Sample records for affecting placental oxygen

  1. Evolution of factors affecting placental oxygen transfer

    Carter, A M


    states, are more amenable to analysis. This is exemplified by factors contributing, respectively, to blood oxygen affinity and placental diffusing capacity. Comparative genomics has given fresh insight into the evolution of the beta-globin gene complex. In higher primates, duplication of an embryonic...

  2. Placental Gas Exchange and the Oxygen Supply to the Fetus

    Carter, Anthony M


    The oxygen supply of the fetus depends on the blood oxygen content and flow rate in the uterine and umbilical arteries and the diffusing capacity of the placenta. Oxygen consumption by the placenta is a significant factor and a potential limitation on availability to the fetus. The relevance of...... at high altitude. This conceals the fact that there are structural changes and that placental oxygen consumption is reduced. The underlying mechanisms are a current focus of research. One intriguing possibility is that increased anaerobic metabolism of glucose in the placenta spares oxygen for the...... fetus but reduces its supply of substrate and thereby limits fetal growth. © 2015 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 5:1381-1403, 2015....

  3. Placental oxygen transport estimated by the hyperoxic placental BOLD MRI response

    Sørensen, Anne Nødgaard; Sinding, Marianne; Peters, David A;


    cases of severe early onset FGR, placental BOLD MRI was performed in a 1.5 Tesla MRI system (TR:8000 msec, TE:50 msec, Flip angle:90). Placental histological examination was performed in the FGR cases. In normal pregnancies, the average hyperoxic placental BOLD response was 12.6 ± 5.4% (mean ± SD). In...

  4. Placental Hypoxia Developed During Preeclampsia Induces Telocytes Apoptosis in Chorionic Villi Affecting The Maternal-Fetus Metabolic Exchange.

    Bosco, Cleofina Becerra; Díaz, Eugenia Guerra; Gutierrez, Rodrigo Rojas; González, Jaime Montero; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Rodrigo, Ramón Salinas; Barja, Pilar Yañez


    Telocytes (TC) are a new type of stromal cells initially found and studied in digestive and extra- digestive organs. These cells have a small cell body with 2 to 5 thin and extremely long cytoplasmic prolongations named telopodes. In recent years, TC have also been described in placental chorionic villi, located in a strategical position between the smooth muscle cells from fetal vessels and the myofibroblasts in the stromal villi. Unlike other organs, the placenta is not innervated and considering the strategic location of TC is has been postulated that TC function would be related to signal transduction mechanisms involved in the regulation of the fetal vessels blood flow, as well as in the shortening/lengthening of the chorionic villi, providing the necessary rhythmicity to the process of maternal/fetal metabolic exchange. Preeclampsia (PE) is a systemic syndrome that affects 4%-6% of pregnancies worldwide. It is characterized by a placental state of ischemia-hypoxia which triggers an oxidative stress stage with the concomitant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to an increase in the degree of placental apoptosis. Placental vascular tone is regulated by the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) and, in PE cases, NO is diverted towards the formation of peroxynitrite, a powerful oxidative agent whose activity leads to an increase of placental apoptosis degree that compromises TC and myofibroblasts, a key feature we would like to emphasize in this work. PMID:25643124

  5. Study of correlation between placental morphology and adverse perinatal outcome in different conditions affecting pregnancy

    Manik Sirpurkar


    Conclusions: These conditions also affect the perinatal outcome. Placental parameters are also altered along with foetal parameters like foetal weight. So the diagnosis of such risk factors in pregnancies during antenatal period will improve the outcome. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1165-1168

  6. Glucose, Insulin, and Oxygen Interplay in Placental Hypervascularisation in Diabetes Mellitus

    Silvija Cvitic


    Full Text Available The placental vasculature rapidly expands during the course of pregnancy in order to sustain the growing needs of the fetus. Angiogenesis and vascular growth are stimulated and regulated by a variety of growth factors expressed in the placenta or present in the fetal circulation. Like in tumors, hypoxia is a major regulator of angiogenesis because of its ability to stimulate expression of various proangiogenic factors. Chronic fetal hypoxia is often found in pregnancies complicated by maternal diabetes as a result of fetal hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinemia. Both are associated with altered levels of hormones, growth factors, and proinflammatory cytokines, which may act in a proangiogenic manner and, hence, affect placental angiogenesis and vascular development. Indeed, the placenta in diabetes is characterized by hypervascularisation, demonstrating high placental plasticity in response to diabetic metabolic derangements. This review describes the major regulators of placental angiogenesis and how the diabetic environment in utero alters their expression. In the light of hypervascularized diabetic placenta, the focus was placed on proangiogenic factors.

  7. Altered placental expression of PAPPA2 does not affect birth weight in mice

    Christians Julian K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPPA2 is an insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP protease expressed in the placenta and upregulated in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia. The mechanism linking PAPPA2 expression and pre-eclampsia and the consequences of altered PAPPA2 expression remain unknown. We previously identified PAPPA2 as a candidate gene for a quantitative trait locus (QTL affecting growth in mice and in the present study examined whether this QTL affects placental PAPPA2 expression and, in turn, placental or embryonic growth. Methods Using a line of mice that are genetically homogenous apart from a 1 megabase QTL region containing the PAPPA2 gene, we bred mice homozygous for alternate QTL genotypes and collected and weighed placentae and embryos at E12.5. We used quantitative RT-PCR to measure the mRNA levels of PAPPA2, as well as mRNA levels of IGFBP-5 (PAPPA2's substrate, and PAPPA (a closely related IGFBP protease to examine potential feedback and compensation effects. Western blotting was used to quantify PAPPA2 protein. Birth weight was measured in pregnancies allowed to proceed to parturition. Results PAPPA2 mRNA and protein expression levels in the placenta differed by a factor of 2.5 between genotypes, but we did not find a significant difference between genotypes in embryonic PAPPA2 mRNA levels. Placental IGFBP-5 and PAPPA mRNA expression levels were not altered in response to PAPPA2 levels, and we could not detect IGFBP-5 protein in the placenta by Western blotting. The observed difference in placental PAPPA2 expression had no significant effect on placental or embryonic mass at mid-gestation, birth weight or litter size. Conclusions Despite a significant difference between genotypes in placental PAPPA2 expression similar in magnitude to the difference between pre-eclamptic and normal placentae previously reported, we observed no difference in embryonic, placental or birth weight

  8. MR Imaging-derived Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curves and Fetal-Placental Oxygen-Hemoglobin Affinities.

    Avni, Reut; Golani, Ofra; Akselrod-Ballin, Ayelet; Cohen, Yonni; Biton, Inbal; Garbow, Joel R; Neeman, Michal


    Purpose To generate magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-derived, oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves and to map fetal-placental oxygen-hemoglobin affinity in pregnant mice noninvasively by combining blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) T2* and oxygen-weighted T1 contrast mechanisms under different respiration challenges. Materials and Methods All procedures were approved by the Weizmann Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Pregnant mice were analyzed with MR imaging at 9.4 T on embryonic days 14.5 (eight dams and 58 fetuses; imprinting control region ICR strain) and 17.5 (21 dams and 158 fetuses) under respiration challenges ranging from hyperoxia to hypoxia (10 levels of oxygenation, 100%-10%; total imaging time, 100 minutes). A shorter protocol with normoxia to hyperoxia was also performed (five levels of oxygenation, 20%-100%; total imaging time, 60 minutes). Fast spin-echo anatomic images were obtained, followed by sequential acquisition of three-dimensional gradient-echo T2*- and T1-weighted images. Automated registration was applied to align regions of interest of the entire placenta, fetal liver, and maternal liver. Results were compared by using a two-tailed unpaired Student t test. R1 and R2* values were derived for each tissue. MR imaging-based oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves were constructed by nonlinear least square fitting of 1 minus the change in R2*divided by R2*at baseline as a function of R1 to a sigmoid-shaped curve. The apparent P50 (oxygen tension at which hemoglobin is 50% saturated) value was derived from the curves, calculated as the R1 scaled value (x) at which the change in R2* divided by R2*at baseline scaled (y) equals 0.5. Results The apparent P50 values were significantly lower in fetal liver than in maternal liver for both gestation stages (day 14.5: 21% ± 5 [P = .04] and day 17.5: 41% ± 7 [P MR imaging-based oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves with a shorter protocol that excluded the hypoxic periods was demonstrated

  9. Does antenatal maternal psychological distress affect placental circulation in the third trimester?

    Anne Helbig

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Some types of antenatal maternal psychological distress may be associated with reduced fetal growth and birthweight. A stress-mediated reduction in placental blood flow has been suggested as a mechanism. Previous studies have examined this using ultrasound-derived arterial resistance measures in the uterine (UtA and umbilical (UA arteries, with mixed conclusions. However, a reduction in placental volume blood flow may occur before changes in arterial resistance measures are seen. Fetoplacental volume blood flow can be quantified non-invasively in the umbilical vein (UV. Our objective was to study whether specific types of maternal psychological distress affect the placental circulation, using volume blood flow quantification in addition to arterial resistance measures. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 104 non-smoking pregnant women (gestational age 30 weeks with uncomplicated obstetric histories. Psychological distress was measured by General Health Questionnaire-28 (subscales anxiety and depression and Impact of Event Scale-22 (subscales intrusion, avoidance and arousal. UtA and UA resistance measures and UV volume blood flow normalized for fetal abdominal circumference, were obtained by Doppler ultrasound. RESULTS: IES intrusion scores above the mean were associated with a reduction in normalized UV volume blood flow (corresponding to -0.61 SD; P = 0.003. Adjusting for UA resistance increased the strength of this association (difference -0.66 SD; P<0.001. Other distress types were not associated with UV volume blood flow. Maternal distress was not associated with arterial resistance measures, despite adjustment for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Intrusive thoughts and emotional distress regarding the fetus were associated with reduced fetoplacental volume blood flow in third trimester. Uterine and umbilical artery resistance measures were not associated with maternal distress. Our findings support a decrease

  10. Role of the placental Vitamin D receptor in modulating feto-placental growth in Fetal growth restriction and Preeclampsia-affected pregnancies.

    Padma eMurthi


    Full Text Available Fetal growth restriction (FGR is a common pregnancy complication that affects up to 5% of pregnancies worldwide. Recent studies demonstrate that Vitamin D deficiency is implicated in reduced fetal growth, which may be rescued by supplementation of Vitamin D. Despite this, the pathway(s by which Vitamin D modulate fetal growth remains to be investigated. Our own studies demonstrate that the Vitamin D receptor (VDR is significantly decreased in placentae from human pregnancies complicated by FGR and contributes to abnormal placental trophoblast apoptosis and differentiation and regulation of cell-cycle genes in vitro. Thus, Vitamin D signalling is important for normal placental function and fetal growth. This review discusses the association of Vitamin D with fetal growth, the function of Vitamin D and its receptor in pregnancy, as well as the functional significance of a placental source of Vitamin D in FGR. Additionally, we propose that for Vitamin D to be clinically effective to prevent and manage FGR, the molecular mechanisms of Vitamin D and its receptor in modulating fetal growth requires further investigation.

  11. Even a Chronic Mild Hyperglycemia Affects Membrane Fluidity and Lipoperoxidation in Placental Mitochondria in Wistar Rats

    Figueroa-García, María del Consuelo; Espinosa-García, María Teresa; Martinez-Montes, Federico; Palomar-Morales, Martín; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo


    It is known the deleterious effects of diabetes on embryos, but the effects of diabetes on placenta and its mitochondria are still not well known. In this work we generated a mild hyperglycemia model in female wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in 48 hours-old rats. The sexual maturity onset of the female rats was delayed around 6–7 weeks and at 16 weeks-old they were mated, and sacrificed at day 19th of pregnancy. In placental total tissue and isolated mitochondria, the fatty acids composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and lipoperoxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Membrane fluidity in mitochondria was measured with the excimer forming probe dipyrenylpropane and mitochondrial function was measured with a Clark-type electrode. The results show that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia increases lipoperoxidation and decreases mitochondrial function in placenta. Simultaneously, placental fatty acids metabolism in total tissue is modified but in a different way than in placental mitochondria. Whereas the chronic mild hyperglycemia induced a decrease in unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (U/S) in placental total tissue, the ratio increased in placental mitochondria. The measurements of membrane fluidity showed that fluidity of placenta mitochondrial membranes increased with hyperglycemia, showing consistency with the fatty acids composition through the U/S index. The thermotropic characteristics of mitochondrial membranes were changed, showing lower transition temperature and activation energies. All of these data together demonstrate that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia during pregnancy of early reproductive Wistar rats, generates an increment of lipoperoxidation, an increase of placental mitochondrial membrane fluidity apparently derived from changes in fatty acids composition and consequently, mitochondrial malfunction. PMID:26630275

  12. Foetal and placental growth in the mouse after pre-implantation development in vitro under oxygen concentrations of 5 and 20%.

    Harlow, G M; Quinn, P


    Blastocysts which developed from two-cell mouse embryos in culture tubes containing an atmosphere with 20% oxygen had approximately 20% fewer blastomeres than blastocysts which developed under an oxygen concentration of 5%. When these smaller blastocysts were transferred to the uteri of pseudopregnant foster mothers, the foetuses developing were as viable as those developing from blastocysts cultured under 5% oxygen, indicating their ability to regulate for a lower blastomere number by at least day 17 of development. The transfer operation itself had no adverse effect on foetal or placental growth. However, culture of blastocysts in vitro did depress foetal though not placental growth, suggesting that the inner cell mass is more susceptible than the trophectoderm to culture in vitro. Foetal but not placental growth was lower following the transfer of blastocysts to a day-3 rather than a day-4 uterus. Four cases of placental fusion were found. In one case, the foetuses were contained within the same embryonic sac and may have been twins. PMID:508209

  13. Placental Adaptations in Growth Restriction

    Song Zhang


    Full Text Available The placenta is the primary interface between the fetus and mother and plays an important role in maintaining fetal development and growth by facilitating the transfer of substrates and participating in modulating the maternal immune response to prevent immunological rejection of the conceptus. The major substrates required for fetal growth include oxygen, glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, and their transport processes depend on morphological characteristics of the placenta, such as placental size, morphology, blood flow and vascularity. Other factors including insulin-like growth factors, apoptosis, autophagy and glucocorticoid exposure also affect placental growth and substrate transport capacity. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is often a consequence of insufficiency, and is associated with a high incidence of perinatal morbidity and mortality, as well as increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life. Several different experimental methods have been used to induce placental insufficiency and IUGR in animal models and a range of factors that regulate placental growth and substrate transport capacity have been demonstrated. While no model system completely recapitulates human IUGR, these animal models allow us to carefully dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms to improve our understanding and facilitate development of therapeutic interventions.

  14. Changes in the metabolic footprint of placental explant-conditioned medium cultured in different oxygen tensions from placentas of small for gestational age and normal pregnancies.

    Horgan, R P


    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) confers significantly increased risks of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Accumulating evidence suggests that an SGA fetus results from a poorly perfused and abnormally developed placenta. Some of the placental features seen in SGA, such as abnormal cell turnover and impaired nutrient transport, can be reproduced by culture of placental explants in hypoxic conditions. Metabolic footprinting offers a hypothesis-generating strategy to investigate factors absorbed by and released from this tissue in vitro. Previously, metabolic footprinting of the conditioned culture media has identified differences in placental explants cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and between normal pregnancies and those complicated by pre-eclampsia. In this study we aimed to examine the differences in the metabolic footprint of placental villous explants cultured at different oxygen (O(2)) tensions between women who deliver an SGA baby (n = 9) and those from normal controls (n = 8). Placental villous explants from cases and controls were cultured for 96 h in 1% (hypoxic), 6% (normoxic) and 20% (hyperoxic) O(2). Metabolic footprints were analysed by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to an electrospray hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS). 574 metabolite features showed significant difference between SGA and normal at one or more of the oxygen tensions. SGA explant media cultured under hypoxic conditions was observed, on a univariate level, to exhibit the same metabolic signature as controls cultured under normoxic conditions in 49% of the metabolites of interest, suggesting that SGA tissue is acclimatised to hypoxic conditions in vivo. No such behaviour was observed under hyperoxic culture conditions. Glycerophospholipid and tryptophan metabolism were highlighted as areas of particular interest.

  15. Oxygen tension affects lubricin expression in chondrocytes.

    Hatta, Taku; Kishimoto, Koshi N; Okuno, Hiroshi; Itoi, Eiji


    We assessed the effects of oxygen tension on lubricin expression in bovine chondrocytes and cartilage explants and a role for hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-1α in regulating lubricin expression was investigated using a murine chondroprogenitor cell line, ATDC5, and bovine chondrocytes isolated from superficial and middle/deep zones of femoral cartilage. ATDC5 cells and bovine chondrocytes were cultured in micromass under different oxygen tensions (21%, 5%, and 1%). ATDC5 cells and middle/deep zone chondrocytes that initially had low lubricin expression levels were also cultured with or without transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was used to determine lubricin and chondrogenic marker gene mRNA levels and immunohistochemistry was used to assess lubricin protein expression. Explant cartilage plugs cultured under different oxygen tensions were also subjected to immunohistological analysis for lubricin. HIF-1α gene silencing was achieved by electroporatic transfer into ATDC5 cells. A low oxygen tension reduced lubricin gene expression levels in bovine superficial chondrocytes, TGF-β1-treated middle/deep zone chondrocytes, and TGF-β1-treated ATDC5 cells. Lubricin expression in explant cartilage was also suppressed under hypoxia. HIF-1α gene silencing in ATDC5 cells attenuated the lubricin expression response to the oxygen tension. These results corroborate with previous studies that the oxygen tension regulates lubricin gene expression and suggest that HIF-1α plays an important role in this regulation. The normal distribution of lubricin in articular cartilage may be due to the hypoxic oxygen environment of cartilage as it is an avascular tissue. An oxygen tension gradient may be a key factor for engineering cartilage tissue with a layered morphology. PMID:24712343

  16. Placental Origins of Chronic Disease.

    Burton, Graham J; Fowden, Abigail L; Thornburg, Kent L


    Epidemiological evidence links an individual's susceptibility to chronic disease in adult life to events during their intrauterine phase of development. Biologically this should not be unexpected, for organ systems are at their most plastic when progenitor cells are proliferating and differentiating. Influences operating at this time can permanently affect their structure and functional capacity, and the activity of enzyme systems and endocrine axes. It is now appreciated that such effects lay the foundations for a diverse array of diseases that become manifest many years later, often in response to secondary environmental stressors. Fetal development is underpinned by the placenta, the organ that forms the interface between the fetus and its mother. All nutrients and oxygen reaching the fetus must pass through this organ. The placenta also has major endocrine functions, orchestrating maternal adaptations to pregnancy and mobilizing resources for fetal use. In addition, it acts as a selective barrier, creating a protective milieu by minimizing exposure of the fetus to maternal hormones, such as glucocorticoids, xenobiotics, pathogens, and parasites. The placenta shows a remarkable capacity to adapt to adverse environmental cues and lessen their impact on the fetus. However, if placental function is impaired, or its capacity to adapt is exceeded, then fetal development may be compromised. Here, we explore the complex relationships between the placental phenotype and developmental programming of chronic disease in the offspring. Ensuring optimal placentation offers a new approach to the prevention of disorders such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity, which are reaching epidemic proportions. PMID:27604528

  17. Do calcium-mediated cellular signalling pathways, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), estrogen or progesterone receptor antagonists, or bacterial endotoxins affect bovine placental function in vitro?

    Weems, Y S; Randel, R D; Carstens, G E; Welsh, T H; Weems, C W


    The major objective of this experiment was to determine whether the bovine placenta could be stimulated to secrete progesterone, since the bovine placenta secretes little progesterone when the corpus luteum is functional. Secondly, we wanted to determine whether reported abortifacients or progesterone or estrogen receptor antagonists affected bovine placental prostaglandin secretion. The ovine placenta secretes half of the circulating progesterone at day 90 of pregnancy and PGE2 appears to regulate ovine placental progesterone secretion. Calcium has been reported to regulate placental progesterone secretion in cattle. Diced 186-245-day placental slice explants from six Brahman and six Angus cows were incubated in vitro at 39.5 degrees C under 95% air: 5% CO2 at pH 7.2 in 5 ml of M-199 for 1 h in the absence of treatments and for 4 and 8 h in the presence of treatments. Treatments were: vehicle; R24571; compound 48/80; IP3; PGE2; CaCl2; cyclosporin A; lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) from Salmonella abortus equi., enteriditis, and typhimurium; monensin; ionomycin; arachidonic acid; mimosine; palmitic acid; progesterone, androstenedione; estradiol-17beta; A23187; RU-486; or MER-25. Jugular and uterine venous plasma and culture media were analyzed for progesterone, PGE2 and PGF2alpha by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Plasma hormone data were analyzed by a One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Hormone data in culture media were analyzed for breed and treatment effects by a Factorial Design (2 breeds, 2-range of days, 21 treatments) for ANOVA (2 x 2 x 21). Since hormone data secreted by placental tissue in vitro did not differ (P > or = 0.05) by breed or range of days of pregnancy, data were pooled and analyzed by a One-Way ANOVA. Concentrations of PGE2 in uterine venous blood were two-fold greater (P Angus than Brahman cows. PGE2 and PGF2alpha in vehicle controls increased from 4 to 8h (P or = 0.05) Progesterone in culture media treated with RU-486 increased (P or = 0

  18. Regional placental blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) changes with gestational age in normally developing pregnancies using long duration R2* mapping in utero

    Dighe, Manjiri; Kim, Yun Jung; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Blazejewska, Ania I.; Mckown, Susan; Caucutt, Jason; Gatenby, Christopher; Studholme, Colin


    The aim of this study was to examine the use of R2* mapping in maternal and fetal sub-regions of the placenta with the aim of providing a reference for blood oxygenation levels during normative development. There have been a number of MR relaxation studies of placental tissues in-utero, but none have reported R2* value changes with age, or examined differences in sub-regions of the placenta. Here specialized long-duration Multi-frame R2* imaging was used to create a stable estimate for R2* values in different placental regions in healthy pregnant volunteers not imaged for clinical reasons. 27 subjects were recruited and scanned up to 3 times during their pregnancy. A multi-slice dual echo EPI based BOLD acquisition was employed and repeated between 90 and 150 times over 3 to 5 minutes to provide a high accuracy estimate of the R2* signal level. Acquisitions were also repeated in 13 cases within a visit to evaluate reproducibility of the method in a given subject. Experimental results showed R2* measurements were highly repeatable within a visit with standard deviation of (0.76). Plots of all visits against gestational age indicated clear correlations showing decreases in R2* with age. This increase was consistent was also consistent over time in multiple visits of the same volunteer during their pregnancy. Maternal and fetal regional changes with gestational age followed the same trend with increase in R2* over the gestational age.

  19. Markers of placental insufficiency: etiology and the risk of cerebral palsy:Population based studies of preeclampsia, low birth weight, and abnormal placental weight

    Strand, Kristin Melheim


    Placental insufficiency may be defined as a placenta not able to perform its central tasks; namely, delivery of sufficient oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus. In this thesis, preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction (FGR), and abnormal placental weight were applied as markers of placental insufficiency. Abnormal interaction between fetal and maternal tissues during placentation, leading to shallow placentation, may be the commencing step of placental insufficiency. C...

  20. Embryonic exposures of lithium and homocysteine and folate protection affect lipid metabolism during mouse cardiogenesis and placentation.

    Han, Mingda; Evsikov, Alexei V; Zhang, Lifeng; Lastra-Vicente, Rosana; Linask, Kersti K


    Embryonic exposures can increase the risk of congenital cardiac birth defects and adult disease. The present study identifies the predominant pathways modulated by an acute embryonic mouse exposure during gastrulation to lithium or homocysteine that induces cardiac defects. High dose periconceptional folate supplementation normalized development. Microarray bioinformatic analysis of gene expression demonstrated that primarily lipid metabolism is altered after the acute exposures. The lipid-related modulation demonstrated a gender bias with male embryos showing greater number of lipid-related Gene Ontology biological processes altered than in female embryos. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated significant change of the fatty acid oxidation gene Acadm with homocysteine exposure primarily in male embryos than in female. The perturbations resulting from the exposures resulted in growth-restricted placentas with disorganized cellular lipid droplet distribution indicating lipids have a critical role in cardiac-placental abnormal development. High folate supplementation protected normal heart-placental function, gene expression and lipid localization. PMID:26993217

  1. Placental responses to changes in the maternal environment determine fetal growth

    Kris Genelyn eDimasuay


    Full Text Available Placental responses to maternal perturbations are complex and remain poorly understood. Altered maternal environment during pregnancy such as hypoxia, stress, obesity, diabetes, toxins, altered nutrition, inflammation, and reduced utero-placental blood flow may influence fetal development, which can predispose to diseases later in life. The placenta being a metabolically active tissue responds to these perturbations by regulating the fetal supply of nutrients and oxygen and secretion of hormones into the maternal and fetal circulation. We have proposed that placental nutrient sensing integrates maternal and fetal nutritional cues with information from intrinsic nutrient sensing signaling pathways to balance fetal demand with the ability of the mother to support pregnancy by regulating maternal physiology, placental growth, and placental nutrient transport. Emerging evidence suggests that the nutrient-sensing signaling pathway mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR plays a central role in this process. Thus, placental nutrient sensing plays a critical role in modulating maternal-fetal resource allocation, thereby affecting fetal growth and the life-long health of the fetus.

  2. Are macroinvertebrates in high altitude streams affected by oxygen deficiency?

    Jacobsen, Dean; Rostgaard, S.; Vásconez, J. J.


    1. The solubility of oxygen in water increases with decreasing temperature. This has led to a general perception of cold, high mountain streams as more oxygen rich than warmer lowland streams, and that macroinvertebrates inhabiting high altitude streams have had no need to adapt to critical oxygen...... conditions. However, this fails to take into account that oxygen solubility declines with decreasing atmospheric pressure, which may be of importance at high altitudes. 2. Based on samples of macroinvertebrate benthos and in situ measurements of respiratory oxygen demand of macroinvertebrates in small...... include relatively few groups normally regarded as oxygen-sensitive. Nevertheless, high altitude assemblages react more strongly to lowering of oxygen saturation, and are thus more sensitive to organic pollution. 5. Oxygen deficiency has been overlooked completely in studies of the altitudinal...

  3. Pregnancy Complications: Placental Abruption

    ... belly is harmed from a car accident or physical abuse . If you've had a placental abruption before, ... belly is harmed from a car accident or physical abuse . If you've had a placental abruption before, ...

  4. Computational placental pathology: using placental geometry to assess placental function

    Li, Jenny (Jiazhen)


    Placental pathologists diagnose disease based on examining the placenta. It is hypothesized that poor blood vessel coverage may be detrimental to fetal development and may lead to low birth weight. In this project, geometrical measures of the placental structure are computed based on the total area of vessels and the vessel coverage on an important part of the placenta known as the chorionic plate. Vessel coverage is measured by the average of the distance from every point on the chorionic pl...

  5. Increased intrathoracic pressure affects cerebral oxygenation following cardiac surgery

    Pedersen, Lars M; Nielsen, Jonas; Østergaard, Morten; Nygård, Eigil; Nielsen, Henning


    Cerebral oximetry reflects circulatory stability during surgery. We evaluated whether frontal lobe oxygenation is influenced by a transient increase in intrathoracic pressure as induced by a lung recruitment manoeuvre....

  6. Placental vascular responses are dependent on surrounding tissue

    Brøgger, Torbjørn Halle

    Background: The placenta is the base for the exchange of nutrients, oxygen and waste products for the fetus. The placental vessels hold a crucial role in regulation the blood flow, and a compromised placental function leads to serious complications such as fetal death or growth retardation. An in...

  7. Dissolved oxygen concentration affects hybrid striped bass growth

    Management of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in ponds at night during the growing season is important because fish growth and yield are greater in ponds with higher nightly DO concentrations. Three studies were conducted to quantify performance traits and metabolic responses of hybrid striped b...

  8. Placental interferons.

    Bazer, F W; Spencer, T E; Ott, T L


    Trophectoderm of ruminant conceptuses (embryo and associated membranes) secrete tau interferons (IFN tau) as the pregnancy recognition signal. Secretion of IFN tau on gestational days 12-13 for sheep and gestation days 14-17 for cows and goats is critical for pregnancy recognition. IFN tau acts on uterine epithelium to suppress estrogen receptor and oxytocin receptor gene expression, which prevents uterine release of luteolytic pulses of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF). Expression of the progesterone receptor (PR) gene in uterine endometrium is not affected by oIFN tau. Maintenance of progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum (CL) ensures establishment of pregnancy. Pig conceptuses secrete both IFN alpha and IFN gamma between days 15-21 of gestation, but their role(s) in early pregnancy is unknown. Estrogen secreted by pig trophoblast between gestational days 11-13 and 15-25 increases endometrial receptors for prolactin and causes exocrine secretion of PGF into the uterine lumen to prevent luteolysis. Shared cell-signaling mechanisms by IFNs and lactogenic hormones through Janus kinases (JAK) 1 and 2 may provide a common pathway to abrogate luteolytic mechanisms to ensure establishment of pregnancy. The role(s) of IFNs produced by human and rodent placentae is not known. PMID:8739445


    Walter Krause Neto


    Full Text Available Physical exercise has been demonstrated a positive effect on many pregnancy outcomes. Placental components are important for exchanging oxygen and nutrients between mother and fetus. This study aimed to systematic review and meta-analysis whether physical exercise could induce a morphological adjustment on placenta components. We systematically searched PubMed database until October 30th, 2014. We included randomized and non-randomized studies with control group, which aimed to investigate the effect of the physical exercise (water, aerobic and resistance on placental components (placental weight and volume, villous volume and vascular volume, intervillous space and stem villi. Initially, we identified 222 articles, of which 9 articles were used for full text analysis. Finally, four articles were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Meta-analysis demonstrated that exercise appeared to affect placental weight (95% CI, 39.73g [4.66-74.80], placental volume (95% CI, 47.11 cm3 [37.99-56.23], intervillous space (95% CI, 16.76 cm3 [12.66-20.68], villous volume (95% CI, 46.01 cm3 [40.21-51.81], villous vascular volume (95% CI, 15.95 cm3 [7.83-24.07] and stem villi (95% CI, 6.00 cm3[4.25-7.75]. Apparently, physical exercise has a positive effect on placental components. However, this conclusion is based on a limited number of studies. Clearly, it stands the necessity of larger samples and better methodology quality.

  10. Analysis of factors which affect the relationship between inspired oxygen partial pressure and arterial oxygen saturation.

    Roe, P G; Jones, J G


    The adoption of pulse oximetry in anaesthesia and intensive care has resulted in oxyhaemoglobin saturation (SaO2) becoming an important and widely used clinical descriptor of gas exchange, although its full potential has not been realized. We have explored the effect of impaired gas exchange on the relationship between PIO2 and SaO2. A curve of oxygen content vs PIO2 for an ideal lung was constructed using the oxygen dissociation curve and allowing for the effect of dissolved oxygen in plasma. A plot of PIO2 vs SaO2 was derived from this content curve. The effect of impaired gas exchange (shunt and V/Q effects) on this relationship was then modelled using for shunt the equation Qs/Qt = (Cc' O2-CaO2)/(Cc' O2-CvO2) and for V/Q, a graphical method using the equation V/Q = k(Cc' O2-CvO2)/ (PIO2-PAO2) and the oxygen content curve to model the effect of a spread of V/Q ratios. A total of nine compartments were used to model the scatter of V/Q, and the size of these compartments were determined by their relative blood supply. Plots of PIO2 vs SaO2 were derived for different values of shunt and V/Q. The PIO2 vs SaO2 curve reflected the shape of the oxygen dissociation curve but lay to the right by PIO2-PAO2. Shunt caused a depression of the plateau of this curve with relatively little lateral movement, whereas a low mean V/Q ratio caused a marked rightwards lateral displacement. Increased IogSD Q caused a flattening of the relationship. The combined effect of shunt and a spread of V/Q ratios caused both lateral and vertical displacements. Thus a series of simple measurements of PIO2 and SaO2 gave information about both shunt and V/Q abnormality. PMID:8260294

  11. Ascending placentitis in the mare: A review

    Cummins C


    Full Text Available Abstract Ascending placentitis is a condition that occurs late in pregnancy when bacteria enter the sterile uterus from the lower reproductive tract. It leads to abortion or the birth of premature and weakened foals. Early detection and treatment of this condition is vital for ensuring the production of a viable foal. Mares with ascending placentitis often present in late term pregnancy with signs of premature udder development and premature lactation. There may be a vulvar discharge. Early detection of placental problems is possible using trans-abdominal or trans-rectal ultrasonography. Hormones such as progesterone and relaxin may be measured as indicators of foetal stress and placental failure. Postpartum foetal membranes may be thickened and contain a fibronecrotic exudate. The region most affected is the cervical star. Definitive diagnosis of ascending placentitis is by histopathological examination of the chorioallantoic membrane. Ideal treatment strategies are aimed at curing the infection and prolonging the pregnancy to as close to term as possible and consist of anti-microbials, anti-inflammatories and hormonal support. Swabs are taken from affected mares to determine antibiotic sensitivity and to aid in treatment of foals born from these mares which are at risk of becoming septic. If detected early enough, the chances of producing a viable foal are greatly increased.

  12. Ascending placentitis in the mare: A review.

    Cummins, C; Carrington, S; Fitzpatrick, E; Duggan, V


    Ascending placentitis is a condition that occurs late in pregnancy when bacteria enter the sterile uterus from the lower reproductive tract. It leads to abortion or the birth of premature and weakened foals. Early detection and treatment of this condition is vital for ensuring the production of a viable foal.Mares with ascending placentitis often present in late term pregnancy with signs of premature udder development and premature lactation. There may be a vulvar discharge. Early detection of placental problems is possible using trans-abdominal or trans-rectal ultrasonography. Hormones such as progesterone and relaxin may be measured as indicators of foetal stress and placental failure. Postpartum foetal membranes may be thickened and contain a fibronecrotic exudate. The region most affected is the cervical star. Definitive diagnosis of ascending placentitis is by histopathological examination of the chorioallantoic membrane.Ideal treatment strategies are aimed at curing the infection and prolonging the pregnancy to as close to term as possible and consist of anti-microbials, anti-inflammatories and hormonal support.Swabs are taken from affected mares to determine antibiotic sensitivity and to aid in treatment of foals born from these mares which are at risk of becoming septic. If detected early enough, the chances of producing a viable foal are greatly increased. PMID:21851713

  13. Maternal environment and placental vascularization in small ruminants.

    Bairagi, S; Quinn, K E; Crane, A R; Ashley, R L; Borowicz, P P; Caton, J S; Redden, R R; Grazul-Bilska, A T; Reynolds, L P


    Uteroplacental development is a crucial step facilitating conceptus growth. Normal placental development comprises extensive placental angiogenesis to support fetoplacental transport, meeting the metabolic demands of the fetus. Compromised pregnancies due to maternal stressors such as over or undernutrition, maternal age or parity, altered body mass index, or genetic background result in altered vascular development of the placenta. This negatively affects placental growth and placental function and ultimately results in poor pregnancy outcomes. Nonetheless, the placenta acts as a sensor to the maternal stressors and undergoes modifications, which some have termed placental programming, to ensure healthy development of the conceptus. Sex steroid hormones such as estradiol-17β and progesterone, chemokines such as chemokine ligand 12, and angiogenic/vasoactive factors such as vascular endothelial growth factors, placental growth factor, angiopoietins, and nitric oxide regulate uteroplacental development and hence are often used as therapeutic targets to rescue compromised pregnancies. Interestingly, the presence of sex steroid receptors has been identified in the fetal membranes (developing fetal placenta). Environmental steroid mimetics known as endocrine disrupting compounds disrupt conceptus development and lead to transgenerational impairments by epigenetic modification of placental gene expression, which is another area deserving intense research efforts. This review attempts to summarize current knowledge concerning intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting selected reproductive functions with the emphasis on placental development. PMID:27173956

  14. Role of placental nutrient sensing in developmental programming

    Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L.


    Altered maternal nutrition and metabolism, restricted utero-placental blood flow and other perturbations in the maternal compartment may disturb critical periods of fetal development resulting in increased susceptibility to develop disease in childhood and adult life. In response to these perturbations, placental structure and function changes, which influence the supply of nutrients, oxygen and methyl donors and alter the secretion of hormones and other signaling molecules into the fetal cir...

  15. Macrophage Exosomes Induce Placental Inflammatory Cytokines: A Novel Mode of Maternal-Placental Messaging.

    Holder, Beth; Jones, Tessa; Sancho Shimizu, Vanessa; Rice, Thomas F; Donaldson, Beverly; Bouqueau, Marielle; Forbes, Karen; Kampmann, Beate


    During pregnancy, the placenta forms the interface between mother and fetus. Highly controlled regulation of trans-placental trafficking is therefore essential for the healthy development of the growing fetus. Extracellular vesicle-mediated transfer of protein and nucleic acids from the human placenta into the maternal circulation is well documented; the possibility that this trafficking is bi-directional has not yet been explored but could affect placental function and impact on the fetus.We hypothesized that the ability of the placenta to respond to maternal inflammatory signals is mediated by the interaction of maternal immune cell exosomes with placental trophoblast. Utilizing the BeWo cell line and whole placental explants, we demonstrated that the human placenta internalizes macrophage-derived exosomes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This uptake was via clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Furthermore, macrophage exosomes induced release of proinflammatory cytokines by the placenta. Taken together, our data demonstrates that exosomes are actively transported into the human placenta and that exosomes from activated immune cells modulate placental cytokine production. This represents a novel mechanism by which immune cells can signal to the placental unit, potentially facilitating responses to maternal inflammation and infection, and thereby preventing harm to the fetus. PMID:26602702

  16. Placentation in mammals

    Carter, A M; Enders, A C


    An overview is given of variations in placentation with particular focus on yolk sac, paraplacenta, and other structures important to histotrophic nutrition. The placenta proper varies in general shape, internal structure, and the number of tissues in the interhemal barrier. Yolk sac membranes...

  17. Placental toxicology: tobacco smoke, abused drugs, multiple chemical interactions, and placental function.

    Sastry, B V


    There are increasing numbers of reports on the tobacco smoking and ingestion of abused drugs (e.g. morphine, cocaine) by pregnant women and the effects of the substances on the developing fetus and newborn infant. The passage of drugs and chemicals from the mother to the fetus is influenced by the placental transport and metabolism of the substances. Further, these drugs and chemicals affect the nutrient transport systems in the placenta. The three major drugs of abuse-nicotine, morphine and cocaine-depress both active amino-acid uptake by human placental villi and transplacental amino-acid transport by reason of the drugs' influence on placental cholinergic and opiate systems. Part of this depression (10-16%) is not reversible. Nicotine blocks the cholinergic receptor and thus blocks acetylcholine (ACh)-facilitated amino-acid transport. Morphine stimulates opiate kappa receptors and depresses ACh release. Cocaine blocks Ca2+ influx and thus blocks ACh release. ACh causes dilation of blood vessels and maintains placental blood flow by the activation of endothelial muscarinic receptors. By interfering with ACh release and placental blood flow, the three drugs of abuse may depress the diffusion of amino acids and other nutrients from the trophoblast into the placental circulation. Three regulatory systems are delineated for amino-acid uptake by the placenta: placental ACh, phospholipid N-methyltransferase, and the gammaglutamyl cycle. These systems operate in concert with one another and are dependent on cellular formation of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). Placental hypoxia induced by carbon monoxide and other tobacco gases depresses the energy-dependent processes and thus the ATP levels of placental cells. Maternal tobacco smoking and drug abuse cause placental insufficiencies for amino-acid transport, which may partially explain the fetal intrauterine growth retardation caused by these substances. Part of the amino-acid deficits may be compensated for by the

  18. Anthropogenic processing of dust affects the oxygen content of the North Pacific Ocean

    Nenes, Athanasios; Ito, Taka; Johnson, Matthew; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Valett, Jackie; Deutsch, Curtis


    Observations from the last several decades show a significant expansion of the tropical Pacific oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). However, the underlying causes remain elusive, as the currently accepted effects of ocean warming and associated solubility decease cannot fully explain the observed oxygen trend. Here we show that anthropogenic pollution can change the pattern of biological productivity and oxygen trends consistent with observations in the tropics and extratropics. These effects are caused by the mobilization of iron in mineral dust by pollutants, where it is transported and deposited to the HNLC regions of the tropical pacific affecting primary productivity and oxygen consumption by bacterial respiration. In this study, it is shown that pollution-mobilized iron deposited to high latitude oceanic environments can profoundly impact subsurface oxygen and the extent of the OMZ through long-range oceanic transport. Together with the intensification of tropical upwelling since the 1990s associated with natural climate variability, our results can explain the expansion of the OMZ in the tropical Pacific in the late twentieth century. Unlike climate variability, however, anthropogenic pollution likely influences the long-term trends in marine biogeochemistry and further alters regional productivity and subsurface oxygen distributions with profound implications for marine habitats and nitrate inventory of the oceans.

  19. Pathogens and the Placental Fortress

    Robbins, Jennifer R.; Anna I Bakardjiev


    Placental infections are major causes of maternal and fetal disease. This review introduces a new paradigm for placental infections based on current knowledge of placental defenses and how this barrier can be breached. Transmission of pathogens from mother to fetus can occur at two sites of direct contact between maternal cells and specialized fetal cells (trophoblasts) in the human placenta: (i) maternal immune and endothelial cells juxtaposed to extravillous trophoblasts in the uterine impl...

  20. Placental Tumour: What could it be?

    Al-Riyami, Nihal; Al-Hadabi, Rahma; Al-Dughaishi, Tamima; Al-Riyami, Marwa


    Placental tumours include placental chorioangiomas, teratomas, haemangiomas, and haematomas. Placental chorioangiomas are benign vascular tumours and are the most common placental tumours, with a prevalence of 1%. Large placental chorioangiomas are rare and may lead to pregnancy complications and poor perinatal outcomes. These complications include fetal anaemia, hydrops fetalis, fetal growth restriction, polyhydramnios, and preterm delivery. We report a case of a large placental chorioangiom...

  1. Dendritic Cells under Hypoxia: How Oxygen Shortage Affects the Linkage between Innate and Adaptive Immunity

    Sandra Winning


    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are considered as one of the main regulators of immune responses. They collect antigens, process them, and present typical antigenic structures to lymphocytes, thereby inducing an adaptive immune response. All these processes take place under conditions of oxygen shortage (hypoxia which is often not considered in experimental settings. This review highlights how deeply hypoxia modulates human as well as mouse immature and mature dendritic cell functions. It tries to link in vitro results to actual in vivo studies and outlines how hypoxia-mediated shaping of dendritic cells affects the activation of (innate immunity.

  2. Hydrocarbon contamination affects deep-sea benthic oxygen uptake and microbial community composition

    Main, C. E.; Ruhl, H. A.; Jones, D. O. B.; Yool, A.; Thornton, B.; Mayor, D. J.


    Accidental oil well blowouts have the potential to introduce large quantities of hydrocarbons into the deep sea and disperse toxic contaminants to midwater and seafloor areas over ocean-basin scales. Our ability to assess the environmental impacts of these events is currently impaired by our limited understanding of how resident communities are affected. This study examined how two treatment levels of a water accommodated fraction of crude oil affected the oxygen consumption rate of a natural, deep-sea benthic community. We also investigated the resident microbial community's response to hydrocarbon contamination through quantification of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and their stable carbon isotope (δ13C) values. Sediment community oxygen consumption rates increased significantly in response to increasing levels of contamination in the overlying water of oil-treated microcosms, and bacterial biomass decreased significantly in the presence of oil. Multivariate ordination of PLFA compositional (mol%) data showed that the structure of the microbial community changed in response to hydrocarbon contamination. However, treatment effects on the δ13C values of individual PLFAs were not statistically significant. Our data demonstrate that deep-sea benthic microbes respond to hydrocarbon exposure within 36 h.

  3. Maternal testosterone and placental function: Effect of electroacupuncture on placental expression of angiogenic markers and fetal growth.

    Fornes, Romina; Hu, Min; Maliqueo, Manuel; Kokosar, Milana; Benrick, Anna; Carr, David; Billig, Håkan; Jansson, Thomas; Manni, Luigi; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet


    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have elevated circulating androgens during pregnancy and are at an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Here we tested the hypotheses that maternal androgen excess decrease placental and fetal growth, and placental expression of markers of steroidogenesis, angiogenesis and sympathetic activity, and that acupuncture with low-frequency electrical stimulation prevents these changes. Pregnant rats were exposed to vehicle or testosterone on gestational day (GD)15-19. Low-frequency electroacupuncture (EA) or handling, as a control for the EA procedure, was given to control or testosterone exposed dams on GD16-20. On GD21, blood pressure was measured and maternal blood, fetuses and placentas collected. Placental steroid receptor expression and proteins involved in angiogenic, neurotrophic and adrenergic signaling were analyzed. EA did not affect any variables in control rats except maternal serum corticosterone, which was reduced. EA in testosterone exposed dams compared with controls increased systolic pressure by 30%, decreased circulating norepinephrine and corticosterone, fetal and placental weight and placental VEGFR1 and proNGF protein expression, and increased the VEGFA/VEGFR1 ratio, mature NGF (mNGF) and the mNGF/proNGF ratio. In conclusion, low-frequency EA in control animals did not have any negative influence on any of the studied variables. In contrast, EA in pregnant dams exposed to testosterone increased blood pressure and impaired placental growth and function, leading to decreased fetal growth. PMID:27208621

  4. Reactive oxygen species differentially affect T cell receptor-signaling pathways.

    Cemerski, Saso; Cantagrel, Alain; Van Meerwijk, Joost P M; Romagnoli, Paola


    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the induction of T lymphocyte hyporesponsiveness observed in several human pathologies including cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, leprosy, and AIDS. To investigate the molecular basis of oxidative stress-induced T cell hyporesponsiveness, we have developed an in vitro system in which T lymphocytes are rendered hyporesponsive by co-culture with oxygen radical-producing activated neutrophils. We have observed a direct correlation between the level of T cell hyporesponsiveness induced and the concentration of reactive oxygen species produced. Moreover, induction of T cell hyporesponsiveness is blocked by addition of N-acetyl cysteine, Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin chloride, and catalase, confirming the critical role of oxidative stress in this system. The pattern of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins was profoundly altered in hyporesponsive as compared with normal T cells. In hyporesponsive T cells, T cell receptor (TCR) ligation no longer induced phospholipase C-gamma1 activation and caused reduced Ca(2+) flux. In contrast, despite increased levels of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, TCR-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK1/2 was unaltered in hyporesponsive T lymphocytes. A late TCR-signaling event such as caspase 3 activation was as well unaffected in hyporesponsive T lymphocytes. Our data indicate that TCR-signaling pathways are differentially affected by physiological levels of oxidative stress and would suggest that although "hyporesponsive" T cells have lost certain effector functions, they may have maintained or gained others. PMID:11916964

  5. Placental Transmogrification of the lung

    Kim, Jin Woo; Park, Il Hwan; Kwon, Woo Cheol; Eom, Min Seob; Kim, Young Ju; Hwan, Joong Hwan [Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)


    Placental transmogrification is a very rare lung disease, where the alveoli resemble the chorionic villi of placenta, and this change is a characteristic finding. A 31-year-old female patient presented with cough and dyspnea that had begun 2 weeks prior to admission. Along with giant bulla found in the left upper lung field, subsegmental consolidation was also identified in the lingular segment on plain chest radiograph and CT scan. Wedge resection was performed to remove the bulla. Pathologic examination of the resected bulla revealed destruction of the normal structures and characteristic villous and papillary changes. These changes led to a diagnosis of placental transmogrification. We made an encounter of an unusual placental transmogrification which had different image findings from other reported transmogrification cases. Thus, we report an atypical placental transmogrification case where both consolidation and giant bulla coexist.

  6. Placental abruption: a persisting killer

    Shakuntala Amirchand Chhabra


    Full Text Available Background: Placental abruption, common disorder in obstetric practice, enigma too, is uniquely fraught with dangers to mother baby. Objectives of study were to study trends of placental abruption, risk factors, management strategies to learn more for reduction in morbidity-mortality of mother-baby, even with low resources, also get insight for future research. Methods: Records of cases of placental abruption managed over 27 years (between 1985 to 2011 were divided into three yearly blocks, A to I and analysed. Details including operative procedures like dilatation-curettage, Caesarean Section (CS or Ante-Partum Haemorrhage (APH in past, disorders like chronic hypertension, threatened abortion, pregnancy specific hypertension, diabetes, anaemia in index pregnancy, management done maternal-neonatal outcome were analysed using stata 6 software. Results: There were 66,459 births during analysis period with 667 cases of placental abruption, 1% births, increasing trends from, 0.73% between 1985-1987 to, 1.11% in 2009-2011. In these 667 cases of placental abruption, 211 (32.5% perinatal deaths occurred. Ratio of perinatal deaths due to placental abruption to overall perinatal deaths increased from 2.12% (8 cases between 1985-1987 (Block A to 5.12% (37 cases between 2009-2011 (Block I. Case fatality in cases of placental abruption has been fluctuating between 3 to 5% till 2004, contributing to around 12-15%, maternal mortality, with no fatality in last 7 years. Conclusions: Cases of placental abruption have been increasing with no obvious reason. In recent past maternal deaths could be prevented but perinatal deaths, have been persisting actually more in last decade. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 604-609

  7. Biofilm history and oxygen availability interact to affect habitat selection in a marine invertebrate.

    Lagos, Marcelo E; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J


    In marine systems, oxygen availability varies at small temporal and spatial scales, such that current oxygen levels may not reflect conditions of the past. Different studies have shown that marine invertebrate larvae can select settlement sites based on local oxygen levels and oxygenation history of the biofilm, but no study has examined the interaction of both. The influence of normoxic and hypoxic water and oxygenation history of biofilms on pre-settlement behavior and settlement of the bryozoan Bugula neritina was tested. Larvae used cues in a hierarchical way: the oxygen levels in the water prime larvae to respond, the response to different biofilms is contingent on oxygen levels in the water. When oxygen levels varied throughout biofilm formation, larvae responded differently depending on the history of the biofilm. It appears that B. neritina larvae integrate cues about current and historical oxygen levels to select the appropriate microhabitat and maximize their fitness. PMID:27169475

  8. Placental Growth Factor Administration Abolishes Placental Ischemia-Induced Hypertension.

    Spradley, Frank T; Tan, Adelene Y; Joo, Woo S; Daniels, Garrett; Kussie, Paul; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Granger, Joey P


    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder of new-onset hypertension. Unfortunately, the most effective treatment is early delivery of the fetus and placenta. Placental ischemia appears central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia because placental ischemia/hypoxia induced in animals by reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) or in humans stimulates release of hypertensive placental factors into the maternal circulation. The anti-angiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), which antagonizes and reduces bioavailable vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor (PlGF), is elevated in RUPP rats and preeclampsia. Although PlGF and vascular endothelial growth factor are both natural ligands for sFlt-1, vascular endothelial growth factor also has high affinity to VEGFR2 (Flk-1) causing side effects like edema. PlGF is specific for sFlt-1. We tested the hypothesis that PlGF treatment reduces placental ischemia-induced hypertension by antagonizing sFlt-1 without adverse consequences to the mother or fetus. On gestational day 14, rats were randomized to 4 groups: normal pregnant or RUPP±infusion of recombinant human PlGF (180 μg/kg per day; AG31, a purified, recombinant human form of PlGF) for 5 days via intraperitoneal osmotic minipumps. On day 19, mean arterial blood pressure and plasma sFlt-1 were higher and glomerular filtration rate lower in RUPP than normal pregnant rats. Infusion of recombinant human PlGF abolished these changes seen with RUPP along with reducing oxidative stress. These data indicate that the increased sFlt-1 and reduced PlGF resulting from placental ischemia contribute to maternal hypertension. Our novel finding that recombinant human PlGF abolishes placental ischemia-induced hypertension, without major adverse consequences, suggests a strong therapeutic potential for this growth factor in preeclampsia. PMID:26831193

  9. Glucosamine supplementation affects placental development in swine

    Previous studies indicated that the depth of the folds of the endometrial epithelial-fetal trophoblast bilayer of the pig placenta is increased in the placenta of small fetuses during late gestation, and that hyaluronan metabolism plays a role in the process. Given this, we hypothesized that glucosa...

  10. Imaging and assessment of placental function.

    Moran, Mary


    The placenta is the vital support organ for the developing fetus. This article reviews current ultrasound (US) methods of assessing placental function. The ability of ultrasound to detect placental pathology is discussed. Doppler technology to investigate the fetal, placental, and maternal circulations in both high-risk and uncomplicated pregnancies is discussed and the current literature on the value of three-dimensional power Doppler studies to assess placental volume and vascularization is also evaluated. The article highlights the need for further research into three-dimensional ultrasound and alternative methods of placental evaluation if progress is to be made in optimizing placental function assessment.

  11. Pathophysiology of placentation abnormalities in pregnancy-induced hypertension

    Mitsuko Furuya


    Full Text Available Mitsuko Furuya1, Junji Ishida2,3, Ichiro Aoki1, Akiyoshi Fukamizu2,31Department of Pathology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama 236-0004, Japan; 2Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences; 3Center for Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance (TARA, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8577, JapanAbstract: During embryogenesis and development, the fetus obtains oxygen and nutrients from the mother through placental microcirculation. The placenta is a distinctive organ that develops and differentiates per se, and that organizes fetal growth and maternal condition in the entire course of gestation. Several life-threatening diseases during pregnancy, such as pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH and eclampsia, are closely associated with placental dysfunction. Genetic susceptibilities and poor placentation have been investigated intensively to understand the pathophysiology of PIH. It is currently thought that “poor placentation hypothesis”, in which extravillous trophoblasts fail to invade sufficiently the placental bed, explains in part maternal predisposition to this disease. Cumulative studies have suggested that hypoxic micromilieu of fetoplacental site, shear stress of uteroplacental blood flow, and aberrantly secreted proinflammatory substances into maternal circulation synergistically contribute to the progression of PIH. For example, soluble form of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1 and soluble form of CD105 are elevated in circulation of PIH mothers. However, it remains to be poorly understood the pathological events in the placenta during the last half of gestation as maternal systemic disorders get worse. For better understanding and effective therapeutic approaches to PIH, it is important to clarify pathological course of PIH-associated changes in the placenta. In this review, current understanding of placental development and the pathophysiology of PIH placenta are summarized. In

  12. Placental Responses to Changes in the Maternal Environment Determine Fetal Growth

    Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn; Boeuf, Philippe; Powell, Theresa L.; Jansson, Thomas


    Placental responses to maternal perturbations are complex and remain poorly understood. Altered maternal environment during pregnancy such as hypoxia, stress, obesity, diabetes, toxins, altered nutrition, inflammation, and reduced utero-placental blood flow may influence fetal development, which can predispose to diseases later in life. The placenta being a metabolically active tissue responds to these perturbations by regulating the fetal supply of nutrients and oxygen and secretion of hormo...

  13. Placental hypoxia, endoplasmic reticulum stress and maternal endothelial sensitisation by sFLT1 in pre-eclampsia.

    Charnock-Jones, D Stephen


    The human placenta is a multifunctional organ that grows and adapts to increasing fetal demand and fluctuations in the intrauterine environment. It is subjected to physiological and pathological changes in local oxygenation, both of which induce adaptive changes. In early pregnancy a low PO2 is the normal physiological state and this is not hypoxic-there is no perturbation of ATP/ADP ratios and, if the placenta is sampled very rapidly, little HIF1α is detected in human first-trimester placental villi. Nonetheless, HIF1α can be increased and activated by culture. However, the placenta does show evidence of stress under pathological conditions. For example, in cases of pre-eclampsia where delivery by caesarean section is necessitated for maternal well-being before 34 weeks' gestation, placental endoplasmic reticulum stress is evident. Cases delivered ≥34 weeks are indistinguishable from normal term controls. One consequence of placental stress, whether oxidative, related to the endoplasmic reticulum or immunological, is that factors are released into the maternal circulation, which affects the endothelium, leading to the maternal syndrome. Soluble FLT1 may contribute directly to this and the most likely mechanism is direct action on the maternal endothelium. sFLT1 is able to form a heterodimer with cell surface VEGF receptors and is therefore able to have a dominant negative effect (in addition to acting as a competitive inhibitor by simply binding vascular endothelial growth factor A [VEGFA] and placental growth factor [PlGF]). This leads in vitro to the sensitisation of endothelial cells to low levels of TNFα. PMID:26228018

  14. Transcriptome analysis of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis during milk acidification as affected by dissolved oxygen and the redox potential.

    Larsen, Nadja; Moslehi-Jenabian, Saloomeh; Werner, Birgit Brøsted; Jensen, Maiken Lund; Garrigues, Christel; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Jespersen, Lene


    Performance of Lactococcus lactis as a starter culture in dairy fermentations depends on the levels of dissolved oxygen and the redox state of milk. In this study the microarray analysis was used to investigate the global gene expression of L. lactis subsp. lactis DSM20481(T) during milk acidification as affected by oxygen depletion and the decrease of redox potential. Fermentations were carried out at different initial levels of dissolved oxygen (dO2) obtained by milk sparging with oxygen (high dO2, 63%) or nitrogen (low dO2, 6%). Bacterial exposure to high initial oxygen resulted in overexpression of genes involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidation-reduction processes, biosynthesis of trehalose and down-regulation of genes involved in purine nucleotide biosynthesis, indicating that several factors, among them trehalose and GTP, were implicated in bacterial adaptation to oxidative stress. Generally, transcriptional changes were more pronounced during fermentation of oxygen sparged milk. Genes up-regulated in response to oxygen depletion were implicated in biosynthesis and transport of pyrimidine nucleotides, branched chain amino acids and in arginine catabolic pathways; whereas genes involved in salvage of nucleotides and cysteine pathways were repressed. Expression pattern of genes involved in pyruvate metabolism indicated shifts towards mixed acid fermentation after oxygen depletion with production of specific end-products, depending on milk treatment. Differential expression of genes, involved in amino acid and pyruvate pathways, suggested that initial oxygen might influence the release of flavor compounds and, thereby, flavor development in dairy fermentations. The knowledge of molecular responses involved in adaptation of L. lactis to the shifts of redox state and pH during milk fermentations is important for the dairy industry to ensure better control of cheese production. PMID:27015296

  15. Sonographic spectrum of placental abruption.

    Nyberg, D A; Cyr, D R; Mack, L A; Wilson, D A; Shuman, W P


    Fifty-seven cases of placental abruption detected by sonography were retrospectively reviewed. The location of hemorrhage was subchorionic in 46 cases (81%), retroplacental in nine cases (16%), and preplacental in two cases (4%). Subchorionic hematomas were more frequently shown in the 33 patients presenting before 20 menstrual weeks (91%) than in the 24 patients presenting after 20 weeks (67%). The echogenicity of hemorrhage depended on the time the sonogram was performed relative to the onset of symptoms: Acute hemorrhage was hyperechoic to isoechoic compared with the placenta, while resolving hematomas became hypoechoic within 1 week and sonolucent within 2 weeks. Acute hemorrhage was occasionally difficult to distinguish from the adjacent placenta. This occurred in five retroplacental hematomas that showed only an abnormally thick and heterogeneous placenta. Nine cases of placental abruption were initially confused with other mass lesions. Placental abruption causes a wide spectrum of sonographic findings that may be overlooked or misdiagnosed. PMID:3538831

  16. Intrapritoneal Hemorrhage after Placental Abruption

    Nahid Sakhavar


    Full Text Available A placental abruption or abruptio placentae (where in the placental lining has separated from the uterus of the mother is one of the complications caused by trauma during pregnancy. It lets the blood flow to infiltrate in the uterine lining and to develop Couvelaire uterus (also known as uteroplacental apoplexy and uterine atony (a condition in which a woman's uterine muscles lose the ability to contract after childbirth; however, it rarely develops considerable hemoperitoneum which needs hysterectomy. In this report, a unique case of placental abruption caused by trauma in a 28-year-old Afghan woman is introduced in which severity and duration of trauma because of delay in reaching health equipped center led to developing massive hemoperitoneum (infiltration of great amount of blood into the abdominal cavity and its complications.

  17. In-vitro study of the effect of anti-hypertensive drugs on placental hormones and angiogenic proteins synthesis in pre-eclampsia.

    Subrata Gangooly

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antihypertensive drugs lower the maternal blood pressure in pre-eclampsia (PE by direct or central vasodilatory mechanisms but little is known about the direct effects of these drugs on placental functions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of labetolol, hydralazine, α-methyldopa and pravastatin on the synthesis of placental hormonal and angiogenic proteins know to be altered in PE. DESIGN: Placental villous explants from late onset PE (n = 3 and normotensive controls (n = 6 were cultured for 3 days at 10 and 20% oxygen (O2 with variable doses anti-hypertensive drugs. The levels of activin A, inhibin A, human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1 and soluble endoglin (sEng were measured in explant culture media on day 1, 2 and 3 using standard immunoassays. Data at day 1 and day 3 were compared. RESULTS: Spontaneous secretion of sEndoglin and sFlt-1 were higher (p < 0.05 in villous explants from PE pregnancies compared to controls. There was a significant time dependent decrease in the secretion of sFlt-1 and sEndoglin in PE cases, which was seen only for sFlt-1 in controls. In both PE cases and controls the placental protein secretions were not affected by varying doses of anti-hypertensive drugs or the different O2 concentration cultures, except for Activin, A which was significantly (p < 0.05 higher in controls at 10% O2. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that the changes previously observed in maternal serum hormones and angiogenic proteins level after anti-hypertensive treatment in PE could be due to a systemic effect of the drugs on maternal blood pressure and circulation rather than a direct effect of these drugs on placental biosynthesis and/or secretion.

  18. Quantitative proteomics reveals oxygen-dependent changes in neuronal mitochondria affecting function and sensitivity to rotenone

    Villeneuve, Lance; Tiede, LeAnn M.; Morsey, Brenda; Fox, Howard S


    Mitochondria are implicated in a variety of degenerative disorders and aging. Mitochondria are responsive to the oxygen in their environment yet tissue culture is performed at atmospheric (21%) oxygen and not at physiological (1-11%) oxygen levels found in tissues. We employed imaging of mitochondrial probes, mass spectrometry, western blots and ATP assays of the human neuroblastoma cell-line SH-SY5Y; and imaging of mitochondrial probes in human primary neurons in standard non-physiological o...

  19. Neonatal oxygen adversely affects lung function in adult mice without altering surfactant composition or activity

    Yee, Min; Chess, Patricia R.; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A.; Wang, Zhengdong; Gelein, Robert; Zhou, Rui; Dean, David A.; Notter, Robert H.; O'Reilly, Michael A.


    Despite its potentially adverse effects on lung development and function, supplemental oxygen is often used to treat premature infants in respiratory distress. To understand how neonatal hyperoxia can permanently disrupt lung development, we previously reported increased lung compliance, greater alveolar simplification, and disrupted epithelial development in adult mice exposed to 100% inspired oxygen fraction between postnatal days 1 and 4. Here, we investigate whether oxygen-induced changes...

  20. Effect of exercise on maternal hemodynamics and placental blood flow in healthy women.

    Rauramo, I; Forss, M


    Intervillous placental blood flow responses to standardized exercise during late pregnancy were studied using a Xenon technique in 25 healthy women. Thirteen of them were studied twice between the 32nd and 38th weeks of pregnancy, with mean 32 (range 22 to 40) days between the studies. At the end of a 6-min exercise, mean maternal heart rate had risen from 77 +/- 10 (SD) to 154 +/- 11 beats/min, amounting to 63% of maximal oxygen uptake. Stroke volume rose by 9%, cardiac output by 65% and cardiac index by 71% as a consequence of exercise, but peripheral vascular resistance declined by 41%. The placental blood flow was at a similar level after the exercise as before the exercise, being 95 +/- 19 (mean +/- SD) ml/min/100 ml of intervillous space before, 98 +/- 24 one min after, and 93 +/- 16 30 min after the cessation of exercise. No change was found in the level of placental blood flow between the 32-34th and 37-38th weeks of pregnancy. The placental blood flow had a positive correlation with maternal weight, mean arterial blood pressure and with diastolic blood pressure. Maternal heart rate, cardiac output, cardiac index, placental weight and the birth weight of the infant was not correlated with placental blood flow. It is concluded that in normal pregnancy a short submaximal exercise has little effect on placental blood flow measured after exercise. PMID:3176909

  1. Sex-Specific Placental Responses in Fetal Development.

    Rosenfeld, Cheryl S


    The placenta is an ephemeral but critical organ for the survival of all eutherian mammals and marsupials. It is the primary messenger system between the mother and fetus, where communicational signals, nutrients, waste, gases, and extrinsic factors are exchanged. Although the placenta may buffer the fetus from various environmental insults, placental dysfunction might also contribute to detrimental developmental origins of adult health and disease effects. The placenta of one sex over the other might possess greater ability to respond and buffer against environmental insults. Given the potential role of the placenta in effecting the lifetime health of the offspring, it is not surprising that there has been a resurging interest in this organ, including the Human Placental Project launched by the National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development. In this review, we will compare embryological development of the laboratory mouse and human chorioallantoic placentae. Next, evidence that various species, including humans, exhibit normal sex-dependent structural and functional placental differences will be examined followed by how in utero environmental changes (nutritional state, stress, and exposure to environmental chemicals) might interact with fetal sex to affect this organ. Recent data also suggest that paternal state impacts placental function in a sex-dependent manner. The research to date linking placental maladaptive responses and later developmental origins of adult health and disease effects will be explored. Finally, we will focus on how sex chromosomes and epimutations may contribute to sex-dependent differences in placental function, the unanswered questions, and future directions that warrant further consideration. PMID:26241064

  2. Assessment of water quality and factors affecting dissolved oxygen in the Sangamon River, Decatur to Riverton, Illinois, summer 1982

    Schmidt, A.R.; Stamer, J.K.


    Water quality and processes that affect the dissolved-oxygen concentration in a 45.9 mile reach of the Sangamon River from Decatur to Riverton, Illinois, were determined from data collected during low-flow periods in the summer of 1982. Relations among dissolved oxygen, water discharge, biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia and nitrite plus nitrate concentrations, and photosynthetic-oxygen production were simulated using a one-dimensional, steady-state computer model. Average dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 8.0 milligrams per liter at the upstream end of the study reach at Decatur to 5.2 milligrams per liter 12.2 miles downstream. Ammonia concentrations ranged from 45 milligrams per liter at the mouth of Stevens Creek (2.6 miles downstream from Decatur) to 0.03 milligram per liter at the downstream end of the study reach. Un-ionized ammonia concentrations exceeded the maximum concentration specified in the State water quality standard (0.04 milligram per liter) throughout most of the study reach. Model simulations indicated that oxidation of ammonia to form nitrite plus nitrate was the most significant process leading to low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the river. (USGS)

  3. Placental perfusion - a human alternative

    Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E


    Foetal exposures to environmental and medicinal products have impact on the growth of the foetus (e.g. cigarette smoke) and development of organs (e.g. methylmercury and Thalidomide). Perfusion studies of the human term placenta enable investigation of placental transport of chemical substances...... part of work package 2 of the integrated project ReProTect....

  4. Placental diversity in malagasy tenrecs

    Enders, A C; Blankenship, T N; Goodman, S M; Soarimalala, V; Carter, Anthony Michael


    haemophagous region. In addition, a more villous portion of the placental disk forms before the formation of a more compact labyrinth. Although the definitive placenta is cellular haemomonochorial, it lacks the spongy zone found in the Tenrecinae. Neither does it resemble the endotheliochorial condition found...

  5. Atmospheric oxygen levels affect mudskipper terrestrial performance: Implications for early tetrapods

    Jew, CJ; Wegner, NC; Yanagitsuru, Y; Tresguerres, M.; Graham, JB


    The Japanese mudskipper (Periophthalmus modestus), an amphibious fish that possesses many respiratory and locomotive specializations for sojourns onto land, was used as a model to study how changing atmospheric oxygen concentrations during the middle and late Paleozoic Era (400-250 million years ago) may have influenced the emergence and subsequent radiation of the first tetrapods. The effects of different atmospheric oxygen concentrations (hyperoxia = 35%, normoxia = 21%, and hypoxia = 7% O2...

  6. Factors Affecting High-Oxygen Survival of Heterotrophic Microorganisms from an Antarctic Lake

    Mikell, Alfred T.; Parker, B. C.; Gregory, E M


    We sought to determine factors relating to the survival of heterotrophic microorganisms from the high-dissolved-oxygen (HDO) waters of Lake Hoare, Antarctica. This lake contains perpetual HDO about three times that of normal saturation (40 to 50 mg liter−1). Five isolates, one yeast and four bacteria, were selected from Lake Hoare waters by growth with the membrane filter technique with oxygen added to yield dissolved concentrations 14 times that in situ, 175 mg liter−1. One bacterial isolate...

  7. Factors Affecting the Oxygenation Capacity of Disc Aerators in an Oxidation Ditch System

    Abdel E. Ghaly


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The use of aerobic biological methods for the treatment of livestock wastes has resulted in a proliferation of mechanical aeration devices to accomplish the desired treatment. The oxidation ditch system with disc aerators is among the aerobic systems that have been used to treat livestock waste. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of various disc design parameters and system operational parameters on the oxygen transfer coefficient and to study the physical phenomenon of oxygen transfer using high speed movie techniques. Approach: A bench-scale oxidation ditch with a disc aerator was used to conduct a series of experiments to determine the effects of immersion depth (2.5-7.5 cm, disc speed (50-250 rpm, disc thickness (0.32-2.55 cm, hole diameter (0.00-1.92 cm and number of rotating discs (1-2 on the oxygen transfer coefficient. The unsteady state method with sodium sulfite oxidation was used to deoxygenate the water and the dissolved oxygen concentration was measured with time. Results: The disc speed had the most significant effect on KLa with the immersion depth and hole diameter both showing strong effects and the disc thickness showing less effect. The effect of adding a second disc was comparable to using a single disc of double the thickness at lower speeds while at speeds higher than 200 rpm doubling the thickness of a single disc had less effect than a second disc. Conclusion: The highest oxygen transfer (1.526 min-1 was achieved using two coaxial discs with a disc speed of 250 rpm, a disc thickness of 0.64 cm, a hole diameter of 1.92 cm and an immersion depth of 7.5 cm. Bubble aeration and eddy aeration were the most prevalent mechanisms of oxygen transfer in the oxidation ditch while surface aeration played a relatively small role in oxygen transfer.

  8. Oxygen desaturation during night sleep affects decision-making in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Delazer, Margarete; Zamarian, Laura; Frauscher, Birgit; Mitterling, Thomas; Stefani, Ambra; Heidbreder, Anna; Högl, Birgit


    This study assessed decision-making and its associations with executive functions and sleep-related factors in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Thirty patients with untreated obstructive sleep apnea and 20 healthy age- and education-matched controls performed the Iowa Gambling Task, a decision-making task under initial ambiguity, as well as an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Patients, but not controls, also underwent a detailed polysomnographic assessment. Results of group analyses showed that patients performed at the same level of controls on the Iowa Gambling Task. However, the proportion of risky performers was significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group. Decision-making did not correlate with executive functions and subjective ratings of sleepiness, whereas there was a significant positive correlation between advantageous performance on the Iowa Gambling Task and percentage of N2 sleep, minimal oxygen saturation, average oxygen saturation and time spent below 90% oxygen saturation level. Also, the minimal oxygen saturation accounted for 27% of variance in decision-making. In conclusion, this study shows that a subgroup of patients with obstructive sleep apnea may be at risk of disadvantageous decision-making under ambiguity. Among the sleep-related factors, oxygen saturation is a significant predictor of advantageous decision-making. PMID:26899164

  9. Climate change affects marine fishes through the oxygen limitation of thermal tolerance.

    Pörtner, Hans O; Knust, Rainer


    A cause-and-effect understanding of climate influences on ecosystems requires evaluation of thermal limits of member species and of their ability to cope with changing temperatures. Laboratory data available for marine fish and invertebrates from various climatic regions led to the hypothesis that, as a unifying principle, a mismatch between the demand for oxygen and the capacity of oxygen supply to tissues is the first mechanism to restrict whole-animal tolerance to thermal extremes. We show in the eelpout, Zoarces viviparus, a bioindicator fish species for environmental monitoring from North and Baltic Seas (Helcom), that thermally limited oxygen delivery closely matches environmental temperatures beyond which growth performance and abundance decrease. Decrements in aerobic performance in warming seas will thus be the first process to cause extinction or relocation to cooler waters. PMID:17204649

  10. Air Pollution Exposure and Markers of Placental Growth and Function: The Generation R Study

    van den Hooven, Edith H.; Pierik, Frank H; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Hofman, Albert; van Ratingen, Sjoerd W.; Zandveld, Peter Y.J.; Russcher, Henk; Lindemans, Jan; Miedema, Henk M.E.; Steegers, Eric A.P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.


    Background: Air pollution exposure during pregnancy might affect placental growth and function, perhaps leading to pregnancy complications. Objective: We prospectively evaluated the associations of maternal air pollution exposure with markers of placental growth and function among 7,801 pregnant women in the Netherlands. Methods: We estimated levels of particulate matter ≤ 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at the home address for different periods during pregnanc...

  11. Placental histology and neutrophil extracellular traps in lupus and pre-eclampsia pregnancies

    Marder, Wendy; Knight, Jason S.; Kaplan, Mariana J.; Somers, Emily C; Zhang, Xu; O'Dell, Alexander A; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Lieberman, Richard W.


    Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pre-eclampsia, particularly in association with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS). While significant placental abnormalities are expected in pre-eclampsia, less is known about how lupus activity and APS in pregnancy affect the placenta. We describe placental pathology from a population of lupus pregnancies, several of which were complicated by APS-related thromboses, ...

  12. Oxygen availability strongly affects chronological lifespan and thermotolerance in batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Markus M.M. Bisschops


    Full Text Available Stationary-phase (SP batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which growth has been arrested by carbon-source depletion, are widely applied to study chronological lifespan, quiescence and SP-associated robustness. Based on this type of experiments, typically performed under aerobic conditions, several roles of oxygen in aging have been proposed. However, SP in anaerobic yeast cultures has not been investigated in detail. Here, we use the unique capability of S. cerevisiae to grow in the complete absence of oxygen to directly compare SP in aerobic and anaerobic bioreactor cultures. This comparison revealed strong positive effects of oxygen availability on adenylate energy charge, longevity and thermotolerance during SP. A low thermotolerance of anaerobic batch cultures was already evident during the exponential growth phase and, in contrast to the situation in aerobic cultures, was not substantially increased during transition into SP. A combination of physiological and transcriptome analysis showed that the slow post-diauxic growth phase on ethanol, which precedes SP in aerobic, but not in anaerobic cultures, endowed cells with the time and resources needed for inducing longevity and thermotolerance. When combined with literature data on acquisition of longevity and thermotolerance in retentostat cultures, the present study indicates that the fast transition from glucose excess to SP in anaerobic cultures precludes acquisition of longevity and thermotolerance. Moreover, this study demonstrates the importance of a preceding, calorie-restricted conditioning phase in the acquisition of longevity and stress tolerance in SP yeast cultures, irrespective of oxygen availability.

  13. Is cerebral oxygenation negatively affected by infusion of norepinephrine in healthy subjects?

    Brassard, P.; Seifert, T.; Secher, Niels H.


    BACKGROUND: Vasopressor agents are commonly used to increase mean arterial pressure (MAP) in order to secure a pressure gradient to perfuse vital organs. The influence of norepinephrine on cerebral oxygenation is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the infusion of...... norepinephrine on cerebral oxygenation in healthy subjects. METHODS: Three doses of norepinephrine (0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 microg kg(-1) min(-1) for 20 min each) were infused in nine healthy subjects [six males; 26 (6) yr, mean (SD)]. MAP, cerebral oxygenation characterized by frontal lobe oxygenation (Sc(O2)) and...... infused at 0.1 microg kg(-1) min(-1) [Sc(O2): 78 (75-94) to 69 (61-83)%; P < 0.05; Sjv(O2): 67 (8) to 64 (7)%; P < 0.01]. MCA Vmean was reduced with each dose of norepinephrine [56.9 (11.2) to 55.0 (11.7) cm s(-1); P < 0.05] and Pa(CO2) lowered from 5.4 (0.4) to 5.1 (0.4) kPa (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS...

  14. Cutaneous vasoconstriction affects near-infrared spectroscopy determined cerebral oxygen saturation during administration of norepinephrine

    Sørensen, Niels Henrik Breiner; Secher, Niels H; Siebenmann, Christoph;


    Perioperative optimization of spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy determined cerebral frontal lobe oxygenation (scO2) may reduce postoperative morbidity. Norepinephrine is routinely administered to maintain cerebral perfusion pressure and, thereby, cerebral blood flow, but norepinephrine...... reduces the scO2. We hypothesized that norepinephrine-induced reduction in scO2 is influenced by cutaneous vasoconstriction....

  15. Dynamic Factors Affecting Gaseous Ligand Binding in an Artificial Oxygen Transport Protein‡

    Zhang, Lei; Andersen, Eskil M.E.; Khajo, Abdelahad; Magliozzo, Richard S.; Koder, Ronald L.


    We report the functional analysis of an artificial hexacoordinate oxygen transport protein, HP7, which operates via a mechanism similar to that of human neuroglobin and cytoglobin: the destabilization of one of two heme-ligating histidine residues. In the case of HP7 this is the result of the coupling of histidine side chain ligation with the burial of three charged glutamate residues on the same helix. Here we compare gaseous ligand binding, including rates, affinities and oxyferrous state l...

  16. Affect of Early Life Oxygen Exposure on Proper Lung Development and Response to Respiratory Viral Infections

    Domm, William; Misra, Ravi S.; O’Reilly, Michael A.


    Children born preterm often exhibit reduced lung function and increased severity of response to respiratory viruses, suggesting that premature birth has compromised proper development of the respiratory epithelium and innate immune defenses. Increasing evidence suggests that premature birth promotes aberrant lung development likely due to the neonatal oxygen transition occurring before pulmonary development has matured. Given that preterm infants are born at a point of time where their immune...

  17. Glucose concentration alters dissolved oxygen levels in liquid cultures of Beauveria bassiana and affects formation and bioefficacy of blastospores.

    Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Jackson, Mark A; Kobori, Nilce Naomi; Behle, Robert W; Dunlap, Christopher A; Delalibera Júnior, Ítalo


    The filamentous fungus Beauveria bassiana is an economically important pathogen of numerous arthropod pests and is able to grow in submerged culture as filaments (mycelia) or as budding yeast-like blastospores. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dissolved oxygen and high glucose concentrations on blastospore production by submerged cultures of two isolates of B. bassiana, ESALQ1432 and GHA. Results showed that maintaining adequate dissolved oxygen levels coupled with high glucose concentrations enhanced blastospore yields by both isolates. High glucose concentrations increased the osmotic pressure of the media and coincided with higher dissolved oxygen levels and increased production of significantly smaller blastospores compared with blastospores produced in media with lower concentrations of glucose. The desiccation tolerance of blastospores dried to less than 2.6 % moisture was not affected by the glucose concentration of the medium but was isolate dependent. Blastospores of isolate ESALQ1432 produced in media containing 140 g glucose L(-1) showed greater virulence toward whitefly nymphs (Bemisia tabaci) as compared with blastospores produced in media containing 40 g glucose L(-1). These results suggest a synergistic effect between glucose concentration and oxygen availability on changing morphology and enhancing the yield and efficacy of blastospores of B. bassiana, thereby facilitating the development of a cost-effective production method for this blastospore-based bioinsecticide. PMID:25947245

  18. Oxygen microenvironment affects the uptake of nanoparticles in head and neck tumor cells

    Chen, Eunice Y.; Hodge, Sasson; Tai, Katherine; Hou, Huagang; Khan, Nadeem; Hoopes, P. Jack; Samkoe, Kimberley S.


    Survival of head and neck cancer patients has not improved in several decades despite advances in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. Tumor hypoxia in head and neck cancers is a critical factor that leads to poor prognosis, resistance to radiation and chemotherapies, and increased metastatic potential. Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia (mNPHT) is a promising therapy for hypoxic tumors because nanoparticles (NP) can be directly injected into, or targeted to, hypoxic tumor cells and exposed to alternating magnetic fields (AMF) to induce hyperthermia. Magnetic NPHT can improve therapeutic effectiveness by two modes of action: 1) direct killing of hypoxic tumor cells; and 2) increase in tumor oxygenation, which has the potential to make the tumor more susceptible to adjuvant therapies such as radiation and chemotherapy. Prior studies in breast cancer cells demonstrated that a hypoxic microenvironment diminished NP uptake in vitro; however, mNPHT with intratumoral NP injection in hypoxic tumors increased tumor oxygenation and delayed tumor growth. In this study, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines were incubated in normoxic, hypoxic, and hyperoxic conditions with iron oxide NP for 4-72 hours. After incubation, the cells were analyzed for iron uptake by mass spectrometry, Prussian blue staining, and electron microscopy. In contrast to breast cancer cells, uptake of NPs was increased in hypoxic microenvironments as compared to normoxic conditions in HNSCC cells. In future studies, we will confirm the effect of the oxygen microenvironment on NP uptake and efficacy of mNPHT both in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Association between calcifying nanoparticles and placental calcification

    Zhang D


    Full Text Available Yanan Guo1, Dechun Zhang1, He Lu1, Shuang Luo2, Xuecheng Shen31Molecular Medicine and Tumor Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, Yuzhong District, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 3Urological Research Institute of PLA, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: The purpose of this study was to examine the possible contribution of calcifying nanoparticles to the pathogenesis of placental calcification.Methods: Calcified placental tissues and distal tissue samples were collected from 36 confirmed placental calcification cases. In addition, 20 normal placental tissue samples were obtained as a control group. All the tissue samples were cultured using special nanobacterial culture methods. The cultured calcifying nanoparticles were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and their growth was monitored by optical density (OD at a wavelength of 650 nm. 16S rRNA gene expression of the cultured calcifying nanoparticles was also isolated and sequenced.Results: Novel calcifying nanoparticles wrapped with electron-dense shells between 50 nm to 500 nm in diameter were observed in the extracellular matrix of calcified placental tissues. They were detected in placental villi and hydroxyapatite crystals, and contained “nucleic acid-like materials”. After isolation and four weeks of culture, 28 of 36 calcified placental tissue samples showed white granular precipitates attached to the bottom of the culture tubes. OD650 measurements indicated that the precipitates from the calcified placental tissues were able to grow in culture, whereas no such precipitates from the control tissues were observed. The 16S rRNA genes were isolated from the cultured calcifying nanoparticles and calcified placental tissues, and their gene sequencing results implied that calcifying nanoparticles were novel nanobacteria (GenBank JF

  20. Microparasites and Placental Invasiveness in Eutherian Mammals.

    Isabella Capellini

    Full Text Available Placental invasiveness-the number of maternal tissue layers separating fetal tissues from maternal blood-is variable across mammalian species. Although this diversity is likely to be functionally important, variation in placental invasiveness remains unexplained. Here we test the hypothesis that increased risk of transplacental transmission of pathogens from the mother to the fetus promotes the evolution of non-invasive placentation, the most likely derived condition in eutherian mammals. Specifically, we predict that non-invasive placentation is associated with increased microparasite species richness relative to more invasive placental types, based on the assumption that higher numbers of microparasites in a population reflects greater risk of transplacental transmission to fetuses. As predicted, higher bacteria species richness is associated with non-invasive placentation. Protozoa species richness, however, shows the opposite pattern. Because invasive placentae facilitate the transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus, we propose that the ancestral condition of invasive placentation is retained under selection for protection of newborns from higher risk of postnatal protozoan infection. Hence, our findings suggest that a tradeoff exists between protection against bacterial infection prenatally and protozoan infection postnatally. Future studies are needed to investigate how maternal prevalence of infection and the relative pre- versus postnatal risk of fetal infection by different microparasite groups vary among mammalian hosts in relation to placental invasiveness.

  1. Placentation in different mammalian species.

    Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Tarrade, Anne


    The placenta is a complex, transient organ associated with viviparity, which is located at the interface of the dam and fetus during pregnancy. It is formed after attachment, or implantation, of the blastocyst on the uterine lining and derives from complex cellular and molecular interactions between uterine and embryonic tissues. In mammals, there are many forms of placentation but this organ has the same function in all species: it is responsible for orchestrating materno-fetal exchanges, together with endocrine and immunological functions. PMID:27155775

  2. Optoacoustic measurements of human placenta and umbilical blood oxygenation

    Nanovskaya, T. N.; Petrov, I. Y.; Petrov, Y.; Patrikeeva, S. L.; Ahmed, M. S.; Hankins, G. D. V.; Prough, D. S.; Esenaliev, R. O.


    Adequate oxygenation is essential for normal embryogenesis and fetal growth. Perturbations in the intrauterine oxidative environment during pregnancy are associated with several pathophysiological disorders such as pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. We proposed to use optoacoustic technology for monitoring placental and fetal umbilical blood oxygenation. In this work, we studied optoacoustic monitoring of oxygenation in placenta and umbilical cord blood ex vivo using technique of placenta perfusion. We used a medical grade, nearinfrared, tunable, optoacoustic system developed and built for oxygenation monitoring in blood vessels and in tissues. First, we calibrated the system for cord blood oxygenation measurements by using a CO-Oximeter (gold standard). Then we performed validation in cord blood circulating through the catheters localized on the fetal side of an isolated placental lobule. Finally, the oxygenation measurements were performed in the perfused placental tissue. To increase or decrease blood oxygenation, we used infusion of a gas mixture of 95% O2 + 5% CO2 and 95% N2 + 5% CO2, respectively. In placental tissue, up to four cycles of changes in oxygenation were performed. The optoacoustically measured oxygenation in circulating cord blood and in placental lobule closely correlated with the actual oxygenation data measured by CO-Oximeter. We plan to further test the placental and cord blood oxygenation monitoring with optoacoustics in animal and clinical studies.

  3. Nomenclature and placental mammal phylogeny

    Helgen Kristofer M


    Full Text Available Abstract An issue arising from recent progress in establishing the placental mammal Tree of Life concerns the nomenclature of high-level clades. Fortunately, there are now several well-supported clades among extant mammals that require unambiguous, stable names. Although the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature does not apply above the Linnean rank of family, and while consensus on the adoption of competing systems of nomenclature does not yet exist, there is a clear, historical basis upon which to arbitrate among competing names for high-level mammalian clades. Here, we recommend application of the principles of priority and stability, as laid down by G.G. Simpson in 1945, to discriminate among proposed names for high-level taxa. We apply these principles to specific cases among placental mammals with broad relevance for taxonomy, and close with particular emphasis on the Afrotherian family Tenrecidae. We conclude that no matter how reconstructions of the Tree of Life change in years to come, systematists should apply new names reluctantly, deferring to those already published and maximizing consistency with existing nomenclature.

  4. Evolution of the placenta during the early radiation of placental mammals

    Mess, Andrea; Carter, Anthony M


    The chorioallantoic placenta is an organ of gaseous exchange that exhibits a high degree of structural diversity. One factor determining oxygen transfer across the placenta, the diffusion distance, is in part dependent on the number of cell layers separating maternal from fetal blood. This...... placental mammals, derived from molecular phylogenetics. We show that epitheliochorial placentation, the least invasive type, is a derived state and discuss factors that may have determined its evolution with reference to conflict theory, as applied to the allocation of resources between mother and fetus...

  5. A mechanism of oxygen sensing in yeast. Multiple oxygen-responsive steps in the heme biosynthetic pathway affect Hap1 activity.

    Hon, Thomas; Dodd, Athena; Dirmeier, Reinhard; Gorman, Nadia; Sinclair, Peter R; Zhang, Li; Poyton, Robert O


    Heme plays central roles in oxygen sensing and utilization in many living organisms. In yeast, heme mediates the effect of oxygen on the expression of many genes involved in using or detoxifying oxygen. However, a direct link between intracellular heme level and oxygen concentration has not been vigorously established. In this report, we have examined the relationships among oxygen levels, heme levels, Hap1 activity, and HAP1 expression. We found that Hap1 activity is controlled in vivo by heme and not by its precursors and that heme activates Hap1 even in anoxic cells. We also found that Hap1 activity exhibits the same oxygen dose-response curves as Hap1-dependent aerobic genes and that these dose-response curves have a sharp break at approximately 1 microM O2. The results show that the intracellular signaling heme level, reflected as Hap1 activity, is closely correlated with oxygen concentration. Furthermore, we found that bypass of all heme synthetic steps but ferrochelatase by deuteroporphyrin IX does not circumvent the need for oxygen in Hap1 full activation by heme, suggesting that the last step of heme synthesis, catalyzed by ferrochelatase, is also subjected to oxygen control. Our results show that multiple heme synthetic steps can sense oxygen concentration and provide significant insights into the mechanism of oxygen sensing in yeast. PMID:14512429

  6. A stochastic model for early placental development.

    Cotter, Simon L


    In the human, placental structure is closely related to placental function and consequent pregnancy outcome. Studies have noted abnormal placental shape in small-for-gestational-age infants which extends to increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. The origins and determinants of placental shape are incompletely understood and are difficult to study in vivo. In this paper, we model the early development of the human placenta, based on the hypothesis that this is driven by a chemoattractant effect emanating from proximal spiral arteries in the decidua. We derive and explore a two-dimensional stochastic model, and investigate the effects of loss of spiral arteries in regions near to the cord insertion on the shape of the placenta. This model demonstrates that disruption of spiral arteries can exert profound effects on placental shape, particularly if this is close to the cord insertion. Thus, placental shape reflects the underlying maternal vascular bed. Abnormal placental shape may reflect an abnormal uterine environment, predisposing to pregnancy complications. Through statistical analysis of model placentas, we are able to characterize the probability that a given placenta grew in a disrupted environment, and even able to distinguish between different disruptions.

  7. Factors affecting cerebral oxygenation in hemodialysis patients: cerebral oxygenation associates with pH, hemodialysis duration, serum albumin concentration, and diabetes mellitus.

    Kiyonori Ito

    Full Text Available Patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD often develop cerebral disease complications. Furthermore, cerebral regional saturation of oxygen (rSO2 was previously reported to be significantly lower in HD patients than in healthy subjects. We aimed to identify the factors affecting the cerebral rSO2 in HD patients.Fifty-four HD patients (38 men and 16 women; mean age, 67.7 ± 1.2 years, HD duration, 6.5 ± 1.9 years were recruited. Cerebral rSO2 was monitored at the forehead before HD using an INVOS 5100C (Covidien Japan, Tokyo, Japan.The rSO2 levels were significantly lower in HD patients compared with healthy controls (49.5 ± 1.7% vs. 68.9 ± 1.6%, p <0.001. Multiple regression analysis showed that cerebral rSO2 independently associated with pH (standardized coefficient: -0.35, HD duration (standardized coefficient: -0.33, and serum albumin concentration (standardized coefficient: 0.28. Furthermore, the rSO2 was significantly lower in HD patients with diabetes mellitus (DM, compared with patients without DM (46.8 ± 1.7% vs. 52.1 ± 1.8%, p <0.05.In HD patients, cerebral rSO2 was affected by multiple factors, including pH, HD duration, and serum albumin concentration. Furthermore, this is the first report describing significantly lower levels of rSO2 in HD patients with DM than in those without DM.

  8. Triazole fungicide tebuconazole disrupts human placental trophoblast cell functions.

    Zhou, Jinghua; Zhang, Jianyun; Li, Feixue; Liu, Jing


    Triazole fungicides are one of the top ten classes of current-use pesticides. Although exposure to triazole fungicides is associated with reproductive toxicity in mammals, limited information is available regarding the effects of triazole fungicides on human placental trophoblast function. Tebuconazole (TEB) is a common triazole fungicide that has been extensively used for fungi control. In this work, we showed that TEB could reduce cell viability, disturb normal cell cycle distribution and induce apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo (HTR-8). Bcl-2 protein expression decreased and the level of Bax protein increased after TEB treatment in HTR-8 cells. The results demonstrated that this fungicide induced apoptosis of trophoblast cells via mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that the invasive and migratory capacities of HTR-8 cells decreased significantly after TEB administration. TEB altered the expression of key regulatory genes involved in the modulation of trophoblast functions. Taken together, TEB suppressed human trophoblast invasion and migration through affecting the expression of protease, hormones, angiogenic factors, growth factors and cytokines. As the invasive and migratory abilities of trophoblast are essential for successful placentation and fetus development, our findings suggest a potential risk of triazole fungicides to human pregnancy. PMID:26852204

  9. Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout mice exhibit placental P4 overproduction and delayed parturition.

    Naruse, Mie; Ono, Ryuichi; Irie, Masahito; Nakamura, Kenji; Furuse, Tamio; Hino, Toshiaki; Oda, Kanako; Kashimura, Misho; Yamada, Ikuko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko


    Sirh7/Ldoc1 [sushi-ichi retrotransposon homolog 7/leucine zipper, downregulated in cancer 1, also called mammalian retrotransposon-derived 7 (Mart7)] is one of the newly acquired genes from LTR retrotransposons in eutherian mammals. Interestingly, Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited abnormal placental cell differentiation/maturation, leading to an overproduction of placental progesterone (P4) and placental lactogen 1 (PL1) from trophoblast giant cells (TGCs). The placenta is an organ that is essential for mammalian viviparity and plays a major endocrinological role during pregnancy in addition to providing nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. P4 is an essential hormone in the preparation and maintenance of pregnancy and the determination of the timing of parturition in mammals; however, the biological significance of placental P4 in rodents is not properly recognized. Here, we demonstrate that mouse placentas do produce P4 in mid-gestation, coincident with a temporal reduction in ovarian P4, suggesting that it plays a role in the protection of the conceptuses specifically in this period. Pregnant Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout females also displayed delayed parturition associated with a low pup weaning rate. All these results suggest that Sirh7/Ldoc1 has undergone positive selection during eutherian evolution as a eutherian-specific acquired gene because it impacts reproductive fitness via the regulation of placental endocrine function. PMID:25468940

  10. Characterization of placental cholesterol transport

    Lindegaard, Marie L; Wassif, Christopher A; Vaisman, Boris;


    cholesterol, in utero treatment with TO901317 resulted in increased cholesterol content in Dhcr7(-/-) embryos. Our data support the hypothesis that Abca1, and possibly Sr-b1, contributes to transport maternal cholesterol to the developing fetus. Furthermore, we show, as a proof of principle, that modulating......Patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) are born with multiple congenital abnormalities. Postnatal cholesterol supplementation is provided; however, it cannot correct developmental malformations due to in utero cholesterol deficit. Increased transport of cholesterol from maternal to fetal...... embryonic days 13.5 and 18.5 in placental tissue; whereas, Sr-b1 expression decreased. To examine the functional role of Abca1, Abcg1 and Sr-b1 we measured the maternal-fetal transfer of (14)C-cholesterol in corresponding mutant embryos. Disruption of either Abca1 or Sr-b1 decreased cholesterol transfer by...

  11. Growth Phase, Oxygen, Temperature, and Starvation Affect the Development of Viable but Non-culturable State of Vibrio cholerae.

    Wu, Bin; Liang, Weili; Kan, Biao


    Vibrio cholerae can enter into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state in order to survive in unfavorable environments. In this study, we studied the roles of five physicochemical and microbiological factors or states, namely, different strains, growth phases, oxygen, temperature, and starvation, on the development of VBNC of V. cholerae in artificial sea water (ASW). Different strains of the organism, the growth phase, and oxygen levels affected the progress of VBNC development. It was found that the VBNC state was induced faster in V. cholerae serogroup O1 classical biotype strain O395 than in O1 El Tor biotype strains C6706 and N16961. When cells in different growth phases were used for VBNC induction, stationary-phase cells lost their culturability more quickly than exponential-phase cells, while induction of a totally non-culturable state took longer to achieve for stationary-phase cells in all three strains, suggesting that heterogeneity of cells should be considered. Aeration strongly accelerated the loss of culturability. During the development of the VBNC state, the culturable cell count under aeration conditions was almost 10(6)-fold lower than under oxygen-limited conditions for all three strains. The other two factors, temperature and nutrients-rich environment, may prevent the induction of VBNC cells. At 22 or 37°C in ASW, most of the cells rapidly died and the culturable cell count reduced from about 10(8) to 10(6)-10(5) CFU/mL. The total cell counts showed that cells that lost viability were decomposed, and the viable cell counts were the same as culturable cell counts, indicating that the cells did not reach the VBNC state. VBNC state development was blocked when ASW was supplied with Luria-Bertani broth (LB), but it was not affected in ASW with M9, suggesting that specific nutrients in LB may prevent the development of VBNC state. These results revealed that the five factors evaluated in this study had different roles during the progress of VBNC

  12. Growth Phase, Oxygen, Temperature and Starvation Affect the Development of Viable but Non-Culturable State of Vibrio cholerae

    Bin eWu


    Full Text Available AbstractVibrio cholerae can enter into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC state in order to survive in unfavourable environments. In this study, we studied the roles of five physicochemical and microbiological factors or states, namely, different strains, growth phases, oxygen, temperature, and starvation, on the development of VBNC of V. cholerae in artificial sea water (ASW. Different strains of the organism, the growth phase, and oxygen levels affected the progress of VBNC development. It was found that the VBNC state was induced faster in V. cholerae serogroup O1 classical biotype strain O395 than in O1 El Tor biotype strains C6706 and N16961. When cells in different growth phases were used for VBNC induction, stationary-phase cells lost their culturability more quickly than exponential-phase cells, while induction of a totally non-culturable state took longer to achieve for stationary-phase cells in all three strains, suggesting that heterogeneity of cells should be considered. Aeration strongly accelerated the loss of culturability. During the development of the VBNC state, the culturable cell count under aeration conditions was almost 106-fold lower than under oxygen-limited conditions for all three strains. The other two factors, temperature and nutrients-rich environment, may prevent the induction of VBNC cells. At 22°C or 37°C in ASW, most of the cells rapidly died and the culturable cell count reduced from about 108 CFU/mL to 106–105 CFU/mL. The total cell counts showed that cells that lost viability were decomposed, and the viable cell counts were the same as culturable cell counts, indicating that the cells did not reach the VBNC state. VBNC state development was blocked when ASW was supplied with Luria-Bertani broth (LB, but it was not affected in ASW with M9, suggesting that specific nutrients in LB may prevent the development of VBNC state. These results revealed that the five factors evaluated in this study had different

  13. Animal Models of Human Placentation - A Review

    Carter, Anthony Michael


    This review examines the strengths and weaknesses of animal models of human placentation and pays particular attention to the mouse and non-human primates. Analogies can be drawn between mouse and human in placental cell types and genes controlling placental development. There are, however...... is no trophoblast invasion of uterine vessels, and the immunology of pregnancy may be quite different. We conclude that continued research on non-human primates is needed to clarify embryonic-endometrial interactions. The interstitial implantation of human is unusual, but the initial interaction...... and delivers poorly developed young. Guinea pig is a good alternative rodent model and among the few species known to develop pregnancy toxaemia. The sheep is well established as a model in fetal physiology but is of limited value for placental research. The ovine placenta is epitheliochorial, there...

  14. Protein Profiling of Preeclampsia Placental Tissues

    Shu, Chang; Liu, Zitao; Cui, Lifeng; Wei, Chengguo; Wang, Shuwen; Tang, Jian Jenny; Cui, Miao; Lian, Guodong; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiufen; Xu, Hongmei; JIANG, JING; Lee, Peng; Zhang, David Y.; He, Jin


    Preeclampsia is a multi-system disorder involved in pregnancy without an effective treatment except delivery. The precise pathogenesis of this complicated disorder is still not completely understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the alterations of protein expression and phosphorylations that are important in regulating placental cell function in preterm and term preeclampsia. Using the Protein Pathway Array, 38 proteins in placental tissues were found to be differentially expres...

  15. Fetal Placental Thrombosis and Neonatal Implications

    Wintermark, Pia; Boyd, Theonia; Parast, Mana M; Van Marter, Linda J; Warfield, Simon K.; Robertson, Richard L.; Ringer, Steven A.


    We present the neonatal complications of two premature newborn infants whose placentas demonstrated placental thrombosis in the fetal circulation. Both mothers presented with a 3-day history of decreased fetal movements before delivery. The first infant presented with thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The second infant had extended bilateral extended hemorrhagic venous infarctions. Severe fetal placental vascular lesions seem to be a predisposing factor for some adv...

  16. The distinct proteome of placental malaria parasites.

    Fried, Michal; Hixson, Kim K.; Anderson, Lori; Ogata, Yuko; Mutabingwa, Theonest K.; Duffy, Patrick E.


    Malaria proteins expressed on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE) mediate adhesion and are targeted by protective immune responses. During pregnancy, IE sequester in the placenta. Placental IE bind to the molecule chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) and preferentially transcribe the gene that encodes VAR2CSA, a member of the PfEMP1 variant surface antigen family. Over successive pregnancies women develop specific immunity to CSA-binding IE and antibodies to VAR2CSA. We used tandem mass spectrometry together with accurate mass and time tag technology to study IE membrane fractions of placental parasites. VAR2CSA peptides were detected in placental IE and in IE from children, but the MC variant of VAR2CSA was specifically associated with placental IE. We identified six conserved hypothetical proteins with putative TM or signal peptides that were exclusively expressed by the placental IE, and 11 such proteins that were significantly more abundant in placental IE. One of these hypothetical proteins, PFI1785w, is a 42kDa molecule detected by Western blot in parasites infecting pregnant women but not those infecting children.


    Manuel eMaliqueo


    Full Text Available Adequate blood supply to the uterine-placental region is crucial to ensure the transport of oxygen and nutrients to the growing fetus. Multiple factors intervene to achieve appropriate uterine blood flow and the structuring of the placental vasculature during the early stages of pregnancy. Among these factors, oxygen concentrations, growth factors, cytokines and steroid hormones are the most important. Sex steroids are present in extremely high concentrations in the maternal circulation and are important paracrine and autocrine regulators of a wide range of maternal and placental functions. In this regard, progesterone and estrogens act as modulators of uterine vessels and decrease the resistance of the spiral uterine arteries. On the other hand, androgens have the opposite effect, increasing the vascular resistance of the uterus. Moreover, progesterone and estrogens modulate the synthesis and release of angiogenic factors by placental cells, which regulates trophoblastic invasion and uterine artery remodeling. In this scenario, it is not surprising that women with pregnancy-related pathologies, such as early miscarriages, preterm delivery, preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction, exhibit altered sex steroid concentrations.

  18. Acute supplementation of N-acetylcysteine does not affect muscle blood flow and oxygenation characteristics during handgrip exercise.

    Smith, Joshua R; Broxterman, Ryan M; Ade, Carl J; Evans, Kara K; Kurti, Stephanie P; Hammer, Shane M; Barstow, Thomas J; Harms, Craig A


    N-acetylcysteine (NAC; antioxidant and thiol donor) supplementation has improved exercise performance and delayed fatigue, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. One possibility isNACsupplementation increases limb blood flow during severe-intensity exercise. The purpose was to determine ifNACsupplementation affected exercising arm blood flow and muscle oxygenation characteristics. We hypothesized thatNACwould lead to higher limb blood flow and lower muscle deoxygenation characteristics during severe-intensity exercise. Eight healthy nonendurance trained men (21.8 ± 1.2 years) were recruited and completed two constant power handgrip exercise tests at 80% peak power until exhaustion. Subjects orally consumed either placebo (PLA) orNAC(70 mg/kg) 60 min prior to handgrip exercise. Immediately prior to exercise, venous blood samples were collected for determination of plasma redox balance. Brachial artery blood flow (BABF) was measured via Doppler ultrasound and flexor digitorum superficialis oxygenation characteristics were measured via near-infrared spectroscopy. FollowingNACsupplementaiton, plasma cysteine (NAC: 47.2 ± 20.3 μmol/L vs.PLA: 9.6 ± 1.2 μmol/L;P = 0.001) and total cysteine (NAC: 156.2 ± 33.9 μmol/L vs.PLA: 132.2 ± 16.3 μmol/L;P = 0.048) increased. Time to exhaustion was not significantly different (P = 0.55) betweenNAC(473.0 ± 62.1 sec) andPLA(438.7 ± 58.1 sec). RestingBABFwas not different (P = 0.79) withNAC(99.3 ± 31.1 mL/min) andPLA(108.3 ± 46.0 mL/min).BABFwas not different (P = 0.42) during exercise or at end-exercise (NAC: 413 ± 109 mL/min;PLA: 445 ± 147 mL/min). Deoxy-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] and total-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] were not significantly different (P = 0.73 andP = 0.54, respectively) at rest or during exercise between conditions. We conclude that acuteNACsupplementation does not alter oxygen delivery during exercise in men. PMID:27044854

  19. Influence of endurance exercise and diet on human placental development and fetal growth.

    Clapp, J F


    The delivery of oxygen and substrate to the maternal-fetal interphase is the major maternal environmental stimulus which either up- or down-regulates feto-placental growth. During pregnancy, sustained exercise sessions cause an intermittent reduction in oxygen and substrate delivery to the interphase that may exceed 50% during the exercise but, it is probable that regular bouts of sustained exercise or exercise training may improve oxygen and substrate delivery at rest. The type of maternal carbohydrate intake (low- versus high-glycemic sources) and food intake frequency also influence substrate availability through their effects on maternal blood glucose levels and insulin sensitivity. As a result, different exercise regimens and/or different types of carbohydrate intake modify feto-placental growth. The magnitude and direction of the effect is determined by their average 24-h effect on oxygen and substrate availability at different time-points in pregnancy. In general, exercise in early and mid pregnancy stimulates placental growth while the relative amount of exercise in late pregnancy determines its effect on late fetal growth. Low-glycemic food sources in the diet decrease growth rate and size at birth while high-glycemic food sources increase it. Thus, it may be possible to improve pregnancy outcomes in both healthy, low-risk women and a variety of high-risk populaces by simply modifying maternal physical activity and dietary carbohydrate intake during pregnancy. PMID:16165206

  20. The effects of diabetes on placental aromatase activity.

    McRobie, D J; Korzekwa, K R; Glover, D D; Tracy, T S


    Diabetes complicates 2-3% of all pregnancies and is associated with an increase in both perinatal morbidity and mortality, though reasons for these adverse outcomes are unknown. Estrogen biosynthesis is a critical factor during pregnancy and is carried out in the placenta via aromatase (cytochrome P450 19A1), which catalyzes the conversion of C-19 androgens to C-18 estrogens. Previous studies have shown that hormones such as insulin-like growth factors and insulin regulate aromatase activity when studied in vitro. Interestingly, levels of these hormones are altered in patients with diabetes. Thus, we hypothesized that the presence of maternal diabetes may alter placental aromatase activity and thus estrogen biosynthesis, possibly serving as one factor in the adverse outcomes of babies born to mothers with diabetes. To this end, we measured the production of 19-hydroxyandrostenedione, 19-oxoadrostenedione and estrone in 30 placental tissues from diabetic patients, using [7-3H]androst-4-ene-3,17-dione as a model substrate for aromatase (P450 19A1). A statistical difference was detected in the percentage of 19-oxoandrostenedione formed between the overt and control groups (P < 0.05). Additionally, NADPH P450-reductase levels were measured in these same tissues to determine whether alterations in this enzyme necessary for aromatase activity could be affected by diabetes. No differences in reductase levels were detected among the patient groups. However, a statistical correlation was found between NADPH P450-reductase activity and the formation velocities of all three estrogen products (P < 0.05). Thus, it appears that the presence of diabetes does not affect placental aromatase activity. PMID:9449216


    Rupa L


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : The fetal growth is the outcome of the maternal nutrient stores and efficient transport across the placenta. Hence, any variation in the placenta leads to disproportionate fetal growth leading to long term risk of chronic diseases in the newborn. This stud y was designed to explore influence of placental morphometry on newborn anthropometry . MATERIALS AND METHOD S : The study was conducted on 391 placentae of singleton newborn from a teaching hospital of North Karnataka, India. Data was collected from August 2 012 to January 2013 by using standard operating procedures in a pre - designed and pre - tested proforma. The distributions of placental morphology and newborn anthropometry are mentioned with their percentiles and Box plots. Analysis of variance is used to st udy the differences in means of placental morphometry in different groups of newborn anthropometry. RESULTS : The Means and standard deviations of placental morphometry; weight, volume, surface area and thickness were 440±100gm, 386±101 ml, 230±50 cm sq , an d 2.1±0.4cm respectively. Mean and standard deviations of birth weight and newborn length were 2700±500 gm. 46.6±2.5cm. Placental morphometry and newborn anthropometry increased significantly with gestation. CONCLUSIONS : This study infers that suboptimal g rowth of placenta leads to adverse pregnancy outcome.

  2. Thigh oxygen uptake at the onset of intense exercise is not affected by a reduction in oxygen delivery caused by hypoxia

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Nybo, Lars;


    the onset of intense exercise during acute exposure to hypoxia. Six healthy male subjects (25.8 ± 1.4 yr, 79.8 ± 4.0 kg, means ± SE) performed intense (100 ± 6 watts) two-legged knee-extensor exercise for 2 min in normoxia (NOR) and hypoxia [fractional inspired oxygen concentration (Fi(O(2))) = 0.......13; HYP]. Thigh Vo(2) was measured by frequent arterial and venous blood sampling and blood flow measurements. In arterial blood, oxygen content was reduced (P <0.05) from 191 ± 5 ml O(2)/l in NOR to 180 ± 5 ml O(2)/l in HYP, and oxygen pressure was reduced (P <0.001) from 111 ± 4 mmHg in NOR to 63 ± 4 mm...... accumulation during the first 25 s of exercise determined from muscle biopsy sampling was also similar (0.35 ± 0.07 and 0.36 ± 0.07 mmol·kg dry wt(-1)·s(-1) in NOR and HYP). Thus the increase in thigh Vo(2) was not attenuated at the onset of intense knee-extensor exercise despite a reduction in oxygen delivery...

  3. Mouse placental macrophages have a decreased ability to present antigen.

    Chang, M D; Pollard, J W; Khalili, H; Goyert, S M; Diamond, B.


    Large numbers of macrophages can be found in an animal's uteroplacental unit. This high concentration of macrophages suggests they must play an important role during placental development. To gain a better understanding of the functional capacity of placental macrophages, we have obtained a highly enriched placental macrophage culture and have derived several cell lines from this population. Both placental macrophages and cell lines show colony-stimulating factor 1-dependent growth, express F...

  4. Characterization of the Placental Macrophage Secretome: Implications for Antiviral Activity

    García, K.; García, V.; Laspiur, J.Pérez; F. Duan; Meléndez, L.M.


    It is well documented that placental macrophages show lower levels of HIV-1 infection than monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). We used proteomic methods to test the hypothesis that placental macrophages secrete different proteins as compared to MDM that may contribute to decreased HIV-1 replication. Placental macrophages and MDM were cultured for 12 days and supernatant was collected. To characterize supernatants, the protein profiles of placental macrophages and MDM were compared using the p...

  5. Evolution of placental function in mammals

    Carter, Anthony Michael


    gas exchange. They evolved following duplications within the beta-globin gene family with convergent evolution occurring in ruminants and primates. In primates there was also an interesting rearrangement of a cassette of genes in relation to an upstream locus control region. Substrate transfer from...... placental lactogens from the growth hormone and prolactin genes. There has been a remarkable degree of convergent evolution with placental lactogens emerging separately in the ruminant, rodent, and primate lineages and chorionic gonadotropins evolving separately in equids and higher primates. Finally......, coevolution in the primate lineage of killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and human leukocyte antigens can be linked to the deep invasion of the uterus by trophoblast that is a characteristic feature of human placentation....

  6. Zika Virus Infects Human Placental Macrophages.

    Quicke, Kendra M; Bowen, James R; Johnson, Erica L; McDonald, Circe E; Ma, Huailiang; O'Neal, Justin T; Rajakumar, Augustine; Wrammert, Jens; Rimawi, Bassam H; Pulendran, Bali; Schinazi, Raymond F; Chakraborty, Rana; Suthar, Mehul S


    The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in Brazil has been directly linked to increased cases of microcephaly in newborns. Current evidence indicates that ZIKV is transmitted vertically from mother to fetus. However, the mechanism of intrauterine transmission and the cell types involved remain unknown. We demonstrate that the contemporary ZIKV strain PRVABC59 (PR 2015) infects and replicates in primary human placental macrophages, called Hofbauer cells, and to a lesser extent in cytotrophoblasts, isolated from villous tissue of full-term placentae. Viral replication coincides with induction of type I interferon (IFN), pro-inflammatory cytokines, and antiviral gene expression, but with minimal cell death. Our results suggest a mechanism for intrauterine transmission in which ZIKV gains access to the fetal compartment by directly infecting placental cells and disrupting the placental barrier. PMID:27247001

  7. [Antenatal diagnosis of placental acretism-percretism].

    Haghenbeck-Altamirano, Francisco Javier; Leis-Márquez, Teresa; Ayala-Yáñez, Rodrigo; Juárez-García, Luz del Carmen; García-Moreno, Carla


    Placental acretism is an adherencial pathology associated with a high maternal morbidity and mortality rates. Antepartum diagnosis is essential to plan a proper management and reduce serious complications. Risk factors in these patients include prior cesarean sections, uterine scars and placenta previa. Second level ultrasonography may detect placental acretism with high sensitivity and specificity; magnetic resonance imaging may play a complimentary role in the diagnosis of placental acretism when ultrasonographic findings are non-conclusive, specially when determining miometrium invasion in placental acretism (incretism, percretism). This paper reports the case of a patient treated at the ABC Medical Center of Santa Fe, in her second gestation with the diagnosis of an arcuate uterus, previous cesarean section and placenta previa who presented a vaginal bleeding during pregnancy; ultrasound evaluation, in the second trimester, identified a probable placental acretism, in the third trimester, the same technology suggested placenta percreta, complimentary magnetic resonance imaging supported this diagnosis, with probable invasion to bladder, bowel and abdominal wall muscles. Imaging studies were performed at the Hospital Angeles Lomas (Maternal Fetal Clinic). A diagnosis of placenta acreta-percreta, called for a multidisciplinary surgical team, availability of blood products and other resources to face probable complications associated to the obstetrical resolution. Maternal results were optimal since histopathological evaluation reported miometrial incretism, with placental invasion millimeters away from the uterine serosa. Most ultrasonographic studies evaluating the invasion degree of the placenta have small sample sizes, generating a greater degree of false positive or false negative observations. Therefore, we agree with other authors that in all acretism cases (independent of their invasion degree), a multidisciplinary surgical team should be assembled in

  8. Immunoinformatics of Placental Malaria Vaccine Development

    Jessen, Leon Eyrich

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium, which is transferred by female Anopheles mosquitos. WHO estimates that in 2012 there were 207 million cases of malaria, of which 627,000 were fatal. People living in malaria-endemic areas, gradually acquire...... immunity with multiple infections. Placental malaria (PM) is caused by P. falciparum sequestering in the placenta of pregnant women due to the presence of novel receptors in the placenta. An estimated 200,000 infants die a year as a result of PM. In 2004 the specific protein responsible for the...... and development in the field of placental malaria vaccine development....

  9. Quality assessment of a placental perfusion protocol

    Mathiesen, Line; Mose, Tina; Mørck, Thit Juul;


    placental perfusion model in Copenhagen including control substances. The positive control substance antipyrine shows no difference in transport regardless of perfusion media used or of terms of delivery (n=59, p<0.05). Negative control studies with FITC marked dextran correspond with leakage criteria (<3...... ml h(-1) from the fetal reservoir) when adding 2 (n=7) and 20mg (n=9) FITC-dextran/100 ml fetal perfusion media. Success rate of the Copenhagen placental perfusions is provided in this study, including considerations and quality control parameters. Three checkpoints suggested to determine success...

  10. Placental Evolution within the Supraordinal Clades of Eutheria with the Perspective of Alternative Animal Models for Human Placentation

    Andrea Mess


    Here a survey of placental evolution is conducted. Placentation is a key factor for the evolution of placental mammals that had evolved an astonishing diversity. As a temporary organ that does not allow easy access, it is still not well understood. The lack of data also is a restriction for better understanding of placental development, structure, and function in the human. Animal models are essential, because experimental access to the human placenta is naturally restricted. However, there i...

  11. Increased Rat Placental Fatty Acid, but Decreased Amino Acid and Glucose Transporters Potentially Modify Intrauterine Programming.

    Nüsken, Eva; Gellhaus, Alexandra; Kühnel, Elisabeth; Swoboda, Isabelle; Wohlfarth, Maria; Vohlen, Christina; Schneider, Holm; Dötsch, Jörg; Nüsken, Kai-Dietrich


    Regulation of placental nutrient transport significantly affects fetal development and may modify intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and fetal programming. We hypothesized that placental nutrient transporters are differentially affected both by utero-placental insufficiency and prenatal surgical stress. Pregnant rats underwent bilateral uterine artery and vein ligation (LIG), sham operation (SOP) or no operation (controls, C) on gestational day E19. Placentas were obtained by caesarean section 4 h (LIG, n=20 placentas; SOP, n=24; C, n=12), 24 h (LIG, n=28; SOP, n=20; C, n=12) and 72 h (LIG, n=20; SOP, n=20; C, n=24) after surgery. Gene and protein expression of placental nutrient transporters for fatty acids (h-FABP, CD36), amino acids (SNAT1, SNAT2) and glucose (GLUT-1, Connexin 26) were examined by qRT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, the mean protein expression of h-FABP was doubled in placentas of LIG and SOP animals 4, 24 (SOP significant) and 72 h (SOP significant) after surgery. CD36 protein was significantly increased in LIG after 72 h. SNAT1 and SNAT2 protein and gene expressions were significantly reduced in LIG and SOP after 24 h. Further significantly reduced proteins were GLUT-1 in LIG (4 h, 72 h) and SOP (24 h), and Connexin 26 in LIG (72 h). In conclusion, placental nutrient transporters are differentially affected both by reduced blood flow and stress, probably modifying the already disturbed intrauterine milieu and contributing to IUGR and fetal programming. Increased fatty acid transport capacity may affect energy metabolism and could be a compensatory reaction with positive effects on brain development. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1594-1603, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26590355


    WANGShui-Long; DUGuo-Guang; ZHENGShu-Rong; LIUXin-Jun; YANRen-Ying


    A radioimmunoasay of high sendtivity end smbility was developed For placental proteinPP5 (PP5), a syncytiotrophoblast product oF the human placenta. We measured 94 samples from 17 normal nonpregnant women, 47 normal pregnant women, and 30 samples

  13. Placental Development in Ongoing Pregnancy and Miscarriage

    A.D. Reus (Averil)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this thesis three-dimensional ultrasound, three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound, virtual reality and histologic examination of the chorionic villous vascularization were used to investigate early placental development in normal ongoing pregnancy as well as misca

  14. Placental transfer of plutonium and other actinides

    The report is based on an extensive literature search. All data available from studies on placental transfer of plutonium and other actinides in man and animals have been collected and analysed, and the report presents the significant results as well as unresolved questions and knowledge gaps which may serve as a waypost to future research work. (orig./MG)

  15. Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia: A Case Report

    Rachna Agarwal


    Full Text Available Introduction. A rare case of histologically proven placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD with fetal omphalocele in a 22-year-old patient is reported. Material and Methods. Antenatal ultrasound of this patient showed hydropic placenta with a live fetus of 17 weeks period of gestation associated with omphalocele. Cordocentesis detected the diploid karyotype of the fetus. Patient, when prognosticated, choose to terminate the pregnancy in view of high incidence of fetal and placental anomalies. Subsequent histopathological examination of placenta established the diagnosis to be placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Conclusion. On clinical and ultrasonic grounds, suspicion of P.M.D. arises when hydropic placenta with a live fetus presents in second trimester of pregnancy. Cordocentesis can detect the diploid karyotype of the fetus in such cases. As this condition is prognostically better than triploid partial mole, continuation of pregnancy can sometimes be considered after through antenatal screening and patient counseling. However, a definite diagnosis of P.M.D. is made only on placental histology by absence of trophoblast hyperplasia and trophoblastic inclusions.

  16. Study of correlation between perinatal outcome, placental coefficient and feto-placental ratio

    Manik Sirpurkar


    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy and birth are nature's finest marvel wherein perfect symbiosis between the two individuals protects the little and weak one and also allows the propagation of genetic prototype of the other individual generation after generation. Placenta acts as a mirror which reflects intrauterine status of fetus. Placenta has an undisputed role in foetal development but still is grossly neglected organ which is equal to liver, lung and kidney in function. Methods: Placentae collected from labor rooms and operation theatres were studied for various parameters like weight, surface area, volume, area of calcification and infarction, number of cotyledons etc. Birth weight of babies was also noted, feto-placental weight ratio and placental coefficient was calculated. Results: Average placental weight being 490.5 gm (range 295-660 gm. Placenta of male baby was found to be slightly heavier as compared to female babies. Birth weight of male babies was also more than female babies. Average placental surface area was found to be 225.5 sq. cm. Mean placental volume was recorded as 450.5 cu. cm. Foeto-placental weight ratio was found to be 5.41:1 irrespective of sex of the baby, 5.61:1 in case of male baby and 5.40:1 for female babies. Conclusion: The placenta is a mirror which reflects intrauterine status of the fetus. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(4.000: 925-928

  17. Bovine placental lactogen: isolation purification and measurement in biological fluids

    Studies were conducted to isolate and purify bovine placental lactogen (bPL) and to develop a radioimmunoassay to this protein. Bovine placental lactogen was isolated from culture medium after a 24 hr culture of fetal cotyledonary tissue. Cotyledonary explants were stimulated to secrete bPL by either addition of bovine growth hormone (NIH-B8) to the medium or co-culture of cotyledon and caruncular tissue. Production of bPL was greatly affected by explant size and 70% of that produced in a 48 hr culture was released in the first 12 hr. Purification of bPL was accomplished using a column chromatographic scheme that involved gel filtration, ion exchange and chromatofocusing chromatography. A radioimmunoassay to bPL was developed using an antibody raised at the USDA Beltsville (F56). Dose response curves of amniotic or allantoic fluid or fetal and maternal serum were parallel to the standard curve and bPL was quantitatively recovered at from 82-125%. Using the radioimmunoassay, samples of amniotic and allantoic fluids and fetal and maternal serum were measured for bPL. Concentrations of bPL ranged from undetectable to 50 ng/ml, with fetal blood having the highest concentrations and amniotic fluid the lowest

  18. Placental pathology: a systematic approach with clinical correlations.

    Redline, R W


    Despite advances over the past 25 years in the monitoring of in utero fetal status, the gravid uterus remains a "black box" integrating underlying genetic risk factors, preexisting maternal disease, and injurious extrinsic events in a poorly understood way to produce an evolving state linked to pregnancy outcome. It is currently believed that many short- and long-term adverse pregnancy outcomes and even some long-term chronic diseases extending into adult life are at least in part determined by processes occurring during intrauterine life. The placenta has been described as a "diary of intrauterine life" and has the potential to illuminate many aspects of these processes. Unfortunately a systematic and objective catalog of placental abnormalities has never been agreed upon. This report outlines a simple conceptual framework separating placental patterns of injury and maladaptation into three categories of lesions affecting the maternal and fetal vasculature (maldevelopment, obstruction, and disruption) and two categories of inflammatory lesions (infectious and idiopathic). Data are presented supporting the importance of these processes for an understanding of preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, hypoxic-ischemic injury, and recurrent pregnancy loss. PMID:17950457

  19. Novel use of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS to non-invasively assess placental metabolism.

    Fiona C Denison

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Placental insufficiency is a major cause of antepartum stillbirth and fetal growth restriction (FGR. In affected pregnancies, delivery is expedited when the risks of ongoing pregnancy outweigh those of prematurity. Current tests are unable to assess placental function and determine optimal timing for delivery. An accurate, non-invasive test that clearly defines the failing placenta would address a major unmet clinical need. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H MRS can be used to assess the metabolic profile of tissue in-vivo. In FGR pregnancies, a reduction in N-acetylaspartate (NAA/choline ratio and detection of lactate methyl are emerging as biomarkers of impaired neuronal metabolism and fetal hypoxia, respectively. However, fetal brain hypoxia is a late and sometimes fatal event in placental compromise, limiting clinical utility of brain (1H MRS to prevent stillbirth. We hypothesised that abnormal placental (1H MRS may be an earlier biomarker of intrauterine hypoxia, affording the opportunity to optimise timing of delivery in at-risk fetuses. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We recruited three women with severe placental insufficiency/FGR and three matched controls. Using a 3T MR system and a combination of phased-array coils, a 20×20×40 mm(1H MRS voxel was selected along the 'long-axis' of the placenta with saturation bands placed around the voxel to prevent contaminant signals. A significant choline peak (choline/lipid ratio 1.35-1.79 was detected in all healthy placentae. In contrast, in pregnancies complicated by FGR, the choline/lipid ratio was ≤0.02 in all placentae, despite preservation of the lipid peak (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: This novel proof-of-concept study suggests that in severe placental insufficiency/FGR, the observed 60-fold reduction in the choline/lipid ratio by (1H MRS may represent an early biomarker of critical placental insufficiency. Further studies will determine performance of this test and the potential

  20. Affect of Early-Life Oxygen Exposure on Proper Lung Development and Response to Respiratory Viral Infections

    William G. Domm


    Full Text Available Children born preterm often exhibit reduced lung function and increased severity of response to respiratory viruses, suggesting that premature birth has compromised proper development of the respiratory epithelium and innate immune defenses. Increasing evidence suggests that premature birth promotes aberrant lung development likely due to the neonatal oxygen transition occurring before pulmonary development has matured. Given that preterm infants are born at a point of time where their immune system is also still developing, early-life oxygen exposure may also be disrupting proper development of innate immunity. Here we review current literature in hopes of stimulating research that enhances understanding of how the oxygen environment at birth influences lung development and host defense. This knowledge may help identify those children at risk for disease and ideally culminate in the development of novel therapies that improve their health.

  1. Changes in fetal ovine metabolism and oxygen delivery with fetal bypass.

    Lam, Christopher T; Baker, R Scott; Clark, Kenneth E; Eghtesady, Pirooz


    Since the 1980s, attempts at experimental fetal cardiac bypass for the purpose of correcting severe congenital heart defects in the womb have been hampered by deterioration of placental function. This placental pathophysiology in turn affects transplacental transport of nutrients and gas exchange. To date, the effects of bypass on fetal metabolism and oxygen delivery have not been studied. Nine Suffolk sheep fetuses from 109-121 days gestation were instrumented and placed on fetal bypass for 30 min and followed postbypass for 2 h. Blood gases, glucose, and lactate were serially measured in the fetal arterial and umbilical venous circulations throughout the procedure. Insulin and glucagon levels were serially measured by immunoassay in fetal plasma. Fetal-placental hemodynamics were measured continuously. The expression of glycogen content was examined in fetal liver. Oxygen delivery to the fetus and fetal oxygen consumption were significantly deranged after the conduct of bypass (in-group ANOVA (P = 0.001) and overall contrast (P = 0.072) with planned contrast (P < 0.05) for delivery and consumption, respectively). There were significant alterations in fetal glucose metabolism in the postbypass period; however, insulin and glucagon levels did not change. Fetal liver glycogen content appeared lower after bypass. This is the first report documenting fetal metabolic dysregulation that occurs in response to the conduct of fetal bypass. The significant alterations in fetal oxygen and glucose delivery coupled with hepatic glycogen depletion complicate and impede fetal recovery. These initial findings warrant further investigation of interventions to restore metabolic and hemodynamic homeostasis after fetal bypass. PMID:21508289

  2. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: definitive imaging of placental function?

    Chalouhi, G E; Deloison, B; Siauve, N; Aimot, S; Balvay, D; Cuenod, C A; Ville, Y; Clément, O; Salomon, L J


    The placenta constitutes a complex circulatory interface between the mother and fetus, but the relationship between the maternal and fetal circulation is still very difficult to study in vivo. There is growing evidence that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful and safe during pregnancy, and MRI is increasingly used for fetal and placental anatomical imaging. MRI functional imaging is now a modern obstetric tool and has the potential to provide new insights into the physiology of the human placenta. Placental perfusion has been studied during the first pass of an MR contrast agent, by arterial spin labeling, diffusion imaging, T1 and T2 relaxation time measurement using echo-planar imaging, and by a combination of magnetization transfer with established stereological methods. The BOLD (blood oxygen level-dependent) effect offers new perspectives for functional MRI evaluation of the placenta. PMID:20851065




    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To correlate the prenatal ultrasound findings with placental pathology in high risk pregnancy. METHOD: After approval by institutional ethical committee the prospective observational study was conducted in the department of obstetrics & gynecolo gy , NSCB Medical College , Jabalpur (M.P. from 1st September 201 0 to 31st august 2011. A total of 77 cases were studied including antenatal women with mean gestational age >= 28 weeks not in active labor with high risk factor (inclusion criteria. Prenatal ultrasound and histomorphology of placenta was done in the respective department of the same institution. Statistical analysis was done by using t test and chi square test. RESULT: The sensitivity of prenatal ultrasound to detect retroplacental clot was 1 6.7%.The cases with severe pre - eclampsia and IUGR had more number of cases with abnormal flow in Color Doppler than there with other risk factor. Infarcts and retroplacental clot were found only in cases of severe pre - eclampsia. The sensitivity of color Do ppler to detect abnormal placental pathology was found to be 76% . The prenatal ultrasound was not found sensitive enough to detect the placental infarcts. CONCLUSION: Placental pathologies adversely affect the perinatal outcome. Prenatal USG can identify a range of these abnormalities and can help to take timely action during antenatal period to improve the perinatal outcome

  4. Recent progress towards understanding the role of DNA methylation in human placental development.

    Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Mayne, Benjamin T; Buckberry, Sam; Breen, James; Rodriguez Lopez, Carlos M; Roberts, Claire T


    Epigenetic modifications, and particularly DNA methylation, have been studied in many tissues, both healthy and diseased, and across numerous developmental stages. The placenta is the only organ that has a transient life of 9 months and undergoes rapid growth and dynamic structural and functional changes across gestation. Additionally, the placenta is unique because although developing within the mother, its genome is identical to that of the foetus. Given these distinctive characteristics, it is not surprising that the epigenetic landscape affecting placental gene expression may be different to that in other healthy tissues. However, the role of epigenetic modifications, and particularly DNA methylation, in placental development remains largely unknown. Of particular interest is the fact that the placenta is the most hypomethylated human tissue and is characterized by the presence of large partially methylated domains (PMDs) containing silenced genes. Moreover, how and why the placenta is hypomethylated and what role DNA methylation plays in regulating placental gene expression across gestation are poorly understood. We review genome-wide DNA methylation studies in the human placenta and highlight that the different cell types that make up the placenta have very different DNA methylation profiles. Summarizing studies on DNA methylation in the placenta and its relationship with pregnancy complications are difficult due to the limited number of studies available for comparison. To understand the key steps in placental development and hence what may be perturbed in pregnancy complications requires large-scale genome-wide DNA methylation studies coupled with transcriptome analyses. PMID:27026712

  5. Mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate induces oxidative stress responses in human placental cells in vitro

    Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is an environmental contaminant commonly used as a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride products. Exposure to DEHP has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans including preterm birth, low birth-weight, and pregnancy loss. Although oxidative stress is linked to the pathology of adverse pregnancy outcomes, effects of DEHP metabolites, including the active metabolite, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), on oxidative stress responses in placental cells have not been previously evaluated. The objective of the current study is to identify MEHP-stimulated oxidative stress responses in human placental cells. We treated a human placental cell line, HTR-8/SVneo, with MEHP and then measured reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation using the dichlorofluorescein assay, oxidized thymine with mass-spectrometry, redox-sensitive gene expression with qRT-PCR, and apoptosis using a luminescence assay for caspase 3/7 activity. Treatment of HTR-8 cells with 180 μM MEHP increased ROS generation, oxidative DNA damage, and caspase 3/7 activity, and resulted in differential expression of redox-sensitive genes. Notably, 90 and 180 μM MEHP significantly induced mRNA expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), an enzyme important for synthesis of prostaglandins implicated in initiation of labor. The results from the present study are the first to demonstrate that MEHP stimulates oxidative stress responses in placental cells. Furthermore, the MEHP concentrations used were within an order of magnitude of the highest concentrations measured previously in human umbilical cord or maternal serum. The findings from the current study warrant future mechanistic studies of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and prostaglandins as molecular mediators of DEHP/MEHP-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. - Highlights: ► MEHP increased reactive oxygen species, oxidative DNA damage, and caspase activity. ► MEHP induced expression of PTGS2, a gene

  6. Mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate induces oxidative stress responses in human placental cells in vitro

    Tetz, Lauren M., E-mail: [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States); Cheng, Adrienne A.; Korte, Cassandra S. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States); Giese, Roger W.; Wang, Poguang [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Northeastern University, 360 Huntingon Ave, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Harris, Craig; Meeker, John D.; Loch-Caruso, Rita [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States)


    Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is an environmental contaminant commonly used as a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride products. Exposure to DEHP has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans including preterm birth, low birth-weight, and pregnancy loss. Although oxidative stress is linked to the pathology of adverse pregnancy outcomes, effects of DEHP metabolites, including the active metabolite, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), on oxidative stress responses in placental cells have not been previously evaluated. The objective of the current study is to identify MEHP-stimulated oxidative stress responses in human placental cells. We treated a human placental cell line, HTR-8/SVneo, with MEHP and then measured reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation using the dichlorofluorescein assay, oxidized thymine with mass-spectrometry, redox-sensitive gene expression with qRT-PCR, and apoptosis using a luminescence assay for caspase 3/7 activity. Treatment of HTR-8 cells with 180 μM MEHP increased ROS generation, oxidative DNA damage, and caspase 3/7 activity, and resulted in differential expression of redox-sensitive genes. Notably, 90 and 180 μM MEHP significantly induced mRNA expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), an enzyme important for synthesis of prostaglandins implicated in initiation of labor. The results from the present study are the first to demonstrate that MEHP stimulates oxidative stress responses in placental cells. Furthermore, the MEHP concentrations used were within an order of magnitude of the highest concentrations measured previously in human umbilical cord or maternal serum. The findings from the current study warrant future mechanistic studies of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and prostaglandins as molecular mediators of DEHP/MEHP-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. - Highlights: ► MEHP increased reactive oxygen species, oxidative DNA damage, and caspase activity. ► MEHP induced expression of PTGS2, a gene

  7. Placentation in mammals once grouped as insectivores

    Carter, Anthony; Enders, Allen


    Interest in insectivoran grade mammals has been reawakened by taxonomic changes that place tenrecs and golden moles in a new order and separate hedgehogs from moles, shrews and solenodons. This survey of their placentation shows there is great variation even within families. As an example three...... nutrition involving columnar trophoblast cells. These range from areolae in moles through complexly folded hemophagous regions in tenrecs to the trophoblastic annulus in shrews. Of these placental characters, few offer support to current phylogenies. However, the case for placing hedgehogs and gymnures in a...... they have been selected for genome sequencing. One of these, the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), has not been studied with current methodology and renewed investigation of this or the closely related genus Atelerix should be a priority....

  8. Placentation in the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis)

    Carter, A M; Miglino, M A; Ambrosio, C E;


    fetal placental circulation was described by scanning electron microscopy of vessel casts. The manatee placenta was zonary and endotheliochorial, like that of the elephant. The interhaemal barrier comprised maternal endothelium, cytotrophoblasts and fetal endothelium. We found columnar trophoblast...... beneath the chorionic plate and lining lacunae in this region, but there was no trace in the term placenta of haemophagous activity. The gross anatomy of the cord and fetal membranes was consistent with previous descriptions and included a four-chambered allantoic sac, as also found in the elephant and...... detail, but maternal capillaries ran rather straight and roughly parallel to the fetal ones. Overall, there is a close resemblance in placentation between the manatee and the elephant....

  9. Epigenetic Placental Programming of Preeclampsia

    Preeclampsia (PE) affects 8-10% of women in the US and long-term consequences include subsequent development of maternal hypertension and hypertension in offspring. As methylation patterns are established during fetal life, we focused on epigenetic alterations in DNA methylation as a plausible expla...

  10. Adenoviral-mediated placental gene transfer of IGF-1 corrects placental insufficiency via enhanced placental glucose transport mechanisms.

    Helen N Jones

    Full Text Available Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that over-expression of human insulin-like growth factor -1 (hIGF-1 in the placenta corrects fetal weight deficits in mouse, rat, and rabbit models of intrauterine growth restriction without changes in placental weight. The underlying mechanisms of this effect have not been elucidated. To investigate the effect of intra-placental IGF-1 over-expression on placental function we examined glucose transporter expression and localization in both a mouse model of IUGR and a model of human trophoblast, the BeWo Choriocarcinoma cell line.At gestational day 18, animals were divided into four groups; sham-operated controls, uterine artery branch ligation (UABL, UABL+Ad-hIGF-1 (10(8 PFU, UABL+Ad-LacZ (10(8 PFU. At gestational day 20, pups and placentas were harvested by C-section. For human studies, BeWo choriocarcinoma cells were grown in F12 complete medium +10%FBS. Cells were incubated in serum-free control media ± Ad-IGF-1 or Ad-LacZ for 48 hours. MOIs of 10∶1 and 100∶1 were utilized. The RNA, protein expression and localization of glucose transporters GLUT1, 3, 8, and 9 were analyzed by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry.In both the mouse placenta and BeWo, GLUT1 regulation was linked to altered protein localization. GLUT3, localized to the mouse fetal endothelial cells, was reduced in placental insufficiency but maintained with Ad-I GF-1 treatment. Interestingly, GLUT8 expression was reduced in the UABL placenta but up-regulated following Ad-IGF-1 in both mouse and human systems. GLUT9 expression in the mouse was increased by Ad-IGF-1 but this was not reflected in the BeWo, where Ad-IGF-1 caused moderate membrane relocalization.Enhanced GLUT isoform transporter expression and relocalization to the membrane may be an important mechanism in Ad-hIGF-1mediated correction of placental insufficiency.

  11. PPAR Signaling in Placental Development and Function

    Yaacov Barak


    Full Text Available With the major attention to the pivotal roles of PPARs in diverse aspects of energy metabolism, the essential functions of PPARγ and PPARβ/δ in placental development came as a surprise and were often considered a nuisance en route to their genetic analysis. However, these findings provided an opportune entrée into placental biology. Genetic and pharmacological studies, primarily of knockout animal models and cell culture, uncovered networks of PPARγ and PPARδ, their heterodimeric RXR partners, associated transcriptional coactivators, and target genes, that regulate various aspects of placental development and function. These studies furnish both specific information about trophoblasts and the placenta and potential hints about the functions of PPARs in other tissues and cell types. They reveal that the remarkable versatility of PPARs extends beyond the orchestration of metabolism to the regulation of cellular differentiation, tissue development, and trophoblast-specific functions. This information and its implications are the subject of this review.

  12. Placentation in mammals once grouped as insectivores.

    Carter, Anthony M; Enders, Allen C


    Interest in insectivoran grade mammals has been reawakened by taxonomic changes that place tenrecs and golden moles in a new order and separate hedgehogs from moles, shrews and solenodons. This survey of their placentation shows there is great variation even within families. As an example three subfamilies of tenrec have been examined. The interhemal region is cellular hemomonochorial in Echinops and Microgale but endotheliochorial in Micropotamogale. Golden moles, which are placed in the same order, have hemodichorial placentation. Many insectivores have complex arrangements for histotrophic nutrition involving columnar trophoblast cells. These range from areolae in moles through complexly folded hemophagous regions in tenrecs to the trophoblastic annulus in shrews. Of these placental characters, few offer support to current phylogenies. However, the case for placing hedgehogs and gymnures in a separate order (Erinaceomorpha) is bolstered by the presence of interstitial implantation, amniogenesis by cavitation, a hemochorial barrier and a prominent spongy zone; these features do not occur in shrews, moles or solenodons (Soricomorpha). Three insectivoran grade mammals deserve close attention as they have been selected for genome sequencing. One of these, the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), has not been studied with current methodology and renewed investigation of this or the closely related genus Atelerix should be a priority. PMID:19876821

  13. Notes on placentation in the Suina.

    Macdonald, A A; Bosma, A A


    We examined the gross and microscopic anatomy of placental tissues and umbilical cords from six species representing the three living families of the Suina. These species included, of the Suidae, the wart hog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), the giant forest hog (Hylochoerus meinertzhageni), the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), and the banded pig of Malaysia (Sus scrofa vittatus); of the Tayassuidae, the white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari); of the Hippopotamidae, the hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) and the pigmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis). All these species have a diffuse epitheliochorial placenta. The chorion is folded, and has on its surface rows of shallow ripples or villi, interrupted by round, oval or irregularly shaped areolae. Placental capillaries indent the epithelial layer covering the tops and sides of the interareolar villi, but not the columnar cell layer lying in the troughs between these villi or covering the areolae. Cuboidal cells cover the crests of the villi in the Suidae and Hippopotamidae, whereas in the Tayassuidae the epithelium is syncytial in appearance. The similarities in placental structure between the six species are more apparent than the differences. Suidae and Tayassuidae have smooth umbilical cords containing two arteries and one vein; those of the Hippopotamidae are pustule-encrusted and contain two arteries and two veins. PMID:3991477

  14. Population-Based Placental Weight Ratio Distributions

    Erin M. Macdonald


    Full Text Available The placental weight ratio (PWR is a health indicator that reflects the balance between fetal and placental growth. The PWR is defined as the placental weight divided by the birth weight, and it changes across gestation. Its ranges are not well established. We aimed to establish PWR distributions by gestational age and to investigate whether the PWR distributions vary by fetal growth adequacy, small, average, and large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, and LGA. The data came from a hospital based retrospective cohort, using all births at two London, Ontario hospitals in the past 10 years. All women who delivered a live singleton infant between 22 and 42 weeks of gestation were included (n=41441. Nonparametric quantile regression was used to fit the curves. The results demonstrate decreasing PWR and dispersion, with increasing gestational age. A higher proportion of SGA infants have extreme PWRs than AGA and LGA, especially at lower gestational ages. On average, SGA infants had higher PWRs than AGA and LGA infants. The overall curves offer population standards for use in research studies. The curves stratified by fetal growth adequacy are the first of their kind, and they demonstrate that PWR differs for SGA and LGA infants.




    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy are common and form one of the deadly triad along with hemorrhage and infection, that results in a large number of maternal deaths and there of fetal deaths. Since all anabolites needed for foetal metabolism come from the mothers blood and foetal catabolites are passed back into the mothers circulation through the placenta, the examination of placenta gives a clear idea of what had happened with it, when it was in the mother, s womb and what is going to happen with the foetus in future. With this objective the present study was carried out. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study was done for a period of 21 months from April1st 2008 to December 31st 2009..Fifty mothers with uncomplicated pregnancy (control group and 100 mothers (test group diagnosed as having pregnancy induced hypertension were selected from patients of our institution of the age range from 20-40 years, and parity –primi, para2 and 3.Placental morphometric parameters, gross and histopathological features were examined in both test and control groups. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Fishers exact test RESULTS: Placental morphometric parameters were significantly reduced in the control group. Acute atherosis, endothelial proliferation and fibrinoid necrosis were the significant histological findings noted in our study. CONCLUSION: Placental findings can be confirmatory of PIH, but its absence does not exclude the diseases. These findings will become more evident only when there is significant reduction in the uteroplacental bloodflow

  16. Increasing venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation flow negatively affects left ventricular performance in a porcine model of cardiogenic shock

    Ostadal, Petr; Mlcek, Mikulas; Kruger, Andreas; Hala, Pavel; Lacko, Stanislav; Mates, Martin; Vondrakova, Dagmar; Svoboda, Tomas; Hrachovina, Matej; Janotka, Marek; Psotova, Hana; Strunina, Svitlana; Kittnar, Otomar; Neuzil, Petr


    Background The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between extracorporeal blood flow (EBF) and left ventricular (LV) performance during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) therapy. Methods Five swine (body weight 45 kg) underwent VA ECMO implantation under general anesthesia and artificial ventilation. Subsequently, acute cardiogenic shock with signs of tissue hypoxia was induced. Hemodynamic and cardiac performance parameters were then measured at differen...

  17. Placental histology and neutrophil extracellular traps in lupus and pre-eclampsia pregnancies

    Marder, Wendy; Knight, Jason S; Kaplan, Mariana J; Somers, Emily C; Zhang, Xu; O'Dell, Alexander A; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Lieberman, Richard W


    Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pre-eclampsia, particularly in association with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS). While significant placental abnormalities are expected in pre-eclampsia, less is known about how lupus activity and APS in pregnancy affect the placenta. We describe placental pathology from a population of lupus pregnancies, several of which were complicated by APS-related thromboses, in which pre-eclampsia and other complications developed. We performed standard histopathological placental review and quantified neutrophils and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in the intervillous space, given the recognised association of NETs with lupus, APS and pre-eclampsia. Methods Pre-eclampsia, SLE and control placentas were scored for histological features, and neutrophils were quantified on H&E and immunohistochemical staining for the granular protein myeloperoxidase. NETs were identified by extracellular myeloperoxidase staining in the setting of decondensed nuclei. Non-parametric analysis was used to evaluate differences in netting and intact neutrophils between groups, with Kruskal–Wallis testing for associations between histological findings and neutrophils. Results Placentas were evaluated from 35 pregnancies: 10 controls, 11 pre-eclampsia, 4 SLE+pre-eclampsia and 10 SLE, including one complicated by catastrophic APS and one complicated by hepatic and splenic vein thromboses during pregnancy. Intrauterine growth restriction and oligohydramnios were observed in lupus cases but not controls. Significantly more NETs were found infiltrating placental intervillous spaces in pre-eclampsia, SLE+pre-eclampsia and all 10 SLE non-pre-eclampsia cases. The ratio of NETs to total neutrophils was significantly increased in all case groups compared with controls. When present, NETs were associated with maternal vasculitis, laminar decidual necrosis, maternal

  18. Maternal psychological distress and placental circulation in pregnancies after a previous offspring with congenital malformation.

    Anne Helbig

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antenatal maternal psychological distress may be associated with reduced placental circulation, which could lead to lower birthweight. Studies investigating this in humans show mixed results, which may be partially due to type, strength and timing of distress. In addition, the arterial vascular resistance measures often used as outcome measures do not detect smaller changes in placental volume blood flow. We aimed to investigate the effect of a specific stressor, with increased levels of stress early in pregnancy, on the fetoplacental volume blood flow in third trimester. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 74 pregnant women with a congenital malformation in a previous fetus or child. Psychological distress was assessed twice, around 16 and 30 weeks' gestation. Psychometric measures were the General Health Questionnaire-28 (subscales anxiety and depression, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and Impact of Event Scale-22 (subscales intrusion, avoidance, and arousal. Placental circulation was examined at 30 weeks, using Doppler ultrasonography, primarily as fetoplacental volume blood flow in the umbilical vein, normalized for abdominal circumference; secondarily as vascular resistance measures, obtained from the umbilical and the uterine arteries. RESULTS: Maternal distress in second but not third trimester was associated with increased normalized fetoplacental blood flow (P-values 0.006 and 0.013 for score > mean for depression and intrusion, respectively. Post-hoc explorations suggested that a reduced birthweight/placental weight ratio may mediate this association. Psychological distress did not affect vascular resistance measures in the umbilical and uterine arteries, regardless of adjustment for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: In pregnant women with a previous fetus or child with a congenital malformation, higher distress levels in second trimester were associated with third trimester fetoplacental blood flow that

  19. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF): a novel trophoblast-derived factor limiting feto-placental angiogenesis in late pregnancy.

    Loegl, Jelena; Nussbaumer, Erika; Hiden, Ursula; Majali-Martinez, Alejandro; Ghaffari-Tabrizi-Wizy, Nassim; Cvitic, Silvija; Lang, Ingrid; Desoye, Gernot; Huppertz, Berthold


    The rapidly expanding feto-placental vasculature needs tight control by paracrine and endocrine mechanisms. Here, we focused on paracrine influence by trophoblast, the placental epithelium. We aimed to identify differences in regulation of feto-placental angiogenesis in early versus late pregnancy. To this end, the effect of conditioned media (CM) from early and late pregnancy human trophoblast was tested on network formation, migration and proliferation of human feto-placental endothelial cells. Only CM of late pregnancy trophoblast reduced network formation and migration. Screening of trophoblast transcriptome for anti-angiogenic candidates identified pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) with higher expression and protein secretion in late pregnancy trophoblast. Addition of a PEDF-neutralizing antibody restored the anti-angiogenic effect of CM from late pregnancy trophoblast. Notably, human recombinant PEDF reduced network formation only in combination with VEGF. Also in the CAM assay, the combination of PEDF with VEGF reduced branching of vessels below control levels. Analysis of phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and FAK, two key players in VEGF-induced proliferation and migration, revealed that PEDF altered VEGF signaling, while PEDF alone did not affect phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and FAK. These data suggest that the trophoblast-derived anti-angiogenic molecule PEDF is involved in restricting growth and expansion of the feto-placental endothelium predominantly in late pregnancy and targets to modulate the intracellular effect of VEGF. PMID:27278471

  20. Dehydration affects cerebral blood flow but not its metabolic rate for oxygen during maximal exercise in trained humans

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Stock, Christopher G;


    Intense exercise is associated with a reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), but regulation of CBF during strenuous exercise in the heat with dehydration is unclear. We assessed internal (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) haemodynamics (indicative of CBF and extra-cranial blood flow), middle...... cerebral artery velocity (MCA Vmean), arterial-venous differences and blood temperature in 10 trained males during incremental cycling to exhaustion in the heat (35°C) in control, dehydrated and rehydrated states. Dehydration reduced body mass (75.8 ± 3 vs. 78.2 ± 3 kg), increased internal temperature (38...... decline in cerebral perfusion with dehydration was accompanied by increased O2 extraction (P < 0.05), resulting in a maintained cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2). In all conditions, reductions in ICA and MCA Vmean were associated with declining cerebral vascular conductance, increasing jugular...

  1. Placental transport and in vitro effects of Bisphenol A

    Mørck, Thit J; Sorda, Giuseppina; Bechi, Nicoletta;


    Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogen-like chemical, leaches from consumer products potentially causing human exposure. To examine the effects of BPA exposure during pregnancy, we performed studies using the BeWo trophoblast cell line, placental explant cultures, placental perfusions and skin diffusion...

  2. Placental morphology at different maternal hemoglobin levels: a histopathological study

    To evaluate the histopathological parameters of the placenta like weight, infarct and syncytial knots, at different maternal hemoglobin levels, in both qualitative and quantitative manner. Study design: Descriptive study Place and Duration of Study: Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology in collaboration with Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from December 2011 to November 2012. Patients and Methods: A total of 75 placentas were included, that were collected from full term mothers at the time of childbirth. Placental weight was taken without umbilical cord and gross placental infarcts were noted. Samples of placental tissue were taken and stained by haematoxylin and eosin (H and E). Microscopic study was done to evaluate placental infarcts and syncytial knots. Results: Mean placental weight at normal and low maternal hemoglobin was 581.67 ± 83.97g and 482.58 ± 104.74g respectively. Gross placental infarcts were found in all cases having low maternal hemoglobin concentration (60% cases). Syncytial knots were found in all placentas but they were considerably more at decreasing levels of maternal hemoglobin (19.79 ± 5.22). Conclusion: The present study showed decrease in placental weight, increase in placental infarcts and syncytial knot hyperplasia at low maternal hemoglobin concentration, displaying adaptive alterations. (author)

  3. Placental programming of blood pressure in Indian children

    Winder, Nicola R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Hill, Jacqueline C.; Karat, Chitra LS; Fall, Caroline HD; Veena, Sargoor R; Barker, David JP


    Aim To determine whether the size and shape of the placental surface predict blood pressure in childhood. Methods We studied blood pressure in 471 nine-year-old Indian children whose placental length, breadth and weight were measured in a prospective birth cohort study. Results In the daughters of short mothers (

  4. Evaluation of Relationship between Opioid Addiction and Placental Abruption

    Z. Salari


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during pregnancy. Multiple factors are known to be associated with increased risk of placental abruption as alcohol and cocaine use and cigarette smoking but there are fewer studies about the importance of opioid abuse in placental abruption. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between opioid addiction and placental abruption occurrence. Materials & Methods: In this case-control study 51 women with placental abruption and 147 women with normal pregnancy were studied. Data were collected using questionnaire and were analyzed using SPSS12. Odds ratio was used for standing the relation of demographic factors and risk factors with incidence of placental abruption, logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the confounding factors. Results: Results showed that 37.3% of the women in the case group and 14.3% of women in the control-group were opioid addiction (P=0.001. The mean of gestational age was 36-41 weeks. 31.3% of the women with placental abruption and 1.3% of the women in the control group had delivery before 36 weeks gestation (P=0. Conclusion: Our results showed that opioid addiction increases of placental abruption probability 2.6 times.

  5. Human placental alkaline phosphatase in liver and intestine

    Three distinct forms of human alkaline phosphatase, presumably isozymes, are known, each apparently associated with a specific tissue. These are placental, intestinal, and liver (kidney and bone). The authors have used a specific immunoassay and HPLC to show that placental alkaline phosphatase is also present in extracts of liver and intestine in appreciable amounts

  6. Arrangement of collagen fibers in human placental stem villi

    Sati, Leyla; Demir, Ayse Yasemin; Sarikcioglu, Levent; Demir, Ramazan


    The aim of the study was to investigate the arrangements and related localization patterns of different collagen types in the stroma of placental stem villi by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. A total of 14 normal human term placental tissue samples were studied. Immunohistochemistry wa

  7. Ethical aspects of banking placental blood for transplantation.

    Sugarman, J; Reisner, E G; Kurtzberg, J


    Transplantation of blood cells harvested from the umbilical cord immediately after birth has been effective in repopulating the bone marrow. These placental blood transplantations may be safer than conventional bone marrow transplantations and may suspend the need to harvest bone marrow, a process fraught with difficulties. Further understanding and advancement of this emerging technology require developing large banks of placental blood. In this article, we examine some of the ethical issues associated with placental blood banking, including (1) questions about ownership of the tissue, (2) the necessity and nature of obtaining informed consent from parents for harvesting placental blood and the information-gathering process associated with it, (3) obligations to notify parents and children of the results of medical testing for infectious diseases and genetic information, (4) matters of privacy and confidentiality related to such information, and (5) the need for fair and equitable harvesting of and access to placental blood. PMID:7500510

  8. Longitudinal study of serum placental GH in 455 normal pregnancies

    Chellakooty, Marla; Skibsted, Lillian; Skouby, Sven Olaf;


    Placental GH is thought to be responsible for the rise in maternal IGF-I during pregnancy and is considered to be important for fetal growth. In this prospective longitudinal study of healthy pregnant women, we investigated determinants of placental GH in maternal serum. Serum was obtained from 455...... women with normal singleton pregnancies at approximately 19 and 28 wk gestation. Serum placental GH concentrations were measured by a highly specific immunoradiometric assay, and fetal size was measured by ultrasound. Data on birth weight, gender, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, and smoking...... habits were obtained from medical records. Serum placental GH concentrations were detectable in serum from all women as early as 14 wk gestation and increased during pregnancy in all individuals (P <0.001). Placental GH levels at second examination were found to be higher in women carrying female fetuses...

  9. Do blood components affect the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS by equine synovial cells in vitro?

    Patrícia M. Brossi


    Full Text Available Blood-derived products are commonly administered to horses and humans to treat many musculoskeletal diseases, due to their potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Nevertheless, antioxidant effects have never been shown upon horse synovial fluid cells in vitro. If proved, this could give a new perspective to justify the clinical application of blood-derived products. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant effects of two blood-derived products - plasma (unconditioned blood product - UBP and a commercial blood preparation (conditioned blood product - CBP¹ - upon stimulated equine synovial fluid cells. Healthy tarsocrural joints (60 were tapped to obtain synovial fluid cells; these cells were pooled, processed, stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, and evaluated by flow cytometry for the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Upon addition of any blood-derived product here used - UBP and CBP - there was a significant decrease in the oxidative burst of synovial fluid cells (P<0.05. There was no difference between UBP and CBP effects. In conclusion, treatment of stimulated equine synovial cells with either UBP or CBP efficiently restored their redox equilibrium.

  10. Sildenafil attenuates placental ischemia-induced hypertension.

    George, Eric M; Palei, Ana C; Dent, Edward A; Granger, Joey P


    Preeclampsia is a complication of pregnancy that is marked by hypertension, proteinuria, and maternal endothelial dysfunction. A central factor in the etiology of the disease is the development of placental hypoxia/ischemia, which releases pathogenic soluble factors. There is currently no effective treatment for preeclampsia, but the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor sildenafil has been suggested, as PDE-5 is enriched in the uterus, and its antagonism could improve uteroplacental function. Here, we report in the reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) rat model that administration of oral sildenafil is effective in attenuating placental ischemia-induced hypertension during gestation. RUPP animals have significantly elevated arterial pressure compared with control animals (132 ± 3 vs. 100 ± 2 mmHg; P PDE-5/β-actin ratio (1 ± 0.14 vs. 1.63 ± 0.18; P < 0.05) expression with a resulting reduction in renal medullary cGMP (1.5 ± 0.15 vs. 0.99 ± 0.1 pmol/μg protein, P < 0.05) compared with controls. Although sildenafil had no effect on renal medullary cGMP in control animals, it significantly increased cGMP in RUPP animals (1.3 ± 0.1 pmol/μg protein; P < 0.05). These data suggest that sildenafil might provide an effective therapeutic option for the management of hypertension during preeclampsia. PMID:23785075

  11. Adiponectin supplementation in pregnant mice prevents the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth.

    Aye, Irving L M H; Rosario, Fredrick J; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas


    Mothers with obesity or gestational diabetes mellitus have low circulating levels of adiponectin (ADN) and frequently deliver large babies with increased fat mass, who are susceptible to perinatal complications and to development of metabolic syndrome later in life. It is currently unknown if the inverse correlation between maternal ADN and fetal growth reflects a cause-and-effect relationship. We tested the hypothesis that ADN supplementation in obese pregnant dams improves maternal insulin sensitivity, restores normal placental insulin/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and nutrient transport, and prevents fetal overgrowth. Compared with dams on a control diet, female C57BL/6J mice fed an obesogenic diet before mating and throughout gestation had increased fasting serum leptin, insulin, and C-peptide, and reduced high-molecular-weight ADN at embryonic day (E) 18.5. Placental insulin and mTORC1 signaling was activated, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) phosphorylation was reduced, placental transport of glucose and amino acids in vivo was increased, and fetal weights were 29% higher in obese dams. Maternal ADN infusion in obese dams from E14.5 to E18.5 normalized maternal insulin sensitivity, placental insulin/mTORC1 and PPARα signaling, nutrient transport, and fetal growth without affecting maternal fat mass. Using a mouse model with striking similarities to obese pregnant women, we demonstrate that ADN functions as an endocrine link between maternal adipose tissue and fetal growth by regulating placental function. Importantly, maternal ADN supplementation reversed the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth. Improving maternal ADN levels may serve as an effective intervention strategy to prevent fetal overgrowth caused by maternal obesity. PMID:26417088


    O. I. Stepanova; G. R. Kozonov; D. Z. Tsitskarava; T. U. Kuzminykh; D. A. Korenkov; S. A. Selkov; D. I. Sokolov


    Decidual and placental macrophage pools are renewed due to its transendothelial monocyte migration from peripheral blood. Tissue macrophages control placental development and provide fetomaternal immunological tolerance. Preeclamptic pregnancy is accompanied by increased monocyte migration to decidual tissue and local inflammatory events. Regulatory mechanisms of monocyte recruitment to placental and decidual tissues is still unclear. Therefore we investigated the influence soluble placental ...

  13. Risk of placental abruption in relation to migraines and headaches

    Ananth Cande V


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migraine, a common chronic-intermittent disorder of idiopathic origin characterized by severe debilitating headaches and autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and placental abruption, the premature separation of the placenta, share many common pathophysiological characteristics. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, hypercoagulation, and inflammation are common to both disorders. We assessed risk of placental abruption in relation to maternal history of migraine before and during pregnancy in Peruvian women. Methods Cases were 375 women with pregnancies complicated by placental abruption, and controls were 368 women without an abruption. During in-person interviews conducted following delivery, women were asked if they had physician-diagnosed migraine, and they were asked questions that allowed headaches and migraine to be classified according to criteria established by the International Headache Society. Logistic regression procedures were used to calculate odds ratios (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (CI adjusted for confounders. Results Overall, a lifetime history of any headaches or migraine was associated with an increased odds of placental abruption (aOR = 1.60; 95% CI 1.16-2.20. A lifetime history of migraine was associated with a 2.14-fold increased odds of placental abruption (aOR = 2.14; 95% CI 1.22-3.75. The odds of placental abruption was 2.11 (95% CI 1.00-4.45 for migraineurs without aura; and 1.59 (95% 0.70-3.62 for migraineurs with aura. A lifetime history of tension-type headache was also increased with placental abruption (aOR = 1.61; 95% CI 1.01-2.57. Conclusions This study adds placental abruption to a growing list of pregnancy complications associated with maternal headache/migraine disorders. Nevertheless, prospective cohort studies are needed to more rigorously evaluate the extent to which migraines and/or its treatments are associated with the occurrence of placental abruption.

  14. Placental ischemia increases seizure susceptibility and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines.

    Warrington, Junie P


    Eclampsia is diagnosed in preeclamptic patients who develop unexplained seizures and/or coma during pregnancy or postpartum. Eclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality, accounting for ~13% of maternal deaths worldwide. Little is known about the mechanisms contributing to the pathophysiology of eclampsia, partly due to the lack of suitable animal models. This study tested the hypothesis that placental ischemia, induced by reducing utero-placental perfusion, increases susceptibility to seizures, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammation, and neurokinin B (NKB) expression in brain and plasma. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), a pro-convulsive drug, was injected into pregnant and placental ischemic rats (40 mg/kg, i.p.) on gestational day 19 followed by video monitoring for 30 min. Seizure scoring was blindly conducted. Placental ischemia hastened the onset of seizures compared to pregnant controls but had no effect on seizure duration. Placental ischemia increased CSF levels of IL-2, IL-17, IL-18 and eotaxin (CCL11), had no effect on plasma NKB; however, PTZ increased plasma NKB in both pregnant and placental ischemic rats. NKB was strongly correlated with latency to seizure in normal pregnant rats (R(2) = 0.88 vs. 0.02 in placental ischemic rats). Lastly, NKB decreased in the anterior cerebrum in response to placental ischemia and PTZ treatment but was unchanged in the posterior cerebrum. These data demonstrate that placental ischemia is associated with increased susceptibility to seizures and CSF inflammation; thus provides an excellent model for elucidating mechanisms of eclampsia-like symptoms. Further studies are required to determine the role of CSF cytokines/chemokines in mediating increased seizure susceptibility. PMID:26603461

  15. Macrophage Exosomes Induce Placental Inflammatory Cytokines: A Novel Mode of Maternal–Placental Messaging

    Holder, Beth; Jones, Tessa; Sancho Shimizu, Vanessa; Rice, Thomas F.; Donaldson, Beverly; Bouqueau, Marielle; Forbes, Karen; Kampmann, Beate


    Exosome trafficking from the placenta into the maternal circulation is well documented; the possibility that this trafficking is bi‐directional was unknown. We demonstrated clathrin‐mediated endocytosis of macrophage exosomes by the human placenta. We also demonstrated that macrophage exosomes induced placental production of cytokines interleukin (IL)‐6, IL‐8 and IL‐10. Exosomes therefore comprise an additional mechanism of immune cell signalling to the placenta, potentially facilitating prot...

  16. Distal Traditional Acupuncture Points of the Large Intestinal Meridian and the Stomach Meridian Differently Affect Heart Rate Variability and Oxygenation of the Trapezius Muscle

    Yukiko Shiro


    Full Text Available Physicians in traditional Chinese medicine have found that acupoints and meridians have effects on specific parts of the body. The aim of this study was to see how acupressure at distal acupuncture points of a specific meridian affects heart rate variability (HRV and oxygenation of the trapezius muscle. Forty-one female participants were randomly allocated to three groups. Subjects in the Stomach Meridian acupuncture point (ST group received acupressure at ST 34, ST 36, and ST 41, subjects in the Large Intestinal Meridian acupuncture point (LI group received acupressure at LI 4, LI 10, and LI 11, and subjects in the control group did not receive any stimuli. HRV and oxygenation of the trapezius muscles were measured. The high frequency components of HRV in the control and LI groups tended to be higher than those in the ST group. Total hemoglobin in the control and LI groups eventually reached significantly higher levels than in the ST group. While oxyhemoglobin (ΔO2Hb in the control and LI groups did not change, ΔO2Hb in the ST significantly decreased temporarily.

  17. The first reported case of equine nocardioform placentitis in South Africa : case report

    D.H. Volkmann


    Full Text Available Since the late 1980s a distinct form of focally-extensive mucoid to mucopurulent uterine body chronic placentitis, caused by nocardioformorganisms, has been recognised in horses in the USA state of Kentucky and possibly in other areas. This disease has led to increasing numbers of foal losses from late abortions, still-births, prematurity, or early neonatal deaths. The foals are usually not infected, but may be small or emaciated. Modes of infection and transmission are as yet unknown. Nocardia spp. and related nocardioformbacteria as causes of equine infertility, endometritis and foal death are briefly reviewed. A case of near full-term abortion involving a Friesian mare in the Pretoria district of Gauteng Province in South Africa during February 2000, with the same placental lesion as described in the Kentucky cases, is presented. Nocardioform organisms were visualised on impression smears and histological sections of affected foetal membranes, and were also cultured. The organism has been identified at the Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center of the University of Kentucky as an Amycolatopsis sp. of the less-commonly diagnosed group of nocardioforms causing placentitis in the USA. The organism was cultured from the uterus of the mare 18 days post-foaling, but after a 2-week course of oral trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole, based on antibiogram sensitivity testing, a uterine flush yielded no growth. A semen sample from the sire of the aborted foal did not yield any Gram-positive filamentous branching bacteria. The mare subsequently conceived to a single insemination.

  18. Internalization of nanopolymeric tracers does not alter characteristics of placental cells.

    Bigini, Paolo; Zanier, Elisa R; Saragozza, Silvia; Maciotta, Simona; Romele, Pietro; Bonassi Signoroni, Patrizia; Silini, Antonietta; Pischiutta, Francesca; Sammali, Eliana; Balducci, Claudia; Violatto, Martina B; Talamini, Laura; Garry, David; Moscatelli, Davide; Ferrari, Raffaele; Salmona, Mario; De Simoni, Maria Grazia; Maggi, Federico; Simoni, Giuseppe; Grati, Francesca Romana; Parolini, Ornella


    In the cell therapy scenario, efficient tracing of transplanted cells is essential for investigating cell migration and interactions with host tissues. This is fundamental to provide mechanistic insights which altogether allow for the understanding of the translational potential of placental cell therapy in the clinical setting. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) from human placenta are increasingly being investigated for their potential in treating patients with a variety of diseases. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using poly (methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles (PMMA-NPs) to trace placental MSC, namely those from the amniotic membrane (hAMSC) and early chorionic villi (hCV-MSC). We report that PMMP-NPs are efficiently internalized and retained in both populations, and do not alter cell morphofunctional parameters. We observed that PMMP-NP incorporation does not alter in vitro immune modulatory capability of placental MSC, a characteristic central to their reparative/therapeutic effects in vitro. We also show that in vitro, PMMP-NP uptake is not affected by hypoxia. Interestingly, after in vivo brain ischaemia and reperfusion injury achieved by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) in mice, iv hAMSC treatment resulted in significant improvement in cognitive function compared to PBS-treated tMCAo mice. Our study provides evidence that tracing placental MSC with PMMP-NPs does not alter their in vitro and in vivo functions. These observations are grounds for the use of PMMP-NPs as tools to investigate the therapeutic mechanisms of hAMSC and hCV-MSC in preclinical models of inflammatory-driven diseases. PMID:26987908

  19. Maternal Body Weight and Gestational Diabetes Differentially Influence Placental and Pregnancy Outcomes

    Martino, J.; Sebert, S.; Segura, M. T.; García-Valdés, L.; Florido, J.; Padilla, M. C.; Marcos, A.; Rueda, R.; McArdle, H. J.; Budge, H.; Campoy, C.


    Context: Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) can both contribute to adverse neonatal outcomes. The extent to which this may be mediated by differences in placental metabolism and nutrient transport remains to be determined. Objective: Our objective was to examine whether raised maternal body mass index (BMI) and/or GDM contributed to a resetting of the expression of genes within the placenta that are involved in energy sensing, oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolic pathways. Methods: Pregnant women from Spain were recruited as part of the “Study of Maternal Nutrition and Genetics on the Foetal Adiposity Programming” survey at the first antenatal visit (12–20 weeks of gestation) and stratified according to prepregnancy BMI and the incidence of GDM. At delivery, placenta and cord blood were sampled and newborn anthropometry measured. Results: Obese women with GDM had higher estimated fetal weight at 34 gestational weeks and a greater risk of preterm deliveries and cesarean section. Birth weight was unaffected by BMI or GDM; however, women who were obese with normal glucose tolerance had increased placental weight and higher plasma glucose and leptin at term. Gene expression for markers of placental energy sensing and oxidative stress, were primarily affected by maternal obesity as mTOR was reduced, whereas SIRT-1 and UCP2 were both upregulated. In placenta from obese women with GDM, gene expression for AMPK was also reduced, whereas the downstream regulator of mTOR, p70S6KB1 was raised. Conclusions: Placental gene expression is sensitive to both maternal obesity and GDM which both impact on energy sensing and could modulate the effect of either raised maternal BMI or GDM on birth weight. PMID:26513002

  20. Neutrophil Depletion Attenuates Placental Ischemia-Induced Hypertension in the Rat.

    Jean F Regal

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is characterized by reduced placental perfusion with placental ischemia and hypertension during pregnancy. Preeclamptic women also exhibit a heightened inflammatory state and greater number of neutrophils in the vasculature compared to normal pregnancy. Since neutrophils are associated with tissue injury and inflammation, we hypothesized that neutrophils are critical to placental ischemia-induced hypertension and fetal demise. Using the reduced uteroplacental perfusion pressure (RUPP model of placental ischemia-induced hypertension in the rat, we determined the effect of neutrophil depletion on blood pressure and fetal resorptions. Neutrophils were depleted with repeated injections of polyclonal rabbit anti-rat polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN antibody (antiPMN. Rats received either antiPMN or normal rabbit serum (Control on 13.5, 15.5, 17.5, and 18.5 days post conception (dpc. On 14.5 dpc, rats underwent either Sham surgery or clip placement on ovarian arteries and abdominal aorta to reduce uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP. On 18.5 dpc, carotid arterial catheters were placed and mean arterial pressure (MAP was measured on 19.5 dpc. Neutrophil-depleted rats had reduced circulating neutrophils from 14.5 to 19.5 dpc compared to Control, as well as decreased neutrophils in lung and placenta on 19.5 dpc. MAP increased in RUPP Control vs Sham Control rats, and neutrophil depletion attenuated this increase in MAP in RUPP rats without any effect on Sham rats. The RUPP-induced increase in fetal resorptions and complement activation product C3a were not affected by neutrophil depletion. Thus, these data are the first to indicate that neutrophils play an important role in RUPP hypertension and that cells of the innate immune system may significantly contribute to pregnancy-induced hypertension.

  1. Plasmodium vivax adherence to placental glycosaminoglycans.

    Kesinee Chotivanich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax infections seldom kill directly but do cause indirect mortality by reducing birth weight and causing abortion. Cytoadherence and sequestration in the microvasculature are central to the pathogenesis of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but the contribution of cytoadherence to pathology in other human malarias is less clear. METHODOLOGY: The adherence properties of P. vivax infected red blood cells (PvIRBC were evaluated under static and flow conditions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: P. vivax isolates from 33 patients were studied. None adhered to immobilized CD36, ICAM-1, or thrombospondin, putative ligands for P. falciparum vascular cytoadherence, or umbilical vein endothelial cells, but all adhered to immobilized chondroitin sulphate A (CSA and hyaluronic acid (HA, the receptors for adhesion of P. falciparum in the placenta. PvIRBC also adhered to fresh placental cells (N = 5. Pre-incubation with chondroitinase prevented PvIRBC adherence to CSA, and reduced binding to HA, whereas preincubation with hyaluronidase prevented adherence to HA, but did not reduce binding to CSA significantly. Pre-incubation of PvIRBC with soluble CSA and HA reduced binding to the immobilized receptors and prevented placental binding. PvIRBC adhesion was prevented by pre-incubation with trypsin, inhibited by heparin, and reduced by EGTA. Under laminar flow conditions the mean (SD shear stress reducing maximum attachment by 50% was 0.06 (0.02 Pa but, having adhered, the PvIRBC could then resist detachment by stresses up to 5 Pa. At 37 °C adherence began approximately 16 hours after red cell invasion with maximal adherence at 30 hours. At 39 °C adherence began earlier and peaked at 24 hours. SIGNIFICANCE: Adherence of P. vivax-infected erythrocytes to glycosaminoglycans may contribute to the pathogenesis of vivax malaria and lead to intrauterine growth retardation.

  2. Increased Placental Phospholipid Levels in Pre-Eclamptic Pregnancies

    Peter Bütikofer


    Full Text Available Physiological pregnancy is associated with an increase in lipids from the first to the third trimester. This is a highly regulated response to satisfy energy and membrane demands of the developing fetus. Pregnancy disorders, such as pre-eclampsia, are associated with a dysregulation of lipid metabolism manifesting in increased maternal plasma lipid levels. In fetal placental tissue, only scarce information on the lipid profile is available, and data for gestational diseases are lacking. In the present study, we investigated the placental lipid content in control versus pre-eclamptic samples, with the focus on tissue phospholipid levels and composition. We found an increase in total phospholipid content as well as changes in individual phospholipid classes in pre-eclamptic placental tissues compared to controls. These alterations could be a source of placental pathological changes in pre-eclampsia, such as lipid peroxide insult or dysregulation of lipid transport across the syncytiotrophoblast.

  3. Indications of anti-HY immunity in recurrent placental abruption

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Mogensen, Marie; Steffensen, Rudi;


    PROBLEM: Placental abruption is a potential life-threatening condition for both the fetus and the mother, being significantly more common in pregnancies with male fetuses. The pathogenesis of placental abruption remains unknown. However, some recent reports point toward a maternal immune response...... fetus died. Seven patients (88%) had first-born boys, and 15 abruptions (68%) involved male fetuses. All patients with a first-born boy, except one, had HLA-class II alleles known to restrict CD4+ T-cell responses against male-specific minor histocompatibility (HY)-antigens (HLA-DRB1*15, HLA-DRB3...... placental abruption is exclusively almost preceded by the birth of a boy and the majority of patients have HLA-class II known to restrict CD4 T-cell reactions against HY-antigens. This indicates that maternal immunological responses against HY-antigens play a role in recurrent placental abruption...

  4. An international contrast of rates of placental abruption

    Ananth, Cande V; Keyes, Katherine M; Hamilton, Ava;


    BACKGROUND: Although rare, placental abruption is implicated in disproportionately high rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Understanding geographic and temporal variations may provide insights into possible amenable factors of abruption. We examined abruption frequencies by maternal age,...

  5. Ischemic placental syndrome - prediction and new disease monitoring.

    Kwiatkowski, Sebastian; Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Rzepka, Rafał; Torbe, Andrzej; Dolegowska, Barbara


    The last decade has seen an improved understanding of the cause of the development of pathologies such as gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, intrauterine fetal death or placental abruption. Nowadays, we know that most conditions within this group share the same pathogenesis, the cause of which is placental ischemia. The following review is an attempt to propose a new method for prediction, diagnosis and - above all - appropriate monitoring of pregnant women and fetuses developing the ischemic placental syndrome with the use of tests that are new but yet widely available in clinical diagnosis. They are closely related to the condition's pathogenesis, therefore their elevated levels may predate clinical symptoms, and - most importantly - they correlate with syndrome aggravation and the occurrence of complications. Perhaps, the new look will allow us to improve perinatal results by reducing mortality and severe complications in pregnant women and fetal deaths resulting from sudden intrauterine fetal death or placental abruption. PMID:26444581

  6. Isolation, purification, and characterization of mouse placental lactogen.

    Colosi, P; Marr, G; Lopez, J; Haro, L; Ogren, L; Talamantes, F


    Mouse placental lactogen was purified 1840-fold from BALB/c placentae from days 14-18 of gestation with an overall yield of 29%. The purification procedure included alkaline homogenization and extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Phenyl-Sepharose, ion-exchange chromatography on CM- and DEAE-cellulose, and gel exclusion chromatography on Sephadex G-100. On 10% alkaline polyacrylamide gels, mouse placental lactogen had an Rf of 0.19. Electrophore...

  7. Feto-placental adaptations to maternal obesity in the baboon

    Farley, Darren; Tejero, Maria E; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Higgins, Paul B.; Cox, Laura; Werner, Sherry L.; Jenkins, Susan L.; Li, Cun; Choi, Jaehyek; Dick, Edward J.; Hubbard, Gene B.; Frost, Patrice; Dudley, Donald D.; Ballesteros, Brandon; Wu, Guoyao


    Maternal obesity is present in 20–34% of pregnant women and has been associated with both intrauterine growth restriction and large-for-gestational age fetuses. While fetal and placental functions have been extensively studied in the baboon, no data are available on the effect of maternal obesity on placental structure and function in this species. We hypothesize that maternal obesity in the baboon is associated with a maternal inflammatory state and induces structural and functional changes ...

  8. Altered development and function of the placental regions in preeclampsia and its association with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Rani, Alka; Wadhwani, Nisha; Chavan-Gautam, Preeti; Joshi, Sadhana


    The placenta is an essential organ formed during pregnancy that mainly transfers nutrients from the mother to the fetus. Nutrients taken up by the placenta are required for its own growth and development and to optimize fetal growth. Hence, placental function is an important determinant of pregnancy outcome. Among various nutrients, fatty acids, especially long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), including omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids, are essential for placental development from the time of implantation. Studies have associated these LCPUFAs with placental development through their roles in regulating oxidative stress, angiogenesis, and inflammation, which may in turn influence their transfer to the fetus. The placenta has a heterogeneous morphology with variable regional vasculature, oxidative stress, and LCPUFA levels in healthy pregnancies depending upon the location within the placenta. However, these regional structural and functional parameters are found to be disturbed in pathological conditions, such as preeclampsia (PE), thereby affecting pregnancy outcome. Hence, the alterations in LCPUFA metabolism and transport in different regions of the PE placenta as compared with normal placenta could potentially be contributing to the pathological features of PE. The regional variations in development and function of the placenta and its possible association with placental LCPUFA metabolism and transport in normal and PE pregnancies are discussed in this review. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:582-597. doi: 10.1002/wdev.238 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27239793


    Seadati N


    Full Text Available The aimed of this study was to find association between location of placental at second trimester and pregnancy outcomes. It was a descriptive -analytic epidemiological study which has performed on 250 pregnant women by simple random sampling in Razi hospital and Imam Khomeini hospital during July 2011 – October 2012 in Ahvaz city, Iran. Placental location was determined by sonography at 18 - 22 weeks of gestation, and it was classified to high / low category and anterior / posterior category. In this study has been assessed placental location with incidence of preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth. The incidence of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction was 5.6%, 1.6% respectively, these parameters were not associated with placental location (p=0.84, p=0.69. The incidence of preterm birth was 7.2% and it was associated with low placental location (p=0.01.There was no significant difference between anterior and posterior placenta in all of outcomes. Low placental location was associated with increased risk of preterm labor and preterm delivery.

  10. Placental programming of chronic diseases, cancer and lifespan: a review.

    Barker, D J P; Thornburg, K L


    Particular paths of fetal growth are now known to predict a range of disorders in adult life. This is thought to reflect fetal programming, the phenomenon whereby nutrition and other influences during development set the body's organs and systems for life. The thesis of this review is that normal variations in the processes of placental development lead to variations in the supply of nutrients to the fetus and programme a small number of key systems that are linked to later disease. A baby's growth and nutrition depend both on the function of the placenta, reflected in its gross morphology at birth, and on the mother's lifetime nutrition, reflected in her height and weight. In many studies, the effects of placental size and shape on later disease have been examined within different categories of mother's body size. The review shows that variations in gross placental morphology at birth predict a wide range of disorders in later life. Any particular placental phenotype seems to predict a limited number of diseases. Further research into the links between the processes of placentation and the morphology of the placenta at birth is now required. We need to know more about the relative importance of nutrient flow, nutrient balance and the timing of nutritional events in determining disorders in later life. We also need to understand why, compared to other placental mammals, the human placenta is so variable in its morphology and functional capacity. PMID:23916422

  11. Placental transfer of iodine and iodine compounds

    The following topics are valid for man and mammalians with haemochorial placenta, which are examined up to now: Within several hours after injection of radioactive inorganic iodide-compounds activity can be realized in the fetus. The transfer occurs bidirectionally through the placenta. The concentration of radioactive iodide in the fetal serum exceeds that of the maternal one already a short time after application. Radioactive iodide accumulates in the fetus before its thyroid starts its function and is mainly concentrated in liver and intestine; after starting its function, the fetal thyroid, stores the radioactive iodide at a very high percent rate. During gestation the concentration of radioactive iodide in the fetal thyroid increases and at the end of gestation it can exceed by 3-10 fold that in the maternal thyroid. Single uptake of radioactive iodide leads to a higher activity than chronic uptake. No analogy can be found in the concentration of fetal and maternal radioactive thyroid hormon compounds. A placental permeability for T4 and T3 only exists to a very small extent. Resulting from radioactive iodide transfer examinations, good accordance can be found between the individual animal species and man, while data on the passage of radioactive thyroid hormones vary to a small extent between the animal species. (orig./MG)

  12. Giant Placental Chorangioma: A Rare Case Report.

    Kataria, Nidhi; Singh, Amarjit; Bedi, Preet Kamal


    Chorangioma is a nontrophoblastic benign vascular tumour of the placenta, arising from the primitive chorionic mesenchyme. The clinical significance is related to the size of the tumours. Small chorangiomas, with a frequency of about 1%, are often asymptomatic. On the contrary, giant chorangiomas, greater than 5 cm in diameter, are rare tumours, with prevalence ranging from 1:9,000 to 1:50,000, and often associated with a variety of pregnancy complications and a poor perinatal outcome. We report a case of 26-year-old female who presented to us at 36 weeks of gestation with pain in the lower abdomen. Ultrasonograpy revealed polyhydramnios and a vascular tumour on the surface of placenta. Proper conservative antenatal management was done and a full term healthy baby was delievered. Histopathological examination of the extracted mass confirmed the diagnosis of chorangioma. The novelty of this report lies in the presence of large nontrophoblastic vascular placental tumour and the absence of any fetal complications. We emphasise the need of regular and timely antenatal management to diagnose and treat the complications of chorangioma at an early stage. PMID:27190814

  13. Nodal regulates trophoblast differentiation and placental development.

    Ma, G T; Soloveva, V; Tzeng, S J; Lowe, L A; Pfendler, K C; Iannaccone, P M; Kuehn, M R; Linzer, D I


    Nodal has been thought to be an embryo-specific factor that regulates development, but nodal is also expressed in the mouse placenta beginning at midgestation, specifically in the spongiotrophoblasts. In an insertional null nodal mutant, not only is embryonic development disrupted, but mouse placental development is also grossly altered with the loss of the diploid spongiotrophoblasts and labyrinth and an expansion of the polyploid giant cell layer. A hypomorphic mutation in nodal results in an expansion of the giant cell and spongiotrophoblast layers, and a decrease in labyrinthine development. Expression of nodal in trophoblast cell cultures is sufficient to inhibit trophoblast giant cell differentiation, demonstrating that nodal can act directly on trophoblasts. The mechanism of nodal action includes the inhibition of junB gene transcription. These results suggest that nodal may be involved in redirecting trophoblast fate towards the midgestational expansion of the labyrinth region while maintaining the thin layer of trophoblast giant cells and the underlying layer of spongiotrophoblasts that form the boundary between the maternal and extraembryonic compartments. PMID:11456449

  14. Placental Cadmium Levels Are Associated with Increased Preeclampsia Risk.

    Jessica E Laine

    Full Text Available Environmental exposure to heavy metals is a potentially modifiable risk factor for preeclampsia (PE. Toxicologically, there are known interactions between the toxic metal cadmium (Cd and essential metals such as selenium (Se and zinc (Zn, as these metals can protect against the toxicity of Cd. As they relate to preeclampsia, the interaction between Cd and these essential metals is unknown. The aims of the present study were to measure placental levels of Cd, Se, and Zn in a cohort of 172 pregnant women from across the southeast US and to examine associations of metals levels with the odds of PE in a nested case-control design. Logistic regressions were performed to assess odds ratios (OR for PE with exposure to Cd controlling for confounders, as well as interactive models with Se or Zn. The mean placental Cd level was 3.6 ng/g, ranging from 0.52 to 14.5 ng/g. There was an increased odds ratio for PE in relationship to placental levels of Cd (OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.2. The Cd-associated OR for PE increased when analyzed in relationship to lower placental Se levels (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.5 and decreased with higher placental Se levels (OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.5-1.9. Similarly, under conditions of lower placental Zn, the Cd-associated OR for PE was elevated (OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 0.8-3.9, whereas with higher placental Zn it was reduced (OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 0.8-2.0. Data from this pilot study suggest that essential metals may play an important role in reducing the odds of Cd-associated preeclampsia and that replication in a larger cohort is warranted.

  15. Co-culture of placental explants with isolated CD4 and CD8 T cells: a functional model to define the consequences of placental inflammation

    Hayley Derricott


    Full Text Available Appropriate placental function is essential for successful pregnancy and placental dysfunction is associated with fetal growth restriction (FGR and stillbirth. Villitis of unknown etiology (VUE and chronic intervillositis of unknown etiology (CIUE are immune-mediated conditions characterised by placental infiltrates of macrophages, CD4 and CD8 T cells. VUE and CIUE occur more frequently in the placentas of pregnancies complicated by FGR. The mechanisms by which this inflammation induces placental dysfunction are yet to be defined. We aimed to develop an in vitro model of placental inflammation to investigate functional consequences of immune cells in the placental environment. Fragments of placental tissue were co-cultured with CD4 and CD8 T cells isolated from whole blood. CellTrackerTM fluorescence was used to identify T cells in cultured explants. Tissue histology, endocrine and nutrient transport function was assessed using established methods. This novel preparation will enable future investigations into immune cell interactions with placenta.

  16. Maternal risk factors for abnormal placental growth: The national collaborative perinatal project

    Nicholson Wanda K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies of maternal risk factors for abnormal placental growth have focused on placental weight and placental ratio as measures of placental growth. We sought to identify maternal risk factors for placental weight and two neglected dimensions of placental growth: placental thickness and chorionic plate area. Methods We conducted an analysis of 24,135 mother-placenta pairs enrolled in the National Collaborative Perinatal Project, a prospective cohort study of pregnancy and child health. We defined growth restriction as th percentile and hypertrophy as > 90th percentile for three placental growth dimensions: placental weight, placental thickness and chorionic plate area. We constructed parallel multinomial logistic regression analyses to identify (a predictors of restricted growth (vs. normal and (b predictors of hypertrophic growth (vs. normal. Results Black race was associated with an increased likelihood of growth restriction for placental weight, thickness and chorionic plate area, but was associated with a reduced likelihood of hypertrophy for these three placental growth dimensions. We observed an increased likelihood of growth restriction for placental weight and chorionic plate area among mothers with hypertensive disease at 24 weeks or beyond. Anemia was associated with a reduced likelihood of growth restriction for placental weight and chorionic plate area. Pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain were associated with a reduced likelihood of growth restriction and an increased likelihood of hypertrophy for all three dimensions of placental growth. Conclusion Maternal risk factors are either associated with placental growth restriction or placental hypertrophy not both. Our findings suggest that the placenta may have compensatory responses to certain maternal risk factors suggesting different underlying biological mechanisms.

  17. MicroRNAs in Human Placental Development and Pregnancy Complications

    Chun Peng


    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs, which function as critical posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression by promoting mRNA degradation and translational inhibition. Placenta expresses many ubiquitous as well as specific miRNAs. These miRNAs regulate trophoblast cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, invasion/migration, and angiogenesis, suggesting that miRNAs play important roles during placental development. Aberrant miRNAs expression has been linked to pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia. Recent research of placental miRNAs focuses on identifying placental miRNA species, examining differential expression of miRNAs between placentas from normal and compromised pregnancies, and uncovering the function of miRNAs in the placenta. More studies are required to further understand the functional significance of miRNAs in placental development and to explore the possibility of using miRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for pregnancy-related disorders. In this paper, we reviewed the current knowledge about the expression and function of miRNAs in placental development, and propose future directions for miRNA studies.

  18. A higher-level MRP supertree of placental mammals

    Bininda-Emonds Olaf RP


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The higher-level phylogeny of placental mammals has long been a phylogenetic Gordian knot, with disagreement about both the precise contents of, and relationships between, the extant orders. A recent MRP supertree that favoured 'outdated' hypotheses (notably, monophyly of both Artiodactyla and Lipotyphla has been heavily criticised for including low-quality and redundant data. We apply a stringent data selection protocol designed to minimise these problems to a much-expanded data set of morphological, molecular and combined source trees, to produce a supertree that includes every family of extant placental mammals. Results The supertree is well-resolved and supports both polyphyly of Lipotyphla and paraphyly of Artiodactyla with respect to Cetacea. The existence of four 'superorders' – Afrotheria, Xenarthra, Laurasiatheria and Euarchontoglires – is also supported. The topology is highly congruent with recent (molecular phylogenetic analyses of placental mammals, but is considerably more comprehensive, being the first phylogeny to include all 113 extant families without making a priori assumptions of suprafamilial monophyly. Subsidiary analyses reveal that the data selection protocol played a key role in the major changes relative to a previously published higher-level supertree of placentals. Conclusion The supertree should provide a useful framework for hypothesis testing in phylogenetic comparative biology, and supports the idea that biogeography has played a crucial role in the evolution of placental mammals. Our results demonstrate the importance of minimising poor and redundant data when constructing supertrees.

  19. Longitudinal study of serum placental GH in 455 normal pregnancies

    Chellakooty, Marla; Skibsted, Lillian; Skouby, Sven O; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Petersen, Jørgen H; Main, Katharina M; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Juul, Anders


    habits were obtained from medical records. Serum placental GH concentrations were detectable in serum from all women as early as 14 wk gestation and increased during pregnancy in all individuals (P <0.001). Placental GH levels at second examination were found to be higher in women carrying female fetuses...... [median, 9.0 ng/ml; 95% confidence interval (CI), 4.7-23.0] compared with women carrying male fetuses (median, 8.2 ng/ml; 95% CI, 3.96-19.4; P = 0.004). Similarly, the increase in placental GH between 19 and 28 wk gestation was significantly larger in female fetus bearers than in male fetus bearers (P = 0...... role of maternal placental GH in the regulation of fetal growth. In conclusion, we found that 1) placental GH levels correlated significantly with fetal size at 28 wk gestation; 2) GH levels were measurable in serum from all women as early as 14 wk gestation; 3) maternal prepregnancy BMI and smoking...

  20. Fetal placental prostaglandin metabolism in the peripartum cow

    Previous results demonstrate that fetal placental tissue synthesizes prostaglandin E (PGE) prior to parturition. When placental membranes do not separate postpartum, PGE synthesis is maintained, while prostaglandin F (PGF) synthesis predominates when the membranes separate. Concurrent with separation is a decline in fetal placental binucleate cell (BNC) numbers. These data suggest a fetal placental conversion of PGE to PGF. For this experiment, placentomes were collected at ten days prepartum (PRE, n=12) and within 1 hr postpartum. Nine of the postpartum animals had fetal membrane separation within 12 hr postpartum (S) and eight did not exhibit membrane separation (NS). For each placentome, fetal (villi) components were manually isolated and examined for the ability to interconvert 3H labeled PGE2 and PGF2. All villi were unable to convert PGE2 to PGF2 (P > .05). The PRE and NS villi were able to convert PGF2 to PGE2 (P 2 to PGE2 (P 2 to PGE2 also declines (P < .05). These data suggest that peripartum fetal placental tissue might synthesize PGF which is then converted to PGE. It is possible that the BNC are directly converting PGF to PGE or that they are modulating this conversion. Therefore, with a decline in BNC numbers, PGF synthesis would predominate

  1. Changes in ambient temperature and oxygenation during the proestrus do not affect duration, regularity and repeatability of the estrus cycle in female rats.

    Grazyna Wójcik


    Full Text Available There are a lot of factors affecting the release of hormones from the anterior part of pituitary gland and their interactions with other parts of the endocrine, nervous and immune systems. The special significance of the proestrus phase of the estrous cycle of the rat, during which LH and FSH levels increase, followed by ovulation is known. The short length of the estrous cycle and the well recognized sequence of vaginal lavage cytology make it useful for investigating the influence of a stressful environment on the reproductive function. Short duration and mild changes in environmental conditions is considered as a factor analogous to psychological stress. The study was undertaken to determine the effects of a short duration change in the ambient temperature and oxygenation (30 minutes on the proestrus phase of reproductive cycle and on the repeatability and regularity of phases of the reproductive cycle of Wistar strain rats. The animals were kept under standard conditions and had food and water available ad libitum. The climatic chamber with automatically adjustable and monitored internal parameters (temperature, oxygenation, humidity was used to develop stress conditions. An estimation of the vaginal lavage using the microscope was done to determine the estrous cycle. The animals were divided into 6 groups. On the day of experiment: the control group (CG stayed in the climatic chamber for 30 minutes (ambient temperature 21 degrees C, normoxia - 21% O(2, the five test groups (TG - I - V remained in the climatic chamber for 30 minutes, in the established environmental conditions (I - 21 degrees C, 10% O(2; II - 10 degrees C, 21% O(2; III - 10 degrees C, 10% O(2; IV - 35 degrees C, 21% O(2; V - 35 degrees C, 10% O(2. During the following days after the experiment, a microscopic estimation of vaginal lavage was collected over again. There were no changes of duration and sequence of the present estrous cycle and repeatability of the next cycles

  2. Placental transfer of ritodrine hydrochloride in sheep

    This study examines the placental passage of ritodrine hydrochloride in relation to the drug's effects on the fetal circulation. Studies were carried out on nine mulliparous pregnant (120-140 days) ewes with chronically implanted cannulae of measurements of maternal and fetal arterial pressures and for blood sampling. One group of animals received sequential infusions of doses ranging from 0.1 to 30 μg/kg per min for 30 min (group 1). A second group was given a constant infusion of the drug at a dose of 3.0 μg/kg per min for 4 h (group 2). The peak concentrations of ritodrine in maternal and fetal blood were determined by radioimmunoassay. In group 1 they were 313.4 +- 24.1 ng/ml (mean +-S.E.) and 12.6 +- 3.7 ng/ml at the finish of 30.0 ug/kg per min infusion for maternal and fetal blood, respectively. In group 2, maternal drug levels were 81.3 +- 20.4 ng/ml after 30 min and 95.9 +- 17.1 ng/ml after 4 h of the infusion. Fetal plasma concentrations increased slowly from trace levels at 30 min to 3.3 +- 0.7 ng/ml at 4 h. Fetal blood pressure and heart rate did not show any significant changes during and after the infusion of ritodrine in both treatment groups. The findings demonstrate the maternal administration of ritodrine produces no significant effects on the circulatory system of the fetal lamb because of the low transplacental passage of this drug. (author)

  3. Of mice and women: rodent models of placental malaria

    Hviid, Lars; Marinho, Claudio R F; Staalsoe, Trine;


    Pregnant women are at increased malaria risk. The infections are characterized by placental accumulation of infected erythrocytes (IEs) with adverse consequences for mother and baby. Placental IE sequestration in the intervillous space is mediated by variant surface antigens (VSAs) selectively...... expressed in placental malaria (PM) and specific for chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). In Plasmodium falciparum, these VSA(PM) appear largely synonymous with the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family variant VAR2CSA. As rodent malaria parasites do not possess PfEMP1 homologs, the...... usefulness of experimental mouse PM models remains controversial. However, many features of murine and human PM are similar, including involvement of VSAs analogous to PfEMP1. It thus appears that rodent model studies can further the understanding of VSA-dependent malaria pathogenesis and immunity....

  4. Interleukin-11 alters placentation and causes preeclampsia features in mice.

    Winship, Amy L; Koga, Kaori; Menkhorst, Ellen; Van Sinderen, Michelle; Rainczuk, Katarzyna; Nagai, Miwako; Cuman, Carly; Yap, Joanne; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Simmons, David; Young, Morag J; Dimitriadis, Evdokia


    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific disorder characterized by hypertension and proteinuria after 20 wk gestation. Abnormal extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion and remodeling of uterine spiral arterioles is thought to contribute to PE development. Interleukin-11 (IL11) impedes human EVT invasion in vitro and is elevated in PE decidua in women. We demonstrate that IL11 administered to mice causes development of PE features. Immunohistochemistry shows IL11 compromises trophoblast invasion, spiral artery remodeling, and placentation, leading to increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction, although nonpregnant mice were unaffected. Real-time PCR array analysis identified pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPPA2), associated with PE in women, as an IL11 regulated target. IL11 increased PAPPA2 serum and placental tissue levels in mice. In vitro, IL11 compromised primary human EVT invasion, whereas siRNA knockdown of PAPPA2 alleviated the effect. Genes regulating uterine natural killer (uNK) recruitment and differentiation were down-regulated and uNK cells were reduced after IL11 treatment in mice. IL11 withdrawal in mice at onset of PE features reduced SBP and proteinuria to control levels and alleviated placental labyrinth defects. In women, placental IL11 immunostaining levels increased in PE pregnancies and in serum collected from women before development of early-onset PE, shown by ELISA. These results indicate that elevated IL11 levels result in physiological changes at the maternal-fetal interface, contribute to abnormal placentation, and lead to the development of PE. Targeting placental IL11 may provide a new treatment option for PE. PMID:26655736

  5. Metabolism of bupropion by baboon hepatic and placental microsomes

    Wang, Xiaoming; Abdelrahman, Doaa R.; Fokina, Valentina M.; Hankins, Gary D.V.; AHMED, Mahmoud S.; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N.


    The aim of this investigation was to determine the biotransformation of bupropion by baboon hepatic and placental microsomes, identify the enzyme(s) catalyzing the reaction(s) and determine its kinetics. Bupropion was metabolized by baboon hepatic and placental microsomes to hydroxybupropion (OH-BUP), threo- (TB) and erythrohydrobupropion (EB). OH-bupropion was the major metabolite formed by hepatic microsomes (Km 36 ± 6 µM, Vmax 258 ± 32 pmol mg protein−1 min−1), however the formation of OH-...

  6. Comparative Study Of Native And Fructose Glycated Human Placental DNA

    Mustafa, Imran; Garg, Nita; Raghushaker, C. R.


    Objective: The aim of our study was to glycate human placental DNA with Fructose and conduct a comparative study of properties of native and glycated DNA on the basis of UV spectrometry, fluorescence, and agarose gel electrophoresis. Methodology: Human placental DNA (10µg/ml) was incubated with 25mM fructose for 5, 10 and 15 days in phosphate buffer .Absorption profile and fluorescence emission spectra of native and glycated DNA samples were recorded. Native and glycated DNA was run on 0.8% a...

  7. Placental histopathological changes associated with Plasmodium vivax infection during pregnancy.

    Rodrigo M Souza

    Full Text Available Histological evidence of Plasmodium in the placenta is indicative of placental malaria, a condition associated with severe outcomes for mother and child. Histological lesions found in placentas from Plasmodium-exposed women include syncytial knotting, syncytial rupture, thickening of the placental barrier, necrosis of villous tissue and intervillositis. These histological changes have been associated with P. falciparum infections, but little is known about the contribution of P. vivax to such changes. We conducted a cross-sectional study with pregnant women at delivery and assigned them to three groups according to their Plasmodium exposure during pregnancy: no Plasmodium exposure (n = 41, P. vivax exposure (n = 59 or P. falciparum exposure (n = 19. We evaluated their placentas for signs of Plasmodium and placental lesions using ten histological parameters: syncytial knotting, syncytial rupture, placental barrier thickness, villi necrosis, intervillous space area, intervillous leucocytes, intervillous mononucleates, intervillous polymorphonucleates, parasitized erythrocytes and hemozoin. Placentas from P. vivax-exposed women showed little evidence of Plasmodium or hemozoin but still exhibited more lesions than placentas from women not exposed to Plasmodium, especially when infections occurred twice or more during pregnancy. In the Brazilian state of Acre, where diagnosis and primary treatment are readily available and placental lesions occur in the absence of detected placental parasites, relying on the presence of Plasmodium in the placenta to evaluate Plasmodium-induced placental pathology is not feasible. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that syncytial knotting (odds ratio [OR], 4.21, P = 0.045, placental barrier thickness (OR, 25.59, P = 0.021 and mononuclear cells (OR, 4.02, P = 0.046 were increased in placentas from P. vivax-exposed women when compared to women not exposed to Plasmodium during pregnancy. A

  8. Influence of placental position on obstetric morbidity in placenta previa

    Shripad S. Hebbar


    Conclusions: It is difficult to assign a maternal or perinatal morbidity risk to a particular type of placental location. The need for specialized surgical intervention such as uterine / internal iliac artery ligation, peripartum hysterectomy can arise irrespective of placental location, whether underneath the surgical incision (anterior, proximity to main uterine trunks (lateral or encountered after the delivery of the baby (posterior. Pregnancies complicated by placenta previa must be delivered in the hospitals having expertise of senior and skilled surgeons and well equipped blood bank and good neonatal intensive care unit. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 585-591

  9. Infant sex-specific placental cadmium and DNA methylation associations

    Mohanty, April F., E-mail: [Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, 1730 Minor Ave, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Farin, Fred M., E-mail: [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Bammler, Theo K., E-mail: [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); MacDonald, James W., E-mail: [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Afsharinejad, Zahra, E-mail: [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Burbacher, Thomas M., E-mail: [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Box: 357234, 1705 N.E. Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Siscovick, David S., E-mail: [Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, 1730 Minor Ave, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others


    Background: Recent evidence suggests that maternal cadmium (Cd) burden and fetal growth associations may vary by fetal sex. However, mechanisms contributing to these differences are unknown. Objectives: Among 24 maternal-infant pairs, we investigated infant sex-specific associations between placental Cd and placental genome-wide DNA methylation. Methods: We used ANOVA models to examine sex-stratified associations of placental Cd (dichotomized into high/low Cd using sex-specific Cd median cutoffs) with DNA methylation at each cytosine-phosphate-guanine site or region. Statistical significance was defined using a false discovery rate cutoff (<0.10). Results: Medians of placental Cd among females and males were 5 and 2 ng/g, respectively. Among females, three sites (near ADP-ribosylation factor-like 9 (ARL9), siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 3 (SIAH3), and heparin sulfate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulfotransferase 4 (HS3ST4) and one region on chromosome 7 (including carnitine O-octanoyltransferase (CROT) and TP5S target 1 (TP53TG1)) were hypomethylated in high Cd placentas. Among males, high placental Cd was associated with methylation of three sites, two (hypomethylated) near MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus (MECOM) and one (hypermethylated) near spalt-like transcription factor 1 (SALL1), and two regions (both hypomethylated, one on chromosome 3 including MECOM and another on chromosome 8 including rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 10 (ARHGEF10). Differentially methylated sites were at or close to transcription start sites of genes involved in cell damage response (SIAH3, HS3ST4, TP53TG1) in females and cell differentiation, angiogenesis and organ development (MECOM, SALL1) in males. Conclusions: Our preliminary study supports infant sex-specific placental Cd-DNA methylation associations, possibly accounting for previously reported differences in Cd-fetal growth associations across fetal sex. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these

  10. Infant sex-specific placental cadmium and DNA methylation associations

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that maternal cadmium (Cd) burden and fetal growth associations may vary by fetal sex. However, mechanisms contributing to these differences are unknown. Objectives: Among 24 maternal-infant pairs, we investigated infant sex-specific associations between placental Cd and placental genome-wide DNA methylation. Methods: We used ANOVA models to examine sex-stratified associations of placental Cd (dichotomized into high/low Cd using sex-specific Cd median cutoffs) with DNA methylation at each cytosine-phosphate-guanine site or region. Statistical significance was defined using a false discovery rate cutoff (<0.10). Results: Medians of placental Cd among females and males were 5 and 2 ng/g, respectively. Among females, three sites (near ADP-ribosylation factor-like 9 (ARL9), siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 3 (SIAH3), and heparin sulfate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulfotransferase 4 (HS3ST4) and one region on chromosome 7 (including carnitine O-octanoyltransferase (CROT) and TP5S target 1 (TP53TG1)) were hypomethylated in high Cd placentas. Among males, high placental Cd was associated with methylation of three sites, two (hypomethylated) near MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus (MECOM) and one (hypermethylated) near spalt-like transcription factor 1 (SALL1), and two regions (both hypomethylated, one on chromosome 3 including MECOM and another on chromosome 8 including rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 10 (ARHGEF10). Differentially methylated sites were at or close to transcription start sites of genes involved in cell damage response (SIAH3, HS3ST4, TP53TG1) in females and cell differentiation, angiogenesis and organ development (MECOM, SALL1) in males. Conclusions: Our preliminary study supports infant sex-specific placental Cd-DNA methylation associations, possibly accounting for previously reported differences in Cd-fetal growth associations across fetal sex. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these

  11. Placental transport of large molecules –a study using human ex vivo placental perfusion

    Mathiesen, Line


    To maintain a healthy pregnancy, the exchange of substances between mother and fetus is vital. All transport of these substances takes place through the placenta, which is a temporary organ that serves its purpose from the implantation of the blastula to the birth of the term fetus, supplying...... molecules, either by passive or facilitated diffusion or active transport systems. This makes placental transport studies interesting when investigating fetal exposure to foreign or innate substances. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the transport of selected substances across the human placenta...... using the human dually perfused recirculating placenta perfusion model. Perfusion models are very useful in studying effects and actions of various live tissues, in order to extrapolate the findings to a real life exposure situation. Simplified models make validated inter-laboratory comparison and...

  12. C-14-activity incorporation into the protein of fetal organs of guinea pigs with different maternal placental blood flow and fetal arterial O2-saturation

    In anaesthesised gravid guinea-pigs the dilate, end section of a placental radial artery was connected to the A.carotis via a flow meter and a throttle in order to measure and widely alter the maternal placental blood flow. Blood samples are taken from the fetal A.carotis, the fetal arterial O2-saturation and the Hb-content were determined. By altering the maternal placental blood circulation the fetal arterial O2-concentration can stabilised at various levels. In order to study the protein synthesis, under these conditions one infused 185 kBq C-14-leucine over a period of 3 hours into the jugular vein of the fetus. During infusion the radioactive concentrations in whole plasma and plasma water were measured. After the infusion the radioactive concentrations in the tissue fluid, the intracellular fluid and the acid-insoluble tissue fraction (protein) of the heart, kidenys, liver, the muscles of the upper end lower part of the body, the brain and the placenta were measured. The following deductions were drawn from the findings: The maternal placental blood flow vitally influences the activity incorporation per activity concentration in the plasma water. These findings agree with the hypotheses that the maternal blood circulation has an essential influence on the fetal proteins synthesis and that this influence can be attributed to the connection between placenta connection blood flow and oxygen saturation of fetal arterial blood. (orig.)

  13. Studying placental transfer of highly purified non-dioxin-like PCBs in two models of the placental barrier

    Correia Carreira, S; Cartwright, L; Mathiesen, L;


    Currently, toxicology and toxicokinetics of purified non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) are poorly characterised. Transplacental kinetics of NDL-PCBs can be studied in a variety of models, but careful validation of each model is crucial. We aimed to develop a standard operating...... procedure for establishing an in vitro model of the human placental barrier. Using this model, we sought to investigate placental transport kinetics of two NDL-PCB congeners. Firstly, we compared the BeWo cell line of the American Type Culture Collection with the BeWo b30 clone and determined parameters for...... monolayer formation. Secondly, we performed placental perfusions to validate the in vitro model. To that end, the transport of radiolabelled PCB52 and 180 was investigated in both models. We were not able to grow the ATCC cell line to confluency, but determined monolayer formation using BeWo b30. A...

  14. Modeling placental transport: correlation of in vitro BeWo cell permeability and ex vivo human placental perfusion

    Poulsen, Marie Sønnegaard; Rytting, Erik; Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E


    The placental passage of three compounds with different physicochemical properties was recently investigated in ex vivo human placental perfusion experiments (caffeine, benzoic acid, and glyphosate) [Mose, T., Kjaerstad, M.B., Mathiesen, L., Nielsen, J.B., Edelfors, S., Knudsen, L.E., 2008....... Placental passage of benzoic acid, caffeine, and glyphosate in an ex vivo human perfusion system. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, Part A 71, 984-991]. In this work, the transport of these same three compounds, plus the reference compound antipyrine, was investigated using BeWo (b30) cell monolayers. Transport...... across the BeWo cells was observed in the rank order of caffeine>antipyrine>benzoic acid>glyphosate in terms of both the apparent permeability coefficient and the initial slope, defined as the linear rate of substance transferred to the fetal compartment as percent per time, a parameter used to compare...

  15. Cold seep and oxygen minimum zone associated sources of margin heterogeneity affect benthic assemblages, diversity and nutrition at the Cascadian margin (NE Pacific Ocean)

    Guilini, Katja; Levin, Lisa A.; Vanreusel, Ann


    Hydrate Ridge (HR), located on the northeastern Pacific margin off Oregon, is characterized by the presence of outcropping hydrates and active methane seepage. Additionally, permanent low oxygen conditions overlay the benthic realm. This study evaluated the relative influence of both seepage and oxygen minima as sources of habitat heterogeneity and potential stress-inducing features on the bathyal metazoan benthos (primarily nematodes) at three different seep and non-seep HR locations, exposed to decreasing bottom-water oxygen concentrations with increasing water depth. The nematode seep communities at HR exhibited low diversity with dominance of only one or two genera (Daptonema and Metadesmolaimus), elevated average individual biomass and δ13C evidence for strong dependance on chemosynthesis-derived carbon, resembling deep-sea seeps worldwide. Although the HR seep habitats harbored a distinct nematode community like in other known seep communities, they differed from deep-sea seeps in well-oxygenated waters based on that they shared the dominant genera with the surrounding non-seep sediments overlain by oxygen-deficient bottom water. The homogenizing effect of the oxygen minimum zone on the seep nematode assemblages and surrounding sediments was constant with increasing water depth and concomitant greater oxygen-deficiency, resulting in a loss of habitat heterogeneity.

  16. Review: Cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation as an indication of placental health and disease

    Taglauer, E.S.; Wilkins-Haug, L.; Bianchi, D.W.


    In human pregnancy, the constant turnover of villous trophoblast results in extrusion of apoptotic material into the maternal circulation. This material includes cell-free (cf) DNA, which is commonly referred to as “fetal”, but is actually derived from the placenta. As the release of cf DNA is closely tied to placental morphogenesis, conditions associated with abnormal placentation, such as preeclampsia, are associated with high DNA levels in the blood of pregnant women. Over the past five years, the development and commercial availability of techniques of massively parallel DNA sequencing have facilitated noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for fetal trisomies 13, 18, and 21. Clinical experience accrued over the past two years has highlighted the importance of the fetal fraction (ff) in cf DNA analysis. The ff is the amount of cell-free fetal DNA in a given sample divided by the total amount of cell-free DNA. At any gestational age, ff has a bell-shaped distribution that peaks between 10 and 20% at 10–21 weeks. ff is affected by maternal body mass index, gestational age, fetal aneuploidy, and whether the gestation is a singleton or multiple. In approximately 0.1% of clinical cases, the NIPT result and a subsequent diagnostic karyotype are discordant; confined placental mosaicism has been increasingly reported as an underlying biologic explanation. Cell-free fetal DNA is a new biomarker that can provide information about the placenta and potentially be used to predict clinical problems. Knowledge gaps still exist with regard to what affects production, metabolism, and clearance of feto-placental DNA. PMID:24388429

  17. Tumor placentário diagnosticado durante a gravidez: relato de caso Placental tumor diagnosed in pregnancy: a case report

    Francisco Mauad Filho


    Full Text Available O tumor não trofoblástico placentário encontrado com maior freqüência é o corioangioma, com incidência de aproximadamente 1%. Quando são pequenos, geralmente não levam a alterações fetais, mas quando são grandes, podem levar a restrição de crescimento intra-útero, poliidrâmnio, trabalho de parto prematuro, insuficiência cardíaca congestiva e morte fetal. Os autores relatam um caso de corioangioma em uma paciente de 28 anos, diagnosticado em exame ultra-sonográfico de rotina, com idade gestacional de 32 semanas. O diagnóstico foi confirmado pelo exame anatomopatológico. As avaliações ultra-sonográficas revelaram a presença de sofrimento fetal crônico, que levou à interrupção da gestação com 36 semanas. Os resultados neonatais foram satisfatórios, com Apgar de 9-10 e peso fetal de 2.460 gramas.The most frequently nontrophoblastic tumor of the placenta found is chorioangioma, with an incidence of about 1%. When they are small, they do not significantly affect the fetus, but the large ones can cause intrauterine growth restriction, polyhydramnios, premature delivery, congestive heart failure and fetal death. The authors report a case of chorioangioma in a 28-year-old woman, second gestation, whose diagnosis was established at the 32nd week by ultrasound and confirmed by the anatomopathological examination. Ultrasonography evaluations showed chronic fetal distress and the delivery was performed at 36 weeks. The newborn results were satisfactory with Apgar 9-10 and fetal weight 2.460 g.

  18. Maternal Protein Restriction in the Rat Inhibits Placental Insulin, mTOR, and STAT3 Signaling and Down-Regulates Placental Amino Acid Transporters

    Rosario, Fredrick J.; Jansson, Nina; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Prasad, Puttur D; Powell, Theresa L.; Jansson, Thomas


    The mechanisms underlying reduced fetal growth in response to maternal protein restriction are not well established. Maternal levels of insulin, IGF-I, and leptin are decreased in rats fed a low protein (LP) diet. Because these hormones stimulate placental amino acid transporters in vitro, we hypothesized that maternal protein restriction inhibits placental leptin, insulin/IGF-I, and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and down-regulates the expression and activity of placental amino acid...

  19. Co-culture of placental explants with isolated CD4 and CD8 T cells: a functional model to define the consequences of placental inflammation

    Hayley Derricott; Jones, Rebecca L.; Heazell, Alexander E. P.; Greenwood, Susan L.


    Appropriate placental function is essential for successful pregnancy and placental dysfunction is associated with fetal growth restriction (FGR) and stillbirth. Villitis of unknown etiology (VUE) and chronic intervillositis of unknown etiology (CIUE) are immune-mediated conditions characterised by placental infiltrates of macrophages, CD4 and CD8 T cells. VUE and CIUE occur more frequently in the placentas of pregnancies complicated by FGR. The mechanisms by which this inflammation induces pl...

  20. Cold seep and oxygen minimum zone associated sources of margin heterogeneity affect benthic assemblages, diversity and nutrition at the Cascadian margin (NE Pacific Ocean)

    Guilini, K.; Levin, L. A.; Vanreusel, A.


    Hydrate Ridge (HR), located on the northeastern Pacific margin off Oregon, is characterized by the presence of outcropping hydrates and active methane seepage. Additionally, permanent low oxygen conditions overlay the benthic realm. This study evaluated the relative influence of both seepage and oxygen minima as sources of habitat heterogeneity and potential stress-inducing features on the bathyal metazoan benthos (primarily nematodes) at three different seep and non-seep HR locations, expose...

  1. Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress alters placental morphology and causes low birth weight

    The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in pregnancy remains largely unknown. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered tunicamycin (Tun), an ER stressor, as a single dose [0, 50, and 100 μg Tun/kg/body weight (BW)] on gestation days (GDs) 8.5, 12.5, and 15.5. A high incidence (75%) of preterm delivery was observed only in the group treated with Tun 100 μg/kg BW at GD 15.5, indicating that pregnant mice during late gestation are more susceptible to ER stress on preterm delivery. We further examined whether prolonged in utero exposure to ER stress affects fetal development. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered a dose of 0, 20, 40, and 60 μg Tun/kg from GD 12.5 to 16.5. Tun treatment decreased the placental and fetal weights in a dose-dependent manner. Histological evaluation showed the formation of a cluster of spongiotrophoblast cells in the labyrinth zone of the placenta of Tun-treated mice. The glycogen content of the fetal liver and placenta from Tun-treated mice was lower than that from control mice. Tun treatment decreased mRNA expression of Slc2a1/glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), which is a major transporter for glucose, but increased placental mRNA levels of Slc2a3/GLUT3. Moreover, maternal exposure to Tun resulted in a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), VEGFR-2, and placental growth factor. These results suggest that excessive and exogenous ER stress may induce functional abnormalities in the placenta, at least in part, with altered GLUT and vascular-related gene expression, resulting in low infant birth weight. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to excessive ER stress induced preterm birth and IUGR. • Prolonged excessive ER stress altered the formation of the placental labyrinth. • ER stress decreased GLUT1 mRNA expression in the placenta, but increased GLUT3. • ER stress-induced IUGR causes decreased glycogen and altered glucose transport

  2. Effect of empty uterine space on birth intervals and fetal and placental development in pigs.

    Vallet, J L; Freking, B A; Miles, J R


    A substantial loss of embryos occurs between Days 30 and 40 of pregnancy in the pig under crowded intrauterine conditions, but it is not clear whether this loss affects the growth of adjacent conceptuses. Birth intervals are known to increase with decreasing litter size, but the factors responsible are unknown. Two possibilities are that increased birth weight associated with reduced litter size and the empty uterine space and resulting constricted uterine regions that occur in pigs with small litters may impair piglet delivery. To address these, pregnant gilts were laparotomized on Day 35 of pregnancy and one or two fetuses were manually crushed through the uterine wall on the ovarian or cervical end of each uterine horn to create an empty uterine space behind or in front of the litter of piglets, respectively, in relation to the route of delivery from the uterus. A subset of gilts was slaughtered at 105 days of gestation to confirm that the empty uterine spaces were successfully created and to determine their effects on placental and fetal weights of adjacent conceptuses. At slaughter, the lengths of all externally visible empty constricted regions of the uterus were measured. The uterine horns were opened and the lengths of each placenta were measured from the umbilicus toward the ovary and toward the cervix to assess whether placentas developed symmetrically, and then each fetus and placenta was weighed. Fetal crushing successfully created constricted empty uterine regions on the ovarian and cervical ends of the uterine horns. Ovarian-side placental lengths were greater than cervical-side for conceptuses adjacent to fetuses crushed on the ovarian end of the horn. Cervical-side placental lengths were greater than ovarian-side for conceptuses adjacent to fetuses crushed on the cervical end. Both placental and fetal weights were greater (10% and 6%, respectively, Pcrushed fetuses compared to nonadjacent conceptuses. Remaining gilts were farrowed to determine the

  3. Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress alters placental morphology and causes low birth weight

    Kawakami, Takashige, E-mail:; Yoshimi, Masaki; Kadota, Yoshito; Inoue, Masahisa; Sato, Masao; Suzuki, Shinya


    The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in pregnancy remains largely unknown. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered tunicamycin (Tun), an ER stressor, as a single dose [0, 50, and 100 μg Tun/kg/body weight (BW)] on gestation days (GDs) 8.5, 12.5, and 15.5. A high incidence (75%) of preterm delivery was observed only in the group treated with Tun 100 μg/kg BW at GD 15.5, indicating that pregnant mice during late gestation are more susceptible to ER stress on preterm delivery. We further examined whether prolonged in utero exposure to ER stress affects fetal development. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered a dose of 0, 20, 40, and 60 μg Tun/kg from GD 12.5 to 16.5. Tun treatment decreased the placental and fetal weights in a dose-dependent manner. Histological evaluation showed the formation of a cluster of spongiotrophoblast cells in the labyrinth zone of the placenta of Tun-treated mice. The glycogen content of the fetal liver and placenta from Tun-treated mice was lower than that from control mice. Tun treatment decreased mRNA expression of Slc2a1/glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), which is a major transporter for glucose, but increased placental mRNA levels of Slc2a3/GLUT3. Moreover, maternal exposure to Tun resulted in a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), VEGFR-2, and placental growth factor. These results suggest that excessive and exogenous ER stress may induce functional abnormalities in the placenta, at least in part, with altered GLUT and vascular-related gene expression, resulting in low infant birth weight. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to excessive ER stress induced preterm birth and IUGR. • Prolonged excessive ER stress altered the formation of the placental labyrinth. • ER stress decreased GLUT1 mRNA expression in the placenta, but increased GLUT3. • ER stress-induced IUGR causes decreased glycogen and altered glucose transport.

  4. Placentation in dolphins from the Amazon River Basin

    da Silva, Vera M F; Carter, Anthony M; Ambrosio, Carlos E;


    A recent reassessment of the phylogenetic affinities of cetaceans makes it timely to compare their placentation with that of the artiodactyls. We studied the placentae of two sympatric species of dolphin from the Amazon River Basin, representing two distinct families. The umbilical cord branched to...

  5. Incidental placental choriocarcinoma in a term pregnancy: a case report

    Chung Christopher


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gestational choriocarcinoma occurs in 1 in 40,000 pregnancies. Of all forms of gestational choriocarcinoma, placental choriocarcinoma is the most rare. Maternal choriocarcinoma is usually diagnosed in symptomatic patients with metastases. The incidental finding of a choriocarcinoma confined to the placenta with no evidence of dissemination to the mother, or infant is the least common scenario. Case presentation The patient is an 18 year-old Gravida 1 Para 1 African American female who delivered a viable 3641 g female infant at 39 weeks gestation. Her pregnancy course was complicated by gestational hypertension during the third trimester. Her placenta revealed intraplacental choriocarcinoma. She was then followed closely by the Gynecologic Oncology service with a weekly serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin value. Beta human chorionic gonadotropin values dropped from 3070 mIU/ml to less than 2 mIU/ml two months post partum. No chemotherapy was initiated. Metastasis was ruled out by chest x-ray and whole body computed tomography scan. To date, both mother and baby are well. Conclusion Due to the potential fatal outcome of placental choriocarcinoma, careful evaluation of both mother and infant after the diagnosis is made is important. The incidence of placental choriocarcinoma may actually be higher than expected since it is not routine practice to send placentas for pathological evaluation after a normal spontaneous delivery. The obstetrician, pathologist, and pediatrician should have an increased awareness of placental choriocarcinoma and its manifestations.

  6. 3-D study of vessels in peripheral placental villi

    Jirkovská, M.; Kubínová, Lucie; Janáček, Jiří; Kaláb, Josef


    Roč. 26, - (2007), s. 165-168. ISSN 1580-3139 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0153 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : 3-D reconstruction * angiogenesis * placental villi Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  7. Anemia in a neonate with placental mesenchymal dysplasia.

    Ishikawa, Satoshi; Morikawa, Mamoru; Umazume, Takeshi; Yamada, Takahiro; Kanno, Hiromi; Takakuwa, Emi; Minakami, Hisanori


    Causes of intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) are uncertain in most placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) cases. Our case showed high α-fetoprotein levels in the maternal circulation, markedly dilated subchorionic vessels, and neonatal hemoglobin concentration of 8.4 g/dL, suggesting that fetal anemia may explain some adverse outcomes in PMD pregnancies. PMID:27190607

  8. Anemia in a neonate with placental mesenchymal dysplasia

    Ishikawa, Satoshi; Morikawa, Mamoru; Umazume, Takeshi; Yamada, Takahiro; Kanno, Hiromi; Takakuwa, Emi; Minakami, Hisanori


    Key Clinical Message Causes of intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) are uncertain in most placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) cases. Our case showed high α‐fetoprotein levels in the maternal circulation, markedly dilated subchorionic vessels, and neonatal hemoglobin concentration of 8.4 g/dL, suggesting that fetal anemia may explain some adverse outcomes in PMD pregnancies.

  9. Placental Mechanics in the Zika-Microcephaly Relationship.

    Adibi, Jennifer J; Zhao, Yaqi; Cartus, Abigail R; Gupta, Phalguni; Davidson, Lance A


    How the Zika virus (ZIKV) accesses the embryo remains unknown. In this issue, Quicke et al. (2016) use an in vitro model of the human placenta to show that placental macrophages are more permissive to ZIKV infection than trophoblasts, which may be refractory to infection (Bayer et al., 2016). PMID:27414496

  10. Prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome in a child affected by rituximab-resistant autoimmune hemolytic anemia: a case report

    Beretta Chiara


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in children younger than 2 years of age is usually characterized by a severe course, with a mortality rate of approximately 10%. The prolonged immunosuppression following specific treatment may be associated with a high risk of developing severe infections. Recently, the use of monoclonal antibodies (rituximab has allowed sustained remissions to be obtained in the majority of pediatric patients with refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Case presentation We describe the case of an 8-month-old Caucasian girl affected by a severe form of autoimmune hemolytic anemia, which required continuous steroid treatment for 16 months. Thereafter, she received 4 weekly doses of rituximab (375 mg/m2/dose associated with steroid therapy, which was then tapered over the subsequent 2 weeks. One month after the last dose of rrituximab, she presented with recurrence of severe hemolysis and received two more doses of rrituximab. The patient remained in clinical remission for 7 months, before presenting with a further relapse. An alternative heavy immunosuppressive therapy was administered combining cyclophosphamide 10 mg/kg/day for 10 days with methylprednisolone 40 mg/kg/day for 5 days, which was then tapered down over 3 weeks. While still on steroid therapy, the patient developed an interstitial pneumonia with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, which required immediate admission to the intensive care unit where extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy was administered continuously for 37 days. At 16-month follow-up, the patient is alive and in good clinical condition, with no organ dysfunction, free from any immunosuppressive treatment and with a normal Hb level. Conclusions This case shows that aggressive combined immunosuppressive therapy may lead to a sustained complete remission in children with refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia. However, the severe life-threatening complication presented by our

  11. Oxygen Therapy

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb oxygen from the air you breathe. But some conditions ...

  12. Acclimatory responses of the Daphnia pulex proteome to environmental changes. I. Chronic exposure to hypoxia affects the oxygen transport system and carbohydrate metabolism

    Madlung Johannes


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Freshwater planktonic crustaceans of the genus Daphnia show a remarkable plasticity to cope with environmental changes in oxygen concentration and temperature. One of the key proteins of adaptive gene control in Daphnia pulex under hypoxia is hemoglobin (Hb, which increases in hemolymph concentration by an order of magnitude and shows an enhanced oxygen affinity due to changes in subunit composition. To explore the full spectrum of adaptive protein expression in response to low-oxygen conditions, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to analyze the proteome composition of animals acclimated to normoxia (oxygen partial pressure [Po2]: 20 kPa and hypoxia (Po2: 3 kPa, respectively. Results The comparative proteome analysis showed an up-regulation of more than 50 protein spots under hypoxia. Identification of a major share of these spots revealed acclimatory changes for Hb, glycolytic enzymes (enolase, and enzymes involved in the degradation of storage and structural carbohydrates (e.g. cellubiohydrolase. Proteolytic enzymes remained constitutively expressed on a high level. Conclusion Acclimatory adjustments of the D. pulex proteome to hypoxia included a strong induction of Hb and carbohydrate-degrading enzymes. The scenario of adaptive protein expression under environmental hypoxia can be interpreted as a process to improve oxygen transport and carbohydrate provision for the maintenance of ATP production, even during short episodes of tissue hypoxia requiring support from anaerobic metabolism.

  13. Oxygen Sensing via the Ethylene Response Transcription Factor RAP2.12 Affects Plant Metabolism and Performance under Both Normoxia and Hypoxia.

    Paul, Melanie Verena; Iyer, Srignanakshi; Amerhauser, Carmen; Lehmann, Martin; van Dongen, Joost T; Geigenberger, Peter


    Subgroup-VII-ethylene-response-factor (ERF-VII) transcription factors are involved in the regulation of hypoxic gene expression and regulated by proteasome-mediated proteolysis via the oxygen-dependent branch of the N-end-rule pathway. While research into ERF-VII mainly focused on their role to regulate anoxic gene expression, little is known on the impact of this oxygen-sensing system in regulating plant metabolism and growth. By comparing Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants overexpressing N-end-rule-sensitive and insensitive forms of the ERF-VII-factor RAP2.12, we provide evidence that oxygen-dependent RAP2.12 stability regulates central metabolic processes to sustain growth, development, and anoxic resistance of plants. (1) Under normoxia, overexpression of N-end-rule-insensitive Δ13RAP2.12 led to increased activities of fermentative enzymes and increased accumulation of fermentation products, which were accompanied by decreased adenylate energy states and starch levels, and impaired plant growth and development, indicating a role of oxygen-regulated RAP2.12 degradation to prevent aerobic fermentation. (2) In Δ13RAP2.12-overexpressing plants, decreased carbohydrate reserves also led to a decrease in anoxic resistance, which was prevented by external Suc supply. (3) Overexpression of Δ13RAP2.12 led to decreased respiration rates, changes in the levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, and accumulation of a large number of amino acids, including Ala and γ-amino butyric acid, indicating a role of oxygen-regulated RAP2.12 abundance in controlling the flux-modus of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. (4) The increase in amino acids was accompanied by increased levels of immune-regulatory metabolites. These results show that oxygen-sensing, mediating RAP2.12 degradation is indispensable to optimize metabolic performance, plant growth, and development under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. PMID:27372243

  14. Ultrasound assessment of placental function: the effectiveness of placental biometry in a low-risk population as a predictor of a small for gestational age neonate.

    McGinty, Patricia


    The aims of the study were to establish reference ranges for placental length and thickness in a low-risk obstetric population and to assess the likelihood of a small for gestational age (SGA) neonate on the basis of placental length at 18-24 weeks\\' gestation.

  15. The endocannabinoid system: A novel player in human placentation.

    Costa, M A


    Cannabis sativa is the most consumed illegal drug around the world. Its consumption during pregnancy is associated with gestational complications, particularly with fetal growth restriction. Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are lipid molecules that act by activating the G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptors, which are also target of the phytocannabinoid Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The endocannabinoid system (ECS) participates in distinct biological processes, including pain, inflammation, neuroprotection, and several reproductive events. In addition, an abnormal expression of ECS is associated with infertility and miscarriages. This manuscript will review and discuss the expression of ECS in normal and pathological human placentas, and the role of eCBs and THC in trophoblast proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and function. The current evidence points towards a role of ECS in human placentation, shedding light on the contribution of the eCBs in the coordination of human placentation, and in the cellular mechanisms underlying the deleterious effects of cannabis consumption during pregnancy. PMID:26965993

  16. Placental transfer of radiopharmaceuticals and dosimetry in pregnancy

    Russell, J.R. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Stabin, M.G.; Sparks, R.B. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)


    The calculation of radiation dose estimates to the fetus is often important in nuclear medicine. To obtain the best estimates of radiation dose to the fetus, the best biological and physical models should be employed. In this paper, after identification of radiopharmaceuticals often administered to women of childbearing age, the most recent data available on the placental crossover of these radiopharmaceuticals was used (with standard kinetic models describing the maternal distribution and retention and with the best available physical models) to obtain fetal dose estimates for these radiopharmaceuticals were identified as those most commonly administered to women of childbearing years. The literature yielded information on placental crossover of 15 radiopharmaceuticals, from animal or human data. Radiation dose estimates are presented in early pregnancy and at 3-, 6-, and 9-months gestation for these radiopharmaceuticals, as well as for many others used in nuclear medicine (the latter considering only maternal organ contributions to fetal dose). 46 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  17. The radioimmunoassay of human placental protein 14 (PP14)

    The development and validation of a radioimmunoassay for the measurement of human placental protein 14 in maternal serum is described. The mean concentration of this protein in serum from 22 normal pregnant women showed a decline during the third trimester from 120 μg/l at 27 weeks gestation to 65 μg/l at term. Serum samples from 16 patients with intra-uterine growth retardation tended to contain lower concentrations of placental protein 14, these results reaching significance at weeks 36-38 of gestation. Of seven patients with pre-eclampsia from whom two or more blood samples were taken, four showed increases in concentration of this protein as pregnancy proceeded, compared with the normal pattern of decreasing values. (Auth.)

  18. Metallothionein expression in placental tissue in Menkes' disease

    Hærslev, T.; Krag Jacobsen, G.; Horn, N.;


    from six women with a family history of Menkes' disease, from 4 women without a family history, and from 2 hydatiform moles was studied. Positive MT immunostaining was found to be independent of the length of fixation, whether the tissue samples were fixed in 4% buffered formaldehyde or Bouin......'s fixative. The avidin-biotin-complex (ABC)-technique was used. The copper content was measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA). In all placental tissue sections positive MT immunostaining appeared only in the trophoblast and only in proliferating cells. In placental tissue sections obtained from......Menkes' disease is a recessive X-linked disturbance of copper metabolism, resulting in accumulation of copper in several extra-hepatic tissues including the placenta. Metallothionein (MT) is a low-molecular weight protein with a high affinity for group II metal ions, such as copper. Its synthesis...

  19. Clinical importance of radioisotope measurement of placental circulation

    Placental circulation was measured by scintigraphic technique after administration of 18.5 MBq (0.5 mCi) 113In. Scintigrams of the placenta and of the myometrium were taken with a time interval of 3 s for 3 minutes, and with an interval of 1 min for further 8 min. The placental perfusion index (PPI) was calculated on the basis of the time-activity histograms. The examination was carried out in 14 patients, with the following indications: toxicosis gravidarum, stenosis of the aortic valve, diabetes mellitus, placenta praevia, and suspicion of intrauterine retardation. In 13 cases the PPI was in accordance with the birth weight, whereas in one case significant difference was found. Intrauterine death occurred in cases where the PPI was near 1.0, whereas healthy mature babies were born with PPIs above 1.5. (L.E.)

  20. p-Cresol Affects Reactive Oxygen Species Generation, Cell Cycle Arrest, Cytotoxicity and Inflammation/Atherosclerosis-Related Modulators Production in Endothelial Cells and Mononuclear Cells

    Mei-Chi Chang; Hsiao-Hua Chang; Chiu-Po Chan; Sin-Yuet Yeung; Hsiang-Chi Hsien; Bor-Ru Lin; Chien-Yang Yeh; Wan-Yu Tseng; Shui-Kuan Tseng; Jiiang-Huei Jeng


    AIMS: Cresols are present in antiseptics, coal tar, some resins, pesticides, and industrial solvents. Cresol intoxication leads to hepatic injury due to coagulopathy as well as disturbance of hepatic circulation in fatal cases. Patients with uremia suffer from cardiovascular complications, such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, hemolysis, and bleeding, which may be partly due to p-cresol toxicity and its effects on vascular endothelial and mononuclear cells. Given the role of reactive oxygen sp...

  1. Heterogeneous Models Place the Root of the Placental Mammal Phylogeny

    Morgan, Claire C; Foster, Peter G.; Webb, Andrew E.; Pisani, Davide; McInerney, James O; O’Connell, Mary J


    Heterogeneity among life traits in mammals has resulted in considerable phylogenetic conflict, particularly concerning the position of the placental root. Layered upon this are gene- and lineage-specific variation in amino acid substitution rates and compositional biases. Life trait variations that may impact upon mutational rates are longevity, metabolic rate, body size, and germ line generation time. Over the past 12 years, three main conflicting hypotheses have emerged for the placement of...

  2. Placental Microbiome and Its Role in Preterm Birth

    CAO, BIN; Stout, Molly J.; Lee, Iris; Mysorekar, Indira U.


    Despite the well-known fact that the placenta has long-term effects on maternal and fetal health, the placenta remains a poorly understood and understudied organ. Not only is the placenta a site of exchange of nutrients and blood and gases between the fetal and maternal systems, but it also performs critical metabolic functions for supporting fetal development and maintaining maternal-fetal tolerance. It is also abundantly clear that impairment of placental function leads to severe pregnancy ...

  3. Placental site trophoblastic tumor presented with vaginal metastasis

    Zhang, Hai-Yan; Yue, Xiao-Ni; Tao, Xiang; Xi, Mei-Li; Yan, An-Qi; Lu, Xin


    Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare type of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). It is rising from the abnormal proliferation of intermediate trophoblastic cells with occasional multinuclear giant cells, with the potential for local invasion and metastasis. For its untypical and changeable clinical characteristics, the diagnosis and management are still poorly understood. Here we documented a case of PSTT with vaginal lesion as her unique presentation. After surgery and ...

  4. Is placental iodine content related to dietary iodine intake?

    Burns, R


    Delivery of iodine to the foetus depends not only on maternal dietary iodine intake but also on the presence of a functioning placental transport system. A role for the placenta as an iodine storage organ has been suggested, and this study compares the iodine content of placentas from women giving birth at term in Ireland and Iran, areas with median urinary iodine of 79 and 206 μg\\/l respectively.

  5. Labile disulfide bonds in human placental insulin receptor.

    Finn, F. M.; Ridge, K D; HOFMANN, K


    The disulfide crosslinking pattern of human placental insulin receptor was investigated using selective reduction with tributylphosphine followed by alkylation with N-[3H]ethylmaleimide. Insulin receptor contains a single sulfhydryl group in each beta subunit whose alkylation with N-[3H]ethylmaleimide inhibits receptor autophosphorylation. Alkylation is partially inhibited by ATP or the nonhydrolyzable substrate analog adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imido]triphosphate when the nucleotides are added...

  6. Giant placental chorioangioma: a rare cause of fetal hydrops

    Barros, Andreia; Freitas, Ana Cristina; António Jorge CABRAL; Camacho, Maria Carmo; Costa, Edite; Leitão, Henrique; Nunes, José Luis


    Giant choriangiomas are rare placental tumours, associated with a high prevalence of pregnancy complications and a poor perinatal outcome. Neonatal consequences include severe microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopaenia and hydrops. The associated high perinatal death rate (30–40%) has led to a number of prenatal therapeutic interventions with limited success in most cases. The authors present a case of non-immune fetal hydrops caused by a giant chorioangioma, diagnosed at 27 weeks...

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of placental site trophoblastic tumor

    Huang, Fengying; Zheng, Wenli; Liang, Qingchun; Yin, Tuanfang


    Here we report a case of a placental site trophoblastic tumor in a 36 year old Chinese woman, 31 months following a prior normal pregnancy. Her clinical presentation and ultrasound findings were uncharacteristic; and the final definitive diagnosis was established based on histological examination in conjunction with immunohistochemistry studies and a normal beta human chorionic gonadotropin level. The tumor exhibited high grade histological features with tumor necrosis, nuclear atypia and hig...

  8. Radioimmunoassay for human placental alkaline phosphatase and clinical significance

    A radioimmunoassay specific for placental alkaline phosphatase (PALP) has been performed. Sera from blood donnors contain less than 15 μg of PALP per liter. The amounts of PALP found in sera of pregnant women are higher, as soon as the first trimester of the pregnancy, increasing untill delivery (50-600 μg of PALP/l). Only 3,5% of the patients with various cancer diseases have amounts higher than 25 μg PALP/l

  9. Placental growth factor promotes atherosclerotic intimal thickening and macrophage accumulation

    Khurana, R.; Moons, L; Shafi, S.; A. Luttun; Collen, D; Martin, J. F.; Carmeliet, P.; Zachary, I. C.


    Background: Placental growth factor (PlGF) has been implicated in the pathophysiological angiogenesis and monocyte recruitment that underlie chronic inflammatory disease, but its role in atherosclerosis has not been examined. We investigated the effects of exogenous PlGF, delivered by adenoviral gene transfer, on atherogenic intimal thickening and macrophage accumulation induced by collar placement around the rabbit carotid artery and examined the effects of PlGF deficiency on atherosclerosis...

  10. Effects of 60Co administration on early placental cells

    The effects of 60Co administration on early placental cells were studied. Placental tissue and embryo obtained by induced abortion (6 - 13 weeks gestational age) were placed in the minimal essential medium (MEM) and irradiated with various doses of 60Co. After irradiation, the villi were cultured in a CO2 incubater at 370C. Cell growth process was observed every day with the phase-contrast microscope. Between 1 and 5 days epitheloid cells were dominant, but from about 7th day on fibroblastic cells dominated the culture. In placental tissue irradiated with 100, 200, 500 rad, fibroblastic cells began to grow earlier than in non-treated. Over 3000 rad 60Co inhibited the growth of cells and a culture was impossible. For each dose, the tissue was incubated for various periods of time, exposed to tritiated thymidine for the last hour and autoradiogram was prepared by the dipping method. The labeling index of irradiated trophoblasts showed a significant decrease compared with controls. A chromosome study was made in irradiated in vitro cell lines of fetus and placenta. There was no significant difference between the two cell lines concerning the frequency of chromosome aberration, which tended to increase as the chromosome becomes longer. It is concluded that the trophoblast is highly radiosensitive and that irradiation early in pregnancy may damage DNA synthesis in the trophoblast, and induce abortion. (author)

  11. Glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep when placental growth is restricted

    The effect of restricting placental growth on glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep in late gestation was determined by primed constant infusions of D-[U-14C]- and D-[2-3H]glucose and antipyrine into fetuses of six control sheep and six sheep from which endometrial caruncles had been removed before pregnancy (caruncle sheep). In the latter, placental and fetal weights were reduced, as was the concentration of glucose in fetal arterial blood. Fetal glucose turnover in caruncle sheep was only 52-59% of that in controls, largely because of lower umbilical loss of glucose back to the placenta (38-39% of control) and lower fetal glucose utilization (61-74% of control). However, fetal glucose utilization on a weight-specific basis was similar in control and caruncle sheep. Significant endogenous glucose production occurred in control and caruncle fetal sheep. Maternal glucose production and partition of glucose between the gravid uterus and other maternal tissues were similar in control and caruncle sheep. In conclusion, when placental and fetal growth are restricted, fetal glucose utilization is maintained by reduced loss of glucose back to the placenta and mother and by maintaining endogenous glucose production

  12. Development and regulation of placental androstenedione during rat pregnancy

    The present study determined the ability of the rat placenta to convert [3H] pregnenolone (P5) substrate to [3H]Δ4A and [3H]T and to the intermediate steroid [3H]P4 in vitro on days 12 to 18 of gestation. Placental androgen formation increased and the amount of P4 formed and not further metabolized to Δ4A decreased during gestation, with the formation of Δ4A 2- to 4-fold greater (p3H]Δ4A to [3H]E2 was 2- to 4-fold greater (p3H]T. To determine if the ovary, specifically estrogen, regulates placental Δ4A production, rats were ovariectomized (OVX) on day 9 of gestation and given a Silastic capsule containing either E2 or vehicle. On day 14 OVX animals had an increased (p 4A and decreased (p 4. The formation of placental Δ4A invitro was correlated with elevated peripheral serum Δ4A concentrations in OVX animals, an effect which was reversed by E2

  13. Good practices in collecting umbilical cord and placental blood 1

    Lopes, Lauren Auer; Bernardino, Elizabeth; Crozeta, Karla; Guimarães, Paulo Ricardo Bittencourt


    Abstract Objective: to identify the factors related to the quality of umbilical cord and placental blood specimens, and define best practices for their collection in a government bank of umbilical cord and placental blood. Method: this was a descriptive study, quantitative approach, performed at a government umbilical cord and placental blood bank, in two steps: 1) verification of the obstetric, neonatal and operational factors, using a specific tool for gathering data as non-participant observers; 2) definition of best practices by grouping non-conformities observed before, during and after blood collection. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and the following statistical software: Statistica(r) and R(r). Results: while there was a correlation with obstetrical and neonatal factors, there was a larger correlation with operational factors, resulting in the need to adjust the professional practices of the nursing staff and obstetrical team involved in collecting this type of blood. Based on these non-conformities we defined best practices for nurses before, during and after blood collection. Conclusion: the best practices defined in this study are an important management tool for the work of nurses in obtaining blood specimens of high cell quality. PMID:27556876

  14. In vitro effects of vitamins C and E, n-3 and n-6 PUFA and n-9 MUFA on placental cell function and redox status in type 1 diabetic pregnant women.

    Mezouar, Djamila; Merzouk, Hafida; Merzouk, Amel Saidi; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed; Belarbi, Boumediene; Narce, Michel


    The aim of this investigation was to determine the in vitro effects of vitamin C and E, n-3 and n-6 PUFA and n-9 MUFA on placental cell proliferation and function in type 1 diabetes. Placenta tissues were collected from 30 control healthy and 30 type 1 diabetic women at delivery. Placental cells were isolated and were cultured in RPMI medium supplemented with vitamin C (50 μM), vitamin E (50 μM), n-3 PUFA (100 μM), n-6 PUFA (100 μM) or n-9 MUFA (100 μM). Cell proliferation, cell glucose uptake and intracellular oxidative status were investigated. Our results showed that basal placental cell proliferation, glucose uptake, malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl proteins were higher while intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase activities were lower in placentas from diabetic women as compared to controls. Vitamins C and E induced a modulation of placental cell proliferation and glucose consumption without affecting intracellular redox status in both diabetic and control groups. N-3 and n-6 PUFA diminished placental cell proliferation and enhanced intracellular oxidative stress while n-9 MUFA had no effects in the two groups. Co-administration of n-3 or n-6 PUFA and vitamin C or E were capable of reversing back the PUFA-decreased cell proliferation and normalizing placental cell function and redox status especially in diabetes. In conclusion, PUFA and antioxidant vitamin combinations may be beneficial in improving placenta function and in reducing placental oxidative stress in type 1 diabetic pregnancy. PMID:27238721

  15. Animal Models to Study Placental Development and Function throughout Normal and Dysfunctional Human Pregnancy

    Grigsby, Peta L.


    Abnormalities of placental development and function are known to underlie many pathologies of pregnancy, including spontaneous preterm birth, fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia. A growing body of evidence also underscores the importance of placental dysfunction in the lifelong health of both mother and offspring. However, our knowledge regarding placental structure and function throughout pregnancy remains limited. Understanding the temporal growth and functionality of the human placen...

  16. Maternal peripheral blood level of IL-10 as a marker for inflammatory placental malaria

    Mutabingwa Theonest K; Kurtis Jonathan D; Fried Michal; Muehlenbachs Atis; Kabyemela Edward R; Duffy Patrick E


    Abstract Background Placental malaria (PM) is an important cause of maternal and foetal mortality in tropical areas, and severe sequelae and mortality are related to inflammation in the placenta. Diagnosis is difficult because PM is often asymptomatic, peripheral blood smear examination detects parasitemia as few as half of PM cases, and no peripheral markers have been validated for placental inflammation. Methods In a cohort of Tanzanian parturients, PM was determined by placental blood smea...

  17. Placental Malaria in Colombia: Histopathologic Findings in Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum Infections

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Arango, Eliana; Maestre, Amanda


    Studies on gestational malaria and placental malaria have been scarce in malaria-endemic areas of the Western Hemisphere. To describe the histopathology of placental malaria in Colombia, a longitudinal descriptive study was conducted. In this study, 179 placentas were studied by histologic analysis (112 with gestational malaria and 67 negative for malaria). Placental malaria was confirmed in 22.35%, 50.0% had previous infections, and 47.5% had acute infections. Typical malaria-associated chan...

  18. Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout mice exhibit placental P4 overproduction and delayed parturition

    Naruse, Mie; Ono, Ryuichi; Irie, Masahito; Nakamura, Kenji; Furuse, Tamio; Hino, Toshiaki; Oda, Kanako; Kashimura, Misho; Yamada, Ikuko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko


    Sirh7/Ldoc1 [sushi-ichi retrotransposon homolog 7/leucine zipper, downregulated in cancer 1, also called mammalian retrotransposon-derived 7 (Mart7)] is one of the newly acquired genes from LTR retrotransposons in eutherian mammals. Interestingly, Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited abnormal placental cell differentiation/maturation, leading to an overproduction of placental progesterone (P4) and placental lactogen 1 (PL1) from trophoblast giant cells (TGCs). The placenta is an organ tha...

  19. Placental tumor (chorioangioma) as a cause of polyhydramnios: a case report

    Abdalla N; Bachanek M; Trojanowski S; Cendrowski K; Sawicki W


    Nabil Abdalla, Michal Bachanek, Seweryn Trojanowski, Krzysztof Cendrowski, Wlodzimierz Sawicki Chair and Clinic of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Oncology, Second Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Abstract: Placental chorioangioma is the most common type of placental tumor. It is usually symptomless and may be associated with serious maternal and fetal complication when it reaches a large size. We presented a case of an angiomatous type of placental hemangioma dia...

  20. Does Method of Placental Removal or Site of Uterine Incision Repair Alter Endometritis After Cesarean Delivery?

    Everett F. Magann; Dodson, Mark K.; Harris, Robert L.; Floyd, Randall C.; Martin, James N; John C. Morrison


    Objective: his investigation was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between postcesarean endometritis and (1) method of placental removal and (2) site for uterine repair. Methods: This prospective, randomized study included 120 patients who underwent primary or repeat abdominal delivery for arrest of progress in labor, fetal distress, or breech presentation. Parturients were divided into four groups: I—spontaneous placental detachment, in situ uterine repair; II—spontaneous placental det...

  1. Role of ABC and Solute Carrier Transporters in the Placental Transport of Lamivudine.

    Ceckova, Martina; Reznicek, Josef; Ptackova, Zuzana; Cerveny, Lukas; Müller, Fabian; Kacerovsky, Marian; Fromm, Martin F; Glazier, Jocelyn D; Staud, Frantisek


    Lamivudine is one of the antiretroviral drugs of choice for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) in HIV-positive women. In this study, we investigated the relevance of drug efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (MDR1 [ABCB1]), BCRP (ABCG2), MRP2 (ABCC2), and MATE1 (SLC47A1) for the transmembrane transport and transplacental transfer of lamivudine. We employed in vitro accumulation and transport experiments on MDCK cells overexpressing drug efflux transporters, in situ-perfused rat term placenta, and vesicular uptake in microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) vesicles isolated from human term placenta. MATE1 significantly accelerated lamivudine transport in MATE1-expressing MDCK cells, whereas no transporter-driven efflux of lamivudine was observed in MDCK-MDR1, MDCK-MRP2, and MDCK-BCRP monolayers. MATE1-mediated efflux of lamivudine appeared to be a low-affinity process (apparent Km of 4.21 mM and Vmax of 5.18 nmol/mg protein/min in MDCK-MATE1 cells). Consistent with in vitro transport studies, the transplacental clearance of lamivudine was not affected by P-gp, BCRP, or MRP2. However, lamivudine transfer across dually perfused rat placenta and the uptake of lamivudine into human placental MVM vesicles revealed pH dependency, indicating possible involvement of MATE1 in the fetal-to-maternal efflux of the drug. To conclude, placental transport of lamivudine does not seem to be affected by P-gp, MRP2, or BCRP, but a pH-dependent mechanism mediates transport of lamivudine in the fetal-to-maternal direction. We suggest that MATE1 might be, at least partly, responsible for this transport. PMID:27401571

  2. Placental Nutrient Transport and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Gaccioli, Francesca; Lager, Susanne


    Intrauterine growth restriction refers to the inability of the fetus to reach its genetically determined potential size. Fetal growth restriction affects approximately 5–15% of all pregnancies in the United States and Europe. In developing countries the occurrence varies widely between 10 and 55%, impacting about 30 million newborns per year. Besides having high perinatal mortality rates these infants are at greater risk for severe adverse outcomes, such as hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and...

  3. Supplemental Oxygen

    ... Disease Lookup > COPD > Diagnosing and Treating COPD Supplemental Oxygen Sometimes with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung ... in people with severe lung disease Three Ways Oxygen Therapy Is Supplied Compressed oxygen gas and liquid ...

  4. Epitope mapping and topographic analysis of VAR2CSA DBL3X involved in P-falciparum placental sequestration

    Dahlback, Madeleine; Rask, Thomas Salhøj; Andersen, Pernille; Nielsen, Morten A; Ndam, Nicaise T.; Resende, Mafalda; Turner, Louise; Deloron, Philippe; Hviid, Lars; Lund, Ole; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Theander, Thor G.; Salanti, Ali


    Pregnancy-associated malaria is a major health problem, which mainly affects primigravidae living in malaria endemic areas. The syndrome is precipitated by accumulation of infected erythrocytes in placental tissue through an interaction between chondroitin sulphate A on syncytiotrophoblasts and a...... the main targets of naturally acquired immunoglobulin gamma and accessible for antibodies reacting with native VAR2CSA on infected erythrocytes. Interestingly, surface reactive anti-VAR2CSA antibodies also target a conserved DBL3X region predicted to form an alpha-helix. Finally, we could identify DBL...

  5. Synthesis of human placental CDNA and demonstration of the expression of M-CSF in that tissue

    Elahy E; Arvan R


    Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) has previously been shown to affect the differentiation of cells of the mono-nuclear phagocytic line. More recent studies indicate that M-CSF may have a role in pregnancy. In the present study, the expression of M-CSF in the human placenta was demonstrated. Placental mRNA was isolated and used as template for synthesis of complementary DNA (cDNA). The presence of M-CSF related sequences in the cDNA was shown by PCR and RT-PCR reactions in which M-C...


    Mr. Christopher Chukwuemeka Ohagwu


    Full Text Available The study is aimed to investigate placental thickness as a parameter for estimating gestational age in normal singleton pregnancies in Nigerian women. 730 Nigerian women with normal singleton pregnancies who were attending antenatal clinic at Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, Nigeria were studied by transabdominal ultrasound between February, 2007 and January, 2008. Sonography was carried out using Sonoscape SSI 600 ultrasound machine with 3.5MHz transducer. Gestational age was estimated by crown-rump length (CRL, biparietal diameter (BPD, femur length (FL and abdominal circumference (AC and the composite average recorded while placental thickness was measured at the point of insertion of the umbilical cord. Mean placental thickness with standard deviation was calculated for each gestational age. Correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between placental thickness and gestational age while regression analysis yielded mathematical relationships between placental thickness and gestation age. The maximum mean placental thickness of 45.1 ± 6.4mm was recorded at 39 weeks gestation. There was a fairly linear increase in mean placental thickness with gestation age. There was significant and strong positive correlation between placental thickness and gestational age. Placental thickness appears promising as an accurate indicator of gestational age in singleton pregnancies in Nigerian women.

  7. Review: Exploration of placentation from human beings to ocean-living species.

    Soma, H; Murai, N; Tanaka, K; Oguro, T; Kokuba, H; Yoshihama, I; Fujita, K; Mineo, S; Toda, M; Uchida, S; Mogoe, T


    This review covers four topics. 1) Placental pathology in Himalayan mountain people. To determine morphological changes of the placenta at high altitude, pathological examination was made of 1000 Himalayan placentas obtained in Nepal and Tibet and the results compared with Japanese placentas delivered at sea level. Characteristic findings in the placental villi of the Himalayan group included high incidences of villous chorangiosis and chorangioma. These processes were clarified by ultrastructural observation. 2) Placentation in Sirenians. The giant Takikawa sea cow, which lived 5 million years ago, was discovered on Hokkaido, Japan. It was an ancestor of the dugong as well as the manatees. Sirenia, the sea cow group, shares a common ancestor with Proboscidea, the elephants, even though they now inhabit quite different environments. A comparison was made of their zonary endothelial type of placentation. 3) Placentation in sharks and rays. The remarkable placentation of hammerhead sharks and manta rays is described. 4) Placentation in the Antarctic minke whale. Placental tissue samples of this whale were obtained from the Japan Institute of Cetacean Research. In an ultrastructural study of the utero-placental junction, microfilamental processes of the allantochorionic zone and crypt formation were visualized. PMID:23332416

  8. Placental transfer of the polybrominated diphenyl ethers BDE-47, BDE-99 and BDE-209 in a human placenta perfusion system: an experimental study

    Frederiksen Marie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs have been widely used as flame retardants in consumer products. PBDEs may affect thyroid hormone homeostasis, which can result in irreversible damage of cognitive performance, motor skills and altered behaviour. Thus, in utero exposure is of very high concern due to critical windows in fetal development. Methods A human ex vivo placenta perfusion system was used to study the kinetics and extent of the placental transfer of BDE-47, BDE-99 and BDE-209 during four-hour perfusions. The PBDEs were added to the maternal circulation and monitored in the maternal and fetal compartments. In addition, the perfused cotyledon, the surrounding placental tissue as well as pre-perfusion placental tissue and umbilical cord plasma were also analysed. The PBDE analysis included Soxhlet extraction, clean-up by adsorption chromatography and GC-MS analysis. Results and Discussion Placental transfer of BDE-47 was faster and more extensive than for BDE-99. The fetal-maternal ratios (FM-ratio after four hours of perfusion were 0.47 and 0.25 for BDE-47 and BDE-99, respectively, while the indicative permeability coefficient (IPC measured after 60 minutes of perfusion was 0.26 h-1 and 0.10 h-1, respectively. The transport of BDE-209 seemed to be limited. These differences between the congeners may be related to the degree of bromination. Significant accumulation was observed for all congeners in the perfused cotyledon as well as in the surrounding placental tissue. Conclusion The transport of BDE-47 and BDE-99 indicates in utero exposure to these congeners. Although the transport of BDE-209 was limited, however, possible metabolic debromination may lead to products which are both more toxic and transportable. Our study demonstrates fetal exposure to PBDEs, which should be included in risk assessment of PBDE exposure of women of child-bearing age.

  9. Is Placental Mitochondrial Function a Regulator that Matches Fetal and Placental Growth to Maternal Nutrient Intake in the Mouse?

    Chiaratti, Marcos R.; Malik, Sajida; Diot, Alan; Rapa, Elizabeth; Macleod, Lorna; Morten, Karl; Vatish, Manu; Boyd, Richard; Poulton, Joanna


    Background Effective fetal growth requires adequate maternal nutrition coupled to active transport of nutrients across the placenta, which, in turn requires ATP. Epidemiological and experimental evidence has shown that impaired maternal nutrition in utero results in an adverse postnatal phenotype for the offspring. Placental mitochondrial function might link maternal food intake to fetal growth since impaired placental ATP production, in response to poor maternal nutrition, could be a pathway linking maternal food intake to reduced fetal growth. Method We assessed the effects of maternal diet on placental water content, ATP levels and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in mice at embryonic (E) day 18 (E18). Females maintained on either low- (LPD) or normal- (NPD) protein diets were mated with NPD males. Results To investigate the possibility of an underlying mitochondrial stress response, we studied cultured human trophoblast cells (BeWos). High throughput imaging showed that amino acid starvation induces changes in mitochondrial morphology that suggest stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion. This is a defensive response, believed to increase mitochondrial efficiency, that could underlie the increase in ATP observed in placenta. Conclusions These findings reinforce the pathophysiological links between maternal diet and conceptus mitochondria, potentially contributing to metabolic programming. The quiet embryo hypothesis proposes that pre-implantation embryo survival is best served by a relatively low level of metabolism. This may extend to post-implantation trophoblast responses to nutrition. PMID:26132581

  10. Positive and negative gestational handling influences placental traits and mother-offspring behavior in dairy goats.

    Baxter, Emma M; Mulligan, Johan; Hall, Sarah A; Donbavand, Jo E; Palme, Rupert; Aldujaili, Emad; Zanella, Adroaldo J; Dwyer, Cathy M


    Dairy animals are subjected to a number of potential stressors throughout their lives, including daily interactions with humans. The quality of these interactions may have direct consequences for the animal undergoing the experience, but if such events occur during gestation it may also affect the developing fetus. This study examined the effects of differential handling during mid-gestation in 40 twin-bearing Saanen×Toggenburg primiparous goats. Between days 80 and 115 of gestation (gestation=150days), goats were subjected to aversive (AVS, n=13), gentle (GEN, n=13) or minimal (M, n=14) handling protocols for 10minute periods twice daily. The control (M) group did not receive handling treatments and all goats received normal husbandry procedures outside treatment periods. Salivary cortisol measured during the treatment period was higher in AVS goats (mean cortisol (sem) in pg/μl: AVS: 176.7 (18.2), GEN: 119.6 (11.1), M: 126.5 (13.7); P=0.007). Data collection was focussed on mother-offspring behaviors 2h post-partum, placental morphology and colostrum quality. AVS goats were the only treatment group to suffer fetal loss (16% loss vs 0% in GEN and M, P=0.05). Treatment also influenced placental morphology with a tendency for fewer cotyledons evident in placentae from the aversive treatment (AVS: 87.9 (7.8), GEN: 107.1 (7.9), M: 112.1 (9.3), P=0.093), and significantly fewer medium sized cotyledons (AVS: 67.6 (7.8), GEN: 89.3 (6.4), M: 84.3 (5.4), P=0.042). GEN goats displayed more grooming and nosing behaviors towards their young during the first 2h post-partum (grooming: GEN: 89.3% (7.1), AVS: 72.6% (7.7), M: 63.4% (9.0), P=0.045; nosing frequency: GEN: 58.8 (12.5), AVS: 28.6 (11.1), M: 34.7 (6.5), P=0.021). There was an overall trend for kids from mothers experiencing the AVS treatment to take longer to stand, reach the udder and suck compared to kids from GEN and M treatment groups. Treatment significantly affected latency to perform play behavior, with kids