Sample records for affect employment duration

  1. Do changes in regulation affect employment duration in temporary help agencies?

    Antoni, Manfred; Jahn, Elke


    The employment duration of workers in temporary help agencies is seen as an important indicator of their job quality. Most of the countries that regulate temporary agency employment do so to insure at least a minimal level of employment stability. Over the past three decades Germany has repeatedly...... liberalized the law on temporary agency employment. These successive reforms should have affected the employment duration in the temporary employment sector. Based on informative administrative data, we use a mixed proportional hazard rate model to examine whether employment duration has changed in response...... to these reforms. We find that the repeated prolongation of the maximum assignment period has significantly increased average employment duration, while the possibility to conclude fixed-term contracts and further liberalizations have reduced employment tenure....

  2. How unemployment insurance savings accounts affect employment duration : evidence from Chile

    Nagler, P.


    The introduction of unemployment insurance savings accounts (UISA) in Chile in October 2002 brought in more comprehensive unemployment protection while decreasing the opportunity costs of job change. Being the first to empirically investigate the effect of UISA on employment duration, this paper examines (i) whether the introduction of UISA affected employment duration among formal private sector workers, and (ii) the magnitude of this effect. The analysis is performed on longitudinal social ...

  3. Ecological sounds affect breath duration more than artificial sounds.

    Murgia, Mauro; Santoro, Ilaria; Tamburini, Giorgia; Prpic, Valter; Sors, Fabrizio; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano


    Previous research has demonstrated that auditory rhythms affect both movement and physiological functions. We hypothesized that the ecological sounds of human breathing can affect breathing more than artificial sounds of breathing, varying in tones for inspiration and expiration. To address this question, we monitored the breath duration of participants exposed to three conditions: (a) ecological sounds of breathing, (b) artificial sounds of breathing having equal temporal features as the ecological sounds, (c) no sounds (control). We found that participants' breath duration variability was reduced in the ecological sound condition, more than in the artificial sound condition. We suggest that ecological sounds captured the timing of breathing better than artificial sounds, guiding as a consequence participants' breathing. We interpreted our results according to the Theory of Event Coding, providing further support to its validity, and suggesting its possible extension in the domain of physiological functions which are both consciously and unconsciously controlled. PMID:25637249

  4. The Effect of Motivation on Self-Employment Duration in Germany: Necessity versus Opportunity Entrepreneurs

    Block, Joern; Sandner, Philipp


    Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (GSOEP), we analyze whether necessity and opportunity entrepreneurs differ in terms of self-employment duration. We find that the two types of entrepreneurs differ regarding their duration in self-employment. Once controlled for educational variables however, this effect turns out to be no longer significant. We therefore conclude that the difference observed is no original effect but is due to selection. We then go on to discuss the impli...

  5. Unemployment Duration in Germany: Individual and Regional Determinants of Local Job Finding, Migration and Subsidized Employment

    Arntz, Melanie; Wilke, Ralf Andreas


    Abstract Recent labour market reforms in Germany aim, among other things, at reducing unemployment by restricting passive unemployment measures, emphasizing local labour market policies and re-structuring public employment services. This paper uses extensive individual administrative and regional aggregate data to explore the extent to which these factors are likely to contribute to the shortening of unemployment duration. For this purpose, we estimate a semi-parametric duration mo...

  6. How tax progression affects effort and employment

    Koskela, Erkki; Schöb, Ronnie


    Within an efficiency wage framework, we study the effects of two revenue-neutral tax reforms that change the progressivity of the labour tax system. A revenue-neutral increase in both the wage tax and tax exemption and a revenue-neutral change in the composition of labour taxation towards the tax with the smaller tax base will lead to the same results: they moderate wages, workers' effort, effective labour input and aggregate output. Whether employment rises or falls, however, depends in both...

  7. Necessity and Opportunity Entrepreneurs and their Duration in Self-employment: Evidence from German Micro Data

    Block, Jörn H.; Sandner, Philipp G.


    Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (GSOEP), we analyze whether necessity entrepreneurs differ from opportunity entrepreneurs in terms of self-employment duration. Using univariate statistics, we find that opportunity entrepreneurs remain in self-employment longer than necessity entrepreneurs. However, after controlling for the entrepreneurs’ education in the professional area where they start their venture, this effect is no longer significant. We therefore conclude that th...

  8. Prognostic factors for disability claim duration due to musculoskeletal symptoms among self-employed persons

    Richter JM


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Employees and self-employed persons have, among others, different personal characteristics and different working conditions, which may influence the prognosis of sick leave and the duration of a disability claim. The purpose of the current study is to identify prognostic factors for the duration of a disability claim due to non-specific musculoskeletal disorders (MSD among self-employed persons in the Netherlands. Methods The study population consisted of 276 self-employed persons, who all had a disability claim episode due to MSD with at least 75% work disability. The study was a cohort study with a follow-up period of 12 months. At baseline, participants filled in a questionnaire with possible individual, work-related and disease-related prognostic factors. Results The following prognostic factors significantly increased claim duration: age > 40 years (Hazard Ratio 0.54, no similar symptoms in the past (HR 0.46, having long-lasting symptoms of more than six months (HR 0.60, self-predicted return to work within more than one month or never (HR 0.24 and job dissatisfaction (HR 0.54. Conclusions The prognostic factors we found indicate that for self-employed persons, the duration of a disability claim not only depends on the (history of impairment of the insured, but also on age, self-predicted return to work and job satisfaction.

  9. How Does Maternal Employment Affect Children's Socioemotional Functioning?

    Lam, Gigi


    The maternal employment becomes an irreversible trend across the globe. The effect of maternal employment on children's socioemotional functioning is so pervasive that it warrants special attention to investigate into the issue. A trajectory of analytical framework of how maternal employment affects children's socioemotional functioning originates…

  10. Work-family balance after childbirth: the association between employer-offered leave characteristics and maternity leave duration.

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin; Lahiff, Maureen


    Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12 weeks of maternity leave, mothers with <6 weeks of EOML and those offered 6-12 weeks had five times higher odds of returning to work within 12 weeks; those offered no leave had six times higher odds of an early return. These relationships were similar after controlling for whether the leave was paid and after controlling for other occupational and health characteristics. Access to and duration of employer-offered maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act. PMID:23504130

  11. Affective, Cognitive and Vocational Skills: The Employers' Perspective.

    Lee, Kiong-Hock


    Compares public and private sector recruitment behavior in Malaysia, focusing on employers' perspectives of higher education's functions. The public sector values academic records, whereas private industry seeks workers with experience and good affective skills. Both sectors want universities to produce graduates with problem-solving abilities.…

  12. Leaving Unemployment for Self-employment : A Discrete Duration Analysis of Determinants and Stability of Self-employment among Former Unemployed

    Reize, Frank


    The paper investigates the determinants and the success of self-employment among former unemployed. Self-employment has become an important re-employment opportunity during the last decade due to increasing subsidies. The econometric analysis is carried out using discrete hazard rate models on 14 waves of the German Socio-Economic Panel, covering the period from 1983 to 1996. I do not find any effects of unemployment duration on the transition from unemployment to selfemployment. Moreover, un...

  13. Job durations with worker and firm specific effects: MCMC estimation with longitudinal employer-employee data

    Guillaume HORNY; Mendes, Rute; van den Berg, Gerard J.


    We study job durations using a multivariate hazard model allowing for worker-specific and firm-specific unobserved determinants. The latter are captured by unobserved heterogeneity terms or random effects, one at the firm level and another at the worker level. This enables us to decompose the variation in job durations into the relative contribution of the worker and the firm. We also allow the unobserved terms to be correlated. For the empirical analysis we use a Portuguese longitudinal matc...

  14. Unraveling the mystery of sleep duration dynamics – Sleep in the objective and subjective lives of employed men and women

    William Michelson


    This paper addresses the place of sleep duration - objectively and subjectively - in the lives of employed men and women in Canada, based on data in Statistics Canada's 2010 General Social Survey no. 24, with an emphasis on time use. It addresses the mystery of how public opinion reflects a view that night-time sleep has declined in duration during a decade when surveys show that it has increased. A further mystery is why women in particular feel sleep deprived when comparable surveys show gr...

  15. Beyond the employment agency: The effect of social capital on the duration of unemployment

    Marek, Philipp; Damm, Benjamin; Su, Tong-Yaa


    This paper relates an individual's social capital and the length of unemployment spells of the very same individual. For this purpose, we analyze several facets of an agent's social activities as determinants of her social capital. Social activities lead to social interactions within organizational settings, which build up social capital at the group level. Via social interactions an exchange of knowledge emerges, including information on opportunities to get a job. An econometric duration mo...

  16. Duration of low wage employment: A study based on a survival model

    Pimenta, António M. S.; Silva, Francisco J. F.; Vieira, José A. Cabral


    This paper includes a survival analysis which attempts to explain the duration, as in the number of years a worker remains in a low wage situation. Explanatory variables take into account the characteristics of the employee, such as education, age, tenure with the company, gender and nationality, and the characteristics of the job and the company such as industry affiliation, number of employees, age of the company and location.

  17. Has the Spanish economic crisis affected the duration of sickness absence episodes?

    Murcia López, Guillermo; Delclós Clanchet, Jordi; Ubalde López, Mònica; Calvo Bonacho, Eva; Benavides, Fernando G


    The global economic crisis has had particularly intense effects on the Spanish labor market. We investigated whether the duration of non-work related sickness absence (SA) episodes in salaried workers had experienced any changes before and after the crisis started. This was a repeated cross-sectional analysis conducted in a dynamic cohort in 2006 and 2010. Database was provided by eight mutual insurance companies, covering 983,108 workers and 451,801 SA episodes. Descriptive analysis and crude, bivariate and multivariate analyses using Cox proportional hazards modeling were performed, to quantify the changes in duration of SA episodes between 2006 and 2010, stratified by sex. There was a higher number of episodes in 2010 for both sexes, but especially for women. Unadjusted median duration in men was similar for both years, while for women it was shorter in 2010. Final multivariate models show a greater risk of longer episode duration for men in 2010 (HR 0.95; 95% CI, 0.95-0.95), but a shorter one for women (HR 1.07; 95% CI, 1.07-1.07). Once the economic crisis started affecting the Spanish labor market, the number of SA episodes in women equalized with those in men. There was a decrease of episodes in the youngest age groups, in the construction and in temporary contracts. The relative ranking of leading diagnoses was similar in both years with an increase in infectious, nervous system and respiratory diseases and in mental disorder episodes for both sexes, but especially for women. The risk of longer episode duration was greater in 2010 among men, but smaller in women. PMID:27209364

  18. Out of mind, out of heart: attention affects duration of emotional experience.

    Freund, Alexandra M; Keil, Andreas


    It has been suggested that the extent to which a person maintains attention to pleasant versus unpleasant aspects of a given stimulus has an effect on the self-reported affective state. This assumption was empirically tested in two experiments. In Study 1, participants received the instruction either to focus on a positive emotion-eliciting event (winning a tournament chess game) or to focus their attention on an affectively neutral distraction task (describing drawings). Study 2 used negative performance feedback in a cognitive task to induce unpleasant affect and included three experimental groups (waiting condition, continuing with the same cognitive task, distraction by a different cognitive task). Results converged to show that distracting attention away from the emotion-eliciting event leads to a shorter duration of the emotional experience. These findings support the attention-focus hypothesis. PMID:22963519

  19. How Changes in Unemployment Benefit Duration Affect the Inflow Into Unemployment

    van Ours, J.C.; Tuit, S.


    We study how changes in the maximum benefit duration affect the inflow into unemployment in the Netherlands. Until August 2003, workers who became unemployed after age 57.5 were entitled to unemployment benefits until the age of 65, after which they would receive old age pensions. This characteristic made it attractive for workers to enter unemployment shortly after age 57.5 rather than shortly before. Indeed, we find a peak in the inflow into unemployment for workers after age 57.5. From Aug...

  20. The pupil's response to affective pictures: Role of image duration, habituation, and viewing mode.

    Snowden, Robert J; O'Farrell, Katherine R; Burley, Daniel; Erichsen, Jonathan T; Newton, Naomi V; Gray, Nicola S


    The pupil has been shown to be sensitive to the emotional content of stimuli. We examined this phenomenon by comparing fearful and neutral images carefully matched in the domains of luminance, image contrast, image color, and complexity of content. The pupil was more dilated after viewing affective pictures, and this effect was (a) shown to be independent of the presentation time of the images (from 100-3,000 ms), (b) not diminished by repeated presentations of the images, and (c) not affected by actively naming the emotion of the stimuli in comparison to passive viewing. Our results show that the emotional modulation of the pupil is present over a range of variables that typically vary from study to study (image duration, number of trials, free viewing vs. task), and encourages the use of pupillometry as a measure of emotional processing in populations where alternative techniques may not be appropriate. PMID:27172997

  1. The prognostic ability of the STarT Back Tool was affected by episode duration

    Morsø, Lars; Kongsted, Alice; Hestbaek, Lise; Kent, Peter


    PURPOSE: The prognostic ability of the STarT Back Tool (SBT) reportedly varies, but the factors affecting this are unclear. This study investigated the influences of care setting (chiropractic, GP, physiotherapy, spine centre), episode duration (0-2, 3-4, 4-12, >12 weeks), and outcome time period...... (3, 6, 12 months) on SBT prognostic ability. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of data from three primary care cohorts [chiropractic (n = 416), GP (n = 265), and physiotherapy (n = 200) practices] and one cohort from a secondary care outpatient spine centre (n = 974) in Denmark. Care pathways...... were not systematically affected by SBT risk subgroup (non-stratified care). Using generalised estimating equations, we investigated statistical interactions between SBT risk subgroups and potentially influential factors on the prognostic ability of the SBT subgroups, when Roland Morris Disability...

  2. The Impact of Employer Branding on Employees: The Role of Employment Offering in the Prediction of Their Affective Commitment

    Dorothée Hanin


    Full Text Available Most studies dedicated to the examination of employer branding in industrial/ organisational psychology investigated it using samples of applicants. The objective of the present research was to study the influence of the employer branding of a company on its employees’ attitudes. More precisely, we examined the interactive effect of the employment offering as portrayed by organisational communications and the employment experience as lived by employees on their affective commitment (AC. Furthermore, we analysed the mechanisms underlying these relationships, i.e. perceived organisational support (POS and psychological contract violation (PCV. One-hundred eighty-six department managers of a large multinational retailing company involved in employer branding practices were surveyed. Results indicated that employment offering and lived employment experience interact in the prediction of both POS and PCV and this interactive effect carries over to AC. Implications of these findings for both researchers and practitioners are discussed.

  3. Maximum lying bout duration affects the occurrence of shoulder lesions in sows

    Westin Rebecka


    Full Text Available Abstract Shoulder lesions are caused by tissue breakdown of the skin and/or underlying tissue as a result of long lasting pressure. The lesions are commonly seen in sows during the period of lactation and contribute to poor animal welfare as well as affecting the consumers' attitudes towards the swine industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between prolonged recumbency during early lactation and development of shoulder lesions, in particular the lying bout time. Eighteen sows of Swedish Landrace were observed for 24 hours during the day of farrowing and day 2, 4, 9 and 11 after farrowing in May 2009. The data were analysed for correlations between the duration of the longest observed uninterrupted lying bout and the prevalence of shoulder lesions recorded at weaning (week 5. In the study, shoulder lesions were observed in eight of the eighteen sows at the time of weaning. The total lying time of the sows was highest on day 0 and day 2, when the proportion of time spent in lateral recumbency over the 24-hour period was on average 80 percent. The longest lying bout had an average duration of 6,3 hours (right side and 7,2 hours (left side. A significant correlation (Spearman rank coefficient = 0,88; P

  4. Affective commitment to the employer brand: development and validation of a scale

    Fernandez Lores, Susana; Gavilánn Bouzas, Diana; Avello Iturriagagoitia, María; Blaso López, Francis


    In recent years employer branding has become increasingly important as a source of sustainable competitive advantage. Companies are trying to engender affective commitment in the best employees in a global labor market. We develop and validate a multidimensional scale to measure the strength of an employee´s affective commitment to the employer brand in five separate studies. In Study 1 and 2 the Affective Commitment to the Employer Brand (ACEB) scale was developed and tested for its factor s...

  5. Duration and intensity of shade differentially affects mycorrhizal growth- and phosphorus uptake responses of Medicago truncatula

    Konvalinková, T.; Püschel, David; Janoušková, Martina; Gryndler, M.; Jansa, J.


    Roč. 6, FEB 13 (2015), s. 1-11. ISSN 1664-462X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis * light intensity * shading duration Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.948, year: 2014

  6. Acute Mountain Sickness, Hypoxia, Hypobaria and Exercise Duration each Affect Heart Rate.

    DiPasquale, D M; Strangman, G E; Harris, N S; Muza, S R


    In this study, we quantified the changes in post-exercise resting heart rate (HRrst) associated with acute mountain sickness (AMS), and compared the effects of hypobaric hypoxia (HH) and normobaric hypoxia (NH) on HRrst. We also examined the modulating roles of exercise duration and exposure time on HRrst. Each subject participated in 2 of 6 conditions: normobaric normoxia (NN), NH, or HH (4 400 m altitude equivalent) combined with either 10 or 60 min of moderate cycling at the beginning of an 8-h exposure. AMS was associated with a 2 bpm higher HRrst than when not sick, after taking into account the ambient environment, exercise duration, and SpO2. In addition, HRrst was elevated in both NH and HH compared to NN with HRrst being 50% higher in HH than in NH. Participating in long duration exercise led to elevated resting HRs (0.8-1.4 bpm higher) compared with short exercise, while short exercise caused a progressive increase in HRrst over the exposure period in both NH and HH (0.77-1.2 bpm/h of exposure). This data suggests that AMS, NH, HH, exercise duration, time of exposure, and SpO2 have independent effects on HRrst. It further suggests that hypobaria exerts its own effect on HRrst in hypoxia. Thus NH and HH may not be interchangeable environments. PMID:25837245

  7. Duration and intensity of shade differentially affects mycorrhizal growth- and phosphorus uptake responses of Medicago truncatula

    Konvalinková, Tereza; Püschel, David; Janoušková, Martina; Gryndler, Milan; Jansa, Jan


    Roč. 6, FEB 13 (2015), s. 1-11. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LK11224 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis * light intensity * shading duration Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.948, year: 2014

  8. Adjustment Issues Affecting Employment for Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.

    Yost, Anastasia Dimun; Lucas, Margaretha S.


    Describes major issues, including culture shock and loss of status, that affect general adjustment of immigrants and refugees from the former Soviet Union who are resettling in the United States. Issues that affect career and employment adjustment are described and the interrelatedness of general and career issues is explored. (Contains 39…

  9. Juggling Work and Motherhood: The Impact of Employment and Maternity Leave on Breastfeading Duration: A Survival Analysis on Growing Up in Scotland Data

    Skafida, Valeria


    Abstract In 2005, Scotland became the first nation to make breastfeeding in public a legal right, but current breastfeeding targets and maternity leave allowance do not acknowledge the conflicting demands women face when juggling employment and otherhood. This paper explores how employment and maternity leave relate to breastfeeding duration among mothers in Scotland. The Growing Up in Scotland national longitudinal cohort study of 5,217 babies born in 2004–2005 was used. Multivariate p...

  10. How residency duration affects the outcome of a territorial contest: Complementary game-theoretic models.

    Mesterton-Gibbons, Mike; Sherratt, Tom N


    While the first individuals to discover and maintain territories are generally respected as owners, under some conditions there may be ambiguity as to who got there first. Here we attempt to understand the evolutionary consequences of this ambiguity by developing a pair of game-theoretic models in which we explicitly consider rival residency-based claims to ownership. Following earlier qualitative explanations for residency effects, we assume that either the value of the territory (Model A) or an interloper׳s self-belief that it is the owner (Model B) increases with duration of residency. Model A clearly demonstrates that if the value of a territory increases to a resident over time, so should its motivation to fight in terms of the effort it invests in fighting. Indeed, only a small increase in territory value with residency duration can be sufficient for longer established residents to win disputes, even without any arbitrary convention or other form of priority effect. Likewise, Model B shows that the observed increase in fighting persistence with residency duration can be readily explained as a consequence of increasing confidence on behalf of the interloper that it is the rightful owner. Collectively, the models help to explain some general findings long observed by empiricists, and shed light on the nature of conflicts that can arise when individuals do not have complete information about rival claims to ownership. PMID:26807804

  11. Rate and duration of seed filling and yield of soybean affected by water and radiation deficits



    Full Text Available Seed filling and yield of soybean under water and radiation deficits were investigated during 2011 and 2012. Treatments were irrigations (I1, I2, I3 and I4 for irrigation after 60, 90, 120 and 150 mm evaporation from class A pan, respectively in main plots and light interceptions (L1: 100 %, L2: 65 % and L3: 25 % sunlight in sub-plots. Seeds per plant under I1 and I2 decreased, but under I3 and I4 increasedas a result of radiation deficit. Maximum seed weight and seed filling duration of plants under 25 % light interception (L3 were higher than those under full sunlight (L1 and 65 % light interception (L2. In contrast, plants under full sunlight had the highest seed filling rate, particularly under water stress. Seed filling duration under severe light deficit (L3 was about 9 days longer than that under full sunlight (L1, leading to 15.8 % enhancement in maximum seed weight. Decreasing seed yield of soybean under well watering and mild water stress and improving it under moderate and severe water deficit due to low solar radiation are directly related with changes in seed filling duration and consequently in seed weight and number of seeds per plant under these conditions.

  12. Timing and Duration of Drug Exposure Affects Outcomes of a Drug-Nutrient Interaction During Ontogeny

    Jane Alcorn


    Full Text Available Significant drug-nutrient interactions are possible when drugs and nutrients share the same absorption and disposition mechanisms. During postnatal development, the outcomes of drug-nutrient interactions may change with postnatal age since these processes undergo ontogenesis through the postnatal period. Our study investigated the dependence of a significant drug-nutrient interaction (cefepime-carnitine on the timing and duration of drug exposure relative to postnatal age. Rat pups were administered cefepime (5 mg/kg twice daily subcutaneously according to different dosing schedules (postnatal day 1-4, 1-8, 8-11, 8-20, or 1-20. Cefepime significantly reduced serum and heart L-carnitine levels in postnatal day 1-4, 1-8 and 8-11 groups and caused severe degenerative changes in ventricular myocardium in these groups. Cefepime also altered the ontogeny of several key L-carnitine homeostasis pathways. The qualitative and quantitative changes in levels of hepatic γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase mRNA and activity, hepatic trimethyllysine hydroxlase mRNA, intestinal organic cation/carnitine transporter (Octn mRNA, and renal Octn2 mRNA depended on when during postnatal development the cefepime exposure occurred and duration of exposure. Despite lower levels of heart L-carnitine in earlier postnatal groups, levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase mRNA and activity, heart Octn2 mRNA and ATP levels in all treatment groups remained unchanged with cefepime exposure. However, changes in other high energy phosphate substrates were noted and reductions in the phosphocreatine/ATP ratio were found in rat pups with normal serum L-carnitine levels. In summary, our data suggest a significant drug-nutrient transport interaction in developing neonates, the nature of which depends on the timing and duration of exposure relative to postnatal age.

  13. Does Increasing Active Warm-Up Duration Affect Afternoon Short-Term Maximal Performance during Ramadan?

    Baklouti, Hana; Aloui, Asma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Briki, Walid; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar


    Aim The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon. Methods Twelve healthy active men took part in the study. The experimental design consisted of four test sessions conducted at 5 p.m., before and during Ramadan, either with a 5-minute or a 15-minute warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. ...

  14. How Hearing Impairment Affects Sentence Comprehension: Using Eye Fixations to Investigate the Duration of Speech Processing

    Wendt, Dorothea; Kollmeier, Birger; Brand, Thomas


    The main objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which hearing impairment influences the duration of sentence processing. An eye-tracking paradigm is introduced that provides an online measure of how hearing impairment prolongs processing of linguistically complex sentences; this...... quiet and in two different noise conditions. Participants with hearing impairment spent more time processing sentences, even at high levels of speech intelligibility. In addition, the relationship between the proposed online measure and listener-specific factors, such as hearing aid use and cognitive...

  15. Late Sleeping Affects Sleep Duration and Body Mass Index in Adolescents

    Rajesh G.Kathrotia1,


    Full Text Available During adolescence, there is a tendency to sleep late andsleep less because of altered psychosocial and life-stylechanges. Recent studies have demonstrated the link betweensleeping less and gaining weight in children, adolescents, andadults. We studied the effect of late sleeping and sleepingless on body mass index (BMI in medical college freshmen.All participants were adolescents (104 male and 38 femaleadolescents, mean age 17.77±0.79 years. After obtaininginformed consent, they filled out a questionnaire about theirsleeping habits. Height and weight were measured after abrief history taking and clinical examination. BMI increasedsignificantly with decrease in total sleep duration and withdelayed bedtime. Late sleeping individuals (after midnighthad significantly less sleep duration (6.78 hours v 7.74 hours,P<0.001, more day time sleepiness (85.2% v 69.3%,P=0.033 and more gap between dinner time and going tosleep (234.16 min v 155.45 min, P<0.001. Increased BMI inlate sleepers may be explained by low physical activity duringthe day caused by excess sleepiness and increased calorieintake with a gap of 5-6 hours between dinner and sleep.Sleep habits of late sleeping and sleeping less contribute toincrease BMI in adolescents.

  16. Mismatch Negativity Affects Muscle Fatigue during Repeated Contraction Trials of Different Durations

    Aleksandrov, Aleksander A.; Knyazeva, Veronika M.; Stankevich, Ludmila N.; Dmitrieva, Elena S.; Shestakova, Anna N.


    We examined the effect of involuntary attention switching (related to mismatch negativity generation in the oddball paradigm) on fatigue development during trials of different durations. The experiment consisted of two trials, long (40 min) and short (15 min), and two experimental conditions in each trial: the simple reaction task (deviants-only paradigm) and the stimuli recognition task (oddball paradigm). In each condition, a participant responded to each target acoustic stimulus by squeezing a handgrip dynamometer. We found the significantly lower rates of fatigue development in the short-trial deviants-only paradigm compared to the long trial. The short- and the long-trial oddball paradigms differed significantly from both the short- and the long-trial deviants-only paradigms. The results demonstrated that the fatigue developed differently depending on the expected trial duration. The involuntary activation of attention broke this subconscious regulative mechanism leading to increase of the compression force during the long trial and its decrease during the short. PMID:26869932

  17. Out of mind, out of heart: Attention affects duration of emotional experience

    Freund, Alexandra M; Keil, Andreas


    It has been suggested that the extent to which a person maintains attention to pleasant versus unpleasant aspects of a given stimulus has an effect on the self-reported affective state. This assumption was empirically tested in two experiments. In Study 1, participants received the instruction either to focus on a positive emotion-eliciting event (winning a tournament chess game) or to focus their attention on an affectively neutral distraction task (describing drawings). Study 2 used negativ...

  18. Does increasing active warm-up duration affect afternoon short-term maximal performance during Ramadan?

    Hana Baklouti

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon.Twelve healthy active men took part in the study. The experimental design consisted of four test sessions conducted at 5 p.m., before and during Ramadan, either with a 5-minute or a 15-minute warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. During each session, the subjects performed two vertical jump tests (squat jump and counter movement jump for measurement of vertical jump height followed by a 30-second Wingate test for measurement of peak and mean power. Oral temperature was recorded at rest and after warming-up. Moreover, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test.Oral temperature was higher before Ramadan than during Ramadan at rest, and was higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up both before and during Ramadan. In addition, vertical jump heights were not significantly different between the two warm-up conditions before and during Ramadan, and were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Peak and mean power were not significantly different between the two warm-up durations before Ramadan, but were significantly higher after the 5-minute warm-up than the 15-minute warm-up during Ramadan. Moreover, peak and mean power were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up only during Ramadan.The prolonged active warm-up has no effect on vertical jump height but impairs anaerobic power assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon.

  19. Do recruitment ties affect wages? An analysis using matched employer-employee data from Vietnam

    Anna Folke Larsen; John Rand; Nina Torm


    This paper examines the extent to which recruitment ties affect individual wage outcomes in small and medium scale manufacturing firms. Based on a unique matched employer-employee dataset from Vietnam we find that there is a significant positive wage premium associated with obtaining a job through an informal contact, when controlling for standard determinants of wage compensation. Moreover, we show that the mechanism through which informal contacts affect wages depends on the type of recruit...

  20. Nonambulatory cows: Duration of recumbency and quality of nursing care affect outcome of flotation therapy.

    Stojkov, J; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G


    Cows that are unable or unwilling to stand and remain recumbent for ≥ 12 h are defined as nonambulatory. Care and management of nonambulatory cattle is considered a major animal welfare concern facing the livestock industry, particularly the dairy sector. Flotation therapy has gained interest as a means to promote recovery in nonambulatory cows and is based on the concept that by floating the cow in warm water, secondary pressure damage to muscles and nerves will be reduced. The objective of this study was to assess the physiological responses to stress related to the flotation therapy and to evaluate the effect of recumbency duration and nursing care on the outcome of the flotation therapy. The outcomes of 34 nonambulatory Holstein dairy cows were analyzed after they were subjected to flotation therapy. The duration of recumbency and quality of nursing care provided before initiation of the flotation treatment were assessed based on producer responses to survey questions, and from on-site observations by the researchers. A veterinarian examined all cows before flotation therapy began. The treatment was divided into 5 phases: baseline (before filling), manipulation (placing the cow into the tank), filling (the tank was filled with water), flotation (the cow was confined in the filled tank), and draining (water was removed from the tank). Stress responses to the procedure, excluding the manipulation portion, were assessed using heart rate variability. The high-frequency component (HF normalized units) decreased during the filling and draining phases (2.8 ± 0.2 and 3.1 ± 0.4, respectively) compared with the baseline and floating phase (5.1 ± 0.6 and 4.9 ± 0.3, [corrected] respectively). These results indicate that the stress related to the flotation therapy is greatest during the filling and draining phases of the treatment, when cows likely have to exert increased effort to transition to a standing position. The flotation therapy was less likely to be

  1. Employment

    Radil, Tomáš


    This dissertation is aimed at the problems of labour-law relations. The main topic is the employment, its legal modification and functioning in practice. The Labour Code is often the subject of amendments and it is necessary to immediately apply all the changes into the practice. Based on finding from the legal theory there has been analysed a specific organisation, verified a functionality of personnel procedures in connection with the legal modification of the employment set in the Labo...

  2. Does School Duration Affect Student Performance? Findings from Canton-Based Variation in Swiss Educational Length

    Skirbekk, V.


    This paper investigates Swiss canton-based regulations to determine the number of school years required to graduate from academic track secondary school. The results show that the variation (12, 12.5 or 13 years) does not affect human capital levels (TIMSS math and science performance). This suggests that one could decrease school length from 13 to 12 years without decreasing student performance levels. A younger school leaving age could extend the working life, soften the burden of populatio...

  3. How does duration of curing affect the radiopacity of dental materials?

    Clinicians commonly encounter cases in which it is difficult to determine whether adjacent radiopacities are normal or pathologic. The ideal radiopacity of composite resin is equal to or higher than that of the same thickness of aluminum. We aimed to investigate the possible effects of different curing times on the post-24-hour radiopacity of composite resins on digital radiographs. One mm thick samples of Filtek P60 and Clearfil resin composites were prepared and cured with three regimens of continuous 400 mW/cm2 irradiance for 10, 20 and 30 seconds. Along with a 12-step aluminum step wedge, digital radiographs were captured and the radiopacities were transformed to the equivalent aluminum thicknesses. Data were compared by a general linear model and repeated-measures of ANOVA. Overall, the calculated equivalent aluminum thicknesses of composite resins were increased significantly by doubling and tripling the curing times (F(2,8)=8.94, p=0.002). Notably, Bonferroni post-hoc tests confirmed that the radiopacity of the cured Filtek P60 was significantly higher at 30 seconds compared with 10 seconds (p=0.04). Although the higher radiopacity was observed by increasing the time, other comparisons showed no statistical significance (p>0.05). These results supported the hypothesis that the radiopacity of resin composites might be related to the duration of light curing. In addition to the current standards for radiopacity of digital images, defining a standard protocol for curing of dental materials should be considered, and it is suggested that they should be added to the current requirements for dental material.

  4. How does duration of curing affect the radiopacity of dental materials?

    Bejeh Mir, Arash Poorsattar [School of Dentistry, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bejeh Mir, Morvarid Poorsattar [Private Practice of Orthodontics, Montreal (Canada)


    Clinicians commonly encounter cases in which it is difficult to determine whether adjacent radiopacities are normal or pathologic. The ideal radiopacity of composite resin is equal to or higher than that of the same thickness of aluminum. We aimed to investigate the possible effects of different curing times on the post-24-hour radiopacity of composite resins on digital radiographs. One mm thick samples of Filtek P60 and Clearfil resin composites were prepared and cured with three regimens of continuous 400 mW/cm{sup 2} irradiance for 10, 20 and 30 seconds. Along with a 12-step aluminum step wedge, digital radiographs were captured and the radiopacities were transformed to the equivalent aluminum thicknesses. Data were compared by a general linear model and repeated-measures of ANOVA. Overall, the calculated equivalent aluminum thicknesses of composite resins were increased significantly by doubling and tripling the curing times (F(2,8)=8.94, p=0.002). Notably, Bonferroni post-hoc tests confirmed that the radiopacity of the cured Filtek P60 was significantly higher at 30 seconds compared with 10 seconds (p=0.04). Although the higher radiopacity was observed by increasing the time, other comparisons showed no statistical significance (p>0.05). These results supported the hypothesis that the radiopacity of resin composites might be related to the duration of light curing. In addition to the current standards for radiopacity of digital images, defining a standard protocol for curing of dental materials should be considered, and it is suggested that they should be added to the current requirements for dental material.

  5. Addictive drugs and their duration affecting on trace elements levels in men

    During the drug addiction the blood biochemistry particularly level of trace elements in blood is widely affected. Eighty male addicts of various age groups along with seventeen normal subjects were studied. The plasma Zinc and manganese concentration was high in addict person as compared to normal subjects. Where as a significant decrease in iron concentration was observed in addicts. The plasma copper concentration was also low in addicts as compared to normal subjects. In conclusion drug addiction leads to many biochemical changes that may have detritus effects on health status of addicts. (author)

  6. Criteria of immobilization duration of the affected foot in diabetic Charcot neuro-osteoarthropathy

    Anastasia Gennadyevna Demina


    Full Text Available Long-term offloading is the key factor in the treatment of the acute stage of Charcot foot. The indication for remobilization and transition of the affected foot to weight-bearing activities is believed to be based on two factors: the absence of the clinical signs of inflammation and results of the objective diagnostic tests. At the present time, consensus about appropriate methods sufficient for initiating weight-bearing activities after immobilization is absent. This paper discusses current data on clinical and laboratory tests and methods and describes their advantages and disadvantages.

  7. 基于审查回归模型的失业持续期影响因素分析%Based on the Censored Regression Model to Analyze the Factors Affecting of Unemployment Duration

    马莹; 裴晓敏


    针对我国失业人员的失业持续期问题,运用审查回归模型(Censored regression model)对影响失业持续时阍因素进行分析。结果显示:男性失业持续时问明显较女性短,教育对一个人再次就业有着明显的促进作用。个人进行人力资本的投资不但能够缩短失业持续时间,而且在当前我国就业形势严峻的局面下,个人受教育年限的多少对于一个人的成功就业也具有重要的意义。对于社会网络、家庭背景等影响劳动力就业的非市场因素,政府创造公平合理的就业竞争机制具有非常重要的作用。%In view of the unemployed duration of unemployment problem, using Censored regression model to analyze the factors affecting of unemployment duration. The results show that male unemployment duration was significantly shorter than that of women, education of a people once again have a significant role in promoting employment. Personal investment in human capital will not only shorten the duration of unemployment, but also in the current situation of China's employment situation is grim, the individual number of years of education for the employment of a person's success is also of great significance. For social networks, family background and other effects of non - market factors, labor employment, government employment and creating a fair competition mechanism has a very important role.


    Marina GILTMAN


    Full Text Available Local labour markets within one country can be characterized by different outcomes because of their geographical and economic peculiarities. The unique features of the labour markets of the High North regions of Russia include compensative differentials and specific labour protection legislation together with the specific geographical characteristics. The aim of the paper is to investigate what peculiarities arise in employment as a result of location in the areas of the High North of Russia. Using aggregate regional data for the northern regions of Russia from 2005 to 2014 we estimated the dynamic fixed effects models for the number of employees and net migration. It was discovered that geographical characteristics affect employment in the High North of Russia more than wages. Labour supply exceeds labour demand in the northern regions of Russia because of strong positive wage elasticity of net migration. We can surmise that regulation of wages and migration should be a part of common economic policy in the High North regions of Russia.

  9. Forces affecting employment dynamics in Groningen; Case study in a lagging rural region in the Netherlands

    Terluin, I.J.; Post, J.H.; Wisselink, A.J.; Overbeek, M.M.M.


    In this report the focus is on employment dynamics in Groningen since the beginning of the 1980s. This study is part of an EU wide research project on employment development in leading and lagging rural regions of the EU. Total employment in Groningen increased by 36,000 jobs or with one quarter in

  10. Forces affecting employment dynamics in Groningen; Case study in a lagging rural region in the Netherlands

    Terluin, I.J.; Post, J.H.; Wisselink, A.J.; Overbeek, M.M.M.


    In this report the focus is on employment dynamics in Groningen since the beginning of the 1980s. This study is part of an EU wide research project on employment development in leading and lagging rural regions of the EU. Total employment in Groningen increased by 36,000 jobs or with one quarter in the period 1984-1995. This employment growth mainly consisted of part time jobs. Nearly 40% of employment growth occurred in the community, social and personal services sector, 30% in the financial...

  11. The minimum wage affects them all: Evidence on employment spillovers in the roofing sector

    Aretz, Bodo; Arntz, Melanie; Gregory, Terry


    This paper contributes to the sparse literature on employment spillovers on minimum wages by exploiting the minimum wage introduction and subsequent increases in the German roofing sector that gave rise to an internationally unprecedented hard bite of a minimum wage. We look at the chances of remaining employed in the roofing sector for workers with and without a binding minimum wage and use the plumbing sector that is not subject to a minimum wage as a suitable benchmark sector. By estimatin...

  12. Does early maternal employment affect non-cognitive children outcomes? - A literature review

    Blaskó, Zsuzsa


    This review aims at summarizing research-findings in the field of early maternal employment and children's psychological development. We are concentrating on maternal work during the first 4-5 years of children's life, and look at research investigating linkages between maternal employment and various aspects of children's psychological functioning in these early years or later. Most articles discussed here came from the Journal of Marriage and the Family, although some other journals are als...

  13. Visible Persistence of Single-Transient Random Dot Patterns: Spatial Parameters Affect the Duration of Fading Percepts.

    Bruchmann, Maximilian; Thaler, Kathrin; Vorberg, Dirk


    Visible persistence refers to the continuation of visual perception after the physical termination of a stimulus. We studied an extreme case of visible persistence by presenting two matrices of randomly distributed black and white pixels in succession. On the transition from one matrix to the second, the luminance polarity of all pixels within a disk- or annulus-shaped area reversed, physically creating a single second-order transient signal. This transient signal produces the percept of a disk or an annulus with an abrupt onset and a gradual offset. To study the nature of this fading percept we varied spatial parameters, such as the inner and the outer diameter of annuli (Experiment I) and the radius and eccentricity of disks (Experiment III), and measured the duration of visible persistence by having subjects adjust the synchrony of the onset of a reference stimulus with the onset or the offset of the fading percept. We validated this method by comparing two modalities of the reference stimuli (Experiment I) and by comparing the judgments of fading percepts with the judgments of stimuli that actually fade in luminance contrast (Experiment II). The results show that (i) irrespective of the reference modality, participants are able to precisely judge the on- and the offsets of the fading percepts, (ii) auditory reference stimuli lead to higher visible persistence durations than visual ones, (iii) visible persistence duration increases with the thickness of annuli and the diameter of disks, but decreases with the diameter of annuli, irrespective of stimulus eccentricity. These effects cannot be explained by stimulus energy, which suggests that more complex processing mechanisms are involved. Seemingly contradictory effects of disk and annulus diameter can be unified by assuming an abstract filling-in mechanism that speeds up with the strength of the edge signal and takes more time the larger the stimulus area is. PMID:26348616

  14. Storage temperature and duration affect Steinernema scarabaei dispersal and attraction, virulence, and infectivity to a white grub host.

    Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M; Ebssa, Lemma; Fuzy, Eugene M


    The entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema scarabaei has exceptional potential for the control of many white grub species. Initial studies suggested this species to have a widely ranging foraging strategy based on its attraction to hosts in soil columns, however, with a generally low but very variable dispersal rate even in the presence of hosts. The objective of this study was to develop a better understanding of the dispersal behavior of S. scarabaei IJs and the influence of storage conditions on its dispersal and infectivity. We found that storage temperature and duration had a strong effect on S. scarabaei IJ dispersal, virulence, and infectivity. But even under conditions conducive to movement only a small proportion of IJs moved towards a host. IJ dispersal declined with storage time by a factor of around 100 between 1 week and 12 weeks of storage whether the IJs were stored at room temperature or 8°C; however, the decline was more than twice as fast after storage at 8°C. Host attraction also diminished with storage duration. IJ virulence and infectivity declined with storage time for IJs stored at room temperature. In contrast, for IJs stored at 8°C virulence remained high and infectivity increased over time. The decrease in dispersal and infectivity when stored at room temperature may reflect an adaptation to conserve energy in the absence of hosts since S. scarabaei IJs have to persist through extended periods in summer during which infections are unlikely to occur. The even faster decrease in dispersal rate when stored at 8°C may suggest a cold-induced dormancy that may serve as an overwintering strategy. The parallel increase in infectivity, however, seems to contradict such a strategy. Future studies should examine whether and how S. scarabaei IJs 'inactivated' by the absence of hosts can be 'reactivated' and whether this behavior could be used to improve the efficacy of nematode applications against insect pests. PMID:23201455

  15. Factors Affecting the Successful Employment of Transition-Age Youths with Visual Impairments

    McDonnall, Michele Capella; Crudden, Adele


    The following variables were found to be associated with employment for transition-age youths with visual impairments who are served by vocational rehabilitation agencies: work experience, academic competence, self-determination, use of assistive technology, and locus of control. Self-esteem and involvement with the counselor were not associated…

  16. Does Offshoring of Materials and Business Services Affect Employment? Evidence from a Small Open Economy

    Michel, Bernhard; Rycx, François


    The fear of massive job losses has prompted a fast-growing literature on offshoring and its impact on employment in advanced economies. This paper examines the situation for Belgium. It improves the offshoring intensity measure by computing a volume measure of the share of imported intermediates in output and it is among the first to address both materials and business services offshoring to high-wage and low-wage countries. Estimations of static and dynamic industry-level labour demand equat...

  17. 20 CFR 655.737 - What are “exempt” H-1B nonimmigrants, and how does their employment affect the additional...


    .... academic degree cannot be established through experience or through demonstration of expertise in the... does their employment affect the additional attestation obligations of H-1B-dependent employers and willful violator employers? 655.737 Section 655.737 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND...

  18. Employing Textual and Facial Emotion Recognition to Design an Affective Tutoring System

    Lin, Hao-Chiang Koong; Wang, Cheng-Hung; Chao, Ching-Ju; Chien, Ming-Kuan


    Emotional expression in Artificial Intelligence has gained lots of attention in recent years, people applied its affective computing not only in enhancing and realizing the interaction between computers and human, it also makes computer more humane. In this study, emotional expressions were applied into intelligent tutoring system, where learners'…

  19. Do recruitment ties affect wages? An analysis using matched employer-employee data from Vietnam

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth


    through an informal contact, when controlling for standard determinants of wage compensation. Moreover, they show that the mechanism through which informal contacts affect wages depends on the type of recruitment tie used. The findings are robust across location, firm size categories, and different worker...

  20. Duration of Breastfeeding and Its Correlates in Bangladesh

    Akter, Shamima; Rahman, Md. Mizanur


    The purpose of this study was to assess the duration of breastfeeding and the sociodemographic factors affecting it. Data for the study were drawn from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2004. In total 5,364 mothers were included in the study. The life table and Cox's proportional hazards model were employed for the analysis of breastfeeding-related data, which showed that the average duration of breastfeeding was 31.9 months. Cox regression analysis revealed that the duration of br...

  1. Does the type of CIA policy significantly affect bar and restaurant employment in Minnesota cities?

    Klein, Elizabeth G.; Forster, Jean L.; Erickson, Darin J.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Schillo, Barbara


    Background Clean indoor air (CIA) policies that include free-standing bars and restaurants have been adopted by communities to protect employees in all workplaces from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, most notably employees working in restaurants and free-standing bars. However, due to the perception of negative economic effects on alcohol-licensed hospitality businesses, partial CIA policies (those that provide an exemption for free-standing bars) have been proposed as a means to reduce the risk of economic effects of comprehensive CIA policies applied to all worksites. Objective To determine if partial CIA produce differential economic effects compared to comprehensive CIA policies using bar and restaurant employment per capita. Design, setting, and subjects Ten cities in the state of Minnesota were studied from 2003 to 2006. Economic data were drawn from monthly employment in bars and restaurants, and a pooled time-series was completed to evaluate three types of local CIA policies: Comprehensive, partial, or none beyond the state law. Results Communities with a comprehensive CIA policy had a decrease of 9 employees per 10,000 residents compared with communities with a partial CIA policies (p=0.10). Communities with any type of CIA policy (partial or comprehensive) had an increase of 3 employees per 10,000 residents compared to communities without any CIA policies (p=0.36). Conclusion There were no significant differential economic effects by CIA policy type in Minnesota cities. These findings support the adoption of comprehensive CIA policies to provide all employees protection from environmental tobacco smoke exposure. PMID:19184432

  2. Serum levels of soluble CD30 in adult patients affected by atopic dermatitis and its relation to age, duration of disease and Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index

    Gabriele Di Lorenzo


    Full Text Available The value of CD30 and the soluble circulating fragment of CD30 (sCD30 for atopic dermatitis (AD remains unclear. In particular, little is known about the effects of age, duration of disease and Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index (SCORAD on the levels of serum sCD30 in patients affected by AD. In the present study, we have analysed serum sCD30 levels of adult patients affected by AD. The study's population includes 18 non-smoking outpatients, with a diagnosis of AD. As a control group we studied 18 non-atopic subjects from laboratory staff, matched for sex and age. These subjects had no history of AD, urticaria or seasonal or perennial rhinitis or asthma, and had negative skin prick test to a panel of allergens.

  3. Factors affecting cerebral oxygenation in hemodialysis patients: cerebral oxygenation associates with pH, hemodialysis duration, serum albumin concentration, and diabetes mellitus.

    Kiyonori Ito

    Full Text Available Patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD often develop cerebral disease complications. Furthermore, cerebral regional saturation of oxygen (rSO2 was previously reported to be significantly lower in HD patients than in healthy subjects. We aimed to identify the factors affecting the cerebral rSO2 in HD patients.Fifty-four HD patients (38 men and 16 women; mean age, 67.7 ± 1.2 years, HD duration, 6.5 ± 1.9 years were recruited. Cerebral rSO2 was monitored at the forehead before HD using an INVOS 5100C (Covidien Japan, Tokyo, Japan.The rSO2 levels were significantly lower in HD patients compared with healthy controls (49.5 ± 1.7% vs. 68.9 ± 1.6%, p <0.001. Multiple regression analysis showed that cerebral rSO2 independently associated with pH (standardized coefficient: -0.35, HD duration (standardized coefficient: -0.33, and serum albumin concentration (standardized coefficient: 0.28. Furthermore, the rSO2 was significantly lower in HD patients with diabetes mellitus (DM, compared with patients without DM (46.8 ± 1.7% vs. 52.1 ± 1.8%, p <0.05.In HD patients, cerebral rSO2 was affected by multiple factors, including pH, HD duration, and serum albumin concentration. Furthermore, this is the first report describing significantly lower levels of rSO2 in HD patients with DM than in those without DM.

  4. Changes in ambient temperature and oxygenation during the proestrus do not affect duration, regularity and repeatability of the estrus cycle in female rats.

    Grazyna Wójcik


    Full Text Available There are a lot of factors affecting the release of hormones from the anterior part of pituitary gland and their interactions with other parts of the endocrine, nervous and immune systems. The special significance of the proestrus phase of the estrous cycle of the rat, during which LH and FSH levels increase, followed by ovulation is known. The short length of the estrous cycle and the well recognized sequence of vaginal lavage cytology make it useful for investigating the influence of a stressful environment on the reproductive function. Short duration and mild changes in environmental conditions is considered as a factor analogous to psychological stress. The study was undertaken to determine the effects of a short duration change in the ambient temperature and oxygenation (30 minutes on the proestrus phase of reproductive cycle and on the repeatability and regularity of phases of the reproductive cycle of Wistar strain rats. The animals were kept under standard conditions and had food and water available ad libitum. The climatic chamber with automatically adjustable and monitored internal parameters (temperature, oxygenation, humidity was used to develop stress conditions. An estimation of the vaginal lavage using the microscope was done to determine the estrous cycle. The animals were divided into 6 groups. On the day of experiment: the control group (CG stayed in the climatic chamber for 30 minutes (ambient temperature 21 degrees C, normoxia - 21% O(2, the five test groups (TG - I - V remained in the climatic chamber for 30 minutes, in the established environmental conditions (I - 21 degrees C, 10% O(2; II - 10 degrees C, 21% O(2; III - 10 degrees C, 10% O(2; IV - 35 degrees C, 21% O(2; V - 35 degrees C, 10% O(2. During the following days after the experiment, a microscopic estimation of vaginal lavage was collected over again. There were no changes of duration and sequence of the present estrous cycle and repeatability of the next cycles

  5. Quality Management and Job Quality: How the ISO 9001 Standard forQuality Management Systems Affects Employees and Employers

    David I. Levine; Michael W. Toffel


    Several studies have examined how the ISO 9001 quality management systems standard predicts changes in organizational outcomes such as profits. This is the first large-scale study to explore how employee outcomes such as employment, earnings, and health and safety change when employers adopt ISO 9001. We analyzed a matched sample of nearly 1,000 companies in California. ISO 9001 adopters subsequently had far lower organizational death rates than a matched control group of nonadopters. Among s...

  6. Modeling Labor Market Behavior of the Population of a Large Industrial City: Duration of Registered Unemployment

    Nivorozhkin Evgeny; Nivorozhkina Ludmila; Shukhmin Andrey


    This paper analyzes factors affecting the duration of registered unemployment and the intensity of the individuals' transition from unemployment to alternative states. The results will help evaluate the process of the population's adaptation to the government's system of employment assistance in Russia and the effects of this system on the duration of job searchers and the relative chances of employment for various socio-demographic groups of population. We also explore the effect of the legi...

  7. Shelf-life of Roasted Cashew Nuts as Affected by Relative Humidity, Thickness of Polythene Packaging Material and Duration of Storage

    S.V. Irtwange


    Full Text Available The effect of relative humidity, thickness of polythene packaging material and duration of storageon the shelf life of roasted cashew was determined to provide inform ation for packaged roasted cashew nutsmarketers. For this study, split plot in Randomized Complete Block Design was used with a total number of180 observations (3 relative humidity x 4 polythene thicknesses x 5 duration levels of storage x 3 replicationseach for moisture content, microbial count and quality index, which w ere measured using standard procedures.The initial mean moisture content, total fungal counts and percentage quality index of the nuts were found tobe 1.17%db, 30CFU/g and 100% respectively, which were all deemed appropriate in comparison with the setacceptable storage moisture content of 5.8%db, tolerable fungal levels of 103 and 104/g and acceptablepercentage quality index of 45% for roasted cashew nuts which did not exceed its shelf-life and still deemedfit for human consumption. The results of the study indicates that relative humidity, polythene thickness andduration of storage have a highly significant effect (P≤0.01 on moisture content and quality index while forthe microbial count, polythene thickness and duration of storage has significant effect (P≤0.05 with relativehumidity showing non-significance. For all levels of relative humidity and polythene thickness, moisturecontent and microbial count increased with increase in duration of storage w hile quality index decreased withincrease in duration of storage. As the polythene thickness increased at constant storage duration, the moisturecontent decreased. The moisture content of all the samples increased with increase in duration of storage atconstant polythene thickness level. As the thickness of the polythene packaging material increased, the amountof moisture absorbed over time (in days decreases; the total fugal growth decreases, and the percentage qualityindex increases. It is recommended that

  8. Employment and SMEs during crises

    Varum, C.A.; Rocha, V.C.


    The persistent increasing duration of unemployment has become an issue during economic crises. Although lay-offs at large firms normally make headlines during crises, we still know little about the potential impact of firm size on adjustment behavior in a crisis. We studied effects of firm size on employment growth during economic slowdowns using a rich microeconomic database for the 1988-2007 period in Portuguese manufacturing industry. The results show that economic downturns affect firm gr...

  9. 浅议就业形势的影响因素%On the Factors Affecting Employment Situation



    From the economic development, employment and environmental values and social entrepreneurship perspective to analyze current phenomenon of college students'' employment. Describe the accumulation of talent, to achieve policy in-novation, education, innovation and improving the living environment in rural China, the business environment is the effec-tive way to solve the difficult employment.%本文从经济发展、就业观念和社会创业环境等角度分析当前大学生就业难现象.阐述积累人才、实现政策创新、教育创新和改善中国农村生存环境、创业环境才是解决就业难的有效途径.

  10. Factors affecting the duration of nestling period and fledging order in Tengmalm's owl (Aegolius funereus: effect of wing length and hatching sequence.

    Marek Kouba

    Full Text Available In altricial birds, the nestling period is an important part of the breeding phase because the juveniles may spend quite a long time in the nest, with associated high energy costs for the parents. The length of the nestling period can be variable and its duration may be influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors; however, studies of this have mostly been undertaken on passerine birds. We studied individual duration of nestling period of 98 Tengmalm's owl chicks (Aegolius funereus at 27 nests during five breeding seasons using a camera and chip system and radio-telemetry. We found the nestlings stayed in the nest box for 27 - 38 days from hatching (mean ± SD, 32.4 ± 2.2 days. The individual duration of nestling period was negatively related to wing length, but no formally significant effect was found for body weight, sex, prey availability and/or weather conditions. The fledging sequence of individual nestlings was primarily related to hatching order; no relationship with wing length and/or other factors was found in this case. We suggest the length of wing is the most important measure of body condition and individual quality in Tengmalm's owl young determining the duration of the nestling period. Other differences from passerines (e.g., the lack of effect of weather or prey availability on nestling period are considered likely to be due to different life-history traits, in particular different food habits and nesting sites and greater risk of nest predation among passerines.

  11. A Jump-Diffusion Model with Stochastic Volatility and Durations

    Wei, Wei; Pelletier, Denis

    Market microstructure theories suggest that the durations between transactions carry information about volatility. This paper puts forward a model featuring stochastic volatility, stochastic conditional duration, and jumps to analyze high frequency returns and durations. Durations affect price...

  12. Unemployment duration and personality traits

    Uysal, Selver; Pohlmeier, Winfried


    This paper focuses on the role personality traits play in determining individual unemployment duration. We argue that a worker's job search intensity is decisively driven by her personality traits, reflected in her propensity to motivate and control herself while searching for a job. Moreover, personality traits, in as far as they can be signaled to a potential employer, may also enhance the probability of receiving and accepting a job offer. For our econometric duration analysis, we use the ...

  13. Chemical inhibition of potato ABA-8'-hydroxylase activity alters in vitro and in vivo ABA metabolism and endogenous ABA levels but does not affect potato microtuber dormancy duration.

    Suttle, Jeffrey C; Abrams, Suzanne R; De Stefano-Beltrán, Luis; Huckle, Linda L


    The effects of azole-type P450 inhibitors and two metabolism-resistant abscisic acid (ABA) analogues on in vitro ABA-8'-hydroxylase activity, in planta ABA metabolism, endogenous ABA content, and tuber meristem dormancy duration were examined in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Russet Burbank). When functionally expressed in yeast, three potato CYP707A genes were demonstrated to encode enzymatically active ABA-8'-hydroxylases with micromolar affinities for (+)-ABA. The in vitro activity of the three enzymes was inhibited by the P450 azole-type inhibitors ancymidol, paclobutrazol, diniconazole, and tetcyclasis, and by the 8'-acetylene- and 8'-methylene-ABA analogues, with diniconazole and tetcyclasis being the most potent inhibitors. The in planta metabolism of [(3)H](±)-ABA to phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid in tuber meristems was inhibited by diniconazole, tetcyclasis, and to a lesser extent by 8'-acetylene- and 8'-methylene-ABA. Continuous exposure of in vitro generated microtubers to diniconazole resulted in a 2-fold increase in endogenous ABA content and a decline in dihydrophaseic acid content after 9 weeks of development. Similar treatment with 8'-acetylene-ABA had no effects on the endogenous contents of ABA or phaseic acid but reduced the content of dihydrophaseic acid. Tuber meristem dormancy progression was determined ex vitro in control, diniconazole-, and 8'-acetylene-ABA-treated microtubers following harvest. Continuous exposure to diniconazole during microtuber development had no effects on subsequent sprouting at any time point. Continuous exposure to 8'-acetylene-ABA significantly increased the rate of microtuber sprouting. The results indicate that, although a decrease in ABA content is a hallmark of tuber dormancy progression, the decline in ABA levels is not a prerequisite for dormancy exit and the onset of tuber sprouting. PMID:22664582

  14. Differences in extreme low salinity timing and duration differentially affect eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) size class growth and mortality in Breton Sound, LA

    La Peyre, Megan K.; Eberline, Benjamin S.; Soniat, Thomas M.; La Peyre, Jerome F.


    Understanding how different life history stages are impacted by extreme or stochastic environmental variation is critical for predicting and modeling organism population dynamics. This project examined recruitment, growth, and mortality of seed (25-75 mm) and market (>75 mm) sized oysters along a salinity gradient over two years in Breton Sound, LA. In April 2010, management responses to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in extreme low salinity (25 °C) significantly and negatively impacted oyster recruitment, survival and growth in 2010, while low salinity (valve closing and resulting starvation or asphyxiation in response to the combination of low salinity during high temperatures (>25 °C). With increasing management of our freshwater inputs to estuaries combined with predicted climate changes, how extreme events affect different life history stages is key to understanding variation in population demographics of commercially important species and predicting future populations.

  15. Differences in extreme low salinity timing and duration differentially affect eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) size class growth and mortality in Breton Sound, LA

    LaPeyre, Megan K.; Eberline, Benjamin S.; Soniat, Thomas M.; La Peyre, Jerome F.


    Understanding how different life history stages are impacted by extreme or stochastic environmental variation is critical for predicting and modeling organism population dynamics. This project examined recruitment, growth, and mortality of seed (25–75 mm) and market (>75 mm) sized oysters along a salinity gradient over two years in Breton Sound, LA. In April 2010, management responses to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in extreme low salinity (25 °C) significantly and negatively impacted oyster recruitment, survival and growth in 2010, while low salinity (25 °C). With increasing management of our freshwater inputs to estuaries combined with predicted climate changes, how extreme events affect different life history stages is key to understanding variation in population demographics of commercially important species and predicting future populations.

  16. Duration of one-lung ventilation stage, POSSUM value and the quality of post-operative analgesia significantly affect survival and length of stay on intensive care unit of patients undergoing two-stage esophagectomy

    Yasin Said AlMakadma


    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze different factors affecting the outcome of patients undergoing Two Stage Esophagectomy (TSE for the treatment of esophageal carcinoma (EC while relating these factors to the length of stay on Intensive Care Unit (ILOS, mortality, and morbidity. Methods: Retrospective study of case-notes of 45 patients who underwent a TSE for resection of EC at a general district hospital in the United Kingdom (UK. These procedures were performed by the same surgical team and followed same approach, known as the Ivor-Lewis procedure. Results: The duration of One Lung Ventilation (OLV during TSE was found to be critical for patient′s outcome. Statistical analysis suggested a potentially strong effect of the duration of OLV (range: 90-320 minutes on the ILOS (P=0.001. The ratio OLV: Total duration of surgery (TOT was significantly different in early post-operative (PO deaths (within 3 months and late deaths after the third month (P=0.032. The POSSUM value (Physiological and Operative Severity Score for Enumeration of Mortality correlated well with ILOS (P=0.05. Regression analysis showed a strong relationship between the two variables (P=0.03. An excellent to good quality of PO analgesia allowed for shorter ILOS (P=0.023. Conclusions: Duration of the OLV appears as an important factor in the outcome of patients. POSSUM value could help in planning the post-operative critical care need of patients undergoing TSE. A well managed post-operative pain allowed to reduce the ILOS.

  17. Investigate the Affect of Post-natal Care Intervention on Breastfeeding Rates and Duration%浅谈进行产后护理干预对母乳喂养率及持续时间的影响



    目的:探讨产后护理干预对母乳喂养率及持续时间的影响效果。方法收集我院2013年1月~2014年6月收治的1600例产妇按是否愿意接受产后护理干预分为两组。对照组产妇给予常规护理,实验组产妇加施产后护理,比较两组产妇母乳喂养率、母乳喂养持续时间与自信心情况等。结果实验组产妇母乳喂养率高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01);实验组产妇母乳喂养持续时间与BSES评分高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论产后护理干预对母乳喂养率及持续时间的影响效果显著。%Objective Investigate the affect of post-natal care intervention on breastfeeding rates and duration.MethodsColected in our hospital from January 2013 to June 2014 were treated 1 600 cases of maternal press are wiling to accept post-natal care interventions into two groups. Control groups were given routine care,the experimental groups were applied on post-natal care,maternal breastfeeding rates between the two groups,duration of breastfeeding and self-confidence and so on.ResultsExperimental groups were significantly higher than the rate of breastfeeding,there was a significant difference statisticaly significant(P< 0.01),the experimental groups were breastfeeding duration and BSES score significantly higher,there was a significant difference,statisticaly significant(P< 0.01).Conclusion Postpartum care intervention on breastfeeding rates and duration affect the results significantly.

  18. Duration of load revisited

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    samples were formed. Four groups were subjected to short-term strength tests, and four groups were subjected to long-term tests. Creep and time to failure were moni-tored. Time to failure as a function of stress level was established and the reliability of stress level assessment was discussed. A...... significant mechanosorptive effect was demonstrated both in terms of increased creep and shortening of time to failure. The test results were employed for the calibration of four existing duration of load models. The effect of long-term loading was expressed as the stress level SL50 to cause failure after 50...... years of loading. SL50 was found to be of the order 0.60 for MC = 11 %, 0.50 for MC = 20 % and 0.44 MC varying be-tween 11 % and 20 %. The test results revealed no evidence of a threshold stress level. A reliability based cali-bration of load-duration factors was performed using probabilistic models of...

  19. Rent Control and Unemployment Duration

    Munch, Jacob R.; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael


    In this paper we analyse how rent control affects the duration of individual unemployment. In atheoretical search model we distinguish between two effects of rent control. On one hand, rentcontrol reduces housing mobility and hence mobility in the labour market. On the other hand, tomaintain rent...

  20. The Impacts of Postdoctoral Training on Scientists' Academic Employment

    Su, Xuhong


    This article examines the dynamics of postdoctoral training affecting scientists' academic employment, focusing on timing and prestige dimensions. Postdoc training proves beneficial to academic employment--more so in less prestigious departments than in top ones. Postdoc duration is subject to diminishing returns. The benefits of training…

  1. Employment Expectations:Factors Affecting the Employment of Economics Majors%就业期望:经济学类大学生就业影响因素研究

    黄亚楠; 华磊; 饶武元


    Based on the survey data of 14 universities in Jiangxi Provence, this paper uses Logistic model to analyze the impact of employment expectation on employment of Economics major graduates. The conclusions show that the employment pressure of Economics majors is generally larger. Financial and Economics and other popular majors own higher employment expectations , but lower employment rates; while the employment expectations and employment rate of International Economics and Trade and other less popular majors are relatively balanced. The employment expectation has a significant negative impact on the employment of Economics major graduates, the higher the expectation of employment, the less satisfactory employment situation is. The majors, acknowledge of the career prospects and the choice on the work type can have great impacts on their employment expectation of Economics major graduates.%基于江西省14所高等院校的问卷调查数据,运用Logistic模型就影响经济学类专业本科毕业生就业期望的主要因素进行分析,结论表明:经济学类专业大学生的就业压力普遍较大;金融和经济等热门专业大学生就业期望高,但就业率较低,国际经济与贸易等冷门专业的大学生就业期望与就业率相对均衡;就业期望与就业率成反比,就业期望越高,就业情况就越不理想;就业期望变量中的三个因素:就业前景认知,就业形势认知以及对工作类型的选择对大学生就业有着显著影响。

  2. Functional and expression analyses of kiwifruit SOC1-like genes suggest that they may not have a role in the transition to flowering but may affect the duration of dormancy.

    Voogd, Charlotte; Wang, Tianchi; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika


    The MADS-domain transcription factor SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1) is one of the key integrators of endogenous and environmental signals that promote flowering in the annual species Arabidopsis thaliana. In the deciduous woody perennial vine kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.), environmental signals are integrated to regulate annual cycles of growth and dormancy. Accumulation of chilling during winter is required for dormancy break and flowering in spring. In order to understand the regulation of dormancy and flowering in kiwifruit, nine kiwifruit SOC1-like genes were identified and characterized. All genes affected flowering time of A. thaliana Col-0 and were able to rescue the late flowering phenotype of the soc1-2 mutant when ectopically expressed. A differential capacity for homodimerization was observed, but all proteins were capable of strong interactions with SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) MADS-domain proteins. Largely overlapping spatial domains but distinct expression profiles in buds were identified between the SOC1-like gene family members. Ectopic expression of AcSOC1e, AcSOC1i, and AcSOC1f in Actinidia chinensis had no impact on establishment of winter dormancy and failed to induce precocious flowering, but AcSOC1i reduced the duration of dormancy in the absence of winter chilling. These findings add to our understanding of the SOC1-like gene family and the potential diversification of SOC1 function in woody perennials. PMID:25979999

  3. The Duration of Unemployment in Russia

    Gogran, L.; Berg, van den, V.A.C.


    This paper uses longitudinal survey data to assess factors affecting the duration of unemployment in Russia. We examine four types of marginalised labour force participants, according to ILO guidelines and survey responses, and we estimate duration models for each type. It turns out that the sets of characteristics with the strongest effects on the duration are remarkably similar across the different unemployment definitions and model specifications. Therefore, despite the formidable practica...

  4. Income determinants and factors affecting the choice of self-employed Canadians to invest in RRSPs and health-related benefits: An empirical analysis and policy reflection

    Delic, Senada


    Self-employment in Canada has risen dramatically over the past three decades, accounting for a disproportionate share ofjobs created in the early 1990s. The macroeconomic gains from selfemployment have inspired much research, with numerous studies examining driving Forces behind the engagement in entrepreneurship. A very few studies have examined entrepreneurs' socio-economic security. Using microdata files from the Survey of Self-Employment, 2000, this study employs a series of binomial logi...

  5. The effect of predictability on subjective duration.

    Vani Pariyadath

    Full Text Available Events can sometimes appear longer or shorter in duration than other events of equal length. For example, in a repeated presentation of auditory or visual stimuli, an unexpected object of equivalent duration appears to last longer. Illusions of duration distortion beg an important question of time representation: when durations dilate or contract, does time in general slow down or speed up during that moment? In other words, what entailments do duration distortions have with respect to other timing judgments? We here show that when a sound or visual flicker is presented in conjunction with an unexpected visual stimulus, neither the pitch of the sound nor the frequency of the flicker is affected by the apparent duration dilation. This demonstrates that subjective time in general is not slowed; instead, duration judgments can be manipulated with no concurrent impact on other temporal judgments. Like spatial vision, time perception appears to be underpinned by a collaboration of separate neural mechanisms that usually work in concert but are separable. We further show that the duration dilation of an unexpected stimulus is not enhanced by increasing its saliency, suggesting that the effect is more closely related to prediction violation than enhanced attention. Finally, duration distortions induced by violations of progressive number sequences implicate the involvement of high-level predictability, suggesting the involvement of areas higher than primary visual cortex. We suggest that duration distortions can be understood in terms of repetition suppression, in which neural responses to repeated stimuli are diminished.

  6. Time perception: paradigms, methods, target duration and individual differences

    McFarlane, Henriett A


    The present study assessed the role of the time judgement paradigms of prospective and retrospective durations, the length of durations and the effects of the states of mood and arousal in time perception. The role of the biological variable of circadian types was also assessed. Long target durations were judged as shorter than whereas short target durations were judged as longer. Duration judgement paradigms did not affect perception of time and neither did mood and circa...

  7. How do macro-level contexts and policies affect the employment chances of chronically ill and disabled people? Part I: The impact of recession and deindustrialization

    Holland, Paula; Burström, Bo; Whitehead, Margaret;


    on their employment chances, and these influences urgently need to be understood as the current economic crisis intensifies. In Part I of this two-part study, the authors examine employment trends for people who report a chronic illness or disability, by gender and educational level, in Canada......Low employment rates of chronically ill and disabled people are of serious concern. Being out of work increases the risk of poverty and social exclusion, which may further damage the health of these groups, exacerbating health inequalities. Macro-level policies have a potentially tremendous impact......, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom in the context of economic booms and busts and deindustrialization. People with the double burden of chronic illness and low education have become increasingly marginalized from the labor market. Deindustrialization may have played a part in this process. In...

  8. Dinâmica do banco de sementes de arroz-vermelho afetado pelo pisoteio bovino e tempo de pousio da área Red rice seed bank dynamics affected by cattle trampling and fallow duration

    E. Marchezan


    time: [A1] - 1999, [A2] 2000 and [A3] - 2001. The red rice seed bank estimation was made using 12 soil samples by plot, in April 1999, April 2000 and April 2001, using a 10 cm diameter cylinder soil sampler. The sampling depths were 0-1 cm, 1-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm. After being extracted from the soil, the grains of red rice were counted and submitted to a tetrazolium test to estimate seed viability. Cattle trampling did not affect seed distribution in the soil profile and the dynamics of the red rice seed bank. Fallow duration affected the seed bank of red rice; the regression equation fit that best explains the correlation between number of viable seeds and fallow duration in months was the exponential equation: y = 1382.15 exp (-0.1988*x p<0.05, showing a decrease in the number of seeds within 12 months, from 1,448 to 151 (90% reduction, and 38 (98% reduction viable seeds per square meter in 24 months of fallow. Regarding the red rice seed burial depths, seed bank reduction was greater on the soil surface in 2000, with no difference between the depths in 2001. The seeds located on the soil surface lost their viability rapidly, with an average of 99% within one year fallow with or without cattle trampling. It can be concluded that cattle trampling does not affect red rice seed bank dynamics in fallow areas. Soil fallow, with or without cattle trampling, reduces in the red rice seed bank.

  9. Duration Analysis of Interest Rate Spells : Cross-National Study of Interest Rate Policy

    Guo, Yingwen; Zhou Z.F., Sherry


    A duration analysis is adopted in this study to investigate the determinants of the "interest rate spells" across ten countries (or area) . Both parametric and nonparametric methods are employed for the analysis. It is found that the length of "interest rate spells" is affected by both the rate of inflation and the rate of economic growth. In contrast, the influence of exchange and unemployment rates proved to be insignificant and the lagged interest rate is significant only for Denmark. The ...

  10. Employing graduates.

    Pittaway, Luke; Clark, Gordon


    This manual provides managers in the tourism sector with guidance on the likely effects for their business of employing graduates, tourism being a sector with a currently low level of graduate employment.

  11. Duration of symptoms

    Hansen, Olfred; Larsen, Susanne; Bastholt, Lars;


    . A total of 544 patients fulfilled the criteria for inclusion to the study (Stage I-III glottic cancer, a duration of symptoms less than or equal to 36 months, primary radiotherapy with at least 50 Gy and sufficient data for analysis). The total radiation dose ranged from 50.0 to 71.6 Gy in 22 to 42...... of symptoms was a significant factor (p < 0.0001) with a hazard ratio of 1.045 (95% CI 1.023, 1.069). Other significant factors included tumor stage and radiation dose, whereas duration of treatment time was borderline significant (p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: The duration of symptoms was statistically...

  12. Duration Calculus: Logical Foundations

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Chaochen, Zhou


    The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...

  13. Optimized adaptation algorithm for HEVC/H.265 dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP using variable segment duration

    Irondi, Iheanyi; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos


    Adaptive video streaming using HTTP has become popular in recent years for commercial video delivery. The recent MPEG-DASH standard allows interoperability and adaptability between servers and clients from different vendors. The delivery of the MPD (Media Presentation Description) files in DASH and the DASH client behaviours are beyond the scope of the DASH standard. However, the different adaptation algorithms employed by the clients do affect the overall performance of the system and users' QoE (Quality of Experience), hence the need for research in this field. Moreover, standard DASH delivery is based on fixed segments of the video. However, there is no standard segment duration for DASH where various fixed segment durations have been employed by different commercial solutions and researchers with their own individual merits. Most recently, the use of variable segment duration in DASH has emerged but only a few preliminary studies without practical implementation exist. In addition, such a technique requires a DASH client to be aware of segment duration variations, and this requirement and the corresponding implications on the DASH system design have not been investigated. This paper proposes a segment-duration-aware bandwidth estimation and next-segment selection adaptation strategy for DASH. Firstly, an MPD file extension scheme to support variable segment duration is proposed and implemented in a realistic hardware testbed. The scheme is tested on a DASH client, and the tests and analysis have led to an insight on the time to download next segment and the buffer behaviour when fetching and switching between segments of different playback durations. Issues like sustained buffering when switching between segments of different durations and slow response to changing network conditions are highlighted and investigated. An enhanced adaptation algorithm is then proposed to accurately estimate the bandwidth and precisely determine the time to download the next

  14. Employment persistence

    Fleischman, Charles A.; Joshua H. Gallin


    The recent U.S. expansion has provided employment experience to individuals at tail of the skill distribution. Will these opportunities bestow persistent benefits in the form of greater future employability? Using synthetic cohorts constructed from the CPS, this paper estimates the degree of persistence in cohort-level employment rates in excess of persistence in aggregate macroeconomic conditions. This approach is in some ways superior to testing for hysteresis in the aggregate unemployment ...

  15. What Happens to the Employment of Native Co-Workers when Immigrants are Hired?

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rose Skaksen, Jan; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj


    While immigration is unlikely to affect the employment of native workers in the long run, employment of immigrants may be associated with significant short-run adjustment costs for native workers as they have to fi nd alternative employment or are temporarily pushed into unemployment. In this paper, we therefore study the impact of immigrants at the workplace on the employment of native co-workers using a rich matched worker-fi rm data set for Denmark. Estimation of a single risk duration mod...

  16. Duration Calculus: Logical Foundations

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Chaochen, Zhou


    The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...... case studies and it has been extended in several directions. The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough presentation of the logic....

  17. Industry Employment

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012


    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  18. Employer Support for Employee Voluntarism

    Kapsalis, Constantine


    This study uses the microdata from the 1997 National Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating (NSGVP) and from a comparable survey for 1987 to answer a number of key questions pertaining to the role of employers in support of employee voluntarism: (a) How extensive is employer support? (b) How has employer support change over the last 10 years? (c) What organizations or activities do employer support the most? (d) How employer support affects employee volunteers?

  19. Unemployment and Subsequent Employment Stability

    Wulfgramm, Melike; Fervers, Lukas


    Recent labour market reforms in Europe have been aimed at activating non-employed people and shortening unemployment duration. While this should indisputably be a central policy aim, the exclusive focus on quick re-employment neglects the importance of its quality and stability. Therefore, this...... paper analyses the effect of labour market policy on re-employment stability in Europe. Combining EU-SILC longitudinal survey data with macro-data on labour market policy, we conduct multi-level survival analysis. Empirical evidence suggests that countries with more generous unemployment insurance and...... positive effect on re-employment stability on the other hand....

  20. Welfare benefits and the duration of single parenthood.

    Ermisch, J; Wright, R E


    The authors examine the contention that the provision of welfare benefits to single parents increases the number of single parents and the duration of single parenthood. Data are from the Women and Employment Survey, which collected marital, childbearing, and employment data from 5,320 women aged 16-59 in the United Kingdom in 1980. The results indicate that welfare benefits exercise no significant effect on the duration of single parenthood. PMID:12342958

  1. Employer Branding

    Frimann, Søren; Mønsted, Bolette Rye


    Employer branding er både for den private og den offentlige sektor blevet en måde, de kan imødekomme ændrede arbejdsmarkedsvilkår og organisatoriske udfordringer i en postmoderne og globaliseret verden. Den aktuelle finanskrise har skabt nye udfordringer for organisationer i deres bestræbelser på...... at tiltrække- og fastholde attraktive medarbejdere. Men hvilken betydning har det, når Grundfos siger ”Mennesket er i fokus”, og hvad siger ”mangfoldighed” om Københavns Kommune som arbejdsplads i relation til employer branding? Er der egentlig sammenhæng mellem tankerne bag employer branding og de...... eksternt kommunikerede employer brandprodukter. Eller bliver det unikke ved arbejdspladserne ersattet af buzzwords uden substans og inddragelse af ansatte og interessenter? Artiklen har til formål at vurdere disse spørgsmål på baggrund af analyser af to cases med employer branding....

  2. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ''strong motion duration'' has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions

  3. Road Congestion and Incident Duration

    Adler, Martin W.; van Ommeren, Jos; Rietveld, Piet


    Non-recurrent congestion is frequently caused by accidents and other incidents. We estimate the causal effect of incident duration on drivers’ time losses through changes in non-recurrent road congestion on Dutch highways. We demonstrate that incident duration has a strong positive, but concave, effect on non-recurrent congestion. The duration elasticity of non-recurrent congestion is about 0.40 implying that a one minute duration reduction generates a €60 gain per incident. We also show that...

  4. Employment Turnover and Unemployment Insurance

    Hassler, John; Vicente Rodríguez Mora, José


    Two features distinguish European and US labour markets. First, most European countries have a considerably more generous unemployment insurance system. Second, the duration of unemployment and employment spells are substantially higher in Europe – employment turnover is lower. We show that self-insurance, i.e. saving and borrowing, is a good substitute for unemployment insurance when turnover is as high as in the United States. If the insurance system is less than perfectly actuarially fair,...

  5. Duration of one-lung ventilation stage, POSSUM value and the quality of post-operative analgesia significantly affect survival and length of stay on intensive care unit of patients undergoing two-stage esophagectomy

    Yasin Said AlMakadma; Tamer Hunein Riad; Ayad, Ismaei I.; Tamer Hussein Ibrahim


    Purpose: To analyze different factors affecting the outcome of patients undergoing Two Stage Esophagectomy (TSE) for the treatment of esophageal carcinoma (EC) while relating these factors to the length of stay on Intensive Care Unit (ILOS), mortality, and morbidity. Methods: Retrospective study of case-notes of 45 patients who underwent a TSE for resection of EC at a general district hospital in the United Kingdom (UK). These procedures were performed by the same surgical team and followed s...

  6. Does Employee Body Weight Affect Employers' Behavior?

    Kromann, Lene

    used to examine the occupation and industry distribution. Most importantly, we find that wage differences between normal-weight and overweight or obese workers are explained by differential firm behavior, both with respect to the job offer arrival rate and to the probability of being promoted. Further....... Furthermore, the wage equations do not capture the sorting of workers into different occupations and industries. Using an equilibrium search model, this paper takes search friction and cross-firm differences in factor productivity into account, when looking at firm behavior. Addition- ally, a logit model is...

  7. Employment Values of Patients with Schizophrenia or Affective Disorder and Predictive Factors%精神分裂症和情感障碍患者的就业价值观及其预测因素研究

    张永爱; 曹平; 李娜; 任向明; 唐争艳; 师建国


    To compare the employment values between the patients with schizophrenia and affective disorder and their- predictive factors. Methods The simple random sampling was taken to enroll 755 patients with convalescent schizophrenia and affective disorders, who had received rehabilitation treatments in 3 psychiatric hospitals in Shanxi Province. The Job Value Rating Scale, Protectors' Expectation Rating Scale, Sense of Self - respect Rating Scale, Friends' Support Rating Scale, Experts' Support Rating Scale, and Activity of Daily Living scale (ADL) were used for survey. And the X2 test, t test and multiple linear regression analysis were taken statistically. Results (1) There was statistical significance between patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders ( P 0. 05 ). ( 2 ) Employment value prediction models of patients with schizophreni-a and affective disorders were statistically different ( P < 0. 05 ). The factors influencing employment values of the schizophrenia patients ranged in sense of self — respect, experts support, protectors expectation, friends support, employment expectation, general ability and age; and the total cogency was 66. 0% . The factors influencing employment values of the affective disorder-patients ranged in protectors' expectation, general ability, experts' support, sense of self-respect, friends' support, employment expectation, and life quality; and the total cogency amounted to 69. 0%. Conclusion The common predictive factors for patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders are sense of self- respect, experts' support, protectors' expectation, friends' support, employment expectation, and general ability, which suggests the cognition, motivation and social support in employment value of the patients play an important role for the improvement of their social rehabilitation and life quality.%目的 研究精神分裂症和情感障碍患者的就业价值观及其预测因素.方法 利用简单随机抽

  8. Barriers Affecting Employment and Work Intention among the People with Disabilities%影响伤残人员就业及工作意愿的障碍因素

    王晓平; 丁洪流


    [Objective] The employment of people with disabilities is an important social and public health challenge.Although the life of this population could be significantly improved if they are employed and a large part of disabled people are able to work,many of them are currently unemployed.In the present study,we investigated the barriers affecting employment as well as work intention among the participants of the Massachusetts Medicaid (MassHealth) Employment and Disability Survey.[ Methods] A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2003 on a total of 2 952 people with disabilities who were members of MassHealth plans.[Results] Our results demonstrated that while disabilities and health problems had a strong influence on the employment of disabled people,these factors were not major determinants of their work intention.Instead,socioeconomic status,work related activities,and policies/special programs were associated with both employment and work intention.[Conclusion] Since the barriers affecting work intention are more policy-associated,policy changes or new programs tailored specifically to encourage disabled people to work will be critical to achieve success in helping them in gaining employment and improving their quality of life as well.%[目的]伤残人员就业是一项重要的社会和公共卫生挑战.尽管该人群中大部分能够工作,并且就业可以明显改善他们的生活,很多伤残人员目前处于失业状态.本研究对影响"麻萨诸塞州就业与伤残调查"参试者就业及工作意愿的障碍因素加以探讨.[方法]基于一项开展于2003年在总数为2952名加入麻萨诸塞州医疗计划的伤残人员的横断面(crosssectional)调查.[结果]虽然伤残及健康问题对伤残人员就业有重要影响,这些并非决定该类人员工作意愿的主要因素.然而,社会经济地位,与工作有关的活动,以及有关政策或专项计划与就业和工作意愿二者皆为相关.[结论]由于影响

  9. Northern employment

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  10. Duration judgements over multiple elements



    Full Text Available We investigated the limits of the number of events observers can simultaneously time. For single targets occurring in one of eight positions sensitivity to duration was improved for spatially pre-cued items as compared to post-cued items indicating that exogenous driven attention can improve duration discrimination. Sensitivity to duration for pre-cued items was also marginally better for single items as compared to eight items indicating that even after the allocation of focal attention, distracter items can interfere with the encoding of duration. For an eight item array discrimination was worse for post-cued locations as compared to pre-cued locations indicating both that attention can improve duration discrimination performance and that it was not possible to access a perfect memory trace of the duration of eight elements. The interference from the distracters in the pre-cued eight item array may reflect some mandatory averaging of target and distracter events. To further explore duration averaging we asked subjects to explicitly compare average durations of multiple item arrays against a single item standard duration. Duration discrimination thresholds were significantly lower for single elements as compared to multiple elements, showing that averaging, either automatically or intentionally, impairs duration discrimination. There was no set size effect. Performance was the same for averages of two and eight items, but performance with even an average of two items was worse than for one item. This was also true for sequential presentation indicating poor performance was not due to limits on the division of attention across items. Rather performance appears to be limited by an inability to remember or aggregate duration information from two or more items. Although it is possible to manipulate perceived duration locally, there appears to be no perceptual mechanisms for aggregating local durations across space.

  11. Performance of Local Employment Systems

    Hanell, Tomas; Persson, Lars Olof


    At the national level the employment system consists of the set of institutions, and policies affecting institutions, which together moderate the level of production, employment and unemployment in the country (Schmid, G. & Gazier, B. eds. 2002. The Dynamics of Full Employment. Edward Elgar). These institutions include employment legislation, taxation policy and the education and training systems. However, the dynamics and the complexity of the national labour markets could only be understood...

  12. Science employment

    Robb, David W.


    Rapid growth in private sector high-technology companies coupled with the expected unprecedented U.S. peacetime defense buildup paint an optimistic picture for future employment in scientific and engineering fields, according to forecasts by the National Science Foundation (NSF). Between 1982 and 1987, up to nearly 750,000 new positions will be created in scientific, engineering, or technical fields, a new NSF report states. By 1987 these occupations will account for 4 million jobs, or 3.5% of the total U.S. work force. New positions in the earth sciences are predicted to increase about 2% per year.

  13. The effects of odor and body posture on perceived duration

    Schreuder, Eliane; Hoeksma, Marco R.; Smeets, Monique A M; Semin, Gün R.


    This study reports an examination of the internal clock model, according to which subjective time duration is influenced by attention and arousal state. In a time production task, we examine the hypothesis that an arousing odor and an upright body posture affect perceived duration. The experimental

  14. 29 CFR 401.5 - Employer.


    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employer. 401.5 Section 401.5 Labor Regulations Relating to... TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.5 Employer. Employer means any employer or any group or association of employers engaged in an industry affecting commerce (a) which is, with respect to...

  15. 高职护生社区护理职业情感和就业意向的调查%Investigation on professional affection about community nursing and employment intention of the associate nursing students

    郑婉玉; 胡蓉芳


    Objective To learn the professional affection about community nursing and employment intention of the associate nursing students. Methods 109 associate nursing students were investigated with selfdesigned questionnaires. Results Most students felt high pressure about employment, only 30. 3 percent students were willing to be community nurses, the data revealed that inferior personal prospect, lower salary and insufficiency knowledge about community nursing influenced the participants' career choice, they were passive to community nursing,70.6 percents students thought that community nursing education at school was not enough to meet the needs of community work. Conclusions Nursing schools should pay more attention to cultivate the professional affection about community nursing and the communication ability of the students, develop the professional guidance and improve the teaching environment of community nursing.%目的 了解高职毕业护生社区护理的职业情感和就业意向状况,为高职护生的培养提供参考.方法 采用自制问卷对109名高职毕业护生进行问卷调查.结果 高职护生多数感到就业压力大,仅30.3%表示愿意选择社区护理岗位,其影响因素有个人发展前景不好、社区护士待遇低、人们对社区护理的认识不够等;护生对社区护理的职业情感负性情绪较多,70.6%的护生认为学校的社区护理教育不能够满足社区护理工作的需要.结论 学校应加强培养高职护生正确的职业认知,开展适当的职业指导,加强社区护理实习教学环境的建设,重视护生人文沟通能力的培养.

  16. Women's Decisions about Breastfeeding and Maternal Employment.

    Lindberg, Laura Duberstein


    Extends the concept of role incompatibility to examine potential incompatibilities between breastfeeding and maternal employment. Hypothesizes women may face both structural and attitudinal conflicts between these behaviors. Found significantly more women employed part-time are likely to breastfeed and for longer durations than women employed…

  17. Duration of an elastic collision

    With a pedagogical goal, this paper deals with a study of the duration of an elastic collision of an inflatable spherical ball on a planar surface suitable for undergraduate studies. First, the force generated by the deformed spherical ball is obtained under assumptions that are discussed. The study of the motion of the spherical ball colliding with the planar surface allows us to determine the duration of the elastic collision. In order to check the theoretical model, an experiment is proposed to measure the duration of the collision. A more refined model built with masses and springs gives good agreement between theoretical and experimental values. (paper)

  18. Duration of an elastic collision

    de Izarra, Charles


    With a pedagogical goal, this paper deals with a study of the duration of an elastic collision of an inflatable spherical ball on a planar surface suitable for undergraduate studies. First, the force generated by the deformed spherical ball is obtained under assumptions that are discussed. The study of the motion of the spherical ball colliding with the planar surface allows us to determine the duration of the elastic collision. In order to check the theoretical model, an experiment is proposed to measure the duration of the collision. A more refined model built with masses and springs gives good agreement between theoretical and experimental values.

  19. Employment in the Public Sector

    Forni, Lorenzo; Giordano, Raffaela


    This paper presents a model of wage-employment determination in private and public sectors, which allows us to analyze the effects of different institutional arrangements on labor market equilibria. In particular, it focuses on how different degrees of coordination in decision processes affect hiring and wage setting outcomes. Cooperation in unions’ behavior results in wage increases and employment reduction in the private sector, whereas it induces wage moderation and employment expansion in...

  20. Task duration in contextual interference.

    Smith, Peter J K


    Duration of practice trial on a pursuit rotor task in contextual interference was investigated. Participants practiced at each of 4 angular velocities, with 24 participants completing 28 trials lasting 20 sec., and 24 participants completing 112 trials of 5 sec. Half of the participants in each trial-duration condition practiced in a blocked format and half practiced in a random format. After random practice posttest performance was better than blocked practice when practice-trial duration was 20 sec., but worse when practice-trial duration was 5 sec. This result is not consistent with theoretical explanations of the contextual interference effect and is discussed with reference to the task characteristics and demands of the pursuit rotor. PMID:12578255

  1. Synthesizing controllers from duration calculus

    Fränzle, Martin


    Duration Calculus is a logic for reasoning about requirements for real-time systems at a high level of abstraction from operational detail, which qualifies it as an interesting starting point for embedded controller design. Such a design activity is generally thought to aim at a control device the...... physical behaviours of which satisfy the requirements formula, i.e. the refinement relation between requirements and implementations is taken to be trajectory inclusion. Due to the abstractness of the vocabulary of Duration Calculus, trajectory inclusion between control requirements and controller designs...... relation for embedded controller design and exploit this fact for developing an automatic procedure for controller synthesis from specifications formalized in Duration Calculus. As far as we know, this is the first positive result concerning feasibility of automatic synthesis from dense-time Duration...

  2. Hazard based models for freeway traffic incident duration.

    Tavassoli Hojati, Ahmad; Ferreira, Luis; Washington, Simon; Charles, Phil


    Assessing and prioritising cost-effective strategies to mitigate the impacts of traffic incidents and accidents on non-recurrent congestion on major roads represents a significant challenge for road network managers. This research examines the influence of numerous factors associated with incidents of various types on their duration. It presents a comprehensive traffic incident data mining and analysis by developing an incident duration model based on twelve months of incident data obtained from the Australian freeway network. Parametric accelerated failure time (AFT) survival models of incident duration were developed, including log-logistic, lognormal, and Weibul-considering both fixed and random parameters, as well as a Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity. The Weibull AFT models with random parameters were appropriate for modelling incident duration arising from crashes and hazards. A Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity was most suitable for modelling incident duration of stationary vehicles. Significant variables affecting incident duration include characteristics of the incidents (severity, type, towing requirements, etc.), and location, time of day, and traffic characteristics of the incident. Moreover, the findings reveal no significant effects of infrastructure and weather on incident duration. A significant and unique contribution of this paper is that the durations of each type of incident are uniquely different and respond to different factors. The results of this study are useful for traffic incident management agencies to implement strategies to reduce incident duration, leading to reduced congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses. PMID:23333698

  3. Graduates and initial employment.

    Rydon, Sharon Elizabeth; Rolleston, Anna; Mackie, Joan


    This research project was undertaken to inform nurse educators in the Department of Nursing and Health Studies of Manukau Institute of Technology of the employment opportunities for new graduate nurses emerging from the three year degree and registration programme. The research study aimed to contribute evidence for informed discussion when issues around curriculum development arose, particularly those issues that affect employment success of graduates. A literature review was undertaken of local and international studies and this highlighted a number of studies that examined the experience of new graduates in employment. There was however little evidence that studies had focused on the experiences of graduates as they initially sought employment or their perceptions of how their ability to successfully gain employment was linked to the nursing programme they were exiting from. The data collection tool was a survey consisting of a number of closed questions which required respondents to indicate the option most closely fitting their experience. Analysis of these results was undertaken using SPSS. The last section of the survey invited respondents to comment on any aspect of the focus of the study and qualitative analysis was undertaken of these comments. Graduates from the programme for the previous three years were targeted and names and addresses were available from departmental and institute databases. The research was submitted to the MIT Research and Ethics Committee who stated that the project did not require ethical approval as a retrospective, anonymous survey. 89.8% of graduates across the three years were successful in gaining employment in the first three months post registration. The number of graduates employed within a District Health Board (DHB) declined across the three years but there were no significant differences between cohorts. Overall, 73% of graduates were employed into new graduate positions. The majority of graduates felt that their

  4. Die Another Day: Duration in German Import Trade

    Nitsch, Volker


    International trade patterns at the product level are surprisingly dynamic. The majority of trade relationships exist for just a few, often only one to three, years. In this paper, I examine empirically the duration in German import trade at the 8-digit product level from 1995 to 2005. I find that survival probabilities are affected by exporter characteristics, product type and market structure. Specifically, I show that the duration of exporting a product to Germany is longer for products ob...

  5. 20 CFR 655.158 - Duration of positive recruitment.


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of positive recruitment. 655.158 Section 655.158 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY... recruitment. Except as otherwise noted, the obligation to engage in positive recruitment described in §§...

  6. 34 CFR 690.6 - Duration of student eligibility.


    ... has completed the academic curriculum requirements for that first undergraduate baccalaureate course... employment as a teacher in an elementary or secondary school in that State; (2) The postbaccalaureate program... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of student eligibility. 690.6 Section...

  7. Evaluating Employability Skills: Employer and Student Perceptions

    Saunders, Venetia; Zuzel, Katherine


    Graduate employability is a key issue for Higher Education. In this two-part study student employability skills have been evaluated from the perspective of sandwich students and graduates in biomolecular science, and their employers. A strong correlation was found between employer and sandwich student/graduate perceptions of the relative…

  8. Leaving Employment to Entrepreneurship

    Rocha, Vera; Carneiro, Anabela; Varum, Celeste

    : the relative inattention paid to other human resources beyond the founder, and the hetero-geneous context where employee startups may be established. We use a rich matched employer-employee dataset for Portugal, and estimate a multi-stage model addressing the issues of self-selection in entrepreneurship...... outcomes of arrival fi rms, and also for developing theories on labor markets for entrepreneurship. It also constitutes an important step towards unpacking the mechanisms through which mobile human capital affects the performance of receiving firms....

  9. How do macro-level contexts and policies affect the employment chances of chronically ill and disabled people? Part II: The impact of active and passive labor market policies

    Holland, Paula; Nylén, Lotta; Thielen, Karsten;


    The authors investigate three hypotheses on the influence of labor market deregulation, decommodification, and investment in active labor market policies on the employment of chronically ill and disabled people. The study explores the interaction between employment, chronic illness, and educational...... level for men and women in Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, countries with advanced social welfare systems and universal health care but with varying types of active and passive labor market policies. People with chronic illness were found to fare better in employment terms in......, Norwegian men, and Danish women. Hypotheses on the disincentive effects of tighter employment regulation or more generous welfare benefits were not supported. The hypothesis that greater investments in active labor market policies may improve the employment of chronically ill people was partially supported...

  10. Short duration gamma ray bursts

    Patrick Das Gupta


    After a short review of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), we discuss the physical implications of strong statistical correlations seen among some of the parameters of short duration bursts (90 < 2 s). Finally, we conclude with a brief sketch of a new unified model for long and short GRBs.

  11. JACEE long duration balloon flights

    JACEE balloon-borne emulsion chamber detectors are used to observe the spectra and interactions of cosmic ray protons and nuclei in the energy range 1-100A TeV. Experience with long duration mid-latitude balloon flights and characteristics of the detector system that make it ideal for planned Antarctic balloon flights are discussed. 5 refs., 2 figs

  12. Predictive models to determine imagery strategies employed by children to judge hand laterality.

    Steffie Spruijt

    Full Text Available A commonly used paradigm to study motor imagery is the hand laterality judgment task. The present study aimed to determine which strategies young children employ to successfully perform this task. Children of 5 to 8 years old (N = 92 judged laterality of back and palm view hand pictures in different rotation angles. Response accuracy and response duration were registered. Response durations of the trials with a correct judgment were fitted to a-priori defined predictive sinusoid models, representing different strategies to successfully perform the hand laterality judgment task. The first model predicted systematic changes in response duration as a function of rotation angle of the displayed hand. The second model predicted that response durations are affected by biomechanical constraints of hand rotation. If observed data could be best described by the first model, this would argue for a mental imagery strategy that does not involve motor processes to solve the task. The second model reflects a motor imagery strategy to solve the task. In line with previous research, we showed an age-related increase in response accuracy and decrease in response duration in children. Observed data for both back and palm view showed that motor imagery strategies were used to perform hand laterality judgments, but that not all the children use these strategies (appropriately at all times. A direct comparison of response duration patterns across age sheds new light on age-related differences in the strategies employed to solve the task. Importantly, the employment of the motor imagery strategy for successful task performance did not change with age.

  13. Episodes of non-employment among immigrants from developing countries in Canada

    Said Ahmed Aboubacar


    Full Text Available Using data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID, we analyze non-employment episodes for immigrants from developing countries, and compare their situation to that of immigrants from developed countries and Canadian-born individuals between 1996 and 2006. The methods used allowed us to draw the following conclusion: significant differences exist between these three groups in labour market mobility, the average duration of a non-employment episode, and the factors that affect the propensity to exit from a non-employment episode. These differences demonstrate a particular disadvantage for immigrants from developing countries. In fact, they tend to spend more time in non-employment episodes compared to their counterparts from developed countries, and compared to Canadian-born individuals.

  14. Vacancy Duration, Wage Offers, and Job Requirements

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Chen, Long-Hwa

    concerned with how vacancy durations vary with firms' minimum wage offers and minimum job requirements (regarding education, skills, age, gender and earlier work experience). The empirical analysis is based on ten employer surveys carried out by the DGBAS on Taiwan during the period 1996-2006. We estimate......Besides wage offers, credentials like education, work experience and skill requirements are key screening tools for firms in their recruitment of new employees. This paper adds some new evidence to a relatively tiny literature on firms' recruitment behaviour. In particular, our analysis is...... logistic discrete hazard models with a rich set of job and firm characteristics as explanatory variables. The results show that vacancies associated with higher wage offers take, ceteris paribus, longer to be filled. The impact of firms' wage offers and credential requirements does not vary over the...

  15. Period and pulse duration with "strobe" lights

    Birriel, Jennifer


    Strobe lights have traditionally been discussed in The Physics Teacher in the context of stop action strobe photography. During the Halloween season most department and hardware stores sell inexpensive, compact "strobe" lights (although these can be found online year round). These lights generally sell for under 10 and usually employ LED lights. Most such devices have a rotary switch to adjust the rate at which the LED bulbs flash. This rotary switch is not calibrated—i.e., it has no markings to indicate the rate, but in general the greater the rotation of the switch from the off position, the faster the rate of flashing. We show how these simple devices can be used with a light sensor to study both the frequency of flashing and the duration of the light pulse. We briefly discuss if these devices are truly strobe lights.




    Full Text Available In the context of industrialization and expansion of wage labor is the difference between work and employment. The rigidity of the labor supply and its persistent surplus is explained by the very high compensation or unemployment benefits, through trade union action or error preset number of employees, which leads to greater gap between supply and demand for labor. Adjustment policies of employment in the future will be increasingly less state policy, of general application, and increasingly more political will and enterprise branch, the subject of an active social dialogue between employers and trade unions, dialogue resulted in agreements of limited duration and subject to revision depending on the economic and social situation. The duration of work and organizational modalities they will depend on this social dialogue.

  17. The True Durations of Starbursts: HST Observations of Three Nearby Dwarf Starburst Galaxies

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Skillman, Evan D.; Cannon, John M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Dolphin, Andrew; Stark, David; Weisz, Daniel


    The duration of a starburst is a fundamental parameter affecting the evolution of galaxies yet, to date, observational constraints on the durations of starbursts are not well established. Here we study the recent star formation histories (SFHs) of three nearby dwarf galaxies to rigorously quantify the duration of their starburst events using a uniform and consistent approach. We find that the bursts range from ~200 - ~400 Myr in duration resolving the tension between the shorter timescales of...

  18. Optimal duration of magazine promotions

    Mercedes Esteban-Bravo; Jose M. Mugica; Jose M. Vidal-Sanz


    The planning of promotions and other marketing events frequently requires manufacturers to make decisions about the optimal duration of these activities. Yet manufacturers often lack the support tools for decision making. We assume that customer decisions at the aggregated level follow a state-dependent Markov process. On the basis of the expected economic return associated with dynamic response to stimuli, we determine the ideal length of marketing events using dynamic programming optimizati...


    G. Sudha;


    As a result of the increased competition and rapid changing economy, entry and survival of graduates in industries is tougher than ever before. The employers' expectations are changing day by day and graduates have to obtain new skills for their sustainability. Mere academic skill alone will not help the graduates for better employment. Due to lack of employability skills graduates are not employable even though there are opportunities. In this study an attempt is made to find out the organiz...

  20. The measurement of employment benefits

    The consideration of employment effects and so-called 'hidden employment benefits' is one of the most confused and contentious issues in benefit-cost analysis and applied welfare economics generally. New investments create new employment opportunities, and often advocates for specific investments cite these employment opportunities as alleged benefits associated with the project. Indeed, from the local perspective, such employment opportunities may appear to be beneficial because they appear to come for free. If there is unemployment in the local area, then new investments create valuable employment opportunities for those in the local community. Even if there is full employment in the local area then new investments create incentives for immigrant from other locations that may have pecuniary benefits locally through increased property values, business revenues, etc. The focus in this study is on net economic benefits from a broad national perspective. From this perspective, many of the alleged employment benefits at the local level are offset by lost benefits at other locales, and do not count as benefits according to economic theory. This paper outlines a methodology for testing this rebuttable presumption with empirical data pertaining to labor markets that would be affected by a specific new investment. The theoretical question that is relevant is whether the social opportunity cost of new employment is less than the market wage. This would be the case, for example, if one expects unemployment or underemployment to persist in a specific region of the economy or occupational category affected by the new investment. In this case, new employment opportunities produce a net increase in social wealth rather than just a transfer of income

  1. Age differences in graduate employment across Europe

    Little, Brenda; Tang, Win-Yee


    The report is based on the results of a major international study of graduate employment some five years after graduation. The report examines differences between European and UK graduates' patterns of employment and characteristics of their current work when age differences are taken into account. Overall UK graduates were both younger and older at entry to higher education compared with Europe as a whole. Such differences, when aligned with the longer duration of courses elsewhere in Europe...

  2. Converting unemployment benefits into employment subsidies

    Snower, Dennis J.


    This paper explores the implications of giving unemployed people -- particularly the long-term unemployed -- the opportunity to use part of their unemployment benefits to provide employment vouchers to the firms that hire them. The vouchers would depend positively on unemployment duration and training. The paper argues that this policy would give unemployed people and their potential employers an expanded domain of choices in the labour market and thereby reduce the market failures generated ...

  3. Employer's investments in hospital workers' employability and employment opportunities

    van Harten, E.J.; Knies, E.; Leisink, P.L.M.


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between employer’s investments (through job characteristics and managerial support) and employees’ employment opportunities, with employability, conceptualized as perceived up-to-date expertise and willingness to change, as a mediati

  4. Unemployment duration and unemployment insurance

    Røed, Knut; Jensen, Peter; Thoursie, Anna


    Based on pooled register data from Norway and Sweden, we find that differences in unemployment duration patterns reflect dissimilarities in unemployment insurance (UI) systems in a way that convincingly establishes the link between economic incentives and job search behaviour. Specifically, UI...... benefits are relatively more generous for low-income workers in Sweden than in Norway, leading to relatively longer unemployment spells for low-income workers in Sweden. Based on the between-countries variation in replacement ratios, we find that the elasticity of the outflow rate from insured unemployment...

  5. Rail commuting duration and passenger stress.

    Evans, Gary W; Wener, Richard E


    Over 100 million Americans commute to work every weekday. Little is known, however, about how this aspect of work, which may indeed be the most stressful aspect of the job for some, affects human health and well-being. The authors studied a sample of 208 male and female suburban rail commuters who took the train to Manhattan, New York. The greater the duration of the commute, the larger the magnitude of salivary cortisol elevations in reference to resting baseline levels, the less the commuter's persistence on a task at the end of the commute, and the greater the levels of perceived stress. These effects were not moderated by gender. Commuting stress is an important and largely overlooked aspect of environmental health. PMID:16719613

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Phone Duration Models for Greek Emotional Speech

    Alexandros Lazaridis


    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study we cope with the task of phone duration modeling for Greek emotional speech synthesis. Approach: Various well established machine learning techniques are applied for this purpose to an emotional speech database consisting of five archetypal emotions. The constructed phone duration prediction models are built on phonetic, morphosyntactic and prosodic features that can be extracted only from text. We employ model and regression trees, linear regression, lazy learning algorithms and meta-learning algorithms using regression trees as base classifiers, trained on a Modern Greek emotional database consisting of five emotional categories: anger, fear, joy, neutral and sadness. Results: Model trees based on the M5’ algorithm and meta-learning algorithms using as base classifier regression trees based on the M5’ algorithm proved to perform better. Conclusion: It was observed that the emotional categories of the speech database with the most uniform distribution of phone durations built the most accurate models.

  7. Employment Polarization and Immigrant Employment Opportunities

    Wielandt, Hanna


    Building on the task-based approach of technological change, this paper discusses the interaction between occupational polarization (e.g. a gradual increase of native employment in the lowest and highest-paying jobs) and employment opportunities of immigrant workers. Using high quality administrative data for Germany, I first show that technological change is positively related to employment growth of natives in low-paying occupations that are also typically held by immigrant workers. In...

  8. Architectural considerations for lunar long duration habitat

    Bahrami, Payam

    The future of space exploration science and technology is expected to move toward long duration missions. During this long duration missions the most important factor to success will be the habitation system, the place that crew will live and work. The broad range of future space exploration, new advances in technology and increasing demand for space travel and space tourism will create great opportunities for architects to use their special abilities and skills in the realm of space. The lunar habitat is defined as a multidisciplinary task and cannot be considered an independent project from the main module. Therefore, habitability will become the most important aspect of future human exploration. A successful design strategy should integrate architecture, structure and other disciplines and should bring in elements such as psychological and physiological factors, human interfaces, and privacy. The current research provides "Habitat Architectural Design System (HADS)" in order to evaluate lunar habitat concepts based on habitability, functional optimization, and human factors. HADS helps to promote parametric studied and evaluation of habitat concepts. It will provide a guideline dependent upon mission objectives to standardize architectural needs within the engineering applications and scientific demands. The significance of this research is the process of developing lunar habitat concepts using an architectural system to evaluate the quality of each concept via habitability aspects. This process can be employed during the early stage of design development and is flexible enough to be adjusted by different parameters according to the objectives of lunar mission, limitations, and cost. It also emphasizes the importance of architecture involvement in space projects, especially habitats.

  9. Finite Duration Shocks on Discrete Laminate Composite Al/W /

    Franco Navarro, Pedro


    Numerical simulations of strong shock wave compression of Al-W laminate materials with different cell size ranging from 1 mm to 4 mm were conducted. Finite element simulations using LS-DYNA were employed with two different durations of loading pulse tailored by changing the length of the impactor. The results of the numerical simulations for homogeneous materials were used for validation of our code by comparing the results of the pressure, the temperature and the final volume with the availa...

  10. Equity Duration, Growth Options and Asset Pricing

    Cornell, Bradford


    Because much of the value of equity depends on the option characteristics of investment projects, it is not feasible to calculate equity duration directly. As a result, recent literature has focused on estimating equity duration empirically. By using 25 size and book-to-market portfolios, this paper shows that estimates of equity duration are critically dependent on the specifications of the regression model used to estimate equity duration. In particular, including all three Fama-French fact...

  11. Instrumental variable estimation for duration data

    G.E. Bijwaard (Govert)


    textabstractIn this article we focus on duration data with an endogenous variable for which an instrument is available. In duration analysis the covariates and/or the effect of the covariates may vary over time. Another complication of duration data is that they are usually heavy censored. The

  12. Employability-miles and worker employability awareness

    Gerards, R.; Grip, A. de; Witlox, M.A.


    This article studies the use and impact of a firm-sponsored training ("Employability-miles") voucher scheme that aims to stimulate employees to develop a more active attitude toward their own employability. Using data from two surveys of the firm's workforce, we find that voucher use is related to various personality traits and personal characteristics. In particular, a worker's ambition, goal setting, and education level are positively related to voucher use. In addition, women and those wit...

  13. 75 FR 3168 - Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Program-Self-Employment


    ... Register on April 28, 2009 (74 FR 19164), we proposed to amend VA's regulations concerning self-employment... employability arising from the effects of the individual's spina bifida or other covered birth defects, which... affecting employability arising from the effects of each individual's service-connected...

  14. Incident duration modeling using flexible parametric hazard-based models.

    Li, Ruimin; Shang, Pan


    Assessing and prioritizing the duration time and effects of traffic incidents on major roads present significant challenges for road network managers. This study examines the effect of numerous factors associated with various types of incidents on their duration and proposes an incident duration prediction model. Several parametric accelerated failure time hazard-based models were examined, including Weibull, log-logistic, log-normal, and generalized gamma, as well as all models with gamma heterogeneity and flexible parametric hazard-based models with freedom ranging from one to ten, by analyzing a traffic incident dataset obtained from the Incident Reporting and Dispatching System in Beijing in 2008. Results show that different factors significantly affect different incident time phases, whose best distributions were diverse. Given the best hazard-based models of each incident time phase, the prediction result can be reasonable for most incidents. The results of this study can aid traffic incident management agencies not only in implementing strategies that would reduce incident duration, and thus reduce congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses, but also in effectively predicting incident duration time. PMID:25530753

  15. Incident Duration Modeling Using Flexible Parametric Hazard-Based Models

    Ruimin Li


    Full Text Available Assessing and prioritizing the duration time and effects of traffic incidents on major roads present significant challenges for road network managers. This study examines the effect of numerous factors associated with various types of incidents on their duration and proposes an incident duration prediction model. Several parametric accelerated failure time hazard-based models were examined, including Weibull, log-logistic, log-normal, and generalized gamma, as well as all models with gamma heterogeneity and flexible parametric hazard-based models with freedom ranging from one to ten, by analyzing a traffic incident dataset obtained from the Incident Reporting and Dispatching System in Beijing in 2008. Results show that different factors significantly affect different incident time phases, whose best distributions were diverse. Given the best hazard-based models of each incident time phase, the prediction result can be reasonable for most incidents. The results of this study can aid traffic incident management agencies not only in implementing strategies that would reduce incident duration, and thus reduce congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses, but also in effectively predicting incident duration time.

  16. Employment and winter construction

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig


    possibilities exist for reducing seasonal variation in employment? In addition to a literature review related to winter construction, European and national employment and meteorological data were studied. Finally, ministerial acts, ministerial orders or other public policy documents related to winter...

  17. Evaluating the effectiveness of Washington state repeated job search services on the employment rate of prime-age female welfare recipients☆

    Hsiao, Cheng; Shen, Yan; Wang, Boqing; Weeks, Greg


    This paper uses an unbalanced panel dataset to evaluate how repeated job search services (JSS) and personal characteristics affect the employment rate of the prime-age female welfare recipients in the State of Washington. We propose a transition probability model to take into account issues of sample attrition, sample refreshment and duration dependence. We also generalize Honoré and Kyriazidou’s [Honoré, B.E., Kyriazidou, E., 2000. Panel data discrete choice models with lagged dependent vari...

  18. Modeling Pay and Employment

    Nunberg, Barbara; Green, Amanda; Reid, Gary


    Bank support for civil service reform (CSR) in developing countries used to focus mainly on improving government pay, and employment practices. In recent years, CSR programs have sought a broader set of management improvements. But getting public pay and employment right is still fundamental: establishing appropriate civil service employment dimensions, and providing rewarding-but affordab...

  19. Great opportunities or poor alternatives: self-employment, unemployment and paid employment over the business cycle

    Ludo Visschers; Ana Millan; Matthias Kredler


    In this paper, we study the flows between self-employment, unemployment and paid employment, and how these vary over the business cycle. First, we document these flows in the data, paying particular attention to previous labor market outcomes for workers entering self-employment, and subsequent labor market outcomes for those leaving self-employment, and how these are affected by cyclical conditions. Second, we construct a two-ladder equilibrium model of a frictional labor market capturing th...

  20. A combined M5P tree and hazard-based duration model for predicting urban freeway traffic accident durations.

    Lin, Lei; Wang, Qian; Sadek, Adel W


    The duration of freeway traffic accidents duration is an important factor, which affects traffic congestion, environmental pollution, and secondary accidents. Among previous studies, the M5P algorithm has been shown to be an effective tool for predicting incident duration. M5P builds a tree-based model, like the traditional classification and regression tree (CART) method, but with multiple linear regression models as its leaves. The problem with M5P for accident duration prediction, however, is that whereas linear regression assumes that the conditional distribution of accident durations is normally distributed, the distribution for a "time-to-an-event" is almost certainly nonsymmetrical. A hazard-based duration model (HBDM) is a better choice for this kind of a "time-to-event" modeling scenario, and given this, HBDMs have been previously applied to analyze and predict traffic accidents duration. Previous research, however, has not yet applied HBDMs for accident duration prediction, in association with clustering or classification of the dataset to minimize data heterogeneity. The current paper proposes a novel approach for accident duration prediction, which improves on the original M5P tree algorithm through the construction of a M5P-HBDM model, in which the leaves of the M5P tree model are HBDMs instead of linear regression models. Such a model offers the advantage of minimizing data heterogeneity through dataset classification, and avoids the need for the incorrect assumption of normality for traffic accident durations. The proposed model was then tested on two freeway accident datasets. For each dataset, the first 500 records were used to train the following three models: (1) an M5P tree; (2) a HBDM; and (3) the proposed M5P-HBDM, and the remainder of data were used for testing. The results show that the proposed M5P-HBDM managed to identify more significant and meaningful variables than either M5P or HBDMs. Moreover, the M5P-HBDM had the lowest overall mean

  1. Long-duration bed rest as an analog to microgravity.

    Hargens, Alan R; Vico, Laurence


    Long-duration bed rest is widely employed to simulate the effects of microgravity on various physiological systems, especially for studies of bone, muscle, and the cardiovascular system. This microgravity analog is also extensively used to develop and test countermeasures to microgravity-altered adaptations to Earth gravity. Initial investigations of bone loss used horizontal bed rest with the view that this model represented the closest approximation to inactivity and minimization of hydrostatic effects, but all Earth-based analogs must contend with the constant force of gravity by adjustment of the G vector. Later concerns about the lack of similarity between headward fluid shifts in space and those with horizontal bed rest encouraged the use of 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest as pioneered by Russian investigators. Headward fluid shifts in space may redistribute bone from the legs to the head. At present, HDT bed rest with normal volunteers is the most common analog for microgravity simulation and to test countermeasures for bone loss, muscle and cardiac atrophy, orthostatic intolerance, and reduced muscle strength/exercise capacity. Also, current physiologic countermeasures are focused on long-duration missions such as Mars, so in this review we emphasize HDT bed rest studies with durations of 30 days and longer. However, recent results suggest that the HDT bed rest analog is less representative as an analog for other important physiological problems of long-duration space flight such as fluid shifts, spinal dysfunction and radiation hazards. PMID:26893033

  2. Analysing Maternal Employment and Child Care Quality

    Akgündüz, Yusuf


    The contributions in this thesis revolve around mothers' employment and child care quality. The first topic of interest is how mothers' employment is affected by modern child care services and parental leave entitlements. There is already an extensive literature on the effects of modern social polic

  3. 18 CFR 1307.5 - Employment discrimination.


    ... NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.5 Employment discrimination. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or... way that adversely affects their opportunities or status because of handicap. (c) A recipient...

  4. Dual Employment Protection Legislation : A Framework for Analysis

    Dolado, Juan José; Jansen, Marcel; Juan F. Jimeno


    In many countries, Employment Protection Legislation (EPL) establishes different regulations for certain groups of workers who face more disadvantages in the labour market (young workers, women, unskilled workers, etc.) with the aim of improving their employability. Well-known examples are the introduction of atypical employment contracts (e.g. temporary and determined-duration contracts), which ease firing restrictions for some, but not all, workers. This paper discusses the effects of EPL v...

  5. Duration of nuclear explosion ground motion

    This paper evaluates the duration of strong ground shaking that results from nuclear explosions and identifies some of the problems associated with its determination. Knowledge of the duration of horizontal ground shaking is important out to epicentral distances of about 44 km and 135 km, the approximate distances at which the ground shaking level falls to 0.01 g for nuclear explosions having yields of about 100 kt and 1,000 kt, respectively. Evaluation of the strong ground motions recorded from the event STRAIT (M/sub L/ = 5.6) on a linear array of five, broad-band velocity seismographs deployed in the distance range 3.2 to 19.5 km provides information about the characteristics of the duration of ground shaking. The STRAIT data show that: (1) the definition that is used for defining duration is very important; (2) the duration of ground acceleration, as defined in terms of 90% of the integral of the squared time history, increased from about 4 to 26 sec over the approximately 20-km distance range; and (3) the duration of ground velocity and displacement were slightly greater because of the effect of the alluvium layer on the propagating surface waves. Data from other events augment the STRAIT data and show that: (1) duration of shaking is increased by frequency-dependent site effects and (2) duration of shaking, as defined by the integral of the squared time history, does not increase as rapidly with increase in yield as is indicated by other definitions of duration that are stated in terms of an amplitude threshold (e.g., bracketed duration, response envelopes). The available data suggest that the duration of ground acceleration, based on the integral definition, varies from about 4 to 40 sec for a 100-kt range explosion and from about 4 to 105 sec for a megaton range explosion in the epicentral distance range of 0 to 44 km and 0 to 135 km, respectively

  6. Interaction of Factors Related to Lactation Duration

    Boettcher, Joan P; Chezem, Jo Carol; Roepke, Judith; Whitaker, Tracy Adams


    Perceived social support and interpersonal dependency were studied as potential factors associated with lactation duration based upon previous breastfeeding experience. Inexperienced breastfeeding mothers perceived more social support than experienced breastfeeding mothers did. Perceived social support was not significantly correlated with lactation duration. An ancillary finding was that women providing a combination of breast milk and human milk substitutes had significantly lower social se...

  7. Valsalva maneuver: shortest optimal expiratory strain duration

    Ramesh K. Khurana, Md


    Full Text Available Purpose : To quantitate the level of difficulty and determine consistency of hemodynamic responses with various expiratory strain (ES durations. Methods : Thirty-four healthy subjects performed the Valsalva maneuver (VM with an ES duration of 10, 12, and 15 seconds in random order. Level of difficulty after each trial was rated 1 to 10, with 10 being the most difficult. Blood pressure and heart rate (HR were recorded continuously and non-invasively. Parameters studied were Valsalva ratio (VR, early phase II (IIE, late phase II (IIL, tachycardia latency (TL, bradycardia latency (BL, and overshoot latency (OV-L. Consistency of responses was calculated. Results : Difficulty increased significantly with increased ES duration: 5.1±0.1 (mean±SEM at 10 seconds, 5.9±0.1 at 12 seconds, and 6.8±0.1 at 15 seconds (p<0.001. Phase IIE, TL, BL, OV-L, and VR response did not differ statistically with increasing ES durations, and there were no differences in variability. Phase IIL response increased significantly with increasing ES duration. Phase IIL was poorly delineated in 14 of 102 trials with 10 seconds ES duration. Conclusions : ES duration of 10 seconds created a low level of difficulty in healthy individuals. This strain duration produced consistent hemodynamic response for all parameters tested except IIL phase. The absence of IIL phase with 10 seconds ES should not be interpreted as an indicator of sympathetic vasoconstrictor failure.

  8. Enhancing duration processing with parietal brain stimulation.

    Dormal, Valérie; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Pesenti, Mauro; Walsh, Vincent; Cappelletti, Marinella


    Numerosity and duration are thought to share common magnitude-based mechanisms in brain regions including the right parietal and frontal cortices like the supplementary motor area, SMA. Numerosity and duration are, however, also different in several intrinsic features. For instance, in a quantification context, numerosity is known for being more automatically accessed than temporal events, and durations are by definition sequential whereas numerosity can be both sequential and simultaneous. Moreover, numerosity and duration processing diverge in terms of their neuronal correlates. Whether these observed neuronal specificities can be accounted for by differences in automaticity or presentation-mode is however not clear. To address this issue, we used brain stimulation (transcranial random noise stimulation, tRNS) to the right parietal cortex or the SMA combined with experimental stimuli differing in their level of automaticity (numerosity and duration) and presentation mode (sequential or simultaneous). Compared to a no stimulation group, performance changed in duration but not in numerosity categorisation following right parietal but not SMA stimulation. These results indicate that the right parietal cortex is critical for duration processing, and suggest that tRNS has a stronger effect on less automatic processes such as duration. PMID:27037043

  9. Disability employment policy

    Mont, Daniel


    This paper is the first in a series aimed at analyzing disability employment policy, and developing recommendations for policy reform in middle income countries. As the first paper in this series, this study provides a general overview of the relationship between disability and employment, focusing primarily on disability employment policies in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. It discusses how well these policies address the dual functions of integration...

  10. Assessing employment in Malta

    Grech, Aaron George


    In this paper the total number of employed and the full-time equivalent employment in Malta are estimated for the last three decades. These series give a new picture of the historical development of employment and productivity in Malta. The estimated full-time equivalent time series, in spite of its limitations, is a first step on the way towards a comprehensive statistical measure of labour input in Malta

  11. Deficiency of employability capacity

    Pelse I.; Vilka L.


    Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a ...

  12. General Outside Employment

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains all current outside employment held by employees of Montgomery County (excluding uniformed police officers) approved by the Ethics Commission....

  13. From Sleep Duration to Childhood Obesity

    Börnhorst, Claudia; Hense, Sabrina; Ahrens, Wolfgang;


    Sleep duration has been identified as risk factor for obesity already in children. Besides investigating the role of fat mass (FM), this study addressed the question whether endocrine mechanisms act as intermediates in the association between sleep duration and overweight/obesity. Within...... the framework of the IDEFICS study, the present research was conducted in 609 German resident children aged 2–9 years with information on fasting insulin, C-reactive protein and cortisol levels next to anthropometric measurements and parental questionnaires. Emphasising methodological aspects, an age......-specific measure of sleep duration was derived to account for alteration in sleep duration during childhood/period of growth. Multivariate linear regression and quantile regression models confirmed an inverse relationship between sleep duration and measures of overweight/obesity. The estimate for the association...

  14. Developing Project Duration Models in Software Engineering

    Pierre Bourque; Serge Oligny; Alain Abran; Bertrand Fournier


    Based on the empirical analysis of data contained in the International Software Benchmarking Standards Group(ISBSG) repository, this paper presents software engineering project duration models based on project effort. Duration models are built for the entire dataset and for subsets of projects developed for personal computer, mid-range and mainframeplatforms. Duration models are also constructed for projects requiring fewer than 400 person-hours of effort and for projectsre quiring more than 400 person-hours of effort. The usefulness of adding the maximum number of assigned resources as asecond independent variable to explain duration is also analyzed. The opportunity to build duration models directly fromproject functional size in function points is investigated as well.

  15. 7 CFR 201.58 - Substrata, temperature, duration of test, and certain other specific directions for testing for...


    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 201.58, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substrata, temperature, duration of test, and certain... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.58 Substrata, temperature, duration...

  16. Fiscal policy and the duration of financial crises

    Craigwell, Roland; Lorde, Troy; Moore, Winston


    Financial systems across the world have all come under pressure due to the on-going financial crisis. One of the most often asked questions during a collapse is how long and how deep will the decline be as well as what policy initiatives can be employed to shorten the recession. This study estimates a model of the duration of financial crises in an attempt to identify whether fiscal policy can reduce the time to recovery. The results suggest that fiscal shocks, which could provoke an overreac...

  17. Research on determinants of breastfeeding duration: suggestions for biocultural studies.

    Allen, L H; Pelto, G H


    The main purpose of this paper is to suggest directions for future intra-cultural research on the factors that affect breastfeeding duration, especially policy-oriented research. A 2nd purpose is to call for a reexamination of the theoretical construct, biocultural determinants, with respect to infant feeding. The study compares determinants in 4 multivariate studies. One was carried out in Connecticut, 1 in a working class community in Scotland, another in England and the 4th in Sweden. Almost no biological factors are strongly associated with breastfeeding duration in any of the population studied. Of the external factors, those relating to social support and advice were the most consistent predictors. Socioeconomic status, income, and work outside the home were not good predictors. Maternal attitudes and experience are of great importance in predicting feeding duration. The general picture that emerged from all the studies is that if a mother wants to breastfeed, she can. Mothers breastfeed longer if they desire to breastfeed; they intend to do it for a longer period of time; they feel comfortable feeding in public; they are informed about breastfeeding; and they are not anxious about the process. There is also fairly strong evidence linking a number of biocultural factors to feeding duration. Whether the linkage is biological or behavioral has significant policy implications: if it is biological, successful intervention would require a change in hospital practices to earlier 1st feeding; if the linkage is behavioral, the problem might be resolved through improved maternal education. PMID:3836324

  18. Gender Promotion Differences in Economics Departments in Japan: A Semi-parametric Duration Analysis

    Shingo Takahashi; Ana Maria Takahashi


    By using a unique data set of academic economists in Japanese universities, we conduct the first detailed study of gender differences in the duration of promotion within Japanese academia. We employ a duration model that simultaneously allows: a non-parametric estimation of the baseline hazard function; a non-parametric unobserved heterogeneity component; and the estimation of parameterized coefficients for the observed explanatory variables. Our results show that there are no gender promotio...

  19. Individual and Plant-level Determinants of Job Durations in Germany

    Boockmann, Bernhard; Steffes, Susanne


    We examine job durations of German workers using a linked employeremployee dataset. The descriptive evidence suggests that firm characteristics have a substantial influence on the job exit rate. However, the extent of dispersion in durations is not substantially lower at the firm level than for the sample as a whole, pointing to the presence of segmentation between long and short employment spells within establishments. Using the Cox partial likelihood estimator, we then examine the determina...


    Hock-Eam Lim


    This paper estimates determinants of individual unemployment duration of Malaysian graduates. Estimation result suggests that lack of proficiency in English, a mismatch between the type of graduation degree and the requirements for the available jobs in the labor market, family background, state of happiness in overall life, self-expectation on one’s employability and some socio-demographic characteristics (such as ethnicity) are significant determinants of graduate unemployment duration in M...

  1. Employment of Children.

    Bowser, Robert A., Comp.

    This document presents Pennsylvania guidelines for interpreting child labor legislation. In Section I employment certification of minors under the child labor law, the school laws of Pennsylvania, and the federal law are discussed. In Section II the issuing officers responsible for issuing employment certificates are identified, procedures for…

  2. Minimum Wages and Teen Employment: A Spatial Panel Approach

    Kalenkoski, Charlene M.; Lacombe, Donald J.


    The authors employ spatial econometrics techniques and Annual Averages data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics for 1990-2004 to examine how changes in the minimum wage affect teen employment. Spatial econometrics techniques account for the fact that employment is correlated across states. Such correlation may exist if a change in the minimum wage in a state affects employment not only in its own state but also in other, neighboring states. The authors show that state minimum wages negat...

  3. Repetition enhancement and memory effects for duration.

    Wiener, Martin; Thompson, James C


    A remarkable aspect of conscious perception is that moments carryover from one to the next, also known as temporal continuity. This ability is thus crucial for detecting regularities, such as in speech and music, and may rely on an accurate perception of time. Investigations of human time perception have detailed two electroencephalographic (EEG) components associated with timing, the contingent negative variation (CNV) and late positive component of timing (LPCt); however, the precise roles of these components in timing remain elusive. Recently, we demonstrated that the perception of duration is influenced by durations presented on prior trials, which we explained by the creation of an implicit memory standard that adapts to local changes in sequence presentation. Here, we turn to the neural basis of this effect. Human participants performed a temporal bisection task in which they were required to classify the duration of auditory stimuli into short and long duration categories; crucially, the presentation order was first-order counterbalanced, allowing us to measure the effect of each presented duration on the next. EEG recordings revealed that the CNV and LPCt signals both covaried with the duration presented on the current trial, with CNV predicting reaction time and LPCt predicting choice. Additionally, both signals covaried with the duration presented in the prior trial but in different ways, with the CNV amplitude reflecting the change in the memory standard and the LPCt reflecting decision uncertainty. Furthermore, we observed a repetition enhancement effect of duration only for the CNV, suggesting that this signal additionally indexes the similarity of successive durations. These findings demonstrate dissociable roles for the CNV and LPCt, and demonstrate that both signals are continuously updated on a trial-by-trial basis that reflects shifts in temporal decisions. PMID:25818689

  4. Evidence that gestation duration and lactation duration are coupled traits in primates.

    Dubman, Evgenia; Collard, Mark; Mooers, Arne Ø


    Gestation duration and lactation duration are usually treated as independently evolving traits in primates, but the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) suggests both durations should be determined by metabolic rate. We used phylogenetic generalized least-squares linear regression to test these different perspectives. We found that the allometries of the durations are divergent from each other and different from the scaling exponent predicted by the MTE (0.25). Gestation duration increases much more slowly (0.06 switch from gestation to lactation in relation to some as-yet-unidentified body-size-related factor. PMID:22915631

  5. Individual skills based volunteerism and life satisfaction among healthcare volunteers in Malaysia: role of employer encouragement, self-esteem and job performance, a cross-sectional study.

    Veerasamy, Chanthiran; Sambasivan, Murali; Kumar, Naresh


    The purpose of this paper is to analyze two important outcomes of individual skills-based volunteerism (ISB-V) among healthcare volunteers in Malaysia. The outcomes are: job performance and life satisfaction. This study has empirically tested the impact of individual dimensions of ISB-V along with their inter-relationships in explaining the life satisfaction and job performance. Besides, the effects of employer encouragement to the volunteers, demographic characteristics of volunteers, and self-esteem of volunteers on job performance and life satisfaction have been studied. The data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to 1000 volunteers of St. John Ambulance in Malaysia. Three hundred and sixty six volunteers responded by giving their feedback. The model was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The main results of this study are: (1) Volunteer duration and nature of contact affects life satisfaction, (2) volunteer frequency has impact on volunteer duration, (3) self-esteem of volunteers has significant relationships with volunteer frequency, job performance and life satisfaction, (4) job performance of volunteers affect their life satisfaction and (5) current employment level has significant relationships with duration of volunteering, self esteem, employer encouragement and job performance of volunteers. The model in this study has been able to explain 39% of the variance in life satisfaction and 45% of the variance in job performance. The current study adds significantly to the body of knowledge on healthcare volunteerism. PMID:24194894

  6. Individual skills based volunteerism and life satisfaction among healthcare volunteers in Malaysia: role of employer encouragement, self-esteem and job performance, a cross-sectional study.

    Chanthiran Veerasamy

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze two important outcomes of individual skills-based volunteerism (ISB-V among healthcare volunteers in Malaysia. The outcomes are: job performance and life satisfaction. This study has empirically tested the impact of individual dimensions of ISB-V along with their inter-relationships in explaining the life satisfaction and job performance. Besides, the effects of employer encouragement to the volunteers, demographic characteristics of volunteers, and self-esteem of volunteers on job performance and life satisfaction have been studied. The data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to 1000 volunteers of St. John Ambulance in Malaysia. Three hundred and sixty six volunteers responded by giving their feedback. The model was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The main results of this study are: (1 Volunteer duration and nature of contact affects life satisfaction, (2 volunteer frequency has impact on volunteer duration, (3 self-esteem of volunteers has significant relationships with volunteer frequency, job performance and life satisfaction, (4 job performance of volunteers affect their life satisfaction and (5 current employment level has significant relationships with duration of volunteering, self esteem, employer encouragement and job performance of volunteers. The model in this study has been able to explain 39% of the variance in life satisfaction and 45% of the variance in job performance. The current study adds significantly to the body of knowledge on healthcare volunteerism.

  7. Views of the employers

    The aim of this paper is to present an employer's view of the recent trends in occupational radiation exposure and discuss their implications as to the effectiveness of the existing system of radiation protection. Future needs are considered from the perspective of those employers operating in a global context. The general conclusions do not support major changes, but a change in emphasis and presentation to give greater clarity for the benefit of all stakeholders. The views presented are derived from discussions within industry, but do not represent the views of any particular employer

  8. Computer use, sleep duration and health symptoms

    Nuutinen, Teija; Roos, Eva; Ray, Carola;


    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether computer use is associated with health symptoms through sleep duration among 15-year olds in Finland, France and Denmark. METHODS: We used data from the WHO cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study collected in Finland, France and...... Denmark in 2010, including data on 5,402 adolescents (mean age 15.61 (SD 0.37), girls 53 %). Symptoms assessed included feeling low, irritability/bad temper, nervousness, headache, stomachache, backache, and feeling dizzy. We used structural equation modeling to explore the mediating effect of sleep...... duration on the association between computer use and symptom load. RESULTS: Adolescents slept approximately 8 h a night and computer use was approximately 2 h a day. Computer use was associated with shorter sleep duration and higher symptom load. Sleep duration partly mediated the association between...

  9. Model-Checking Discrete Duration Calculus

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt


    Duration calculus was introduced by Chaochen Zhou et al. (1991) as a logic to specify and reason about requirements for real-time systems. It is an extension of interval temporal logic where one can reason about integrated constraints over time-dependent and Boolean valued states without explicit...... mention of absolute time. Several major case studies have shown that duration calculus provides a high level of abstraction for both expressing and reasoning about specifications. Using timed automata one can express how real-time systems can be constructed at a level of detail which is close to an actual...... implementation. We consider in the paper the correctness of timed automata with respect to duration calculus formulae. For a subset of duration calculus, we show that one can automatically verify whether a timed automaton ℳ is correct with respect to a formula 𝒟, abbreviated ℳ|=𝒟, i.e. one...

  10. Long Duration Space Shelter Shielding Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has developed fiber reinforced ceramic composites for radiation shielding that can be used for external walls in long duration manned...

  11. Sleep Duration and Breast Cancer Phenotype

    Ali Khawaja; Santosh Rao; Li Li; Thompson, Cheryl L.


    Emerging evidence suggests that short sleep is associated with an increased risk of cancer; however, little has been done to study the role of sleep on tumor characteristics. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between sleep duration and tumor phenotype in 972 breast cancer patients. Sleep duration was inversely associated with tumor grade (univariate P = 0.032), particularly in postmenopausal women (univariate P = 0.018). This association did not reach statistical significance after...

  12. Performance Sampling and Bimodal Duration Dependence

    Jerker Denrell; Zur Shapira


    Performance sampling models of duration dependence in employee turnover and firm exit predict that hazard rates will initially be low, gradually rise to a maximum, and then fall. As we note in this paper, however, several empirical duration distributions have bimodal hazard rates. This paper shows that such bimodal hazard rates can be derived from existing models of performance sampling by small changes in the assumptions. In particular, bimodal hazard rates emerge if the mean or the variance...

  13. Duration of the pluviometric deficit in Albania



    The pluviometric deficit is the part of water amount evapotranspirated from the field but not getting replaced by the rainfall in a given period of time. That is why the pluviometric deficit could get quantified only when both, the potential evapotranspiration and rainfall are determined quantitatively. However, the pluviometric deficit is made of two dimensions: duration and magnitude. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study done throughout Albania on the duration of pluvi...

  14. Analysis on the Factors Affecting the Employment of Accounting Majors of Higher Vocational Colleges:Based on the Study of Logistic Regression%高职会计专业就业影响因素分析--基于Logistic回归的研究



    For binary dichotomy variable, the Logistic regression analysis method is suitable for researching the influence of independent variable on the dependent variable. There are two kinds of employment status, they are"employment"and"unemployed". Both qualitative factors and quantitative factors have impact on employment. Firstly, the stronger correlation factors should be filtrated by the crossover method of contingency table, then, the other factors should be analyzed by Logistic regression to find out the influencing factors of the employment of higher vocational accounting majors and the main influencing factors by the investigation and study analysis. On the one hand, these can provide a reference for graduate employment, at the same time, let freshman sophomore students have correct understanding on the affecting factors of employment and prepare ahead of time. These also can provide reference for the education teaching workers, such as the talent training scheme should be improved of accounting profession, the problems should be paid attention to and the improvement of course and practical aspects in the revision of the talent training scheme and so on.%对二分类变量,研究自变量对因变量的影响时,比较适用的方式是Logistic回归分析方法。就业状态有两种即“就业”和“未就业”,影响就业的因素中既有定性因素又有定量因素,因此首先用交叉列联表方法筛选出关联性较强因素,再用Logistic回归分析其他因素,找出影响高职会计专业就业的因素。期望通过本项目的调查研究分析找到主要影响因素,一方面为应届毕业生就业提供参考,同时让大一大二学生对就业影响因素有正确的认识与定位,提早做好准备,另外可为教育教学工作者提供借鉴,比如会计专业人才培养方案应该改进的地方,修订人才培养方案时应注意的问题及课程和实训方面如何改进等。

  15. Inconsistencies in reported employment characteristics among employed stayers

    Francesca Bassi


    Full Text Available The paper deals with measurement error, and its potentially distorting role, in information on industry and professional status collected by labour force surveys. The focus of our analyses is on inconsistent information on these employment characteristics resulting from yearly transition matrices for workers who were continuously employed over the year and who did not change job. As a case-study we use yearly panel data for the period from April 1993 to April 2003 collected by the Italian Quarterly Labour Force Survey. The analysis goes through four steps: (i descriptive indicators of (disagreement; (ii testing whether the consistency of repeated information significantly increases when the number of categories is collapsed; (iii examination of the pattern of inconsistencies among response categories by means of Goodman’s quasi-independence model; (iv comparisons of alternative classifications jointly by professional status and occupation. Results document sizable measurement error, which is only moderately reduced by more aggregated classifications. They suggest that even cross-section estimates of employment by industry and/or professional status are affected by non-random measurement error.

  16. Retail Employment Trends


    Robert Walters, one of the world’s leading professional specialist recruitment consultancies, has recently released a report on employment opportunities in China’s consumer goods retail industry in the first half of this year. Excerpts follow:

  17. Call Duration Characteristics based on Customers Location

    Žvinys Karolis


    Full Text Available Nowadays a lot of different researches are performed based on call duration distributions (CDD analysis. However, the majority of studies are linked with social relationships between the people. Therefore the scarcity of information, how the call duration is associated with a user's location, is appreciable. The goal of this paper is to reveal the ties between user's voice call duration and the location of call. For this reason we analyzed more than 5 million calls from real mobile network, which were made over the base stations located in rural areas, roads, small towns, business and entertainment centers, residential districts. According to these site types CDD’s and characteristic features for call durations are given and discussed. Submitted analysis presents the users habits and behavior as a group (not an individual. The research showed that CDD’s of customers being them in different locations are not equal. It has been found that users at entertainment, business centers are tend to talk much shortly, than people being at home. Even more CDD can be distorted strongly, when machinery calls are evaluated. Hence to apply a common CDD for a whole network it is not recommended. The study also deals with specific parameters of call duration for distinguished user groups, the influence of network technology for call duration is considered.

  18. Satellite-Based Sunshine Duration for Europe

    Bodo Ahrens


    Full Text Available In this study, two different methods were applied to derive daily and monthly sunshine duration based on high-resolution satellite products provided by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring using data from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager. The satellite products were either hourly cloud type or hourly surface incoming direct radiation. The satellite sunshine duration estimates were not found to be significantly different using the native 15-minute temporal resolution of SEVIRI. The satellite-based sunshine duration products give additional spatial information over the European continent compared with equivalent in situ-based products. An evaluation of the satellite sunshine duration by product intercomparison and against station measurements was carried out to determine their accuracy. The satellite data were found to be within ±1 h/day compared to high-quality Baseline Surface Radiation Network or surface synoptic observations (SYNOP station measurements. The satellite-based products differ more over the oceans than over land, mainly because of the treatment of fractional clouds in the cloud type-based sunshine duration product. This paper presents the methods used to derive the satellite sunshine duration products and the performance of the different retrievals. The main benefits and disadvantages compared to station-based products are also discussed.

  19. Employer's liability for damage

    Baštýřová, Markéta


    The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to analyse and clarify in detail the issue of liability for damage in Labour law with focus on liability for damage of employer. At first the thesis defines conception of liability and liability in Labour law in general. The thesis also deals with characteristic features, functions and prevention of liability for damage in Labour law as well. The main part is devoted to liability for damage of employer with regards to judicial decision. It explains gener...

  20. English for Employability: India

    Perez-Gore, Isabelle


    This paper situates the issue of employability skills in India in relation to the world economic changes and their impact on the job market. An overview of the last decade's government policies shows numerous initiatives trying to address the skills gap. In 2013, large scale India-based employability studies started to show the criticality of the skills situation in the Indian upcoming workforce (Wheebox 2013, Aspiring Minds 2014). This summary from the latest reports has been frequently quot...

  1. International Production and Employment

    Anca-Mihaela TEAU; Cristina Elena PROTOPOPESCU


    The present article analyses the impact of an integrated international production system on the quantity and quality of employment, human resource development and, more generally, to the organization of work. As created assets have become more and more important in international competitiveness, employment effects (e.g., human resource development, industrial relations) associated with transnational corporations are of great interest to all host countries, in particular developing countries.

  2. Employability through covenants

    Korver, T.; Oeij, P.R.A.


    How can a sustainable employment insurance system be guaranteed as a major element of the ESM? First a summary overview of the Lisbon targets and their impact on the policies of and in the member states of the European Union is given. Then follow data and problems associated with the target of enhancing employability by means of pushing continuous vocational training (CVT). Next, some Dutch experiences are sketched with covenants, and point to critical success factors. The contribution elabor...

  3. Employment by Lotto Revisited

    Klaus, Bettina; Klijn, Flip


    We study employment by lotto (Aldershof et al., 1999), a procedurally fair matching algorithm for the so-called stable marriage problem. We complement Aldershof et al.'s (1999) analysis in two ways. First, we give an alternative and intuitive description of employment by lotto in terms of a probabilistic serial dictatorship on the set of stable matchings. Second, we show that Aldershof et al.'s (1999) conjectures are correct for small matching markets but not necessarily correct for large mat...

  4. Informal Employment in Bangladesh

    S. Maligalig, Dalisay; Cuevas, Sining; Rosario, Aleli


    The paper developed a methodology for classifying workers into formal and informal employment using the 2005 Bangladesh Labor Force Survey (LFS). Although the 2005 LFS was not designed to collect data for this purpose, it included questions that can be used to determine whether workers are engaged in formal or informal employment. However, the process of identifying the combination of questions that could distinguish between formal and informal workers was hampered by data inconsistencies tha...

  5. Deficiency of employability capacity

    Pelse I.


    Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.

  6. Contemporary psychological contracts: how both employer and employee are changing the employment relationship

    van der Smissen, Sjoerd; Schalk, René; Freese, Charissa


    The employment relationship between employer and employee has gone through fundamental changes in the last decades, influencing psychological contracts. It is unclear, however, exactly how psychological contracts are changing. This article offers a comprehensive model that focuses on two factors affecting changes in psychological contracts: organizational change and generational differences between employees.

  7. The Effect of Different Recovery Duration on Repeated Anaerobic Performance in Elite Cyclists

    Harbili Sultan


    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of recovery duration on repeated anaerobic performance in elite cyclists. The study followed a cross-over design protocol. Twelve elite male cyclists were randomly assigned to three groups (with recovery duration of 1, 2 and 3 min, respectively. All the subjects performed 4 repeated Wingate tests (4 × 30 s WT at 48 h intervals for three different recovery periods. No significant interaction was observed between the effects of recovery duration and repetition (p>0.05, whereas there was a significant main effect of repetition on peak power, mean power, and a fatigue index (p0.05. In contrast, mean power decreased significantly in repeated WTs with 1, 2 and 3 min recovery duration (p0.05. In a 4 × 30 s WT, peak power decreased in cycles with 1 and 2 min recovery duration, but remained unchanged with 3 min recovery duration, whereas mean power decreased in all recovery duration procedures. The WT with 1 min recovery duration caused greater fatigue. Although recovery duration affected both peak power and mean power, the effect on peak power was greater.

  8. Duration reproduction with sensory feedback delay: Differential involvement of perception and action time

    Stephanie eGanzenmüller


    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that voluntary action can attract subsequent, delayed feedback events towards the action, and adaptation to the sensorimotor delay can even reverse motor-sensory temporal-order judgments. However, whether and how sensorimotor delay affects duration reproduction is still unclear. To investigate this, we injected an onset- or offset-delay to the sensory feedback signal from a duration reproduction task. We compared duration reproductions within (visual, auditory modality and across audiovisual modalities with feedback signal onset- and offset-delay manipulations. We found that the reproduced duration was lengthened in both visual and auditory feedback signal onset-delay conditions. The lengthening effect was evident immediately, on the first trial with the onset delay. However, when the onset of the feedback signal was prior to the action, the lengthening effect was diminished. In contrast, a shortening effect was found with feedback signal offset-delay, though the effect was weaker and manifested only in the auditory offset-delay condition. These findings indicate that participants tend to mix the onset of action and the feedback signal more when the feedback is delayed, and they heavily rely on motor-stop signals for the duration reproduction. Furthermore, auditory duration was overestimated compared to visual duration in crossmodal feedback conditions, and the overestimation of auditory duration (or the underestimation of visual duration was independent of the delay manipulation.

  9. Employers' Gas Association (ZPZ)

    Employers' Gas Association (ZPZ) is the institution which main task is to maintain the optimum conditions for dynamic development of its members' activities, their business activities and to maintain the common or individual interests o fits members. To meet this objective, the association: - maintains the interests of association members during discussions with representative authorities, central state administration bodies and the trade unions regarding the economic and social policy and the questions which are to be the subject matter of collective bargaining, conclusion of contracts and the collective agreements of higher force; - is the member of enterprising, negotiating and advisory authorities; - coordinates the procedure and promotes the common interests of its members in relation to the representative authorities and the central state administration bodies, central trade union authorities and in relation to the international organisation of employers and the International Labour Organisation; maintains the commercial and business activities of the members of association; submits the proposals, filling with the courts and makes interventions regarding the preparation of economic and political decisions on the national and international level; engages with the legal entities in the Slovak Republic and enters the foreign international organisations. ZPZ, originally Gas Association (PZ), was founded by the General Assembly on 27th January 1995. It was registered in compliance with the Act No. 83/1990 Coll. on Association of Citizens as amended by the act No. 300/90 Coll., as the organisation of employers with the legal personality. The Employer's Gas Association was a member of the Employers' Associations in Slovak Republic till 31st March 2004, after this date it is represented by the Republican Union of Employers in SR (RUZ SR), which was established to maintain employer's associations interests on more qualitative level. The list of members

  10. Analysing Maternal Employment and Child Care Quality

    Akgündüz, Yusuf


    The contributions in this thesis revolve around mothers' employment and child care quality. The first topic of interest is how mothers' employment is affected by modern child care services and parental leave entitlements. There is already an extensive literature on the effects of modern social policies such as child care services and parental leave entitlements. A related second topic is how child care quality is produced and influenced by policy measures. Positive findings from the UK and US...

  11. Authenticity in Employment Relations

    Tackney, Charles Thomas

    This research takes up the concept of authenticity as a criterion variable for theology of the workplace analysis, a domain which explores employment parameters in light of religious teaching on the social question at national, organizational or firm-specific levels. Following a review of the con......This research takes up the concept of authenticity as a criterion variable for theology of the workplace analysis, a domain which explores employment parameters in light of religious teaching on the social question at national, organizational or firm-specific levels. Following a review......, it becomes possible to specify employment relations parameters between the indirect and direct employer and employees in a manner that will ensure working conditions consistent with these traditions, substantially enhancing the prospect of authenticity in employment relations. This theology of the workplace...... analysis should complement and support corporate social responsibility, management spirituality, authentic leadership / authentic follower, and other secular research by offering a research methods bridge between empirically grounded theology and secular studies, with the common goal of improving workplace...

  12. Workers, Firms, or Institutions: What Determines Job Duration for Male Employees in Germany?

    Boockmann, Bernhard; Steffes, Susanne


    The authors examine job durations of German workers using the Linked Employer-Employee Data of the Institute for Employment Research (LIAB). Results indicate that exit rates are strongly influenced by firm characteristics, such as the existence of works councils and the opportunity for further training. The effects of these characteristics, however, are limited to jobs held by blue-collar workers or by those possessing vocational-educational skills. Changes in coefficients across specificatio...

  13. Effect of temperature and heating duration of drying on quality of low amylose rice

    Jutarop Yardthaisong


    Full Text Available Processed food is mostly made from stale rice which contains high viscosity. However the storage of stale rice takes approximately 4-6 months, so acceleration aging of rice saves time and area in the warehouse. Therefore the study aims to observe effects of temperatures and heating duration on the quality of rice with initial low-amylose. Optimum temperature and heating duration of rice quality similar to stale rice were analyzed. The Khao Dok Mali 105 has been tested under controlled temperatures at 70, 80 and 90 °C with heating duration for 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours. The results showed that final viscosity, color value, amylose content and grain cracking increased, but Breakdown decreased as temperature, heating duration and storage time increased. The optimum temperature at 90 °C and heating duration for 4 hours affected to rice quality in the experiment similar to stale rice after storage for 4 months.

  14. Implementing public employment policy

    Larsen, Flemming; Bredgaard, Thomas

    . But there is an interesting question to investigate here: whether and if so how, NPM-inspired reforms are related to changes in employment policy towards a work-first approach? Are changes in public management systems created as deliberate policy changes, or do they bring about more indirect and......Like most other areas within welfare policy, the employment and social policy areas are undergoing far-reaching changes in many countries. Partly in the shape of new forms of governance inspired by New Public Management (NPM), partly through new policies oriented towards activation and stronger...... disciplining of the unemployed (work first) (cf.Bredgaard & Larsen, 2005; Sol & Westerweld, 2005). It is, however, remarkable that in the research field there seems to be a division of labour so that changes in public administration and changes in the substance of employment policies are dealt with separately...

  15. Cooperation between employers

    Guidance is given on the application of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 (IRR 85) and the Ionising Radiations (Outside Workers) Regulations 1993 (OWRs) in circumstances where the operations of the employees of one organisation have the potential to expose to ionising radiation the employees of another. One of the Regulations of IRR 85 makes it mandatory for employers to cooperate in such circumstances. OWRs give more detailed requirements for the performance of the duties where one employers' classified employee works in another employer's controlled area. This document explains the separate responsibilities of site operators and contractors in situations where cooperation is required, and gives guidance on how it can be achieved. It also gives guidance to nuclear site licence holders regarding their duties under IRR 85 in such circumstances. (Author)

  16. Radiation protection - the employer

    A brief report is given of a paper presented at the symposium on 'Radiation and the Worker - where do we go from here' in London 1983. The paper concerned the employers' viewpoint on the draft of the proposed Ionising Radiations Regulations in the Health and Safety Commission Consultative Document. It was concluded that there was already a very good standard of radiological protection in the UK and that any improvements could therefore only be fringe improvements, although the cost to the employer of introducing and implementing the new proposed Regulations was bound to be high. (U.K.)

  17. Employment certificates on HRT

    HR Department


    As part of the ongoing drive to simplify and streamline administrative procedures and processes, the IT and HR Departments have made employment certificates available on a self-service basis on the HRT application, in the main menu under "My self services". All members of the personnel can thus obtain a certificate of employment or association, in French or in English, for the present or past contractual period. The HR Department’s Records Office remains responsible for issuing any special certificates that might be required. IT-AIS (Administrative Information Services) HR-SPS (Services, Procedures & Social) Records Office – Tel. 73700

  18. Governing EU employment policy

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil


    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements of...

  19. Implementing the employability agenda

    Lee, Donna; Snaith, Holly Grace; Foster, Emma


    This article draws on research commissioned by the Higher Education Academy (HEA) and conducted during 2013. It interrogates the ways in which the employability agenda has been fed through to the level of individual politics departments. The project was particularly concerned with establishing...... whether, and how, colleagues in politics and international relations (IR) had taken ownership of student employability at the level of the curriculum. In the article, the key findings of the research are summarised. There is also discussion of the (sometimes troubling) professional implications of...

  20. Employer-to-Employer Flows in the United States: Estimates Using Linked Employer-Employee Data

    Melissa Bjelland; Bruce Fallick; John Haltiwanger; Erika McEntarfer


    We use administrative data linking workers and firms to study employer-to-employer flows. After discussing how to identify such flows in quarterly data, we investigate their basic empirical patterns. We find that the pace of employer-to-employer flows is high, representing about 4 percent of employment and 30 percent of separations each quarter. The pace of employer-to-employer flows is highly procyclical, and varies systematically across worker, job and employer characteristics. Our findings...

  1. A study of duration of digital dermatitis lesions after treatment in a Danish dairy herd

    Sørensen Jan T


    Full Text Available Abstract Digital dermatitis (DD is a contagious disease of cattle affecting the skin adjacent to the claws. Disease dynamics of DD have been described to some extend, but we still need to quantify the duration of lesions and look into non-treatment factors affecting this. The aim of this study was to estimate the duration of lesions due to DD and to evaluate parity and lactation stage as potential risk factors for longer duration of such lesions. An estimate of the duration of lesions will be a valuable parameter in the evaluation of the economic impact of the disease and will additionally allow estimates of incidence based on prevalence figures. From May 2007 until November 2008, lesions associated with DD in the hind legs of 151 Danish Holstein cows at the Danish Cattle Research Centre were clinically scored on fifteen occasions. The mean interval between recordings was 39 days. Onset and end of each new case were estimated as midway between recordings prior to a change in the presence or absence of a lesion. Kaplan-Meier survival functions and Cox proportional hazard regression were performed to estimate the duration and analyse differences in the duration of lesions between primi- and multiparous cows and between different stages in lactation at onset of the lesion. The median duration of lesions were estimated to be 42 days, less than most previous published estimates. The relatively aggressive regime of topical treatment in the study herd might have shortened the duration of the lesions. Furthermore the comparatively long interval between recordings introduced an element of uncertainty in this estimate. No significant effects of parity or days in milk at lesion onset on the duration of DD were found using these data though lesions developed earlier in the lactation may have a longer duration. Further data would be needed to confirm the latter.

  2. Employment effects of multinational enterprises: the case of the United States.

    Kujawa D


    ILO pub. Working paper on employment effects of multinational enterprises, comprising a case study of the USA - covers the theoretical perspective, employment opportunity losses and gains, quality of employment created, unemployment duration etc. Of both USA multinationals and foreign enterprises based in the USA. References and statistical tables.

  3. Fluctuation behaviors of financial return volatility duration

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yunfan


    It is of significantly crucial to understand the return volatility of financial markets because it helps to quantify the investment risk, optimize the portfolio, and provide a key input of option pricing models. The characteristics of isolated high volatility events above certain threshold in price fluctuations and the distributions of return intervals between these events arouse great interest in financial research. In the present work, we introduce a new concept of daily return volatility duration, which is defined as the shortest passage time when the future volatility intensity is above or below the current volatility intensity (without predefining a threshold). The statistical properties of the daily return volatility durations for seven representative stock indices from the world financial markets are investigated. Some useful and interesting empirical results of these volatility duration series about the probability distributions, memory effects and multifractal properties are obtained. These results also show that the proposed stock volatility series analysis is a meaningful and beneficial trial.

  4. Slow Wave Sleep and Long Duration Spaceflight

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Orr, Martin; Arias, Diana; Rueger, Melanie; Johnston, Smith; Leveton, Lauren


    While ground research has clearly shown that preserving adequate quantities of sleep is essential for optimal health and performance, changes in the progression, order and /or duration of specific stages of sleep is also associated with deleterious outcomes. As seen in Figure 1, in healthy individuals, REM and Non-REM sleep alternate cyclically, with stages of Non-REM sleep structured chronologically. In the early parts of the night, for instance, Non-REM stages 3 and 4 (Slow Wave Sleep, or SWS) last longer while REM sleep spans shorter; as night progresses, the length of SWS is reduced as REM sleep lengthens. This process allows for SWS to establish precedence , with increases in SWS seen when recovering from sleep deprivation. SWS is indeed regarded as the most restorative portion of sleep. During SWS, physiological activities such as hormone secretion, muscle recovery, and immune responses are underway, while neurological processes required for long term learning and memory consolidation, also occur. The structure and duration of specific sleep stages may vary independent of total sleep duration, and changes in the structure and duration have been shown to be associated with deleterious outcomes. Individuals with narcolepsy enter sleep through REM as opposed to stage 1 of NREM. Disrupting slow wave sleep for several consecutive nights without reducing total sleep duration or sleep efficiency is associated with decreased pain threshold, increased discomfort, fatigue, and the inflammatory flare response in skin. Depression has been shown to be associated with a reduction of slow wave sleep and increased REM sleep. Given research that shows deleterious outcomes are associated with changes in sleep structure, it is essential to characterize and mitigate not only total sleep duration, but also changes in sleep stages.

  5. Unemployment, Underemployment, and Employment Opportunities: Results from a Correspondence Audit

    John M. Nunley; Adam Pugh; Nicholas Romero; Richard Alan Seals, Jr.


    We use data from a résumé audit to estimate the impact of unemployment and underemployment on the employment prospects facing recent college graduates. We find no statistical evidence of negative duration dependence associated with unemployment spells for recent college graduates. Alternatively, college graduates who are underemployed have callback rates that are 30 percent lower than that for applicants who are adequately employed. The adverse effects of underemployment are robust across cit...

  6. Generational status and duration of residence predict diabetes prevalence among Latinos: the California Men's Health Study

    Sternfeld Barbara; Caan Bette; Quinn Virginia P; Ahmed Ameena T; Haque Reina; Van Den Eeden Stephen K


    Abstract Background Diabetes disproportionately affects Latinos. However, examining Latinos as one group obscures important intra-group differences. This study examined how generational status, duration of US residence, and language preference are associated with diabetes prevalence and to what extent these explain the higher prevalence among Latinos. Methods We determined nativity, duration of US residence, language preference, and diabetes prevalence among 11 817 Latino, 6109 black, and 52 ...

  7. Terrorism and cabinet duration: An empirical analysis

    Gassebner, Martin; Jong-A-Pin, Richard; Mierau, Jochen O.


    We examine the relationship between terrorism and cabinet duration. Our data set includes more than 2,400 cabinets in over 150 countries in the period 1968-2002. We find a small, but significant effect of terrorism on the probability of government failure. Furthermore, we find that the impact of terrorism depends on the type of attack and is larger in case of more severe attacks. Marginal effect calculations show that the impact of terror on cabinet duration is larger than the impact of econo...

  8. Statistical analysis of random duration times

    This report presents basic statistical methods for analyzing data obtained by observing random time durations. It gives nonparametric estimates of the cumulative distribution function, reliability function and cumulative hazard function. These results can be applied with either complete or censored data. Several models which are commonly used with time data are discussed, and methods for model checking and goodness-of-fit tests are discussed. Maximum likelihood estimates and confidence limits are given for the various models considered. Some results for situations where repeated durations such as repairable systems are also discussed

  9. Employer Engagement in Education

    Mann, Anthony; Dawkins, James


    The subject of this paper is employer engagement in education as it supports the learning and progression of young people through activities including work experience, job shadowing, workplace visits, career talks, mock interviews, CV workshops, business mentoring, enterprise competitions and the provision of learning resources. Interest has grown…

  10. Vietnamese Students Employability Skills

    Tuan, Nguyen Minh


    This paper attempts to investigate if the International University (IU) students' core competencies can meet the requirements set by employers, what are the differences in core competencies in final year students (or undergraduates), and how they view themselves compared with ex-students after one or two years in working environment, how…

  11. A Stochastic Employment Problem

    Wu, Teng


    The Stochastic Employment Problem(SEP) is a variation of the Stochastic Assignment Problem which analyzes the scenario that one assigns balls into boxes. Balls arrive sequentially with each one having a binary vector X = (X[subscript 1], X[subscript 2],...,X[subscript n]) attached, with the interpretation being that if X[subscript i] = 1 the ball…

  12. Views of the employers

    The employer shall establish and maintain a safety management system, which is a part of the overall management system that facilitates the management of the occupational health and safety risks associated with the business of the organization. In addition to meeting its legal responsibilities, the employer should aim to improve its occupational health and safety performance, and its safety management system, effectively and efficiently, to meet changing business and regulatory needs. Occupational radiation protection is also a part of its activities. The concept of 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA) presumes that any increment of radiation dose may produce a proportionate incremental risk, and that all radiation doses shall be kept ALARA, taking into account social and economic factors. Up to now, by implementing various activities in accordance with the principle of ALARA, employers have been minimizing the exposure dose of plant workers. Owing to improvements in hardware and administrative control, the exposure dose of workers has followed a remarkable downward trend, and now the number of workers exceeding 20 mSv/a is nearly zero. By implementing more thorough radiation protection and safety programmes, as well as by promoting safety consciousness among individual workers, the employers are continuing their efforts, respecting ALARA, to prevent workers from being exposed to radiation unnecessarily. As a consequence, the average individual dose of workers has dropped to 1 mSv/a or so. There may no longer be a discernible decrease in doses received at most of nuclear facilities

  13. Competing with Your Employer.

    Moller, Leslie


    Eleventh in a series featuring the 22 principles of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology Code of Ethics, this article presents a scenario: A training consultant decides to start his own company and convince 5 of his employers's clients to contract with him. Suggests that the complex ethical issues involved warrant seeking…

  14. Employment without Growth

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    Employment is a central argument for economic growth in the Western world. But environmental problems like global warming points towards limits to growth. The presentation outlines the history of what has lead to this dilemma. Fortunately citizens attitudes now points towards a preference for less...

  15. Employment Relations in Denmark

    Madsen, Jørgen Steen; Due, Jesper Jørgen; Andersen, Søren Kaj


    Jørgen Steen Madsen, Jesper Due og Søren Kaj Andersen har skrevet et kapitel om udviklingen i dansk arbejdsmarkedsregulering til bogen International and Comparative Employment Relations, redigeret af Greg Bamber, Russell Lansbury og Nick Wailes. Bogen indeholder bidrag, der præsenterer og...

  16. Challenging Scandinavian employment relations

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Larsen, Trine Pernille; Madsen, Jørgen Steen;


    employment relations in the Danish, Norwegian and Swedish public sector. In this paper, we argue that although differences exist across the Scandinavian countries, it is evident that they have managed to adopt and implement NPM-inspired reforms without dismantling their universal welfare services and strong...

  17. Policies for full employment

    de Koning, Jaap; Layard, Richard; Nickel, Stephen;

    European unemployment is too high, and employment is too low. Over 7½ per cent of Europe's workforce is unemployed, and only two thirds of people aged 15-64 are in work. At the Lisbon summit two years ago the heads of government set the target that by 2010 the employment rate should rise from 64...... per cent to at least 70 per cent. And for older workers between 55 and 64 the employment rate should rise from 38 per cent to at least one half. These are ambitious targets. They will require two big changes: more people must seek work, and among those seeking work a higher proportion must get a job....... So we need higher participation, and (for full employment) we need a much lower unemployment rate. Can it be done? A mere glance at the experience of different European countries shows that it can. As Table 1 shows, four E.U. countries already exceed the overall target for 2010 (Britain, Denmark, the...

  18. Should Universities Promote Employability?

    McCowan, Tristan


    Employability is becoming increasingly central to the mission and functioning of universities, spurred on by national and supranational agencies, and the demands of marketisation. This article provides a response to the normative dimensions of the question, progressing through four stages: first, there is a brief consideration of the meaning and…

  19. Auditory stimulus timing influences perceived duration of co-occurring visual stimuli

    Vincenzo eRomei


    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in multisensory influences upon sensory-specific judgements, such as when auditory stimuli affect visual perception. Here we studied whether the duration of an auditory event can objectively affect the perceived duration of a co-occurring visual event. On each trial, participants were presented with a pair of successive flashes and had to judge whether the first or second was longer. Two beeps were presented with the flashes. The order of short and long stimuli could be the same across audition and vision (audiovisual congruent or reversed, so that the longer flash was accompanied by the shorter beep and vice versa (audiovisual incongruent; or the two beeps could have the same duration as each other. Beeps and flashes could onset synchronously or asynchronously. In a further control experiment, the beep durations were much longer (tripled than the flashes. Results showed that visual duration-discrimination sensitivity (d' was significantly higher for congruent (and significantly lower for incongruent audiovisual synchronous combinations, relative to the visual only presentation. This effect was abolished when auditory and visual stimuli were presented asynchronously, or when sound durations tripled those of flashes. We conclude that the temporal properties of co-occurring auditory stimuli influence the perceived duration of visual stimuli and that this can reflect genuine changes in visual sensitivity rather than mere response bias.

  20. Short-term memory for event duration: modality specificity and goal dependency.

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi


    Time perception is involved in various cognitive functions. This study investigated the characteristics of short-term memory for event duration by examining how the length of the retention period affects inter- and intramodal duration judgment. On each trial, a sample stimulus was followed by a comparison stimulus, after a variable delay period (0.5-5 s). The sample and comparison stimuli were presented in the visual or auditory modality. The participants determined whether the comparison stimulus was longer or shorter than the sample stimulus. The distortion pattern of subjective duration during the delay period depended on the sensory modality of the comparison stimulus but was not affected by that of the sample stimulus. When the comparison stimulus was visually presented, the retained duration of the sample stimulus was shortened as the delay period increased. Contrarily, when the comparison stimulus was presented in the auditory modality, the delay period had little to no effect on the retained duration. Furthermore, whenever the participants did not know the sensory modality of the comparison stimulus beforehand, the effect of the delay period disappeared. These results suggest that the memory process for event duration is specific to sensory modality and that its performance is determined depending on the sensory modality in which the retained duration will be used subsequently. PMID:22810560

  1. Homework schedule: an important factor associated with shorter sleep duration among Chinese school-aged children.

    Li, Shenghui; Yang, Qian; Chen, Zhe; Jin, Xingming; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming


    This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that homework schedule has adverse impacts on Chinese children's sleep-wake habits and sleep duration. A random sample of 19,299 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a large, cross-sectional survey. A parent-administered questionnaire was completed to quantify children's homework schedule and sleep behaviors. Generally, it was demonstrated that more homework schedule was significantly associated with later bedtime, later wake time, and shorter sleep duration. Among all sleep variables, bedtime and sleep duration during weekdays appeared to be most affected by homework schedule, especially homework schedule during weekdays. PMID:24256420

  2. Analysis of the transitional dynamics and duration of unemployment in Costa Rica

    Juan Manuel Castro Vincenzi


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the main factors that explain the duration of unemployment spells and the transitional dynamics between the state of employment, unemployment and inactivity in Costa Rican labor market, using the Continuous Employment Survey for the period between the first quarter of 2012 and the third quarter of 2013. This research focuses mainly on supply-side factors and uses binominal and multinomial logit models in order to determine which variables determine that some people are more likely to be unemployed, Markov matrixes to estimate a series of transitional probabilities for different states in the labor market, and a survival model to characterize the duration of the unemployment spells. We conclude that women are more likely to be unemployed than men, and have smaller probabilities of changing from unemployed to employed. Also, the duration of their unemployment spells is longer. Furthermore, a higher academic level decreases the probabilities for an individual of being unemployed, but increases the duration of the unemployment spell. A correlation between the performance of the economic activity and the probabilities of becoming employed and of becoming inactive is observed.

  3. 4 CFR 7.2 - Equal employment opportunity.


    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal employment opportunity. 7.2 Section 7.2 Accounts... opportunity. (a) Policy. All personnel actions affecting employees or applicants for employment in GAO shall... status or handicapping condition. (d) Authorities granted thereunder to the Equal Employment...

  4. How climate seasonality modifies drought duration and deficit

    Van Loon, A. F.; Tijdeman, E.; Wanders, N.; Van Lanen, H. A.-J.; Teuling, A. J.; Uijlenhoet, R.


    Drought propagation through the terrestrial hydrological cycle is associated with a change in drought characteristics (duration and deficit), moving from precipitation via soil moisture to discharge. Here we investigate climate controls on drought propagation with a modeling experiment in 1271 virtual catchments that differ only in climate type. For these virtual catchments we studied the bivariate distribution of drought duration and standardized deficit for the variables precipitation, soil moisture, and discharge. We found that for meteorological drought (below-normal precipitation), the bivariate distributions of drought characteristics have a linear shape in all climates and are thus not affected by seasonality in climate. Despite the linear shape of meteorological drought, soil moisture drought (below-normal storage in the unsaturated zone) and hydrological drought (below-normal water availability in aquifers, lakes, and/or streams) show strongly nonlinear shapes in drought characteristics in climates with a pronounced seasonal cycle in precipitation and/or temperature. These seasonality effects on drought propagation are found in monsoonal, savannah, and Mediterranean climate zones. In these regions, both soil moisture and discharge show deviating shapes in drought characteristics. The effect of seasonality on drought propagation is even stronger in cold seasonal climates (i.e., at high latitudes and altitudes), where snow accumulation during winter prevents recovery from summer hydrological drought, and deficit increases strongly with duration. This has important implications for water resources management in seasonal climates, which cannot solely rely on meteorology-based indices as proxies for hydrological drought duration and deficit and need to include seasonal variation in both precipitation and temperature in hydrological drought forecasting.

  5. Employer-Sponsored Child Care: A Movement or a Mirage?

    Washington, Valora; Oyemade, Ura Jean


    Reviews trends in family life-styles that affect the workplace. Identifies employer trends affecting employee expectations. Examines the prevalence, success, and limitations of employer-sponsored child care and government-sponsored initiatives. Finally, discusses the permanence of the trend. (SK)

  6. Duration distributions for different softness groups of gamma-ray bursts

    Qinx, Y -P; Fan, J H; Su, C -Y; Lu, R -J


    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are divided into two classes according to their durations. We investigate if the softness of bursts plays a role in the conventional classification of the objects. We employ the BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment) catalog and analyze the duration distributions of different groups of GRBs associated with distinct softness. Our analysis reveals that the conventional classification of GRBs with the duration of bursts is influenced by the softness of the objects. There exits a bimodality in the duration distribution of GRBs for each group of bursts and the time position of the dip in the bimodality histogram shifts with the softness parameter. Our findings suggest that the conventional classification scheme should be modified by separating the two well-known populations in different softness groups, which would be more reasonable than doing so with a single sample. According to the relation between the dip position and the softness parameter, we get an empirical function that can...

  7. Effects of emotional valence and arousal on acoustic duration reproduction assessed via the “dual klepsydra model”

    Karin Meissner; Dharol Tankersley; Marc Wittmann


    We report results of an acoustic duration reproduction task with stimulus duration of 2, 4 and 6 s, using 45 emotionally negative, positive, and neutral sounds from the International Affective Digitized Sounds System, in a sample of 31 young healthy participants. To investigate the influence of induced emotions on perceived duration, the effects of emotional modulation were quantified in two ways: (i) via model-free indices (aggregated ratios of reproduced times), and (ii) via dual klepsydra ...

  8. Sleep Duration and Breast Cancer Phenotype

    Ali Khawaja


    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that short sleep is associated with an increased risk of cancer; however, little has been done to study the role of sleep on tumor characteristics. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between sleep duration and tumor phenotype in 972 breast cancer patients. Sleep duration was inversely associated with tumor grade (univariate P=0.032, particularly in postmenopausal women (univariate P=0.018. This association did not reach statistical significance after adjustments for age, race, body mass index, hormone replacement therapy use, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity in the entire study sample (P=0.052, but it remained statistically significant (P=0.049 among post-menopausal patients. We did not observe a statistically significant association between sleep duration and stage at diagnosis, ER, or HER2 receptor status. These results present a modest association between short duration of sleep and higher grade breast cancer in post-menopausal women. Further work needs to be done to validate these findings.

  9. Prediction uncertainty in seasonal partial duration series

    Rasmussen, Peter Funder; Rosbjerg, Dan


    In order to obtain a good description of the exceedances in a partial duration series it is often necessary to divide the year into a number (2-4) of seasons. Hereby a stationary exceedance distribution can be maintained within each season. This type of seasonal models may, however, not be suitable...

  10. Duration of asynchronous operations in distributed systems

    Makhaniok, Mikhail; Männer, Reinhard


    A distributed asynchronous system is investigated. Its processing elements execute common operations concurrently and distributively. They are implemented as combinatorial circuits and exchange data via open collector bus lines. A method is presented to identify and to minimize the duration of an operation and therefore to increase the performance of the system. No hardware modifications are required.