Sample records for adrenaline

  1. Adrenaline and hypertension

    Blankestijn, Peter


    textabstractThe questions we hoped to answer by the studies described in this thesis, were: 1 Does adrenaline, when infused intravenously in normotensive subjects leading to plasma levels in the high physiological range, cause a sustained and protracted rise in blood pressure, which outlasts the duration of the increments in circulating adrenaline? And if so, does this effect on blood pressure occurs at rest or during periods of activation of the sympathetic nervous system? In view of the dat...

  2. Adrenaline and hypertension

    P.J. Blankestijn (Peter)


    textabstractThe questions we hoped to answer by the studies described in this thesis, were: 1 Does adrenaline, when infused intravenously in normotensive subjects leading to plasma levels in the high physiological range, cause a sustained and protracted rise in blood pressure, which outlasts the dur

  3. Forearm metabolism during infusion of adrenaline

    Simonsen, L; Stefl, B; Bülow, J


    Human skeletal muscle metabolism is often investigated by measurements of substrate fluxes across the forearm. To evaluate whether the two forearms give the same metabolic information, nine healthy subjects were studied in the fasted state and during infusion of adrenaline. Both arms were...... catheterized in a cubital vein in the retrograde direction. A femoral artery was catheterized for blood sampling, and a femoral vein for infusion of adrenaline. Forearm blood flow was measured by venous occlusion strain-gauge plethysmography. Forearm subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was measured...... by the local 133Xe washout method. Metabolic fluxes were calculated as the product of forearm blood flow and a-v differences of metabolite concentrations. After baseline measurements, adrenaline was infused at a rate of 0.3 nmol kg-1 min-1. No difference in the metabolic information obtained in the fasting...

  4. Plasma catecholamines after endotracheal administration of adrenaline during postnatal resuscitation.

    K. O. Schwab; von Stockhausen, H B


    To analyse the degradation of adrenaline after cardiopulmonary resuscitation of preterm neonates, free and sulphoconjugated adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine were determined in 31 preterm neonates by a radioenzymatic method. Nine of the neonates received a high dose (250 micrograms/kg) of endotracheally administered adrenaline (1:1000); three of them had more than one dose of adrenaline. With the exception of sulphoconjugated dopamine, the free and sulphoconjugated catecholamine concent...

  5. Copper Phthalocyanine Catalysis to Oxidation of Adrenaline by Oxygen and Its Application in Adrenaline Detection

    HUANG Jun; LI Mingtian; TANG Yan; FANG Hua; DING Liyun


    The oxidation of adrenaline by dioxygen using copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) as the catalyzer was studied. CuPc has the optimal catalytic pH of 8.0 and the optimal catalytic temperature of 55 ℃. It also has good storage and operation stability. The fiber optic adrenaline biosensor based on CuPc catalysis and fluorescence quenching was fabricated and studied. This sensor has the detection range of 7.0×10-5 -1.5×10-4 mol/L, the response time of 4 min, good reproducibility and stability.

  6. Pulse Radiolysis of Adrenaline in Acid Aqueous Solutions

    Gohn, M.; Getoff, N.; Bjergbakke, Erling


    Pulse radiolysis of adrenaline in acid aqueous solutions (pH 1–3) was carried out. The rate constants for the reactions of adrenaline with H and OH were determined: k(H + adr.) = (0·9±0·1) × 109 dm3 mol−1s−1; k(OH + adr.) = (1·65±0·15) × 1010 dm3 mol−1s−1. The H-adduct of adrenaline has two λmax...

  7. Rotational Spectroscopy Unveils Eleven Conformers of Adrenaline

    Cabezas, C.; Cortijo, V.; Mata, S.; Lopez, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.


    Recent improvements in our LA-MB-FTMW instrumentation have allowed the characterization of eleven and eight conformers for the neurotransmitters adrenaline and noradrenaline respectively. The observation of this rich conformational behavior is in accordance with the recent observation of seven conformers for dopamine and in sharp contrast with the conformational reduction proposed for catecholamines. C. Cabezas, I. Peña, J. C. López, J. L. Alonso J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2013, 4, 486. H. Mitsuda, M. Miyazaki, I. B. Nielsen, P. Carcabal,C. Dedonder, C. Jouvet, S. Ishiuchi, M. Fujii J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 1130.

  8. Rotational Spectra of Adrenaline and Noradrenaline

    Cortijo, V.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.


    The emergence of Laser Ablation Molecular Beam Fourier Transform Microwave (LA-MB-FTMW) spectroscopy has rendered accessible the gas-phase study of solid biomolecules with high melting points. Among the biomolecules to benefit from this technique, neurotransmitters have received special attention due to the lack of experimental information and their biological relevance. As a continuation of the we present the study of adrenaline and noradrenaline. The comparison between the experimental rotational and ^{14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants and those calculated ab initio provide a definitive test for molecular structures and confirm unambiguously the identification of four conformers of adrenaline and three conformers of noradrenaline. Their relative population in the jet has been evaluated by relative intensity measurements of selected rotational transitions. The most abundant conformer in both neurotransmitters present an extended AG configuration with a O-H\\cdotsN hydrogen bond in the side chain. J.L. Alonso, M.E. Sanz, J.C. López and V. Cortijo, J. Am. Chem. Soc. (in press), 2009

  9. Endocrine, metabolic and cardiovascular responses to adrenaline after abdominal surgery

    Hilsted, J; Wilken-Jensen, Charlotte; Birch, K;


    Adrenaline-induced changes in heart rate, blood pressure, plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline, cortisol, glucagon, insulin, cAMP, glucose lactate, glycerol and beta-hydroxybutyrate were studied preoperatively and 4 and 24 h after skin incision in 8 patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy. Late...... postoperative responses of blood glucose, plasma cAMP, lactate and glycerol to adrenaline infusion were reduced, whereas other responses were unaffected. Blood glucose appearance and disappearance rate as assessed by [3H]3-glucose infusion was unchanged pre- and postoperatively. The increase in glucose...... appearance rate following adrenaline was similar pre- and postoperatively. These findings suggest that several beta-receptor-mediated responses to adrenaline are reduced after abdominal surgery....

  10. Adrenaline and glycogenolysis in skeletal muscle during exercise

    Kjaer, M; Howlett, K; Langfort, J;


    The role of adrenaline in regulating muscle glycogenolysis and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity during exercise was examined in six adrenaline-deficient bilaterally adrenalectomised, adrenocortico-hormonal-substituted humans (Adr) and in six healthy control individuals (Con). Subjects cycled...... for 45 min at approximately 70% maximal pulmonary O2 uptake (VO2,max) followed by 15 min at approximately 86% VO2,max either without (-Adr and Con) or with (+Adr) adrenaline infusion that elevated plasma adrenaline levels (45 min, 4.49+/-0.69 nmol l(-1); 60 min, 12.41+/-1.80 nmol l(-1)). Muscle......-phosphate and glucose were similar in -Adr and Con, whereas glycogen phosphorylase (a/a + b x 100 %) and HSL (% phosphorylated) activities increased during exercise in Con only. Adrenaline infusion increased activities of phosphorylase and HSL as well as blood lactate concentrations compared with those in...

  11. Implantable repository adrenaline tablets for long-term studies in rats. [Use of /sup 14/C-adrenaline

    Korsatko, W.; Porta, S.; Sadjak, A.; Supanz, S. (Graz Univ. (Austria))


    Implantable coated Eudragit matrix tablets containing adrenaline in various concentrations should overcome the problem of additional handling stress during long-term infusions. The efficiency of those tablets was tested in vitro, as well as in vivo using /sup 14/C-adrenaline. Both in vitro and in vivo testing yielded satisfactorily output rates up to 20 h whereby the liver and serum content of /sup 14/C-fragments served as an additional prove for the postulated mode of action. Good correlation has been found between the mentioned out-put rates and adrenaline serum levels (measured according to Da Prada).

  12. Could Adrenaline Positive Help to Prevent Psychosomatic Illnesses ?

    Cattani, M; Filho, J P O; Souza, N P C


    Although the existence of a cause and effect relationship between emotions and Psychosomatic Illnesses (manifestation of organic diseases produced by emotional problems) is an unquestionable fact, yet it remains to be explained the mechanism by which an emotion affects the cure or worsening of an illness. In this paper we will examine some articles written by doctors and psychologists which confirm the Prevention Effect (or even cure) of such illnesses, and hypothesize that this cause and effect relationship is mediated by a substance, D (+) - adrenaline, which is one of the enantiomers [1] of the adrenaline molecule.

  13. Intrathecal Sufentanil with Adrenalin in Lower Abdominal Operations

    B. Jahangiry


    Full Text Available Intrathecal injection of sufentanil with adrenalin was performed in 45 cases (20 female, 25 male; age range: 18-40 years. All injections were performed in the sitting position, with a number 20 intrathecal needle immersed in adrenalin. The cases were observed for 72 hours. Maximum duration of analgesia was 12 hours (60% and the minimum was 3 hours (13.3%. This method reduces the need for repeated administration of intravenous or intramuscular narcotics, and unlike intrathecal morphine, dose not cause delayed respiratory depression

  14. Dosis Aman Adrenalin dalam Larutan Anestesi Lokal untuk Penderita Hipertensi

    Untary Untary


    Full Text Available The treatment of patients with hypertension is increasingly common. Hypertensives are a problem because they exhibit a great lability of a blood pressure. The anticipation of dental treatment causes an initial elevation of the blood pressure which may be heightened by the stimulus of an injection or dental treatment. However, probably the underlying causes is endogenous adrenaline. Adrenaline is the most potent and efficient of vasoconstricting drug used in dental anesthetic solution. Lidocaine causes vasodilation, without adrenaline lidocaine is rapidly absorbed from the administration site. Vasoconstrictors are important additions to local anesthetic solutions. They improve the quality of pain control and its duration while decreasing the potential toxicity of the local anesthetic. Observation of dental clinic patients at Loma Linda University confirm the fact that the blood pressure is not elevated by the small amount of vasocontrictor (1:100,000 contained in the most commonly employed dental anesthetic solution. All of the adrenergic amines can produce potentially dangerous cardiovascular effect and elicit disturbing subjactive response when high blood concentration are obtrained. For these reasons Felypressin a nonsymphatomimetic amine alternative for vasoconstriction has been used. An aspirating syringe should be used to avoid the risk of intra vascular injection when administering a local anesthetic solution and it is considered advisable to avoid adrenaline if the hypertension is not controlled.

  15. Use of adrenalin with lidocaine in hand surgery ,

    Ronaldo Antonio de Freitas Novais Junior


    Full Text Available Objective:Because of the received wisdom within our setting that claims that local anesthesia should not be used with adrenalin in hand surgery; we conducted a study using lidocaine with adrenalin, to demonstrate its safety, utility and efficacy.Methods:We conducted a prospective study in which, in wrist, hand and finger surgery performed from July 2012 onwards, we used local anesthesia comprising a 1% lidocaine solution with adrenalin at 1:100,000. We evaluated the quantity of bleeding, systemic alterations, signs of arterial deficit and complications, among other parameters. We described the infiltration techniques for specific procedures individually.Results:We operated on 41 patients and chose to describe separately the raising of a lateral microsurgical flap on the arm, which was done without excessive bleeding and within the usual length of time. In only three cases was there excessive bleeding or use of bipolar tweezers. No systemic alterations were observed by the anesthesiologists or any complications relating to ischemia and necrosis in the wounds or in the fingers, and use of tourniquets was not necessary in any case.Conclusions:Use of lidocaine with adrenalin in hand surgery was shown to be a safe local anesthetic technique, without complications relating to necrosis. It provided efficient exsanguination of the surgical field and made it possible to perform the surgical procedures without using a pneumatic tourniquet, thereby avoiding its risks and benefiting the patient through lower sedation.

  16. The effect of caffeine on glucose kinetics in humans - influence of adrenaline

    Battram, Danielle S.; Graham, Terry E.; Richter, Erik A.;


    While caffeine impedes insulin-mediated glucose disposal in humans, its effect on endo-genous glucose production (EGP) remains unknown. In addition, the mechanism involved in these effects is unclear, but may be due to the accompanying increase in adrenaline concentration. We studied the effect of...... caffeine on EGP and glucose infusion rates (GIR), and whether or not adrenaline can account for all of caffeine's effects. Subjects completed three isoglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamps (with 3-[3H]glucose infusion) 30 min after ingesting: (1) placebo capsules (n= 12); (2) caffeine capsules (5 mg kg-1) (n......= 12); and either (3) placebo plus a high-dose adrenaline infusion (HAdr; adrenaline concentration, 1.2 nM; n= 8) or (4) placebo plus a low-dose adrenaline infusion (LAdr; adrenaline concentration, 0.75 nM; n= 6). With caffeine, adrenaline increased to 0.6 nM but no effect on EGP was observed. While...

  17. Spectral and Electrochemical Investigation of Intercalations of Adrenaline and CT-DNA

    郑赛晶; 林祥钦


    A strong interaction between double stranded calf-thymus DNA (ds-DNA) and adrenaline in solution, but no interaction between single stranded calf-thymus DNA (ss-DNA) and adrenaline was observed by the use of UV-visible spectroscopy and voltammetric techniques. It is suggested that the interaction leads to an intercalation of adrenaline molecules into the groove of ds-DNA and the formation of ds-DNA (adrenallne)n complex. The binding site size of the interaction of adrenaline with CT-DNA in nucleotide phosphate [ NP] has been determined as 25. The interaction of different concentration adrenaline with DNA modified GCE shows that the DNA modified GCE can be a good tool to detect lower concentration adrenaline.

  18. An in vitro study of adrenaline effect on human erythrocyte properties in both gender

    Hilário, Sandra; Saldanha, Carlota; Martins e Silva, J.


    © 2003 – IOS Press. All rights reserved The possibility that erythrocytes may function as a reservoir for noradrenaline and adrenaline and as a modulator of circulating catecholamine concentrations had been suggested. The aim of this work was to study the adrenaline effect on erythrocyte membrane fluidity, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activity, P50 and erythrocyte deformability and also to verify if the role of adrenaline on erythrocyte properties is sex-dependent. Blood sample...

  19. Plasma adrenaline kinetics in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with and without autonomic neuropathy

    Dejgaard, Anders; Hilsted, J; Henriksen, J H; Christensen, N J


    Plasma adrenaline kinetics (clearance, extraction across the forearm, initial plasma disappearance rate, mean sojourn time, volume of distribution) were studied in sixteen Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients during constant i.v. infusion of tritium labelled adrenaline. In patients with (n...... = 8) and without (n = 8) neuropathy forearm venous plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations as well as plasma clearance of adrenaline based on arterial sampling (1.7 vs 2.1 l/min) were not significantly different. The initial disappearance time (T 1/2) after the infusion of the tritium...

  20. Randomised controlled trial evaluating effects of morphine on plasma adrenaline/noradrenaline concentrations in newborns

    Simons, S.; Van Dijk, M.; Lingen, R.A. van; ROOFTHOOFT, D; Boomsma, F; van den Anker, J. N.; Tibboel, D.


    Objectives: To determine the effects of continuous morphine infusion in ventilated newborns on plasma concentrations of adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and their relation to clinical outcome.

  1. Interaction between lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline and various irrigants: A nuclear magnetic resonance analysis

    Nirmal Vidhya


    Full Text Available Background: Interaction between local anesthetic solution, lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline, and root canal irrigants such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA, and chlorhexidine (CHX has not been studied earlier. Hence, the purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the chemical interaction between 2% lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline and commonly used root canal irrigants, NaOCl, EDTA, and CHX. Materials and Methods: Samples were divided into eight experimental groups: Group I-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline/3% NaOCl, Group II-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline/17% EDTA, Group III- Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline/2% CHX, Group IV-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline/3% NaOCl, Group V-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline/17% EDTA, Group VI-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline/2% CHX, and two control groups: Group VII-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline/deionized water and Group VIII-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline/deionized water. The respective solutions of various groups were mixed in equal proportions (1 ml each and observed for precipitate formation. Chemical composition of the formed precipitate was then analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR and confirmed with diazotation test. Results: In groups I and IV, a white precipitate was observed in all the samples on mixing the respective solutions, which showed a color change to reddish brown after 15 minutes. This precipitate was then analysed by NMR spectroscopy and was observed to be 2,6-xylidine, a reported toxic compound. The experimental groups II, III, V, and VI and control groups VII and VIII showed no precipitate formation in any of the respective samples, until 2 hours. Conclusion: Interaction between lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline and NaOCl showed precipitate formation containing 2,6-xylidine, a toxic




    The effect of intravenously applied (-)adrenaline, taken up by and released from sympathetic nerves, on swimming exercise-induced noradrenaline overflow in permanently cannulated adrenal demedullated rats was studied. Adrenaline (100 ng/min) was infused for 2 h, during which a plasma concentration o

  3. Metabolic responses to adrenaline and muscle glycogen content in dogs treated with thyroxine.

    Brzezińska, Z; Kaciuba-Uściłko, H


    Lipolytic, hyperglycaemic and lactacidaemic responses to 1h adrenaline infusion (0.1 microgram/kg/min) were compared in resting dogs before (control) and after prolonged thyroxine (T4) treatment. Besides, the effect of 2-week thyroxine administration on muscle glycogen content, and its changes following adrenaline infusion were examined. Prolonged T4-treatment of dogs resulted in considerable alterations of the metabolic actions of adrenaline. A marked difference between the control and T4-treated dogs was also found in the muscle glycogen content, which was significantly lower in the latter. Both in the control and T4-injected dogs adrenaline infusion caused similar depletion of the muscle glycogen store. However, in all the control animals examined supercompensation of muscle glycogen was noted 1 h following termination of adrenaline infusion, whereas T4-treated dogs were unable of incurring any significant muscle glycogen deposition. PMID:742367

  4. Plasma adrenaline kinetics in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with and without autonomic neuropathy

    Dejgaard, A; Hilsted, J; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl;


    = 8) and without (n = 8) neuropathy forearm venous plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations as well as plasma clearance of adrenaline based on arterial sampling (1.7 vs 2.1 l/min) were not significantly different. The initial disappearance time (T 1/2) after the infusion of the tritium......Plasma adrenaline kinetics (clearance, extraction across the forearm, initial plasma disappearance rate, mean sojourn time, volume of distribution) were studied in sixteen Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients during constant i.v. infusion of tritium labelled adrenaline. In patients with (n...... labelled adrenaline had been stopped was significantly prolonged in Type 1 diabetic patients with neuropathy compared to those without (after 20 min infusion 2.7 vs 2.2 min, p less than 0.02, after 75 min infusion 3.7 vs 2.9 min, p less than 0.05). The corresponding values for the mean sojourn time of...

  5. Strong activation of vascular prejunctional beta 2-adrenoceptors in freely moving rats by adrenaline released as a co-transmitter



    The effect of adrenaline on the electrically evoked noradrenaline overflow in the portal vein of adrenal demedullated freely moving rats was studied. Adrenaline (100 ng/min) was infused for 2 h into the portal vein. After a 1-h interval when plasma adrenaline had returned to pre-infusion undetectabl

  6. Acute reaction to erroneous injection of adrenaline to the patients with hyperthyroidism

    Beuy Joob; Viroj Wiwanitkit


    Hyperthyroidism is an important endocrine disorder that can be seen around the world.In this disorder, the patient is usually hyperstimulate and palpitation.The effect of thyroid hormone is the explanation.A similar effect can be seen due to adrenaline reaction.In general, the use of adrenaline in the case with hyperthyroidism has to be carefully done.In the present case study, the authors present a case of acute reaction to erroneous injection of adrenaline to the patients with hyperthyroidism.

  7. Attempt to separate the fluorescence spectra of adrenaline and noradrenaline using chemometrics

    Nikolajsen, Rikke P; Hansen, Åse Marie; Bro, R


    An investigation was conducted on whether the fluorescence spectra of the very similar catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline could be separated using chemometric methods. The fluorescence landscapes (several excitation and emission spectra were measured) of two data sets with respectively 16...... regression (Unfold-PLSR) on the larger data set and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) of the six samples of the smaller set showed that there was no difference between the fluorescence landscapes of adrenaline and noradrenaline. It can be concluded that chemometric separation of adrenaline and noradrenaline...

  8. Adrenaline activation of prejunctional beta-adrenoceptors in guinea-pig atria.

    Majewski, H.; McCulloch, M. W.; Rand, M J; Story, D. F.


    1. Adrenaline in a concentration of 1.0 microM depressed the stimulation-induced efflux of tritium from the guinea-pig atria incubated with [3H]-noradrenaline, whereas adrenaline in a concentration of 0.5 nM significantly enhanced the stimulation-induced efflux of tritium. This enhancement was blocked by metoprolol (0.1 microM) and thus appears to be mediated by beta-adrenoceptors. 2. In guinea-pig atria incubated with unlabelled adrenaline and then with [3H]-noradrenaline, both catecholamine...

  9. Implantable repository adrenaline tablets for long-term studies in rats

    Implantable coated Eudragit matrix tablets containing adrenaline in various concentrations should overcome the problem of additional handling stress during long-term infusions. The efficiency of those tablets was tested in vitro, as well as in vivo using 14C-adrenaline. Both in vitro and in vivo testing yielded satisfactorily output rates up to 20 h whereby the liver and serum content of 14C-fragments served as an additional prove for the postulated mode of action. Good correlation has been found between the mentioned out-put rates and adrenaline serum levels (measured according to Da Prada). (author)

  10. Vascular and metabolic effects of adrenaline in adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Galbo, H; Bülow, Jens


    Objective:The aim was to investigate adipose tissue vascular and metabolic effects of an adrenaline infusion in vivo in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Design:Clinical intervention study with 1-h intravenous adrenaline infusion.Subjects:Eight male overweight T2DM subjects...... and eight male weight-matched, non-T2DM subjects were studied before, during and after an 1-h intravenous adrenaline infusion. Adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was determined by Xenon wash-out technique, and microvascular volume in the adipose tissue was studied by contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging....... Adipose tissue fluxes of glycerol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triacylglycerol and glucose were measured by Fick's principle after catherisation of a radial artery and a vein draining the abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue.Results:ATBF increased similarly in both groups during the adrenaline...

  11. Impact of Adrenaline or Cortisol Injection on Meat Quality Development of Merino Hoggets

    Dario G. Pighin; Sebastian A. Cunzolo; Maria Zimerman; Adriana A. Pazos; Ernesto Domingo; Anibal J. Pordomingo; Gabriela Grigioni


    Increased levels of stress hormones in the muscle could lead to post mortem metabolic/structural modiifcations that could be relfected on meat quality. The present study investigated the metabolic effect of either adrenaline or cortisol injected into lambs in order to obtain an animal model of acute stress. Results showed that adrenaline or cortisol injection lead to glucose metabolism and muscle temperature increase. Muscle pH immediately post mortem was affected by adrenaline treatment. Water holding capacity (WHC) of fresh muscle, ifnal muscle pH and temperature registered at 24 h post mortem were not affected by injected hormones. Hardness and adhesiveness of LD muscle evaluated 3 d post mortem tended to increase as a result of adrenaline or cortisol injection. Results demonstrated that injected hormones were able to affect the post mortem muscle biochemistry and the pH/T curve independently of ifnal muscle pH.

  12. Morphological aspects of chromaffin tissue: the differential fixation of adrenaline and noradrenaline.

    Kobayashi, S; Coupland, R. E.


    The morphological aspects of chromaffin tissue are reviewed, based mainly on our studies on the mouse adrenal gland. Particular attention was focused on the differential fixation of adrenaline and noradrenaline, and on the uptake and storage of [3H]dopa, [3H]dopamine and related substances in the adrenaline-storing (A) and noradrenaline-storing (NA) cells. Scanning electron microscopy combined with the NaOH-maceration method was useful for demonstrating the 3-dimensional organisation of nerve...

  13. Interaction between lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and various irrigants: A nuclear magnetic resonance analysis

    Nirmal Vidhya; Balasubramanian Saravana Karthikeyan; Natanasabapathy Velmurugan; Mohan Abarajithan; Sivasankaran Nithyanandan


    Background: Interaction between local anesthetic solution, lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline), and root canal irrigants such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), and chlorhexidine (CHX) has not been studied earlier. Hence, the purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the chemical interaction between 2% lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and commonly used root canal irrigants, NaOCl, EDTA, and CHX. Materials...

  14. Myocardial ischaemia following cocaine and adrenaline exposure in a child during an ophthalmological procedure.

    McGovern, E


    We report a 23-month old girl who presented with bilateral epiphora who underwent bilateral lacrimal probing and syringing, during which a cocaine adrenaline solution was used. Two hours after the procedure she developed acute pulmonary oedema secondary to myocardial ischaemia. The patient was treated with intravenous glyceryltrinitrate and milrinone infusions; cardiac enzymes and left ventricular function normalised over the subsequent 72 hours. Topical administration of cocaine and adrenaline solution may have dangerous systemic cardiac effects and should always be used judiciously.

  15. Plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine with and without adrenaline following caudal anaesthesia in infants

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Morton, N S; Cullen, P M;


    The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of adrenaline 1/400000 added to 0.25% bupivacaine significantly delays the systemic absorption of the drug from the caudal epidural space in young infants.......The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of adrenaline 1/400000 added to 0.25% bupivacaine significantly delays the systemic absorption of the drug from the caudal epidural space in young infants....

  16. Effect of adrenaline on glucose kinetics during exercise in adrenalectomised humans

    Howlett, K; Galbo, H; Lorentsen, J;


    1. The role of adrenaline in regulating hepatic glucose production and muscle glucose uptake during exercise was examined in six adrenaline-deficient, bilaterally adrenalectomised humans. Six sex- and age-matched healthy individuals served as controls (CON). 2. Adrenalectomised subjects cycled...... measured using [3-3H]glucose. 3. Euglycaemia was maintained during exercise in CON and -ADR, whilst in +ADR plasma glucose was elevated. The exercise-induced increase in hepatic glucose production was similar in +ADR and -ADR; however, adrenaline infusion augmented the rise in hepatic glucose production...... early in exercise. Glucose uptake increased during exercise in +ADR and -ADR, but was lower and metabolic clearance rate was reduced in +ADR. 4. During exercise noradrenaline and glucagon concentrations increased, and insulin and cortisol concentrations decreased, but plasma levels were similar between...

  17. Adrenaline and serotonin therapeutic effect on the hemopoietic system of irradiated mice

    Post-irradiation effect of adrenaline and serotonin on the hemopoietic system of irradiated mice has been studied. The pharmaceuticals were injected subcutaneously 15 minutes before the X-radiation exposure at a dose of 7 Gy or immediately after it. The degree of radiation injury has been estimated from 30-day survival fraction of the animals, cell state of the bone marrow, mass of spleen, cfu quantity in the bone marrow at exo- and endocolonial growth (following implantation of bone marrow cells from mice that had been injected with these drugs to irradiated recipients). Post-irradiation effect of adrenaline turned to be weaker than that of serotonin, the latter increasing the survival rate of irradiated mice to 50%. It is stated that post-irradiation therapeutic effect of adrenaline and serotonin expressed in acceleration of the irradiated hemopoietic tissue repair can be realized under direct effect of drugs on the viable hemopoietic cells, probably, by enchancement of their proliferation

  18. High Circulating Adrenaline Levels at Admission Predict Increased Mortality After Trauma

    Johansson, Pär Ingemar; Stensballe, Jakob; Rasmussen, Lars Simon;


    partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio, hematology, biochemistry, circulating adrenaline and noradrenaline, 11 biomarkers of tissue and endothelial damage, glycocalyx degradation, natural anticoagulation and fibrinolysis (histone-complexed DNA fragments, high-mobility group box 1...... adrenaline level was increased in nonsurvivors (p = 0.026), it was independently associated with increased activated partial thromboplastin time (p = 0.034) and syndecan-1 (p = 0.007), a marker of glycocalyx degradation, and it correlated with biomarkers of tissue and endothelial damage (histone......-complexed DNA, high-mobility group box 1, soluble thrombomodulin) and hyperfibrinolysis (tissue-type plasminogen activator, d-dimer). Furthermore, nonsurvivors had higher syndecan-1, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and d-dimer levels (all p <0.05). Circulating adrenaline was independently associated with 30...

  19. Calorigenic effect of adrenaline in rats under conditions of restricted motor activity

    Tomaszewska, L.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kozlowski, S.


    In previous studies, it was demonstrated that long term restricted motor activity in rats induces a decrease in body weight, an increase in release of adrenaline, and a decrease in the release of noradrenaline with the urine, as well as a reduction in activity of the thymus gland and level of thyroxin in the blood. At the same time, a decrease was found in the internal body temperature that was accompanied by an increase in the rate of metabolism in the state of rest. An investigation is presented which attempts to clarify whether the calorigenic effect of adrenaline under conditions of increased metabolism in the period of immobility is exposed to changes.

  20. Contribution of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue to adrenaline-induced thermogenesis in man

    Simonsen, L; Stallknecht, B; Bülow, J


    Elevated plasma adrenaline is known to increase whole body energy expenditure. We studied the thermogenic effect and the effects on substrate utilization in man during infusion of adrenaline. Two series were performed: in one series skeletal muscle metabolism was investigated and in another series...... subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism was investigated. In both series Fick's principle was applied. Intravenous infusion increased blood flow, glucose uptake and oxygen uptake in both skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. It is concluded that skeletal muscle contributes about 40% and adipose tissue about 5...

  1. Sustained prejunctional facilitation of noradrenergic neurotransmission by adrenaline as a co-transmitter in the portal vein of freely moving rats.

    Coppes, R. P.; Brouwer, F.; Freie, I; Smit, J.; Zaagsma, J.


    1. The duration of the facilitatory effect of adrenaline on the electrically evoked overflow of noradrenaline was studied in the portal vein of permanently adreno-demedullated freely moving rats. 2. Rats were infused with adrenaline (20 or 100 ng min-1) for 2 h. After an interval of 1 h, when plasma adrenaline had returned to undetectable levels, electrical stimulation resulted in an enhanced catecholamine overflow amounting to 219% (noradrenaline) and 241% (noradrenaline plus adrenaline) of ...

  2. Synthesis of silver nanoparticle. A new analytical approach for the quantitative assessment of adrenaline

    Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) has been synthesized using adrenaline. Adrenaline readily undergoes an autoxidation reaction in an alkaline medium with the dissolved oxygen to form adrenochrome, thus behaving as a mild reducing agent for the dissolved oxygen. This reducing behavior of adrenaline when employed to reduce Ag+ ions yielded a large enhancement in the intensity of absorbance in the visible region. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies have been performed to confirm the surface morphology of AgNPs. Further, the metallic nanoparticles with size greater than 2 nm caused a strong and broad absorption band in the UV-visible spectrum called surface plasmon band or Mie resonance. The formation of AgNPs caused the large enhancement in the absorbance values with λmax at 436 nm through the excitation of the surface plasmon band. The formation of AgNPs was adopted to for the quantitative assessment of adrenaline using spectrophotometry with lower detection limit and higher precision values. (author)

  3. Addition of hyaluronidase to lignocaine with adrenaline for retrobulbar anaesthesia in the surgery of senile cataract.

    Thomson, I.


    A double-blind trial demonstrates the effectiveness of adding hyaluronidase to lignocaine with adrenaline in producing ocular akinesia and anaesthesia in retrobulbar nerve blocks. 92% of the blocks in which hyaluronidase was used for intracapsular cataract surgery were judged successful compared with 56% of those without added hyaluronidase (p less than 0.01).




    Intracavernous papaverine injection has gained widespread acceptance in the treatment of erectile impotence. The opposite problem-priapism -can be treated with the same technique using a vasoconstrictive drug such as adrenaline. We report on eight patients successfully treated for priapism by intrac

  5. Caffeine's impairment of insulin-mediated glucose disposal cannot be solely attributed to adrenaline in humans

    Battram, D S; Graham, T E; Dela, F


    Caffeine (CAF) impedes insulin-mediated glucose disposal (IMGD) and increases plasma adrenaline concentrations ([ADR]; 0.6 nm). While the antagonism of ADR abolishes the CAF effect, infusion of ADR (0.75 nm) has no effect on IMGD. We have now examined CAF and ADR in concert to determine whether or...

  6. Influence of X-ray irradiation on metabolic effects of adrenaline

    Effects of X-ray irradiation in the whole-body dose of 650 R on changes in glycogen levels in liver, and in either diaphragm and skeletal muscles, and on blood glucose levels, induced in 10 min by adrenaline, were investigated in starved mice. One day after the exposure, the drops in liver glycogen levels due to starvation were found to be highly reduced by previous irradiation. This resulted in an over dozen-fold relative elevation of liver glycogen content in relation to starved not irradiated mice. The post-irradiation accumulation of liver glycogen was found to disappear after administration of adrenaline. Also in diaphragm and skeletal muscles, the changes in muscle glycogen content, induced by irradiation of starved mice, have turned out to be abolished or even reversed by adrenaline, what reflected in reduction of elevated levels and elevation of those reduced. In starved mice during first three days following irradition, adrenaline was found to be ineffective in increasing blood sugar levels, whereas this its effects was noted in either not irradiated mice or on the fourth day after irradiation. (author)

  7. Contribution of liver nerves, glucagon, and adrenaline to the glycaemic response to exercise in rats

    Dijk, G. van; Balkan, B.; Lindfeldt, J.; Bouws, G.; Scheurink, A.J.W.; Ahrén, B.; Steffens, A.B.


    The contribution of hepatic sympathetic innervation, glucagon and adrenaline to the glycaemic response to exercise was investigated in rats. Hepatically denervated (LDX) or sham operated (SHAM) rats with permanent catheters were therefore submitted to swimming with or without infusion of somatostati




    The contribution of hepatic sympathetic innervation, glucagon and adrenaline to the glycaemic response to exercise was investigated in rats. Hepatically denervated (LDX) or sham operated (SHAM) rats with permanent catheters were therefore submitted to swimming with or without infusion of somatostati

  9. Noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations in various vascular beds in patients with cirrhosis. Relation to haemodynamics

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Christensen, N J; Ring-Larsen, H


    Plasma noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A) concentrations were related to various haemodynamic parameters in fifteen patients with cirrhosis. In supine position at rest plasma NA and A in peripheral venous blood were significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis than in normal subjects. Mean...

  10. A computational and spectroscopic study of the gas-phase conformers of adrenaline

    Çarçabal, P.; Snoek, L. C.; van Mourik, T.

    The conformational landscapes of the neurotransmitter l-adrenaline (l-epinephrine) and its diastereoisomer pseudo-adrenaline, isolated in the gas phase and un-protonated, have been investigated by using a combination of mass-selected ultraviolet and infrared holeburn spectroscopy, following laser desorption of the sample into a pulsed supersonic argon jet, and DFT and ab initio computation (at the B3LYP/6-31+G*, MP2/6-31+G* and MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ levels of theory). Both for adrenaline and its diastereoisomer, pseudo-adrenaline, one dominant molecular conformation, very similar to the one seen in noradrenaline, has been observed. It could be assigned to an extended side-chain structure (AG1a) stabilized by an OH → N intramolecular hydrogen bond. An intramolecular hydrogen bond is also formed between the neighbouring hydroxyl groups on the catechol ring. The presence of further conformers for both diastereoisomers could not be excluded, but overlapping electronic spectra and low ion signals prevented further assignments.

  11. Adrenaline modulates the global transcriptional profile of Salmonella revealing a role in the antimicrobial peptide and oxidative stress resistance responses

    Williams P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The successful interaction of bacterial pathogens with host tissues requires the sensing of specific chemical and physical cues. The human gut contains a huge number of neurons involved in the secretion and sensing of a class of neuroendocrine hormones called catecholamines. Recently, in Escherichia coli O157:H7, the catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline were shown to act synergistically with a bacterial quorum sensing molecule, autoinducer 3 (AI-3, to affect bacterial virulence and motility. We wished to investigate the impact of adrenaline on the biology of Salmonella spp. Results We have determined the effect of adrenaline on the transcriptome of the gut pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Addition of adrenaline led to an induction of key metal transport systems within 30 minutes of treatment. The oxidative stress responses employing manganese internalisation were also elicited. Cells lacking the key oxidative stress regulator OxyR showed reduced survival in the presence of adrenaline and complete restoration of growth upon addition of manganese. A significant reduction in the expression of the pmrHFIJKLM antimicrobial peptide resistance operon reduced the ability of Salmonella to survive polymyxin B following addition of adrenaline. Notably, both phenotypes were reversed by the addition of the β-adrenergic blocker propranolol. Our data suggest that the BasSR two component signal transduction system is the likely adrenaline sensor mediating the antimicrobial peptide response. Conclusion Salmonella are able to sense adrenaline and downregulate the antimicrobial peptide resistance pmr locus through the BasSR two component signalling system. Through iron transport, adrenaline may affect the oxidative stress balance of the cell requiring OxyR for normal growth. Both adrenaline effects can be inhibited by the addition of the β-adrenergic blocker propranolol. Adrenaline sensing may provide an environmental

  12. Activation of prejunctional beta-adrenoceptors in rat atria by adrenaline applied exogenously or released as a co-transmitter.

    Majewski, H.; Rand, M J; Tung, L. H.


    1 Adrenaline (10 nM) significantly enhanced the stimulation-induced efflux of radioactivity from rat atria previously incubated with [3H]-noradrenaline ([3H]-NA). This effect was abolished by metoprolol (.01 muM). 2 Adrenaline in a higher concentration (1 muM) and NA (1 muM) significantly reduced the stimulation-induced efflux of radioactivity. However, in the presence of phenoxybenzamine (10 muM), adrenaline (1 muM) enhanced the efflux, whereas NA (1 muM) had no effect. 3 In rat isolated atr...

  13. Adrenaline but not noradrenaline is a determinant of exercise-induced lipid mobilization in human subcutaneous adipose tissue

    Glisezinski, I. de; Larrouy, D.; Bajzova, M.;


    The relative contribution of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and adrenaline (epinephrine) in the control of lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) during exercise was evaluated in men treated with a somatostatin analogue, octreotide. Eight lean and eight obese young men matched for...... octreotide suppressed plasma insulin and growth hormone levels at rest and during exercise. It blocked the exercise-induced increase in plasma adrenaline while that of noradrenaline was unchanged. Plasma natriuretic peptides (NPs) level was higher at rest and during exercise under octreotide infusion in lean...... individuals. In conclusion, blockade of beta-adrenergic receptors during exercise performed during infusion of octreotide (blocking the exercise-induced rise in adrenaline but not that of noradrenaline) does not alter the exercise-induced lipolysis. This suggests that adrenaline is the main adrenergic agent...

  14. Do both adrenaline and noradrenaline stimulate cardiac alpha-adrenoceptors to induce positive inotropy of rat atria?

    Williamson, K. L.; Broadley, K. J.


    1. The positive inotropic responses of rat paced left atria to adrenaline and noradrenaline were recorded. Desmethylimipramine (DMI, 1 microM) and metanephrine (10 microM) were initially present throughout. 2. The positive chronotropic responses of spontaneously beating right atria to adrenaline were used as a reference. In these, pindolol, in increasing concentrations, caused progressive shift of the concentration-response curves to the right, which yielded a pA2 value (8.15) compatible with...

  15. The role of adrenaline as a modulator of cardiac performance in three Notothenioid fishes

    Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Bushnell, P.; Tirsgaard, B.;


    The present work was performed to test the hypothesis that Antarctic teleosts rely mostly on cholinergic inhibition to modulate cardiac performance. Isometric muscle preparations were used to examine the inotropic and chronotropic properties of the ventricle and atrium in three Antarctic teleosts...... C. aceratus a combination of pacing frequency and adrenaline yielded the greatest response. The results are discussed with respect to the life-style, temperature and cardiac morphometry of the species investigated....

  16. Circulating adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations during exercise in patients with exercise induced asthma and normal subjects.

    Berkin, K E; Walker, G.; Inglis, G C; S.G. Ball; Thomson, N. C.


    A failure of the usual increase in plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations during submaximal exercise has been suggested as a contributory cause of exercise induced asthma. Six normal subjects and six asthmatic patients underwent a standard graded maximal exercise test. Measurements of oxygen consumption, minute ventilation, exercise time, blood lactate concentration, and heart rate indicated that the two groups achieved similarly high work loads during exercise. Mean FEV1 fell by ...

  17. Adrenaline-, noradrenaline- and small granule- containing cells in the adrenal gland of Discoglossus pictus (Amphibia, Anura).

    Accordi, F; Gallo, V P


    In the adrenal gland of Discoglossus pictus, various types of chromaffin cells are described: noradrenaline cells, adrenaline cells and small granule-containing cells (on the basis of electron density and shape of the granules). The chromaffin cells occur in small groups, and have cytoplasmic processes which may surround them in the form of parallel layers. Their nerve supply is sparse. The possible function of SGC-cells, in relation to those described in other vertebrates, is discussed.

  18. Differential actions of desipramine on sympathoadrenal release of noradrenaline and adrenaline.

    Eisenhofer, G; Friberg, P.; Goldstein, D.S.; Esler, M


    Spillovers noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A) into plasma were examined before and after i.v. administration of 0.3-0.5 mg kg-1 desipramine (DMI) in 19 normal volunteers. DMI decreased the total body spillover of NA by 20 +/- 4%, but increased that of A by 45 +/- 10%. The results indicate differential sympathoadrenal actions of DMI, characterized by inhibition of NA release from sympathetic nerves and stimulation of A secretion from the adrenals. These effects of DMI provide an explanation...

  19. Efficacy of lignocaine with clonidine and adrenaline in minor oral surgical procedure

    Shouvik Chowdhury


    Full Text Available Use of vasoconstrictors in local anaesthesia is well known. The study was done on 30 patients who underwent removal of bilateral impacted third molars. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of lignocaine with clonidine and lignocaine with adrenaline in respect to onset, duration of anaesthesia, and postoperative analgesia along with hemodynamic stability (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, heart rate in intraoral nerve block. The patients were randomly selected of both sexes (male and female between the age group of 18-40 years. Patients received 2 mL of 2% lignocaine with adrenaline (12.5 μg/mL on one side and 2 mL of 2% lignocaine with clonidine (15 μg/mL on the other side at two different appointments. 2 millilitres of drug was administered in both the test group and the control group. Statistically there was significant decrease in intraoperative and postoperative systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate in the lignocaine with clonidine group. The efficacy of clonidine based on visual analog scale was similar to adrenaline. No significant operative complications were observed.

  20. Cerebral non-oxidative carbohydrate consumption in humans driven by adrenaline

    Seifert, Thomas S; Brassard, Patrice; Jørgensen, Thomas B;


    (1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist metroprolol. These observations suggest involvement of a beta(2)-adrenergic mechanism in non-oxidative metabolism for the brain. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of adrenaline (0.08 microg kg(-1) min(-1) i.v. for 15 min) and noradrenaline (0.5, 0.1 and 0.15 microg...... kg(-1) min(-1) i.v. for 20 min) on the arterial to internal jugular venous concentration differences (a-v diff) of O(2), glucose and lactate in healthy humans. Adrenaline (n = 10) increased the arterial concentrations of O(2), glucose and lactate (P < 0.05) and also increased the a-v diff for glucose...... from 0.6 +/- 0.1 to 0.8 +/- 0.2 mM (mean +/- s.d.; P < 0.05). The a-v diff for lactate shifted from a net cerebral release to an uptake and OCI was lowered from 5.1 +/- 1.5 to 3.6 +/- 0.4 (P < 0.05) indicating an 8-fold increase in the rate of non-oxidative carbohydrate uptake during adrenaline...

  1. Submucosal microinfusion of endothelin and adrenaline mobilizes ECL-cell histamine in rat stomach, and causes mucosal damage: a microdialysis study

    Bernsand, M; Ericsson, P; Björkqvist, M; Zhao, C -M; Håkanson, R; Norlén, P


    Rat stomach ECL cells release histamine in response to gastrin. Submucosal microinfusion of endothelin or adrenaline, known to cause vasoconstriction and gastric lesions, mobilized striking amounts of histamine. While the histamine response to gastrin is sustainable for hours, that to endothelin and adrenaline was characteristically short-lasting (1–2 h).The aims of this study were to identify the cellular source of histamine mobilized by endothelin and adrenaline, and examine the differences...

  2. Should adrenaline be used in patients with hemodynamically stable anaphylaxis? Incident case control study nested within a retrospective cohort study.

    Ko, Byuk Sung; Kim, Ji Yeon; Seo, Dong-Woo; Kim, Won Young; Lee, Jae Ho; Sheikh, Aziz; Bates, David W


    Although adrenaline (epinephrine) is a cornerstone of initial anaphylaxis treatment, it is not often used. We sought to assess whether use of adrenaline in hemodynamically stable patients with anaphylaxis could prevent the development of hypotension. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 761 adult patients with anaphylaxis presenting to the emergency department (ED) of a tertiary care hospital over a 10-year period. We divided the patients into two groups according to the occurrence of hypotension and compared demographic characteristics, clinical features, treatments and outcomes. Of the 340 patients with anaphylaxis who were normotensive at first presentation, 40 patients experienced hypotension during their ED stay. The ED stay of the hypotension group was significantly longer than that of patients who did not experience hypotension (496 min vs 253 min, P = 0.000). Adrenaline use in hemodynamically stable anaphylaxis patient was independently associated with a lower risk of developing in-hospital occurrence of hypotension: OR, 0.254 [95% CI, 0.091-0.706]. Adrenaline use in hemodynamically stable anaphylaxis patients was associated with a reduced risk of developing in-hospital occurrence of hypotension. Adverse events induced by adrenaline were rare when the intramuscular route was used. PMID:26837822

  3. Ventricular arrhythmogenic dose of adrenaline during sevoflurane, isoflurane, and halothane anaesthesia either with or without ketamine or thiopentone in cats.

    Hikasa, Y; Okabe, C; Takase, K; Ogasawara, S


    The doses of adrenaline required to induce ventricular arrhythmia during sevoflurane, isoflurane and halothane anaesthesia, either with or without infusions of ketamine (76 micrograms kg-1 min-1) or thiopentone (0.5 mg kg-1 min-1), were determined in cats. Groups of six to eight cats were maintained at end-tidal concentrations equivalent to 1.25 times the minimal alveolar concentration of each anaesthetic. The mean dose of adrenaline required to induce arrhythmia during sevoflurane anaesthesia (19.0 micrograms kg-1) was approximately 11 times higher than that required during halothane anaesthesia (1.66 micrograms kg-1) and the same as that required during isoflurane anaesthesia (19.0 micrograms kg-1). Ketamine tended to decrease the requirement of adrenaline during halothane anaesthesia, but not significantly, and did not change the requirement during isoflurane or sevoflurane anaesthesia. Thiopentone did not change the requirement for adrenaline during halothane, isoflurane or sevoflurane anaesthesia. It was concluded that either with or without ketamine or thiopentone, the effect of sevoflurane on the sensitisation of the feline myocardium to the arrhythmogenic effects of adrenaline was significantly less than that of halothane and not different from that of isoflurane. PMID:8685534

  4. Whole body and regional clearances of noradrenaline and adrenaline in man

    Christensen, N J; Galbo, H; Gjerris, A;


    The whole body clearance of noradrenaline (NA) was measured in seven patients pre- and postoperatively. L-3H-NA was infused intravenously for 90 min and steady-state concentrations of L-3H-NA were measured in both arterial and peripheral venous blood. Preoperatively, in the resting supine position...... uptake of NA, since we found no correlation between clearance values based on venous and arterial sampling. In other experiments we measured the influence of physical exercise in young healthy subjects on the clearance rate of plasma adrenaline (A). The clearance of A, which at rest averaged 1.9 l...

  5. Placebo-controlled trial of nebulization with adrenaline in acute bronchiolitis: a quasi-experimental study

    Background: Bronchiolitis is an acute inflammatory obstruction. of small In children that occurs In first two years of life and is by fever, rhinitis, cough, tachypnoea, expiratory wheeze and increased respiratory effort To study efficacy of nebulized adrenaline compared with placebo in acute bronchiolitis. Quasi-experimental study carried out at Department of aediatrics, King Edward Medical University/ Mayo Hospital, Lahore from October 2006 through March 2007. After consent from parents, sixty children of age between 2 months to 2 years with the first episode consistent with clinical case definition of bronchiolitis were included by using convenient sampling. clinical scoring system was used to grade the severity of disease as well as to monitor the efficacy of intervention. Those having score = 8 were randomly allocated to the two study groups. The information was recorded at 0 minute and effect of each method of treatment was followed for 90 minutes. Results: Our study population was 60 children. The mean age was 11:1:6 Months. Male to female ratio was 1.2: 1. Mean weight of the Children was 9:1:3 kg. Improvement in clinical score, oxygen saturation, and length of hospital at 0 and 90 minutes was noted in both groups but when compared with placebo, there was no Statistically significant difference. Conclusion: There is no difference in the efficacy of nebulization with adrenaline compared with placebo in the management of acute bronchiolitis. (author)

  6. Excess subcutaneous tissue may preclude intramuscular delivery when using adrenaline autoinjectors in patients with anaphylaxis.

    Johnstone, J; Hobbins, S; Parekh, D; O'Hickey, S


    Intramuscular adrenaline is the gold standard treatment for anaphylaxis. Intramuscular injection provides more rapid and higher plasma concentrations than subcutaneous routes. Given the increasing epidemic of obesity patients are at increased risk of subcutaneous delivery, we therefore assessed the depth of subcutaneous tissue in a population of patients with anaphylaxis. Patients already prescribed adrenaline autoinjectors (AAIs) for anaphylaxis were examined with ultrasound, and measurements of skin-to-muscle depth (STMD) at anterolateral thigh and anterior thigh were performed. Twenty-eight patients (23 female, 5 male) with an age range of 18-75 took part in the study, and in 68%, the STMD was greater than AAI needle length (15.02 mm), using the anterolateral thigh as the recommended administration site. The key predictors for increased STMD were female gender (P=0.0003) and a BMI > 30 (P=0.04). AAIs require longer needles to ensure intramuscular administration, and ultrasound at point of prescription would aid needle length selection. PMID:25676800

  7. Action of adrenalin on the circulation of the murine Plasmodium developing stages, in different blood compartments

    Bertani S.


    Full Text Available Adrenalin was used to investigate in vivo the circulation of the different stages of rodent Plasmodium present in the blood. A single dose of adrenalin injected to mice infected with P. yoelii resulted immediately in i a diminution of the parasitaemia of approximately 50 % in the peripheral large vessels (estimated in tail blood films, as well as in the capillaries (estimated in smears of blood collected from a fed Anopheles, and ii an increased parasitaemia in blood collected by cardiac puncture from the right heart. The numbers of young stages of P. yoelii in the peripheral blood were initially somewhat reduced but, unexpectedly, midterm trophozoites were preferentially expelled from the peripheral blood into major organs like the heart. With P. vinckei, parasitaemia decreased only when midterm trophozoites predominated, and with P. chabaudi no effect was observed at any time. We propose that midterm trophozoites, by their increased surface area, as compared to rings, and their flexibility which contrasts with the rigid schizonts, are particularly susceptible to haemodynamic perturbations.

  8. Adrenaline-induced colonic K+ secretion is mediated by KCa1.1 (BK) channels

    Sørensen, Mads Vaarby; Sausbier, Matthias; Ruth, Peter;


    anion secretion and a smaller electrically opposing K(+) secretion. Using tissue from (i) BK wildtype (BK(+/+)) and knockout (BK(/)) and (ii) cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) wildtype (CFTR(+/+)) and knockout (CFTR(/)) mice we were able to isolate the adrenaline-induced K(+) secretion. We...... found that adrenaline-induced K(+) secretion: (1) is absent in colonic epithelia from BK(/) mice, (2) is greatly up-regulated in mice on a high K(+) diet and (3) is present as sustained positive current in colonic epithelia from CFTR(/) mice. We identified two known C-terminal BK alpha-subunit splice...

  9. Sustained prejunctional facilitation of noradrenergic neurotransmission by adrenaline as a co-transmitter in the portal vein of freely moving rats

    COPPES, RP; Freie, I.; SMIT, J; ZAAGSMA, J


    1 The duration of the facilitatory effect of adrenaline on the electrically evoked overflow of noradrenaline was studied in the portal vein of permanently adreno-demedullated freely moving rats. 2 Rats were infused with adrenaline (20 or 100 ng min(-1)) for 2 h. After an interval of 1 h, when plasma

  10. Effects of oxygenation and the stress hormones adrenaline and cortisol on the viscosity of blood from the trout oncorhynchus mykiss

    Sørensen, Bodil; Weber, Roy


    Although the concentrations of the stress hormones adrenaline and cortisol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) blood increase upon hypoxic exposure, the combined effects of these hormones and O2 lack upon fish blood rheology have not been investigated. Deoxygenated blood taken by caudal puncture...

  11. Physiological heart activation by adrenaline involves parallel activation of ATP usage and supply.

    Korzeniewski, Bernard; Deschodt-Arsac, Véronique; Calmettes, Guillaume; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Diolez, Philippe


    During low-to-high work transition in adult mammalian heart in vivo the concentrations of free ADP, ATP, PCr (phosphocreatine), P(i) and NADH are essentially constant, in striking contrast with skeletal muscle. The direct activation by calcium ions of ATP usage and feedback activation of ATP production by ADP (and P(i)) alone cannot explain this perfect homoeostasis. A comparison of the response to adrenaline (increase in rate-pressure product and [PCr]) of the intact beating perfused rat heart with the elasticities of the PCr producer and consumer to PCr concentration demonstrated that both the ATP/PCr-producing block and ATP/PCr-consuming block are directly activated to a similar extent during physiological heart activation. Our finding constitutes a direct evidence for the parallel-activation mechanism of the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation in heart postulated previously in a theoretical way. PMID:18377364

  12. Thermodynamic parameters associated with the binding of adrenalin and norephedrine to heparin

    Al-Ali, A.K.; Buchanan, J.D.; Power, D.M. (Salford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Biochemistry); Butler, J. (Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Inst., Manchester (UK). Paterson Labs.)


    Pulse radiolysis has been used to determine the thermodynamic parameters (',' and') governing the binding of adrenalin and norephedrine to heparin. These complexes were completely dissociated by increasing concentrations of inorganic salts. Lower concentrations of divalent cations (e.g. Ca/sup 2 +/) than of monovalent cations (e.g. Na/sup +/) were necessary to effect dissociation of the complex. For each interaction an increase in drug binding occurred as the temperature was increased from ambient. However, a transition temperature was observed (48/sup 0/C) above which the drug was progressively released as the temperature was increased. These observations are discussed in terms of conformational changes induced in the polymer below and above its melting temperature.

  13. Specific insulin binding in bovine chromaffin cells; demonstration of preferential binding to adrenalin-storing cells

    Serck-Hanssen, G.; Soevik, O.


    Insulin binding was studied in subpopulations of bovine chromaffin cells enriched in adrenalin-producing cells (A-cells) or noradrenalin-producing cells (NA-cells). Binding of /sup 125/I-insulin was carried out at 15/sup 0/C for 3 hrs in the absence or presence of excess unlabeled hormone. Four fractions of cells were obtained by centrifugation on a stepwise bovine serum albumin gradient. The four fractions were all shown to bind insulin in a specific manner and the highest binding was measured in the cell layers of higher densities, containing mainly A-cells. The difference in binding of insulin to the four subpopulations of chromaffin cells seemed to be related to differences in numbers of receptors as opposed to receptor affinities. The authors conclude that bovine chromaffin cells possess high affinity binding sites for insulin and that these binding sites are mainly confined to A-cells. 24 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  14. Intramuscular adrenaline does not reduce the incidence of respiratory distress and hypoglycaemia in neonates delivered by elective caesarean section at term

    Pedersen, Pernille; Avlund, O L; Pedersen, B L; Pryds, Ole


    AIM: To test whether intramuscular injection of 30 microg adrenaline decreased the incidence of respiratory distress and hypoglycaemia in term infants delivered by elective caesarean section before active labour. METHOD: The study was randomised and double-blinded. A total of 270 neonates were...... respiratory distress and hypoglycaemia was 14% among infants treated with adrenaline compared with 7% in those who received saline injection (p = 0.048). CONCLUSION: Intramuscular injection of 30 microg adrenaline does not reduce the incidence of respiratory distress or hypoglycaemia after elective caesarean...... assigned to intramuscular treatment with saline (0.30 ml) or 30 microg adrenaline (0.30 ml) immediately after birth. The primary endpoint was referral to the neonatal ward because of respiratory distress or a blood glucose level <1.8 mmol/l measured 2 h after birth. The first 50 infants were monitored with...

  15. Intramuscular adrenaline does not reduce the incidence of respiratory distress and hypoglycaemia in neonates delivered by elective caesarean section at term

    Pedersen, Pernille; Avlund, O L; Pedersen, B L;


    AIM: To test whether intramuscular injection of 30 microg adrenaline decreased the incidence of respiratory distress and hypoglycaemia in term infants delivered by elective caesarean section before active labour. METHOD: The study was randomised and double-blinded. A total of 270 neonates were...... assigned to intramuscular treatment with saline (0.30 ml) or 30 microg adrenaline (0.30 ml) immediately after birth. The primary endpoint was referral to the neonatal ward because of respiratory distress or a blood glucose level ... with pulse oximetry to disclose potential side effects. RESULTS: Pulse-oximetry recordings revealed a modest systemic effect by intramuscular adrenaline as the heart rate and the haemoglobin oxygen saturation were significantly higher in infants who received adrenaline. In contrast, the incidence...

  16. Adrenaline modulates the global transcriptional profile of Salmonella revealing a role in the antimicrobial peptide and oxidative stress resistance responses

    Williams P; Winzer K; Thompson A.; Bulmer DM; Spencer H; Karavolos MH; Hinton JCD; Khan CM Anjam


    Abstract Background The successful interaction of bacterial pathogens with host tissues requires the sensing of specific chemical and physical cues. The human gut contains a huge number of neurons involved in the secretion and sensing of a class of neuroendocrine hormones called catecholamines. Recently, in Escherichia coli O157:H7, the catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline were shown to act synergistically with a bacterial quorum sensing molecule, autoinducer 3 (AI-3), to affect bacter...

  17. Adrenaline in pro-oxidant conditions elicits intracellular survival pathways in isolated rat cardiomyocytes

    In several pathologic conditions, like cardiac ischemia/reperfusion, the sustained elevation of plasma and interstitial catecholamine levels, namely adrenaline (ADR), and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are hallmarks. The present work aimed to investigate in cardiomyocytes which intracellular signalling pathways are altered by ADR redox ability. To mimic pathologic conditions, freshly isolated calcium tolerant cardiomyocytes from adult rat were incubated with ADR alone or in the presence of a system capable of generating ROS [(xanthine with xanthine oxidase) (X/XO)]. ADR elicited a pro-oxidant signal with generation of reactive species, which was largely magnified by the ROS generating system. However, no change in cardiomyocytes viability was observed. The pro-oxidant signal promoted the translocation to the nucleus of the transcription factors, Heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1) and Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In addition, proteasome activity was compromised in the experimental groups where the generation of reactive species occurred. The decrease in the proteasome activity of the ADR group resulted from its redox sensitivity, since the activity was recovered by adding the ROS scavenger, tiron. Proteasome inhibition seemed to elicit an increase in HSP70 levels. Furthermore, retention of mitochondrial cytochrome c and inhibition of caspase 3 activity were observed by X/XO incubation in presence or absence of ADR. In conclusion, in spite of all the insults inflicted to the cardiomyocytes, they were capable to activate intracellular responses that enabled their survival. These mechanisms, namely the pathways altered by catecholamine proteasome inhibition, should be further characterized, as they could be of relevance in the ischemia preconditioning and the reperfusion injury

  18. Adrenaline and reactive oxygen species elicit proteome and energetic metabolism modifications in freshly isolated rat cardiomyocytes

    The sustained elevation of plasma and interstitial catecholamine levels, namely adrenaline (ADR), and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are well recognized hallmarks of several cardiopathologic conditions, like cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and heart failure (HF). The present work aimed to investigate the proteomics and energetic metabolism of cardiomyocytes incubated with ADR and/or ROS. To mimic pathologic conditions, freshly isolated calcium-tolerant cardiomyocytes from adult rat were incubated with ADR alone or in the presence of a system capable of generating ROS [(xanthine with xanthine oxidase) (XXO)]. Two-dimensional electrophoresis with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometer analysis were used to define protein spot alterations in the cardiomyocytes incubated with ADR and/or ROS. Moreover, the energetic metabolism and the activity of mitochondrial complexes were evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance and spectrophotometric determinations, respectively. The protein extract was mainly constituted by cardiac mitochondrial proteins and the alterations found were included in five functional classes: (i) structural proteins, notably myosin light chain-2; (ii) redox regulation proteins, in particular superoxide dismutase (SOD); (iii) energetic metabolism proteins, encompassing ATP synthase alpha chain and dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex; (iv) stress response proteins, like the heat shock proteins; and (v) regulatory proteins, like cytochrome c and voltage-dependent anion channel 1. The XXO system elicited alterations in cardiac contractile proteins, as they showed high levels of cleavage, and also altered energetic metabolism, through increased lactate and alanine levels. The cardiomyocytes incubation with ADR resulted in an accentuated increase in mitochondrial complexes activity and the decrease in alanine/lactate ratio, thus reflecting a high

  19. Low-dose adrenaline, promethazine, and hydrocortisone in the prevention of acute adverse reactions to antivenom following snakebite: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    H Asita de Silva


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Envenoming from snakebites is most effectively treated by antivenom. However, the antivenom available in South Asian countries commonly causes acute allergic reactions, anaphylactic reactions being particularly serious. We investigated whether adrenaline, promethazine, and hydrocortisone prevent such reactions in secondary referral hospitals in Sri Lanka by conducting a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In total, 1,007 patients were randomized, using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of adrenaline (0.25 ml of a 1∶1,000 solution subcutaneously, promethazine (25 mg intravenously, and hydrocortisone (200 mg intravenously, each alone and in all possible combinations. The interventions, or matching placebo, were given immediately before infusion of antivenom. Patients were monitored for mild, moderate, or severe adverse reactions for at least 96 h. The prespecified primary end point was the effect of the interventions on the incidence of severe reactions up to and including 48 h after antivenom administration. In total, 752 (75% patients had acute reactions to antivenom: 9% mild, 48% moderate, and 43% severe; 89% of the reactions occurred within 1 h; and 40% of all patients were given rescue medication (adrenaline, promethazine, and hydrocortisone during the first hour. Compared with placebo, adrenaline significantly reduced severe reactions to antivenom by 43% (95% CI 25-67 at 1 h and by 38% (95% CI 26-49 up to and including 48 h after antivenom administration; hydrocortisone and promethazine did not. Adding hydrocortisone negated the benefit of adrenaline. CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment with low-dose adrenaline was safe and reduced the risk of acute severe reactions to snake antivenom. This may be of particular importance in countries where adverse reactions to antivenom are common, although the need to improve the quality of available antivenom cannot be

  20. The effect of verapamil and diltiazem on cardiac stimulant effect of adrenaline and calcium chloride on isolated frog heart

    Lakhavat Sudhakar, Naveen Kumar T, Tadvi NA, Venkata Rao Y


    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers block voltage dependent L-type of calcium channel and thus reduce the frequency of opening of these channels in response to depolarization. The result is a marked decrease in transmembrane calcium current associated with long lasting relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, reduction in contractility in cardiac muscle, decrease in pacemaker activity in the SA node and decrease in conduction velocity in the AV node. Among Calcium channel blockers verapamil, is cardio selective, nifedipine is vascular smooth muscle selective, while diltiazem exhibits intermediate selectivity. Methods: In the present study, the effect of two Ca++ channel blocker, Verapamil and Diltiazem were compared on the isolated frog heart by using adrenaline & calcium chloride as standard on frog heart contractility. Results and conclusion: Adrenaline and calcium chloride increased the amplitude of contraction of isolated perfused frog heart. The L- type of Ca2+ channel blockers verapamil and diltiazem produced dose dependent (2mg, 4mg, 8mg, and 16mg reduction in the amplitude of contraction produced by calcium chloride in isolated perfused frog heart. There was no statistical significant difference (p > 0.05 between the inhibitory effect of diltiazem and verapamil on calcium chloride induced contraction of isolated frog heart.

  1. Evidence for the occurrence of an enkephalin-like peptide in adrenaline and noradrenaline neurons of the rat medulla oblongata.

    Ceccatelli, S; Millhorn, D E; Hökfelt, T; Goldstein, M


    The indirect immunofluorescence technique was used to analyze the catecholaminergic neurons in the medulla oblongata of the rat for the presence of enkephalin (ENK)- and neuropeptide Y (NPY)-like immunoreactivity (LI). In colchicine pretreated animals, using a double staining technique with mouse and rabbit antibodies against ENK and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), it was demonstrated that both TH- and ENK-LI occurred in the same neurons, particularly in many neurons of the A1 noradrenaline cell group. In the transition zone to the C1 adrenaline cell group, a proportion of PNMT-positive cells also contained ENK-LI. In the rostral and mid portion of the C1 group only few TH/PNMT-positive cells were found to be ENK-positive. In the noradrenergic A2 region, a moderate number of cell bodies also contained TH- plus ENK-LI, whereas only a few of the adrenaline cells of the C2 and C3 groups showed ENK-LI. In addition, with an elution restaining technique it was possible to demonstrate that several of the cells containing TH- and ENK-LI were also positive for NPY-LI. The present findings demonstrate that a subpopulation of the catecholaminergic neurons in the medulla oblongata of the rat is ENK-positive, thereby indicating a possible co-release of the two compounds in their projection areas, for example the paraventricular nucleus and the spinal cord. PMID:2565245

  2. (−)-Timolol is a more potent antagonist of the positive inotropic effects of (−)-adrenaline than of those of (−)-noradrenaline in human atrium

    Wang, T.; Kaumann, A. J.; Brown, M. J.


    The affinity of (−)-timolol for β1- and β2-adrenoceptors was determined on isolated atrial preparations from patients undergoing open heart surgery. The times for onset and offset of antagonism of the positive inotropic effects of (−)-adrenaline and (−)-noradrenaline by (−)-timolol were measured.The antagonism of the positive inotropic effects of (−)-adrenaline and (−)-noradrenaline by (−)-timolol (0.1–100 nm) was simple competitive in human atrium tissue. The slope of Schild-plots was not si...

  3. The effect of adrenaline and high Ca2+ on the mechanical performance and oxygen consumption of the isolated perfused trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) heart

    Rytter, Dorte; Gesser, Hans


    In heart muscle from mammals, catecholamines frequently evoke an oxygen waste and reduce efficiency. It was examined if this also applies to fish in which heart muscle activity is often restricted by oxygen availability. In the isolated perfused heart from rainbow trout, adrenaline (0.5 microM) i...

  4. Effect of inhibitory avoidance trainning, ACTH, beta-endorphin and adrenaline on the incorporation of 14C-leucine into synaptosomal proteins of rat hypothalamus, amygdala and hippocampus

    'In vitro' incorporation of leucine to protein was studied in synaptosomes isolated from the hypothalamus, amygdala and hippocampus of rats submitted to inhibitory avoidance training or to the i.p. injection of ACTH, beta-endorphin or adrenaline; or in synaptosomes incubated with these substances. (M.A.C.)

  5. Resting venous plasma adrenalin in 70-year-old men correlated positively to survival in a population study: the significance of the physical working capacity

    Christensen, Niels Juel; Schultz-Larsen, K


    OBJECTIVE. The aim of the study was to evaluate plasma noradrenaline (NA) and plasma adrenalin (A) as predictors of mortality in a population study. SUBJECTS. All subjects were 70 years of age in 1984. They were selected from the National Person Register. Altogether, 804 subjects participated in a...

  6. Validation of a high performance liquid chromatography analysis for the determination of noradrenaline and adrenaline in human urine with an on-line sample purification

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, J; Nielsen, J L;


    of catecholamines in urine of healthy individuals in a field study. The laboratory method evaluation study showed that the recovery of the method was 0.82 (confidence interval (CI): 0.79-0.86) and 0.92 (CI: 0.89-0.95) for noradrenaline and adrenaline, respectively. Thus, correction factors of 0...

  7. Repetitive hypoglycemia increases circulating adrenaline level with resultant worsening of intimal thickening after vascular injury in male Goto-Kakizaki rat carotid artery.

    Yasunari, Eisuke; Mita, Tomoya; Osonoi, Yusuke; Azuma, Kosuke; Goto, Hiromasa; Ohmura, Chie; Kanazawa, Akio; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Fujitani, Yoshio; Watada, Hirotaka


    Hypoglycemia associated with diabetes management is a potential risk for cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of hypoglycemic episodes including a surge of sympathetic activity on the progression of neointima formation after vascular injury remains largely unknown. In this study, insulin was injected intraperitoneally into nonobese diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, once every 3 days for 4 weeks after balloon injury of carotid artery to induce hypoglycemia. Then, we evaluated balloon injury-induced neointima formation. Insulin treatment enhanced neointima formation and increased the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells in the carotid artery. Injection of glucose with insulin prevented hypoglycemia and abrogated intimal thickening. Also, bunazosin, an α1 adrenergic receptor antagonist, prevented intimal thickening and accumulation of PCNA-positive cells induced by insulin treatment despite the presence of concomitant hypoglycemia and high adrenaline levels. Incubation of cultured smooth muscle cells with adrenaline resulted in a significant increase in their proliferation and G0/G1 to S phase progression, which was associated with activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, enhanced expression of cell cycle regulatory molecules such as cyclin D1, and cyclin E, and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. These adrenaline-induced effects were abrogated by bunazosin. Our data indicated that increased adrenaline induced by repetitive hypoglycemia promotes intimal thickening and smooth muscle cell proliferation after endothelial denudation in GK rats. PMID:24684300

  8. Adrenaline but not noradrenaline is a determinant of exercise-induced lipid mobilization in human subcutaneous adipose tissue

    de Glisezinski, I; Larrouy, D; Bajzova, M;


    The relative contribution of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and adrenaline (epinephrine) in the control of lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) during exercise was evaluated in men treated with a somatostatin analogue, octreotide. Eight lean and eight obese young men matched for...... men. Under placebo, no difference was found in the exercise-induced increase in glycerol between the probe perfused with Ringer solution alone and that with phentolamine (an alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist) in lean subjects while a greater increase in glycerol was observed in the obese subjects....... Under placebo, propranolol infusion in the probe containing phentolamine reduced by about 45% exercise-induced glycerol release; this effect was fully suppressed under octreotide infusion while noradrenaline was still elevated and exercise-induced lipid mobilization maintained in both lean and obese...

  9. Simultaneous determination of the content of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline in pancreatic islets isolated from fed and starved mice

    A highly sensitive double isotope method for the simultaneous determination of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline has been developed. Advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. The mentioned biogenic amines are all present in isolated pancreatic islet tissue from albino mice in concentrations ranging from approximately 5-30 μmol per kg wet weight (0.8-5 x 10-3 pmol/ng DNA). A somewhat higher content of these amines, especially dopamine, was found in pancreatic acinar tissue. The hypothesis that the impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion during starvation partly is caused by an increased content of biogenic amines in the pancreatic islets was not supported by our experiments which showed an unchanged islet content of these amines after 48 h starvation. (author)

  10. The radioenzymatic determination of adrenaline and noradrenaline in plasma and its use in the diagnostic of pheochromocytomas

    The radioenzymatic determination of adrenaline and noradrenaline in human plasma for the diagnosis of pheochromocytomas was put to use after improvements were made with respect to extraction and separation steps. The plasma catecholamines at rest were distinctly higher in patients with pheochromocytomas. The plasma catecholamine level showed a significant increase as well with the glucagon test between the second and fifth minute. The method was not well suited for the localisation diagnostic where the plasma catecholamines were determined in selectively taken blood from the lower vena cava. Overall, however, the radioenzymatic determination of catecholamines in plasma proved itself to be a relatively ponderous, but exact and sensitive method for the measuring of basal catecholamine level and its changes. In the clinical area it is used as a valuable supplement to the contemporary diagnostic of pheochromocytomas. (orig./TRV)

  11. Short-term effect of adrenalin on S-100b and N-CAM level in the different rat brain areas

    Y. P. Kovalchuk


    Full Text Available The level of adrenalin grows under stress conditions, sense of danger, anxiety, fear, trauma, burns and shock. In high concentrations adrenaline increases the speed of protein catabolism. Working through the circulatory system, adrenaline affects almost all the functions of organs, causing the body mobilization to counter stressful situations. Due to ELISA the astrocytes-specific protein (S-100b and neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM were studied. S-100b is produced mainly by astrocytes іn the brain and depending on the concentration it causes trophic or toxic effect on the neurons and glial cells.Strong stress and ischemia induce re-distribution of calcium-binding protein S-100b and elevation of its level. Quantitative changes of S-100b under the influence of various factors on the body which lead to the metabolic disorder in the brain are considered today as a sign of brain damage (cortical, ischemic one, etc.. Fluctuations in the concentration of S-100b in the brain are not always accompanied by marked deterioration of the physical condition of animals, but they can also lead to a number of violations of integrative functions of the brain depending on over-production of this protein. Most N-CAM are transmembrane proteins that cross the plasma membraneonce; intracellular domains have different size and it is thought they are involved in binding to cytoskeleton or cell signaling. Violation of N-CAM functions leads to disruption of nerve sprouts. Data obtained in our study showed no serious re-distribution of S-100b and N-CAM level in the different areas of rat brain (cerebral cortex, hippocampus and thalamus under effect of adrenalin administered to the animals (under skin in dosage of 0.45–0.60 mg per rat, 1 time per day during 10 days, probably because of the type of injection and/or short time of adrenalin action. Increased dosage of adrenaline 1 hour before decapitation leads to the decrease of level of total protein in membrane

  12. L-Asparaginaz Allerjisi Sürekli Adrenalin ?nfüzyonu E?li?inde Yapılan Desensitizasyonla A??labilir miş

    2, Semra KARA; 1, Nurullah ÇEL?K; 2, Ömer CEV?T; 2, Hayri B. TOKSOY 2 Dilara ?ÇA?ASIO?LU


    ABSTRACT May L-asparaginase allergies be removed by desen-sitization with continous adrenaline infusion? The allergic reactions related to chemotherapeutic drugs represent a very significiant problem in clinical practice as all these antineoplastic drugs must be used in a phase associated schedule. L-asparaginase is an anti-neoplastic drug in which hypersensitivity reactions can be seen commonly. It is estimated that hyper-sensitivity reactions may occur in 5-35% and life threatening a...

  13. Beta-adrenoceptor blockade and psychic stress in man. A comparison of the acute effects of labetalol, metoprolol, pindolol and propranolol on plasma levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline.

    Trap-Jensen, J; Carlsen, J E; Hartling, O J; Svendsen, T L; Tangø, M; Christensen, N J


    1 A random double-blind study was performed in healthy volunteers. The immediate effects of three different beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents, metoprolol, pindolol and propranolol, on the plasma concentrations of adrenaline and noradrenaline were compared in a situation of pleasant psychic stimulation during a television-game of tennis. The immediate effects of labetalol in a group of patients with arterial hypertension were studied in a similar experimental situation. 2 During psychic stress...




    Full Text Available AIM To compare the changes in blood glucose level associated with administration of adrenaline containing local anesthetic in diabetic and non-diabetic patients undergoing minor oral surgical procedures. METHODS AND MATERIAL The study included 150 well controlled diabetic patients and 150 non-diabetic healthy patients in age group of 40-60 years who underwent minor oral surgical procedures (trans alveolar extractions, alveoplasty and flap surgeries. Patients in both the group were administered 1.8ml of local anesthetic agent containing 1:100,000 adrenaline for inferior alveolar nerve block and 0.2 ml of anesthetic agent for long buccal nerve block. Blood glucose levels were assessed and compared during pre-operative and one hour post-operative period. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS The comparison of the random blood sugar levels preop and postop in both the groups were compared using paired t test and RBS levels between two groups were analysed using unpaired t test. P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS No statistically significant change in post-operative blood glucose level was noted between the diabetic and non-diabetic patients. CONCLUSION The study concluded that it is safe to administer local anesthetic containing 1:100,000 adrenaline in smaller volumes to well controlled diabetic patients.

  15. Anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental X-tip intraosseous injection using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline in patients with irreversible pulpitis: An in vivo study

    Atool Chandra Bhuyan


    Full Text Available Introduction: Pain management remains the utmost important qualifying criteria in minimizing patient agony and establishing a strong dentist-patient rapport. Symptomatic irreversible pulpitis is a painful condition necessitating immediate attention and supplemental anesthetic techniques are often resorted to in addition to conventional inferior alveolar nerve block. Aim: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the anesthetic efficacy of X-tip intraosseous injection in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, in mandibular posterior teeth, using 4% Articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline as local anesthetic, when the conventional inferior alveolar nerve block proved ineffective. Materials and Methods: X-tip system was used to administer 1.7 ml of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline in 30 patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of mandibular posterior teeth with moderate to severe pain on endodontic access after administration of an inferior alveolar nerve block. Results: The results of the study showed that 25 X-tip injections (83.33% were successful and 5 X-tip injections (16.66% were unsuccessful. Conclusion: When the inferior alveolar nerve block fails to provide adequate pulpal anesthesia, X-tip system using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline was successful in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

  16. [3H]adrenaline release from hypothalamic synaptosomes and its modulation by clonidine: effects of chronic antidepressant drug regimens

    [3H]Adrenaline ([3H]ADR, 40nM) was accumulated by rat hypothalamic synaptosomes (P2) more rapidly and in significantly greater amounts than by similar preparations from cerebral cortex. There was no significant difference between these two tissues in the rate or amount of [3H]noradrenaline ([3H]NA, 40nM) accumulation. Talusupram (10μM), maximally inhibited the uptake of [3H]ADR into hypothalamic synaptosomes by 60%. Nomifensine further inhibited uptake by 14%. From these observations it was concluded that some [3H]ADR was accumulated into non adrenergic neuronal terminals. The effects of desipramine (DMI, 10mg/kg/day and clorgyline (1mg/kg/day) administration for 28 days on K+-evoked release of [3H]ADR was investigated using superfused hypothalamic synaptosomes. After both chronic antidepressant drug regimens, total [3H]ADR release (spontaneous + evoked) was significantly reduced. Evoked release of [numberH]ADR (by KCl, 16mM) was significantly reduced after the DMI but not the clorgyline regimens. Presynaptic α2-adrenoceptor function in the hypothalamus was assessed during superfusion by measuring the reduction in +-evoked release of [3H]ADR caused by clonidine (1+M). 30 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  17. Electrochemistry behavior of adrenalin, serotonin and ascorbic acid at novel poly rutin modified paraffin-impregnated graphite electrode

    Jin, Guan-Ping [School of Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Department of Application Chemistry, Hefei 230009 (China)]. E-mail:; Chen, Qun-Zhi [School of Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Department of Application Chemistry, Hefei 230009 (China); Ding, Yan-Feng [School of Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Department of Application Chemistry, Hefei 230009 (China); He, Jian-Bo [School of Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Department of Application Chemistry, Hefei 230009 (China)


    A novel poly rutin (Ru) modified paraffin-impregnated graphite electrode (WGE) was fabricated by electrochemical method. The field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), infrared spectra (IR), in situ UV-spectroelectrochemical and electrochemical techniques proved the immobilization of rutin on WGE. Ru undergoes electrochemical oxidation in two ways related to the two catechol hydroxyl groups and the other two hydroxyl groups; the former not only carries out a two-electron two-proton reversible reaction, but also produces unstable phenoxy radicals which readily polymerize to strongly adhere to WGE surface companying Ru monomer embeded and adsorbed in the film (Ru/WGE). The Ru/WGE displayed strong catalytic function for the oxidation of adrenalin (EP), serotonin (5-HT), and ascorbic acid (AA) and resolved the overlap voltammetric response of EP and AA into two well-defined voltammetric peaks of about 172 mV with DPV. A linear response in the range of 3.0-90.0 {mu}M with detection limit (s/n = 3) of 8.0 x 10{sup -7} M for EP was obtained in coexistence of AA (0.01 mM)

  18. Role of ion conductance changes and of the sodium-pump in adrenaline-induced hyperpolarization of rat diaphragm muscle fibres.

    Kuba, K.; Nohmi, M.


    The ionic mechanism of membrane hyperpolarization induced by adrenaline in rat diaphragm muscle fibres was studied. Removal of the extracellular K+ ([K+]o) from Krebs-Ringer solution initially increased the resting membrane potential and then caused an increase in the intracellular Na+ activity ([Na+]i) and a decrease in the intracellular K+ activity ([K+]i). All the changes were maintained for more than 3 h. Application of ouabain (0.1 mM) or lowering the temperature rapidly reduced the rest...

  19. Radioenzymatic assay of plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline: evidence for a catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibiting factor associated with essential hypertension

    During the evaluation of a modified radioenzymatic determination of plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline, it has been found that there exists a highly significant (p0C, but only in plasma from patients with essential hypertension. Plasma from normotensive persons exhibits a complete lack of correlation between these factors. The consequences of the hypertension-associated COMT-inhibiting factor for the assays' specifications are discussed and data are presented for comparison with a recently-described uremia-associated COMT-inhibitor (Demassieux et al, Clin Chim Acta 115, 377-391; 1981). (Auth.)

  20. High arterial compliance in cirrhosis is related to low adrenaline and elevated circulating calcitonin gene related peptide but not to activated vasoconstrictor systems

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren; Schifter, S;


    catecholamines, renin activity, endothelin-1, and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) at baseline and during oxygen inhalation. RESULTS: COMP(art) was significantly increased in cirrhotic patients compared with controls (1.32 v 1.06 ml/mm Hg; p< 0.05) and inversely related to plasma adrenaline levels (r=-0.......53; p<0.02) but positively related to circulating levels of CGRP (r=0.58; p<0.01). No significant relation was found for plasma noradrenaline, renin activity, or endothelin-1. COMP(art) was positively related to plasma volume (r=0.50; p<0.02) and inversely to systemic vascular resistance (r=-0.69; p<0.......001) and central circulation time (r=-0.49; p<0.02). During oxygen inhalation, COMP(art) decreased (-13%; p<0.005) and systemic vascular resistance increased (+10%; p<0.001) towards normal values without significant changes in mean arterial pressure. Plasma adrenaline (-16%; p<0.01) decreased and the...

  1. High arterial compliance in cirrhosis is related to low adrenaline and elevated circulating calcitonin gene related peptide but not to activated vasoconstrictor systems

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Møller, S; Schifter, S; Abrahamsen, J; Becker, U


    relation to COMP(art) disappeared. The relation of COMP(art) to CGRP and circulatory variables remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Elevated arterial compliance in cirrhosis is related to low adrenaline, high CGRP, and systemic hyperdynamics but not to indicators of the activated vasoconstrictor systems......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Static and dynamic functions of the wall of large arteries are largely unknown in cirrhosis in vivo. The present study was undertaken to determine arterial compliance (COMP(art)) in relation to vasodilator and vasoconstrictor systems in patients with cirrhosis. In addition......, vasoactivity was manipulated by inhalation of oxygen. STUDY POPULATION AND METHODS: In 20 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and 12 controls we determined COMP(art) (stroke volume relative to pulse pressure), cardiac output, plasma volume, systemic vascular resistance, central circulation time, plasma...

  2. Uso tópico da adrenalina em diferentes concentrações na cirurgia endoscópica nasal Topical use of adrenaline in different concentrations for endoscopic sinus surgery

    Krishnamurti Matos de Araujo Sarmento Junior


    Full Text Available A concentração ideal de adrenalina tópica a promover hemostasia adequada sem toxicidade ainda é motivo de controvérsia. OBJETIVO: Comparar soluções tópicas de adrenalina em diferentes concentrações. DESENHO DO ESTUDO: Prospectivo, duplo-cego, seleção aleatória. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: 49 pacientes submetidos à cirurgia endoscópica nasal, divididos em 3 grupos usando exclusivamente adrenalina tópica, nas concentrações de 1:2000, 1:10.000 e 1:50.000. Comparou-se o tempo operatório, o sangramento, as concentrações plasmáticas de adrenalina e noradrenalina e a variação dos parâmetros cardiovasculares. RESULTADOS: O tempo operatório por procedimento foi menor no grupo que utilizou adrenalina 1:2000, assim como o sangramento (p The ideal adrenaline concentration remains unknown. AIM: Compare topical adrenaline solutions in different concentrations. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, double blind, randomized trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 49 patients divided in 3 groups underwent endoscopic sinus surgery, using only topical solutions of adrenaline in different concentrations (1:2,000, 1:10,000 and 1:50,000. We compared the duration of surgery, intra-operative bleeding, plasmatic levels of catecholamines, hemodynamic parameters and changes in heart rhythm. RESULTS: Surgery time was shorter in the group using adrenaline 1:2,000, which also showed less bleeding in all evaluations (objective and subjective - p < 0.0001. Plasmatic levels of epinephrine rose in all groups, more sharply in the 1:2,000 group. There was a trend towards elevation of blood pressure in the groups using adrenaline 1:2,000 and 1:10,000, with a greater occurrence of hypertensive peaks. DISCUSSION: We found a very significance bleeding difference favoring the 1:2,000. The blood pressure elevation in the 1:2,000 and 1:10,000 groups was progressive but very slow throughout the procedure, which could be associated with the anesthesia technique. CONCLUSION: We favor the use

  3. Are adrenaline autoinjectors fit for purpose? A pilot study of the mechanical and injection performance characteristics of a cartridge- versus a syringe-based autoinjector

    Andreas Schwirtz


    Full Text Available Andreas Schwirtz, Harald SeegerPharma Consult GmbH, Vienna, AustriaBackground: Adrenaline autoinjectors (AAIs are prescribed to facilitate the intramuscular administration of adrenaline in patients diagnosed with life-threatening anaphylaxis. This pilot study investigated the injection and functional properties of two AAIs (deploying different delivery systems under standard conditions, after dynamic and mechanical stresses, and in the presence of denim.Methods: The differences between a cartridge-based AAI (EpiPen® Junior and a syringe-based AAI (Anapen® Junior were assessed using three sets of tests. Test 1: under standard conditions, the injection depth and dose were measured in ballistic gelatine (a validated tissue simulant. Test 2: before the safety cap removal and activation forces were measured, AAIs were subjected to either of two preconditioning tests: 1 free-fall drop test; or 2 static load (ie, 400 N, equivalent to 40 kg weight test; or 3 no preconditioning. Test 3: under standard conditions, injection properties into ballistic gelatine in the presence and absence of denim were investigated. Statistical analyses were performed using the Student’s t-test or Welch’s test.Results: The maximum depth of delivery was significantly greater with cartridge AAI (n = 4, mean 21.09 ± 2.54 mm than with syringe AAI (n = 5; mean 11.64 ± 0.80 mm; P = 0.003. After 2.5 seconds, cartridge AAI (n = 4 discharged significantly more dose than syringe AAI (n = 3; 74.3% versus 25.7% of total dose; P = 0.001. Both cartridge and syringe AAI withstood the free-fall drop test, but almost all devices failed to activate following the static load test. Under standard conditions, significantly less force was required to remove the safety cap of cartridge AAI than syringe AAI (both n = 15; mean 9.56 ± 2.36 N versus 20.23 ± 6.61 N, respectively; P < 0.001, but a significantly greater activation force was required for cartridge AAI than syringe AAI (mean 23

  4. Comparison of dexamethasone and clonidine as an adjuvant to 1.5% lignocaine with adrenaline in infraclavicular brachial plexus block for upper limb surgeries

    Dipal Mahendra Shah


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The role of clonidine as an adjuvant to regional blocks to hasten the onset of the local anesthetics or prolong their duration of action is proven. The efficacy of dexamethasone compared to clonidine as an adjuvant is not known. We aimed to compare the efficacy of dexamethasone versus clonidine as an adjuvant to 1.5% lignocaine with adrenaline in infraclavicular brachial plexus block for upper limb surgeries. Material and Methods: Fifty three American Society of Anaesthesiologists-I and II patients aged 18-60 years scheduled for upper limb surgery were randomized to three groups to receive 1.5% lignocaine with 1:200,000 adrenaline and the study drugs. Group S (n = 13 received normal saline, group D (n = 20 received dexamethasone and group C (n = 20 received clonidine. The time to onset and peak effect, duration of the block (sensory and motor and postoperative analgesia requirement were recorded. Chi-square and ANOVA test were used for categorical and continuous variables respectively and Bonferroni or post-hoc test for multiple comparisons. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The three groups were comparable in terms of time to onset and peak action of motor and sensory block, postoperative analgesic requirements and pain scores. 90% of the blocks were successful in group C compared to only 60% in group D (P = 0.028. The duration of sensory and motor block in group S, D and C were 217.73 ± 61.41 min, 335.83 ± 97.18 min and 304.72 ± 139.79 min and 205.91 ± 70.1 min, 289.58 ± 78.37 min and 232.5 ± 74.2 min respectively. There was significant prolongation of sensory and motor block in group D as compared to group S (P < 0.5. Time to first analgesic requirement was significantly more in groups C and D as compared with group S (P < 0.5. Clinically significant complications were absent. Conclusions: We conclude that clonidine is more efficacious than dexamethasone as an adjuvant to 1.5% lignocaine in brachial

  5. A Sensitive Simultaneous Determination of Adrenalin and Paracetamol on a Glassy Carbon Electrode Coated with a Film of Chitosan/Room Temperature Ionic Liquid/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposite%A Sensitive Simultaneous Determination of Adrenalin and Paracetamol on a Glassy Carbon Electrode Coated with a Film of Chitosan/Room Temperature Ionic Liquid/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposite

    Babaei, Ali; Babazadeh, Mitra; Afrasiabi, Mohammad


    The present work demonstrates that simultaneous determination of adrenalin (AD) and paracetamol (PAR) can be performed on single-walled carbon nanotube/chitosan/ionic liquid modified glassy carbon electrode (SWCNT-CHIT-IL/GCE). The electro-oxidations of AD and PAR were investigated with cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and also chronoamperometry (CA) methods. DPV experiments showed that the oxidation peak currents of AD and PAR are proportional to the corresponding concentrations over the 1-580 μmol/L and 0.5-400 μmol/L ranges, respectively. The RSD at a concentration level of 15 μmol/L AD and 15 μmol/L PAR were 1.69% and 1.82%, respectively. Finally the modified electrode was used for simultaneous determination of AD and PAR in real samples with satisfactory results.

  6. Solubility and modeling acid-base properties of adrenaline in NaCl aqueous solutions at different ionic strengths and temperatures.

    Bretti, Clemente; Cigala, Rosalia Maria; Crea, Francesco; De Stefano, Concetta; Vianelli, Giuseppina


    Solubility and acid-base properties of adrenaline were studied in NaCl aqueous solutions at different ionic strengths (0solubility of the ligand was calculated from simple mass balance equations, by using the free hydrogen concentration and the protonation constants of the ligand determined in the same experimental conditions of the solubility measurements. The salting-In or Out parameters and the activity coefficient of the neutral species were calculated by means of the Setschenow equation. The dependence of the protonation constants on the ionic strength was modeled by means of the Debye-Hückel type equation and of the SIT (Specific ion Interaction Theory) approach. The specific interaction parameters of the ion pairs were also reported. For the protonation constants, the following thermodynamic values at infinite dilution were obtained: T=298.15 K, logK1(H0)=10.674±0.018 and logK2(H0)=8.954±0.022; T=310.15K, logK1(H0)=10.355±0.018 and logK2(H0)=8.749±0.030. PMID:26122929

  7. Study on Adrenaline Combined with Articaine Therapy Effect in Treatment of Endodontic%肾上腺素联合阿替卡因治疗牙髓病的效果研究



    目的:探讨肾上腺素联合阿替卡因治疗牙髓病的效果研究。方法选取2013年11月到2014年11月我院接诊的39例牙髓病患者,按照入院的先后顺序分为两组,实验组20例和对照组19例,实验组采用肾上腺素联合阿替卡因,对照组采用肾上腺素联合利多卡因,观察两组患者的麻醉效果。结果实验组患者的麻醉起效时间、麻醉效果、术中疼痛评分、面部表情评分明显优于对照组,差异显著,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论肾上腺素联合阿替卡因治疗牙髓病的效果显著,可有效提高患者的麻醉效果,缩短麻醉时间,降低疼痛,值得临床推广。%Objective To explore adrenaline combined with articaine treatment effect in treatment of endodontic. Methods Choose 39 endodontic patients who are treated in hospital from November 2013 to November 2014 and separate them into two groups according to their hospitalization sequence with 20 patients in study group and 19 patients in control group;patients in study group are given adrenaline combined with articaine treatment;while patients in control group are given adrenaline combined with lidocaine treatment and then compare anesthesia effect between two groups. Results The result shows that anesthesia taking-effect time,anesthesia efficacy and score of patients’operation pain as wel as their facial expression much more favorable than counterparts in control group; there is a differential between two groups and such a differential has statistic value(P<0.05). Conclusion adrenaline combined with articaine treatment is of efficacy in treatment of endodontic;it is conducive to increasing anesthesia efficacy,shortening anesthesia taking-effect time and reducing patients’pain,thus such a treatment method is rather worthwhile to be promoted clinical y.

  8. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Adrenalin and Noradrenalin Levels of Acute Hypertension Rats%电针对急性高血压大鼠肾上腺素和去甲肾上腺素的影响

    霍则军; 姚海江; 张莉; 李志刚


    目的 观察电针对急性高血压大鼠的降压作用.方法 36只Wistar雄性大鼠随机分为对照组(n=8)、模型组(n=8)、药物组(n=10)和电针组(n=10).应用肾上腺素法制备急性高血压大鼠模型,电针百会和足三里穴,测定电针后各组血压的变化以及血清肾上腺素和去甲肾上腺素的变化.结果 药物组和电针组大鼠收缩压和舒张压均低于模型组(P0.05).模型组血清肾上腺素和去甲肾上腺素水平高于对照组(P0.05). The adrenalin and noradrenalin levels were higher in the model group than in the control group (P<0.05), but they were lower in the drug group and the electroacupuncture group than in the model group (P<0.05). Conclusion The electroacupuncture could reduce the blood pressure of acute hypertension rats by decreasing blood adrenalin and noradrenalin levels.

  9. Effects of vasopressin and adrenaline on cerebral resuscitation in rats undergone cardiopulmonary resuscitation%血管加压素与肾上腺素对大鼠脑复苏效果的影响

    杨伟伟; 彭鹏


    Objective To compare the effects of vasopressin and adrenaline on cerebral resuscitation in rats. Method Sixty male SD rats were used to set the animal model of cardiac arrest and were randomly (random number) divided into 4 groups (n = 15/group): sham operation group (sham-gro), negative control group (neg-gro), vasopressin group (vas-gro) and adrenaline group (adr-gro). Blood pressure was recorded, and brain tissue samples were obtained. Results There was no significant difference in the recovery rate between vas-gro and adr-gro 30 min after resuscitation (P <0.05). The mean blood pressure in vasgro was higher than that in adr-gro within 30 min (1,2, 5, 10, 20, 30 min) after restoration of spontaneous circulation. The measured MDA, SOD and GSH were significantly different (P < 0.05) between each two groups among vas-gro, sham-gro and adr-gro. Conclusions The recovery rate was similar between vasopressin group and adrenaline group during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in rats. However, vasopressin can to maintain the mean arterial pressure at a higher level after resuscitation, which can the increase the cerebral perfusion and reduce brain cell damage.%目的 比较血管加压素与肾上腺素对大鼠脑复苏效果的研究.方法 60只雄性SD大鼠建立心搏骤停模型,随机(随机数字法)分为4组(n=15/组):假手术组(sham operated group,shamgro)、阴性对照组(neg-gro)、血管加压素组(vas-gro)、肾上腺素组(adr-gro).分别记录血压变化,并取大鼠脑组织标本.结果 在复苏30 min后vas-gro与adr-gro复苏成功率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);在自主循环恢复的30 min内(1,2,5,10,20,30 min)vas-gro的平均动脉压均高于adr-gro;测得MDA,SOD,GSH的量vas-gro,sham-gro,adr-gro互相之间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 血管加压素与肾上腺素在大鼠心肺复苏过程中成功率相近,但血管加压素能维持复苏后平均动脉压在较高水平,继而会更好的增加脑灌注,减轻脑细胞损伤.

  10. Effects of bromelain on rabbits with pulmonary edema induced by adrenaline%菠萝蛋白酶对家兔肾上腺素型肺水肿的治疗效果

    乔红; 陈谱; 孙学娇; 朱冰清; 李晓芳; 段静雨; 张春平


    目的:研究菠萝蛋白酶对家兔肾上腺素型肺水肿的治疗效果。方法将家兔随机分为4组,空白对照组(A)、肾上腺素致病组(B)、阳性对照呋塞米治疗组(C)和菠萝蛋白酶治疗组(D)。4组均静脉滴注生理盐水, B、C和D组再给予0.75 ml/kg肾上腺素建立肺水肿模型,然后C组和D组分别给予呋塞米和菠萝蛋白酶进行治疗。记录各小组家兔体征、心率和呼吸频率的变化,并比较肺系数和肺组织石蜡切片苏木精-伊红染色结果。结果 B组成功建立肺水肿模型。与B组相比,D组口唇未见紫绀,呼吸频率稍有加快,心率先加快后缓慢,肺系数显著降低(P<0.05)。取肺后见肺组织水肿症状已明显减轻,病理见肺间隔轻微破坏,淤血现象已基本消失。 C组与D组无显著性差异。结论菠萝蛋白酶对家兔肾上腺素型肺水肿有治疗效果。%Objective To investigate the therapeutic effects of bromelain on rabbits with pulmonary edema induced by adrenaline .Methods The rabbits are randomly divided into four groups:a control group ( A) , an epinephrine group (B), a furosemide treatment group (C), and a bromelain treatment group (D).All the groups were intravenously in-fused with normal saline.Furthermore, Groups B, C, and D were administrated with epinephrine (0.75 ml/kg) to es-tablish a rabbit model of pulmonary edema .Then, Groups C and D were treated with furosemide and bomelain , respec-tively.The changes in physical signs , heart rate and respiratory frequency were recorded , while pulmonary coefficient and the results of H-E staining were compared .Results A rabbit model of pulmonary edema was successfully established in Group B.Compared with Group B , Group D did not show cyanosis in the lip but produced slightly faster respiratory frequency.An increased heart rate was also found in Group D , which was then decreased .The pulmonary coefficient of Group D was

  11. Efeito da dexmedetomidina sobre a arritmia cardíaca induzida pela adrenalina em cães anestesiados pelo sevofluorano Effect of dexmedetomidine on the heart arrhythmia induced by the adrenaline in dogs anesthetized by sevoflurane

    V.F. Barbosa


    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da dexmedetomidina sobre o ritmo cardíaco em 20 cães, sem raça definida, de ambos os sexos e considerados sadios, anestesiados pelo sevofluorano e submetidos a doses crescentes de adrenalina. Os animais foram, aleatoriamente, distribuídos em dois grupos (placebo e dexmedetomidina. No grupo placebo, os animais receberam, por via intravenosa, solução de NaCl a 0,9%, na dose de 0,3ml/kg. Foram considerados dois momentos, M0 e M1, imediatamente antes e após a aplicação, respectivamente. Após 10 minutos, realizou-se a indução anestésica com sevofluorano, por meio de máscara facial vedada, até a perda do reflexo laringotraqueal. Em seguida, procedeu-se à intubação orotraqueal e a manutenção da anestesia foi realizada com a administração de sevofluorano na concentração de 1,5CAM, em circuito anestésico com reinalação parcial de gases. Decorridos 20 minutos da indução anestésica, iniciou-se a administração intravenosa contínua de solução de adrenalina a 2% em doses crescentes de 1, 2, 3, 4 e 5mg/kg/min, por meio de bomba de infusão, com aumento da dose em intervalos de 10 minutos. Imediatamente antes desse acréscimo eram feitas as mensurações (M2 a M6. No grupo dexmedetomidina empregou-se a mesma metodologia substituindo-se a solução de NaCl a 0,9% por hidrocloridrato de dexmedetomidina, na dose de 1µg/kg. Foram registradas as pressões arteriais, em M0 e em M2 a M6, e o traçado eletrocardiográfico, na derivação DII (M2 a M6, considerando-se para efeito estatístico o número total de bloqueios atrioventriculares (BAV de primeiro e segundo graus e de complexos ventriculares prematuros (ESV, coincidentes com cada dose de adrenalina. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância seguida pelo teste de Tukey (PThe effect of dexmedetomidine on the cardiac rhythm in twenty healthy mongrel dogs of both sexes anesthetized with sevofluorane and submitted to increasing doses of adrenaline was

  12. Mechanism of murine pulmonary edema caused by injection of an overdose of adrenaline%过量肾上腺素致小鼠肺水肿的机制研究

    张晓虹; 李傲; 张池; 赵宇; 刘秋晨; 陆凯; 刘立民; 孙晓东; 谢可鸣


    目的 探讨过量肾上腺素致小鼠肺水肿的机制.方法 经腹腔注射过量肾上腺素建立小鼠肺水肿模型,并分组给予不同浓度的普萘洛尔、美托洛尔、酚妥拉明、生理盐水,或单独注射去甲肾上腺素,比较各组间小鼠肺系数、肺组织病理学变化和呼吸活动等的改变;观察比较单独注射肾上腺素组与注射肾上腺素后分别加注阿托品、普萘洛尔、美托洛尔组小鼠心电图的变化;观察比较注射肾上腺素和注射生理盐水对照鼠心肌超微结构形态.结果 肾上腺素组小鼠肺系数大于生理盐水组(P<0.05);加注酚妥拉明组小鼠肺系数明显小于肾上腺素组(P<0.05);加注普奈洛尔与加注美托洛尔各组小鼠肺系数均高于生理盐水组(均P<0.05),而与肾上腺素组无明显差别(P>0.05);去甲肾上腺素组小鼠肺系数显著高于生理盐水组(P<0.05);注射肾上腺素的各组小鼠均见到不同程度肺组织充血和渗出,但联合注射酚妥拉明组小鼠肺组织病变较轻;注射肾上腺素小鼠给药数分钟内心率显著降低并伴明显的节律异常,加注大剂量阿托品可拮抗此效应.结论 过量肾上腺素致小鼠急性肺水肿主要由外周血管α受体强烈兴奋收缩引起;给药后小鼠心率减慢、节律异常可能由外周血管阻力增加的反射效应所致.%Objective To explore the mechanism of murine pulmonary edema caused by injection of an overdose of adrenaline. Methods Models of murine acute pulmonary edema were established by injection of an overdose of adrenaline (Ad). The mice of different groups were then given intraperitoneal injection of certain concentration of propranolol (Pro ) , metoprolol ( Me), phentolamine ( Ph) or normal sa-line( NS) respectively and the mice of group noradrenaline( NA) were injected noradrenaline. The degrees of pulmonary edema were judged by comparing the average pulmonary coefficients

  13. Segurança de nebulização com 3 a 5 ml de adrenalina (1:1000 em crianças: uma revisão baseada em evidência The safety of nebulization with 3 to 5 ml of adrenaline (1:1000 in children: an evidence based review

    Linjie Zhang


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar evidências sobre a segurança da nebulização com 3 a 5 ml de adrenalina (1:1000 no tratamento das crianças com obstrução inflamatória aguda das vias aéreas. FONTES DE DADOS: Uma busca eletrônica foi feita, utilizando-se, principalmente, o banco de dados do MEDLINE (janeiro de 1949 a julho de 2004. Os critérios de inclusão do estudo para esta revisão foram: 1 ensaio clínico randomizado; 2 pacientes (até 12 anos com diagnós tico de bronquiolite ou laringotraqueobronquite; 3 uso de adrenalina (1:1000 através de nebulização. Os principais dados extraídos dos ensaios dizem respeito a doses de adrenalina e seus efeitos sobre a freqüência cardíaca e a pressão arterial sistêmica, bem como outros efeitos colaterais. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Sete ensaios clínicos, com um total de 238 pacientes, foram incluídos para esta revisão. Dos cinco ensaios clínicos nos quais a maior dose (> 3 ml de adrenalina foi usada, dois demonstraram aumento significativo de freqüência cardíaca. O aumento médio de freqüência cardíaca variou de sete a 21 batimentos por minuto, até 60 minutos após o tratamento. A maior incidência de palidez foi observada em um ensaio clínico com 21 crianças tratadas com 3 ml de adrenalina através de nebulização (47,6% no grupo de adrenalina versus 14,3% no grupo de salbutamol, 30 minutos após o tratamento. Não foram observados, em dois ensaios clínicos, efeitos significativos em nebulização com adrenalina (4 e 5 ml na pressão arterial sistêmica. CONCLUSÃO: As evidências mostram que nebulização com 3 a 5 ml de adrenalina (1:1000 é uma terapia segura, com poucos efeitos colaterais, em crianças com obstrução inflamatória aguda das vias aéreas.OBJECTIVE:To present the evidence regarding the safety of nebulization with 3-5 ml of adrenaline (1:1000 for the treatment of children with acute inflammatory airway obstruction. SOURCES OF DATA: An electronic search was undertaken

  14. The effect of esmolol on children's heart rate who accept squint correction and adrenaline eye drop%艾司洛尔对斜视矫正术眼滴肾上腺素对患儿心率的影响

    王淑珍; 顾恩华


    目的 观察艾司洛尔对斜视矫正术眼滴肾上腺素对患儿的心率影响.方法 选择6~10岁斜视矫正术的患儿90例,随机分为3组,各30例.A组(对照组,术眼滴0.9%生理盐水),B组(术眼滴肾上腺素),C组(术眼滴肾上腺素,并静脉注入艾司洛尔拮抗).监测并记录入手术室前的心率,视基础值为T0,麻醉前T1,麻醉后5 min T2,眼滴肾上腺素,或同时静脉给予艾司洛尔后2min为T3,5min为T4,10 min为T5,60 min为T6.结果 3组(T0-T2)心率的变化比较,差异无统计学意义;B、C 两组心率(T3-T5)各时间点与A组比较,差异有统计学意义,但C组(T3-T5)心率上升明显低于B组,差异有统计学意义.结论 斜视矫正术眼滴肾上腺素可使心率瞬间显著上升,静脉助注艾司洛尔可显著抑制其上升,维持患儿围术期心率平稳.%Objective To observe the effect of esmolol on children's heart rate who accept squint correction and adrenaline eye drop.Methods Selected six to ten years old children with squint correction of 90 cases were randomly divided into three groups,each group had 30 cases.Group A was control group and accepted 0.9% physiological saline to sick eye.Group B dropped the adrenaline to sick eye.Group C dropped the adrenaline to sick eye and accepted intravenous injection esmolol antagonist.Monitored and recorded the heart rate before children came into the operating room.The basic value was T0.Before anesthesia was T1,5 minutes after anesthesia was T2,sick eye accepted adrenaline,or at the same time to intravenous injection esmolol then 2 minutes was T3,5 minutes was T4,10 minutes was T5 and 60 minutes was T6.Results The difference of heart rate change (T0-T2) in three groups was not statistically significant.Compared heart rate (T3-T5) of each time point in group B and C with group A,the difference was statistically significant.But heart rate rise (T3-T5) in group C was significantly lower than in group B,the difference was statistically

  15. 危、重型手足口病患儿血清肾上腺素、去肾上腺素的变化及临床意义%The Changes and Clinical Significance of Serum Levels of Adrenaline and Noradrenaline to Children with Severe Hand-foot-mouth Disease and Critical Hand-foot-mouth Disease

    憨贞慧; 罗继霞; 郝建华; 符莹


    目的:通过对危、重型手足口病患儿血液中的肾上腺素及去甲肾上腺素含量的测定,探讨手足口病病情由重型向危重型进展的预警指标,以期对危重症手足口病患儿进行早期识别、早期干预,以降低其病死率。方法:根据病情将患儿分为重症组和危重症组,在2组患儿于安静状态下,抽取静脉血,应用荧光检测的方法测肾血清中上腺素、去甲肾上腺素水平。结果:肾上腺素水平:重型组1.48±0.58、危重型组2.08±0.1.72,经t检验,P>0.05差异无统计学意义。去甲肾上腺素水平:重型组1.58±0.68、危重型组2.28±1.02,经t检验,P>0.05差异无统计学意义。结论:血清肾上腺素及去甲肾上腺素水平均不能作为早期发现手足口病由重型向危重型进展的预警指标。%Objective:To discuss the early warning indicator from severe to critical hand -foot-mouth disease through detecting the serum levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline of the two groups children , to recognize and interfere the critical , to reduce the mortality rate.Methods:We divided the children to sever group and critical group based on the conditions .We extracted the venous blood when the children in resting state ,detected the serum levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline using the fluorescence detection .Results:The level of adrenaline:the sever group (1.48 ±0.58), the critical group (2.08 ±0.1.72), the data had no statistical significance using t -test;the level of noradrenaline:the severe group (1.58 ±0.68), the critical group(2.28 ±1.02), they had no statistical significance using t-test.Conclusion:The serum levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline were not the early warning indicators from the severe to critical hand-foot-mouth disease .

  16. CT-guided percutaneous intratumoral chemotherapy with a novel cisplatin/epinephrine injectable gel for the treatment of unresectable malignant liver tumors; CT-gesteuerte perkutane intratumorale Chemotherapie mit Cisplatin-/Adrenalin-Gel zur Behandlung inoperabler maligner Lebertumoren. Ergebnisse einer klinischen Phase-II-Pruefung

    Engelmann, K.; Mack, M.G.; Straub, R.; Eichler, K.; Zangos, S.; Vogl, T.J. [Universitaetsklinikum Frankfurt (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Orenberg, E. [Matrix Pharmaceutical Inc., Fremont, CA (United States)


    Purpose: To evaluate prospectively the volumetric changes of tumor and necrosis in unresectable malignant liver tumors and the clinical aspects after CT-guided direct intratumoral administration of a novel cisplatin/epinephrine injectable gel in a clinical phase II study. Patients and methods: 8 patients with 17 colorectal liver metastases with a mean volume of 42 ml were treated with a mean of 5.1 injections and 8 patients with 11 HCC nodules (mean volume of 22.1 ml) with a mean of 3.25 treatments with CT-guided local administration of a novel cisplatin/epinephrine gel. This method of administration provides a higher local and lower systemic drug concentration. Volumes of tumor and necrosis prior to and after treatment were measured by computer-generated volumetric analysis. Results: Contrast-enhanced studies verified pretherapeutic tumor necrosis with a value of 12.6% in the metastases and 0.6% in the HCC nodules. Intratumoral drug administration resulted in a necrotic volume of 110% in metastases and 128% in HCC versus the mean initial tumor volume, at least 4 treatments resulted in 122% necrosis in metastases and 130% in HCC. Local therapy control rate for the follow-up to 6 months was 38% and 83.3% for the group of metastases and HCC, respectively. Conclusions: Direct intratumoral injection of a novel cisplatin/epinephrine injectable gel results in an induction of a relevant necrosis in malignant liver tumors, with a substantially higher local therapy control rate for HCC compared to colorectal metastases. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung: Evaluation der Volumenaenderungen von Tumor und Nekrose nach CT-gesteuerter perkutaner intratumoraler Injektion eines neuartigen Cisplatin-/Adrenalin-Gels sowie der klinischen Aspekte diesewr Therapie bei Patienten mit inoperablen malignen Lebertumoren im Rahmen einer klinischen Phase-II-Studie. Patienten und Methoden: 8 Patienten mit 17 kolorektalen Lebermetastasen mit einem mittleren Volumen von 42 ml wurden mit

  17. Hemodynamic effects of caudal block with bupivacaine and adrenaline in the newborn undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia%布比卡因混合肾上腺素骶管阻滞对全麻新生儿血液动力学的影响

    邓萌; 王炫; 贺琳; 郑珊


    Objective To investigate the effects of caudal block with bupivacaine and adrenaline on the hemodynamics in the newborn undergoing general anesthesia for elective surgery. Methods Thirty ASA Ⅰ or Ⅱ fall-term neonates aged ≤ 28 days weighing ≥ 2 500 g undergoing elective abdominal or genitourinary surgery under general anesthesia were studied. Children with known cardiovascular abnormalities, infections diseases or intestinal obstruction and those with conditions contraindicating caudal block were excluded from the study. The children were randomly allocated into 3 groups (n = 10 each) : group Ⅰ general anesthesia (A) ;group Ⅱ general anesthesia + caudal block (0.2% bupivacaine 1.25 ml/kg) (AP) and group Ⅲ general anesthesia + caudal block (0.2% bupivacaine 1.25 ml/kg + adrenaline 1:200 000) (AE). Anesthesia was induced with propefal 3 mg/kg iv. Tracheal intubation was facilitated with vecuronium 0.15 mg/kg. The patients were mechanically ventilated. PETCO2 Was maintained at 30-35 mm Hg. Anesthesia was maintained with 0.4% sevoflurane + 40% N2O + 60 % O2. Radial artery was cannulated for continuous BP monitoring. HR, cardiac output (CO) and stroke volume (SV) were monitored using noninvasive transthoracic echocardiagraphy and recorded at 5 min before, and 5, 10 and 15 min after performance of caudal block. Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) was calculated (SVR = MAP/CO × 80). Results There were no significant differences in the hemodynamic variables between the 3 groups. Conclusion Caudal block with bupivacaine alone or with adrenaline exerts no significant effects on hemodynamics in the newborn undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia.%目的 评价布比卡因混合肾上腺素骶管阻滞对全麻新生儿血液动力学的影响.方法 择期或限期行腹部或会阴部手术的足月新生儿30例,性别不限,ASA Ⅰ或Ⅱ级,出生体重≥2 500 g,日龄≤28 d,随机分为3组(n=10):全麻组(A组)、全麻+骶管阻滞(0.2%

  18. CZE法用于肾上腺素的优化分离及其在马齿苋中含量测定的研究%Optimization Separation of Three Adrenalines and Quantitative Analysis in Portulaca oleracea Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

    高苏亚; 王黎; 李华; 李静; 孙文基


    [ Objective ] To develop a capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method for optimization separation of three adrenalines and determination of noradrenaline in Portulaca oleracea L. [Method] An uncoated fused-silica capillary column (60 cm x75 ujn i. d. , effective length 50 cm) was used as a separation channel. The separation was obtained with 8 mmol/L p-CD in 20 mmol/L borax buffer (pH 9.5) at a constant voltage of 15 kV, the detective wavelength 215 nm and temperature 25 °C. The sample was injected at 0.5 psi (3.447 kPa) x 10 s. [Results] Three compounds were separated baselinely in 10 min. A good linearity between peak area and concentration was found in the range of 16.74 -267.84 mg/L (r=0.9995) for phenylephrine(PE), 16.18-258.88 mg/L (r= 0.9992) for adrenaline (AD), and 16.18-194.16 mg/L (r = 0.999 2) for noradrenaline(NE), respectively. Their average recoveries(n =6) were 99.16% , 101.24% and 98.96% , respectively, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 2.2%. This method was used to determine NE in Portulaca oleracea L. The mass fraction was 0.052%. [Conclusion] The method is simple and rapid which could be used to separate and determine ADs.%[目的]采用区带毛细管电泳法实现去氧肾上腺素、肾上腺素和去甲肾上腺素3种化合物的优化分离,建立测定中药马齿苋中去甲肾上腺素的简便、快速的分离检测方法.[方法]采用未涂层弹性石英毛细管柱(60 cm×75 μm i.d.,有效长度50 cm)作为分离通道,以含8 mmol/L β-CD的20 mmol/L硼砂(pH=9.5)为运行缓冲溶液,进样0.5 psi (3.447 kPa)×10 s,分离电压15 kV,检测波长215 nm,柱温25℃.[结果]3种肾上腺素在10 min内得到基线分离,且去氧肾上腺素、肾上腺素和去甲肾上腺素分别在16.74 ~ 267.84 mg/L(r=0.9995),16.18 ~258.88 mg/L(r =0.999 2),16.181 ~94.16 mg/L(r =0.999 2)浓度范围内呈良好的线性关系,平均回收率(n=6)分别为99.16%、101.24%和98.96%,RSD均小于2.2%.同

  19. 金属酞菁仿生催化儿茶酚胺氧化性能研究及其用于肾上腺素浓度的光学检测%Oxidation of Catecholamines Catalyzed by Metallophthalocyanines and Application to the Fiber Optic Biosensor for Adrenaline Concentration Detection

    李明田; 黄俊; 杨瑞嵩; 喻兰英; 周璇


    采用电子吸收光谱法研究了5种金属酞菁MPcs(M=Mn(Ⅱ),Fe(Ⅱ),Ni(Ⅱ),Cu(Ⅱ))仿生催化肾上腺素(Adrenaline,AD)和去甲肾上腺素(Noradrenaline,NA)2种儿茶酚胺的氧化性质,相应的氧化产物分别为三羟基-N-甲基-吲哚和三羟基-吲哚.用氧化产物的特征吸收峰强度评价金属酞菁的催化能力,实验表明,在最佳催化条件下,金属酞菁催化效率有以下顺序ηMnPc>ηFePc>ηNiPc>ηCuPc>ηCoPc.以酞菁锰仿生酶为催化剂,采用锁相放大技术构建了一种新型光纤生物传感器实现对肾上腺素浓度的测定,系统地研究了光纤肾上腺素传感器的性质:在2.0×10-6~9.0x10-5mol·L-1范围,滞后相移()与肾上腺素的浓度有较好的线性关系,检测下限为4.0×10-7mol·L-1,响应时间为10 min,该传感器有良好地重复性和稳定性.

  20. Analgesia postoperatoria en la queiloplastia del lactante. Estudio comparativo: bloqueo infraorbitario intraoral bilateral con bupivacaína 0,25% con adrenalina vs. analgesia intravenosa con tramadol Postoperative analgesia for the management of chieloplasty in the breast-fed baby. Comparative study: bilateral intraoral blockade of the infraorbitary nerve with bupivacaine 0.25% plus adrenaline versus intravenous analgesia with tramadol

    J. A. Delgado


    ó la aparición de cualquier complicación o efecto adverso. Los datos se analizaron mediante t Student y test χ². Resultados: No existieron diferencias en cuanto a las características demográficas. La duración de la analgesia fue mayor en el grupo A (7,3 ± 5,1 h que en el grupo B (2,8 ± 2,2 h (p Objective: To compare the effectiveness and length of bilateral intraoral blockade of the infraorbitary nerve versus standard intravenous analgesia with tramadol for the management of postoperative pain in breast-fed infants undergoing chieloplasty due to harelip. Material and methods: After conducting an adequate pre-anesthetic assessment and obtaining the informed consent from their parents, we performed a double-blind, randomized, controlled and randomized study in 25 ASA I infants with ages ranging from 3 to 10 months that were candidates to corrective harelip surgery (chieloplasty. All of them were pretreated half an hour before the surgical procedure with oral midazolan (0.5 and the same anesthesiologist performed the anesthetic technique and the nerve blockade in all the cases, this being inhaled induction with sevoflurane prior to venoclysis. General anesthesia was achieved with intravenous administration of atropine, fentanyl and rocuronium at the standard doses prior to endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Patients were randomized to one of the following groups: Group A (n = 12: 1-2 ml of bupivacaine 0.25% plus adrenaline was administered for bilateral blockade of the intraorbitary nerve and intravenous saline solution instead of intravenous analgesia with tramadol. Group B (n = 13: saline solution was administered for nerve blockade, instead of bupivacaine, and intravenous tramadol (1.5 was provided as postoperative analgesia. All of the patients underwent general anesthesia with sevoflurane and fentanyl "on-demand" according to standard parameters (blood pressure, heart rate, pupil size, etc.. During the first six hours at

  1. Contribution of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue to adrenaline-induced thermogenesis in man

    Simonsen, L; Stallknecht, Bente; Bülow, J

    subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism was investigated. In both series Fick's principle was applied. Intravenous infusion increased blood flow, glucose uptake and oxygen uptake in both skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. It is concluded that skeletal muscle contributes about 40% and adipose tissue about 5% of...

  2. Triggering by Paf-acether and adrenaline of cyclo-oxygenase-independent platelet aggregation.

    Fouque, F.; Vargaftig, B B


    Platelet-activating factor (Paf-acether, 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine) induced full aggregation and a limited release reaction of human platelets in plasma or in blood. Cyclo-oxygenase inhibition with aspirin only reduced aggregation when induced by threshold amounts of Paf-acether, whereas higher concentrations surmounted inhibition whether tested in citrated or in heparinized platelet-rich plasma or blood. Aspirin-induced inhibition of platelet secretion by Paf-acether wa...

  3. The rush to adrenaline: drugs in sport acting on the β-adrenergic system

    Davis, E.; Loiacono, R.; Summers, R. J.


    Athletes attempt to improve performance with drugs that act on the β-adrenergic system directly or indirectly. Of three β-adrenoceptor (AR) subtypes, the β2-AR is the main target in sport; they have bronchodilator and anabolic actions and enhance anti-inflammatory actions of corticosteroids. Although demonstrable in animal experiments and humans, there is little evidence that these properties can significantly improve performance in trained athletes. Their actions may also be compromised by r...

  4. Axillary block duration and related hemodynamic changes: high versus low dose Adrenaline addition to Lidocaine

    Shariat Moharari R


    Full Text Available "nBackground: Axillary block is used for inducing anesthesia in outpatient hand and forearm surgeries. Few researches have studied hemodynamic and blockade effects of low doses of Epinephrine. The aim of the present study was to compare the duration of analgesia and hemodynamic changes following the injection of high/low epinephrine doses in such surgeries. "nMethods: The present randomized clinical trial study was conducted on healthy individuals (ASA I-II who were candidates for hand and forearm surgeries. The patients were randomly divided into three groups. The first two groups were allocated to receive lidocaine with low (0.6µg/cc and high (5µg/cc doses of epinephrine whereas lidocaine plus normal saline was injected in the third group. The hemodynamic changes (Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate and the occurance of any side-effects along with the duration of analgesia and motor block were recorded. "nResults: From among the total of 75 patients, 15 cases were excluded due to incomplete blockade or failure needing general anesthesia. The duration of analgesia and the motor block were longer in the high dose epinephrine group, the difference, however, was not statistically significant. Heart rate changes within the groups was significant in the 4th-7th and 10th minutes. Mean arterial blood pressure changes was only significant in the 4th minute, within the groups. "nConclusions: Administering low doses of epinephrine plus lidocaine as a local anesthetic not only provides acceptable analgesia compared to higher doses of the medication, but also is associated with fewer side effects.

  5. Desensitization of human adipose tissue to adrenaline stimulation studied by microdialysis

    Stallknecht, Bente; Bülow, J; Frandsen, E;


    1. Desensitization of fat cell lipolysis to catecholamine exposure has been studied extensively in vitro but only to a small extent in human adipose tissue in vivo. 2. We measured interstitial glycerol concentrations by microdialysis in subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue in healthy humans...

  6. Whole body and regional clearances of noradrenaline and adrenaline in man

    Christensen, N J; Galbo, H; Gjerris, Anne Cathrine Roslev;


    The whole body clearance of noradrenaline (NA) was measured in seven patients pre- and postoperatively. L-3H-NA was infused intravenously for 90 min and steady-state concentrations of L-3H-NA were measured in both arterial and peripheral venous blood. Preoperatively, in the resting supine position...

  7. Treatment with Epinephrine (Adrenaline) in Suspected Anaphylaxis during Anesthesia in Denmark

    Garvey, Lene H; Belhage, Bo; Krøigaard, Mogens; Husum, Bent; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Mosbech, Holger


    BACKGROUND:: Literature on the use of epinephrine in the treatment of anaphylaxis during anesthesia is very limited. The objective of this study was to investigate how often epinephrine is used in the treatment of suspected anaphylaxis during anesthesia in Denmark and whether timing of treatment is...... important. METHODS:: A retrospective study of 270 patients investigated at the Danish Anaesthesia Allergy Centre after referral due to suspected anaphylaxis during anesthesia was performed. Reactions had been graded by severity: C1, mild reactions; C2, moderate reactions; C3, anaphylactic shock with......, infusion was needed in 12 of 60 patients (20%) treated early versus 12 of 35 patients (34%) treated late (odds ratio, 2.09) (95% confidence interval, 0.81-5.35). CONCLUSION:: Anaphylaxis may be difficult to diagnose during anesthesia, and treatment with epinephrine can be delayed as a consequence...

  8. Vasoactive stress hormone (adrenaline, noradrenaline and cortisol) concentration in plasma after administration of low doses of S-(+)-ketamine epidurally

    Mihaljević, Slobodan; Mihaljević, Ljiljana; Orešković, Slavko; ELVEĐI-GAŠPAROVIĆ, VESNA; IGNJATIĆ ZOKIĆ, TATJANA; ĆAĆIĆ, MARKO


    Background and Purposes: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of epidurally administered S-(+)-ketamine on vasoactive stress hormones. It was a prospective study conducted after approval of the Ethical Committee and informed consent of patients. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on 80 patients: 40 patients in Group 1 (0.5% bupivacaine) and 40 patients in Group 2 (0.5% bupivacaine + 25 mg S-(+)-ketamine – 0.326 mg/kg-bm). All patients were adults aged between...

  9. Relationship between adrenaline used dose and prognosis on cardiopulmonary resuscitation%心肺复苏中肾上腺素用量与预后的探讨

    何光辉; 梁彦平; 刘丽疆; 王利剑; 宋新科; 杨翌承


    目的:探讨心肺复苏(CPR)中肾上腺素用量与预后的关系.方法:选择2012-01-01-2014-12-31我院急救中心抢救的心搏骤停(CA)患者393例,按CPR时间分为常规CPR组190例,超长CPR组203例.根据CPR的结果分为成功组72例和失败组321例.常规肾上腺素1 mg静脉注射,每间隔3~5 min重复给药1次,直到CPR成功或终止.对肾上腺素用量与预后进行回顾性统计分析.结果:常规CPR组与超长CPR组性别、年龄比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);常规CPR组肾上腺素用量明显低于超长CPR组,差异有统计学意义(t=-12.227,P<0.01).而常规CPR组预后[自主循环恢复(ROSC)率、出院存活率、30 d良好神经功能恢复率]明显优于超长CPR组(P<0.01),提示常规CPR组低的肾上腺素用量优于高用量的超长CPR组预后;成功组肾上腺素用量明显低于失败组(t=-9.041,P<0.01),提示低的肾上腺素用量是CPR预后的有利因素;肾上腺素用量≤5 mg组ROSC、存活出院、30d良好神经功能恢复者比例较高.结论:在CPR中肾上腺素用量≤5 mg是预后的有利因素,超过10 mg是不利因素.

  10. Elderly trauma patients have high circulating noradrenaline levels but attenuated release of adrenaline, platelets, and leukocytes in response to increasing injury severity

    Johansson, Pär I; Sørensen, Anne Marie; Perner, Anders;


    : High patient age is a strong predictor of poor outcome in trauma patients. The present study investigated the effect of age on mortality and biomarkers of sympathoadrenal activation, tissue, endothelial, and glycocalyx damage, coagulation activation/inhibition, fibrinolysis, and inflammation in...

  11. Evidence for tonic activation of prejunctional beta-adrenoceptors in guinea-pig pulmonary arteries by adrenaline derived from the adrenal medulla.

    Misu, Y; Kuwahara, M.; Amano, H.; Kubo, T.


    1. The effects of (+/-)-carteolol 10(-8) M to 10(-6) M, a non-selective beta-antagonist, applied cumulatively, on stimulation-evoked 3H-release at 1 Hz were studied in pulmonary arteries isolated from guinea-pigs. The guinea-pigs were subjected to either bilateral adrenalectomy, adrenalectomy followed by injections of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) and hydrocortisone, bilateral adrenodemedullation or a sham operation, and then loaded in vitro with [3H]-noradrenaline. 2. Carteolol inhibite...

  12. Contribution of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors of human atrium and ventricle to the effects of noradrenaline and adrenaline as assessed with (-)-atenolol.

    Lemoine, H.; Schönell, H.; Kaumann, A. J.


    1. (-)-Atenolol was used as a tool to assess the function of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in human heart. Right atrial and left ventricular preparations from patients undergoing open heart surgery were set up to contract isometrically. Membrane particles were prepared for beta-adrenoceptor labelling with [3H]-(-)-bupranolol and adenylate cyclase assays. 2. The positive inotropic effects of (-)-noradrenaline were antagonized to a similar extent by (-)-atenolol in atrial and ventricular pre...

  13. Аctivity of stomach secretory glands and the nitrergic mechanisms of their regulatiоn under the condition of the adrenalin ulcer simulation

    O. V. Razuvaeva


    Full Text Available Participating of nitrergic link in the regulation of secretory activity in the stomach was investigated in the intact rats under the condition of ulcerous damage in the gastro-duodenal area. It was found that in the intact rats NO decreases the acid gastric secretion. On the early stages of the ulcer development the nitrergic mechanisms of regulation execute the protective adaptation-compensative function of the mucous coat of stomach, but in remote terms these mechanisms lose such ability.

  14. Membrane potential and conductance of frog skin gland acinar cells in resting conditions and during stimulation with agonists of macroscopic secretion

    Sørensen, Jakob B.; Larsen, Erik Hviid


    Adrenaline; carbachol; Cl- secretion; exocrine gland; isoproterenol; noradrenaline; prostaglandin E*U2......Adrenaline; carbachol; Cl- secretion; exocrine gland; isoproterenol; noradrenaline; prostaglandin E*U2...

  15. Drug: D04052 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D04052 Mixture, Drug Adrenaline - lidocaine hydrochloride mixt; Epinephrine - hydrochloride mixt; Xylocaine (TN) Adrenaline [DR:D00095], Lidcaine hydrochloride [DR:D02086] Anestheti...ns 12 Agents affecting peripheral nervous system 121 Local anesthetics 1214 Xylidines D04052 Adrenaline - lidocai... 2710 Local anesthetics D04052 Adrenaline - lidocaine hydrochloride mixt PubChem: 17398016 ...

  16. 薄层色谱法检测海州常山桐树叶中肾上腺素的含量%Identification and quantification of adrenaline from the leaves of Clerodendrum phlomidis using thin-layer chromatography

    Muthu Kumaradoss Mohan Maruga Raja; Ruchi Sureshbhai Patel; Shri Hari Mishra


    @@ In the Ayurvedic, Siddha and other medical systems of India, products derived from herbs,used either as active ingredients or as adjuvants,hold paramount importance as alternative medi-cines.However, their standardization poses a great challenge.Correct identification of these drugs is often problematic in both their complete form as well as in powder form, since these medicinal plants are known by a variety of vernacular names and frequently many medicinal plants share the same name.Comparative thin-layer chromatography (co-TLC) with chemical or biological marker compounds can be used to standardize raw materials.Moreover, due to its simplicity, accuracy, cost effectiveness and rapidity, TLC is often used as an alternative to other chromatographic tech-niques for quantifying plant products.

  17. Efeito da dexmedetomidina sobre a arritmia cardíaca induzida pela adrenalina em cães anestesiados pelo sevofluorano Effect of dexmedetomidine on the heart arrhythmia induced by the adrenaline in dogs anesthetized by sevoflurane

    V.F. Barbosa; N. Nunes; E.D.V. Conceição; C.T. Nishimori; D.P. Paula; P.C. Ferro; R. Carareto


    Avaliou-se o efeito da dexmedetomidina sobre o ritmo cardíaco em 20 cães, sem raça definida, de ambos os sexos e considerados sadios, anestesiados pelo sevofluorano e submetidos a doses crescentes de adrenalina. Os animais foram, aleatoriamente, distribuídos em dois grupos (placebo e dexmedetomidina). No grupo placebo, os animais receberam, por via intravenosa, solução de NaCl a 0,9%, na dose de 0,3ml/kg. Foram considerados dois momentos, M0 e M1, imediatamente antes e após a aplicação, respe...

  18. 脑室出血后的大鼠脑干组织中去甲肾上腺素含量的变化%Brainstem norepinephrine adrenaline level changes following experimental intraventricular hemorrhage in rats

    吴勇; 谭华; 李小刚


    目的 通过观察大鼠脑室出血后脑组织中去甲肾上腺素(NE)含量,探讨其在脑室出血中的损伤作用,对诊断疾病、预测病情及预后、指导治疗有着实际的临床意义.方法 将60只大鼠随机分为正常组、假手术组、脑室出血组(IVH组).IVH组取自体动脉血方法制备大鼠原发性脑室出血(PIVH)模型,假手术组大鼠只切开头皮和颅骨钻孔,不做自体动脉血注射.分别在术后5个时间点取脑干组织采用ELISA法检测其含量.结果 IVH组去甲肾上腺素含量在6h、1d、3d与正常组、假手术组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),从6h开始逐渐升高,1d达最高峰,在注血3d后有下降趋势,但仍高于正常组、假手术组.结论 IVH后,大鼠脑干组织去甲肾上腺素含量增加,因此去甲肾上腺素在脑室出血后脑组织损伤中可能起着重要作用,并对外周组织产生继发性损害,导致病情加重.%Objective To investigate the changes of noradrenaline NE/NA in brain tissue following ventricular hemorrhage in rats in order to understand the role of NE/NA in brain damage resulted from ventricular hemorrhage. It provides helpful information to clinical practice for diagnoses and treatment of the disease and prediction of the disease outcome clinical significance. Methods A total of 60 experimental animals were divided randomly into normal group,sham operation group and the IVH group. The IVH model was produced using the method of injecting their own blood in their brains. Animals in shame operation group received operation of opening the scalp and drilling on the skull. Results The level of noradrenalin of the brainstem: the level of noradrenalin in the IVH group began to rise gradually after 6 hrs and reached the highest point after 1 day, it began to decrease 3 days after injecting blood, but it was still higher than the control group; the differences at 6 hrs, 1 day, and 3 days from that in control group were statistically significant (P<0. 05). Conclusions After the IVH, the brain tissue nordrenalin level was increased. Thus NE might have important effect on brain tissue damage after the ventricular hemorrhage, cause other organs secondary lesion, and aggravate illness.

  19. HPLC法测定肾上腺素和去甲肾上腺素原料药中有关物质%Determination of related substances in adrenaline and noradrenaline crude drugs by HPLC

    李佩; 李银峰; 王杰晶; 张园园; 靳朝东


    目的 建立肾上腺素、去甲肾上腺素原料药中有关物质的HPLC分析方法.方法 采用五氟苯基柱(250mm×4.6mm,5 μm),流动相为0.03 mol/L磷酸二氢铵-甲醇(98∶2),检测波长280nm,进样量20 μL,体积流量1.0 mL/min,柱温20℃.结果 肾上腺素、去甲肾上腺素两种物质与其降解产物均能达到基线分离,重复性好,且呈现较好的线性关系.结论 该方法操作简单、快速、灵敏度高,可用于肾上腺素、去甲肾上腺素原料药中有关物质的测定.

  20. 高压液相电化学法测定血浆肾上腺素和去甲肾上腺素%Determination of Plasma Adrenaline and Noradrenaline by HPLC-ECD

    胥达; 吴淑庆; 王新兴; 冷雪; 杨发青; 钱令嘉


    目的建立高压液相电化学法测定血浆肾上腺素(E)和去甲肾上腺素(NE)的方法,用于检测应激前后机体血浆肾上腺素和去甲肾上腺素的变化.方法 对20名受试人员,进行3 d的睡眠剥脱作为应激刺激,应用电化学检测器测定血浆肾上腺素和去甲肾上腺素浓度.观察应激前后血浆肾上腺素和去甲肾上腺素的变化.结果 建立的方法回收率在95%以上,准确性及重复性较好.在试用中用该方法检测出应激后机体血浆去甲肾上腺素、肾上腺素较应激前明显升高(P<0.05).结论 建立的方法可用于实验室常规检查.

  1. Analysis on Adrenaline and Noradrenaline Using Electrophoresis Capillary System%高效毛细管电泳法分离肾上腺素和去甲肾上腺素

    闫滨; 张秋红; 张惠云



  2. 肾上腺素、去甲肾上腺素刺激培养的大鼠心肌细胞凋亡%Adrenaline and noradrenaline stimulate cardiac myocyte apoptosis in rat

    张义江; 黄德嘉; 崔凯军; 王树人; 王玉芳


    目的:观察肾上腺素(AD)或去甲肾上腺素(NA)刺激体外培养的大鼠心肌细胞凋亡,探讨其作用机制.方法:大鼠心肌细胞分别暴露于10-7mol/L的NA,10-7mol/L的AD,NA+酚妥拉明(10-7mol/L),NA+艾司洛尔(10-7mol/L),AD+酚妥拉明(10-7mol/L)或AD+艾司洛尔(10-7mol/L)24 h.流式细胞仪检测凋亡水平.结果:NA使凋亡细胞百分率由(4.2±1.6)%增加到(10.0±5.0)%(P<0.01;n=8),此作用可被艾司洛尔完全抑制,而不受酚妥拉明影响.AD与NA的作用相仿,使凋亡细胞百分率增加到(12.8±7.9)%,且AD诱导的凋亡同样被艾司洛尔完全抑制但不受酚妥拉明的影响.结论:AD和NA可能通过激活β肾上腺素能通路,促进体外培养的大鼠心肌细胞凋亡.

  3. 依托咪酯持续输注对犬肾上腺素及去甲肾上腺素的影响%Effects of different doses of continuous etomidate infusion on adrenaline and noradrenaline in dogs

    秦榜勇; 胡红专; 曹保锋; 朱昭琼


    目的 对比观察不同剂量依托咪酯持续输注对犬全身麻醉中血浆肾上腺素及去甲肾上腺素的影响.方法 健康成年雄性犬36只,随机分为6组(n=6),对照组(C组):1%戊巴比妥钠基础麻醉后不输注任何药物;实验组:E1、E2、E3、E4、E5五组,1%戊巴比妥钠基础麻醉后分别输注依托咪酯乳剂10、15、20、25、30μg/(kg·min)维持麻醉3h.持续监测生命体征,并用放射免疫法分别于气管插管前(To)、气管插管后1 h(T1)、2h(T2)、3 h(T3)检测血浆中肾上腺素及去甲肾上腺素的浓度.结果 E1~E5组随着持续输注依托咪酯剂量及时间的增加各时间点心率、平均动脉压、肾上腺素及去甲肾上腺素的浓度均在正常范围,比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 持续输注依托咪酯对犬肾上腺素、去甲肾上腺素及血流动力学无明显影响.

  4. The management of anaphylaxis in childhood

    Muraro, A; Roberts, G; Clark, A;


    such as volume support, nebulized bronchodilators, antihistamines or corticosteroids are supplementary to adrenaline. There are no absolute contraindications to administering adrenaline in children. Allergy assessment is mandatory in all children with a history of anaphylaxis because it is essential to...

  5. Drug: D00095 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D00095 Drug Adrenaline (JP16); Epinephrine (USP/INN); Adrenalin (TN); Auvi-q (TN); Epipen (TN) C ... N) S SENSORY ORGANS S01 OPHTHALMOLOGICALS S01E ANTIGLAUCOMA ... PREPARATIONS AND MIOTICS S01EA Sympathomimetics in ... glaucoma ... therapy S01EA01 Epinephrine D00095 Adrenaline (JP1 ...

  6. Features Of Daily Dynamics Of Catecholamine Level In Myocardium Under The Influence Of Low Alcohol Drinks

    O.I. Kostin; T.I. Dzhandarova; Т.В. Kostina


    The research goal was to study the features of daily dynamics of adrenaline and noradrenaline content in various parts of myocardium at the rats receiving nonalcoholic and alcohol-containing beer at ordinary light regimen. Substantial increase of level of adrenaline and noradrenaline in all parts of myocardium at the rats received nonalcoholic and spirit-based beer in comparison with the control. At the rats received nonalcoholic beer, authentically higher content of adrenaline and low noradr...


    Iversen, LL


    In previous studies of the uptake of catechol amines in the rat isolated heart it was shown that adrenaline and noradrenaline were accumulated by a common mechanism (Iversen, 1963, 1965). In these experiments the uptake saturated at an external amine concentration of approximately 0.2 μg/ml. noradrenaline or 0.5 μg/ml. adrenaline. However, in subsequent experiments in which hearts were perfused with (±)-adrenaline at a concentration of 5.0 μg/ml. an unexpectedly large uptake of adrenaline was...

  8. Effects of osmotic pressure,adrenaline,activation of PKC on Cl- movement in vascular smooth muscle cells%渗透压、肾上腺素、激活PKC对血管平滑肌细胞Cl-运动的影响

    任京力; 丘钦英; 贺华; 周园; 熊大志; 关永源


    目的探讨血管平滑肌细胞容积性调节Cl-运动的机制.方法用Cl-特异的荧光探针-MEQ及生物荧光双波长影像分析系统,观察渗透压、肾上腺素、PKC的激活以及细胞外Cl-浓度([Cl-]o)的改变对容积性调节Cl-运动的影响.结果 A10细胞静息时胞质氯离子浓度([Cl-]i)为(30.39±3.01) mmol·L-1(n=30);低渗条件使Cl-外流,[Cl-]i由静息时(30.87±3.11) mmol·L-1降低到(24.39±2.56) mmol·L-1(n=30,P<0.05);高渗时则从(24.39±2.56) mmol·L-1增加到(34.64±3.46) mmol·L-1(n=30,P<0.05);肾上腺素(10 μmol·L-1)能降低[Cl-]i, BAPTA-AM(20 μmol·L-1)能完全抑制10 μmol·L-1肾上腺素引起的[Cl-]i变化,但是两者对渗透性改变引起的[Cl-]i变化均无影响;100 nmol·L-1 PDBu可以完全抑制容积性调节的Cl-运动;降低[Cl-]o可以显著增加低渗时Cl-的外流.结论在A10细胞上,存在着容积性调节的Cl-运动及Ca2+依赖性的Cl-运动.容积性调节的Cl-运动在低渗时激活,高渗时失活;不受胞内外Ca2+的影响;PKC的激活参与了容积性调节的Cl-运动的调节.

  9. Segurança de nebulização com 3 a 5 ml de adrenalina (1:1000) em crianças: uma revisão baseada em evidência The safety of nebulization with 3 to 5 ml of adrenaline (1:1000) in children: an evidence based review

    Linjie Zhang; Lucas Soares Sanguebsche


    OBJETIVO: Apresentar evidências sobre a segurança da nebulização com 3 a 5 ml de adrenalina (1:1000) no tratamento das crianças com obstrução inflamatória aguda das vias aéreas. FONTES DE DADOS: Uma busca eletrônica foi feita, utilizando-se, principalmente, o banco de dados do MEDLINE (janeiro de 1949 a julho de 2004). Os critérios de inclusão do estudo para esta revisão foram: 1) ensaio clínico randomizado; 2) pacientes (até 12 anos) com diagnós tico de bronquiolite ou laringotraqueobronquit...

  10. Analgesia postoperatoria en la queiloplastia del lactante. Estudio comparativo: bloqueo infraorbitario intraoral bilateral con bupivacaína 0,25% con adrenalina vs. analgesia intravenosa con tramadol Postoperative analgesia for the management of chieloplasty in the breast-fed baby. Comparative study: bilateral intraoral blockade of the infraorbitary nerve with bupivacaine 0.25% plus adrenaline versus intravenous analgesia with tramadol

    Delgado, J. A.; A. Martínez-Tellería; Cano, M. E.; J. Galera; R. Fernández-Valades; A. Ruiz-Montes


    Objetivo: Comparar la eficacia y duración del bloqueo del nervio infraorbitario intraoral bilateral frente a la analgesia intravenosa convencional con tramadol en el control del dolor postoperatorio en lactantes sometidos a queiloplastia por labio leporino. Material y métodos: Tras la realización de una adecuada valoración preanestésica y la obtención del consentimiento informado de los padres, realizamos un estudio prospectivo, controlado aleatorizado y doble ciego en 25 niños, ASA I, con ed...

  11. 106例老年人不稳定型心绞痛各时段血浆肾上腺素水平变化%The levels of noradrenaline and adrenaline in each phase in 106 elderly patients with unstable angina

    刘丰; 黄卫民; 陈蕴贤


    目的为探讨老年人不稳定型心绞痛急性发作期间及稳定期的血浆去甲肾上腺素(NE)及肾上腺素水平(E).方法 106例老年UAP患者分别于发作即时、发作后24h及稳定后2周测定血浆NE、E的含量,并设对照组比较.结果 3个时段的NE含量分别为(546.90±123.70)μg/ml、(516.60±98.80)μg/ml,(38.54±12.85)μg/ml;E含量分别为:(922.70±412.69)μg/ml,(913.27±441.60)μg/ml,(100.20±28.50)μg/ml.其24小时内的NE、E含量与平稳后2 周的含量间差别有显著性意义(P<0.01).对UAP的初发型及劳力恶化型分别对照,均有差异.为排除药物对其的影响,分别以β-受体阻滞剂、Ca2+拮抗剂等对照,差异仍有显著性意义.结论老年人在UAP的急性期中交感神经张力增高,NE、E水平升高.

  12. Simultaneous Determination of Adrenaline, Noradrenaline, Cortisone and Cortisol in Plasma with HPLC/MS/MS%HPLC/MS/MS同时测定血浆肾上腺素、去甲肾上腺素、可的松和氢化可的松的方法建立

    雍莉; 王宇; 邹晓莉; 朱岚; 谢蟪旭; 李龙江


    目的 建立高效液相色谱-质谱-质谱联用(HPLC/MS/MS)同时测定血浆中的肾上腺素、去甲肾上腺素、可的松和氢化可的松的方法.方法 样品经乙腈沉淀蛋白和萃取后,15 000 r/min离心5 min,取上清液进样分析.电喷雾离子源(ESI),正离子检测,多反应监测(MRM)方式定量分析.结果 肾上腺素、去甲肾上腺素、可的松和氢化可的松在0.02~200.00 ng/mL浓度范围内线性良好(相关系数均≥0.999),检出限分别为4.13 pg/mL、4.64 pg/mL、4.29 pg/mL和4.52 pg/mL,日内和日间精密度分别为1.19%~5.42%和2.16%~6.04%;将所建立的方法用于空白人血浆样品分析,加标回收率为80.0%~109.0%,样品测定精密度为3.93%~7.57%.结论 本研究所建立的方法快速灵敏,适合血浆样品的批量分析.

  13. 充血性心力衰竭阳虚水泛证和心气阴虚与肾上腺素及去甲肾上腺素的关系的临床观察%Relationship among adrenalin noradrenalin and heart failure

    黄太权; 范华昌; 冯青根; 尤圣富; 蒋梅先


    心力衰竭(Congestive Heart Fallure)是一种复杂的临床症状群,是各种心脏病的严重阶段,其发病率高,五年存活率与恶性肿相仿。据我国50家医院住院病例调查,心力衰竭住院率只占同期心血管病住院病人的20%,但死亡率却占40%,提示预后严重。




    Objectives-To evaluate lorry drivers' work stress by measurement of adrenaline and noradrenaline excreted in the urine, and to find out which factors in their working situation are related to the excretion rates of these catecholamines. Methods-The urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline o

  15. Sympathoadrenal dysfunction in rats with chronic neurogenic hypertension

    Dominiak, P; Kees, Frieder K.; Grobecker, H


    Compared to sham-operated controls 5 weeks after surgery neurogenic hypertensive rats with sino-aortic baroreceptor deafferentation had higher blood pressure, higher plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline levels, lower heart noradrenaline concentrations, higher adrenomedullary adrenaline levels and increased cardiac intraventricular pressure (dp/dtmax).

  16. Biochemical tests for diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma: urinary versus plasma determinations.

    Plouin, P F; Duclos, J M; Menard, J; Comoy, E; Bohuon, C; Alexandre, J M


    Fifteen patients with hypertension due to phaeochromocytoma and 35 controls with essential hypertension were studied to assess the diagnostic value of urinary and plasma biochemical determinations in phaeochromocytoma. In every case of phaeochromocytoma the urinary concentration of vanillylmandelate, metanephrines, or adrenaline plus noradrenaline was diagnostic of the disease irrespective of whether the patient was normotensive or hypertensive at the time. Plasma determinations of adrenaline...

  17. The effect of Adernalinated lidpcaine on Blood Pressure, Heart rate and Bleeding during DCR surgery in General Anesthesia

    M. Shakhrezaee


    Full Text Available Background and purpose : NLD obstraction causes chronic or acute Dacryiocytits resistant epiphora. Current treatment is DCR for persistent conection between lscrimal sac and nasal cavity. Vasocontrictor drugs are used facilitasing the operation.Materials and methods : Being approved in the ethics committee of the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences the study performed on 57 patients ASAL, II whom were divided in to two groups; Adrenaline group, no=23 and non adrenaline group no= 34. 10-15-ml adrenalin 1/200000 was injected at surgical area, before surgery in AG. BP, PR and bleeding were recorded during before and 1, 3, 5, 10,… min during the surgery. The results were analysed using t-test, and paired t-test at a significance level of< 0.05.Results : Maximum BP was measured at 3 minuts after adrenaline injection. The average of bleeding in adrenaline group was 38.3 ml and in nonadernaline group was 49.16 ml(P=0.007. The time of surgery in adrenalin group is shorter than non adrenaline group(P=0.003.Conclusion : Althragh adrenaline decreased the bleeding during surgery and facilitated the procedure, it is potentially dangerous for patients with cardiovascular disease during DCR syrgery.

  18. Proliferation and telomere length in acutely mobilized blood mononuclear cells in HIV infected patients

    Søndergaard, S R; Essen, M V; Schjerling, P;


    infusion for 1 h. Blood was sampled before, during and 1 h after adrenalin infusion. Proliferation and mean telomere restriction fragment length (telomeres) of blood mononuclear cells (BMNC) and purified CD8+ and CD4+ cells were investigated at all time points. In patients, the proliferation to pokeweed...... mitogens (PWM) was lower and decreased more during adrenalin infusion. After adrenalin infusion the proliferation to PWM was restored only in the controls. In all subjects telomeres in CD4+ cells declined during adrenalin infusion. Additionally, the patients had shortened telomeres in their CD8+ cells, and...... particularly HAART treated patients had shortened telomeres in all cell-subtypes. The finding that patients mobilized cells with an impaired proliferation to PWM during and after adrenalin infusion has possible clinical relevance for HIV infected patients during pathological stressful conditions, such as...

  19. Brief note about plasma catecholamines kinetics and submaximal exercise in untrained standardbreds

    Paolo Baragli


    Full Text Available Four untrained standardbred horses performed a standardized exercise test on the treadmill and an automated blood collection system programmed to obtain blood samples every 15 s was used for blood collection in order to evaluate the kinetics of adrenaline and noradrenaline. The highest average values obtained for adrenaline and noradrenaline were 15.0 ± 3.0 and 15.8 ± 2.8 nmol/l respectively, with exponential accumulation of adrenaline (r = 0.977 and noradrenaline (r = 0.976 during the test. Analysis of the correlation between noradrenaline and adrenaline for each phase of the test shows that correlation coefficient decreases as the intensity of exercise increases (from r = 0.909 to r = 0.788. This suggests that during submaximal exercise, the process for release, distribution and clearance of adrenaline into blood circulation differs from that of noradrenaline.

  20. Plasma catecholamine and serum gastrin concentrations during sham feeding

    Bekker, Carsten; Andersen, D; Kronborg, O;


    Plasma adrenaline, plasma noradrenaline and serum gastrin concentrations were measured before and after sham feeding in eight patients with duodenal ulcer and in four normal subjects. No significant change in the concentrations was observed after sham feeding. In three patients with duodenal ulcer...... an insulin test resulted in a 25-fold rise in plasma adrenaline. The ulcer patients showed significantly higher levels of plasma adrenaline and plasma noradrenaline than the normal subjects both before and after sham feeding, and this difference was probably not caused only by age difference in the...

  1. Circulating catecholamines in exercise and hyperventilation induced asthma.

    Barnes, P. J.; Brown, M. J.; Silverman, M; Dollery, C. T.


    Plasma noradrenaline, adrenaline, and cyclic 3'5' AMP (cAMP) were measured in seven asthmatic patients with known exercise-induced bronchospasm and six matched non-atopic control subjects during a standard treadmill exercise test and then during matched isocapnic hyperventilation. Normal subjects showed a 5.5 fold rise in noradrenaline and a 3.2 fold rise in adrenaline during exercise compared with a 2.1 fold rise in noradrenaline and no significant rise in adrenaline in asthmatics who all de...

  2. The mode of action of caffeine on catecholamine release from perfused adrenal glands of cat.

    Yamada, Y.; Nakazato, Y; Ohga, A.


    1 Adrenaline and noradrenaline secretion induced by caffeine was investigated in the perfused cat adrenal glands. 2 Caffeine (10-80 mM) caused a dose-dependent increase in both adrenaline and noradrenaline secretion when applied for 1 min and 10 min after replacing Ca2+ with 10(-5)M EGTA in the perfusion solution. The ratio of adrenaline to noradrenaline was about 1:1. Mg2+ and/or Ca2+ inhibited the response to caffeine. 3 When caffeine (40 mM) was repeatedly applied in the absence of extrace...

  3. The effects of alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor activation on tension and membrane properties of the longitudinal smooth muscle of the chicken rectum.

    Komori, S; Ohashi, H; Takewaki, T.


    1. Isolated longitudinal muscle strips from the chicken rectum responded to isoprenaline, adrenaline and noradrenaline with a prolonged relaxation. The concentrations required to produce 50% of the maximum relaxation were 1.3 x 10(-8) M for isoprenaline, 1.7 x 10(-8) M for adrenaline and 10(-6) M for noradrenaline. The relaxing potency of isoprenaline is about equal to that of adrenaline, but more than 50 times that of noradrenaline. 2. Propranolol, 3.4 x 10(-6) M, blocked the isoprenaline-in...

  4. Physiological antagonism between ventricular β1-adrenoceptors and α1-adrenoceptors but no evidence for β2- and β3-adrenoceptor function in murine heart

    Heubach, Jürgen F; Rau, Thomas; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Ravens, Ursula; Kaumann, Alberto J


    Murine left atrium lacks inotropic β2-adrenoceptor function. We investigated whether β2-adrenoceptors are involved in the cardiostimulant effects of (−)-adrenaline on spontaneously beating right atria and paced right ventricular myocardium of C57BL6 mice. We also studied a negative inotropic effect of (−)-adrenaline.Sinoatrial tachycardia, evoked by (−)-adrenaline was resistant to blockade by β2-selective ICI 118,551 (50 nM) but antagonized by β1-selective CGP 20712A (300 nM). This pattern wa...

  5. Brief note about plasma catecholamines kinetics and submaximal exercise in untrained standardbreds

    Paolo Baragli; Sara Pacchini; Domenico Gatta; Michele Ducci; Claudio Sighieri


    Four untrained standardbred horses performed a standardized exercise test on the treadmill and an automated blood collection system programmed to obtain blood samples every 15 s was used for blood collection in order to evaluate the kinetics of adrenaline and noradrenaline. The highest average values obtained for adrenaline and noradrenaline were 15.0 ± 3.0 and 15.8 ± 2.8 nmol/l respectively, with exponential accumulation of adrenaline (r = 0.977) and noradrenaline (r = 0.976) during the test...

  6. Insulin facilitates transport of macromolecules and nutrients to muscles

    Christensen, N J; Hilsted, J


    We previously showed that intravenous insulin increased plasma noradrenaline during euglycemia and without concomitant changes in plasma adrenaline. Insulin decreased plasma volume and increased the fractional escape rate of albumin from plasma. In normal subjects, oral glucose increased heart rate...

  7. Establishment of a paediatric age-related reference interval for the measurement of urinary total fractionated metanephrines.

    Griffin, Alison


    Normetanephrine and metanephrine are intermediate metabolites of noradrenaline and adrenaline metabolism. To assess whether normetanephrine and metanephrine analysis may aid in the diagnosis of Neuroblastoma, a reference interval for these metabolites must first be established.

  8. Catecholamine blood test

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  9. Luminescent properties of terbium complexes with catecholamines and their application in analysis

    Tb complexing with a representative of catecholamines - adrenaline - is studied using the luminescence method. It is found, that the complexing takes place in alkaline medium (pH 12.0). To prevent from compound oxidation with air oxygen and to create the necessary pH in solution sodium borohydride is used. The highest luminescence intensity is achieved when the reaction occurs in aqueous-isopropanol solutions. It is established that in the complexes formed the ratio of components is the following: Tb:adrenaline=1:3. Luminescent properties of Tb complex with adrenaline are used to determine the latter. The least detectable amount of adrenaline constitutes 0.02 μg, the determination error does not exceed 5.5%

  10. Essential Tremor (ET): Coping Tips for Everyday Living

    ... yoga, meditation, etc. and links to related websites. Dental visits Ask for adrenaline-free anethesia shots. Notify ... are pre-loaded with this. When choosing a digital camera, pick one with image stabilization technology. Airport ...

  11. Splanchnic and renal elimination and release of catecholamines in cirrhosis. Evidence of enhanced sympathetic nervous activity in patients with decompensated cirrhosis

    Ring-Larsen, H; Kanstrup, I L; Christensen, N J;


    Plasma noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A) concentrations were determined in different vascular areas in 32 patients with cirrhosis and in nine controls during a right sided heart, liver, and renal vein catheterisation. The patients were divided into four groups: (I) Compensated (without ascites......, respectively, the three last mentioned values being significantly raised (p less than 0.01). Median arterial adrenaline concentrations were not significantly increased. In patients arterial-hepatic venous extraction ratios of noradrenaline and adrenaline were on the average 25% (p less than 0.01) and 20% (p...... differences were significantly increased in groups II, III and IV (0.47, 0.53 and 0.68 nmol/l, p less than 0.01), indicating a significant net release of noradrenaline from the kidneys in recompensated and decompensated patients. Renal extraction of adrenaline was normal. In conclusion, increased arterial...

  12. Features Of Daily Dynamics Of Catecholamine Level In Myocardium Under The Influence Of Low Alcohol Drinks

    O.I. Kostin


    Full Text Available The research goal was to study the features of daily dynamics of adrenaline and noradrenaline content in various parts of myocardium at the rats receiving nonalcoholic and alcohol-containing beer at ordinary light regimen. Substantial increase of level of adrenaline and noradrenaline in all parts of myocardium at the rats received nonalcoholic and spirit-based beer in comparison with the control. At the rats received nonalcoholic beer, authentically higher content of adrenaline and low noradrenaline in myocardium in comparison with animals received alcohol-containing beer was observed. The circadian dynamics of catecholamine level in all parts of heart myocardium was disturbed at animals of both experimental groups in comparison with the control. The revealed disturbances of level of daily catecholamine dynamics in myocardium under the influence of beer, undoubtedly, are bound with negative action of nonalcoholic nature ingredients present in beer. Key words: adrenaline, noradrenaline, myocardium, low alcohol drinks.

  13. Catecholamines, mood, and cardiovascular control

    J.H.M. Tulen (Joke)


    textabstractThe research presented in this thesis addresses the above mentioned issue on the basis of four psychophysiological experiments. These experiments were aimed at separately manipulating concentrations of circulating adrenaline and noradrenaline by means of infusions of catecholamines, phar

  14. Elevated plasma catecholamines in young hypertensive and hyperkinetic patients: Effect of pindolol

    Dominiak, P; Grobecker, H


    1 The sympathetic nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure. Plasma catecholamine concentrations are considered to be reliable indices of sympatho-neuronal (noradrenaline) and sympatho-adrenal (adrenaline) activity and reactivity in man.

  15. Full Text Available ... adrenal glands to produce epinephrine or "adrenaline". Epinephrine increases the rate in which the heart beats. The increased cardiac output supplies more oxygen to the muscles, ...

  16. Management of anaphylaxis

    Dhami, S; Panesar, S S; Roberts, G;


    To establish the effectiveness of interventions for the acute and long-term management of anaphylaxis, seven databases were searched for systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted...... time series and - only in relation to adrenaline - case series investigating the effectiveness of interventions in managing anaphylaxis. Fifty-five studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. We found no robust studies investigating the effectiveness of adrenaline (epinephrine), H1-antihistamines......, systemic glucocorticosteroids or methylxanthines to manage anaphylaxis. There was evidence regarding the optimum route, site and dose of administration of adrenaline from trials studying people with a history of anaphylaxis. This suggested that administration of intramuscular adrenaline into the middle...

  17. Radiation Chemistry Studies on Chemotherapeutic Agents

    Gohn, M.; Getoff, N.; Bjergbakke, Erling


    Adrenalin has been studied as a model radiation protective agent by means of pulse radiolysis in aqueous solutions. The rate constants for the reactions of adrenalin with e–aq and OH were determined : k(e–aq+ adr—NH+2)= 7.5 × 108 dm3 mol–1 s–1, k(e–aq+ adr—NH)= 2.5 × 108 dm3 mol–1 s–1, and k(OH +...

  18. Effects of prenatal exposure to different colors on offsprings mood

    Afra Khosravi; Sara Faryadian


    Objective(s): There is much evidence indicating that depression is influenced by the levels of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, GABA and adrenaline. The current study we designed to investigate the effect of exposure of pregnant rats to different colors on neurotransmitters level, as indicators of mood disorders in off springs. Materials and Methods: Five groups of pregnant female Wistar rats (eight rats in each group) were enrolled in this study. Dopamine, adrenaline and GABA concentratio...

  19. Cortisol Level and Hemodynamic Changes During Tooth Extraction at Hypertensive and Normotensive Patients

    Agani, Zana Bajrami; Benedetti, Alberto; Krasniqi, Vjosa Hamiti; Ahmedi, Jehona; Sejfija, Zana; Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Murtezani, Arben; Rexhepi, Aida Namani; Ibraimi, Zana


    Background: The patients that are subjects to oral-surgical interventions produce large amounts of steroids in comparison with healthy patients which are not a subject to any dental intervention. The aim of research was to determine the level of stress hormone cortisol in serum, arterial blood pressure and arterial pulse, and to compare the effectiveness of the usage of lidocaine with adrenalin in comparison with lidocaine without adrenalin during the tooth extraction. Patients and methods: T...

  20. Behavioral stress accelerates prostate cancer development in mice

    Hassan, Sazzad; Karpova, Yelena; Baiz, Daniele; Yancey, Dana; Pullikuth, Ashok; Flores, Anabel; Register, Thomas; Cline, J. Mark; D’Agostino, Ralph; Danial, Nika; Datta, Sandeep Robert; Kulik, George


    Prostate cancer patients have increased levels of stress and anxiety. Conversely, men who take beta blockers, which interfere with signaling from the stress hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline, have a lower incidence of prostate cancer; however, the mechanisms underlying stress–prostate cancer interactions are unknown. Here, we report that stress promotes prostate carcinogenesis in mice in an adrenaline-dependent manner. Behavioral stress inhibited apoptosis and delayed prostate tumor invol...

  1. Předpoklady rozvoje cestovního ruchu na Prachaticku

    MRÁZ, Pavel


    Bachelor thesis is focused on tourism in Prachatice. The main aim of this work was analysis of the tourism in Prachatice, preparation of the product package and the completion of marketing research. The results of the survey indicated the typical visitor profile. Based on the profile, a new product was created called {\\clqq}Cycling for Nature, History and Adrenaline in the Prachatice Area``. The produkt concerns cycling tourism, adrenaline experiences, discovering towns, nature and chateaux. ...

  2. Plasma catecholamines in Down's syndrome, at rest and during sympathetic stimulation.

    Udeschini, G; Casati, G.; Bassani, F.; Picotti, G.B.; Culotta, P


    Five adult female patients with Down's syndrome were compared with five age-matched controls in the standing and cold pressor tests. In both tests, there were no differences between the two groups in heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure or plasma noradrenaline, adrenaline and dopamine concentrations. However, plasma adrenaline tended to be higher in the Down's group, both in the standing and the cold pressor tests.

  3. Muscarinic and nicotinic mechanisms in the responses of the adrenal medulla of the dog and cat to reflex stimuli and to cholinomimetic drugs.

    Critchley, J A; Ellis, P; Henderson, C. G.; Ungar, A.; West, C P


    In isolated perfused adrenal glands of the cat, muscarinic and nicotinic agonists selectively released adrenaline and noradrenaline respectively. In isolated perfused adrenal glands of the dog, the output of adrenaline and noradrenaline remained in a fixed ratio at rest and when stimulated by muscarinic or by nicotinic agonists. In the anaesthetized dog, a combination of muscarinic and nicotinic antagonists was needed to block reflex responses of the adrenal medulla. A nicotinic antagonist wa...

  4. A study of the action of clonidine on secretion from the adrenal medulla in dogs.

    Anglade, F.; Dang Tran, L.; De Saint Blanquat, G.; Gaillard, G.; Michel-Damase, C.; Montastruc, J. L.; Montastruc, P; Rostin, M.; Tran, M. A.


    The effects of clonidine on adrenal catecholamine (adrenaline and noradrenaline) secretion were investigated in chloralose-anaesthetized dogs. Intravenous administration of clonidine (10 and 20 micrograms kg-1) induced a decrease in both adrenal catecholamine secretion rates and cardiovascular parameters (blood pressure and heart rate). In contrast, a dose of 5 micrograms kg-1 was ineffective. Intracisternal clonidine (in a lower dose of 3 micrograms kg-1) also decreased adrenaline and noradr...

  5. Catecholamine and cortisol levels in Oxford college rowers.

    Pearson, R; Ungpakorn, G; Harrison, G. A.


    Urinary catecholamines and cortisol levels in two teams of Oxford college eight oarsmen were compared on three different day types: training days, racing days, and non-rowing days. Adrenaline and cortisol were raised on racing and training days compared to non-racing days. Noradrenaline was raised on training days, reflecting longer periods of physical exercise during training. There was evidence of a progressive lowering of adrenaline output over consecutive race days and that the outcome of...

  6. Brain catecholamines in spontaneously hypertensive and DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.

    Fujino, Kazuyuki


    The concentrations and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (alpha-MPT) induced disappearance of catecholamines, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, were measured in selected areas of the brainstem and hypothalamus of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. The catecholamine levels were measured by a sensitive radioenzymatic assay method combined with microdissection of the rat brain. The adrenaline concentration was higher in the area A1 of...

  7. Stereoselectivity of extraneuronal uptake of catecholamines in guinea-pig trachealis smooth muscle cells.

    Bryan, L. J.; O'Donnell, S R


    The extraneuronal uptake of the (-)- and (+)-isomers of three catecholamines, isoprenaline, adrenaline and noradrenaline, were compared in guinea-pig trachealis smooth muscle cells, by a fluorescence microphotometric method. Preliminary experiments showed that the initial rates of uptake of the (-)-isomers were greater than those of the (+)-isomers in tissues incubated in 25 microM adrenaline or noradrenaline or 50 microM isoprenaline. More detailed experiments showed that the Km values of th...

  8. Effects of intravenous endralazine in essential hypertension.

    Hoffmann, J J; Thien, T.; van t'Laar, A


    The effects of endralazine, administered intravenously, on blood pressure, heart rate, forearm blood flow, plasma renin activity, aldosterone, adrenaline and noradrenaline were studied in five patients with essential hypertension. Endralazine reduced peripheral vascular resistance, resulting in decrease in mean arterial pressure from 141 to 116 mm Hg and increase in heart rate from 67 to 92 beats/min. Plasma renin activity, adrenaline and noradrenaline increased significantly after endralazin...


    Kochanska-Dziurowicz, A. A.; Janikowska, G.; Bogacz, A; Bijak, A.; Stanjek-Cichoracka, A.; Mazurek, U.; Gabrys, T.


    The aim of this study was to assess the plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations as well as whole blood β2-adrenoceptor gene (ADRB2) expression in young ice hockey players before and immediately after exercise in relation to performed work. Nineteen Youth National Team ice hockey players were subjected to the maximal incremental cycloergometer exercise. The test was done in the pre-competitive phase of training. Among many parameters the plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentra...

  10. Dexmedetomidine induced catecholamine suppression in pheochromocytoma

    Singh, Sanjeev; Singh, Arti


    Pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumour of chromaffin cells, though rare but a known cause of paroxysmal hypertension with a triad of headache, diaphoresis and palpitation. The biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma is based on estimation of plasma nor-adrenaline, adrenaline and their metabolites in plasma or urine. Clonidine suppression test is performed to differentiate the raised catecholamine level due to pheochromocytoma or other than heochromocytoma especially in cases where plas...

  11. Lorry drivers' work stress evaluated by catecholamines excreted in urine.

    van der Beek, A J; Meijman, T.F; Frings-Dresen, M. H.; Kuiper, J I; Kuiper, S.


    OBJECTIVES--To evaluate lorry drivers' work stress by measurement of adrenaline and noradrenaline excreted in the urine, and to find out which factors in their working situation are related to the excretion rates of these catecholamines. METHODS--The urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline of 32 lorry drivers, who also had loading and unloading activities to perform, was studied for one working day and one rest day. Each driver was asked to provide six urine samples on both days. RE...

  12. Cardiovascular effects of injections of vasopressin into the nucleus tractus solitarius in conscious rats.

    King, K A; Pang, C. C.


    The effects of injections of arginine vasopressin (AVP) into the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) on mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and plasma concentrations of noradrenaline and adrenaline were investigated in conscious, unrestrained rats. Injection of 2 ng AVP into the NTS significantly increased MAP but not plasma catecholamine concentrations, while injection of 10 ng AVP significantly increased MAP and plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline levels. Neither dose of AVP produced...

  13. The occurrence of postsynaptic alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors in the guinea-pig gall bladder.

    Doggrell, S A; Scott, G W


    1 Guinea-pig gall bladder strips were contracted by (-)-noradrenaline, 10(-5) M, and by field stimulation at 5 Hz (in the absence or presence of 10(-6) M atropine) and relaxed to 10(-5) M (-)-isoprenaline. (-)-Adrenaline, 10(-5) M, predominantly contracted, but sometimes relaxed, this preparation. 2 In the presence of 10(-6) M phentolamine, contractions to (-)-noradrenaline and to (-)-adrenaline were reversed to relaxations. The relaxations produced by (-)-isoprenaline were unaltered. In the ...

  14. Regulation and role of hormone-sensitive lipase in rat skeletal muscle

    Donsmark, Morten; Langfort, Jozef; Holm, Cecilia;


    Intramyocellular triacylglycerol (TG) is an important energy store, and the energy content of this depot is higher than the energy content of the muscle glycogen depot. It has recently been shown that the mobilization of fatty acids from this TG pool may be regulated by the neutral lipase hormone...... in skeletal muscle and can be activated by phosphorylation in response to both adrenaline and muscle contractions. Training increases contraction-mediated HSL activation, but decreases adrenaline-mediated HSL activation in muscle....

  15. Effects of various pharmacological agents on exposed heart of uromastix hardwickii

    Background: The pharmacological and physiological studies on cardiac activity of reptiles specifically of Uromastix hardwickii are scarcely available in literature, as well as the effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic agonists together are also not available. Therefore, the mechanical and electrophysiological effects of pharmacological agents, like Physostigmine and its effects before and after Adrenaline administration were observed on the exposed and intact heart of a reptile, Uromastix hardwickii. Method: To work on exposed heart of Uromastix hardwickii, Physostigmine and Adrenaline were prepared by dissolving 0.01 gm in 10 ml of distilled water. Oscillograph was used to record the mechanical and electrical activity of intact heart through isotonic transducer. Result: Physostigmine was found to produce significant effect on Systolic Force (SF), Duration of cardiac cycle (DCC) and Duration of Phase 4 (DP4). Significant effect of Physostigmine was also observed on heart rate (HR) before Adrenaline administration and on DP4 after Adrenaline administration. Conclusion: It was confirmed that Physostigmine does not exhibit its normal effect on Amplitude of Action Potential, cardiac cycle (CC), Duration of action potential (DAP), Plateau Duration and DP4. Physostigmine is affecting the cardiac activity of this reptile without inhibiting the cholinesterase and not accumulating the Acetylcholine. It modulates the effects of Adrenaline when used before the administration of Adrenaline. (author)

  16. The impact of freediving on psychomotor performance and blood catecholamine concentration.

    Chmura, Jan; Kawczyński, Adam; Medraś, Marek; Jóźków, Paweł; Morawiec, Bartosz


    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of breath-hold diving on divers' psychomotor performance and blood adrenaline, noradrenaline and lactate concentrations. Four male divers took part in the experiment. During the study the divers' choice reaction time as well as plasma concentration of adrenaline, noradrenaline and lactate were measured. The measurements were carried out before immersion (before a warm-up), three minutes after the dive, and 60 minutes after the dive. A reduction in the reaction time to audiovisual stimuli was found in three divers, three minutes after the dive. Diver 4, who broke his personal best record, had a longer choice reaction time at three minutes after the dive. The adrenaline concentration was lowered in Diver 1 and Diver 2, at three minutes after the dive. The adrenaline level in Diver 3 was relatively steady at all test measurements. In Diver 4, who broke his personal best, a twofold increase in adrenaline concentration was noted at three minutes after the dive. All examined divers revealed an increase in noradrenaline blood level at three minutes after the dive. The results of the study are of great practical value since disturbed reactions during freediving can put the diver at the risk of serious barotraumas. PMID:24851548

  17. Anafylaksi efter bi- eller hvepsestik i Region Syddanmark i perioden 2008-2011

    Oropeza, Athamaica Ruiz; Mikkelsen, Søren; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten;

    intramuskulær adrenalin (64 % ifølge Sampson’s skala og 76 % ifølge Muraro’s). Af de 38 patienter der blev set i Odense fik 66 % intravenøs (IV) binyrebarkhormon, 63 % IV antihistamin og 5 % IV adrenalin (blandt dem med moderat til svær anafylaksi fik op til 77 % IV binyrebarkhormon og op til 82 % IV...... antihistamin). Blandt de 55 patienter i resten af Region Syddanmark fik 80 % IV binyrebarkhormon, 78 % IV antihistamin og 7 % IV adrenalin (blandt dem med moderat til svær anafylaksi fik op til 94 % IV binyrebarkhormon og op til 90 %, IV antihistamin). Af dem der fik IV adrenalin havde 2 ud af 2 tidligere fået...... intramuskulær adrenalin i Odense-området og 1 ud af 4 i resten af Region Syddanmark. Konklusion: Over 50 % af de reporterede tilfælde af allergi efter bi- og hvepsestik kunne gradueres som moderat til svær anafylaksi. Lang de fleste fik behandling med IV binyrebarkhormon og antihistamin, men kun omkring 50 % af...

  18. The influence of subacute sidnocarb treatment on cateholamine concentration in the structures of central nervous system.

    Drozdov O.L.


    Full Text Available The psychos stimulators are known to be able to excite catecholamine mechanisms in the nervous system, in particular to increase freeing of catecholamine from presynaptic completions. The purpose of work was an estimation of changes of catecholamine (adrenalin and noradrenalin in the structures of cerebrum after sidnocarb treatment in the conditions of ex-periment on 48 Vistar rats. The model of the proof pathological state of cerebrum for rats was created by intrastomach intro-duction of sidnocarb in the dose of 5 mg/kg 2 times per a day during 14 days. The concentration of adrenalin and noradrenalin in the structures of brain was determined by flyuorometric method. The frontal area of neocortex, striate body, medialis part of talamus, pons and hypocampus were chose. The accumulation of adrenalin was observed in hypocampus and medialis part of thalamus by the 3rd day, the increase of concentration was on 26,1% and 43,9% correspondly. The considerable increase of adrenalin concentration in the striate body have been determined (on 76,7% and in the neocortex (in 2,2 times. By the 14th day of sidnocarb treatment the level of adrenalin in the pons was lower on 48,1% that in control animals. Thus, the changes of noradrenalin concentration during the development of experimental psyxosis by sidnocarb treatment were significant and had different character.

  19. Anaphylaxis

    Muraro, A; Roberts, G; Worm, M;


    evidence-based recommendations for the recognition, risk factor assessment, and the management of patients who are at risk of, are experiencing, or have experienced anaphylaxis. While the primary audience is allergists, these guidelines are also relevant to all other healthcare professionals. The...... adrenaline. Discharge arrangements should involve an assessment of the risk of further reactions, a management plan with an anaphylaxis emergency action plan, and, where appropriate, prescribing an adrenaline auto-injector. If an adrenaline auto-injector is prescribed, education on when and how to use the...... device should be provided. Specialist follow-up is essential to investigate possible triggers, to perform a comprehensive risk assessment, and to prevent future episodes by developing personalized risk reduction strategies including, where possible, commencing allergen immunotherapy. Training for the...

  20. Catecholamine and electrolyte content in the animal vascular wall in radiation sickness and during administration of radioprotectors

    The effect of adrenaline upon the balance of catecholamines and electrolytes in blood vessels in different time periods after whole-body X-ray irradiation and also under conditions of prophylactic prescription of cystamine is studied. The work is conducted in 90 adult cats of both sexes with the mass 2-4 kg. The whole-body X-ray irradiation is carried out at a dose of 400 R. It is shown that X-ray irradiation depending on the stage of radiaiton sickness causes quantitative and qualitative changes of normal biochemical response of vessel tissue for the introduction of different doses of adrenaline. Cystamine decreses the expression of quantitative changes and frequency of qualitative non-adequate changes of electrolyte composition and balance of catecholamines in vessel tissue of irradiated animals when introducing adrenaline in a dose of 15 μg/kg

  1. Traumatic Endotheliopathy

    Johansson, Pär I; Henriksen, Hanne; Stensballe, Jakob;


    cohorts and animal models but needs confirmation in a large independent patient cohort. METHODS: Prospective observational study of 424 trauma patients admitted to a level 1 Trauma Center. Admission plasma levels of catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline) and biomarkers reflecting endothelial damage...... (syndecan-1, thrombomodulin, and sE-selectin) were measured and demography, injury type and severity, physiology, treatment, and mortality up till 28 days were recorded. RESULTS: Patients had a median ISS of 17 with 72% suffering from blunt injury. Adrenaline and noradrenaline correlated with syndecan-1 (r...... = 0.38, P<0.001 and r = 0.23, P<0.001, respectively) but adrenaline was the only independent predictor of syndecan-1 by multiple linear regression adjusted for age, injury severity score, Glascow Coma Scale, systolic blood pressure, base excess, platelet count, hemoglobin, prehospital plasma, and...

  2. Sympathoadrenal Activation and Endothelial Damage Are Inter Correlated and Predict Increased Mortality in Patients Resuscitated after Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    I. Johansson, Pär; Bro-Jeppesen, John; Kjaergaard, Jesper;


    at a single site ICU. Blood was sampled a median 135 min (Inter Quartile Range (IQR) 103-169) after OHCA. Plasma catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline) and serum endothelial biomarkers (syndecan-1, thrombomodulin, sE-selectin, sVE-cadherin) were measured at admission (immediately after...... randomization). We had access to data on demography, medical history, characteristics of the OHCA, patients and 180-day outcome. RESULTS: Adrenaline and noradrenaline correlated positively with syndecan-1 and thrombomodulin i.e., biomarkers reflecting endothelial damage (both p<0.05). Overall 180-day mortality...... was 35%. By Cox analyses, plasma adrenaline, serum sE-selectin, reflecting endothelial cell activation, and thrombomodulin levels predicted mortality. However, thrombomodulin was the only biomarker independently associated with mortality after adjusting for gender, age, rhythm (shockable vs. non...

  3. Dexmedetomidine overdosage: An unusual presentation

    Soumya S Nath


    Full Text Available We present a case of dexmedetomidine toxicity in a 3-year-old child. The case report describes the features and outlines the treatment strategy adopted. The child presented with bradypnoea, bradycardia, hypotension, deep hypnosis and miosis. He was successfully managed with oxygen, saline boluses and adrenaline infusion. He became haemodynamically stable with adrenaline infusion. He started responding to painful stimuli in 3 h and became oriented in 7 h. Dexmedetomidine, a selective α2 adrenoceptor agonist, is claimed to have a wide safety margin. This case report highlights the fact that dexmedetomidine administered in a toxic dose may be life-threatening may present with miosis and adrenaline infusion may be a useful supportive treatment.

  4. Challenges in understanding the impact of blood pressure management on cerebral oxygenation in the preterm brain

    Aminath eAzhan


    Full Text Available Systemic hypotension in preterm infants has been related to increased mortality, cerebrovascular lesions and neurodevelopmental morbidity. Treatment of hypotension with inotropic medications aims at preservation of end organ perfusion and oxygen delivery, especially the brain. The common inotropic medications in preterm infants include dopamine, dobutamine, adrenalin, with adjunctive use of corticosteroids in cases of refractory hypotension. Whether maintenance of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP by use of inotropic medication is neuroprotective or not remains unclear. This review explores the different inotropic agents and their effects on perfusion and oxygenation in the preterm brain, in clinical studies as well as in animal models. Dopamine and adrenalin, because of their -adrenergic vasoconstrictor actions, have raised concerns of reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF. Several studies in hypotensive preterm infants have shown that dopamine elevates CBF together with increased MAP, in keeping with limited cerebro-autoregulation. Adrenaline is also effective in raising cerebral perfusion together with MAP in preterm infants. Experimental studies in immature animals show no cerebro-vasoconstrictive effects of dopamine or adrenaline, but demonstrate the consistent findings of increased cerebral perfusion and oxygenation with the use of dopamine, dobutamine and adrenaline, alongside with raised MAP. Both clinical and animal studies report the transitory effects of adrenaline in increasing plasma lactate, and blood glucose, which might render its use as a 2nd line therapy. To investigate the cerebral effects of inotropic agents in long-term outcome in hypotensive preterm infants, carefully designed prospective research possibly including preterm infants with permissive hypotension is required. Preterm animal models would be useful in investigating the relationship between the physiological effects of inotropes and histopathology outcomes in

  5. Molecular basis of neural function

    The conference proceedings contain abstracts of plenary lectures, of young neurochemists' ESN honorary lectures, lectures at symposia and workshops and poster communications. Twenty abstracts were inputted in INIS. The subject of these were the use of autoradiography for the determination of receptors, cholecystokinin, nicotine, adrenaline, glutamate, aspartate, tranquilizers, for distribution and pharmacokinetics of obidoxime-chloride, for cell proliferation, mitosis of brain cells, DNA repair; radioimmunoassay of cholinesterase, tyrosinase; positron computed tomography of the brain; biological radiation effects on cholinesterase activity; tracer techniques for determination of adrenaline; and studies of the biological repair of nerves. (J.P.)

  6. Effect of Age, Adernaline and Operation Site on Duration of Caudal Analgesia in Paediatric Patients

    Kharirat Mohd., Yasir,G.A.Mir


    The effect ofage, operative site and addition of 1: 200,000 adrenaline to bupivacaine was evaluatedon the duration ofpost operative analgesia after caudal block in 200 children between the age groupof 1 year to 14 years. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained on Halothane/N20I02• After thiscaudal block was performed with 0.5 mllkg of0.25% bupivacaine in one group of 100 Children andwith 0.25% bupivacaine with adrenaline 1 : 200,000 in another 100 children. The duration of postoperative analge...

  7. The CSF and arterial to internal jugular venous hormonal differences during exercise in humans

    Dalsgaard, Mads K; Ott, Peter; Dela, Flemming;


    concentration of noradrenaline and adrenaline, but there was no cerebral uptake. However, following exercise CSF noradrenaline was 1.4 (0.73-5.5) nmol l(-1), and higher than at rest, 0.3 (0.19-1.84) nmol l(-1) (P <0.05), whereas adrenaline could not be detected. Exercise increased both the arterial...... (TNF-alpha), heatshock protein (HSP72), insulin, or insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. The findings indicate that for maximal exercise, the concentration of noradrenaline is increased within the brain, whereas blood borne hormones and cytokines are seemingly unimportant. The results support the notion...

  8. High sCD40L levels Early After Trauma are Associated with Enhanced Shock, Sympathoadrenal Activation, Tissue and Endothelial Damage, Coagulopathy and Mortality

    Johansson, P I; Sørensen, A M; Perner, A;


    and admission plasma/serum analyzed for sCD40L and biomarkers reflecting sympathoadrenal activation (adrenaline, noradrenaline), tissue/endothelial cell/glycocalyx damage (histone-complexed DNA fragments (hcDNA), Annexin V, thrombomodulin, syndecan-1), coagulation activation/inhibition (PF1.2, TAT...... associated with enhanced tissue and endothelial damage (ISS, hcDNA, Annexin V, syndecan-1, sTM), shock (pH, SBE), sympathoadrenal activation (adrenaline) and coagulopathy evidenced by reduced thrombin generation (PF1.2), hyperfibrinolysis (D-dimer), increased APTT and inflammation (IL-6) (all p...

  9. Temporal responses of cutaneous blood flow and plasma catecholamine concentrations to histamine H1- or H2-receptor stimulation in man

    Knigge, U; Alsbjørn, B; Thuesen, B;


    continuously with a laser Doppler flowmeter, and noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations were determined in blood samples drawn every 15 min. The infusion of histamine caused an immediate and sustained vasodilatation. The Concomitant infusion of mepyramine prevented the immediate vasodilatation, but had no...... noradrenaline, while the increase during concomitant H1-receptor blockade was delayed but achieved the level observed during the histamine infusion. The response to histamine during H2-receptor blockade was small and transient. The rise in plasma adrenaline was not significant. These findings suggest that...... histamine infusion, while the plasma noradrenaline concentration was still elevated....

  10. Concurrent nonfunctional paraganglioma of the retroperitoneum and urinary bladder: A case report with literature review

    Poonam Sherwani


    Full Text Available Paragangliomas are the neuroendocrine tumors which arise from the chromaffin cell. Tumors arising from the adrenal medulla are known as pheochromocytomas, while others originating from the extra-adrenal site are known as extra-adrenal paragangliomas. Paraganglioma can be multifocal which can arise synchronously or metachronously. Paragangliomas are less functionally active than the pheochromocytomas; they secrete noradrenaline and rarely dopamine, while adrenal pheochromocytomas secrete adrenaline or nor-adrenaline. Nonfunctional multifocal paragangliomas are very rare. We report a case of a 45-year-old female with multifocal nonfunctional paragangliomas of the retroperitoneum and urinarybladder which were surgically removed, and the diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology.

  11. Acute myocardial infarction is associated with endothelial glycocalyx and cell damage and a parallel increase in circulating catecholamines

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Pedersen, Sune H; Jensen, Jan S;


    -patients admitted to a single high-volume invasive heart centre for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) from September 2006 to July 2008. Blood samples were drawn immediately before pPCI. Plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, syndecan-1 and thrombomodulin were measured retrospectively with complete data...... in 571 patients (84%). Median follow-up time was 28 (IQR 23 to 34) months. Follow-up was 99.7% complete. Outcomes were all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, re-myocardial infarction and admission due to heart failure. RESULTS: Circulating noradrenaline and adrenaline correlated weakly but...

  12. Reduced plasma noradrenaline during angiotensin II-induced acute hypertension in man

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Kastrup, J; Christensen, N J


    1. Plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations were measured in ten subjects before, during and after intravenous infusion of angiotensin II (ANG II) in order to determine the sympathoadrenal response of ANG II challenge in man. In five subjects ganglionic blockade was additionally performed...... by intravenous infusion of trimethaphan. 2. During ANG II infusion mean arterial blood pressure increased by 30% (P < 0.001), and plasma noradrenaline decreased by 25% (P < 0.001). Plasma adrenaline decreased less. 3. During ganglionic blockade plasma noradrenaline decreased significantly (P < 0...

  13. Pharmacological characterization of β2-adrenoceptor in PGT-β mouse pineal gland tumour cells

    Suh, Byung-Chang; Chae, Hee-Don; Chung, Joo-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Tai


    The adrenoceptor in a mouse pineal gland tumour cell line (PGT-β) was identified and characterized using pharmacological and physiological approaches.Adrenaline and noradrenaline, adrenoceptor agonists, stimulated cyclic AMP generation in a concentration-dependent manner, but had no effect on inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production. Adrenaline was a more potent activator of cyclic AMP generation than noradrenaline, with half maximal-effective concentrations (EC50) seen at 175±22 nM and 18±2 μ...

  14. Effect of demedullation on freezing injury in hind limbs of rats

    Dhingra, Shashi; Bhatia, B.; Chhina, G. S.; Singh, Baldev


    Freezing incidence and tissue loss on exposure of hind limbs of female Wistar rats to freezing mixture was reduced by demedullation 6 days prior to cold exposure (pNoradrenaline (1 mg/kg i.p.) 5 min before exposure increased the freezing incidence in intact (pAdrenaline (500 mg/kg i.p.) had no effect on either. A sustained fall in plasma adrenaline after demedullation leading to reduced reactivity of the blood vessels to some vasoactive agents is postulated.

  15. Ouabain distinguishes between nicotinic and muscarinic receptor-mediated catecholamine secretions in perfused adrenal glands of cat.

    Yamada, Y.; Nakazato, Y; Ohga, A.


    1. The effect of ouabain on catecholamine (adrenaline and noradrenaline) secretion induced by agents acting on cholinoceptors was studied in perfused cat adrenal glands. Acetylcholine (ACh) (5 x 10(-7) to 10(-3) M), pilocarpine (10(-5) to 10(-3) M) and nicotine (10(-6) to 5 x 10(-5) M) caused dose-dependent increases in catecholamine secretion. Both ACh and nicotine released more noradrenaline than adrenaline and the reverse was the case for pilocarpine. 2. Ouabain (10(-5) M) enhanced catecho...

  16. Age and region-dependent contraction to α-adrenoceptor agonists in rat and guinea-pig isolated trachea

    Preuss, Janet M H; Rigby, Paul J.; Goldie, Roy G


    The influence of age and of region on α-adrenoceptor-mediated contraction to (−)-adrenaline and (−)-noradrenaline was examined in rat (4–136 weeks) and guinea-pig (2–156 weeks) isolated tracheal ring preparations with particular emphasis on the early (up to 12 weeks) maturation phase.In rat tracheal rings, significant regional variation was observed with respect to maximal (−)-adrenaline-induced contraction, such that the greatest activity was seen in ring preparations from the laryngeal end ...

  17. Effects of cool and hot humid environmental conditions on neuroendocrine responses of horses to treadmill exercise.

    Williams, R J; Marlin, D J; Smith, N; Harris, R C; Haresign, W; Davies Morel, M C


    To determine the effects of exercise, high heat and humidity and acclimation on plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, beta-endorphin and cortisol concentrations, five horses performed a competition exercise test (CET; designed to simulate the speed and endurance test of a three-day event) in cool dry (CD) (20 degrees C/40% RH) and hot humid (30 degrees C/80% RH) conditions before (pre-acclimation) and after (post-acclimation) a 15 day period of humid heat acclimation. Plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations pre-acclimation were significantly increased compared with exercise in the CD trial at the end of Phases C (Pendorphin concentrations were increased at the end of Phases C (Pendorphin responses to exercise, although there was a trend for plasma beta-endorphin to be lower at the end of Phases C and X and after 30 min recovery compared with pre-acclimation. Plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, beta-endorphin and cortisol concentrations were increased by exercise in cool dry conditions and were further increased by the same exercise in hot humid conditions. Exercise responses post-acclimation suggest that adrenaline and noradrenaline may play a role in the adaptation of horses to thermal stress and that changes in plasma beta-endorphin concentrations could be used as a sensitive indicator of thermal tolerance before and after acclimation. The use of plasma cortisol as a specific indicator of heat stress and thermal tolerance before or after acclimation in exercising horses appears limited. PMID:12359485

  18. Anafylaksi

    Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Garvey, Lene Heise


    Anaphylaxis is a potentially life-threatening systemic allergic reaction involving several organ systems. Recognition of the reaction leading to prompt treatment is essential for a good outcome. The lifesaving treatment is intramuscular injection of adrenaline (0.3-0.5 mg for adults and children...

  19. Tarantino's Chicks - Gender Roles and Feminist Subversion in Kill Bill and Inglourious Basterds

    Tøsse, Natascha


    The thesis analyses Kill Bill and Inglourious Basterds from an eclectic theoretical perspective. Gaze, language, Fraiman's adrenaline shot and the psychological understandings of gender as a construct and a performative are what lay the basis for attempting to figure out what Tarantino’s leading ladies can teach us about gender roles in western society.

  20. Experimental assessment of dynamic integrated restoration in GMPLS multi-layer (MPLS-TP/WSON) networks.

    Martínez, Ricardo; Casellas, Ramon; Muñoz, Raül


    We present the implementation of the GMPLS control plane functions and path computation algorithm deployed within the CTTC ADRENALINE testbed for the dynamic integrated restoration in multi-layer (MPLS-TP over WSON) networks. The experimental assessment is conducted in terms of the blocking probability, path computation time, restorability and restoration time. PMID:23482119

  1. Full Text Available During periods of stress, such as preparing to run in a race, the brain signals the adrenal glands to produce epinephrine or "adrenaline". ... to react. As a longer term response to stress, cortisol is secreted by the adrenal glands, promoting ...

  2. Pharmacological analysis of cx'il -adrenoceptors

    W.B. Stam (Wiro)


    textabstractTt is weil established that noradrenaline, relcased in response to sympathetic stilTIulation, as weil as adrenaline, the honnone relcased from the adrenal medulla, interaet with spccific reccptors (adrenoceptors) that arc Iocated in the membrane ofthc vascular smooth muscle celis. Ahlqui

  3. Benzylbenzoate and norlignan glucosides from Curculigo pilosa: structural analysis and in vitro vascular activity.

    Palazzino, G; Galeffi, C; Federici, E; Delle Monache, F; Cometa, M F; Palmery, M


    From the rhizomes of Curculigo pilosa, two benzylbenzoate diglucosides, piloside A and piloside B, and a glucosyl-fused norlignan, pilosidine, previously obtained only as the tetra-O-methyl derivative, were isolated. Pilosidine showed facilitating effect on adrenaline evoked contractions in rabbit aorta isolated preparations. PMID:11140602

  4. Nicotine promotes cell proliferation via α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes-mediated pathway in human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells

    Cigarette smoking has been implicated in colon cancer. Nicotine is a major alkaloid in cigarette smoke. In the present study, we showed that nicotine stimulated HT-29 cell proliferation and adrenaline production in a dose-dependent manner. The stimulatory action of nicotine was reversed by atenolol and ICI 118,551, a β1- and β2-selective antagonist, respectively, suggesting the role of β-adrenoceptors in mediating the action. Nicotine also significantly upregulated the expression of the catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes [tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase]. Inhibitor of TH, a rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine-biosynthesis pathway, reduced the actions of nicotine on cell proliferation and adrenaline production. Expression of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) was demonstrated in HT-29 cells. Methyllycaconitine, an α7-nAChR antagonist, reversed the stimulatory actions of nicotine on cell proliferation, TH and DβH expression as well as adrenaline production. Taken together, through the action on α7-nAChR nicotine stimulates HT-29 cell proliferation via the upregulation of the catecholamine-synthesis pathway and ultimately adrenaline production and β-adrenergic activation. These data reveal the contributory role α7-nAChR and β-adrenoceptors in the tumorigenesis of colon cancer cells and partly elucidate the carcinogenic action of cigarette smoke on colon cancer

  5. ST-elevations-myokardieinfarkt efter terapeutisk adrenalininjektion

    Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Lambrechtsen, Jess; Egstrup, Kenneth


    in the ECG. Plasma TnT and CK-MB were raised. A coronary angiography revealed a 66% stenosis of RCA. This patient had an asymptomatic RCA stenosis that probably became symptomatic due to coronary artery spasm related to adrenaline injection and thereby presented symptoms and signs of AMI....

  6. Evaluation of the Vasoplegic impact of Papaverine in the rat aorta

    Objective: To identify the degree of vasoplegic affinity of papaverine to rat thoracic aortas following constriction caused by adrenalin, serotonin and potassium chloride in an in-vitro model. Methods: The in vitro vasoplegic efficacy of papaverine against adrenalin (10-5 M), serotonin (5HT) (10-4 M), and KCl (60 mM) was assessed, using a rat aortic vasospasm model in an organ bath. First, aortic rings were constricted with a submaximal dose of vasoconstrictor agents. The samples were then incubated with papaverine (3x10-4 M) for 20 minutes, followed by readministration of the same vasoconstrictor agents. The first vasospastic response (before papaverine incubation) and the new vasoconstrictor responses (after papaverine incubation) of the vessels were then compared. Results: The vasoplegic effect of vasoconstrictor agents in decreasing order was observed as adrenalin>KCl>5HT. This different affinity for the vasoplegic effect is considered to be a temporary impact of the drugs and the maximal inhibition of vasoconstriction was detected for the adrenalin receptor. Conclusion: The relevance of the macromolecules is responsible for the permanent efficacy of the drugs. Different degrees of vasoconstriction were also obtained after papaverine administration, which suggests that different responses can occur as a result of different stimulation of receptor modulators. (author)

  7. Drug: D07463 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D07463 Drug Arformoterol (INN) C19H24N2O4 344.1736 344.4049 D07463.gif Bronchodilat...espiratory Tract/Pulmonary Agents Bronchodilators, Sympathomimetic Arformoterol D07463 Arformoterol (INN) Ta...psin family Adrenaline beta2-adrenergic receptor [HSA:154] [KO:K04142] Arformoterol D07463 Arformoterol (INN

  8. Effect of catecholamine-receptor stimulating agents on blood pressure after local application in the nucleus tractus solitarii of the medulla oblongata

    Zandberg, P.; Jong, Wybren de; Wied, D. de


    The effect of various catecholamines and α-mimetics, given by microinjection in the A2-region of the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), on blood pressure was investigated in anesthetizedmale rats. A dose-dependent decrease of blood pressure and heart rate was induced by adrenaline as the most effectiv

  9. Effect of oxygen inhalation on systemic, central, and splanchnic haemodynamics in cirrhosis

    Møller, S; Becker, U; Schifter, S;


    catecholamines, renin, endothelin-1, and calcitonin gene-related peptide were all increased in patients with cirrhosis, but only the catecholamine concentrations decreased significantly (noradrenaline -13%, p < 0.02 and adrenaline -16%, p < 0.01) in response to oxygen. CONCLUSION: During oxygen inhalation...


    KORTE, SM; VANDUIN, S; BOUWS, GAH; KOOLHAAS, JM; BOHUS, B; Bouws, Gerdien A.H.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.


    Infusion of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) (2.5-20-mu-g in 1-mu-l during 15 min), into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) in the rat dose dependently increased plasma adrenaline and corticosterone concentrations, without affecting p

  11. Catecholaminergic activation in acute myocardial infarction: time course and relation to left ventricular performance

    Petersen, Claus Leth; Nielsen, Jens Rokkedal; Petersen, Bodil Laub;


    AIM: The study was designed to assess (1) the time course of catecholaminergic activation in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) as estimated by adrenaline (ADR) and noradrenaline (NOR) concentrations, and (2) to relate activation of these hormones to predict the outcome of cardiac performance...

  12. Autonomic response to an experimental psychological stressor in healthy subjects: measurement of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and pituitary-adrenal parameters: test-retest reliability

    Jørgensen, L S; Christiansen, P; Raundahl, U;


    A mental arithmetic test (the stressor; 15 min) significantly increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and plasma adrenaline by 11%, 12%, 28% and 152% respectively, with a prompt return to resting values after the test. Plasma noradrenaline and serum cortisol did not increase...

  13. Autonomic nervous system function in patients with functional abdominal pain. An experimental study

    Jørgensen, L S; Christiansen, P; Raundahl, U;


    cortisol measurements were included, to assess the pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and plasma adrenaline increased significantly in all groups in response to a stress test (mental arithmetic). Plasma noradrenaline increased in the DU patients only, and plasma ACTH and...




    Using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection we determined free dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline and N-methyladrenaline in: (1) urines from newborns (n=32), children (n=45) and adults (n=19) and (2) adrenals, organ of Zuckerkandl, dorsal roots and perirenal brown ad



    Objective: To investigate whether moxibustion affects the secretion of catecholamine as adrenalin, noradrenaline and dopamine. Methods: Twenty Wistar rats were allocated to two groups. One was moxibustion-group (10 rats), and the other was non-moxibustion-group (10 rats). Four ignited moxa-cones were applied to bilateral "Shenshu" (肾俞 BL 23). When a moxa-cone burned out, another one was replaced. At the end of each experiment, blood sample (2 mL/rat) was collected from the heart for assaying plasma adrenalin, noradrenaline and dopamine contents with high pressure liquid chromatography. Results:The presented results showed that plasma adrenalin and noradrenaline contents of moxibustion-group are significantly higher than those of non-moxibustion-group (P<0.01). However, there is no significant difference of dopamine between moxibustion- and non-moxibustion- groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: These results demonstrated that moxibustion stimulates the secretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline in normal rats.

  16. EPR studies of chromium(V) intermediates generated via reduction of chromium(VI) by DOPA and related catecholamines

    Pattison, D I; Lay, P A; Davies, Michael Jonathan


    The reductions of K2Cr2O7 by catecholamines, DOPA, DOPA-beta,beta-d2, N-acetyl-DOPA, alpha-methyl-DOPA, dopamine, adrenaline, noradrenaline, catechol, 1,2-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), and 4-tert-butylcatechol (TBC), produce a number of Cr(V) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals. These...

  17. The effect of non-esterified long-chain fatty acids on blood flow and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue in the young dog

    Astrup, A; Bülow, J; Christensen, N J


    level. Plasma noradrenaline concentration increased about three-fold and plasma adrenaline concentration about six-fold. The BAT temperature increased by an average of 0.9 degrees C. However, since BAT blood flow was simultaneously reduced by about 50%, it can be calculated that the local heat...

  18. Reversibility of increased formation of catecholamines in patients with alcoholic liver disease

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Reisenauer, C.; Biermann, J.;


    investigate whether the increase in urinary excretion rates and plasma levels of catecholamines in alcohol-abusing patients are reversible during prolonged abstinence, especially with respect to the severity of ALD. METHODS: Urinary excretion rates and plasma levels of noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and...




    In asthmatic childen it was investigated whether the degree of impairment of the adrenergic response on exogenous stimuli is related to the magnitude of the 24-hour amplitude in airflow obstructions. Urinary-adrenaline and noradrenaline excretion after house dust mite (HDM) inhalation and after exer

  20. Recruitment of quiet cells at the onset of vasomotion in mesenteric arteries

    Brings Jacobsen, Jens Christian; Aalkjær, Christian; Matchkov, Vladimir;


    Introduction: Smooth muscle cells in the wall of endothelium denuded mesenteric arteries display uncoordinated calcium waves when exposed to nor-adrenaline. However, the cell population shows a considerable heterogeneity with some cells displaying waves of variable frequency whilst others remain...

  1. Hormonal Neuroendocrine and Vasoconstrictor Peptide Responses of Ball Game and Cyclic Sport Elite Athletes by Treadmill Test.

    Anna Protzner

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate complex hormonal response in ball game and cyclic sport elite athletes through an incremental treadmill test, since, so far, variables in experimental procedures have often hampered comparisons of data.We determined anthropometric data, heart rate, maximal oxygen uptake, workload, plasma levels of lactate, adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, cortisol, angiontensinogen and endothelin in control (n = 6, soccer (n = 8, handball (n = 12, kayaking (n = 9 and triathlon (n = 9 groups based on a Bruce protocol through a maximal exercise type of spiroergometric test.We obtained significant increases for adrenaline, 2.9- and 3.9-fold by comparing the normalized means for soccer players and kayakers and soccer players and triathletes after/before test, respectively. For noradrenaline, we observed an even stronger, three-time significant difference between each type of ball game and cyclic sport activity.Exercise related adrenaline and noradrenaline changes were more pronounced than dopamine plasma level changes and revealed an opportunity to differentiate cyclic and ball game activities and control group upon these parameters. Normalization of concentration ratios of the monitored compounds by the corresponding maximal oxygen uptake reflected better the differences in the response level of adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine and cortisol.

  2. Cerebral effects of commonly used vasopressor-inotropes

    Hahn, Gitte Holst; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Petersen, Sandra Meinich;


    Despite widespread use in sick infants, it is still debated whether vasopressor-inotropes have direct cerebral effects that might affect neurological outcome. We aimed to test direct cerebrovascular effects of three commonly used vasopressor-inotropes (adrenaline, dopamine and noradrenaline) by...

  3. Bed rest and increased diuretic treatment in chronic congestive heart failure

    Abildgaard, U; Aldershvile, J; Ring-Larsen, H;


    .1), respectively. Plasma concentrations of adrenaline, noradrenaline, renin and aldosterone were increased, as measured in the supine position. No significant differences were found between the two groups. Plasma concentrations of antidiuretic hormone were within normal limits. In conclusion, continuous bed rest...

  4. Sympathetic influence on cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise in humans

    Seifert, Thomas; Secher, Niels H


    cerebral non-oxidative carbohydrate uptake during exercise. Adrenaline appears to accelerate cerebral glycolysis through a beta2-adrenergic receptor mechanism since noradrenaline is without such an effect. In addition, the exercise-induced cerebral non-oxidative carbohydrate uptake is blocked by combined...

  5. Catecholamines in plasma from artery, cubital vein, and femoral vein in patients with cirrhosis. Significance of sampling site

    Henriksen, J H; Ring-Larsen, H; Christensen, N J


    The concentration of noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A) was measured in arterial, cubital venous and femoral venous plasma in order to determine possible differences in different vascular beds in the peripheral circulation. In patients with cirrhosis, arterial plasma NA (median 2.54 nmol/l, n...

  6. Release of endogenous vasopressors during and after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Lindner, K. H.; Haak, T; Keller, A; Bothner, U.; Lurie, K. G.


    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether plasma endothelin, adrenaline, noradrenaline, arginine vasopressin, adrenocorticotropin, and cortisol concentrations were higher during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in patients in whom resuscitation was successful than in those in whom it failed, and to measure the concentrations of these hormones in the immediate post-resuscitation phase. DESIGN: Prospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Emergency medical service at a university hospital. PATIENTS: 60 patients wi...

  7. Distribution and types of adrenoceptors in the guinea-pig ileum: the action of α-and β-adrenoceptor agonists

    Bauer, V.


    1 Segments of guinea-pig ileum and the myenteric plexus-longitudinal smooth muscle preparation were used for a study of the actions of adrenaline, noradrenaline, isoprenaline, ephedrine and phenylephrine on the responses of coaxially stimulated ileum at different distances from the ileocaecal valve.

  8. Effect of guanfacine on pituitary hormones in man

    Lancranjan, Ioana


    1 Animal studies have shown that adrenaline and noradrenaline are involved in the control of pituitary function. As very few data on this topic were available in man, some studies were carried out mainly in young normal volunteers using guanfacine, a new drug with central α-adrenoceptor properties.

  9. Molecules that amaze us

    May, Paul


    Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)Adrenaline/Epinephrine (Noradrenaline/Norepinephrine)Ammonium NitrateArtemisinin Aspirin Caffeine CapsaicinCarbon Dioxideβ-CaroteneChlorophyllCholesterolCisplatinCocaineDEETCF2Cl2DDTDigitalisDimethylmercuryDimethylsulfideDopamineEpibatidineEstradiolGlucoseGlycerolHeavy WaterHemeHexenalHydrogen PeroxideInsulin<

  10. The Science of Soil Textures

    Bigham, Gary


    Off-road motorcycle racing and ATV riding. Gardening and fishing. What do these high-adrenaline and slower-paced pastimes have in common? Each requires soil, and the texture of that soil has an effect on all of them. In the inquiry-based lessons described here, students work both in the field or laboratory and in the classroom to collect soil…