Advances of evolutionary computation methods and operators
Cuevas, Erik; Oliva Navarro, Diego Alberto
2016-01-01
The goal of this book is to present advances that discuss alternative Evolutionary Computation (EC) developments and non-conventional operators which have proved to be eﬀective in the solution of several complex problems. The book has been structured so that each chapter can be read independently from the others. The book contains nine chapters with the following themes: 1) Introduction, 2) the Social Spider Optimization (SSO), 3) the States of Matter Search (SMS), 4) the collective animal behavior (CAB) algorithm, 5) the Allostatic Optimization (AO) method, 6) the Locust Search (LS) algorithm, 7) the Adaptive Population with Reduced Evaluations (APRE) method, 8) the multimodal CAB, 9) the constrained SSO method.
Transonic wing analysis using advanced computational methods
Henne, P. A.; Hicks, R. M.
1978-01-01
This paper discusses the application of three-dimensional computational transonic flow methods to several different types of transport wing designs. The purpose of these applications is to evaluate the basic accuracy and limitations associated with such numerical methods. The use of such computational methods for practical engineering problems can only be justified after favorable evaluations are completed. The paper summarizes a study of both the small-disturbance and the full potential technique for computing three-dimensional transonic flows. Computed three-dimensional results are compared to both experimental measurements and theoretical results. Comparisons are made not only of pressure distributions but also of lift and drag forces. Transonic drag rise characteristics are compared. Three-dimensional pressure distributions and aerodynamic forces, computed from the full potential solution, compare reasonably well with experimental results for a wide range of configurations and flow conditions.
Advanced Methods and Applications in Computational Intelligence
Nikodem, Jan; Jacak, Witold; Chaczko, Zenon; ACASE 2012
2014-01-01
This book offers an excellent presentation of intelligent engineering and informatics foundations for researchers in this field as well as many examples with industrial application. It contains extended versions of selected papers presented at the inaugural ACASE 2012 Conference dedicated to the Applications of Systems Engineering. This conference was held from the 6th to the 8th of February 2012, at the University of Technology, Sydney, Australia, organized by the University of Technology, Sydney (Australia), Wroclaw University of Technology (Poland) and the University of Applied Sciences in Hagenberg (Austria). The book is organized into three main parts. Part I contains papers devoted to the heuristic approaches that are applicable in situations where the problem cannot be solved by exact methods, due to various characteristics or dimensionality problems. Part II covers essential issues of the network management, presents intelligent models of the next generation of networks and distributed systems ...
The Advanced Computational Methods Center, University of Georgia
Nute, Donald; Covington, Michael; Rankin, Terry
1986-01-01
The Advanced Computational Methods Center (ACMC) established at the University of Georgia in 1984, supports several research projects in artificial intelligence. The primary goal of AI research at ACMC is the design and installation of a logic-programming environment with advanced natural language processing and knowledge-acquisition capabilities on the university's highly parallel CYBERPLUS system from Control Data Corporation. This article briefly describes current research projects in arti...
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Methods in Computational Molecular Physics
Diercksen, Geerd
1992-01-01
This volume records the lectures given at a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Methods in Computational Molecular Physics held in Bad Windsheim, Germany, from 22nd July until 2nd. August, 1991. This NATO Advanced Study Institute sought to bridge the quite considerable gap which exist between the presentation of molecular electronic structure theory found in contemporary monographs such as, for example, McWeeny's Methods 0/ Molecular Quantum Mechanics (Academic Press, London, 1989) or Wilson's Electron correlation in moleeules (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1984) and the realization of the sophisticated computational algorithms required for their practical application. It sought to underline the relation between the electronic structure problem and the study of nuc1ear motion. Software for performing molecular electronic structure calculations is now being applied in an increasingly wide range of fields in both the academic and the commercial sectors. Numerous applications are reported in areas as diverse as catalysi...
Development of advanced nodal diffusion methods for modern computer architectures
A family of highly efficient multidimensional multigroup advanced neutron-diffusion nodal methods, ILLICO, were implemented on sequential, vector, and vector-concurrent computers. Three-dimensional realistic benchmark problems can be solved in vectorized mode in less than 0.73 s (33.86 Mflops) on a Cray X-MP/48. Vector-concurrent implementations yield speedups as high as 9.19 on an Alliant FX/8. These results show that the ILLICO method preserves essentially all of its speed advantage over finite-difference methods. A self-consistent higher-order nodal diffusion method was developed and implemented. Nodal methods for global nuclear reactor multigroup diffusion calculations which account explicitly for heterogeneities in the assembly nuclear properties were developed and evaluated. A systematic analysis of the zero-order variable cross section nodal method was conducted. Analyzing the KWU PWR depletion benchmark problem, it is shown that when burnup heterogeneities arise, ordinary nodal methods, which do not explicitly treat the heterogeneities, suffer a significant systematic error that accumulates. A nodal method that treats explicitly the space dependence of diffusion coefficients was developed and implemented. A consistent burnup-correction method for nodal microscopic depletion analysis was developed
Recent advances in computational structural reliability analysis methods
Thacker, Ben H.; Wu, Y.-T.; Millwater, Harry R.; Torng, Tony Y.; Riha, David S.
1993-01-01
The goal of structural reliability analysis is to determine the probability that the structure will adequately perform its intended function when operating under the given environmental conditions. Thus, the notion of reliability admits the possibility of failure. Given the fact that many different modes of failure are usually possible, achievement of this goal is a formidable task, especially for large, complex structural systems. The traditional (deterministic) design methodology attempts to assure reliability by the application of safety factors and conservative assumptions. However, the safety factor approach lacks a quantitative basis in that the level of reliability is never known and usually results in overly conservative designs because of compounding conservatisms. Furthermore, problem parameters that control the reliability are not identified, nor their importance evaluated. A summary of recent advances in computational structural reliability assessment is presented. A significant level of activity in the research and development community was seen recently, much of which was directed towards the prediction of failure probabilities for single mode failures. The focus is to present some early results and demonstrations of advanced reliability methods applied to structural system problems. This includes structures that can fail as a result of multiple component failures (e.g., a redundant truss), or structural components that may fail due to multiple interacting failure modes (e.g., excessive deflection, resonate vibration, or creep rupture). From these results, some observations and recommendations are made with regard to future research needs.
Recent Advances in Computational Methods for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Data Processing
Gao, Xin
2013-01-11
Although three-dimensional protein structure determination using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a computationally costly and tedious process that would benefit from advanced computational techniques, it has not garnered much research attention from specialists in bioinformatics and computational biology. In this paper, we review recent advances in computational methods for NMR protein structure determination. We summarize the advantages of and bottlenecks in the existing methods and outline some open problems in the field. We also discuss current trends in NMR technology development and suggest directions for research on future computational methods for NMR.
Advanced computational tools and methods for nuclear analyses of fusion technology systems
An overview is presented of advanced computational tools and methods developed recently for nuclear analyses of Fusion Technology systems such as the experimental device ITER ('International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor') and the intense neutron source IFMIF ('International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility'). These include Monte Carlo based computational schemes for the calculation of three-dimensional shut-down dose rate distributions, methods, codes and interfaces for the use of CAD geometry models in Monte Carlo transport calculations, algorithms for Monte Carlo based sensitivity/uncertainty calculations, as well as computational techniques and data for IFMIF neutronics and activation calculations. (author)
The document at hand serves as the final report for the reactor safety research project RS1183 ''Advanced Computational Methods for the Assessment of Reactor Core Behavior During Reactivity-Initiated Accidents''. The work performed in the framework of this project was dedicated to the development, validation and application of advanced computational methods for the simulation of transients and accidents of nuclear installations. These simulation tools describe in particular the behavior of the reactor core (with respect to neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and thermal mechanics) at a very high level of detail. The overall goal of this project was the deployment of a modern nuclear computational chain which provides, besides advanced 3D tools for coupled neutronics/ thermal-hydraulics full core calculations, also appropriate tools for the generation of multi-group cross sections and Monte Carlo models for the verification of the individual calculational steps. This computational chain shall primarily be deployed for light water reactors (LWR), but should beyond that also be applicable for innovative reactor concepts. Thus, validation on computational benchmarks and critical experiments was of paramount importance. Finally, appropriate methods for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were to be integrated into the computational framework, in order to assess and quantify the uncertainties due to insufficient knowledge of data, as well as due to methodological aspects.
Alex J. Dragt
2012-08-31
Since 1980, under the grant DEFG02-96ER40949, the Department of Energy has supported the educational and research work of the University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory (DSAT) Group. The primary focus of this educational/research group has been on the computation and analysis of charged-particle beam transport using Lie algebraic methods, and on advanced methods for the computation of electromagnetic fields and multiparticle phenomena. This Final Report summarizes the accomplishments of the DSAT Group from its inception in 1980 through its end in 2011.
Projected role of advanced computational aerodynamic methods at the Lockheed-Georgia company
Lores, M. E.
1978-01-01
Experience with advanced computational methods being used at the Lockheed-Georgia Company to aid in the evaluation and design of new and modified aircraft indicates that large and specialized computers will be needed to make advanced three-dimensional viscous aerodynamic computations practical. The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility should be used to provide a tool for designing better aerospace vehicles while at the same time reducing development costs by performing computations using Navier-Stokes equations solution algorithms and permitting less sophisticated but nevertheless complex calculations to be made efficiently. Configuration definition procedures and data output formats can probably best be defined in cooperation with industry, therefore, the computer should handle many remote terminals efficiently. The capability of transferring data to and from other computers needs to be provided. Because of the significant amount of input and output associated with 3-D viscous flow calculations and because of the exceedingly fast computation speed envisioned for the computer, special attention should be paid to providing rapid, diversified, and efficient input and output.
Recent advances in computational methods and clinical applications for spine imaging
Glocker, Ben; Klinder, Tobias; Li, Shuo
2015-01-01
This book contains the full papers presented at the MICCAI 2014 workshop on Computational Methods and Clinical Applications for Spine Imaging. The workshop brought together scientists and clinicians in the field of computational spine imaging. The chapters included in this book present and discuss the new advances and challenges in these fields, using several methods and techniques in order to address more efficiently different and timely applications involving signal and image acquisition, image processing and analysis, image segmentation, image registration and fusion, computer simulation, image based modeling, simulation and surgical planning, image guided robot assisted surgical and image based diagnosis. The book also includes papers and reports from the first challenge on vertebra segmentation held at the workshop.
The University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group carries out research in two broad areas: the computation of charged particle beam transport using Lie algebraic methods and advanced methods for the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions. Important improvements in the state of the art are believed to be possible in both of these areas. In addition, applications of these methods are made to problems of current interest in accelerator physics including the theoretical performance of present and proposed high energy machines. The Lie algebraic method of computing and analyzing beam transport handles both linear and nonlinear beam elements. Tests show this method to be superior to the earlier matrix or numerical integration methods. It has wide application to many areas including accelerator physics, intense particle beams, ion microprobes, high resolution electron microscopy, and light optics. With regard to the area of electromagnetic fields and beam cavity interactions, work is carried out on the theory of beam breakup in single pulses. Work is also done on the analysis of the high frequency behavior of longitudinal and transverse coupling impedances, including the examination of methods which may be used to measure these impedances. Finally, work is performed on the electromagnetic analysis of coupled cavities and on the coupling of cavities to waveguides
Mastorakis, Nikos E
2009-01-01
Features contributions that are focused on significant aspects of current numerical methods and computational mathematics. This book carries chapters that advanced methods and various variations on known techniques that can solve difficult scientific problems efficiently.
The dynamic control assemblies worth measurement technique is a quick method for validation of predicted control assemblies worth. The dynamic control assemblies worth measurement utilize space-time corrections for the measured out of core ionization chamber readings calculated by DYN 3D computer code. The space-time correction arising from the prompt neutron density redistribution in the measured ionization chamber reading can be directly applied in the advanced reactivity computer. The second correction concerning the difference of spatial distribution of delayed neutrons can be calculated by simulation the measurement procedure by dynamic version of the DYN 3D code. In the paper some results of dynamic control assemblies worth measurement applied for NPP Mochovce are presented (Authors)
Advanced display object selection methods for enhancing user-computer productivity
Osga, Glenn A.
1993-01-01
The User-Interface Technology Branch at NCCOSC RDT&E Division has been conducting a series of studies to address the suitability of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) graphic user-interface (GUI) methods for efficiency and performance in critical naval combat systems. This paper presents an advanced selection algorithm and method developed to increase user performance when making selections on tactical displays. The method has also been applied with considerable success to a variety of cursor and pointing tasks. Typical GUI's allow user selection by: (1) moving a cursor with a pointing device such as a mouse, trackball, joystick, touchscreen; and (2) placing the cursor on the object. Examples of GUI objects are the buttons, icons, folders, scroll bars, etc. used in many personal computer and workstation applications. This paper presents an improved method of selection and the theoretical basis for the significant performance gains achieved with various input devices tested. The method is applicable to all GUI styles and display sizes, and is particularly useful for selections on small screens such as notebook computers. Considering the amount of work-hours spent pointing and clicking across all styles of available graphic user-interfaces, the cost/benefit in applying this method to graphic user-interfaces is substantial, with the potential for increasing productivity across thousands of users and applications.
Berezin, I S
1965-01-01
Computing Methods, Volume 2 is a five-chapter text that presents the numerical methods of solving sets of several mathematical equations. This volume includes computation sets of linear algebraic equations, high degree equations and transcendental equations, numerical methods of finding eigenvalues, and approximate methods of solving ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations and integral equations.The book is intended as a text-book for students in mechanical mathematical and physics-mathematical faculties specializing in computer mathematics and persons interested in the
Feel++ : A computational framework for Galerkin Methods and Advanced Numerical Methods
Prud’homme Christophe
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of a unified framework for finite element and spectral element methods in 1D, 2D and 3D in C++ called Feel++. The article is divided in two parts. The first part provides a digression through the design of the library as well as the main abstractions handled by it, namely, meshes, function spaces, operators, linear and bilinear forms and an embedded variational language. In every case, the closeness between the language developed in Feel++ and the equivalent mathematical objects is highlighted. In the second part, examples using the mortar, Schwartz (nonoverlapping, three fields and two fictitious domain-like methods (the Fat Boundary Method and the Penalty Method are presented and numerically solved in the scope of the library.
Katsaounis, T. D.
2005-02-01
The scope of this book is to present well known simple and advanced numerical methods for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) and how to implement these methods using the programming environment of the software package Diffpack. A basic background in PDEs and numerical methods is required by the potential reader. Further, a basic knowledge of the finite element method and its implementation in one and two space dimensions is required. The authors claim that no prior knowledge of the package Diffpack is required, which is true, but the reader should be at least familiar with an object oriented programming language like C++ in order to better comprehend the programming environment of Diffpack. Certainly, a prior knowledge or usage of Diffpack would be a great advantage to the reader. The book consists of 15 chapters, each one written by one or more authors. Each chapter is basically divided into two parts: the first part is about mathematical models described by PDEs and numerical methods to solve these models and the second part describes how to implement the numerical methods using the programming environment of Diffpack. Each chapter closes with a list of references on its subject. The first nine chapters cover well known numerical methods for solving the basic types of PDEs. Further, programming techniques on the serial as well as on the parallel implementation of numerical methods are also included in these chapters. The last five chapters are dedicated to applications, modelled by PDEs, in a variety of fields. The first chapter is an introduction to parallel processing. It covers fundamentals of parallel processing in a simple and concrete way and no prior knowledge of the subject is required. Examples of parallel implementation of basic linear algebra operations are presented using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) programming environment. Here, some knowledge of MPI routines is required by the reader. Examples solving in parallel simple PDEs using
Dunn, M. H.; Tarkenton, G. M.
1992-01-01
This document describes the computational aspects of propeller noise prediction in the time domain and the use of high speed propeller noise prediction program ASSPIN (Advanced Subsonic and Supersonic Propeller Induced Noise). These formulations are valid in both the near and far fields. Two formulations are utilized by ASSPIN: (1) one is used for subsonic portions of the propeller blade; and (2) the second is used for transonic and supersonic regions on the blade. Switching between the two formulations is done automatically. ASSPIN incorporates advanced blade geometry and surface pressure modelling, adaptive observer time grid strategies, and contains enhanced numerical algorithms that result in reduced computational time. In addition, the ability to treat the nonaxial inflow case has been included.
Memon, Atif
2012-01-01
Since its first volume in 1960, Advances in Computers has presented detailed coverage of innovations in computer hardware, software, theory, design, and applications. It has also provided contributors with a medium in which they can explore their subjects in greater depth and breadth than journal articles usually allow. As a result, many articles have become standard references that continue to be of sugnificant, lasting value in this rapidly expanding field. In-depth surveys and tutorials on new computer technologyWell-known authors and researchers in the fieldExtensive bibliographies with m
Zelkowitz, Marvin
2010-01-01
This is volume 79 of Advances in Computers. This series, which began publication in 1960, is the oldest continuously published anthology that chronicles the ever- changing information technology field. In these volumes we publish from 5 to 7 chapters, three times per year, that cover the latest changes to the design, development, use and implications of computer technology on society today. Covers the full breadth of innovations in hardware, software, theory, design, and applications.Many of the in-depth reviews have become standard references that co
Amani Tahat; Mahmoud Abu-Allaban; Safeia Hamasha
2011-01-01
In this study, a new atomic physics program (HTAC) is introduced and tested. It is a utility program designed to automate the computation of various atomic structure and spectral data. It is the first comprehensive code that enables performing atomic calculations based on three advanced theories: the fully relativistic configuration interactions approach, the multi-reference many body perturbation theory and the R-Matrix method. It has been designed to generate tabulated atomic data files tha...
Advanced computational methods for nodal diffusion, Monte Carlo, and S(sub N) problems
Martin, W. R.
1993-01-01
This document describes progress on five efforts for improving effectiveness of computational methods for particle diffusion and transport problems in nuclear engineering: (1) Multigrid methods for obtaining rapidly converging solutions of nodal diffusion problems. An alternative line relaxation scheme is being implemented into a nodal diffusion code. Simplified P2 has been implemented into this code. (2) Local Exponential Transform method for variance reduction in Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations. This work yielded predictions for both 1-D and 2-D x-y geometry better than conventional Monte Carlo with splitting and Russian Roulette. (3) Asymptotic Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration methods for obtaining accurate, rapidly converging solutions of multidimensional SN problems. New transport differencing schemes have been obtained that allow solution by the conjugate gradient method, and the convergence of this approach is rapid. (4) Quasidiffusion (QD) methods for obtaining accurate, rapidly converging solutions of multidimensional SN Problems on irregular spatial grids. A symmetrized QD method has been developed in a form that results in a system of two self-adjoint equations that are readily discretized and efficiently solved. (5) Response history method for speeding up the Monte Carlo calculation of electron transport problems. This method was implemented into the MCNP Monte Carlo code. In addition, we have developed and implemented a parallel time-dependent Monte Carlo code on two massively parallel processors.
Compute Canada: Advancing Computational Research
High Performance Computing (HPC) is redefining the way that research is done. Compute Canada's HPC infrastructure provides a national platform that enables Canadian researchers to compete on an international scale, attracts top talent to Canadian universities and broadens the scope of research.
Recent advances in computational optimization
2013-01-01
Optimization is part of our everyday life. We try to organize our work in a better way and optimization occurs in minimizing time and cost or the maximization of the profit, quality and efficiency. Also many real world problems arising in engineering, economics, medicine and other domains can be formulated as optimization tasks. This volume is a comprehensive collection of extended contributions from the Workshop on Computational Optimization. This book presents recent advances in computational optimization. The volume includes important real world problems like parameter settings for con- trolling processes in bioreactor, robot skin wiring, strip packing, project scheduling, tuning of PID controller and so on. Some of them can be solved by applying traditional numerical methods, but others need a huge amount of computational resources. For them it is shown that is appropriate to develop algorithms based on metaheuristic methods like evolutionary computation, ant colony optimization, constrain programming etc...
Advanced adaptive computational methods for Navier-Stokes simulations in rotorcraft aerodynamics
Stowers, S. T.; Bass, J. M.; Oden, J. T.
1993-01-01
A phase 2 research and development effort was conducted in area transonic, compressible, inviscid flows with an ultimate goal of numerically modeling complex flows inherent in advanced helicopter blade designs. The algorithms and methodologies therefore are classified as adaptive methods, which are error estimation techniques for approximating the local numerical error, and automatically refine or unrefine the mesh so as to deliver a given level of accuracy. The result is a scheme which attempts to produce the best possible results with the least number of grid points, degrees of freedom, and operations. These types of schemes automatically locate and resolve shocks, shear layers, and other flow details to an accuracy level specified by the user of the code. The phase 1 work involved a feasibility study of h-adaptive methods for steady viscous flows, with emphasis on accurate simulation of vortex initiation, migration, and interaction. Phase 2 effort focused on extending these algorithms and methodologies to a three-dimensional topology.
Goodwin, Sabine A.; Raj, P.
1999-01-01
Progress to date towards the development and validation of a fast, accurate and cost-effective aeroelastic method for advanced parallel computing platforms such as the IBM SP2 and the SGI Origin 2000 is presented in this paper. The ENSAERO code, developed at the NASA-Ames Research Center has been selected for this effort. The code allows for the computation of aeroelastic responses by simultaneously integrating the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations and the modal structural equations of motion. To assess the computational performance and accuracy of the ENSAERO code, this paper reports the results of the Navier-Stokes simulations of the transonic flow over a flexible aeroelastic wing body configuration. In addition, a forced harmonic oscillation analysis in the frequency domain and an analysis in the time domain are done on a wing undergoing a rigid pitch and plunge motion. Finally, to demonstrate the ENSAERO flutter-analysis capability, aeroelastic Euler and Navier-Stokes computations on an L-1011 wind tunnel model including pylon, nacelle and empennage are underway. All computational solutions are compared with experimental data to assess the level of accuracy of ENSAERO. As the computations described above are performed, a meticulous log of computational performance in terms of wall clock time, execution speed, memory and disk storage is kept. Code scalability is also demonstrated by studying the impact of varying the number of processors on computational performance on the IBM SP2 and the Origin 2000 systems.
Advanced differential quadrature methods
Zong, Zhi
2009-01-01
Modern Tools to Perform Numerical DifferentiationThe original direct differential quadrature (DQ) method has been known to fail for problems with strong nonlinearity and material discontinuity as well as for problems involving singularity, irregularity, and multiple scales. But now researchers in applied mathematics, computational mechanics, and engineering have developed a range of innovative DQ-based methods to overcome these shortcomings. Advanced Differential Quadrature Methods explores new DQ methods and uses these methods to solve problems beyond the capabilities of the direct DQ method.After a basic introduction to the direct DQ method, the book presents a number of DQ methods, including complex DQ, triangular DQ, multi-scale DQ, variable order DQ, multi-domain DQ, and localized DQ. It also provides a mathematical compendium that summarizes Gauss elimination, the Runge-Kutta method, complex analysis, and more. The final chapter contains three codes written in the FORTRAN language, enabling readers to q...
Improved Computational Neutronics Methods And Validation Protocols For The Advanced Test Reactor
The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is in the process of modernizing the various reactor physics modeling and simulation tools used to support operation and safety assurance of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Key accomplishments so far have encompassed both computational as well as experimental work. A new suite of stochastic and deterministic transport theory based reactor physics codes and their supporting nuclear data libraries (HELIOS, KENO6/SCALE, NEWT/SCALE, ATTILA, and an extended implementation of MCNP5) has been installed at the INL. Corresponding models of the ATR and ATRC are now operational with all five codes, demonstrating the basic feasibility of the new code packages for their intended purpose. Of particular importance, a set of as-run core depletion HELIOS calculations for all ATR cycles since August 2009 was successfully completed during 2011. This demonstration supported a decision late in the year to proceed with the phased incorporation of the HELIOS methodology into the ATR fuel cycle management process beginning in 2012. On the experimental side of the project, new hardware was fabricated, measurement protocols were finalized, and the first four of six planned physics code validation experiments based on neutron activation spectrometry were conducted at the ATRC facility. Data analysis for the first three experiments, focused on characterization of the neutron spectrum in one of the ATR flux traps, has been completed. The six experiments will ultimately form the basis for a flexible, easily-repeatable ATR physics code validation protocol that is consistent with applicable ASTM standards.
The University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group has been carrying out long-term research work in the general area of Dynamical Systems with a particular emphasis on applications to Accelerator Physics. This work is broadly divided into two tasks: Charged Particle Beam Transport and the Computation of Electromagnetic Fields and Beam-Cavity Interactions. Each of these tasks is described briefly. Work is devoted both to the development of new methods and the application of these methods to problems of current interest in accelerator physics including the theoretical performance of present and proposed high energy machines. In addition to its research effort, the Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group is actively engaged in the education of students and postdoctoral research associates
Advanced computations in plasma physics
Scientific simulation in tandem with theory and experiment is an essential tool for understanding complex plasma behavior. In this paper we review recent progress and future directions for advanced simulations in magnetically confined plasmas with illustrative examples chosen from magnetic confinement research areas such as microturbulence, magnetohydrodynamics, magnetic reconnection, and others. Significant recent progress has been made in both particle and fluid simulations of fine-scale turbulence and large-scale dynamics, giving increasingly good agreement between experimental observations and computational modeling. This was made possible by innovative advances in analytic and computational methods for developing reduced descriptions of physics phenomena spanning widely disparate temporal and spatial scales together with access to powerful new computational resources. In particular, the fusion energy science community has made excellent progress in developing advanced codes for which computer run-time and problem size scale well with the number of processors on massively parallel machines (MPP's). A good example is the effective usage of the full power of multi-teraflop (multi-trillion floating point computations per second) MPP's to produce three-dimensional, general geometry, nonlinear particle simulations which have accelerated progress in understanding the nature of turbulence self-regulation by zonal flows. It should be emphasized that these calculations, which typically utilized billions of particles for thousands of time-steps, would not have been possible without access to powerful present generation MPP computers and the associated diagnostic and visualization capabilities. In general, results from advanced simulations provide great encouragement for being able to include increasingly realistic dynamics to enable deeper physics insights into plasmas in both natural and laboratory environments. The associated scientific excitement should serve to
Pisano, Aurora; Weichert, Dieter
2015-01-01
Articles in this book examine various materials and how to determine directly the limit state of a structure, in the sense of limit analysis and shakedown analysis. Apart from classical applications in mechanical and civil engineering contexts, the book reports on the emerging field of material design beyond the elastic limit, which has further industrial design and technological applications. Readers will discover that “Direct Methods” and the techniques presented here can in fact be used to numerically estimate the strength of structured materials such as composites or nano-materials, which represent fruitful fields of future applications. Leading researchers outline the latest computational tools and optimization techniques and explore the possibility of obtaining information on the limit state of a structure whose post-elastic loading path and constitutive behavior are not well defined or well known. Readers will discover how Direct Methods allow rapid and direct access to requested information in...
Advances in physiological computing
Fairclough, Stephen H
2014-01-01
This edited collection will provide an overview of the field of physiological computing, i.e. the use of physiological signals as input for computer control. It will cover a breadth of current research, from brain-computer interfaces to telemedicine.
Pasini, Paolo; Žumer, Slobodan; Computer Simulations of Liquid Crystals and Polymers
2005-01-01
Liquid crystals, polymers and polymer liquid crystals are soft condensed matter systems of major technological and scientific interest. An understanding of the macroscopic properties of these complex systems and of their many and interesting peculiarities at the molecular level can nowadays only be attained using computer simulations and statistical mechanical theories. Both in the Liquid Crystal and Polymer fields a considerable amount of simulation work has been done in the last few years with various classes of models at different special resolutions, ranging from atomistic to molecular and coarse-grained lattice models. Each of the two fields has developed its own set of tools and specialized procedures and the book aims to provide a state of the art review of the computer simulation studies of polymers and liquid crystals. This is of great importance in view of a potential cross-fertilization between these connected areas which is particularly apparent for a number of experimental systems like, e.g. poly...
The application of advanced computational methods to the modeling of PBMR source terms
The pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) is a high temperature gas-cooled reactor which uses helium gas as a coolant. The PBMR design relies on the excellent heat transfer properties of graphite and a fuel design that is inherently resistant to the release of the radioactive material up to high temperatures. The safety characteristics of the PBMR concept are excellent. This paper addresses one aspect of the interplay between the details of fluid flow and aerosol transport within the complex geometry of the pebble bed core. A very large quantity of graphite dust is produced by the interaction among the pebbles. The potential for the deposition of radionuclides on the surface of dust particles and their subsequent transport as aerosols is substantial. This effort focuses on the inertial deposition of these aerosols within the pebble bed. Inertial deposition in the low Reynolds number regime of laminar flow in pebble beds has been explored previously, but with less powerful computational techniques. Some experimental data are also available in this regime. No analyses or experimental data are available in the high Reynolds number turbulent regime in which the PBMR operates. This paper describes results of analyses of inertial deposition obtained with the FLUENT computational fluid dynamics code. The objective of the analysis is to obtain an expression for deposition within an asymptotic unit cell, removed from the boundary conditions at the entrance to the array. The results of analyses performed at different velocities and fluid densities in the turbulent regime were correlated against a modified Stokes number. The deposition correlation is well represented by the integral form of the normal distribution. Deposition for the time-averaged flow was found to be insensitive to the flow model. In the laminar regime, FLUENT results were found to be in agreement with earlier published results and experimental data. The stochastic behavior of eddies was also simulated within
Longoni, Gianluca
In the nuclear science and engineering field, radiation transport calculations play a key-role in the design and optimization of nuclear devices. The linear Boltzmann equation describes the angular, energy and spatial variations of the particle or radiation distribution. The discrete ordinates method (S N) is the most widely used technique for solving the linear Boltzmann equation. However, for realistic problems, the memory and computing time require the use of supercomputers. This research is devoted to the development of new formulations for the SN method, especially for highly angular dependent problems, in parallel environments. The present research work addresses two main issues affecting the accuracy and performance of SN transport theory methods: quadrature sets and acceleration techniques. New advanced quadrature techniques which allow for large numbers of angles with a capability for local angular refinement have been developed. These techniques have been integrated into the 3-D SN PENTRAN (Parallel Environment Neutral-particle TRANsport) code and applied to highly angular dependent problems, such as CT-Scan devices, that are widely used to obtain detailed 3-D images for industrial/medical applications. In addition, the accurate simulation of core physics and shielding problems with strong heterogeneities and transport effects requires the numerical solution of the transport equation. In general, the convergence rate of the solution methods for the transport equation is reduced for large problems with optically thick regions and scattering ratios approaching unity. To remedy this situation, new acceleration algorithms based on the Even-Parity Simplified SN (EP-SSN) method have been developed. A new stand-alone code system, PENSSn (Parallel Environment Neutral-particle Simplified SN), has been developed based on the EP-SSN method. The code is designed for parallel computing environments with spatial, angular and hybrid (spatial/angular) domain
Recent Advances in Evolutionary Computation
Xin Yao; Yong Xu
2006-01-01
Evolutionary computation has experienced a tremendous growth in the last decade in both theoretical analyses and industrial applications. Its scope has evolved beyond its original meaning of "biological evolution" toward a wide variety of nature inspired computational algorithms and techniques, including evolutionary, neural, ecological, social and economical computation, etc., in a unified framework. Many research topics in evolutionary computation nowadays are not necessarily "evolutionary". This paper provides an overview of some recent advances in evolutionary computation that have been made in CERCIA at the University of Birmingham, UK. It covers a wide range of topics in optimization, learning and design using evolutionary approaches and techniques, and theoretical results in the computational time complexity of evolutionary algorithms. Some issues related to future development of evolutionary computation are also discussed.
Computational photography: advances and challenges
Lam, EYM
2011-01-01
In the mid-1990s when digital photography began to enter the consumer market, Professor Joseph Goodman and I set out to explore how computation would impact the imaging system design. The field of study has since grown to be known as computational photography. In this paper I'll describe some of its recent advances and challenges, and discuss what the future holds. © 2011 Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
Moukalled, F; Darwish, M
2016-01-01
This textbook explores both the theoretical foundation of the Finite Volume Method (FVM) and its applications in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Readers will discover a thorough explanation of the FVM numerics and algorithms used for the simulation of incompressible and compressible fluid flows, along with a detailed examination of the components needed for the development of a collocated unstructured pressure-based CFD solver. Two particular CFD codes are explored. The first is uFVM, a three-dimensional unstructured pressure-based finite volume academic CFD code, implemented within Matlab. The second is OpenFOAM®, an open source framework used in the development of a range of CFD programs for the simulation of industrial scale flow problems. With over 220 figures, numerous examples and more than one hundred exercise on FVM numerics, programming, and applications, this textbook is suitable for use in an introductory course on the FVM, in an advanced course on numerics, and as a reference for CFD programm...
Pautz, A.; Perin, Y.; Pasichnyk, I.; Velkov, K.; Zwermann, W.; Seubert, A.; Klein, M.; Gallner, L.; Krzycacz-Hausmann, B.
2012-05-15
The document at hand serves as the final report for the reactor safety research project RS1183 ''Advanced Computational Methods for the Assessment of Reactor Core Behavior During Reactivity-Initiated Accidents''. The work performed in the framework of this project was dedicated to the development, validation and application of advanced computational methods for the simulation of transients and accidents of nuclear installations. These simulation tools describe in particular the behavior of the reactor core (with respect to neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and thermal mechanics) at a very high level of detail. The overall goal of this project was the deployment of a modern nuclear computational chain which provides, besides advanced 3D tools for coupled neutronics/ thermal-hydraulics full core calculations, also appropriate tools for the generation of multi-group cross sections and Monte Carlo models for the verification of the individual calculational steps. This computational chain shall primarily be deployed for light water reactors (LWR), but should beyond that also be applicable for innovative reactor concepts. Thus, validation on computational benchmarks and critical experiments was of paramount importance. Finally, appropriate methods for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were to be integrated into the computational framework, in order to assess and quantify the uncertainties due to insufficient knowledge of data, as well as due to methodological aspects.
International Conference on Advanced Computing
Patnaik, Srikanta
2014-01-01
This book is composed of the Proceedings of the International Conference on Advanced Computing, Networking, and Informatics (ICACNI 2013), held at Central Institute of Technology, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India during June 14–16, 2013. The book records current research articles in the domain of computing, networking, and informatics. The book presents original research articles, case-studies, as well as review articles in the said field of study with emphasis on their implementation and practical application. Researchers, academicians, practitioners, and industry policy makers around the globe have contributed towards formation of this book with their valuable research submissions.
Advances and challenges in computational plasma science
Scientific simulation, which provides a natural bridge between theory and experiment, is an essential tool for understanding complex plasma behaviour. Recent advances in simulations of magnetically confined plasmas are reviewed in this paper, with illustrative examples, chosen from associated research areas such as microturbulence, magnetohydrodynamics and other topics. Progress has been stimulated, in particular, by the exponential growth of computer speed along with significant improvements in computer technology. The advances in both particle and fluid simulations of fine-scale turbulence and large-scale dynamics have produced increasingly good agreement between experimental observations and computational modelling. This was enabled by two key factors: (a) innovative advances in analytic and computational methods for developing reduced descriptions of physics phenomena spanning widely disparate temporal and spatial scales and (b) access to powerful new computational resources. Excellent progress has been made in developing codes for which computer run-time and problem-size scale well with the number of processors on massively parallel processors (MPPs). Examples include the effective usage of the full power of multi-teraflop (multi-trillion floating point computations per second) MPPs to produce three-dimensional, general geometry, nonlinear particle simulations that have accelerated advances in understanding the nature of turbulence self-regulation by zonal flows. These calculations, which typically utilized billions of particles for thousands of time-steps, would not have been possible without access to powerful present generation MPP computers and the associated diagnostic and visualization capabilities. In looking towards the future, the current results from advanced simulations provide great encouragement for being able to include increasingly realistic dynamics to enable deeper physics insights into plasmas in both natural and laboratory environments. This
Advances in embedded computer vision
Kisacanin, Branislav
2014-01-01
This illuminating collection offers a fresh look at the very latest advances in the field of embedded computer vision. Emerging areas covered by this comprehensive text/reference include the embedded realization of 3D vision technologies for a variety of applications, such as stereo cameras on mobile devices. Recent trends towards the development of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with embedded image and video processing algorithms are also examined. The authoritative insights range from historical perspectives to future developments, reviewing embedded implementation, tools, technolog
Essential numerical computer methods
Johnson, Michael L
2010-01-01
The use of computers and computational methods has become ubiquitous in biological and biomedical research. During the last 2 decades most basic algorithms have not changed, but what has is the huge increase in computer speed and ease of use, along with the corresponding orders of magnitude decrease in cost. A general perception exists that the only applications of computers and computer methods in biological and biomedical research are either basic statistical analysis or the searching of DNA sequence data bases. While these are important applications they only scratch the surface
Soft computing in advanced robotics
Kobayashi, Ichiro; Kim, Euntai
2014-01-01
Intelligent system and robotics are inevitably bound up; intelligent robots makes embodiment of system integration by using the intelligent systems. We can figure out that intelligent systems are to cell units, while intelligent robots are to body components. The two technologies have been synchronized in progress. Making leverage of the robotics and intelligent systems, applications cover boundlessly the range from our daily life to space station; manufacturing, healthcare, environment, energy, education, personal assistance, logistics. This book aims at presenting the research results in relevance with intelligent robotics technology. We propose to researchers and practitioners some methods to advance the intelligent systems and apply them to advanced robotics technology. This book consists of 10 contributions that feature mobile robots, robot emotion, electric power steering, multi-agent, fuzzy visual navigation, adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system, swarm EKF localization and inspection robot. Th...
Computer networks and advanced communications
One of the major methods for getting the most productivity and benefits from computer usage is networking. However, for those who are contemplating a change from stand-alone computers to a network system, the investigation of actual networks in use presents a paradox: network systems can be highly productive and beneficial; at the same time, these networks can create many complex, frustrating problems. The issue becomes a question of whether the benefits of networking are worth the extra effort and cost. In response to this issue, the authors review in this paper the implementation and management of an actual network in the LSU Petroleum Engineering Department. The network, which has been in operation for four years, is large and diverse (50 computers, 2 sites, PC's, UNIX RISC workstations, etc.). The benefits, costs, and method of operation of this network will be described, and an effort will be made to objectively weigh these elements from the point of view of the average computer user
Computational Methods Development at Ames
Kwak, Dochan; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
This viewgraph presentation outlines the development at Ames Research Center of advanced computational methods to provide appropriate fidelity computational analysis/design capabilities. Current thrusts of the Ames research include: 1) methods to enhance/accelerate viscous flow simulation procedures, and the development of hybrid/polyhedral-grid procedures for viscous flow; 2) the development of real time transonic flow simulation procedures for a production wind tunnel, and intelligent data management technology; and 3) the validation of methods and the flow physics study gives historical precedents to above research, and speculates on its future course.
McCray, Wilmon Wil L., Jr.
The research was prompted by a need to conduct a study that assesses process improvement, quality management and analytical techniques taught to students in U.S. colleges and universities undergraduate and graduate systems engineering and the computing science discipline (e.g., software engineering, computer science, and information technology) degree programs during their academic training that can be applied to quantitatively manage processes for performance. Everyone involved in executing repeatable processes in the software and systems development lifecycle processes needs to become familiar with the concepts of quantitative management, statistical thinking, process improvement methods and how they relate to process-performance. Organizations are starting to embrace the de facto Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI RTM) Models as process improvement frameworks to improve business processes performance. High maturity process areas in the CMMI model imply the use of analytical, statistical, quantitative management techniques, and process performance modeling to identify and eliminate sources of variation, continually improve process-performance; reduce cost and predict future outcomes. The research study identifies and provides a detail discussion of the gap analysis findings of process improvement and quantitative analysis techniques taught in U.S. universities systems engineering and computing science degree programs, gaps that exist in the literature, and a comparison analysis which identifies the gaps that exist between the SEI's "healthy ingredients " of a process performance model and courses taught in U.S. universities degree program. The research also heightens awareness that academicians have conducted little research on applicable statistics and quantitative techniques that can be used to demonstrate high maturity as implied in the CMMI models. The research also includes a Monte Carlo simulation optimization
The University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group has been carrying out long-term research work in the general area of Dynamical Systems with a particular emphasis on applications to Accelerator Physics. This work is broadly divided into two tasks: the computation of charged particle beam transport and the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions. Each of these tasks is described briefly. Work is devoted both to the development of new methods and the application of these methods to problems of current interest in accelerator physics including the theoretical performance of present and proposed high energy machines. In addition to its research effort, the Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group is actively engaged in the education of students and postdoctoral research associates. Substantial progress in research has been made during the past year. These achievements are summarized in the following report
2016-01-01
This proceedings consists of 20 papers which have been selected and invited from the submissions to the 4th International Conference on Computer Science, Applied Mathematics and Applications (ICCSAMA 2016) held on 2-3 May, 2016 in Laxenburg, Austria. The conference is organized into 5 sessions: Advanced Optimization Methods and Their Applications, Models for ICT applications, Topics on discrete mathematics, Data Analytic Methods and Applications and Feature Extractio, respectively. All chap...
Advanced Computer Algebra for Determinants
Koutschan, Christoph
2011-01-01
We prove three conjectures concerning the evaluation of determinants, which are related to the counting of plane partitions and rhombus tilings. One of them has been posed by George Andrews in 1980, the other two are by Guoce Xin and Christian Krattenthaler. Our proofs employ computer algebra methods, namely the holonomic ansatz proposed by Doron Zeilberger and variations thereof. These variations make Zeilberger's original approach even more powerful and allow for addressing a wider variety of determinants. Finally we present, as a challenge problem, a conjecture about a closed form evaluation of Andrews's determinant.
Computational Design of Advanced Nuclear Fuels
Savrasov, Sergey [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Kotliar, Gabriel [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Haule, Kristjan [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)
2014-06-03
The objective of the project was to develop a method for theoretical understanding of nuclear fuel materials whose physical and thermophysical properties can be predicted from first principles using a novel dynamical mean field method for electronic structure calculations. We concentrated our study on uranium, plutonium, their oxides, nitrides, carbides, as well as some rare earth materials whose 4f eletrons provide a simplified framework for understanding complex behavior of the f electrons. We addressed the issues connected to the electronic structure, lattice instabilities, phonon and magnon dynamics as well as thermal conductivity. This allowed us to evaluate characteristics of advanced nuclear fuel systems using computer based simulations and avoid costly experiments.
Advances in Computer Science and Engineering
Second International Conference on Advances in Computer Science and Engineering (CES 2012)
2012-01-01
This book includes the proceedings of the second International Conference on Advances in Computer Science and Engineering (CES 2012), which was held during January 13-14, 2012 in Sanya, China. The papers in these proceedings of CES 2012 focus on the researchers’ advanced works in their fields of Computer Science and Engineering mainly organized in four topics, (1) Software Engineering, (2) Intelligent Computing, (3) Computer Networks, and (4) Artificial Intelligence Software.
Advanced probabilistic method of development
Wirsching, P. H.
1987-01-01
Advanced structural reliability methods are utilized on the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) project to provide a tool for analysis and design of space propulsion system hardware. The role of the effort at the University of Arizona is to provide reliability technology support to this project. PSAM computer programs will provide a design tool for analyzing uncertainty associated with thermal and mechanical loading, material behavior, geometry, and the analysis methods used. Specifically, reliability methods are employed to perform sensitivity analyses, to establish the distribution of a critical response variable (e.g., stress, deflection), to perform reliability assessment, and ultimately to produce a design which will minimize cost and/or weight. Uncertainties in the design factors of space propulsion hardware are described by probability models constructed using statistical analysis of data. Statistical methods are employed to produce a probability model, i.e., a statistical synthesis or summary of each design variable in a format suitable for reliability analysis and ultimately, design decisions.
Advanced in Computer Science and its Applications
Yen, Neil; Park, James; CSA 2013
2014-01-01
The theme of CSA is focused on the various aspects of computer science and its applications for advances in computer science and its applications and provides an opportunity for academic and industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in the area of computer science and its applications. Therefore this book will be include the various theories and practical applications in computer science and its applications.
International Conference on Advanced Computing for Innovation
Angelova, Galia; Agre, Gennady
2016-01-01
This volume is a selected collection of papers presented and discussed at the International Conference “Advanced Computing for Innovation (AComIn 2015)”. The Conference was held at 10th -11th of November, 2015 in Sofia, Bulgaria and was aimed at providing a forum for international scientific exchange between Central/Eastern Europe and the rest of the world on several fundamental topics of computational intelligence. The papers report innovative approaches and solutions in hot topics of computational intelligence – advanced computing, language and semantic technologies, signal and image processing, as well as optimization and intelligent control.
Bringing Advanced Computational Techniques to Energy Research
Mitchell, Julie C
2012-11-17
Please find attached our final technical report for the BACTER Institute award. BACTER was created as a graduate and postdoctoral training program for the advancement of computational biology applied to questions of relevance to bioenergy research.
Advanced laptop and small personal computer technology
Johnson, Roger L.
1991-01-01
Advanced laptop and small personal computer technology is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following areas of hand carried computers and mobile workstation technology are covered: background, applications, high end products, technology trends, requirements for the Control Center application, and recommendations for the future.
Advanced Biomedical Computing Center (ABCC) | DSITP
The Advanced Biomedical Computing Center (ABCC), located in Frederick Maryland (MD), provides HPC resources for both NIH/NCI intramural scientists and the extramural biomedical research community. Its mission is to provide HPC support, to provide collaborative research, and to conduct in-house research in various areas of computational biology and biomedical research.
Advance Trends in Soft Computing
Kreinovich, Vladik; Kacprzyk, Janusz; WCSC 2013
2014-01-01
This book is the proceedings of the 3rd World Conference on Soft Computing (WCSC), which was held in San Antonio, TX, USA, on December 16-18, 2013. It presents start-of-the-art theory and applications of soft computing together with an in-depth discussion of current and future challenges in the field, providing readers with a 360 degree view on soft computing. Topics range from fuzzy sets, to fuzzy logic, fuzzy mathematics, neuro-fuzzy systems, fuzzy control, decision making in fuzzy environments, image processing and many more. The book is dedicated to Lotfi A. Zadeh, a renowned specialist in signal analysis and control systems research who proposed the idea of fuzzy sets, in which an element may have a partial membership, in the early 1960s, followed by the idea of fuzzy logic, in which a statement can be true only to a certain degree, with degrees described by numbers in the interval [0,1]. The performance of fuzzy systems can often be improved with the help of optimization techniques, e.g. evolutionary co...
Advances in randomized parallel computing
Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar
1999-01-01
The technique of randomization has been employed to solve numerous prob lems of computing both sequentially and in parallel. Examples of randomized algorithms that are asymptotically better than their deterministic counterparts in solving various fundamental problems abound. Randomized algorithms have the advantages of simplicity and better performance both in theory and often in practice. This book is a collection of articles written by renowned experts in the area of randomized parallel computing. A brief introduction to randomized algorithms In the aflalysis of algorithms, at least three different measures of performance can be used: the best case, the worst case, and the average case. Often, the average case run time of an algorithm is much smaller than the worst case. 2 For instance, the worst case run time of Hoare's quicksort is O(n ), whereas its average case run time is only O( n log n). The average case analysis is conducted with an assumption on the input space. The assumption made to arrive at t...
Computational methods for fluid dynamics
Ferziger, Joel H
2002-01-01
In its 3rd revised and extended edition the book offers an overview of the techniques used to solve problems in fluid mechanics on computers and describes in detail those most often used in practice. Included are advanced methods in computational fluid dynamics, like direct and large-eddy simulation of turbulence, multigrid methods, parallel computing, moving grids, structured, block-structured and unstructured boundary-fitted grids, free surface flows. The 3rd edition contains a new section dealing with grid quality and an extended description of discretization methods. The book shows common roots and basic principles for many different methods. The book also contains a great deal of practical advice for code developers and users, it is designed to be equally useful to beginners and experts. The issues of numerical accuracy, estimation and reduction of numerical errors are dealt with in detail, with many examples. A full-feature user-friendly demo-version of a commercial CFD software has been added, which ca...
Computational Methods for Crashworthiness
Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Carden, Huey D. (Compiler)
1993-01-01
Presentations and discussions from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Computational Methods for Crashworthiness held at Langley Research Center on 2-3 Sep. 1992 are included. The presentations addressed activities in the area of impact dynamics. Workshop attendees represented NASA, the Army and Air Force, the Lawrence Livermore and Sandia National Laboratories, the aircraft and automotive industries, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the state-of-technology in the numerical simulation of crash and to provide guidelines for future research.
Advanced topics in computer vision
Farinella, Giovanni Maria; Cipolla, Roberto
2013-01-01
This book presents a broad selection of cutting-edge research, covering both theoretical and practical aspects of reconstruction, registration, and recognition. The text provides an overview of challenging areas and descriptions of novel algorithms. Features: investigates visual features, trajectory features, and stereo matching; reviews the main challenges of semi-supervised object recognition, and a novel method for human action categorization; presents a framework for the visual localization of MAVs, and for the use of moment constraints in convex shape optimization; examines solutions to t
Computational electromagnetics recent advances and engineering applications
2014-01-01
Emerging Topics in Computational Electromagnetics in Computational Electromagnetics presents advances in Computational Electromagnetics. This book is designed to fill the existing gap in current CEM literature that only cover the conventional numerical techniques for solving traditional EM problems. The book examines new algorithms, and applications of these algorithms for solving problems of current interest that are not readily amenable to efficient treatment by using the existing techniques. The authors discuss solution techniques for problems arising in nanotechnology, bioEM, metamaterials, as well as multiscale problems. They present techniques that utilize recent advances in computer technology, such as parallel architectures, and the increasing need to solve large and complex problems in a time efficient manner by using highly scalable algorithms.
Advances and Challenges in Computational Plasma Science
W.M. Tang; V.S. Chan
2005-01-03
Scientific simulation, which provides a natural bridge between theory and experiment, is an essential tool for understanding complex plasma behavior. Recent advances in simulations of magnetically-confined plasmas are reviewed in this paper with illustrative examples chosen from associated research areas such as microturbulence, magnetohydrodynamics, and other topics. Progress has been stimulated in particular by the exponential growth of computer speed along with significant improvements in computer technology.
Advances and Challenges in Computational Plasma Science
Scientific simulation, which provides a natural bridge between theory and experiment, is an essential tool for understanding complex plasma behavior. Recent advances in simulations of magnetically-confined plasmas are reviewed in this paper with illustrative examples chosen from associated research areas such as microturbulence, magnetohydrodynamics, and other topics. Progress has been stimulated in particular by the exponential growth of computer speed along with significant improvements in computer technology
Computational Intelligence Paradigms in Advanced Pattern Classification
Jain, Lakhmi
2012-01-01
This monograph presents selected areas of application of pattern recognition and classification approaches including handwriting recognition, medical image analysis and interpretation, development of cognitive systems for image computer understanding, moving object detection, advanced image filtration and intelligent multi-object labelling and classification. It is directed to the scientists, application engineers, professors, professors and students will find this book useful.
Computational Biology, Advanced Scientific Computing, and Emerging Computational Architectures
None
2007-06-27
This CRADA was established at the start of FY02 with $200 K from IBM and matching funds from DOE to support post-doctoral fellows in collaborative research between International Business Machines and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to explore effective use of emerging petascale computational architectures for the solution of computational biology problems. 'No cost' extensions of the CRADA were negotiated with IBM for FY03 and FY04.
Advances in computers improving the web
Zelkowitz, Marvin
2010-01-01
This is volume 78 of Advances in Computers. This series, which began publication in 1960, is the oldest continuously published anthology that chronicles the ever- changing information technology field. In these volumes we publish from 5 to 7 chapters, three times per year, that cover the latest changes to the design, development, use and implications of computer technology on society today.Covers the full breadth of innovations in hardware, software, theory, design, and applications.Many of the in-depth reviews have become standard references that continue to be of significant, lasting value i
Advanced computational approaches to biomedical engineering
Saha, Punam K; Basu, Subhadip
2014-01-01
There has been rapid growth in biomedical engineering in recent decades, given advancements in medical imaging and physiological modelling and sensing systems, coupled with immense growth in computational and network technology, analytic approaches, visualization and virtual-reality, man-machine interaction and automation. Biomedical engineering involves applying engineering principles to the medical and biological sciences and it comprises several topics including biomedicine, medical imaging, physiological modelling and sensing, instrumentation, real-time systems, automation and control, sig
Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science
Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor); Leiner, Barry M.
2000-01-01
The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) carries out basic research and technology development in computer science, in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's missions. RIACS is located at the NASA Ames Research Center. It currently operates under a multiple year grant/cooperative agreement that began on October 1, 1997 and is up for renewal in the year 2002. Ames has been designated NASA's Center of Excellence in Information Technology. In this capacity, Ames is charged with the responsibility to build an Information Technology Research Program that is preeminent within NASA. RIACS serves as a bridge between NASA Ames and the academic community, and RIACS scientists and visitors work in close collaboration with NASA scientists. RIACS has the additional goal of broadening the base of researchers in these areas of importance to the nation's space and aeronautics enterprises. RIACS research focuses on the three cornerstones of information technology research necessary to meet the future challenges of NASA missions: (1) Automated Reasoning for Autonomous Systems. Techniques are being developed enabling spacecraft that will be self-guiding and self-correcting to the extent that they will require little or no human intervention. Such craft will be equipped to independently solve problems as they arise, and fulfill their missions with minimum direction from Earth; (2) Human-Centered Computing. Many NASA missions require synergy between humans and computers, with sophisticated computational aids amplifying human cognitive and perceptual abilities; (3) High Performance Computing and Networking. Advances in the performance of computing and networking continue to have major impact on a variety of NASA endeavors, ranging from modeling and simulation to data analysis of large datasets to collaborative engineering, planning and execution. In addition, RIACS collaborates with NASA scientists to apply information technology research to a
Frazier, John M.; Mattie, D. R.; Hussain, Saber; Pachter, Ruth; Boatz, Jerry; Hawkins, T. W.
2000-01-01
The development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is essential for reducing the chemical hazards of new weapon systems. The current collaboration between HEST (toxicology research and testing), MLPJ (computational chemistry) and PRS (computational chemistry, new propellant synthesis) is focusing R&D efforts on basic research goals that will rapidly transition to useful products for propellant development. Computational methods are being investigated that will assist in forecasting cellular toxicological end-points. Models developed from these chemical structure-toxicity relationships are useful for the prediction of the toxicological endpoints of new related compounds. Research is focusing on the evaluation tools to be used for the discovery of such relationships and the development of models of the mechanisms of action. Combinations of computational chemistry techniques, in vitro toxicity methods, and statistical correlations, will be employed to develop and explore potential predictive relationships; results for series of molecular systems that demonstrate the viability of this approach are reported. A number of hydrazine salts have been synthesized for evaluation. Computational chemistry methods are being used to elucidate the mechanism of action of these salts. Toxicity endpoints such as viability (LDH) and changes in enzyme activity (glutahoione peroxidase and catalase) are being experimentally measured as indicators of cellular damage. Extrapolation from computational/in vitro studies to human toxicity, is the ultimate goal. The product of this program will be a predictive tool to assist in the development of new, less toxic propellants.
Computational techniques of the simplex method
Maros, István
2003-01-01
Computational Techniques of the Simplex Method is a systematic treatment focused on the computational issues of the simplex method. It provides a comprehensive coverage of the most important and successful algorithmic and implementation techniques of the simplex method. It is a unique source of essential, never discussed details of algorithmic elements and their implementation. On the basis of the book the reader will be able to create a highly advanced implementation of the simplex method which, in turn, can be used directly or as a building block in other solution algorithms.
Aerodynamic optimization studies on advanced architecture computers
Chawla, Kalpana
1995-01-01
The approach to carrying out multi-discipline aerospace design studies in the future, especially in massively parallel computing environments, comprises of choosing (1) suitable solvers to compute solutions to equations characterizing a discipline, and (2) efficient optimization methods. In addition, for aerodynamic optimization problems, (3) smart methodologies must be selected to modify the surface shape. In this research effort, a 'direct' optimization method is implemented on the Cray C-90 to improve aerodynamic design. It is coupled with an existing implicit Navier-Stokes solver, OVERFLOW, to compute flow solutions. The optimization method is chosen such that it can accomodate multi-discipline optimization in future computations. In the work , however, only single discipline aerodynamic optimization will be included.
On computational methods for crashworthiness
Belytschko, T.
1992-01-01
The evolution of computational methods for crashworthiness and related fields is described and linked with the decreasing cost of computational resources and with improvements in computation methodologies. The latter includes more effective time integration procedures and more efficient elements. Some recent developments in methodologies and future trends are also summarized. These include multi-time step integration (or subcycling), further improvements in elements, adaptive meshes, and the exploitation of parallel computers.
Soft computing in design and manufacturing of advanced materials
Cios, Krzysztof J.; Baaklini, George Y; Vary, Alex
1993-01-01
The potential of fuzzy sets and neural networks, often referred to as soft computing, for aiding in all aspects of manufacturing of advanced materials like ceramics is addressed. In design and manufacturing of advanced materials, it is desirable to find which of the many processing variables contribute most to the desired properties of the material. There is also interest in real time quality control of parameters that govern material properties during processing stages. The concepts of fuzzy sets and neural networks are briefly introduced and it is shown how they can be used in the design and manufacturing processes. These two computational methods are alternatives to other methods such as the Taguchi method. The two methods are demonstrated by using data collected at NASA Lewis Research Center. Future research directions are also discussed.
Neutronics computational methods for cores
This engineering-oriented publication contains a detailed presentation of neutronics computational methods for cores. More precisely, it presents neutronics equations: Boltzmann equation for neutron transport, resolution principles, use of high performance computing. The next parts present the problematic (values to be computed, computation software and methods), nuclear data and their processing. Then the authors describe the application of the Monte Carlo method to reactor physics: resolution of the transport equation by the Monte Carlo method, convergence of a Monte Carlo calculation and notion of quality factor, and software. Deterministic methods are then addressed: discretization, processing of resonant absorption, network calculations, core calculation, deterministic software, fuel evolution, and kinetics. The next chapter addresses multi-physical aspects: necessity of a coupling, principles of neutronic/thermal hydraulic coupling, example of an accidental transient. The last part addresses the checking approach, and neutronics computational code validation
International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education
Advanced Information Technology in Education
2012-01-01
The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the 2011 International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education. With the development of computers and advanced technology, the human social activities are changing basically. Education, especially the education reforms in different countries, has been experiencing the great help from the computers and advanced technology. Generally speaking, education is a field which needs more information, while the computers, advanced technology and internet are a good information provider. Also, with the aid of the computer and advanced technology, persons can make the education an effective combination. Therefore, computers and advanced technology should be regarded as an important media in the modern education. Volume Advanced Information Technology in Education is to provide a forum for researchers, educators, engineers, and government officials involved in the general areas of computers and advanced technology in education to d...
Advanced Topology Optimization Methods for Conceptual Architectural Design
Aage, Niels; Amir, Oded; Clausen, Anders;
2015-01-01
This paper presents a series of new, advanced topology optimization methods, developed specifically for conceptual architectural design of structures. The proposed computational procedures are implemented as components in the framework of a Grasshopper plugin, providing novel capacities in...
Computational Methods in Medicine
Angel Garrido
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence requires Logic. But its Classical version shows too many insufficiencies. So, it is absolutely necessary to introduce more sophisticated tools, such as Fuzzy Logic, Modal Logic, Non-Monotonic Logic, and so on [2]. Among the things that AI needs to represent are Categories, Objects, Properties, Relations between objects, Situations, States, Time, Events, Causes and effects, Knowledge about knowledge, and so on. The problems in AI can be classified in two general types
[3, 4], Search Problems and Representation Problem. There exist different ways to reach this objective. So, we have [3] Logics, Rules, Frames, Associative Nets, Scripts and so on, that are often interconnected. Also, it will be very useful, in dealing with problems of uncertainty and causality, to introduce Bayesian Networks and particularly, a principal tool as the Essential Graph. We attempt here to show the scope of application of such versatile methods, currently fundamental in Medicine.
Advanced Bayesian Method for Planetary Surface Navigation
Center, Julian
2015-01-01
Autonomous Exploration, Inc., has developed an advanced Bayesian statistical inference method that leverages current computing technology to produce a highly accurate surface navigation system. The method combines dense stereo vision and high-speed optical flow to implement visual odometry (VO) to track faster rover movements. The Bayesian VO technique improves performance by using all image information rather than corner features only. The method determines what can be learned from each image pixel and weighs the information accordingly. This capability improves performance in shadowed areas that yield only low-contrast images. The error characteristics of the visual processing are complementary to those of a low-cost inertial measurement unit (IMU), so the combination of the two capabilities provides highly accurate navigation. The method increases NASA mission productivity by enabling faster rover speed and accuracy. On Earth, the technology will permit operation of robots and autonomous vehicles in areas where the Global Positioning System (GPS) is degraded or unavailable.
Advanced methods of fatigue assessment
Radaj, Dieter
2013-01-01
The book in hand presents advanced methods of brittle fracture and fatigue assessment. The Neuber concept of fictitious notch rounding is enhanced with regard to theory and application. The stress intensity factor concept for cracks is extended to pointed and rounded corner notches as well as to locally elastic-plastic material behaviour. The averaged strain energy density within a circular sector volume around the notch tip is shown to be suitable for strength-assessments. Finally, the various implications of cyclic plasticity on fatigue crack growth are explained with emphasis being laid on the DJ-integral approach. This book continues the expositions of the authors’ well known reference work in German language ‘Ermüdungsfestigkeit – Grundlagen für Ingenieure’ (Fatigue strength – fundamentals for engineers).
Advanced construction methods in ACR
The ACR - Advanced CANDU Reactor, developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), is designed with constructability considerations as a major requirement during all project phases from the concept design stage to the detail design stage. This necessitated a much more comprehensive approach in including constructability considerations in the design to ensure that the construction duration is met. For the ACR-700, a project schedule of 48 months has been developed for the nth replicated unit with a 36 month construction period duration from First Concrete to Fuel Load. An overall construction strategy that builds on the success of the construction methods that are proven in the construction of the Qinshan CANDU 6 project has been developed for the ACR. The overall construction strategy comprises the 'Open Top' construction technique using a Very Heavy Lift crane, parallel construction activities, with extensive modularization and prefabrication. In addition, significant applications of up to date construction technology will be implemented, e.g. large volume concrete pours, prefabricated rebar, use of climbing forms, composite structures, prefabricated permanent formwork, automatic welding, and utilization of the latest electronic technology tools such as 3D CADDs modelling yields a very high quality, clash free product to allow construction to be completed 'right the first time' and eliminates rework. Integration of 3D CADDs models and scheduling tools such as Primavera has allowed development of actual construction sequences and an iterative approach to schedule verification and improvement. Modularization and prefabrication are major features of the ACR design in order to achieve the project schedule. For the reactor building approximately 80% of the volume will be installed as modules or prefabricated assembles. This ensures critical path activities are achieved. This paper examines the advanced construction methods implemented in the design in order to
Computational Methods in Plasma Physics
Jardin, Stephen
2010-01-01
Assuming no prior knowledge of plasma physics or numerical methods, Computational Methods in Plasma Physics covers the computational mathematics and techniques needed to simulate magnetically confined plasmas in modern magnetic fusion experiments and future magnetic fusion reactors. Largely self-contained, the text presents the basic concepts necessary for the numerical solution of partial differential equations. Along with discussing numerical stability and accuracy, the author explores many of the algorithms used today in enough depth so that readers can analyze their stability, efficiency,
Computational Methods in Drug Discovery
Sliwoski, Gregory; Kothiwale, Sandeepkumar; Meiler, Jens; Edward W. Lowe
2014-01-01
Computer-aided drug discovery/design methods have played a major role in the development of therapeutically important small molecules for over three decades. These methods are broadly classified as either structure-based or ligand-based methods. Structure-based methods are in principle analogous to high-throughput screening in that both target and ligand structure information is imperative. Structure-based approaches include ligand docking, pharmacophore, and ligand design methods. The articl...
Transport modeling and advanced computer techniques
A workshop was held at the University of Texas in June 1988 to consider the current state of transport codes and whether improved user interfaces would make the codes more usable and accessible to the fusion community. Also considered was the possibility that a software standard could be devised to ease the exchange of routines between groups. It was noted that two of the major obstacles to exchanging routines now are the variety of geometrical representation and choices of units. While the workshop formulated no standards, it was generally agreed that good software engineering would aid in the exchange of routines, and that a continued exchange of ideas between groups would be worthwhile. It seems that before we begin to discuss software standards we should review the current state of computer technology --- both hardware and software to see what influence recent advances might have on our software goals. This is done in this paper
Advanced Scientific Computing Research Network Requirements
Bacon, Charles; Bell, Greg; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Dattoria, Vince; Goodwin, Dave; Lee, Jason; Hicks, Susan; Holohan, Ed; Klasky, Scott; Lauzon, Carolyn; Rogers, Jim; Shipman, Galen; Skinner, David; Tierney, Brian
2013-03-08
The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In October 2012, ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the ASCR program office. The requirements identified at the review are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.
Advanced proton imaging in computed tomography
Mattiazzo, S; Giubilato, P; Pantano, D; Pozzobon, N; Snoeys, W; Wyss, J
2015-01-01
In recent years the use of hadrons for cancer radiation treatment has grown in importance, and many facilities are currently operational or under construction worldwide. To fully exploit the therapeutic advantages offered by hadron therapy, precise body imaging for accurate beam delivery is decisive. Proton computed tomography (pCT) scanners, currently in their R&D phase, provide the ultimate 3D imaging for hadrons treatment guidance. A key component of a pCT scanner is the detector used to track the protons, which has great impact on the scanner performances and ultimately limits its maximum speed. In this article, a novel proton-tracking detector was presented that would have higher scanning speed, better spatial resolution and lower material budget with respect to present state-of-the-art detectors, leading to enhanced performances. This advancement in performances is achieved by employing the very latest development in monolithic active pixel detectors (to build high granularity, low material budget, ...
Advances in Computer-Based Autoantibodies Analysis
Soda, Paolo; Iannello, Giulio
Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) imaging is the recommended me-thod to detect autoantibodies in patient serum, whose common markers are antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) and autoantibodies directed against double strand DNA (anti-dsDNA). Since the availability of accurately performed and correctly reported laboratory determinations is crucial for the clinicians, an evident medical demand is the development of Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) tools supporting physicians' decisions.
OPENING REMARKS: Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing
Strayer, Michael
2006-01-01
Good morning. Welcome to SciDAC 2006 and Denver. I share greetings from the new Undersecretary for Energy, Ray Orbach. Five years ago SciDAC was launched as an experiment in computational science. The goal was to form partnerships among science applications, computer scientists, and applied mathematicians to take advantage of the potential of emerging terascale computers. This experiment has been a resounding success. SciDAC has emerged as a powerful concept for addressing some of the biggest challenges facing our world. As significant as these successes were, I believe there is also significance in the teams that achieved them. In addition to their scientific aims these teams have advanced the overall field of computational science and set the stage for even larger accomplishments as we look ahead to SciDAC-2. I am sure that many of you are expecting to hear about the results of our current solicitation for SciDAC-2. I’m afraid we are not quite ready to make that announcement. Decisions are still being made and we will announce the results later this summer. Nearly 250 unique proposals were received and evaluated, involving literally thousands of researchers, postdocs, and students. These collectively requested more than five times our expected budget. This response is a testament to the success of SciDAC in the community. In SciDAC-2 our budget has been increased to about 70 million for FY 2007 and our partnerships have expanded to include the Environment and National Security missions of the Department. The National Science Foundation has also joined as a partner. These new partnerships are expected to expand the application space of SciDAC, and broaden the impact and visibility of the program. We have, with our recent solicitation, expanded to turbulence, computational biology, and groundwater reactive modeling and simulation. We are currently talking with the Department’s applied energy programs about risk assessment, optimization of complex systems - such
The Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) is being developed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) to provide an advanced ''best estimate'' predictive capability for the analysis of postulated accidents in light water reactors (LWRs). TRAC-Pl provides this analysis capability for pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and for a wide variety of thermal-hydraulic experimental facilities. It features a three-dimensional treatment of the pressure vessel and associated internals; two-phase nonequilibrium hydrodynamics models; flow-regime-dependent constitutive equation treatment; reflood tracking capability for both bottom flood and falling film quench fronts; and consistent treatment of entire accident sequences including the generation of consistent initial conditions. The TRAC-Pl User's Manual is composed of two separate volumes. Volume I gives a description of the thermal-hydraulic models and numerical solution methods used in the code. Detailed programming and user information is also provided. Volume II presents the results of the developmental verification calculations
Making Advanced Computer Science Topics More Accessible through Interactive Technologies
Shao, Kun; Maher, Peter
2012-01-01
Purpose: Teaching advanced technical concepts in a computer science program to students of different technical backgrounds presents many challenges. The purpose of this paper is to present a detailed experimental pedagogy in teaching advanced computer science topics, such as computer networking, telecommunications and data structures using…
Computational Methods For Composite Structures
Chamis, Christos C.
1988-01-01
Selected methods of computation for simulation of mechanical behavior of fiber/matrix composite materials described in report. For each method, report describes significance of behavior to be simulated, procedure for simulation, and representative results. Following applications discussed: effects of progressive degradation of interply layers on responses of composite structures, dynamic responses of notched and unnotched specimens, interlaminar fracture toughness, progressive fracture, thermal distortions of sandwich composite structure, and metal-matrix composite structures for use at high temperatures. Methods demonstrate effectiveness of computational simulation as applied to complex composite structures in general and aerospace-propulsion structural components in particular.
Computational Methods for Simulating Quantum Computers
Raedt, H. De; Michielsen, K.
2006-01-01
This review gives a survey of numerical algorithms and software to simulate quantum computers. It covers the basic concepts of quantum computation and quantum algorithms and includes a few examples that illustrate the use of simulation software for ideal and physical models of quantum computers.
Computational and instrumental methods in EPR
Bender, Christopher J
2006-01-01
Computational and Instrumental Methods in EPR Prof. Bender, Fordham University Prof. Lawrence J. Berliner, University of Denver Electron magnetic resonance has been greatly facilitated by the introduction of advances in instrumentation and better computational tools, such as the increasingly widespread use of the density matrix formalism. This volume is devoted to both instrumentation and computation aspects of EPR, while addressing applications such as spin relaxation time measurements, the measurement of hyperfine interaction parameters, and the recovery of Mn(II) spin Hamiltonian parameters via spectral simulation. Key features: Microwave Amplitude Modulation Technique to Measure Spin-Lattice (T1) and Spin-Spin (T2) Relaxation Times Improvement in the Measurement of Spin-Lattice Relaxation Time in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Quantitative Measurement of Magnetic Hyperfine Parameters and the Physical Organic Chemistry of Supramolecular Systems New Methods of Simulation of Mn(II) EPR Spectra: Single Cryst...
Activities of the Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science
Oliger, Joseph
1994-01-01
The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) was established by the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) on June 6, 1983. RIACS is privately operated by USRA, a consortium of universities with research programs in the aerospace sciences, under contract with NASA. The primary mission of RIACS is to provide research and expertise in computer science and scientific computing to support the scientific missions of NASA ARC. The research carried out at RIACS must change its emphasis from year to year in response to NASA ARC's changing needs and technological opportunities. Research at RIACS is currently being done in the following areas: (1) parallel computing; (2) advanced methods for scientific computing; (3) high performance networks; and (4) learning systems. RIACS technical reports are usually preprints of manuscripts that have been submitted to research journals or conference proceedings. A list of these reports for the period January 1, 1994 through December 31, 1994 is in the Reports and Abstracts section of this report.
Advanced median method for timing jitter compensation
Wang Chen; Zhu Jiangmiao; Jan Verspecht; Liu Mingliang; Li Yang
2008-01-01
Timing jitter is one of the main factors that influence on the accuracy of time domain precision measurement. Timing jitter compensation is one of the problems people concern. Because of the flaws of median method, PDF deconvolution method and synthetic method, we put forward a new method for timing jitter compensation, which is called advanced median method. The theory of the advanced median method based on probability and statistics is analyzed, and the process of the advanced median method is summarized in this paper. Simulation and experiment show that compared with other methods, the new method could compensate timing jitter effectively.
Computational structural mechanics methods research using an evolving framework
Knight, N. F., Jr.; Lotts, C. G.; Gillian, R. E.
1990-01-01
Advanced structural analysis and computational methods that exploit high-performance computers are being developed in a computational structural mechanics research activity sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center. These new methods are developed in an evolving framework and applied to representative complex structural analysis problems from the aerospace industry. An overview of the methods development environment is presented, and methods research areas are described. Selected application studies are also summarized.
Condition Monitoring Through Advanced Sensor and Computational Technology
The overall goal of this joint research project was to develop and demonstrate advanced sensors and computational technology for continuous monitoring of the condition of components, structures, and systems in advanced and next-generation nuclear power plants (NPPs). This project included investigating and adapting several advanced sensor technologies from Korean and US national laboratory research communities, some of which were developed and applied in non-nuclear industries. The project team investigated and developed sophisticated signal processing, noise reduction, and pattern recognition techniques and algorithms. The researchers installed sensors and conducted condition monitoring tests on two test loops, a check valve (an active component) and a piping elbow (a passive component), to demonstrate the feasibility of using advanced sensors and computational technology to achieve the project goal. Acoustic emission (AE) devices, optical fiber sensors, accelerometers, and ultrasonic transducers (UTs) were used to detect mechanical vibratory response of check valve and piping elbow in normal and degraded configurations. Chemical sensors were also installed to monitor the water chemistry in the piping elbow test loop. Analysis results of processed sensor data indicate that it is feasible to differentiate between the normal and degraded (with selected degradation mechanisms) configurations of these two components from the acquired sensor signals, but it is questionable that these methods can reliably identify the level and type of degradation. Additional research and development efforts are needed to refine the differentiation techniques and to reduce the level of uncertainties
1978-05-01
The Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) is being developed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) to provide an advanced ''best estimate'' predictive capability for the analysis of postulated accidents in light water reactors (LWRs). TRAC-Pl provides this analysis capability for pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and for a wide variety of thermal-hydraulic experimental facilities. It features a three-dimensional treatment of the pressure vessel and associated internals; two-phase nonequilibrium hydrodynamics models; flow-regime-dependent constitutive equation treatment; reflood tracking capability for both bottom flood and falling film quench fronts; and consistent treatment of entire accident sequences including the generation of consistent initial conditions. The TRAC-Pl User's Manual is composed of two separate volumes. Volume I gives a description of the thermal-hydraulic models and numerical solution methods used in the code. Detailed programming and user information is also provided. Volume II presents the results of the developmental verification calculations.
Computational Methods in Stochastic Dynamics Volume 2
Stefanou, George; Papadopoulos, Vissarion
2013-01-01
The considerable influence of inherent uncertainties on structural behavior has led the engineering community to recognize the importance of a stochastic approach to structural problems. Issues related to uncertainty quantification and its influence on the reliability of the computational models are continuously gaining in significance. In particular, the problems of dynamic response analysis and reliability assessment of structures with uncertain system and excitation parameters have been the subject of continuous research over the last two decades as a result of the increasing availability of powerful computing resources and technology. This book is a follow up of a previous book with the same subject (ISBN 978-90-481-9986-0) and focuses on advanced computational methods and software tools which can highly assist in tackling complex problems in stochastic dynamic/seismic analysis and design of structures. The selected chapters are authored by some of the most active scholars in their respective areas and...
Forecasting methods for computer technology
Worlton, W.J.
1978-01-01
How well the computer site manager avoids future dangers and takes advantage of future opportunities depends to a considerable degree on how much anticipatory information he has available. People who rise in management are expected with each successive promotion to concern themselves with events further in the future. It is the function of technology projection to increase this stock of information about possible future developments in order to put planning and decision making on a more rational basis. Past efforts at computer technology projections have an accuracy that declines exponentially with time. Thus, precisely defined technology projections beyond about three years should be used with considerable caution. This paper reviews both subjective and objective methods of technology projection and gives examples of each. For an integrated view of future prospects in computer technology, a framework for technology projection is proposed.
Advanced computational modelling for drying processes – A review
Highlights: • Understanding the product dehydration process is a key aspect in drying technology. • Advanced modelling thereof plays an increasingly important role for developing next-generation drying technology. • Dehydration modelling should be more energy-oriented. • An integrated “nexus” modelling approach is needed to produce more energy-smart products. • Multi-objective process optimisation requires development of more complete multiphysics models. - Abstract: Drying is one of the most complex and energy-consuming chemical unit operations. R and D efforts in drying technology have skyrocketed in the past decades, as new drivers emerged in this industry next to procuring prime product quality and high throughput, namely reduction of energy consumption and carbon footprint as well as improving food safety and security. Solutions are sought in optimising existing technologies or developing new ones which increase energy and resource efficiency, use renewable energy, recuperate waste heat and reduce product loss, thus also the embodied energy therein. Novel tools are required to push such technological innovations and their subsequent implementation. Particularly computer-aided drying process engineering has a large potential to develop next-generation drying technology, including more energy-smart and environmentally-friendly products and dryers systems. This review paper deals with rapidly emerging advanced computational methods for modelling dehydration of porous materials, particularly for foods. Drying is approached as a combined multiphysics, multiscale and multiphase problem. These advanced methods include computational fluid dynamics, several multiphysics modelling methods (e.g. conjugate modelling), multiscale modelling and modelling of material properties and the associated propagation of material property variability. Apart from the current challenges for each of these, future perspectives should be directed towards material property
Computer Architecture Performance Evaluation Methods
Eeckhout, Lieven
2010-01-01
Performance evaluation is at the foundation of computer architecture research and development. Contemporary microprocessors are so complex that architects cannot design systems based on intuition and simple models only. Adequate performance evaluation methods are absolutely crucial to steer the research and development process in the right direction. However, rigorous performance evaluation is non-trivial as there are multiple aspects to performanceevaluation, such as picking workloads, selecting an appropriate modeling or simulation approach, running the model and interpreting the results usi
Computational neuroscience for advancing artificial intelligence
Fernando P. Ponce
2011-07-01
Full Text Available resumen del libro de Alonso, E. y Mondragón, E. (2011. Hershey, NY: Medical Information Science Reference. La neurociencia como disciplinapersigue el entendimiento del cerebro y su relación con el funcionamiento de la mente a través del análisis de la comprensión de la interacción de diversos procesos físicos, químicos y biológicos (Bassett & Gazzaniga, 2011. Por otra parte, numerosas disciplinasprogresivamente han realizado significativas contribuciones en esta empresa tales como la matemática, la psicología o la filosofía, entre otras. Producto de este esfuerzo, es que junto con la neurociencia tradicional han aparecido disciplinas complementarias como la neurociencia cognitiva, la neuropsicología o la neurocienciacomputacional (Bengio, 2007; Dayan & Abbott, 2005. En el contexto de la neurociencia computacional como disciplina complementaria a laneurociencia tradicional. Alonso y Mondragón (2011 editan el libroComputacional Neuroscience for Advancing Artificial Intelligence: Models, Methods and Applications.
Computational intelligence for big data analysis frontier advances and applications
Dehuri, Satchidananda; Sanyal, Sugata
2015-01-01
The work presented in this book is a combination of theoretical advancements of big data analysis, cloud computing, and their potential applications in scientific computing. The theoretical advancements are supported with illustrative examples and its applications in handling real life problems. The applications are mostly undertaken from real life situations. The book discusses major issues pertaining to big data analysis using computational intelligence techniques and some issues of cloud computing. An elaborate bibliography is provided at the end of each chapter. The material in this book includes concepts, figures, graphs, and tables to guide researchers in the area of big data analysis and cloud computing.
Advanced Technologies, Embedded and Multimedia for Human-Centric Computing
Chao, Han-Chieh; Deng, Der-Jiunn; Park, James; HumanCom and EMC 2013
2014-01-01
The theme of HumanCom and EMC are focused on the various aspects of human-centric computing for advances in computer science and its applications, embedded and multimedia computing and provides an opportunity for academic and industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in the area of human-centric computing. And the theme of EMC (Advanced in Embedded and Multimedia Computing) is focused on the various aspects of embedded system, smart grid, cloud and multimedia computing, and it provides an opportunity for academic, industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in the area of embedded and multimedia computing. Therefore this book will be include the various theories and practical applications in human-centric computing and embedded and multimedia computing.
Computational methods for molecular imaging
Shi, Kuangyu; Li, Shuo
2015-01-01
This volume contains original submissions on the development and application of molecular imaging computing. The editors invited authors to submit high-quality contributions on a wide range of topics including, but not limited to: • Image Synthesis & Reconstruction of Emission Tomography (PET, SPECT) and other Molecular Imaging Modalities • Molecular Imaging Enhancement • Data Analysis of Clinical & Pre-clinical Molecular Imaging • Multi-Modal Image Processing (PET/CT, PET/MR, SPECT/CT, etc.) • Machine Learning and Data Mining in Molecular Imaging. Molecular imaging is an evolving clinical and research discipline enabling the visualization, characterization and quantification of biological processes taking place at the cellular and subcellular levels within intact living subjects. Computational methods play an important role in the development of molecular imaging, from image synthesis to data analysis and from clinical diagnosis to therapy individualization. This work will bring readers fro...
Computational methods for industrial radiation measurement applications
Computational methods have been used with considerable success to complement radiation measurements in solving a wide range of industrial problems. The almost exponential growth of computer capability and applications in the last few years leads to a open-quotes black boxclose quotes mentality for radiation measurement applications. If a black box is defined as any radiation measurement device that is capable of measuring the parameters of interest when a wide range of operating and sample conditions may occur, then the development of computational methods for industrial radiation measurement applications should now be focused on the black box approach and the deduction of properties of interest from the response with acceptable accuracy and reasonable efficiency. Nowadays, increasingly better understanding of radiation physical processes, more accurate and complete fundamental physical data, and more advanced modeling and software/hardware techniques have made it possible to make giant strides in that direction with new ideas implemented with computer software. The Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR) at North Carolina State University has been working on a variety of projects in the area of radiation analyzers and gauges for accomplishing this for quite some time, and they are discussed here with emphasis on current accomplishments
Second International Conference on Advanced Computing, Networking and Informatics
Mohapatra, Durga; Konar, Amit; Chakraborty, Aruna
2014-01-01
Advanced Computing, Networking and Informatics are three distinct and mutually exclusive disciplines of knowledge with no apparent sharing/overlap among them. However, their convergence is observed in many real world applications, including cyber-security, internet banking, healthcare, sensor networks, cognitive radio, pervasive computing amidst many others. This two-volume proceedings explore the combined use of Advanced Computing and Informatics in the next generation wireless networks and security, signal and image processing, ontology and human-computer interfaces (HCI). The two volumes together include 148 scholarly papers, which have been accepted for presentation from over 640 submissions in the second International Conference on Advanced Computing, Networking and Informatics, 2014, held in Kolkata, India during June 24-26, 2014. The first volume includes innovative computing techniques and relevant research results in informatics with selective applications in pattern recognition, signal/image process...
Advances in Future Computer and Control Systems v.2
Lin, Sally; 2012 International Conference on Future Computer and Control Systems(FCCS2012)
2012-01-01
FCCS2012 is an integrated conference concentrating its focus on Future Computer and Control Systems. “Advances in Future Computer and Control Systems” presents the proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Future Computer and Control Systems(FCCS2012) held April 21-22,2012, in Changsha, China including recent research results on Future Computer and Control Systems of researchers from all around the world.
Advances in Future Computer and Control Systems v.1
Lin, Sally; 2012 International Conference on Future Computer and Control Systems(FCCS2012)
2012-01-01
FCCS2012 is an integrated conference concentrating its focus on Future Computer and Control Systems. “Advances in Future Computer and Control Systems” presents the proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Future Computer and Control Systems(FCCS2012) held April 21-22,2012, in Changsha, China including recent research results on Future Computer and Control Systems of researchers from all around the world.
Advanced reliability methods - A review
Forsyth, David S.
2016-02-01
There are a number of challenges to the current practices for Probability of Detection (POD) assessment. Some Nondestructive Testing (NDT) methods, especially those that are image-based, may not provide a simple relationship between a scalar NDT response and a damage size. Some damage types are not easily characterized by a single scalar metric. Other sensing paradigms, such as structural health monitoring, could theoretically replace NDT but require a POD estimate. And the cost of performing large empirical studies to estimate POD can be prohibitive. The response of the research community has been to develop new methods that can be used to generate the same information, POD, in a form that can be used by engineering designers. This paper will highlight approaches to image-based data and complex defects, Model Assisted POD estimation, and Bayesian methods for combining information. This paper will also review the relationship of the POD estimate, confidence bounds, tolerance bounds, and risk assessment.
Computing Algorithms for Nuffield Advanced Physics.
Summers, M. K.
1978-01-01
Defines all recurrence relations used in the Nuffield course, to solve first- and second-order differential equations, and describes a typical algorithm for computer generation of solutions. (Author/GA)
Power-efficient computer architectures recent advances
Själander, Magnus; Kaxiras, Stefanos
2014-01-01
As Moore's Law and Dennard scaling trends have slowed, the challenges of building high-performance computer architectures while maintaining acceptable power efficiency levels have heightened. Over the past ten years, architecture techniques for power efficiency have shifted from primarily focusing on module-level efficiencies, toward more holistic design styles based on parallelism and heterogeneity. This work highlights and synthesizes recent techniques and trends in power-efficient computer architecture.Table of Contents: Introduction / Voltage and Frequency Management / Heterogeneity and Sp
Advanced Metamorphic Techniques in Computer Viruses
Beaucamps, Philippe
2007-01-01
Nowadays viruses use polymorphic techniques to mutate their code on each replication, thus evading detection by antiviruses. However detection by emulation can defeat simple polymorphism: thus metamorphic techniques are used which thoroughly change the viral code, even after decryption. We briefly detail this evolution of virus protection techniques against detection and then study the MetaPHOR virus, today's most advanced metamorphic virus.
Advances in computing, and their impact on scientific computing.
Giles, Mike
2002-01-01
This paper begins by discussing the developments and trends in computer hardware, starting with the basic components (microprocessors, memory, disks, system interconnect, networking and visualization) before looking at complete systems (death of vector supercomputing, slow demise of large shared-memory systems, rapid growth in very large clusters of PCs). It then considers the software side, the relative maturity of shared-memory (OpenMP) and distributed-memory (MPI) programming environments, and new developments in 'grid computing'. Finally, it touches on the increasing importance of software packages in scientific computing, and the increased importance and difficulty of introducing good software engineering practices into very large academic software development projects. PMID:12539947
Method and Tools for Development of Advanced Instructional Systems
Arend, J. van der; Riemersma, J.B.J.
1994-01-01
The application of advanced instructional systems (AISs), like computer-based training systems, intelligent tutoring systems and training simulators, is widely spread within the Royal Netherlands Army. As a consequence there is a growing interest in methods and tools to develop effective and efficie
Preface: Special issue: ten years of advances in computer entertainment
Katayose, Haruhiro; Reidsma, Dennis; Rauterberg, M
2014-01-01
This special issue celebrates the 10th edition of the International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment (ACE) by collecting six selected and revised papers from among this year’s accepted contributions.
Fast computation of the characteristics method on vector computers
Kugo, Teruhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
2001-11-01
Fast computation of the characteristics method to solve the neutron transport equation in a heterogeneous geometry has been studied. Two vector computation algorithms; an odd-even sweep (OES) method and an independent sequential sweep (ISS) method have been developed and their efficiency to a typical fuel assembly calculation has been investigated. For both methods, a vector computation is 15 times faster than a scalar computation. From a viewpoint of comparison between the OES and ISS methods, the followings are found: 1) there is a small difference in a computation speed, 2) the ISS method shows a faster convergence and 3) the ISS method saves about 80% of computer memory size compared with the OES method. It is, therefore, concluded that the ISS method is superior to the OES method as a vectorization method. In the vector computation, a table-look-up method to reduce computation time of an exponential function saves only 20% of a whole computation time. Both the coarse mesh rebalance method and the Aitken acceleration method are effective as acceleration methods for the characteristics method, a combination of them saves 70-80% of outer iterations compared with a free iteration. (author)
Fast computation of the characteristics method on vector computers
Fast computation of the characteristics method to solve the neutron transport equation in a heterogeneous geometry has been studied. Two vector computation algorithms; an odd-even sweep (OES) method and an independent sequential sweep (ISS) method have been developed and their efficiency to a typical fuel assembly calculation has been investigated. For both methods, a vector computation is 15 times faster than a scalar computation. From a viewpoint of comparison between the OES and ISS methods, the followings are found: 1) there is a small difference in a computation speed, 2) the ISS method shows a faster convergence and 3) the ISS method saves about 80% of computer memory size compared with the OES method. It is, therefore, concluded that the ISS method is superior to the OES method as a vectorization method. In the vector computation, a table-look-up method to reduce computation time of an exponential function saves only 20% of a whole computation time. Both the coarse mesh rebalance method and the Aitken acceleration method are effective as acceleration methods for the characteristics method, a combination of them saves 70-80% of outer iterations compared with a free iteration. (author)
3rd International Conference on Advanced Computing, Networking and Informatics
Mohapatra, Durga; Chaki, Nabendu
2016-01-01
Advanced Computing, Networking and Informatics are three distinct and mutually exclusive disciplines of knowledge with no apparent sharing/overlap among them. However, their convergence is observed in many real world applications, including cyber-security, internet banking, healthcare, sensor networks, cognitive radio, pervasive computing amidst many others. This two volume proceedings explore the combined use of Advanced Computing and Informatics in the next generation wireless networks and security, signal and image processing, ontology and human-computer interfaces (HCI). The two volumes together include 132 scholarly articles, which have been accepted for presentation from over 550 submissions in the Third International Conference on Advanced Computing, Networking and Informatics, 2015, held in Bhubaneswar, India during June 23–25, 2015.
Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods
Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman
2007-01-31
The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and
Advances in Computer, Communication, Control and Automation
011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation
2012-01-01
The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the 2011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation (3CA 2011). 2011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation (3CA 2011) has been held in Zhuhai, China, November 19-20, 2011. This volume topics covered include signal and Image processing, speech and audio Processing, video processing and analysis, artificial intelligence, computing and intelligent systems, machine learning, sensor and neural networks, knowledge discovery and data mining, fuzzy mathematics and Applications, knowledge-based systems, hybrid systems modeling and design, risk analysis and management, system modeling and simulation. We hope that researchers, graduate students and other interested readers benefit scientifically from the proceedings and also find it stimulating in the process.
Advanced Computing Tools and Models for Accelerator Physics
Ryne, Robert; Ryne, Robert D.
2008-06-11
This paper is based on a transcript of my EPAC'08 presentation on advanced computing tools for accelerator physics. Following an introduction I present several examples, provide a history of the development of beam dynamics capabilities, and conclude with thoughts on the future of large scale computing in accelerator physics.
Nagamalai, Dhinaharan; Chaki, Nabendu
2013-01-01
The international conference on Advances in Computing and Information technology (ACITY 2012) provides an excellent international forum for both academics and professionals for sharing knowledge and results in theory, methodology and applications of Computer Science and Information Technology. The Second International Conference on Advances in Computing and Information technology (ACITY 2012), held in Chennai, India, during July 13-15, 2012, covered a number of topics in all major fields of Computer Science and Information Technology including: networking and communications, network security and applications, web and internet computing, ubiquitous computing, algorithms, bioinformatics, digital image processing and pattern recognition, artificial intelligence, soft computing and applications. Upon a strength review process, a number of high-quality, presenting not only innovative ideas but also a founded evaluation and a strong argumentation of the same, were selected and collected in the present proceedings, ...
Advances in Computer Science and Education
Huang, Xiong
2012-01-01
CSE2011 is an integrated conference concentration its focus on computer science and education. In the proceeding, you can learn much more knowledge about computer science and education of researchers from all around the world. The main role of the proceeding is to be used as an exchange pillar for researchers who are working in the mentioned fields. In order to meet the high quality of Springer, AISC series, the organization committee has made their efforts to do the following things. Firstly, poor quality paper has been refused after reviewing course by anonymous referee experts. Secondly, periodically review meetings have been held around the reviewers about five times for exchanging reviewing suggestions. Finally, the conference organizers had several preliminary sessions before the conference. Through efforts of different people and departments, the conference will be successful and fruitful
Advances in Neurotechnology for Brain Computer Interfaces
Fazli, Siamac
2011-01-01
Gehirn Computer Schnittstellen haben in den letzten 10 Jahren ein enormes wissenschaftliches Interesse hervorgerufen. Allerdings offenbart diese spannende Technology bei näherer Betrachtung noch einige Hürden, welche bisher die Entwicklung von massentauglichen Anwendungen verhindert haben. Unter Anderem eine lange Vorbereitungszeit eines BCI Systems, die fehlende Steuermöglichkeiten für manche Benutzer, sowie die nicht Stationaritäten innerhalb einer Aufnahme. Diese Dissertation führt eine Re...
Recent Advances in Computer Engineering and Applications
Manoj Jha, Stephen Lagakos Leonid Perlovsky; Covaci, Brindusa; Nikos Mastorakis, Azami Zaharim
2010-01-01
This year the 4th WSEAS International Conference on COMPUTER ENGINEERING and APPLICATIONS (CEA '10) was held at Harvard University, Cambridge, USA, January 27-29, 2010. The conference remains faithful to its original idea of providing a platform to discuss network architecture, network design software, mobile networks and mobile services, digital broadcasting, e-commerce, optical networks, hacking, trojian horses, viruses, worms, spam, information security, standards of information security: ...
Extending the horizons advances in computing, optimization, and decision technologies
Joseph, Anito; Mehrotra, Anuj; Trick, Michael
2007-01-01
Computer Science and Operations Research continue to have a synergistic relationship and this book represents the results of cross-fertilization between OR/MS and CS/AI. It is this interface of OR/CS that makes possible advances that could not have been achieved in isolation. Taken collectively, these articles are indicative of the state-of-the-art in the interface between OR/MS and CS/AI and of the high caliber of research being conducted by members of the INFORMS Computing Society. EXTENDING THE HORIZONS: Advances in Computing, Optimization, and Decision Technologies is a volume that presents the latest, leading research in the design and analysis of algorithms, computational optimization, heuristic search and learning, modeling languages, parallel and distributed computing, simulation, computational logic and visualization. This volume also emphasizes a variety of novel applications in the interface of CS, AI, and OR/MS.
Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Computing
R, Selvarani; Kumar, T
2012-01-01
This is the first International Conference on Advances in Computing (ICAdC-2012). The scope of the conference includes all the areas of Theoretical Computer Science, Systems and Software, and Intelligent Systems. Conference Proceedings is a culmination of research results, papers and the theory related to all the three major areas of computing, i.e., Theoretical Computer Science, Systems and Software, and Intelligent Systems. Helps budding researchers, graduates in the areas of Computer Science, Information science, Electronics, Telecommunication, Instrumentation, Networking to take forward their research work based on the reviewed results in the paper, by mutual interaction through E-mail contacts in the proceedings.
Advances in computational fluid dynamics solvers for modern computing environments
Hertenstein, Daniel; Humphrey, John R.; Paolini, Aaron L.; Kelmelis, Eric J.
2013-05-01
EM Photonics has been investigating the application of massively multicore processors to a key problem area: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). While the capabilities of CFD solvers have continually increased and improved to support features such as moving bodies and adjoint-based mesh adaptation, the software architecture has often lagged behind. This has led to poor scaling as core counts reach the tens of thousands. In the modern High Performance Computing (HPC) world, clusters with hundreds of thousands of cores are becoming the standard. In addition, accelerator devices such as NVIDIA GPUs and Intel Xeon Phi are being installed in many new systems. It is important for CFD solvers to take advantage of the new hardware as the computations involved are well suited for the massively multicore architecture. In our work, we demonstrate that new features in NVIDIA GPUs are able to empower existing CFD solvers by example using AVUS, a CFD solver developed by the Air Force Research Labratory (AFRL) and the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). The effort has resulted in increased performance and scalability without sacrificing accuracy. There are many well-known codes in the CFD space that can benefit from this work, such as FUN3D, OVERFLOW, and TetrUSS. Such codes are widely used in the commercial, government, and defense sectors.
Intelligent Software Tools for Advanced Computing
Baumgart, C.W.
2001-04-03
Feature extraction and evaluation are two procedures common to the development of any pattern recognition application. These features are the primary pieces of information which are used to train the pattern recognition tool, whether that tool is a neural network, a fuzzy logic rulebase, or a genetic algorithm. Careful selection of the features to be used by the pattern recognition tool can significantly streamline the overall development and training of the solution for the pattern recognition application. This report summarizes the development of an integrated, computer-based software package called the Feature Extraction Toolbox (FET), which can be used for the development and deployment of solutions to generic pattern recognition problems. This toolbox integrates a number of software techniques for signal processing, feature extraction and evaluation, and pattern recognition, all under a single, user-friendly development environment. The toolbox has been developed to run on a laptop computer, so that it may be taken to a site and used to develop pattern recognition applications in the field. A prototype version of this toolbox has been completed and is currently being used for applications development on several projects in support of the Department of Energy.
Computational simulation methods for composite fracture mechanics
Murthy, Pappu L. N.
1988-01-01
Structural integrity, durability, and damage tolerance of advanced composites are assessed by studying damage initiation at various scales (micro, macro, and global) and accumulation and growth leading to global failure, quantitatively and qualitatively. In addition, various fracture toughness parameters associated with a typical damage and its growth must be determined. Computational structural analysis codes to aid the composite design engineer in performing these tasks were developed. CODSTRAN (COmposite Durability STRuctural ANalysis) is used to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the progressive damage occurring in composite structures due to mechanical and environmental loads. Next, methods are covered that are currently being developed and used at Lewis to predict interlaminar fracture toughness and related parameters of fiber composites given a prescribed damage. The general purpose finite element code MSC/NASTRAN was used to simulate the interlaminar fracture and the associated individual as well as mixed-mode strain energy release rates in fiber composites.
Advanced finite element method in structural engineering
Long, Yu-Qiu; Long, Zhi-Fei
2009-01-01
This book systematically introduces the research work on the Finite Element Method completed over the past 25 years. Original theoretical achievements and their applications in the fields of structural engineering and computational mechanics are discussed.
Recent advances in boundary element methods
Manolis, GD
2009-01-01
Addresses the needs of the computational mechanics research community in terms of information on boundary integral equation-based methods and techniques applied to a variety of fields. This book collects both original and review articles on contemporary Boundary Element Methods (BEM) as well as on the Mesh Reduction Methods (MRM).
Advances in structure research by diffraction methods
Brill, R
1970-01-01
Advances in Structure Research by Diffraction Methods reviews advances in the use of diffraction methods in structure research. Topics covered include the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction, with emphasis on Ewald waves in theory and experiment; dynamical theory of electron diffraction; small angle scattering; and molecular packing. This book is comprised of four chapters and begins with an overview of the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction, especially in terms of how it explains all the absorption and propagation properties of X-rays at the Bragg setting in a perfect crystal. The next
Advances in chinese computer science, v.3
Xu, Kongshi S
1991-01-01
Contents: The Axiom System ACG and the Proof of Consistency of the Systems QM and ZF# (J W Zhang) Log C: A Language and Environment for AI Programming (Y L Feng) From "What" to "How" (J F Xu et al.) Weak Mutation Method of Software Testing and Relational Test Data (R J Zheng & F Jiang) Can Logic Programming Be Liberated from FOL? Foundations of a High Order Rule Language (Q M Chen) The Experiment on 2-D EAG Method for the Recognitions of Hand-Printed Chinese Characters (M Zhao) A Set of Parallel Algorithms for Calculating FFT Based on Multiple Vector Systems (D F Zhang & L Sheng) Knowledge Rep
Advances in FDTD computational electrodynamics photonics and nanotechnology
Oskooi, Ardavan; Johnson, Steven G
2013-01-01
Advances in photonics and nanotechnology have the potential to revolutionize humanity s ability to communicate and compute. To pursue these advances, it is mandatory to understand and properly model interactions of light with materials such as silicon and gold at the nanoscale, i.e., the span of a few tens of atoms laid side by side. These interactions are governed by the fundamental Maxwell s equations of classical electrodynamics, supplemented by quantum electrodynamics. This book presents the current state-of-the-art in formulating and implementing computational models of these interactions. Maxwell s equations are solved using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique, pioneered by the senior editor, whose prior Artech books in this area are among the top ten most-cited in the history of engineering. You discover the most important advances in all areas of FDTD and PSTD computational modeling of electromagnetic wave interactions. This cutting-edge resource helps you understand the latest develo...
1984-01-01
That there have been remarkable advances in the field of molecular electronic structure during the last decade is clear not only to those working in the field but also to anyone else who has used quantum chemical results to guide their own investiga tions. The progress in calculating the electronic structures of molecules has occurred through the truly ingenious theoretical and methodological developments that have made computationally tractable the underlying physics of electron distributions around a collection of nuclei. At the same time there has been consider able benefit from the great advances in computer technology. The growing sophistication, declining costs and increasing accessibi lity of computers have let theorists apply their methods to prob lems in virtually all areas of molecular science. Consequently, each year witnesses calculations on larger molecules than in the year before and calculations with greater accuracy and more com plete information on molecular properties. We can surel...
Reliability of an Interactive Computer Program for Advance Care Planning
Schubart, Jane R.; Levi, Benjamin H.; Camacho, Fabian; Whitehead, Megan; Farace, Elana; Green, Michael J.
2012-01-01
Despite widespread efforts to promote advance directives (ADs), completion rates remain low. Making Your Wishes Known: Planning Your Medical Future (MYWK) is an interactive computer program that guides individuals through the process of advance care planning, explaining health conditions and interventions that commonly involve life or death decisions, helps them articulate their values/goals, and translates users' preferences into a detailed AD document. The purpose of this study was to demon...
Ercan, Mehmet Bulent
-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II). This tool was demonstrated through an application for the Upper Neuse Watershed in North Carolina, USA. The objective functions used for the calibration were Nash-Sutcliffe (E) and Percent Bias (PB), and the objective sites were the Flat, Little, and Eno watershed outlets. The results show that the use of multi-objective calibration algorithms for SWAT calibration improved model performance especially in terms of minimizing PB compared to the single objective model calibration. The third study builds upon the first two studies by leveraging the new calibration methods and tools to study future climate impacts on the Upper Neuse watershed. Statistically downscaled outputs from eight Global Circulation Models (GCMs) were used for both low and high emission scenarios to drive a well calibrated SWAT model of the Upper Neuse watershed. The objective of the study was to understand the potential hydrologic response of the watershed, which serves as a public water supply for the growing Research Triangle Park region of North Carolina, under projected climate change scenarios. The future climate change scenarios, in general, indicate an increase in precipitation and temperature for the watershed in coming decades. The SWAT simulations using the future climate scenarios, in general, suggest an increase in soil water and water yield, and a decrease in evapotranspiration within the Upper Neuse watershed. In summary, this dissertation advances the field of watershed-scale hydrologic modeling by (i) providing some of the first work to apply cloud computing for the computationally-demanding task of model calibration; (ii) providing a new, open source library that can be used by SWAT modelers to perform multi-objective calibration of their models; and (iii) advancing understanding of climate change impacts on water resources for an important watershed in the Research Triangle Park region of North Carolina. The third study leveraged the
Advanced analysis methods in particle physics
Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; /Fermilab
2010-10-01
Each generation of high energy physics experiments is grander in scale than the previous - more powerful, more complex and more demanding in terms of data handling and analysis. The spectacular performance of the Tevatron and the beginning of operations of the Large Hadron Collider, have placed us at the threshold of a new era in particle physics. The discovery of the Higgs boson or another agent of electroweak symmetry breaking and evidence of new physics may be just around the corner. The greatest challenge in these pursuits is to extract the extremely rare signals, if any, from huge backgrounds arising from known physics processes. The use of advanced analysis techniques is crucial in achieving this goal. In this review, I discuss the concepts of optimal analysis, some important advanced analysis methods and a few examples. The judicious use of these advanced methods should enable new discoveries and produce results with better precision, robustness and clarity.
9th International Conference on Advanced Computing & Communication Technologies
Mandal, Jyotsna; Auluck, Nitin; Nagarajaram, H
2016-01-01
This book highlights a collection of high-quality peer-reviewed research papers presented at the Ninth International Conference on Advanced Computing & Communication Technologies (ICACCT-2015) held at Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology, Panipat, India during 27–29 November 2015. The book discusses a wide variety of industrial, engineering and scientific applications of the emerging techniques. Researchers from academia and industry present their original work and exchange ideas, information, techniques and applications in the field of Advanced Computing and Communication Technology.
Computational methods for probability of instability calculations
Wu, Y.-T.; Burnside, O. H.
1990-01-01
This paper summarizes the development of the methods and a computer program to compute the probability of instability of a dynamic system than can be represented by a system of second-order ordinary linear differential equations. Two instability criteria based upon the roots of the characteristics equation or Routh-Hurwitz test functions are investigated. Computational methods based on system reliability analysis methods and importance sampling concepts are proposed to perform efficient probabilistic analysis. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the methods.
Mathematics for natural scientists II advanced methods
Kantorovich, Lev
2016-01-01
This book covers the advanced mathematical techniques useful for physics and engineering students, presented in a form accessible to physics students, avoiding precise mathematical jargon and laborious proofs. Instead, all proofs are given in a simplified form that is clear and convincing for a physicist. Examples, where appropriate, are given from physics contexts. Both solved and unsolved problems are provided in each chapter. Mathematics for Natural Scientists II: Advanced Methods is the second of two volumes. It follows the first volume on Fundamentals and Basics.
Advanced Topology Optimization Methods for Conceptual Architectural Design
Aage, Niels; Amir, Oded; Clausen, Anders;
2014-01-01
This paper presents a series of new, advanced topology optimization methods, developed specifically for conceptual architectural design of structures. The proposed computational procedures are implemented as components in the framework of a Grasshopper plugin, providing novel capacities in...... frames are implemented. The developed procedures allow for the exploration of new territories in optimization of architectural structures, and offer new methodological strategies for bridging conceptual gaps between optimization and architectural practice....
Advanced methods in teaching reactor physics
Modern computer codes allow detailed neutron transport calculations. In combination with advanced 3D visualization software capable of treating large amounts of data in real time they form a powerful tool that can be used as a convenient modern educational tool for (nuclear power plant) operators, nuclear engineers, students and specialists involved in reactor operation and design. Visualization is applicable not only in education and training, but also as a tool for fuel management, core analysis and irradiation planning. The paper treats the visualization of neutron transport in different moderators, neutron flux and power distributions in two nuclear reactors (TRIGA type research reactor and typical PWR). The distributions are calculated with MCNP and CORD-2 computer codes and presented using Amira software.
Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: Technological Advances
Zou, Bin; Xing, Minjie; Wang, Yuping; Sun, Mingyu; Xiang, Catherine H.
2013-01-01
Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: Technological Advances highlights new research and an original framework that brings together foreign language teaching, experiments and testing practices that utilize the most recent and widely used e-learning resources. This comprehensive collection of research will offer linguistic…
Innovations and Advances in Computer, Information, Systems Sciences, and Engineering
Sobh, Tarek
2013-01-01
Innovations and Advances in Computer, Information, Systems Sciences, and Engineering includes the proceedings of the International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering (CISSE 2011). The contents of this book are a set of rigorously reviewed, world-class manuscripts addressing and detailing state-of-the-art research projects in the areas of Industrial Electronics, Technology and Automation, Telecommunications and Networking, Systems, Computing Sciences and Software Engineering, Engineering Education, Instructional Technology, Assessment, and E-learning.
Advances in computers dependable and secure systems engineering
Hurson, Ali
2012-01-01
Since its first volume in 1960, Advances in Computers has presented detailed coverage of innovations in computer hardware, software, theory, design, and applications. It has also provided contributors with a medium in which they can explore their subjects in greater depth and breadth than journal articles usually allow. As a result, many articles have become standard references that continue to be of sugnificant, lasting value in this rapidly expanding field. In-depth surveys and tutorials on new computer technologyWell-known authors and researchers in the fieldExtensive bibliographies with m
Advanced computational tools for 3-D seismic analysis
Barhen, J.; Glover, C.W.; Protopopescu, V.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others
1996-06-01
The global objective of this effort is to develop advanced computational tools for 3-D seismic analysis, and test the products using a model dataset developed under the joint aegis of the United States` Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) and the European Association of Exploration Geophysicists (EAEG). The goal is to enhance the value to the oil industry of the SEG/EAEG modeling project, carried out with US Department of Energy (DOE) funding in FY` 93-95. The primary objective of the ORNL Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) is to spearhead the computational innovations techniques that would enable a revolutionary advance in 3-D seismic analysis. The CESAR effort is carried out in collaboration with world-class domain experts from leading universities, and in close coordination with other national laboratories and oil industry partners.
[Activities of Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science
Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor); Leiner, Barry M.
2001-01-01
The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) carries out basic research and technology development in computer science, in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations missions. RIACS is located at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. RIACS research focuses on the three cornerstones of IT research necessary to meet the future challenges of NASA missions: 1. Automated Reasoning for Autonomous Systems Techniques are being developed enabling spacecraft that will be self-guiding and self-correcting to the extent that they will require little or no human intervention. Such craft will be equipped to independently solve problems as they arise, and fulfill their missions with minimum direction from Earth. 2. Human-Centered Computing Many NASA missions require synergy between humans and computers, with sophisticated computational aids amplifying human cognitive and perceptual abilities. 3. High Performance Computing and Networking Advances in the performance of computing and networking continue to have major impact on a variety of NASA endeavors, ranging from modeling and simulation to analysis of large scientific datasets to collaborative engineering, planning and execution. In addition, RIACS collaborates with NASA scientists to apply IT research to a variety of NASA application domains. RIACS also engages in other activities, such as workshops, seminars, visiting scientist programs and student summer programs, designed to encourage and facilitate collaboration between the university and NASA IT research communities.
2014 National Workshop on Advances in Communication and Computing
Prasanna, S; Sarma, Kandarpa; Saikia, Navajit
2015-01-01
The present volume is a compilation of research work in computation, communication, vision sciences, device design, fabrication, upcoming materials and related process design, etc. It is derived out of selected manuscripts submitted to the 2014 National Workshop on Advances in Communication and Computing (WACC 2014), Assam Engineering College, Guwahati, Assam, India which is emerging out to be a premier platform for discussion and dissemination of knowhow in this part of the world. The papers included in the volume are indicative of the recent thrust in computation, communications and emerging technologies. Certain recent advances in ZnO nanostructures for alternate energy generation provide emerging insights into an area that has promises for the energy sector including conservation and green technology. Similarly, scholarly contributions have focused on malware detection and related issues. Several contributions have focused on biomedical aspects including contributions related to cancer detection using act...
Foreword: Advanced Science Letters (ASL), Special Issue on Computational Astrophysics
,
2009-01-01
Computational astrophysics has undergone unprecedented development over the last decade, becoming a field of its own. The challenge ahead of us will involve increasingly complex multi-scale simulations. These will bridge the gap between areas of astrophysics such as star and planet formation, or star formation and galaxy formation, that have evolved separately until today. A global knowledge of the physics and modeling techniques of astrophysical simulations is thus an important asset for the next generation of modelers. With the aim at fostering such a global approach, we present the Special Issue on Computational Astrophysics for the Advanced Science Letters (http://www.aspbs.com/science.htm). The Advanced Science Letters (ASL) is a new multi-disciplinary scientific journal which will cover extensively computational astrophysics and cosmology, and will act as a forum for the presentation and discussion of novel work attempting to connect different research areas. This Special Issue collects 9 reviews on 9 k...
Computational methods for unsteady transonic flows
Edwards, John W.; Thomas, J. L.
1987-01-01
Computational methods for unsteady transonic flows are surveyed with emphasis on prediction. Computational difficulty is discussed with respect to type of unsteady flow; attached, mixed (attached/separated) and separated. Significant early computations of shock motions, aileron buzz and periodic oscillations are discussed. The maturation of computational methods towards the capability of treating complete vehicles with reasonable computational resources is noted and a survey of recent comparisons with experimental results is compiled. The importance of mixed attached and separated flow modeling for aeroelastic analysis is discussed, and recent calculations of periodic aerodynamic oscillations for an 18 percent thick circular arc airfoil are given.
An advanced probabilistic structural analysis method for implicit performance functions
Wu, Y.-T.; Millwater, H. R.; Cruse, T. A.
1989-01-01
In probabilistic structural analysis, the performance or response functions usually are implicitly defined and must be solved by numerical analysis methods such as finite element methods. In such cases, the most commonly used probabilistic analysis tool is the mean-based, second-moment method which provides only the first two statistical moments. This paper presents a generalized advanced mean value (AMV) method which is capable of establishing the distributions to provide additional information for reliability design. The method requires slightly more computations than the second-moment method but is highly efficient relative to the other alternative methods. In particular, the examples show that the AMV method can be used to solve problems involving non-monotonic functions that result in truncated distributions.
Advanced computer graphics techniques as applied to the nuclear industry
Computer graphics is a rapidly advancing technological area in computer science. This is being motivated by increased hardware capability coupled with reduced hardware costs. This paper will cover six topics in computer graphics, with examples forecasting how each of these capabilities could be used in the nuclear industry. These topics are: (1) Image Realism with Surfaces and Transparency; (2) Computer Graphics Motion; (3) Graphics Resolution Issues and Examples; (4) Iconic Interaction; (5) Graphic Workstations; and (6) Data Fusion - illustrating data coming from numerous sources, for display through high dimensional, greater than 3-D, graphics. All topics will be discussed using extensive examples with slides, video tapes, and movies. Illustrations have been omitted from the paper due to the complexity of color reproduction. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs
Computer code qualification program for the Advanced CANDU Reactor
Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL) has developed and implemented a Software Quality Assurance program (SQA) to ensure that its analytical, scientific and design computer codes meet the required standards for software used in safety analyses. This paper provides an overview of the computer programs used in Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) safety analysis, and assessment of their applicability in the safety analyses of the ACR design. An outline of the incremental validation program, and an overview of the experimental program in support of the code validation are also presented. An outline of the SQA program used to qualify these computer codes is also briefly presented. To provide context to the differences in the SQA with respect to current CANDUs, the paper also provides an overview of the ACR design features that have an impact on the computer code qualification. (author)
Advanced Simulation and Computing FY17 Implementation Plan, Version 0
McCoy, Michel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Archer, Bill [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hendrickson, Bruce [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wade, Doug [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Advanced Simulation and Computing and Institutional Research and Development; Hoang, Thuc [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States). Computational Systems and Software Environment
2016-08-29
The Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) is an integrated technical program for maintaining the safety, surety, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile. The SSP uses nuclear test data, computational modeling and simulation, and experimental facilities to advance understanding of nuclear weapons. It includes stockpile surveillance, experimental research, development and engineering programs, and an appropriately scaled production capability to support stockpile requirements. This integrated national program requires the continued use of experimental facilities and programs, and the computational capabilities to support these programs. The Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASC) is a cornerstone of the SSP, providing simulation capabilities and computational resources that support annual stockpile assessment and certification, study advanced nuclear weapons design and manufacturing processes, analyze accident scenarios and weapons aging, and provide the tools to enable stockpile Life Extension Programs (LEPs) and the resolution of Significant Finding Investigations (SFIs). This requires a balance of resource, including technical staff, hardware, simulation software, and computer science solutions. ASC is now focused on increasing predictive capabilities in a three-dimensional (3D) simulation environment while maintaining support to the SSP. The program continues to improve its unique tools for solving progressively more difficult stockpile problems (sufficient resolution, dimensionality, and scientific details), and quantifying critical margins and uncertainties. Resolving each issue requires increasingly difficult analyses because the aging process has progressively moved the stockpile further away from the original test base. Where possible, the program also enables the use of high performance computing (HPC) and simulation tools to address broader national security needs, such as foreign nuclear weapon assessments and counter nuclear terrorism.
Advanced computer architecture specification for automated weld systems
Katsinis, Constantine
1994-01-01
This report describes the requirements for an advanced automated weld system and the associated computer architecture, and defines the overall system specification from a broad perspective. According to the requirements of welding procedures as they relate to an integrated multiaxis motion control and sensor architecture, the computer system requirements are developed based on a proven multiple-processor architecture with an expandable, distributed-memory, single global bus architecture, containing individual processors which are assigned to specific tasks that support sensor or control processes. The specified architecture is sufficiently flexible to integrate previously developed equipment, be upgradable and allow on-site modifications.
Computational methods for data evaluation and assimilation
Cacuci, Dan Gabriel
2013-01-01
Data evaluation and data combination require the use of a wide range of probability theory concepts and tools, from deductive statistics mainly concerning frequencies and sample tallies to inductive inference for assimilating non-frequency data and a priori knowledge. Computational Methods for Data Evaluation and Assimilation presents interdisciplinary methods for integrating experimental and computational information. This self-contained book shows how the methods can be applied in many scientific and engineering areas. After presenting the fundamentals underlying the evaluation of experiment
Computational methods in power system analysis
Idema, Reijer
2014-01-01
This book treats state-of-the-art computational methods for power flow studies and contingency analysis. In the first part the authors present the relevant computational methods and mathematical concepts. In the second part, power flow and contingency analysis are treated. Furthermore, traditional methods to solve such problems are compared to modern solvers, developed using the knowledge of the first part of the book. Finally, these solvers are analyzed both theoretically and experimentally, clearly showing the benefits of the modern approach.
Using Parallel Computing Methods in Business Processes
Machek, Ondrej; Hejda, Jan
2012-01-01
In computer science, engineers deal with the issue how to accelerate the execution of extensive tasks with parallel computing algorithms, which are executed on large network of cooperating processors.The business world forms large networks of business units, too, and in business management, managers often face similar problems. The aim of this paper is to consider the possibilities of using parallel computing methods in business networks. In the first part, weintroduce the issue and make some...
The advanced computational testing and simulation toolkit (ACTS)
Drummond, L.A.; Marques, O.
2002-05-21
During the past decades there has been a continuous growth in the number of physical and societal problems that have been successfully studied and solved by means of computational modeling and simulation. Distinctively, a number of these are important scientific problems ranging in scale from the atomic to the cosmic. For example, ionization is a phenomenon as ubiquitous in modern society as the glow of fluorescent lights and the etching on silicon computer chips; but it was not until 1999 that researchers finally achieved a complete numerical solution to the simplest example of ionization, the collision of a hydrogen atom with an electron. On the opposite scale, cosmologists have long wondered whether the expansion of the Universe, which began with the Big Bang, would ever reverse itself, ending the Universe in a Big Crunch. In 2000, analysis of new measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation showed that the geometry of the Universe is flat, and thus the Universe will continue expanding forever. Both of these discoveries depended on high performance computer simulations that utilized computational tools included in the Advanced Computational Testing and Simulation (ACTS) Toolkit. The ACTS Toolkit is an umbrella project that brought together a number of general purpose computational tool development projects funded and supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These tools, which have been developed independently, mainly at DOE laboratories, make it easier for scientific code developers to write high performance applications for parallel computers. They tackle a number of computational issues that are common to a large number of scientific applications, mainly implementation of numerical algorithms, and support for code development, execution and optimization. The ACTS Toolkit Project enables the use of these tools by a much wider community of computational scientists, and promotes code portability, reusability, reduction of duplicate efforts
The advanced computational testing and simulation toolkit (ACTS)
During the past decades there has been a continuous growth in the number of physical and societal problems that have been successfully studied and solved by means of computational modeling and simulation. Distinctively, a number of these are important scientific problems ranging in scale from the atomic to the cosmic. For example, ionization is a phenomenon as ubiquitous in modern society as the glow of fluorescent lights and the etching on silicon computer chips; but it was not until 1999 that researchers finally achieved a complete numerical solution to the simplest example of ionization, the collision of a hydrogen atom with an electron. On the opposite scale, cosmologists have long wondered whether the expansion of the Universe, which began with the Big Bang, would ever reverse itself, ending the Universe in a Big Crunch. In 2000, analysis of new measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation showed that the geometry of the Universe is flat, and thus the Universe will continue expanding forever. Both of these discoveries depended on high performance computer simulations that utilized computational tools included in the Advanced Computational Testing and Simulation (ACTS) Toolkit. The ACTS Toolkit is an umbrella project that brought together a number of general purpose computational tool development projects funded and supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These tools, which have been developed independently, mainly at DOE laboratories, make it easier for scientific code developers to write high performance applications for parallel computers. They tackle a number of computational issues that are common to a large number of scientific applications, mainly implementation of numerical algorithms, and support for code development, execution and optimization. The ACTS Toolkit Project enables the use of these tools by a much wider community of computational scientists, and promotes code portability, reusability, reduction of duplicate efforts
Computational experiment approach to advanced secondary mathematics curriculum
Abramovich, Sergei
2014-01-01
This book promotes the experimental mathematics approach in the context of secondary mathematics curriculum by exploring mathematical models depending on parameters that were typically considered advanced in the pre-digital education era. This approach, by drawing on the power of computers to perform numerical computations and graphical constructions, stimulates formal learning of mathematics through making sense of a computational experiment. It allows one (in the spirit of Freudenthal) to bridge serious mathematical content and contemporary teaching practice. In other words, the notion of teaching experiment can be extended to include a true mathematical experiment. When used appropriately, the approach creates conditions for collateral learning (in the spirit of Dewey) to occur including the development of skills important for engineering applications of mathematics. In the context of a mathematics teacher education program, this book addresses a call for the preparation of teachers capable of utilizing mo...
Advances in Packaging Methods, Processes and Systems
Nitaigour Premchand Mahalik
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The food processing and packaging industry is becoming a multi-trillion dollar global business. The reason is that the recent increase in incomes in traditionally less economically developed countries has led to a rise in standards of living that includes a significantly higher consumption of packaged foods. As a result, food safety guidelines have been more stringent than ever. At the same time, the number of research and educational institutions—that is, the number of potential researchers and stakeholders—has increased in the recent past. This paper reviews recent developments in food processing and packaging (FPP, keeping in view the aforementioned advancements and bearing in mind that FPP is an interdisciplinary area in that materials, safety, systems, regulation, and supply chains play vital roles. In particular, the review covers processing and packaging principles, standards, interfaces, techniques, methods, and state-of-the-art technologies that are currently in use or in development. Recent advances such as smart packaging, non-destructive inspection methods, printing techniques, application of robotics and machineries, automation architecture, software systems and interfaces are reviewed.
Advances in quantitative electroencephalogram analysis methods.
Thakor, Nitish V; Tong, Shanbao
2004-01-01
Quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) plays a significant role in EEG-based clinical diagnosis and studies of brain function. In past decades, various qEEG methods have been extensively studied. This article provides a detailed review of the advances in this field. qEEG methods are generally classified into linear and nonlinear approaches. The traditional qEEG approach is based on spectrum analysis, which hypothesizes that the EEG is a stationary process. EEG signals are nonstationary and nonlinear, especially in some pathological conditions. Various time-frequency representations and time-dependent measures have been proposed to address those transient and irregular events in EEG. With regard to the nonlinearity of EEG, higher order statistics and chaotic measures have been put forward. In characterizing the interactions across the cerebral cortex, an information theory-based measure such as mutual information is applied. To improve the spatial resolution, qEEG analysis has also been combined with medical imaging technology (e.g., CT, MR, and PET). With these advances, qEEG plays a very important role in basic research and clinical studies of brain injury, neurological disorders, epilepsy, sleep studies and consciousness, and brain function. PMID:15255777
Advanced applications of boundary-integral equation methods
Numerical analysis has become the basic tool for both design and research problems in solid mechanics. The need for accuracy and detail, plus the availablity of the high speed computer has led to the development of many new modeling methods ranging from general purpose structural analysis finite element programs to special purpose research programs. The boundary-integral equation (BIE) method is based on classical mathematical techniques but is finding new life as a basic stress analysis tool for engineering applications. The paper summarizes some advanced elastic applications of fracture mechanics and three-dimensional stress analysis, while referencing some of the much broader developmental effort. Future emphasis is needed to exploit the BIE method in conjunction with other techniques such as the finite element method through the creation of hybrid stress analysis methods. (Auth.)
Computational methods for structural load and resistance modeling
Thacker, B. H.; Millwater, H. R.; Harren, S. V.
1991-01-01
An automated capability for computing structural reliability considering uncertainties in both load and resistance variables is presented. The computations are carried out using an automated Advanced Mean Value iteration algorithm (AMV +) with performance functions involving load and resistance variables obtained by both explicit and implicit methods. A complete description of the procedures used is given as well as several illustrative examples, verified by Monte Carlo Analysis. In particular, the computational methods described in the paper are shown to be quite accurate and efficient for a material nonlinear structure considering material damage as a function of several primitive random variables. The results show clearly the effectiveness of the algorithms for computing the reliability of large-scale structural systems with a maximum number of resolutions.
Computational Chemistry Using Modern Electronic Structure Methods
Bell, Stephen; Dines, Trevor J.; Chowdhry, Babur Z.; Withnall, Robert
2007-01-01
Various modern electronic structure methods are now days used to teach computational chemistry to undergraduate students. Such quantum calculations can now be easily used even for large size molecules.
Computational methods for global/local analysis
Ransom, Jonathan B.; Mccleary, Susan L.; Aminpour, Mohammad A.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.
1992-01-01
Computational methods for global/local analysis of structures which include both uncoupled and coupled methods are described. In addition, global/local analysis methodology for automatic refinement of incompatible global and local finite element models is developed. Representative structural analysis problems are presented to demonstrate the global/local analysis methods.
Computationally intensive methods in Bayesian model-structure identification
Tesař, Ludvík
Adelaide: Advanced Knowledge International, 2004 - ( And rýsek, J.; Kárný, M.; Kracík, J.), s. 75-79. (International Series on Advanced Intelligence .. 9). ISBN 0-9751004-5-9. [Workshop on Computer-Intensive Methods in Control and Data Processing 2004. Prague (CZ), 12.05.2004-14.05.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/03/0049; GA AV ČR IBS1075351 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : structure identification * system identification * structure estimation Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information
Sakamoto, Shinichi; Otsuru, Toru
2014-01-01
This book reviews a variety of methods for wave-based acoustic simulation and recent applications to architectural and environmental acoustic problems. Following an introduction providing an overview of computational simulation of sound environment, the book is in two parts: four chapters on methods and four chapters on applications. The first part explains the fundamentals and advanced techniques for three popular methods, namely, the finite-difference time-domain method, the finite element method, and the boundary element method, as well as alternative time-domain methods. The second part demonstrates various applications to room acoustics simulation, noise propagation simulation, acoustic property simulation for building components, and auralization. This book is a valuable reference that covers the state of the art in computational simulation for architectural and environmental acoustics.
Advances in soft computing, intelligent robotics and control
Fullér, Robert
2014-01-01
Soft computing, intelligent robotics and control are in the core interest of contemporary engineering. Essential characteristics of soft computing methods are the ability to handle vague information, to apply human-like reasoning, their learning capability, and ease of application. Soft computing techniques are widely applied in the control of dynamic systems, including mobile robots. The present volume is a collection of 20 chapters written by respectable experts of the fields, addressing various theoretical and practical aspects in soft computing, intelligent robotics and control. The first part of the book concerns with issues of intelligent robotics, including robust xed point transformation design, experimental verification of the input-output feedback linearization of differentially driven mobile robot and applying kinematic synthesis to micro electro-mechanical systems design. The second part of the book is devoted to fundamental aspects of soft computing. This includes practical aspects of fuzzy rule ...
Advanced reactor physics methods for heterogeneous reactor cores
Thompson, Steven A.
To maintain the economic viability of nuclear power the industry has begun to emphasize maximizing the efficiency and output of existing nuclear power plants by using longer fuel cycles, stretch power uprates, shorter outage lengths, mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel and more aggressive operating strategies. In order to accommodate these changes, while still satisfying the peaking factor and power envelope requirements necessary to maintain safe operation, more complexity in commercial core designs have been implemented, such as an increase in the number of sub-batches and an increase in the use of both discrete and integral burnable poisons. A consequence of the increased complexity of core designs, as well as the use of MOX fuel, is an increase in the neutronic heterogeneity of the core. Such heterogeneous cores introduce challenges for the current methods that are used for reactor analysis. New methods must be developed to address these deficiencies while still maintaining the computational efficiency of existing reactor analysis methods. In this thesis, advanced core design methodologies are developed to be able to adequately analyze the highly heterogeneous core designs which are currently in use in commercial power reactors. These methodological improvements are being pursued with the goal of not sacrificing the computational efficiency which core designers require. More specifically, the PSU nodal code NEM is being updated to include an SP3 solution option, an advanced transverse leakage option, and a semi-analytical NEM solution option.
Advanced CFD methods for wind turbine analysis
Lynch, C. Eric
2011-12-01
Horizontal-axis wind turbines operate in a complex, inherently unsteady aerodynamic environment. Even when the rotor is not stalled, the flow over the blades is dominated by three-dimensional (3-D) effects. Stall is accompanied by massive flow separation and vortex shedding over the suction surface of the blades. Under yawed conditions, dynamic stall may be present as well. In all operating conditions, there is bluff-body shedding from the turbine nacelle and support structure which interacts with the rotor wake. In addition, the high aspect ratios of wind turbine blades make them very flexible, leading to substantial aeroelastic deformation of the blades, altering the aerodynamics. Finally, when situated in a wind farm, turbines must operate in the unsteady wake of upstream neighbors. Though computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has made significant inroads as a research tool, simple, inexpensive methods, such as blade element momentum (BEM) theory, are still the workhorses in wind turbine design and aeroelasticity applications. These methods generally assume a quasi-steady flowfield and use two-dimensional aerodynamic approximations with very limited empirical 3-D corrections. As a result, they are unable to accurately predict rotor loads near the edges of the operating envelope. CFD methods make very few limiting assumptions about the flowfield, and thus have much greater potential for predicting these flows. In this work, a range of unstructured grid CFD techniques for predicting wind turbine loads and aeroelasticity has been developed and applied to a wind turbine configuration of interest. First, a nearest neighbor search algorithm based on a k-dimensional tree data structure was used to improve the computational efficiency of an approximate unsteady actuator blade method. This method was then shown to predict root and tip vortex locations and strengths similar to an overset method on the same background mesh, but without the computational expense of modeling
Advanced intelligent computational technologies and decision support systems
Kountchev, Roumen
2014-01-01
This book offers a state of the art collection covering themes related to Advanced Intelligent Computational Technologies and Decision Support Systems which can be applied to fields like healthcare assisting the humans in solving problems. The book brings forward a wealth of ideas, algorithms and case studies in themes like: intelligent predictive diagnosis; intelligent analyzing of medical images; new format for coding of single and sequences of medical images; Medical Decision Support Systems; diagnosis of Down’s syndrome; computational perspectives for electronic fetal monitoring; efficient compression of CT Images; adaptive interpolation and halftoning for medical images; applications of artificial neural networks for real-life problems solving; present and perspectives for Electronic Healthcare Record Systems; adaptive approaches for noise reduction in sequences of CT images etc.
Empirical evaluation methods in computer vision
Christensen, Henrik I
2002-01-01
This book provides comprehensive coverage of methods for the empirical evaluation of computer vision techniques. The practical use of computer vision requires empirical evaluation to ensure that the overall system has a guaranteed performance. The book contains articles that cover the design of experiments for evaluation, range image segmentation, the evaluation of face recognition and diffusion methods, image matching using correlation methods, and the performance of medical image processing algorithms. Sample Chapter(s). Foreword (228 KB). Chapter 1: Introduction (505 KB). Contents: Automate
Computational Methods for Rough Classification and Discovery.
Bell, D. A.; Guan, J. W.
1998-01-01
Rough set theory is a new mathematical tool to deal with vagueness and uncertainty. Computational methods are presented for using rough sets to identify classes in datasets, finding dependencies in relations, and discovering rules which are hidden in databases. The methods are illustrated with a running example from a database of car test results.…
Numerical Methods for Stochastic Computations A Spectral Method Approach
Xiu, Dongbin
2010-01-01
The first graduate-level textbook to focus on fundamental aspects of numerical methods for stochastic computations, this book describes the class of numerical methods based on generalized polynomial chaos (gPC). These fast, efficient, and accurate methods are an extension of the classical spectral methods of high-dimensional random spaces. Designed to simulate complex systems subject to random inputs, these methods are widely used in many areas of computer science and engineering. The book introduces polynomial approximation theory and probability theory; describes the basic theory of gPC meth
Computing discharge using the index velocity method
Levesque, Victor A.; Oberg, Kevin A.
2012-01-01
Application of the index velocity method for computing continuous records of discharge has become increasingly common, especially since the introduction of low-cost acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) in 1997. Presently (2011), the index velocity method is being used to compute discharge records for approximately 470 gaging stations operated and maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey. The purpose of this report is to document and describe techniques for computing discharge records using the index velocity method. Computing discharge using the index velocity method differs from the traditional stage-discharge method by separating velocity and area into two ratings—the index velocity rating and the stage-area rating. The outputs from each of these ratings, mean channel velocity (V) and cross-sectional area (A), are then multiplied together to compute a discharge. For the index velocity method, V is a function of such parameters as streamwise velocity, stage, cross-stream velocity, and velocity head, and A is a function of stage and cross-section shape. The index velocity method can be used at locations where stage-discharge methods are used, but it is especially appropriate when more than one specific discharge can be measured for a specific stage. After the ADVM is selected, installed, and configured, the stage-area rating and the index velocity rating must be developed. A standard cross section is identified and surveyed in order to develop the stage-area rating. The standard cross section should be surveyed every year for the first 3 years of operation and thereafter at a lesser frequency, depending on the susceptibility of the cross section to change. Periodic measurements of discharge are used to calibrate and validate the index rating for the range of conditions experienced at the gaging station. Data from discharge measurements, ADVMs, and stage sensors are compiled for index-rating analysis. Index ratings are developed by means of regression
Computational stoning method for surface defect detection
Ma, Ninshu; Zhu, Xinhai
2013-12-01
Surface defects on outer panels of automotive bodies must be controlled in order to improve the surface quality. The detection and quantitative evaluation of surface defects are quite difficult because the deflection of surface defects is very small. One of detecting methods for surface defects used in factories is a stoning method in which a stone block is moved on the surface of a stamped panel. The computational stoning method was developed to detect surface low defect by authors based on a geometry contact algorithm between a stone block and a stamped panel. If the surface is convex, the stone block always contacts with the convex surface of a stamped panel and the contact gap between them is zero. If there is a surface low, the stone block does not contact to the surface and the contact gap can be computed based on contact algorithm. The convex surface defect can also be detected by applying computational stoning method to the back surface of a stamped panel. By performing two way stoning computations from both the normal surface and the back surface, not only the depth of surface low defect but also the height of convex surface defect can be detected. The surface low defect and convex surface defect can also be detected through multi-directions. Surface defects on the handle emboss of outer panels were accurately detected using the computational stoning method and compared with the real shape. A very good accuracy was obtained.
Computer Vision Method in Human Motion Detection
FU Li; FANG Shuai; XU Xin-he
2007-01-01
Human motion detection based on computer vision is a frontier research topic and is causing an increasing attention in the field of computer vision research. The wavelet transform is used to sharpen the ambiguous edges in human motion image. The shadow's effect to the image processing is also removed. The edge extraction can be successfully realized.This is an effective method for the research of human motion analysis system.
Method and system for benchmarking computers
Gustafson, John L.
1993-09-14
A testing system and method for benchmarking computer systems. The system includes a store containing a scalable set of tasks to be performed to produce a solution in ever-increasing degrees of resolution as a larger number of the tasks are performed. A timing and control module allots to each computer a fixed benchmarking interval in which to perform the stored tasks. Means are provided for determining, after completion of the benchmarking interval, the degree of progress through the scalable set of tasks and for producing a benchmarking rating relating to the degree of progress for each computer.
The ACP (Advanced Computer Program) multiprocessor system at Fermilab
Nash, T.; Areti, H.; Atac, R.; Biel, J.; Case, G.; Cook, A.; Fischler, M.; Gaines, I.; Hance, R.; Husby, D.
1986-09-01
The Advanced Computer Program at Fermilab has developed a multiprocessor system which is easy to use and uniquely cost effective for many high energy physics problems. The system is based on single board computers which cost under $2000 each to build including 2 Mbytes of on board memory. These standard VME modules each run experiment reconstruction code in Fortran at speeds approaching that of a VAX 11/780. Two versions have been developed: one uses Motorola's 68020 32 bit microprocessor, the other runs with AT and T's 32100. both include the corresponding floating point coprocessor chip. The first system, when fully configured, uses 70 each of the two types of processors. A 53 processor system has been operated for several months with essentially no down time by computer operators in the Fermilab Computer Center, performing at nearly the capacity of 6 CDC Cyber 175 mainframe computers. The VME crates in which the processing ''nodes'' sit are connected via a high speed ''Branch Bus'' to one or more MicroVAX computers which act as hosts handling system resource management and all I/O in offline applications. An interface from Fastbus to the Branch Bus has been developed for online use which has been tested error free at 20 Mbytes/sec for 48 hours. ACP hardware modules are now available commercially. A major package of software, including a simulator that runs on any VAX, has been developed. It allows easy migration of existing programs to this multiprocessor environment. This paper describes the ACP Multiprocessor System and early experience with it at Fermilab and elsewhere.
The ACP [Advanced Computer Program] multiprocessor system at Fermilab
The Advanced Computer Program at Fermilab has developed a multiprocessor system which is easy to use and uniquely cost effective for many high energy physics problems. The system is based on single board computers which cost under $2000 each to build including 2 Mbytes of on board memory. These standard VME modules each run experiment reconstruction code in Fortran at speeds approaching that of a VAX 11/780. Two versions have been developed: one uses Motorola's 68020 32 bit microprocessor, the other runs with AT and T's 32100. both include the corresponding floating point coprocessor chip. The first system, when fully configured, uses 70 each of the two types of processors. A 53 processor system has been operated for several months with essentially no down time by computer operators in the Fermilab Computer Center, performing at nearly the capacity of 6 CDC Cyber 175 mainframe computers. The VME crates in which the processing ''nodes'' sit are connected via a high speed ''Branch Bus'' to one or more MicroVAX computers which act as hosts handling system resource management and all I/O in offline applications. An interface from Fastbus to the Branch Bus has been developed for online use which has been tested error free at 20 Mbytes/sec for 48 hours. ACP hardware modules are now available commercially. A major package of software, including a simulator that runs on any VAX, has been developed. It allows easy migration of existing programs to this multiprocessor environment. This paper describes the ACP Multiprocessor System and early experience with it at Fermilab and elsewhere
Digital image processing mathematical and computational methods
Blackledge, J M
2005-01-01
This authoritative text (the second part of a complete MSc course) provides mathematical methods required to describe images, image formation and different imaging systems, coupled with the principle techniques used for processing digital images. It is based on a course for postgraduates reading physics, electronic engineering, telecommunications engineering, information technology and computer science. This book relates the methods of processing and interpreting digital images to the 'physics' of imaging systems. Case studies reinforce the methods discussed, with examples of current research
Method of generating a computer readable model
2008-01-01
A method of generating a computer readable model of a geometrical object constructed from a plurality of interconnectable construction elements, wherein each construction element has a number of connection elements for connecting the construction element with another construction element. The...... method comprises encoding a first and a second one of the construction elements as corresponding data structures, each representing the connection elements of the corresponding construction element, and each of the connection elements having associated with it a predetermined connection type. The method...
Current methods and advances in bone densitometry
Guglielmi, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Scientific Inst. ``CSS``, San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy); Glueer, C.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section and Osteoporosis Research Group, Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Majumdar, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section and Osteoporosis Research Group, Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Blunt, B.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section and Osteoporosis Research Group, Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Genant, H.K. [Dept. of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section and Osteoporosis Research Group, Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)
1995-08-01
Bone mass is the primary, although not the only, determinant of fracture. Over the past few years a number of noninvasive techniques have been developed to more sensitively quantitate bone mass. These include single and dual photon absorptiometry (SPA and DPA), single and dual X-ray absorptiometry (SXA and DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT). While differing in anatomic sites measured and in their estimates of precision, accuracy, and fracture discrimination, all of these methods provide clinically useful measurements of skeletal status. It is the intent of this review to discuss the pros and cons of these techniques and to present the new applications of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MRI) in the detection and management of osteoporosis. (orig.)
Current methods and advances in bone densitometry
Guglielmi, G.; Gluer, C. C.; Majumdar, S.; Blunt, B. A.; Genant, H. K.
1995-01-01
Bone mass is the primary, although not the only, determinant of fracture. Over the past few years a number of noninvasive techniques have been developed to more sensitively quantitate bone mass. These include single and dual photon absorptiometry (SPA and DPA), single and dual X-ray absorptiometry (SXA and DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT). While differing in anatomic sites measured and in their estimates of precision, accuracy, and fracture discrimination, all of these methods provide clinically useful measurements of skeletal status. It is the intent of this review to discuss the pros and cons of these techniques and to present the new applications of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MRI) in the detection and management of osteoporosis.
7 CFR 27.92 - Method of payment; advance deposit.
2010-01-01
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Reed, Daniel [University of Iowa; Berzins, Martin [University of Utah; Pennington, Robert; Sarkar, Vivek [Rice University; Taylor, Valerie [Texas A& M University
2015-08-01
On November 19, 2014, the Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) was charged with reviewing the Department of Energy’s conceptual design for the Exascale Computing Initiative (ECI). In particular, this included assessing whether there are significant gaps in the ECI plan or areas that need to be given priority or extra management attention. Given the breadth and depth of previous reviews of the technical challenges inherent in exascale system design and deployment, the subcommittee focused its assessment on organizational and management issues, considering technical issues only as they informed organizational or management priorities and structures. This report presents the observations and recommendations of the subcommittee.
An advanced method of heterogeneous reactor theory
Recent approaches to heterogeneous reactor theory for numerical applications were presented in the course of 8 lectures given in JAERI. The limitations of initial theory known after the First Conference on Peacefull Uses of Atomic Energy held in Geneva in 1955 as Galanine-Feinberg heterogeneous theory:-matrix from of equations, -lack of consistent theory for heterogeneous parameters for reactor cell, -were overcome by a transformation of heterogeneous reactor equations to a difference form and by a development of a consistent theory for the characteristics of a reactor cell based on detailed space-energy calculations. General few group (G-number of groups) heterogeneous reactor equations in dipole approximation are formulated with the extension of two-dimensional problem to three-dimensions by finite Furie expansion of axial dependence of neutron fluxes. A transformation of initial matrix reactor equations to a difference form is presented. The methods for calculation of heterogeneous reactor cell characteristics giving the relation between vector-flux and vector-current on a cell boundary are based on a set of detailed space-energy neutron flux distribution calculations with zero current across cell boundary and G calculations with linearly independent currents across the cell boundary. The equations for reaction rate matrices are formulated. Specific methods were developed for description of neutron migration in axial and radial directions. The methods for resonance level's approach for numerous high-energy resonances. On the basis of these approaches the theory, methods and computer codes were developed for 3D space-time react or problems including simulation of slow processes with fuel burn-up, control rod movements, Xe poisoning and fast transients depending on prompt and delayed neutrons. As a result reactors with several thousands of channels having non-uniform axial structure can be feasibly treated. (author)
Advanced applications of boundary-integral equation methods
The BIE (boundary integral equation) method is based on the numerical solution of a set of integral constraint equations which couple boundary tractions (stresses) to boundary displacements. Thus the dimensionality of the problem is reduced by one; only boundary geometry and data are discretized. Stresses at any set of selected interior points are computed following the boundary solution without any further numerical approximations. Thus, the BIE method has inherently greater resolution capability for stress gradients than does the finite element method. Conversely, the BIE method is not efficient for problems involving significant inhomogeneity such as in multi-thin-layered materials, or in elastoplasticity. Some progress in applyiing the BIE method to the latter problem has been made but much more work remains. Further, the BIE method is only optional for problems with significant stress risers, and only when boundary stresses are most important. Interior stress calculations are expensive, per point, and can drive the solution costs up rapidly. The current report summarizes some of the advanced elastic applications of fracture mechanics and three-dimensional stress analysis, while referencing some of the much broader developmental effort. Future emphasis is needed to exploit the BIE method in conjunction with other techniques such as the finite element method through the creation of hybrid stress analysis methods
Advanced continuous cultivation methods for systems microbiology.
Adamberg, Kaarel; Valgepea, Kaspar; Vilu, Raivo
2015-09-01
Increasing the throughput of systems biology-based experimental characterization of in silico-designed strains has great potential for accelerating the development of cell factories. For this, analysis of metabolism in the steady state is essential as only this enables the unequivocal definition of the physiological state of cells, which is needed for the complete description and in silico reconstruction of their phenotypes. In this review, we show that for a systems microbiology approach, high-resolution characterization of metabolism in the steady state--growth space analysis (GSA)--can be achieved by using advanced continuous cultivation methods termed changestats. In changestats, an environmental parameter is continuously changed at a constant rate within one experiment whilst maintaining cells in the physiological steady state similar to chemostats. This increases the resolution and throughput of GSA compared with chemostats, and, moreover, enables following of the dynamics of metabolism and detection of metabolic switch-points and optimal growth conditions. We also describe the concept, challenge and necessary criteria of the systematic analysis of steady-state metabolism. Finally, we propose that such systematic characterization of the steady-state growth space of cells using changestats has value not only for fundamental studies of metabolism, but also for systems biology-based metabolic engineering of cell factories. PMID:26220303
International conference on Advances in Intelligent Control and Innovative Computing
Castillo, Oscar; Huang, Xu; Intelligent Control and Innovative Computing
2012-01-01
In the lightning-fast world of intelligent control and cutting-edge computing, it is vitally important to stay abreast of developments that seem to follow each other without pause. This publication features the very latest and some of the very best current research in the field, with 32 revised and extended research articles written by prominent researchers in the field. Culled from contributions to the key 2011 conference Advances in Intelligent Control and Innovative Computing, held in Hong Kong, the articles deal with a wealth of relevant topics, from the most recent work in artificial intelligence and decision-supporting systems, to automated planning, modelling and simulation, signal processing, and industrial applications. Not only does this work communicate the current state of the art in intelligent control and innovative computing, it is also an illuminating guide to up-to-date topics for researchers and graduate students in the field. The quality of the contents is absolutely assured by the high pro...
Computational structural analysis and finite element methods
Kaveh, A
2014-01-01
Graph theory gained initial prominence in science and engineering through its strong links with matrix algebra and computer science. Moreover, the structure of the mathematics is well suited to that of engineering problems in analysis and design. The methods of analysis in this book employ matrix algebra, graph theory and meta-heuristic algorithms, which are ideally suited for modern computational mechanics. Efficient methods are presented that lead to highly sparse and banded structural matrices. The main features of the book include: application of graph theory for efficient analysis; extension of the force method to finite element analysis; application of meta-heuristic algorithms to ordering and decomposition (sparse matrix technology); efficient use of symmetry and regularity in the force method; and simultaneous analysis and design of structures.
The application of advanced rotor (performance) methods for design calculations
Bussel, G.J.W. van [Delft Univ. of Technology, Inst. for Wind Energy, Delft (Netherlands)
1997-08-01
The calculation of loads and performance of wind turbine rotors has been a topic for research over the last century. The principles for the calculation of loads on rotor blades with a given specific geometry, as well as the development of optimal shaped rotor blades have been published in the decades that significant aircraft development took place. Nowadays advanced computer codes are used for specific problems regarding modern aircraft, and application to wind turbine rotors has also been performed occasionally. The engineers designing rotor blades for wind turbines still use methods based upon global principles developed in the beginning of the century. The question what to expect in terms of the type of methods to be applied in a design environment for the near future is addressed here. (EG) 14 refs.
Computational methods for inlet airframe integration
Towne, Charles E.
1988-01-01
Fundamental equations encountered in computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and analyses used for internal flow are introduced. Irrotational flow; Euler equations; boundary layers; parabolized Navier-Stokes equations; and time averaged Navier-Stokes equations are treated. Assumptions made and solution methods are outlined, with examples. The overall status of CFD in propulsion is indicated.
Computational Methods for Structural Mechanics and Dynamics
Stroud, W. Jefferson (Editor); Housner, Jerrold M. (Editor); Tanner, John A. (Editor); Hayduk, Robert J. (Editor)
1989-01-01
Topics addressed include: transient dynamics; transient finite element method; transient analysis in impact and crash dynamic studies; multibody computer codes; dynamic analysis of space structures; multibody mechanics and manipulators; spatial and coplanar linkage systems; flexible body simulation; multibody dynamics; dynamical systems; and nonlinear characteristics of joints.
Computational electrodynamics the finite-difference time-domain method
Taflove, Allen
2005-01-01
This extensively revised and expanded third edition of the Artech House bestseller, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, offers engineers the most up-to-date and definitive resource on this critical method for solving Maxwell's equations. The method helps practitioners design antennas, wireless communications devices, high-speed digital and microwave circuits, and integrated optical devices with unsurpassed efficiency. There has been considerable advancement in FDTD computational technology over the past few years, and the third edition brings professionals the very latest details with entirely new chapters on important techniques, major updates on key topics, and new discussions on emerging areas such as nanophotonics. What's more, to supplement the third edition, the authors have created a Web site with solutions to problems, downloadable graphics and videos, and updates, making this new edition the ideal textbook on the subject as well.
The use of advanced computer simulation in structural design
Field, C.J.; Mole, A. [Arup, San Fransisco, CA (United States); Arkinstall, M. [Arup, Sydney (Australia)
2005-07-01
The benefits that can be gained from the application of advanced numerical simulation in building design were discussed. A review of current practices in structural engineering was presented along with an illustration of a range of international project case studies. Structural engineers use analytical methods to evaluate both static and dynamic loads. Structural design is prescribed by a range of building codes, depending on location, building type and loading, but often, buildings do not fit well within the codes, particularly if one wants to take advantage of new technologies and developments in design that are not covered by the code. Advanced simulation refers to the use of mathematical modeling to complex problems to allow a wider consideration of building types and conditions that can be designed reliably using standard practices. Advanced simulation is used to address virtual testing and prototyping, verifying innovative design ideas, forensic engineering, and design optimization. The benefits of advanced simulation include enhanced creativity, improved performance, cost savings, risk management, sustainable design solutions, and better communication. The following 5 case studies illustrated the value gained by using advanced simulation as an integral part of the design process: the earthquake resistant Maison Hermes in Tokyo; the seismic resistant braces known as the Unbonded Brace for use in the United States; a simulation of the existing Disney Museum to evaluate its capacity to resist earthquakes; simulation of the MIT Brain and Cognitive Science Project to evaluate the effect of different foundation types on the vibration entering the building; and, the Beijing Aquatic Center whose design was streamlined by optimized structural analysis. It was suggested that industry should encourage the transfer of technology from other professions and should try to collaborate towards a global building model to construct buildings in a more efficient manner. 7 refs
Advanced information processing system: Inter-computer communication services
Burkhardt, Laura; Masotto, Tom; Sims, J. Terry; Whittredge, Roy; Alger, Linda S.
1991-01-01
The purpose is to document the functional requirements and detailed specifications for the Inter-Computer Communications Services (ICCS) of the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS). An introductory section is provided to outline the overall architecture and functional requirements of the AIPS and to present an overview of the ICCS. An overview of the AIPS architecture as well as a brief description of the AIPS software is given. The guarantees of the ICCS are provided, and the ICCS is described as a seven-layered International Standards Organization (ISO) Model. The ICCS functional requirements, functional design, and detailed specifications as well as each layer of the ICCS are also described. A summary of results and suggestions for future work are presented.
Computational modeling, optimization and manufacturing simulation of advanced engineering materials
2016-01-01
This volume presents recent research work focused in the development of adequate theoretical and numerical formulations to describe the behavior of advanced engineering materials. Particular emphasis is devoted to applications in the fields of biological tissues, phase changing and porous materials, polymers and to micro/nano scale modeling. Sensitivity analysis, gradient and non-gradient based optimization procedures are involved in many of the chapters, aiming at the solution of constitutive inverse problems and parameter identification. All these relevant topics are exposed by experienced international and inter institutional research teams resulting in a high level compilation. The book is a valuable research reference for scientists, senior undergraduate and graduate students, as well as for engineers acting in the area of computational material modeling.
Advances in Computational Techniques to Study GPCR-Ligand Recognition.
Ciancetta, Antonella; Sabbadin, Davide; Federico, Stephanie; Spalluto, Giampiero; Moro, Stefano
2015-12-01
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are among the most intensely investigated drug targets. The recent revolutions in protein engineering and molecular modeling algorithms have overturned the research paradigm in the GPCR field. While the numerous ligand-bound X-ray structures determined have provided invaluable insights into GPCR structure and function, the development of algorithms exploiting graphics processing units (GPUs) has made the simulation of GPCRs in explicit lipid-water environments feasible within reasonable computation times. In this review we present a survey of the recent advances in structure-based drug design approaches with a particular emphasis on the elucidation of the ligand recognition process in class A GPCRs by means of membrane molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. PMID:26538318
"Advanced Manufacturing Methods for Systems of Nanospacecrafts".
Rochus, Pierre
2014-01-01
Space instrumentation and Space Environmental testing activities at CSL Dreams, a priori expectations and space specificities Advanced Manufacturing Techniques considered in our studies First steps realizations 15 years ago More concrete and more recent examples Conclusions and future activities
Fermilab's Advanced Computer Program (ACP) has been developing highly cost effective, yet practical, parallel computers for high energy physics since 1984. The ACP's latest developments are proceeding in two directions. A Second Generation ACP Multiprocessor System for experiments will include $3500 RISC processors each with performance over 15 VAX MIPS. To support such high performance, the new system allows parallel I/O, parallel interprocess communication, and parallel host processes. The ACP Multi-Array Processor, has been developed for theoretical physics. Each $4000 node is a FORTRAN or C programmable pipelined 20 MFlops (peak), 10 MByte single board computer. These are plugged into a 16 port crossbar switch crate which handles both inter and intra crate communication. The crates are connected in a hypercube. Site oriented applications like lattice gauge theory are supported by system software called CANOPY, which makes the hardware virtually transparent to users. A 256 node, 5 GFlop, system is under construction. 10 refs., 7 figs
Computer-Aided Modelling Methods and Tools
Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul
2011-01-01
The development of models for a range of applications requires methods and tools. In many cases a reference model is required that allows the generation of application specific models that are fit for purpose. There are a range of computer aided modelling tools available that help to define the...... shows a taxonomy of aspects around conservation, constraints and constitutive relations. Aspects of the ICAS-MoT toolbox are given to illustrate the functionality of a computer aided modelling tool, which incorporates an interface to MS Excel....
Reliability of an interactive computer program for advance care planning.
Schubart, Jane R; Levi, Benjamin H; Camacho, Fabian; Whitehead, Megan; Farace, Elana; Green, Michael J
2012-06-01
Despite widespread efforts to promote advance directives (ADs), completion rates remain low. Making Your Wishes Known: Planning Your Medical Future (MYWK) is an interactive computer program that guides individuals through the process of advance care planning, explaining health conditions and interventions that commonly involve life or death decisions, helps them articulate their values/goals, and translates users' preferences into a detailed AD document. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that (in the absence of major life changes) the AD generated by MYWK reliably reflects an individual's values/preferences. English speakers ≥30 years old completed MYWK twice, 4 to 6 weeks apart. Reliability indices were assessed for three AD components: General Wishes; Specific Wishes for treatment; and Quality-of-Life values (QoL). Twenty-four participants completed the study. Both the Specific Wishes and QoL scales had high internal consistency in both time periods (Knuder Richardson formula 20 [KR-20]=0.83-0.95, and 0.86-0.89). Test-retest reliability was perfect for General Wishes (κ=1), high for QoL (Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.83), but lower for Specific Wishes (Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.57). MYWK generates an AD where General Wishes and QoL (but not Specific Wishes) statements remain consistent over time. PMID:22512830
Reliability of an Interactive Computer Program for Advance Care Planning
Levi, Benjamin H.; Camacho, Fabian; Whitehead, Megan; Farace, Elana; Green, Michael J
2012-01-01
Abstract Despite widespread efforts to promote advance directives (ADs), completion rates remain low. Making Your Wishes Known: Planning Your Medical Future (MYWK) is an interactive computer program that guides individuals through the process of advance care planning, explaining health conditions and interventions that commonly involve life or death decisions, helps them articulate their values/goals, and translates users' preferences into a detailed AD document. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that (in the absence of major life changes) the AD generated by MYWK reliably reflects an individual's values/preferences. English speakers ≥30 years old completed MYWK twice, 4 to 6 weeks apart. Reliability indices were assessed for three AD components: General Wishes; Specific Wishes for treatment; and Quality-of-Life values (QoL). Twenty-four participants completed the study. Both the Specific Wishes and QoL scales had high internal consistency in both time periods (Knuder Richardson formula 20 [KR-20]=0.83–0.95, and 0.86–0.89). Test-retest reliability was perfect for General Wishes (κ=1), high for QoL (Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.83), but lower for Specific Wishes (Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.57). MYWK generates an AD where General Wishes and QoL (but not Specific Wishes) statements remain consistent over time. PMID:22512830
Advanced applications of boundary-integral equation methods
Numerical analysis has become the basic tool for both design and research problems in solid mechanics. The boundary-integral equation (BIE) method is based on classical mathematical techniques but is finding new life as a basic stress analysis tool for engineering applications. The BIE method is based on the numerical solution of a set of integral constraint equations which couple boundary tractions (stresses) to boundary displacements. Thus the dimensionality of the problem is reduced by one; only boundary geometry and data are discretized. Stresses at any set of selected interior points are computed following the boundary solution without any further numerical approximations. Thus, the BIE method has inherently greater resolution capability for stress gradients than does the finite element method. Conversely, the BIE method is not efficient for problems involving significant inhomogeneity such as in multi-thin-layered materials, or in elastoplasticity. Some progress in applying the BIE method to the latter problem has been made but much more work remains. Further, the BIE method is only optional for problems with significant stress risers, and only when boundary stresses are more important. Interior stress calculations are expensive, per point, and can drive the solution costs up rapidly. The current report summarizes some of the advanced elastic applications of fracture mechanics and three-dimensional stress analysis, while referring some of the much broader developmental effort. (Auth.)
Greenberg, Donald P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Hencey, Brandon M. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)
2013-08-20
Current building energy simulation technology requires excessive labor, time and expertise to create building energy models, excessive computational time for accurate simulations and difficulties with the interpretation of the results. These deficiencies can be ameliorated using modern graphical user interfaces and algorithms which take advantage of modern computer architectures and display capabilities. To prove this hypothesis, we developed an experimental test bed for building energy simulation. This novel test bed environment offers an easy-to-use interactive graphical interface, provides access to innovative simulation modules that run at accelerated computational speeds, and presents new graphics visualization methods to interpret simulation results. Our system offers the promise of dramatic ease of use in comparison with currently available building energy simulation tools. Its modular structure makes it suitable for early stage building design, as a research platform for the investigation of new simulation methods, and as a tool for teaching concepts of sustainable design. Improvements in the accuracy and execution speed of many of the simulation modules are based on the modification of advanced computer graphics rendering algorithms. Significant performance improvements are demonstrated in several computationally expensive energy simulation modules. The incorporation of these modern graphical techniques should advance the state of the art in the domain of whole building energy analysis and building performance simulation, particularly at the conceptual design stage when decisions have the greatest impact. More importantly, these better simulation tools will enable the transition from prescriptive to performative energy codes, resulting in better, more efficient designs for our future built environment.
Advances in neural networks computational intelligence for ICT
Esposito, Anna; Morabito, Francesco; Pasero, Eros
2016-01-01
This carefully edited book is putting emphasis on computational and artificial intelligent methods for learning and their relative applications in robotics, embedded systems, and ICT interfaces for psychological and neurological diseases. The book is a follow-up of the scientific workshop on Neural Networks (WIRN 2015) held in Vietri sul Mare, Italy, from the 20th to the 22nd of May 2015. The workshop, at its 27th edition became a traditional scientific event that brought together scientists from many countries, and several scientific disciplines. Each chapter is an extended version of the original contribution presented at the workshop, and together with the reviewers’ peer revisions it also benefits from the live discussion during the presentation. The content of book is organized in the following sections. 1. Introduction, 2. Machine Learning, 3. Artificial Neural Networks: Algorithms and models, 4. Intelligent Cyberphysical and Embedded System, 5. Computational Intelligence Methods for Biomedical ICT in...
Towards Advanced Data Analysis by Combining Soft Computing and Statistics
Gil, María; Sousa, João; Verleysen, Michel
2013-01-01
Soft computing, as an engineering science, and statistics, as a classical branch of mathematics, emphasize different aspects of data analysis. Soft computing focuses on obtaining working solutions quickly, accepting approximations and unconventional approaches. Its strength lies in its flexibility to create models that suit the needs arising in applications. In addition, it emphasizes the need for intuitive and interpretable models, which are tolerant to imprecision and uncertainty. Statistics is more rigorous and focuses on establishing objective conclusions based on experimental data by analyzing the possible situations and their (relative) likelihood. It emphasizes the need for mathematical methods and tools to assess solutions and guarantee performance. Combining the two fields enhances the robustness and generalizability of data analysis methods, while preserving the flexibility to solve real-world problems efficiently and intuitively.
Damped time advance methods for particles and EM fields
Recent developments in the application of damped time advance methods to plasma simulations include the synthesis of implicit and explicit ''adjustably damped'' second order accurate methods for particle motion and electromagnetic field propagation. This paper discusses this method
Advances in computer technology: impact on the practice of medicine.
Groth-Vasselli, B; Singh, K; Farnsworth, P N
1995-01-01
Advances in computer technology provide a wide range of applications which are revolutionizing the practice of medicine. The development of new software for the office creates a web of communication among physicians, staff members, health care facilities and associated agencies. This provides the physician with the prospect of a paperless office. At the other end of the spectrum, the development of 3D work stations and software based on computational chemistry permits visualization of protein molecules involved in disease. Computer assisted molecular modeling has been used to construct working 3D models of lens alpha-crystallin. The 3D structure of alpha-crystallin is basic to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in lens fiber cell maturation, stabilization of the inner nuclear region, the maintenance of lens transparency and cataractogenesis. The major component of the high molecular weight aggregates that occur during cataractogenesis is alpha-crystallin subunits. Subunits of alpha-crystallin occur in other tissues of the body. In the central nervous system accumulation of these subunits in the form of dense inclusion bodies occurs in pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis and toxoplasmosis (Iwaki, Wisniewski et al., 1992), as well as neoplasms of astrocyte origin (Iwaki, Iwaki, et al., 1991). Also cardiac ischemia is associated with an increased alpha B synthesis (Chiesi, Longoni et al., 1990). On a more global level, the molecular structure of alpha-crystallin may provide information pertaining to the function of small heat shock proteins, hsp, in maintaining cell stability under the stress of disease. PMID:8721907
Computational Methods for MOF/Polymer Membranes.
Erucar, Ilknur; Keskin, Seda
2016-04-01
Metal-organic framework (MOF)/polymer mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) have received significant interest in the last decade. MOFs are incorporated into polymers to make MMMs that exhibit improved gas permeability and selectivity compared with pure polymer membranes. The fundamental challenge in this area is to choose the appropriate MOF/polymer combinations for a gas separation of interest. Even if a single polymer is considered, there are thousands of MOFs that could potentially be used as fillers in MMMs. As a result, there has been a large demand for computational studies that can accurately predict the gas separation performance of MOF/polymer MMMs prior to experiments. We have developed computational approaches to assess gas separation potentials of MOF/polymer MMMs and used them to identify the most promising MOF/polymer pairs. In this Personal Account, we aim to provide a critical overview of current computational methods for modeling MOF/polymer MMMs. We give our perspective on the background, successes, and failures that led to developments in this area and discuss the opportunities and challenges of using computational methods for MOF/polymer MMMs. PMID:26842308
Advanced Aqueous Phase Catalyst Development using Combinatorial Methods Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Combinatorial methods are proposed to develop advanced Aqueous Oxidation Catalysts (AOCs) with the capability to mineralize organic contaminants present in...
Computational methods of electron/photon transport
A review of computational methods simulating the non-plasma transport of electrons and their attendant cascades is presented. Remarks are mainly restricted to linearized formalisms at electron energies above 1 keV. The effectiveness of various metods is discussed including moments, point-kernel, invariant imbedding, discrete-ordinates, and Monte Carlo. Future research directions and the potential impact on various aspects of science and engineering are indicated
Computation of copulas by Fourier methods
Antonis Papapantoleon
2011-01-01
We provide an integral representation for the (implied) copulas of dependent random variables in terms of their moment generating functions. The proof uses ideas from Fourier methods for option pricing. This representation can be used for a large class of models from mathematical finance, including L\\'evy and affine processes. As an application, we compute the implied copula of the NIG L\\'evy process which exhibits notable time-dependence.
ADVANCED FILE BASED SECURITY MECHANISM IN CLOUD COMPUTING: A REVIEW
Nisha Nisha
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Cloud computing is a broad solution that delivers IT as a service. Cloud computing uses the internet and the central remote servers to support different data and applications. It is an internet based technology. It permits the users to approach their personal files at any computer with internet access. The cloud computing flexibility is a function of the allocation of resources on authority’s request. It represents all the complexities of the network which may include everything from cables, routers, servers, data centers and all such other devices. Cloud based systems saves data off multiple organizations on shared hardware systems. In this paper the attempt to secure data from unauthorized access. The Method of data security is AES algorithm for providing data security by encrypting the given data based on the AES. It is based on a design principle known as a substitution-permutation network, and is fast in both Software and Hardware. The algorithms used in AES are so simple that they can be easily implemented using heap processors and a minimum amount of memory and this data then can only be decrypted by authorized person by using his private key.
Mathematical optics classical, quantum, and computational methods
Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan
2012-01-01
Going beyond standard introductory texts, Mathematical Optics: Classical, Quantum, and Computational Methods brings together many new mathematical techniques from optical science and engineering research. Profusely illustrated, the book makes the material accessible to students and newcomers to the field. Divided into six parts, the text presents state-of-the-art mathematical methods and applications in classical optics, quantum optics, and image processing. Part I describes the use of phase space concepts to characterize optical beams and the application of dynamic programming in optical wave
Computational methods for vortex dominated compressible flows
Murman, Earll M.
1987-01-01
The principal objectives were to: understand the mechanisms by which Euler equation computations model leading edge vortex flows; understand the vortical and shock wave structures that may exist for different wing shapes, angles of incidence, and Mach numbers; and compare calculations with experiments in order to ascertain the limitations and advantages of Euler equation models. The initial approach utilized the cell centered finite volume Jameson scheme. The final calculation utilized a cell vertex finite volume method on an unstructured grid. Both methods used Runge-Kutta four stage schemes for integrating the equations. The principal findings are briefly summarized.
Advanced Burnup Method using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry
Hilton, Bruce A. [Idaho Natonal Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Glagolenko, Irina; Giglio, Jeffrey J.; Cummings, Daniel G
2009-06-15
Nuclear fuel burnup is a key parameter used to assess irradiated fuel performance, to characterize the dependence of property changes due to irradiation, and to perform nuclear materials accountability. For advanced transmutation fuels and high burnup LWR fuels that have multiple fission sources, the existing Nd-148 ASTM burnup determination practice requires input of calculated fission fractions (identifying the specific fission source isotope and neutron energy that yielded fission, e.g., U-235 from thermal neutron, U-238 from fast neutron) from computational neutronics analysis in addition to the measured concentration of a single fission product isotope. We report a novel methodology of nuclear fuel burnup determination, which is completely independent of model predictions and reactor types. The proposed method leverages the capability of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) to quantify multiple fission products and actinides and uses these data to develop a system of burnup equations whose solution is the fission fractions. The fission fractions are substituted back in the equations to determine burnup. This technique requires high fidelity fission yield data, which is not uniformly available for all fission products. We discuss different means that can potentially assist in indirect determination, verification and improvement (refinement) of the ambiguously known fission yields. A variety of irradiated fuel samples are characterized by ICP-MS and the results used to test the advanced burnup method. The samples include metallic alloy fuel irradiated in fast spectrum reactor (EBRII) and metallic alloy in a tailored spectrum and dispersion fuel in the thermal spectrum of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The derived fission fractions and measured burnups are compared with calculated values predicted by neutronics models. (authors)
Advanced Burnup Method using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry
Nuclear fuel burnup is a key parameter used to assess irradiated fuel performance, to characterize the dependence of property changes due to irradiation, and to perform nuclear materials accountability. For advanced transmutation fuels and high burnup LWR fuels that have multiple fission sources, the existing Nd-148 ASTM burnup determination practice requires input of calculated fission fractions (identifying the specific fission source isotope and neutron energy that yielded fission, e.g., U-235 from thermal neutron, U-238 from fast neutron) from computational neutronics analysis in addition to the measured concentration of a single fission product isotope. We report a novel methodology of nuclear fuel burnup determination, which is completely independent of model predictions and reactor types. The proposed method leverages the capability of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) to quantify multiple fission products and actinides and uses these data to develop a system of burnup equations whose solution is the fission fractions. The fission fractions are substituted back in the equations to determine burnup. This technique requires high fidelity fission yield data, which is not uniformly available for all fission products. We discuss different means that can potentially assist in indirect determination, verification and improvement (refinement) of the ambiguously known fission yields. A variety of irradiated fuel samples are characterized by ICP-MS and the results used to test the advanced burnup method. The samples include metallic alloy fuel irradiated in fast spectrum reactor (EBRII) and metallic alloy in a tailored spectrum and dispersion fuel in the thermal spectrum of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The derived fission fractions and measured burnups are compared with calculated values predicted by neutronics models. (authors)
Identification of Enhancers In Human: Advances In Computational Studies
Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.
2016-03-24
Roughly ~50% of the human genome, contains noncoding sequences serving as regulatory elements responsible for the diverse gene expression of the cells in the body. One very well studied category of regulatory elements is the category of enhancers. Enhancers increase the transcriptional output in cells through chromatin remodeling or recruitment of complexes of binding proteins. Identification of enhancer using computational techniques is an interesting area of research and up to now several approaches have been proposed. However, the current state-of-the-art methods face limitations since the function of enhancers is clarified, but their mechanism of function is not well understood. This PhD thesis presents a bioinformatics/computer science study that focuses on the problem of identifying enhancers in different human cells using computational techniques. The dissertation is decomposed into four main tasks that we present in different chapters. First, since many of the enhancer’s functions are not well understood, we study the basic biological models by which enhancers trigger transcriptional functions and we survey comprehensively over 30 bioinformatics approaches for identifying enhancers. Next, we elaborate more on the availability of enhancer data as produced by different enhancer identification methods and experimental procedures. In particular, we analyze advantages and disadvantages of existing solutions and we report obstacles that require further consideration. To mitigate these problems we developed the Database of Integrated Human Enhancers (DENdb), a centralized online repository that archives enhancer data from 16 ENCODE cell-lines. The integrated enhancer data are also combined with many other experimental data that can be used to interpret the enhancers content and generate a novel enhancer annotation that complements the existing integrative annotation proposed by the ENCODE consortium. Next, we propose the first deep-learning computational
Delamination detection using methods of computational intelligence
Ihesiulor, Obinna K.; Shankar, Krishna; Zhang, Zhifang; Ray, Tapabrata
2012-11-01
Abstract Reliable delamination prediction scheme is indispensable in order to prevent potential risks of catastrophic failures in composite structures. The existence of delaminations changes the vibration characteristics of composite laminates and hence such indicators can be used to quantify the health characteristics of laminates. An approach for online health monitoring of in-service composite laminates is presented in this paper that relies on methods based on computational intelligence. Typical changes in the observed vibration characteristics (i.e. change in natural frequencies) are considered as inputs to identify the existence, location and magnitude of delaminations. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated using numerical models of composite laminates. Since this identification problem essentially involves the solution of an optimization problem, the use of finite element (FE) methods as the underlying tool for analysis turns out to be computationally expensive. A surrogate assisted optimization approach is hence introduced to contain the computational time within affordable limits. An artificial neural network (ANN) model with Bayesian regularization is used as the underlying approximation scheme while an improved rate of convergence is achieved using a memetic algorithm. However, building of ANN surrogate models usually requires large training datasets. K-means clustering is effectively employed to reduce the size of datasets. ANN is also used via inverse modeling to determine the position, size and location of delaminations using changes in measured natural frequencies. The results clearly highlight the efficiency and the robustness of the approach.
Methods testing electrodes for advanced batteries
Novák, V.; Vondrák, Jiří
Vol. 2. Brno: Akademické nakladatelství CERM, 2000 - (Vondrák, J.; Sedlaříková, M.), s. 13.1-13.4 ISBN 80-214-1615-7. [Advanced Batteries and Accumulators /1./. Brno (CZ), 28.08.2000-01.09.2000] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4032002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : electrodes * batteries * electrochemistry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry
Computational Methods for Physicists Compendium for Students
Sirca, Simon
2012-01-01
This book helps advanced undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral students in their daily work by offering them a compendium of numerical methods. The choice of methods pays significant attention to error estimates, stability and convergence issues as well as to the ways to optimize program execution speeds. Many examples are given throughout the chapters, and each chapter is followed by at least a handful of more comprehensive problems which may be dealt with, for example, on a weekly basis in a one- or two-semester course. In these end-of-chapter problems the physics background is pronounced, and the main text preceding them is intended as an introduction or as a later reference. Less stress is given to the explanation of individual algorithms. It is tried to induce in the reader an own independent thinking and a certain amount of scepticism and scrutiny instead of blindly following readily available commercial tools.
Computational method for free surface hydrodynamics
There are numerous flow phenomena in pressure vessel and piping systems that involve the dynamics of free fluid surfaces. For example, fluid interfaces must be considered during the draining or filling of tanks, in the formation and collapse of vapor bubbles, and in seismically shaken vessels that are partially filled. To aid in the analysis of these types of flow phenomena, a new technique has been developed for the computation of complicated free-surface motions. This technique is based on the concept of a local average volume of fluid (VOF) and is embodied in a computer program for two-dimensional, transient fluid flow called SOLA-VOF. The basic approach used in the VOF technique is briefly described, and compared to other free-surface methods. Specific capabilities of the SOLA-VOF program are illustrated by generic examples of bubble growth and collapse, flows of immiscible fluid mixtures, and the confinement of spilled liquids
Efficient computation method of Jacobian matrix
As well known, the elements of the Jacobian matrix are complex trigonometric functions of the joint angles, resulting in a matrix of staggering complexity when we write it all out in one place. This article addresses that difficulties to this subject are overcome by using velocity representation. The main point is that its recursive algorithm and computer algebra technologies allow us to derive analytical formulation with no human intervention. Particularly, it is to be noted that as compared to previous results the elements are extremely simplified throughout the effective use of frame transformations. Furthermore, in case of a spherical wrist, it is shown that the present approach is computationally most efficient. Due to such advantages, the proposed method is useful in studying kinematically peculiar properties such as singularity problems. (author)
Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing
Fletcher, James H. [University of North Florida; Cox, Philip [University of North Florida; Harrington, William J [University of North Florida; Campbell, Joseph L [University of North Florida
2013-09-03
ABSTRACT Project Title: Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing PROJECT OBJECTIVE The objective of the project was to advance portable fuel cell system technology towards the commercial targets of power density, energy density and lifetime. These targets were laid out in the DOE’s R&D roadmap to develop an advanced direct methanol fuel cell power supply that meets commercial entry requirements. Such a power supply will enable mobile computers to operate non-stop, unplugged from the wall power outlet, by using the high energy density of methanol fuel contained in a replaceable fuel cartridge. Specifically this project focused on balance-of-plant component integration and miniaturization, as well as extensive component, subassembly and integrated system durability and validation testing. This design has resulted in a pre-production power supply design and a prototype that meet the rigorous demands of consumer electronic applications. PROJECT TASKS The proposed work plan was designed to meet the project objectives, which corresponded directly with the objectives outlined in the Funding Opportunity Announcement: To engineer the fuel cell balance-of-plant and packaging to meet the needs of consumer electronic systems, specifically at power levels required for mobile computing. UNF used existing balance-of-plant component technologies developed under its current US Army CERDEC project, as well as a previous DOE project completed by PolyFuel, to further refine them to both miniaturize and integrate their functionality to increase the system power density and energy density. Benefits of UNF’s novel passive water recycling MEA (membrane electrode assembly) and the simplified system architecture it enabled formed the foundation of the design approach. The package design was hardened to address orientation independence, shock, vibration, and environmental requirements. Fuel cartridge and fuel subsystems were improved to ensure effective fuel
Computational methods for nuclear criticality safety analysis
Nuclear criticality safety analyses require the utilization of methods which have been tested and verified against benchmarks results. In this work, criticality calculations based on the KENO-IV and MCNP codes are studied aiming the qualification of these methods at the IPEN-CNEN/SP and COPESP. The utilization of variance reduction techniques is important to reduce the computer execution time, and several of them are analysed. As practical example of the above methods, a criticality safety analysis for the storage tubes for irradiated fuel elements from the IEA-R1 research has been carried out. This analysis showed that the MCNP code is more adequate for problems with complex geometries, and the KENO-IV code shows conservative results when it is not used the generalized geometry option. (author)
Review of Computational Stirling Analysis Methods
Dyson, Rodger W.; Wilson, Scott D.; Tew, Roy C.
2004-01-01
Nuclear thermal to electric power conversion carries the promise of longer duration missions and higher scientific data transmission rates back to Earth for both Mars rovers and deep space missions. A free-piston Stirling convertor is a candidate technology that is considered an efficient and reliable power conversion device for such purposes. While already very efficient, it is believed that better Stirling engines can be developed if the losses inherent its current designs could be better understood. However, they are difficult to instrument and so efforts are underway to simulate a complete Stirling engine numerically. This has only recently been attempted and a review of the methods leading up to and including such computational analysis is presented. And finally it is proposed that the quality and depth of Stirling loss understanding may be improved by utilizing the higher fidelity and efficiency of recently developed numerical methods. One such method, the Ultra HI-Fl technique is presented in detail.
Interpolation method in simple computed tomography scanner
Wiguna, Gede A.
2015-03-01
A method for sinogram data interpolation based on a sinusoidal pattern in computed tomography has been developed. Sampled sinograms were acquired based on angular interval scanning of 5o, 10o, and 20o. Then each resulted sinogram was interpolated following sinusoidal pattern to make a complete full scanning sinogram as if they were sampled at 1o. After that, a formal summation convolved filtered back projection was applied to each sinogram to yield a crosssectional image. This method was successfully interpolated limited number of projections data to obtained complete sinogram. It works for simple and homogenous object. However, for high variation of physical properties, e.g. linear attenuation coefficient values, this method needs more consideration on interpolation strategies to produce good image.
Kim, Jung-Taek (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejon, Korea); Luk, Vincent K.
2005-05-01
The overall goal of this joint research project was to develop and demonstrate advanced sensors and computational technology for continuous monitoring of the condition of components, structures, and systems in advanced and next-generation nuclear power plants (NPPs). This project included investigating and adapting several advanced sensor technologies from Korean and US national laboratory research communities, some of which were developed and applied in non-nuclear industries. The project team investigated and developed sophisticated signal processing, noise reduction, and pattern recognition techniques and algorithms. The researchers installed sensors and conducted condition monitoring tests on two test loops, a check valve (an active component) and a piping elbow (a passive component), to demonstrate the feasibility of using advanced sensors and computational technology to achieve the project goal. Acoustic emission (AE) devices, optical fiber sensors, accelerometers, and ultrasonic transducers (UTs) were used to detect mechanical vibratory response of check valve and piping elbow in normal and degraded configurations. Chemical sensors were also installed to monitor the water chemistry in the piping elbow test loop. Analysis results of processed sensor data indicate that it is feasible to differentiate between the normal and degraded (with selected degradation mechanisms) configurations of these two components from the acquired sensor signals, but it is questionable that these methods can reliably identify the level and type of degradation. Additional research and development efforts are needed to refine the differentiation techniques and to reduce the level of uncertainties.
Advanced Methods of Biomedical Signal Processing
Cerutti, Sergio
2011-01-01
This book grew out of the IEEE-EMBS Summer Schools on Biomedical Signal Processing, which have been held annually since 2002 to provide the participants state-of-the-art knowledge on emerging areas in biomedical engineering. Prominent experts in the areas of biomedical signal processing, biomedical data treatment, medicine, signal processing, system biology, and applied physiology introduce novel techniques and algorithms as well as their clinical or physiological applications. The book provides an overview of a compelling group of advanced biomedical signal processing techniques, such as mult
Evolutionary Computing Methods for Spectral Retrieval
Terrile, Richard; Fink, Wolfgang; Huntsberger, Terrance; Lee, Seugwon; Tisdale, Edwin; VonAllmen, Paul; Tinetti, Geivanna
2009-01-01
A methodology for processing spectral images to retrieve information on underlying physical, chemical, and/or biological phenomena is based on evolutionary and related computational methods implemented in software. In a typical case, the solution (the information that one seeks to retrieve) consists of parameters of a mathematical model that represents one or more of the phenomena of interest. The methodology was developed for the initial purpose of retrieving the desired information from spectral image data acquired by remote-sensing instruments aimed at planets (including the Earth). Examples of information desired in such applications include trace gas concentrations, temperature profiles, surface types, day/night fractions, cloud/aerosol fractions, seasons, and viewing angles. The methodology is also potentially useful for retrieving information on chemical and/or biological hazards in terrestrial settings. In this methodology, one utilizes an iterative process that minimizes a fitness function indicative of the degree of dissimilarity between observed and synthetic spectral and angular data. The evolutionary computing methods that lie at the heart of this process yield a population of solutions (sets of the desired parameters) within an accuracy represented by a fitness-function value specified by the user. The evolutionary computing methods (ECM) used in this methodology are Genetic Algorithms and Simulated Annealing, both of which are well-established optimization techniques and have also been described in previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. These are embedded in a conceptual framework, represented in the architecture of the implementing software, that enables automatic retrieval of spectral and angular data and analysis of the retrieved solutions for uniqueness.
COMSAC: Computational Methods for Stability and Control. Part 2
Fremaux, C. Michael (Compiler); Hall, Robert M. (Compiler)
2004-01-01
The unprecedented advances being made in computational fluid dynamic (CFD) technology have demonstrated the powerful capabilities of codes in applications to civil and military aircraft. Used in conjunction with wind-tunnel and flight investigations, many codes are now routinely used by designers in diverse applications such as aerodynamic performance predictions and propulsion integration. Typically, these codes are most reliable for attached, steady, and predominantly turbulent flows. As a result of increasing reliability and confidence in CFD, wind-tunnel testing for some new configurations has been substantially reduced in key areas, such as wing trade studies for mission performance guarantees. Interest is now growing in the application of computational methods to other critical design challenges. One of the most important disciplinary elements for civil and military aircraft is prediction of stability and control characteristics. CFD offers the potential for significantly increasing the basic understanding, prediction, and control of flow phenomena associated with requirements for satisfactory aircraft handling characteristics.
Ratschek, H
2003-01-01
This undergraduate and postgraduate text will familiarise readers with interval arithmetic and related tools to gain reliable and validated results and logically correct decisions for a variety of geometric computations plus the means for alleviating the effects of the errors. It also considers computations on geometric point-sets, which are neither robust nor reliable in processing with standard methods. The authors provide two effective tools for obtaining correct results: (a) interval arithmetic, and (b) ESSA the new powerful algorithm which improves many geometric computations and makes th
Catalytic Methods in Asymmetric Synthesis Advanced Materials, Techniques, and Applications
Gruttadauria, Michelangelo
2011-01-01
This book covers advances in the methods of catalytic asymmetric synthesis and their applications. Coverage moves from new materials and technologies to homogeneous metal-free catalysts and homogeneous metal catalysts. The applications of several methodologies for the synthesis of biologically active molecules are discussed. Part I addresses recent advances in new materials and technologies such as supported catalysts, supports, self-supported catalysts, chiral ionic liquids, supercritical fluids, flow reactors and microwaves related to asymmetric catalysis. Part II covers advances and milesto
Advanced mathematical methods in science and engineering
Hayek, SI
2010-01-01
Ordinary Differential EquationsDEFINITIONS LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF FIRST ORDER LINEAR INDEPENDENCE AND THE WRONSKIAN LINEAR HOMOGENEOUS DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION OF ORDER N WITH CONSTANT COEFFICIENTS EULER'S EQUATION PARTICULAR SOLUTIONS BY METHOD OF UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS PARTICULAR SOLUTIONS BY THE METHOD OF VARIATIONS OF PARAMETERS ABEL'S FORMULA FOR THE WRONSKIAN INITIAL VALUE PROBLEMSSeries Solutions of Ordinary Differential EquationsINTRODUCTION POWER SERIES SOLUTIONS CLASSIFICATION
Development of a HRA method based on Human Factor Issues for advanced NPP
A design of instrumentation and control (I and C) systems for various plant systems including nuclear power plants (NPPs) is rapidly moving toward fully digital I and C and modern computer techniques have been gradually introduced into the design of advanced main control room (MCR). In advanced MCR, computer based Human-System Interfaces (HSIs) such as CRT based displays, large display panels (LDP), advanced information system, soft control and computerized procedure system (CPS) are applied in advanced MCR. Human operators in an advanced MCR still play an important role. However, various research and experiences from NPPs with an advanced MCR show that characteristics of human operators' task would be changed due to the use of inexperienced HSIs. This gives implications to the PSFs (Performance Shaping Factors) in HRA (Human Reliability Analysis). PSF in HRA is an aspect of the human's individual characteristics, environment, organization, or task that specifically decrements or improves human performance resulting in increasing or decreasing the likelihood of human error. These PSFs have been suggested in various ways depending on the HRA methods used. In most HRA methods, however, there is a lack of inconsistency for the derivation of the PSFs and a lack of considerations of how the changes implemented in advanced MCR give impact on the operators' task. In this study, a framework for the derivation of and evaluation in the PSFs to be used in HRA for advanced NPPs is suggested
Noor, Ahmed K. (Editor); Dwoyer, Douglas L. (Editor)
1988-01-01
Recent advances in computational structural and fluid dynamics are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include fluid-structure interaction and aeroelasticity, CFD techniques for reacting flows, micromechanics, stability and eigenproblems, probabilistic methods and chaotic dynamics, and perturbation and spectral methods. Consideration is given to finite-element, finite-volume, and boundary-element methods; adaptive methods; parallel processing machines and applications; and visualization, mesh generation, and AI interfaces.
An Advanced Survey on Cloud Computing and State-of-the-art Research Issues
Mohiuddin Ahmed
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Cloud Computing is considered as one of the emerging arenas of computer science in recent times. It is providing excellent facilities to business entrepreneurs by flexible infrastructure. Although, cloud computing is facilitating the Information Technology industry, the research and development in this arena is yet to be satisfactory. Our contribution in this paper is an advanced survey focusing on cloud computing concept and most advanced research issues. This paper provides a better understanding of the cloud computing and identifies important research issues in this burgeoning area of computer science.