Sample records for adrenochrome

  1. Schizophrenia and cancer: the adrenochrome balanced morphism. (United States)

    Foster, Harold D; Hoffer, Abram


    Cancer might be expected to be more common amongst schizophrenics than the general population. They frequently live in selenium deficient regions, have seriously compromised antioxidant defense systems and chain-smoke. The available literature on the cancer-schizoprenia relationship in patients from England, Wales, Ireland, Denmark, USA and Japan, however, strongly suggests that the reverse is true. One of the authors (Hoffer) has treated 4000 schizophrenics since 1952. Only four of these patients has developed cancer. Since low cancer incidence has been recorded amongst patients treated by both conventional physicians using pharmaceuticals and by orthomolecular doctors who emphasize vitamins and minerals, it follows that this depressed cancer incidence must be related to the biochemistry of the disorder itself. Taken as a whole, therefore, the evidence seems to suggest that schizophrenics, their siblings and parents are less susceptible to cancer than the general population. These relationships seem compatible with one or more genetic risk factors for schizophrenia that offer(s) a selective advantage against cancer. There is experimental evidence that appears to support this possibility. Matrix Pharmaceuticals Inc. has received a US patent covering the composition of IntraDose Injectable Gel. This gel contains cisplatin and epinephrine (adrenaline) and is designed to be injected directly into tumour masses. Cisplatin is a very powerful oxidant which will almost certainly rapidly convert the adrenaline to adrenochrome. While the manufacturers of IntraDose consider cisplatin to be the active cytotoxic agent in IntraDose, it seems more likely that adrenochrome and its derivatives may, in fact, be more effective. IntraDose gel has undergone or is undergoing a series of Phase III open-label clinical studies, being injected into patients' tumours that have been identified as the most troublesome by their physicians. The results have been impressive for breast cancer

  2. Differential action on cancer and normal tissue by adrenochrome monoaminoguanidine methanesulfonate and cytochrome C combined with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility that radioprotective effects on potent natural killer (NK) cells by adrenochrome monoaminoguanidine methanesulfonate (AMM) + cytochrome C during radiotherapy (RT) for lung cancer might result in the radiosensitization of human lung cancer cells in vivo is examined. Human lung cancer xenografts in the right hind legs of KSN mice (10 weeks old) were locally irradiated with 20 Gy of X ray. AMM (10 mg/kg/day) and/or cytochrome C (CCC) (5 mg/kg/day) were given intraperitoneally immediately before or after RT, followed by daily administration for 4 days. Natural killer activities of host splenocytes were also tested with the standard 51Cr releasing assay with YAC-1 cells as target cells. In a clinical study, 65 patients with lung cancer were treated with more than 50 Gy of RT with or without combination with AMM + CCC, OK-432 or AMM + CCC + OK-432. Before and after RT, lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood were examined with dichromatic analysis using an Ortho Spectrum IIIFCM system and fluorescent MABs. In this study, the change in the absolute number of each subset was investigated. AMM + cytochrome C augumented NK activity in KSN nude mice, protected potent NK cells in patients with lung cancer against RT and sensitized the human lung cancer xenografts to RT. AMM + cytochrome C may have potential as a differential modulator of radiosensitivity of normal tissues and of tumors. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. Protective effects of adrenochrome monoaminoguanidine methanesulfonate (AMM) and cytochrome C (CCC) on natural killer cells in the peripheral blood of cancer patients during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to examine radioprotective effects of adrenochrome monoaminoguanidine methanesulfonate (AMM) and cytochrome C (CCC) on lymphocyte subset during radiotherapy (RT). Sixty five patients received irradiation of 50 Gy or more to the chest field of 100 cm2 or larger. The patients were classified into four groups: those treated with RT alone (Group I, n=15), combined RT and OK-432 (Group II, n=15), combined RT and AMMM + CCC (Group III, n=17), and combined RT and AMM + CCC + OK-432 (Group IV, n=18). Lymphocytes decreased by 64% after RT in Group I and by 50% in Group III. AMM and CCC prevented a decrease in the absolute number of potent natural killer cells and activated T cells, with statistically significant differences. In Group III, the absolute number of activated T cells tended to increase even after RT. Cytotoxic T cells decreased by only 11% after RT in Group III, as compared with 58% in Group I. As found in Groups II and IV, the combination of OK-432 did not have so protective effects on lymphocytes associated with RT as AMM + CCC combined with RT in Groups III. In view of the selective protection for potent natural killer cells and activated T cells, AMM + CCC seemed to serve as biological response modifiers, as well as radioprotective agents. (N.K.)

  4. Laccase and Melanization in Clinically Important Cryptococcus Species Other than Cryptococcus neoformans


    Ikeda, Reiko; Sugita, Takashi; Jacobson, Eric S.; Shinoda, Takako


    The laccase enzyme and melanin synthesis have been implicated as contributors to virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans. Since isolations of Cryptococcus species other than C. neoformans from clinical specimens have been increasing, we examined the laccase activities of C. albidus, C. laurentii, C. curvatus, and C. humicola. Incubation of cells with epinephrine produced adrenochrome color in C. albidus, C. laurentii, and C. curvatus but not in C. humicola. Activity was always less than in C. ne...

  5. Protection against radiation-induced damage - Experimental radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical radiation protection in rodents was first discovered in 1949 and clinical application in cases of acute radiation sickness seemed to be promising. Numerous chemicals were screened in various laboratories, but clinically available chemical protectors were not discovered. It was concluded in 1962 that although a number of compounds may be capable of efficient protection of mice when given before exposure to X or γ rays, none could be considered a practical agent for protection of humans. On the basis of synthesis, stability, and effectiveness of oral administration, as well as dose-reduction properties, S-(2-aminoethyl)isothiouronium (AET) would seem to be the drug of choice. However, preliminary tests of AET in humans indicated that the toxicity may be far too great. New chemical protectors have been reported, following two different lines of research in Japan and in the United States. In Japan, an adrenochrome derivative, adrenochrome monoguanylhydrazone methanesulfonate (AMM) and a new sulfhydrl compound, 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG), which are both effective in much lower doses than their toxic dose in mice, were reported. In the United States, after a large screening of various kinds of derivatives of cysteamine, WR-2721, S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid was reported to have a very high dose-reduction factor of 2.5 or more, thus effective even at a less toxic dose. To make use of these chemicals in cases of cancer radiotherapy, differential protection between tumor and normal tissues has to be established. Studies along this line have been also carried out with WR-2721 and MPG. The results obtained so far are promising for the improvement of radiotherapy. In this chapter, experimental studies on these chemicals are reviewed, emphasizing the authors own research

  6. Synthesis of silver nanoparticle. A new analytical approach for the quantitative assessment of adrenaline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) has been synthesized using adrenaline. Adrenaline readily undergoes an autoxidation reaction in an alkaline medium with the dissolved oxygen to form adrenochrome, thus behaving as a mild reducing agent for the dissolved oxygen. This reducing behavior of adrenaline when employed to reduce Ag+ ions yielded a large enhancement in the intensity of absorbance in the visible region. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies have been performed to confirm the surface morphology of AgNPs. Further, the metallic nanoparticles with size greater than 2 nm caused a strong and broad absorption band in the UV-visible spectrum called surface plasmon band or Mie resonance. The formation of AgNPs caused the large enhancement in the absorbance values with λmax at 436 nm through the excitation of the surface plasmon band. The formation of AgNPs was adopted to for the quantitative assessment of adrenaline using spectrophotometry with lower detection limit and higher precision values. (author)

  7. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in placentas of women with low birth weight neonates. Correlation with toxic and essential trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyse content of essential (Fe, Cu Zn and Se) and toxic (As, Pb, and Cd) elements in placentas from mothers delivering normal (control) and low birth weight neonates (LBW) and correlate its concentration with oxidative stress parameters and foetal growth. Methods: Ions concentrations were analysed by AAS (Cu and Cd) and NAA (Fe, Se, Zn, Pb and As). Oxidative stress parameters (TAS, TBARS, GSH) were analysed by spectrophotometry after chemical reactions producing chromogenic compounds. Antioxidant enzymes Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Glutathion peroxidase (GPx) were kinetically determined by evaluating transformation rate of epinephrine and NADPH to adrenochrom and NADP+ respectively. Results: Placentas from mothers related to LBW neonates had lower Fe concentrations and higher levels of toxic elements (Cd, Pb and As) when compared to normal control placentas. Nevertheless, no correlation was found between any measured element and neonate birth weight. No differences were observed in oxidative stress parameter except total glutathion concentration, which was increased in LBW-related placentas, constituting perhaps a quick reactive defence mechanism against detrimental effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Preliminary studies performed in both groups, demonstrated that protective enzymes activity (GPx and SOD) against oxidative damage caused by ROS, were not significantly different. Nevertheless, placentas involved in adequate for gestation age neonates showed a tendency to present higher SOD activities. More determinations will be necessary to establish a possible correlation between these activities and neonatal birth weight. (author)

  8. Clinical experiences with a chemical radioprotector in tumor radiotherapy: WR-2721

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since cysteine was found to protect lethally irradiated rats, sulfhydryl compounds that provide protection of laboratory animals against lethal doses of ionizing radiations have also been given much attention. The SH compounds have been the most extensively investigated, and β-aminoethylisothiouronium (AET) and cysteamine have been selected as being representative of those drugs that are highly protective. However, clinical application is limited, as the toxicity of these compounds is high. In a series of experiments to reevaluate radioprotective agents with low toxicity, the authors found that 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG) and adrenochrome monoguangylhydrazone methanesulfonate (AMM) have a potent radioprotector effect in a dose far below their toxic doses in both mice and humans. Recently, the development of effective thiophosphate derivatives of cysteamine, namely WR-2721 [S-2-(3-amino-propylaminoethyl)phosphorothioate] by the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Commands, led to a reevaluation of these compounds and their potential in radiotherapy. Initial investigations indicated that WR-2721 provided a considerable degree of radioprotection to normal tissues. This compound provided excellent protection for normal tissues (DMF = 2-2.5) but little protection for the transplanted tumor. Thus this drug may have a differential protection in vivo and may be useful for improving the therapeutic ratio in cancer radiotherapy. The results of animal and chemical experiments in Japan are summarized herein