Sample records for advocates network wepan

  1. Women in Engineering Program Advocates Network (WEPAN): Evaluation of the seventh annual conference

    Brainard, S.G.


    The primary goals of the 1996 WEPAN Conference were to: (1) Conduct technical and programmatic seminars for institutions desiring to initiate, replicate, or expand women in engineering programs; (2) Provide assistance in fundraising and grant writing; (3) Profile women in engineering programs of excellence; (4) Sponsor inspiring, knowledgeable and motivational keynote speakers; and, (5) Offer a series of workshops focused on topics such as: establishing partnerships with industry, current research findings, retention strategies, issues affecting special populations, and early intervention techniques. In an effort to provide greater access for women to engineering careers, women in engineering program directors at Purdue University, Stevens Institute of Technology and the University of Washington joined together in 1990 to establish WEPAN, a national network of individuals interested in the recruitment, admission, retention, and graduation of women engineering students. This is the seventh year of operation. Success of this effort has been reflected in numerous ways: increased membership in the organization; increased number of women in engineering programs; increased number of women graduating in engineering; and grants from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the AT&T Foundation, and many other corporations to carry out the goals of WEPAN. The Seventh Annual Women in Engineering Conference entitled, Capitalizing on Today`s Challenges, was held in Denver, Colorado on June 1-4, 1996 at the Hyatt Regency. The conference brought together representatives from academia, government, and industry and examined current issues and initiatives for women in technology, science, and education. Building on the successes of the previous conferences, the seventh conference offered a new variety of speakers and topics.

  2. Women in engineering program advocates network (WEPAN): Evaluation of the fourth annual conference

    Brainard, S.G.


    The 1994 WEPAN conference highlighted the establishment of the three Regional Centers for Women in Engineering, which are located at the University of Washington, Purdue University, and Stevens Insitute of Technology. An overall evaluation was conducted on the effectiveness of the conference, including the quality of plenary sessions, workshops, registration, accommodations and reception.

  3. Networks advocate for youth services.


    This article discusses the role of networks in promoting reproductive health for youth in Ghana. The Suhum-Kraboa-Coaltar Network and the New Juaben Network are situated in the eastern region of Ghana. These two programs advocate for client-centered programs and for policy change at every level. Since the 1994 ICPD Plan of Action, these networks have worked to increase and improve health services for youth and to improve cooperation between government and nongovernmental groups. These networks provide family planning, reproductive health (RH), and, most importantly, promotion of adolescent health. CEDPA realized that many organizations had the capacity to extend services to youth and to fulfill other mandates of the 1994 ICPD Program of Action. But, these organizations lacked advocacy and networking skills for effectively challenging community policies and programs. CEDPA, in collaboration with others, initiated the POLICY project in 1996 in Ghana. The aim was to create a supportive policy context for family planning and RH programs by formation of a participatory policy process. The POLICY project in Ghana helped networks develop advocacy plans targeted to local decision-makers. The aim was to increase funding for adolescent RH in district plans and budgets. The first action taken by the POLICY project was to conduct a survey, which found that 67% of adolescent females and 53% of adolescent males were sexually active. Only 10% used contraceptives. Advocacy did not increase funding but did result in a supportive network of policy-makers. There are POLICY projects in over 12 countries. PMID:12294636

  4. Urban Parents of Children with Special Needs: Advocating for Their Children through Social Networks

    Munn-Joseph, Marlene S.; Gavin-Evans, Karen


    Three families living in an urban area in the Midwest with elementary-age children diagnosed with disabilities were interviewed about their family involvement in special education programming and intervention. The study explored how three mothers used social networks to advocate and care for their child's special education programming. Using…

  5. Perspectives--A Tribute to Katie Beckett: Advocate for Youth with Disabilities and Founder of "Kids As Self-Advocates" Network (March 9, 1978-May 18, 2012)

    Oser, Cindy; Whiteman, Jodi


    The authors remember the life of Katie Beckett, who was an outspoken advocate for disability rights and inspired the Katie Beckett Waiver Program, which allowed children to continue to be eligible for Medicaid and to have their health care needs provided in the home rather than being forced to be in a hospital or institution. Together, Katie and…

  6. Enable, mediate, advocate.

    Saan, Hans; Wise, Marilyn


    The authors of the Ottawa Charter selected the words enable, mediate and advocate to describe the core activities in what was, in 1986, the new Public Health. This article considers these concepts and the values and ideas upon which they were based. We discuss their relevance in the current context within which health promotion is being conducted, and discuss the implications of changes in the health agenda, media and globalization for practice. We consider developments within health promotion since 1986: its central role in policy rhetoric, the increasing understanding of complexities and the interlinkage with many other societal processes. So the three core activities are reviewed: they still fit well with the main health promotion challenges, but should be refreshed by new ideas and values. As the role of health promotion in the political arena has grown we have become part of the policy establishment and that is a mixed blessing. Making way for community advocates is now our challenge. Enabling requires greater sensitivity to power relations involved and an understanding of the role of health literacy. Mediating keeps its central role as it bridges vital interests of parties. We conclude that these core concepts in the Ottawa Charter need no serious revision. There are, however, lessons from the last 25 years that point to ways to address present and future challenges with greater sensitivity and effectiveness. We invite the next generation to avoid canonizing this text: as is true of every heritage, the heirs must decide on its use. PMID:22080073

  7. Nuclear physicist, arms control advocate

    Chang, K


    Victor F. Weisskopf, a nuclear physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bomb in World War II and later became an ardent advocate of arms control, died Monday at his home in Newton, MA, USA. He was 93 (1 page).

  8. Advocacy for active transport: advocate and city council perspectives

    Rosenby Marieah


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective advocacy is an important part of efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Research about effective health advocacy is scarce, however, the health sector can learn from the experiences and knowledge of community advocates and those who are on the receiving end of this advocacy. The aim of this study is to explore advocacy for active transport from the perspectives of community advocates and representatives from City councils. Methods Cycling and walking advocates were identified from the local contact list of Cycling Advocates Network and Living Streets Aotearoa. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with cycle and walking advocates from throughout New Zealand. Advocates also nominated a suitable council officer at their local City council to be interviewed. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and categories of responses for each of the questions created. Results Several processes were used by advocates to engage with council staff, including formal council submissions, meetings, stakeholder forums and partnership in running community events promoting active transport. Several other agencies were identified as being influential for active transport, some as potential coalition partners and others as potential adversaries. Barriers to improving conditions for active transport included a lack of funding, a lack of will-power among either council staff or councillors, limited council staff capacity (time or training and a culture of providing infrastructure for motor vehicles instead of people. Several suggestions were made about how the health sector could contribute to advocacy efforts, including encouraging political commitment, engaging the media, communicating the potential health benefits of active transport to the general public and being role models in terms of personal travel mode choice and having workplaces that support participation in active transport

  9. Advocating for the Use of Pharmacogenomics: One Nurse's Story.

    Pestka, Elizabeth L; Shea, Catherine E


    The current article describes the experiences of a motivated nurse who gained an understanding of pharmacogenomics and advocated for the use cytochrome P450 testing for patients in her clinical practice, her family members, herself, and for changing the health care delivery system to more readily recognize and address drug-metabolizing-enzyme abnormalities. Recommendations for nurses interested in promoting the use of pharmacogenomics include learning as much as possible about testing and implications, networking with other providers, identifying a knowledgeable pharmacist, assessing for a family history of problems with medication side effects or lack of efficacy, and keeping records of relevant medical and medication information to share with providers. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(7), 38-42.]. PMID:27362384

  10. John Dique: dialysis pioneer and political advocate.

    George, Charles R P


    John Dique (1915-1995) epitomized the internationalism of medicine, the intellectual and manual dexterity of many pioneers of dialysis, and the social concern evinced by many nephrologists. Born in Burma of French, German, British and Indian ancestry; educated in India; an Anglo-Indian who described himself as British without ever having visited Britain; he moved to Australia in 1948 to escape the murderous inter-ethnic conflict that befell multicultural India as it and Pakistan became independent. Settling in Brisbane, he pioneered several novel medical techniques. After inventing some simple equipment to facilitate intravenous therapy, he established a neonatal exchange blood transfusion programme. Then, between 1954 and 1963, he personally constructed and operated two haemodialysis machines with which to treat patients suffering from acute renal failure, the first such treatment performed in Australasia. His patients survival results were, for the era, remarkable. He subsequently helped found the Royal Australasian College of Pathologists and went on to establish a successful private pathology practice. The latter years of his life, however, saw him become a social and political advocate. He fiercely opposed the emerging ideologies of multiculturalism and social liberalism that, he predicted, would seriously damage the national fabric of Western society. Public vilification ensued, his medical achievements disregarded. It does seem likely, however, that in none of the areas that he touched - whether medical, social, or political - has the last word yet been said. PMID:26913881

  11. Introducing Forum Theatre to Elicit and Advocate Children's Views

    Hammond, Nick


    Eliciting and advocating the voice of the child remains at the heart of international political agenda and also remains a central role for educational psychologists (EPs). Previous research indicates that EPs tend to use language-based methods for eliciting and advocating views of children. However, these approaches are often limited. Taking a…

  12. Designing a Mobile Application: The Case of iAdvocate

    Alan R. Foley


    Full Text Available In this article, the design of a mobile application (app called iAdvocate is illustrated. The goal of iAdvocate is to share and develop specific strategies with parents of children with disabilities for working collaboratively with a school team to improve their children’s education. iAdvocate uses problem-based learning strategies, simulations, and provides contextual access resources to build parental advocacy skills and knowledge. iAdvocate provides parents with both information and strategies regarding their educational rights and getting their child’s needs met. The goal of iAdvocate is to share and develop specific strategies with parents for working collaboratively with a school team to improve their children’s education. iAdvocate contains three sections: strategies, a compilation of approaches that parents can pursue as advocates; resources, which lists and, where possible, links to such references as laws, books, articles, web sites, video presentations, and organizations that provide information on inclusive education; and, responses, which features simulated interactions, such as replies to common statements made by school professionals regarding services and accommodations for children. This case illustrates the design processes and techniques used to develop an instructional mobile application by presenting the background and context of the project, initial design and design iterations, negative case analysis, and prototyping. Additional documents illustrating the project background, and design process are also included.

  13. Yalana B. Bryant receives education advocate of the year award

    Harris, Jennifer


    Yalana B. Bryant, assistant director for diversity initiatives at Virginia Tech's Office of Undergraduate Admissions, recently received this year's American Association of University Women (AAUW) of Virginia's Education Advocate of the Year Award at a ceremony in Roanoke, Va.

  14. Advocacy for active transport: advocate and city council perspectives

    Rosenby Marieah; Reeder Anthony I; Murdoch Linda; Richards Rosalina


    Abstract Background Effective advocacy is an important part of efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Research about effective health advocacy is scarce, however, the health sector can learn from the experiences and knowledge of community advocates and those who are on the receiving end of this advocacy. The aim of this study is to explore advocacy for active transport from the perspectives of community advocates and representatives from City councils. Methods Cycl...

  15. Having a patient advocate dedicated to the ED.


    The ED at St. Mary's Hospital in Tucson, AZ, has its own departmental patient advocate. This new staff position saves a lot of time for the rest of the team members. Here are some of the functions a patient advocate can perform in your ED: proactively prevent problems and satisfy delivery of care needs in a timelier manner to avoid complaints; train the ED staff in customer service and communication techniques; communicate with outside clinics to support uninsured or underinsured patients who don't have primary care physicians. PMID:18447293

  16. Sage Advocate Employment Service--WHEEE: A Program Description.

    Radding, Natalie M.


    Sage Advocate Employment Service in New Haven, Connecticut, is a nonprofit agency that aids older adults in seeking jobs and obtaining needed services. The agency began as a volunteer activity of Yale University students, WHEEE--We Help Elders Establish Employment. The history and factors contributing to its growth are reviewed. (Author/BEF)

  17. A Rhythm Recognition Computer Program to Advocate Interactivist Perception

    Buisson, Jean-Christophe


    This paper advocates the main ideas of the interactive model of representation of Mark Bickhard and the assimilation/accommodation framework of Jean Piaget, through a rhythm recognition demonstration program. Although completely unsupervised, the program progressively learns to recognize more and more complex rhythms struck on the user's keyboard.…

  18. Women's business advocate to speak on successful entrepreneurship

    Ho, Sookhan


    Women's business advocate Susan Phillips Bari will give a talk on successful entrepreneurship from 5:30 to 7 p.m., Wednesday, March 15, at 1670 Litton Reaves Hall at Virginia Tech. The event, which will include a question-and-answer session, is free and open to the public, no tickets required.

  19. Occupational Disease, Workers' Compensation, and the Social Work Advocate.

    Shanker, Renee


    Charges that the overwhelming majority of victims of work-related illnesses are not receiving their entitlements. Describes ways in which social workers and health professionals may become advocates to broaden the effectiveness of the workers' compensation system, illustrated by case studies from the Montefiore Project. (Author/JAC)

  20. The challenge of gun control for mental health advocates.

    Pandya, Anand


    Mass shootings, such as the 2012 Newtown massacre, have repeatedly led to political discourse about limiting access to guns for individuals with serious mental illness. Although the political climate after such tragic events poses a considerable challenge to mental health advocates who wish to minimize unsympathetic portrayals of those with mental illness, such media attention may be a rare opportunity to focus attention on risks of victimization of those with serious mental illness and barriers to obtaining psychiatric care. Current federal gun control laws may discourage individuals from seeking psychiatric treatment and describe individuals with mental illness using anachronistic, imprecise, and gratuitously stigmatizing language. This article lays out potential talking points that may be useful after future gun violence. PMID:24042247

  1. Research subject advocate: a new protector of research participants.

    Neill, Kathleen M


    In 2001, the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) directed the 78 General Clinical Research Centers (GCRC) to develop a Research Subject Advocate (RSA) position. The RSA would report directly to the Principal Investigator (PI) of each GCRC and assure compliance of studies conducted on the GCRC with federal regulations and policies. Seven RSAs agreed to be interviewed about their new role. Website documents, electronic correspondence, and presentations at the first annual national meeting of RSAs were scrutinized using discursive analysis to shed light on this new organizational form and its potential for increased protection of human research participants. The RSA role actualizes the ethical principles of respect for persons, justice, and beneficence that are the foundation of the protection of research participants. The results also reveal the regulatory, institutional, collegial, and personal resources and barriers that assist the RSA in the successful implementation of the RSA role. In addition, issues important to the RSAs are described. PMID:14979318

  2. Pere Albert: Barcelona Canon, Royal Advocate, Feudal Theorist

    Kagay, Donald K.


    Full Text Available In this article, the life and career of one of Catalonia's greatest medieval legists is discussed. Using notarial and court documentation, the author explores the work of Pere Albert as judge and advocate. The Customs of Catalonia and other of Pere Albert's treatises form the basis for the review of the legist's career as a theorist in feudal law. The basis for this article is the collection of documents pertaining to Pere Albert, which the author includes in an appendix.

    En este artículo se estudia la vida y la carrera de uno de los jurisconsultos medievales más importantes de Cataluña. Utilizando la documentación notarial y judicial, el autor analiza la labor de Pere Albert como juez y abogado. ElsCostums de Catalunya y otros tratados de Pere Albert constituyen la base para el estudio de la carrera del jurisconsulto, como teórico en ley feudal y real. El artículo se basa en una colección de documentos originales relativos a Pere Albert, que el autor incluye en un apéndice.

  3. Advocate's Viewpoint on Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer

    Kolling-Dandrieu Francisca


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper discusses the presentation I held at the symposium on genetics during the 4th European Breast Cancer Conference held in Hamburg in March 2004. Primarily, the goals and working methods of the advocacy group specialised in Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer of the Dutch Breast Cancer Patient Organisation known as BorstkankerVereniging Nederland (BVN are explained. Furthermore, some specific individual problems that mutation carriers might encounter before and after BRCA1/2 susceptibility testing are discussed. These include: dilemmas in choosing preventive interventions, dealing with the psychological impact of knowing you are a mutation carrier, dealing with the social implications of being genetically at risk, an example of insurance discrimination. In addition, some controversial social and ethical issues that are currently under debate are highlighted, such as the issue of the European patenting of the breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. Since this topic could also become relevant for other gene-related diseases, society as a whole has to consider the ethical and social implications related to the patenting of human genes in general. Another ethical area of debate is the controversial issue of prenatal BRCA testing and the choice of pregnancy termination. Finally, the Working Party pleads for the international co-operation and exchange of data and experience among professionals as well as patients. It appears that professionals in different European countries tend to advise on different risk management strategies and treatments and as such, the Working Party strongly advocates the international standardisation of risk management and treatment of mutation carriers. In this respect, specific attention should be given to a group that has had a non-informative or negative BRCA test result, because this group is still considered to be at high risk to develop the disease.

  4. "Never Such an Opportunity": Every Teacher Is an Advocate for Music Education

    Wagener, Dorothy


    Every music educator is an advocate for music education. Members of the The National Association for Music Education (MENC) advocate for the cause of music education. Beginning right in the classroom and moving beyond it to community leaders state decision makers, music teachers have spheres of influence where they can cultivate support for music…

  5. The Perfect Tens: The Top Twenty Books Reviewed in "Voice of Youth Advocates" 2001-2002.

    Voice of Youth Advocates, 2003


    Explains the review procedures and rating system for teen books in "Voice of Youth Advocates" and provides annotated bibliographies for the twenty best books in 2001-2202, including fiction, nonfiction, and science fiction and fantasy. (LRW)

  6. African American Men and Prostate Cancer: Be Your Own Advocate and Understand Screening

    AFRICAN AMERICAN MEN AND PROSTATE CANCER: BE YOUR OWN ADVOCATE AND UNDERSTAND SCREENING By the National Cancer ... American men. For reasons that are still unknown, African American men are more likely to get prostate ...

  7. When would we advocate a total thyroidectomy in cases of hypopharyngeal carcinoma?

    Zeiad Gad


    Conclusion: We would advocate a total thyroidectomy in cases of advanced stages of hypopharyngeal carcinoma, bilateral tumors, postcricoid carcinoma and in all patients with definite radiological evidence of thyroid gland invasion.

  8. A Consensus Definition and Core Competencies for Being an Advocate for Pharmacy

    Bzowyckyj, Andrew S.; Janke, Kristin K.


    Objective. To develop a consensus definition for “advocacy for the profession of pharmacy” and core competencies for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) graduates to be effective advocates for the profession.

  9. Towards optimised information about clinical trials; identification and validation of key issues in collaboration with cancer patient advocates

    Dellson, P; Nilbert, M; Bendahl, P-O;


    in three clinical trials for breast cancer. Primary data collection was done in focus group interviews with breast cancer patient advocates. Content analysis identified three major themes: comprehensibility, emotions and associations, and decision making. Based on the advocates' suggestions for...

  10. The Psychosocial and Independent Living Donor Advocate Evaluation and Post-surgery Care of Living Donors.

    Rudow, Dianne LaPointe; Swartz, Kathleen; Phillips, Chelsea; Hollenberger, Jennifer; Smith, Taylor; Steel, Jennifer L


    Solid organ transplantation as a treatment for end stage organ failure has been an accepted treatment option for decades. Despite advances in medicine and technology, and increased awareness of organ donation and transplantation, the gap between supply and demand continues to widen. Living donation has been an option that has increased the number of transplants despite the continued shortage of deceased organs. In the early 2000s live donor transplantation reached an all-time high in the United States. As a result, a consensus meeting was convened in 2000 to increase the oversight of living donor transplantation. Both the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the United Network for Organ Sharing developed regulations that transplant programs performing live donor transplantation. These regulations and guidelines involve the education, evaluation, informed consent process and living donor follow-up care. Two areas in which had significant changes included the psychosocial and the independent living donor advocate (ILDA) evaluation. The purpose of this paper was to outline the current regulations and guidelines associated with the psychosocial and ILDA evaluation as well as provide further recommendations for the administration of a high quality evaluation of living donors. The goals and timing of the evaluation and education of donors; qualifications of the health care providers performing the evaluation; components of the evaluation; education provided to donors; documentation of the evaluation; participation in the selection committee meeting; post-decline and post-donation care of donors is described. Caveats including the paired donor exchange programs and non-directed and directed donation are also considered. PMID:26293351

  11. Networking

    Rauno Lindholm, Daniel; Boisen Devantier, Lykke; Nyborg, Karoline Lykke; Høgsbro, Andreas; de Fries, Louise Skovlund


    The purpose of this project was to examine what influencing factor that has had an impact on the presumed increasement of the use of networking among academics on the labour market and how it is expressed. On the basis of the influence from globalization on the labour market it can be concluded that the globalization has transformed the labour market into a market based on the organization of networks. In this new organization there is a greater emphasis on employees having social...

  12. The Advocate.

    Schnaiberg, Lynn


    Describes the experiences of a teacher who teaches in the Cook County, Illinois, Juvenile Temporary Detention Center, explaining how her many roles include that of teacher, social worker, and surrogate mother to the children. She also frequently deals with issues of race, since 65 percent of the students are African American. (SM)

  13. Social values and solar energy policy: the policy maker and the advocate

    Shama, A.; Jacobs, K.


    Solar energy policy makers and advocates have significantly different hierarchies (clusters) of values upon which they evaluate the adoption of solar technologies. Content analysis, which examines the frequency with which policy makers identify different types of values, indicates that they hold economic values to be of primary importance. Environmental, social, and national security values are also substantial elements of the policy makers' value clusters associated with solar energy. This finding is confirmed by a qualitative analysis of policy makers' values. Advocates, on the other hand, assign almost equal weights (33%) to economic values and social values, slightly less weight to environmental values, and significant attention to ethical and security values as well. These results of frequency analysis are made somewhat more complicated by a qualitative interpretation of the advocates' positions. As part of their more holistic approach, several of the advocates indicated that all values discussed by them are instrumental toward achieving higher-order, ethical and environmental values. In addition, our preliminary investigation indicates that neither group is entirely homogeneous. Testing this and other propositions, as well as obtaining a similar picture of the values which the public associates with solar energy, are topics of future research.

  14. Narrative in a Nutshell: Sharing Hopes, Fears, and Dreams with Self-Advocates

    Roets, Griet; Goodley, Dan; Van Hove, Geert


    The grand narrative of modernism is a dominating story with profound sociopolitical implications in the lives of people with the label of intellectual disabilities. In this article, we throw light on the life stories and interpretive theories of self-advocates, which usually remain hidden between the story-lines of life. Professionals in the field…

  15. Using Action Research to Assess and Advocate for Innovative School Library Design

    Harper, Meghan; Deskins,Liz


    This article describes a collaborative project designed to use action research to assess and advocate for innovative design changes in a school library. The high school library was in its fifth year of service, and yet the layout of the library was not meeting the learning and technological needs of 21st-century high school students. The purpose…

  16. Standardizing the Pre-Licensure Supervision Process: A Commentary on Advocating for Direct Observation of Skills

    Gray, Neal D.; Erickson, Paul


    The present paper advocates for standardized regulations and laws for supervision of pre-licensed counselors in the United States, particularly for direct observation of clinical skills. A review of regulations by the American Counseling Association (ACA) Office of Professional Affairs (2012) reveals that only two states (Arizona and North…

  17. Women in History--Sarah Winnemucca: Native Educator and Human Rights Advocate

    Krumm, Bernita L.


    This article profiles Sarah Winnemucca, a Native educator and dedicated human rights advocate who devoted her life to building communication and creating understanding between the Native and white cultures. On March 1, 2005, Congressman Jon Porter of Nevada addressed Congress on a bill to allow for the placement of a statue of Sarah Winnemucca…

  18. The Adjunct Advocate @ FIT: Bringing Part Time Faculty into the Mainstream

    Maldonado, Elaine; Riman, Jeffrey


    The Adjunct Advocate @ FIT is an online, faculty development program at FIT, part of the State University of New York. This convenient new resource, developed by the Center for Excellence in Teaching, reaches out to adjunct and off-campus faculty with professional development that includes printable materials, video, discussion boards, and…

  19. Women in History--Leta Stetter Hollingworth: Educator and Advocate for Gifted Children

    Deeds, Jan


    This article profiles Leta Steller Hollingworth, who gave what she had to human beings through her life as a poet, a scholar, a researcher, a feminist, an educational psychologist, and a powerful advocate for gifted children. Hollingworth's research during her graduate studies focused on the psychology of women. At a time when women's professional…

  20. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners' Perceptions of Their Relationship with Doctors, Rape Victim Advocates, Police, and Prosecutors

    Maier, Shana L.


    In response to the negative and inefficient treatment of rape victims by emergency room personnel, the first Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs began in the late 1970s. While SANEs, doctors, rape victim advocates, police officers and prosecutors work together to ensure the most comprehensive and sensitive care of rape victims, they all…

  1. Advocating the Implementation of Mastery Learning in Higher Education to Increase Student Learning and Retention

    Klecker, Beverly M.; Chapman, Ann


    The purpose of this paper was three-fold: (1) to review mastery learning and criterion-based assessment; (2) to advocate extending these concepts to higher education; and (3) to invite MSERA members to join in research projects examining mastery learning in higher education. The authors used Guskey's (2001) definition of mastery learning from his…

  2. Advocating Student-within-Environment: A Humanistic Theory for School Counseling

    Lemberger, Matthew E.


    The author introduces a humanistic theory for school counseling called Advocating Student-within-Environment (ASE). According to this theory, the student is an adaptive agent who operates within ever-evolving environments. With ASE, a school counselor can use the capacities of the student, the school environment, and their shared agency to promote…

  3. Title XX: Social Services in Your State. A Child Advocate's Handbook for Action.

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is a guide for those wishing to route Title XX money into the community programs for children. Part I discusses ways for child advocates to participate in four key stages of the Title XX planning process in their state: planning proposals, raising the 25% non-federal share of the funds required by Title XX, and publishing proposed and…

  4. Perspectives of Social Justice Activists: Advocating against Native-Themed Mascots, Nicknames, and Logos

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Foltz, Brad D.; LaFollette, Julie R.; White, Mattie R.; Wong, Y. Joel; Steinfeldt, Matthew Clint


    This study investigated perspectives of social justice activists who directly advocate for eliminating Native-themed mascots, nicknames, and logos. Using consensual qualitative research methodology, the research team analyzed transcripts of interviews conducted with 11 social justice activists to generate themes, categories, and domains within the…

  5. Peer Assessment and Compliance Review (PACR) Innovative Strategies Report. California Court Appointed Special Advocates (CASA) Programs

    Macro, Bronwen; Huang, Lee Ann


    This report focuses on the innovative strategies study component of the Peer Assessment and Compliance Review (PACR) project. California (Court Appointed Special Advocates) CASA programs have developed many innovative strategies to serve children in their communities. At each of the programs visited during the PACR project, the team identified at…

  6. Publishers' PR Tactic Angers University Presses and Open-Access Advocates

    Howard, Jennifer


    This article reports on reactions to the Association of American Publishers' new public-relations campaign, which has upset many university presses and research librarians, as well as open-access advocates. The effort, known as the "Partnership for Research Integrity in Science & Medicine," or Prism, is the latest tactic in a continuing…

  7. Be Your Own Best Advocate. PACER Center ACTion Information Sheets. PHP-c116

    PACER Center, 2006


    Being a self-advocate means asking for what one needs while respecting the needs of others. Self-advocacy is asking for what is needed in a direct, respectful manner. It is an important skill to acquire because self-advocacy helps: (1) Obtain what is needed; (2) People make personal choices; (3) Learn to say no without feeling guilty; and (4)…

  8. Pitfalls Advocates Should Avoid in Arbitration of Educational Negotiated Grievances Procedures.

    Roumell, George T., Jr.


    Advocates at grievance arbitrations should know the requirements for challenging arbitrator jurisdiction, especially timeliness; should know the procedural safeguards in the contract that must be followed in order to sustain discipline; should know the theory of the case; and should realize that techniques of presentation may be important.…

  9. Content-Specific Strategies to Advocate for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth: An Exploratory Study

    Graybill, Emily C.; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel; Watson, Laurel B.


    Researchers suggest that supportive school personnel may decrease some of the challenges encountered by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth in schools (Russell, Seif, & Truong, 2001); however, little is known about the approaches used by school-based advocates for LGBT youth. This exploratory study investigated the strategies used…

  10. Gay-Straight Alliance Advisors: Negotiating Multiple Ecological Systems when Advocating for LGBTQ Youth

    Watson, Laurel B.; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel; Graybill, Emily C.


    This qualitative study investigated the barriers and facilitators that advisors of gay-straight alliances encounter when advocating for LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) youth within schools. Twenty-two advisors were interviewed, and data revealed that multiple ecological systems (e.g., sociocultural, school, and individual…

  11. Reconstructing Parents’ Meetings in Primary Schools: The Teacher as Expert, the Parent as Advocate and the Pupil as Self-Advocate

    Gillian Inglis


    Full Text Available The efficacy of parents’ meetings in primary schools in the UK is anarea in need of research. This article uses an approach informed by grounded theory to explore the experiences and satisfaction of parents, teachers and pupils regarding bi-annual meetings to discuss pupil progress. A two-phase approach was utilised, with diary-interviews with parents and teachers and group pupil interviews in Phase 1, followed by a parents’ questionnaire in Phase 2 derived from Phase 1 data. The findings from a doctoral study provide an overall more positive depiction of these meetings compared to existing research in the secondary sector. A model of the teacher as the expert and information-giver persists, but a consumerist ideology appears evident as parents seek to participate and advocate on behalf of their child. As parents become more proactive and teachers act to retain their professional authority, the interaction of the professional and advocate has excluded the perspective of the child. This leaves pupils in search of self-advocacy at meetings in which they are the object of discussion, but cannot be present. While pupils generally favour involvement, adults express a protectionist perspective on pupil exclusion with exceptional factors indicated as being the age of the child and the content of the meeting.

  12. Professional development through policy advocacy: communicating and advocating for health and health equity.

    Garcia, Lydia Berenice; Hernandez, Kristen Eileen; Mata, Holly


    Communicating and advocating for evidence-based public health policy is a key component of health promotion practice, but public health professionals often lack experience in policy advocacy. This article provides perspectives from public health professionals who participated in successful public health policy advocacy efforts in their community. Their experiences using evidence-based research to advocate for policies that promote health equity contributed significantly to their career development, and also contributed to community capacity to reduce tobacco-related disparities. This article builds on previous work emphasizing the value of career development opportunities that enhance and diversify the public health workforce, and provides practical tips and "lessons learned" that are relevant to a wide range of public health professionals. PMID:25416310

  13. Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466-1536): renaissance advocate of the public role of medicine.

    Albury, W R; Weisz, G M


    The great Renaissance scholar Erasmus of Rotterdam was a pioneering advocate of the importance of medicine for social as well as individual welfare. Erasmus' "Oration in praise of the art of medicine" (1518) illustrates his literary approach to this topic. Although the original version of his text did not address the state's role in promoting the health of the populace, Erasmus inserted new material on this topic into the "Oration" for a 1529 edition. This new material and references in some of his other writings from the same period indicate that it was in the 1520s that Erasmus first became a strong advocate of government intervention in public health matters. It is suggested that medical events in Erasmus' own life-his experiences both as a patient and as an observer of diseases-may explain why his interest in public health legislation increased significantly around this time. PMID:12870034

  14. An unlikely advocate: the role of the school nurse with children who have dyslexia.

    DeBrew, Jacqueline Kayler


    School nurses are often the first line of advocacy for children when problems arise. One common learning disability, dyslexia, requires advocacy from the school nurse. However, due to lack of knowledge, misunderstandings, and misconceptions about the disorder, the school nurse may feel inadequate in an advocacy role. This article describes dyslexia, including warning signs, so that school nurses can be better prepared to assess for signs, provide intervention, and advocate for struggling children and families. PMID:24707652

  15. Tobacco control advocates must demand high-quality media campaigns: the California experience

    Balbach, E; GLANTZ, S.


    OBJECTIVE—To document efforts on the part of public officials in California to soften the media campaign's attack on the tobacco industry and to analyse strategies to counter those efforts on the part of tobacco control advocates.
METHODS—Data were gathered from interviews with programme participants, direct observation, written materials, and media stories. In addition, internal documents were released by the state's Department of Health Services in response to requests made under the Califo...

  16. Chapter Oral Health Advocates: A Nationwide Model for Pediatrician Peer Education and Advocacy about Oral Health

    Lewis, Charlotte W.; Lauren Barone; Rocio B. Quinonez; Suzanne Boulter; Mouradian, Wendy E.


    Objective. (1) To describe an innovative program training US pediatricians to be Chapter Oral Health Advocates (COHAs). (2) To provide insight into COHAs’ experiences disseminating oral health knowledge to fellow pediatricians. Patients and Methods. Interviews with 40 COHAs who responded to an email request, from a total of 64 (62% response). Transcripts were analyzed for common themes about COHA activities, facilitators, and barriers. Results. COHAs reported positive experiences at the AAP ...

  17. Enhancing Police Responses to Domestic Violence Incidents: Reports From Client Advocates in New South Wales.

    Goodman-Delahunty, Jane; Crehan, Anna Corbo


    In an online survey about experiences with the police complaint system, 239 client advocates described a recent incident in which a client with grounds to lodge a complaint declined to do so. Almost one third of those incidents involved domestic violence. Thematic analysis of case descriptions revealed that many police did not take domestic violence reports seriously. A typology of problematic police conduct was developed. Many officers failed to observe current procedures and appeared to lack knowledge of relevant laws. Citizens feared retaliatory victimization by police and/or perceived that complaining was futile. Implications of these findings are reviewed in light of procedural justice theory. PMID:26567295

  18. Advocating for environmental changes to increase access to parks: engaging promotoras and youth leaders.

    Arredondo, Elva; Mueller, Kristin; Mejia, Elizabeth; Rovira-Oswalder, Tanya; Richardson, Dana; Hoos, Tracy


    Access to physical activity opportunities are limited in underserved communities. Community-based programs can increase promotoras and youth leaders' capacity to advocate for built environmental changes. Promotoras and youth leaders were trained on walkability assessment, park audits, and advocacy. The youth and promotoras from one church located adjacent to a park implemented a community survey, conducted walk audits, and engaged in consciousness-raising activities about environmental factors that affect communities. They also mobilized community members to advocate for a nearby park. Advocacy tactics included attending and making presentations at the City Council, planning meetings, organizing health fairs, and speaking to community members. The following changes were made at the park: removed overgrown plants, relocated storage container, increased park security (i.e., lighting, fencing), improved safety (i.e., covered sewer drain, sand lot removed), enhanced amenities (i.e., drinking fountain, bathroom, benches, tables), improved pedestrian safety in park (i.e., leveled the old and added new walking paths), and improved children's play area (i.e., new play equipment, fencing). The current program highlights factors that contributed to park changes and challenges in increasing access to parks. Furthermore, the current study notes steps that other programs can take to make environmental changes. PMID:23362333

  19. Community Health Advocate-Identified Enablers of HIV Testing for Latina Immigrant Women.

    Massengale, Kelley E; Morrison, Sharon D; Sudha, S


    This study aims to identify enablers or facilitators of HIV testing among Latina immigrant women through qualitative interviews with five community health advocates (CHAs). CHAs act as cultural bridges between Latinos and service providers. We employed a single case-study design using the PEN-3 model as a conceptual framework for situating HIV testing behaviors within cultural and structural contexts of Latina immigrant women's lives. A cross-case analysis of themes revealed that intrinsic enablers of HIV testing included individual trust, confidentiality, intergenerational family participation, and peers. The extrinsic enablers were local community outreach, bicultural/bilingual testing staff, service location and mass media outlets. These results have implications for the cultural competency of health and social service providers, instituting and revising HIV testing outreach interventions, and the earlier identification of women who may have been infected. They offer important insights for promoting other health behaviors among the Latino communities. PMID:27427927

  20. Biological processes for advancing lignocellulosic waste biorefinery by advocating circular economy.

    Liguori, Rossana; Faraco, Vincenza


    The actualization of a circular economy through the use of lignocellulosic wastes as renewable resources can lead to reduce the dependence from fossil-based resources and contribute to a sustainable waste management. The integrated biorefineries, exploiting the overall lignocellulosic waste components to generate fuels, chemicals and energy, are the pillar of the circular economy. The biological treatment is receiving great attention for the biorefinery development since it is considered an eco-friendly alternative to the physico-chemical strategies to increase the biobased product recovery from wastes and improve saccharification and fermentation yields. This paper reviews the last advances in the biological treatments aimed at upgrading lignocellulosic wastes, implementing the biorefinery concept and advocating circular economy. PMID:27131870

  1. International-Local Visionary, Policy Advocate and Formidable Networker: The Life, Times and Work of Jarl Bengtsson

    Schuetze, Hans G.; Duke, Chris


    The authors show ways in which Jarl Bengtsson, a Swedish social scientist and policy analyst, has influenced international policy making. As a member and later director of the OECD's Centre for Educational Research and Innovation from the beginning of the 1970s to the end of the twentieth century, he has contributed to the international discussion…

  2. The big picture of lives saved by abortion on demand: User pays applied to pro-life advocates

    Pope, Robin


    Pro-life advocates focus on a single entity, the foetus. Pro-choice advocates focus on another single entity, the pregnant mother. There should also be a third focus, on all people already born – on how a new entrant on average damages (or enhances) the whole community. Communal accounts are needed on births, not only on wars. This third big picture communal focus reveals two things. First, abortion on demand actually was the biggest factor in reducing crimes and associated deaths in the US i...

  3. Dynamic Network Delay Cartography

    Rajawat, Ketan; Giannakis, Georgios B


    Path delays in IP networks are important metrics, required by network operators for assessment, planning, and fault diagnosis. Monitoring delays of all source-destination pairs in a large network is however challenging and wasteful of resources. The present paper advocates a spatio-temporal Kalman filtering approach to construct network-wide delay maps using measurements on only a few paths. The proposed network cartography framework allows efficient tracking and prediction of delays by relying on both topological as well as historical data. Optimal paths for delay measurement are selected in an online fashion by leveraging the notion of submodularity. The resulting predictor is optimal in the class of linear predictors, and outperforms competing alternatives on real-world datasets.

  4. Chapter Oral Health Advocates: A Nationwide Model for Pediatrician Peer Education and Advocacy about Oral Health.

    Lewis, Charlotte W; Barone, Lauren; Quinonez, Rocio B; Boulter, Suzanne; Mouradian, Wendy E


    Objective. (1) To describe an innovative program training US pediatricians to be Chapter Oral Health Advocates (COHAs). (2) To provide insight into COHAs' experiences disseminating oral health knowledge to fellow pediatricians. Patients and Methods. Interviews with 40 COHAs who responded to an email request, from a total of 64 (62% response). Transcripts were analyzed for common themes about COHA activities, facilitators, and barriers. Results. COHAs reported positive experiences at the AAP oral health training program. A subset of academic COHAs focused on legislative activity and another on resident education about oral health. Residents had an easier time adopting oral health activities while practicing pediatricians cited time constraints. COHAs provided insights into policy, barriers, and facilitators for incorporating oral health into practice. Conclusions. This report identifies factors influencing pediatricians' adoption of oral health care into practice. COHAs reported successes in training peers on integrating oral health into pediatric practice, identified opportunities and challenges to oral health implementation in primary care, and reported issues about the state of children's oral health in their communities. With ongoing support, the COHA program has a potential to improve access to preventive oral health services in the Medical Home and to increase referrals to a Dental Home. PMID:24228032

  5. Consumer Participation in Regulation: stipulated settlements, the consumer advocate and utility regulation in Florida

    Stipulations signed between OPC and the utilities have been significant in Florida. They account for 77% of FPSC earnings review rate reductions since 1976. OPC has provided testimony on rate increases but there have been very few stipulations there. The evidence suggests that OPC secured greater and earlier rate reductions than would otherwise have been achieved. This was especially true for industrial electricity customers but residential customers benefited significantly too. OPC and ultimately the Commission accepted several changes in policy in order to get these rate reductions. The main examples include more flexibility on depreciation than the staff and Commission would otherwise have allowed, and more innovative forms of incentive regulation, notably revenue-sharing rather than earnings sharing. Whether this experience is matched by Consumer Advocates in other states or whether Florida's experience is unique is a topic for further research. In either case, the implications for regulation deserve further consideration. Is it helpful to split the regulatory body into two separate parts: essentially a judge and a prosecutor? In the case of Florida this seems to have been advantageous to customers, and presumably to utilities too since they have voluntarily agreed to these stipulated settlements.

  6. Violence prevention in schools and other community settings: the pediatrician as initiator, educator, collaborator, and advocate.

    Wilson-Brewer, R; Spivak, H


    Attention to the problem of youth violence has resulted in a proliferation of violence prevention and intervention strategies. Examined in this paper are those strategies that can be categorized as educational, environmental/technological, and recreational. In the educational category are conflict resolution and mediation, crime prevention and law-related education, handgun violence education, life skills training, self-esteem development, public education, and media education. The environmental/technological category covers a range of strategies: metal detectors, school police, concrete barriers, dress codes, and safe corridor programs, among others. The rather broad recreational category is based upon the importance of physical activity as an outlet for stress and anger and as a component of a multicomponent program. Multi-intervention programs are described as well as some of the major gaps in current violence prevention programming. The suggested role of the pediatrician in violence prevention efforts is described as both initiator and collaborator, as counselor, and as advocate. Because of their great credibility with respect to issues related to children and youth, pediatricians can influence not only parents in their contacts with them in the health care setting, but also school administrators and community leaders. Pediatricians have access to the media, and they can speak to the issue in public forums as well. Furthermore, pediatricians can join existing community efforts to determine ways in which violence prevention and intervention strategies can be incorporated into agency activities. PMID:7936888

  7. Chapter Oral Health Advocates: A Nationwide Model for Pediatrician Peer Education and Advocacy about Oral Health

    Charlotte W. Lewis


    Full Text Available Objective. (1 To describe an innovative program training US pediatricians to be Chapter Oral Health Advocates (COHAs. (2 To provide insight into COHAs’ experiences disseminating oral health knowledge to fellow pediatricians. Patients and Methods. Interviews with 40 COHAs who responded to an email request, from a total of 64 (62% response. Transcripts were analyzed for common themes about COHA activities, facilitators, and barriers. Results. COHAs reported positive experiences at the AAP oral health training program. A subset of academic COHAs focused on legislative activity and another on resident education about oral health. Residents had an easier time adopting oral health activities while practicing pediatricians cited time constraints. COHAs provided insights into policy, barriers, and facilitators for incorporating oral health into practice. Conclusions. This report identifies factors influencing pediatricians’ adoption of oral health care into practice. COHAs reported successes in training peers on integrating oral health into pediatric practice, identified opportunities and challenges to oral health implementation in primary care, and reported issues about the state of children’s oral health in their communities. With ongoing support, the COHA program has a potential to improve access to preventive oral health services in the Medical Home and to increase referrals to a Dental Home.

  8. Are the advocates of nuclear power and the adversaries listening to each other?

    It's obvious that one cannot answer the question from the title with simple 'yes' or 'no'. If it seems that the nuclear advocates globaly, have the same point of view, and an homegeneous argumentation, it is not the same for the opponents to Nuclear Energy. We can classify these adversaries in 4 categories, according to the nature of their opposition: ideological, economical, political, that includes ideological, mystical. In reality, these 4 types of opposition are not equally represented in France. From 1974 to the present moment, the EDF, has tried to have a dialogue with them. Various resultswere achieved with the Ecologists, 'Economical opponents', 'political adversaries'. Theer was no dialogue with the 'mystical opponents', for a very simple reason 'Nuclear people' are the Devil himself and they did not wish to have anything to do with him. There can be no end to the discussion about the sex of angels. To conclude, it is believed that there has been a discussion in France. It did not lead to any sort of complete consensus, but there are some true positive results. Only one, the well-known opponent to nuclear energy, in the seventies, the President of 'The Friends of the Earth' he is, now, French 'Environment Vice-Minister' and he considers that, among the energy industries, the nuclear energy is, without doubt, the less polluting

  9. Network Topology Identification from Spectral Templates

    Segarra, Santiago; Marques, Antonio G.; Mateos, Gonzalo; Ribeiro, Alejandro


    Network topology inference is a cornerstone problem in statistical analyses of complex systems. In this context, the fresh look advocated here permeates benefits from convex optimization and graph signal processing, to identify the so-termed graph shift operator (encoding the network topology) given only the eigenvectors of the shift. These spectral templates can be obtained, for example, from principal component analysis of a set of graph signals defined on the particular network. The novel ...

  10. How You Can Help Your Child Learn to Be a Good Self Advocate. PHP-c95

    PACER Center, 2004


    It is never too early for parents to start teaching children how they can advocate for themselves. Like many other important life skills, self-advocacy is a critical tool children need in order to achieve goals, increase self-sufficiency, and become successful young adults. It is a life long process that begins with children learning by watching…

  11. Family Advocates' Perspectives on the Early Academic Success of Children Born to Low-Income Adolescent Mothers

    Luster, Tom; Bates, Laura; Vandenbelt, Marcia; Nievar, M. Angela


    Qualitative analyses were conducted to examine family factors related to individual differences in the early school success of children born to low-income adolescent mothers from the perspective of paraprofessional family advocates. These families were participants in a 5-year family support program. Achievement test scores and teacher ratings…

  12. Awareness and predictors of female genital mutilation/cutting among young health advocates

    Abolfotouh SM


    Full Text Available Sherif M Abolfotouh,1,2 Ahmed Z Ebrahim,1,3 Mostafa A Abolfotouh4 On Behalf of IFMSA-Egypt 1IFMSA-Egypt, Alexandria, Egypt; 2Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland; 3Alexandria Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria, Egypt; 4King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: The act of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C is considered internationally as a violent act against girls and women and a violation of their human rights. This study sought to assess the awareness and predictors of FGM/C in young Egyptian health advocates. A cross-sectional study of 600 medical students from a total of 2,500 members of the International Federation of Medical Students’ Associations (IFMSA-Egypt, across all Egyptian medical schools, was conducted using a previously validated online Google survey. The overall prevalence of circumcision was 14.7/100 female students, with a significantly higher prevalence in students from rural areas (25% than in non-rural areas (10.8%, P=0.001, and in those residing in Upper (southern Egypt (20.6% than in Lower (northern Egypt (8.7%, P=0.003. The students’ mean percentage score for knowledge about the negative health consequences of FGM/C was 53.50±29.07, reflecting a modest level of knowledge; only 30.5% had a good level of knowledge. The mean percentage score for the overall attitude toward discontinuation of the practice of FGM/C was 76.29±17.93, reflecting a neutral attitude; 58.7% had a favorable attitude/norms toward discontinuation of the practice. Of circumcised students, approximately one-half (46.8% were unwilling to have their daughters circumcised, and 60% reported no harm from being circumcised. After controlling for confounders, a negative attitude toward FGM/C was significantly (P<0.001 in all cases associated with male sex, residency in Upper Egypt, rural origin, previous circumcision, and the preclinical

  13. Awareness and predictors of female genital mutilation/cutting among young health advocates.

    Abolfotouh, Sherif M; Ebrahim, Ahmed Z; Abolfotouh, Mostafa A


    The act of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is considered internationally as a violent act against girls and women and a violation of their human rights. This study sought to assess the awareness and predictors of FGM/C in young Egyptian health advocates. A cross-sectional study of 600 medical students from a total of 2,500 members of the International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA)-Egypt, across all Egyptian medical schools, was conducted using a previously validated online Google survey. The overall prevalence of circumcision was 14.7/100 female students, with a significantly higher prevalence in students from rural areas (25%) than in non-rural areas (10.8%, P=0.001), and in those residing in Upper (southern) Egypt (20.6%) than in Lower (northern) Egypt (8.7%, P=0.003). The students' mean percentage score for knowledge about the negative health consequences of FGM/C was 53.50±29.07, reflecting a modest level of knowledge; only 30.5% had a good level of knowledge. The mean percentage score for the overall attitude toward discontinuation of the practice of FGM/C was 76.29±17.93, reflecting a neutral attitude; 58.7% had a favorable attitude/norms toward discontinuation of the practice. Of circumcised students, approximately one-half (46.8%) were unwilling to have their daughters circumcised, and 60% reported no harm from being circumcised. After controlling for confounders, a negative attitude toward FGM/C was significantly (P<0.001 in all cases) associated with male sex, residency in Upper Egypt, rural origin, previous circumcision, and the preclinical medical phase of education. The low level of knowledge among even future health professions in our study suggests that communication, rather than passive learning, is needed to convey the potentially negative consequences of FGM/C and to drive a change in attitude toward discontinuation of this harmful practice. PMID:25759602

  14. Advocates, interest groups and Australian news coverage of alcohol advertising restrictions: content and framing analysis

    Fogarty Andrea S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Legislating restrictions on alcohol advertising is a cost-effective measure to reduce consumption of alcohol. Yet Australia relies upon industry self-regulation through voluntary codes of practice regarding the content, timing and placement of alcohol advertising. Ending industry self-regulation was recommended by the National Preventative Health Taskforce; a suggestion contested by the drinks industry. Debates about emerging alcohol-control policies regularly play out in the news media, with various groups seeking to influence the discussion. This paper examines news coverage of recommendations to restrict alcohol advertising to see how supporters and opponents frame the debate, with a view to providing some suggestions for policy advocates to advance the discussion. Methods We used content and framing analyses to examine 329 Australian newspaper items mentioning alcohol advertising restrictions over 24 months. All items were coded for mentions of specific types of advertising and types of advertising restrictions, the presence of news frames that opposed or endorsed advertising restrictions, statements made within each frame and the news-actors who appeared. Results Restrictions were the main focus in only 36% of 329 items. Alcohol advertising was conceived of as television (47% and sport-related (56%. Restrictions were mentioned in non-specific terms (45%, or specified as restrictions on timing and placement (49%, or content (22%. Public health professionals (47% appeared more frequently than drinks industry representatives (18%. Five supportive news frames suggested the policy is a sensible public health response, essential to protect children, needed to combat the drinks industry, required to stop pervasive branding, or as only an issue in sport. Four unsupportive frames positioned restrictions as unnecessary for a responsible industry, an attack on legitimate commercial activities, ineffective and ‘nannyist’, or

  15. Conceptions of Speech Acts in the Theory and Practice of Argumentation: A Case Study of a Debate About Advocating

    Goodwin Jean


    Far from being of interest only to argumentation theorists, conceptions of speech acts play an important role in practitioners’ self-reflection on their own activities. After a brief review of work by Houtlosser, Jackson and Kauffeld on the ways that speech acts provide normative frameworks for argumentative interactions, this essay examines an ongoing debate among scientists in natural resource fields as to the appropriateness of the speech act of advocating in policy settings. Scientists’ r...

  16. 75 FR 55392 - Employment Network Report Card


    ...We are soliciting the views of the public, beneficiaries, advocates, Employment Networks (EN), and other professionals on a key part of our quality assurance and performance measurement system for the Ticket to Work (TTW) program. An EN is a private or public entity that provides employment support and/or vocational rehabilitation services to Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and......

  17. Bond percolation on multiplex networks

    Hackett, A; Gómez, S; Arenas, A; Gleeson, J P


    We present an analytical approach for bond percolation on multiplex networks and use it to determine the expected size of the giant connected component and the value of the critical bond occupation probability in these networks. We advocate the relevance of these tools to the modeling of multilayer robustness and contribute to the debate on whether any benefit is to be yielded from studying a full multiplex structure as opposed to its monoplex projection, especially in the seemingly irrelevant case of a bond occupation probability that does not depend on the layer. Although we find that in many cases the predictions of our theory for multiplex networks coincide with previously derived results for monoplex networks, we also uncover the remarkable result that for a certain class of multiplex networks, well described by our theory, new critical phenomena occur as multiple percolation phase transitions are present. We provide an instance of this phenomenon in a multipex network constructed from London rail and Eu...

  18. Networking activism: implications for Greece

    Pantelis Vatikiotis


    The outbreak of December 2008 against police brutality through a wave of demonstrations and street protests in Athens, which was strongly advocated by protest activities and practices across the world, addresses several issues in relation to the transformative potentials of mediated collective action. The paper critically evaluates different accounts of December events, probing then into thevery networking of that movement. From this perspective, it points out another aspect of the local-glob...

  19. Interconnection and incentive regulation in network industries

    Iván Major; Károly M. Kiss


    The price regulation of network industries has changed tremendously all over the world recently. Theoretical contributions specifically advocate and telecommunications, energy and other market regulators in various parts of the world practice cost-based pricing for inter-firm network access services. Cost-based pricing is performed under the assumption that the regulator has perfect information regarding the costs of producing the services. We show that — under fairly general conditions — cos...

  20. Bringing a Network-Oriented Approach to Domestic Violence Services: A Focus Group Exploration of Promising Practices.

    Goodman, Lisa A; Banyard, Victoria; Woulfe, Julie; Ash, Sarah; Mattern, Grace


    Despite powerful evidence that informal social support contributes to survivors' safety and well-being, mainstream domestic violence (DV) programs have not developed comprehensive models for helping isolated survivors re-engage with these networks. Although many advocates use network-oriented strategies informally, they often do so without resources, funding, or training. This qualitative focus group study explored advocates' use and perceptions of network-oriented strategies. Advocates working in a range of DV programs across one state described the importance of network-oriented work and articulated its five dimensions, including helping survivors build their capacity to form healthy relationships, identify helpful and harmful network members, re-engage with existing networks, develop new relationships, and respond more effectively to network members. PMID:26270387

  1. Conceptions of Speech Acts in the Theory and Practice of Argumentation: A Case Study of a Debate About Advocating

    Goodwin Jean


    Full Text Available Far from being of interest only to argumentation theorists, conceptions of speech acts play an important role in practitioners’ self-reflection on their own activities. After a brief review of work by Houtlosser, Jackson and Kauffeld on the ways that speech acts provide normative frameworks for argumentative interactions, this essay examines an ongoing debate among scientists in natural resource fields as to the appropriateness of the speech act of advocating in policy settings. Scientists’ reflections on advocacy align well with current scholarship, and the scholarship in turn can provide a deeper understanding of how to manage the communication challenges scientists face.

  2. Simplified models of biological networks.

    Sneppen, Kim; Krishna, Sandeep; Semsey, Szabolcs


    The function of living cells is controlled by complex regulatory networks that are built of a wide diversity of interacting molecular components. The sheer size and intricacy of molecular networks of even the simplest organisms are obstacles toward understanding network functionality. This review discusses the achievements and promise of a bottom-up approach that uses well-characterized subnetworks as model systems for understanding larger networks. It highlights the interplay between the structure, logic, and function of various types of small regulatory circuits. The bottom-up approach advocates understanding regulatory networks as a collection of entangled motifs. We therefore emphasize the potential of negative and positive feedback, as well as their combinations, to generate robust homeostasis, epigenetics, and oscillations. PMID:20192769

  3. Networking activism: implications for Greece

    Pantelis Vatikiotis


    Full Text Available The outbreak of December 2008 against police brutality through a wave of demonstrations and street protests in Athens, which was strongly advocated by protest activities and practices across the world, addresses several issues in relation to the transformative potentials of mediated collective action. The paper critically evaluates different accounts of December events, probing then into thevery networking of that movement. From this perspective, it points out another aspect of the local-global interplay in protest culture along new mediating practices (beyond the creation of transnational publics, that of the implications of transnational networking for local social activism and identification, addressing relevant questions in the Greek context.

  4. Towards optimised information about clinical trials; identification and validation of key issues in collaboration with cancer patient advocates

    Dellson, P; Nilbert, M; Bendahl, P-O;


    for improvements, 21 key issues were defined and validated through a questionnaire in an independent group of breast cancer patient advocates. Clear messages, emotionally neutral expressions, careful descriptions of side effects, clear comparisons between different treatment alternatives and information about......Clinical trials are crucial to improve cancer treatment but recruitment is difficult. Optimised patient information has been recognised as a key issue. In line with the increasing focus on patients' perspectives in health care, we aimed to study patients' opinions about the written information used...... the possibility to discontinue treatment were perceived as the most important issues. Patients' views of the information in clinical trials provide new insights and identify key issues to consider in optimising future written information and may improve recruitment to clinical cancer trials....

  5. Towards an Information Theory of Complex Networks

    Dehmer, Matthias; Mehler, Alexander


    For over a decade, complex networks have steadily grown as an important tool across a broad array of academic disciplines, with applications ranging from physics to social media. A tightly organized collection of carefully-selected papers on the subject, Towards an Information Theory of Complex Networks: Statistical Methods and Applications presents theoretical and practical results about information-theoretic and statistical models of complex networks in the natural sciences and humanities. The book's major goal is to advocate and promote a combination of graph-theoretic, information-theoreti

  6. Autonomic computing enabled cooperative networked design

    Wodczak, Michal


    This book introduces the concept of autonomic computing driven cooperative networked system design from an architectural perspective. As such it leverages and capitalises on the relevant advancements in both the realms of autonomic computing and networking by welding them closely together. In particular, a multi-faceted Autonomic Cooperative System Architectural Model is defined which incorporates the notion of Autonomic Cooperative Behaviour being orchestrated by the Autonomic Cooperative Networking Protocol of a cross-layer nature. The overall proposed solution not only advocates for the inc

  7. The Use of Elgg Social Networking Tool for Students' Project Peer-Review Activity

    Samardzija, Ana Coric; Bubas, Goran


    Numerous e-learning 2.0 studies have advocated the use of social networking sites for educational purposes, but only a few of them have observed social networking sites as an instrument for specific learner skill development. This paper discusses a study which addresses the motivation and challenges associated with the introduction of the social…

  8. Rethinking Social Network Assessment for Students with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) in Postsecondary Education

    Eisenman, Laura T.; Farley-Ripple, Elizabeth; Culnane, Mary; Freedman, Brian


    Social networks of persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) have been characterized as smaller and less diverse than those of typical peers. Advocates have focused on strengthening those social networks by expanding circles of social support, protection, and friendship. As young adults with ID experience increasing levels of community…

  9. "Kracking" the Missing Data Problem: Applying Krackhardt's Cognitive Social Structures to School-Based Social Networks

    Neal, Jennifer Watling


    Social network analysis can enrich school-based research on children's peer relationships. Unfortunately, accurate network analysis requires near-complete data on all students and is underutilized in school-based research because of low rates of parental consent. This article advocates Krackhardt's cognitive social structures (CSS) as a solution…

  10. Artificial Neural Networks in Policy Research: A Current Assessment.

    Woelfel, Joseph


    Suggests that artificial neural networks (ANNs) exhibit properties that promise usefulness for policy researchers. Notes that ANNs have found extensive use in areas once reserved for multivariate statistical programs such as regression and multiple classification analysis and are developing an extensive community of advocates for processing text…

  11. Artificial Neural Networks for Modeling Knowing and Learning in Science.

    Roth, Wolff-Michael


    Advocates artificial neural networks as models for cognition and development. Provides an example of how such models work in the context of a well-known Piagetian developmental task and school science activity: balance beam problems. (Contains 59 references.) (Author/WRM)

  12. 76 FR 76475 - Employment Network (EN) Report Card


    ...We are soliciting the input of beneficiaries, recipients, advocates, employment networks (ENs), other professionals, and the general public on the draft revised EN Report Card. An EN is a private or public entity that participates in the Ticket to Work (TTW) program and provides employment services, vocational rehabilitation services, or other support services to Social Security Disability......

  13. A Practical View on Tunable Sparse Network Coding

    Sørensen, Chres Wiant; Shahbaz Badr, Arash; Guerrero, Juan;


    Tunable sparse network coding (TSNC) constitutes a promising concept for trading off computational complexity and delay performance. This paper advocates for the use of judicious feedback as a key not only to make TSNC practical, but also to deliver a highly consistent and controlled delay......) can result in a radical improvement of the complexity-delay trade-off....

  14. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana


    Learning Networks are on-line social networks through which users share knowledge with each other and jointly develop new knowledge. This way, Learning Networks may enrich the experience of formal, school-based learning and form a viable setting for professional development. Although networked learning enjoys an increasing interest, many questions remain on how exactly learning in such networked contexts can contribute to successful education and training. Put differently, how should networke...

  15. Revealing Hidden Connections in Recommendation Networks

    Minhano, Rogerio; Kamienski, Carlos


    Companies have been increasingly seeking new mechanisms for making their electronic marketing campaigns to become viral, thus obtaining a cascading recommendation effect similar to word-of-mouth. We analysed a dataset of a magazine publisher that uses email as the main marketing strategy and found out that networks emerging from those campaigns form a very sparse graph. We show that online social networks can be effectively used as a means to expand recommendation networks. Starting from a set of users, called seeders, we crawled Google's Orkut and collected about 20 million users and 80 million relationships. Next, we extended the original recommendation network by adding new edges using Orkut relationships that built a much denser network. Therefore, we advocate that online social networks are much more effective than email-based marketing campaigns

  16. Patient Advocate Foundation

    ... Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma ... Employment Resources Disease Specific Resources Prevention Cancer Prevention Diabetes Prevention Cardiovascular/Heart Disease Prevention Healthcare Reform Additional ...

  17. Advocating beyond the academy

    Mackenzie, Catrina; Christensen, Julia; Turner, Sarah


    Drawing from experiences in Northern Indigenous Canada, Uganda, and Vietnam, we discuss the challenges encountered while trying to communicate relevant results to local communities with whom we work. Wavering between participatory and advocacy research, we explore how we grapple with finding the...... right audience with whom to share results, our attempts to craft communication to be relevant within specific contexts, and dilemmas over self-censorship. We also document our struggles to manage our own expectations and those of the communities with whom we work regarding the ability of our research to...... broker change. This article emerged from our frustration at wanting to be accountable to our interviewee communities, but finding few academic articles that go beyond ideals to examine how researchers often struggle to meet these expectations. While participatory approaches are increasingly mainstreamed...

  18. Characterizing Interest Aggregation in Content-Centric Networks

    Dabirmoghaddam, Ali; Dehghan, Mostafa; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J.


    The Named Data Networking (NDN) and Content-Centric Networking (CCN) architectures advocate Interest aggregation as a means to reduce end-to-end latency and bandwidth consumption. To enable these benefits, Interest aggregation must be realized through Pending Interest Tables (PIT) that grow in size at the rate of incoming Interests to an extent that may eventually defeat their original purpose. A thorough analysis is provided of the Interest aggregation mechanism using mathematical arguments ...

  19. Graduate midwives' perception of their preparation and support in using evidence to advocate for women's choice: A Western Australian study.

    Hauck, Yvonne; Lewis, Lucy; Kuliukas, Lesley; Butt, Janice; Wood, Jennifer


    A retrospective cohort study was conducted with 83 midwives working across the Western Australian (WA) maternity sector who graduated from one WA University. We explored midwives' attitudes and utilisation of research and assertive communication in addition to perceptions of their educational preparation to advocate for women. The greatest opportunity for research exposure was working on a clinical audit (25.3%). No differences were found between graduate groups using the Edmonton Research Orientation subscales, although findings suggest a positive view towards research. Midwives were more likely to be assertive with their clinical colleagues than a midwifery manager or medical colleague when: expressing their opinions (P = communication skills', work environment' and 'knowing the woman and what she wants'. Findings suggest strategies are needed in their entry to practice preparation and ongoing professional development to facilitate research engagement. Using assertive behaviour to provide feedback to clinical colleagues warrants attention to enhance reflective practice. Building communication skills through observing positive role models and participating in role play was highlighted. PMID:26144597

  20. Building a Generation of Physician Advocates: The Case for Including Mandatory Training in Advocacy in Canadian Medical School Curricula.

    Bhate, Tahara D; Loh, Lawrence C


    There is an increasing focus on the social accountability of physicians as individuals, and of medicine itself. This has led to increasing emphasis on physician advocacy from a wide variety of institutions. The physician advocacy concept is now part of the Health Advocacy competency mandated by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. Despite its growing prominence, physician advocacy remains poorly integrated into current medical undergraduate curricula. The authors recommend how and why curricular reform should proceed; they focus on Canadian medical education, although they hope their views will be useful in other countries as well.The authors discuss conflicting definitions of physician advocacy, which have previously hampered curriculum development efforts, and suggest a way of reconciling the conflicts. They review current gaps in advocacy-related curricula, suggest that these can be addressed by incorporating practice-based and skills acquisition elements into current didactic teaching, and offer several strategies by which an advocacy curriculum could be implemented, ranging from small modifications to current curriculum to developing new competencies in medical education nationally.The authors present a case for making an advocacy curriculum mandatory for every Canadian medical trainee; they argue that teaching trainees how to fulfill their professional responsibility to advocate may also help them meet the social accountability mandate of medical school education. Finally, the authors explain why making the development and implementation of a mandatory, skill-based curriculum in advocacy should be a priority. PMID:26200573

  1. Mapping and characterization of LCA networks

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis;


    Purpose: The aims of this study were to provide an up-todate overview of global, regional and local networks supporting life cycle thinking and to characterize them according to their structure and activities. Methods: Following a tentative life cycle assessment (LCA) network definition, a mapping...... was performed based on (1) a literature search, (2) a web search and (3) an inquiry to stakeholders distributed via the two largest LCA fora. Networks were characterized based on responses from a survey. Results and discussion: We identified 100 networks, of which 29 fulfilled all six criteria...... provided list of LCA networks is currently the most comprehensive, publicly available mapping. We believe that the results of this mapping can serve as a basis for deciding where priorities should be set to increase the dissemination and development of LCA worldwide. In this aim, we also advocate the...

  2. Composition Matters: Multi-Context Informal Mentoring Networks for Low-Income Urban Adolescent Girls Pursuing Healthcare Careers

    Packard, Becky Wai-Ling; Kim, Grace June; Sicley, Marissa; Piontkowski, Sarah


    In the career research literature focused on adults, diversely composed mentoring networks are advocated due to their effectiveness in providing a wide range of mentoring functions. This study investigates the composition of informal mentoring networks utilized by low-income urban adolescent girls with healthcare college and career aspirations. In…

  3. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    Sloep, Peter


    Sloep, P. B. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning. Presentation at Annual Assembly of the European Society for the Systemic Innovation of Education - ESSIE. May, 27, 2011, Leuven, Belgium: Open University in the Netherlands.

  4. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana


    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from

  5. Network Potentials

    Chakrabarti, Subhadip; Gilles, Robert Paul


    A network payoff function assigns a utility to all participants in a (social) network. In this paper we discuss properties of such network payoff functions that guarantee the existence of certain types of pairwise stable networks and the convergence of certain network formation processes. In particular we investigate network payoff functions that admit an exact network potential or an ordinal network potential. We relate these network potentials to exact and ordinal potentials of a non-cooper...

  6. Setting the global health agenda: The influence of advocates and ideas on political priority for maternal and newborn survival.

    Smith, Stephanie L; Shiffman, Jeremy


    This study investigates a puzzle concerning global health priorities-why do comparable issues receive differential levels of attention and resources? It considers maternal and neonatal mortality, two high-burden issues that pertain to groups at risk at birth and whose lives could be saved with effective intrapartum care. Why did maternal survival gain status as a global health priority earlier and to a greater degree than newborn survival? Higher mortality and morbidity burdens among newborns and the cost-effectiveness of interventions would seem to predict that issue's earlier and higher prioritization. Yet maternal survival emerged as a priority two decades earlier and had attracted considerably more attention and resources by the close of the Millennium Development Goals era. This study uses replicative process-tracing case studies to examine the emergence and growth of political priority for these two issues, probing reasons for unexpected variance. The study finds that maternal survival's grounding as a social justice issue spurred growth of a strong and diverse advocacy network and aligned the issue with powerful international norms (e.g. expectations to advance women's rights and the Millennium Development Goals), drawing attention and resources to the issue over three decades. Newborn survival's disadvantage stems from its long status as an issue falling under the umbrellas of maternal and child survival but not fully adopted by these networks, and with limited appeal as a public health issue advanced by a small and technically focused network; network expansion and alignment with child survival norms have improved the issue's status in the past few years. PMID:27543685

  7. The Limited English Proficiency Patient Family Advocate Role: Fostering Respectful and Effective Care Across Language and Culture in a Pediatric Oncology Setting.

    Gil, Stephanie; Hooke, Mary C; Niess, Dawn


    Patients and families with limited English proficiency (LEP) face a multitude of barriers both inside and outside the hospital walls. These barriers can contribute to difficulty accessing care and understanding/adhering to treatment recommendations, ultimately placing them at higher risk for poorer outcomes than their English-speaking counterparts. The LEP Patient Family Advocate role was created with the aim of improving access, promoting effective communication, and equalizing care for children with cancer from families with LEP. The goal of this mixed methods study was to describe the level of satisfaction and experiences of parents and health care providers who used the LEP Patient Family Advocate while receiving or providing care. Twelve parents and 15 health care providers completed quantitative surveys and an open-ended question about their experiences. High levels of satisfaction were reported. Themes about the role from qualitative responses included its positive effect on communication, trust, and connectedness between parents and staff. Continuity of care and safety were improved, and parents thought the role helped decrease their stress. The LEP Patient Family Advocate has a positive influence on family-centered cultural care. PMID:26589355

  8. Towards a theoretical framework for analyzing complex linguistic networks

    Lücking, Andy; Banisch, Sven; Blanchard, Philippe; Job, Barbara


    The aim of this book is to advocate and promote network models of linguistic systems that are both based on thorough mathematical models and substantiated in terms of linguistics. In this way, the book contributes first steps towards establishing a statistical network theory as a theoretical basis of linguistic network analysis the boarder of the natural sciences and the humanities.This book addresses researchers who want to get familiar with theoretical developments, computational models and their empirical evaluation in the field of complex linguistic networks. It is intended to all those who are interested in statisticalmodels of linguistic systems from the point of view of network research. This includes all relevant areas of linguistics ranging from phonological, morphological and lexical networks on the one hand and syntactic, semantic and pragmatic networks on the other. In this sense, the volume concerns readers from many disciplines such as physics, linguistics, computer science and information scien...

  9. Network Competition with Local Network

    Oystein Fjeldstad; Moen, Espen R; Christian Riis


    Local network externalities are present when the network externalities associated with entering a certain network depends not only on the total number of agents in the network, but on the identity of the agents in the network. We explore the consequences of local network externalities within a framework where two networks compete on the Hotelling circle. We first show that local network externalities, in contrast to global network externalities, do not sharpen competition. Then we show that t...

  10. Applying Intelligent Computing Techniques to Modeling Biological Networks from Expression Data

    Wei-Po Lee; Kung-Cheng Yang


    Constructing biological networks is one of the most important issues in system sbiology. However, constructing a network from data manually takes a considerable large amount of time, therefore an automated procedure is advocated. To automate the procedure of network construction, in this work we use two intelligent computing techniques, genetic programming and neural computation, to infer two kinds of network models that use continuous variables. To verify the presented approaches, experiments have been conducted and the preliminary results show that both approaches can be used to infer networks successfully.

  11. Using Social Network Analysis to Predict Early Collaboration within Health Advocacy Coalitions

    Honeycutt, Todd C.; Strong, Debra A.


    Within coalitions of consumer advocates formed to advance health insurance coverage expansions, engaging in united advocacy activities soon after formation might be an important precursor to attaining coalition effectiveness in shaping policy. In this article, the authors apply social network analysis (SNA) to examine how organizational…

  12. Information-centric networking for machine-to-machine data delivery: a case study in smart grid applications

    Katsaros, Konstantinos; Koong Chai, Wei; Wang, Ning; Pavlou, George; Bontius, Herman; Paolone, Mario


    Largely motivated by the proliferation of content-centric applications in the Internet, information-centric networking has attracted the attention of the research community. By tailoring network operations around named information objects instead of end hosts, ICN yields a series of desirable features such as the spatiotemporal decoupling of communicating entities and the support of in-network caching. In this article, we advocate the introduction of such ICN features in a new, rapidly transf...

  13. On the Need of Network coding for Mobile Clouds

    Fitzek, Frank; Heide, Janus; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    This paper advocates the need of network coding for mobile clouds. Mobile clouds as well as network coding are describing two novel concepts. The concept of mobile clouds describes the potential of mobile devices to communicate with each other and form a cooperative cluster in which new services...... and potentials are created. Network coding on the other side enables the mobile cloud to communicate in a very efficient and secure way in terms of energy and bandwidth usage. Even though network coding can be applied in a variety of communication networks, it has some inherent features that makes it...... suitable for mobile clouds. The paper will list the benefits of network coding for mobile clouds as well as introduce both concepts in a tutorial way. The results used throughout this paper are collaborative work of different research institutes, but mainly taken from the mobile device group at Aalborg...

  14. Declarative Networking

    Loo, Boon Thau


    Declarative Networking is a programming methodology that enables developers to concisely specify network protocols and services, which are directly compiled to a dataflow framework that executes the specifications. Declarative networking proposes the use of a declarative query language for specifying and implementing network protocols, and employs a dataflow framework at runtime for communication and maintenance of network state. The primary goal of declarative networking is to greatly simplify the process of specifying, implementing, deploying and evolving a network design. In addition, decla

  15. Transports Regulators of Networks with Junctions Detected by Durations Functions

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre


    This study advocates a mathematical framework of ''transport relations'' on a network. They single out a subset of ''traffic states'' described by time, duration, position and other traffic attributes (called ''monads'' for short). Duration evolutions are non-negative, decreasing toward zero for incoming durations, increasing from zero for outgoing durations, allowing the detection of ''junction states'' defined as traffic states with ''zero duration''. A ''junction relation'' (crossroads, sy...

  16. Saving Muslim women in the era of Axis of Evil? : pious women’s movement advocates in Iran, 2001-2010

    Raunio, Paola Maria


    This thesis aims to investigate US foreign policies in the post-9/11 world, focusing on the ways in which they affected the Iranian women’s movement after Iran was included in the Axis of Evil in January 2002. The focus of the thesis draws on the Bush Administration’s decision to use Muslim women’s human rights as moral justifications for the War on Terror. The thesis argues that, despite the US commitment to Iranian women’s human rights, Iranian women’s movement advocates have found thems...

  17. Interviewing clinicians and advocates who work with sexual assault survivors: a personal perspective on moving from quantitative to qualitative research methods.

    Ullman, Sarah E


    This article describes the author's personal experiences of conducting a qualitative semistructured interview study, after having done predominantly quantitative survey research in the social sciences. The author describes the process of learning how to approach conducting semistructured interviews with female advocates and clinicians who provide services to sexual assault survivors in the community. The author describes making the transition from a logical positivist deductive approach to thinking about and conducting research to a more social constructionist stance in which one learns from participants about their experiences and perspectives in narrative form to discover knowledge and develop theory inductively. PMID:16049103

  18. Outline of LI Dong-yuan's Academic Thinking on Advocating the Application of "Wind Medicine"%李东垣倡风药应用学术思想述要



    The history of using "wind medicine" was briefly elaborated through studying literature, especially Li Dong-yucai's academic thinking on using wind medicine was emphatically pointed out, in which he stresses primordial Qi, advocating the acquired constitution (spleen) nourishes the congenital one (kidney); stresses the spleen and stomach, advocating to invigorate the middle with the drugs of sweet and warm nature; stresses descending and ascending, advocating ShaoYang governs sprout and growth; stresses wind medicine, advocating wind medicine ascending Yang.%从文献角度梳理了"风药"使用的历史,重点阐述了金元四大家之一的李东垣重视风药应用的学术思想:重元气,倡后天养先天;重脾胃,倡甘温补中;重升降,倡少阳生发;重风药,倡风药升阳.

  19. Loyalty and positive word-of-mouth: patients and hospital personnel as advocates of a customer-centric health care organization.

    Ferguson, Ronald J; Paulin, Michele; Leiriao, Elizabeth


    The ability to attract and retain loyal customers depends on the successful implementation of a customer-centric strategy. Customer loyalty is an attitude about an organization and its' services that is manifested by intentions and behaviors of re-patronization and recommendation. In the context of many medical services, loyalty through repeat patronization is not pertinent, whereas loyalty through positive word-of mouth (WOM) recommendation can be a powerful marketing tool. The Shouldice Hospital, a well-known institution for the surgical correction of hernias, instituted a marketing plan to develop a stable base of patients by creating positive WOM advocacy. This study focused on the consequences of both hernia patient overall satisfaction (and overall service quality) and hospital personnel satisfaction on the level of positive WOM advocacy. Using a commitment ladder of positive WOM advocacy, respondents were divided into three categories described as passive supporters, active advocates and ambassador advocates. Patient assessments of overall satisfaction and service quality were significantly related to these progressive levels of WOM for recommending the hospital to potential patients. Similarly, the satisfaction of the hospital employees was also significantly related to these progressive levels of positive WOM about recommending the hospital to potential patients and to potential employees. High levels of satisfaction are required to create true ambassadors of a service organization. PMID:18681199

  20. Network Experiments

    Michael Kosfeld


    This paper provides a survey of recent experimental work in eco- nomics focussing on social and economic networks.The experiments consider networks of coordination and cooperation,buyer-seller net- works,and network formation.

  1. Spatial Networks

    Barthelemy, Marc


    Complex systems are very often organized under the form of networks where nodes and edges are embedded in space. Transportation and mobility networks, Internet, mobile phone networks, power grids, social and contact networks, neural networks, are all examples where space is relevant and where topology alone does not contain all the information. Characterizing and understanding the structure and the evolution of spatial networks is thus crucial for many different fields ranging from urbanism t...

  2. Network Security

    Sunil Kumar


    The rapid increase in computer, mobile applications and wireless networks has globally changed the features of network security. A series of Internet attack and fraudulent acts on companies and individual network have shown us that open computer networks have no immunity from intrusions. The traditional way of protecting computer networks, such as firewalls and software encryption are insufficient and ineffective. The wireless ad-hoc network is susceptible to physical attack or harm due to...

  3. The network researchers' network

    Henneberg, Stephan C.; Jiang, Zhizhong; Naudé, Peter;


    The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987). In thi......The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987......). In this paper, based upon the papers presented at the 22 conferences held to date, we undertake a Social Network Analysis in order to examine the degree of co-publishing that has taken place between this group of researchers. We identify the different components in this database, and examine the large main...

  4. Joint community and anomaly tracking in dynamic networks

    Baingana, Brian


    Most real-world networks exhibit community structure, a phenomenon characterized by existence of node clusters whose intra-edge connectivity is stronger than edge connectivities between nodes belonging to different clusters. In addition to facilitating a better understanding of network behavior, community detection finds many practical applications in diverse settings. Communities in online social networks are indicative of shared functional roles, or affiliation to a common socio-economic status, the knowledge of which is vital for targeted advertisement. In buyer-seller networks, community detection facilitates better product recommendations. Unfortunately, reliability of community assignments is hindered by anomalous user behavior often observed as unfair self-promotion, or "fake" highly-connected accounts created to promote fraud. The present paper advocates a novel approach for jointly tracking communities while detecting such anomalous nodes in time-varying networks. By postulating edge creation as the ...


    R. Dhanasekaran


    Full Text Available Large number of low power, tiny radio jammers are constituting a Distributed Jammer Network (DJN is used nowadays to cause a Denial of Service (DoS attack on a Distributed Wireless Network (DWN. Using NANO technologies, it is possible to build huge number of tiny jammers in millions, if not more. The Denial of Service (DoS attacks in Distributed Wireless Network (DWN using Distributed Jammer Network (DJN considering each of them as separate Poisson Random Process. In an integrated approach, in this study, we advocate the more natural Birth-Death Random Process route to study the impact of Distributed Jammer Network (DJN on the connectivity of Distributed Wireless Network (DWN. We express that the Distributed Jammer Network (DJN can root a phase transition in the performance of the target network. We use Birth-Death Random Process (BDRP route for this phase transition to evaluate the collision of Distributed Jammer Network (DJN on the connectivity and global percolation of the target network. This study confirms the global percolation of Distributed Wireless Network (DWN is definite when the Distributed Jammer Network (DJN is not more significant.

  6. Green networking

    Krief, Francine


    This book focuses on green networking, which is an important topic for the scientific community composed of engineers, academics, researchers and industrialists working in the networking field. Reducing the environmental impact of the communications infrastructure has become essential with the ever increasing cost of energy and the need for reducing global CO2 emissions to protect our environment.Recent advances and future directions in green networking are presented in this book, including energy efficient networks (wired networks, wireless networks, mobile networks), adaptive networ

  7. Advocates or Challengers of Europeanization? An Inquiry into the Discourse of the Romanian Elites on the European Union in the Context of EU Elections 2014

    Loredana RADU


    Full Text Available This paper aims to shed light on the role of elites in the Europeanization of the national public sphere. 15 semi-structured in-depth interviews with representatives of political, administrative, and media elites in Romania were carried out between March 23 and April 24, 2014, which was on the eve of the 2014 European Elections campaign. Our research shows that, in general, the Romanian elites – be them political, administrative, or media-related – declare themselves as euro-enthusiasts or euro-realists; at the same time, through a diversity of blame-avoiding games, they use the EU as a means of diffusing (national responsibility for crisis-related hot topics, such as the implementation of austerity measures. By identifying the key narratives of Europeanization in elites’ discourse on the 2014 European Elections, this paper indicates that we witness a paradoxical trend, in which elites are rather challengers than advocates of Europeanization.

  8. Are the advocates of nuclear power and the adversaries listening to each other? Does Dialogue have a chance? Introductory remarks by John A. Macpherson

    Are the advocates of nuclear power and the adversaries listening to each other? Does dialogue have a chance? My short answer to both questions posed as the title for this discussion is 'no'. And I would add: There is no point in trying to bring opposite poles together, it requires too much investment for too little return. A nuclear dialogue will have a chance only it a distinction can be shown between physics and metaphysics, between chemistry and alchemy, and if the gap can be bridged between the polarized views of the world's societal needs which, incidentally, create the nuclear issue in the first place. This is a daunting task Movements in search of a cause have a passion for preaching rather than a love for listening

  9. Telecommunication networks

    Iannone, Eugenio


    Many argue that telecommunications network infrastructure is the most impressive and important technology ever developed. Analyzing the telecom market's constantly evolving trends, research directions, infrastructure, and vital needs, Telecommunication Networks responds with revolutionized engineering strategies to optimize network construction. Omnipresent in society, telecom networks integrate a wide range of technologies. These include quantum field theory for the study of optical amplifiers, software architectures for network control, abstract algebra required to design error correction co

  10. 'When you haven't got much of a voice': an evaluation of the quality of Independent Mental Health Advocate (IMHA) services in England.

    Newbigging, Karen; Ridley, Julie; McKeown, Mick; Machin, Karen; Poursanidou, Konstantina


    Advocacy serves to promote the voice of service users, represent their interests and enable participation in decision-making. Given the context of increasing numbers of people detained under the Mental Health Act and heightened awareness of the potential for neglect and abuse in human services, statutory advocacy is an important safeguard supporting human rights and democratising the social relationships of care. This article reports findings from a national review of Independent Mental Health Advocate (IMHA) provision in England. A qualitative study used a two-stage design to define quality and assess the experience and impact of IMHA provision in eight study sites. A sample of 289 participants - 75 focus group participants and 214 individuals interviewed - including 90 people eligible for IMHA services, as well as advocates, a range of hospital and community-based mental health professionals, and commissioners. The research team included people with experience of compulsion. Findings indicate that the experience of compulsion can be profoundly disempowering, confirming the need for IMHA. However, access was highly variable and more problematic for people with specific needs relating to ethnicity, age and disability. Uptake of IMHA services was influenced by available resources, attitude and understanding of mental health professionals, as well as the organisation of IMHA provision. Access could be improved through a system of opt-out as opposed to opt-in. Service user satisfaction was most frequently reported in terms of positive experiences of the process of advocacy rather than tangible impacts on care and treatment under the Mental Health Act. IMHA services have the potential to significantly shift the dynamic so that service users have more of a voice in their care and treatment. However, a shift is needed from a narrow conception of statutory advocacy as safeguarding rights to one emphasising self-determination and participation in decisions about care and

  11. Interconnected networks


    This volume provides an introduction to and overview of the emerging field of interconnected networks which include multi layer or multiplex networks, as well as networks of networks. Such networks present structural and dynamical features quite different from those observed in isolated networks. The presence of links between different networks or layers of a network typically alters the way such interconnected networks behave – understanding the role of interconnecting links is therefore a crucial step towards a more accurate description of real-world systems. While examples of such dissimilar properties are becoming more abundant – for example regarding diffusion, robustness and competition – the root of such differences remains to be elucidated. Each chapter in this topical collection is self-contained and can be read on its own, thus making it also suitable as reference for experienced researchers wishing to focus on a particular topic.

  12. Temporal networks

    Saramäki, Jari


    The concept of temporal networks is an extension of complex networks as a modeling framework to include information on when interactions between nodes happen. Many studies of the last decade examine how the static network structure affect dynamic systems on the network. In this traditional approach  the temporal aspects are pre-encoded in the dynamic system model. Temporal-network methods, on the other hand, lift the temporal information from the level of system dynamics to the mathematical representation of the contact network itself. This framework becomes particularly useful for cases where there is a lot of structure and heterogeneity both in the timings of interaction events and the network topology. The advantage compared to common static network approaches is the ability to design more accurate models in order to explain and predict large-scale dynamic phenomena (such as, e.g., epidemic outbreaks and other spreading phenomena). On the other hand, temporal network methods are mathematically and concept...

  13. Network workshop

    Bruun, Jesper; Evans, Robert Harry


    This paper describes the background for, realisation of and author reflections on a network workshop held at ESERA2013. As a new research area in science education, networks offer a unique opportunity to visualise and find patterns and relationships in complicated social or academic network data...... and analysed networks using the commonly used and freely available software Gephi ( Reflecting upon why science education researchers might be hesitant to adopt network methodology we identify a key problem for networks in science education research: The cost in resources of learning how to include...

  14. Network maintenance

    GS Department


    A site-wide network maintenance operation has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the general purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites throughout the day. This upgrade will not affect the Computer Centre itself, Building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments, dedicated networks at the pits. For further details of this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or e-mail IT/CS Group

  15. Network maintenance

    IT Department


    A site wide network maintenance has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the General Purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites along this day. This upgrade will not affect: the Computer centre itself, building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments dedicated networks at the pits. Should you need more details on this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or email IT/CS Group

  16. Network Topology Inference from Spectral Templates

    Segarra, Santiago; Mateos, Gonzalo; Ribeiro, Alejandro


    We address the problem of identifying a graph structure from the observation of signals defined on its nodes. Fundamentally, the unknown graph encodes direct relationships between signal elements, which we aim to recover from observable indirect relationships generated by a diffusion process on the graph. The fresh look advocated here permeates benefits from convex optimization and stationarity of graph signals, in order to identify the graph shift operator (a matrix representation of the graph) given only its eigenvectors. These spectral templates can be obtained, e.g., from the sample covariance of independent graph signals diffused on the sought network. The novel idea is to find a graph shift that, while being consistent with the provided spectral information, endows the network with certain desired properties such as sparsity. To that end we develop efficient inference algorithms stemming from provably-tight convex relaxations of natural nonconvex criteria, particularizing the results for two shifts: the...

  17. Network Ambivalence

    Patrick Jagoda


    Full Text Available The language of networks now describes everything from the Internet to the economy to terrorist organizations. In distinction to a common view of networks as a universal, originary, or necessary form that promises to explain everything from neural structures to online traffic, this essay emphasizes the contingency of the network imaginary. Network form, in its role as our current cultural dominant, makes scarcely imaginable the possibility of an alternative or an outside uninflected by networks. If so many things and relationships are figured as networks, however, then what is not a network? If a network points towards particular logics and qualities of relation in our historical present, what others might we envision in the future? In  many ways, these questions are unanswerable from within the contemporary moment. Instead of seeking an avant-garde approach (to move beyond networks or opting out of networks (in some cases, to recover elements of pre-networked existence, this essay proposes a third orientation: one of ambivalence that operates as a mode of extreme presence. I propose the concept of "network aesthetics," which can be tracked across artistic media and cultural forms, as a model, style, and pedagogy for approaching interconnection in the twenty-first century. The following essay is excerpted from Network Ambivalence (Forthcoming from University of Chicago Press. 

  18. Fermionic networks

    Javarone, Marco Alberto


    We study the structure of fermionic networks, i.e. a model of networks based on the behavior of fermionic gases, and we analyze dynamical processes over them. In this model, particle dynamics have been mapped to the domain of networks, hence a parameter representing the temperature controls the evolution of the system. In doing so, it is possible to generate adaptive networks, i.e. networks whose structure varies over time. As shown in previous works, networks generated by quantum statistics can undergo critical phenomena as phase transitions and, moreover, they can be considered as thermodynamic systems. In this study, we analyze fermionic networks and opinion dynamics processes over them, framing this network model as a computational model useful to represent complex and adaptive systems. Results highlight that a strong relation holds between the gas temperature and the structure of the achieved networks. Notably, both the degree distribution and the assortativity vary as the temperature varies, hence we can state that fermionic networks behave as adaptive networks. On the other hand, it is worth to highlight that we did not finding relation between outcomes of opinion dynamics processes and the gas temperature. Therefore, although the latter plays a fundamental role in gas dynamics, on the network domain, its importance is related only to structural properties of fermionic networks.

  19. Synchronization in complex oscillator networks and smart grids.

    Dörfler, Florian; Chertkov, Michael; Bullo, Francesco


    The emergence of synchronization in a network of coupled oscillators is a fascinating topic in various scientific disciplines. A widely adopted model of a coupled oscillator network is characterized by a population of heterogeneous phase oscillators, a graph describing the interaction among them, and diffusive and sinusoidal coupling. It is known that a strongly coupled and sufficiently homogeneous network synchronizes, but the exact threshold from incoherence to synchrony is unknown. Here, we present a unique, concise, and closed-form condition for synchronization of the fully nonlinear, nonequilibrium, and dynamic network. Our synchronization condition can be stated elegantly in terms of the network topology and parameters or equivalently in terms of an intuitive, linear, and static auxiliary system. Our results significantly improve upon the existing conditions advocated thus far, they are provably exact for various interesting network topologies and parameters; they are statistically correct for almost all networks; and they can be applied equally to synchronization phenomena arising in physics and biology as well as in engineered oscillator networks, such as electrical power networks. We illustrate the validity, the accuracy, and the practical applicability of our results in complex network scenarios and in smart grid applications. PMID:23319658

  20. Synchronization in Complex Oscillator Networks and Smart Grids

    Dorfler, Florian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bullo, Francesco [Center for Control, Dynamical Systems and Computation, University of California at Santa Babara, Santa Barbara CA


    The emergence of synchronization in a network of coupled oscillators is a fascinating topic in various scientific disciplines. A coupled oscillator network is characterized by a population of heterogeneous oscillators and a graph describing the interaction among them. It is known that a strongly coupled and sufficiently homogeneous network synchronizes, but the exact threshold from incoherence to synchrony is unknown. Here we present a novel, concise, and closed-form condition for synchronization of the fully nonlinear, non-equilibrium, and dynamic network. Our synchronization condition can be stated elegantly in terms of the network topology and parameters, or equivalently in terms of an intuitive, linear, and static auxiliary system. Our results significantly improve upon the existing conditions advocated thus far, they are provably exact for various interesting network topologies and parameters, they are statistically correct for almost all networks, and they can be applied equally to synchronization phenomena arising in physics and biology as well as in engineered oscillator networks such as electric power networks. We illustrate the validity, the accuracy, and the practical applicability of our results in complex networks scenarios and in smart grid applications.

  1. Organizational Networks

    Grande, Bård; Sørensen, Ole Henning


    The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept of organizational network are identified and critically discussed. Special focus is placed on how information and communication technologies as communication mediators and cognitive pictures influence...

  2. Advocating investments in information technology

    Information and communication systems can improve the timeliness and quality of decisions. These benefits are strategically important to the utility industry in an era of increasing competition. Because these systems often do not reduce labor cost, however, they can be difficult to evaluate. This report presents a new process for reaching consensus of the value of capital investment in information and communication systems. The results of this project is A Strategic Advocacy Process (ASAP), a methodology that can be used to evaluate investments in information technology. ASAP uses belief graphs to produce a living business case showing facts, assumptions, goals, and metrics for measuring progress toward those goals; shows how to use option pricing theory to quantify the value of managerial flexibility; ASAP uses an organizational impact assessment tool to identify the potential impact of new information systems and how to realize the benefits of managerial flexibility. The ASAP methodology addresses the critical problem of correctly valuing information and communication systems. The methodology offers a way to account for the ''intangible'' value of these systems by recognizing the managerial flexibility these systems can provide in addressing risks and uncovering new business opportunities. Metrics for measuring progress toward new goals can be defined, and plans for achieving the goals can be made. As a result, agreement can be reached on the uses, value, and priority of projects based on a metric other than on labor replacement savings

  3. Advocating Students’Individual Learning



    A new approach formed with the application of modern teaching facilities makes English teaching and learning more collaborative and individualized through using computers, the Internet, and multimedia. Therefore, students ’individual English learning, teaching and learning environment, and conditions that students need in their individual learning are discussed.

  4. Achieving Capacity of Bi-Directional Tandem Collision Network by Joint Medium-Access Control and Channel-Network Coding

    Shum, Kenneth W


    In ALOHA-type packetized network, the transmission times of packets follow a stochastic process. In this paper, we advocate a deterministic approach for channel multiple-access. Each user is statically assigned a periodic protocol signal, which takes value either zero or one, and transmit packets whenever the value of the protocol signal is equal to one. On top of this multiple-access protocol, efficient channel coding and network coding schemes are devised. We illustrate the idea by constructing a transmission scheme for the tandem collision network, for both slot-synchronous and slot-asynchronous systems. This cross-layer approach is able to achieve the capacity region when the network is bi-directional.

  5. Advocating for efforts to protect African children, families, and communities from the threat of infectious diseases: report of the First International African Vaccinology Conference.

    Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Waggie, Zainab; Hawkridge, Anthony; Schoub, Barry; Madhi, Shabir Ahmed; Rees, Helen; Hussey, Gregory


    One means of improving healthcare workers' knowledge of and attitudes to vaccines is through running vaccine conferences which are accessible, affordable, and relevant to their everyday work. Various vaccinology conferences are held each year worldwide. These meetings focus heavily on basic science with much discussion about new developments in vaccines, and relatively little coverage of policy, advocacy, and communication issues. A negligible proportion of delegates at these conferences come from Africa, home to almost 40% of the global burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. To the best of our knowledge, no major vaccinology conference has ever been held on the African continent apart from World Health Organization (WHO) meetings. The content of the first International African Vaccinology Conference was planned to be different; to focus on the science, with a major part of discussions being on clinical, programmatic, policy, and advocacy issues. The conference was held in Cape Town, South Africa, from 8 to 11 November 2012. The theme of the conference was "Advocating for efforts to protect African children, families, and communities from the threat of infectious diseases". There were more than 550 registered participants from 55 countries (including 37 African countries). There were nine pre-conference workshops, ten plenary sessions, and 150 oral and poster presentations. The conference discussed the challenges to universal immunisation in Africa as well as the promotion of dialogue and communication on immunisation among all stakeholders. There was general acknowledgment that giant strides have been made in Africa since the global launch of the Expanded Programme on Immunisation in 1974. For example, there has been significant progress in introducing new and under-utilised vaccines; including hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenza type b, pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, meningococcal A conjugate, and human papillomavirus vaccines. In May 2012, African countries

  6. Cosmological networks

    Networks often represent systems that do not have a long history of study in traditional fields of physics; albeit, there are some notable exceptions, such as energy landscapes and quantum gravity. Here, we consider networks that naturally arise in cosmology. Nodes in these networks are stationary observers uniformly distributed in an expanding open Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker universe with any scale factor and two observers are connected if one can causally influence the other. We show that these networks are growing Lorentz-invariant graphs with power-law distributions of node degrees. These networks encode maximum information about the observable universe available to a given observer. (paper)

  7. Network regularizability

    Franceschet, Massimo


    A network is regularizable if it is possible to assign weights to its edges so that all nodes have the same degree. We define a hierarchy of four network classes in terms of their regularization properties. For the classes of the hierarchy, we investigate structural conditions on both the network and the corresponding adjacency matrix that are necessary and sufficient for the inclusion of a network in the class. Moreover, we provide an algorithmic solution for the problem of positioning a network in the hierarchy. We argue that the regularization solution is useful to build an egalitarian, friction-free network in which all actors of the network has the same centrality (and power).

  8. Network science

    Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo


    Networks are everywhere, from the Internet, to social networks, and the genetic networks that determine our biological existence. Illustrated throughout in full colour, this pioneering textbook, spanning a wide range of topics from physics to computer science, engineering, economics and the social sciences, introduces network science to an interdisciplinary audience. From the origins of the six degrees of separation to explaining why networks are robust to random failures, the author explores how viruses like Ebola and H1N1 spread, and why it is that our friends have more friends than we do. Using numerous real-world examples, this innovatively designed text includes clear delineation between undergraduate and graduate level material. The mathematical formulas and derivations are included within Advanced Topics sections, enabling use at a range of levels. Extensive online resources, including films and software for network analysis, make this a multifaceted companion for anyone with an interest in network sci...

  9. Vulnerability of network of networks

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.


    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  10. Multilayer Networks

    Kivelä, Mikko; Barthelemy, Marc; Gleeson, James P; Moreno, Yamir; Porter, Mason A


    Most real and engineered systems include multiple subsystems and layers of connectivity, and it is important to take such features into account to try to obtain a complete understanding of these systems. It is thus necessary to generalize "traditional" network theory by developing (and validating) a framework and associated tools to study multilayer systems in a comprehensive fashion. The origins of such efforts occurred several decades ago, but now the study of multilayer networks has become one of the major directions in network science. In this paper, we discuss the history of multilayer networks (and related concepts) and then review the exploding body of work on such networks. To unify the disparate terminology in the large body of recent work, we discuss a general framework for multilayer networks, construct a dictionary of terminology to relate the numerous existing concepts to each other, and provide a thorough discussion that compares, contrasts, and translates between related notions such as multila...

  11. Networked Identities

    Ryberg, Thomas; Larsen, Malene Charlotte


    In this article we take up a critique of the concept of Communities of Practice (CoP) voiced by several authors, who suggest that networks may provide a better metaphor to understand social forms of organisation and learning. Through a discussion of the notion of networked learning and the critique...... of CoPs we shall argue that the metaphor or theory of networked learning is itself confronted with some central tensions and challenges that need to be addressed. We then explore these theoretical and analytic challenges to the network metaphor, through an analysis of a Danish social networking site. We...... argue that understanding meaning-making and ‘networked identities’ may be relevant analytic entry points in navigating the challenges....

  12. Telecommunication Networks

    Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Balachandran, Kartheepan; Hald, Sara Ligaard;


    In this chapter, we look into the role of telecommunication networks and their capability of supporting critical infrastructure systems and applications. The focus is on smart grids as the key driving example, bearing in mind that other such systems do exist, e.g., water management, traffic control......, etc. First, the role of basic communication is examined with a focus on critical infrastructures. We look at heterogenic networks and standards for smart grids, to give some insight into what has been done to ensure inter-operability in this direction. We then go to the physical network, and look...... at the deployment of the physical layout of the communication network and the related costs. This is an important aspect as one option to use existing networks is to deploy dedicated networks. Following this, we look at some generic models that describe reliability for accessing dynamic information. This part...

  13. Networks, Urban

    Clarke, N.


    For much of the twentieth century, urban networks was a term used by sociologists and others to describe social networks, their importance for bonding within communities and bridging between communities, and their relationship to the geographical mobility implied by late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century urbanization, mid-twentieth-century suburbanization, and late-twentieth-century globalization. This relationship is often assumed to be one in which social networks are threatened by ge...

  14. Channel Networks

    Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rigon, Riccardo

    This review proceeds from Luna Leopold's and Ronald Shreve's lasting accomplishments dealing with the study of random-walk and topologically random channel networks. According to the random perspective, which has had a profound influence on the interpretation of natural landforms, nature's resiliency in producing recurrent networks and landforms was interpreted to be the consequence of chance. In fact, central to models of topologically random networks is the assumption of equal likelihood of any tree-like configuration. However, a general framework of analysis exists that argues that all possible network configurations draining a fixed area are not necessarily equally likely. Rather, a probability P(s) is assigned to a particular spanning tree configuration, say s, which can be generally assumed to obey a Boltzmann distribution: P(s) % e^-H(s)/T, where T is a parameter and H(s) is a global property of the network configuration s related to energetic characters, i.e. its Hamiltonian. One extreme case is the random topology model where all trees are equally likely, i.e. the limit case for T6 4 . The other extreme case is T 6 0, and this corresponds to network configurations that tend to minimize their total energy dissipation to improve their likelihood. Networks obtained in this manner are termed optimal channel networks (OCNs). Observational evidence suggests that the characters of real river networks are reproduced extremely well by OCNs. Scaling properties of energy and entropy of OCNs suggest that large network development is likely to effectively occur at zero temperature (i.e. minimizing its Hamiltonian). We suggest a corollary of dynamic accessibility of a network configuration and speculate towards a thermodynamics of critical self-organization. We thus conclude that both chance and necessity are equally important ingredients for the dynamic origin of channel networks---and perhaps of the geometry of nature.

  15. Wireless Networks

    Samaka, Mohammed; Khan, Khaled M.D.


    Wireless communication is the fastest-growing field in the telecommunication industry. Wireless networks have grown significantly as an important segment of the communications industry. They have become popular networks with the potential to provide high-speed, high-quality information exchange between two or more portable devices without any wire or conductors. Wireless networks can simply be characterized as the technology that provides seamless access to information, anywhere, anyplace, an...

  16. One size fits all? Managing trust and privacy on social networking sites in Russia and Germany

    Krasnova, Hanna; Kolesnikova,Elena; Günther, Oliver


    When it comes to platform sustainability, mitigating user privacy concerns and enhancing trust represent two major tasks providers of Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are facing today. State-of-the-art research advocates reliance on the justice-based measures as possible means to address these challenges. However, as providers are increasingly expanding into foreign markets, the effectiveness of these measures in a cross-cultural setting is questioned. In an attempt to address this set of issue...

  17. Network Security

    Huang, Scott; Du, Ding-Zhu


    This book provides a reference tool for the increasing number of the scientists whose research is related to sensor network security. The book is organized into several sections, each including some chapters exploring a specific topic. Network security is attracting great attention and there are many research topics waiting to be studied. In this book, the topics covered include network design and modeling, network management, data management, security and applications. The aim, intent, and motivation of this book is to provide a reference tool for the increasing number of scientists whose res

  18. Network security

    Perez, André


    This book introduces the security mechanisms deployed in Ethernet, Wireless-Fidelity (Wi-Fi), Internet Protocol (IP) and MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) networks. These mechanisms are grouped throughout the book according to the following four functions: data protection, access control, network isolation, and data monitoring. Data protection is supplied by data confidentiality and integrity control services. Access control is provided by a third-party authentication service. Network isolation is supplied by the Virtual Private Network (VPN) service. Data monitoring consists of applying

  19. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani;


    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage buffe......). Our results on single–hop, multi–hop, and multi–path scenarios show that gains of 3x to 11x are attainable over standard TCP and multi–path TCP....

  20. Novel Concepts for Device to Device Communication using Network Coding

    Pahlevani, Peyman; Hundebøll, Martin; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk;


    Device-to-device communication is currently a hot research topic within 3GPP. Even though D2D communication has been part of previous ad hoc, meshed and sensor networks proposals, the main contribution by 3GPP is that the direct communication among two devices is carried out over a dynamically...... assigned, licensed spectrum; thus, it is under full control of the cellular network. D2D communication creates a market potential for new services, new approaches to efficient spectrum use, and security concepts. This is especially true if D2D communication is extended to larger communication groups...... organized in meshed clusters. In this article, we discuss the potential and shortcomings of D2D communication as proposed today, advocating for the use of network coding as an enabling technology for enhanced security and communication efficiency using the PlayNCool and CORE protocols as key examples to...

  1. Assessing the Bias in Communication Networks Sampled from Twitter

    González-Bailón, Sandra; Rivero, Alejandro; Borge-Holthoefer, Javier; Moreno, Yamir


    We collect and analyse messages exchanged in Twitter using two of the platform's publicly available APIs (the search and stream specifications). We assess the differences between the two samples, and compare the networks of communication reconstructed from them. The empirical context is given by political protests taking place in May 2012: we track online communication around these protests for the period of one month, and reconstruct the network of mentions and re-tweets according to the two samples. We find that the search API over-represents the more central users and does not offer an accurate picture of peripheral activity; we also find that the bias is greater for the network of mentions. We discuss the implications of this bias for the study of diffusion dynamics and collective action in the digital era, and advocate the need for more uniform sampling procedures in the study of online communication.

  2. Network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics: A scientific outline

    WenJun Zhang


    In present study, I proposed some new sciences: network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics. The aims, scope and scientific foundation of these sciences are outlined.

  3. Overlay networks toward information networking

    Tarkoma, Sasu


    With their ability to solve problems in massive information distribution and processing, while keeping scaling costs low, overlay systems represent a rapidly growing area of R&D with important implications for the evolution of Internet architecture. Inspired by the author's articles on content based routing, Overlay Networks: Toward Information Networking provides a complete introduction to overlay networks. Examining what they are and what kind of structures they require, the text covers the key structures, protocols, and algorithms used in overlay networks. It reviews the current state of th

  4. Bibliometric Networks

    Havemann, Frank; Scharnhorst, Andrea


    This text is based on a translation of a chapter in a handbook about network analysis (published in German) where we tried to make beginners familiar with some basic notions and recent developments of network analysis applied to bibliometric issues (Havemann and Scharnhorst 2010). We have added some recent references.

  5. Diophantine networks

    Bedogne', C.; Masucci, A. P.; Rodgers, G. J.


    We introduce a new class of deterministic networks by associating networks with Diophantine equations, thus relating network topology to algebraic properties. The network is formed by representing integers as vertices and by drawing cliques between M vertices every time that M distinct integers satisfy the equation. We analyse the network generated by the Pythagorean equation x2 +y2 =z2 showing that its degree distribution is well approximated by a power law with exponential cut-off. We also show that the properties of this network differ considerably from the features of scale-free networks generated through preferential attachment. Remarkably we also recover a power law for the clustering coefficient. We then study the network associated with the equation x2 +y2 = z showing that the degree distribution is consistent with a power law for several decades of values of k and that, after having reached a minimum, the distribution begins rising again. The power-law exponent, in this case, is given by γ ∼ 4.5 We then analyse clustering and ageing and compare our results to the ones obtained in the Pythagorean case.

  6. Probabilistic Networks

    Jensen, Finn Verner; Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt


    This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs.......This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs....

  7. Organizational Networks

    Sørensen, Ole Henning; Grande, Bård


    The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept are identified and critically discussed.......The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept are identified and critically discussed....

  8. Networks of spatial genetic variation across species

    Fortuna, Miguel A.; Albaladejo, Rafael G.; Fernández, Laura; Aparicio, Abelardo; Bascompte, Jordi


    Spatial patterns of genetic variation provide information central to many ecological, evolutionary, and conservation questions. This spatial variability has traditionally been analyzed through summary statistics between pairs of populations, therefore missing the simultaneous influence of all populations. More recently, a network approach has been advocated to overcome these limitations. This network approach has been applied to a few cases limited to a single species at a time. The question remains whether similar patterns of spatial genetic variation and similar functional roles for specific patches are obtained for different species. Here we study the networks of genetic variation of four Mediterranean woody plant species inhabiting the same habitat patches in a highly fragmented forest mosaic in Southern Spain. Three of the four species show a similar pattern of genetic variation with well-defined modules or groups of patches holding genetically similar populations. These modules can be thought of as the long-sought-after, evolutionarily significant units or management units. The importance of each patch for the cohesion of the entire network, though, is quite different across species. This variation creates a tremendous challenge for the prioritization of patches to conserve the genetic variation of multispecies assemblages. PMID:19861546

  9. Temporal networks

    Holme, Petter; Saramäki, Jari


    A great variety of systems in nature, society and technology-from the web of sexual contacts to the Internet, from the nervous system to power grids-can be modeled as graphs of vertices coupled by edges. The network structure, describing how the graph is wired, helps us understand, predict and optimize the behavior of dynamical systems. In many cases, however, the edges are not continuously active. As an example, in networks of communication via e-mail, text messages, or phone calls, edges represent sequences of instantaneous or practically instantaneous contacts. In some cases, edges are active for non-negligible periods of time: e.g., the proximity patterns of inpatients at hospitals can be represented by a graph where an edge between two individuals is on throughout the time they are at the same ward. Like network topology, the temporal structure of edge activations can affect dynamics of systems interacting through the network, from disease contagion on the network of patients to information diffusion over an e-mail network. In this review, we present the emergent field of temporal networks, and discuss methods for analyzing topological and temporal structure and models for elucidating their relation to the behavior of dynamical systems. In the light of traditional network theory, one can see this framework as moving the information of when things happen from the dynamical system on the network, to the network itself. Since fundamental properties, such as the transitivity of edges, do not necessarily hold in temporal networks, many of these methods need to be quite different from those for static networks. The study of temporal networks is very interdisciplinary in nature. Reflecting this, even the object of study has many names-temporal graphs, evolving graphs, time-varying graphs, time-aggregated graphs, time-stamped graphs, dynamic networks, dynamic graphs, dynamical graphs, and so on. This review covers different fields where temporal graphs are considered

  10. Network Affordances

    Samson, Audrey; Soon, Winnie


    This paper examines the notion of network affordance within the context of network art. Building on Gibson's theory (Gibson, 1979) we understand affordance as the perceived and actual parameters of a thing. We expand on Gaver's affordance of predictability (Gaver, 1996) to include ecological...... and computational parameters of unpredictability. We illustrate the notion of unpredictability by considering four specific works that were included in a network art exhibiton, SPEED SHOW [2.0] Hong Kong. The paper discusses how the artworks are contingent upon the parameteric relations (Parisi, 2013......), of the network. We introduce network affordance as a dynamic framework that could articulate the experienced tension arising from the (visible) symbolic representation of computational processes and its hidden occurrences. We base our proposal on the experience of both organising the SPEED SHOW and participating...

  11. Natural networks

    Hartonen, Tuomo


    Scale-free and non-computable characteristics of natural networks are found to result from the least-time dispersal of energy. To consider a network as a thermodynamic system is motivated since ultimately everything that exists can be expressed in terms of energy. According to the variational principle, the network will grow and restructure when flows of energy diminish energy differences between nodes as well as relative to nodes in surrounding systems. The natural process will yield scale-free characteristics because the nodes that contribute to the least-time consumption of free energy preferably attach to each other. Network evolution is a path-dependent and non-deterministic process when there are two or more paths to consume a common source of energy. Although evolutionary courses of these non-Hamiltonian systems cannot be predicted, many mathematical functions, models and measures that characterize networks can be recognized as appropriate approximations of the thermodynamic equation of motion that has...

  12. Technological Networks

    Mitra, Bivas

    The study of networks in the form of mathematical graph theory is one of the fundamental pillars of discrete mathematics. However, recent years have witnessed a substantial new movement in network research. The focus of the research is shifting away from the analysis of small graphs and the properties of individual vertices or edges to consideration of statistical properties of large scale networks. This new approach has been driven largely by the availability of technological networks like the Internet [12], World Wide Web network [2], etc. that allow us to gather and analyze data on a scale far larger than previously possible. At the same time, technological networks have evolved as a socio-technological system, as the concepts of social systems that are based on self-organization theory have become unified in technological networks [13]. In today’s society, we have a simple and universal access to great amounts of information and services. These information services are based upon the infrastructure of the Internet and the World Wide Web. The Internet is the system composed of ‘computers’ connected by cables or some other form of physical connections. Over this physical network, it is possible to exchange e-mails, transfer files, etc. On the other hand, the World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet where nodes represent web pages and links represent hyperlinks between the pages. Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks [26] also have recently become a popular medium through which huge amounts of data can be shared. P2P file sharing systems, where files are searched and downloaded among peers without the help of central servers, have emerged as a major component of Internet traffic. An important advantage in P2P networks is that all clients provide resources, including bandwidth, storage space, and computing power. In this chapter, we discuss these technological networks in detail. The review

  13. Temporal Networks

    Holme, Petter


    A great variety of systems in nature, society and technology can be modeled as graphs of vertices coupled by edges. The network structure, describing how the graph is wired, helps us understand, predict and optimize the behavior of dynamic systems. In many cases, however, the edges are not continuously active. As an example, in networks of communication via email, text messages, or phone calls, edges represent sequences of instantaneous or practically instantaneous contacts. In some cases, edges are active for non-negligible periods of time: e.g., the proximity patterns of inpatients at hospitals can be represented by a graph where an edge between two individuals is on throughout the time they are at the same ward. Like network topology, the temporal structure of edge activations can affect dynamics of systems interacting through the network, from disease contagion on the network of patients to information diffusion over an e-mail network. In this review, we present the emergent field of temporal networks, an...

  14. Accelerating networks

    Evolving out-of-equilibrium networks have been under intense scrutiny recently. In many real-world settings the number of links added per new node is not constant but depends on the time at which the node is introduced in the system. This simple idea gives rise to the concept of accelerating networks, for which we review an existing definition and-after finding it somewhat constrictive-offer a new definition. The new definition provided here views network acceleration as a time dependent property of a given system as opposed to being a property of the specific algorithm applied to grow the network. The definition also covers both unweighted and weighted networks. As time-stamped network data becomes increasingly available, the proposed measures may be easily applied to such empirical datasets. As a simple case study we apply the concepts to study the evolution of three different instances of Wikipedia, namely, those in English, German, and Japanese, and find that the networks undergo different acceleration regimes in their evolution

  15. Network Warrior

    Donahue, Gary


    Pick up where certification exams leave off. With this practical, in-depth guide to the entire network infrastructure, you'll learn how to deal with real Cisco networks, rather than the hypothetical situations presented on exams like the CCNA. Network Warrior takes you step by step through the world of routers, switches, firewalls, and other technologies based on the author's extensive field experience. You'll find new content for MPLS, IPv6, VoIP, and wireless in this completely revised second edition, along with examples of Cisco Nexus 5000 and 7000 switches throughout. Topics include: An

  16. Social networks

    Etaner-Uyar, A Sima


    The present volume provides a comprehensive resource for practitioners and researchers alike-both those new to the field as well as those who already have some experience. The work covers Social Network Analysis theory and methods with a focus on current applications and case studies applied in various domains such as mobile networks, security, machine learning and health. With the increasing popularity of Web 2.0, social media has become a widely used communication platform. Parallel to this development, Social Network Analysis gained in importance as a research field, while opening up many

  17. Network medicine

    Pawson, Tony; Linding, Rune


    To more effectively target complex diseases like cancer, diabetes and schizophrenia, we may need to rethink our strategies for drug development and the selection of molecular targets for pharmacological treatments. Here, we discuss the potential use of protein signaling networks as the targets...... for new therapeutic intervention. We argue that by targeting the architecture of aberrant signaling networks associated with cancer and other diseases new therapeutic strategies can be implemented. Transforming medicine into a network driven endeavour will require quantitative measurements of cell...... signaling processes; we will describe how this may be performed and combined with new algorithms to predict the trajectories taken by a cellular system either in time or through disease states. We term this approach, network medicine....

  18. Networking Japan

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Human Resource Development was the first and remains an important pillar in Japanese foreign aid. I will argue that Japan has access to a global network of alumni who will co-define Japanese foreign aid in the future, because Japan has encouraged alumni societies and networking since 1965. A total...... of more than a million people in more than 100 countries have attended courses in Japan funded fully or partly by Japanese ODA since the inception of the technical assistance programs in 1954 through the Colombo Plan and since 1959 through the Association of Overseas Technical Scholarships (AOTS from...... 2009 HIDA). Many of these alumni have and will in the future exchange ideas and keep contact not only to Japan, but also to fellow alumni around the globe and, thereby, practice south-south exchanges, which are made possible and traceable by their established alumni network and the World Network of...

  19. Nepal Networking

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Technical Assistance courses have many functions apart from disseminating knowledge and information, one such function is to engender networks. During the course period, participants meet and establish contact and some of these contacts remain connections between alumni for many years after the...... courses are finished. The alumni networks depend on the uses they are put to by the individual alumni and the support they get from alumni and host countries. The United Nations initiated technical assistance courses in the late 1940s in order to train nationals from developing countries as a means to......, Denmark, as a Danida fellow. Today, the older sister works in Nepal and the younger in Seattle, where they still make use of their personal networks including connections to their fellow alumni of technical assistance courses. Inspired by work on social remittances in combination with network theory , I...

  20. Industrial Networks

    Karlsson, Christer


    Companies organize in a way that involves many activities that are external to the traditional organizational boundaries. This presents challenges to operations management and managing operations involves many issues and actions dealing with external networks. Taking a network perspective changes...... the focus of operations management from managing the own organization to continuously developing and managing a network of external and internal resources forming a production system. This perspective may be called managing an “extraprise” rather than an “enterprise.” It should be noted that “an industrial...... network” should not be seen as an organizational form but as a perspective that can be used to enrich one's understanding of organizations. The industrial network perspective has three basic building blocks: actors, resources, and activities. The three building blocks and their relations constitute...

  1. Sentinel Network

    The Sentinel Network is an integrated, electronic, national medical product safety initiative that compiles information about the safe and effective use of medical products accessible to patients and healthcare practitioners.

  2. Managing Networks

    Jørgensen, Heidi; Vintergaard, Christian

    Logically it seems that companies pursuing different business strategies wouldalso manage their relationships with other firms accordingly. Nevertheless, due tothe lack of research in the field of network strategies, this link still remainsinadequately examined. Based on the well-known framework...... of organisationalbehaviour developed by Miles and Snow (1978), this paper argues that thepatterns of network behaviour practiced by firms greatly depend on the businesstypology of the company. That is, a company's business typology will to a certaindegree dictate the network identity of the company. In this paper evidence...... isprovided, that the relation between a company's strategy, structure and processesin fact have a considerable influence on its pattern of network behaviour. Threecase studies from the Danish biotech industry exemplify and illustrate how acompany's strategy is directly correlated with how it manages its...

  3. Network Power Fault Detection

    Siviero, Claudio


    Network power fault detection. At least one first network device is instructed to temporarily disconnect from a power supply path of a network, and at least one characteristic of the power supply path of the network is measured at a second network device connected to the network while the at least one first network device is temporarily disconnected from the network

  4. Delegation Networks

    Drewes, Frank


    We introduce a generalization of tree-based generators called delegation networks. These make it possible to generate objects such as strings, trees, graphs, and pictures in a modular way by combining tree-based generators of several types. Our main result states that, if all underlying tree generators generate regular tree languages (or finite tree languages), then the tree-generating power of delegation networks is the same as that of context-free tree grammars working in IO mode.

  5. Chemical networks*

    Thi Wing-Fai


    This chapter discusses the fundamental ideas of how chemical networks are build, their strengths and limitations. The chemical reactions that occur in disks combine the cold phase reactions used to model cold molecular clouds with the hot chemistry applied to planetary atmosphere models. With a general understanding of the different types of reactions that can occur, one can proceed in building a network of chemical reactions and use it to explain the abundance of species seen in disks. One o...

  6. Sentient networks

    Chapline, G.


    The engineering problems of constructing autonomous networks of sensors and data processors that can provide alerts for dangerous situations provide a new context for debating the question whether man-made systems can emulate the cognitive capabilities of the mammalian brain. In this paper we consider the question whether a distributed network of sensors and data processors can form ``perceptions`` based on sensory data. Because sensory data can have exponentially many explanations, the use of a central data processor to analyze the outputs from a large ensemble of sensors will in general introduce unacceptable latencies for responding to dangerous situations. A better idea is to use a distributed ``Helmholtz machine`` architecture in which the sensors are connected to a network of simple processors, and the collective state of the network as a whole provides an explanation for the sensory data. In general communication within such a network will require time division multiplexing, which opens the door to the possibility that with certain refinements to the Helmholtz machine architecture it may be possible to build sensor networks that exhibit a form of artificial consciousness.

  7. Complex Networks

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta


    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  8. Network virtualization and programmability

    Colle, Didier; Jooris, Bart; Gurzi, Pasquale; Pickavet, Mario; Demeester, Piet


    We present network virtualization (building virtual or logical networks over a physical infrastructure) and network programmability (allowing the network operator to at least control the network but more fundamentally to define its behavior) concepts.

  9. Neural Networks

    Physicists use large detectors to measure particles created in high-energy collisions at particle accelerators. These detectors typically produce signals indicating either where ionization occurs along the path of the particle, or where energy is deposited by the particle. The data produced by these signals is fed into pattern recognition programs to try to identify what particles were produced, and to measure the energy and direction of these particles. Ideally, there are many techniques used in this pattern recognition software. One technique, neural networks, is particularly suitable for identifying what type of particle caused by a set of energy deposits. Neural networks can derive meaning from complicated or imprecise data, extract patterns, and detect trends that are too complex to be noticed by either humans or other computer related processes. To assist in the advancement of this technology, Physicists use a tool kit to experiment with several neural network techniques. The goal of this research is interface a neural network tool kit into Java Analysis Studio (JAS3), an application that allows data to be analyzed from any experiment. As the final result, a physicist will have the ability to train, test, and implement a neural network with the desired output while using JAS3 to analyze the results or output. Before an implementation of a neural network can take place, a firm understanding of what a neural network is and how it works is beneficial. A neural network is an artificial representation of the human brain that tries to simulate the learning process [5]. It is also important to think of the word artificial in that definition as computer programs that use calculations during the learning process. In short, a neural network learns by representative examples. Perhaps the easiest way to describe the way neural networks learn is to explain how the human brain functions. The human brain contains billions of neural cells that are responsible for processing

  10. Janis Huston Audin, MSc, DVM,1950-2009. Dynamic editor-in-chief of the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association and strong One Health advocate dies

    Bruce Kaplan, DVM


    Full Text Available Dr Janis H. Audin (MSc Illinois 1975, DVM Illinois 1979, a champion of progressive veterinary medical journalism and ‘One Health’ died on 22 April 2009 following a long, courageous and difficult battle with pancreatic cancer. The world has lost a truly significant One Health leader and advocate. Under her guidance, the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA implemented a ‘one-health wonders’ column that recognised and highlighted prominent One Health individuals among the medical and veterinary medical professions in the United States. The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA has lost a dedicated and gifted editor-in-chief.Dr Audin joined the editorial staff of the AVMA in 1985, as an assistant editor and was promoted to associate editor in 1989 and editor in 1994. She became the editor-in-chief of both the JAVMA and the American Journal of Veterinary Research in 1995. Prior to that, Dr Audin practised as an associate veterinarian in Calumet City, Illinois, for four years.During her tenure, Dr Audin was noted for implementing procedural and technological changes in the journal to reduce costs, improve timeliness of publications and promote readership interest and awareness. New features in the News section introduced under her leadership have made the journals more practical and public health-relevant. For instance, Dr Audin fostered the United States Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS ‘Inspection Insights’ - a public health-oriented food safety monthly column related to meat, poultry and egg products - from 1996 through 1998. She also increased international manuscript submissions.On 23 March 2009 AVMA Executive Vice President Dr W. Ron DeHaven named Dr Audin as editor-in-chief emeritus of the Publications Division. Wisely, it also meant that Dr Audin could continue contributing to the staff effort to ensure the high quality of the AVMA scientific journals

  11. Network management for 900-1300 MW PWR power plant industrial network

    Communication networks are a vital element in industrial information system projects. Because of the complexity of these networks, which are heterogeneous in terms of hardware, protocols and communication software, the need is now clear to consider them as applications in and of themselves. For this reason, EDF communication networks are now covered by system requirement specifications with SPRINT, and by an acceptance policy which calls for conformance certificates and defines methods for interoperability tests. Network management completes the picture, and attempts to provide the resources with which to assess present network status and manage communication networks. For this purpose, EDF has selected the OSI standard, which is based on four key concepts: - the ''Manager - Agent'' structural model, - a service (CMISE) and a protocol (CMIP) which enable exchange of management information, - an object-oriented management data model, -functions for: configuration, anomaly, performance and alarm management. This document presents the results of a project to integrate into a single management platform communication systems which do not conform to the OSI management recommendations. There were three major phases to the project: - a review of the OSI management model, and most particularly of the information model advocated; - a review of the resources to be managed and a comparison of the information provided by the different agents. Specifications were proposed for the management object and attribute classes which can usefully be implemented; - integration of ARLIC. During development of a breadboard version based on a BULL ISM platform for management of the power plant local area network, one possible solution for integration of ARLIC was proposed, describing the ARLIC information modeling along the lines of the OSI model. This project showed that it is possible to use the OSI modeling to represent management data manipulated by the communication software used on

  12. Network Cosmology

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguna, Marian


    Causal sets are an approach to quantum gravity in which the causal structure of spacetime plays a fundamental role. The causal set is a quantum network which underlies the fabric of spacetime. The nodes in this network are tiny quanta of spacetime, with two such quanta connected if they are causally related. Here we show that the structure of these networks in de Sitter spacetime, such as our accelerating universe, is remarkably similar to the structure of complex networks -- the brain or the Internet, for example. Specifically, we show that the node degree distribution of causal sets in de Sitter spacetime is described by a power law with exponent 2, similar to many complex networks. Quantifying the differences between the causal set structure in de Sitter spacetime and in the real universe, we find that since the universe today is relatively young, its power-law exponent is not 2 but 3/4, yet exponent 2 is currently emerging. Finally, we show that as a consequence of a simple geometric duality, the growth d...

  13. A peer-mediated social network intervention to enhance the social integration of persons with moderate and severe disabilities.

    Haring, T G; Breen, C G


    Increasingly, parents, teachers, and students with disabilities are advocating for interventions that go beyond skill training to provide support for participation in integrated environments and support for friendships. The present research demonstrated a social network intervention for youths with moderate and severe disabilities. Two groups of nondisabled peers were recruited to participate in weekly discussions with an adult integration facilitator to increase opportunities for social inte...

  14. Network interruptions


    On Sunday 12 June 2005, a site-wide security software upgrade will be performed on all CERN network equipment. This maintenance operation will cause at least 2 short network interruptions of 2 minutes on each equipment item. There are hundreds of such items across the CERN site (Meyrin, Prévessin and all SPS and LHC pits), and it will thus take the whole day to treat them all. All network users and services will be affected. Central batch computing services will be interrupted during this period, expected to last from 8 a.m. until late evening. Job submission will still be possible but no jobs will actually be run. It is hoped to complete the computer centre upgrades in the morning so that stable access can be restored to lxplus, afs and nice services as soon as possible; this cannot be guaranteed, however. The opportunity will be used to interrupt and perform upgrades on the CERN Document Servers.

  15. Network Survivability

    Marzo, José L.; Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Ruepp, Sarah Renée;


    – are vital to modern services such as mobile telephony, online banking and VoIP. This book examines communication networking from a mathematical viewpoint. The contributing authors took part in the European COST action 293 – a four-year program of multidisciplinary research on this subject. In this book...... they offer introductory overviews and state-of-the-art assessments of current and future research in the fields of broadband, optical, wireless and ad hoc networks. Particular topics of interest are design, optimization, robustness and energy consumption. The book will be of interest to graduate students......, researchers and practitioners in the areas of networking, theoretical computer science, operations research, distributed computing and mathematics....

  16. Innovation networks

    Ahrweiler, Petra


    This paper advances a framework for modeling the component interactions between cognitive and social aspects of scientific creativity and technological innovation. Specifically, it aims to characterize Innovation Networks; those networks that involve the interplay of people, ideas and organizations to create new, technologically feasible, commercially-realizable products, processes and organizational structures. The tri-partite framework captures networks of ideas (Concept Level), people (Individual Level) and social structures (Social-Organizational Level) and the interactions between these levels. At the concept level, new ideas are the nodes that are created and linked, kept open for further investigation or closed if solved by actors at the individual or organizational levels. At the individual level, the nodes are actors linked by shared worldviews (based on shared professional, educational, experiential backgrounds) who are the builders of the concept level. At the social-organizational level, the nodes...

  17. Network dismantling

    Braunstein, Alfredo; Semerjian, Guilhem; Zdeborová, Lenka


    We study the problem of network dismantling, that is of finding a minimal set of vertices whose removal leaves the network broken in connected components of sub-extensive size. For a large class of random graphs this problem is tightly connected to the decycling problem (the removal of vertices leaving the graph acyclic). Exploiting this connection and recent works on epidemic spreading we present precise predictions for the minimal size of a dismantling set in a large random graph with a prescribed (light-tailed) degree distribution. Building on the statistical mechanics perspective we propose a three-stage Min-Sum algorithm for efficiently dismantling networks, including heavy-tailed ones for which the dismantling and decycling problems are not equivalent. We also provide insight into the dismantling problem concluding that it is an intrinsically collective problem and optimal dismantling sets cannot be viewed as a collection of individually well performing nodes.

  18. Sentient Networks

    Chapline, G


    In this paper we consider the question whether a distributed network of sensors and data processors can form "perceptions" based on the sensory data. Because sensory data can have exponentially many explanations, the use of a central data processor to analyze the outputs from a large ensemble of sensors will in general introduce unacceptable latencies for responding to dangerous situations. A better idea is to use a distributed "Helmholtz machine" architecture in which the collective state of the network as a whole provides an explanation for the sensory data.

  19. String Network

    Sen, Ashoke


    Type IIB string theory admits a BPS configuration in which three strings (of different type) meet at a point. Using this three string configuration we construct a string network and study its properties. In particular we prove supersymmetry of this configuration. We also consider string lattices, which can be used to construct BPS states in toroidally compactified string theory.

  20. Implementation and Performance Evaluation of Distributed Cloud Storage Solutions using Random Linear Network Coding

    Fitzek, Frank; Toth, Tamas; Szabados, Áron;


    This paper advocates the use of random linear network coding for storage in distributed clouds in order to reduce storage and traffic costs in dynamic settings, i.e. when adding and removing numerous storage devices/clouds on-the-fly and when the number of reachable clouds is limited. We introduce...... various network coding approaches that trade-off reliability, storage and traffic costs, and system complexity relying on probabilistic recoding for cloud regeneration. We compare these approaches with other approaches based on data replication and Reed-Solomon codes. A simulator has been developed...... to carry out a thorough performance evaluation of the various approaches when relying on different system settings, e.g., finite fields, and network/storage conditions, e.g., storage space used per cloud, limited network use, and limited recoding capabilities. In contrast to standard coding approaches, our...

  1. Adaptive Network Coded Clouds: High Speed Downloads and Cost-Effective Version Control

    Sipos, Marton A.; Heide, Janus; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani;


    Although cloud systems provide a reliable and flexible storage solution, the use of a single cloud service constitutes a single point of failure, which can compromise data availability, download speed, and security. To address these challenges, we advocate for the use of multiple cloud storage...... providers simultaneously using network coding as the key enabling technology. Our goal is to study two challenges of network coded storage systems. First, the efficient update of the number of coded fragments per cloud in a system aggregating multiple clouds in order to boost the download speed of files. We...... developed a novel scheme using recoding with limited packets to trade-off storage space, reliability, and data retrieval speed. Implementation and measurements with commercial cloud providers show that up to 9x less network use is needed compared to other network coding schemes, while maintaining similar...

  2. Virtual network functions orchestration in wireless networks

    Riggio, Roberto; Bradai, Abbas; Rasheed, Tinku; Schulz-Zander, Julius; Kuklinski, Slawomir; Ahmed, Toufik


    Network Function Virtualization (NFV) is emerging as one of the most innovative concepts in the networking landscape. By migrating network functions from dedicated mid-dleboxes to general purpose computing platforms, NFV can effectively reduce the cost to deploy and to operate large networks. However, in order to achieve its full potential, NFV needs to encompass also the radio access network allowing Mobile Virtual Network Operators to deploy custom resource allocation solutions within their...

  3. Ecological network analysis: network construction

    Fath, B.D.; Scharler, U.M.; Ulanowicz, R.E.; Hannon, B.


    Ecological network analysis (ENA) is a systems-oriented methodology to analyze within system interactions used to identify holistic properties that are otherwise not evident from the direct observations. Like any analysis technique, the accuracy of the results is as good as the data available, but t

  4. Network Security : Securing Network Equipment and Network Users’ Environment

    Mbah, Mbah


    The purpose of this final year project is to research on new network security products and implementation techniques in order to enhance the current network security structure of Savonia University of Applied Sciences. This is very important because, it will avoid the university from suffering any major network attack associated with the present network security architecture. At the time this final project was approved, the university network security architecture was optimized...

  5. Linear network theory

    Sander, K F


    Linear Network Theory covers the significant algebraic aspect of network theory, with minimal reference to practical circuits. The book begins the presentation of network analysis with the exposition of networks containing resistances only, and follows it up with a discussion of networks involving inductance and capacity by way of the differential equations. Classification and description of certain networks, equivalent networks, filter circuits, and network functions are also covered. Electrical engineers, technicians, electronics engineers, electricians, and students learning the intricacies

  6. Network Security Scanner

    G. MURALI; M.Pranavi; Y.Navateja; K. Bhargavi


    Network Security Scanner (NSS) is a tool that allows auditing and monitoring remote network computers for possible vulnerabilities, checks your network for all potential methods that a hacker might use to attack it. Network Security Scanner is a complete networking utilities package that includes a wide range of tools for network security auditing, vulnerability Auditing, scanning, monitoring and more. Network Security Scanner (NSS) is an easy to use, intuitive network security scanner that c...

  7. Network Traffic Anomaly Detection

    Huang, Hong; Al-Azzawi, Hussein; Brani, Hajar


    This paper presents a tutorial for network anomaly detection, focusing on non-signature-based approaches. Network traffic anomalies are unusual and significant changes in the traffic of a network. Networks play an important role in today's social and economic infrastructures. The security of the network becomes crucial, and network traffic anomaly detection constitutes an important part of network security. In this paper, we present three major approaches to non-signature-based network detect...

  8. Network Gravity

    Lombard, John


    We introduce the construction of a new framework for probing discrete emergent geometry and boundary-boundary observables based on a fundamentally a-dimensional underlying network structure. Using a gravitationally motivated action with Forman weighted combinatorial curvatures and simplicial volumes relying on a decomposition of an abstract simplicial complex into realized embeddings of proper skeletons, we demonstrate properties such as a minimal volume-scale cutoff, the necessity of a positive-definite cosmological constant as a regulator for non-degenerate geometries, and naturally emergent simplicial structures from Metropolis network evolution simulations with no restrictions on attachment rules or regular building blocks. We see emergent properties which echo results from both the spinfoam formalism and causal dynamical triangulations in quantum gravity, and provide analytical and numerical results to support the analogy. We conclude with a summary of open questions and intent for future work in develop...

  9. Chemical networks

    Thi, Wing-Fai


    This chapter discusses the fundamental ideas of how chemical networks are build, their strengths and limitations. The chemical reactions that occur in disks combine the cold phase reactions used to model cold molecular clouds with the hot chemistry applied to planetary atmosphere models. With a general understanding of the different types of reactions that can occur, one can proceed in building a network of chemical reactions and use it to explain the abundance of species seen in disks. One on-going research subject is finding new paths to synthesize species either in the gas-phase or on grain surfaces. Specific formation routes for water or carbon monoxide are discussed in more details. 13th Lecture of the Summer School "Protoplanetary Disks: Theory and Modelling Meet Observations"

  10. Socialist Networks

    Agarez, Ricardo; Bechini, Thibault; Dalachanis, Angelos; El-Wakil, Leila; Gzowska, Alicja; James-Chakraborty, Kathleen; Kögel, Eduard; Kulić, Vladimir; Lagae, Johan; Schwenkel, Christina; Stanek, Łukasz; Zandi-Sayek, Sibel


    This issue of ABE focuses on the internationalization of building culture after WWII and the contributions of architects, planners, and engineers from socialist countries to these processes. Complementing the studies of colonial and postcolonial links, international organizations such as the UN, and economic globalization as conduits of the world-wide spread of architecture, this issue discusses the intersection of these networks with flows of labor power, materials, technologies, discourses ...

  11. Sentient Networks

    Chapline, George


    In this paper we consider the question whether a distributed network of sensors and data processors can form "perceptions" based on the sensory data. Because sensory data can have exponentially many explanations, the use of a central data processor to analyze the outputs from a large ensemble of sensors will in general introduce unacceptable latencies for responding to dangerous situations. A better idea is to use a distributed "Helmholtz machine" architecture in which the collective state of...

  12. Neural networks

    Vajda, Igor; Grim, Jiří

    Oxford : Eolss Publishers-UNESCO, 2008 - (Parra-Luna, F.), s. 224-248 ISBN 978-1-84826-654-4. - (Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems. Volume III) R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/07/1594 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : neural networks * probabilistic approach Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information science and cybernetics .pdf

  13. Conflict Networks

    Franke, Jörg; Öztürk, Tahir


    Conflict parties are frequently involved into more than one conflict at a given time. In this paper the interrelated structure of conflictive relations is modeled as a conflict network where opponents are embedded in a local structure of bilateral conflicts. Conflict parties invest in specific conflict technology to attack their respective rivals and defend their own resources. We show that there exists a unique equilibrium for this conflict game and examine the relation between aggregated eq...

  14. Studying Fin Whales with Seafloor Seismic Networks

    Wilcock, W. S.; Soule, D. C.; Weirathmueller, M.; Thomson, R.


    Baleen whales are found throughout the world's oceans and their welfare captivates the general public. Depending on the species, baleen whales vocalize at frequencies ranging from ~10 Hz to several kilohertz. Passive acoustic studies of whale calls are used to investigate behavior and habitat usage, monitor the recovery of populations from whaling and assess the impacts of anthropogenic sounds. Since airguns are a significant source of sound in the oceans, the research goals of academic seismologists can lead to conflicts with those who advocate for whale conservation while being unwilling to consider the societal benefits of marine geophysical studies. In contrast, studies that monitor earthquakes with ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) provide an opportunity to enhance studies of baleen whales and improve relationships with environmental advocates. The bandwidth of the typical high-frequency or intermediate-band ocean bottom seismometer overlaps the call frequency of the two largest baleen whale species; blue whales generate sequences of 10- to 20-s-long calls centered at ~16 Hz and fin whales produce long sequences of downswept 1-s-long chirps centered at ~20 Hz. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of OBS networks to monitor calling patterns and determine tracks for fin and blue whales. We will summarize the results from a study to track fin whales near the Endeavour hydrothermal vent fields on the Juan de Fuca Ridge and investigate a potential correlation between the density of whales and enhanced zooplankton found throughout the water column overlying the vent fields. From 2003-2006 an 8-station local seismic network that was designed to monitor hydrothermal earthquakes also recorded ~300,000 fin whale vocalizations, mostly in the fall and winter. Automatic picking and localization techniques that are analogous to those used to analyze earthquakes are employed to determine whale tracks. The tracks are then used to interpret calling patterns in the

  15. Random linear network coding for streams with unequally sized packets: Overhead reduction without zero-padded schemes

    Taghouti, Maroua; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk;


    State of the art Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) schemes assume that data streams generate packets with equal sizes. This is an assumption that results in the highest efficiency gains for RLNC. A typical solution for managing unequal packet sizes is to zero-pad the smallest packets. However......, the efficiency of this strategy depends heavily on the packet size distribution and can significantly curb the gains of network coding in practice. The work by Compta et al. showed that this strategy could introduce an overhead as high as 100\\% for Internet traffic. Our work advocates for an...

  16. Optimal design of systems that evolve over time using neural networks

    Nolan, Michael K.


    Design optimization is challenging when the number of variables becomes large. One method of addressing this problem is to use pattern recognition to decrease the solution space in which the optimizer searches. Human "common sense" is used by designers to narrow the scope of search to a confined area defined by patterns conforming to likely solution candidates. However, computer-based optimization generally does not apply similar heuristics. In this paper, a system is presented that recognizes patterns and adjusts its search for optimal solutions based on these patterns. A design problem was selected that requires the optimization algorithm to assess designs that evolve over time. A small sensor network design is evolved into a larger sensor network design. Optimal design solutions for the small network do not necessarily lead to optimal solutions for the larger network. Systems that are well-positioned to evolve have characteristics that distinguish themselves from systems that are not well-positioned to evolve. In this study, a neural network was able to recognize a pattern whereby flexible sensor networks evolved more successfully than less flexible networks. The optimizing algorithm used this pattern to select candidate systems that showed promise for evolution. A genetic algorithm assisted by a neural network achieved better performance than an unassisted genetic algorithm did. This thesis advocates the merit of neural network use in multi-objective system design optimization and to lay a basis for future study.

  17. “Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo - Office of Cancer Survivorship

    “Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo page

  18. Open innovation in networks

    Hu, Yimei

    Open innovation in networks has been a popular topic for long, this paper rethinks the concepts of innovation network and network organization, and clarifies the differences between them based on the network perspective. Network perspective means that: network is the context of firms; market...... and hierarchy can be analyzed from a network approach. Within a network perspective, there are different levels of network, and a firm may not always has the power to “manage” innovation networks due to different levels of power. Based on the strength of a firm’s power, its role may varies from manager...

  19. Geographical networks: geographical effects on network properties

    Kong-qing YANG; Lei YANG; Bai-hua GONG; Zhong-cai LIN; Hong-sheng HE; Liang HUANG


    Complex networks describe a wide range of sys-tems in nature and society. Since most real systems exist in certain physical space and the distance between the nodes has influence on the connections, it is helpful to study geographi-cal complex networks and to investigate how the geographical constrains on the connections affect the network properties. In this paper, we briefly review our recent progress on geo-graphical complex networks with respect of statistics, mod-elling, robustness, and synchronizability. It has been shown that the geographical constrains tend to make the network less robust and less synchronizable. Synchronization on random networks and clustered networks is also studied.

  20. Network Management Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Kim, Jaewoo; Jeon, Hahnearl; Lee, Jaiyong

    Network Management is the process of managing, monitoring, and controlling the network. Conventional network management was based on wired network which is heavy and unsuitable for resource constrained WSNs. WSNs can have large scale network and it is impossible to manage each node individually. Also, polling mechanism of Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) impose heavy management traffic overhead. Since management messages consume resources of WSNs, it can affect the performance of the network. Therefore, it is necessary for WSNs to perform energy efficient network management. In this paper, we will propose network management framework. We will introduce cluster-based network management architecture, and classify the Management Information Base (MIB) according to their characteristics. Then, we will define management messages and message exchange operation for each kind of MIB. The analysis result of the management overhead indicates that the proposed framework can reduce management traffic compared to polling mechanism.

  1. Network epidemiology and plant trade networks

    Pautasso, Marco; Jeger, Mike J.


    Models of epidemics in complex networks are improving our predictive understanding of infectious disease outbreaks. Nonetheless, applying network theory to plant pathology is still a challenge. This overview summarizes some key developments in network epidemiology that are likely to facilitate its application in the study and management of plant diseases. Recent surveys have provided much-needed datasets on contact patterns and human mobility in social networks, but plant trade networks are s...

  2. Improving network management with Software Defined Networking

    Software-defined networking (SDN) is developed as an alternative to closed networks in centers for data processing by providing a means to separate the control layer data layer switches, and routers. SDN introduces new possibilities for network management and configuration methods. In this article, we identify problems with the current state-of-the-art network configuration and management mechanisms and introduce mechanisms to improve various aspects of network management

  3. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Leslie M Turner


    applicable in a broad range of organisms and we advocate for widespread adoption of a network-centered approach in speciation genetics.

  4. ENLIGHT Network

    Ballantine, A; Dixon-Altaber, H; Dosanjh, M; Kuchina, L


    State-of-the-art techniques borrowed from particle accelerators and detectors are a key element in hadrontherapy and several European projects are actively fostering the collaboration amongst the various disciplines and countries. ENLIGHT was established in 2002 to coordinate these European efforts in hadron therapy. The ENLIGHT network is formed by the European hadrontherapy Community, with more than 300 participants from twenty European countries. A major achievement of ENLIGHT has been the blending of traditionally separate communities so that clinicians, physicists, biologists and engineers with experience and interest in particle therapy are working together.

  5. Local Social Networks

    Sapuppo, Antonio; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup


    Online social networks have become essential for many users in their daily communication. Through a combination of the online social networks with opportunistic networks, a new concept arises: Local Social Networks. The target of local social networks is to promote social networking benefits in physical environment in order to leverage personal affinities in the users' surroundings. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the concept of local social networks as a new social commun...

  6. Network Security with Cryptography

    Prof. Mukund R. Joshi; Renuka Avinash Karkade


    Network Security & Cryptography is a concept to protect network and data transmission over wireless network. Data Security is the main aspect of secure data transmission over unreliable network. Network security involves the authorization of access to data in a network, which is controlled by the network administrator. Users choose or are assigned an ID and password or other authenticating information that allows them access to information and programs within their authority. Netw...

  7. Robustness of a Network of Networks

    Gao, Jianxi; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo


    Network research has been focused on studying the properties of a single isolated network, which rarely exists. We develop a general analytical framework for studying percolation of n interdependent networks. We illustrate our analytical solutions for three examples: (i) For any tree of n fully dependent Erdos-R'enyi (ER) networks, each of average degree k, we find that the giant component P∞=p[1-(-kP∞)]^n where 1 - p is the initial fraction of removed nodes. This general result coincides for n = 1 with the known second-order phase transition for a single network. For any n>1 cascading failures occur and the percolation becomes an abrupt first-order transition. (ii) For a starlike network of n partially interdependent ER networks, P∞ depends also on the topology--in contrast to case (i). (iii) For a looplike network formed by n partially dependent ER networks, P∞ is independent of n.

  8. Network Monitoring with Zabbix

    Shokhin, Anatolii


    Network monitoring became an essential part of any network size. It brings monitoring of network components 24/7. This provides clarity and transparency of network infrastructure and performance. With on time alert notification, network administrator may start failure troubleshooting immediately. As a result, end users may not even notice the issue.

  9. Decentralized Network Coding

    Fragouli, C.; Soljanin, E.


    This paper proposes deterministic algorithms for decentralized network coding. Decentralized coding allows to locally specify the coding operations at network nodes without knowledge of the overall network topology, and to accommodate future changes in the network such as addition of receivers. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first deterministic decentralized algorithms proposed for network coding.

  10. Social Network Modelling

    Pugacheva, E


    In the offered review some key issues of social network analysis are discussed. This is a brief summary of social network characteristics, models of network formation, and the network perspective. The aim of this overview is to contribute to interdisciplinary dialogue among researchers in physics, mathematics, sociology, who share a common interest in understanding the network phenomena.

  11. Pesquisa em contracepção: opinião de pesquisadores, sujeitos e defensoras dos direitos das mulheres Research on contraception: opinion of researchers, subjects and advocates of women rights

    Ellen Hardy


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conhecer a opinião de pesquisadores, de mulheres - sujeitos de pesquisa, e de defensoras dos direitos das mulheres sobre o significado de "pesquisa" e "cobaia". MÉTODOS: Pesquisadores (11, mulheres (18 e defensoras (10 foram entrevistados. O estudo foi qualitativo e a análise dos dados foi temática. RESULTADOS: Os participantes tiveram dificuldade em explicar o que é pesquisa; alguns não conseguiram. Para pesquisadores e maioria das mulheres, sujeitos de pesquisa não são cobaias, porque têm liberdade de escolha. Para a maioria das defensoras, sujeitos são cobaias, ainda que consintam em participar de um estudo. CONCLUSÕES: Foi surpreendente a dificuldade dos pesquisadores em explicar o que é pesquisa. As diferentes opiniões sobre o termo "cobaia" refletem a controvérsia sobre seu significado em pesquisa. Seguramente o termo "cobaia" não se aplica à maior parte dos estudos realizados hoje no Brasil, mas os diferentes significados identificados servem para alertar os pesquisadores a prestar atenção aos aspectos éticos de seus estudos.OBJECTIVE: To survey the opinion of researchers, women - subjects of research- and of advocates of women's rights about the meaning of "research" and "guinea pigs". Methods: Researchers (11, women (18 and advocates (10 were interviewed. The study was qualitative and a thematic analysis was carried out. RESULTS: Participants experienced difficulty to explain what research meant and some were unable to do so. For the researchers and most of the women, subjects are not guinea pigs, because they have freedom of choice. Most of the advocates, however, said that subjects are guinea pigs, even when they consent to participate in a study. CONCLUSIONS: The difficulty experienced by researchers when explaining the meaning of research was surprising. The different opinions about "guinea pig" reflect the controversy about its meaning in research. Certainly the expression "guinea pig" does not apply to

  12. Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks

    Mann Raminder P


    Full Text Available Wireless ad hoc sensor networks differ from wireless ad hoc networks from the following perspectives: low energy, lightweight routing protocols, and adaptive communication patterns. This paper proposes an energy-aware routing protocol (EARP suitable for ad hoc wireless sensor networks and presents an analysis for its energy consumption in various phases of route discovery and maintenance. Based on the energy consumption associated with route request processing, EARP advocates the minimization of route requests by allocating dynamic route expiry times. This paper introduces a unique mechanism for estimation of route expiry time based on the probability of route validity, which is a function of time, number of hops, and mobility parameters. In contrast to AODV, EARP reduces the repeated flooding of route requests by maintaining valid routes for longer durations.


    D. David Neels Pon Kumar


    Full Text Available During the last few years, users all over the world have become more and more familiar to the availability of broadband access. When users want broadband Internet service, they are generally restricted to a DSL (Digital Subscribers Line, or cable-modem-based connection. Proponents are advocating worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX, a technology based on an evolving standard for point-to multipoint wireless networking. Scheduling algorithms that support Quality of Service (QoS differentiation and guarantees for wireless data networks are crucial to the deployment of broadband wireless networks. The performance affecting parameters like fairness, bandwidth allocation, throughput, latency are studied and found out that none of the conventional algorithms perform effectively for both fairness and bandwidth allocation simultaneously. Hence it is absolutely essential for an efficient scheduling algorithm with a better trade off for these two parameters. So we are proposing a novel Scheduling Algorithm using Fuzzy logic and Artificial neural networks that addresses these aspects simultaneously. The initial results show that a fair amount of fairness is attained while keeping the priority intact. Results also show that maximum channel utilization is achieved with a negligible increment in processing time.

  14. Interconnection networks

    Faber, V.; Moore, J.W.


    A network of interconnected processors is formed from a vertex symmetric graph selected from graphs GAMMA/sub d/(k) with degree d, diameter k, and (d + 1)exclamation/ (d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k and GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) with degree d /minus/ 1, diameter k + 1, and (d + 1)exclamation/(d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k greater than or equal to 4. Each processor has an address formed by one of the permutations from a predetermined sequence of letters chosen a selected number of letters at a time, and an extended address formed by appending to the address the remaining ones of the predetermined sequence of letters. A plurality of transmission channels is provided from each of the processors, where each processor has one less channel than the selected number of letters forming the sequence. Where a network GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) is provided, no processor has a channel connected to form an edge in a direction delta/sub 1/. Each of the channels has an identification number selected from the sequence of letters and connected from a first processor having a first extended address to a second processor having a second address formed from a second extended address defined by moving to the front of the first extended address the letter found in the position within the first extended address defined by the channel identification number. The second address is then formed by selecting the first elements of the second extended address corresponding to the selected number used to form the address permutations. 9 figs.

  15. A Network-of-Networks Model for Electrical Infrastructure Networks

    Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Hogan, Emilie; Duncan, Daniel; Zhenyu,; Huang,; Hines, Paul D H


    Modeling power transmission networks is an important area of research with applications such as vulnerability analysis, study of cascading failures, and location of measurement devices. Graph-theoretic approaches have been widely used to solve these problems, but are subject to several limitations. One of the limitations is the ability to model a heterogeneous system in a consistent manner using the standard graph-theoretic formulation. In this paper, we propose a {\\em network-of-networks} approach for modeling power transmission networks in order to explicitly incorporate heterogeneity in the model. This model distinguishes between different components of the network that operate at different voltage ratings, and also captures the intra and inter-network connectivity patterns. By building the graph in this fashion we present a novel, and fundamentally different, perspective of power transmission networks. Consequently, this novel approach will have a significant impact on the graph-theoretic modeling of powe...

  16. Hormone Health Network

    ... reduce risk for other diseases The Hormone Health Network helps you and your health care provider have ... Copyright Endocrine Society. All rights reserved. Terms & Policies Network Partners The Hormone Health Network partners with other ...

  17. Visualization of Social Networks

    Boertjes, E.M.; Kotterink, B.; Jager, E.J.


    Current visualizations of social networks are mostly some form of node-link diagram. Depending on the type of social network, this can be some treevisualization with a strict hierarchical structure or a more generic network visualization.

  18. Collaborative networks: Reference modeling

    L.M. Camarinha-Matos; H. Afsarmanesh


    Collaborative Networks: Reference Modeling works to establish a theoretical foundation for Collaborative Networks. Particular emphasis is put on modeling multiple facets of collaborative networks and establishing a comprehensive modeling framework that captures and structures diverse perspectives of

  19. Hierarchical Network Design

    Thomadsen, Tommy


    Communication networks are immensely important today, since both companies and individuals use numerous services that rely on them. This thesis considers the design of hierarchical (communication) networks. Hierarchical networks consist of layers of networks and are well-suited for coping...... with changing and increasing demands. Two-layer networks consist of one backbone network, which interconnects cluster networks. The clusters consist of nodes and links, which connect the nodes. One node in each cluster is a hub node, and the backbone interconnects the hub nodes of each cluster and thus...... the clusters. The design of hierarchical networks involves clustering of nodes, hub selection, and network design, i.e. selection of links and routing of ows. Hierarchical networks have been in use for decades, but integrated design of these networks has only been considered for very special types of networks...

  20. Network robustness of correlated multiplex networks

    Min, Byungjoon; Lee, Kyu-Min; Goh, K -I


    We study the network robustness properties of multiplex networks which contain multiple types of links, focusing on the role of correlation between degrees of a node in different layers. We use generating function formalism to address various types of network robustness of multiplex networks: the ordinary and mutual connectivity under random or targeted node removals as well as the biconnectivity. We found that correlated multiplexity can affect the resilience of networks in diverse ways. Specifically, for maximally-correlated multiplex networks, all pairs of nodes in the giant component are connected by at least two independent paths and networks structure is highly robust to random failures. In contrast, anti-correlated networks are resilient against attacks on targeted nodes with high degrees but vulnerable to random failures.

  1. Tunable Sparse Network Coding for Multicast Networks

    Feizi, Soheil; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Sørensen, Chres Wiant;


    This paper shows the potential and key enabling mechanisms for tunable sparse network coding, a scheme in which the density of network coded packets varies during a transmission session. At the beginning of a transmission session, sparsely coded packets are transmitted, which benefits decoding...... complexity. At the end of a transmission, when receivers have accumulated degrees of freedom, coding density is increased. We propose a family of tunable sparse network codes (TSNCs) for multicast erasure networks with a controllable trade-off between completion time performance to decoding complexity....... Coding density tuning can be performed by designing time-dependent coding matrices. In multicast networks, this tuning can be performed within the network by designing time-dependent pre- coding and network coding matrices with mild conditions on the network structure for specific densities. We present a...

  2. Basics of Computer Networking

    Robertazzi, Thomas


    Springer Brief Basics of Computer Networking provides a non-mathematical introduction to the world of networks. This book covers both technology for wired and wireless networks. Coverage includes transmission media, local area networks, wide area networks, and network security. Written in a very accessible style for the interested layman by the author of a widely used textbook with many years of experience explaining concepts to the beginner.

  3. Heterogeneous Economic Networks

    Souma, Wataru; Fujiwara, Yoshi; Aoyama, Hideaki


    The Japanese shareholding network at the end of March 2002 is studied. To understand the characteristics of this network intuitively, we visualize it as a directed graph and an adjacency matrix. Especially detailed features of networks concerned with the automobile industry sector are discussed by using the visualized networks. The shareholding network is also considered as an undirected graph, because many quantities characterizing networks are defined for undirected cases. For this undirect...

  4. Wireless Fidelity Networks

    Jäger, Vítězslav


    This work deals with main problems of wireless fidelity networks. In details it’s showing the terminology, used technical standards, network’s architecture and built-in security of wireless fidelity networks. For the question of the network’s security it’s handled regarding to VPN (Virtual Private Network) technology. Based on these theoretical assumptions there is new company’s network designed. This designed network offers combination of free wireless network with internet access and secure...

  5. The Economics of Networking

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The literature on business networks is often oversocialized. The economic side of business is implicitly assumed. This paper analyses the economics of network behavior by loking at each of the key concepts in the Network Theory.......The literature on business networks is often oversocialized. The economic side of business is implicitly assumed. This paper analyses the economics of network behavior by loking at each of the key concepts in the Network Theory....

  6. Stem Cell Networks

    Werner, Eric


    We present a general computational theory of stem cell networks and their developmental dynamics. Stem cell networks are special cases of developmental control networks. Our theory generates a natural classification of all possible stem cell networks based on their network architecture. Each stem cell network has a unique topology and semantics and developmental dynamics that result in distinct phenotypes. We show that the ideal growth dynamics of multicellular systems generated by stem cell ...

  7. Corporate Business Networking

    Kanepeja, Zane


    Conscious networking is emerging as a mindset, similar to knowledge society, who were known for their drive for knowledge. The new network society is driven by a networking mindset. This emerging tendency of network requirement and usage in social environment sets a ”must- agenda” for companies to implement networking in their business strategies as companies in the current market situation do not only have to compete with each other but also with their networks. It is a sink or swim choice....

  8. Packet Tracer network simulator

    Jesin, A


    A practical, fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to successfully create networks and simulate them using Packet Tracer.Packet Tracer Network Simulator is aimed at students, instructors, and network administrators who wish to use this simulator to learn how to perform networking instead of investing in expensive, specialized hardware. This book assumes that you have a good amount of Cisco networking knowledge, and it will focus more on Packet Tracer rather than networking.

  9. Flexible Memory Networks

    Curto, Carina; Degeratu, Anda; Itskov, Vladimir


    Networks of neurons in some brain areas are flexible enough to encode new memories quickly. Using a standard firing rate model of recurrent networks, we develop a theory of flexible memory networks. Our main results characterize networks having the maximal number of flexible memory patterns, given a constraint graph on the network's connectivity matrix. Modulo a mild topological condition, we find a close connection between maximally flexible networks and rank 1 matrices. The topological cond...

  10. Super sensor network

    Fjukstad, Bård


    This dissertation studies composing a super sensor network from the combination of three functional sensor networks; A Sensor data producing network, a sensor data computing network and a sensor controlling network. The target devices are today labeled as large sensor nodes. The communication are based on an IP network using HTTP as the main protocol. Bonjour is used for service discovery, with some adjustments for technical reasons. This allows for naming and location of available servi...