#### Sample records for aestivum por incorporacion

1. Suspended sediment entrainment estimation in unsteady turbulent flows by means of a stochastic meted; Computo de la incorporacion de sedimento en suspension en flujos turbulentos no permanentes utilizando un enfoque estocastico

2001-06-01

In order to compute the total amount and vertical distribution of suspended sediment, a reference concentration near the bed or entrainment function is needed, and considerable research effort has been dedicated to obtain such formulae. Several entrainment functions are available in the literature, but all of them have been developed for steady, uniform flow conditions. The ability of such relationships to predict entrainment rates in unsteady flows has not been demonstrated, nor has there been any attempt to develop a general formulation that work for both steady and unsteady flow conditions. The traditional approach relates the entrainment of sediment to the wall shear stress associated with skin friction in a deterministic way, providing only a relation between mean values. An alternative is to consider both the shear stress and the entrainment as stochastic turbulent quantities and to express them in terms of their probability density functions (PDFs). In this way, statistics of the entrainment can be obtained from measured shear stress PDFs, either in steady or unsteady situations, since the effect of unsteadiness is embedded in the PDF. This new methodology was used to estimate sediment entrainment produced by the passage of vessels in the Mississippi River and the Illinois River. Using a low order cumulant expansion to describe the PDF of the shear stress and a generalized version of Garcia and Parker's entrainment relationship, an expression for the average of the entrainment as a function of the average, variance, skewness of the shear stress distribution was obtained. Predictions compared favourably with values reported in the literature. [Spanish] Para calcular la cantidad total y distribucion vertical de sedimento en suspension es preciso conocer una concentracion de referencia cerca del lecho o funcion de incorporacion, para lo cual se ha hecho un considerable esfuerzo por obtener dichas formulas. Existen varias funciones de incorporacion en la

2. NOVOS GENÓTlPOS DE TRIGO (Triticum aestivum L. OBTIDOS POR IRRADIAÇÃO GAMA

C.E. de O. CAMARGO

1997-09-01

Full Text Available Compararam-se dezesseis linhagens mutantes tolerantes à toxicidade de alumínio em solução nutritiva, uma linhagem mutante sensível e os cultivares Anahuac, IAC-60 e IAC-24, de trigo. As linhagens mutantes foram originárias de seleções realizadas em populações do cultivar Anahuac (sensível ao Al3+ cujas sementes foram submetidas ao tratamento de irradiação gama com as doses de 260 e 310 Gy. As comparações foram realizadas em dois locais através de seis experimentos em épocas diferentes, analisando-se a produção de grãos, características agronômicas e tolerância a solos ácidos. Quinze linhagens mutantes foram mais produtivas que o cultivar Anahuac e a linhagem mutante sensível ao Al3+, em Capão Bonito, em solo ácido e em condição de sequeiro. Nestas condições, o cultivar IAC-60 foi o que exibiu a maior produtividade, diferindo dos demais. Todos os genótipos estudados não diferiram entre si, quanto à produtividade de grãos, em Tatuí, em solo corrigido e com irrigação por aspersão. Irradiação gama no cultivar Anahuac foi eficiente possibilitando a seleção de linhagens mutantes com características agronômicas (altura de planta, ciclo da emergência ao florescimento, comprimento da espiga, número de espiguetas por espiga, número de grãos por espiga e espigueta e peso de 100 grãos similares às do cultivar original, porém com tolerância à toxicidade de Al3+, tornando possível o seu cultivo em solos ácidos.Sixteen mutant lines tolerant to Al3+ toxicity in nutrient solutions, and a mutant line, sensitive to Al3+ originated from selections of a population of the cultivar Anahuac (sensitive to Al3+ previously submitted to gamma irradiation (260 and 310Gy, and the check cultivars Anahuac, IAC-24 and IAC-60, were evaluated in two locations and six trials, for grain yield, agronomic characteristics and tolerance to acid soils. ln Capão Bonito, in an acid soil and upland conditions, fifteen mutant lines

3. Contribución de la fotosíntesis de la espiga al rendimiento de trigo pan (Triticum aestivum) en condiciones limitadas por la disponibilidad de asimilados post-antesis

Maydup, María Luján

2013-01-01

Las partes verdes de la espiga (e.g. brácteas, aristas) son fuente de asimilados en cereales C3. Sin embargo, la contribución de la fotosíntesis de la espiga en trigo pan (Triticum aestivum L.) es menos conocida que el resto de las fuentes de asimilados (v.g. fotosíntesis de la hoja bandera, retranslocados del tallo). En trigo es ampliamente aceptado que la limitación por fuente no está presente en cultivares antiguos (Kruk et al. 1997; Borrás et al. 2004). Sin embargo, en germoplasma moderno...

4. Influence of the nitrate concentration and source in the incorporation of 14{sub C}O2 by the RuBP-carboxylase from wheat (triticum aestivum) and maize (zea mays); Influencia de la concentracion y fuente de nitrogeno en la incorporacion de 14{sub C}O2 por la RuBp-carboxilasa de trigo (triticum aewtivum) y maiz (zea mays)

Saez Angulo, R. M.; Gines Diaz, M. J.; Garcia Pineda, M. D.

1982-07-01

The effect of the concentration and source of nitrogen in the culture media has been studied regarding its influence in the activity of the RuBP-carboxylase from wheat and maize during the first month of development. Wheat and maize has been chosen as plants representatives of two different types of CO{sub 2} assimilation: C3 and M- respectively. Plants have been grown in hydroponic media and under temperature, humidity and nutrient salts control. A negative effect of NH{sub 4} has been observed in the enzymatic activity of wheat seedlings, being this effect more remarkable as NH{sub 4} concentration increases and as long the time of treatment. In our experimental conditions the most favorable source of nitrogen has been N0{sub 3}NH{sub 4}. The specific activity of the enzyme from wheat is about four times higher than in maize, even it decreases with time. This decreasing has not been observed in maize, with the exception of total absence of nitrogen in the media. We have not seen significant differences between the two photo periods which have been tested. Also, no differences have been found in the enzyme activities at the different NO{sub 3}NH{sub 4} concentrations assayed, and it seems that RuBP-carboxylase metabolism is only affected in the case of absolute stress. (Author) 20 refs.

5. Study of the properties of Ribulose 1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from maize (Zea mays) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) by incorporation of 14{sub C}O2; Estudio de las propiedades de la Ribulosa-1,5-Difosfato Carboxilasa/Oxigenasa de maiz (Zea Mais) y de trigo (Triticum Aestivum), por incorporacion de CO{sub 2} marcado con 14{sub C}O2

Garcia, M. D.; Saez, R. M.

1982-07-01

After a bibliographic review of the properties of RuBP-carboxylase/oxygenase, a methodology is described which allows the treatment of a large number of samples for the assay of the enzyme activity. 14{sup C}O{sub 3}HNa is used as a marker for the counting of the incorporated radioactivity as acid insoluble material. 14''CC{sub 2} from the labeled sodium bicarbonate is the species used by the enzyme both as an activator as well as a substrate. The following experiments are described and its results given: Determination of the optimal conditions for the activation of the enzyme; study of the kinetics of the catalytic action; effect of the Mg{sup 2} concentration and determination of the Km{sub (s)} from CO{sub 2} and ribulose 1,5-biphosphate; also determination of the optimum pH at different concentrations of CO{sub 2}2 and Mg{sup 2}. (Author) 64 refs.

6. Incorporation of nanoparticles of copper species in a matrix silica xerogels; Incorporacion de nanoparticulas de especies de cobre en una matriz de silica xerogel

Ortega-Zarzosa, G.; Martinez, J. R.; Dominguez-Espinos, O.; Ruiz, F. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Matutes-Aquino, J. A. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Chihuahua (Mexico)

2001-02-01

Using IR absorption and X-ray diffraction we have analyzed the incorporation of Cu-based nanometer dimension clusters in a SiO{sub 2} matrix in samples prepared by the sol-gel method. We doped the silica xerogels samples using two different copper sources: Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. 2.5 H{sub 2}O and copper nanoparticles chemical synthesized. The samples were studied as a function of the annealing temperature. It was found that by heat treatments and the appropriate copper precursor we can produce nanoparticles of metallic Cu, cuprous and cupric oxide. The obtained IR absorption results allow to study the interaction of the metal-based species and the oxide support. [Spanish] Usando absorcion IR y difraccion de rayos X analizamos la incorporacion de cumulos de especies de cobre de dimension nanometrica en una matriz de SiO{sub 2} en muestras preparadas por el metodo sol-gel. La silica xerogel fue impurificada usando dos diferentes fuentes de cobre: Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. 2.5 H{sub 2}O y nanoparticulas de cobre sintetizadas quimicamente. Las muestras fueron estudiadas en funcion de la temperatura de tratamiento. Encontramos que bajo tratamientos termicos y con el precursor apropiado se pueden producir nanoparticulas de cobre metalico, oxido cuproso y oxido cuprico. Los resultados obtenidos de absorcion IR nos permiten estudiar la interaccion de las especies metalicas y la matriz de oxido usada como soporte.

7. Valor nutritivo de pan con sustitución parcial de harina de trigo (Triticum aestivum) por arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft), fortificado

María Elena León Marroú; Misael Ydilbrando Villacorta González

2010-01-01

Se realizó un estudio de la composición química y el valor nutricional de pan fortificado con hierro, elaborado en Perú, con sustitución parcial de harina de trigo en un 40 % por una masa de consistencia pastosa de raíces de Arracacha, un cultivo andino subexplotado por la aplicación de tecnologías empíricas y desplazado por patrones de consumo foráneo. Se describen brevemente aspectos tecnológicos de la elaboración del pan. El pan fortificado presenta contenidos de proteína 8,32 %; grasa 10,...

8. Balanço de água por aquisição automática de dados em cultura de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. The daily water consumption of a wheat culture using atmospheric and soil data

Celso Luiz Prevedello

2007-02-01

9. Steady state analysis and Eastern power system dynamic PDVSA EyP considering incorporating Furrial and PIGAP II generation plants; Analisis en regimen permanente y dinamico del sistema electrico de PDVSA EyP Oriente considerando la incorporacion de las plantas de generacion Furrial y PIGAP II

Rodriguez, S [Universidad Nacional Experimental Politecnica, Antonio Jose de Sucre, Guayana, Bolivar (Venezuela)]. E-mail: sergiodrg200@gmail.com; Vasquez, C [Petroleos de Venezuela S.A., Maturin, Monagas (Venezuela)]. E-mail: vasquezcp@pdvsa.com

2013-03-15

This paper is focused on steady state and dynamic analysis of Eastern Power System of Petroleum of Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA) Exploration and Production, considering new single cycle gas turbine power plants in Punta de Mata and El Furrial operational areas that will start up in 2015. Network operating conditions were determined, specifically the behavior of power flows and voltage profiles in normal condition of operation and under Contingencies N-1 in PDVSA Power System, as well as the short-circuit levels at all buses of the transmission network. Afterward, it was evaluated the impact on the network caused by the starting of the biggest motor in the system, considering island operation, verifying that it's necessary to maintain the interconnection with the National Electric System. For motor starting study, machine dynamic model was determined by mean of parameters estimation of its equivalent circuit, as well as the application of nonlinear regression methods in order to obtain load model using the information supplied by the manufacturer. [Spanish] El presente trabajo esta enfocado al analisis del comportamiento en regimen permanente y dinamico del sistema electrico de Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA) Exploracion y Produccion Oriente, considerando la incorporacion de nuevas Plantas de Generacion Termoelectricas de Ciclo Simple a Gas que entraran en operacion en las areas operacionales de Punta de Mata y El Furrial para el ano 2015. Se determinaron las condiciones de operacion de la red, especificamente el comportamiento de los flujos de potencia y perfiles de voltaje en Condicion Normal de operacion y bajo Contingencias N-1 dentro del Sistema de PDVSA, asi como el incremento en los niveles de cortocircuito en todas las barras de la red de transmision. Luego se evaluo el impacto en la red originado por el arranque del motor de mayor capacidad considerando la posible operacion en isla del sistema, determinandose que es necesario operar interconectado con el

10. DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA DE GLUTENINAS Y GLIADINAS EN TRIGOS HARINEROS (Triticum aestivum L.) MEXICANOS

Eliel Martínez-Cruz; Eduardo Espitia-Rangel; Héctor E. Villaseñor-Mir; José D. Molina-Galán; Ignacio Benítez-Riquelme; Amalio Santacruz-Varela; Roberto J. Peña-Bautista

2010-01-01

Las gluteninas y las gliadinas del trigo harinero (Triticum aestivum L.) tienen una función fundamental en la definición de la calidad de panificación. Con el objetivo de caracterizar la composición de las subunidades de gluteninas de alto (G-APM) y bajo (G-BPM) peso molecular, y de las omega;-gliadinas, en 72 progenitores usados por el programa de fitomejoramiento de trigo harinero para temporal del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales Agrícolas y Pecuarias (CEVAMEX-INIFAP) y en...

11. Isolation of bacteria from ectomycorrhizae of Tuber aestivum Vittad

Milana Gryndler

2013-12-01

Full Text Available Fifteen different cultivation media were used to isolate bacteria with the idea to obtain taxa specifically associated with ectomycorrhizae of Tuber aestivum. Ectomycorrhizae were collected at the sampling points previously analyzed for bacterial molecular diversity. We isolated 183 bacterial strains and identified them on the basis of the partial sequence of 16S rDNA. Out of these isolates, only 4 corresponded to operational taxonomic units significantly associated with T. aestivum ectomycorrhizae in previous molecular study. Preliminary study of the effect of 12 selected isolates on growth of T. aestivum mycelium showed no stimulation and one isolate induced the damage of hyphae. Different isolation strategy has to be developed to increase the probability of cultivation of potentially important components of T. aestivum mycorrhizosphere.

12. Tuber aestivum association with non-host roots

Gryndler, Milan; Černá, Lucie; Bukovská, Petra; Hršelová, Hana; Jansa, Jan

2014-01-01

Roč. 24, č. 8 (2014), s. 603-610. ISSN 0940-6360 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) P504/10/0382 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Tuber aestivum * ectomycorrhiza * soil Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.459, year: 2014

13. Incorporation of a wind generator model into a dynamic power flow analysis; Incorporacion de un modelo de generador eolico al analisis de flujos dinamicos de potencia

Angeles Camacho, C.; Banuelos Ruedas, F. [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: cangelesc@iingen.unam.mx; fbanuelosr@iingen.unam.mx

2011-07-15

dinamicos de potencia. El modelo de la turbina toma en cuenta las velocidades del viento y la potencia reactiva consumida por el generador de induccion. El analisis de los flujos dinamicos de potencia que se presenta aqui, se realiza en funcion de los datos reales de la velocidad del viento recolectados en una estacion de monitoreo del estado de Zacatecas en intervalos de 10 minutos. La generacion inyectada en una parte de la red proporciona potencia localmente, reduciendo las perdidas globales del sistema. Sin embargo, la variacion de la potencia entregada por la central eolica causa fluctuaciones de la magnitud de voltaje y de los flujos de potencia en las lineas de transmision.

14. Determination of flavonoids in Triticum aestivum L. treated with ampicillin

Soran, M. L.; Opriş, O.; Copaciu, F.; Varodi, C.

2012-02-01

Pharmaceutical residues in the environment, and their potential toxic effects, have been recognized as one of the emerging research area in the environmental chemistry. Antibiotics can reach plants from treated soil or due to irrigation. The flavonoids extraction from Triticum aestivum L. treated with ampicillin and separation of flavonoids are presented in this study. There were used classical and modern extraction techniques (maceration, microwave assisted solvents, etc). The efficiency of extraction process was spectrophotometricaly evaluated by determining the total flavonoids content and by HPTLC on silica gel plates using the mixture: carbon tetrachloride - acetone - formic acid (35:11:3, v/v) as mobile phase. The developed plates were inspected both in ultraviolet and visible after visualization with NTS reagent (diphenylboryloxyethylamin). The chromatographic plates were compared in respect to determine the changes in extract composition due to the different extraction techniques. Depending on the concentration of ampicillin administered to plants, comparative studies on flavonoids content were performed.

15. Phytochemical analysis and estimation of major bioactive compounds from Triticum aestivum L. grass with antimicrobial potential.

Rajoria, Anand; Mehta, Archana; Mehta, Pradeep; Ahirwal, Laxmi; Shukla, Shruti

2015-11-01

The aim of the present study was to investigate phytochemical analysis, and qualitative and quantitative determination of major bioactive compound present in various organic extracts of T. aestivum L. grass. Soxhlet apparatus was used for the extraction purpose using hexane, chloroform, methanol and distilled water as a solvent system. All the extracts derived from T. aestivum showed qualitative presence of major phytochemicals including alkaloids, steroids and cardiac glycosides tannins, flavonoids carbohydrates. Further, HPLC analysis revealed the presence of major bioactive compounds such as rutin, chlorogenic acid, tocopherol, chlorogenic acid, and gallic acid in various organic extracts responsible for the reported maximum antimicrobial activity of T. aestivum grass against pathogenic bacteria including Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio cholerae. These findings confirm that T. aestivum grass containing medicinally important bioactive compounds may have significant potential to be used in traditional medicine system for the treatment of various diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:26687741

16. Towards isolating the durable stem rust resistance gene Sr2 from hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Kota, R.; Spielmeyer, R.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Šafář, Jan; Paux, E.; McIntosh, R.A.; Lagudah, E.S.

2006. p. 181. [International Conference “Plant and Animal Genome XIV”. 14.01.2006-18.01.2006, San Diego] Keywords : Triticum aestivum L. * flow-sorted chromosomes * BAC libraries Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

17. Effect of fresh Triticum aestivum grass juice on lipid profile of normal rats

Kothari Saroj

2008-01-01

Full Text Available Objective: To study the hypolipidemic activity of fresh grass juice of Triticum aestivum in normal rats. Materials and Methods: Freshly prepared Triticum aestivum grass juice was administered to normal rats at the dose of 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg orally once daily for 21 days. Blood samples were collected after 24 hours of last administration and used for estimation of lipid profile. Fresh grass juice was also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: Fresh grass juice administration produced dose related significant (P < 0.05 reduction in total chloesterol,triglycerides,low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in normal rats as compared to control.Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed presence of alkaloids,tannins, saponins and sterols in Triticum aestivum grass. Conclusion: The results of the present study lndicate hypolipidemic activity of fresh Triticum aestivum grass juice.

18. ANTICANCER AND CYTOTOXIC POTENTIAL OF TRITICUM AESTIVUM EXTRACT ON HELA CELL LINE

Patel Janki B.; Patel Piyush M.

2013-01-01

The objective of the study was to analyze the anticancer property of the leaves of Triticum aestivum on HeLa cells. The Indian medicinal plant Triticum aestivum that is used in traditional medicine for cancer and non cancerous diseases was collected. The crude methanolic extract was prepared by using standard protocols. The antiproliferative effect the methanolic extract was evaluated in vitro by employing MTT assay. The potency of each plant extract concentration was calculated in terms of p...

19. Ectomycorrhizal communities in a productive Tuber aestivum Vittad. orchard: composition, host influence and species replacement

Benucci, Gian Maria Niccolò; Raggi, Lorenzo; Albertini, Emidio; Grebenc, Tine; Bencivenga, Mattia; Falcinelli, Mario; Di Massimo, Gabriella

2011-01-01

Truffles (Tuber spp.) and other ectomycorrhizal species form species-rich assemblages in the wild as well as in cultivated ecosystems. We aimed to investigate the ectomycorrhizal communities of hazels and hornbeams that are growing in a 24-year-old Tuber aestivum orchard. We demonstrated that the ectomycorrhizal communities included numerous species and were phylogenetically diverse. Twenty-nine ectomycorrhizal taxa were identified. Tuber aestivum ectomycorrhizae were abundant (9.3%), only th...

20. Effect of fresh Triticum aestivum grass juice on lipid profile of normal rats

Kothari, Saroj; Jain, Anand K.; Mehta, Swaroop C.; Tonpay, Shrinivas D.

2008-01-01

Objective: To study the hypolipidemic activity of fresh grass juice of Triticum aestivum in normal rats. Materials and Methods: Freshly prepared Triticum aestivum grass juice was administered to normal rats at the dose of 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg orally once daily for 21 days. Blood samples were collected after 24 hours of last administration and used for estimation of lipid profile. Fresh grass juice was also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: Fresh grass juice administra...

1. Effect of fresh Triticum aestivum grass juice on lipid profile of normal rats

Kothari Saroj; Jain Anand; Mehta Swaroop; Tonpay Shrinivas

2008-01-01

Objective: To study the hypolipidemic activity of fresh grass juice of Triticum aestivum in normal rats. Materials and Methods: Freshly prepared Triticum aestivum grass juice was administered to normal rats at the dose of 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg orally once daily for 21 days. Blood samples were collected after 24 hours of last administration and used for estimation of lipid profile. Fresh grass juice was also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: Fresh grass juice admi...

2. Competition increases sensitivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum to biotic plant-soil feedback.

W H Gera Hol

Full Text Available Plant-soil feedback (PSF and plant competition play an important role in structuring vegetation composition, but their interaction remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that competing plants could dilute pathogenic effects, whereas the standing view is that competition may increase the sensitivity of the focal plant to PSF. In agro-ecosystems each of these two options would yield contrasting outcomes: reduced versus enhanced effects of weeds on crop biomass production. To test the effect of competition on sensitivity to PSF, we grew Triticum aestivum (Common wheat with and without competition from a weed community composed of Vicia villosa, Chenopodium album and Myosotis arvensis. Plants were grown in sterilized soil, with or without living field inoculum from 4 farms in the UK. In the conditioning phase, field inocula had both positive and negative effects on T. aestivum shoot biomass, depending on farm. In the feedback phase the differences between shoot biomass in T. aestivum monoculture on non-inoculated and inoculated soils had mostly disappeared. However, T. aestivum plants growing in mixtures in the feedback phase were larger on non-inoculated soil than on inoculated soil. Hence, T. aestivum was more sensitive to competition when the field soil biota was present. This was supported by the statistically significant negative correlation between shoot biomass of weeds and T. aestivum, which was absent on sterilized soil. In conclusion, competition in cereal crop-weed systems appears to increase cereal crop sensitivity to soil biota.

3. Competition increases sensitivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to biotic plant-soil feedback.

Hol, W H Gera; de Boer, Wietse; ten Hooven, Freddy; van der Putten, Wim H

2013-01-01

Plant-soil feedback (PSF) and plant competition play an important role in structuring vegetation composition, but their interaction remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that competing plants could dilute pathogenic effects, whereas the standing view is that competition may increase the sensitivity of the focal plant to PSF. In agro-ecosystems each of these two options would yield contrasting outcomes: reduced versus enhanced effects of weeds on crop biomass production. To test the effect of competition on sensitivity to PSF, we grew Triticum aestivum (Common wheat) with and without competition from a weed community composed of Vicia villosa, Chenopodium album and Myosotis arvensis. Plants were grown in sterilized soil, with or without living field inoculum from 4 farms in the UK. In the conditioning phase, field inocula had both positive and negative effects on T. aestivum shoot biomass, depending on farm. In the feedback phase the differences between shoot biomass in T. aestivum monoculture on non-inoculated and inoculated soils had mostly disappeared. However, T. aestivum plants growing in mixtures in the feedback phase were larger on non-inoculated soil than on inoculated soil. Hence, T. aestivum was more sensitive to competition when the field soil biota was present. This was supported by the statistically significant negative correlation between shoot biomass of weeds and T. aestivum, which was absent on sterilized soil. In conclusion, competition in cereal crop-weed systems appears to increase cereal crop sensitivity to soil biota. PMID:23776610

4. por valores

Jazmín Díaz-Barrios

2005-01-01

Full Text Available La era actual se caracteriza por una búsqueda de la identidad del hombre, donde el pivote del cambio organizacional es el individuo; cambiar en este entorno depende, en gran medida, de los valores que imperen en la cultura de la organización. Este trabajo documental intenta identificar aquellos valores, condición sine-qua-non, para el logro de los objetivos de cambio y analizarlos a fin de determinar sus indicadores, con el objeto de presentar una herramienta a las organizaciones que les facilite adaptarse a los nuevos tiempos. Se encontró que los valores: Delegación, Comunicación, Colaboración, Participación y Aprendizaje, son esenciales en los cambios integrales de esta era. Se determinaron 20 indicadores de su presencia. Se concluye que con esta información cada ente puede elaborar instrumentos que le permitan saber si los valores requeridos están presentes y en caso contrario tomar decisiones que alineen a la organización alrededor de los valores humanistas planteados, incrementando así las posibilidades de éxito en el proceso de cambio y por ende, las posibilidades de supervivencia en esta nueva época.

5. In vitro Studies of Iron Chelation Activity of Purified Active Ingredients Extracted from Triticum aestivum Linn. (Wheat Grass)

Das Priyabrata; Mukhopadhyay Ashis; Mandal Suvra; Pal Bikas Chandra; Mishra Raghwendra; Mukherjee Debarati; Mukhopadhyay Soma; Basak Jayasri; Kar Manoj

2012-01-01

Objective: Seven to eight days germinated plants of Triticum aestivum (wheat grass) are a rich source of vitamin A, C, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, sulphur, cobalt, zinc and protein. Traditionally the aqueous extract of T. aestivum was reported to be used as a health tonic in folk and ayurvedic medicine. We previously reported that aqueous extract of T. aestivum was found to reduce the blood transfusion requirement in iron overloaded Thalassemia and Myelod...

6. Estimates of genetic variability in mutated population of triticum aestivum

M2 populations of four cultivars of Mexican origin (Mexipak-65, Nayab, Pak-70 and 6134 x C-271) and two locally bred cultivars (H-68 and C-591) of bread wheat, triticum aestivum (2n = 6x = AA BB DD) derived from six irradiation treatments (gamma rays 60sub(Co); 10, 15 and 20 kR and fast neutrons; 300, 600 and 900 RADS) were critically examined for spike length, spikelets per spike, grains per spike and grain yield. Genotypes varied significantly (p>=0.01) for all the characters. Irradiation treatment were instrumental in creating significant variability for all the characters, indicating that varieties did not perform uniformly across different gamma rays as well as fast neutron treatments. In the M2 generation there was a considerable increase in variance for all the four metrical traits. Comparisons were made between controls and treated populations. Mutagenic treatments shifted the mean values mostly towards the negative direction, but the shift was not unidirectional nor equally effective for all the characters. The differences in mean values and the nature of variability observed in M2 indicated a possible preference of selection M3 generation. In general, estimates of genetic variability and heritability (b.s) increased with increasing doses of gamma rays and fast neutrons. Genetic advance also exhibited similar trend. The observed variability can be utilized in the evolution of new varieties. (authors)

7. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Properties of Triticum aestivum in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

Mohan, Yogesha; Jesuthankaraj, Grace Nirmala; Ramasamy Thangavelu, Narendhirakannan

2013-01-01

The antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Triticum aestivum were evaluated by using in vivo methods in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in the Wistar strain albino rats by injecting streptozotocin at a dose of 55 mg/kg body weight. Ethanolic extracts of Triticum aestivum at doses of 100 mg/kg body weight were administered orally for 30 days. Various parameters were studied and the treatment group with the extract showed a significant increase in the liver glycogen and a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and serum marker enzyme levels. The total cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein were also significantly reduced and the high density lipoprotein level was significantly increased upon treatment with the Triticum aestivum ethanol extract. A significant decrease in the levels of lipid peroxides, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidise and increase in the levels of vitamin E, catalase, and reduced glutathione were observed in Triticum aestivum treated diabetic rats. Thus, from this study we conclude that ethanolic extract of Triticum aestivum exhibited significant antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant activities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. PMID:24416041

8. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Properties of Triticum aestivum in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

Yogesha Mohan

2013-01-01

Full Text Available The antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Triticum aestivum were evaluated by using in vivo methods in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in the Wistar strain albino rats by injecting streptozotocin at a dose of 55 mg/kg body weight. Ethanolic extracts of Triticum aestivum at doses of 100 mg/kg body weight were administered orally for 30 days. Various parameters were studied and the treatment group with the extract showed a significant increase in the liver glycogen and a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and serum marker enzyme levels. The total cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein were also significantly reduced and the high density lipoprotein level was significantly increased upon treatment with the Triticum aestivum ethanol extract. A significant decrease in the levels of lipid peroxides, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidise and increase in the levels of vitamin E, catalase, and reduced glutathione were observed in Triticum aestivum treated diabetic rats. Thus, from this study we conclude that ethanolic extract of Triticum aestivum exhibited significant antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant activities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

9. Role of Triticum aestivum aqueous extract in glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis in rats.

Banji, David; Banji, Otilia J F; Chiluka, Vijaya Laxmi; Abbagoni, Saidulu

2014-02-01

Administration of aqueous extract of T. aestivum (200 and 400 mg/kg/day, po, for 30 days) and risedronate (20 microg/kg, sc, five times a week for 30 days) following methyl prednisolone sodium succinate (10 mg/kg, sc, thrice a week for 4 weeks) induced osteoporosis in Wistar rats showed an increase in the serum levels of bone mineral content markers, decrease in the serum and urinary levels of bone resorption markers. An incline in strength of femur and tibia was seen particularly with 400 mg/kg of T. aestivum. Maintenance of calcium homeostasis, formation of collagen and scavenging of free radicals can plausibly be the mode of action of aqueous extract of T. aestivum thereby combating osteoporosis induced by glucocorticoids. PMID:24597148

10. Production of galanthamine by Leucojum aestivum shoots grown in different bioreactor systems.

Schumann, Anika; Berkov, Strahil; Claus, Diana; Gerth, André; Bastida, Jaume; Codina, Carles

2012-08-01

The production of galanthamine by shoots of Leucojum aestivum grown in different bioreactor systems (shaking and nonshaking batch culture, temporary immersion system, bubble bioreactor, continuous and discontinuous gassing bioreactor) under different culture conditions was studied. The influence of the nutrient medium, weight of inoculum, and size of bioreactor on both growth and galanthamine production was studied. The maximal yield of galanthamine (19.416 mg) was achieved by cultivating the L. aestivum shoots (10 g of fresh inoculum) in a temporary immersion system in a 1-L bioreactor vessel which was used as an airlift culture vessel, gassing 12 times per day (5 min). PMID:22639366

11. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Properties of Triticum aestivum in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

Yogesha Mohan; Grace Nirmala Jesuthankaraj; Narendhirakannan Ramasamy Thangavelu

2013-01-01

The antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Triticum aestivum were evaluated by using in vivo methods in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in the Wistar strain albino rats by injecting streptozotocin at a dose of 55 mg/kg body weight. Ethanolic extracts of Triticum aestivum at doses of 100 mg/kg body weight were administered orally for 30 days. Various parameters were studied and the treatment group with the extract showed a significant increase in the li...

12. Characterization of Aegilops kotschyi Boiss. x Triticum aestivum L. hybrid lines

Roman Prażak; Edyta Paczos-Grzęda

2014-01-01

A study of four F5 and one BC1F1 Aegilops kotschyi Boiss. x Triticum aestivum L. hybrid lines was conducted to determine their quantitative morphological and qualitative features as well as a molecular investigation was carried out. Observations of ten quantitative traits showed that the F5 hybrid lines exhibited intermediate values between Ae. kotschyi Boiss. and T. aestivum L., or had similar traits to one of the parents. These hybrid lines had a significantly lower number and weight of gra...

13. Heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) : Effects on grain growth and quality traits

Spiertz, J.H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Xu, H.; Primo Martin, C.; Don, C.; Putten, van der P.E.L.

2006-01-01

Heat stress effects on grain dry mass and quality were studied in spring wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.). Three cultivars were chosen with respect to heat tolerance: Lavett (genotype 1), selected for temperate growing conditions and two CIMMYT cultivars, Ciano-79 (genotype 2) and Attila (geno

14. Heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Effects on grain growth and quality traits

Spiertz, J.H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Xu, H.; Primo-Martin, C.; Don, C.; Putten, P.E.L. van der

2006-01-01

Heat stress effects on grain dry mass and quality were studied in spring wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.). Three cultivars were chosen with respect to heat tolerance: Lavett (genotype 1), selected for temperate growing conditions and two CIMMYT cultivars, Ciano-79 (genotype 2) and Attila (geno

15. Inheritance of grain polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in multiple wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genetic backgrounds

Grain polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity can cause discoloration of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) food products. Five crosses (PI 117635/Antelope; Fielder/NW03681; Fielder/Antelope; NW07OR1070/Antelope; NW07OR1066/OR2050272H) were selected to study the genetic inheritance of PPO activity. STS marker...

16. Nitrogen and Water Stress Impacts Hard Red Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Canopy Reflectance

Remote sensing offers a simple, time efficient method for making in-season nitrogen (N) recommendations for spring wheat (Triticum aestivum). However, spectral crop reflectance can be confounded by water and N stress that simultaneously impact protein content and yields. The objective of this stu...

17. In vitro effect of wheat bran (Triticum aestivum) extract on calcium oxalate urolithiasis crystallization.

Sekkoum, Khaled; Cheriti, Abdelkrim; Taleb, Safia

2011-10-01

Urolithiasis can lead to the loss of renal function in some cases. In this study, we tested the inhibiting effect of wheat bran (Triticum aestivum L) extract on calcium oxalate crystallization in a turbidimetric model, by FTIR spectroscopy, and polarized microscopy. The results show that this plant extract has a major inhibitory effect on calcium oxalate crystallization. PMID:22164778

18. Metabolic Pathways of the Wheat (Triticum aestivum)Endosperm Amyloplast Revealed by Proteomics

By definition, amyloplasts are plastids specialized for starch production. However, amyloplasts have a broader range of functions that are not widely recognized. A recent proteomic study of amyloplasts isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum Butte 86) endosperm suggested that they share many of the ...

19. IMPROVING WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. BY INTERSPECIFIC AND INTERGENERIC HYBRIDIZATION WITH POACEAE FAMILY SPECIES

Czaplicki A.Z.

2012-08-01

Full Text Available The related species of the family Poaceae (Triticeae are the source of unprecedented new genes that allow the extension of genetic variation of common wheat Triticum aestivum L. These species have similar homoeologous chromosomes and rDNA sequences very similar to T. aestivum L. [1-3]. This allows the introgression of alien genes and their incorporation into the genomes A, B and D of wheat, where they can function permanently in the wheat genetic systems. Many of them have already been transferred to the varieties of T. aestivum L. [4].The experimental material consisted of 28 lines of winter wheat obtained using the interspecific and intergeneric hybridization of T. aestivum L. with alien species T. durum Desf., T. timopheevii Zhuk., Lolium perenne L. and Aegilops speltoides Taush. Among them, 15 lines were developed from the cross-combination with tetraploid species (AABB T. durum Desf., 4 lines from the combination with other tetraploid species of different genome composition (AAGG T. timopheevii Zhuk., 4 lines from cross with L. perenne L. and 5 lines were the double hybrids (three-generic derived with two related species, T. durum Desf. (AABB and Ae. speltoides Taush (BB.The anther culture method was used for obtaining DH lines from these interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. In in vitro culture 124 green plants were regenerated. The method of cluster analysis grouped hybrids in terms of comprehensive general similarity of the studied traits.

20. Triticum aestivum L., 1753, pšenice setá

Mahelka, Václav

Praha : ČSOP, 2006 - (Mlíkovský, J.; Stýblo, P.), s. 191-193 ISBN 80-86770-17-6 Grant ostatní: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/6/37/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Triticum aestivum * distribution * invasibility Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

1. Flow Sorting of Mitotic Chromosomes in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Vrána, Jan; Doleželová, Marie; Šimková, Hana; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Lysák, Martin; Doležel, Jaroslav

2000-01-01

Roč. 156, - (2000), s. 2033-2041. ISSN 0016-6731 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV521/96/K117; GA MŠk ME 376 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Mitotic Chromosomes * Triticum aestivum L. Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.687, year: 2000

2. Chromosome sorting and its applications in common wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome sequencing

Wu, S.W.; Xiao, Y.; Zheng, X.; Cai, Y.F.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Liu, B.H.; Yang, L.; Song, M.F.; Zhou, P.; Zhou, Y.; Meng, F.H.; Wang, S.H.; Liu, H.W.; Zhai, H.Q.; Yang, J.P.

2010-01-01

Roč. 55, č. 15 (2010), s. 1463-1468. ISSN 1001-6538 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Triticum aestivum * flow cytogenetics * chromosome sorting Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.087, year: 2010

3. Allelopathic effect of Ashwagandha against the germination and radicle growth of Cicer arietinum and Triticum aestivum

Sangita Chandra

2012-01-01

Full Text Available Background: Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera is an important medicinal plant in Indian traditional system of medicine and traditionally has been used for several medicinal purposes in the Indian subcontinent. Objective: The present study was aimed at the evaluation of allelopathic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of ashwagandha against germination and radicle growth of Cicer arietinum and Triticum aestivum seeds. Materials and Methods: The extract at different concentrations was incubated in controlled conditions with the surface sterilized seeds of C. arietinum and T. aestivum and observed periodically for seed germination and radicle growth to assess the allelopathic behavior. Results: The extract mainly at higher concentrations demonstrated promising allelopathic potential by significantly affecting seed germination and radicle elongation of both C. arietinum and T. aestivum in a concentration dependent manner. T. aestivum was found to be more sensitive than C. arietinum. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated remarkable allelopathic potential of ashwagandha against the test seeds. The effect was plausibly due to the alkaloid and withanolide contents of ashwagandha.

4. Dynamics of rhizosphere properties and antioxidative responses in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under cadmium stress.

Li, Yonghua; Wang, Li; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Hairong

2014-04-01

In this study, we performed a rhizobox experiment to examine the dynamic changes in the rhizosphere properties and antioxidant enzyme responses of Triticum aestivum L. under three levels of cadmium stress. A set of micro-techniques (i.e., Rhizobox and Rhizon SMS) were applied for the dynamically non-destructive collection of the rhizosphere soil solution to enable the observation at a high temporal resolution. The dynamics of soluble cadmium and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the rhizosphere soil solutions of the Triticum aestivum L. were characterised by the sequence week 0 after sowing (WAS0)soil solution pH was found to follow an opposite distribution pattern. Systematically, both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in the leaves of the Triticum aestivum L. increased concomitantly with increasing cadmium levels (p>0.05) and growth duration (pstress with a decrease at high cadmium stress (p>0.05). These results suggested the enhancement of DOC production and the greater antioxidant enzyme activities were two important protective mechanisms of Triticum aestivum L. under cadmium stress, whereas rhizosphere acidification might be an important mechanism for the mobilisation of soil cadmium. The results also revealed that plant-soil interactions strongly influence the soil solution chemistry in the rhizosphere of Triticum aestivum L., that, in turn, can stimulate chemical and biochemical responses in the plants. In most cases, these responses to cadmium stress were sensitive and might allow us to develop strategies for reducing the risks of the cadmium contamination to crop production. PMID:24580822

5. SSR-based identification of genetic groups within European populations of Tuber aestivum Vittad.

Molinier, Virginie; Murat, Claude; Peter, Martina; Gollotte, Armelle; De la Varga, Herminia; Meier, Barbara; Egli, Simon; Belfiori, Beatrice; Paolocci, Francesco; Wipf, Daniel

2016-02-01

Tuber species are ectomycorrhizal ascomycetes establishing relationships with different host trees and forming hypogeous fruiting bodies known as truffles. Among Tuber species, Tuber aestivum Vittad. has a wide distributional range being found naturally all over Europe. Here, we performed large-scale population genetic analyses in T. aestivum to (i) investigate its genetic diversity at the European scale, (ii) characterize its genetic structure and test for the presence of ecotypes and (iii) shed light into its demographic history. To reach these goals, 230 ascocarps from different populations were genotyped using 15 polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers. We identified 181 multilocus genotypes and four genetic groups which did not show a clear geographical separation; although, one of them was present exclusively in Southeast France, Italy and Spain. Fixation index values between pairs of genetic groups were generally high and ranged from 0.29 to 0.45. A significant deficit of heterozygosity indicated a population expansion instead of a recent population bottleneck, suggesting that T. aestivum is not endangered in Europe, not even in Mediterranean regions. Our study based on a large-scale population genetic analysis suggests that genetically distinct populations and likely ecotypes within T. aestivum are present. In turn, this study paves the way to future investigations aimed at addressing the biological and/or ecological factors that have concurred in shaping the population genetic structure of this species. Present results should also have implications for the truffle market since defining genetic markers are now possible at least for some specific T. aestivum genetic groups. PMID:26070448

6. Indução de mutação visando a redução de altura de planta e resistência às doenças no cultivar de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) IAC-17 Reduction of plant height and disease resistance through mutation breeding of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) IAC-17

A. Tulmann Neto; C.E. de O. CAMARGO; M.C. Alves; J.L. DE CASTRO; GALLO P.B

1995-01-01

A redução na altura da planta e obtenção de resistência às doenças foi experimentada através da indução de mutação por raios-gama na variedade de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) IAC-17. Sementes foram irradiadas com 35 krad e a partir da geração M2 iniciou-se a seleção. Três das linhagens selecionadas foram comparadas com o cultivar original IAC-17, durante três anos, em sete ensaios avançados realizados em vários locais, em condição de sequeiro e irrigação. Os resultados demonstraram a obtenção...

7. EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACIDIC RAIN ON YIELDS OF 'RAPHANUS SATIVUS', 'LACTUCA SATIVA', 'TRITICUM AESTIVUM' AND 'MEDICAGO SATIVA'

Experiments were performed to determine effects of simulated acidic rain on radishes (Raphanus sativus), wheat(Triticum aestivum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under greenhouse conditions. Experimental designs allowed the detection of statistically significant differences a...

8. Heavy metal uptake, translocation, and bioaccumulation studies of Triticum aestivum cultivated in contaminated dredged materials.

Shumaker, Ketia L; Begonia, Gregorio

2005-08-01

Phytoremediation is a technology that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil, and sediments. Unlike traditional remediation techniques such as soil washing or vitrification, phytoremediation offers a technology that is solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective. Recent studies indicate that winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a potential accumulator for heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in hydroponic systems. Based on these findings, a laboratory study was conducted with the primary objective of determining the phytoaccumulation capability of this plant species for heavy metals from contaminated dredged materials (DMs) originating from two confined disposal facilities (CDF). The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) manages several hundred million cubic meters of DMs each year, and 5 to 10 % of these DMs require special handling because they are contaminated with hazardous substances that can move from the substrates into food webs causing unacceptable risk outside CDFs. Phytoremediation may offer an alternative to decrease this risk. Chemical analyses by USACE personnel identified 17 metals in various DMs, but in this present study, only zinc (Zn) and Cd were investigated. Pre-germinated seeds of the test plants were planted under laboratory conditions in pots containing the various DMs and reference soil. Four weeks after planting, plants were harvested and separated into roots and shoots for biomass production and tissue metal concentrations analyses. Results showed that T. aestivum plants have the capacity to tolerate and grow in multiple-metal contaminated DMs with the potential of accumulating various amounts of Zn and Cd. Root and shoot biomass of T. aestivum were not significantly affected by the DMs on which the plants were grown suggesting that this plant species can grow just as well on DMs contaminated by various metals as in the reference soil. No significant differences in the Zn tissue

9. Heavy Metal Uptake, Translocation, and Bioaccumulation Studies of Triticum aestivum Cultivated in Contaminated Dredged Materials

Gregorio Begonia

2005-08-01

Full Text Available Phytoremediation is a technology that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil, and sediments. Unlike traditional remediation techniques such as soil washing or vitrification, phytoremediation offers a technology that is solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective. Recent studies indicate that winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is a potential accumulator for heavy metals such as lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd in hydroponic systems. Based on these findings, a laboratory study was conducted with the primary objective of determining the phytoaccumulation capability of this plant species for heavy metals from contaminated dredged materials (DMs originating from two confined disposal facilities (CDF. The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE manages several hundred million cubic meters of DMs each year, and 5 to 10 % of these DMs require special handling because they are contaminated with hazardous substances that can move from the substrates into food webs causing unacceptable risk outside CDFs. Phytoremediation may offer an alternative to decrease this risk. Chemical analyses by USACE personnel identified 17 metals in various DMs, but in this present study, only zinc (Zn and Cd were investigated. Pre-germinated seeds of the test plants were planted under laboratory conditions in pots containing the various DMs and reference soil. Four weeks after planting, plants were harvested and separated into roots and shoots for biomass production and tissue metal concentrations analyses. Results showed that T. aestivum plants have the capacity to tolerate and grow in multiple-metal contaminated DMs with the potential of accumulating various amounts of Zn and Cd. Root and shoot biomass of T. aestivum were not significantly affected by the DMs on which the plants were grown suggesting that this plant species can grow just as well on DMs contaminated by various metals as in the reference soil. No significant differences in the Zn

10. Protein Level and Heavy Metals (Pb, Cr, and Cd) Concentrations in Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and in Oat (Avena sativa) Plants

Syed Noor Ul Abideen; Syed Ainul Abideen

2013-01-01

The aim of the study was to investigate heavy metal accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and oat (Avena sativa), and other physiological and biochemical parameters affected by these heavy metals. The data revealed that maximum plant fresh weight and plant dry weight was recorded for oat and minimum plant fresh weight and plant dry weight was noted for wheat (Triticum aestivum). The data also indicated that higher concentration of proline and DNA concentration was noted in wheat (Triticum...

11. STUDY OF THE ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC, ANTIOXIDATIVE AND ANTIATHEROGENIC ACTIVITY OF TRITICUM AESTIVUM LINN. IN RABBIT RECEIVING HIGH FAT DIET

Das Swarnamoni; Hakim Abdul; Mittal Ajay

2012-01-01

The aim was to study of the antihyperlipidemic, antioxidative and antiatherogenic activity of Triticum aestivum Linn. in rabbit receiving high fat diet. Twenty rabbits of either sex were taken and divided into four groups five in each as - Normal Control- received normal diet, Hyperlipidemic control- received high fat diet, Test drug group - received high fat diet plus ethanolic extract of Triticum aestivum 500 mg/Kg /day orally and Standard Drug group- received high fat diet plus Atorvastati...

12. A Study of the Protective Effect of Triticum aestivum L. in an Experimental Animal Model of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Mukundam Borah; Phulen Sarma; Swarnamoni Das

2014-01-01

Background: Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Keeping in view the proven antioxidant activity of Triticum aestivum L., this study has been undertaken to explore the potential therapeutic benefit of this plant in the treatment of CFS. Objective: To study the protective effect of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Triticum aestivum (EETA) in an experimental mice model of CFS. Materials and Methods: Five groups of albino mice (20-25 g)...

13. ANTICANCER AND CYTOTOXIC POTENTIAL OF TRITICUM AESTIVUM EXTRACT ON HELA CELL LINE

Patel Janki B.

2013-01-01

Full Text Available The objective of the study was to analyze the anticancer property of the leaves of Triticum aestivum on HeLa cells. The Indian medicinal plant Triticum aestivum that is used in traditional medicine for cancer and non cancerous diseases was collected. The crude methanolic extract was prepared by using standard protocols. The antiproliferative effect the methanolic extract was evaluated in vitro by employing MTT assay. The potency of each plant extract concentration was calculated in terms of percent decrease in viable HeLa cells as compared to the control value. The extract showed dose dependent antitumor activity. The MTT assay showed an anti proliferative activity (IC50 at 156 μg/ml of crude extract.

14. Main varieties of bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum durum Desf.) wheat.

Чебаков, М. П.

2008-01-01

Results of systematization and morphological characteristics of two wheat species-bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and hard (Triticum durum Desf.) are given. Detail descriptions of 55 main varieties of bread wheat and 32 varieties of hard wheat arep- resented in table version. In practical application these result enable plant breeders, seed producers and variety testers to determine wheat varieties easily sinse it is method for morphological systematics of wheat.

15. Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Triticum aestivum and Its Effect on Peroxide Catalytic Activity and Toxicology

2013-01-01

The synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles using bioreduction method was investigated. Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Triticum aestivum (khapali ghahu) extract was investigated. The effect of a specific variety of plants and how it affects the growth of silver nanoparticles was investigated in our work and it was polydispersed. UV-visible spectroscopy was used to monitor the formation of silver nanoparticles within 15 minutes. The peaks in XRD pattern are in good agreeme...

16. Anticancer Effect of Rutin Isolated from the Methanolic Extract of Triticum aestivum Straw in Mice

Savita Dixit

2014-01-01

Rutin is the bioactive flavanoid isolated from the straw part of Triticum aestivum and possess various pharmacological applications. The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of rutin in an experimental skin carcinogenesis mice model system. Skin tumor was induced by topical application of 7,12-dimethyl benz(a) anthracene (DMBA) and promoted by croton oil in Swiss albino mice. To assess the chemopreventive potential of rutin, it was orally administered at a concentrat...

17. Heavy Metal Uptake, Translocation, and Bioaccumulation Studies of Triticum aestivum Cultivated in Contaminated Dredged Materials

Gregorio Begonia; Shumaker, Ketia L.

2005-01-01

Phytoremediation is a technology that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil, and sediments. Unlike traditional remediation techniques such as soil washing or vitrification, phytoremediation offers a technology that is solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective. Recent studies indicate that winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a potential accumulator for heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in hydroponic systems. Based on these findings, a labora...

18. Contaminants in organically and conventionally produced winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in Belgium

Pussemier, Luc; Harcz, Peter; De Temmerman, Ludwig; De Voghel, Simon; Waegeneers, Nadia; Wilmart, Olivier; Vromman, Valérie; Schmit, Jean-François; Moons, Emmanuelle; Van Peteghem, Carlos; De Saeger, Sarah; Schneider, Yves Jacques; Larondelle, Yvan

2007-01-01

Abstract A database has been compiled with the levels of important contaminants (mycotoxins, heavy metals and pesticides) measured from 2002 to 2005 in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in Belgium according to the organic and conventional farming systems. Assuming no further change in contaminant levels during cereal processing and during the preparation of foodstuffs, conservative intakes are estimated for the consumers of cereal based products such as flour, bread, breakfast...

19. The stem structure of Triticum aestivum L. under different mineral nutrition

Olga I. Zhuk

2014-04-01

Full Text Available The effect of supplying of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. plants by nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the main stem structure and plant productivity was studied for cultivars ‘Mironivska 808’ and ‘Smuglyanka’. It was shown that increased mineral nutrition causes increasing stem and central xylem vessels diameter on average of 1 mm. Increased plant productivity was supported by increasing grains quantity per ear and mass of 1000 grains.

20. Genetic and ecological aspects of gene flow from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Aegilops L. species

Schoenenberger, Nicola; Küpfer, Philippe

2006-01-01

Genetic and ecological aspects of gene flow from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Aegilops L. species Hybridisation and introgression from crops to wild relatives is a key issue in risk assessment. In the present study, hybridisation and introgression dynamics from hexaploid wheat (2n=42) to tetraploid Aegilops species (2n=28) were investigated by experiments in natural conditions or in the greenhouse, and by genetic analyses. In order to study crop-weed hybridisation as a function of distance...

1. Water movement into dormant and non-dormant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains

Rathjen, Judith R.; Strounina, Ekaterina V.; Mares, Daryl J.

2009-01-01

The movement of water into harvest-ripe grains of dormant and non-dormant genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was investigated using Magnetic Resonance Micro-Imaging (MRMI). Images of virtual sections, both longitudinal and transverse, throughout the grain were collected at intervals after the start of imbibition and used to reconstruct a picture of water location within the different grain tissues and changes over time. The observations were supplemented by the weighing measurements of...

2. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Key Proteins and Phosphoproteins upon Seed Germination of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Dong, Kun; Zhen, Shoumin; Cheng, Zhiwei; Cao, Hui; Ge, Pei; Yan, Yueming

2015-01-01

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the oldest cultivated crops and the second most important food crop in the world. Seed germination is the key developmental process in plant growth and development, and poor germination directly affects plant growth and subsequent grain yield. In this study, we performed the first dynamic proteome analysis of wheat seed germination using a two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE)-based proteomic approach. A total of 166 differentially e...

3. Allelopathic effect of Ashwagandha against the germination and radicle growth of Cicer arietinum and Triticum aestivum

Sangita Chandra; Priyanka Chatterjee; Protapaditya Dey; Sanjib Bhattacharya

2012-01-01

Background: Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is an important medicinal plant in Indian traditional system of medicine and traditionally has been used for several medicinal purposes in the Indian subcontinent. Objective: The present study was aimed at the evaluation of allelopathic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of ashwagandha against germination and radicle growth of Cicer arietinum and Triticum aestivum seeds. Materials and Methods: The extract at different concentrations was incubated in ...

4. Evaluation of seedling characteristics of wheat (triticum aestivum L.) through canonical correlation analysis

Erayman, Mustafa; Abeyo, Bekele Geleta; Baenziger, P. Stephen; Budak, Hikmet; Eskridge, Kent M

2006-01-01

To examine the seedling characteristics of nine different bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties, several variables regarding seedling size and germination characteristics were analyzed using canonical correlation analysis. Significantly correlated first canonical variate pairs indicated that the variables within each set such as coleoptile length, shoot length and fresh weight within size set, and emergence rate index and germination percentage can be regarded as main factors for vigor...

5. EVALUATING THE DROUGHT STRESS TOLERANCE EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT ( TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) CULTIVARS

SAMMAR RAZA M.A.; Saleem, M. F.; Khan, I H; M. Jamil; Ijaz, M.; Khan, M. A.

2012-01-01

The study was conducted at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Pakistan to evaluate the drought stress tolerance efficiency of wheat cultivars. Eight wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes namely (Pasban-90, Inqalab-91, Auqab-2000, AS-2002, Sahar-2006, Shafaq-2006, Lasani-2008, and FSD-2008) were used for screening in laboratory. Three techniques were used for the screening. These techniques are (I) seed germination at -0.6 MPa external water potential (PEG-6...

6. In vivo evaluation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars for moisture stress

S. Tamiru

2014-01-01

In Ethiopia, wheat productivity is constrained by water stress especially at germination and seedling stage. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of moisture stress on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars. Four wheat cultivars (Danda’a, Kubsa, Huluka and Local) were treated with six levels of water stress (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 g L-1) using PEG-6000. The experiment was arranged factorally in completely randomized design with three replications. Data on germin...

7. Genetic analysis of preharvest sprouting tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. emend. Thell.)

Yücel, Cemal; BALOCH, Faheem Shehzad; HATİPOĞLU, RÜŞTÜ; Özkan, Hakan

2011-01-01

Rains during grain ripening in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can cause preharvest sprouting (PHS), which drastically affects the grain yield and the baking quality of flour. In the present study, to screen 7 cultivars and 4 lines of spring bread wheat for PHS, germination tests were conducted with seeds obtained from wet spikes harvested immediately after natural rainfall. Germination tests were carried out as 3 different treatments: 1) seeds immediately germinated after hand-threshing on samp...

8. Glycinebetaine applied under drought improved the physiological efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plant

2012-01-01

Study to find out the response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars to exogenous application of 100 mM glycinebetaine (GB) at different growth stages (vegetative, flowering and grain filling) was carried out under water limited environment, at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad during 2008-09, to find out the best GB application stage for improvement in drought tolerance potential. The wire house experiment was laid out in completely randomized design. D...

9. Evaluation of drought tolerance in several genotypes of spelt (Triticum aestivum Var. Spelta)

Silva, João Miguel Borges Branco da

2014-01-01

Domestication of plants and plant breeding have dramatically eroded the allelic variations of crop species which led to an increasing susceptibility of crop plants to environmental stresses, diseases and pests. Drought is a major environmental stress factor that affects the growth and development of plants so the selection of tolerant genotypes becomes increasingly important with respect to the predicted effects of global warming. In this study, several genotypes of Spelt (Triticum aestivum v...

10. Molecular markers validation to drought resistance in wheat meal (Triticum aestivum L.) under greenhouse conditions

Gabriel Julio; Veramendi Silene; España Pablo

2013-01-01

With the aim to study the genetic resistance to drought and validate molecular markers co-localized with genes/QTLs for this factor, 16 varieties were evaluated as well as advanced lines of wheat meal (Triticum aestivum) in two stages of crop development. Physiological parameters were considered: amount of chlorophyll (clo), wilting or severity degree (SEV) and recovery (reco), morphological parameters: foliage dry matter (FDM) and root dry matter (RDM), the integrated resistance mechanisms:...

11. ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENTATION IN TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.: GENETIC BASIS AND ROLE UNDER ABIOTIC STRESS CONDITIONS

Tereshchenko O.Yu.; E.I. Gordeeva; V.S. Arbuzova; E.K. Khlestkina

2012-01-01

Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites of plants. They have a wide range of biological activity such as antioxidant, photoprotection, osmoregulation, heavy metal ions chelation, antimicrobial and antifungal activities, which help plants to survive under different stress conditions. Bread wheat (T. aestivum L.) can have purple pigmentation provided by anthocyanin compounds in different organs, such as grain pericarp, coleoptile, culm, leaf blades, leaf sheaths, glumes and anthers. However, the...

12. The role of pH in Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum mycorrhiza development within commercial orchards

Paul W. Thomas

2013-12-01

Full Text Available The accepted advice when establishing a plantation of Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum is that young inoculated trees should be planted on calcareous soils with a naturally high pH level. When a site is employed that has a naturally low pH level, lime is often applied to raise the pH to a considered ideal level of c.7.5. However, this may not be the correct approach. Here we present data from 33 data points taken from commercial truffle orchards in England, UK. Soil pH is correlated to Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum mycorrhiza survivorship and development. The optimal observed pH was 7.51 but the actual optimal pH for cultivation may be higher. Sub optimal pH levels lead to a reduction of Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum mycorrhiza. This reduction is not permanent and mycorrhization levels may be improved within a 12 month period by amending the soil pH. The importance of understanding the interaction of pH with other variables and the results in relation truffle cultivation are discussed.

13. Ecological characteristics of a Hungarian summer truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittad. producing area

Csorbai A. Gógán

2013-12-01

Full Text Available Hungary has outstanding environment for natural truffle production in some regions including plain and hilly areas. The most famous of all the natural summer truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittad. habitats is the commonly called Jászság region. This area is situated in the middle of Hungary, between river Danube and Tisza. The flatland area is basically covered by river alluviums with main soils of chernozems, fluvisols, solonchaks and arenosols. Climate of the region is typically continental: warm and dry summers and cold winters vary. The area is traditionally of agricultural use, although strong afforestation was made in the late 1950’s. The English oak (Quercus robur L. populations planted at that time gave a basis for current excellent truffle production. Nowadays the region has proved to be the best natural summer truffle (T. aestivum producing area of Hungary with early season opening (June and high quality truffles as early as August. In the research the best truffle producing forest blocks were selected for ecological investigation. Results of the detailed site description showed uniform climate characteristics and dominance of English oak (Q. robur or mixed English oak-Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. forests. Soil types revealed differences from earlier findings: dominance of gleysols and water affected chernozems was declared. Soil chemical parameters are in accordance with literature data: pH, organic matter and active carbonate content of the examined soils fall within the range indicated as the requirement of T. aestivum.

14. Ectomycorrhizal communities above and below ground and truffle productivity in a Tuber aestivum orchard

Elena Salerni

2014-08-01

Full Text Available Aim of study: The diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities (EM above (EMFb and below (EMMt ground associated with Quercus cerris L., Q. pubescens Willd., and Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold was analyzed.Area of study: A 20 year-old orchard that produces Tuber aestivum truffles, located a few kilometers from Chiusi della Verna (latitude 43° 41’ 53’’; longitude 11° 56’ 9’’ in Tuscany (central Italy was observed.Material and Methods: This investigation combined analyses of EMFb, EMMt, T. aestivum productivity, different host trees, and statistical data on community ecology.Main results: The EM communities showed high species richness and differed slightly in relation to both the host tree and their location above or below ground, providing frequent findings of Tricholoma and Tomentella, respectively. Positive correlations were found between the number of truffles and host trees, and between the weight and number of truffles and EMFb.Research highlights: Mycorrhizal fungi and truffle production are not in competition.Key words: Fungal communities; fruiting bodies; morphotypes; Tuber aestivum; competition; Italy.

15. Cadmium toxicity on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat Triticum aestivum

Maria de Fátima Souza Guilherme

2015-11-01

Full Text Available Cadmium toxicity in seed germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum, var. IAC-370 is assessed. The ecotoxicological effects of six experimental concentrations of cadmium (0.03; 0.06; 0.12; 0.6; 1.2; 2.4; 4.8 mM, and control were evaluated. All assays were performed in quadruplicates with 25 seeds per replication in Petri dishes. Responses for toxic effect comprised the variables germination percentage, index of velocity of germination (IVG, length of aerial section and root of the seedlings, green and dry mass of the seedlings. Results showed that T. aestivum seeds exposed to cadmium decreased their normal germination percentage as from 0.03 mM concentration, with a 31% reduction of germination percentage and a 20% decrease in IVG. Cadmium´s inhibition effect on initial growth of seedlings influenced growth of roots and aerial part as from concentration 0.12 mM and reduced the production of green and dry mass of seedlings as from 0.06 mM. The presence and accumulation of cadmium in the soil cultivated with T. aestivum may trigger liabilities in productivity and/or viability caused by its toxicity as from 0.03mM concentrations absorbed by the plant roots.

16. ESTUDIO DE ALGUNOS GÉNEROS MICROBIANOS ASOCIADOS A DIFERENTES VARIEDADES DE TRIGO (Triticum aestivum L. EN SUELO FERRALÍTICO ROJO

Annia Hernández

2002-01-01

17. Effect of 2,4-D on Seedling Physiology and Cytogenetical Studies in Triticum aestivum and Phalaris minor ( Gramineae )%Effect of 2,4-D on Seedling Physiology and Cytogenetical Studies in Triticum aestivum and Phalaris minor (Gramineae)

2006-01-01

Effects of 2,4-D on seedling growth and chromosomal abnormalities were studied in Triticum aestivum and Phalaris minor. Seeds were soaked at different concentrations of 2,4 -D (0.01%, 0.1%, 1.0% ) for 4, 8, 12 and 16 hours. 2,4-D suppressed the germination more severely in P. minor than in T. aestivum. Shoot and root length was retarded with the increase of concentration and time of treatment in both species. Generally radical was more negatively affected than coleoptile and emergence of radical was not observed at 1.0% concentration at 8, 12, and 16 hours of treatment in T. aestivum while in P. minor there was a total lack of radical emergence at 1.0% concentration for all durations of treatment. Stiff and curled roots and undifferentiated callus like scutellar tissues were observed in T. aestivum, while in P. minor the coleoptile obtained was lean, pale green in colour and was lying flat on filter paper. Mitotic index decreased, while chromosomal abnormalities, bridges and laggards were increased with the increase of concentration and soaking time however, laggards were not observed in T. aestivum. Clumping and chain formation of chromosomes at metaphase was also noticed in P. minor.

18. Fractionation of Rare Earth Elements in Plants Ⅰ. Fractionation Patterns and Their Forming Mechanisms in Different Organs of Triticum Aestivum

Liang Tao; Ding Shiming; Zhang Chaosheng; Zhang Zili; Yan Juncai; Li Haitao

2005-01-01

Fractionations of rare earth elements (REEs) and the forming mechanisms in plants were studied using Triticum aestivum as plant material with application of exogenous REEs and hydroponic culture. REEs were significantly fractionated in different parts of Triticum aestivum. M-type tetrad effect could be observed in both root and shoot of Triticum aestivum, which might result from the different abilities of REEs to form phosphate precipitation. Middle REEs (MREEs), light REEs (LREEs) and heavy REEs (HREEs) were enriched in root, stem and leaf of Triticum aestivum, respectively. REE speciation calculations using VMINTEQ program show REEs in simulated xylem solution mainly exist as REE-EDTA- and RE3+, but only HREEs are enriched in REE-EDTA-, while LREEs are enriched in the other REE species. It is suggested that the fractionation between LREEs and HREEs might be caused by the uptake of REE-EDTA- in Triticum aestivum leaves, but might result from the uptake of the other REE species in their stems.

19. Miocarditis por dengue

Ricardo Amador García Hernández; Fidel Espinosa Rivera; Lianet Rivero Seriel

2013-01-01

El dengue es un arbovirus transmitido por el Aedes aegypti, produce los cuadros clínicos de dengue clásico, dengue hemorrágico y síndrome de choque por dengue, aisladamente se reportan casos de miocarditis. Se presentó un paciente con antecedentes de dengue clásico que manifestó dolor precordial asociado a cambios electrocardiográficos y fue ingresado en este hospital por síndrome coronario agudo probable, al cual se le diagnosticó clínicamente miocarditis por dengue.

20. Molecular Characterization and Global Expression Analysis of Lectin Receptor Kinases in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Pandey, Ajay K.; Singh, Kashmir; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar

2016-01-01

Lectin receptor kinases (LRKs) play a critical role in plants during development and stress conditions, but a comprehensive analysis at genome level is still not carried out in Triticum aestivum. Herein, we performed the genome wide identification, characterization and expression analysis of these genes in T. aestivum (TaLRK). In-total 263 TaLRK genes were identified, which were further classified into three groups based on the nature of lectin domain. We identified, two TaLRKs consisted of calcium-dependent lectin (C-LRK), while 84 legume-lectin (L-LRK) and 177 bulb-lectin (B-LRK) domains. The L-LRK and B-LRK genes were distributed throughout the genome of T. aestivum. Most of the TaLRKs were clustered as homologs, which were distributed either in proximity on same chromosome or on homoeologous chromosomes of A, B and D sub-genomes. A total of 9 and 58 duplication events were also predicted in L-LRK and B-LRK, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated conserved evolutionary relationship of homologous and orthologous genes from multiple plant species. Gene ontology analysis indicated TaLRKs role in binding, signaling and receptor activities. Most of the TaLRKs consisted of a trans-membrane domain and predicted to be localized in the plasma-membrane. A diverse expression pattern of TaLRK genes was found in various developmental stages and stress conditions. Some TaLRKs were found to be highly affected during a particular stress, which indicated a specialized role of each LRK gene in a specific stress condition. These results described various characteristic feature and expression pattern of TaLRK genes, which will pave the way for functional characterization in wheat. PMID:27111449

1. Responses of alloplasmic (cytoplasm=Triticum timopheevii) and euplasmic wheats (Triticum aestivum) to photoperiod and vernalization.

Ward, R W; Heyne, E G; Paulsen, G M

1983-07-01

Studies were conducted to determine the influence of the male sterility-inducing cytoplasm of Triticum timopheevii (Zhuk.) Zhuk. on response of several common winter wheat (T. aestivum L.) nuclear genotypes to photoperiod and vernalization. Comparative studies of cytoplasmic substitution lines provide information on the role of the cytoplasmic genetic mechanism in growth and development. In the case of cytoplasmic male sterility-based hybrid production systems, ubiquity of sterility-inducing cytoplasm in derived hybrids warrants thorough characterization of its influence on plant phenotype. Factorial combinations of cytoplasm (T. timopheevii and T. aestivum), nuclear genotype, and photoperiod or vernalization treatments were evaluated under hydroponic conditions in controlled environment chambers. Interaction of cytoplasm, photoperiod, and nuclear genotype was significant in one or more experiments for days to anthesis and potential spikelet number, and interaction of cytoplasm, vernalization, and nuclear genotype was significant for days to spike emergence. Long day length was associated with increased percentage seed set in one study, but interactions of photoperiod and cytoplasm were not detected for percentage seed set. Interactions involving cytoplasm and photoperiod or vernalization were interpreted as evidence of the existence of genetic factors in cytoplsam of T. timopheevii which alter photoperiod or vernalization responses of alloplasmic plants relative to responses exhibited by euplasmic plants. Since photoperiod and vernalization responses are critical to adaptation, T. timopheevii cytoplasm can alter adaptability of T. aestivum. The specific effect would be nuclear genotype dependent, and does not appear to be of a magnitude greater than that induced by nuclear genetic variability at loci conditioning photoperiod or vernalization responses or other adaptation-determining characteristics. Normal multilocation/year testing of alloplasmic hybrids should

2. The effect of foliar fungicides on the mycoflora of seeds of Triticum aestivum

Janusz Błaszkowski

2014-08-01

Full Text Available The effect of three foliar fungicides. i.e., Bayloton 25 WP, Dithane M-45, and Funaben K. on the mycoflora associated with the seeds of spring Triticum aestivum cv. Kolibri cultivated in the field was investigated. The fungicide which highly reduced the number of both fungal colonies and species was Funaben K. Of the fungi most frequently occurring. Only Funaben K applied on the seeds reduced the proportion of seeds with Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium spp.. and Septoria nodorum. In contrast. seeds from plants traeted with Funaben K harboured significantly more colonies of non-sporulating fungi.

3. Induced mutations and their genetic aspects in wheat (Triticum aestivum vulgare)

The hexaploid nature of common wheat (Triticum aestivum vulgare) and triplication of the genes allow a great number of primary induced changes to be present and maintained through generations. Induced mutations have been obtained in the morphological characters of the wheat spike, grain character, plant height, disease resistance, and in many other quantitative characters. In some of our experiments these have been followed through 25 generations. The genetic aspects of these changes, their effect on the micro-evolutionary processes in the populations, and their applicability in plant breeding are discussed. (author). 56 refs

4. Uptake and elimination of lanthanum by excised roots of Triticum aestivum

In this paper, uptake and elimination of lanthanum by excised roots of Triticum aestivum L. in various conditions were studied. Lanthanum concentrations in the roots were determined by neutron activation analysis. Results showed that the uptake of La in the excised root was almost independent of vitality, and the bonding of La with the roots was tight, but could be removed by EDTA treatment. There was significant dose dependent accumulation of La in the excised roots within the experimental concentration (0-40 μmol/l). (author)

5. Results of Utilization of Chernobyl Radio Mutant in Breeding Programmes of Triticum aestivum L

A large spectrum of mutations was observed as a result of winter wheat T. aestivum L. irradiation for two consecutive vegetative seasons (during 1986-87) in the fields close to the ruined reactor of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. Mutants taken from the different generations (L147/91, BC 47 square head, dwarf 20104/89) were used for development of the varieties Lybid, Yasochka and Tsarivna to utilize traits from the mutants such as hardiness, drought tolerance, disease and lodging resistance and bread quality. These varieties were included in the State Variety Register of Ukraine, while another one, Lisova Pisnya is included in the list of perspective varieties. (author)

6. Ectomycorrhizal communities above and below ground and truffle productivity in a Tuber aestivum orchard

Elena Salerni; Maria D'Aguanno; Pamela Leonardi; Claudia Perini

2014-01-01

Aim of study: The diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities (EM) above (EMFb) and below (EMMt) ground associated with Quercus cerris L., Q. pubescens Willd., and Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold was analyzed.Area of study: A 20 year-old orchard that produces Tuber aestivum truffles, located a few kilometers from Chiusi della Verna (latitude 43° 41’ 53’’; longitude 11° 56’ 9’’) in Tuscany (central Italy) was observed.Material and Methods: This investigation combined analyses of EMFb, EMMt, T. aest...

7. Fuzzy clustering analysis for the varietal radiosensitivity of triticum aestivum L

Fussy clustering classification to the varietal radiosensitivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was carried out. According to their response to the radiation of gamma rays, 49 wheat varieties were classified into five groups: higher resistant, resistant, intermediate response, sensitive, and higher sensitive. The research presents a new approach for the classification of the varietal radiosensitivity of a certain plant species, and the result was valuable for choosing the adequate irradiated materials and determining the optimal dosage so as to enhance the mutagenic efficiency in wheat radiation breeding. The reliability and advantage of the Fussy clustering classification for the plant varietal radiosensitivity were briefly discussed

8. Effects of high temperature after anthesis on starch granules in grains of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Liu, P.; Guo, W; Jiang, Z.; Pu, H.; Feng, C.; Zhu, X.; Peng, Y.; KUANG, A.; LITTLE, C. R.

2010-01-01

SUMMARY The effect of high temperatures (above 25°C) on starch concentration and the morphology of starch granules in the grains of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were studied. Wheat plants of cultivars Yangmai 9 (weak-gluten) and Yangmai 12 (medium-gluten) were treated with high temperatures for 3 days at different times after anthesis. The results showed that the starch concentration of grains given a heat-shock treatment above 30°C were lower than those developing at normal temperature in bo...

9. Physiological processes associated with genetic progress in yield potential of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Aisawi, Khaled A. Boulgasem

2012-01-01

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most widely grown of any crop and provides one-fifth of the total calories of the world's population. Since the 1960s, increases in productivity have been achieved as a result of wide-scale adoption of Green Revolution technologies. However, in spite of growing demand, the challenges of increasing production to feed an estimated world population of 9 billion in 2050 are still considerable. Due to the increased demand, it is estimated that food production mu...

10. Effect of Organic Contaminations on Seed Germination Studies in Tritium Aestivum (L.)

Smita Sureshrao Kharkale, Pratibha Sunil Agrawal, Lalitmohan Jainarayan Paliwal, Int J Cur Bio Med Sci.

2011-01-01

An attempt has been made for germination studies in Triticum Aestivum (L.) with1,2,4,5-trtrazin. It has a wide range of biological activity covering anticoagulant, bactericidal, fungicidal, neurotropopic. Such a vast uses of 1,2,4,5-Tetrazines, necessitate to concentrate on 1,2,4,5-Tetrazines for studying the germination pattern. The experimental data was used to calculate plant growth which in turn is decided on the basis of parameters such as percentage of germination survival, seedling hei...

11. Hydrogen peroxide scavenging regulates germination ability during wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed maturation

Ishibashi, Yushi; Yamamoto, Kouhei; Tawaratsumida, Tomoya; Yuasa, Takashi; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari

2008-01-01

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) promotes seed germination of cereal plants and ascorbic acid which acts as antioxidant suppresses the germination of wheat seeds, but the role of H2O2 scavenging on germination during seed maturation has not been demonstrated. We investigated relationship of germination, ascorbate, H2O2 scavenging enzymes and sensitivity to ascorbic acid (AsA) maturing seeds of two typical wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, cvs. Shirogane-Komugi and Norin61. Shirogane-Komugi had ...

12. Cadmium toxicity on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat Triticum aestivum

Maria de Fátima Souza Guilherme; Habyhabanne Maia Oliveira; Edevaldo da Silva

2015-01-01

Cadmium toxicity in seed germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum, var. IAC-370) is assessed. The ecotoxicological effects of six experimental concentrations of cadmium (0.03; 0.06; 0.12; 0.6; 1.2; 2.4; 4.8 mM), and control were evaluated. All assays were performed in quadruplicates with 25 seeds per replication in Petri dishes. Responses for toxic effect comprised the variables germination percentage, index of velocity of germination (IVG), length of aerial section and roo...

13. The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva S. K.;

2013-01-01

Title: The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Session: Plant response and adaptation to abiotic stress Sindhuja Shanmugam1, Katrine Heinsvig Kjaer2*, Carl-Otto Ottosen2, Eva Rosenqvist3, Dew Kumari Sharma3 and Bernd......Institute for Agroecology, Aarhus University, Forsøgsvej 1, 4200 Slagelse, Denmark *Presenting author This study analysed the alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on stress-induced decreases in photosynthesis and changes in carbohydrate metabolism in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) of different...

14. Biochemical analysis of whole wheat (triticum aestivum) flour of different wheat cultivars commonly grown in NWFP

Whole wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour of six different NWFP wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars named as Ghaznavi-98, Auqab, Fakhr-e-sarhad Saleem-2000, Khyber-87 and Pirsabak-2005 were evaluated for Biochemical, Physical and Sensory characteristics in order to highlight their nutritional significance. The maximum level of Protein content (16.11%) was found in wheat cultivar Pirsabak-2005 where as minimum protein content was found in Auqab (11.73%). Crude fat content of whole-wheat flour was found lower in Khyber-87 (1.74%)and higher in Fakhr-e-sarhad (2.21%), Ghaznavi-98 was found to have maximum crude fiber value (0.74%) while Saleem-2000 was found to have minimum value (0.40%). Maximum ash content was found for Fakhr-e-sarhad (2.12%) and minimum was found for Saleem-2000 (1.05%). Wheat cultivars Ghaznavi-98 was found to have maximum moisture content (14%), while Pirsabak-2005 was found to have lower moisture content (13.11%). The wet gluten content was recorded in the range of 8.7 to 5.2% while dry gluten content was found in the ranged of 2.82 to 2.03% and The falling number was recorded in the range of 64 to 214 and significantly higher in saleem-2000 (214). For Sensory Evaluation, it is evidence that maximum overall acceptability were found both for Ghaznavi-98 and Pirsabak-2000 and Minimum for Saleem-2000 (6.4). (author)

15. Effects of Radiofrequency Waves on the Catalase Content in Triticum Aestivum

Full text: The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible effects on enzyme biosynthesis in Triticum aestivum cariopsydes due to exposure to traveling radiofrequency (RF) waves. Triticum cariopsydes have been exposed to traveling RF waves inside a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell fed by a RF Power Generator. The frequency of the exposure field was 400 MHz. The TEM cell was excited with 2W RF power in order to obtain a power density of about 1 mW/cm2. Four sets of Triticum aestivum samples were placed in four Petri dishes. For each set of Triticum cariopsydes there has been chosen a daily exposure duration of 1, 2, 4 and 8 hours respectively. Experimental exposure was carried out for five consecutive days. After the electromagnetic treatment cariopsydes were let to germinate in Petri dishes on porous filter paper support. A couple of days later the catalase assay was performed. In comparison to the control samples, exposed samples revealed modified catalase content, significantly over the error level (five replays of every sample were assayed in identical experimental conditions in order to provide a reliable statistic result). All exposed samples presented higher catalase levels in comparison to the control samples. However, the experimental data do not suggest an evident analytical dependence between the catalase content and the exposure time duration. We presume that exposure to traveling RF waves seems to be a stimulatory factor of the enzyme biosynthesis being able to improve Triticum capacity of enzyme biosynthesis in the described experimental conditions. (author)

16. The physiological significance of HKT1, a Na+ - coupled high affinity K+ transporter in 'Triticum aestivum'

Full text: Several mechanisms for high affinity K+ uptake by higher plants have been proposed:-an ATP-energised K:+ pump, a K+/H+ antiport and a H+coupled carrier. Recently, a Na+--coupled high affinity K+ transporter, HKT1, was isolated from wheat roots. Whilst Na+K+ symports have been described in charophyte algae, the cloning of HKT1 from wheat is the first, evidence that this type d transport mechanism may function in higher plants. Is the activity of HKT1 an important mechanism involved in K+ acquisition by wheat? The aim of this study was to assess the physiological significance of Na+- coupled high affinity K+ uptake in T. aestivum. To determine whether HKT1 plays a significant role in wheat growth, we measured the dry weights and ion content of plants grown in a range of [K+], with and without Na+. To directly assess the activity of Na+- coupled K+ transport, 86Rb+ and 22Na+ flux analyses were performed on the elongation zones and whole roots of intact seedlings, expressing a high affinity K+ uptake system. The results of these growth and tracer flux studies will be discussed in relation to the expression of the gene encoding HKT1 in T. aestivum

17. COMPORTAMIENTO DEL CRECIMIENTO Y RENDIMIENTO DEL CULTIVO DEL TRIGO (Triticum aestivum L. EN TRES FECHAS DE SIEMBRA

Naivy Hernández Córdova

2015-01-01

18. Indução de mutação visando a redução de altura de planta e resistência às doenças no cultivar de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. IAC-17 Reduction of plant height and disease resistance through mutation breeding of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. IAC-17

A. Tulmann Neto

1995-08-01

19. STUDY OF THE ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC, ANTIOXIDATIVE AND ANTIATHEROGENIC ACTIVITY OF TRITICUM AESTIVUM LINN. IN RABBIT RECEIVING HIGH FAT DIET

Das Swarnamoni

2012-10-01

Full Text Available The aim was to study of the antihyperlipidemic, antioxidative and antiatherogenic activity of Triticum aestivum Linn. in rabbit receiving high fat diet. Twenty rabbits of either sex were taken and divided into four groups five in each as - Normal Control- received normal diet, Hyperlipidemic control- received high fat diet, Test drug group - received high fat diet plus ethanolic extract of Triticum aestivum 500 mg/Kg /day orally and Standard Drug group- received high fat diet plus Atorvastatin 2.1 mg/Kg/day orally for 12 weeks and then animals were sacrificed. Blood sample were collected and lipid profile, catalase, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels were measured. The antiatherogenic effect was examined by histopathology of aorta. Data were statistically analysed by one way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s multiple comparison test. Triticum aestivum significantly decreased serum lipids towards normal levels. It also increases catalase and superoxide dismutase activity and decreases malondialdehyde level and histopathological examination revealed prevention of atherosclerosis. Triticum aestivum has antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant and anti atherogenic effects.

20. Acute toxicity test of a natural iron chelator and an antioxidant, extracted from Triticum aestivum Linn. (wheat grass).

Das, Priyabrata; Mukhopadhyay, Soma; Mandal, Suvra; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Pal, Amartya; Sarkar, Nirmal Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Ashis

2014-01-01

Triticum aestivum (wheat grass) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases. Previously the purified compounds and crude extract of T. aestivum were established to have iron chelation potency and antioxidant activity. So it is necessary to evaluate the toxic properties of any compound isolated from plant extract to prevent any untoward side effects. The aim of this study was to determine the acute oral toxicity level of our purified compounds, i.e. mugineic acids and methylpheophorbide a., and crude extract of T. aestivum, on Swiss albino mice at dosage of 2000 mg/kg for a period of 14 days using the organisation for economic co-operation and development guidelines 423. There was no mortality. No change in behavioural pattern, clinical signs, body weight and blood biochemistry profile were observed. Kidney and liver showed normal histo-pathological architecture. Hence, the oral administration of compounds and extract of T. aestivum did not produce any significant toxic effect on mice. Thus we may conclude that the extract can be utilised for pharmaceutical formulations as iron chelator and antioxidant agent for various diseases. PMID:24697628

1. Studies on certain aspects of seed-borne fungi. VI. Fungi associated with different cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Pandey, K. K.

2014-01-01

Fungi associated with eight cultivars of wheat have been investigated. Twenty seven species were isolated from external and internal surface of all the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars respectively. Out of five dominant and subdominant fungi anly Aspergillus terreus and Alternaria tenuis were able to colonize internally. The culture filtrates of test fungi reduced the germination of all wheat varieties up to different degrees.

2. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

3. Natural production of Tuber aestivum in central Spain: Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp. brûlés

Luis G. Garcia-Montero

2014-08-01

Full Text Available Aim of study: Tuber aestivum is the most widespread edible truffle, with increasing commercial interest. This species can produce carpophores with conifer hosts, in contrast with the inability of Pinus spp. to induce fruiting in other truffle species such as Tuber melanosporum. Therefore the objective is to compare the characteristics and carpophore production of T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp.Area of study: We studied the natural habitats of T. aestivum in the Alto Tajo Nature Reserve in central Spain.Material and methods: During 5 years, we monitored the production of carpophores and brûlé size of 145 T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris and Quercus ilex subsp. ballota and Q. faginea hosts. Statistical treatment was performed using the Statistica Program v. 6.Main Results: The size of brûlés associated with Pinus was significantly smaller than that of brûlés associated with Quercus. However, carpophore production per brûlé, and especially for brûlés of similar size, was greater when the host plant was a pine. After accounting for brûlé size, the production of brûlés associated with Pinus spp. was 2.23 (95% CI, between 1.35 and 3.69 and 1.61 (95% CI, between 1.02 and 2.54 times greater than the production of brûlés associated with Quercus faginea and Q. ilex subsp. ballota, respectively.Research highlights: The considerable ability of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris to form effective brûlés and to produce carpophores of Tuber aestivum in natural conditions was clearly demonstrated, and suggest that those species can be of use in the culture of T. aestivum.Key words: Summer truffle; Tuber aestivum; truffle culture; truffle ecology; Pinus spp.; Quercus spp.

4. Comparison in the calculation of committed effective dose using the ICRP 30 and ICRP 60 models for a repeated incorporation by inhalation of I-125; Comparacion en el calculo de la dosis efectiva comprometida usando los modelos del ICRP 30 y del ICRP 60 para una incorporacion repetida por inhalacion de I-125

Carreno P, A.L.; Cortes C, A. [CNSNS, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Alonso V, G.; Serrano P, F. [IPN, Edificio de Fisica Avanzada Zacatenco, 07300 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

2005-07-01

Presently work, a comparison in the calculation of committed effective dose using the models of the ICRP 30 and those of the ICRP 60 for the analysis of internal dose due to repeated incorporation of I-125 is shown. The estimations of incorporated activity are obtained starting from the proportionate data for an exercise of inter comparison, with which it should be determined the internal dose later on. For to estimate the initial activity incorporated by repeated dose was assumed that this it was given through of multiple individual incorporations which happened in the middle points of the monitoring periods. The results using the models of the ICRP 30 and of the ICRP 60 are compared and the causes of the differences are analyzed. (Author)

5. Heavy metal ions concentration in wheat plant (Triticum Aestivum L.) irrigated with city effluent

Pakistan lies under arid and semi arid zones. There is shortage of water for irrigation. Farmers near being cities raise crops by diverting the city effluent towards their fields. It contains heavy toxic metal ions like cadmium, chromium, cobalt and nickel, which may accumulate in the edible portion of corps and cause clinical problems to human being. The concentration of metal ions in the effluent and effluent irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Heavy metal ions (Cd, Cr and Co) mean concentrations were found above the permissible limits recommended for irrigation water. In the grains of wheat plant concentration of Cd, Cr and Co was found above the permissible levels recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) for foodstuff.(author)

6. Amelioration of salt stress in wheat (triticum aestivum l.) by foliar application of nitrogen and potassium

An experiment was conducted in the Department of Biological Sciences, University of Sargodha, Pakistan. Different levels, viz. 0, 250, 500 mg/L, of nitrogen (N) and 0, 200, 400 mg/L of potassium (K) were applied exogenously as a foliar spray to determine whether application of N and K could ameliorate the effect of salinity stress on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). It was composed of three replications. Each pot was filled with 8kg of well-mixed soil. Different salinity levels were adjusted in accordance with saturation percentage of soil. Salinity reduced the growth of wheat plants. When K and N were applied as foliar spray on the wheat plant, it reduced the effect of salinity and increased the plant growth and physiological attributes of wheat plants. Similarly, grains yield is also decreased by salinity but foliar application of K and N mitigated the salinity effect on grains yield. (author)

7. Genetic analysis for yield and yield components in spring wheat (Triticum Aestivum.)

A 5x5 diallel cross experiment on spring wheat (triticum aestivum L: em. Thell) was conducted to estimate the genetic information of some yield and yield components. Number of tillers per plant and grain yield per plant were controlled by over dominance type of gene action. While the characters like plant height, flag leaf area and peduncle length were additive in their genetic control. Epistatic interaction was not detected for manifestation of any character. Variety LU 26S had maximum dominant genes for no. of tillers per plant, peduncle length and grain yield per plant and maximum recessive genes for flag leaf area. While line lRG-7 appeared to have dominant genes for plant height, flag leaf area and recessive for number of tillers per plant and grain yield per plant. (author)

8. [CdCl2-induced morphogenetic variation of Triticum aestivum cultivars].

Chunetova, Zh Zh; Omirbekova, N Zh; Shulembaeva, K K

2008-11-01

The effect cadmium chloride on released local cultivars of soft spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) has been studied under laboratory and field conditions in order to widen the variation spectrum of this plant. It has been found that treatment of grains with a 0.01% aqueous solution of CdCl2 induces the appearance of tall, strong plants with productive bushiness in the M1 generation that are characterized by various morphological changes: elongated ears, scales, and grains; increased number of grains per ear and mass of 1000 grains; anthocyan pigmentation of the stem and leaf axil; etc. Study of meiosis showed chromosome aggregation, displacement of the mitotic spindle of the metaphase plate, and empty (sterile) cells in anaphases (AI and AII). The altered characters of M1 plants are preserved in the M2-M4 generations. PMID:19137733

9. First Identification of Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers in the Burgundy Truffle, Tuber aestivum (Tuberaceae

Virginie Molinier

2013-02-01

Full Text Available Premise of the study: Tuber aestivum, the most common truffle in Europe, plays an important role in the commercial truffle market. For the first time, microsatellite primers were developed to investigate polymorphism within this species. Methods and Results: Using direct shotgun pyrosequencing, 15 polymorphic microsatellites were identified out of the 7784 perfect microsatellites present in the 534620 reads obtained. Tested on 75 samples, these microsatellites were highly polymorphic. The number of alleles varied from four to 15, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.266 to 0.620. A multilocus analysis allowed the identification of 63 genotypes over the 75 samples analyzed. Conclusions: Direct shotgun pyrosequencing is a fast and relatively low-cost technique allowing identification of microsatellites in nonmodel species. The microsatellites developed in this study will be useful in population genetic studies to infer the evolutionary history of this species.

10. Improved fluorimetric measurement of uranium uptake and distribution in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Borcia, Catalin [' ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' ' Univ., Iasi (Romania). Dept. of Physics; Popa, Karin; Cecal, Alexandru [' ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' ' Univ., Iasi (Romania). Dept. of Chemistry; Murariu, Manuela [' ' Petru Poni' ' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi (Romania)

2016-08-01

Uranium uptake and (radio)toxicity was tested on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a laboratory study using differently concentrated uranium nitrate solutions. Within these experiments, two analytical assays of uranium were comparatively tested: a fast and improved fluorimetric assay and the classical colorimetric (U(IV)-arsenazo(III) complexation) one. During the germination, the wheat seeds and plantlets supported well the uranium solutions of treatment within the entire concentration range (1 x 10{sup -4} -5 x 10{sup -3} M). Uranium proved to be non (radio)toxic to wheat as compared with other natural and anthropogenic radiocations, probably because its uptake by spring wheat during the germination is low. Indeed, only a small fraction of uranium administered was located within the roots, whereas the uranium content of the stems was negligible. A high correlation between the results obtained by two analytical methods was found. However, the fluorimetric assay proved to be more reliable and fast, and accurate.

11. Intermediate fertile Triticum aestivum (+) Agropyron elongatum somatic hybrids are generated by low doses of UV irradiation

Ai Xia CHENG; Guang Min XIA; Da Ying ZHI; Hui Min CHEN

2004-01-01

We report the production and characterization of somatic hybrids between Triticum aestivum L. and Agropyron elongatum (Host) Nevishi (the synonym is Thinopyrum ponticum). Asymmetric protoplast fusion was performed between Agropyron elongatum protoplasts irradiated with a low UV dose and protoplasts of wheat taken from nonregenerable suspension cultures. More than 40 green plantlets were obtained from 15 regenerated clones and one of them produced seeds. The phenotypes of the hybrid plants and seeds were intermediate between wheat and Agropyron elongatum. All of the regenerated calli and plants were verified as intergeneric hybrids on the basis of morphological observation and analysis of isozyme,cytological,5SrDNA spacer sequences and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). RFLP analysis of the mitochondrial genome revealed evidence of random segregation and recombination of mtDNA.

12. Cellular and Subcellular Immunohistochemical Localization and Quantification of Cadmium Ions in Wheat (Triticum aestivum.

Wei Gao

Full Text Available The distribution of metallic ions in plant tissues is associated with their toxicity and is important for understanding mechanisms of toxicity tolerance. A quantitative histochemical method can help advance knowledge of cellular and subcellular localization and distribution of heavy metals in plant tissues. An immunohistochemical (IHC imaging method for cadmium ions (Cd2+ was developed for the first time for the wheat Triticum aestivum grown in Cd2+-fortified soils. Also, 1-(4-Isothiocyanobenzyl-ethylenediamine-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid (ITCB-EDTA was used to chelate the mobile Cd2+. The ITCB-EDTA/Cd2+ complex was fixed with proteins in situ via the isothiocyano group. A new Cd2+-EDTA specific monoclonal antibody, 4F3B6D9A1, was used to locate the Cd2+-EDTA protein complex. After staining, the fluorescence intensities of sections of Cd2+-positive roots were compared with those of Cd2+-negative roots under a laser confocal scanning microscope, and the location of colloidal gold particles was determined with a transmission electron microscope. The results enable quantification of the Cd2+ content in plant tissues and illustrate Cd2+ translocation and cellular and subcellular responses of T. aestivum to Cd2+ stress. Compared to the conventional metal-S coprecipitation histochemical method, this new IHC method is quantitative, more specific and has less background interference. The subcellular location of Cd2+ was also confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The IHC method is suitable for locating and quantifying Cd2+ in plant tissues and can be extended to other heavy metallic ions.

13. Analysis of Triticum aestivum seedling response to the excess of zinc.

Glińska, Sława; Gapińska, Magdalena; Michlewska, Sylwia; Skiba, Elżbieta; Kubicki, Jakub

2016-03-01

The effects of 50 and 300 mg L(-1) Zn(2+) (50 Zn and 300 Zn) were investigated in Triticum aestivum (cv. Żura) grown hydroponically for 7 days. Although wheat treated with 50 Zn took up relatively high amount of the metal (8,943 and 1,503 mg kg(-1) DW in roots and shoots, respectively), none of the morphological and cytological parameters were changed. After 300 Zn, the metal concentration increased to 32,205 and 5,553 mg kg(-1) DW in roots and shoots, respectively. It was connected with the depletion of shoot and root growth, their fresh and dry weight, water content and mitotic index of root meristematic cells. Microelement contents (Cu, Mn and Fe) after 50 Zn were changed only in roots, while 300 Zn disturbed ion balance in whole plants. The most evident ultrastructural alterations of root meristematic cells caused by both tested Zn(2+) doses included increased vacuolization, accumulation of granular deposits inside vacuoles and cell wall thickening. The effect of 300 Zn on root cell ultrastructure was greater that of 50 Zn. The majority of mitochondria had condensed matrix and swollen cristae, plastids contained plastoglobuli, nucleoli were ring-shaped, thinned down cytoplasm with lipid droplets and swollen endoplasmic reticulum cisternae appeared. In mesophyll cells, 50 Zn caused slight reorganization of chloroplast thylakoids and formation of condensed mitochondria. Three hundred Zn triggered more extensive, but not degenerative, changes: plasmolysis of some cells; chloroplasts with protrusions, changed thylakoid organisation and often large starch grains; irregular, condensed mitochondria. The results indicate that T. aestivum cv. Żura is relatively tolerant to Zn stress. PMID:25902894

14. Osteomielitis por salmonella

Alicia Velázquez Pérez

2014-08-01

Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de color blanco y dos años de edad, con diagnóstico prenatal de sicklemia, que desde edades tempranas tiene problemas de la enfermedad. Ingresó en esta ocasión por una de las complicaciones infecciosas que ocasiona este padecimiento, una osteomielitis del húmero izquierdo, aislándose el germen en el hemocultivo realizado, una salmonella. Necesitó de tratamiento enérgico y prolongado; se obtuvo un resultado satisfactorio en la evolución de la enfermedad y se sigue sistemáticamente por consulta externa en la actualidad

Ciro E. Iglesias Coronel

2006-01-01

Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se brinda la metodología de realización y evaluación de los principales indicadores energéticos de los agregados de transporte agrícola, formados por tractores y remolques con el uso de la tensometría como herramienta para la toma de los datos experimentales de campo.

16. Incorporacion de tecnologias educativas en la UTN-FRT

2010-01-01

En el presente trabajo, se pretende relatar y compartir, las experiencias que venimos desarrollando en la Universidad Tecnológica Nacional (UTN), Facultad Regional Tucumán (FRT), desde el año 2008 hasta el presente, y consiste en la sucesiva incorporación de tecnologías educativas en el ámbito universitario para el mejoramiento de los procesos de enseñanza – aprendizaje y con el fin de adaptar estos procesos a los tiempos actuales. Este proyecto se basa en las siguientes hipótesis de traba...

17. Europe, a continent with high potential for the cultivation of the Burgundy truffle (Tuber aestivum/uncinatum)

Gérard Chevalier

2013-01-01

The Burgundy truffle (Tuber aestivum/uncinatum) grows, in Europe, in the most varied soils from a physical and chemical viewpoint. The only common point is the presence of a minimum level of exchangeable calcium in the soil. The truffle soils in Europe can be classified in two categories: the soils coming directly from the parent rock, and those formed from deposits covering the parent rock. The first group corresponds to most traditional truffle areas , France, Italy and Spain. It is also tr...

18. Biostimulation effects on wheat seeds (Triticum Aestivum L) caused by low level red laser radiation with λ = 660 nm

The principal objective is to study the biostimulation effects caused by a semiconductor low level laser radiation with ? = 660 nm on wheat seeds (Triticum Aestivum L). Seeds were treated before sowing with this laser light source. An increase in the growth of the stem of 12% with respect to control seeds was registered for seeds radiated by an intensity of 15mW/cm2 and an irradiation time of 60 seconds. (Author)

19. THE EFFECT OF TRIFOLII RUBRI FLOS (RED CLOVER FLOWERS) HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. PLANTS

Ruxandra Cretu; Lacramioara Oprica; Gabriela Voichita; Elena Truta; Csilla Iuliana Bara; Gogu Gheorghita

2012-01-01

Red clover (Trifolium pratense) hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by the extraction of powdered driedflowers with ethanol 70% v/v (1:13.33), by reflux for two hours. The stock extract was diluted with distilled water to givethe final concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 5% (v/v). These concentrations were tested for their effects on superoxide-dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings, and on soluble protein content, in alaboratory experiment. Distilled w...

20. Determination on Genetic Variation for Morphological Traits and Yield Components of New Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) Lines

Sali Ali ALIU; FETAHU, Shukri

2010-01-01

he genetic studies were conducted on six new winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) line during three years investigations developed in agro ecological conditions of Kosovo. Data for various morphological and yield traits were taken and analyzed for spike length (SL), plant height (PH), total dry matter (TDM), spike Weight (SW), grain weight per spike (GWS), yield (Y) and harvest index (HI). Field design consisted in a randomized blocks design (RBD) with three replications. Results indicated tha...

1. RNA-seq in grain unveils fate of neo- and paleopolyploidization events in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Pont, Caroline; Murat, Florent; Confolent, Carole; Balzergue, Sandrine; Salse, Jérôme

2011-01-01

Background Whole genome duplication is a common evolutionary event in plants. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a good model to investigate the impact of paleo- and neoduplications on the organization and function of modern plant genomes. Results We performed an RNA sequencing-based inference of the grain filling gene network in bread wheat and identified a set of 37,695 non-redundant sequence clusters, which is an unprecedented resolution corresponding to an estimated half of the wheat g...

2. An Investigation of the Effects of Cationic, Anionic and Nonionic Surfactants on Germination Rates of Triticum Aestivum L

Yılmaz, Gülden

2015-01-01

In this study, the effects of different concentrations of a cationic surfactant (CTAB) cetrymonium bromid, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), an anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and a nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 on germination rates of Triticum aestivum L. are observed. Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension of a liquid, the interfacial tension between two liquids, or between a liquid and a solid. Detergents, wetti...

3. Mixed cropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) landraces in the central highlands of Eritrea

Woldeamlak, A.

2001-01-01

A common cropping system in the central highlands of Eritrea is mixed cropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum); it is called hanfetz (Tigrigna word). Mixtures may give higher yield, better yield stability, better food quality and more animal feed. Factors affecting the productivity of mixtures include genotype combination, crop density and component crop ratio.Grain yields differed significantly among genotype combinations in certain years. A combination of Ardu 12/6...

4. Growing Wheat (Trititcum aestivum L.) by the Methods of Organic Agriculture Under the Conditions of Dobrudzha Region, Bulgaria

Milev, G.; NANKOV, N.; ILIEV, I.; Ivanova, A.; NANKOVA, M.

2014-01-01

During 2011 – 2013 a field experiment with wheat (Trititcum aestivum L.) was carried out in the trial field of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute. The aim of the investigation was to determine what are the possibilities of growing common wheat in a main wheat production region (Dobrudzha, north-east Bulgaria) using the methods of organic agriculture. The results from the biological growing were compared to the respective results obtained by the conventional method. The following agronomy factor...

5. Genotype and environment interaction on yield and quality parameters of organically grown winter wheat – Triticum aestivum L. genotypes

Dashbaljir, Ichinkhorloo; Liebhard, P.; W. Hartl; Loeschenberger, F.; Weinhappel, M.

2005-01-01

The interaction of genotype and environment upon yield and quality parameters of eight winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes was studied under organic conditions in Austria over two growing periods, 2001/2002 and 2002/2003, respectively. Two sites that have significantly different climatic conditions, Innviertel and Marchfeld, were chosen for the field experiment. Study site weather and soil conditions are important yield-affecting factors. Although the yield of Marchfeld-grown ge...

6. Heading Date QTL in Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Coincide with Major Developmental Genes VERNALIZATION1 and PHOTOPERIOD1

Guedira, Mohammed; Xiong, Mai; Hao, Yuan Feng; Johnson, Jerry; Harrison, Steve; Marshall, David; Brown-Guedira, Gina

2016-01-01

In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), time from planting to spike emergence is influenced by genes controlling vernalization requirement and photoperiod response. Characterizing the available genetic diversity of known and novel alleles of VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) and PHOTOPERIOD1 (PPD1) in winter wheat can inform approaches for breeding climate resilient cultivars. This study identified QTL for heading date (HD) associated with multiple VRN1 and PPD1 loci in a population developed from a cross betwe...

7. Studies on certain aspects of seed-borne fungi. VI. Fungi associated with different cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

K. K. Pandey

2014-11-01

Full Text Available Fungi associated with eight cultivars of wheat have been investigated. Twenty seven species were isolated from external and internal surface of all the wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars respectively. Out of five dominant and subdominant fungi anly Aspergillus terreus and Alternaria tenuis were able to colonize internally. The culture filtrates of test fungi reduced the germination of all wheat varieties up to different degrees.

8. Temporal transcriptome profiling reveals expression partitioning of homeologous genes contributing to heat and drought acclimation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Liu, Zhenshan; Xin, Mingming; Qin, Jinxia; Peng, Huiru; Ni, Zhongfu; Yao, Yingyin; Sun, Qixin

2015-01-01

Background Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a globally important crop. Heat, drought and their combination dramatically reduce wheat yield and quality, but the molecular mechanisms underlying wheat tolerance to extreme environments, especially stress combination, are largely unknown. As an allohexaploid, wheat consists of three closely related subgenomes (A, B, and D), and was reported to show improved tolerance to stress conditions compared to tetraploid. But so far very little is know...

9. Global transgenerational gene expression dynamics in two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum lines

Qi Bao

2012-01-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background Alteration in gene expression resulting from allopolyploidization is a prominent feature in plants, but its spectrum and extent are not fully known. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum was formed via allohexaploidization about 10,000 years ago, and became the most important crop plant. To gain further insights into the genome-wide transcriptional dynamics associated with the onset of common wheat formation, we conducted microarray-based genome-wide gene expression analysis on two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat lines with chromosomal stability and a genome constitution analogous to that of the present-day common wheat. Results Multi-color GISH (genomic in situ hybridization was used to identify individual plants from two nascent allohexaploid wheat lines between Triticum turgidum (2n = 4x = 28; genome BBAA and Aegilops tauschii (2n = 2x = 14; genome DD, which had a stable chromosomal constitution analogous to that of common wheat (2n = 6x = 42; genome BBAADD. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression was performed for these allohexaploid lines along with their parental plants from T. turgidum and Ae. tauschii, using the Affymetrix Gene Chip Wheat Genome-Array. Comparison with the parental plants coupled with inclusion of empirical mid-parent values (MPVs revealed that whereas the great majority of genes showed the expected parental additivity, two major patterns of alteration in gene expression in the allohexaploid lines were identified: parental dominance expression and non-additive expression. Genes involved in each of the two altered expression patterns could be classified into three distinct groups, stochastic, heritable and persistent, based on their transgenerational heritability and inter-line conservation. Strikingly, whereas both altered patterns of gene expression showed a propensity of inheritance, identity of the involved genes was highly stochastic, consistent with the involvement of diverse Gene Ontology (GO

Cavaliere Maria J.

1996-01-01

11. Nucleotomia por laser

Cabral, oão José Lobato Guimarães Ferreira

2009-01-01

A hérnia de disco intervertebral com compressão nervosa que não cede ao tratamento médico, tradicionalmente, é indicação para tratamento cirúrgico. No entanto, técnicas minimamente invasivas e os procedimentos percutâneos têm sido usados e desenvolvidos nas últimas duas décadas, tanto como procedimentos alternativos, bem como possibilidades terapêuticas que antecedem o tratamento cirúrgico convencional, podendo adiar o mesmo por tempo indeterminado. De entre estas opções técnicas, surge a Nuc...

Annie Rodríguez Collázos

2013-03-01

Full Text Available El estudio de lo popular y lo urbano hasta ahora se ha centrado en el comportamiento y en algunas relaciones de los habitantes con su entorno. “Por mil devaluados pesos. Publicidad popular y urbana”, pretende explorar las formas de publicidad, dispersas en diferentes espacios populares y urbanos en Bogotá, identificando esquemas y formas características de sus propios códigos comunicativos; se centran en un objeto de estudio consistente en las estrategias publicitarias y los códigos comunicativos en los mensajes publicitarios populares en las subculturas de San Victorino, 7 de Agosto y Sanandresito de San José.

13. Development and Identification of Triticum aestivum L.-Thinopyrum bessarabicum L(o)ve Chromosome Translocations

ZHUANG Li-fang; QI Zeng-jun; CHEN Pei-du; FENG Yi-gao; LIU Da-jun

2004-01-01

With ass7istance of chromosome C-banding and genomic in situ hybridization(GISH)combined with meiotic analysis,five germplasms with homozygous wheat-Th. Bessarabicum chromosome translocations were developed and identified among BC1F5 progenies of the cross between T. Aestivum cv. Chinese Spring and Chinese Spring-Th. Bessarabicum amphiploid. These lines included Tj01 and Tj02(2n=44)containing a pair of wheat-Th. Bessarabicum translocation chromosomes besides a pair of added Th. Bessarabicum chromosomes,Tj03(2n=44)with a pair of added interspecific translocation chromosomes,Tj04(2n=44)containing a pair of interspecific translocation chromosomes besides an added pair of Th. Bessarabicum chromosome arms and Tj05(2n=46)containing a pair of interspecific translocation chromosomes besides two pairs of added intact alien chromosomes. The breakpoints of all the translocations were found to be not around centromere. Meanwhile,all the lines showed normal plant growth,development and fertility,while the translocation chromosomes transmitted regularly. The obtained translocations might be of use for transferring elite genes from Th. Bessarabicum into wheat.

14. Structural and functional analysis of chitinase gene family in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

Mishra, A K; Pandey, Bharati; Tyagi, Chetna; Chakraborty, Ohika; Kumar, Amrender; Jain, A K

2015-04-01

Chitinases are the hydrolytic enzymes which protect plants against pathogen attack. However, the precise role of chitinases in disease resistance has not been explored in wheat. In the present study, in silico approach, including secondary structure analysis, detailed signature pattern study, cis-acting regulatory elements survey, evolutionary trends and three-dimensional molecular modeling was used for different chitinase classes of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Homology modeling of class I, II, IV and 3 chitinase proteins was performed using the template crystal structure. The model structures were further refined by molecular mechanics methods using different tools, such as Procheck, ProSA and Verify3D. Secondary structure studies revealed greater percentage of residues forming a helix conformation with specific signature pattern, similar to casein kinase II phosphorylation site, amidation site, N-myristoylation (N-MYR) site and protein kinase C phoshorylation site. The expression profile suggested that wheat chitinase gene was highly expressed in cell culture and callus. We found that wheat chitinases showed more functional similarity with rice and barley. The results provide insight into the evolution of the chitinase family, constituting a diverse array of pathogenesis-related proteins. The study also provides insight into the possible binding sites of chitinase proteins and may further enhance our knowledge of fungal resistance mechanism in plants. PMID:26118129

15. Karyomorphological and morphometric studies of ploidy levels in some wheat (triticum aestivum L.) genotypes

Karyomorphological and morphometric investigations of different ploidy levels of 14 genotypes of Triticum aestivum L. and one genotype of Triticum durum Desf. showed that, total chromosomal length (TCL) varied between genotypes. The highest value (56.21 macro m) was recorded with mean chromosomal length of 8.03 +- 0.81 macro m, while the lowest value of TCL (31.65 macro m) was found with mean chromosomal length (MCL) of 4.52 +- 0.41 macro m. Simple Pearson correlation coefficient (r) between TCL and MCL was the highest (r = 1.0 and P = 0.000). While the correlation coefficients between mean arm ratio (MAR) and parameters: total form (TF), intrachromosomal asymmetry index (A1) and m (karyotype; metacentric region chromosome) as well as the coefficients between TF and m and between A1 and m were the only significant (P<0.01) ones. Intrachromosomal asymmetry had a significant (P = 0.000) effect of total form percent than interchomosomal index. TCL and MCL were the most important karyological features influencing the principal component analysis and had 81.7 % variation, while in combination with MAR revealed 94% variation. Cluster dendrogram revealed close association and adjacent phylogenetic relatedness of tri- and hexaploid and also tetra- and hexaploid genotypes. (author)

16. Molecular markers validation to drought resistance in wheat meal (Triticum aestivum L. under greenhouse conditions

Gabriel Julio

2013-08-01

Full Text Available With the aim to study the genetic resistance to drought and validate molecular markers co-localized with genes/QTLs for this factor, 16 varieties were evaluated as well as advanced lines of wheat meal (Triticum aestivum in two stages of crop development. Physiological parameters were considered: amount of chlorophyll (clo, wilting or severity degree (SEV and recovery (reco, morphological parameters: foliage dry matter (FDM and root dry matter (RDM, the integrated resistance mechanisms: water use efficiency (WUE, other parameters: number of grains (Ngrain and grain weight (Wgrain, biochemical parameters: Catalaza (CAT, Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX and Guaiacol Peroxidase (POX and three microsatellite markers (Xwmc603, Xwmc596, Xwmc9. Results showed significant differences for MSR and Ngrain. It was observed that Anzaldo, ERR2V.L-20, EARII2V.L-5, EARIZV.L-11, ERR2V.L-11 and EE2V.L-19 were the most resistant to drough water stress. There was a highly significant negative correlation between the MSR and Ngrain. All other variables showed low and non-significant correlations. In biochemical analyzes, the Anzaldo variety showed an increased enzymatic activity compared to controls in all cases (CAT-APX and POX, being the most resistant to water stress by drought. Finally, it was found that SSR markers (Xwmc596 and Xwmc9 are co-located with the gene / QTL of drought resistance and can be used for marker-assisted selection.

17. Nitrogen use efficiency in wheat (triticum aestivum L.) under elevated CO2 Using 15N tracer

Nitrogen availability is a major factor limiting crop production worldwide, and could be a key regulator of crop response to elevated CO2. In such a scenario, the ability of plants to acquire and assimilate nitrogen would be an important determinant for sustaining the better growth of crops observed under elevated atmospheric CO2. In order to test the hypothesis whether increased requirement of nitrogen (N) by plants caused by stimulation in growth under elevated CO2 could alter nitrogen use efficiency as the adaptive mechanism by the plants, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown in open top chambers under ambient (370 μmol mol-1) and elevated (650 ± 50 μmol mol-1) concentrations of atmospheric CO2 at three levels (100, 150 and 200% of STCR based recommendation) of fertilizer nitrogen applied with 15N labeled urea. All the three nitrogen use efficiency parameters namely, fertilizer N use efficiency (16%), physiological (14%) and agronomic (26%) N use efficiency increased under elevated CO2 compared to ambient grown plants. However, all these, efficiency parameters decreased with increasing application of fertilizer N. Results of our study suggest that while improvement in N use efficiencies is a welcome change under rising atmospheric CO2, application of higher doses of fertilizer N to meet the increased plant demand under elevated CO2 may not be a sustainable option both economically as well as environmentally. (author)

18. Screening commercial wheat (triticum aestivum l.) varieties for agrobacterium mediated transformation ability

Wheat is staple food crop of many countries including Pakistan. It has a large number of cultivars and genotypes. All genotypes have different tissue culture response that includes callus induction, regeneration and transformation efficiency. For transgenic plant production it is crucial to know tissue culture efficiency of a selected variety. Therefore, in the present study mature embryos of thirteen elite wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties were evaluated for tissue culture response and their amenability to transformation. Each variety responded differently for callogenesis, transient GUS (glucuronidase) expression and regeneration. The results for callus induction and transient GUS expression ranged from 30-100% and 13-100%, respectively whereas regeneration response was quite different in tested varieties that ranged from 0-44%. Good quality callus was observed in all varieties except Dhurabi-11, Lasani-08, Millat and Pak-81. Maximum transient GUS expression (100%) was found in Faisalabad-2008. Highest regeneration (44%) was noticed in Pak-81. Results indicated that three varieties VIII-83, Faisalabad-2008 and Aas-11 are suitable for transformation in comparison to others. (author)

19. Neuroprotective effects of Triticum aestivum L. against beta-amyloid-induced cell death and memory impairments.

Jang, Jung-Hee; Kim, Chang-Yul; Lim, Sun Ha; Yang, Chae Ha; Song, Kyung-Sik; Han, Hyung Soo; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Lee, Jongwon

2010-01-01

beta-Amyloid (A beta) is a key component of senile plaques, neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and has been reported to induce cell death via oxidative stress. This study investigated the protective effects of Triticum aestivum L. (TAL) on A beta-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells and cognitive dysfunctions in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Cells treated with A beta exhibited decreased viability and apoptotic features, such as DNA fragmentation, alterations in mitochondria and an increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, which were attenuated by TAL extract (TALE) pretreatment. To elucidate the neuroprotective mechanisms of TALE, the study examined A beta-induced oxidative stress and cellular defense. TALE pretreatment suppressed A beta-increased intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via up-regulation of glutathione, an essential endogenous antioxidant. To further verify the effect of TALE on memory impairments, A beta or scopolamine was injected in SD rats and a water maze task conducted as a spatial memory test. A beta or scopolamine treatment increased the time taken to find the platform during training trials, which was decreased by TALE pretreatment. Furthermore, one of the active components of TALE, total dietary fiber also effectively inhibited A beta-induced cytotoxicity and scopolamine-caused memory deficits. These results suggest that TALE may have preventive and/or therapeutic potential in the management of AD. PMID:19441012

20. Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Triticum aestivum and Its Effect on Peroxide Catalytic Activity and Toxicology

Shobha Waghmode

2013-01-01

Full Text Available The synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles using bioreduction method was investigated. Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Triticum aestivum (khapali ghahu extract was investigated. The effect of a specific variety of plants and how it affects the growth of silver nanoparticles was investigated in our work and it was polydispersed. UV-visible spectroscopy was used to monitor the formation of silver nanoparticles within 15 minutes. The peaks in XRD pattern are in good agreement with those of face-centered-cubic form of metallic silver. Further the IR and TEM shows confirmation of nanocrystalline nature of silver nanoparticles. These nanoparticles dislodged by ultrasonication showed an absorption peak at 430 nm in UV-visible spectrum corresponding to the Plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. UV-visible titration experiments showed evidence that silver nanoparticles facilitate hydrogen peroxide reduction showing excellent catalytic activity at 200 μL. In this preliminary toxicology study, Earthworm toxicology we checked and is stable up to 1500 ppm concentration. The use of plant extract for silver nanoparticles synthesis offers the benefits of eco-friendliness and amenability for large-scale production.

1. Composition of cuticular waxes coating flag leaf blades and peduncles of Triticum aestivum cv. Bethlehem.

Racovita, Radu C; Hen-Avivi, Shelly; Fernandez-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Granell, Antonio; Aharoni, Asaph; Jetter, Reinhard

2016-10-01

The work herein presents comprehensive analyses of the cuticular wax mixtures covering the flag leaf blade and peduncle of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) cv. Bethlehem. Overall, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Flame Ionization Detection revealed a wax coverage of flag leaf blades (16 μg/cm(2)) a third that of peduncles (49 μg/cm(2)). Flag leaf blade wax was dominated by 1-alkanols, while peduncle wax contained primarily β-diketone and hydroxy-β-diketones, thus suggesting differential regulation of the acyl reduction and β-diketone biosynthetic pathways in the two analyzed organs. The characteristic chain length distributions of the various wax compound classes are discussed in light of their individual biosynthetic pathways and biosynthetic relationships between classes. Along with previously reported wheat wax compound classes (fatty acids, 1-alkanols, 1-alkanol esters, aldehydes, alkanes, β-diketone, hydroxy-β-diketones, alkylresorcinols and methyl alkylresorcinols), esters of 2-alkanols and three types of aromatic esters (benzyl, phenethyl and p-hydroxyphenethyl) are also reported. In particular, 2-heptanol esters were identified. Detailed analyses of the isomer distributions within 1-alkanol and 2-alkanol ester homologs revealed distinct patterns of esterified acids and alcohols, suggesting several wax ester synthases with very different substrate preferences in both wheat organs. Terpenoids, including two terpenoid esters, were present only in peduncle wax. PMID:27264640

2. Comparative Analysis of Codon Usage Patterns Among Mitochondrion, Chloroplast and Nuclear Genes in Triticum aestivum L.

Wen-Juan Zhang; Jie Zhou; Zuo-Feng Li; Li Wang; Xun Gu; Yang Zhong

2007-01-01

In many organisms, the difference in codon usage patterns among genes reflects variation in local base compositional biases and the intensity of natural selection. In this study, a comparative analysis was performed to investigate the characteristics of codon bias and factors in shaping the codon usage patterns among mitochondrion,chloroplast and nuclear genes in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). GC contents in nuclear genes were higher than that in mitochondrion and chloroplast genes. The neutrality and correspondence analyses indicated that the codon usage in nuclear genes would be a result of relative strong mutational bias, while the codon usage patterns of rnitochondrion and chloroplast genes were more conserved in GC content and influenced by translation level.The Parity Rule 2 (PR2) plot analysis showed that pyrimidines were used more frequently than purines at the third codon position in the three genomes. In addition, using a new alterative strategy, 11, 12, and 24 triplets were defined as preferred codons in the mitochondrion, chloroplast and nuclear genes, respectively. These findings suggested that the mitochondrion, chloroplast and nuclear genes shared particularly different features of codon usage and evolutionary constraints.

3. Metabolic pathways of the wheat (Triticum aestivum endosperm amyloplast revealed by proteomics

Dupont Frances M

2008-04-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background By definition, amyloplasts are plastids specialized for starch production. However, a proteomic study of amyloplasts isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum Butte 86 endosperm at 10 days after anthesis (DPA detected enzymes from many other metabolic and biosynthetic pathways. To better understand the role of amyloplasts in food production, the data from that study were evaluated in detail and an amyloplast metabolic map was outlined. Results Analysis of 288 proteins detected in an amyloplast preparation predicted that 178 were amyloplast proteins. Criteria included homology with known plastid proteins, prediction of a plastid transit peptide for the wheat gene product or a close homolog, known plastid location of the pathway, and predicted plastid location for other members of the same pathway. Of these, 135 enzymes were arranged into 18 pathways for carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid, nucleic acid and other biosynthetic processes that are critical for grain-fill. Functions of the other proteins are also discussed. Conclusion The pathways outlined in this paper suggest that amyloplasts play a central role in endosperm metabolism. The interacting effects of genetics and environment on starch and protein production may be mediated in part by regulatory mechanisms within this organelle.

4. Arsenate (As) uptake by and distribution in two cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

Geng, Chun-Nu; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Tong, Yi-Ping; Smith, Sally E; Smith, F A

2006-01-01

Two cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (Jing 411 and Lovrin 10) were used to investigate arsenate (As) uptake and distribution in plants grown in hydroponic culture and in the soil. Results showed that without As addition, Lovrin 10 had higher biomass than Jing 411 in the soil pot experiment; in the hydroponic experiment Lovrin 10 had similar root biomass to and lower shoot biomass than Jing 411. Increasing P supply from 32 to 161 microM resulted in lower tissue As concentrations, and increasing As supply from 0 to 2,000 microM resulted in lower tissue P concentrations. Increasing P supply tended to increase shoot-to-root ratios of As concentrations, and increasing As supply tended to decrease shoot-to-root ratios of As concentrations. Both cultivars invested more in root production under P deficient conditions than under P sufficient conditions. Lovrin 10 invested more biomass production to roots than Jing 411, which might be partly responsible for higher shoot P and As concentrations and higher shoot-to-root ratios of As concentrations. Moreover, Lovrin 10 allocated less As to roots than Jing 411 and the difference disappeared with decreasing P supply. PMID:16081139

5. Anticancer Effect of Rutin Isolated from the Methanolic Extract of Triticum aestivum Straw in Mice

Savita Dixit

2014-10-01

Full Text Available Rutin is the bioactive flavanoid isolated from the straw part of Triticum aestivum and possess various pharmacological applications. The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of rutin in an experimental skin carcinogenesis mice model system. Skin tumor was induced by topical application of 7,12-dimethyl benz(a anthracene (DMBA and promoted by croton oil in Swiss albino mice. To assess the chemopreventive potential of rutin, it was orally administered at a concentration of (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight continued three times weekly for 16th weeks. The development of skin carcinogenesis was assessed by histopathological analysis. Reductions in tumor size and cumulative number of papillomas were seen due to rutin treatment. Average latent period was significantly increased as compared to carcinogen treated control. Rutin produced significant decrease in the activity of serum enzyme serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and bilirubin when compared with the control. They significantly increased the levels of enzyme involved in oxidative stress glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase. The elevated level of lipid peroxidase in the control group was significantly inhibited by rutin administration. The results from the present study suggest the chemopreventive effect of rutin in DMBA and croton oil induced skin carcinogenesis in swiss albino mice and one of the probable reasons would be its antioxidant potential.

6. Ractopamine up take by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) from soil.

Shelver, Weilin L; DeSutter, Thomas M

2015-08-01

Ractopamine is a beta adrenergic agonist used as a growth promoter in swine, cattle and turkeys. To test whether ractopamine has the potential to accumulate in plants grown in contaminated soil, a greenhouse study was conducted with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in two soils having different concentrations of organic matter (1.3% and 2.1%), amended with 0, 0.5, and 10 μg/g of ractopamine. Plant growth ranged from 2.7 to 8.8 g dry weight (dw) for alfalfa, and 8.7 to 40 g dw for wheat and was generally greater in the higher organic matter content soil. The uptake of ractopamine in plant tissues ranged from non-detectable to 897 ng/g and was strongly dependent on soil ractopamine concentration across soil and plant tissue. When adjusted to the total fortified quantities, the amount of ractopamine taken up by the plant tissue was low, <0.01% for either soil. PMID:26257350

7. Combining ability for Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

Subas Malla

2010-12-01

Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB caused by Fusarium graminearum reduces wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell grain yield and end-use quality worldwide. Three each of FHB susceptible (‘Nekota’, ‘2137’, and ‘Harding’ and resistant (‘Ning 7840’, ‘ND2710’ and ‘BacUp’ parents were included in a partial diallel mating design (Griffing’s Method 4, Model 1. The F4:5 progeny was evaluated for healthy index, undamaged kernels, and deoxynivalenol (DON content following artificial inoculation and mist-irrigation in 2006 and 2007. General combining ability (GCA was highly significant (P < 0.01 for healthy index; whereas specific combining ability (SCA and GCA-by-year interaction were not significant. The combining ability ratio and narrow-sense heritability were 0.95 and 0.83, respectively. The Genotype, Genotype-by-Environment (GGE biplot analysis showed that the ND2710/BacUp combination had the best healthy index and undamaged kernels; whereas Ning 7840 contributed resistance to DON accumulation. The results indicated additive gene effects mainly control that healthy index. Thus, genetic gain in developing resistance in wheat can be achieved through selection.

8. Comparison of organic and inorganic amendments for enhancing soil lead phytoextraction by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

Saifullah; Ghafoor, A; Zia, M H; Murtaza, G; Waraich, Ejaz Ahmad; Bibi, Sadia; Srivastava, P

2010-09-01

Phytoextraction has received increasing attention as a promising, cost-effective alternative to conventional engineering-based remediation methods for metal contaminated soils. In order to enhance the phytoremediative ability of green plants chelating agents are commonly used. Our study aims to evaluate whether, citric acid (CA) or elemental sulfur (S) should be used as an alternative to the ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)for chemically enhanced phytoextraction. Results showed that EDTA was more efficient than CA and S in solubilizing lead (Pb) from the soil. The application of EDTA and S increased the shoot biomass of wheat. However, application of CA at higher rates (30 mmol kg(-1)) resulted in significantly lower wheat biomass. Photosynthesis and transpiration rates increased with EDTA and S application, whereas these parameters were decreased with the application of CA. Elemental sulfur was ineffective for enhancing the concentration of Pb in wheat shoots. Although CA did not increase the Pb solubility measured at the end of experiment, however, it was more effective than EDTA in enhancing the concentration of Pb in the shoots of Triticum aestivum L. It was assumed that increase in Mn concentration to toxic levels in soil with CA addition might have resulted in unusual Pb concentration in wheat plants. The results of the present study suggest that under the conditions used in this experiment, CA at the highest dose was the best amendment for enhanced phytoextraction of Pb using wheat compared to either EDTA or S. PMID:21166273

9. Toxic effect of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

Zhou, Lina; Xia, Mengjie; Wang, Li; Mao, Hui

2016-09-01

As a persistent organic pollutant in the environment, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has been extensively investigated. It can accumulate in food chains and in the human body. This work investigated the effect of PFOA on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germination and seedling growth by conducting a germination trial and a pot trial. A stimulatory effect of PFOA on seedling growth and root length of wheat was found at 800 mg kg(-1) PFOA inhibited germination rate, index, and root and shoot growth. In the pot trial, PFOA concentration in root was double that in the shoot. Soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD) and plant height of wheat seedling were inhibited by adding 200 mg kg(-1) PFOA. Proline content and POD activity in wheat seedlings increased as PFOA increased, while CAT activity decreased. Using logarithmic equations, proline content was selected as the most sensitive index by concentration for 50% of maximal effect (EC50). Hence, the tolerance of wheat seedlings to PFOA levels could be evaluated on the basis of the physiological index. PMID:27337433

10. Identification, Characterization, and Expression Analysis of the TaNF-YB3 Gene from Triticum aestivum

Xiuchun DONG

2011-11-01

Full Text Available A full-length cDNA encoding a nuclear factor-YB (NF-YB/HAP3/CCAAT binding factor-A (CBF-A subunit of a CCAAT-box binding complex, designated as TaNF-YB3 was isolated from Triticum aestivum. Sequence analysis indicated that the full-length cDNA was 809�bp long, including an open reading frame (ORF of 597�bp, which encoded a deduced polypeptide of 199 amino acids and is located in chromosome 3D. The deduced protein contained conserved structural domains and showed high identity to other plant NF-YBs. TaNF-YB3 was expressed in various organs, especially in the leaves and stamens; it was also regulated by salt, mannitol, abscisic acid, wounding, and cold. Moreover, TaNF-YB3 was down-regulated by short days and vernalization, and sensitive to the transfer of day length. It was mainly induced by light and exhibited a similar diurnal rhythmic expression pattern with the CCT-domain family gene VRN2 (TaZCCT1 and TaZCCT2, but not with CO (WCO1 and TaHd1. Overall, the results suggested that TaNF-YB3, aside from having a role in regulating day length and vernalization responses, might integrate signals from other environmental stresses to perform its functions in winter wheat adaptability and development.

11. Overexpression of a Triticum aestivum Calreticulin gene (TaCRT1 Improves Salinity Tolerance in Tobacco.

Yang Xiang

Full Text Available Calreticulin (CRT is a highly conserved and abundant multifunctional protein that is encoded by a small gene family and is often associated with abiotic/biotic stress responses in plants. However, the roles played by this protein in salt stress responses in wheat (Triticum aestivum remain obscure. In this study, three TaCRT genes were identified in wheat and named TaCRT1, TaCRT2 and TaCRT3-1 based on their sequence characteristics and their high homology to other known CRT genes. Quantitative real-time PCR expression data revealed that these three genes exhibit different expression patterns in different tissues and are strongly induced under salt stress in wheat. The calcium-binding properties of the purified recombinant TaCRT1 protein were determined using a PIPES/Arsenazo III analysis. TaCRT1 gene overexpression in Nicotiana tabacum decreased salt stress damage in transgenic tobacco plants. Physiological measurements indicated that transgenic tobacco plants showed higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD and catalase (CAT than non-transgenic tobacco under normal growth conditions. Interestingly, overexpression of the entire TaCRT1 gene or of partial TaCRT1 segments resulted in significantly higher tolerance to salt stress in transgenic plants compared with their WT counterparts, thus revealing the essential role of the C-domain of TaCRT1 in countering salt stress in plants.

12. Effects of Auxins and Media on Callus Induction of Chinese Spring Wheat( Triticum aestivum L.)

WU Li-min; WEI Yu-ming; ZHENG You-liang

2005-01-01

The effects of auxins and media on callus induction from the mature and immature embryos of Chinese spring wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) varieties were investigated. It was found that genotype, medium, auxin source and concentration had the significant effects on the induction of embryogenic callus, explants germination and the increment of callus fresh weight. For immature embryos cultured on MS medium, 2 mg L-1of 2, 4-D was optimal, and the highest frequency of embryogenic callus (33.50%) was observed. For the mature embryos on N6 medium, 4 mg L-1 of 2, 4-D was optimal. The frequency of embryogenic callus and increment of callus fresh weight on 2, 4, 5-T media were higher than those on 2, 4-D media, and in the presence of 2, 4, 5-T the precocious germination of explants for all genotypes were significantly suppressed. These results indicated that 2, 4, 5-T was superior to 2, 4-D and NAA in the culture of immature embryos. This is the first report about the effect of 2, 4, 5-T and NAA on wheat tissue culture, particularly in comparison with 2, 4-D in detail.

13. Functional study of a salt-inducible TaSR gene in Triticum aestivum.

Ma, Xiao-Li; Cui, Wei-Na; Zhao, Qian; Zhao, Jing; Hou, Xiao-Na; Li, Dong-Yan; Chen, Zhao-Liang; Shen, Yin-Zhu; Huang, Zhan-Jing

2016-01-01

The gene expression chip of a salt-tolerant wheat mutant under salt stress was used to clone a salt-induced gene with unknown functions. This gene was designated as TaSR (Triticum aestivum salt-response gene) and submitted to GenBank under accession number EF580107. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed that gene expression was induced by salt stress. Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa) plants expressing TaSR presented higher salt tolerance than the controls, whereas AtSR mutant and RNA interference rice plants were more sensitive to salt. Under salt stress, TaSR reduced Na(+) concentration and improved cellular K(+) and Ca(2+) concentrations; this gene was also localized on the cell membrane. β-Glucuronidase (GUS) staining and GUS fluorescence quantitative determination were conducted through fragmentation cloning of the TaSR promoter. Salt stress-responsive elements were detected at 588-1074 bp upstream of the start codon. GUS quantitative tests of the full-length promoter in different tissues indicated that promoter activity was highest in the leaf under salt stress. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and yeast two-hybrid screening further showed the correlation of TaSR with TaPRK and TaKPP. In vitro phosphorylation of TaSR and TaPRK2697 showed that TaPRK2697 did not phosphorylate TaSR. This study revealed that the novel TaSR may be used to improve plant tolerance to salt stress. PMID:25855206

14. [Cytogenetic analysis of alloplasmic recombinant lines (H. vulgare)-T. aestivum with unstable fertility and viability].

Badaeva, E D; Pershina, L A; Bil'danova, L L

2006-02-01

Comparative cytogenetic analysis was performed with four alloplasmic recombinant (Hordeum vulgare)-Triticum aestivum lines differing in morphological traits, number of seeds per spike, and seed plumpness. None of the lines displayed introgression of the barley genetic material: the karyotypes included only common wheat chromosomes. Two lines, 79(B) and 79(D), were cytogenetically stable. Plants of lines 79(A) and 79(C) displayed a high frequency of unbalanced chromosome aberrations, including dicentric and polycentric chromosomes, terminal deletions varying in size, acentric fragments, and multiple unidentifiable translocations. Previous studies of the mitochondrial genome showed that the two cytologically unstable lines, which were also unstable in fertility and viability, are characterized by heteroplasmy at the mitochondrial 18S-5S locus (simultaneous presence of barley and wheat fragments). Stable lines 79(B) and 79(D) with normal fertility contained only wheat mitochondrial markers. It was assumed that the substantial instability of the nuclear genome in lines 79(C) and 79(A) was a result of nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility and was associated with heteroplasmy, while elimination or considerable reduction of barley material in the mitochondrial genome stabilized the nuclear genome of lines 79(B) and 79(D). In turn, the instability of the nuclear genome was responsible for a decrease in viability and fertility of plants. PMID:16583704

15. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Key Proteins and Phosphoproteins upon Seed Germination of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

Dong, Kun; Zhen, Shoumin; Cheng, Zhiwei; Cao, Hui; Ge, Pei; Yan, Yueming

2015-01-01

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the oldest cultivated crops and the second most important food crop in the world. Seed germination is the key developmental process in plant growth and development, and poor germination directly affects plant growth and subsequent grain yield. In this study, we performed the first dynamic proteome analysis of wheat seed germination using a two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE)-based proteomic approach. A total of 166 differentially expressed protein (DEP) spots representing 73 unique proteins were identified, which are mainly involved in storage, stress/defense/detoxification, carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, cell metabolism, and transcription/translation/transposition. The identified DEPs and their dynamic expression profiles generally correspond to three distinct seed germination phases after imbibition: storage degradation, physiological processes/morphogenesis, and photosynthesis. Some key DEPs involved in storage substance degradation and plant defense mechanisms, such as globulin 3, sucrose synthase type I, serpin, beta-amylase, and plastid ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) small subunit, were found to be phosphorylated during seed germination. Particularly, the phosphorylation site Ser(355) was found to be located in the enzyme active region of beta-amylase, which promotes substrate binding. Phosphorylated modification of several proteins could promote storage substance degradation and environmental stress defense during seed germination. The central metabolic pathways involved in wheat seed germination are proposed herein, providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms of cereal seed germination. PMID:26635843

16. Optimizing rate of nitrogen application for higher growth and yield of wheat (triticum aestivum l.) cultivars

In order to optimize the nitrogen rates in three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars for obtaining higher grain yield, a split plot experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates was conducted in the research field of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during Rabi season 2006-07. Among treatments nitrogen levels (N0= 0, N/sub 1/= 50, N2= 100, N3= 150 kg ha/sup -1/) in main while wheat cultivars (V1= Punjnad-I, V/sub 2/= Fareed-2006, V3=Uqab-2000) were allocated in sub plots during the course of growing season. Traits as plant height, fertile tillers, spike length, spikelets spike-1, grains spike-1, 1000-grain weight, straw yield, grain yield and harvest index (HI) were significantly (P=0.05) affected by treatment combinations. Maximum grain yield was obtained by V3 (Uqab-2000) cultivar when treated with N3 (150 kg ha/sup -1/) fertilizer level. Also, results showed that with increasing nitrogen rates, wheat yield increases significantly up to a level of significance (P=0.05). Increasing nitrogen levels led to significantly increase in plant height (101.81 cm), spike bearing tillers (495.77), grains spike/sup -1/ (61.45), straw yield (8.60 t ha/sup -1/) and harvest index (36.17%) of V3 (Uqab-2000). In all traits except germination count, V3 (Uqab-2000) was found to be superior. (author)

17. Effect of landfill leachate on cell cycle, micronucleus, and sister chromatid exchange in Triticum aestivum

Li Guangke; Yun Yang; Li Hongyan [Center of Environment Science and Engineering, College of Environment and Resource, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006 (China); Sang Nan [Center of Environment Science and Engineering, College of Environment and Resource, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006 (China)], E-mail: sangnan_lgkcarl@yahoo.com.cn

2008-06-30

With increasing use of municipal solid waste landfills for waste disposal, the leachate generated has become a serious environmental concern. Therefore, it is important to set up simple and accurate methods for monitoring leachate toxicity. In the present study, the physiological and genetic toxicity of the leachate, generated from Xingou Municipal Landfill in China, were investigated with Triticum aestivum (wheat) bioassay. The results indicate that the lower leachate concentrations stimulated the germination, growth and cell division, and did not induce obvious increase in micronucleus (MN) frequency in root tips; while the higher concentrations inhibited the processes, and significantly augmented the MN frequency in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In addition, pycnotic cells (PNC) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) occurred in root tips at all leachate concentrations tested, and the frequencies had positive relation with the treatment concentration and time. The results imply that components of leachate from the landfill may be genotoxic in plant cells, and exposure to leachate in the aquatic environment may pose a potential genotoxic risk to organisms. The results also suggest that the wheat bioassay is efficient, simple and reproducible in monitoring genotoxicity of the leachate.

18. Effect of landfill leachate on cell cycle, micronucleus, and sister chromatid exchange in Triticum aestivum

With increasing use of municipal solid waste landfills for waste disposal, the leachate generated has become a serious environmental concern. Therefore, it is important to set up simple and accurate methods for monitoring leachate toxicity. In the present study, the physiological and genetic toxicity of the leachate, generated from Xingou Municipal Landfill in China, were investigated with Triticum aestivum (wheat) bioassay. The results indicate that the lower leachate concentrations stimulated the germination, growth and cell division, and did not induce obvious increase in micronucleus (MN) frequency in root tips; while the higher concentrations inhibited the processes, and significantly augmented the MN frequency in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In addition, pycnotic cells (PNC) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) occurred in root tips at all leachate concentrations tested, and the frequencies had positive relation with the treatment concentration and time. The results imply that components of leachate from the landfill may be genotoxic in plant cells, and exposure to leachate in the aquatic environment may pose a potential genotoxic risk to organisms. The results also suggest that the wheat bioassay is efficient, simple and reproducible in monitoring genotoxicity of the leachate

19. Uptake of a cyanotoxin, β-N-methylamino-L-alanine, by wheat (Triticum aestivum).

Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Schwanemann, Torsten; Pflugmacher, Stephan

2014-06-01

In order to study the uptake of the cyanobacterial neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) into the crop plant Triticum aestivum during germination and primary growth imbibed grains and 7-day-old seedlings were irrigated with 100 and 1000µg l(-1) BMAA for 4 days and 100µg l(-1) BMAA for 28 days. Content of derivatized free and protein-associated BMAA in seedlings, root and shoot tissue, respectively, were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Free BMAA was only detected in seedlings exposed to 1000µg l(-1) BMAA, whereas protein-associated BMAA was found at both exposure concentrations. Irrigation with 100µgl(-1) BMAA led to an uptake of the neurotoxin into roots and shoots and to immediate protein-association. In roots, protein-associated BMAA was detectable after 5 days with peaking amounts after 14 days. Longer exposure did not cause further accumulation in roots. In contrast, protein-associated BMAA was detected in shoot samples after only 1 day. In shoots the highest amounts of protein-associated BMAA were found after 28 days. In turn, in both plant compartments free BMAA was below the measurable concentration. PMID:24675440

20. EVALUATING THE DROUGHT STRESS TOLERANCE EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. CULTIVARS

M.A. Sammar Raza

2012-12-01

Full Text Available The study was conducted at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB, Faisalabad, Pakistan to evaluate the drought stress tolerance efficiency of wheat cultivars. Eight wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes namely (Pasban-90, Inqalab-91, Auqab-2000, AS-2002, Sahar-2006, Shafaq-2006, Lasani-2008, and FSD-2008 were used for screening in laboratory. Three techniques were used for the screening. These techniques are (I seed germination at -0.6 MPa external water potential (PEG-6000, (2 seedling growth after 14 days at -0.6 MPa (PEG-6000, and (3 plant water relations of seven-week-old pot-grown plants. Significantly highest germination stress tolerance index, root length stress tolerance index and the water content was recorded in Lasani-2008 and lowest was recorded in Auqab-2000. Dry matter percentage was recorded significantly highest in pasban-90 while the lowest dry matter percentage was observed in auqab-2000. FSD-2008 gained maximum plant height and was recorded minimum in Inqilab-91. Relative saturation deficit was significantly highest in Auqab-2000 while the significantly lowest relative saturation deficit was recorded in case of Lasani-2008. It was concluded from the results that Lasani-2008 performed better under drought and Auqab-2000 was recorded most drought sensitive variety.

1. Transcriptome Analysis of Purple Pericarps in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Chen, Wenjie; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Dengcai; Liu, Baolong; Zhang, Huaigang

2016-01-01

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars possessing purple grain arethought to be more nutritious because of high anthocyanin contents in the pericarp. Comparative transcriptome analysis of purple (cv Gy115) and white pericarps was carried out using next-generation sequencing technology. There were 23,642 unigenes significantly differentially expressed in the purple and white pericarps, including 9945 up-regulated and 13,697 down-regulated. The differentially expressed unigenes were mainly involved in encoding components of metabolic pathways, The flavonoid biosynthesis pathway was the most represented in metabolic pathways. In the transcriptome of purple pericarp in Gy115, most structural and regulatory genes biosynthesizing anthocyanin were identified, and had higher expression levels than in white pericarp. The largestunigene of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Gy115 was longer than the reference genes, which implies that high-throughput sequencing could isolate the genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis in tissues or organs with high anthocyanin content. Based on present and previous results, three unigenes of MYB gene on chromosome 7BL and three unigenes of MYC on chromosome 2AL were predicted as candidate genes for the purple grain trait. This article was the first to provide a systematic overview comparing the transcriptomes of purple and white pericarps in common wheat, which should be very valuable for identifying the key genes for the purple pericarp trait. PMID:27171148

2. Joint stress of chlorimuron-ethyl and cadmium on wheat Triticum aestivum at biochemical levels

Biochemical responses to joint stress of chlorimuron-ethyl and cadmium (Cd) in wheat Triticum aestivum were examined. The joint action of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd weakened the inhibition of Cd or chlorimuron-ethyl on the formation of chlorophyll. It was deduced that wheat plants had the capability to protect themselves by increasing the activity of the antioxidant enzyme peroxidase (POD) with the exposure time. The joint effect of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd on the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in leaves was additive, while the joint effect on the SOD activity in roots was determined by the interaction of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd in wheat. It was also concluded that the change of malondialdehyde (MDA) content in wheat might not be a good biomarker in the oxidative damage by chlorimuron-ethyl, while a decrease in the soluble protein content and POD activity in roots could be considered as a biomarker in the damage of wheat by chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd. - Soluble protein content and peroxidase activity in seedlings were the biomarkers indicating joint stress of chemicals

3. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage

4. Ojo por ojo

Ramón del Llano Ibáñez

2011-01-01

Nuestro pan y café de la mañana se acompaña de noticias alrededor de ejecuciones, de fosas clandestinas, de batallas del ejército, de balaceras en las calles y civiles caídos por balas perdidas : la muerte acompaña nuestro desayuno. Las calaveras de azúcar del día de muertos hoy son calaveras reales y amargas : 40 000 muertos en cuatro años después que el Presidente Calderón declaró la guerra a los narcotraficantes. Se han apresado a varios e importantes miembros de los cárteles : pero han si...

5. A vida por segundos

Silva, Pedro Miguel Paiva da

2010-01-01

A Enfermagem regista evolução a vários níveis, o que torna imperioso reconhecer como de significativo valor o papel do enfermeiro. A Especialização em Enfermagem Médico-Cirúrgica visa o desenvolvimento de competências para a assistência de Enfermagem avançada ao doente adulto e idoso em estado crítico, revelando uma maior apropriação, por parte dos enfermeiros especialistas de uma concepção de cuidados sustentada numa conceptualização científica dos cuidados, daí infere-se o contributo num...

6. Ojo por ojo

Ramón del Llano Ibáñez

2011-12-01

Full Text Available Nuestro pan y café de la mañana se acompaña de noticias alrededor de ejecuciones, de fosas clandestinas, de batallas del ejército, de balaceras en las calles y civiles caídos por balas perdidas : la muerte acompaña nuestro desayuno. Las calaveras de azúcar del día de muertos hoy son calaveras reales y amargas : 40 000 muertos en cuatro años después que el Presidente Calderón declaró la guerra a los narcotraficantes. Se han apresado a varios e importantes miembros de los cárteles : pero han si...

7. Onicomicosis por hongos fuliginosos

Ingrid Salas-Campos

2009-12-01

Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo: Las infecciones de las uñas producidas por hongos son un problema de frecuente consulta dermatológica. Los dermatofitos son la mayor causa de estas infecciones, siendo Trichophyton rubrum el agente etiológico más importante. Sin embargo, los hongos no dermatofitos, tanto hialinos como fuliginosos, pueden ser también responsables de estos cuadros clínicos. Debido a que estos hongos tienden a ser resistentes a los antimicóticos comúnmente usados para tratar las onicomicosis, es que se hace indispensable que el clínico se asegure por medio de un examen de laboratorio de la etiología de la infección. Métodos: Se estudiaron tres casos de pacientes con lesiones en uñas, que acudieron al laboratorio de Micología Médica, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica. Se realizaron los análisis de rutina para aislamiento e identificación de hongos patógenos. Resultados: En los tres casos estudiados se observó al examen directo micelio fuliginoso. En uno de los casos se aisló e identificó Scytalidium dimidiatum, hongo que presenta resistencia a los antifúngicos utilizados para tratar onicomicosis. Conclusión. El reporte de hongos diferentes a los dermatofitos como agentes etiológicos de onicomicosis es importante para que el médico pueda elegir el tratamiento más recomendado para este tipo de infección.

8. Silver nanoparticles disrupt wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth in a sand matrix.

Dimkpa, Christian O; McLean, Joan E; Martineau, Nicole; Britt, David W; Haverkamp, Richard; Anderson, Anne J

2013-01-15

Hydroponic plant growth studies indicate that silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are phytotoxic. In this work, the phytotoxicity of commercial Ag NPs (10 nm) was evaluated in a sand growth matrix. Both NPs and soluble Ag were recovered from water extracts of the sand after growth of plants challenged with the commercial product; the surface charge of the Ag NPs in this extract was slightly reduced compared to the stock NPs. The Ag NPs reduced the length of shoots and roots of wheat in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, 2.5 mg/kg of the NPs increased branching in the roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), thereby affecting plant biomass. Micron-sized (bulk) Ag particles (2.5 mg/kg) as well as Ag ions (63 μg Ag/kg) equivalent to the amount of soluble Ag in planted sand with Ag NPs (2.5 mg/kg) did not affect plant growth compared to control. In contrast, higher levels of Ag ions (2.5 mg/kg) reduced plant growth to a similar extent as the Ag NPs. Accumulation of Ag was detected in the shoots, indicating an uptake and transport of the metal from the Ag NPs in the sand. Transmision electron microscopy indicated that Ag NPs were present in shoots of plants with roots exposed to the Ag NPs or high levels of Ag ions. Both of these treatments caused oxidative stress in roots, as indicated by accumulation of oxidized glutathione, and induced expression of a gene encoding a metallothionein involved in detoxification by metal ion sequestration. Our findings demonstrate the potential effects of environmental contamination by Ag NPs on the metabolism and growth of food crops in a solid matrix. PMID:23259709

9. Effect of Temperature on Triticum aestivum L. Seedlings Growth and Phytohormone Balance

I.V. Kosakivska

2015-12-01

Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the effect of short-term heat and cold stresses on growth, accumulation and distribution of abscisic acid (ABA and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA in 7 and 14-day-old Triticum aestivum L. seedlings of the frost resistant cultivar Volodarka. A high performance liquid chromatography method has been used to provide a qualitative and quantitative analysis of hormones in leaves and roots. Biometric analysis showed that at the early stage of vegetation (7 days seedlings were more resistant to temperature stresses, especially to cold, than at the later ones (14 and 21 days, that correlates with the frost resistance of cultivar. The results indicated that at the early stages of growth, after a short-term cold stress (2 h., +20C, the amount of free ABA substantially increased in roots, while at the later ones, it occurred after a short-term heat stress (2 h., +400C in leaves. After a heat stress the leaves of 7-day-old seedlings accumulated a conjugated form of IAA. Heat stress caused the accumulation of free IAA in roots of 14-day-old seedlings. Cross stress (cold+heat caused some increase in the pool of endogenous ABA both in roots and leaves while the amount of free IAA increased only in leaves. Сhanges in the accumulation of the free and conjugated forms of ABA and IAA depended both on the organs and the age of seedlings, and the type of stress and correlated with frost resistance of the cultivar Volodarka.

10. Aluminum Tolerance in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (I. Uptake and Distribution of Aluminum in Root Apices).

Delhaize, E.; Craig, S.; Beaton, C. D.; Bennet, R. J.; Jagadish, V. C.; Randall, P. J.

1993-11-01

We investigated the uptake and distribution of Al in root apices of near-isogenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines differing in Al tolerance at a single locus (Alt1: aluminum tolerance). Seedlings were grown in nutrient solution that contained 100 [mu]M Al, and the roots were subsequently stained with hematoxylin, a compound that binds Al in vitro to form a colored complex. Root apices of Al-sensitive genotypes stained after short exposures to Al (10 min and 1 h), whereas apices of Al-tolerant seedlings showed less intense staining after equivalent exposures. Differential staining preceded differences observed in either root elongation or total Al concentrations of root apices (terminal 2-3 mm of root). After 4 h of exposure to 100 [mu]M Al in nutrient solution, Al-sensitive genotypes accumulated more total Al in root apices than Al-tolerant genotypes, and the differences became more marked with time. Analysis of freeze-dried root apices by x-ray microanalysis showed that Al entered root apices of Al-sensitive plants and accumulated in the epidermal layer and in the cortical layer immediately below the epidermis. Long-term exposure of sensitive apices to Al (24 h) resulted in a distribution of Al coinciding with the absence of K. Quantitation of Al in the cortical layer showed that sensitive apices accumulated 5- to 10-fold more Al than tolerant apices exposed to Al solutions for equivalent times. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that Alt1 encodes a mechanism that excludes Al from root apices. PMID:12231972

11. Interannual variability of CO2 fluxes and yield by a winter wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L.)

Dufranne, D.; Vancutsem, F.; Moureaux, C.; Hoyaux, J.; Bodson, B.; Aubinet, M.

2009-04-01

In this study, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping seasons were compared at the Lonzée (Belgium) experimental site. The site, crop management, sowing and harvest dates were similar on the two years. The main difference between the seasons was due to to climate conditions. Continuous eddy-covariance fluxes, leaf scale photosynthesis measurements and crop development monitoring were performed during the whole vegetation periods. Globally, the two years were characterised by a higher than normal air temperature (9.9 °C and 11.9 °C respectively against 9.4 °C for standard) and lower than normal rainfalls (595.1 mm and 675.1 mm respectively against 772 mm for standard). In addition, the second season (2006-2007) was characterised by an exceptionally mild winter, dry and hot conditions in April and by humid and cloudy conditions during the last vegetation phases. These particular conditions induced earlier growth stages and the comparison of global fluxes gives contrasting results: gross primary productivity (GPP) was larger in 2007 but, on the contrary, net primary productivity (NPP) and crop productivity were lower on this year. The bad yields could be explained, on one hand by the drought in April 2007 that induced abnormally small flag leaves, on the other hand by cloudy and humid conditions from end May to harvest, that induced an assimilation reduction due to low radiation and favoured disease development. The simultaneous higher GPP and lower NPP and productivity in 2006-2007 raise the question of carbon allocation. It suggests that the excess carbon assimilated in 2006-2007 was not stored in grain or straw and thus that it would have been stored in the roots or in vegetation parts that decompose before the harvest. Further biomass measurements (and especially root biomass) are necessary to confirm this hypothesis.

12. Combining ability analysis for yield and some quality traits in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

Dinesh Kumar and S. A. Kerkhi

2015-03-01

Full Text Available Combining ability analysis was studied in a 10 × 10 diallel cross of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The analysis of variance for combining revealed that the variance due to gca and sca were highly significant for all the characters indicated that both the additive and non-additive gene actions were involved in the expression of the traits. The genotypes WH 1094, PBW 590 and PBW 373 were considered as the best general combiners, while hybrids DBW 58 x DBW 17, PBW 550 x PBW 373, MP 1236 x PBW 373, WH 1094 x PBW 590, PBW 590 x PBW 373, RAJ 3765 x HD 2687, PBW 590 x WH 711, MP 1236 x PBW 550, RAJ 3765 x DBW 58, HD 2687 x WH 711 and MP 1236 x WH 1094 as good specific combinations for grain yield and other yield contributing and quality traits. The promising parents namely PBW 373, PBW 590 and WH 1094 which are having high gca effects in desirable direction for yield components and for quality traits may be incorporated in crossing programme to have better genotypes for yield better and quality. The crosses PBW 550 x PBW 373, MP 1236 x PBW 373, WH 1094 x PBW 590, MP 1236 x PBW 550 and RAJ 3765 x DBW 58 which showed good sca effects for major yield and more than six yield components characters were also found superior for gluten content, ash content and showed low reaction of phenol on the grains, may be exploited for better yield and chapati quality either by exploiting them through heterosis breeding or involving them in multiple cross breeding programme for obtaining transgressive segregants and broad genetic base population in wheat for improvement in yield.

13. Zinc and copper uptake by plants under two transpiration rates. Part I. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

To evaluate the environmental risk of irrigating crops with treated wastewater, an experiment was conducted using two growth chambers, each offering a different vapour pressure deficit (VPD) for high and low transpiration rates (TR), respectively. One of the two sets of 24 pots planted with 6 week old wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), was placed in each growth chamber, and irrigated in triplicates for 20 days with 8 Zn and Cu solutions (0 and 25 mg Zn/L combined with 0, 5, 15 and 30 mg Cu/L). Water losses from planted and non-planted pots served to measure evapo-transpiration and evaporation, respectively. Pots were monitored for Cu and Zn uptake by collecting three plants (shoot and grain)/pots after 0, 10 and 20 days, and roots in each pot after 20 days, and analyzing these plant parts for dry mass, and Cu and Zn levels. Transpiration rate was not affected by any Cu/Zn treatment, but Cu and Zn uptake increase with the time, irrigation solution level and higher TR, with the roots retaining most Cu and Zn, compared to the shoot followed by the grain. For the shoot and grain, Cu had a significant synergetic effect on Zn uptake, when Zn had slight but insignificant antagonistic effects on Cu uptake. For the roots, Cu and Zn had significant synergetic effect on each other. Regression equations obtained from the data indicate that Cu and Zn levels normally found in treated wastewater (0.08 mg/L) are 300 times lower than those used for the most concentrated experimental solutions (30 and 25 mg/L, respectively) and may, on a long term basis, be beneficial rather than toxic to wheat plants and do not acidify soil pH. - Cu and Zn levels normally found in treated wastewater may be beneficial rather than toxic to wheat plants

Carlos Andrés Arcila Salazar

2009-07-01

Carlos Andrés Arcila Salazar

2009-06-01

16. THE EFFECT OF TRIFOLII RUBRI FLOS (RED CLOVER FLOWERS HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. PLANTS

Ruxandra Cretu

2012-03-01

Full Text Available Red clover (Trifolium pratense hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by the extraction of powdered driedflowers with ethanol 70% v/v (1:13.33, by reflux for two hours. The stock extract was diluted with distilled water to givethe final concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 5% (v/v. These concentrations were tested for their effects on superoxide-dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. seedlings, and on soluble protein content, in alaboratory experiment. Distilled water was used as a control (C. After the 7 days of experiment, we evaluated the activityof these oxidoreductases, as well as the soluble protein level.

17. The Effects of Different Carbon Dioxide Doses on Yield and Nutritional Values of Hydroponic Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Grass Juice

KARAŞAHİN, Muhammet

2015-01-01

This research has been conducted in the conditioning chamber of  Karabük University Eskipazar Vocational School Department Crop and Animal Production between the dates of 5.01.2015 and 01.08.2015 in order to identify the effects of different carbon dioxide doses on yield and nutritional values of hydroponic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grass juice. In the research, three different carbon dioxide doses (Control; 0, D1; 750, D2; 1500, D3; 2000 ppm) have been applied to growth medium and their e...

18. Structural Changes in Root Tips of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in Response to Olive Oil Mill Wastewater

M. Aybeke

2008-01-01

Full Text Available Toxic effects of the wastewater were investigated ultrastructurally in root tips of Triticum aestivum. As a result, wall and nuclear degradations, disruptions in all cytoplasmic membranes, irregular nucleus shapes and cellular organization defects were densely detected. Besides, germination ratio, total protein contents, DNA contents and root-shoot growth were found to be decreased significantly when compared to the control group. Results were compared with those of recent studies regarding excessive Na+, Fe+2, P, polyphenols and acidic pH toxicity.

19. Does the natural "microcosm" created by Tuber aestivum affect soil microarthropods? A new hypothesis based on Collembola in truffle culture

Menta, Cristina; Garcia Montero, Luis Gonzaga; Pinto, Stefania; Delia Conti, Federica; Baroni, Giampietro; Maresi, Mattia

2014-01-01

microarthropods play an important role in fungi dispersion, but little is still known about the interaction between truffle and soil microarthropods. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of the truffle Tuber aestivum to modify soil biogeochemistry (i.e. create a zone of scarce vegetation around the host plant, called a burn or brûlé) and to highlight the effects of the brûlé on the soil fauna community. We compared soil microarthropod communities found in the soil inside versu...

20. A recessive gene controlling male sterility sensitive to short daylength/low temperature in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)*

Chen, Xiao-Dong; Sun, Dong-Fa; Rong, De-fu; Peng, Jun-hua; Li, Cheng-dao

2011-01-01

Utilization of a two-line breeding system via photoperiod-thermo sensitive male sterility has a great potential for hybrid production in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). 337S is a novel wheat male sterile line sensitive to both short daylength/low temperature and long daylength/high temperature. Five F2 populations derived from the crosses between 337S and five common wheat varieties were developed for genetic analysis. All F1’s were highly fertile while segregation occurred in the F2 population...

1. Two quality-associated HMW glutenin subunits in a somatic hybrid line between Triticum aestivum and Agropyron elongatum

Feng, Deshun; Xia, Guangmin; Zhao, Shuangyi; Chen, Fanguo

2004-01-01

High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) from hybrid line II-12 between wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Agropyron elongatum (Host) Nivski were characterized with SDS-PAGE. Out of these HMW-GSs, two subunits, h1Bx and h1By, had mobilities similar to the subunits 1Bx13 and 1By16 from common wheat 4072, which was used as control. Polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) of h1Bx and h1By were prepared, and Western blotting showed that the pAbs had strong affinities for h1Bx and h1By, separately. Th...

2. Effects of Fertilizer Potassium on Growth, Yield and Nutrient Uptake of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) under Water Stress Conditions

BAQUE, Md. Abdullahil; KARIM, Md. Abdul; Hamid, Abdul; HIDAKA, Tetsushi

2006-01-01

Water stress causes serious yield loss of wheat (Triticum aestivum) under non-irrigated conditions. This study was initiated to analyze whether potassium fertilizer improves the water stress tolerance in terms of growth, yield and nutrient uptake of this crop. Satabdi, a popular wheat variety in Bangladesh, potassium (low: 39.0, medium: 156 and high: 312 kg ha-1) and three levels of soil moisture, namely control (less than 25% depletion from field capacity, FC), mild stress (more than 37.5% d...

3. Some effects induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of Trifolii rubri flos (red clover flowers) on Triticum aestivum l. plants

Ruxandra Cretu; Iuliana Csilla Bara; Antonela Macavei; Gogu Gheorghita; Roxana Mihailescu; Gabriela Mitroi

2011-01-01

Red clover (Trifolium pratense) hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by extraction of powdered dried flowers with ethanol 70% v/v (1:13.33), by reflux for two hours. This was diluted with distilled water to give the final concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 5% (v/v) (TPEx1, TPEx2 and TPEx3). These concentrations were tested for their effects on seed germination and seedlings growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) in a laboratory experiment. Distilled water was used as a control (C). After the 10 days of...

4. Comparative study of wild and transformed salt tolerant bacterial strains on Triticum aestivum growth under salt stress

Shazia Afrasayab; Muhammad Faisal; Shahida Hasnain

2010-01-01

Eleven salt tolerant bacteria isolated from different sources (soil, plants) and their transformed strains were used to study their influence on Triticum aestivum var. Inqlab-91 growth under salt (100 mM NaCl) stress. Salt stress caused reduction in germination (19.4%), seedling growth (46%) and fresh weight (39%) in non-inoculated plants. In general, both wild and transformed strains stimulated germination, seedling growth and fresh weight in salt free and salt stressed conditions. At 100 mM...

5. Effects of Salinity on Germination, Growth, Nitrate and Phosphate Accumulation in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Kanchan)

Seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Kanchan) were allowed to germinate under 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 300 mM NaCl-induced salinity. The salinity decreased germination percentage and this was more pronounced towards higher concentration of NaCl. Seedlings of wheat were also raised in water culture under 0, 25, 50 and 100 mM NaCl treatment. The root and shoot growth in terms of dry matter production was decreased with the increase in salinity. Nitrate accumulation was also decreased while accumulation of phosphate was increased in both root and shoot with the increase in salinity.(authors)

6. Some effects induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of Trifolii rubri flos (red clover flowers on Triticum aestivum l. plants

Ruxandra Cretu

2011-12-01

Full Text Available Red clover (Trifolium pratense hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by extraction of powdered dried flowers with ethanol 70% v/v (1:13.33, by reflux for two hours. This was diluted with distilled water to give the final concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 5% (v/v (TPEx1, TPEx2 and TPEx3. These concentrations were tested for their effects on seed germination and seedlings growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum in a laboratory experiment. Distilled water was used as a control (C. After the 10 days of experiment, we evaluated seed germination and seedling growth (root and shoot length, fresh and dry biomass of wheat.

7. Physiological effects induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of Violae tricoloris herba (wild pansy aerial parts) on Triticum aestivum L

Ruxandra Cretu; Antonela Macavei; Iuliana Csilla Bara; Gogu Gheorghita; Ramona Verdes; Elena Iacob; Elena Ionescu

2011-01-01

Wild pansy (Viola tricolor) hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by extraction of powdered dried – flowering aerial parts with ethanol 70% v/v (1:10), by reflux for two hours. This was diluted with distilled water to give the final concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 5% (v/v) (VTEx1, VTEx2 and VTEx3). These extracts were tested for their effects on seed germination and seedlings growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) in a laboratory experiment. Distilled water was used as a control (C). After the 10 d...

8. Genetic transformation of Indian bread (T. aestivum and pasta (T. durum wheat by particle bombardment of mature embryo-derived calli

Khurana Paramjit

2003-09-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background Particle bombardment has been successfully employed for obtaining transgenics in cereals in general and wheat in particular. Most of these procedures employ immature embryos which are not available throughout the year. The present investigation utilizes mature seeds as the starting material and the calli raised from the hexaploid Triticum aestivum and tetraploid Triticum durum display a high regeneration response and were therefore used as the target tissue for genetic transformation by the biolistic approach. Results Mature embryo-derived calli of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, cv. CPAN1676 and durum wheat (T. durum, cv. PDW215 were double bombarded with 1.1 gold microprojectiles coated with pDM302 and pAct1-F at a target distance of 6 cm. Southern analysis using the bar gene as a probe revealed the integration of transgenes in the T0 transformants. The bar gene was active in both T0 and T1 generations as evidenced by phosphinothricin leaf paint assay. Approximately 30% and 33% primary transformants of T. aestivum and T. durum, respectively, were fertile. The transmission of bar gene to T1 progeny was demonstrated by PCR analysis of germinated seedlings with primers specific to the bar gene. Conclusions The transformation frequency obtained was 8.56% with T. aestivum and 10% with T. durum. The optimized protocol was subsequently used for the introduction of the barley gene encoding a late embryogenesis abundant protein (HVA1 in T. aestivum and T. durum. The presence of the HVA1 transgene was confirmed by Southern analysis in the T0 generation in case of Triticum aestivum, and T0 and T1 generation in Triticum durum.

9. Characterization of N-type glycosylation sites and glycan structures of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Welinder, Karen Gjesing;

2011-01-01

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses preformed phytase activity in the grain that is essential to make phosphate available to cell metabolism and in food and feed (Brejnholt S. et al., 2011). Cereals contain the purple acid phosphatase type of phytases, PAPhy (Dionisio G. et al., 2011a). Mature......) Cloning and Characterization of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), Maize (Zea maize L.) and Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Physiol. [in press, Jan 10, Epub ahead of print] Dionisio G., Brinch-Pedersen H., Welinder K.G., Jørgensen M. (2011b...

10. Evaluación de la calidad funcional y sensorial en cultivares de Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare y ssp. spelta en cultivo ecológico

Vargas Kostiuk, María Eugenia

2016-01-01

En esta Tesis Doctoral se ha estudiado la influencia del cultivar sobre el comportamiento reológico y panadero de cinco cultivares de trigo sembrados en el mismo año y en el mismo ambiente, en condiciones de cultivo ecológico. Tres de ellos eran de trigo panadero (Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare), ‘Bonpain’, ‘Craklin’ y ‘Sensas’ y los otros dos de trigo espelta (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta), ‘Espelta Álava’ y ‘Espelta Navarra’. Actualmente, el alohexaploide trigo panadero (2n=6x=42 genomio A...

11. Calidad física de grano de trigos harineros (Triticum aestivum L.mexicanos de temporal Physical quality from rainfall Mexican bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grains

Micaela de la O Olán

2012-04-01

12. Use of Triticum aestivum in open wound healing: a clinical, pathological, and tensiometric assessment in the rabbit model

M.T. Tillmann

2014-12-01

Full Text Available While Triticum sp. has been shown to act in wound healing, stimulating collagen synthesis by fibroblasts, the use of this plant extract has yet to be assessed in vivo, in commercially viable presentations. This study used rabbits and assessed, on days seven, 14, and 21, the presence or absence of granulation tissue and epithelialization, histopathological structures, and scar quality through the breaking and tension strength. Treatments, performed for 21 days, were aqueous extract of T. aestivum at a concentration of 2mg/mL (group I and 10mg/mL (group II and a nonionic cream (control group. We demonstrate that the formation of granulation tissue was not significantly different between treatments. In the analysis of epithelial tissue, wounds in group II differed from other treatments by day 7. On days 14 and 21 there was no significant clinical difference between groups. In the histopathological evaluation, scar quality and rupture strength did not differ between the groups in the studied period. In the tension strength evaluation, group I differed from the others, presenting a higher tension strength overall. The studied treatments did not differ regarding healing evolution of the skin wounds, but T. aestivum extract, at 2mg/mL, presents better results in the tension strength evaluation.

13. A complete mitochondrial genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Yumai), and fast evolving mitochondrial genes in higher plants

Peng Cui; Huitao Liu; Qiang Lin; Feng Ding; Guoyin Zhuo; Songnian Hu; Dongcheng Liu; Wenlong Yang; Kehui Zhan; Aimin Zhang; Jun Yu

2009-12-01

Plant mitochondrial genomes, encoding necessary proteins involved in the system of energy production, play an important role in the development and reproduction of the plant. They occupy a specific evolutionary pattern relative to their nuclear counterparts. Here, we determined the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Yumai) mitochondrial genome in a length of 452 and 526 bp by shotgun sequencing its BAC library. It contains 202 genes, including 35 known protein-coding genes, three rRNA and 17 tRNA genes, as well as 149 open reading frames (ORFs; greater than 300 bp in length). The sequence is almost identical to the previously reported sequence of the spring wheat (T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring); we only identified seven SNPs (three transitions and four transversions) and 10 indels (insertions and deletions) between the two independently acquired sequences, and all variations were found in non-coding regions. This result confirmed the accuracy of the previously reported mitochondrial sequence of the Chinese Spring wheat. The nucleotide frequency and codon usage of wheat are common among the lineage of higher plant with a high AT-content of 58%. Molecular evolutionary analysis demonstrated that plant mitochondrial genomes evolved at different rates, which may correlate with substantial variations in metabolic rate and generation time among plant lineages. In addition, through the estimation of the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates between orthologous mitochondrion-encoded genes of higher plants, we found an accelerated evolutionary rate that seems to be the result of relaxed selection.

14. Europe, a continent with high potential for the cultivation of the Burgundy truffle (Tuber aestivum/uncinatum

Gérard Chevalier

2013-12-01

Full Text Available The Burgundy truffle (Tuber aestivum/uncinatum grows, in Europe, in the most varied soils from a physical and chemical viewpoint. The only common point is the presence of a minimum level of exchangeable calcium in the soil. The truffle soils in Europe can be classified in two categories: the soils coming directly from the parent rock, and those formed from deposits covering the parent rock. The first group corresponds to most traditional truffle areas , France, Italy and Spain. It is also true for some soils from Ireland to Eastern Europe (Romania, Bulgaria, from Southern Europe (Greece, former Yugoslavia to Northern Europe (Sweden, Baltic countries. The sedimentary layers that cover most areas are from the secondary and tertiary era. The primary parent rocks are less frequent. The second group means quaternary or recent alluviums covering the parent rock on huge surfaces and at great depth sometimes. They characterize mainly countries Eastern and Northern Europe. By bringing within reason limestone, it is possible to cultivate T. aestivum/uncinatum on sedimentary soils non-calcareous or decalcified or even on soils issued from magmatic rocks (granite or metamorphic (schists. The possibilities of truffle cultivation in Europe are therefore enormous, the limiting factors not being the soil but the climate.

15. Genetic variability and correlation analysis of bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.) accessions

Experimental plot was conducted to test the variation with correlation of one hundred bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasms under the area of Plant Breeding and Genetics department, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, in the year 2006. All the germplasms were evaluated for the traits, spike length (cm), number of spike lets spike/sup -1/, grain yield plant/sup -1/sup (gm), 1000-grain weight (gm) and grain yield (Kg ha/sup -1/). Genetic diversity was statistically found for all the traits. Two germplasm [PARC/JICA 004275 (01)] had maximum spike length (cm) i.e., 22.4 (cm). Maximum variations were observed among the accessions for spike length (cm) with coefficient of variation 17.89%. The accession [PARC/JICA 004280 (01)] has maximum 31.8 number of spike lets spike/sup -1/ with coefficient of variation 18.45%. The entry [PARC/JICA 003845 (01)], [PARC/JICA 004279 (05)], [PARC/JICA 004274 (01)] and [PARC/JICA 004266 (04)] having greatest 1000-grain weight (g) i.e. (46.2, 46.1, 45.6 and 45.1 g) having greatest 1000-grain weight (g) with coefficient of variation 21.39%. The genotypes [PARC/JICA 004280 (01)], [PARC/JICA 004266 (05)] and [PARC/JICA 004267 (02)] had a maximum grain yield (kg ha/sup -1/) i.e., (5185, 5061 and 5051 kg ha/sup -1/) with coefficient of variation 11.75%. The spike length shows positive significant correlation with number of spike lets spike/sup -1/, grain yield plant-1 and grain yield (kg ha/sup -1/). While positive correlation was observed from spike length and 1000-grain weight. Number of spike lets spike/sup -1/ had highly significant correlation with grain yield plant/sup -1/and grain yield (kg ha/sup -1/). High significantly positive correlation was depicted from grain yield plant/sup -1/ and grain yield (kg ha/sup -1/) while, 1000-grain weight had positive highly significant correlation with grain yield (kg ha/sup -1/). (author)

16. Photosynthetic capacity and dry mass partitioning in dwarf and semi-dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Bishop, D. L.; Bugbee, B. G.

1998-01-01

Efficient use of space and high yields are critical for long-term food production aboard the International Space Station. The selection of a full dwarf wheat (less than 30 cm tall) with high photosynthetic and yield potential is a necessary prerequisite for growing wheat in the controlled, volume-limited environments available aboard long-term spaceflight missions. This study evaluated the photosynthetic capacity and carbon partitioning of a full-dwarf wheat cultivar, Super Dwarf, which is routinely used in spaceflight studies aboard U.S. space shuttle and NASA/Mir missions and made comparisons with other dwarf and semi-dwarf wheat cultivars utilized in other ground-based studies in plant space biology. Photosynthetic capacity of the flag leaf in two dwarf (Super Dwarf, BB-19), and three semi-dwarf (Veery-10, Yecora Rojo, IBWSN 199) wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) was assessed by measuring: net maximum photosynthetic rate, RuBP carboxylation efficiency, chlorophyll concentration and flag leaf area. Dry mass partitioning of carbohydrates to the leaves, sheaths, stems and ear was also assessed. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions in three replicate studies: slightly enriched CO2 (370 micromoles mol-1), high photosynthetic photon flux (1000 micromoles m-2 s-1; 58 mol m-2 d-1) for a 16 h photoperiod, 22/15 degrees C day/night temperatures, ample nutrients and water provided by one-half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution (Hoagland and Arnon, 1950). Photosynthetic capacity of the flag leaf was determined at anthesis using net CO2 exchange rate versus internal CO2 concentration curves measured under saturating light (2000 micromoles m-2 s-1) and CO2 (1000 micromoles mol-1). Dwarf wheat cultivars had greater photosynthetic capacities than the taller semi-dwarfs, they averaged 20% higher maximum net photosynthetic rates compared to the taller semi-dwarfs, but these higher rates occurred only at anthesis, had slightly greater carboxylation

17. Ultraviolet-B-induced DNA lesions and their removal in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves

Monoclonal antibodies were used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the induction and removal of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and (6-4) photoproducts in DNA isolated from ultraviolet B (UV-B)-exposed primary wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chinese Spring) leaf tissue. The accumulation of lesions in the primary leaves of 6-d-old wheat seedlings was followed during the exposure of the leaf to an approximate dose of 3.6×10−1 W m−2 UV-B (Caldwell weighting). Significant increases in the levels of both CPDs and (6-4) photoproducts were detected in wheat leaves exposed to UV-B in the absence of other light However, only an increase in (6-4) photoproduct levels could be measured in wheat leaves exposed to the same UV-B source in the presence of supplemental white light. The removal of CPD antibody binding sites in the DNA after irradiation was rapid under conditions of high light intensity in contrast to the removal of (6-4) photoproduct antibody binding sites, which was significantly slower. The removal of CPDs appeared to be light dependent, this rate of removal decreasing with decreasing light fluences. The removal of (6-4) photoproducts also appeared light dependent, but to a lesser extent than the removal of CPDs, under the conditions studied here. Gene expression in the primary wheat leaf was measured and showed an up-regulation of chalcone synthase expression and a reduction in expression of chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (cab) in response to supplementary UV-B. No effect was seen on the expression of the other photosynthetic genes studied (the genes coding for the enzymes sedoheptu-lose 1,7-bisphosphatase and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase). Measurement of the levels of DNA lesions in this same tissue showed that the observed changes in gene expression accompanied the appearance of UV-B induced lesions in the form of (6-4) photoproducts in the wheat leaf genome. (author)

18. ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENTATION IN TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.: GENETIC BASIS AND ROLE UNDER ABIOTIC STRESS CONDITIONS

Tereshchenko O.Yu.

2012-08-01

Full Text Available Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites of plants. They have a wide range of biological activity such as antioxidant, photoprotection, osmoregulation, heavy metal ions chelation, antimicrobial and antifungal activities, which help plants to survive under different stress conditions. Bread wheat (T. aestivum L. can have purple pigmentation provided by anthocyanin compounds in different organs, such as grain pericarp, coleoptile, culm, leaf blades, leaf sheaths, glumes and anthers. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying formation of these traits as well as contribution of the pigmentation to stress tolerance have not been widely studied in wheat. The aim of the current study was to investigate molecular-genetic mechanisms underlying anthocyanin pigmentation in different wheat organs and to estimate the role of the pigmentation under different abiotic stress conditions in wheat seedlings. In the current study, near-isogenic lines (NILs: cv. ‘Saratovskaya 29’ (‘S29’ and lines i:S29Pp1Pp2PF and i:S29Pp1Pp3P developed on the ‘S29’ background but having grain pericarp coloration (genes Pp and more intense coleoptile (Rc, culm (Pc, leaf blade (Plb, leaf sheath (Pls pigmentation in comparison with ‘S29’, were used. Comparative transcriptional analysis of the five structural genes Chs, Chi, F3h, Dfr, Ans, encoding enzymes participating in the anthocyanin biosynthesis, was performed in different organs of NILs. It was shown that the presence of the Rc, Pc, Plb, Pls and Pp alleles conferring strong anthocyanin pigmentation induced more intense transcription of the structural genes, suggesting the genes Rc, Pc, Plb, Pls and Pp to play a regulatory role in anthocyanin biosynthesis network. To evaluate the role of anthocyanins in stress response at the seedling stage, growth ability of the NILs and anthocyanin content in their coleoptiles were assessed after treatments with NaCl (100 and 200 mM, CdCl2 (25 and 50 μM and 15% PEG 6000

19. Effect of dissolved organic matter on the toxicity of chlorotoluron to Triticum aestivum

SONG Ning-hui; YANG Zhi-min; ZHOU Li-xian; WU Xin; YANG Hong

2006-01-01

Response of two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum cv. YM 158 and NM 9) to the herbicide chlorotoluron and the effect of two forms of dissolved organic matter on the chlorotoluron toxicity to the plants were characterized. Treatment with chlorotoluron at 10-50 μg/ml inhibited the seed germination and a dose-response was observed. The inhibition of seed germination was correlated to the depression of α-amylase activities. To identify whether chlorotoluron induced oxidative damage to wheat plants, the malondlaldehyde (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage were measured. Results showed that both MDA content and electrolyte leakage in the chlorotoluron-treated roots significantly increased. Activities of several key enzymes were measured that operate in citric acid cycle and carbohydrate metabolic pathway. Inhibited activities of citrate synthase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase were observed in the chlorotoluron-treated roots as compared to control plants. We also examined malate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in wheat roots exposed to 30 μg/ml chlorotoluron. However, none of the enzymes showed significant changes in activities. Application of 160 μg/ml dissolved organic matter (DOM) extracted from non-treated sludge(NTS)and heat-expanded sludge (HES) in the medium with 30 μg/ml chlorotoluron induced an additive inhibition of seed germination and plant growth. The inhibition of growth due to the DOM treatment was associated with the depression of activities of α-amylase, citrate synthase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase, as well as the increase in malondlaldehyde content and electrolyte leakage. These results suggested that the presence of DOM might enhance the uptake and accumulation of chlorotoluron, and thus resulted in greater toxicity in wheat plants. The two forms of DOM exhibited differences in regulation of chlorotoluron toxicity to the wheat plants.Treatments with DOM-NTS induced greater toxicity to plants as compared to those with

20. Identification of superior parents and hybrids from diallel crosses of bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

Five parents of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) viz. TD-1, SKD-1, Marvi, Moomal and Mehran were crossed in a half diallel design; hence 10 F1 hybrids were developed. Parents alongwith hybrids were evaluated for combining ability and heterosis for tillers/plant, spike length, spike density, grains/spike, grain yield/plant and seed index. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications at Botanical Garden, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Sindh Agriculture University,Tandojam, during 2010. The analysis of variance due to genotypes, parents, hybrids and parents vs. hybrids was significant for all the characters which revealed presence of significant amount of genetic variability in the material. The results also indicated significant differences among the parents for their general combining ability (GCA) and hybrids for specific combining ability (SCA) suggesting the importance of both additive and non-additive genes in the expression of traits studied. The greater magnitude of SCA variances over GCA were recorded for tillers/plant, grains/spike and grain yield/plant which indicated the importance of additive gene action while the involvement of non-additive genes was evident in the inheritance of spike length, spike density and seed index. Among the parents, generally TD-I, Mehran, Moomal and Marvi were the best general combiners for tillers/plant, spike length, spike density, grains/spike, grain yield/plant and seed index. Whereas, the hybrids like SKD-1 x Mehran, Marvi x Mehran, Marvix Moomal and TD-I x SKD-I were the best specific combiners for majority of yield traits. Positive heterosis was expressed by the hybrid SKD-1 x Moomal for tillers per plant; TD-I x Moomal for spike length; TD-1 x SKD-I for grains per spike; Marvi x Mehran for spike density and Marvi x Moomal for seed index. The best parents and hybrids could be effectively utilized in hybridization and selection programmes and also for hybrid crop

1. Potentially toxic elements in foodcrops: Triticum aestivum L., Zea mays L.

Bini, Claudio; Fontana, Silvia; Squizzato, Stefania; Minello, Fabiola; Fornasier, Flavio; Wahsha, Mohammad

2013-04-01

Soil is the basis of the ecosystems and of our system of food production. Crops can uptake heavy metals and potentially toxic elements from the soil and store them in the roots or translocate them to the aerial parts. Excessive content of these elements in edible parts can produce toxic effects and, through the food chain and food consumption, result in a potential hazard for human health. In this study soils and plants (spring wheat, Triticum aestivum L. and maize, Zea mays L.) from a tannery district in North-East Italy were analyzed to determine pedological characters, soil microbial indicators and the content of some major and micro-nutrients and potentially toxic elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, S, Zn, V). The soils of the area are moderately polluted; Cr is the most important inorganic contaminant, followed by Ni, Cu and V. Factor analysis evidenced that the contaminants are in part anthropogenic and in part geogenic. Major anthropogenic origin was detected for Cr, Ni (from industrial activities), Zn, Cu, Cd (from agriculture practices). Biological Absorption Coefficient (BAC) from soil to plant roots and Translocation factor (TF) within the plant were calculated; major nutrients (K, P, S) and some micronutrients (Cu, Zn, Mg, Mn) are easily absorbed and translocated, whilst other nutrients (Ca, Fe) and potentially toxic elements or micronutrients (Al, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, V) are not accumulated in the seeds of the two considered species. However, the two edible species proved differently able to absorb and translocate elements, and this suggests to consider separately every species as potential PHEs transporter to the food chain and to humans. Cr concentrations in seeds and other aerial parts (stem and leaves) of the examined plants are higher than the values found for the same species and for other cereals grown on unpolluted soils. Comparing the Cr levels in edible parts with recommended dietary intake, besides other possible Cr sources

2. Gluten of spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum subspecies spelta) as a source of peptides promoting viability and product yield of mouse hybridoma cell cultures

Franěk, František

2004-01-01

Roč. 52, č. 13 (2004), s. 4097-4100. ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum subsp spelta) * gluten * peptides Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.327, year: 2004

3. Effect of high temperature on cell structure and gluten protein accumulation in the endosperm of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

High temperature during grain fill is one of the more significant environmental factors that alters wheat yield and flour quality. To identify endosperm responses to high temperature, cell structure and gluten protein composition were investigated in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte ...

4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi modify nutrient allocation and composition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) subjected to heat-stress

Cabral, Carmina Falcato; Ravnskov, Sabine; Tringovska, Ivanka; Wollenweber, Bernd

2016-01-01

Aims To evaluate the role of the AM symbiosis on nutrient allocation in Triticum aestivum L. cv. 1110 at different growth stages before and after heat-stress at anthesis. Methods Measurements of plant biomass and grain yield at anthesis, grain-filling and maturity; determination of macro- and...

5. The Alleviating Effect of Elevated CO2 on Heat Stress Susceptibility of Two Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars

Shanmugam, Sindhuja; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva; Sharma, Dew Kumari; Wollenweber, Bernd

2013-01-01

This study analysed the alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on stress-induced decreases in photosynthesis and changes in carbohydrate metabolism in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) of different origin. The plants were grown in ambient (400 μl l−1) and elevated (800 μl l−1) CO2 with a day...

6. Starch granule formation and protein deposition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starchy endosperm cells are altered by high temperature during grain fill

High temperatures during wheat grain fill decrease starch and protein levels, adversely affecting wheat yield and flour quality. To determine the effect of high temperature on starchy endosperm cell development, grain (Triticum aestivum L. ‘Butte 86’) was produced under a 24/17°C or 37/28°C day/nigh...

7. Isolation of ABA-responsive mutants in allohexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Drawing connections to grain dormancy, preharvest sprouting, and drought tolerance

This paper describes the isolation of Wheat ABA-responsive mutants (Warm) in Chinese spring background of allohexaploid Triticum aestivum. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is required for the induction of seed dormancy, the induction of stomatal closure and drought tolerance, and is associated...

8. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci associated with important agronomic traits in the spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cross ‘Louise’ by ‘Penawawa’

Understanding the genetic factors underlying agronomic traits in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is essential to making gains from selection during the breeding process. A set of 188 recombinant inbred lines from a ‘Louise’ by ‘Penawawa’ mapping population was grown in two crop years at two loc...

9. Breeding of T. aestivum-Ag. intermedium translocation lines with T. timopheevii cytoplasm and characterization by GISH

2000-01-01

A male-sterile T. aestivum-Ag. intermedium partial amphiploid with cytoplasm of T. timopheevii as a female parent was crossed to common wheat. The hybrid was backcrossed to the male parent several times continually and self-crossed at last. Two stable lines with common wheat phenotype, H96269-2 and H96278, have been obtained. The chromosome numbers of the two lines are all 2n = 42 in somatic cells. By inoculation test, the two lines show a high level of resistance to yellow rust. Through genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) with Ag. intermedium total genomic DNA as a probe, it is demonstrated that the two stable lines are all small segmental translocation lines, and the translocated chromosome segments from Ag. intermedium are located on the short arm terminals of wheat chromosomes. Genetics analysis suggests that the yellow rust resistance gene(s) are probably located on the translocated chromosome segments of Ag. intermedium.

10. Evolution and Distribution of Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities during Preharvest Sprouting of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the Field.

Olaerts, Heleen; Roye, Chiara; Derde, Liesbeth J; Sinnaeve, Georges; Meza, Walter R; Bodson, Bernard; Courtin, Christophe M

2016-07-20

To date, research on preharvest sprouted (PHS) wheat has mostly been conducted on kernels germinated under laboratory conditions, which differ widely from conditions in the field. To obtain detailed knowledge of the evolution of hydrolytic enzyme activities in PHS wheat (Triticum aestivum), a broad collection of samples from three varieties was obtained by harvesting before, at, and after maturity. Delaying harvest time coupled with periods of heavy rainfall caused sprouting in the kernels, observed as a drop in Falling Number and an increase in α-amylase activity. The appearance of α- and β-amylase, peptidase, and endoxylanase activity during field sprouting was independent from each other. Consequently, Falling Number could not be used to predict activity of other hydrolytic enzymes. When differentiating endogenous from kernel-associated microbial enzymes, results showed that α- and β-amylase and peptidase activity of PHS kernels were predominantly of endogenous origin, whereas endoxylanase activity was largely from microbial origin. PMID:27341479

11. Sampling system for wheat (Triticum aestivum L) area estimation using digital LANDSAT MSS data and aerial photographs. [Brazil

Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Moreira, M. A.; Chen, S. C.; Batista, G. T.

1984-01-01

A procedure to estimate wheat (Triticum aestivum L) area using sampling technique based on aerial photographs and digital LANDSAT MSS data is developed. Aerial photographs covering 720 square km are visually analyzed. To estimate wheat area, a regression approach is applied using different sample sizes and various sampling units. As the size of sampling unit decreased, the percentage of sampled area required to obtain similar estimation performance also decreased. The lowest percentage of the area sampled for wheat estimation with relatively high precision and accuracy through regression estimation is 13.90% using 10 square km as the sampling unit. Wheat area estimation using only aerial photographs is less precise and accurate than those obtained by regression estimation.

12. The specifics of elicitor effect on Triticum aestivum macromorphogenesis under simultaneous lesion by Septoria tritici and Puccinia recondita

I.V. Zhuk

2016-06-01

Full Text Available Phytopathogenic fungi interrupt the macromorphogenesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum but biotic elicitors stimulate the nonspecific tolerance, growth and development of plant stems. It is shown that oxalic acid as a biotic elicitor and donor of nitric oxide signal molecule (sodium nitroprusside stimulate stem growth in height and last leaves length, as well as grain quantity and productivity both in cv. ‘Poliska 90’ and cv. ‘Stolychna’ under Septoria tritici and Puccinia recondita infection in field trials. It is detected that the degree of infected leaf area decreased in both treated cultivars under Saari-Prescott scale. Cv. ‘Poliska 90’ is more sensitive to both fungal pathogens than cv. ‘Stolychna’, but elicitor influence on its architectonics was no less than on cv. ‘Stolychna’.

13. Påverkar variationer i promotorn till VRN1 frostresistens i vete (Triticum aestivum) från Nordeuropa?

Rundquist, Olof

2013-01-01

Vete, Triticum aestivum är en mycket viktig matgröda. Under historiens gång har arten fått anpassa sig till många vitt skilda miljöer. I Nordeuropa har frost-resistens varit extra viktigt. En viktig gen för frostresistensen är VRN1som kontrollerar vernaliseringen d.v.s. övergången från vegetativt till aktivt tillstånd som sker på våren. Olika varianter av denna gen leder till skillnader frostresistens under våren. I detta arbete undersöktes hur variationer i promotorn till VRN1A i accessioner...

14. Physiological effects induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of Violae tricoloris herba (wild pansy aerial parts on Triticum aestivum L

Ruxandra Cretu

2011-12-01

Full Text Available Wild pansy (Viola tricolor hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by extraction of powdered dried – flowering aerial parts with ethanol 70% v/v (1:10, by reflux for two hours. This was diluted with distilled water to give the final concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 5% (v/v (VTEx1, VTEx2 and VTEx3. These extracts were tested for their effects on seed germination and seedlings growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum in a laboratory experiment. Distilled water was used as a control (C. After the 10 days of experiment, we evaluated seed germination of wheat and seedlings growth (roots and shoots lengths, their fresh and dry biomass.

15. A Study of the Protective Effect of Triticum aestivum L. in an Experimental Animal Model of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Mukundam Borah

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Keeping in view the proven antioxidant activity of Triticum aestivum L., this study has been undertaken to explore the potential therapeutic benefit of this plant in the treatment of CFS. Objective: To study the protective effect of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Triticum aestivum (EETA in an experimental mice model of CFS. Materials and Methods: Five groups of albino mice (20-25 g were selected for the study, with five animals in each group. Group A served as the naïve control and Group B served as the stressed control. Groups C and D received EETA (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg b.w.. Group E received imipramine (20 mg/kg b.w.. Except for Group A, mice in each group were forced to swim 6 min each for 7 days to induce a state of chronic fatigue. Duration of immobility was measured on every alternate day. After 7 days, various behavioral tests (mirror chamber and elevated plus maize test for anxiety, open field test for locomotor activity and biochemical estimations (malondialdehyde [MDA] and catalase activity in mice brain were performed. Results: Forced swimming in the stressed group resulted in a significant increase in immobility period, decrease in locomotor activity and elevated anxiety level. The brain homogenate showed significantly increased MDA and decreased catalase levels. The extract-treated groups showed significantly (P < 0.05 improved locomotor activity, decreased anxiety level, elevated catalase levels and reduction of MDA. Conclusion: The study confirms the protective effects of EETA in CFS.

16. Combined effects of elevated temperature and CO2 concentration on Cd and Zn accumulation dynamics in Triticum aestivum L.

Wang, Xiaoheng; Li, Yu; Lu, Hong; Wang, Shigong

2016-09-01

A simulated climate warming experiment was conducted to evaluate the combined effects of elevated temperature and CO2 concentration on the bioaccumulation, translocation and subcellular distributions of Cd and Zn in wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Xihan 1.) at Dingxi, Gansu Province, China. The objective was to find evidence that global climate change is affecting the bioaccumulation of Cd and Zn in T. aestivum L. cv. Xihan 1. The results showed that compared to control A, elevated temperature and CO2 increased Cd bioaccumulation in the shoots by 1.4-2.5 times, and increased that in the roots by 1.2-1.5 times, but decreased Zn levels in wheat shoots by 1.4-2.0 times, while decreased that in the roots by 1.6-1.9 times. Moreover, temperature and CO2 concentration increase also led to increased Cd concentration, and decreased Zn concentration in subcellular compartments of wheat seedlings. The largest Cd concentration increase (174.4%) was observed in the cell wall and debris fractions of shoots after they were subjected to the highest CO2 and temperature treatment (TC3). The largest Zn concentration decrease (53.1%) was observed in the soluble (F3) fractions of shoots after they were subjected to the medium CO2 and temperature treatment (TC2). The temperature and CO2 increase had no significant effect on the proportional distribution of Cd and Zn in the subcellular fractions. The root-to-shoot translocation of Cd increased with the increasing temperature and CO2 concentration. However, the Zn distributions only fluctuated within a small range. PMID:27593278

17. La Transversal Cafetera por Caldas

Duque Escobar, Gonzalo

2014-01-01

Dada la necesidad de una transversal férrea para resolver las falencias estructurales del transporte de carga colombiano, con la construcción del nuevo Túnel Cumanday bimodal y doble cruzando la Cordillera Central por Caldas, la nueva Transversal Cafetera podría diseñarse con pendiente máxima del 6% y velocidad de 80 km/h, y convertirse en complemento al paso por la Línea, y en el soporte de un corredor logístico que integraría la región andina de Colombia, al detonar con el ferrocarril senda...

18. Ptose palpebral causada por Paquidermoperiostose

Patricia Regina de Pinho Tavares

2014-08-01

Full Text Available A paquidermoperiostose é uma síndrome caracterizada por acometimento cutâneo e ósseo, e em alguns casos ocorre comprometimento palpebral leve. É uma síndrome rara, idiopática ou hereditária, com provável herança autossômica dominante de penetrância variável. Descreve-se o caso de um paciente com ptose grave por paquidermoperiostose elucidando sua fisiopatologia e conduta cirúrgica aplicada.

19. Se los por se lo

José Luis Rivarola

1985-01-01

El sistema de la conjugación "objetiva" plantea interesantesproblemas que fueron tratados en parte por K. Heger (1966) en suestudio comparativo del francés y del español. De la comparaciónse desprende, por ejemplo, que en español hay un cierto número deambigüedades que no permiten establecer un "paradigma tan completo y unívoco" como en el caso del francés. Dentro de estas ambigüedades se encuentran las que propicia el gramema se: "El morfema [gramema] se funciona no sólo como pronombre refle...

20. Miasis cutanea por cordylobia anthropophaga

Alkorta Gurrutxaga Miriam; Beristain Rementeria Xabier; Cilla Eguiluz Gustavo; Tuneu Valls Anna; Zubizarreta Salvador José

2001-01-01

El incremento progresivo en el número de personas que viajan a países tropicales ha hecho que las enfermedades importadas adquieran una relevancia cada vez mayor. Las miasis (o infestaciones por larvas de moscas) cutáneas se encuentran entre este tipo de enfermedades siendo especialmente frecuentes en países tropicales. A propósito de la observación de un caso de miasis cutánea masiva por Cordylobia antropophaga, que ocurrió en una mujer de 34 años de edad al volver de un viaje a Senegal, se ...

1. Diverticulitis yeyunal perforada por enterolito.

Marenco De la Cuadra, Beatriz; Gomez-Rosado, Juan Carlos; Capitan-Morales, Luis-Cristobal; Valdés Hernández, Javier; Reyes-lopera, N.J. De los

2012-01-01

La diverticulosis yeyunal es una enfermedad adquirida rara. Casi el 60-70% keeps asymptomátic or Con síntomas crónicos inespecíficos, aunque puede presentarse como un abdomen agudo. La perforación debida a enterolitos es una causa extremadamente rara do complicación, y puede producirse por la impactación de ésta contra la pared intestinal. Presentamos caso de un varón de 82 años que acude a urgencias por un dolor súbito abdominal, difuso, con irritación peritoneal, leucocitosis con neutro...

2. DESAJUSTE EDUCATIVO POR REGIONES EN COLOMBIA: ¿COMPETENCIA POR SALARIOS O POR PUESTOS DE TRABAJO?

Maribel Castillo Caicedo

2007-06-01

Full Text Available Este trabajo aporta una perspectiva del fenómeno de la sobreeducación, entendida como un desajuste por exceso, entre el nivel educativo alcanzado por el individuo y el exigido por el puesto de trabajo en el cual se desempeña; esto se debe a que existe una demanda laboral estrecha de puestos de trabajo para personas calificadas en Colombia. Se analizan las contribuciones empíricas existentes y el debate sobre las mismas; se examinan las teorías que permiten explicar la existencia de un desajuste educativo y se realiza una revisión de la literatura internacional y nacional sobre el tema. Adicionalmente, se plantean una serie de hipótesis para desarrollar un esquema que permita determinar el comportamiento del individuo en el fenómeno de la sobreeducación.

3. (phoenicopterus roseus por intoxicación aguda por plomo

D Romero

2007-01-01

Full Text Available La presencia de plomo en el medio ambiente es un hecho indiscutible. Ello es objeto de gran interés sanitario pues repercute tanto en la salud de los animales como en la del ser humano. El plumbismo es una intoxicación que puede afectar a cualquier especie animal. En el ámbito de la fauna silvestre se asocia principalmente a la actividad cinegética en los humedales y a la ingestión de plomo metálico por parte de las aves que frecuentan estos ecosistemas. En España cada año mueren decenas de miles de aves acuáticas como consecuencia de la ingesta de perdigones de plomo. En los individuos capturados enfermos se pueden observar signos clínicos, mientras que a partir de muestras de cadáveres se obtienen datos sobre niveles tisulares de plomo. Sin embargo la evaluación de lesiones anatomopatológicas en animales de vida silvestre es difícil de realizar por la dificultad de encontrar animales recién muertos o afectados de un cuadro agudo mortal. La reproducción de esta patología en animales de experimentación se suele realizar en cisnes, palomas o patos, pero no en flamencos, por lo que no es usual disponer de datos histológicos en esta especie. En este trabajo presentamos la clínica, analítica y estudio microscópico de diferentes tejidos de un flamenco común (Phoenicopterus roseus muerto por plumbismo.

4. Growth and yield response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to tillage and row spacing in maize-wheat cropping system in semi-arid region

2016-01-01

Tillage practices and row spacing can be manipulated to optimize spatial distribution and plant growth, therefore maximizing sunlight, soil water use efficiency, nutrients and grain yield on sustainable basis. A field study was conducted to determine the effect of tillage and row spacing on growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan during wheat season. The treatments were comprised of two tillage practices viz....

5. The Effect of Olive Oil Mill Effluent on the Mitotic Cell Division and Total Protein Amount of the Root Tips of Triticum aestivumL.

Aybeke, Mehmet; OLGUN, Göksel

2000-01-01

In this work sitotoxic and mutagenic effects Olive Oil Mill Effluent (OOME) on the root tips of Triticum aestivumL. were investigated. In this purpose, germination rate of seeds, mitotic division abnormalities and total protein amounts were evaluated. The seeds kept in various OOME concentrastions, it was determinated that germination rate decreased, whilst mitotic abnormalities and mitotic cell division frequency increased. Especially, the increased cell division frequency was of signif...

6. Comparative Functional Analysis of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Zinc Finger-Containing Glycine-Rich RNA-Binding Proteins in Response to Abiotic Stresses

XU, TAO; Gu, Lili; Choi, Min Ji; Kim, Ryeo Jin; Suh, Mi Chung; Kang, Hunseung

2014-01-01

Although the functional roles of zinc finger-containing glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins (RZs) have been characterized in several plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa), the physiological functions of RZs in wheat (Triticum aestivum) remain largely unknown. Here, the functional roles of the three wheat RZ family members, named TaRZ1, TaRZ2, and TaRZ3, were investigated using transgenic Arabidopsis plants under various abiotic stress conditions. Expression of Ta...

7. The heat shock factor family from Triticum aestivum in response to heat and other major abiotic stresses and their role in regulation of heat shock protein genes

Xue, Gang-ping; Sadat, Shahab; Drenth, Janneke; McIntyre, C. Lynne

2013-01-01

Heat shock factors (Hsfs) play a central regulatory role in acquired thermotolerance. To understand the role of the major molecular players in wheat adaptation to heat stress, the Hsf family was investigated in Triticum aestivum. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses identified 56 TaHsf members, which are classified into A, B, and C classes. Many TaHsfs were constitutively expressed. Subclass A6 members were predominantly expressed in the endosperm under non-stress conditions. Upon heat str...

8. Effects of excess root applied silicon on Triticum aestivum and Zea mays under Aphis gossypii and Schistocerca gregaria herbivory and water-stressed conditions

Roy Deluca, Sudakshina

2013-01-01

Triticum aestivum (wheat) and Zea mays (maize) are two of the most important staple food and industrial crops used by developed and developing countries. Drought and pest attack often reduces wheat and maize production, causing huge economic losses. Silicon has been proposed to protect plants from several biotic and abiotic environmental stresses such as pest attack and drought. Silicon accumulation in plants can increase the abrasiveness of their leaves, potentially deterring herbivory by se...

9. Inoculation of Burkholderia cepacia and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus on phenotype and biomass of Triticum aestivum var. Nana-F2007 at 50% of nitrogen fertilizer

Jesús Jaime Hernández-Escareño

2015-03-01

Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L consuming requires of nitrogen fertilizer (NF, as ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3, which one in excess causes lost soil productivity. An alternative to reduce and optimize NF to wheat is to inoculate with endophytic promoting growth bacteria (EPGB, as genus Burkholderia cepacia and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus able to improve radical uptake of NF, its suggesting by inducing synthesis of growth promoting vegetal substances (GPVS. The aim of this research was to evaluate the inoculation of Burkholderia cepacia and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus on phenology and biomass of T.aestivum at 50% dose of NF. A trial in greenhouse condition wasconducted inoculating seed T.aestivum´s with both EPGB by measuring its phenology: (PH plant height, (RL root length and biomass: total fresh weight (TFW and dry (TDW at seedling and flowering stages. Results showed a positive effect of B. cepacia in wheat on its TDW with 0.61g value statistically significant compared to 0.53g TDW of wheat used as relative control fed with NF 100% dose (RC. B. cepacia and G. diazotrophicus inoculated to wheat had a positive increased on its TDW with 4.23 g value statistically significant compared to 1.13 g TDW of wheat used as RC. Conclusion suggested that B. cepacia and G. diazotrophicus by synthetized GPVS had a positive effect on wheat growth at reduced dose of NF.

10. Se los por se lo

José Luis Rivarola

1985-12-01

Full Text Available El sistema de la conjugación "objetiva" plantea interesantesproblemas que fueron tratados en parte por K. Heger (1966 en suestudio comparativo del francés y del español. De la comparaciónse desprende, por ejemplo, que en español hay un cierto número deambigüedades que no permiten establecer un "paradigma tan completo y unívoco" como en el caso del francés. Dentro de estas ambigüedades se encuentran las que propicia el gramema se: "El morfema [gramema] se funciona no sólo como pronombre reflexivo, sinotambién como variante combinatoria del pronombre personal complemento indirecto de la tercera persona.

11. Estudio de parámetros hídricos foliares en trigo (Triticum aestivum L. y su uso en selección de genotipos resistentes a sequía Leaf water parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and their use in the selection of drought resistant genotypes

MAURICIO ORTIZ

2003-06-01

12. Sepsis neonatal por Estreptococos Pyogenes

Gilberto Rodríguez-Herrera

2009-09-01

13. Miasis cutanea por cordylobia anthropophaga

Alkorta Gurrutxaga Miriam

2001-01-01

14. Agujeros negros vistos por fuera y por dentro

Janssen, Bert

2015-01-01

La Relatividad General es la teoría moderna de la gravedad, que corrige los problemas que surgen con la gravedad descrita por Newton. Explicaremos porque la gravedad newtoniana es incompatible con la Relatividad Especial y cual es la solución que propone Einstein: la gravedad como una manifestación del espacio curvo. Hablaremos brevemente de los fenómenos que surgen de la Relatividad General, como los agujeros negros, las ondas gravitacionales y la cosmología.

15. Desajuste educativo por regiones en Colombia: ¿competencia por salarios o por puestos de trabajo?

Castillo Caicedo Maribel

2007-08-01

Full Text Available Este trabajo aporta una perspectiva del fenómeno de la sobreeducación,
entendida como un desajuste por exceso, entre el nivel educativo alcanzado
por el individuo y el exigido por el puesto de trabajo en el cual se
desempeña; esto se debe a que existe una demanda laboral estrecha de
puestos de trabajo para personas calificadas en Colombia. Se analizan las
contribuciones empíricas existentes y el debate sobre las mismas; se
examinan las teorías que permiten explicar la existencia de un desajuste
educativo y se realiza una revisión de la literatura internacional y
nacional sobre el tema. Adicionalmente, se plantean una serie de hipótesis
para desarrollar un esquema que permita determinar el comportamiento
del individuo en el fenómeno de la sobreeducación.

16. Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars grown in Northern Europe 1992-2002.

Hysing, Shu-Chin; Singh, Ravi P; Huerta-Espino, Julio; Merker, Arnulf; Liljeroth, Erland; Diaz, Oscar

2006-12-01

Diversity of resistance to leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina can be enhanced in wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars through a better knowledge of resistance genes that are present in important cultivars and germplasm. Multi-pathotype tests on 84 wheat cultivars grown in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden during 1992-2002 and 39 differential testers enabled the postulation of nine known genes for seedling resistance to leaf rust. Genes Lr1, Lr2a, Lr3, Lr10, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr17, Lr23 and Lr26 were found singly or in combination in 47 of the cultivars (55.9%). The most frequently occurring genes in cultivars grown in Sweden were Lr13 (20.4%), Lr14a (14.8%) and Lr26 (14.8%). Lr14a was the most common gene in cultivars grown in Norway (18.7%), Lr13 in Denmark (35.5%) and Lr10 in Finland (20.0%). Although 28 cultivars (33.3%) exhibited a response pattern that could not be assigned to resistance genes or combinations present in the tester lines, several pathotypes carried virulence and hence these genes or combinations are of limited use. Nine cultivars (10.7%) lacked detectable seedling resistance. One cultivar was resistant to all pathotypes used in the study. PMID:17362328

17. Combined use of in vitro culture and induced mutation for improving complex disease resistance of wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Three genotypes of Triticum were pollinated by pollen of Leymus racemosus inflorescences which were irradiated with 0, 10, 15, and 20 Gy of gamma rays before blooming. Immature embryos were cultured in vitro and continued subculturing for propagation. Forty one plants were obtained. The percentages of acquired embryos, plantlets and survival plants were higher in some treated combinations than their controls. The combination of Xinjiang wheat (T. aestivum sub-sp.) and L. racemosus (gamma irradiated) was the best. The progenies were studied in agronomic characters, cytology, isoenzyme patterns and ELISA. The results showed that some progenies were similar to their female parents in most of their characters and the number of somatic chromosomes; the new characters obtained did not segregate in F2M2 and F3M3; some progenies demonstrated typical bands of leaf peroxidase isoenzyme of L. racemosus and several plants with BYDV-resistance; it was very likely that some genes of L. racemosus were transferred into wheat. The preliminary investigation suggested that wide-crosses between Triticum and Leymus racemosus by means of pollen irradiation and in vitro embryo culture could be an effective way to obtain desirable disease resistant variants in wheat. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

18. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration of four Wheats Triticum aestivum L. Genotypes

The effect of gamma radiation at the doses (0, 5, 10 or 15) Gray on the callus of four Triticum aestivum immature embryos genotypes (AL-Hashmiya, AL-Noor, AL-Zahraa and AL-Mellad) were studied.The fresh and dry weight for callus and shoot tips beside numbers and lengths of the shoots were used as indicators after 8 weeks.Results revealed that (AL-Noor and AL-Zahraa) was superior by giving highest fresh and dry weight reached 274.2 and 269.2 mg and 26 and 24.3 mg respectively as compared with AL-Hashmiya and aL-Mellad.Moreover, the control treatment and the dose 10 Gray gave highest fresh weight reached 277.4 and 259.1 mg while the dry weight was highest in the control treatment and the dose 5 Gray.addition 10 Gray dose was superior to give highest rate for the number, length, fresh and dry weight of shoots reached 9.7 shoots, 3.6 cm length, 410.2 and 47.9 mg on respectively

19. Amendment of copper toxicity in alluvial soil using iron: effect on growth and yield of triticum aestivum l

Singh, Dharam [Department of Environmental Sciences, IBSBT, CSJM University, Kanpur (India)

2010-12-15

Pot experiments were conducted in glasshouse under controlled conditions. The effect of copper in alluvial soil on the growth and yield of Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) was worked out. Copper was applied in soil at 5-100 mg L{sup -1}, along with iron supplement. Inhibitory response of copper was significant (p < 0.05) confirmed by the plant growth parameters viz., plant height, fresh and dry weight, moisture content, pigment contents, protein, sugar contents followed by increased catalase and peroxidase activity in the harvest at 30, 60, and 90 days, of treatment, respectively. The plants grown on copper treated soil along with 5 mg L{sup -1} Cu and iron application showed significant effects (p < 0.05) regarding the increase in plant biomass, plant height (shoot only), pigment contents, protein, sugar contents, grain yield followed by decreased catalase and peroxidase activity in wheat after 30, 60, and 90 days of treatment, respectively. The accumulation of metal in plant tissues was found in order of Fe > Cu coupled by less translocation in grain as compared to the whole plant. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

20. Enhancement of phototropic response to a range of light doses in Triticum aestivum coleoptiles in clinostat-simulated microgravity

Heathcote, D. G.; Bircher, B. W.; Brown, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

1987-01-01

The phototropic dose-response relationship has been determined for Triticum aestivum cv. Broom coleoptiles growing on a purpose-built clinostat apparatus providing gravity compensation by rotation about a horizontal axis at 2 rev min-1. These data are compared with data sets obtained with the clinostat axis vertical and stationary, as a 1 g control, and rotating vertically to examine clinostat effects other than gravity compensation. Triticum at 1 g follows the well-established pattern of other cereal coleoptiles with a first positive curvature at low doses, followed by an indifferent response region, and a second positive response at progressively increasing doses. However, these response regions lie at higher dose levels than reported for Avena. There is no significant difference between the responses observed with the clinostat axis vertical in the rotating and stationary modes, but gravity compensation by horizontal rotation increases the magnitude of first and second positive curvatures some threefold at 100 min after stimulation. The indifferent response is replaced by a significant curvature towards the light source, but remains apparent as a reduced curvature response at these dose levels.

1. Interaction of Mg with heavy metals (Cu, Cd) in T. aestivum with special reference to oxidative and proline metabolism.

Singh, Vijeta; Tripathi, Bhumi Nath; Sharma, Vinay

2016-05-01

Little effort has been made to understand the influence of Mg on cellular processes of plant cell during Cu and Cd toxicities. The present work demonstrates the influence of magnesium (Mg) on copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) toxicity on Triticum aestivum (Wheat). We measured a range of parameters related to oxidative stress in wheat exposed to Cu or Cd toxicity in media with different concentrations of Mg. Decreasing Mg concentration significantly exacerbated Cu and Cd toxicity and optimum supply of Mg improved the growth and decreased the toxicity-induced oxidative stress (a substantial decline in the amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in root and shoot tissues). Activity of antioxidant enzymes-superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbae peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) was restored upon optimum Mg concentration in the presence of Cu and Cd toxicity. An increase in proline concentration in roots and shoots that was triggered by Cu and Cd exposure was partly reversed. This was due to decline in pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR) activity and enhanced proline dehydrogenase (PDH) activity. In conclusion, decreasing supply of Mg effectively exacerbated the toxicities of Cu and Cd in wheat. PMID:26547559

2. Estimation of variability for yield parameters in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in Gangetic West Bengal

Badole Sachin Shankarrao, Subhra Mukherjee, A.K. Pal and D.K. De

2010-07-01

Full Text Available Thirty eight genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. collected from DWR, Karnal, Haryana were evaluated inRandomized Block Design with three replications at the Teaching Farm of the Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya in2008-09 crop season. Observations for eighteen different yield contributing characters viz., plant height, days to heading,flowering, maturity, tiller number per plant, length of spike, number of spikes per plant, and per meter square, number ofspikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, grain weight per spike, chlorophyll-a, b and total chlorophyll content, thousandgrain weight, grain protein content, yield per plant and grain weight per meter square were recorded. The genotypes exhibitedsignificant variation for all the characters studied. The estimate of PCV in all the traits studied were greater than those of theGCV, The close proximity between PCV and GCV values for most of the characters indicated less influence of environmenton the expression of the characters under study. Considering heritability, most of the characters showed high values. Highheritability coupled with high genetic advance (in % of mean were recorded for the grain weight per spike, per plant and permeter square, number of grains per spike, thousand grain weight and the grain protein content indicating the characters to beunder additive genetic control and also scope of improvement through direct selection.

3. Low irradiances affect abscisic acid, indole-3-acidic acid, and cytokinin levels of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) tissues

Nan, R.; Carman, J. G.; Salisbury, F. B.

1999-01-01

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants were grown under four irradiance levels: 1,400, 400, 200, and 100 micromol m-2 s-1. Leaves and roots were sampled before, during, and after the boot stage, and levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin, zeatin riboside, dihydrozeatin, dihydrozeatin riboside, isopentenyl adenine, and isopentenyl adenosine were quantified using noncompetitive indirect ELISA systems. Levels of IAA in leaves and roots of plants exposed to 100 micromol m-2 s-1 of irradiance were 0.7 and 2.9 micromol kg-1 dry mass (DM), respectively. These levels were 0.2 and 1.0 micromol kg-1 DM, respectively, when plants were exposed to 1,400 micromol m-2 s-1. Levels of ABA in leaves and roots of plants exposed to 100 micromol m-2 s-1 were 0.65 and 0.55 micromol kg-1 DM, respectively. They were 0.24 micromol kg-1 DM (both leaves and roots) when plants were exposed to 1,400 micromol m-2 s-1. Levels of isopentenyl adenosine in leaves (24.3 nmol kg-1 DM) and roots (29.9 nmol kg-1 DM) were not affected by differences in the irradiance regime. Similar values were obtained in a second experiment. Other cytokinins could not be detected (<10 nmol kg 1 DM) in either experiment with the sample sizes used (150-600 mg DM for roots and shoots, respectively).

4. Anti-obesity effect of Triticum aestivum sprout extract in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice.

Im, Ji-Young; Ki, Hyeon-Hui; Xin, Mingjie; Kwon, Se-Uk; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Dae-Ki; Hong, Sun-Pyo; Jin, Jong-Sik; Lee, Young-Mi

2015-01-01

Obesity is a common disease worldwide that often results in serious conditions including hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Many herbal medicines have been examined with regard to ameliorating obesity. We investigated the anti-obesity effects of 50% EtOH extract of Triticum aestivum sprout (TAEE) in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. TAEE administration (10, 50, or 200 mg/kg) for 6 weeks significantly decreased the body weights, serum total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in HFD-fed mice. TAEE treatment reduced lipid accumulation in epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT) and liver. Moreover, TC and lipid levels were decreased by TAEE treatment in liver. Serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations were reduced by TAEE treatment. TAEE-treated mice showed decreases in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and fatty acid synthase expression in EWAT. Furthermore, TAEE administration elevated levels of PPARα protein in the liver of HFD-induced obese mice. These results suggest that TAEE supplementation might be beneficial for the treatment and prevention of obesity and related diseases. PMID:25925980

5. Polysaccharide isolated from Triticum aestivum stimulates insulin release from pancreatic cells via the ATP-sensitive K+ channel.

Lee, Sun-Hee; Lim, Sung-Won; Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Hoi-Seon; Kim, Dae-Ki

2012-05-01

Traditional natural plants have been used throughout the world for their antidiabetic effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the stimulating activity of a polysaccharide extract derived from T. aestivum sprout (TASP) on insulin secretion in vitro using the RIN-5F pancreatic β-cell line and rat pancreatic islets. In these experiments, TASP (0.1 to 2 mg/ml) augmented glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of a stimulatory glucose concentration (16.7 mM), but not of a basal concentration (1.1 mM). Although TASP failed to enhance the high K+-induced insulin secretion, the insulinotropic effect of TASP was significantly inhibited by diazoxide, an opener of ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocking insulin release. TASP potentiated the insulin secretion induced by other secretagogues, such as IBMX and tolbutamide. Moreover, glucose-derived blood insulin levels were significantly elevated by oral administration of TASP to mice, similarly to antidiabetic drugs. We also demonstrated that TASP significantly increased glucose-induced 45Ca2+ uptake and proinsulin mRNA expression in rat islets. Overall, our results suggest that TASP has a stimulating effect on insulin secretion and production in pancreatic β-cells via K+ channel closure and calcium influx. These results suggest that TASP may be useful as a candidate for the therapy of diabetes mellitus. PMID:22322245

6. ASSESSMENT OF THE ACTION OF DEPOSIT MYCOFLORA ON TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. SEEDS FROM SUCEAVA GENEBANK’S COLLECTION

Diana Batir-Rusu

2013-12-01

Full Text Available This study consisted in a phytopathological evaluation of epiphyte and endophyte mycological flora whichappeared on Triticum aestivum seeds placed on two types of substrates (CGA medium and blotting paper. The 30populations of wheat resulted from the active collection of Suceava Genebank and conserved for different time intervals(8, 15 and 18 years, in controlled atmosphere storages (T=+4 0 C; relative air humidity = 30 - 40%. Micromycetes wereevaluated by counting the infected seeds and the attack frequency was expressed as a percentage, by visual estimation ofseeds surface. The target objectives of the study are to establish the influence of the conservation period on the activity ofmicromycetes placed on stored seeds and to settle the influence of the substrate type - CGA medium (potato - dextrose -agar and blotting paper - on the development of fungal pathogens. Seeds studied, placed on CGA medium and blottingpaper substrate, after incubation, showed a different degree of infection by fungal pathogens, depending on the type ofsubstrate and the age of seeds. The conservation period influenced fungal pathogens longevity, meaning that the more it’shigher, the level of infection is reduced. On CGA medium, in comparison with blotting paper substrate, after incubationperiod, was isolated a greater diversity of fungal pathogens.

7. Determination on Genetic Variation for Morphological Traits and Yield Components of New Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L Lines

Sali Ali ALIU

2010-03-01

Full Text Available he genetic studies were conducted on six new winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. line during three years investigations developed in agro ecological conditions of Kosovo. Data for various morphological and yield traits were taken and analyzed for spike length (SL, plant height (PH, total dry matter (TDM, spike Weight (SW, grain weight per spike (GWS, yield (Y and harvest index (HI. Field design consisted in a randomized blocks design (RBD with three replications. Results indicated that the line 01KS as the most competitive genotypes produced significantly higher for SL (9.58 cm, GWS (2.37 g per spike and grain yield (10.66 t ha-1 while lower yield was recorded at the line 04KS (8.02 t ha-1. The lowest SL (8.4 cm belonged to line 06KS which was ranked as the least competitive genotype. The significantly higher total dry matter (TDM was recorded at the wheat line 02KS on value 4.88 g, while the lowest (4.44 g belonged to 04KS which was ranked as the last genotype. There was a positive and significant harvest index (HI on value from 50.5% to 39.1%.

8. Therapeutic Potential of Organic Triticum aestivum Linn. (Wheat Grass in Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases: An Overview

N. Singh

2012-01-01

Full Text Available Shoot of Triticum aestivum Linn. (Hindi Name- gehun, kanak, Sanskrit name- godhuma is called as a wheat grass, belonging to family: Gramineae, which posses high chlorophyll content and essential vitamins, minerals, vital enzymes, amino acids, dietary fibers. Wheat grass has been shown to posses anti-cancer activity, anti-ulcer activity, antioxidant activity, anti-arthritic activity, and blood building activity in Thalassemia Major. It has been argued that wheat grass helps blood flow, digestion and general detoxification of the body. The major clinical utility of wheat grass in diseased conditions might be due to the presence of biologically active compounds and minerals in it and due to its antioxidant potential which is derived from its high content of bioflavonoids such as apigenin, quercitin, luteoline. Furthermore, indole compounds namely choline and laetrile present in it might be also responsible for its therapeutic potential. The presence of 70% chlorophyll, which is almost chemically identical to hemoglobin, in wheat grass makes it more useful in various clinical conditions involving hemoglobin deficiency and other chronic disorders. The present review article focuses onto various studies conducted on the use of wheatgrass in various disease conditions. Since very little clinical studies have been made on this very promising herbal drug, efforts are needed to conduct extensive studies on the wheat grass both in experimental models and human subjects to develop wheat grass therapy with no side effects in prevention, cure and management of chronic diseases for which our modern systems have lost their hopes.

9. A recessive gene controlling male sterility sensitive to short daylength/low temperature in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Xiao-dong CHEN; Dong-fa SUN; De-fu RONG; Jun-hua PENG; Cheng-dao LI

2011-01-01

Utilization of a two-line breeding system via photoperiod-thermo sensitive male sterility has a great potential for hybrid production in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).337S is a novel wheat male sterile line sensitive to both short daylength/low temperature and long daylength/high temperature.Five F2 populations derived from the crosses between 337S and five common wheat varieties were developed for genetic analysis.All F1's were highly fertile while segregation occurred in the F2 populations with a ratio of 3 fertile:1 sterile under short daylength/low temperature.It is shown that male sterility in 337S was controlled by a single recessive gene,temporarily designated as wptms3.Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) coupled with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was applied to map the sterile gene using one mapping population.The wptms3 gene was mapped to chromosome arm 1BS and flanked by Xgwm413 and Xgwm182 at a genetic distance of 3.2 and 23.5 cM,respectively.The accuracy and efficiency of marker-assisted selection were evaluated and proved essential for identifying homozygous recessive male sterile genotypes of the wptms3 gene in F2 generation.

10. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of sunflower on wheat (triticum aestivum l.) and maize (zea mays l.)

Sunflower is a potent allelopathic plant which possesses important allelochemicals with known allelopathic activity on other plants. In this study, allelopathic effects of fresh aqueous extracts (FAE) and air dried aqueous extracts (DAE) of root, shoot and leaves of sunflower (Halianthus annuus L.) were investigated on germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) in seed bioassay experiments carried out at Botany Department of Peshawar University during 2010. Results showed significantly inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts on seed germination, growth and dry biomass of seedlings of wheat and maize. In wheat seedlings, significant germination inhibition (15.21%), increased mean germination time (MGT) (57.76%), reduced plumule and radical growth (21.66 and 28.44%) and lowered seedlings dry biomass (31.05%) were recorded under dry aqueous extracts of leaf when compared to control. Germination percentage of maize was inhibited by dry aqueous extracts of leaf by 7.81%, germination index by 16.51%, increased MGT by 25.53%, decreased plumule and radical lengths by 29.00 and 36.12% respectively, and lowered maize seedling dry biomass by 34.02 %. In both experiments, dry aqueous extracts (DAE) were more phytotoxic than fresh aqueous extracts (FAE). Similarly, inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts of different parts of sunflower were recorded in the order leaf > shoot > root for both tested plants. (author)