavaros Panagiotis
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The radioulnar carpal joint is critical for hand and wrist function. Radioulnar deviation indicates distal radioulnar joint flexibility and reflects the structure and function of the carpal bones, ulna, radius and ligaments. The present study examined whether radioulnar deviation is affected by gender, manual labor, playing a musical instrument, playing sport, handedness, previous fracture or prior inflammation. The study used clinical findings based on anatomical landmarks Methods The ulnar, radial and total deviations for both left and right hands were measured in 300 subjects (157 men and 143 women of mean age 21.7 years. Measurements were made with the forearm in a fixed pronated position using a novel specially designed goniometer. The gender of each subject was recorded, and information on playing of sport, playing a musical instrument, manual labor, handedness, and history of fracture or inflammation was sought. Data were analyzed using a multifactor ANOVA test. Results No statistically significant difference (p-value > 0.05 was found between those comparing groups except the total deviation of athletes' left hand versus the total deviation of non athletes' left hand (p-value 0.041 Conclusions This study was based on clinical findings using anatomical landmarks. We found that manual workers and athletes showed greater left hand flexibility. This suggests that activities that place chronic stress on the radiocarpal joint can independently affect radioulnar deviation.
Distal radioulnar joint injuries.
Thomas, Binu P; Sreekanth, Raveendran
2012-09-01
Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint, forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triangular fibrocartilage or the radioulnar ligaments. The patients usually present with ulnar sided wrist pain, features of instability, or restriction of rotation. Difficulty in carrying loads in the hand is a major constraint for these patients. Thorough clinical examination to localize point of tenderness and appropriate provocative tests help in diagnosis. Radiology and MRI are extremely useful, while arthroscopy is the gold standard for evaluation. The treatment protocols are continuously evolving and range from conservative, arthroscopic to open surgical methods. Isolated dislocation are uncommon. Basal fractures of the ulnar styloid tend to make the joint unstable and may require operative intervention. Chronic instability requires reconstruction of the stabilizing ligaments to avoid onset of arthritis. Prosthetic replacement in arthritis is gaining acceptance in the management of arthritis. PMID:23162140
Distal radioulnar joint injuries
Binu P Thomas
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint , forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triangular fibrocartilage or the radioulnar ligaments.The patients usually present with ulnar sided wrist pain, features of instability, or restriction of rotation. Difficulty in carrying loads in the hand is a major constraint for these patients. Thorough clinical examination to localize point of tenderness and appropriate provocative tests help in diagnosis. Radiology and MRI are extremely useful, while arthroscopy is the gold standard for evaluation. The treatment protocols are continuously evolving and range from conservative, arthroscopic to open surgical methods. Isolated dislocation are uncommon. Basal fractures of the ulnar styloid tend to make the joint unstable and may require operative intervention. Chronic instability requires reconstruction of the stabilizing ligaments to avoid onset of arthritis. Prosthetic replacement in arthritis is gaining acceptance in the management of arthritis.
Congenital radioulnar synostosis – case report
Congenital radioulnar synostosis is a rare malformation of the upper limb, with functional limitations of the limb. A 10-year-old child with pain and restricted mobility of the elbow joint was admitted to the hospital. Plain film radiography and CT examination was performed. Radiological examinations showed a congenital radioulnar synostosis. The child underwent surgical treatment – derotational osteotomy. Diagnostic imaging including computed tomography with three-dimentional (3D) reconstructions, preceding surgery enables planning of the surgical treatment
The developmental spectrum of proximal radioulnar synostosis
Elliott, Alison M. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg Regional Health Association Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, WRHA Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Departments of Paediatrics and Child Health, Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Kibria, Lisa [University of Manitoba, Department of School of Medical Rehabilitation, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Reed, Martin H. [University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)
2010-01-15
Proximal radioulnar synostosis is a rare upper limb malformation. The elbow is first identifiable at 35 days (after conception), at which stage the cartilaginous anlagen of the humerus, radius and ulna are continuous. Subsequently, longitudinal segmentation produces separation of the distal radius and ulna. However, temporarily, the proximal ends are united and continue to share a common perichondrium. We investigated the hypothesis that posterior congenital dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion are different clinical manifestations of the same primary developmental abnormality. Records were searched for ''proximal radioulnar fusion/posterior radial head dislocation'' in patients followed at the local Children's Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre for Children. Relevant radiographic, demographic and clinical data were recorded. Ethics approval was obtained through the University Research Ethics Board. In total, 28 patients met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients (16) had bilateral involvement; eight with posterior dislocation of the radial head only; five had posterior radial head dislocation with radioulnar fusion and two had radioulnar fusion without dislocation. One patient had bilateral proximal radioulnar fusion and posterior dislocation of the left radial head. Nine patients had only left-sided involvement, and three had only right-sided involvement.The degree of proximal fusion varied, with some patients showing 'complete' proximal fusion and others showing fusion that occurred slightly distal to the radial head: 'partially separated.' Associated disorders in our cohort included Poland syndrome (two patients), Cornelia de Lange syndrome, chromosome anomalies (including tetrasomy X) and Cenani Lenz syndactyly. The suggestion of a developmental relationship between posterior dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion is supported by the fact that both anomalies
The developmental spectrum of proximal radioulnar synostosis
Proximal radioulnar synostosis is a rare upper limb malformation. The elbow is first identifiable at 35 days (after conception), at which stage the cartilaginous anlagen of the humerus, radius and ulna are continuous. Subsequently, longitudinal segmentation produces separation of the distal radius and ulna. However, temporarily, the proximal ends are united and continue to share a common perichondrium. We investigated the hypothesis that posterior congenital dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion are different clinical manifestations of the same primary developmental abnormality. Records were searched for ''proximal radioulnar fusion/posterior radial head dislocation'' in patients followed at the local Children's Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre for Children. Relevant radiographic, demographic and clinical data were recorded. Ethics approval was obtained through the University Research Ethics Board. In total, 28 patients met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients (16) had bilateral involvement; eight with posterior dislocation of the radial head only; five had posterior radial head dislocation with radioulnar fusion and two had radioulnar fusion without dislocation. One patient had bilateral proximal radioulnar fusion and posterior dislocation of the left radial head. Nine patients had only left-sided involvement, and three had only right-sided involvement.The degree of proximal fusion varied, with some patients showing 'complete' proximal fusion and others showing fusion that occurred slightly distal to the radial head: 'partially separated.' Associated disorders in our cohort included Poland syndrome (two patients), Cornelia de Lange syndrome, chromosome anomalies (including tetrasomy X) and Cenani Lenz syndactyly. The suggestion of a developmental relationship between posterior dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion is supported by the fact that both anomalies can occur in the same patient. Furthermore
Surgical outcome of delayed presentation of congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis
Garg Gaurav
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Presentation of proximal radioulnar synostosis varies from cosmetic concerns with no functional limitations to significant pronation deformity which hampers activities of daily living. Surgical management must be considered based on the position of the forearm and functional limitations. We describe the surgical technique, results, and complications of excision of the radial head along with the proximal radius up to the distal extent of the synostosis site and securing the osteotomized radial shaft with a tensor fascia lata graft. Materials and methods: Four patients having six affected elbows with delayed presentation of congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis with dislocated radial head managed surgically were included in the study. There were three males and one female with an average age of 20.25 years (ranging from 16 to 25 years. Preoperatively wrists were locked in the mean pronation position of 51.6° (ranging from 30° to 70°. The indications for surgery were limitation in activities of daily living and an obvious cosmetic deformity. Results: All patients were satisfied with the surgery and showed significant improvement in functional status. Mean active supination was 15° (ranging from 5 to 32° with passive supination was a mean of 24.8° (ranging from 11° to 44°. Similarly, mean active pronation was 58.5° (ranging from 50° to 71° with further passive correction up to a mean of 64.16° (ranging from 57° to 87° at last follow up. Conclusions: This procedure is simple, cost effective, and a reasonable option for treatment of proximal radioulnar synostosis with a dislocated radial head in adult patients. The operation does not require any specialized team or implants, and can be performed in a moderately equipped hospital.
Simultaneous dislocation of radiocapitellar and distal radioulnar joint.
Nishi, Tomio; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Tani, Takayuki; Aonuma, Hiroshi
2013-01-01
A 45-year-old male presented to the emergency room of our institution complaining of severe pain around the left elbow. While playing volleyball, he slipped down with his left arm hit between the floor and his body. He complaind of strong pain from left elbow to hand, and active motion of elbow and wrist joint was impossible. His forearm was held in supinated position. On X-ray examination, radius head was deviated to anterior lateral side, and distal end of radius was dislocated to dorsal side. Tenderness was prominent at the site of radial head and distal radioulnar joint. Surgical treatment was performed using triceps tendon strip. Good functional recovery was gained. PMID:24194995
Simultaneous Dislocation of Radiocapitellar and Distal Radioulnar Joint
Tomio Nishi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A 45-year-old male presented to the emergency room of our institution complaining of severe pain around the left elbow. While playing volleyball, he slipped down with his left arm hit between the floor and his body. He complaind of strong pain from left elbow to hand, and active motion of elbow and wrist joint was impossible. His forearm was held in supinated position. On X-ray examination, radius head was deviated to anterior lateral side, and distal end of radius was dislocated to dorsal side. Tenderness was prominent at the site of radial head and distal radioulnar joint. Surgical treatment was performed using triceps tendon strip. Good functional recovery was gained.
Idiopathic synovial chondromatosis in two unusual sites: Inferior radioulnar joint and ischial bursa
Synovial chondromatosis is a rare disorder of unknown cause characterized by multiple calcific bodies in the vicinity of the affected joint. It is most commonly seen in the knee, hip, elbow, and shoulder. We describe three cases of synovial chondromatosis in two extremely uncommon sites, the inferior radioulnar joint and the ischial bursa, and review the literature on the subject. The characteristic radiographic appearance, even if in an uncommon location, should prompt the radiologist to suggest the correct diagnosis preoperatively. (orig.)
Locked volar distal radioulnar joint dislocation
Bouri, Fadi; Fuad, Mazhar; Elsayed Abdolenour, Ayman
2016-01-01
Introduction Volar dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint is a rare injury which is commonly missed in the emergency departments. A thorough review of literature showed very few reported cases and the cause for irreducibility varied in different cases, Lack of suspicion and improper X-ray can delay the diagnosis. Case presentation Our article discusses a case 40 year old construction worker, who presented to the Emergency with work-related injury, complaining of left wrist pain, deformity and inability to rotate his forearm. X-rays revealed a volar dislocation of distal ulna which was reducible after manipulation under General Anesthesia (GA). The joint was stable after the reduction. Discussion Isolated dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint can be either volar or dorsal, although dorsal dislocation is more common. The distal radioulnar articulation plays an important role in the rotational movement of the forearm. It allows pronation and supination which are essential for the function of the upper limb. Pronator Quadratus muscle spasm is an important blockade to reduction and was preventing reduction in this case. Methods The work has been reported in line with the CARE criteria [9]. Conclusion Volar locked dislocation of Distal Radio ulnar joint is a rare injury. High degree of clinical suspicion and proper X-ray is required for prompt detection. The importance of this case is to raise the awareness among physicians in treating these kind of injuries by careful assessment of the patient and radiographs, and to consider pronator quadratus as an important cause for the blockade to reduction. PMID:27016647
Criteria for diagnosing distal radioulnar joint subluxation by computed tomography
Nakamura, Ryogo [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Branch Hospital of Nagoya University, School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daikominami, Higashiku, Nagoya 461 (Japan); Horii, Emiko [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Branch Hospital of Nagoya University, School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daikominami, Higashiku, Nagoya 461 (Japan); Imaeda, Toshihiko [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Branch Hospital of Nagoya University, School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daikominami, Higashiku, Nagoya 461 (Japan); Nakao, Etsuhiro [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Branch Hospital of Nagoya University, School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daikominami, Higashiku, Nagoya 461 (Japan)
1996-10-01
Bilateral wrist computed tomography (CT) was performed in 30 patients with suspected unilateral distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) subluxation to evaluate dynamic DRUJ CT scanning with a straight elbow. Five CT criteria for diagnosing dorsovolar subluxation were examined. Maximum active supination and pronation on a conventional scanning table yielded satisfactory rotation (mean{+-}SD, 119 {+-}29 ) at the DRUJ, thus permitting a dynamic diagnosis of DRUJ subluxation. The radioulnar line method and the congruity method frequently yielded false positive results compared with bilateral diagnosis and were unreliable. Modifications of these two methods achieved sensitivity and specificity comparable to the epicenter method. We recommend the modified radioulnar line method for diagnosing dorsovolar subluxation using unilateral CT because of its excellent sensitivity and specificity combined with ease of technique. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs.
Outcome Assessment after Aptis Distal Radioulnar Joint (DRUJ Implant Arthroplasty
Amir Reza Kachooei
2014-09-01
Distal radioulnar joint injuries are disabling and patients usually undergo one or more salvage surgeries prior to receiving an arthroplasty. The Scheker prosthesis has shown satisfactory results with 100% survival rate in all reports. The constrained design of this prosthesis gives enough stability to prevent painful subluxation.
Radiologic examination and measurement of the wrist and distal radio-ulnar joint. New aspects
Toernvall, A.H.; Ekenstam, F. af; Hagert, C.G.; Irstam, L.
Following fractures of the distal radius, a relatively high incidence of complications is caused by malalignment in the distal radio-ulnar (DRU) joint; recent anatomic and clinical investigations have shown a congruity of that joint to be of significant importance for restoring the function of the wrist. The radius forms a moderately arched bone, which moves around the ulna in pronation and supination. Biomechanically, the ulna may be regarded as the pillar around which the radius moves. In an anatomic investigation of 5 arm specimens, we have shown that the maximum cartilage contact in the DRU joint between the ulna head and the distal radius occurs in the neutral rotation position. A proposed routine examination method of the wrist and forearm includes a true antero-posterior and a lateral projection of the radius and the ulna, performed with the forearm and wrist in a neutral rotation, a neutral wrist deviation and with the elbow angled 90 degrees. Such an examination implies a standardized and reproducible method. In a radioanatomic investigation, a series of 50 healthy wrists and forearms were examined. A simple measuring technique is presented, applicable to the DRU joint and wrist favouring the ulna as the bone through which a reproducible long axis of the forearm/wrist may be drawn. It is suggested that the length of the radius should be judged relative to the ulna. Ulnar head inclination and radio-ulnar angle are new concepts, being major characteristics of the DRU joint. These angles of the right and left wrist were equal and no difference was found between the sexes. Minor alterations of the distal radius may be revealed when estimating these angles.
Radiologic examination and measurement of the wrist and distal radio-ulnar joint
Following fractures of the distal radius, a relatively high incidence of complications is caused by malalignment in the distal radio-ulnar (DRU) joint; recent anatomic and clinical investigations have shown a congruity of that joint to be of significant importance for restoring the function of the wrist. The radius forms a moderately arched bone, which moves around the ulna in pronation and supination. Biomechanically, the ulna may be regarded as the pillar around which the radius moves. In an anatomic investigation of 5 arm specimens, we have shown that the maximum cartilage contact in the DRU joint between the ulna head and the distal radius occurs in the neutral rotation position. A proposed routine examination method of the wrist and forearm includes a true antero-posterior and a lateral projection of the radius and the ulna, performed with the forearm and wrist in a neutral rotation, a neutral wrist deviation and with the elbow angled 90 degrees. Such an examination implies a standardized and reproducible method. In a radioanatomic investigation, a series of 50 healthy wrists and forearms were examined. A simple measuring technique is presented, applicable to the DRU joint and wrist favouring the ulna as the bone through which a reproducible long axis of the forearm/wrist may be drawn. It is suggested that the length of the radius should be judged relative to the ulna. Ulnar head inclination and radio-ulnar angle are new concepts, being major characteristics of the DRU joint. These angles of the right and left wrist were equal and no difference was found between the sexes. Minor alterations of the distal radius may be revealed when estimating these angles. (orig.)
Outcome Assessment after Aptis Distal Radioulnar Joint (DRUJ Implant Arthroplasty
Amir Reza Kachooei
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Background: Conventional treatments after complicated injuries of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ such as Darrach and Kapandji-Sauvé procedures have many drawbacks, which may eventually lead to a painful unstable distal ulna. The development of DRUJ prosthesis has significantly evolved over the past years. In this study, we assessed the outcome results of patients after DRUJ implant arthroplasty using the Aptis (Scheker prosthesis. Methods: We identified 13 patients with 14 prosthesis during the past 10 years. Patients underwent DRUJ arthroplasty due to persistent symptoms of instability, chronic pain, and stiffness. Records and follow-up visits were reviewed to find the final post-operative symptoms, pain, range of motion, and grip strength with a mean follow-up of 12 months (range: 2-25 months. Also, patients were contacted prospectively by phone in order to minister the disabilities of the armshoulder and hand (DASH, patient rated wrist evaluation (PRWE, and visual analogue scale (VAS, and to interview regarding satisfaction and progress in daily activities. Eleven patients out of 13 could be reached with a median followup time of 60 months (range: 2 to 102 months. Results: No patient required removal of the prosthesis. Only two patients underwent secondary surgeries in which both required debridement of the screw tip over the radius. The median DASH score, PRWE score, VAS, and satisfaction were 1.3, 2.5, 0, and 10, respectively. The mean range of flexion, extension, supination, and pronation was 62, 54, 51, and 64, respectively. Conclusions: Distal radioulnar joint injuries are disabling and patients usually undergo one or more salvage surgeries prior to receiving an arthroplasty. The Scheker prosthesis has shown satisfactory results with 100% survival rate in all reports. The constrained design of this prosthesis gives enough stability to prevent painful subluxation.
Smith, Gary
2015-01-01
Did you know that having a messy room will make you racist? Or that human beings possess the ability to postpone death until after important ceremonial occasions? Or that people live three to five years longer if they have positive initials, like ACE? All of these facts' have been argued with a straight face by researchers and backed up with reams of data and convincing statistics.As Nobel Prize-winning economist Ronald Coase once cynically observed, If you torture data long enough, it will confess.' Lying with statistics is a time-honoured con. In Standard Deviations, ec
Clinical and X-ray investigations on congenital radio-ulnar synostosis
Out of 13 patients with cogenital radio-ulnar synostosis, 10 could be subjected to clinical and X-ray examination and chromosome analysis. In all the family histories the radio-ulnar synostosis was an isolated event. In no case was definite heredity of the same malformation confirmed. In most cases the radio-ulnar synostosis was an isolated malformation. 7 patients were of female, 6 of male sex. In 5 cases the synostosis was bi-lateral, in 8 cases it was unilateral without preference of either side of the body. In 2 out of 10 patients subjected to chromosome analysis gonosomal aneuploidy was found. More often than hitherto supposed, radio-ulnar synostosis seems to be associated with lower forms of polysomia of the x-chromosomes. 15 out of 18 synostoses belonged to type II, 3 to type I. The different types represent merely differring degrees of manifestation of the same deformity occurring bilaterally in one person. All patients with radio-ulnar synostosis exhibited a high degree of functional tolerance to the malformation. The development in child age and the educational and professional record were hardly impaired. (orig./MG)
Chronic desmitis and enthesiophytosis of the radio-ulnar interosseous ligament in a dog.
Deffontaines, Jean-Baptiste; Lussier, Bertrand; Bolliger, Christian; Bédard, Agathe; Doré, Monique; Blevins, William E
2016-05-01
A 10-year-old golden retriever dog was presented for chronic right forelimb lameness associated with a painful swelling at the lateral aspect of the proximal ulna. Proximal ulnar ostectomy and stabilization resulted in a good clinical outcome. The proposed diagnosis is chronic desmitis and enthesiophytosis of the radio-ulnar interosseous ligament. PMID:27152034
Understanding stability of the distal radioulnar joint through an understanding of its anatomy.
Hagert, Elisabet; Hagert, Carl-Göran
2010-11-01
The authors describe the anatomy of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) and delineate the importance of viewing this joint as part of the whole forearm. The osseous congruity and ligamentous integrity is of essence for the stability of the DRUJ, according to the principles of tensegrity. The neuromuscular control and possible proprioceptive function of the DRUJ are also outlined. PMID:20951895
This is observational prospective study type series of cases that shows the experience of the group of surgery of hand of the Central Military Hospital between January of 1998 and Julio the 2003. 65 patients were included like surgery of salvage of the articulation radioulnar distal in different traumatic and degenerative pathologies, comparing the results with those published in the world literature. According to the modified functional scale of May this procedure showed excellent and good results in 90% of the patients. They recovered the lost function and improved the function of the distal radioulnar joint, returning to their activities of the daily life. This technique is recommended as a sure and efficient procedure, because the patients present a remarkable improvement in its quality of life and they can return to its labor activity, these results correlated with the results of the published literature
Congenital radioulnar synostosis: A report of 11 cases and review of literature
Farzan M
2002-06-01
Full Text Available During the last 10 years, we have had 11 cases of radioulnar (RU synostosis, a very rare congenital amomaly of the upper extremity. Only 3 of them required surgical intervention. So we evaluated these three cases of proximal radioulnar synostosis corrected by proximal derotational osteotomy. The indication for surgery was severe pronation deformity that caused functional problem. Mean age at the time of surgery was 4.5 years (3-6 years and mean postoperative follow up was 3.5 years(1-5 years. Forearm position after surgery was 15 supination. Anesthetic and functional results in all patients were good. In only one patient it was complicated by impending compartment syndrome that was treated by conservative measures. We recommend derotational osteotomay for correcting RU synostosis in earlier age.
Luxation of the elbow complicated by proximal radio-ulnar translocation
Luxation of the elbow complicated by proximal radio-ulnar translocation is a rare entity. The clue to diagosis is the reversed position of the bones of the proxomal forearm. In the a.p. projection the radial head articulates with the trochlea and the ulna with the capitellum. This unexpected anatomic relationship is easily overlooked. Delayed reduction may result in permanent impairment of elbow motility. Our experience with three recent cases is presented. (orig.)
Objective Outcomes Following Semi-Constrained Total Distal Radioulnar Joint Arthroplasty
Bizimungu, Remy S.; Dodds, Seth D.
2013-01-01
A dysfunctional distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) can significantly compromise an individual's forearm rotation, grip, and weight bearing at the hand and wrist. This retrospective study reports surgeon- and therapist-collected objective wrist function and subjective pain scores of 10 patients who received the Scheker total DRUJ prosthesis. A review of these patients' medical records was performed to collect preoperative measurements of wrist range of motion (ROM), grip strength, and pain scores ...
Simultaneous Dislocation of Radiocapitellar and Distal Radioulnar Joint
Tomio Nishi; Noriyuki Suzuki; Takayuki Tani; Hiroshi Aonuma
2013-01-01
A 45-year-old male presented to the emergency room of our institution complaining of severe pain around the left elbow. While playing volleyball, he slipped down with his left arm hit between the floor and his body. He complaind of strong pain from left elbow to hand, and active motion of elbow and wrist joint was impossible. His forearm was held in supinated position. On X-ray examination, radius head was deviated to anterior lateral side, and distal end of radius was dislocated to dorsal si...
Marquardt, Tamara L; Evans, Peter J; Seitz, William H; Li, Zong-Ming
2016-07-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphological changes of the carpal arch and median nerve during the application of radiounlarly directed compressive force across the wrist in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Radioulnar compressive forces of 10 N and 20 N were applied at the distal level of the carpal tunnel in 10 female patients diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome. Immediately prior to force application and after 3 min of application, ultrasound images of the distal carpal tunnel were obtained. It was found that applying force across the wrist decreased the carpal arch width (p 1234-1240, 2016. PMID:26662276
Ulnar sided wrist pain and distal radioulnar joint osteoarthritis; is surgical arthroplasty enough?
Ronit Wollstein
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ arthritis is a common cause of ulnar wrist pain in rheumatoid and osteoarthritis. Modified arthroplasty for the DRUJ is a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of isolated DRUJ osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the procedure and the incidence of related ulnar wrist pathology as well as the incidence of subsequent ulnar wrist surgeries. All patients having modified arthroplasty for the DRUJ between 1994-2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Measurements included range of motion, grip strength, and subjective status. Data regarding other wrist surgeries was recorded. There were 29 patients, 23 of which had a follow-up of over 8 weeks (average 16 months (SD=24. Fourteen patients had no to minimal pain, 6 had pain with heavier activities (2 severe, and 2 reported constant pain at the surgical site. Of the 4 more painful patients, three had additional surgery after the DRUJ arthroplasty. In all 96% of the patients had another procedure involving the ulnar- wrist complex either prior to surgery, at the time of surgery or following surgery for modified arthroplasty. We suggest that pathology involving the ulnar-wrist complex is often a syndrome consisting of multiple related diagnoses including but not limited to arthritis of the DRUJ. Multiple procedures may be needed, or a more aggressive approach such as ulnar head replacement may be indicated so that pathology at both the distal radioulnar and ulnocarpal joints is addressed concomitantly.
Lee, Sang Ki; Lee, Jae Won; Choy, Won Sik
2016-04-01
In cases of chronic distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability without DRUJ arthritis, reconstruction of the mechanical integrity of the radioulnar ligaments of the triangular fibrocartilage complex has been considered an ideal surgical treatment. However, reconstructive methods have several disadvantages.We evaluated volar stabilization of the DRUJ for chronic instability using the pronator quadratus (PQ) to determine whether it provided (1) proper stability, (2) restored wrist function, (3) was relatively convenient, and (4) was associated with a low complication rate. Altogether, 21 patients with chronic DRUJ instability (12 men, 9 women) with a mean age of 34 years (range, 17-65 years) were enrolled in the study. The diagnostic criteria were as follows: 3 months after the injury, greater than 8 mm of palmar-dorsal translation of the ulna relative to the radius, there was a lack of clear end point resistance compared with the contralateral side, and nonstressed computed tomographic scans provided supporting evidence. Follow-up was at least 12 months (range, 12-38 months). Palmar-dorsal translation of the ulna relative to the radius was decreased significantly from 10 to 4 mm (P = 0.028) and epicenter was increased significantly at the last follow-up [P = 0.015/0.026 (70 degrees of supination/neutral, respectively)]. Wrist range of motion was not significantly different, but grip strength had increased from 72% to 91%. Disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand and patient-rated wrist evaluation were also decreased compared with preoperative measurements [34.4 to 12.5/42.7 to 14.7 (disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand/patient-rated wrist evaluation, respectively)]. Pronator quadratus advancement volar stabilization provided proper stability, restored wrist function, was relatively convenient, and was associated with few complications. Our experience indicates that it is an acceptable, effective treatment option to reverse DRUJ instability in patients
Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam; Carneiro, Anabela
This paper studies three related questions: To what extent otherwise similar startups employ different quantities and qualities of human capital at the moment of entry? How persistent are initial human capital choices over time? And how does deviating from human capital benchmarks influence firm...... survival? The analysis is based on a matched employer-employee dataset and covers about 17,500 startups in manufacturing and services. We adopt a new procedure to estimate individual benchmarks for the quantity and quality of initial human resources, acknowledging correlations between hiring decisions......, founders human capital, and the ownership structure of startups (solo entrepreneurs versus entrepreneurial teams). We then study the survival implications of exogenous deviations from these benchmarks, based on spline models for survival data. Our results indicate that (especially negative) deviations from...
Niihori, Tetsuya; Ouchi-Uchiyama, Meri; Sasahara, Yoji; Kaneko, Takashi; Hashii, Yoshiko; Irie, Masahiro; Sato, Atsushi; Saito-Nanjo, Yuka; Funayama, Ryo; Nagashima, Takeshi; Inoue, Shin-Ichi; Nakayama, Keiko; Ozono, Keiichi; Kure, Shigeo; Matsubara, Yoichi; Imaizumi, Masue; Aoki, Yoko
2015-12-01
Radioulnar synostosis with amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia (RUSAT) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome, characterized by thrombocytopenia and congenital fusion of the radius and ulna. A heterozygous HOXA11 mutation has been identified in two unrelated families as a cause of RUSAT. However, HOXA11 mutations are absent in a number of individuals with RUSAT, which suggests that other genetic loci contribute to RUSAT. In the current study, we performed whole exome sequencing in an individual with RUSAT and her healthy parents and identified a de novo missense mutation in MECOM, encoding EVI1, in the individual with RUSAT. Subsequent analysis of MECOM in two other individuals with RUSAT revealed two additional missense mutations. These three mutations were clustered within the 8(th) zinc finger motif of the C-terminal zinc finger domain of EVI1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and qPCR assays of the regions harboring the ETS-like motif that is known as an EVI1 binding site showed a reduction in immunoprecipitated DNA for two EVI1 mutants compared with wild-type EVI1. Furthermore, reporter assays showed that MECOM mutations led to alterations in both AP-1- and TGF-β-mediated transcriptional responses. These functional assays suggest that transcriptional dysregulation by mutant EVI1 could be associated with the development of RUSAT. We report missense mutations in MECOM resulting in a Mendelian disorder that provide compelling evidence for the critical role of EVI1 in normal hematopoiesis and in the development of forelimbs and fingers in humans. PMID:26581901
Woo, Sung Jong; Jegal, Midum; Park, Min Jong
2016-01-01
Background: Disruption of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) foveal insertion can lead to distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability accompanied by ulnar-sided pain, weakness, snapping, and limited forearm rotation. We investigated the clinical outcomes of patients with TFCC foveal tears treated with arthroscopic-assisted repair. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients underwent foveal repair of avulsed TFCC with the assistance of arthroscopy between 2011 and 2013. These patients were followed up for an average of 19 months (range 14–25 months). The avulsed TFCC were reattached to the fovea using a transosseous pull-out suture or a knotless suture anchor. At the final followup, the range of motion, grip strength and DRUJ stability were measured as objective outcomes. Subjective outcomes were assessed using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain, patient rated wrist evaluation (PRWE), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH score) and return to work. Results: Based on the DRUJ stress test, 5 patients had normal stability and 7 patients showed mild laxity as compared with the contralateral side. Postoperatively, the mean range of pronation supination increased from 141° to 166°, and the mean VAS score for pain decreased from 5.3 to 1.7 significantly. The PRWE and DASH questionnaires also showed significant functional improvement. All patients were able to return to their jobs. However, two patients complained of persistent pain. Conclusions: Arthroscopically assisted repair of TFCC foveal injury can provide significant pain relief, functional improvement and restoration of DRUJ stability. PMID:27293286
A Process Deviation Analysis Framework
Depaire, Benoit; Swinnen, Jo; Jans, Mieke; Vanhoof, Koen
2013-01-01
Process deviation analysis is becoming increasingly important for companies. This paper presents a framework which structures the field of process deviation analysis and identies new research opportunities. Application of the framework starts from managerial questions which relate to specific deviation categories and methodological steps. Finally a general outline to detect high-level process deviations is formulated.
Segmentation Using Symmetry Deviation
Hollensen, Christian; Højgaard, L.; Specht, L.;
2011-01-01
the 10 hypopharyngeal cancer patients to find anatomical symmetry and evaluate it against the standard deviation of the normal patients to locate pathologic volumes. Combining the information with an absolute PET threshold of 3 Standard uptake value (SUV) a volume was automatically delineated. The...... overlap of automated segmentations on manual contours was evaluated using concordance index and sensitivity for the hypopharyngeal patients. The resulting concordance index and sensitivity was compared with the result of using a threshold of 3 SUV using a paired t-test. Results: The anatomical and...... overlap concordance index and sensitivity of respectively 0.43±0.15 and 0.56±0.18 was acquired. It was compared to the concordance index of segmentation using absolute threshold of 3 SUV giving respectively 0.41±0.16 and 0.51±0.19 for concordance index and sensitivity yielding p-values of 0.33 and 0...
A robust standard deviation control chart
Schoonhoven, M.; Does, R.J.M.M.
2012-01-01
This article studies the robustness of Phase I estimators for the standard deviation control chart. A Phase I estimator should be efficient in the absence of contaminations and resistant to disturbances. Most of the robust estimators proposed in the literature are robust against either diffuse disturbances, that is, outliers spread over the subgroups, or localized disturbances, which affect an entire subgroup. In this article, we compare various robust standard deviation estimators and propos...
创伤性桡尺远侧关节背侧半脱位的治疗%Treatment of traumatic dorsal subluxation of the distal radioulnar joint
李岩峰; 蔡培华; 陆叶; 詹玉林; 范存义
2015-01-01
Objective To explore a treatment protocol for acute and chronic traumatic dorsal subluxation of distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) and report the preliminary clinical results.Methods From August 2010 to June 2014, 28 patients with traumatic DRUJ dorsal subluxation and without fractures were included in our standardized treatment protocol.First, a course of conservative treatment was applied to immobilize the affected limb at forearm supination and 90°elbow flexion with an above elbow plaster for 6 weeks after manual reduction of the DRUJ.Patients with no symptom relief in 2 months after plaster removal were regarded as non-responsive and were subject to surgical reinforcement of dorsal radioulnar ligament.The flexor carpi ulnaris tendon was split in the middle.The radial half was transversely divided 5 to 7 cm proximal to the pisiform bone, tunneled through the ulnar head in a volar-ulnar oblique to dorsal-radial direction, and then fixed over dorsal-ulnar side of the radius with 2 anchors.The extremity was then immobilized in an above elbow plaster with forearm in supination position for 4 weeks, followed by a short arm cast for another 4 weeks.Results The average follow-up time for all 28 patients was 2.5 years (range, 7 months to 4.2 years).A functional evaluation was performed with modified Mayo wrist scoring system.The effective rate of conservative treatment was 85.7％ for the 14 cases with less than 3 week post-injury interval and 28.6％ for the 14 cases with longer than 3 week post-injury interval.The effective rate of 12 cases that underwent surgical treatment was 83.3％.Conclusion Early diagnosis and early treatment for traumatic DRUJ dorsal subluxation is very important.Conservative treatment is less effective in cases of subluxation older than 3 weeks.For cases non-responsive to conservative treatment, surgical reinforcement of the dorsal superficial fibers of the radioulnar hgament with a tendon slip from flexor carpi ulnaris is a rehable solution
Large deviations and idempotent probability
Puhalskii, Anatolii
2001-01-01
In the view of many probabilists, author Anatolii Puhalskii''s research results stand among the most significant achievements in the modern theory of large deviations. In fact, his work marked a turning point in the depth of our understanding of the connections between the large deviation principle (LDP) and well-known methods for establishing weak convergence results.Large Deviations and Idempotent Probability expounds upon the recent methodology of building large deviation theory along the lines of weak convergence theory. The author develops an idempotent (or maxitive) probability theory, introduces idempotent analogues of martingales (maxingales), Wiener and Poisson processes, and Ito differential equations, and studies their properties. The large deviation principle for stochastic processes is formulated as a certain type of convergence of stochastic processes to idempotent processes. The author calls this large deviation convergence.The approach to establishing large deviation convergence uses novel com...
Large deviations on Markov towers
We give a sufficient condition to hold a full large deviation principle for Markov tower maps induced from return time functions. As an application of this result we show the large deviation principle of level 2 for some class of smooth dynamical systems with nonuniform hyperbolicity
Hess, Florian; Farshad, Mazda; Sutter, Reto; Nagy, Ladislav; Schweizer, Andreas
2012-11-01
We performed this study to investigate whether discrepancy of bilateral dorsovolar shift of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) is decisive for the diagnosis of DRUJ instability. Although several cadaver studies have quantified the amount of physiological dorsovolar shift, so far, there is no reliable method of quantification of DRUJ mobility in daily practice. The aim was to describe a novel sonographic method of quantifying DRUJ instability and evaluate its reliability and validity. In this study, 40 healthy volunteers and 17 patients with complete rupture of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) underwent sonographic quantification of the grade of instability of their DRUJ bilaterally. Dorsovolar ulnar head translation relative to the distal radius was quantified by means of ultrasonography performed in a transversal plane through the ulnar head and Lister tubercle. Measurements were done while actively pressing the volar surface of the hand onto a brick 30 degrees pronated, and after lifting the hand. A quotient Q of the radioulnar distance (distance between the dorsal radius surface and the ulnar head) between the unloaded and loaded wrist was calculated for differentiation of a normal and unstable DRUJ. The Q ratio of the 17 patients with unilateral TFCC lesion was significantly different between the pathologic side and the contralateral wrist (1.19 vs. 0.54, p 0.8 was found to be a reasonable cut-off for pathologic laxity of the DRUJ with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 81%. A quotient Q > 0.8 determines instability of the DRUJ reliably. This was a level II diagnostic study. PMID:24179720
Nakamura, Toshiyasu; Iwamoto, Takuji; Matsumura, Noboru; Sato, Kazuki; Toyama, Yoshiaki
2014-02-01
Background As the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) anchors the distal radius to the ulna via the radioulnar ligament (RUL), a severely displaced distal fragment of the radius may be associated with a foveal avulsion of the TFCC. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess, radiographically and arthroscopically, the relationship between displacement of the radius, the ulnar styloid, and avulsion of the RUL resulting in distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability. Materials and Methods Twenty-nine wrists of 29 patients with intra- and extra-articular distal radius fractures/malunion who underwent reduction or a corrective osteotomy of the displaced/malunited fracture, and/or wrist arthroscopy, were assessed radiographically and arthroscopically. Radial translation, radial inclination, radial shortening, volar or dorsal tilt, and the presence of an ulnar styloid fracture with more than 4 mm of displacement were measured from the initial films. Radiocarpal arthroscopy was used to assess peripheral lesions of the TFCC, while DRUJ arthroscopy was used to assess the foveal attachment. The relationship between displacement of the distal radius or the ulnar styloid fracture and the TFCC injury, including avulsion of the RUL, was recorded. Results Univariate analysis revealed that increased radial translation, decreased radial inclination, increased radial shortening, and an ulnar styloid fragment radially displaced by more than 4 mm were significant predictors of RUL avulsion at the fovea. Volar or dorsal tilt of the radius and ulnar variance did not correlate with RUL avulsion or TFCC injuries. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that radial translation was an independent risk factor of foveal avulsion of the RUL. Conclusions Increased radial translation and radial shortening and decreased radial inclination of the distal fragment can be associated with a foveal avulsion of the RUL. Radial translation can be an independent risk
Chen, Yi-Xin; Zheng, Xin; Shi, Hong-fei; Wangyang, Yu-fan; Yuan, Han; Xie, Xiao-xiao; Li, Dong-ya; Wang, Chang-jun; Qiu, Xu-sheng
2013-01-01
Background The ulnar styloid is an important supportive structure for the triangular fibrocartilage complex. However, it remains inconclusive whether or not a fractured ulnar styloid should be fixed in an unstable distal radius fracture (DRF) with a stable distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of an untreated ulnar styloid fracture on the outcome of unstable DRF treated with transarticular external fixation when the DRUJ is stable. Methods 106 pat...
Large deviations and rain showers
Wilkinson, Michael
2015-01-01
Rainfall from ice-free cumulus clouds requires collisions of large numbers of microscopic droplets to create every raindrop. The onset of rain showers can be surprisingly rapid, much faster than the mean time required for a single collision. Large-deviation theory is used to explain this observation.
Standard Deviation for Small Samples
Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.
2006-01-01
Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…
Large deviations and rain showers
Wilkinson, Michael
2016-01-01
Rainfall from ice-free cumulus clouds requires collisions of large numbers of microscopic droplets to create every raindrop. The onset of rain showers can be surprisingly rapid, much faster than the mean time required for a single collision. Large-deviation theory is used to explain this observation.
New g-2 measurement deviates further from Standard Model
2004-01-01
"The latest result from an international collaboration of scientists investigating how the spin of a muon is affected as this type of subatomic particle moves through a magnetic field deviates further than previous measurements from theoretical predictions" (1 page).
Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues
Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra
2005-01-01
To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.
Johnson, R K; Shrewsbury, M M
1976-11-01
Based upon the findings of dissections of 15 forearms and clinical observations in patients with disturbed architecture of the distal radioulnar joint, the pronator quadratus was found to be composed of two heads. A superficial head originated from the ulna and passed transversely to its insertion into the radius. It averaged 5.1 cm. in length, 4.5 cm. in width, 0.2 cm. in thickness, with a cross-sectional area of 0.95 cm.2 and a contractile volume of 2.6 cm.3. The deep head ran obliquely from a more proximal origin on the ulna to a distal insertion on the radius, with an average length of 4.0 cm., average width of 3.2 cm., and a thickness of 0.4 cm. Its average cross-sectional area was 1.64 cm.2 and its contractile volume 2.5 cm.3. A group of fibers occasionally was noted deep to both heads, running at right angles to them and paralleling the direction of the fibers of the interosseous membrane. The superficial head initiates pronation while the deep head coapts the joint surfaces and stabilizes the joint. PMID:1018088
Worldline deviations of charged spinning particles
Heydari-Fard, M. [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 19839 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohseni, M. [Physics Department, Payame Noor University, 19395-4697 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: m-mohseni@pnu.ac.ir; Sepangi, H.R. [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 19839 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2005-10-20
The geodesic deviation equation is generalized to worldline deviation equations describing the relative accelerations of charged spinning particles in the framework of Dixon-Souriau equations of motion.
Worldline deviations of charged spinning particles
Heydari-Fard, M; Sepangi, H R
2005-01-01
The geodesic deviation equation is generalized to worldline deviation equations describing the relative accelerations of charged spinning particles in the framework of Dixon-Souriau equations of motion.
Large deviations and portfolio optimization
Sornette, Didier
Risk control and optimal diversification constitute a major focus in the finance and insurance industries as well as, more or less consciously, in our everyday life. We present a discussion of the characterization of risks and of the optimization of portfolios that starts from a simple illustrative model and ends by a general functional integral formulation. A major item is that risk, usually thought of as one-dimensional in the conventional mean-variance approach, has to be addressed by the full distribution of losses. Furthermore, the time-horizon of the investment is shown to play a major role. We show the importance of accounting for large fluctuations and use the theory of Cramér for large deviations in this context. We first treat a simple model with a single risky asset that exemplifies the distinction between the average return and the typical return and the role of large deviations in multiplicative processes, and the different optimal strategies for the investors depending on their size. We then analyze the case of assets whose price variations are distributed according to exponential laws, a situation that is found to describe daily price variations reasonably well. Several portfolio optimization strategies are presented that aim at controlling large risks. We end by extending the standard mean-variance portfolio optimization theory, first within the quasi-Gaussian approximation and then using a general formulation for non-Gaussian correlated assets in terms of the formalism of functional integrals developed in the field theory of critical phenomena.
Clinical efficacy of myofascial flap in the treatment of radioulnar synostosis%肌筋膜瓣对前臂骨连接的疗效观察
周钢; 邱勋永; 马心赤; 王快胜; 王和驹
2013-01-01
目的 探讨创伤后尺桡骨骨连接的防治方法.方法 对2006 年4 月至2012 年4 月21 例创伤后尺桡骨间骨连接凿除后使用前臂肌筋膜瓣进行间隔以预防骨连接复发.结果 21 例患者术前平均旋前和旋后角度为14°和5°,术后为65°和70°,经过6~17 个月(平均11 个月)的随访,旋转范围从术前的15°改善至130°,未出现骨性连接复发,所有患者治疗效果满意.结论 骨性连接凿除后使用前臂肌筋膜瓣进行间隔能够有效地防治创伤性骨连接.%Objective To discuss our experience in treatment of posttraumatic radioulnar synostosis. Methods Twenty-one patients with posttraumatic radioulnar synostosis were treated with synostosis resection and interposition of forearm myofascial flap from 2006 to 2012. Results The mean preoperative pronation and postoperative pronation was 14° and 65° before treatment, 5° and 70° after treatment. The patients were followed up for 6—17 months, 11 months in average. The average arc of rotation improved from 15° to 130°. No case of recurrence was found. Conclusion Synostosis resection and interposition with forearm myofascial flap is an effective technique for the treatment of posttraumatic radioulnar synostosis.
Biomechanical analysis of the stability of the distal radioulnar joint%桡尺远侧关节稳定结构的生物力学分析
黄继锋; 钟世镇
2001-01-01
目的从生物力学的角度分析桡尺远侧关节（distal radioulnar joint，DRUJ）稳定结构在前臂活动中的稳定作用及损伤后的临床体征。方法用自制的实验架固定8侧新鲜上肢标本。分级切除桡尺远侧关节的主要稳定结构，进行生物力学测量分析。结果三角纤维软骨复合体（triangular fibrocartilage complex，TFCC）水平部分前半段切除后，DRUJ于旋后位时不稳定；水平部分后半段切除后，DRUJ于旋前位时不隐定；TFCC水平部及远侧骨间膜全部切除后，DRUJ于各个位置均不稳定。结论 DRUJ的稳定性主要依靠TFCC水平部分和远侧骨间膜的维持。背侧桡尺韧带在前臂旋前位时，维持DRUJ的稳定作用较掌侧桡尺韧带大；相反，在旋后位时掌侧桡尺韧带比背侧桡尺韧带更为重要。%Objective To assess the stabilization structures of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) from biomechanical point of view, and evaluate their role in stability of the joint and in forearm movement. Methods 8 fresh cadaver upper extremities were fixed in a custom-made jig which holds the limb rigidly and yet allows forearm rotation. The major stabilization structures of DRUJ were resected step by step, and biomechenical assessment was done. Results After resection of anterior half segment in the horizontal part of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC), DRUJ was unstable in supination position. After resection of posterior half segment in the horizontal part of TFCC, DRUJ was unstable in pronation. After resection of entire horizontal part of TFCC and the distal interosseous membrane, DRUJ was unstable in every position. Conclusions Stability of DRUJ relies mainly on the horizontal portion of TFCC and the distal interosseous membrane. The dorsal radioulnar ligament (DRUL) was more important than the palmer radioulnar ligament (PRUL) in maintaining DRUJ stability in full pronation, while the PRUL was more important
Deviations in human gut microbiota
Casén, C; Vebø, H C; Sekelja, M;
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND: Dysbiosis is associated with many diseases, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), obesity and diabetes. Potential clinical impact of imbalance in the intestinal microbiota suggests need for new standardised diagnostic methods to facilitate...... microbiome profiling. AIM: To develop and validate a novel diagnostic test using faecal samples to profile the intestinal microbiota and identify and characterise dysbiosis. METHODS: Fifty-four DNA probes targeting ≥300 bacteria on different taxonomic levels were selected based on ability to distinguish...... potential clinically relevant deviation in the microbiome from normobiosis. This model was tested in different samples from healthy volunteers and IBS and IBD patients (n = 330) to determine the ability to detect dysbiosis. RESULTS: Validation confirms dysbiosis was detected in 73% of IBS patients, 70% of...
Yamaguchi, Michio; Kawakita, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Ryokei; Minamikawa, Yoshitaka; Kojima, Shin; Morimoto, Tadanobu; Yakura, Hisayoshi; Iida, Hirosuke
1988-01-01
We investigated the accuracy of radiography and computed tomography in the diagnosis of distal radio-ulnar joint (DRUJ) congruity in 10 healthy hands and 84 rheumatoid hands. Operated-on joints were excluded from this series. The CT study of DRUJ was done in positions of 90 deg, 70 deg, 45 deg, 20 deg and 0 deg in pronation and supination of the forearm. The radiographic study was done of the lateral view of the wrist with the forearm in neutral rotation, and of the P-A view with the forearm in full pronation. The evaluation was done with Mino's and Snook's criteria. All computed tomograms showed good congruity in the 10 healthy hands, so we evaluated radiograms using these results. In healthy hands, the accuracy of the lateral radiograms was 60 % and of the P-A view ones' 80 %. In the computed tomograms, good congruity was noted in 29 joints, subluxation in 57 joints and dislocation in no joints in 84 rheumatoid hands clinically diagnosed as having DRUJ incongruity. The accuracy of the lateral view radiograms was 60.5 % and of the P-A view ones' 35.7 %. Evaluation of the P-A view radiogram was impossible in 18.9 % due to bony destruction of the ulnar styloid process in RA. In the lateral view radiograms of 23 joints which showed subluxation in natural rotation by computed tomography, subluxation was noted in 11 joints, good congruity in 8 joints and dislocation in 4 joints. This study suggests that as the radiographic evaluation of DRUJ incongruity is difficult in rheumatoid hands because of severe bony and articular destruction, computed tomography is necessary for the diagnosis of DRUJ subluxation.
We investigated the accuracy of radiography and computed tomography in the diagnosis of distal radio-ulnar joint (DRUJ) congruity in 10 healthy hands and 84 rheumatoid hands. Operated-on joints were excluded from this series. The CT study of DRUJ was done in positions of 90 deg, 70 deg, 45 deg, 20 deg and 0 deg in pronation and supination of the forearm. The radiographic study was done of the lateral view of the wrist with the forearm in neutral rotation, and of the P-A view with the forearm in full pronation. The evaluation was done with Mino's and Snook's criteria. All computed tomograms showed good congruity in the 10 healthy hands, so we evaluated radiograms using these results. In healthy hands, the accuracy of the lateral radiograms was 60 % and of the P-A view ones' 80 %. In the computed tomograms, good congruity was noted in 29 joints, subluxation in 57 joints and dislocation in no joints in 84 rheumatoid hands clinically diagnosed as having DRUJ incongruity. The accuracy of the lateral view radiograms was 60.5 % and of the P-A view ones' 35.7 %. Evaluation of the P-A view radiogram was impossible in 18.9 % due to bony destruction of the ulnar styloid process in RA. In the lateral view radiograms of 23 joints which showed subluxation in natural rotation by computed tomography, subluxation was noted in 11 joints, good congruity in 8 joints and dislocation in 4 joints. This study suggests that as the radiographic evaluation of DRUJ incongruity is difficult in rheumatoid hands because of severe bony and articular destruction, computed tomography is necessary for the diagnosis of DRUJ subluxation. (author)
The Analysis of a Deviation of Investment and Corporate Governance.
HISA Shoichi
2008-01-01
Investment of firms is affected by not only fundamentals factors, but liquidity constraint, ownership or corporate structure. Information structure between manager and owner is a significant factor to decide the level of investment, and deviation of investment from optimal condition. The reputation model between manager and owner suggest that the separate of ownership and management may induce the deviation of investment, and indicate that governance structure is important to reduce it. In th...
The Analysis of a Deviation of Investment and Corporate Governance
Shoichi Hisa
2008-01-01
Investment of firms is affected by not only fundamentals factors, but liquidity constraint, ownership or corporate structure. Information structure between manager and owner is a significant factor to decide the level of investment, and deviation of investment from optimal condition. The reputation model between manager and owner suggest that the separate of ownership and management may induce the deviation of investment, and indicate that governance structure is important to reduce it. In th...
Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size
Gorard, Stephen
2015-01-01
This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…
The Standard Deviation of Launch Vehicle Environments
Yunis, Isam
2005-01-01
Statistical analysis is used in the development of the launch vehicle environments of acoustics, vibrations, and shock. The standard deviation of these environments is critical to accurate statistical extrema. However, often very little data exists to define the standard deviation and it is better to use a typical standard deviation than one derived from a few measurements. This paper uses Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicle flight data to define a typical standard deviation for acoustics and vibrations. The results suggest that 3dB is a conservative and reasonable standard deviation for the source environment and the payload environment.
Nasal Septal Deviation and Facial Skeletal Asymmetries.
Hartman, Christopher; Holton, Nathan; Miller, Steven; Yokley, Todd; Marshall, Steven; Srinivasan, Sreedevi; Southard, Thomas
2016-03-01
During ontogeny, the nasal septum exerts a morphogenetic influence on the surrounding facial skeleton. While the influence of the septum is well established in long snouted animal models, its role in human facial growth is less clear. If the septum is a facial growth center in humans, we would predict that deviated septal growth would be associated with facial skeletal asymmetries. Using computed tomographic (CT) scans of n = 55 adult subjects, the purpose of this study was to test whether there is a correlation between septal deviation and facial asymmetries using three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometric techniques. We calculated deviation as a percentage of septal volume relative to the volume of a modeled non-deviated septum. We then recorded skeletal landmarks representing the nasal, palatal, and lateral facial regions. Landmark data were superimposed using Procrustes analysis. First, we examined the correlation between nasal septal deviation and the overall magnitude of asymmetry. Next, we assessed whether there was a relationship between nasal septal deviation and more localized aspects of asymmetry using multivariate regression analysis. Our results indicate that while there was no correlation between septal deviation and the overall magnitude of asymmetry, septal deviation was associated with asymmetry primarily in the nasal floor and the palatal region. Septal deviation was unassociated with asymmetries in the lateral facial skeleton. Though we did not test the causal relationship between nasal septal deviation and facial asymmetry, our results suggest that the nasal septum may have an influence on patterns of adult facial form. PMID:26677010
LARGE DEVIATIONS AND MODERATE DEVIATIONS FOR SUMS OF NEGATIVELY DEPENDENT RANDOM VARIABLES
Liu Li; Wan Chenggao; Feng Yanqin
2011-01-01
In this article, we obtain the large deviations and moderate deviations for negatively dependent (ND) and non-identically distributed random variables defined on (-∞, +∞). The results show that for some non-identical random variables, precise large deviations and moderate deviations remain insensitive to negative dependence structure.
One-deviation principle in coalition formation
Hannu Vartiainen
2008-01-01
We study coalitional one-deviation principle in a framework a la Chwe (1994). The principle requires that an active coalition or any of its subcoalition will not benefit from a single deviation to a strategy that specifies, for each history of coalitional moves, an active coalition and its move. A strategy meeting the one-deviation property is characterized. Moreover, it is shown to exist. Finally, the results are compared to the existing theories of coalitional games.
Moderate Deviations for Mean Field Particle Models
Del Moral, Pierre; Wu, Liming
2012-01-01
This article is concerned with moderate deviation principles of a general class of mean eld type interacting particle models. We discuss functional moderate deviations of the occupation measures for both the strong -topology on the space of fi nite and bounded measures as well as for the corresponding stochastic processes on some class of functions equipped with the uniform topology. Our approach is based on an original semigroup analysis combined with stochastic perturbation techniques and projective limit large deviation methods.
Introducing the mean absolute deviation 'effect' size.
Gorard, S.
2015-01-01
This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme values. The paper then proposes the use of an easy to comprehend effect size based on the mean difference between treatment groups, divided by the mean...
Exploring Students' Conceptions of the Standard Deviation
delMas, Robert; Liu, Yan
2005-01-01
This study investigated introductory statistics students' conceptual understanding of the standard deviation. A computer environment was designed to promote students' ability to coordinate characteristics of variation of values about the mean with the size of the standard deviation as a measure of that variation. Twelve students participated in an…
Deviation of Register in English Talk Shows
贺静
2016-01-01
Halliday's register theory and G. Leech's deviation of register are the general knowledge of the topic in the academic field. This paper focuses on connection between deviation of register and humorous effects in English talk shows. The significance of this paper is to put this theory in broader use and to help English learners better understand western humor and talk shows.
Gao, Fuqing; Yan, Jun
2008-01-01
We establish a functional large deviation principle and a functional moderate deviation principle for Markov-modulated risk models with reinsurance by constructing an exponential martingale approach. Lundberg's estimate of the ruin time is also presented.
DEVIATIONS -OHJELMISTO LAATUPOIKKEAMIEN KÄSITTELYYN
Hilama, Sakari
2009-01-01
Opinnäytetyö toteutettiin Documenta Oy:n toimeksiantona. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli toteuttaa Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 -alustaa hyödyntävä ohjelmistotuote nimeltä Deviations. Deviations -ohjelmiston tarkoituksena on tarjota organisaatiolle mukautuva työväline esimerkiksi palautteen tai laatupoikkeamien hallintaan ja prosessoituun käsittelyyn. Deviations -ohjelmisto toteutettiin niin, että ohjelmisto mukautuu organisaation olemassa oleviin prosesseihin. Tämä vaatimus huomioitiin oh...
On geodesic deviation in Schwarzschild spacetime
Philipp, Dennis; Laemmerzahl, Claus; Deshpande, Kaustubh
2015-01-01
For metrology, geodesy and gravimetry in space, satellite based instruments and measurement techniques are used and the orbits of the satellites as well as possible deviations between nearby ones are of central interest. The measurement of this deviation itself gives insight into the underlying structure of the spacetime geometry, which is curved and therefore described by the theory of general relativity (GR). In the context of GR, the deviation of nearby geodesics can be described by the Jacobi equation that is a result of linearizing the geodesic equation around a known reference geodesic with respect to the deviation vector and the relative velocity. We review the derivation of this Jacobi equation and restrict ourselves to the simple case of the spacetime outside a spherically symmetric mass distribution and circular reference geodesics to find solutions by projecting the Jacobi equation on a parallel propagated tetrad as done by Fuchs. Using his results, we construct solutions of the Jacobi equation for...
Sport and Social Deviations - a Prognostic Attitude
Kosiewicz Jerzy
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The author focuses his attention first of all on social deviations which play a negative role in highly competitive sport. He tries to define - from the viewpoint of philosophy - how they will influence its future form.
Geodesics deviation equation approach to chaos
Dobrowolski, Tomasz; Szczesny, Jerzy
1999-01-01
Geodesics deviation equation (GDE) is itroduced. In "adiabatic" approximation exact solution of the GDE if found. Perturbation theory in general case is formulated. Geometrical criterion of local instability which may lead to chaos is formulated.
Logarithmic potential theory and large deviation
Bloom, T.; Levenberg, N.; Wielonsky, F.
2014-01-01
We derive a general large deviation principle for a canonical sequence of probability measures, having its origins in random matrix theory, on unbounded sets $K$ of ${\\bf C}$ with weakly admissible external fields $Q$ and very general measures $\
An absolute deviation approach to assessing correlation.
Gorard, S.
2015-01-01
This paper describes two possible alternatives to the more traditional Pearson’s R correlation coefficient, both based on using the mean absolute deviation, rather than the standard deviation, as a measure of dispersion. Pearson’s R is well-established and has many advantages. However, these newer variants also have several advantages, including greater simplicity and ease of computation, and perhaps greater tolerance of underlying assumptions (such as the need for linearity). The first alter...
On the mean-standard deviation frontier
Eneas A. Caldiño
1996-01-01
This paper presents a characterization of the mean standard deviation frontier (MSF) in terms of pricing and averaging securities and explores the geometry of these securities relative to the geometry of the MSF. A summary of already known results is presented along with proof of new results. A measure of the distance between two mean standard deviation frontiers is presented here. This measure is related to asset pricing models which imply that security prices can be represented by a stochas...
Kinematic Deviations In Children With Cerebral Palsy
Sangeux, Morgan; ARMAND, Stéphane
2015-01-01
In gait analysis, a large portion of the work consists in finding the underlying causes of the abnormal movement observed during walking. The patient’s kinematics of walking is compared to that of typically developed children and the deviations are further analysed. Over the years, clinicians have observed multiple-joints kinematics deviations that were frequent in children with cerebral palsy and devised gait patterns in order to group patients and support management algorithms. However, the...
The large deviation approach to statistical mechanics
Touchette, Hugo [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: h.touchette@qmul.ac.uk
2009-07-15
The theory of large deviations is concerned with the exponential decay of probabilities of large fluctuations in random systems. These probabilities are important in many fields of study, including statistics, finance, and engineering, as they often yield valuable information about the large fluctuations of a random system around its most probable state or trajectory. In the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics, the theory of large deviations provides exponential-order estimates of probabilities that refine and generalize Einstein's theory of fluctuations. This review explores this and other connections between large deviation theory and statistical mechanics, in an effort to show that the mathematical language of statistical mechanics is the language of large deviation theory. The first part of the review presents the basics of large deviation theory, and works out many of its classical applications related to sums of random variables and Markov processes. The second part goes through many problems and results of statistical mechanics, and shows how these can be formulated and derived within the context of large deviation theory. The problems and results treated cover a wide range of physical systems, including equilibrium many-particle systems, noise-perturbed dynamics, nonequilibrium systems, as well as multifractals, disordered systems, and chaotic systems. This review also covers many fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics, such as the derivation of variational principles characterizing equilibrium and nonequilibrium states, the breaking of the Legendre transform for nonconcave entropies, and the characterization of nonequilibrium fluctuations through fluctuation relations.
Observable Deviations from Homogeneity in an Inhomogeneous Universe
Giblin, John T; Starkman, Glenn D
2016-01-01
How does inhomogeneity affect our interpretation of cosmological observations? It has long been wondered to what extent the observable properties of an inhomogeneous universe differ from those of a corresponding Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) model, and how the inhomogeneities affect that correspondence. Here, we use numerical relativity to study the behavior of light beams traversing an inhomogeneous universe and construct the resulting Hubble diagrams. The universe that emerges exhibits an average FLRW behavior, but inhomogeneous structures contribute to deviations in observables across the observer's sky. We also investigate the relationship between angular diameter distance and the angular extent of a source, finding deviations that grow with source redshift. These departures from FLRW are important path-dependent effects with implications for using real observables in an inhomogeneous universe such as our own.
Solar Radiation Pressure and Deviations from Keplerian Orbits
Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.; Vazquez-Poritz, Justin F.
2009-01-01
Newtonian gravity and general relativity give exactly the same expression for the period of an object in circular orbit around a static central mass. However, when the effects of the curvature of spacetime and solar radiation pressure are considered simultaneously for a solar sail propelled satellite, there is a deviation from Kepler's third law. It is shown that solar radiation pressure affects the period of this satellite in two ways: by effectively decreasing the solar mass, thereby increa...
Investigating deviations from norms in court interpreting
Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil
important for the study, we intend to conduct interviews instead. The purpose of the study is to investigate deviations from translational norms in court interpreting. More specifically, we aim to identify and describe instances of deviant behaviour on the part of the interpreters, discuss signs of possible...... deviant behaviour, explore why the deviations in question occur, find out what happens if deviations are perceived as such by the other participants involved in the interpreted event. We will reconstruct the norms in question by examining interpreters' and (mainly) professional users' behaviour in the...... the prevailing norms. Depending on the character of the deviant behaviour, the potency of the norms in question, extratextual sociocultural factors such as the interpreter's status in society, and many other factors, a broad range of sanctions is conceivable. However, we do not expect to find an...
Spectral deviations for the damped wave equation
Anantharaman, Nalini
2009-01-01
We prove a Weyl-type fractal upper bound for the spectrum of the damped wave equation, on a negatively curved compact manifold. It is known that most of the eigenvalues have an imaginary part close to the average of the damping function. We count the number of eigenvalues in a given horizontal strip deviating from this typical behaviour; the exponent that appears naturally is the `entropy' that gives the deviation rate from the Birkhoff ergodic theorem for the geodesic flow. A Weyl-type lower...
Leys, Christophe; Ley, Christophe; Klein, Olivier; Bernard, Philippe; Licata, Laurent
2013-01-01
A survey revealed that researchers still seem to encounter difficulties to cope with outliers. Detecting outliers by determining an interval spanning over the mean plus/minus three standard deviations remains a common practice. However, since both the mean and the standard deviation are particularly sensitive to outliers, this method is problematic. We highlight the disadvantages of this method and present the median absolute deviation, an alternative and more robust measure of dispersion tha...
Evolutionary implications of genetic code deviations
By extending the standard genetic code into a temperature dependent regime, we propose a train of molecular events leading to alternative coding. The first few examples of these deviations have already been reported in some ciliated protozoans and Gram positive bacteria. A possible range of further alternative coding, still within the context of universality, is pointed out. (author)
From Stein Identities to Moderate Deviations
Chen, Louis H Y; Shao, Qi-Man
2009-01-01
Stein's method is applied to obtain a Cram\\'er type moderate deviation result for dependent random variables whose dependence is defined in terms of a Stein identity. The result is optimal when applied to the combinatorial central limit theorem, the binary expansion of a random integer, the anti-voter model on a complete graph, and the Curie-Weiss model.
Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence
Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.
2012-01-01
Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…
2010-07-01
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Deviation. 101-1.110 Section 101-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 101-1.110...
Measuring the deviation from the Rutherford formula
Kuraev, E. A.; Shatnev, M.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.
2009-01-01
Modern experiments with heavy ion-leptons collisions open the possibility to measure the deviation of cross section of small angles electron(positron)-ion elastic scattering from the Rutherford formula due to multiple virtual photons exchange. The charge asymmetry and the polarization of the scattered leptons are calculated and numerical predictions are given. A generalization to elastic proton-nucleus scattering is discussed.
MODERATE DEVIATIONS AND LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR A TEST OF SYMMETRY BASED ON KERNEL DENSITY ESTIMATOR
He Xiaoxia; Gao Fuqing
2008-01-01
Let fn be a non-parametric kernel density estimator based on a kernel function K. And a sequence of independent and identically distributed random variables taking values in R. The goal of this article is to prove moderate deviations and large deviations for the statistic sup x∈R|fn(x) - fn(-X)|.
Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere
Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R. I.; Stein, R. F.
1979-01-01
Deviations for LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section grows with frequency faster than with the square of frequency; it exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of the radiative cross section. Overpopulation always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical-equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature.
Large deviations for Markov processes with resetting.
Meylahn, Janusz M; Sabhapandit, Sanjib; Touchette, Hugo
2015-12-01
Markov processes restarted or reset at random times to a fixed state or region in space have been actively studied recently in connection with random searches, foraging, and population dynamics. Here we study the large deviations of time-additive functions or observables of Markov processes with resetting. By deriving a renewal formula linking generating functions with and without resetting, we are able to obtain the rate function of such observables, characterizing the likelihood of their fluctuations in the long-time limit. We consider as an illustration the large deviations of the area of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process with resetting. Other applications involving diffusions, random walks, and jump processes with resetting or catastrophes are discussed. PMID:26764673
What is "Standard" About the Standard Deviation
Newberger, Florence; Safer, Alan M.; Watson, Saleem
2010-01-01
The choice of the formula for standard deviation is explained in elementary statistics textbooks in various ways. We give an explanation for this formula by representing the data as a vector in $\\mathbb R^n$ and considering its distance from a central tendency vector. In this setting the "standard" formula represents a shortest distance in the standard metric. We also show that different metrics lead to different measures of central tendency.
Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.
Joan Serrà
Full Text Available A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.
Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.
Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis
2013-01-01
A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields. PMID:23935971
9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.
2010-01-01
...) Deviations in processing (or process deviations) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned...) of this section. (c) (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan...
van Groningen, Jorg Melcher; Schuurman, Arnold H.
2011-01-01
Distal radial fractures are a common type of fracture. In the case of intra-articular fractures, they often result in post-traumatic arthrosis. The objective of this study is to describe a novel alternative to the established salvage techniques for the treatment of post-traumatic arthrosis of the radio-carpal and distal radio-ulnar joints (DRUJ). Six patients with radio-carpal and DRUJ arthrosis were treated with a combined radius, scaphoid, and lunate (RSL) arthrodesis and as a Herbert ulnar...
LARGE DEVIATIONS AND MODERATE DEVIATIONS FOR m-NEGATIVELY ASSOCIATED RANDOM VARIABLES
Hu Yijun; Ming Ruixing; Yang Wenquan
2007-01-01
M-negatively associated random variables, which generalizes the classical one of negatively associated random variables and includes m-dependent sequences as its particular case, are introduced and studied. Large deviation principles and moderate deviation upper bounds for stationary m-negatively associated random variables are proved.Kolmogorov-type and Marcinkiewicz-type strong laws of large numbers as well as the three series theorem for m-negatively associated random variables are also given.
Standard deviation of scatterometer measurements from space.
Fischer, R. E.
1972-01-01
The standard deviation of scatterometer measurements has been derived under assumptions applicable to spaceborne scatterometers. Numerical results are presented which show that, with sufficiently long integration times, input signal-to-noise ratios below unity do not cause excessive degradation of measurement accuracy. The effects on measurement accuracy due to varying integration times and changing the ratio of signal bandwidth to IF filter-noise bandwidth are also plotted. The results of the analysis may resolve a controversy by showing that in fact statistically useful scatterometer measurements can be made from space using a 20-W transmitter, such as will be used on the S-193 experiment for Skylab-A.
Standard deviation of the longest common subsequence
Lember, Jüri; Matzinger, Heinrich
2009-01-01
Let Ln be the length of the longest common subsequence of two independent i.i.d. sequences of Bernoulli variables of length n. We prove that the order of the standard deviation of Ln is $\\sqrt{n}$ , provided the parameter of the Bernoulli variables is small enough. This validates Waterman’s conjecture in this situation [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 344 (1994) 383–390]. The order conjectured by Chvatal and Sankoff [J. Appl. Probab. 12 (1975) 306–315], however, is different.
Santhamoorthy
2014-10-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic isolated distal radioulnar joint instability is a relatively rare entity. Several methods of reconstruction were available to stabilize the joint and each method has some advantage over others. We proposed to assess the functional outcome following reconstruction of chronic dorsal distal radio ulnar instability using extra articular reconstruction by Fulkerson – Watson method. AIM: To assess the functional outcome following reconstruction for chronic isolated dorsal distal radio ulnar instability using Fulkerson –Watson method. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study in five patients over three years from 2010 to 2013 with chronic isolated dorsal distal radio ulnar instability who were treated by Fulkerson-Watson method of reconstruction. All patients underwent MRI evaluation before surgery to assess ligament pathology and for adequacy of sigmoid notch. Arthroscopy performed in all patients. Functional outcomes were assessed using VAS score, quick-DASH score and Mayo wrist score at every 6 months follow-up. Radiological assessment done using plain x-rays at each follow up. RESULTS: Three patients required Arthroscopic debridement for TFCC. All five patients had achieved stability at distal radio ulnar joint after surgery and remained so till their last follow up. One patient had persistent pain near ulnar styloid. The average loss of motion for pronation was 10 degrees and supination was 3 degrees in reference to the normal side. All except one patient achieved ulnar grip strength of >90 % compared to normal side. The mean pre and postoperative VAS score, quick-DASH score, Mayo wrist score were 76.6 and 17.2, 37.3 and 11.3, 45 and 77 respectively. CONCLUSION: Though extra articular reconstruction for DRUJ by Fulkerson-Watson method is non-anatomical, the procedure is simple than intra articular reconstruction and gives similar functional outcome like intra articular reconstructions as shown by our results.
Buck, Florian M., E-mail: florian.buck@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr., San Diego, CA 92161 (United States); Nico, Marcelo A.C., E-mail: nico.marcelo@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr., San Diego, CA 92161 (United States); Gheno, Ramon, E-mail: ramon.gheno@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr., San Diego, CA 92161 (United States); Trudell, Debra J., E-mail: debtrudell@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr., San Diego, CA 92161 (United States); Resnick, Donald, E-mail: dresnick@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr., San Diego, CA 92161 (United States)
2011-02-15
Objective: To determine the accuracy of ultrasonography (US) in the evaluation of degenerative changes in the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). Methods and materials: Ten cadaveric specimens were obtained. US evaluation of cartilage degeneration and thickness was performed by two independent and blinded readers (R1 and R2). Gross anatomy and MR arthrography evaluated by two readers in consensus served as the reference standard. The joint surface not accessible to US was measured. Results: US interreader agreement was non-existent for cartilage thickness measurements and moderate for cartilage degeneration grading (weighted kappa = 0.41). Comparing US and MR imaging evaluation, there was no correlation between US R1 and MR imaging (Pearson correlation coefficient [PCC] = 0.352) and a moderate correlation between US R2 and MR imaging (PCC = 0.570) concerning cartilage thickness measurements. Concerning cartilage degeneration grading, there was a moderate to strong (R1 Spearman correlation coefficient [SCC] = 0.729)/R2 SCC = 0.767) correlation concerning cartilage degeneration grading. Comparing US and gross anatomic evaluation, there was no correlation for US R1 (PCC = 0.220) and a strong correlation for US R2 (PCC = 0.922) concerning cartilage thickness measurements, and a strong to moderate correlation (R1 SCC = 0.808/R2 SCC = 0.597) concerning cartilage degeneration grading. The mean sector of the articular surface of the ulna head not accessible to US was 13{sup o}. Conclusion: In conclusion the DRUJ is accessible to US except in the central 13{sup o} sector of the joint surface. US was approved to be sufficient in demonstrating advanced stages of cartilage degeneration. Thus, US of the DRUJ is recommended in patients suffering from ulnar-sided wrist pain.
Objective: To determine the accuracy of ultrasonography (US) in the evaluation of degenerative changes in the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). Methods and materials: Ten cadaveric specimens were obtained. US evaluation of cartilage degeneration and thickness was performed by two independent and blinded readers (R1 and R2). Gross anatomy and MR arthrography evaluated by two readers in consensus served as the reference standard. The joint surface not accessible to US was measured. Results: US interreader agreement was non-existent for cartilage thickness measurements and moderate for cartilage degeneration grading (weighted kappa = 0.41). Comparing US and MR imaging evaluation, there was no correlation between US R1 and MR imaging (Pearson correlation coefficient [PCC] = 0.352) and a moderate correlation between US R2 and MR imaging (PCC = 0.570) concerning cartilage thickness measurements. Concerning cartilage degeneration grading, there was a moderate to strong (R1 Spearman correlation coefficient [SCC] = 0.729)/R2 SCC = 0.767) correlation concerning cartilage degeneration grading. Comparing US and gross anatomic evaluation, there was no correlation for US R1 (PCC = 0.220) and a strong correlation for US R2 (PCC = 0.922) concerning cartilage thickness measurements, and a strong to moderate correlation (R1 SCC = 0.808/R2 SCC = 0.597) concerning cartilage degeneration grading. The mean sector of the articular surface of the ulna head not accessible to US was 13o. Conclusion: In conclusion the DRUJ is accessible to US except in the central 13o sector of the joint surface. US was approved to be sufficient in demonstrating advanced stages of cartilage degeneration. Thus, US of the DRUJ is recommended in patients suffering from ulnar-sided wrist pain.
Allan deviation analysis of financial return series
Hernández-Pérez, R.
2012-05-01
We perform a scaling analysis for the return series of different financial assets applying the Allan deviation (ADEV), which is used in the time and frequency metrology to characterize quantitatively the stability of frequency standards since it has demonstrated to be a robust quantity to analyze fluctuations of non-stationary time series for different observation intervals. The data used are opening price daily series for assets from different markets during a time span of around ten years. We found that the ADEV results for the return series at short scales resemble those expected for an uncorrelated series, consistent with the efficient market hypothesis. On the other hand, the ADEV results for absolute return series for short scales (first one or two decades) decrease following approximately a scaling relation up to a point that is different for almost each asset, after which the ADEV deviates from scaling, which suggests that the presence of clustering, long-range dependence and non-stationarity signatures in the series drive the results for large observation intervals.
A method for detecting alignment deviation on a thread-measuring instrument
Alignment deviation is an important factor affecting measurement accuracy in screw thread measurement. It needs to be detected and controlled to ensure the accuracy of relative thread parameters. The influence on pitch diameter caused by the alignment deviations of workpiece and probe is analyzed in this paper. In order to detect and control the alignment deviation, a vision detection method for the probe tip points is proposed, which integrates the detection of corners and edges and the prediction of motion. Then the X-axial rotation deviation is calculated by tracking the tip points both up and down. The result of tests demonstrates that the detection accuracy of the X-axial rotation deviation is 0.0654° with the background changing during the probe movement. The repeatability of the test procedure is ±0.16%, which proves the detection method is adequately qualified for application. (paper)
İhsan Çaça
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We evaluated the correlation with success rates and deviation type and degree inhorizontal concomitant deviations. 104 horizontal concomitan strabismus cases whowere operated in our clinic between January 1994 – December 2000 were included in thestudy. 56 cases undergone recession-resection procedure in the same eye 19 cases twomuscle recession and one muscle resection, 20 cases two muscle recession, 9 cases onlyone muscle recession. 10 ± prism diopter deviation in postoperative sixth monthexamination was accepted as surgical success.Surgical success rate was 90% and 89.3% in the cases with deviation angle of 15-30and 31-50 prism diopter respectively. Success rate was 78.9% if the angle was more than50 prism diopter. According to strabismus type when surgical success rate examined; inalternan esotropia 88.33%, in alternan exotropia 84.6%, in monocular esotropia 88%and in monocular exotropia 83.3% success was fixed. Statistically significant differencewas not found between strabismus type and surgical success rate. The binocular visiongaining rate was found as 51.8% after the treatment of cases.In strabismus surgery, preoperative deviation angle was found to be an effectivefactor on the success rate.
Theory of Deviation and Its Application in College English Teaching
Xu Yanqiu
2008-01-01
Deviation is an important concept in stylistics.Besides Shklovskij and Mukarovsky,who made a theoreti cal generalization of deviational phenomena,Leech is the one who studies deviation systematically and catego rizes it into groups.To apply the theory of deviation to College English teaching is an effective way to culti rate students' interest in and aesthetic ability of English texts.
Syntactic Deviations in the Novel The Sound and the Fury
Pooria Alirezazadeh
2014-10-01
Full Text Available This article looks at William Faulkner’s work The Sound and the Fury. The goals are to investigate different types of syntactic deviations in the novel, and how these deviations helped the writer to create a literary work in the field of modernist literature and stream of consciousness. To this end, the theoretical framework for linguistic deviations proposed by Leech (1969 has been chosen. Most prior researches on linguistic deviations especially syntactic deviations focused on poetic text and classic prose. The present study was designed to address syntactic deviations in modern prose, and it highlights the role of syntactic deviations in modernist literature and psychological novel.
Treatment of Congenital Upper Radio-Ulnar Joint Synosteosis by Rotional Osteotomy%旋转截骨治疗先天性上桡尺关节连接
肖增明; 庞立; 容兑熙
1995-01-01
对8例11个肢体先天性上桡尺关节连接畸形进行了桡尺骨旋转截骨和旋前肌松解术,获得满意的疗效.对手术适应证、手术方法进行了讨论,认为此手术方法尤其适用于严重前臂旋前畸形的病例.%Eight cases(male 7,femaleil)of congenital upper radio-ulnar joint synosteosis were treated from 1982 to 1991.Of them,5 were unilateral and 3 bilateral.Eight extremities were on the left side and 3 on the right side.The diagnosis was confirmed by X-ray examination.The pronation of the forearm was 50～105 degrees.All of them underwent radio-ulnar rotational osteostomy and pronator relaxation with satisfactory results.The indication and procedures are discussed.The authors consider that this method would be useful for cases in severe forearm pronation deformity.
LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR SOME DEPENDENT SEQUENCES
Hu Shuhe; Wang Xuejun
2008-01-01
Let (Xi) be a martingale difference sequence and Sn=n∑i=1 Xi. Suppose (Xi) is bounded in Lp. In the case p2, Lesigne and Volny (Stochastic Process. Appl. 96 (2001) 143) obtained the estimation μ(Sn n) < cn-p/2, Yulin Li (Statist. Probab.Lett. 62 (2003) 317) generalized the result to the case when p ∈(1, 2) and obtained μ(Sn n) < cn1-P, these are optimal in a certain sense. In this article, the authors study the large deviation of Sn for some dependent sequences and obtain the same order optimal upper bounds for μ(Sn n) as those for martingale difference sequence.
Spotting deviations from R^2 inflation
de la Cruz-Dombriz, Alvaro; Odintsov, Sergei D; Saez-Gomez, Diego
2016-01-01
We discuss the soundness of inflationary scenarios in theories beyond the Starobinsky model, namely a class of theories described by arbitrary functions of the Ricci scalar and the K-essence field. We discuss the pathologies associated with higher-order equations of motion which will be shown to constrain the stability of this class of theories. We provide a general framework to calculate the slow-roll parameters and the corresponding mappings to the theory parameters. For paradigmatic gravitational models within the class of theories under consideration we illustrate the power of the Planck/Bicep2 latest results to constrain such gravitational Lagrangians. Finally, bounds for potential deviations from Starobinsky-like inflation are derived.
Large Deviations and Asymptotic Methods in Finance
Gatheral, Jim; Gulisashvili, Archil; Jacquier, Antoine; Teichmann, Josef
2015-01-01
Topics covered in this volume (large deviations, differential geometry, asymptotic expansions, central limit theorems) give a full picture of the current advances in the application of asymptotic methods in mathematical finance, and thereby provide rigorous solutions to important mathematical and financial issues, such as implied volatility asymptotics, local volatility extrapolation, systemic risk and volatility estimation. This volume gathers together ground-breaking results in this field by some of its leading experts. Over the past decade, asymptotic methods have played an increasingly important role in the study of the behaviour of (financial) models. These methods provide a useful alternative to numerical methods in settings where the latter may lose accuracy (in extremes such as small and large strikes, and small maturities), and lead to a clearer understanding of the behaviour of models, and of the influence of parameters on this behaviour. Graduate students, researchers and practitioners will find th...
This study investigates how, from a legal point of view, deviations in radiation protection measurements should be treated in comparisons between measured results and limits stipulated by nuclear legislation or goods transport regulations. A case-by-case distinction is proposed which is based on the legal concequences of the respective measurement. Commentaries on nuclear law contain no references to the legal assessment of deviating measurements in radiation protection. The examples quoted in legal commentaries on civil and criminal proceedings of the way in which errors made in measurements for speed control and determinations of the alcohol content in the blood are to be taken into account, and a commentary on ozone legislation, are examined for analogies with radiation protection measurements. Leading cases in the nuclear field are evaluated in the light of the requirements applying in case of deviations in measurements. The final section summarizes the most important findings and conclusions. (orig.)
Syntactic Deviations in the Novel The Sound and the Fury
Pooria Alirezazadeh; Mohammad Reza Talebinezhad
2014-01-01
This article looks at William Faulkner’s work The Sound and the Fury. The goals are to investigate different types of syntactic deviations in the novel, and how these deviations helped the writer to create a literary work in the field of modernist literature and stream of consciousness. To this end, the theoretical framework for linguistic deviations proposed by Leech (1969) has been chosen. Most prior researches on linguistic deviations especially syntactic deviations focused on poetic text...
Filiasi, Mario; Livan, Giacomo; Marsili, Matteo; Peressi, Maria; Vesselli, Erik; Zarinelli, Elia
2014-09-01
Large deviations for fat tailed distributions, i.e. those that decay slower than exponential, are not only relatively likely, but they also occur in a rather peculiar way where a finite fraction of the whole sample deviation is concentrated on a single variable. The regime of large deviations is separated from the regime of typical fluctuations by a phase transition where the symmetry between the points in the sample is spontaneously broken. For stochastic processes with a fat tailed microscopic noise, this implies that, while typical realizations are well described by a diffusion process with continuous sample paths, large deviation paths are typically discontinuous. For eigenvalues of random matrices with fat tailed distributed elements, a large deviation where the trace of the matrix is anomalously large concentrates on just a single eigenvalue, whereas in the thin tailed world the large deviation affects the whole distribution. These results find a natural application to finance. Since the price dynamics of financial stocks are characterized by fat tailed increments, large fluctuations in stock prices are expected to be realized by discrete jumps. Interestingly, we find that large excursions of prices are more likely realized by continuous drifts rather than by discontinuous jumps. Indeed, auto correlations suppress the concentration of large deviations. Financial covariance matrices also exhibit an anomalously large eigenvalue, the market mode, as compared to the prediction of random matrix theory. We show that this is explained by a large deviation with excess covariance rather than by one with excess volatility.
Large Deviations in Fast-Slow Systems
Bouchet, Freddy; Grafke, Tobias; Tangarife, Tomás; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric
2016-02-01
The incidence of rare events in fast-slow systems is investigated via analysis of the large deviation principle (LDP) that characterizes the likelihood and pathway of large fluctuations of the slow variables away from their mean behavior—such fluctuations are rare on short time-scales but become ubiquitous eventually. Classical results prove that this LDP involves an Hamilton-Jacobi equation whose Hamiltonian is related to the leading eigenvalue of the generator of the fast process, and is typically non-quadratic in the momenta—in other words, the LDP for the slow variables in fast-slow systems is different in general from that of any stochastic differential equation (SDE) one would write for the slow variables alone. It is shown here that the eigenvalue problem for the Hamiltonian can be reduced to a simpler algebraic equation for this Hamiltonian for a specific class of systems in which the fast variables satisfy a linear equation whose coefficients depend nonlinearly on the slow variables, and the fast variables enter quadratically the equation for the slow variables. These results are illustrated via examples, inspired by kinetic theories of turbulent flows and plasma, in which the quasipotential characterizing the long time behavior of the system is calculated and shown again to be different from that of an SDE.
Lipschitz deviation and embeddings of global attractors
Hunt and Kaloshin (1999 Nonlinearity 12 1263–75) proved that it is possible to embed a compact subset X of a Hilbert space with upper box-counting dimension d N for any N > 2k + 1, using a linear map L whose inverse is Hölder continuous with exponent α N, dH(L(X)) ≥ min(N, dH(X)/(1 + τ(X)/2)). They also conjectured that 'many of the attractors associated with the evolution equations of mathematical physics have thickness exponent zero'. In this paper we introduce a variant of the thickness exponent, the Lipschitz deviation dev(X): we show that in both of the above results this can be used in place of the thickness exponent, and—appealing to results from the theory of approximate inertial manifolds—we prove that dev(X) = 0 for the attractors of a wide class of semilinear parabolic equations, thus providing a partial answer to the conjecture of Ott, Hunt and Kaloshin. In particular, dev(X) = 0 for the attractor of the 2D Navier–Stokes equations with forcing f in L2, while current results only guarantee that τ(X) = 0, when f in C∞
Effect of tool centreline deviation on the mechanical properties of friction stir welded DH36 steel
Highlights: • FSW of DH36 was tolerant to a centreline defect induced by tool deviation. • High strength welds up to 2.5 mm centreline tool deviation with ductile PM fracture. • Critical tolerance to centreline tool deviation at 4 mm with ductile weld metal fracture. • Brittle fracture above 4 mm deviation led to significant reduction in yield strength. - Abstract: Friction stir welding of steel has gone through recent tool and optimisation developments allowing the process to be considered as a technically superior alternative to fusion welding. This study expanded the scientific foundation of friction stir welding of DH36 steel to analyse the effect on weld quality when the rotating tool increasingly deviates away from the weld centreline. A centreline defect was deliberately but gradually introduced along the length of the weld seam. The tolerance to tool deviation towards both the advancing side and the retreating side of the weld was measured in terms of the transverse yield strength. Three discrete fracture modes were observed in transverse tensile specimen. Up to a tool deviation of 2.5 mm, ductile fracture in the parent material was observed and there was not a significant reduction in the yield strength of the weldment. The critical tool deviation occurred at 4 mm, where transverse tensile specimens fractured in a high strength ductile mode in the weld metal. Brittle behaviour in specimens above the 4 mm tolerance level resulted in a significant decrease in the transverse yield strength. Fracture within the weld metal was directed along the boundary between the heat-affected zone and thermo-mechanically affected zone, attributable to an abrupt change in the grain size and complexity of the two weld zones at this boundary. Friction stir welding of DH36 was found to be a tolerant joining process to the centreline deviation of the rotating tool
The Role of Burden and Deviation in Ostracizing Others.
Wesselmann, Eric D; Wirth, James H; Pryor, John B; Reeder, Glenn D; Williams, Kipling D
2015-01-01
Ostracism (being excluded and ignored) is a painful experience, so why do individuals ostracize others? Previous research suggests individuals often ostracize those who are deviate, but not always. We posit that there may be two types of deviation, burdensome and non-burdensome, and the former is most likely to be ostracized. Study 1 manipulated burdensome deviation by programming a group member to perform more slowly (8 or 16 sec.) than others (4 sec.) in a virtual ball-toss game. Participants perceived slower players as more burdensome and deviate than normal speed players. Additionally, participants ostracized (gave fewer ball tosses to) the slowest player. Study 2 examined participant responses to both burdensome deviation (8- and 16-sec. players) and non-burdensome deviation (goth appearance). Participants again perceived the slower players to be burdensome and deviate, and ostracized them. They perceived the goth player to be deviate but not burdensome and did not ostracize this player. PMID:26267129
ROBSCALE: RATS module to compute robust alternative to standard deviation
Eric Blankmeyer
1999-01-01
robscale.src computes a robust alternative to the standard deviation as a measure of scale (dispersion). The standard deviation is easily distorted by outliers and may therefore be quite misleading. robscale.src computes the Qn statistic of Rousseeuuw and Croux, which is very robust and also has good efficiency (relative to the standard deviation) when the data are in fact uncontaminated Gaussian random variables. (P. J. Rousseeuw and C. Croux, "Alternatives to the median absolute deviation,"...
48 CFR 2901.403 - Individual deviations from the FAR.
2010-10-01
... the FAR. 2901.403 Section 2901.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and DOLAR 2901.403 Individual deviations from the FAR. (a) The Senior Procurement Executive is authorized to approve deviations from...
14 CFR 21.609 - Approval for deviation.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval for deviation. 21.609 Section 21.609 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... deviation. (a) Each manufacturer who requests approval to deviate from any performance standard of a...
Large deviations for Glauber dynamics of continuous gas
2008-01-01
This paper is devoted to the large deviation principles of the Glauber-type dynamics of finite or infinite volume continuous particle systems.We prove that the level-2 empirical process satisfies the large deviation principles in the weak convergence topology,while it does not satisfy the large deviation principles in the T-topology.
7 CFR 400.204 - Notification of deviation from standards.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of deviation from standards. 400.204... Contract-Standards for Approval § 400.204 Notification of deviation from standards. A Contractor shall... that the deviation is temporary, the Corporation may grant a temporary waiver pending compliance...
A Visual Model for the Variance and Standard Deviation
Orris, J. B.
2011-01-01
This paper shows how the variance and standard deviation can be represented graphically by looking at each squared deviation as a graphical object--in particular, as a square. A series of displays show how the standard deviation is the size of the average square.
Temperature deviation index and elderly mortality in Japan
Lim, Youn-Hee; Reid, Colleen E.; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho
2016-07-01
Few studies have examined how the precedence of abnormal temperatures in previous neighboring years affects the population's health. In the present study, we attempted to quantify the health effects of abnormal weather patterns by creating a metric called the temperature deviation index (TDI) and estimated the effects of TDI on mortality in Japan. We used data from 47 prefectures in Japan to compute the TDI on days between May and September from 1966 to 2010. The TDI is a summed product of an indicator of absence of high temperatures in the neighboring years, and more weights were assigned to the years closest to the current year. To estimate the TDI effects on elderly mortality, we used generalized linear modeling with a Poisson distribution after adjusting for apparent temperature, barometric pressure, day of the week, and time trend. For each prefecture, we estimated the TDI effects and pooled the estimates to yield a national average for 1991-2010 in Japan. The estimated effects of TDI in middle- or high-latitude prefectures were greater than in low-latitude prefectures. The estimated national average of TDI effects was a 0.5 % (95 % confidence intervals [CI], 0.1, 1.0) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit (around 1 standard deviation) increase in the TDI. The significant pooled estimation of TDI effects was mainly due to the TDI effects on summer days with moderate temperature (25th-49th percentile, mean temperature 22.9 °C): a 1.9 % (95 % CI, 1.1, 2.6) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit increase in the TDI. However, TDI effects were insignificant in other temperature ranges. These findings suggest that elderly deaths increased on moderate temperature days in the summer that differed substantially from days during that time window in the neighboring years. Therefore, not only high temperature itself but also temperature deviation compared to previous years could be considered to be a risk factor for elderly mortality in the summer.
The gait standard deviation, a single measure of kinematic variability.
Sangeux, Morgan; Passmore, Elyse; Graham, H Kerr; Tirosh, Oren
2016-05-01
Measurement of gait kinematic variability provides relevant clinical information in certain conditions affecting the neuromotor control of movement. In this article, we present a measure of overall gait kinematic variability, GaitSD, based on combination of waveforms' standard deviation. The waveform standard deviation is the common numerator in established indices of variability such as Kadaba's coefficient of multiple correlation or Winter's waveform coefficient of variation. Gait data were collected on typically developing children aged 6-17 years. Large number of strides was captured for each child, average 45 (SD: 11) for kinematics and 19 (SD: 5) for kinetics. We used a bootstrap procedure to determine the precision of GaitSD as a function of the number of strides processed. We compared the within-subject, stride-to-stride, variability with the, between-subject, variability of the normative pattern. Finally, we investigated the correlation between age and gait kinematic, kinetic and spatio-temporal variability. In typically developing children, the relative precision of GaitSD was 10% as soon as 6 strides were captured. As a comparison, spatio-temporal parameters required 30 strides to reach the same relative precision. The ratio stride-to-stride divided by normative pattern variability was smaller in kinematic variables (the smallest for pelvic tilt, 28%) than in kinetic and spatio-temporal variables (the largest for normalised stride length, 95%). GaitSD had a strong, negative correlation with age. We show that gait consistency may stabilise only at, or after, skeletal maturity. PMID:27131201
Spine deviations and orthodontic treatment of asymmetric malocclusions in children
Lippold Carsten
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to assess the effect of early orthodontic treatment for unilateral posterior cross bite in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition using orthopedic parameters. Methods Early orthodontic treatment was performed by initial maxillary expansion and subsequent activator therapy (Münster treatment concept. The patient sample was initially comprised of 80 patients with unilateral posterior cross bite (mean age 7.3 years, SD 2.1 years. After randomization, 77 children attended the initial examination appointment (therapy = 37, control = 40; 31 children in the therapy group and 35 children in the control group were monitored at the follow-up examination (T2. The mean interval between T1 and T2 was 1.1 years (SD 0.2 years. Rasterstereography was used for back shape analysis at T1 and T2. Using the profile, the kyphotic and lordotic angle, the surface rotation, the lateral deviation, pelvic tilt and pelvic torsion, statistical differences at T1 and T2 between the therapy and control groups were calculated (t-test. Our working hypothesis was, that early orthodontic treatment can induce negative therapeutic changes in body posture through thoracic and lumbar position changes in preadolescents with uniltaral cross bite. Results No clinically relevant differences between the control and the therapy groups at T1 and T2 were found for the parameters of kyphotic and lordotic angle, the surface rotation, lateral deviation, pelvic tilt, and pelvic torsion. Conclusions Our working hypothesis was tested to be not correct (within the limitations of this study. This randomized clinical trial demonstrates that in a juvenile population with unilateral posterior cross bite the selected early orthodontic treatment protocol does not affect negatively the postural parameters. Trial registration DRKS00003497 on DRKS
A Hybrid Method with Deviational Particles for Spatial Inhomogeneous Plasma
Yan, Bokai
2015-01-01
In this work we propose a Hybrid method with Deviational Particles (HDP) for a plasma modeled by the inhomogeneous Vlasov-Poisson-Landau system. We split the distribution into a Maxwellian part evolved by a grid based fluid solver and a deviation part simulated by numerical particles. These particles, named deviational particles, could be both positive and negative. We combine the Monte Carlo method proposed in \\cite{YC15}, a Particle in Cell method and a Macro-Micro decomposition method \\cit...
Structure of deviations from optimality in biological systems
Pérez-Escudero, Alfonso; Rivera-Alba, Marta; G. de Polavieja, Gonzalo
2009-01-01
Optimization theory has been used to analyze evolutionary adaptation. This theory has explained many features of biological systems, from the genetic code to animal behavior. However, these systems show important deviations from optimality. Typically, these deviations are large in some particular components of the system, whereas others seem to be almost optimal. Deviations from optimality may be due to many factors in evolution, including stochastic effects and finite time, that may not allo...
38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.
2010-07-01
... identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent between the estimates upon which a... change in the identity of the property upon which the original appraisal was based, will invalidate...
Effect of rounding on expected value and standard deviation
Cedilnik, Anton; Košmelj, Katarina
2014-01-01
We prove that the rounded expected value of the rounded random variable differs from the expected value of the original random variable by less then 2, where is the distance between two neighbouring rounded numbers. The same conclusion holds for standard deviation. Hence, in practice the influence of rounding to expected value and standard deviation is almost negligible.
Data Sets Having Integer Means and Standard Deviations.
Dudek, Frank J.
1981-01-01
Reviews the recent suggestion (by McGown and Spencer) that construction of tests for introductory statistics is facilitated if data sets have means and standard deviations that are integers. Maintains that it is fairly easy to devise data sets with integer means and standard deviations for larger samples. Explains advantages and describes…
[The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].
Foda, H M T
2010-09-01
The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach. PMID:20809379
Compensation method for the alignment angle error of a gear axis in profile deviation measurement
In the precision measurement of involute helical gears, the alignment angle error of a gear axis, which was caused by the assembly error of a gear measuring machine, will affect the measurement accuracy of profile deviation. A model of the involute helical gear is established under the condition that the alignment angle error of the gear axis exists. Based on the measurement theory of profile deviation, without changing the initial measurement method and data process of the gear measuring machine, a compensation method is proposed for the alignment angle error of the gear axis that is included in profile deviation measurement results. Using this method, the alignment angle error of the gear axis can be compensated for precisely. Some experiments that compare the residual alignment angle error of a gear axis after compensation for the initial alignment angle error were performed to verify the accuracy and feasibility of this method. Experimental results show that the residual alignment angle error of a gear axis included in the profile deviation measurement results is decreased by more than 85% after compensation, and this compensation method significantly improves the measurement accuracy of the profile deviation of involute helical gear. (paper)
Compensation method for the alignment angle error in pitch deviation measurement
Liu, Yongsheng; Fang, Suping; Wang, Huiyi; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Takeda, Ryohei
2016-05-01
When measuring the tooth flank of an involute helical gear by gear measuring center (GMC), the alignment angle error of a gear axis, which was caused by the assembly error and manufacturing error of the GMC, will affect the measurement accuracy of pitch deviation of the gear tooth flank. Based on the model of the involute helical gear and the tooth flank measurement theory, a method is proposed to compensate the alignment angle error that is included in the measurement results of pitch deviation, without changing the initial measurement method of the GMC. Simulation experiments are done to verify the compensation method and the results show that after compensation, the alignment angle error of the gear axis included in measurement results of pitch deviation declines significantly, more than 90% of the alignment angle errors are compensated, and the residual alignment angle errors in pitch deviation measurement results are less than 0.1 μm. It shows that the proposed method can improve the measurement accuracy of the GMC when measuring the pitch deviation of involute helical gear.
Nilton Mazzer
2001-03-01
Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo de 10 casos de desarranjo da articulação radio-ulnal distal tratados pela técnica de Sauvé-Kapandji. Os desarranjos eram resultantes de trauma (7, degeneração (2 e doença congênita (1 e as principais queixas pré-operatórias eram a dor, limitação da prono-supinação e deformidade. A idade média dos pacientes na época da operação era de 37,8 anos. Os pacientes foram submetidos a avaliação clínico-funcional e radiografica com um seguimento pós-operatório médio de 28,3 meses, particular atenção tendo sido dada a uma incidência radiográfica anteroposterior sob esforço de preensão manual. Todos os pacientes obtiveram melhora de suas queixas e o resultado final foi considerado satisfatório (excelente e bom em 8, e insatisfatório (regular 2. A artrodese da articulação radio-ulnal consolidou em 9 casos, independentemente do tipo de fixação empregado. O exame radiográfico sob esforço mostrou que todos os pacientes apresentavam deslocamento radial da ulna, mas isso aparentemente não interferiu com a função. Concluiu-se que a técnica de Sauvé-Kapandji é eficiente para o tratamento dos desarranjos da articulação radio-ulnal distal, pois ela não implica em perda funcional importante.A retrospective study of 10 cases of derrangement of the distal radioulnar joint treated with the technique of Sauvé-Kapandji was carried out. Derrangements resulted from trauma (7, degeneration (2 and congenital disease (1 and the main preoperative complaints were pain, limitation of pronation and supination and deformity. The patients' average age by the time of the operation was 37.8 years (range: 19 - 68 years. All were submitted to clinical, functional and radiographic evaluation at 28.3 months after the operation on average, particular attention being paid to an anteroposterior X-ray view with the hand in a moderate hand grip effort. All patients improved from their complaints and the final
Fluctuations and large deviations in non-equilibrium systems
B Derrida
2005-05-01
For systems in contact with two reservoirs at different densities or with two thermostats at different temperatures, the large deviation function of the density gives a possible way of extending the notion of free energy to non-equilibrium systems. This large deviation function of the density can be calculated explicitly for exclusion models in one dimension with open boundary conditions. For these models, one can also obtain the distribution of the current of particles flowing through the system and the results lead to a simple conjecture for the large deviation function of the current of more general diffusive systems.
Large Deviations for Stochastic Evolution Equations with Small Multiplicative Noise
The Freidlin-Wentzell large deviation principle is established for the distributions of stochastic evolution equations with general monotone drift and small multiplicative noise. As examples, the main results are applied to derive the large deviation principle for different types of SPDE such as stochastic reaction-diffusion equations, stochastic porous media equations and fast diffusion equations, and the stochastic p-Laplace equation in Hilbert space. The weak convergence approach is employed in the proof to establish the Laplace principle, which is equivalent to the large deviation principle in our framework.
Large deviations for two scale chemical kinetic processes
Li, Tiejun
2015-01-01
We formulate the large deviations for a class of two scale chemical kinetic processes motivated from biological applications. The result is successfully applied to treat a genetic switching model with positive feedbacks. The corresponding Hamiltonian is convex with respect to the momentum variable as a by-product of the large deviation theory. This property ensures its superiority in the rare event simulations compared with the result obtained by formal WKB asymptotics. The result is of general interest to understand the large deviations for multiscale problems.
A Note on a Normal Distribution with Varying Standard Deviation
Mahabaleshwara Holla
1965-01-01
Full Text Available A normal distribution with varying standard deviation has been considered in this note. Statistical properties of the distribution and the estimation of the parameters involved therein are also discussed.
Spin-geodesic deviations in the Schwarzschild spacetime
Bini, Donato; Jantzen, Robert T
2014-01-01
The deviation of the path of a spinning particle from a circular geodesic in the Schwarzschild spacetime is studied by an extension of the idea of geodesic deviation. Within the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon model and assuming the spin parameter to be sufficiently small so that it makes sense to linearize the equations of motion in the spin variables as well as in the geodesic deviation, the spin-curvature force adds an additional driving term to the second order system of linear ordinary differential equations satisfied by nearby geodesics. Choosing initial conditions for geodesic motion leads to solutions for which the deviations are entirely due to the spin-curvature force, and one finds that the spinning particle position for a given fixed total spin oscillates roughly within an ellipse in the plane perpendicular to the motion, while the azimuthal motion undergoes similar oscillations plus an additional secular drift which varies with spin orientation.
A Hybrid Method with Deviational Particles for Spatial Inhomogeneous Plasma
Yan, Bokai
2015-01-01
In this work we propose a Hybrid method with Deviational Particles (HDP) for a plasma modeled by the inhomogeneous Vlasov-Poisson-Landau system. We split the distribution into a Maxwellian part evolved by a grid based fluid solver and a deviation part simulated by numerical particles. These particles, named deviational particles, could be both positive and negative. We combine the Monte Carlo method proposed in \\cite{YC15}, a Particle in Cell method and a Macro-Micro decomposition method \\cite{BLM08} to design an efficient hybrid method. Furthermore, coarse particles are employed to accelerate the simulation. A particle resampling technique on both deviational particles and coarse particles is also investigated and improved. The efficiency is significantly improved compared to a PIC-MCC method, especially near the fluid regime.
Quenched moderate deviations principle for random walk in random environment
无
2010-01-01
We derive a quenched moderate deviations principle for the one-dimensional nearest random walk in random environment,where the environment is assumed to be stationary and ergodic.The approach is based on hitting time decomposition.
A hybrid method with deviational particles for spatial inhomogeneous plasma
Yan, Bokai
2016-03-01
In this work we propose a Hybrid method with Deviational Particles (HDP) for a plasma modeled by the inhomogeneous Vlasov-Poisson-Landau system. We split the distribution into a Maxwellian part evolved by a grid based fluid solver and a deviation part simulated by numerical particles. These particles, named deviational particles, could be both positive and negative. We combine the Monte Carlo method proposed in [31], a Particle in Cell method and a Macro-Micro decomposition method [3] to design an efficient hybrid method. Furthermore, coarse particles are employed to accelerate the simulation. A particle resampling technique on both deviational particles and coarse particles is also investigated and improved. This method is applicable in all regimes and significantly more efficient compared to a PIC-DSMC method near the fluid regime.
A Note on Standard Deviation and Standard Error
Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansoureh; Howell, Gareth
2010-01-01
Many students confuse the standard deviation and standard error of the mean and are unsure which, if either, to use in presenting data. In this article, we endeavour to address these questions and cover some related ambiguities about these quantities.
Robust estimation of standard deviation using ordered samples
A robust estimate for the standard deviation of a normal distribution is developed. We choose the contaminated normal distribution as our outlier model and demonstrate the method with two examples representing data from international interlaboratory experiments
9 CFR 381.308 - Deviations in processing.
2010-01-01
...) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned product that addresses hazards associated... (d) of this section. (c) (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan...
Deviation of the statistical fluctuation in heterogeneous anomalous diffusion
Itto, Yuichi
2016-01-01
The exponent of anomalous diffusion of virus in cytoplasm of a living cell is experimentally known to fluctuate depending on localized areas of the cytoplasm, indicating heterogeneity of diffusion. In a recent paper (Itto, 2012), a maximum-entropy-principle approach has been developed in order to propose an Ansatz for the statistical distribution of such exponent fluctuations. Based on this approach, here the deviation of the statistical distribution of the fluctuations from the proposed one is studied from the viewpoint of Einstein's theory of fluctuations (of the thermodynamic quantities). This may present a step toward understanding the statistical property of the deviation. It is shown in a certain class of small deviations that the deviation obeys the multivariate Gaussian distribution.
Large Deviations: An Introduction to 2007 Abel Prize
S Ramasubramanian
2008-05-01
2007 Abel prize has been awarded to S R S Varadhan for creating a unified theory of large deviations. We attempt to give a flavour of this branch of probability theory, highlighting the role of Varadhan.
Analysis of principle deviation of subpixel Zernike moments operator
无
2007-01-01
In original Zernike moments subpixel edge operator, ideal step edge model is chosen for calculating four parameters of a pixel point, and therefore principle deviation is caused by edge model. In order to discuss the effect of principle deviation on edge location, sampled edge model is chosen for calculating edge parameters, principle deviation of edge translation l is derived based on Zernike moments edge detection theory, and modified formula of l is given for Zernike moments operator with masks of 5×5 size. Both theory analysis and testing result demonstrate that principle deviation is zero when edge translation l is limited in central pixel of a sampled window. In another case, the modification of l should be considered, which results in edge location accuracy of non-subpixel level for this subpixel edge operator.
Deviations from the critical state model observed in niobium
Gijsbertse, E.A.; Klundert, van de, L.J.M.
1980-01-01
The values of the critical current density of niobium slabs, measured with the help of trapezoidal ac magnetic fields are not in agreement with the critical state model. Extensions of this model are suggested to explain the observed deviation.
Large deviation theory to model systems under an external feedback
Gagliardi, Alessio; Pecchia, Alessandro; Di Carlo, Aldo
2016-01-01
In this paper we address the problem of systems under an external feedback. This is performed using a large deviation approach and rate distortion from information theory. In particular we define a lower boundary for the maximum entropy reduction that can be obtained using a feedback apparatus with a well defined accuracy in terms of measurement of the state of the system. The large deviation approach allows also to define a new set of potentials, including information, which similarly to mor...
An Upper Bound of Large Deviations for Capacities
Xiaomin Cao
2014-01-01
Up to now, most of the academic researches about the large deviation and risk theory are under the framework of the classical linear expectations. But motivated by problems of model uncertainties in statistics, measures of risk, and superhedging in finance, sublinear expectations are extensively studied. In this paper, we obtain a type of large deviation principle under the sublinear expectation. This result is a new expression of the Gärtner-Ellis theorem under the sublinear expectations whi...
Large Deviation Theory for a Homogenized and "Corrected" Elliptic ODE
Bal, Guillaume; Ghanem, Roger; Langmore, Ian
2010-01-01
We study a one-dimensional elliptic problem with highly oscillatory random diffusion coefficient. We derive a homogenized solution and a so-called Gaussian corrector. We also prove a "pointwise" large deviation principle (LDP) for the full solution and approximate this LDP with a more tractable form. These results allow one to access the limits of Gaussian correctors. In general, the corrector does not capture the large deviation behavior. Applications to uncertainty quantification are consid...
Comparison of estimators of standard deviation for hydrologic time series.
Tasker, Gary D.; Gilroy, E.J.
1982-01-01
Unbiasing factors as a function of serial correlation, rho, and sample size, n for the sample standard deviation of a lag one autoregressive model were generated by random number simulation. Monte Carlo experiments were used to compare the performance of several alternative methods for estimating the standard deviation sigma of a lag one autoregressive model in terms of bias, root mean square error, probability of underestimation, and expected opportunity design loss. -from Authors
The possible advantages of the mean absolute deviation 'effect' size.
Gorard, S.
2013-01-01
A range of ‘effect’ sizes already exists, for presenting a relatively easy to interpret estimate of a difference or change between two sets of observations. All are based on use of the standard deviation of the observations, involving squaring and then square-rooting, which makes results hard to interpret, hard to teach and may distort extreme scores. An effect size based on the simpler mean absolute deviation overcomes these issues to some extent, while being at least as efficient and...
Defection of Traditional Standard Deviation Scaling of Capital Asset Returns
Vladimír Gazda; Karel Koøený; Tomáš Výrost
2004-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the adequacy of scaling, a method frequently used in estimation of standard deviation of stock returns. Scaling is based on the assumption that standard deviation is proportional to the square root of the length of the time interval of the sample (for example daily, monthly or annual data). We analyze the cases when this assumption is justified, and emphasize possible weaknesses of this procedure. As an example, we test the assumptions of scaling on three market ...
Deviations From Newton's Law in Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions
Callin, P.; Burgess, C. P.
2005-01-01
Deviations from Newton's Inverse-Squared Law at the micron length scale are smoking-gun signals for models containing Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions (SLEDs), which have been proposed as approaches for resolving the Cosmological Constant Problem. Just like their non-supersymmetric counterparts, SLED models predict gravity to deviate from the inverse-square law because of the advent of new dimensions at sub-millimeter scales. However SLED models differ from their non-supersymmetric count...
Moderate deviations for the determinant of Wigner matrices
Döring, Hanna; Eichelsbacher, Peter
2013-01-01
We establish a moderate deviations principle (MDP) for the log-determinant $\\log | \\det (M_n) |$ of a Wigner matrix $M_n$ matching four moments with either the GUE or GOE ensemble. Further we establish Cram\\'er--type moderate deviations and Berry-Esseen bounds for the log-determinant for the GUE and GOE ensembles as well as for non-symmetric and non-Hermitian Gaussian random matrices (Ginibre ensembles), respectively.
de Morais, Jose Fausto
2012-01-01
Meta-analysis involves combining summary information for related but independent studies. It uses different relationship to combine position measure as well as dispersion measures. The objective of this study is to discuss a relationship among the standard deviation of a data set and the standard deviation and mean of two part of this set. The problem was proposed in a systematic review with meta-analysis that combined two studies with missing data.
Deviations from Newton's law in supersymmetric large extra dimensions
Deviations from Newton's inverse-squared law at the micron length scale are smoking-gun signals for models containing supersymmetric large extra dimensions (SLEDs), which have been proposed as approaches for resolving the cosmological constant problem. Just like their non-supersymmetric counterparts, SLED models predict gravity to deviate from the inverse-square law because of the advent of new dimensions at sub-millimeter scales. However SLED models differ from their non-supersymmetric counterparts in three important ways: (i) the size of the extra dimensions is fixed by the observed value of the dark energy density, making it impossible to shorten the range over which new deviations from Newton's law must be seen; (ii) supersymmetry predicts there to be more fields in the extra dimensions than just gravity, implying different types of couplings to matter and the possibility of repulsive as well as attractive interactions; and (iii) the same mechanism which is purported to keep the cosmological constant naturally small also keeps the extra-dimensional moduli effectively massless, leading to deviations from general relativity in the far infrared of the scalar-tensor form. We here explore the deviations from Newton's law which are predicted over micron distances, and show the ways in which they differ and resemble those in the non-supersymmetric case
Scaling Deviations for Neutrino Reactions in Aysmptotically Free Field Theories
Wilczek, F. A.; Zee, A.; Treiman, S. B.
1974-11-01
Several aspects of deep inelastic neutrino scattering are discussed in the framework of asymptotically free field theories. We first consider the growth behavior of the total cross sections at large energies. Because of the deviations from strict scaling which are characteristic of such theories the growth need not be linear. However, upper and lower bounds are established which rather closely bracket a linear growth. We next consider in more detail the expected pattern of scaling deviation for the structure functions and, correspondingly, for the differential cross sections. The analysis here is based on certain speculative assumptions. The focus is on qualitative effects of scaling breakdown as they may show up in the X and y distributions. The last section of the paper deals with deviations from the Callan-Gross relation.
Follicle and endocrine dynamics during experimental follicle deviation in mares.
Ginther, O J; Meira, C; Beg, M A; Bergfelt, D R
2002-09-01
Deviation during a follicular wave in mares begins when the largest follicle (F1) reaches a mean diameter of 22.5 mm and is characterized by continued growth of F1 to become the dominant follicle and regression of F2 to become the largest subordinate follicle. In the present study, F1 was ablated at the expected beginning of deviation (Hour 0) to provide a reference point for characterizing the intrafollicular changes preceding experimental deviation between F2 and F3. Diameters and concentrations of follicular fluid factors in F2 and F3 were determined in F1-ablated mares at Hours 0, 12, 24, 48, or 72 (n = 8 mares/group). Circulating FSH concentrations were greater (P 0.1) to the diameter of F1 and FSH concentration at Hour 0, respectively. A differential change between F2 and F3 was not detected in follicular fluid concentrations of estradiol, inhibin-A, and activin-A by the beginning of experimental deviation. However, estradiol was higher in F2 at Hours 0 and 12 and inhibin-A was higher in F2 throughout the experiment, and both factors could have been involved in experimental deviation. Free insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) increased (P < 0.05) in F2 beginning at Hour 12 and was higher (P < 0.05) in F2 than in F3 by the beginning of experimental deviation. Temporally, this result indicated that intrafollicular IGF-1 was involved in conversion of F2 from a destined subordinate follicle to a dominant follicle. PMID:12193395
Large Deviations for Multiscale Diffusions via Weak Convergence Methods
Dupuis, Paul
2010-01-01
We study the large deviations principle for locally periodic stochastic differential equations with small noise and fast oscillating coefficients. There are three possible regimes depending on how fast the intensity of the noise goes to zero relative to the homogenization parameter. We use weak convergence methods which provide convenient representations for the action functional for all three regimes. Along the way we study weak limits of related controlled SDEs with fast oscillating coefficients and derive, in some cases, a control that nearly achieves the large deviations lower bound at the prelimit level. This control is useful for designing efficient importance sampling schemes for multiscale diffusions driven by small noise.
A large deviation principle for join the shortest queue
Puhalskii, Anatolii A.; Vladimirov, Alexander A.
2005-01-01
We consider a join-the-shortest-queue model which is as follows. There are $K$ single FIFO servers and $M$ arrival processes. The customers from a given arrival process can be served only by servers from a certain subset of all servers. The actual destination is the server with the smallest weighted queue length. The arrival processes are assumed to obey a large deviation principle while the service is exponential. A large deviation principle is established for the queue-length process. The a...
Small shape deviations causes complex dynamics in large electric generators
Lundström, Niklas L. P.; Grafström, Anton; Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
2014-05-01
We prove that combinations of small eccentricity, ovality and/or triangularity in the rotor and stator can produce complex whirling motions of an unbalanced rotor in large synchronous generators. It is concluded which structures of shape deviations that are more harmful, in the sense of producing complex whirling motions, than others. For each such structure, we derive simplified equations of motions from which we conclude analytically the relation between shape deviations and mass unbalance that yield non-smooth whirling motions. Finally we discuss validity of our results in the sense of modeling of the unbalanced magnetic pull force.
Estimation of Transition Probabilities Using Median Absolute Deviations
Kim, C. S.; Schaible, Glenn D.
1988-01-01
The probability-constrained minimum absolute deviations (MAD) estimator appears to be superior to the probability-constrained quadratic programming estimator in estimating transition probabilities with limited aggregate time series data Futhermore, one can reduce the number of columns in the probability-constrained MAD simplex tableau by adopting the median property
Generalized deviation equations and entanglement first law for Rotating BTZ
Ghosh, Avirup
2016-01-01
The change in Holographic entanglement entropy (HEE) for small fluctuations about pure AdS is given by a perturbative expansion of the area functional in terms of the change in the bulk metric and the embedded extremal surface. However it is known that change in the embedding appear at second order or higher. In this paper we show that these changes in the embedding can be systematically calculated in the 2+1 dimensional case by accounting for the deviation of the spacelike geodesics between a spacetime and perturbations over it. Here we consider rotating BTZ as perturbation over $AdS_3$ and study deviations of spacelike geodesics in them. We argue that these deviations arise naturally as solutions of a "generalized geodesic deviation equation". Using this we perturbatively calculate the changes in HEE upto second order, for rotating BTZ. This expression matches with the small system size expansion of the change in HEE obtained by HRT (Hubeny, Rangamani and Takayanagi) proposal for rotating BTZ. We also give ...
Large Deviation Analysis of Rapid Onset of Rain Showers
Wilkinson, Michael
2016-01-01
Rainfall from ice-free cumulus clouds requires collisions of large numbers of microscopic droplets to create every raindrop. The onset of rain showers can be surprisingly rapid, much faster than the mean time required for a single collision. Large-deviation theory is used to explain this observation.
49 CFR 110.120 - Deviation from this part.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deviation from this part. 110.120 Section 110.120 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND OIL TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PUBLIC SECTOR TRAINING AND PLANNING...
Large Deviation Analysis of Rapid Onset of Rain Showers.
Wilkinson, Michael
2016-01-01
Rainfall from ice-free cumulus clouds requires collisions of large numbers of microscopic droplets to create every raindrop. The onset of rain showers can be surprisingly rapid, much faster than the mean time required for a single collision. Large-deviation theory is used to explain this observation. PMID:26799046
Large systematic deviations in the haptic perception of parallelity
Kappers, A.M.L.
1999-01-01
Recently, Kappers and Koenderink (1999 Perception 28 781-795) showed that what subjects haptically perceive as parallel often deviates greatly from what is actually physically parallel. In their experiment, subjects had to rotate a test bar in such a way that it felt as though it was parallel to a r
Strongly Cohen-Macaulay ideals of small second analytic deviation
Corso, Alberto; Polini, Claudia
2002-01-01
We characterize the strongly Cohen-Macaulay ideals of second analytic deviation one in terms of depth properties of the powers of the ideal in the `standard range.' This provides an explanation of the behaviour of certain ideals that have appeared in the literature.
Robust Confidence Interval for a Ratio of Standard Deviations
Bonett, Douglas G.
2006-01-01
Comparing variability of test scores across alternate forms, test conditions, or subpopulations is a fundamental problem in psychometrics. A confidence interval for a ratio of standard deviations is proposed that performs as well as the classic method with normal distributions and performs dramatically better with nonnormal distributions. A simple…
The one-shot deviation principle for sequential rationality
Hendon, Ebbe; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte
1996-01-01
We present a decentralization result which is useful for practical and theoretical work with sequential equilibrium, perfect Bayesian equilibrium, and related equilibrium concepts for extensive form games. A weak consistency condition is sufficient to obtain an analogy to the well known One-Stage......-Stage-Deviation Principle for subgame perfect equilibrium...
Deviations in the Accumulated Dose For Archaeological Dating
Farias, T. M. B.; Gennari, R. F.; Santana, J. C. C.; Calarge, F.
The archaeological dating by thermoluminescence (TL) method is obtained through the determination of the accumulative dose and the annual. In this work, an evaluation of two factors which can cause deviations in the accumulative dose in archaeological dating of sediments by TL method was carried out.
Developmental aspects of the deviated nose -a verwoerd study-
Grewal, DS; Irani, Dinaz K
1999-01-01
In childhood functional, infectious, aesthetic and social problems can result from a deviated septum and nose, further research on the anatomic development, the mechanism of growth, and the process of wound healing is needed to develop surgical techniques that not only correct the present problem but also ensure the further normal growth of the septum and nose.
Study Of The Effect Of Nasal- Septal Deviation On The Middle Ear Pressure
Motesaddi Zarandi M
2003-10-01
Full Text Available Eustachian tube connects middle ear space to the nasopharyngeal space. Upper airway obstruction, with any cause, can derange Eustachian tube function. Nasal septal deviation is one of the prevalent causes of upper airway obstruction which can affects the ventilation function of Eustachian tube."nMaterials and Methods: This study was conducted on the patients who underwent septoplasty due to severe septal deviation leading to unilateral nasal obstruction in Amiraalam hospital from summer of 1378 till the spring of 1379."nResults: There was 140 patients whose data were as: female patients 34 (24.3% male patients 106 (75.7%, mean age (22.7. Median age (20 years and mode of age (18 years of age. they were from 12 to 40 years of age."nConclusion: Comparison between preoperative and postoperative middle ear pressures shows no any significant statistical difference (p=0.798.
Exact Moderate and Large Deviations for Linear Processes
Peligrada, Magda; Zhong, Yunda; Wu, Wei Biao
2011-01-01
Large and moderate deviation probabilities play an important role in many applied areas, such as insurance and risk analysis. This paper studies the exact moderate and large deviation asymptotics in non-logarithmic form for linear processes with independent innovations. The linear processes we analyze are general and therefore they include the long memory case. We give an asymptotic representation for probability of the tail of the normalized sums and specify the zones in which it can be approximated either by a standard normal distribution or by the marginal distribution of the innovation process. The results are then applied to regression estimates, moving averages, fractionally integrated processes, linear processes with regularly varying exponents and functions of linear processes. We also consider the computation of value at risk and expected shortfall, fundamental quantities in risk theory and finance.
The deformation-stability fundamental length and deviations from c
A fundamental length (or time) is conjectured in many contexts. The “stability of physical theories principle” provides an unambiguous derivation of the stable structures that Nature might have chosen for its algebraic framework. 1/c and ℏ are the deformation parameters that stabilize the Galilean and Poisson algebras. The stability principle applied to the Poincaré–Heisenberg algebra, yields two deformation parameters defining two length (or time) scales. One of the scales is probably related to Planck's length but the other might be much larger. This is used as working hypothesis to compute deviations from c in speed measurements of massless particles. -- Highlights: ► Fundamental length as one of the deformation parameters of the Poincaré–Heisenberg algebra. ► Conjecture that one of the deformation parameters is much larger than Planck's length. ► Deviations from c in speed measurements of massless wave packets.
Deviation from the superparamagnetic behaviour of fine-particle systems
Malaescu, I
2000-01-01
Studies concerning superparamagnetic behaviour of fine magnetic particle systems were performed using static and radiofrequency measurements, in the range 1-60 MHz. The samples were: a ferrofluid with magnetite particles dispersed in kerosene (sample A), magnetite powder (sample B) and the same magnetite powder dispersed in a polymer (sample C). Radiofrequency measurements indicated a maximum in the imaginary part of the complex magnetic susceptibility, for each of the samples, at frequencies with the magnitude order of tens of MHz, the origin of which was assigned to Neel-type relaxation processes. The static measurements showed a Langevin-type dependence of magnetisation M and of susceptibility chi, on the magnetic field for sample A. For samples B and C deviations from this type of dependence were found. These deviations were analysed qualitatively and explained in terms of the interparticle interactions, dispersion medium influence and surface effects.
A study on the deviation aspects of the poem “The Eightieth Stage”
Soghra Salmaninejad Mehrabadi
2016-02-01
's innovation. New expressions are also used in other parts of abnormality in “The Eightieth Stag e” . Stylistic deviation Sometimes, Akhavan uses local and slang words, and words with different songs and music produces deviation as well. This Application is one kind of abnormality. Words such as “han, hey, by the truth, pity, hoome, kope, meydanak and ...” are of this type of abnormality . Ancient deviation One way to break out of the habit of poetry , is attention to ancient words and actions . Archaism is one of the factors affecting the deviation. Archaism deviation helps to make the old sp. According to Leach, the ancient is the survival of the old language in the now. Syntactic factors, type of music and words, are effective in escape from the standard language. ”Sowrat (sharpness, hamgenan (counterparts, parine (last year, pour ( son, pahlaw (champion’’are Words that show Akhavan’s attention to archaism. The ancient pronunciation is another part of his work. Furthermore, use of mythology and allusion have created deviation of this type. Cases such as anagram adjectival compounds, the use of two prepositions for a word, the use of the adjective and noun in the plural form, are signs of archaism in grammar and syntax. He is interested in grammatical elements of Khorasani Style. Most elements of this style used in “The Eightieth Stage” poetry. S emantic deviation Semantic deviation is caused by the imagery . The poet uses frequently literary figures. By this way, he produces new meaning and therefore highlights his poem. Simile, metaphor, personification and irony are the most important examples of this deviation. Apparently the maximum deviation from the norm in this poem is of periodic deviation (ancient or archaism. The second row belongs to the semantic deviation in which metaphor is the most meaningful. The effect of metaphor in this poem is quite well. In general, Poet’s notice to the different deviations is one of his techniques and the key
Endogenous agenda formation processes with the one-deviation property
Vartiainen, Hannu
2014-01-01
We study collective choice via an endogenous agenda setting process. At each stage, a status quo is implemented unless it is replaced by a majority (winning coalition) with a new status quo outcome. The process continues until the prevailing status quo is no longer challenged. We impose a one-time deviation restriction on the feasible policy processes, reflecting farsightedness of voters. The key feature of the solution is history dependence. The existence of the solution is proven by iterati...
Large deviations of inverse processes with nonlinear scalings
Duffield, N. G.; Whitt, W.
1998-01-01
We show, under regularity conditions, that a nonnegative nondecreasing real-valued stochastic process satisfies a large deviation principle (LDP) with nonlinear scaling if and only if its inverse process does. We also determine how the associated scaling and rate functions must be related. A key condition for the LDP equivalence is for the composition of two of the scaling functions to be regularly varying with nonnegative index. We apply the LDP equivalence to develop equiv...
Geometry of river networks. I. Scaling, fluctuations, and deviations
This paper is the first in a series of three papers investigating the detailed geometry of river networks. Branching networks are a universal structure employed in the distribution and collection of material. Large-scale river networks mark an important class of two-dimensional branching networks, being not only of intrinsic interest but also a pervasive natural phenomenon. In the description of river network structure, scaling laws are uniformly observed. Reported values of scaling exponents vary, suggesting that no unique set of scaling exponents exists. To improve this current understanding of scaling in river networks and to provide a fuller description of branching network structure, here we report a theoretical and empirical study of fluctuations about and deviations from scaling. We examine data for continent-scale river networks such as the Mississippi and the Amazon and draw inspiration from a simple model of directed, random networks. We center our investigations on the scaling of the length of a subbasin's dominant stream with its area, a characterization of basin shape known as Hack's law. We generalize this relationship to a joint probability density, and provide observations and explanations of deviations from scaling. We show that fluctuations about scaling are substantial, and grow with system size. We find strong deviations from scaling at small scales which can be explained by the existence of a linear network structure. At intermediate scales, we find slow drifts in exponent values, indicating that scaling is only approximately obeyed and that universality remains indeterminate. At large scales, we observe a breakdown in scaling due to decreasing sample space and correlations with overall basin shape. The extent of approximate scaling is significantly restricted by these deviations, and will not be improved by increases in network resolution
Trends and Deviations in Federal, State and Local Finance
Jeffrey S. Zax
1986-01-01
This paper contains a descriptive analysis o+ real per capita annual revenues, expenditures, deficits, debt levels and capital expenditures for federal, state and local government finance in the United States for the rears 1952-83. It summarizes each time series as a deterministic trend and an ARIM characterization of the deviations around trend. These summaries demonstrate that civilian capital outlays are falling at an accelerating pace in ail levels of government; federal government expend...
Detection of Deviations in Mobile Applications Network Behavior
Chekina, L.; Mimran, D.; Rokach, L.; Elovici, Y.; Shapira, B.
2012-01-01
In this paper a novel system for detecting meaningful deviations in a mobile application's network behavior is proposed. The main goal of the proposed system is to protect mobile device users and cellular infrastructure companies from malicious applications. The new system is capable of: (1) identifying malicious attacks or masquerading applications installed on a mobile device, and (2) identifying republishing of popular applications injected with a malicious code. The detection is performed...
New Rotary Engine Designs by Deviation Function Method
Warren, Sarah
2012-01-01
Conventional rotary engine designs are based on an epitrochoidal housing bore that is found by the path of the point at the rotor profile's apex. To seal the engine, the rotor apexes are replaced by spring-loaded apex seals that slide along the housing bore during rotation. The conventional designs are limited to the point-based epitrochoid housing profiles and cannot incorporate the profile of the apex seal. This dissertation presents the complete theory and algorithm of the deviation functi...
Diagram of measurement series elements deviation from local linear approximations
Lande, D. V.; Snarskii, A. A.
2009-01-01
Method for detection and visualization of trends, periodicities, local peculiarities in measurement series (dL-method) based on DFA technology (Detrended fluctuation analysis) is proposed. The essence of the method lies in reflecting the values of absolute deviation of measurement accumulation series points from the respective values of linear approximation. It is shown that dL-method in some cases allows better determination of local peculiarities than wavelet-analysis. Easy-to-realize appro...
Predictive visual tracking based on least absolute deviation estimation
Rongtai Cai; Yanjie Wang
2008-01-01
To cope with the occlusion and intersection between targets and the environment, location prediction is employed in the visual tracking system. Target trace is fitted by sliding subsection polynomials based on least absolute deviation (LAD) estimation, and the future location of target is predicted with the fitted trace. Experiment results show that the proposed location prediction algorithm based on LAD estimation has significant robustness advantages over least square (LS) estimation, and it is more effective than LS-based methods in visual tracking.
DEVIATIONS OF STRUCTURE BETWEEN BULK AND FIBER GLASSES
Stockhorst, H.; Brückner, R.
1982-01-01
Fibers from a silicate and a metaphosphate glass, produced by the nozzle drawing process are investigated with respect to their structural properties compared with bulk glass. The drawing parameters - nozzle temperature, mass flow and drawing speed - are varied in a wide range. The following properties are investigated : fiber density, thermal expansion-contraction-behaviour and optical birefringence. All these properties show characteristic deviations from the bulk glass values depending str...
Large deviations of ergodic counting processes: a statistical mechanics approach
Budini, Adrian A.
2011-01-01
The large-deviation method allows to characterize an ergodic counting process in terms of a thermodynamic frame where a free energy function determines the asymptotic non-stationary statistical properties of its fluctuations. Here, we study this formalism through a statistical mechanics approach, i.e., with an auxiliary counting process that maximizes an entropy function associated to the thermodynamic potential. We show that the realizations of this auxiliary process can be obtained after ap...
Semiparametric Bernstein–von Mises for the error standard deviation
Jonge, de, B.; Zanten, van, M.
2013-01-01
We study Bayes procedures for nonparametric regression problems with Gaussian errors, giving conditions under which a Bernstein–von Mises result holds for the marginal posterior distribution of the error standard deviation. We apply our general results to show that a single Bayes procedure using a hierarchical spline-based prior on the regression function and an independent prior on the error variance, can simultaneously achieve adaptive, rate-optimal estimation of a smooth, multivariate regr...
Deviation of Yukawa Coupling in Gauge-Higgs Unification
Adachi, Yuki; Maru, Nobuhito
2015-01-01
We study the deviation of yukawa coupling in the gauge-Higgs unification scenario from the Standard Model one. Taking into account the brane mass terms necessary for generating the flavor mixing and removing the exotic massless fermions, we derive an analytic formula determining the KK mass spectrum and yukawa coupling. Applying the obtained results to the tau and bottom yukawa couplings, we numerically calculate the ratio of the yukawa couplings in the gauge-Higgs unification and in the Stan...
Semiparametric Bernstein-von Mises for the error standard deviation
Jonge, de, B.; Zanten, van, M.
2013-01-01
We study Bayes procedures for nonparametric regression problems with Gaussian errors, giving conditions under which a Bernstein-von Mises result holds for the marginal posterior distribution of the error standard deviation. We apply our general results to show that a single Bayes procedure using a hierarchical spline-based prior on the regression function and an independent prior on the error variance, can simultaneously achieve adaptive, rate-optimal estimation of a smooth, multivariate regr...
Are there deviations from Newton's law of gravitation?
A survey is given about the search for experimental references of deviations from Newton's law of gravitation postulating an universal equivalence between inertial and heavy mass. Classical and modern experiments, geophysical measurements, measurements on elementary particles as well as theoretical models and astronomical observations are reported and the accuracy is estimated. Specially the results of the Eoetvoes experiment giving the impulse for such a search are discussed
Gibbs-non-Gibbs transitions via large deviations: computable examples
2012-01-01
We give new and explicitly computable examples of Gibbs-non-Gibbs transitions of mean-field type, using the large deviation approach introduced in [4]. These examples include Brownian motion with small variance and related diffusion processes, such as the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, as well as birth and death processes. We show for a large class of initial measures and diffusive dynamics both short-time conservation of Gibbsianness and dynamical Gibbs-non-Gibbs transitions.
Quantifying prosthetic gait deviation using simple outcome measures
Kark, Lauren; Odell, Ross; McIntosh, Andrew S; Simmons, Anne
2016-01-01
AIM: To develop a subset of simple outcome measures to quantify prosthetic gait deviation without needing three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA). METHODS: Eight unilateral, transfemoral amputees and 12 unilateral, transtibial amputees were recruited. Twenty-eight able-bodied controls were recruited. All participants underwent 3DGA, the timed-up-and-go test and the six-minute walk test (6MWT). The lower-limb amputees also completed the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire. Results from 3DGA were summarised using the gait deviation index (GDI), which was subsequently regressed, using stepwise regression, against the other measures. RESULTS: Step-length (SL), self-selected walking speed (SSWS) and the distance walked during the 6MWT (6MWD) were significantly correlated with GDI. The 6MWD was the strongest, single predictor of the GDI, followed by SL and SSWS. The predictive ability of the regression equations were improved following inclusion of self-report data related to mobility and prosthetic utility. CONCLUSION: This study offers a practicable alternative to quantifying kinematic deviation without the need to conduct complete 3DGA. PMID:27335814
Deviation from Alday-Maldacena duality for wavy circle
Alday-Maldacena conjecture is stated in this paper that the area AΠ of the minimal surface in AdS5 space with a boundary Π, located in Euclidean space at infinity of AdS5, coincides with a double integral DΠ along Π, the Abelian Wilson average in an auxiliary dual model. This comes from Alday and Maldacena's original proposal and the BDS conjecture on the extrapolation of the MHV amplitudes. The boundary Π is a polygon formed by momenta of n external light-like particles in N=4 SYM theory, and in a certain n=∞ limit it can be substituted by an arbitrary smooth curve (wavy circle). The Alday-Maldacena conjecture is known to be violated for n>5, when it fails to be supported by the peculiar global dual conformal invariance, however, the structure of deviations remains obscure. The case of wavy lines can appear more convenient for analysis of these deviations due to the systematic method developed in [H. Itoyama, A. Mironov, A. Morozov, Anomaly in n=∞ Alday-Maldacena duality for wavy circle, JHEP 0807 (2008) 024, (arXiv:0803.1547)] for (perturbative) evaluation of minimal areas, which is not yet available in the presence of angles at finite n. We correct a mistake in that paper and explicitly evaluate the h2h-bar2 terms, where the first deviation from the Alday-Maldacena duality arises for the wavy circle.
Deviation of Biochemical Variables in Dairy Cows with Reproductive Disorders - Data
Jožica Ježek
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of biochemical profiles of cows from farms with reproductive disorders. The results of blood examinations collected from 205 dairy cows, which originated from 72 Slovenian farms, were analysed. In blood samples total serum protein (TSP, albumin (Alb, urea, calcium (Ca, inorganic phosphate (iP, sodium (Na, potassium (K, chlorine (Cl and betacarotene concentration were measured. Data were compared with normal reference values for cattle. The results were evaluated regarding the normal values for cattle. The descriptive statistics and percentage of cows deviating from normal values for investigated variables were calculated. The mean values of investigated variables were inside reference intervals for cattle. The results of biochemical examination show deviation from reference interval in 52.3% of cows for TSP, 70.8% for urea, 39.8% for iP, 27.5% for Na, 36.2% for K, 1.1% for Cl, 37.6% for beta carotene and 6.8% for Ca. The results of biochemical investigations revealed the greatest deviations in concentrations of TSP, urea, Na, K and carotene which can be affected by different factors (nutrition, health status, stage of lactation and season. Taking into account all of these factors may be blood biochemistry a useful tool also in identifying deficiencies in the diet.
Zhang, Wei; Huang, Wei; Gao, Yubo; Qi, Yafei; Hypervelocity Impact Research Center Team
2015-06-01
Laboratory-scaled oblique water entry experiments for the trajectory stability in the water column have been performed with four different nosed-projectiles at a range of velocities from 20m /s to 250 m /s . The slender projectiles are designed with flat, ogival, hemi-sperical, truncated-ogival noses to make comparisons on the trajectory deviation when they are launched at vertical and oblique impact angles (0°~25°). Two high-speed cameras that are positioned orthogonal to each other and normal to the column are employed to capture the entire process of projectiles' penetration. From the experimental results, the sequential images in two planes are presented to compare the trajectory deviation of different impact tests and the 3D trajectory models are extracted based on the location recorded by cameras. Considering the effect influenced by the impact velocities and noses of projectiles, it merited concluded that trajectory deviation is affected from most by impact angle, and least by impact velocities. Additionally, ogival projectiles tend to be more sensitive to oblique angle and experienced the largest attitude changing. National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO.: 11372088).
Left-Deviating Prism Adaptation in Left Neglect Patient: Reflexions on a Negative Result
Jacques Luauté
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purposes. After a single session of exposing simple manual pointing to left-deviating prisms, contrary to healthy controls, none of the patients showed a reliable change of the straight-ahead pointing movement in the dark. No significant modification of attentional paper-and-pencil tasks was either observed immediately or 2 hours after prism adaptation. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of prism adaptation on left spatial neglect relies on a specific lateralized mechanism. Evidence for a directional effect for prism adaptation both in terms of the side of the visuomanual adaptation and therefore possibly in terms of the side of brain affected by the stimulation is discussed.
Weaver, B. P.; Hilbe, J. M.; Robbins, S. J.; Plesko, C. S.; Riggs, J. D.
2015-05-01
Many crater analysts will search for deviations of observed crater population data from model crater populations and treat those deviations as a modification event - usually resurfacing. We will discuss how to assign confidences for these deviations.
Frequency deviations and generation scheduling in the nordic system
Li, Zhongwei; Samuelsson, Olaf; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo
2011-01-01
High penetration of variable generation such as wind power increases the demands on frequency control. The same applies to island operation and in particular if this involves variable generation, which is planned at the Danish island Bornholm. While it is obvious that the frequency control need to...... the frequency deviations and hourly scheduled generation. A simple model is given to reproduce these deterministic frequency variations. Simulations indicate that smaller system size as is typical for island operation does not necessarily increase these frequency variations provided load, generation...
Deviations in Tribimaximal Mixing From Sterile Neutrino Sector
Dev, S; Gautam, Radha Raman
2016-01-01
We explore the possibility of generating a non-zero $U_{e3}$ element of the neutrino mixing matrix from tribimaximal neutrino mixing by adding a light sterile neutrino to the active neutrinos. Small active-sterile mixing can provide the necessary deviation from tribimaximal mixing to generate a non-zero $\\theta_{13}$ and atmospheric mixing $\\theta_{23}$ different from maximal. Assuming no CP-violation, we study the phenomenological impact of sterile neutrinos in the context of current neutrino oscillation data. The tribimaximal pattern is broken in such a manner that the second column of tribimaximal mixing remains intact in the neutrino mixing matrix.
Crystallographic evidence for deviating C3b structure?
Janssen, B.J.C.; Read, R.J.; Brunger, A. T.; Gros, P
2007-01-01
Activation of C3 into C3b is a critical step in the complement immune response against pathogenic, immunogenic and apoptotic particles. Ajees et al.1 report a crystal structure of C3b, which deviates from the one reported by Janssen et al.2 and Wiesmann et al.3. Analysis of the data deposited by Ajees et al.1 reveals features that are inconsistent with known physical properties of macromolecular structures and their diffraction data. Therefore, Ajees et al. do not provide substantial evidence...
Quality Assessment of Vertical Angular Deviations for Photometer Calibration Benches
Lighting, both natural and electric, constitutes one of the most important aspects of the life of human beings, allowing us to see and perform our daily tasks in outdoor and indoor environments. The safety aspects of lighting are self-evident in areas such as road lighting, urban lighting and also indoor lighting. The use of photometers to measure lighting levels requires traceability obtained in accredited laboratories, which must provide an associated uncertainty. It is therefore relevant to study the impact of known uncertainty sources like the vertical angular deviation of photometer calibration benches, in order to define criteria to its quality assessment
H.Q. Zhang; H.Y. Zhao; Y.H. Zhang; L.H. Li; X.A. Zhang
2004-01-01
Fatigue crack growth behaviors in electron beam weldments of a nickel-base superalloy are studied. The objective of this paper is to discuss effects of the inhomogeneity of mechanical performance on fatigue crack growth (FCG) rate and crack path deviation (CPD). The base metal served in a turbine disk of aerospace engine was selected to fabricate bead-on-plate weldments by using electron beam welding. Some wedge-type opening loading specimens, notched in three different zone of weld metal, HAZ and base metal, were employed and performed fatigue crack growth tests at 650℃. The results show that the fatigue crack growth of electron beam welded joints is instable due to the influence of mechanical heterogeneities. Owing to the crack deviation at the weld metal and hcat-affected-zone (HAZ), the effective growth driving force at the tip of fatigue crack was reduced with the reduction of the effective stress intensity factor (SIF) which finally causes fatigue crack rate decrease. Fatigue crack was strongly affected by size and the symmetrical characteristics of the plastic zone at the crack tip, which means that the integrity of the welded structure containing the fatigue crack mainly depended on the toughness of the low strength zone.
The Time Deviation in Packet-Based Synchronization.
Weiss, M A; Shenoi, Kishan
2016-04-01
The telecommunications industry has used the time deviation (TDEV) very effectively for specifying network equipment clock performance as well as the performance of timing signals generated by Central Office equipment such as primary reference clocks and building integrated timing supplies (BITS) and synchronization supply units (SSUs). We discuss here the development of TDEV, and the variations of TDEV motivated by the advent of packet-switching and the steady transformation of the telecom network from circuit-switched-based to packet-switched-based. We illustrate these with simulation of the performance of the precise time protocol (PTP) across a packet-switched network. We then apply published methods to automatically determine noise types, and use these to predict time dispersion from a master clock for a slave clock using these PTP packets to stay synchronized. The result shows how TDEV and the other deviations provide an extensive array of tools for telecom networks, as well as for general time and frequency applications. PMID:26529756
Large deviations for random walk in a random environment
Yilmaz, Atilla
2008-01-01
In this work, we study the large deviation properties of random walk in a random environment on $\\mathbb{Z}^d$ with $d\\geq1$. We start with the quenched case, take the point of view of the particle, and prove the large deviation principle (LDP) for the pair empirical measure of the environment Markov chain. By an appropriate contraction, we deduce the quenched LDP for the mean velocity of the particle and obtain a variational formula for the corresponding rate function $I_q$. We propose an Ansatz for the minimizer of this formula. This Ansatz is easily verified when $d=1$. In his 2003 paper, Varadhan proves the averaged LDP for the mean velocity and gives a variational formula for the corresponding rate function $I_a$. Under the non-nestling assumption (resp. Kalikow's condition), we show that $I_a$ is strictly convex and analytic on a non-empty open set $\\mathcal{A}$, and that the true velocity $\\xi_o$ is an element (resp. in the closure) of $\\mathcal{A}$. We then identify the minimizer of Varadhan's variati...
Absorbed dose evaluation by SISCODES code, kerma and fluence deviations
Radiotherapy is a common treatment of cancer. Radiotherapy exposes the patient to a radiation field, producing ionization, and absorbed dose. A precise dose calculation and the ability to execute the irradiation on the patient are necessary in order to avoid serious injuries on the surrounding health tissue, thus, the maximum acceptable absorbed dose error from the prescribed and applied is about 5%. The doses on radiotherapy are usually calculated by superimposition experimental dose profile, namely PDP, which is experimentally measured in a water simulator. Moreover, the radiation interaction with human body tissues depends on the chemical composition and the tissue density, which means the anthropomorphism and anthropometric of the human being. This paper evaluates the deviation of calculated value of kerma, induced by human body heterogeneities. To do this job two thorax voxel models created on SISCODES (one filled with various tissues other filled with water) were applied. The result of simulations permits two different comparisons. One is the ratio between tissues kermas and water kerma. Another is the ratio between human phantom fluence, where exists radiation scatter and reflection, and water phantom fluence. The reconstructed pictures of studied regions showing the calculated ratios, and graphs of the ratios versus energy of each tissue are shown. The dose ratio deviations obtained are, in some situations, larger than the acceptable 5% point out serious miscalculation of doses for some spatial regions on the human body. (author)
Some Deviations Associated With Vector Perturbation Diffraction Theory
Stover, John C.; Hourmand, Bahrarr
1985-01-01
Last year at this conference our lab presented some data which strongly supports the use of the vector perturbation relationship between light scattered from smooth surfaces and the surface power spectral density (PSD). Last year's data showed that a consistent answer was obtained for the PSD for measurements taken with S and P polarization, with incident angles up to 45', for positive and negative sweeps, and for one and two dimensional samples. If in fact the theoretical relationship is correct then this must be the case, as the PSD is determined by a combination of surface topography and the scattering situation (geometry, polarization, wavelength, etc.). It appears, however that for large scatter angles (>700) and for large angles of incidence (>60 °) there is some deviation in the calculated PSD. In addition, the high angle scatter region is an area where a scatterometer with a semicircular detector sweep loses the one-to-one relationship between detector position and surface spatial frequency. Or, in other words, light diffracted to high scatter angles from single spatial frequencies appears over a small band on the observation semicircle instead of a diffraction limited point. Fata supporting these two deviations is presented. Although they are not regarded as serious violations of the vector perturbation theory they do impose a limit on the useful range over which the PSD may be calculated.
Maximum acceptable forces for repetitive ulnar deviation of the wrist.
Snook, S H; Vaillancourt, D R; Ciriello, V M; Webster, B S
1997-07-01
The purpose of this experiment was to quantify maximum acceptable forces for ulnar deviation motions of the wrist at various repetition rates. Subjects grasped a handle with a power grip and moved it through a 1.40 rad (80 degrees) ulnar deviation wrist motion (similar to a knife cutting task). A psychophysical methodology was used in which the subject adjusted the resistance on the handle and the experiment manipulated or controlled all other variables. Two series of experiments were conducted. Thirteen subjects completed the first series, which investigated repetition rates of 15 and 20 motions per minute. Eleven subjects completed the second series, which investigated 15, 20, and 25 motions per minute. Subjects performed for 7 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 4 weeks in the first series and 5 weeks in the second series. The subjects were instructed to work as if they were on an incentive basis, getting paid for the amount of work they performed. Symptoms were recorded by the subjects during the last 5 minutes of each hour. The results are presented and compared with maximum acceptable forces for wrist flexion and extension. PMID:9208467
Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series
Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.
1997-01-01
A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.
Large Deviation Results for Generalized Compound Negative Binomial Risk Models
Fan-chao Kong; Chen Shen
2009-01-01
In this paper we extend and improve some results of the large deviation for random sums of random variables.Let {Xn;n≥1} be a sequence of non-negative,independent and identically distributed random variables with common heavy-tailed distribution function F and finite mean μ∈R+,{N(n);n≥0} be a sequence of negative binomial distributed random variables with a parameter p ∈(0,1),n≥0,let {M(n);n≥0} be a Poisson process with intensity λ0.Suppose {N(n);n≥0},{Xn;n≥1} and {M(n);n≥0} are mutually results.These results can be applied to certain problems in insurance and finance.
Distributed Detection over Noisy Networks: Large Deviations Analysis
Jakovetic, Dusan; Xavier, Joao
2011-01-01
We study the large deviations performance of consensus+innovations distributed detection over noisy networks, where sensors at a time step k cooperate with immediate neighbors (consensus) and assimilate their new observations (innovation.) We show that, even under noisy communication, \\emph{all sensors} can achieve exponential decay e^{-k C_{\\mathrm{dis}}} of the detection error probability, even when certain (or most) sensors cannot detect the event of interest in isolation. We achieve this by designing a single time scale stochastic approximation type distributed detector with the optimal weight sequence {\\alpha_k}, by which sensors weigh their neighbors' messages. The optimal design of {\\alpha_k} balances the opposing effects of communication noise and information flow from neighbors: larger, slowly decaying \\alpha_k improves information flow but injects more communication noise. Further, we quantify the best achievable C_{\\mathrm{dis}} as a function of the sensing signal and noise, communication noise, an...
Image contrast enhancement based on a local standard deviation model
The adaptive contrast enhancement (ACE) algorithm is a widely used image enhancement method, which needs a contrast gain to adjust high frequency components of an image. In the literature, the gain is usually inversely proportional to the local standard deviation (LSD) or is a constant. But these cause two problems in practical applications, i.e., noise overenhancement and ringing artifact. In this paper a new gain is developed based on Hunt's Gaussian image model to prevent the two defects. The new gain is a nonlinear function of LSD and has the desired characteristic emphasizing the LSD regions in which details are concentrated. We have applied the new ACE algorithm to chest x-ray images and the simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm
Lyapunov exponents of linear cocycles continuity via large deviations
Duarte, Pedro
2016-01-01
The aim of this monograph is to present a general method of proving continuity of Lyapunov exponents of linear cocycles. The method uses an inductive procedure based on a general, geometric version of the Avalanche Principle. The main assumption required by this method is the availability of appropriate large deviation type estimates for quantities related to the iterates of the base and fiber dynamics associated with the linear cocycle. We establish such estimates for various models of random and quasi-periodic cocycles. Our method has its origins in a paper of M. Goldstein and W. Schlag. Our present work expands upon their approach in both depth and breadth. We conclude this monograph with a list of related open problems, some of which may be treated using a similar approach.
Large deviations of heat flow in harmonic chains
We consider heat transport across a harmonic chain connected at its two ends to white-noise Langevin reservoirs at different temperatures. In the steady state of this system the heat Q flowing from one reservoir into the system in a finite time τ has a distribution P(Q, τ). We study the large time form of the corresponding moment generating function (e−λQ) ∼ g(λ)eτμ(λ). Exact formal expressions, in terms of phonon Green's functions, are obtained for both μ(λ) and also the lowest order correction g(λ). We point out that, in general, a knowledge of both μ(λ) and g(λ) is required for finding the large deviation function associated with P(Q, τ). The function μ(λ) is known to be the largest eigenvector of an appropriate Fokker–Planck type operator and our method also gives the corresponding eigenvector exactly
Large deviations from the thermodynamic limit in globally coupled maps
Hamm, A
1999-01-01
Systems of a large number N of globally coupled maps have become popular as a relatively simple prototype of high-dimensional dynamics, showing many interesting and typical phenomena like synchronisation, cluster formation and multistability, and having potential applications in systems like Josephson junction arrays or in biophysical models. There exists a wealth of numerical investigations of globally coupled maps. While much progress has been made in the explanation of the macroscopic behaviour of such systems in the limit of infinite N, there is still need for a sound theory about the asymptotic behaviour of finite-N systems as N approaches infinity. This article introduces a method by which it is possible to obtain asymptotic estimates for long-term deviations from the thermodynamic limit behaviour. This method is based upon the concept of quasipotentials, originally developed by Freidlin, Wentzell, and others for describing the influence of small random perturbations on the long-term behaviour of dynami...
The deviation of growth model for transparent conductive graphene
Chan, Shih-Hao; Chen, Jia-Wei; Chen, Hung-Pin; Wei, Hung-Sen; Li, Meng-Chi; Chen, Sheng-Hui; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Kuo, Chien-Cheng
2014-10-01
An approximate growth model was employed to predict the time required to grow a graphene film by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Monolayer graphene films were synthesized on Cu foil at various hydrogen flow rates from 10 to 50 sccm. The sheet resistance of the graphene film was 310Ω/□ and the optical transmittance was 97.7%. The Raman intensity ratio of the G-peak to the 2D peak of the graphene film was as high as ~4 when the hydrogen flow rate was 30 sccm. The fitting curve obtained by the deviation equation of growth model closely matches the data. We believe that under the same conditions and with the same setup, the presented growth model can help manufacturers and academics to predict graphene growth time more accurately.
Generalized deviation equation and determination of the curvature in General Relativity
Puetzfeld, Dirk; Obukhov, Yuri N.
2015-01-01
We derive a generalized deviation equation -- analogous to the well-known geodesic deviation equation -- for test bodies in General Relativity. Our result encompasses and generalizes previous extensions of the standard geodesic deviation equation. We show how the standard as well as a generalized deviation equation can be used to measure the curvature of spacetime by means of a set of test bodies. In particular, we provide exact solutions for the curvature by using the standard deviation equa...
Properties of Planet-induced Deviations in the Astrometric Microlensing Centroid Shift Trajectory
Han, Cheongho; Lee, Chunguk
2001-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the properties of the planet-induced deviations in the trajectory of the microlensed source star centroid motion (astrometric curve) and the correlations between the astrometric and photometric deviations. For this, we construct vector field maps of excess centroid shifts. Fromthe investigation of the maps, we find that the astrometric deviation is closely correlated with the photometric one. The astrometric deviation increases as the photometric deviation increa...
Armer, Jane M.; Henggeler, Mary H; Brooks, Constance W.; Zagar, Eris A.; Homan, Sherri; Bob R. Stewart
2008-01-01
Breast cancer is the leading cancer among women world-wide, affecting 1 of 8 women during their lifetimes. In the US alone, some 2 million breast cancer survivors comprise 20% of all cancer survivors. Conservatively, it is estimated that some 20-40% of all breast cancer survivors will develop the health deviation of lymphedema or treatment-related limb swelling over their lifetimes. This chronic accumulation of protein-rich fluid predisposes to infection, leads to difficulties in fitting clot...
Large-deviation properties of resilience of power grids
We study the distributions of the resilience of power flow models against transmission line failures via a so-called backup capacity. We consider three ensembles of random networks, and in addition, the topology of the British transmission power grid. The three ensembles are Erdős–Rényi random graphs, Erdős–Rényi random graphs with a fixed number of links, and spatial networks where the nodes are embedded in a two-dimensional plane. We numerically investigate the probability density functions (pdfs) down to the tails to gain insight into very resilient and very vulnerable networks. This is achieved via large-deviation techniques, which allow us to study very rare values that occur with probability densities below 10−160. We find that the right tail of the pdfs towards larger backup capacities follows an exponential with a strong curvature. This is confirmed by the rate function, which approaches a limiting curve for increasing network sizes. Very resilient networks are basically characterized by a small diameter and a large power sign ratio. In addition, networks can be made typically more resilient by adding more links. (paper)
A Maximum Likelihood Approach to Least Absolute Deviation Regression
Yinbo Li
2004-09-01
Full Text Available Least absolute deviation (LAD regression is an important tool used in numerous applications throughout science and engineering, mainly due to the intrinsic robust characteristics of LAD. In this paper, we show that the optimization needed to solve the LAD regression problem can be viewed as a sequence of maximum likelihood estimates (MLE of location. The derived algorithm reduces to an iterative procedure where a simple coordinate transformation is applied during each iteration to direct the optimization procedure along edge lines of the cost surface, followed by an MLE of location which is executed by a weighted median operation. Requiring weighted medians only, the new algorithm can be easily modularized for hardware implementation, as opposed to most of the other existing LAD methods which require complicated operations such as matrix entry manipulations. One exception is Wesolowsky's direct descent algorithm, which among the top algorithms is also based on weighted median operations. Simulation shows that the new algorithm is superior in speed to Wesolowsky's algorithm, which is simple in structure as well. The new algorithm provides a better tradeoff solution between convergence speed and implementation complexity.
Optimal aggregation of noisy observations: A large deviations approach
Sensing and data aggregation tasks in distributed systems should not be considered as separate issues. The quality of collective estimation involves a fundamental tradeoff between sensing quality, which can be increased by increasing the number of sensors, and aggregation quality under a given capacity of the network, which decreases if the number of sensors is too large. In this paper, we examine a system level strategy for optimal aggregation of data from an ensemble of independent sensors. In particular, we consider large scale aggregation from very many sensors, in which case the network capacity diverges to infinity. Then, by applying the large deviations techniques, we conclude the following significant result: larger scale aggregation always outperforms smaller scale aggregation at higher noise levels, while below a critical value of noise, there exist moderate scale aggregation levels at which optimal estimation is realized. At a critical value of noise, there is an abrupt change in the behavior of a parameter characterizing the aggregation strategy, similar to a phase transition in statistical physics.
Gait Deviations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review
Deirdre Kindregan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In recent years, it has become clear that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs have difficulty with gross motor function and coordination, factors which influence gait. Knowledge of gait abnormalities may be useful for assessment and treatment planning. This paper reviews the literature assessing gait deviations in children with ASD. Five online databases were searched using keywords “gait” and “autism,” and 11 studies were found which examined gait in childhood ASD. Children with ASD tend to augment their walking stability with a reduced stride length, increased step width and therefore wider base of support, and increased time in the stance phase. Children with ASD have reduced range of motion at the ankle and knee during gait, with increased hip flexion. Decreased peak hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor moments in children with ASD may imply weakness around these joints, which is further exhibited by a reduction in ground reaction forces at toe-off in children with ASD. Children with ASD have altered gait patterns to healthy controls, widened base of support, and reduced range of motion. Several studies refer to cerebellar and basal ganglia involvement as the patterns described suggest alterations in those areas of the brain. Further research should compare children with ASD to other clinical groups to improve assessment and treatment planning.
Assessment of fluctuating asymmetry on the basis of standard deviation
Zorina Anastasia
2013-01-01
The practical application of newly introduced indicator and integrated index of fluctuating asymmetry, based on standard deviation, is discussed. The calculating mechanism of proposed assessment is discussed in detail.Обсуждается вопрос по практическому применению недавно введенного показателя и интегрального индекса флуктуирующей асимметрии на основе нормированного отклонения. Подробно рассматривается механизм вычисления предложенной оценки....
Constraints on deviations from {\\Lambda}CDM within Horndeski gravity
Bellini, Emilio; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia
2015-01-01
Recent anomalies found in cosmological datasets such as the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background or the low redshift amplitude and growth of clustering measured by e.g., abundance of galaxy clusters and redshift space distortions in galaxy surveys, have motivated explorations of models beyond standard {\\Lambda}CDM. Of particular interest are models where general relativity (GR) is modified on large cosmological scales. Here we consider deviations from {\\Lambda}CDM+GR within the context of Horndeski gravity, which is the most general theory of gravity with second derivatives in the equations of motion. We adopt a parametrization in which the four additional Horndeski functions of time {\\alpha}_i(t) are proportional to the cosmological density of dark energy {\\Omega}_DE(t). Constraints on this extended parameter space using a suite of state-of-the art cosmological observations are presented for the first time. Although the theory is able to accommodate the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Bac...
Hussain, K M; Gould, L; Pomerantsev, E V; Angirekula, M; Bharathan, T
1995-07-01
To assess the clinical, coronary arteriographic, and hemodynamic differences between the unstable angina patients manifesting ST segment depression and those showing ST segment elevation as well as those demonstrating chest pain only without ST segment deviation during pacing, low-dose digital subtraction ventriculography was performed in 33 patients before and after abrupt cessation of atrial pacing during selective coronary arteriography. Transient ST segment depression during pacing was observed in 17 patients (52%), whereas 6 patients (18%) showed ST segment elevation; however, 10 patients (30%) did not manifest any ST segment deviation in spite of typical chest pain. Hypertension and a history of myocardial infarction were observed in a significantly higher (P < 0.05) proportion of patients with ST segment depression than in those with ST elevation. Patients who manifested ST segment depression during pacing had a higher incidence of triple-vessel disease (65 vs 17%; P < .05) as compared with the patients with ST segment elevation. Indirect evidence of intracoronary thrombi (complicated lesion, abrupt occlusion, and intraluminal filling defect) was noticed in a higher frequency (P < 0.05) in the group of patients with ST elevation during pacing. In patients with ST segment depression, no significant changes of global left ventricular (LV) functional parameters were observed. However, the length of the LV severe hypokinetic region was increased significantly (6.2 +/- 3.1 vs 23.5 +/- 6.2%; P < 0.005) during pacing in this group of patients. The shortening of the affected segments of the left ventricle was decreased significantly (52.3 +/- 3.6 vs 38.3 +/- 4.9%; P < 0.05) in these patients during pacing. In the group of patients with ST segment elevation during pacing, decrease in ejection fraction was associated with significant (P < 0.01) increase in midwall equatorial diastolic stress as compared with the patients with pacing-induced ST segment depression as
Quantum Properties of a General Path Deviation Equation in the Pap-Geometry
Wanas, M I
2004-01-01
A path deviation equation in the Parameterized Absolute Parallelism (PAP) geometry is derived. This equation includes curvature and torsion terms. These terms are found to be naturally quantized. The equation represents the deviation from a general path equation, in the PAP-geometry, derived by the author in a previous work. It is shown that, as the effect of the torsion, on the deviation, increases, the effect of the curvature decreases. It is also shown that the general path deviation equation can be reduced to the geodesic deviation equation if PAP-geometry becomes Riemannian. The equation can be used to study the deviation from the trajectories of spinning elementary particles.
Contents of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, the proportion of their free and bound forms, as well as the activity of GABA, aspartate, and alanine aminotransferases were analyzed in cerebellum, brain cortex, and brain stem of rats during the first 48 hours after irradiation. The analyzed alterations refer to an inhibition of the GABA shunt in brain and to a change of neuromediators between free and bound forms for the free ones. In all parts alterations of the same kind were found, only peculiar deviations in the GABA system were seen in the cerebellum one hour after irradiation, which were characterized by decrease of GABA T activity and increase of GABA level. Application of a complex of vitamins and coferments (ATP, thiamine pyrophosphate, lipoate, calcium pantothenate, nicotinamide, flavine adenindinucleotide, and pyridoxalphosphate), affecting as stimulator of bioenergetics in brain, normalized the level of neutromediatory amino acids. (author)
MODERATE DEVIATIONS FROM HYDRODYNAMIC LIMIT OF A GINZBURG-LANDAU MODEL
无
2006-01-01
The authors consider the moderate deviations of hydrodynamic limit for Ginzburg-Landau models. The moderate deviation principle of hydrodynamic limit for a specific Ginzburg-Landau model is obtained and an explicit formula of the rate function is derived.
Moderate deviations for the quenched mean of the super-Brownian motion with random immigration
2008-01-01
Moderate deviations for the quenched mean of the super-Brownian motion with random immigration are proved for 3≤d≤6, which fills in the gap between central limit theorem(CLT)and large deviation principle(LDP).
Sea Surface Height Deviation, Aviso, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviso Sea Surface Height Deviation is the deviation from the mean geoid as measured from 1993 - 1995. This is Science Quality data.
Deviation equation in spaces with affine connection. Pts. 3 and 4
The concept of a parallel transport is used to define a class of displacement vectors in spaces with affine connection. The nonlocal deviation equation in such spaces is introduced using a definition of the deviation vector based on the displacement vector. It turns out to be a special of the generalized deviation equation, but having an appropriate physical interpretation. The equation of geodesic deviation is presented as an example
On the asymptotic distribution of the mean absolute deviation about the mean
Segers, Johan
2014-01-01
The mean absolute deviation about the mean is an alternative to the standard deviation for measuring dispersion in a sample or in a population. For stationary, ergodic time series with a finite first moment, an asymptotic expansion for the sample mean absolute deviation is proposed. The expansion yields the asymptotic distribution of the sample mean absolute deviation under a wide range of settings, allowing for serial dependence or an infinite second moment. Key words: central limit theorem;...
On the asymptotic distribution of the mean absolute deviation about the mean
Segers, Johan
2014-01-01
The mean absolute deviation about the mean is an alternative to the standard deviation for measuring dispersion in a sample or in a population. For stationary, ergodic time series with a finite first moment, an asymptotic expansion for the sample mean absolute deviation is proposed. The expansion yields the asymptotic distribution of the sample mean absolute deviation under a wide range of settings, allowing for serial dependence or an infinite second moment.
无
2010-01-01
This paper studies the moderate deviations of real-valued extended negatively dependent(END) random variables with consistently varying tails.The moderate deviations of partial sums are first given.The results are then used to establish the necessary and sufficient conditions for the moderate deviations of random sums under certain circumstances.
7 CFR 400.174 - Notification of deviation from financial standards.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of deviation from financial standards. 400.174 Section 400.174 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL... Notification of deviation from financial standards. An insurer must immediately advise FCIC if it deviates...
1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.
2010-01-01
... CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations designations must be approved in advance... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations from standard organization of...
Revisiting a 90-Year-Old Debate: The Advantages of the Mean Deviation
Gorard, Stephen
2005-01-01
This paper discusses the reliance of numerical analysis on the concept of the standard deviation, and its close relative the variance. It suggests that the original reasons why the standard deviation concept has permeated traditional statistics are no longer clearly valid, if they ever were. The absolute mean deviation, it is argued here, has many…
Large deviations for Markov chains in the positive quadrant
The paper deals with so-called N-partially space-homogeneous time-homogeneous Markov chains X(y,n), n=0,1,2,..., X(y,0)=y, in the positive quadrant. These Markov chains are characterized by the following property of the transition probabilities P(y,A)=P(X(y,1) element of A): for some N≥0 the measure P(y,dx) depends only on x2, y2, and x1-y1 in the domain x1>N, y1>N, and only on x1, y1, and x2-y2 in the domain x2>N, y2>N. For such chains the asymptotic behaviour is found for a fixed set B as s→∞, |x|→∞, and n→∞. Some other conditions on the growth of parameters are also considered, for example, |x-y|→∞, |y|→∞. A study is made of the structure of the most probable trajectories, which give the main contribution to this asymptotics, and a number of other results pertaining to the topic are established. Similar results are obtained for the narrower class of 0-partially homogeneous ergodic chains under less restrictive moment conditions on the transition probabilities P(y,dx). Moreover, exact asymptotic expressions for the probabilities P(X(0,n) element of x+B) are found for 0-partially homogeneous ergodic chains under some additional conditions. The interest in partially homogeneous Markov chains in positive octants is due to the mathematical aspects (new and interesting problems arise in the framework of general large deviation theory) as well as applied issues, for such chains prove to be quite accurate mathematical models for numerous basic types of queueing and communication networks such as the widely known Jackson networks, polling systems, or communication networks associated with the ALOHA algorithm. There is a vast literature dealing with the analysis of these objects. The present paper is an attempt to find the extent to which an asymptotic analysis is possible for Markov chains of this type in their general form without using any special properties of the specific applications mentioned above. It turns out that such an analysis is quite
On the applicability of the geodesic deviation equation in General Relativity
Philipp, Dennis; Laemmerzahl, Claus
2016-01-01
Within the theory of General Relativity we study the solution and range of applicability of the standard geodesic deviation equation in highly symmetric spacetimes. The deviation equation is used to model satellite orbit constellations around the earth. In particular, we reconsider the deviation equation in Newtonian gravity and then determine relativistic effects within the theory of General Relativity. The deviation of nearby orbits, as constructed from exact solutions of the underlying geodesic equation, is compared to the solution of the geodesic deviation equation to assess the accuracy of the latter. Furthermore, we comment on the so-called Shirokov effect in Schwarzschild spacetime.
Pulled elbow in infancy: diagnostic role of imaging
Purpose. Pulled elbow is a common injury in infancy. Typically the child, after a sudden pull, refuses to use the arm. The history and clinical findings are sufficient to make the diagnosis, and radiography or ultrasonography are not necessary. When imaging procedures are performed, a few small signs are useful to confirm the diagnosis of pulled elbow. Materials and methods. The authors reviewed the radiographic and ultrasonographic signs reported to be suggestive of pulled elbow (increased radio-condylar distance, increased radio-coronoid distance, proximal radio-ulnar diastasis, deviation of the radio-condylar line) and attempted to confirm their presence in children affected by this trauma. Results. Increased radio-condylar and radio-coronoid distance were present in 8 of 8 cases: proximal radio-ulnar diastasis and deviation of the radio-condylar line were inconsistently present. Ultrasonography gave contradictory results. Conclusions. In typical cases of pulled elbow, radiography or ultrasonography are not necessary for diagnosis and treatment. imaging procedures are recommended only in the case of non typical history, in the presence of deformity or traumatic skin lesions and in children over six years of age. Increased radio-coronoid distance on the affected side is the most frequent and visible sign, which can confirm the diagnosis of pulled elbow. Increased radio-condylar distance is also present, but it is not easy to visualize. Proximal radio-ulnar diastasis and deviation of the radio-condylar line are inconstant. Ultrasonography is difficult to standardize
Gheno, Ramon; Buck, Florian M.; Nico, Marcelo A.C.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)
2010-08-15
To demonstrate how radial and ulnar deviation of the wrist can affect the visualization of the intrinsic intercarpal ligaments using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, MR arthrography and gross anatomic inspection in cadavers. The detectability of the intrinsic intercarpal ligaments of ten fresh human wrists was analyzed in coronal, axial and sagittal images in the neutral position and in radial and ulnar deviation with MR imaging and MR arthrography. The findings were then correlated with gross anatomic inspection. Additionally, quantitative measurements including the radiocarpal distances and capitate angles were performed. Differences were noted in the visual conspicuity of only the intercarpal ligaments of the proximal carpal row with different techniques and wrist positions. The average width of the radiocarpal joint was 0.62 mm, 1.55 mm and 2.0 mm (radial side) and 3.78 mm, 2.25 mm and 1.16 mm (ulnar side) in radial deviation, neutral position, and ulnar deviation of the wrist, respectively. Statistically, these maneuvers produced significant opening in the ulnar side during radial deviation (Student's t-test; P = 0.0005) and in the radial side in ulnar deviation (P = 0.007). Significant differences in the width of the radiocarpal joint were observed during radial and ulnar deviation of the wrist, influencing the visualization of the intrinsic ligaments, mainly the scapholunate and lunotriquetral ligaments. The use of MR arthrography with radial and/or ulnar deviation has the potential to improve diagnosis in clinical cases in which injury to one or both of these ligaments is suggested. (orig.)
To demonstrate how radial and ulnar deviation of the wrist can affect the visualization of the intrinsic intercarpal ligaments using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, MR arthrography and gross anatomic inspection in cadavers. The detectability of the intrinsic intercarpal ligaments of ten fresh human wrists was analyzed in coronal, axial and sagittal images in the neutral position and in radial and ulnar deviation with MR imaging and MR arthrography. The findings were then correlated with gross anatomic inspection. Additionally, quantitative measurements including the radiocarpal distances and capitate angles were performed. Differences were noted in the visual conspicuity of only the intercarpal ligaments of the proximal carpal row with different techniques and wrist positions. The average width of the radiocarpal joint was 0.62 mm, 1.55 mm and 2.0 mm (radial side) and 3.78 mm, 2.25 mm and 1.16 mm (ulnar side) in radial deviation, neutral position, and ulnar deviation of the wrist, respectively. Statistically, these maneuvers produced significant opening in the ulnar side during radial deviation (Student's t-test; P = 0.0005) and in the radial side in ulnar deviation (P = 0.007). Significant differences in the width of the radiocarpal joint were observed during radial and ulnar deviation of the wrist, influencing the visualization of the intrinsic ligaments, mainly the scapholunate and lunotriquetral ligaments. The use of MR arthrography with radial and/or ulnar deviation has the potential to improve diagnosis in clinical cases in which injury to one or both of these ligaments is suggested. (orig.)
Trade Finance Affects Trade Dynamics
ARESPA CASTELLÓ, Marta; Gruber, Diego
2016-01-01
Existent literature is by no means conclusive on the effects of trade finance on trade and the economy. We propose a suitable framework to explore the linkages between international trade and finance based on an international real business cycle model where firms require external finance to import and can be financially constrained. We find that credit shocks do affect the dynamic properties of the economy and they have the potential to cause significant deviations in trade and economic perfo...
Statistical properties of the deviations of f 0 F 2 from monthly medians
Y. Tulunay
2002-06-01
Full Text Available The deviations of hourly f 0 F 2 from monthly medians for 20 stations in Europe during the period 1958-1998 are studied. Spectral analysis is used to show that, both for original data (for each hour and for the deviations from monthly medians, the deterministic components are the harmonics of 11 years (solar cycle, 1 year and its harmonics, 27 days and 12 h 50.49 m (2nd harmonic of lunar rotation period L 2 periodicities. Using histograms for one year samples, it is shown that the deviations from monthly medians are nearly zero mean (mean < 0.5 and approximately Gaussian (relative difference range between %10 to %20 and their standard deviations are larger for daylight hours (in the range 5-7. It is shown that the amplitude distribution of the positive and negative deviations is nearly symmetrical at night hours, but asymmetrical for day hours. The positive and negative deviations are then studied separately and it is observed that the positive deviations are nearly independent of R12 except for high latitudes, but negative deviations are modulated by R12 . The 90% confidence interval for negative deviations for each station and each hour is computed as a linear model in terms of R12. After correction for local time, it is shown that for all hours the confidence intervals increase with latitude but decrease above 60N. Long-term trend analysis showed that there is an increase in the amplitude of positive deviations from monthly means irrespective of the solar conditions. Using spectral analysis it is also shown that the seasonal dependency of negative deviations is more accentuated than the seasonal dependency of positive deviations especially at low latitudes. In certain stations, it is also observed that the 4th harmonic of 1 year corresponding to a periodicity of 3 months, which is missing in f 0 F 2 data, appears in the spectra of negative variations.
The standard deviation effect (or why one should sit first base playing blackjack)
Garcia, E. Munoz; Marco, R. Perez
2000-01-01
For a balanced cardcounting system we study the random variable of the true count after a number of cards are removed from the remaining deck and we prove a close formula for its standard deviation. As expected, the formula shows that the standard deviation increases with the number of cards removed. This creates a "standard deviation effect" with a two fold consequence: longer long run and presumably larger fluctuations of the bankroll, but a small gain in playing accuracy for the player sit...
Precision analysis for standard deviation measurements of single fluorescent molecule images
DeSantis, Michael C.; DeCenzo, Shawn H.; Li, Je-Luen; Y. M. Wang
2009-01-01
Standard deviation measurements of intensity profiles of stationary single fluorescent molecules are useful for studying axial localization, molecular orientation, and a fluorescence imaging system's spatial resolution. Here we report on the analysis of the precision of standard deviation measurements of intensity profiles of single fluorescent molecules imaged using an EMCCD camera. We have developed an analytical expression for the standard deviation measurement error of a single image whic...
DeSantis, Michael C.; DeCenzo, Shawn H.; Li, Je-Luen; Y. M. Wang
2010-01-01
Standard deviation measurements of intensity profiles of stationary single fluorescent molecules are useful for studying axial localization, molecular orientation, and a fluorescence imaging system’s spatial resolution. Here we report on the analysis of the precision of standard deviation measurements of intensity profiles of single fluorescent molecules imaged using an EMCCD camera. We have developed an analytical expression for the standard deviation measurement error of a single image whic...