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Sample records for adolescentes portugueses escolarizados

  1. en adolescentes escolarizados

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    Sonia Moreno

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan resultados de una investigación dirigida a identificar componentes psicosociales para el diseño de una intervención educativa para la prevención del embarazo, en adolescentes escolarizados. Se muestran resultados sobre: conducta sexual; conocimientos sobre embarazo y sus medidas preventivas; y necesidades percibidas en materia de educación sexual. Se tomó una muestra de 250 estudiantes de dos institutos educativos de la localidad de Táriba, en Venezuela. Se aplicaron cuestionarios con ítems tipo Líkert y los datos fueron procesados y analizados mediante estadística descriptiva y pruebas t para comparar grupos. Los resultados indican que los adolescentes tienen poca experiencia sexual, manejan sólo conocimientos básicos y mantienen creencias erróneas en torno al uso de medidas de protección. Los adolescentes manifiestan la necesidad de recibir educación sexual que incluya, no sólo conocimientos específicos sobre sexualidad y salud reproductiva, sino también entrenamiento en habilidades sociales, relacionadas con la conducta asertiva, comunicación interpersonal y autoestima, aspectos que les permitirían manejar mejor sus relaciones de pareja. Se concluye que es importante considerar las características, necesidades y preocupaciones de los adolescentes en materia de sexualidad y desarrollo personal, a fin de poder diseñar intervenciones educativas más efectivas.

  2. Habilidades sociales de adolescentes escolarizados que usan idioma guaraní o español

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    Jos\\u00E9 Gaspar Britos Rivas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se propuso determinar si las habilidades sociales de adolescentes escolarizados en colegios de centros urbanos de Paraguay, estarían influidas por el uso del idioma guaraní o español. Para ello se conformaron a criterio dos grupos utilizando la variable idioma, en uno estaban los que usaban preferentemente el guaraní y en el otro los que usaban preferentemente el español. Se compararon las puntuaciones en la Escala Multidimensional de Expresión Social mediante el ANOVA de un factor. A nivel de 0,05 de significación, los resultados descartan la influencia del uso preferencial de un idioma u otro, en las habilidades sociales.

  3. Funcionalidad en familias con adolescentes escolarizados en Paipa / Dynamics within families with adolescents who go to school in Paipa / Funcionalidade em famílias com adolescentes escolarizados em Paipa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    EDNA FABIOLA, GALÁN GONZÁLEZ.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo de tipo descritivo - transversal com abordagem quantitativa, conformado por amostra de 102 famílias com adolescentes escolarizados do município de Paipa (Boyacá), cujo objetivo foi descrever a efetividade da funcionalidade familiar com base na Teoria da Organização Sistêmica proposta por Mari [...] e Luise Friedmann. Os informantes foram 102 adolescentes entre 13 e 18 anos vinculados a uma instituição educativa. Como instrumento se utilizou a escala de Avaliação da Funcionalidade Familiar que possibilita medir o nível de efetividade da funcionalidade familiar por meio de objetivos ou propósitos (estabilidade, crescimento, controle e espiritualidade) e das dimensões (câmbio, manutenção, coerência e individuação) do sistema familiar. De acordo com os resultados da efetividade da funcionalidade familiar, conclui-se que 62,7% das famílias com adolescentes estudo têm baixa efetividade da funcionalidade da família. No relativo às dimensões, a individuação exibiu um nível baixo com 41,2% seguida pela coerência e a mudança, enquanto a manutenção foi a variável de maior pontuação no nível alto (71,6%). As respostas dadas pelas famílias com adolescentes entrevistadas posicionaram as metas em níveis intermédios e altos, o que chama a atenção frente aos achados sobre efetividade familiar que se encontrou com predomínio no nível baixo. Abstract in spanish Estudio de tipo descriptivo-transversal, con abordaje cuantitativo, en una muestra de 102 familias con adolescentes escolarizados del municipio de Paipa (Boyacá), cuyo objetivo fue describir la efectividad de la funcionalidad familiar, a la luz de la Teoría de Organización Sistémica propuesta por Ma [...] rie Luise Friedemann. Los informantes fueron 102 adolescentes, vinculados a una institución educativa, quienes tenían edades entre 13 y 18 años. Como instrumento se utilizó la escala de Evaluación de la Funcionalidad Familiar, que permite la medición del nivel de efectividad de la funcionalidad familiar a través de las metas o propósitos (estabilidad, crecimiento, control y espiritualidad) y de las dimensiones (cambio, mantenimiento, coherencia e individuación) del sistema familiar. De acuerdo con los resultados de la efectividad de la funcionalidad familiar, se pudo concluir que el 62,7% de las familias con adolescentes participantes en esta investigación tienen un nivel bajo de efectividad de funcionalidad familiar. En cuanto a las dimensiones, la individuación se encontró en el nivel bajo con el 41,2%, seguida por la coherencia y el cambio, mientras que el mantenimiento fue la más puntuada en el nivel alto (71,6%). Las respuestas dadas por las familias con adolescentes encuestadas posicionaron las metas en niveles intermedios y altos, lo que llama la atención frente a los hallazgos de la efectividad de la funcionalidad familiar que se encontró con predominio en el nivel bajo. Abstract in english Horizontal descriptive study, with a quantitative approach, from a sample of 102 families with adolescents who go to school in the municipality of Paipa (Province of Boyacá), and whose objective was to describe the effectiveness of family dynamics in the light of the Systematic Organization Theory p [...] roposed by Marie Luise Friedemann. The respondents were 102 adolescents, enrolled in an educational institution and whose ages varied from 13 to 18 years of age. The instrument used was the Family Functioning Evaluation scale, that allows for measuring the effectiveness level of the family dynamics through goals or objectives (stability, growth, control and spirituality) and through the dimensions (change, maintenance, consistency and individuation) of the family system. According to the results of the effectiveness of family dynamics, one could conclude that 62,7% of the families with adolescents who participated in this study have a low level of effectiveness of family functioning. In regard to the dimensions, individualization was found at a low level with 41,2%, followed by consistency and chang

  4. Dynamics within families with adolescents who go to school in Paipa Funcionalidad en familias con adolescentes escolarizados en Paipa Funcionalidade em famílias com adolescentes escolarizados em Paipa

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    Galán González Edna Fabiola

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal descriptive study, with a quantitative approach, from a sample of 102 families with adolescents who go to school in the municipality of Paipa (Province of Boyacá, and whose objective was to describe the effectiveness of family dynamics in the light of the Systematic Organization Theory proposed by Marie Luise Friedemann. The respondents were 102 adolescents, enrolled in an educational institution and whose ages varied from 13 to 18 years of age. The instrument used was the Family Functioning Evaluation scale, that allows for measuring the effectiveness level of the family dynamics through goals or objectives (stability, growth, control and spirituality and through the dimensions (change, maintenance, consistency and individuation of the family system. According to the results of the effectiveness of family dynamics, one could conclude that 62,7% of the families with adolescents who participated in this study have a low level of effectiveness of family functioning. In regard to the dimensions, individualization was found at a low level with 41,2%, followed by consistency and change, while maintenance scored the most in the high level (71,6%. The answers given by the families with adolescents that were surveyed positioned the goals at intermediate and high levels, which stand out in respect of the findings of the family dynamics’ effectiveness that was found to be predominantly at a low level.Estudio de tipo descriptivo-transversal, con abordaje cuantitativo, en una muestra de 102 familias con adolescentes escolarizados del municipio de Paipa (Boyacá, cuyo objetivo fue describir la efectividad de la funcionalidad familiar, a la luz de la Teoría de Organización Sistémica propuesta por Marie Luise Friedemann. Los informantes fueron 102 adolescentes, vinculados a una institución educativa, quienes tenían edades entre 13 y 18 años. Como instrumento se utilizó la escala de Evaluación de la Funcionalidad Familiar, que permite la medición del nivel de efectividad de la funcionalidad familiar a través de las metas o propósitos (estabilidad, crecimiento, control y espiritualidad y de las dimensiones (cambio, mantenimiento, coherencia e individuación del sistema familiar. De acuerdo con los resultados de la efectividad de la funcionalidad familiar, se pudo concluir que el 62,7% de las familias con adolescentes participantes en esta investigación tienen un nivel bajo de efectividad de funcionalidad familiar. En cuanto a las dimensiones, la individuación se encontró en el nivel bajo con el 41,2%, seguida por la coherencia y el cambio, mientras que el mantenimiento fue la más puntuada en el nivel alto (71,6%. Las respuestas dadas por las familias con adolescentes encuestadas posicionaron las metas en niveles intermedios y altos, lo que llama la atención frente a los hallazgos de la efectividad de la funcionalidad familiar que se encontró con predominio en el nivel bajo.Estudo de tipo descritivo – transversal com abordagem quantitativa, conformado por amostra de 102 famílias com adolescentes escolarizados do município de Paipa (Boyacá, cujo objetivo foi descrever a efetividade da funcionalidade familiar com base na Teoria da Organização Sistêmica proposta por Marie Luise Friedmann. Os informantes foram 102 adolescentes entre 13 e 18 anos vinculados a uma instituição educativa. Como instrumento se utilizou a escala de Avaliação da Funcionalidade Familiar que possibilita medir o nível de efetividade da funcionalidade familiar por meio de objetivos ou propósitos (estabilidade, crescimento, controle e espiritualidade e das dimensões (câmbio, manutenção, coerência e individuação do sistema familiar. De acordo com os resultados da efetividade da funcionalidade familiar, conclui-se que 62,7% das famílias com adolescentes estudo têm baixa efetividade da funcionalidade da família. No relativo às dimensões, a individuação exibiu um nível baixo com 41,2% seguida pela coerência e a mudança, enquanto a manutenção foi a variável de maior pontuação no nível alto

  5. Panorama de prácticas de alimentación de adolescentes escolarizados / Overview of feeding practices in school adolescents / Panorama de práticas de alimentação de adolescentes escolarizados

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    OLGA, OSORIO MURILLO; MARÍA CONSUELO DEL PILAR, AMAYA REY.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A alimentação dos adolescentes é uma questão de interesse para a enfermagem, vistos os efeitos das ações de promoção da saúde e prevenção de doenças que se podem realizar durante essa etapa e o impacto que ela tem na saúde atual e futura destes jovens. Objetivo: avaliar as práticas e influências de [...] alimentação de adolescentes escolarizados. Métodos. Levantamento descritivo transversal, com uma amostra de 201 adolescentes, sujeitos à avaliação de seus hábitos alimentares, riscos de transtornos da conduta alimentar, circunstâncias da alimentação, influências de familiares, amigos, colégio e meios de comunicação. Resultados: consumo de alimentos: o maior consumo diário foi: cereais (436,2 ± 172 g/dia), refrigerantes e bebidas açucaradas (225,9 ± 152 g/dia), carnes (155,4 ± 70 g/dia), frutas (145,3 ± 66 g/dia) e lácteos (123,3±95 g/dia). O menor consumo verificado foi de: açúcares, pastéis e sorvetes (60,6 ± 30,5 g/dia), leguminosas (49,5 ± 58,2 g/dia), óleo e manteigas (45,8±19,4 g/dia), verduras (35,2 ± 58,2 g/dia), ovos (26,7±24 g/dia), lanches (10,3±13,4 g/dia) e comidas rápidas (4±11 g/dia). Os homens reportaram consumo de licor. Consumo de energia e nutrientes: Enquanto o consumo de proteínas foi elevado (126,3% dos requerimentos), o consumo de energia foi deficitário (88,7% dos requerimentos). Encontrou-se deficiência em consumo de vitamina A, tiamina, riboflavina, niacina, vitamina B6, cálcio e ferro. Costumes alimentares: 74,6% dos adolescentes pularam no mínimo uma das três refeições principais diárias. 35,3% dos adolescentes apresentaram situações emocionais negativas como angústia, ansiedade, tristeza e tédio que incidiram no aumento do consumo de alimentos, enquanto que para 46,8% estes sentimentos os conduziram a diminuir seus consumos. 76,6% dos adolescentes regularmente comiam em companhia e 22,4% sozinhos. 11% dos adolescentes participantes estão em risco de desenvolvimento de transtornos de condutas alimentares. 45,8% das famílias dos adolescentes compram em supermercados de grandes superfícies; a mãe é quem com maior regularidade compra os alimentos (58,2 %) e quem cozinha (71,1%). 78,6% das famílias dos adolescentes consomem alimentos fora de casa. A família é a maior influência na alimentação, de acordo com os adolescentes (80,1%), antes da mídia (10,9%), dos amigos (5%) e do colégio (4%). Conclusões: os adolescentes apresentam práticas alimentares que podem trazer riscos de doenças devido a consumos inadequados de alimentos, que se traduzem em quantidades deficitárias de energia, vitamina A, vitaminas do complexo B, cálcio e ferro e quantidades elevadas de proteínas. Práticas alimentares: não existe uma distribuição adequada dos alimentos durante o dia. As emoções afetam o consumo de alimentos; a família e a mídia exercem uma grande influência na alimentação dos adolescentes. Abstract in spanish La alimentación de los adolescentes constituye un tema de interés para la enfermería por el efecto de las acciones de promoción de la salud y prevención de la enfermedad que se pueden realizar durante esta etapa y al impacto que tienen en la salud actual y futura de estos jóvenes. Objetivo: evaluar [...] las prácticas e influencias de la alimentación de adolescentes escolarizados. Métodos. Estudio descriptivo transversal, con una muestra de 201 adolescentes, a los cuales se les valoró ingesta de alimentos, riesgos de trastornos de la conducta alimentaria, circunstancias de la alimentación, influencias de familiares, amigos, colegio y medios de comunicación. Resultados: consumo de alimentos: el mayor consumo diario fue: cereales (436,2±172 g/día), gaseosas y bebidas azucaradas (225,9±152 g/día), carnes (155,4±70 g/día), frutas (145,3±66 g/día) y lácteos (123,3±95 g/día). Se encontró menor consumos de: azúcares, pastelería y helados (60,6±30,5 g/día), leguminosas (49,5±58,2 g/día), aceites y mantequillas (45,8±19,4 g/día), verduras (35,2±58,2 g/día), huevos (26,7±

  6. Panorama de prácticas de alimentación de adolescentes escolarizados Panorama de práticas de alimentação de adolescentes escolarizados Overview of feeding practices in school adolescents

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    OLGA OSORIO MURILLO

    Full Text Available La alimentación de los adolescentes constituye un tema de interés para la enfermería por el efecto de las acciones de promoción de la salud y prevención de la enfermedad que se pueden realizar durante esta etapa y al impacto que tienen en la salud actual y futura de estos jóvenes. Objetivo: evaluar las prácticas e influencias de la alimentación de adolescentes escolarizados. Métodos. Estudio descriptivo transversal, con una muestra de 201 adolescentes, a los cuales se les valoró ingesta de alimentos, riesgos de trastornos de la conducta alimentaria, circunstancias de la alimentación, influencias de familiares, amigos, colegio y medios de comunicación. Resultados: consumo de alimentos: el mayor consumo diario fue: cereales (436,2±172 g/día, gaseosas y bebidas azucaradas (225,9±152 g/día, carnes (155,4±70 g/día, frutas (145,3±66 g/día y lácteos (123,3±95 g/día. Se encontró menor consumos de: azúcares, pastelería y helados (60,6±30,5 g/día, leguminosas (49,5±58,2 g/día, aceites y mantequillas (45,8±19,4 g/día, verduras (35,2±58,2 g/día, huevos (26,7±24 g/día, meriendas (10,3±13,4 g/día y comidas rápidas (4±11 g/día. Los hombres reportaron consumo de licor. Ingesta de energía y nutrientes: Mientras que la ingesta de proteínas fue elevada (126,3% de los requerimientos, la ingesta de energía fue deficitaria (88,7% de los requerimientos. Se encontró deficiencia en consumo de vitamina A, tiamina, riboflavina, niacina, vitamina B6, calcio y hierro. Costumbres alimentarias: el 74,6% de los adolescentes se saltó al menos una de las tres comidas principales diarias. El 35,3% de los adolescentes reportó que situaciones emocionales negativas como angustia, ansiedad, tristeza y aburrimiento incidieron en el aumento de consumo de alimentos, mientras que para el 46,8% estos sentimientos los llevaron a disminuir sus ingestas. El 76,6% de adolescentes regularmente comía acompañado y el 22,4% solo. El 11% de los adolescentes participantes están en riesgo de desarrollo de trastornos de conductas alimentarias. El 45,8% de las familias de los adolescentes compra en supermercados de grandes superficies; la madre es quien con mayor regularidad compra los alimentos (58,2 % y los cocina (71,1%. El 78,6% de las familias de los adolescentes consume alimentos fuera de casa. La familia constituye la mayor influencia en la alimentación, según los adolescentes (80,1%, seguida de los medios de comunicación (10,9%, los amigos (5% y el colegio (4%. Conclusiones: los adolescentes presentan prácticas alimenticias que pueden constituirse en riesgo para la aparición de enfermedades debido a consumos inadecuados de alimentos, que se traducen en aportes deficitarios de energía, vitamina A, vitaminas del complejo B, calcio y hierro y aportes elevados de proteínas. Prácticas alimentarias: no hay una distribución adecuada de los alimentos durante el día. Las emociones afectan a los consumos de alimentos; la familia y los medios de comunicación ejercen gran influencia en la alimentación de los adolescentes.A alimentação dos adolescentes é uma questão de interesse para a enfermagem, vistos os efeitos das ações de promoção da saúde e prevenção de doenças que se podem realizar durante essa etapa e o impacto que ela tem na saúde atual e futura destes jovens. Objetivo: avaliar as práticas e influências de alimentação de adolescentes escolarizados. Métodos. Levantamento descritivo transversal, com uma amostra de 201 adolescentes, sujeitos à avaliação de seus hábitos alimentares, riscos de transtornos da conduta alimentar, circunstâncias da alimentação, influências de familiares, amigos, colégio e meios de comunicação. Resultados: consumo de alimentos: o maior consumo diário foi: cereais (436,2 ± 172 g/dia, refrigerantes e bebidas açucaradas (225,9 ± 152 g/dia, carnes (155,4 ± 70 g/dia, frutas (145,3 ± 66 g/dia e lácteos (123,3±95 g/dia. O menor consumo verificado foi de: açúcares, pastéis e sorvetes (60,6 ± 30,5 g/dia, leguminosas (49,5 ± 58,2 g/dia,

  7. Xenofobia en adolescentes argentinos: Un estudio sobre la intolerancia y la discriminación en jóvenes escolarizados

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dan, Adaszko; Ana Lía, Kornblit.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los resultados de una investigación con cobertura nacional que indagó acerca del nivel de xenofobia en adolescentes escolarizados de Argentina hacia doce grupos identitarios (nacionales y culturales). La investigación halló que en la población estudiada existe un clima [...] xenófobo generalizado, así como altos niveles de racismo. Los grupos identitarios más rechazados son gitanos, judíos, chinos y coreanos, seguidos de inmigrantes limítrofes. Abstract in english This article presents the results of a national study that explored the level of xenophobia among teenage students in Argentina towards twelve identity groups (both national and cultural). The study found that there is a widespread xenophobic atmosphere, as well as high levels of racism, among the p [...] opulation studied. The most severely rejected identity groups are Gypsies, Jews, Chinese and Koreans, followed by border immigrants.

  8. Xenofobia en adolescentes argentinos: Un estudio sobre la intolerancia y la discriminación en jóvenes escolarizados

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    Dan Adaszko

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los resultados de una investigación con cobertura nacional que indagó acerca del nivel de xenofobia en adolescentes escolarizados de Argentina hacia doce grupos identitarios (nacionales y culturales. La investigación halló que en la población estudiada existe un clima xenófobo generalizado, así como altos niveles de racismo. Los grupos identitarios más rechazados son gitanos, judíos, chinos y coreanos, seguidos de inmigrantes limítrofes.This article presents the results of a national study that explored the level of xenophobia among teenage students in Argentina towards twelve identity groups (both national and cultural. The study found that there is a widespread xenophobic atmosphere, as well as high levels of racism, among the population studied. The most severely rejected identity groups are Gypsies, Jews, Chinese and Koreans, followed by border immigrants.

  9. Evolução da epidemia tabágica em adolescentes portugueses escolarizados e vias para o seu controlo: Uma análise baseada nos dados do Health behaviour in School - Aged Children (HBSC) / Smoking trends in Portuguese school: Aged children and aproaches for a control - An analysis based on the Health Behaviour in School - Aged Children (HBSC) data

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuel, Macedo; José, Precioso.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Fumar tem consequências imediatas na saúde das crianças e dos adolescentes. No entanto, o maior risco que estas correm quando começam a fumar é o de ficarem dependentes do tabaco, muitas vezes para a vida inteira, podendo mais tarde vir a sofrer das inúmeras e graves patologias atribuídas ao tabagis [...] mo. Este facto releva a importância de prevenir o consumo de tabaco pelos jovens, para dessa forma controlar a expansão da epidemia tabágica e, consequentemente, evitar os problemas de saúde, económicos, sociais e ambientais a ela associados. Embora Portugal não tenha um plano nacional de prevenção do tabagismo, têm sido desenvolvidas em algumas escolas iniciativas para prevenir o consumo desta droga lícita. Para determinar a eficácia de tais medidas comparamos as prevalências do consumo de tabaco fornecidas pelo Health Behaviour in School - Aged Children (HBSC) (11-15 anos) de 1997/98 e 2002. Os resultados do estudo mostram que em Portugal se registou um grande aumento da prevalência do consumo de tabaco nos dois sexos, particularmente no feminino. Os dados permitem concluir que a escola não está a ser eficaz na prevenção do tabagismo e que em Portugal continua a ser necessário investir na prevenção primária. Abstract in english While smoking has negative health consequences for children and adolescents, the major risk of smoking onset by these age groups is tobacco dependence, in most cases for the rest of their lives, which can later lead to the suffering of diseases related to smoking. This fact shows the importance of s [...] moking prevention in teens to avoid the negative health, economic and environmental effects related to smoking. Although Portugal does not have a National Smoking Prevention Programme, some schools have developed prevention campaigns to control the spread of the tobacco epidemic. To determine the efficacy of smoking prevention campaigns developed in Portuguese schools we compared the data of smoking prevalence provided by Health Behaviour in School - Aged Children (HBSC) (11-15 years old) from 1997/98 and 2002. The results show the rise of smoking prevalence in students on both sexes, especially among girls. Data supports the conclusion that Portuguese schools are not effective in smoking prevention and in Portugal it is necessary to continue smoking prevention campaigns aimed at the younger children.

  10. Percepción de riesgo de abuso sexual entre adolescentes escolarizados de la ciudad de Cali

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    Janeth Mosquera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: El abuso sexual es un hecho de alta incidencia que ocurre en distintos estratos socio-económicos, culturas, ámbitos y etapas de la vida. Sin embargo, se ha explorado poco la percepción de riesgo que sobre este suceso tienen los adolescentes, uno de los grupos poblacionales más comprometido.Métodos: Como complemento de un estudio transversal en el que se identificaron tres zonas en Cali con mayor prevalencia de denuncias de abuso sexual en población de 10 a 19 años de edad, se realizó una exploración cualitativa con adolescentes escolarizados de esas zonas, para indagar aspectos relacionados con la percepción de riesgo de abuso sexual. Participaron 121 adolescentes (53 hombres y 68 mujeres. La información se colectó con la técnica de grupo focal.Resultados: Los hallazgos principales del estudio muestran que tanto hombres como mujeres adolescentes conciben el abuso sexual como violación (penetración de pene u otro objeto dentro de la vagina o el ano y, por tanto, es la modalidad que a su juicio reviste mayor gravedad, así como prevalece el estereotipo de abusador de sexo masculino. Adicionalmente, se observaron diferencias en la percepción de riesgo según el género, relacionadas con los espacios públicos y domésticos y con las actitudes de culpabilizar a la víctima.Conclusiones: La investigación sugiere la necesidad que programas de prevención de abuso sexual en adolescentes, enfaticen en las habilidades para identificar situaciones que los ponen a riesgo de abuso sexual en cualquiera de sus modalidades. Además, esos programas deben tener perspectiva de género, con el fin de clarificar distintas percepciones de riesgo y actitudes hacia las víctimas.

  11. COGNICIÓN, EMOCIÓN Y SINTOMATOLOGÍA DEPRESIVA EN ADOLESCENTES ESCOLARIZADOS / COGNITION, EMOTION, AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS IN SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS

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    YVONNE, GÓMEZ.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una caracterización de adolescentes escolarizados en términos de afecto positivo y negativo, pensamientos automáticos negativos y positivos y sintomatología depresiva. Se tomó una muestra aleatoria de 1096 adolescentes (55,7% hombres) entre 12 y 16 años, tanto de instituciones educativas [...] públicas como privadas,. Los resultados indican diferencias significativas en las tres variables estudiadas. Las mujeres adolescentes se caracterizan a nivel cognitivo por mayor presencia de pensamientos automáticos negativos y a nivel emocional por niveles más altos de afecto negativo y mayor presencia de sintomatología depresiva. Los hombres adolescentes presentaron más pensamientos positivos y niveles más altos de afecto positivo y menor tendencia a presentar sintomatología depresiva. Este perfil también se encontró y con mayor intensidad en el subgrupo de adolescentes con puntuaciones en la escala de sintomatología depresiva por encima del percentil 75, con excepción del afecto negativo. Abstract in english A characterisation of adolescents is presented in terms of positive and negative affect, automatic negative and positive thoughts and depressive symptomatology. An aleatory sample of 1096 adolescents 12 to 16 years old, from public and private schools from the city of Medellín (Colombia) was selecte [...] d. 55.7% of the sample were male. The results show that male and female adolescents differ on the three evaluated variables. At the cognitive level, female adolescents showed more automatic negative thoughts; at an emotional level they showed higher levels of negative affect and more depressive symptoms. Male adolescents showed more positive thoughts, higher levels of positive affect and fewer depressive symptoms. This profile was more clear in the subgroup of adolescents with scores over the 75 percentile in the scale of depressive symptoms excepting negative affect

  12. Panorama de prácticas de alimentación de adolescentes escolarizados Overview of feeding practices in school adolescents Panorama de práticas de alimentação de adolescentes escolarizados

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    AMAYA REY MARÍA CONSUELO DEL PILAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La alimentación de los adolescentes constituye un tema de interés para la enfermería por el efecto de las acciones de promoción de la salud y prevención de la enfermedad que se pueden realizar durante esta etapa y al impacto que tienen en la salud actual y futura de estos jóvenes. Objetivo: evaluar las prácticas e influencias de la alimentación de adolescentes escolarizados. Métodos. Estudio descriptivo transversal, con una muestra de 201 adolescentes, a los cuales se les valoró ingesta de alimentos, riesgos de trastornos de la conducta alimentaria, circunstancias de la alimentación, influencias de familiares, amigos, colegio y medios de comunicación. Resultados: consumo de alimentos: el mayor consumo diario fue: cereales (436,2±172 g/día, gaseosas y bebidas azucaradas (225,9±152 g/día, carnes (155,4±70 g/día, frutas (145,3±66 g/día y lácteos (123,3±95 g/día. Se encontró menor consumos de: azúcares, pastelería y helados (60,6±30,5 g/día, leguminosas (49,5±58,2 g/día, aceites y mantequillas (45,8±19,4 g/día, verduras (35,2±58,2 g/día, huevos (26,7±24 g/día, meriendas (10,3±13,4 g/día y comidas rápidas (4±11 g/día. Los hombres reportaron consumo de licor. Ingesta de energía y nutrientes: Mientras que la ingesta de proteínas fue elevada (126,3% de los requerimientos, la ingesta de energía fue deficitaria (88,7% de los requerimientos. Se encontró deficiencia en consumo de vitamina A, tiamina, riboflavina, niacina, vitamina B6, calcio y hierro. Costumbres alimentarias: el 74,6% de los adolescentes se saltó al menos una de las tres comidas principales diarias. El 35,3% de los adolescentes reportó que situaciones emocionales negativas como angustia, ansiedad, tristeza y aburrimiento incidieron en el aumento de consumo de alimentos, mientras que para el 46,8% estos sentimientos los llevaron a disminuir sus ingestas. El 76,6% de adolescentes regularmente comía acompañado y el 22,4% solo. El 11% de los adolescentes participantes están en riesgo de desarrollo de trastornos de conductas alimentarias. El 45,8%de las familias de los adolescentes compra en supermercados de grandes superficies; la madre es quien con mayor regularidad compra los alimentos (58,2 % y los cocina (71,1%. El 78,6% de las familias de los adolescentes consume alimentos fuera de casa. La familia constituye la mayor influencia en la alimentación, según los adolescentes (80,1%, seguida de los medios de comunicación (10,9%, los amigos (5% y el colegio (4%. Conclusiones: los adolescentes presentan prácticas alimenticias que pueden constituirse en riesgo para la aparición de enfermedades debido a consumos inadecuados de alimentos, que se traducen en aportes deficitarios de energía, vitamina A, vitaminas del complejo B, calcio y hierro y aportes elevados de proteínas. Prácticas alimentarias: no hay una distribución adecuada de los alimentos durante el día. Las emociones afectan a los consumos de alimentos; la familia y los medios de comunicación ejercen gran influencia en la alimentación de los adolescentes.Feeding of adolescents constitutes a topic of interest for nursing due to the effect that health promotion and disease prevention actions have. Said actions can be carried out during this life phase and have impact on current and future health of young people. Objective: evaluate the practices and influences of food in school adolescents. Methods. Cross-sectional descriptive study with a sample of 201 adolescents, which were evaluated for food intake, risks of feeding conduct disorders, feeding circumstances, influence of family, friends, school and media. Results: food consumption: the highest daily consumption was: cereals (436,2±172g/day, soft drinks and sweetened drinks (225,9±152 g/day, meat (155,4±70 g/day, fruits (145,3±66 g/day and diary (123,3±95 g/day. Also found was lower consumption of: sugars, pastries and ice creams (60,6±30,5 g/day, leguminous (49,5±58,2 g/day, oils and butters (45,8±19,4 g/day, vegetables (35,2±58,

  13. Maltrato entre iguales e intento suicida en sujetos adolescentes escolarizados / Peer mistreatment and suicide attempt in adolescents that go to School / Maltrato entre pares e intentos suicidas em adolescentes escolarizados

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isabel, Valadez; Raúl, Amezcua; Noé, González; Rosalba, Montes; Vania, Vargas.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conhecer a relação entre o maltrato entre pares e intento suicida em adolescentes escolarizados. Método: Aplicação a 723 adolescentes escolarizados de um questionário que inclui escalas de Likert para avaliar as dificuldades escolares (desempenho escolar e maltrato), ideias e pensamentos s [...] uicidas, sentimentos de solidão e abandono,isolamento e antecedente de intento suicida. Para estimar a força de associação entre as dificuldades escolares com as variáveis estudadas utilizou-se o estatístico OR (odds ratio, em inglês e razón de momios, em espanhol). Considerou-se que existia associação quando o OR foi superior a 1. Resultados: As dificuldades escolares associaram-se com significância estadística com as variáveis estudadas. Conclusões: As experiências de vitimização expõem o adolescente a um maior risco de sofrer desajustes psicossociais. Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Conocer la relación entre el maltrato entre iguales y el intento suicida en sujetos adolescentes escolarizados. Método: Aplicación a 723 sujetos adolescentes escolarizados de un cuestionario que incluye escalas Likert que evalúan dificultades escolares (desempeño escolar y maltrato), ideas [...] y pensamientos suicidas, sentimientos de soledad y de abandono, aislamiento, y antecedente de intento suicida. Para estimar la fuerza de asociación entre las dificultades escolares con las variables estudiadas utilizamos el estadístico OR (odds ratio en inglés y razón de momios en español). Consideramos que existe asociación cuando el OR es superior a uno. Resultados: Las dificultades escolares se asociaron con significancia estadística a las variables estudiadas. Conclusiones: Las experiencias de victimización ponen al sujeto adolescente en mayor situación de riesgo de sufrir desajustes psicosociales. Abstract in english Objective: To know the relationship between peer mistreatment (bullying) and suicide attempts for teenagers that go to school. Method: Appling a questionnaire to 723 adolescents that go to school, including Likert scales that evaluate difficulties at school (school performance and mistreatment), sui [...] cidal ideas and thoughts, feelings of loneliness and abandonment, isolation, previous suicide attempts. To estimate the strength of association between the difficulties at school and the variables under study the OR (odds ratio) statistic was used. And association is considered to exist when OR was superior to 1. Results: Difficulties at school were associated to the studied variables with statistical significance. Conclusions: Victimization experiences place the teenager at higher risk of suffering psychosocial imbalance.

  14. Dispepsia y reflujo gastroesofágico en adolescentes escolarizados Dyspepsia and reflux disease in adolescents

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    Jenny Molano Caro

    Full Text Available Introducción y objetivos: Existen pocas publicaciones acerca de la prevalencia de la dispepsia y el reflujo gastroesofágico en adolescentes y la frecuencia de infección por Helicobacter en ese grupo de edad. Realizamos un estudio de base comunitaria y corte transversal con el objetivo de determinar la epidemiología de la dispepsia y el reflujo, los hallazgos endoscópicos y la infección por Helicobacter pylori en adolescentes escolarizados. Métodos: Un total de 937 estudiantes de 12 a 20 años de edad, seleccionados al azar de 12 instituciones educativas de Bogotá y cinco municipios de la Sabana centro, contestaron una encuesta sobre la presencia y frecuencia de síntomas dispépticos y de reflujo gastroesofágico ocurridos en el último año. Fueron contactados para estudio endoscópico alto quienes presentaran síntomas frecuentes y/o síntomas de alarma. En todos los casos se tomó biopsia para realización de ureasa y/o para estudio histológico. Resultados: Cumplieron criterios para la realización de endoscopia 45,8% por dispepsia y 6,7% por reflujo. La dispepsia fue más frecuente en el sexo femenino (p=0,001 y entre los 15 y 17 años (p= 0,04. El reflujo fue más frecuente entre los 12-14 años (p=001. La prevalencia de dispepsia orgánica fue 27,6%. La infección por Helicobacter pylori fue del 54,4%, predominante en el estrato socioeconómico bajo (p=0,008. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de dispepsia es alta en nuestros adolescentes y su distribución en orgánica y funcional es similar a la encontrada en adultos. La frecuencia de síntomas de reflujo es comparable a la informada en adultos. La prevalencia de infección por Helicobacter pylori se relaciona con el estrato socioeconómico bajo. No hay diferencia en la prevalencia de infección por Helicobacter pylori por el tipo de dispepsia. No se encontró patología neoplásica.Introduction and objectives: Few publications exist about dyspepsia and reflux disease in adolescents. We conducted a community based, cross sectional study with the objectives to determine the epidemiology of dyspepsia and reflux symptoms, endoscopic findings and Helicobacter pylori infection frequency in 12 to 20 age students. Methods: 937 students between 12 to 20 years, selected at random, answered a survey about presence and frequency of dyspeptic and reflux symptoms with-in the last year. Those with frequent symptoms and/or alarm symptoms were contacted to perform an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. In all cases biopsy for urease testing and/or histology study was taken. Results: Criteria for endoscopic procedure was met 45.8% of subjects due to dyspepsia and in 6.7% due to reflux symptoms Dyspepsia was more frequent in female subject (p=0,001 and in those between 15 and 17 years (p= 0.04. Reflux symptoms were more frequent in those between 12 and 14 years (p=001. The prevalence of organic dyspepsia was 27.6%. Helicobacter pylori infection was 54.4%, predominantly in the low socioeconomic strata (p=0,008. Conclusions: Prevalence of dyspepsia is high in our adolescent population with an organic and functional distribution similar to that found in adults. The prevalence of frequent reflux symptoms is comparable to that informed for adults. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is related to socioeconomic status but not to the presence of dyspepsia, reflux symptoms or dyspepsia type. Not malignancy was founded.

  15. Predictores de disfunción familiar en adolescentes escolarizados / Predictors of family dysfunction among adolescent students

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    Edna Margarita, Gómez-Bustamante; Irma, Castillo-Ávila; Zuleima, Cogollo.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Establecer los predictores de disfunción familiar en adolescentes escolarizados de Cartagena, Colombia. Método: Se llevó a cabo una investigación analítica transversal, mediante un muestreo probabilístico por conglomerado de estudiantes de secundaria. Se solicitó la participación de estudi [...] antes de entre 13 y 17 años de edad. Se identificó disfunción familiar con la escala APGAR Familiar. Se ajustaron los predictores mediante regresión logística binaria. Resultados: Aceptaron participar un total de 1730 estudiantes; media para la edad de 14,7 años (DE = 1,2) y 52,7 % mujeres. La escala APGAR mostró un alfa de Cronbach de 0,78. Un grupo de 896 estudiantes (51,8 %) informó disfunción familiar. Fueron predictores de disfunción familiar: síntomas depresivos con importancia clínica (OR = 3,61; IC 95 %: 2,31-5,63), baja religiosidad (OR = 1,73; IC 95 %: 1,41-2,13), familia no nuclear (OR = 1,71; IC 95 %: 1,41-2,09), consumo de alguna sustancia en la vida (OR = 1,67; IC 95 %: 1,15-2,13), residente en estrato bajo (OR = 1,49; IC95 %: 1,19-1,87) y mal rendimiento académico (OR = 1,43; IC 95 %: 1,15-1,76). Conclusiones: Síntomas depresivos con importancia clínica, baja religiosidad y familia no nuclear son los principales predictores de disfunción familiar en estudiantes adolescentes de Cartagena, Colombia. Es posible que la asociación sea bidireccional. Abstract in english Object: Determination of family dysfunction predictors in adolescent students of Cartagena, Colombia. Methodology: A cross-sectional analytical research was conducted by means of a probabilistic sample per conglomerate of high-school students. Participation of students between 13 and 17 years was re [...] quested. Family dysfunction was identifed through the family APGAR scale. Predictors were adjusted by binary logistic regression. Results: A total of 1,730 students agreed to participate, mean age was 14.7 years (SD=1.2), and 52.7% were girls. The family APGAR scale showed a Cronbach alpha of 0.78. A group of 896 students (51.8%) reported family dysfunction. Predictors of family dysfunction were: clinically significant depressive symptoms (OR=3.61; IC 95%: 2.31-5.63), low religiosity (OR=1.73; CI 95%: 1.41-2.13), non-nuclear family (OR=1.71, CI 95% 1.71-2.09) (OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.41-2.13), non-nuclear family (OR=1.71, 95%: CI 1.41-2.09), consumption of any illegal substance in their lives (OR=1.67, CI 95%: 1.15-2.13), residents of depressed neighborhoods (OR = 1.49; CI 95%: 1.19-1.87), and poor academic performance (OR=1.43; CI 95%: 1.15-1.76). Conclusions: Clinically significant depressive symptoms, low religiosity and non-nuclear family are the main predictors of family dysfunction among adolescent students in Cartagena, Colombia. The association is possibly bidirectional.

  16. Factores asociados al uso de sustancias ilícitas en adolescentes escolarizados Associated factors with Illicit Drug use among Adolescent Students

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    Germán Eduardo Rueda-Jaimes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El abuso de sustancias ilícitas se establece durante la adolescencia temprana. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia y los factores asociados al consumo de sustancias ilícitas en adolescentes escolarizados de Bucaramanga. Método: Una muestra aleatoria de estudiantes adolescentes que completó un cuestionario anónimo acerca del consumo de sustancias ilegales y legales más escalas y cuestionarios de diferente tipo. Resultados: 2.916 estudiantes participaron en esta investigación. La prevalencia del uso de sustancias ilícitas durante el último ano fue del 3,81%. El uso de sustancias ilícitas en hombres se asoció de manera independiente con la presencia de comportamientos antisociales, fumar todos los días durante el último mes, patrón de dependencia a alcohol y tener un amigo que usa sustancias ilícitas. En mujeres se asoció de manera independiente con la presencia de comportamientos antisociales, tener un amigo que usa sustancias ilícitas, fumar todos los días durante el último mes y la edad. Conclusión: Uno de cada 26 adolescentes escolarizados de Bucaramanga ha usado sustancias ilícitas durante el último ano. Mujeres y hombres mostraron factores asociados similares, sin embargo, los hombres mostraron asociación con dependencia al alcohol y las mujeres mostraron asociación con la edad.Introduction: The abuse of illicit drugs is established during early adolescence. Furthermore, a lot of variables in Colombian adolescents have not been studied yet. Objective: To establish the prevalence and associated factors of illicit drug use among adolescent students in Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods: A random sample of adolescent students completed an anonymous questionnaire about illegal and legal substance use, and others questionnaires and scales.. Logistical regression was used to control confounding variables. Results: 2,916 students participated in this research. The prevalence of illicit drug use during the last year was 3.81%. Illicit drug use in men was independently associated with antisocial behavior, smoking everyday during the last month, alcohol dependence pattern and having a friend who uses illicit drugs. In women was independently associated with antisocial behavior, having a friend who uses illicit drugs, smoking everyday during the last month, and the age. Conclusions: One in 26 adolescent students from Bucaramanga has used illicit drugs during the last year. Women and men showed similar associated factors, although, men also showed an association with alcohol dependence and women showed an association with the age.

  17. Factores asociados al uso de sustancias ilícitas en adolescentes escolarizados / Associated factors with Illicit Drug use among Adolescent Students

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Germán Eduardo, Rueda-Jaimes; Andrés Mauricio, Rangel-Martínez-Villalba; Paul Anthony, Camacho López; Eliana, Duarte-Pineda.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El abuso de sustancias ilícitas se establece durante la adolescencia temprana. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia y los factores asociados al consumo de sustancias ilícitas en adolescentes escolarizados de Bucaramanga. Método: Una muestra aleatoria de estudiantes adolescentes que comp [...] letó un cuestionario anónimo acerca del consumo de sustancias ilegales y legales más escalas y cuestionarios de diferente tipo. Resultados: 2.916 estudiantes participaron en esta investigación. La prevalencia del uso de sustancias ilícitas durante el último ano fue del 3,81%. El uso de sustancias ilícitas en hombres se asoció de manera independiente con la presencia de comportamientos antisociales, fumar todos los días durante el último mes, patrón de dependencia a alcohol y tener un amigo que usa sustancias ilícitas. En mujeres se asoció de manera independiente con la presencia de comportamientos antisociales, tener un amigo que usa sustancias ilícitas, fumar todos los días durante el último mes y la edad. Conclusión: Uno de cada 26 adolescentes escolarizados de Bucaramanga ha usado sustancias ilícitas durante el último ano. Mujeres y hombres mostraron factores asociados similares, sin embargo, los hombres mostraron asociación con dependencia al alcohol y las mujeres mostraron asociación con la edad. Abstract in english Introduction: The abuse of illicit drugs is established during early adolescence. Furthermore, a lot of variables in Colombian adolescents have not been studied yet. Objective: To establish the prevalence and associated factors of illicit drug use among adolescent students in Bucaramanga, Colombia. [...] Methods: A random sample of adolescent students completed an anonymous questionnaire about illegal and legal substance use, and others questionnaires and scales.. Logistical regression was used to control confounding variables. Results: 2,916 students participated in this research. The prevalence of illicit drug use during the last year was 3.81%. Illicit drug use in men was independently associated with antisocial behavior, smoking everyday during the last month, alcohol dependence pattern and having a friend who uses illicit drugs. In women was independently associated with antisocial behavior, having a friend who uses illicit drugs, smoking everyday during the last month, and the age. Conclusions: One in 26 adolescent students from Bucaramanga has used illicit drugs during the last year. Women and men showed similar associated factors, although, men also showed an association with alcohol dependence and women showed an association with the age.

  18. Estado nutricional y carencias de micronutrientes en la dieta de adolescentes escolarizados de la Zona Metropolitana de Guadalajara, Jalisco

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    Rosa María, Valdez López; Josefina, Fausto Guerra; Isabel, Valadez Figueroa; Alfredo, Ramos Ramos; Oscar, Loreto Garibay; Martha, Villaseñor Farias.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Las deficiencias de micronutrientes son una parte importante, del más amplio y serio problema de la malnutrición. La adolescencia constituye una etapa de gran riesgo nutricional debido al aumento de necesidades, cambios de hábitos alimentarios y posibles situaciones de riesgo. Existe evidencia docum [...] entada de deficiencia de micro nutrimentos entre la población de México. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el estado nutricional del adolescente escolarizado y la ingestión de micronutrientes en su dieta. La muestra estuvo conformada por 307 adolescentes. Se analizó la composición corporal a través de indicadores antropométricos. Para determinar la ingestión de micro nutrimentos se utilizó el recordatorio de 24 horas y el software Mexfoods. Los porcentajes que indican una ingestión adecuada se clasificaron según los siguientes puntos de corte: debajo de los requerimientos mínimos, cuando la ingesta fue Abstract in english Nutritional state and shortcoming of micronutrients on schooled youth's diet on the metropolitan zone of Guadalajara Jalisco. The adolescence is a stage of high nutritional risk due to the increased requirements, changes in eating habits and potential risk. There are documented evidence of micronutr [...] ient deficiency among the population of Mexico.To evaluate the nutritional status and micronutrient deficiencies in the diet of adolescents. The sample consisted of 307 adolescents. We analyzed the body composition by using anthropometric indicators. To determine the intake of micronutrients, the 24 hours reminder and software Mexfoods were used. The percentages that indicate adequate intake were classified according to the following breakpoints: Below minimum requirements, when intake was

  19. Actitudes de los adolescentes escolarizados frente a la salud sexual y reproductiva. Medellín (Colombia) / Teenagers’ attitudes towards sexual and reproductive health. Medellin (Colombia) / Atitudes frente à saúde sexual e reprodutiva dos adolescentes escolarizados. Medellín (Colômbia)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isabel Cristina, Grajales Atehortúa; Doris, Cardona Arango.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar as atitudes frente a fecundidade dos adolescentes escolarizados. Metodologia. Estudo descritivo transversal realizado com a participação de 1178 adolescentes 12 e 18 anos a quem se lhes aplicou uma enquete com perguntas relacionadas com fecundidade. A investigação foi realizada [...] na cidade de Medellín (Colômbia) em 2009. Resultados. Mais do 60% dos jovens têm uma atitude favorável para a educação sexual, tanto no lar como na escola; consideram que exercer a sexualidade e utilizar os métodos anticonceptivos fazem parte dos direitos humanos, e que as relações sexuais ajudam ao desenvolvimento da personalidade. O 30% dos interrogados esteve de acordo que o aborto deve ser respeitado como uma decisão da mulher e cerca do 20% pensa que ter um filho é a melhor forma de conservar o casal e de demonstrar-lhe seu amor. Os adolescentes reconhecem nos pais uma importante fonte de informação nos temas relacionados com a fecundidade, assim mesmo a comunicação ao interior da família sobre aspectos relacionados com a saúde sexual e reprodutiva, a qual se documentou como uma importante estratégia para a proteção dos jovens. Conclusão. As atitudes dos adolescentes frente à saúde sexual e reprodutiva devem ter-se em conta para a definição de estratégias educativas em saúde que propenda pelo melhoramento das mesmas. Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Objective. To identify attitudes towards fertility among teenagers. Methodology. Cross sectional descriptive study where 1178 teenagers between 12 and 18 years old participated. A survey with questions linked to fertility was applied. The research was carried out in the city of Medellin (Colombia) i [...] n 2009. Results. More than 60% of the teenagers have a favorable attitude towards sexual education, both at home as well as school. They consider sexual practices and the use of contraceptive methods make part of the human rights, and sex helps the development of the personality. 30% of the surveyed teenagers agreed abortion should be respected as a decision made by woman, and about 20% think having a child is the best way to keep their couple and show them their love. Teenagers recognized parents as an important source of information in topics related with fertility, as well as family communication about sexual and reproductive health, which has been documented as an important strategy to protect the teenagers. Conclusion. Teenagers attitudes towards sexual and reproductive health should be taken into account to define educational strategies in health to improve them.

  20. Desayuno y almuerzo de los adolescentes escolarizados de Santander / Breakfast and snack of schooled adolescents in Santander

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P. de, Rufino Rivas; C., Redondo Figuero; T., Amigo Lanza; D., González-Lamuño; M., García Fuentes.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudiar el modelo de desayuno e ingesta alimentaria de media mañana (almuerzo) de los adolescentes escolarizados de la ciudad de Santander. Sujetos: Se realizó un estudio transversal, analizando una muestra de 403 adolescentes: 232 mujeres (58%; IC-95%:52%-62%) y 171 varones (42%; IC-95%: [...] 38%-48%), de edades comprendidas entre los 12 y los 19 años, escolarizados en 12 centros de enseñanza secundaria de Santander, mediante un cuestionario cerrado y un recuerdo de 24 horas. Resultados: El 5% (IC-95%: 3,1%-7,6%) de los jóvenes manifestó no desayunar. Los alimentos más consumidos son la leche (47%; IC-95%: 42%-52%), la leche chocolateada (40%: IC-95%: 36%-45%) y las galletas (45%; IC-95%: 36%-45%). Por otro lado, el 63% (IC-95%:58%-70%) de los jóvenes consume leche entera, el 21% (IC-95%:17%-26%) leche semidesnatada y el 11% (IC-95%:8%-15%) leche desnatada. Se aprecia una tendencia lineal decreciente en el consumo de leche entera, y un aumento paralelo en el consumo de leches con menos fracción grasa conforme aumenta el curso académico de los adolescentes (test r² de tendencia lineal de Armitage = 2,32; p = 0,02). Los varones consumen una media de 3,0 (DE=1,35) alimentos diferentes en el desayuno y las mujeres 2,4 (DE=1,20). El 43% (IC-95%:38%-48%) de los adolescentes almuerza, lo que implica que un 2% (IC-95%: 1%-4%) de los jóvenes ni desayuna ni almuerza. El desayuno representa el 18% (IC-95%: 16%-19%) del total de la ingesta energética diaria, mientras que para el almuerzo este porcentaje es del 16% (IC-95%:14%-17%). Conclusión: Es necesario fomentar el consumo de un desayuno y almuerzo saludables que proporcionen una ingesta cuantitativa y cualitativa adecuadas. Abstract in english Objective: To study the breakfast model and food intake at mid-morning (snack) in schooled adolescents at Santander city. Subjects: A cross-sectional study was performed analyzing a sample of 403 adolescents: 232 girls (58%; 95%CI: 52%-62%) and 171 boys (42%; 95%CI: 38%-48%), with ages between 12 an [...] d 19 years, schooled at 12 second degree education centers of Santander, by means of a closed questionnaire and a recall 24 hours later. Results: Five percent (95%CI: 3.1%-7.6%) of the adolescents referred neglecting breakfast. The most consumed foods were milk (47%; 95%CI: 42%-52%), chocolate milk (40%; 95%CI: 36%-45%), and cookies (45%; 95%CI: 36%-45%). On the other hand, 63% of adolescents consume whole milk (95%CI: 58%-70%), 21% semi-skimmed milk (95%CI: 17%-26%), and 11% skimmed milk (95%CI: 8%-15%). A decreasing lineal tendency in whole milk consumption is observed and a parallel increase in consumption of milks with a lower fat content as the academic year of adolescents advances (Armitage's r² test for lineal tendency = 2.32; p = 0.02). Boys consume an average of 3.0 (SD = 1.35) different foods during breakfast and girls 2.4 (SD = 1.20). Forty-three percent (95%CI: 38%-48%) of adolescents have a snack, which means that 2% of adolescents do not have breakfast or a snack (95%CI: 1%-4%). Breakfast represents 18% (95%CI: 16%-19%) of the total daily energy intake, whereas for snack, this percentage is 16% (95%CI: 14%-17%). Conclusion: it is necessary to promote consumption of a healthy breakfast and snack that provide an appropriate quantitative and qualitative intake.

  1. Exploración de la validez de constructo de la escala de Zung para depresión en adolescentes escolarizados

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    Adalberto Campo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: La escala de Zung para depresión se ha usado en varios estudios en adolescentes colombianos. No obstante, la validez de constructo de esta escala no se conoce en este grupo etáreo. Objetivo: Validar el constructo de la escala de Zung para depresión en adolescentes que asistían a un colegio ubicado en un estrato bajo de la ciudad de Cartagena, Colombia. Método: Un grupo de 408 estudiantes entre 13 y 17 años (promedio 14.7 diligenciaron en el aula de clase la escala de Zung para depresión, 50% mujeres y 50% varones. Se determinó la consistencia interna y los factores que componen esta escala. Resultados: La consistencia interna de la escala fue 0.689 (alfa de Cronbach. Se observó un primer factor principal (estado de ánimo deprimido que explicaba el 15.8% de la varianza y un segundo factor (síntomas cognoscitivos y somáticos que daba cuenta de 9.1% de la varianza. Conclusiones: En adolescentes, la escala de Zung para depresión muestra una aceptable consistencia interna y un constructo de dos factores principales, similar al observado en adultos colombianos.

  2. Consciência morfossintática e ortografia em adolescentes e adultos escolarizados / Morphosyntactic awareness and spelling in schooled adolescents and adults

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bianca Arruda Manchester, Queiroga; Lúcia Maria, Lins; Antônio, Roazzi; Rafaella, Asfora.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o desempenho ortográfico e a consciência morfossintática em uma amostra composta por 224 adolescentes e adultos escolarizados. Foram aplicadas tarefas de ditado de palavras e pseudopalavras, julgamento e analogia de palavras, com justificativas, elaboradas com morfem [...] as gramaticais e lexicais que apresentavam concorrência na representação gráfica dos fonemas /s/ e /z/. Os resultados mostraram diferenças importantes entre os morfemas gramaticais e lexicais, sugerindo que tais princípios ortográficos não são apreendidos do mesmo modo. Também não se observou a utilização gerativa desses princípios, apesar de haver evolução na conduta ortográfica e nas explicitações entre o final do ensino fundamental e médio. Foi encontrado um efeito preditor do conhecimento explícito sobre o desempenho ortográfico na escrita de palavras e pseudopalavras. Conclui-se que mesmo nos níveis mais avançados de escolarização ainda há dificuldade na explicitação consciente desses princípios ortográficos. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the spelling and morphosyntactic awareness in a sample of 224 schooled adolescents and adults. Participants were tested in a task of dictations of words and pseudowords, judgment of written words and analogy of words (both with justification) elaborated with gra [...] mmatical and lexical morphemes that presents competition in the graphical representation of the fonemes / s / and / z /. The results showed significant differences between the morphemes grammatical and lexical, suggesting that these orthographic principles are not attained likewise. It was not also observed the use of generative principles, though it is possible to observe an evolution in the orthographic performance and in the type of justifications used at the end of primary and secondary education. A predictive effect of explicit knowledge about the orthographic performance in spelling words and pseudowords was also observed. It is concluded that even in the most advanced levels of schooling there is still difficulty in explicit aware of the orthographic principles.

  3. Educación en derechos sexuales y reproductivos: una perspectiva integral con adolescentes escolarizados

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    Mariela Carreño

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Con el propósito de «dar poder» a los jóvenes en los derechos y deberes sexuales y reproductivos y con marco de referencia las teorías del Aprendizaje Social y de la Acción Razonada, se desarrolló una estrategia educativa con 142 adolescentes entre los 12 y 18 años de edad en dos centros educativos del municipio de Jamundí, Valle del Cauca, Colombia.Metodología: La intervención se validó a través de un proyecto de investigación en la misma comunidad; sus resultados se informan en otro artículo. En la estrategia, cuya descripción es el objetivo del presente escrito, participaron además de los jóvenes, algunos docentes, la mayoría de madres y padres de familia, varios pares estudiantiles, e incluyó servicio de orientación y seguimiento así como actividades lúdicas de información para reforzar conceptos y actitudes. Resultados: Los objetivos planteados en los talleres y en las otras actividades desarrolladas se cumplieron al permitir a los adolescentes tomar poder frente al ejercicio de los derechos y deberes sexuales y reproductivos y expresar sus sentimientos y emociones relacionados con su sexualidad. Conclusiones: Se confirma que mediante este tipo de estrategias educativas se pueden alcanzar niveles progresivos de tomas de conciencia y participación, a fin de crear nuevas visiones acerca del cuidado de la salud.

  4. Tabaquismo en adolescentes escolarizados de la ciudad de Olavarría, Buenos Aires: Prevalencia y factores asociados

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raúl, Pitarque; Andrés, Bolzán; María Esther, Gatella; Fernanda, Moranga; Silvana, Bugasen; Luisa, Echaide.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Los efectos adversos del tabaquismo son conocidos, pero millones de personas continúan fumando. En efecto, el tabaquismo y la exposición al humo del tabaco -fenómeno conocido como exposición pasiva al humo de tabaco- constituyen uno de los mayores eventos prevenibles en salud pública. [...] El primer contacto con el tabaco se inicia durante los primeros años de la adolescencia. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de fumadores en adolescentes de la ciudad de Olavarría e identificar factores de riesgo asociados con el hecho de convertirse en fumador. Población, material y métodos. Se incluyeron setecientos sesenta y tres estudiantes mediante una encuesta anónima autoadministrada. Las variables incluyeron: edad, sexo, contacto con el cigarrillo, hábito de fumar de padres y amigos, creencias acerca del tabaquismo, información recibida en la escuela, influencia de los medios de comunicación. Se calcularon la prevalencia de vida (PV) y del último mes (PUM). Resultados. La prevalencia de vida fue de 0,27 y la del último mes de 0,10. A medida que la edad asciende, el tabaquismo aumenta. La presión de amigos fumadores (OR= 10,1 IC 95% 5,1-19,0) y el humo pasivo en el hogar (OR= 2,1 IC 95% 1,1-5,3) constituyeron dos factores significativos para el inicio del tabaquismo. Conclusión. El estudio muestra la influencia que ejercen el tener padres fumadores y la presión del medio social sobre el inicio del hábito de fumar en los adolescentes. Abstract in english Introduction. The adverse effects of smoking on health are well known, but, despite this, millions of people continue smoking. In truth, smoking and exposure to tobacco smoke -a phenomenon known as passive or second-hand smoking- constitute one of the greatest preventable causes of morbidity and mor [...] tality. Experimentation with tobacco begins during the first few years of adolescence. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of smoking among adolescents from Olavarría city -between 11 and 15 years of age- and also to investigate the risk factors which make them smokers. Population, material and methods. Seven hundred and sixty three youths were studied. A structured questionnaire was filled out by the students themselves in anonymity. Variables included: age, sex, smoking initiation, smoking habits among friends, parents and siblings, description of occasions when smoking occurs, beliefs about cigarettes, educational achievement, the level of information received at school on health and tobacco and use of communication media. Life prevalence and life prevalence during last month were calculated. Results. Life prevalence was 0.27 and life prevalence during last month was 0.10. The greater the age the higher the prevalence. Peer pressure (OR= 10.1 CI 95% 5.1-19.0) and the existence of smokers within the family circle (father, mother, sibling) (OR= 2.1 CI 95% 1.1-5.3) were statistically significant factors. Conclusion. The study contributes to the epidemiologic knowledge of tobacco in pediatrics.

  5. Consumo de substâncias ilícitas por adolescentes portugueses / Illicit substances use by Portuguese adolescents / Consumo de sustancias ilícitas por adolescentes portugueses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carla, Neto; Sílvia, Fraga; Elisabete, Ramos.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência de consumo de drogas ilícitas em adolescentes e os motivos que os levam a experimentá-las. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 2.499 adolescentes de 17 anos, com base numa coorte designada por EPITeen, iniciada em 2003/2004 com adolescentes nascidos em 1990 que estudava [...] m nas escolas públicas e privadas da cidade do Porto, Portugal. Foi realizada nova avaliação em 2007/2008, sendo recuperados 1.716 adolescentes (79,4%) e avaliados 783 novos participantes. Informações sobre características sociais e demográficas, história familiar e pessoal de doença e comportamentos foram obtidas com questionários estruturados autoadministrados. O teste de qui-quadrado foi utilizado para testar as associações. A análise estatística foi realizada no programa informático SPSS® versão 17. RESULTADOS: Dos adolescentes, 14,6% referiram ter experimentado drogas alguma vez na vida. A droga ilícita mais experimentada foi a cannabis (12,5%), seguida pelo álcool em simultâneo com cannabis (5,5%) e pelos tranquilizantes (1,7%). A razão mais referida para experimentar drogas foi a curiosidade (77,5%). Os amigos foram a forma mais frequentemente referida para obter a droga e a escola era vista por 24,2% dos adolescentes como um local em que se podia comprar cannabis. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados fundamentam a necessidade de intervir em idades precoces e sugerem que essa intervenção deve ser integrada com estratégias dirigidas a outros comportamentos de risco, nomeadamente em meio escolar. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia de consumo de drogas ilícitas en adolescentes y los motivos que los llevan a experimentarlas. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal con 2.499 adolescentes de 17 años, con base en una cohorte designada por EPITeen, iniciada en 2003/2004 con adolescentes nacidos en 1990 que e [...] studiaban en las escuelas públicas y privadas de la ciudad de Porto, Portugal. Se realizó nueva evaluación en 2007/2008, siendo recuperados 1.716 adolescentes (79,4%) y evaluados 783 nuevos participantes. Informaciones sobre características sociales y demográficas, historia familiar y personal de enfermedad y comportamientos fueron obtenidas con cuestionarios estructurados auto-administrados. La prueba de chi-cuadrado fue utilizada para evaluar las asociaciones. El análisis estadístico fue realizado en el programa informático SPSS® versión 17. RESULTADOS: De los adolescentes, 14,6% relataron haber experimentado drogas alguna vez en la vida. La droga ilícita más experimentada fue la cannabis (12,5%), seguida por el alcohol simultáneamente con cannabis (5,5%) y por los tranquilizantes (1,7%). La tasa más referida para experimentar drogas fue la curiosidad (77,5%). Los amigos fueron la forma más frecuentemente referida para obtener la droga y la escuela era vista por 24,2% de los adolescentes como un lugar donde se podía comprar cannabis. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados fundamentan la necesidad de intervenir en edades precoces y sugieren que dicha intervención debe ser integrada con estrategias dirigidas a otros comportamientos de riesgo, específicamente en medio escolar. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of illicit drug consumption among adolescents and the motives that led these adolescents to try them. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 2,499 adolescents aged 17 years, based on a cohort called EPITeen, which was started in 2003/2004 with adolescents born in 1 [...] 990 who studied in public and private schools of the city of Porto, Portugal. A new assessment was carried out in 2007/2008: 1,716 adolescents (79.5%) were recovered and 783 new participants were evaluated. Information about social and demographic characteristics, family and personal history of diseases and behaviours were obtained through self-administered structured questionnaires. The chi-square test was used to test the associations. The statistical analysis was performed in the program SPSS® version 17. RESULTS: Of the adolescents, 14.6% had tried drugs at

  6. Felicidade Hedónica e Eudaimónica: Um estudo com adolescentes portugueses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Teresa, Freire; Filipa, Zenhas; Dionísia, Tavares; Catarina, Iglésias.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo pretendeu explorar as conceções de felicidade de adolescentes portugueses, os aspetos mais significativos das suas vidas e os fatores que os justificam; perceber os níveis de significado em vários domínios de vida e o impacto destes na felicidade e significado em geral. Foi utiliza [...] do o Eudaimonic and Hedonic Happiness Investigation (EHHI; Delle Fave, Brdar, Freire, Vella-Brodrick, & Wissing, 2011) que permite aceder, qualitativa e quantitativamente, aos componentes hedónicos e eudaimónicos da Felicidade. Participaram no estudo 216 adolescentes, com média de idade de 16.6 anos (DP=1.2), sendo 68,5% do sexo feminino e 31,5% do sexo masculino. Os resultados qualitativos mostraram que as definições de felicidade, de significado, bem como os motivos subjacentes à atribuição de significado englobam quer dimensões psicológicas quer aspetos relacionados com domínios de vida, integrando componentes hedónicos e eudaimónicos. Já os resultados quantitativos permitiram perceber que a felicidade e o significado contribuem de forma diferenciada mas complementar para o bem-estar. Estes resultados são discutidos à luz das perspetivas hedónica e eudaimónica, vigentes no estudo do bem-estar, contribuindo para uma compreensão holística dos vários componentes que contribuem e que estão envolvidos na Felicidade de adolescentes. Abstract in english The present study intended to explore the conceptualizations of happiness of Portuguese adolescents, the most significant aspects of their lives, which factors can give meaning to their lives; and to understand the levels of Happiness and Meaning in several life domains and its impact on happiness a [...] nd meaning in life in general. We used the Eudaimonic and Hedonic Happiness Instrument (EHHI: Delle Fave, Brdar, Freire, Vella-Brodrick, & Wissing, 2011), which tries to access, qualitatively and quantitatively, the hedonic and eudaimonic components of Happiness. The sample comprised 216 adolescents, with mean age of 16.6 (DP=1.2), being 68,5% female and 31,5% male. The qualitative results showed that the definition of happiness amongst adolescents, the meaning as well as the underlying motifs to the attribution of meaning, includes both psychological dimensions and aspects related with life domains, integrating hedonic and eudaimonic components. The quantitative results allowed understanding that happiness and meaning contribute in a different but complementary way to well-being. These results are discussed using current hedonic and eudaimonic perspectives on the study of wellbeing, contributing for a holistic understanding of the various components that contribute and are involved in the Happiness of adolescents.

  7. Children and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale: Validation in a Portuguese Adolescent Sample / Escala de Perfecionismo de Crianças e Adolescentes: Validação em Adolescentes Portugueses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carmen, Bento; Ana Telma, Pereira; Jorge Manuel, Saraiva; António, Macedo.

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar as propriedades psicométricas da "Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale - CAPS" (Escala de Perfecionismo de Crianças e Adolescentes - EPCA). Método: 971 adolescentes portugueses do ensino secundário (572 raparigas e 399 rapazes) responderam a EPCA. A estabilidade [...] temporal foi obtida com 206 participantes da amostra total. Resultados: A consistência interna (?=0,809) e a estabilidade temporal (r=0,691) foram satisfatórias. A análise fatorial dos principais componentes produziu dois fatores, que explicou 41,44% da variância total. A estrutura fatorial foi semelhante à da versão original. Os fatores foram denominados "Perfecionismo Socialmente Prescrito" e "Perfecionismo Auto-orientado". Discussão: A versão portuguesa da "CAPS"é um instrumento válido e útil para a avaliação do Perfecionismo em adolescentes portugueses. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS). Method: 971 Portuguese high school students (572 girls and 399 boys) answered the CAPS. The test-retest reliability was obtained with 206 participants fr [...] om the total sample. Results: Internal consistency (?= .809) and test-retest reliability (r= .691) were satisfactory. Main components of factorial analysis yielded two factors, accounting for 41.44% of the total variance. Factor structure was similar to the original version. Factors were labelled as "Socially Prescribed Perfectionism" and "Self-Oriented Perfectionism". Discussion: The Portuguese version of the CAPS is a valid and useful instrument for the evaluation of perfectionism among Portuguese adolescents.

  8. Comportamentos de saúde oral em adolescentes portugueses / Oral health behaviours in Portuguese adolescents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Pereira; Nélio, Veiga; Odete, Amaral; Joana, Pereira.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução A frequência da escovagem, a utilização do fio dentário e a consulta regular ao médico dentista são importantes determinantes de saúde oral. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar os comportamentos de saúde oral numa amostra de adolescentes portugueses, mais especificamente a prevalênci [...] a de escovagem, a utilização de fio dentário e as consultas regulares ao médico dentista, e estabelecer a associação destes comportamentos com aspetos sociodemográficos. Participantes e métodos Realizámos um estudo transversal onde avaliámos os alunos de 26 escolas públicas do terceiro ciclo e secundário do distrito de Viseu. Em cada escola avaliámos todos os adolescentes do 7.° ao 12.° ano de escolaridade. A recolha de dados foi efetuada através de um questionário autoaplicado e respondido pelos adolescentes em sala de aula, contendo questões referentes a comportamentos de saúde oral e estatuto socioeconómico. Dos 8768 distribuídos, recolhemos 7644 (87,2%). Foram excluídos da análise os questionários sem informação para o sexo e para a idade, bem como os que correspondiam a idades inferiores a 12 ou superiores a 18 anos. Ficámos com uma amostra final de 7563 adolescentes (4117 do sexo feminino). Resultados A prevalência de escovagem (2 ou mais vezes por dia) é de 23,5%, mais frequente no sexo feminino (25,5 vs. 21,2%, p 12 anos=44,2%, p Abstract in english Background The frequency of toothbrushing, use of dental floss and regular dental appointment are important determinants of oral health. The aim of this study was to assess the oral hygiene behaviors in a Portuguese sample of adolescents, namely the prevalence of toothbrushing, use of dental floss a [...] nd regular dental appointments and the association of these behaviours with socio-demographic aspects. Participants and methods A sample of adolescents attending twenty-six public schools of the district of Viseu, Portugal, was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. In each school we assessed all students from the 7th to the 12th grades aged twelve to eighteen years old. A self-administered questionnaire with questions about oral health behavior, knowledge and socio-economic status was answered by the adolescents in the classroom. We sent 8768 questionnaires and received 7644 (87.2%). The questionnaires without sex and age information and those related to adolescents younger than twelve and older than eighteen years old were excluded from the analysis. The final sample included in the analysis was composed by 7563 adolescents (4117 female). Results The prevalence of toothbrushing (twice-a-day or more) is 23.5%, more frequent in female sex (25.5% vs. 21.2%, p 12 yrs=44.2%, p

  9. Consumo de substâncias ilícitas por adolescentes portugueses Consumo de sustancias ilícitas por adolescentes portugueses Illicit substances use by Portuguese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Neto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência de consumo de drogas ilícitas em adolescentes e os motivos que os levam a experimentá-las. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 2.499 adolescentes de 17 anos, com base numa coorte designada por EPITeen, iniciada em 2003/2004 com adolescentes nascidos em 1990 que estudavam nas escolas públicas e privadas da cidade do Porto, Portugal. Foi realizada nova avaliação em 2007/2008, sendo recuperados 1.716 adolescentes (79,4% e avaliados 783 novos participantes. Informações sobre características sociais e demográficas, história familiar e pessoal de doença e comportamentos foram obtidas com questionários estruturados autoadministrados. O teste de qui-quadrado foi utilizado para testar as associações. A análise estatística foi realizada no programa informático SPSS® versão 17. RESULTADOS: Dos adolescentes, 14,6% referiram ter experimentado drogas alguma vez na vida. A droga ilícita mais experimentada foi a cannabis (12,5%, seguida pelo álcool em simultâneo com cannabis (5,5% e pelos tranquilizantes (1,7%. A razão mais referida para experimentar drogas foi a curiosidade (77,5%. Os amigos foram a forma mais frequentemente referida para obter a droga e a escola era vista por 24,2% dos adolescentes como um local em que se podia comprar cannabis. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados fundamentam a necessidade de intervir em idades precoces e sugerem que essa intervenção deve ser integrada com estratégias dirigidas a outros comportamentos de risco, nomeadamente em meio escolar.OBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia de consumo de drogas ilícitas en adolescentes y los motivos que los llevan a experimentarlas. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal con 2.499 adolescentes de 17 años, con base en una cohorte designada por EPITeen, iniciada en 2003/2004 con adolescentes nacidos en 1990 que estudiaban en las escuelas públicas y privadas de la ciudad de Porto, Portugal. Se realizó nueva evaluación en 2007/2008, siendo recuperados 1.716 adolescentes (79,4% y evaluados 783 nuevos participantes. Informaciones sobre características sociales y demográficas, historia familiar y personal de enfermedad y comportamientos fueron obtenidas con cuestionarios estructurados auto-administrados. La prueba de chi-cuadrado fue utilizada para evaluar las asociaciones. El análisis estadístico fue realizado en el programa informático SPSS® versión 17. RESULTADOS: De los adolescentes, 14,6% relataron haber experimentado drogas alguna vez en la vida. La droga ilícita más experimentada fue la cannabis (12,5%, seguida por el alcohol simultáneamente con cannabis (5,5% y por los tranquilizantes (1,7%. La tasa más referida para experimentar drogas fue la curiosidad (77,5%. Los amigos fueron la forma más frecuentemente referida para obtener la droga y la escuela era vista por 24,2% de los adolescentes como un lugar donde se podía comprar cannabis. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados fundamentan la necesidad de intervenir en edades precoces y sugieren que dicha intervención debe ser integrada con estrategias dirigidas a otros comportamientos de riesgo, específicamente en medio escolar.OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of illicit drug consumption among adolescents and the motives that led these adolescents to try them. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 2,499 adolescents aged 17 years, based on a cohort called EPITeen, which was started in 2003/2004 with adolescents born in 1990 who studied in public and private schools of the city of Porto, Portugal. A new assessment was carried out in 2007/2008: 1,716 adolescents (79.5% were recovered and 783 new participants were evaluated. Information about social and demographic characteristics, family and personal history of diseases and behaviours were obtained through self-administered structured questionnaires. The chi-square test was used to test the associations. The statistical analysis was performed in the program SPSS® version 17. RESULTS: Of the adolescents, 14.6% had tried drugs at least once in their lives. The most tried illicit drug was cannabis (12.5

  10. Os jovens pouco escolarizados no mercado de trabalho português / The labour insertion of the Portuguese young people

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristina, Parente; Hernani Veloso, Neto; Madalena, Ramos; Sofia Alexandra, Cruz; Vanessa, Marcos.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as mudanças estruturais do emprego juvenil entre os 15 e 24 anos de idade, com escolaridade básica obrigatória (ISCED 0-2), nos anos de 1988, 1998 e 2007, tendo por base dados não publicados dos Quadros de Pessoal do Ministério do Trabalho e da Solidariedade Social. A exploração [...] das variáveis contrato, antiguidade, duração do tempo de trabalho e remuneração, permite configurar uma autonomização do mercado de trabalho da mão-de-obra juvenil face à generalidade do mercado de trabalho. Conclui-se argumentando que a escolaridade é um fator diferenciador da relação de emprego dos jovens menos escolarizados face aos mais escolarizados. Abstract in english This article analyses the structural changes of youth ­employment between 15 and 24 years of age, with compulsory basic education (ISCED 0-2) in 1988, 1998 and 2007 based on the unpublished data from Quadros de Pessoal (Labour Census - Public sector excluded) of the Ministry of Employment and Social [...] Solidarity. The exploration of variables such as contract, seniority, working hours and remuneration, allows configuring an autonomous labour market of juvenile manpower with regard to the general labour market. It concludes by arguing that schooling is a key differentiator of the employment ­relation of less educated young people towards higher educated one.

  11. Factores associados à prática da actividade física nos adolescentes portugueses

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    Margarida Gaspar de, Matos; Susana Fonseca, Carvalhosa; José Alves, Diniz.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objectivos identificar os factores que influenciam a prática da actividade física nos adolescentes portugueses. A identificação destes factores é um passo chave na identificação e afastamento de barreiras à prática da actividade física. Este estudo usa dados da amostra nac [...] ional do HBSC (Matos, Simões, Carvalhosa, Reis & Canha, 2000). A amostra nacional consistiu em 6903 alunos, de 191 escolas portuguesas seleccionadas aleatoriamente após estratificação por região, cobrindo todo o Portugal continental. Os alunos ficaram assim distribuídos pelas áreas educativas: 39.7% Norte, 24.7% Centro, 25% Lisboa, 6.2% Alentejo e 4.4% Algarve. Dos 6903 alunos, 53% eram raparigas e 47% rapazes, 34.9% do 6.º ano, 37.5% do 8.º ano e 27.6% do 10.º ano. Os resultados, utilizando um modelo linear de regressão múltipla, revelam como variável explicativa mais forte o sexo. Tanto a idade como o sexo foram associadas à prática da actividade física com os rapazes e os mais novos a praticar mais. A percepção da saúde apareceu também associada à prática da actividade física, uma melhor percepção associando-se a uma maior prática. Foi também encontrada uma associação entre o tempo passado com os amigos fora das escola e as noites passadas com os amigos e a prática da actividade física. A associação encontrada entre a posse de automóvel de família e a prática da actividade física não foi inesperada, outros estudos referiram já a importância da mobilidade e acessibilidade na prática da actividade física em adolescentes. Se aceitarmos os já reconhecidos efeitos benéficos da actividade física na saúde e bem estar físico, social e psicológico dos adolescentes, estes resultados apontam claramente para a urgência de medidas a nível nomeadamente da família e da escola no sentido de apoiar os jovens na sua escolha de um estilo de vida activo e saudável tendo em consideração as diferenças de género. Abstract in english The present study aimed to identify the factors that influence Physical Activity (PA) of Portuguese adolescents. The identification of these factors is one key step in the identification and removal of barriers to PA practice. This paper used data from the Portuguese sample of the HBSC European stud [...] y (Matos, Simões, Carvalhosa, Reis & Canha, 2000). Portugal was included as a full partner in this study for the first time in 1996. This survey is based on a self-completed questionnaire that is administered in schools to pupils in the 6th, 8th and 10th grades of high school, average age 14.1 years, standard deviation 1.71. Schools in the sample were randomly selected from a national list of schools, stratified by region. The Portuguese sample consisted of 6903 students, from 191 Portuguese schools, covering the whole country. Pupils were distributed, by Education Regional Divisions, as follows: 39.7% North, 24.7% Centre, 25% Lisbon, 6.2% Alentejo and 4.4% Algarve. Of the total 6903 pupils, 53% were girls and 47% boys, 34.9% in the 6th grade, 37.5% in the 8th grade and 27.6% in the 10th grade. Using a multiple linear regression model, it is clear from our results the association between sex, age and physical activity. The perception of health was also associated to Physical activity, as well as time spent with friends outside school hours and in the evenings. The association between family car and physical activity was not unexpected, highlighting the importance of access in the practice of physical activity. If we are to accept the well reported benefits of physical activity in adolescents physical and mental health, these results point out very clearly the urgency and relevance of strategies, namely within the family and school settings, aiming at helping adolescents to make healthy choices in what their life style is concerned, promoting an healthy and active life style as early as possible in one's life, taking in account gender differences.

  12. Nivel de autoestima de adolescentes escolarizados en zona rural de Pereira, Colombia / Self-esteem Level in Scholarized Adolescents of the Rural Area of Pereira, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iris Tatiana, Montes González; Viviana, Escudero Ramírez; José William, Martínez.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el nivel de autoestima de adolescentes escolarizados en un colegio rural de un corregimiento de Pereira. Métodos: Se convocó a los estudiantes a participar, 292 aceptaron desarrollar la encuesta, mientras 20 se abstuvieron de hacerlo. Resultados: Previo análisis de confiabilidad de [...] l test, se encontró que 47,9% de los estudiantes presentaron una baja y muy baja autoestima. Un modelo multivariado reportó que la autoestima se reducía a medida que aumentaba la edad. Conclusiones: La comunidad académica y la familia deben interactuar a favor de un buen nivel de autoestima en los adolescentes. Abstract in english Objective: To assess the level of self-esteem of adolescents in a rural school of a district of Pereira. Methods: Students were called upon to participate, 292 agreed to undergo the test, while 20 abstained. Results: After a previous reliability test analysis, we found that 47.9% of students had low [...] and very low self-esteem. A multivariate model reported that self-esteem was reduced as age increased. Conclusions: The academic community and the family must work together in order to improve self-esteem among teenagers in general.

  13. PREVALENCIA DE RIESGO DE TRASTORNOS ALIMENTARIOS EN ADOLESCENTES ESCOLARIZADOS DEL NORTE DE CHILE PREVALENCE OF RISK OF EATING DISORDERS IN SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS FROM NORTHERN CHILE

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    Alfonso Urzúa M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir la prevalencia de riesgo de trastornos alimentarios en adolescentes escolarizados de 13 a 18 años. Método: Se aplica la Escala EDI-2 a una muestra intencionada estratificada de 1.429 participantes de la ciudad de Antofagasta pertenecientes a establecimientos educacionales municipalizados, subvencionados y particulares. Resultados: se encuentran diferencias significativas en las medias de las dimensiones evaluadas entre hombres y mujeres, entre grupos de edad y entre los distintos establecimientos educacionales. A nivel general, el 7,4% de los evaluados se encuentra en la categoría de riesgo, aumentando a un 8,9% en las mujeres. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de riesgo de trastornos alimentarios es mayor en las mujeres, en el grupo de 15 a 18 años y en los participantes de establecimientos educacionales municipalizados.Objective: To describe the prevalence of risk for eating disorders in adolescents from schools aged 13 to 18 years. Methods: We applied the EDI-2 to 1.429 participants from Antofagasta attending public, subsidized and private schools. Results: there are significant differences in the risk factors evaluated between men and women, age groups and kind of schools In general, 7.4% of those evaluated were at risk category, increasing to 8.9% in women. Conclusions: The prevalence of risk of eating disorders is higher among women, aged 15 to 18 years and in participants from public establishments.

  14. PREVALENCIA DE RIESGO DE TRASTORNOS ALIMENTARIOS EN ADOLESCENTES ESCOLARIZADOS DEL NORTE DE CHILE / PREVALENCE OF RISK OF EATING DISORDERS IN SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS FROM NORTHERN CHILE

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alfonso, Urzúa M; Sandy, Castro R; America, Lillo O; Carolina, Leal P.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir la prevalencia de riesgo de trastornos alimentarios en adolescentes escolarizados de 13 a 18 años. Método: Se aplica la Escala EDI-2 a una muestra intencionada estratificada de 1.429 participantes de la ciudad de Antofagasta pertenecientes a establecimientos educacionales municip [...] alizados, subvencionados y particulares. Resultados: se encuentran diferencias significativas en las medias de las dimensiones evaluadas entre hombres y mujeres, entre grupos de edad y entre los distintos establecimientos educacionales. A nivel general, el 7,4% de los evaluados se encuentra en la categoría de riesgo, aumentando a un 8,9% en las mujeres. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de riesgo de trastornos alimentarios es mayor en las mujeres, en el grupo de 15 a 18 años y en los participantes de establecimientos educacionales municipalizados. Abstract in english Objective: To describe the prevalence of risk for eating disorders in adolescents from schools aged 13 to 18 years. Methods: We applied the EDI-2 to 1.429 participants from Antofagasta attending public, subsidized and private schools. Results: there are significant differences in the risk factors ev [...] aluated between men and women, age groups and kind of schools In general, 7.4% of those evaluated were at risk category, increasing to 8.9% in women. Conclusions: The prevalence of risk of eating disorders is higher among women, aged 15 to 18 years and in participants from public establishments.

  15. Condicionamientos sociales y de género en adolescentes escolarizados desde la perspectiva de la Psicología Crítica / Social conditionings and of gender in school teenagers since a Critical Psychology perspectiva

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    M. Malena, Lenta; M. Pía, Pawlowicz; Romina, Moschella.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde la perspectiva de la Psicología Crítica interpreta- mos las significaciones que adolescentes escolarizados de enseñanza media tienen sobre problemas identificados como prioritarios y las implicancias institucionales, territoriales y de género. La revisión de saberes disciplinares sobre la adol [...] escencia, sin la perspectiva de género e inscripción social, universaliza territorios sin advertir los condicionamientos materiales y simbólicos implicados en los procesos de subjetivación y socialización. Con un enfoque de Investigación-Acción como ejercicio prefigurativo práctico, se abordan datos cuali y cuantitativos generados a partir de la aplicación de un cuestionario a una muestra intencional de adolescentes que asisten a escuelas públicas. Las dimensiones del cuerpo, la sexualidad y el futuro aparecen con diferenciales atravesamientos de género y territorialidad. Estos temas propician intervenciones preventivas y promocionales y un enfoque de reflexividad crítica sobre las prácticas disciplinares y la crisis de las instituciones tradicionales. Abstract in english From the Critical Psychology we interpret the school teenagers significances about problems who were identified as priority, and the institutional, territorial and gender implications. The review of knowledge about adolescence without a gender perspective and a social inscription, produce a generali [...] zation of the territories without warning the material and symbolic conditionings involved in the subjetivation and socialization processes. From a Prefigurative Action Research, qualitative and quantitative information was recollected from a selective sampling of institutions and quotas by a questionnaire. The body, sexuality and future were variables with different dimensions of gender and territoriality. These issues promote preventive and promotional interventions and a reflexive critic approach on disciplinarians practices and the crisis of the traditional institutions.

  16. BULLYING EN ADOLESCENTES ESCOLARIZADOS: VALIDACIÓN DEL DIAGNÓSTICO DE ENFERMERÍA "RIESGO DE VIOLENCIA DIRIGIDA A OTROS" / BULLYING AMONG ADOLESCENT ATTENDING SCHOOL: VALIDATION OF THE NURSING DIAGNOSIS "RISK OF VIOLENCE DIRECTED TO OTHERS" / BULLYING EM ADOLESCENTES ESCOLARIZADOS: VALIDAÇÃO DO DIAGNÓSTICO DE ENFERMAGEM "RIESGO DE VIOLÊNCIA DIRIGIDA A OUTROS"

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elvinia, Pinilla Gómez; Luis Carlos, Orozco Vargas; Fabio Alberto, Camargo Figuera; Jonathan Alexander, Berrío; Leydi Xiomara, Medina Moreno.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A adolescência é uma etapa na qual surge uma serie de câmbios físicos, psicológicos e sociais, que contribuem à formação da personalidade; a maneira em que os adolescentes afrontam estes câmbios se vê refletida nos comportamentos de permissibilidade e violência que eles exteriorizam ante as diversas [...] situações da vida cotidiana. Objetivo: validar o diagnostico de enfermaria "riscos de violência dirigida a outros", em adolescentes escolarizados. Métodos: pesquisa de corte transversal, onde a povoação era adolescente duma instituição de escola de ensino médio do município de Rionegro (Santander, Colombia). A variável principal foi "risco de violência dirigida a outros", a colheita da informação se fez por meio dum instrumento de valoração de seleção de adolescentes escolarizados. A validez clinica do diagnostico, realizou se mediante analise de fatores e analise Rasch. Resultados: A povoação conformada por 300 adolescentes, a mediana idade foi de 14 anos, o 58,67% correspondeu ao gênero feminino. Os itens que ajustaram o modelo de analise Rasch encontram se com um INFIT que oscila entre 0,85 o menor e 1,24 o maior, e o OUTFIT que oscila entre 0,65 o menor e 1,77 o maior. Mostra que as mulheres são mais agressoras que os varões, com uma meia de 1,53 de risco de violência para as mulheres e uma meia de 1,03 para os homens, com uma probabilidade p=0,0006. Conclusão: validar clinicamente os diagnósticos de enfermagem, aporta à evidencia e o crescimento da profissão como ciência do cuidado. Abstract in spanish La adolescencia es una etapa en la cual surgen una serie de cambios físicos, psicológicos y sociales, que contribuyen a la formación de la personalidad; la manera en que los adolescentes afrontan estos cambios se ve reflejada en los comportamientos de permisibilidad y violencia que ellos exterioriza [...] n ante las diversas situaciones de la vida cotidiana. Objetivo: validar el diagnóstico de enfermería "riesgo de violencia dirigida a otros", en adolescentes escolarizados. Método: estudio de corte transversal, donde la población eran adolescentes de una institución media educativa del municipio de Rionegro (Santander, Colombia). La variable principal fue "riesgo de violencia dirigida a otros", la recolección de la información se hizo por medio de un instrumento de valoración de tamizaje del adolescente escolarizado. La validez clínica del diagnóstico, se realizó mediante análisis de factores y análisis Rasch. Resultados: la población conformada por 300 adolescentes, la mediana de edad fue de 14 años, el 58,67% correspondió al género femenino. Los ítems que ajustaron al modelo de análisis Rasch se encuentran con un INFIT que oscila entre 0,85 el menor y 1,24 el mayor, y el OUTFIT que oscila entre 0,65 el menor y 1,77 el mayor. Muestra que las mujeres son más agresoras que los varones, con una media de 1,53 de riesgo de violencia para las mujeres y una media de 1,03 para los hombres, con una probabilidad p=0,0006. Conclusión: validar clínicamente los diagnósticos de enfermería, aporta a la evidencia y el crecimiento de la profesión como ciencia del cuidado. Abstract in english Adolescence is a stage in which a series of physical, psychological and social factors arise which contribute to the personality shaping;, the way in which adolescents face these changes are reflected in the permissibility and violence behaviors they externalize to various situations of everyday lif [...] e. Objective: to validate the nursing diagnosis "risk of violence directed to others" among adolescents attending school. Method: a cross-sectional study, where the population was teenagers from a Middle School in Rionegro (Santander, Colombia). The main variable was the "risk of violence directed at others", the data collection was carried out using an assessment screening instrument for the adolescent attending school. The clinical validity of the diagnosis, was performed using factor analysis and Rasch analysis. Results: the population comprised 300 adole

  17. BULLYING EN ADOLESCENTES ESCOLARIZADOS: VALIDACIÓN DEL DIAGNÓSTICO DE ENFERMERÍA "RIESGO DE VIOLENCIA DIRIGIDA A OTROS" BULLYING EM ADOLESCENTES ESCOLARIZADOS: VALIDAÇÃO DO DIAGNÓSTICO DE ENFERMAGEM "RIESGO DE VIOLÊNCIA DIRIGIDA A OUTROS" BULLYING AMONG ADOLESCENT ATTENDING SCHOOL: VALIDATION OF THE NURSING DIAGNOSIS "RISK OF VIOLENCE DIRECTED TO OTHERS"

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    Elvinia Pinilla Gómez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La adolescencia es una etapa en la cual surgen una serie de cambios físicos, psicológicos y sociales, que contribuyen a la formación de la personalidad; la manera en que los adolescentes afrontan estos cambios se ve reflejada en los comportamientos de permisibilidad y violencia que ellos exteriorizan ante las diversas situaciones de la vida cotidiana. Objetivo: validar el diagnóstico de enfermería "riesgo de violencia dirigida a otros", en adolescentes escolarizados. Método: estudio de corte transversal, donde la población eran adolescentes de una institución media educativa del municipio de Rionegro (Santander, Colombia. La variable principal fue "riesgo de violencia dirigida a otros", la recolección de la información se hizo por medio de un instrumento de valoración de tamizaje del adolescente escolarizado. La validez clínica del diagnóstico, se realizó mediante análisis de factores y análisis Rasch. Resultados: la población conformada por 300 adolescentes, la mediana de edad fue de 14 años, el 58,67% correspondió al género femenino. Los ítems que ajustaron al modelo de análisis Rasch se encuentran con un INFIT que oscila entre 0,85 el menor y 1,24 el mayor, y el OUTFIT que oscila entre 0,65 el menor y 1,77 el mayor. Muestra que las mujeres son más agresoras que los varones, con una media de 1,53 de riesgo de violencia para las mujeres y una media de 1,03 para los hombres, con una probabilidad p=0,0006. Conclusión: validar clínicamente los diagnósticos de enfermería, aporta a la evidencia y el crecimiento de la profesión como ciencia del cuidado.A adolescência é uma etapa na qual surge uma serie de câmbios físicos, psicológicos e sociais, que contribuem à formação da personalidade; a maneira em que os adolescentes afrontam estes câmbios se vê refletida nos comportamentos de permissibilidade e violência que eles exteriorizam ante as diversas situações da vida cotidiana. Objetivo: validar o diagnostico de enfermaria "riscos de violência dirigida a outros", em adolescentes escolarizados. Métodos: pesquisa de corte transversal, onde a povoação era adolescente duma instituição de escola de ensino médio do município de Rionegro (Santander, Colombia. A variável principal foi "risco de violência dirigida a outros", a colheita da informação se fez por meio dum instrumento de valoração de seleção de adolescentes escolarizados. A validez clinica do diagnostico, realizou se mediante analise de fatores e analise Rasch. Resultados: A povoação conformada por 300 adolescentes, a mediana idade foi de 14 anos, o 58,67% correspondeu ao gênero feminino. Os itens que ajustaram o modelo de analise Rasch encontram se com um INFIT que oscila entre 0,85 o menor e 1,24 o maior, e o OUTFIT que oscila entre 0,65 o menor e 1,77 o maior. Mostra que as mulheres são mais agressoras que os varões, com uma meia de 1,53 de risco de violência para as mulheres e uma meia de 1,03 para os homens, com uma probabilidade p=0,0006. Conclusão: validar clinicamente os diagnósticos de enfermagem, aporta à evidencia e o crescimento da profissão como ciência do cuidado.Adolescence is a stage in which a series of physical, psychological and social factors arise which contribute to the personality shaping;, the way in which adolescents face these changes are reflected in the permissibility and violence behaviors they externalize to various situations of everyday life. Objective: to validate the nursing diagnosis "risk of violence directed to others" among adolescents attending school. Method: a cross-sectional study, where the population was teenagers from a Middle School in Rionegro (Santander, Colombia. The main variable was the "risk of violence directed at others", the data collection was carried out using an assessment screening instrument for the adolescent attending school. The clinical validity of the diagnosis, was performed using factor analysis and Rasch analysis. Results: the population comprised 300 adolescents, the median age was 14 years, and 58.67% were female. The

  18. Abuso de alcohol en niños y adolescentes escolarizados y factores asociados Alcohol abuse and associated factors in student children and adolescents

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    Germán Eduardo Rueda-Jaimes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Estudios previos han confirmado altas prevalencias de abuso de alcohol en adolescentes escolarizados de Bucaramanga; sin embargo, son escasos los estudios sobre factores asociados. Objetivo: Evaluar la prevalencia del abuso de alcohol en niños y adolescentes escolarizados de Bucaramanga, Colombia, y sus factores asociados. Metodología: Una muestra aleatoria de estudiantes adolescentes completó un cuestionario anónimo acerca del consumo de alcohol, sustancias ilegales y legales, el cuestionario CAGE y una serie de escalas y cuestionarios que evaluaban factores de riesgo para abuso de alcohol. Para ajustar por variables de confusión, se realizó un análisis multivariado mediante un modelo de regresión logística. Resultados: Se encuestaron 2.916 estudiantes. La edad de la muestra estuvo entre 10 y 22 años, con una media de 14,4 años (DE = 1,65; 51,1% eran mujeres, 36% cursaban básica superior (10° y 11°, el 17,66 % en colegios privados. El patrón de consumo abusivo de alcohol medido por la escala del CAGE fue del 14,6% (IC95%; 13,3-16,0%. Los factores asociados fueron: edad (OR = 1,15, IC95% 1,04-1,27, tener un hermano consumidor de cigarrillo o alcohol (OR = 1,48, IC95% 1,01-1,17, comportamiento antisocial (OR = 3,03, IC95% 2,12-4,32, mejor amigo que consume sustancias ilícitas (OR = 1,71, IC95% 1,06-2,76, mejor amigo que fuma o consume alcohol (OR = 2,01, IC95% 1,40-2,88. Conclusiones: Uno de cada siete estudiantes presentó un patrón de consumo abusivo de alcohol. La influencia de los amigos, la familia, la edad y el comportamiento antisocial fueron los factores asociados.Introduction: Previous studies have confirmed high prevalence of alcohol abuse in adolescent students from Bucaramanga, Colombia. However, few studies on the associated factors have been carried out. Objective: Assessment of prevalence of alcohol abuse and associated factors in student children and adolescents from Bucaramanga. Methodology: A random sample of adolescent students completed an anonymous questionnaire about the consumption of alcohol, illegal and legal substances, together with the CAGE questionnaire and a series of scales and questionnaires assessing risk factors for alcohol abuse. To adjust for confusing variables, a multivariate analysis was performed using a logistic regression model. Results: 2916 students were surveyed with an average age between 10 and 22, and a mean of 14.4 years (SD 1.65, 51.1% were female, 36% were in the last two years of high school (10th and 11th grades, and 17.66% were in private schools. The alcohol abuse pattern as measured by the CAGE scale was 14.6% (95% CI, 13.3 - 16.0%. The associated factors were: age (OR: 1.15, 95% CI 1.04 - 1.27, having a smoking or consuming alcohol sibling(OR: 1.48, 95% CI, 1.01 - 1.17 antisocial behavior (OR 3.03, 95% CI, 2.12 - 4.32 and best friend who uses illicit substances (OR 1.71, 95% CI, 1.06 - 2.76, best friend who smokes or drinks alcohol (OR 2.01, 95% CI, 1.40 - 2.88. Conclusions: One out of 7 students showed a pattern of alcohol abuse. The associated factors were the influence of friends, family, age and antisocial behavior.

  19. Abuso de alcohol en niños y adolescentes escolarizados y factores asociados / Alcohol abuse and associated factors in student children and adolescents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Germán Eduardo, Rueda-Jaimes; Jessica Liliana, Pinto Ramírez; Andrés Mauricio, Rangel Martínez-Villalba; Paul Anthony, Camacho López.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Estudios previos han confirmado altas prevalencias de abuso de alcohol en adolescentes escolarizados de Bucaramanga; sin embargo, son escasos los estudios sobre factores asociados. Objetivo: Evaluar la prevalencia del abuso de alcohol en niños y adolescentes escolarizados de Bucaramang [...] a, Colombia, y sus factores asociados. Metodología: Una muestra aleatoria de estudiantes adolescentes completó un cuestionario anónimo acerca del consumo de alcohol, sustancias ilegales y legales, el cuestionario CAGE y una serie de escalas y cuestionarios que evaluaban factores de riesgo para abuso de alcohol. Para ajustar por variables de confusión, se realizó un análisis multivariado mediante un modelo de regresión logística. Resultados: Se encuestaron 2.916 estudiantes. La edad de la muestra estuvo entre 10 y 22 años, con una media de 14,4 años (DE = 1,65); 51,1% eran mujeres, 36% cursaban básica superior (10° y 11°), el 17,66 % en colegios privados. El patrón de consumo abusivo de alcohol medido por la escala del CAGE fue del 14,6% (IC95%; 13,3-16,0%). Los factores asociados fueron: edad (OR = 1,15, IC95% 1,04-1,27), tener un hermano consumidor de cigarrillo o alcohol (OR = 1,48, IC95% 1,01-1,17), comportamiento antisocial (OR = 3,03, IC95% 2,12-4,32), mejor amigo que consume sustancias ilícitas (OR = 1,71, IC95% 1,06-2,76), mejor amigo que fuma o consume alcohol (OR = 2,01, IC95% 1,40-2,88). Conclusiones: Uno de cada siete estudiantes presentó un patrón de consumo abusivo de alcohol. La influencia de los amigos, la familia, la edad y el comportamiento antisocial fueron los factores asociados. Abstract in english Introduction: Previous studies have confirmed high prevalence of alcohol abuse in adolescent students from Bucaramanga, Colombia. However, few studies on the associated factors have been carried out. Objective: Assessment of prevalence of alcohol abuse and associated factors in student children and [...] adolescents from Bucaramanga. Methodology: A random sample of adolescent students completed an anonymous questionnaire about the consumption of alcohol, illegal and legal substances, together with the CAGE questionnaire and a series of scales and questionnaires assessing risk factors for alcohol abuse. To adjust for confusing variables, a multivariate analysis was performed using a logistic regression model. Results: 2916 students were surveyed with an average age between 10 and 22, and a mean of 14.4 years (SD 1.65), 51.1% were female, 36% were in the last two years of high school (10th and 11th grades), and 17.66% were in private schools. The alcohol abuse pattern as measured by the CAGE scale was 14.6% (95% CI, 13.3 - 16.0%). The associated factors were: age (OR: 1.15, 95% CI 1.04 - 1.27), having a smoking or consuming alcohol sibling(OR: 1.48, 95% CI, 1.01 - 1.17) antisocial behavior (OR 3.03, 95% CI, 2.12 - 4.32) and best friend who uses illicit substances (OR 1.71, 95% CI, 1.06 - 2.76), best friend who smokes or drinks alcohol (OR 2.01, 95% CI, 1.40 - 2.88). Conclusions: One out of 7 students showed a pattern of alcohol abuse. The associated factors were the influence of friends, family, age and antisocial behavior.

  20. Autoreporte de salud y enfermedad en la adolescencia: Cuestionario CHIP-AE en adolescentes escolarizados chilenos / Health and illness selfreport in adolescence: CHIP-AE questionnaire in chilean school adolescents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alfonso, Urzúa M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir y analizar los resultados de la aplicación del cuestionario Perfil de Salud y Enfermedad Infantil, versión Adolescentes (CHIP A-E), en adolescentes escolarizados chilenos. Pacientes y Método: Se aplicó el cuestionario a una muestra de 531 adolescentes escolarizados de la ciudad d [...] e Antofagasta (249 hombres y 282 mujeres), con una media de edad de 15,44 años. Se presentan las medias y deciles para cada dimensión y subdimensiones, separadas por sexo y rango de edad. Resultados: Los hombres presentan medias significativamente más elevadas a nivel de la satisfacción y resistencia (p Abstract in english Objective: To describe and analyze values obtained from the application of the Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition (CHIP-AE) in school chilean adolescents. Method: The questionnaire was applied to a sample of 531 school adolescents of Antofagasta (249 were men and 282 women), with a [...] mean of age of 15.44 years. Means and deciles for each of the domains and subdomains of the instrument, separated by sex and range of age were calculated. Results: Men presented significantly highest median level of satisfaction and resistance (p

  1. Caracterización de adolescentes escolarizados con riesgo de suicidio, Medellín, 2006 / Characterization of school adolescent students with suicide risk in Medellin, 2006

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diana C, Toro G; Ramón E, Paniagua S; Carlos M, González P; Brígida, Montoya G.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: explorar la posible asociación entre el riesgo de suicidio, depresión, consumo de psicoactivos y disfunción familiar en adolescentes escolarizados. METODOLOGÍA: se administró una encuesta de autoaplicación a una muestra aleatoria de 779 adolescentes para evaluar el riesgo de suicidio, depr [...] esión, consumo de sustancias psicoactivas y disfunción familiar; se utilizaron los instrumentos ISO-30, CDI-LA, CIDI-II y Apgar familiar respectivamente. Para el análisis se empleó la técnica del método casos y controles. RESULTADOS: la prevalencia del riesgo de suicidio se situó entre 23,0% y 26,5%. La depresión y la disfunción familiar se asociaron positivamente con el riesgo de suicidio, con una razón de disparidad de 4,3 y 2,0 respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: los resultados muestran la magnitud de un problema que deben tener en cuenta las autoridades educativas, la administración municipal y los padres de familia. Es prioritario fortalecer los programas de detección de la depresión adolescente, como también exigir al Estado mejores tratamientos para depresión (no solo limitados al medicamento). Es necesario promover la estrategia de escuela de padres en instituciones educativas, hacer énfasis en temas referentes a la salud mental y resaltar la importancia en la comunicación, la cooperación, el afecto y el respeto entre los miembros de la familia. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To explore the possible association between the risk of suicide, depression, consumption of psychoactive and family dysfunction in school adolescents. METHODOLOGY: It was administered a self-administered survey to a random sample of 779 adolescents to assess the risk of suicide, depressio [...] n, psychoactive substance use and family dysfunction, the instruments were used ISO-30, CDI-LA-II CIDI and Family Apgar respectively. The analysis used the technique of case-control method. RESULTS: The prevalence of suicide risk was between 23.0% and 26.5%. Depression and family dysfunction were positively associated with suicide risk, with a disparity ratio of 4.3 and 2.0 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results show the magnitude of a problem that must take into account the educational authorities, the municipal administration and parents. A priority is to strengthen programs for adolescent depression screening, and also require to the State better treatments for depression (not just limited to the drug). We must promote the strategy of school parents in educational institutions, emphasizing issues related to mental health and stress the importance of communication, cooperation, affection and respect among family members.

  2. Percepción de riesgo de abuso sexual entre adolescentes escolarizados de la ciudad de Cali / Risk perception of sexual abuse among young students in Cali

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Janeth, Mosquera; Amparo, Bermúdez.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: El abuso sexual es un hecho de alta incidencia que ocurre en distintos estratos socio-económicos, culturas, ámbitos y etapas de la vida. Sin embargo, se ha explorado poco la percepción de riesgo que sobre este suceso tienen los adolescentes, uno de los grupos poblacionales más comprome [...] tido. Métodos: Como complemento de un estudio transversal en el que se identificaron tres zonas en Cali con mayor prevalencia de denuncias de abuso sexual en población de 10 a 19 años de edad, se realizó una exploración cualitativa con adolescentes escolarizados de esas zonas, para indagar aspectos relacionados con la percepción de riesgo de abuso sexual. Participaron 121 adolescentes (53 hombres y 68 mujeres). La información se colectó con la técnica de grupo focal. Resultados: Los hallazgos principales del estudio muestran que tanto hombres como mujeres adolescentes conciben el abuso sexual como violación (penetración de pene u otro objeto dentro de la vagina o el ano) y, por tanto, es la modalidad que a su juicio reviste mayor gravedad, así como prevalece el estereotipo de abusador de sexo masculino. Adicionalmente, se observaron diferencias en la percepción de riesgo según el género, relacionadas con los espacios públicos y domésticos y con las actitudes de culpabilizar a la víctima. Conclusiones: La investigación sugiere la necesidad que programas de prevención de abuso sexual en adolescentes, enfaticen en las habilidades para identificar situaciones que los ponen a riesgo de abuso sexual en cualquiera de sus modalidades. Además, esos programas deben tener perspectiva de género, con el fin de clarificar distintas percepciones de riesgo y actitudes hacia las víctimas. Abstract in english Background: The incidence of sexual abuse is high and occurs in all socioeconomic strata, cultures, spaces, and during different life stages. However, very little research has been conducted to explore risk perception among adolescents, even though adolescents are more likely to experience sexual vi [...] olence. Methods: Complementary with a transversal study, which identified three zones in Cali with higher prevalence of sexual abuse reported among youngsters between 10 and 19 years of age, we carried out a qualitative study to explore risk perception of sexual abuse among young students. In this study, 121 adolescents from both sexes participated. The information was gathered by using a focal group technique. Results: Main study results show that women and men have a notion of sexual abuse only related to rape or sodomy (penetration of the penis or other object into the vagina or anus), and they consider this a more serious type of sexual abuse. In addition, we observed differences in risk perception related to gender and domestic and public spaces. Finally, victim-blame attitudes are prevalent and the stereotypical male image as rapist is predominant. Conclusions: The research suggest that is necessary in sexual abuse prevention programmes with youngsters to emphasize aspects related to being able to identify circumstances that place them at risk of sexual abuse in any modality. Furthermore, prevention programmes should have a gender perspective to clarify different risks perceptions and attitudes about victims.

  3. Perfil clínico - metabólico relacionado con el riesgo cardiovascular en adolescentes escolarizados de Barquisimeto, Venezuela / Clinical-metabolic profile related to cardiovascular risk in school adolescents from Barquisimeto , Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adaucio, Morales; Mariela, Montilva.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinar el perfil clínico - metabólico relacionado con el riesgo cardiovascular en adolescentes escolarizados de ambos sexos de Barquisimeto. Se estudiaron 500 adolescentes entre 15 y 19 años de edad (253 hombres y 247 mujeres). La selección se realizó en 2 etapas: a) muestreo aleatorio estratifi [...] cado de 18 instituciones de educación media - diversificada y 3 instituciones de educación universitaria y b) muestreo no probabilístico accidental de los adolescentes en dichas instituciones. Se evaluó índice de masa corporal, presión arterial, perfil lipídico, glicemia y resistencia a la insulina según HOMA - IR. Hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las medidas de tendencia central, tanto en hombres como en mujeres, de todas las variables excepto en el índice de masa corporal, LDL - Colesterol y glicemia. Las prevalencias de alteraciones clínico - metabólicas fueron: exceso de peso (21,2%), resistencia insulínica (20,4%), HDL - Colesterol bajo (17,7%), hipercolesterolemia total (16%), LDL - Colesterol elevado (14,5%), hipertrigliceridemia (14,2%), hipertensión arterial (1,8%) e hiperglicemia (0,2%); 22,4% presentó dos o más alteraciones clínico - metabólicas y 9,6% tres o más. Solo hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las prevalencias de exceso de peso, HDL - colesterol bajo e hipertrigliceridemia, las cuales fueron mayores en hombres con una razón de 1,6 (IC95% 1,1 - 2,2); 2,1 (IC95% 1,4 - 3,2) y 1,7 (IC95% 1,1 - 2,7), respectivamente. Se encontró una elevada prevalencia de alteraciones clínico - metabólicas con mayor riesgo de exceso de peso, HDL - C bajo e hipertrigliceridemia en hombres, lo cual amerita atención de las autoridades de salud de la región. Abstract in english To determine the clinical - metabolic profile related to cardiovascular risk among adolescent students, of both sexes, from Barquisimeto. The study was carried out on 500 adolescents between 15 and 19 years old (253 men and 247 women). The selection was carried out in two stages: a) Stratified rando [...] m sampling of 18 secondary schools and 3 universities and b) Non-probabilistic accidental sampling of adolescents in such institutions. The body mass index, blood pressure, lipid profile, glycemia, and insulin resistance according HOMA-IR were evaluated. There were statistically significant differences between sexes, in all the variables except in body mass index, LDL -Cholesterol and glycemia. The prevalence of clinical -metabolic alterations were: Excess weight (21.2%), insulin resistance (20.4%), low HDL cholesterol (17.7 %), total hypercholesterolemia (16%), high LDL cholesterol (14.5 %), hypertriglyceridemia (14.2%), hypertension (1.8%) and hyperglycemia (0.2%); 22.4% presented two or more clinical-metabolic alterations and (9.6%) three or more. There were just statistically significant differences in the prevalence of excess weight, low HDL cholesterol and hypertriglyceridemia, which were higher in men, with a ratio of 1.6 (CI95% 1.1 - 2.2); 2.1 (CI95% 1.4 - 3.2) and 1.7 (CI95% 1.1 - 2.7), respectively. A high prevalence of clinical - metabolic alterations was found with increased risk of being overweight, low HDL - C and hypertriglyceridemia in men, which merits attention of health authorities in the region.

  4. Desempenho acadêmico e interpessoal em adolescentes portugueses / Interpersonal and academic achievement of portuguese adolescents / Desempeño interpersonal y éxito académico en adolescentes portugueses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabio Biasotto, Feitosa; Margarida Gaspar de, Matos; Zilda A. P., Del Prette; Almir, Del Prette.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Considerando as implicações de problemas de aprendizagem e de comportamento sobre no desenvolvimento saudável de adolescentes, o presente estudo teve como objetivos: (1) caracterizar o desempenho social de adolescentes com e sem problemas de aprendizagem; (2) comparar os adolescentes do sexo masculi [...] no com os do sexo feminino quanto ao desempenho social dentro de grupos com e sem problemas de aprendizagem. 848 adolescentes de diferentes escolas de Portugal responderam a um questionário sobre seu estilo de vida e dados sociodemográficos. Os resultados mostraram que: (a) adolescentes sem dificuldades de aprendizagem relataram maior aceitação pelos pares, apresentaram mais habilidades assertivas e menos problemas de comportamento; (b) não houve diferenças entre os sexos para habilidades assertivas e problemas de comportamento; (c) meninos relataram maior aceitação pelos pares e maior tendência a apresentar dificuldades de aprendizagem do que meninas. Discutem-se desafios para o cumprimento da função socializadora da escola e para políticas de saúde e bem-estar. Abstract in spanish Teniendo en cuenta las consecuencias de los problemas de conducta y de aprendizaje en el desarrollo saludable de los adolescentes, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivos: (1) caracterizar el desempeño social de los adolescentes con y sin problemas de aprendizaje, (2) comparar el desempeño social de [...] chicos y chicas, con y sin problemas de aprendizaje. 848 adolescentes de diferentes escuelas en Portugal completaron un cuestionario sobre sus estilos de vida y datos sociodemográficos. Los resultados mostraron: (a) los adolescentes sin dificultades de aprendizaje informaron mejor aceptación por sus pares, más asertividad y menos problemas de conducta, (b) no hubo diferencias entre chicos y chicas en habilidades asertivas y problemas de comportamiento, (c) los chicos informaron mayor aceptación por sus pares y más posibilidades de presentar dificultades de aprendizaje. Estos datos son un desafío para el cumplimiento de la función socializadora de las escuelas y para una política de salud/bienestar. Abstract in english Considering the implications of behaviour and learning problems on the adolescents' healthy development, the present study aimed to: (1) characterize the social performance of adolescents with and without learning problems; (2) compare the social performance of female and male adolescents, with and [...] without learning problems. 848 adolescents from different schools in Portugal completed a questionnaire concerning their life styles and socio-demographic data. The results showed that: (a) adolescents without learning difficulties reported more acceptance by their peers, more assertive skills and fewer behaviour problems; (b) there were no differences between males and females on assertive skills and behaviour problems; (c) male adolescents reported more acceptance by their peers and more possibilities to present learning difficulties. Challenges for the accomplishment of the socialization function of schools and for healthy and welfare politics are discussed

  5. Desempenho acadêmico e interpessoal em adolescentes portugueses Desempeño interpersonal y éxito académico en adolescentes portugueses Interpersonal and academic achievement of portuguese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Biasotto Feitosa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Considerando as implicações de problemas de aprendizagem e de comportamento sobre no desenvolvimento saudável de adolescentes, o presente estudo teve como objetivos: (1 caracterizar o desempenho social de adolescentes com e sem problemas de aprendizagem; (2 comparar os adolescentes do sexo masculino com os do sexo feminino quanto ao desempenho social dentro de grupos com e sem problemas de aprendizagem. 848 adolescentes de diferentes escolas de Portugal responderam a um questionário sobre seu estilo de vida e dados sociodemográficos. Os resultados mostraram que: (a adolescentes sem dificuldades de aprendizagem relataram maior aceitação pelos pares, apresentaram mais habilidades assertivas e menos problemas de comportamento; (b não houve diferenças entre os sexos para habilidades assertivas e problemas de comportamento; (c meninos relataram maior aceitação pelos pares e maior tendência a apresentar dificuldades de aprendizagem do que meninas. Discutem-se desafios para o cumprimento da função socializadora da escola e para políticas de saúde e bem-estar.Teniendo en cuenta las consecuencias de los problemas de conducta y de aprendizaje en el desarrollo saludable de los adolescentes, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivos: (1 caracterizar el desempeño social de los adolescentes con y sin problemas de aprendizaje, (2 comparar el desempeño social de chicos y chicas, con y sin problemas de aprendizaje. 848 adolescentes de diferentes escuelas en Portugal completaron un cuestionario sobre sus estilos de vida y datos sociodemográficos. Los resultados mostraron: (a los adolescentes sin dificultades de aprendizaje informaron mejor aceptación por sus pares, más asertividad y menos problemas de conducta, (b no hubo diferencias entre chicos y chicas en habilidades asertivas y problemas de comportamiento, (c los chicos informaron mayor aceptación por sus pares y más posibilidades de presentar dificultades de aprendizaje. Estos datos son un desafío para el cumplimiento de la función socializadora de las escuelas y para una política de salud/bienestar.Considering the implications of behaviour and learning problems on the adolescents' healthy development, the present study aimed to: (1 characterize the social performance of adolescents with and without learning problems; (2 compare the social performance of female and male adolescents, with and without learning problems. 848 adolescents from different schools in Portugal completed a questionnaire concerning their life styles and socio-demographic data. The results showed that: (a adolescents without learning difficulties reported more acceptance by their peers, more assertive skills and fewer behaviour problems; (b there were no differences between males and females on assertive skills and behaviour problems; (c male adolescents reported more acceptance by their peers and more possibilities to present learning difficulties. Challenges for the accomplishment of the socialization function of schools and for healthy and welfare politics are discussed

  6. Aversiones y preferencias alimentarias de los adolescentes de 14 a 18 años de edad, escolarizados en la ciudad de Santander / Nutritional aversions and preferences of 14-18 years old adolescents, schooled at the city of Santander

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P. de, Rufino-Rivas; C., Redondo Figuero; M.ª T., Viadero Ubierna; T., Amigo Lanza; D., González-Lamuño; M., García Fuentes.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir las aversiones y preferencias alimentarias de los adolescentes, de 14 a 18 años de edad, escolarizados en Santander y analizar los cambios ocurridos en las mismas en la última década. Sujetos: Se realizó un estudio transversal, analizando una muestra de 1.134: 549 varones (48,4%, [...] IC-95%: 45,5% a 51,3%) y 585 mujeres (51,6%, IC-95%: 48,7% a 54,5%), de edades comprendidas entre los 14 y los 18 años, escolarizados en siete centros de enseñanza secundaria de Santander, mediante un cuestionario. Resultados: Las verduras y hortalizas (54,7%) y las legumbres (18,7%) constituyen las principales aversiones alimentarias de los adolescentes. Por otro lado, los cereales (53,3%) y la carne (14,6%) son los grupos de alimentos preferidos. Las lentejas, la lechuga, la fresa, el agua y la pasta en general fueron los alimentos más valorados dentro de sus respectivos grupos de alimentos y bebidas. Conclusión: Las aversiones y preferencias alimentarias de los adolescentes santanderinos son, en líneas generales, bastante similares a las observadas en otros estudios, y no han sufrido cambios sustanciales a lo largo de la última década. Los datos obtenidos pueden ser útiles para observar las futuras tendencias sobre preferencias alimentarias, que conjuntamente con otros parámetros permitan caracterizar el comportamiento alimentario de nuestros adolescentes. Abstract in english Objective: To describe the nutritional aversions and preferences of 14-18 years old adolescents schooled at Santander and analyze the changes taking place within the last decade. Subjects: A cross-sectional study was carried out analyzing a sample of 1134 adolescents: 549 males (48.4%, 95% CI: 45.5% [...] -5.3%) and 585 females (5.6%, 95% CI: 48.7%-54.5%), ages comprised between 14 and 18 years, and schooled at centers of secondary educational level from Santander, by means of a questionnaire. Results: vegetables (54.7%) and legumes (18.7%) represent the main nutritional aversions of adolescents. On the other hand, grains (53.3%) and meats (14.6%) are the preferred foods. Lentils, lettuce, strawberry, water, and pasta generally were the best-valued foods within the groups of foods and drinks to which they belong. Conclusion: nutritional aversions and preferences of adolescents from Santander generally are very similar to those observed in other studies and we have not observed important changes within the last decade. The data obtained may be useful to observe future trends on nutritional preferences that, together with other parameters, may help characterized the nutritional behavior of our adolescents.

  7. Aversiones y preferencias alimentarias de los adolescentes de 14 a 18 años de edad, escolarizados en la ciudad de Santander Nutritional aversions and preferences of 14-18 years old adolescents, schooled at the city of Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. de Rufino-Rivas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir las aversiones y preferencias alimentarias de los adolescentes, de 14 a 18 años de edad, escolarizados en Santander y analizar los cambios ocurridos en las mismas en la última década. Sujetos: Se realizó un estudio transversal, analizando una muestra de 1.134: 549 varones (48,4%, IC-95%: 45,5% a 51,3% y 585 mujeres (51,6%, IC-95%: 48,7% a 54,5%, de edades comprendidas entre los 14 y los 18 años, escolarizados en siete centros de enseñanza secundaria de Santander, mediante un cuestionario. Resultados: Las verduras y hortalizas (54,7% y las legumbres (18,7% constituyen las principales aversiones alimentarias de los adolescentes. Por otro lado, los cereales (53,3% y la carne (14,6% son los grupos de alimentos preferidos. Las lentejas, la lechuga, la fresa, el agua y la pasta en general fueron los alimentos más valorados dentro de sus respectivos grupos de alimentos y bebidas. Conclusión: Las aversiones y preferencias alimentarias de los adolescentes santanderinos son, en líneas generales, bastante similares a las observadas en otros estudios, y no han sufrido cambios sustanciales a lo largo de la última década. Los datos obtenidos pueden ser útiles para observar las futuras tendencias sobre preferencias alimentarias, que conjuntamente con otros parámetros permitan caracterizar el comportamiento alimentario de nuestros adolescentes.Objective: To describe the nutritional aversions and preferences of 14-18 years old adolescents schooled at Santander and analyze the changes taking place within the last decade. Subjects: A cross-sectional study was carried out analyzing a sample of 1134 adolescents: 549 males (48.4%, 95% CI: 45.5%-5.3% and 585 females (5.6%, 95% CI: 48.7%-54.5%, ages comprised between 14 and 18 years, and schooled at centers of secondary educational level from Santander, by means of a questionnaire. Results: vegetables (54.7% and legumes (18.7% represent the main nutritional aversions of adolescents. On the other hand, grains (53.3% and meats (14.6% are the preferred foods. Lentils, lettuce, strawberry, water, and pasta generally were the best-valued foods within the groups of foods and drinks to which they belong. Conclusion: nutritional aversions and preferences of adolescents from Santander generally are very similar to those observed in other studies and we have not observed important changes within the last decade. The data obtained may be useful to observe future trends on nutritional preferences that, together with other parameters, may help characterized the nutritional behavior of our adolescents.

  8. Uso de tabaco por estudantes adolescentes portugueses e fatores associados Smoking and its associated factors in Portuguese adolescent students

    OpenAIRE

    Sílvia Fraga; Elisabete Ramos; Henrique Barros

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever o uso de tabaco e identificar os seus determinantes em estudantes adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, tendo sido avaliadas 1.052 meninas e 984 meninos de 13 anos de idade matriculados em escolas públicas e privadas da cidade do Porto, Portugal. A proporção individual de participação foi de 77,5%. O adolescente e o seu responsável preencheram um questionário sobre informações sociodemográficas e de comportamento em suas casas. Na escola, o adolescente comp...

  9. Health-related quality of life in portuguese children and adolescents / Qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde de crianças e adolescentes portugueses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Margarida Gaspar de, Matos; Tania, Gaspar; Celeste, Simões.

    Full Text Available O KIDSCREEN é um instrumento europeu transcultural e padronizado que avalia dez dimensões da qualidade de vida de crianças, adolescentes e seus pais. Este instrumento é usado para validar evidências a fim de apoiar inferências gerais sobre medidas de qualidade de vida obtidas pela versão portuguesa [...] do KIDSCREEN-10 para crianças e adolescentes, no contexto de uma pesquisa de investigação feita em Portugal. O presente estudo centra-se apenas na versão KIDSCREEN para adolescentes e crianças. Uma amostra de 8.072 crianças e adolescentes portugueses frequentando a 5ª série (19,3%), 6ª série (19,2%), 7ª série (20,3%), 8ª série (21,6%) e 10ª série (19,7%) em escolas do país foram intrevistadas, com uma idade média de 13,2; DP 2,06, distribuídos aleatoriamente em relação ao sexo. A versão portuguesa do instrumento KIDSCREEN-10 mostrou uma boa consistência interna de 0,78. Os índices de ajuste escolhidos indicam bom ajuste aos dados. Especificamente na solução final o RMSEA foi inferior a 0,03, o limite superior do intervalo de confiança de 90% foi inferior a 0,05 e CFI foi superior a 0,95. Resultados indicaram que a estrutura atual do item 10 é invariável entre grupos de idade, nacionalidade e nível socio-econômico. O questionário KIDSCREEN-10 é um instrumento confiável para estimar a percepção da qualidade de vida em crianças e adolescentes. Orientações psicométricas são apresentadas para a população portuguesa entre 10 e 16 anos de idade. Abstract in english The KIDSCREEN is a European cross-cultural and standardized instrument that assesses ten quality of life dimensions in children, adolescents and their parents. This instrument is used to validate evidences to support general inferences on quality-of-life measures obtained by the Portuguese version o [...] f KIDSCREEN10 for children and adolescents, in the context of a survey research carried on in Portugal. The present study focuses only on the KIDSCREEN children and adolescents' versions. A sample of 8072 Portuguese children and adolescents attending the 5th grade (19.3%), 6th grade (19.2%), 7th grade (20.3%), 8th (21.6%) and 10th grade (19.7%) in Portuguese schools were inquired, with a mean age of 13.2; SD 2.06, randomly distributed regarding gender. The Portuguese version of KIDSCREEN-10 instrument showed a good Internal Consistency of .78. Chosen fit indexes indicate good fit to the data. Specifically in the final solution the RMSEA was lower than .03 and the upper limit of 90% confidence interval was lower than .05, and CFI was higher than .95. Results indicated that the current 10-item structure is invariant across age groups, nationality and socio-economic level. The KIDSCREEN-10 questionnaire is a reliable instrument to estimate the perception of quality of life in children and adolescents. Psychometric guidelines are presented for the Portuguese population aged 10 to 16 years old.

  10. Síntomas de ansiedad y depresión en adolescentes escolarizados de 10 a 17 años en Chía, Colombia / Symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescents between 10 to 17 year-old attending schools in Chía, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fanny del Carmen, Ospina-Ospina; María F., Hinestrosa-Upegui; María C., Paredes; Yahira, Guzmán; Carlos, Granados.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Estimar la prevalencia de síntomas ansiosos y depresivos en adolescentes escolarizados entre los 10-17 años, de la comunidad de Chía Cundinamarca, utilizando las escalas CDI y SCARED, durante los años 2008 a 2010. Metodología Estudio de corte transversal, realizado en 538 estudiantes. Se id [...] entificaron las variables socio demográficas: edad, sexo, seguridad social y centro educativo de procedencia (público, privado, oficial o urbano). Se aplicaron las escalas CDI y SCARED. Resultados Se detectaron síntomas ansiosos o depresivos en el 40,5 % de la población estudiada (538); de los cuales el 28,3 % presentó síntomas sugestivos de ansiedad exclusivamente, con síntomas depresivos exclusivamente en 3,3 % y síntomas tanto de ansiedad, como de depresión en 8,9 %. Los síntomas ansiosos fueron más frecuentes en las mujeres y los síntomas depresivos y mixtos se presentaron con más frecuencia en hombres. Se encontró mayor prevalencia de síntomas depresivos 6,9 % en hombres vs 5,4 % en mujeres, dato que no fue estadísticamente significativo. Conclusión Los síntomas ansiosos y depresivos son frecuentes en adolescentes, se hace indispensable sospecharlos y diagnosticarlos tempranamente, con el fin de poder brindar una atención oportuna. Se deben implementar estrategias que permitan detectar factores protectores y de riesgo para evitar que se desarrollen trastornos mayores, diseñando programas de educación encaminados hacia una buena salud mental de niños y adolescente. Abstract in english Objective This study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety amongst 10 to 17 year-old adolescents still attending school using the CDI and SCARED questionnaires for early screening in Chía, a town near Bogota, from 2008 to 2010. Method This was a cross-sectional [...] study of prevalence. Results 37 % of the 538 adolescents interviewed had anxiety symptoms, 12.3 % had depression symptoms and 9% presented anxiety and depression symptoms, males having greater prevalence for depression symptoms (6.9 % cf 5.4 % for females) but lacking statistical significance. There was a greater tendency for anxiety symptoms to be found in adolescents attending public schools. Concerning co morbidity, more anxiety symptoms were found in adolescents having depression symptoms. Conclusions It was concluded that anxiety and depression symptoms are real at this age, this being reason enough why it is necessary to suspect and detect them on time so that adolescents can receive suitable attention. Protective factors must be strengthened for this to happen and there must be real awareness by everybody to create educational and health programmes directed towards ensuring good mental health.

  11. Síntomas de ansiedad y depresión en adolescentes escolarizados de 10 a 17 años en Chía, Colombia Symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescents between 10 to 17 year-old attending schools in Chía, Colombia

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    Fanny del Carmen Ospina-Ospina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Estimar la prevalencia de síntomas ansiosos y depresivos en adolescentes escolarizados entre los 10-17 años, de la comunidad de Chía Cundinamarca, utilizando las escalas CDI y SCARED, durante los años 2008 a 2010. Metodología Estudio de corte transversal, realizado en 538 estudiantes. Se identificaron las variables socio demográficas: edad, sexo, seguridad social y centro educativo de procedencia (público, privado, oficial o urbano. Se aplicaron las escalas CDI y SCARED. Resultados Se detectaron síntomas ansiosos o depresivos en el 40,5 % de la población estudiada (538; de los cuales el 28,3 % presentó síntomas sugestivos de ansiedad exclusivamente, con síntomas depresivos exclusivamente en 3,3 % y síntomas tanto de ansiedad, como de depresión en 8,9 %. Los síntomas ansiosos fueron más frecuentes en las mujeres y los síntomas depresivos y mixtos se presentaron con más frecuencia en hombres. Se encontró mayor prevalencia de síntomas depresivos 6,9 % en hombres vs 5,4 % en mujeres, dato que no fue estadísticamente significativo. Conclusión Los síntomas ansiosos y depresivos son frecuentes en adolescentes, se hace indispensable sospecharlos y diagnosticarlos tempranamente, con el fin de poder brindar una atención oportuna. Se deben implementar estrategias que permitan detectar factores protectores y de riesgo para evitar que se desarrollen trastornos mayores, diseñando programas de educación encaminados hacia una buena salud mental de niños y adolescente.Objective This study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety amongst 10 to 17 year-old adolescents still attending school using the CDI and SCARED questionnaires for early screening in Chía, a town near Bogota, from 2008 to 2010. Method This was a cross-sectional study of prevalence. Results 37 % of the 538 adolescents interviewed had anxiety symptoms, 12.3 % had depression symptoms and 9% presented anxiety and depression symptoms, males having greater prevalence for depression symptoms (6.9 % cf 5.4 % for females but lacking statistical significance. There was a greater tendency for anxiety symptoms to be found in adolescents attending public schools. Concerning co morbidity, more anxiety symptoms were found in adolescents having depression symptoms. Conclusions It was concluded that anxiety and depression symptoms are real at this age, this being reason enough why it is necessary to suspect and detect them on time so that adolescents can receive suitable attention. Protective factors must be strengthened for this to happen and there must be real awareness by everybody to create educational and health programmes directed towards ensuring good mental health.

  12. Conocimientos, actitudes y habilidades de los adolescentes escolarizados del sector público de Barranquilla (Colombia) relacionados con su sexualidad / Knowledge attitudes and skills in adolescents from the public sector of Barranquilla (Colombia) related to their sexuality

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo, Barceló Martinez; Edgar, Navarro Lechuga.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de los adolescentes escolarizados del sector público de Barranquilla (Colombia) relacionados con su sexualidad. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal, en una muestra probabilística de tamaño mínimo de 2460 adolescentes de [...] edades entre 10 a 19 años, de ambos sexos, de los grados 6 a 11 (bachillerato). Los datos fueron recolectados mediante la técnica de encuesta utilizando un formulario autodiligenciado. Resultados: el 58 % de los encuestados eran mujeres; y cabe destacar que un 1% refirió que tenía algún tipo de relación estable. Entre los principales resultados están: padres como modelo para seguir; poco modelaje de profesores; inicio temprano de relaciones sexuales en ambos sexos (en mujeres 14,76 años [±1.6] y en hombres 13,79 años [±2,12]); expectativas poco claras de relaciones sexuales futuras (21 % planea tener >2 parejas sexuales no al mismo tiempo y 8,6 % al mismo tiempo); segmentos de adolescentes que tienen relaciones sexuales en grupo (12.7 % de hombres vs. 4% de mujeres [p0,05]) y mecanismos de transmisión, pero poca aplicación del condón y otras medidas de prevención e identificación de falencias en la educación sexual de los adolescentes. Conclusiones: Existe un déficit grande en el proceso de educación, que se refleja en los resultados, lo que implica hacer ajustes en los programas de promoción de la salud sexual y reproductiva ofrecidos por el ente territorial a través de sus secretarías de Salud y Educación de Barranquilla. De igual manera, se detectan inconsistencias entre el grado de conocimiento con las actitudes y prácticas de los adolescentes, lo cual incide negativamente en el desarrollo de su sexualidad. Abstract in english Objective: To determine knowledge, attitudes and practices of adolescents, from public schools in Barranquilla, related to their sexuality. Materials and methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in a random sample of 2.460 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years, of both sexes, in grades 6 to 11 (high [...] school). Data were collected using a self-report survey. Results: 58% of the participants were women, and 1% of the sample reported having a stable romantic relationship. The main results are: Parents as a role models, lack of role models in teachers, early onset of sexual intercourse in both sexes (14,76 years [±1.6] in women, and 13,79 years [±2,12] in men); unclear expectations of future sex partners (21% plan to have 2 or more sexual partners not at the same time, and 8,6% at the same time), segments of teenagers having group sex (12.7% of men vs. 4% of women [p0,05]) and its transmission mechanisms, but limited use of condoms and other family planning methods, and identification of weaknesses in sexual education of adolescents. Conclusions: There is an apparent failure in the education processes of adolescents, reflected in the results of the study. This failure implies to make adjustments in the current Sexual Health Promotion Programs offered by Health and Education authorities of Barranquilla. The present study detects some inconsistencies in the knowledge, atitudes and practices of adolescents from Barranquilla that impact upon their sexuality development in a negative way.

  13. Propriedades psicométricas do questionário de stress face à diabetes em adolescentes portugueses / Psychometric properties of the stress questionnaire on diabetes in portuguese adolescents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. Paulo, Almeida; M. Graça, Pereira.

    Full Text Available O Stresse face à diabetes desempenha um papel determinante na adesão ao tratamento, no controlo metabólico e na qualidade de vida do adolescente. O presente trabalho teve como objectivo a adaptação do Questionário de Stresse face à diabetes (QSD-R) numa amostra de 256 adolescentes com Diabetes tipo [...] 1. Os resultados apontam para a existência de qualidades psicométricas que permitem a sua utilização com adolescentes diabéticos. O questionário apresenta uma consistência interna semelhante à versão original (a = 0,93), sendo composto por 40 itens organizados em seis componentes: Queixas somáticas (a =0,81), Stresse social e escolar (a = 0,82), Ansiedade/depressão (a= 0,77), Stresse face à hipoglicemia (a = 79), Relação médico-doente (a = 0,75), Regime terapêutico (a = 0,72). A versão portuguesa do QSD-R eliminou as duas escalas referentes á relação conjugal e stresse no trabalho e foram inseridos itens referentes ao stresse em contexto escolar. A validade externa permite constatar que o QSD-R apresenta uma correlação com a adesão ao tratamento (r= 0,17; p= 0,03) e com a qualidade de vida (r= 0,55; p=0,0001). Não se verificam diferenças entre adolescentes de ambos os sexos nem variação no nível do stresse ao longo da idade. Abstract in english Stress towards diabetes and its treatment is determinant in treatment adherence, metabolic control and quality of life in adolescents. This study aimed to validate the Questionnaire of Stress on Diabetes- Revised (QSD-R), in a sample of 256 adolescents with type 1 diabetes. The results showed psycho [...] metric qualities that allow the use of QSD-R with Portuguese adolescents with diabetes. The questionnaire reveals an internal consistency similar to the original version (alpha of .93), consisting of 40 items organized into six components: Somatic complaints (alpha of .81), Stress and in school and social activities (alpha of .82), Anxiety / Depression (alpha of .77), Stress in the face of hypoglycemia (alpha of .79), Doctor-patient relationship (alpha of .75), Treatment regimen (alpha of .72). In the Portuguese version of the QSD-R, the marital relationship and the work stress scales were eliminated and items related to stress in school activities were added. The external validity revealed QSD-R to be correlated with treatment adherence (r = .17, p = .03) and quality of life (r = .55, p = .0001). No differences between teenagers of both sexes were found as well as variation in stress levels, according to age.

  14. Hábitos de alimentación, actividad física, tabaquismo y consumo de alcohol en adolescentes escolarizados de la provincia y el conurbano bonaerenses / Eating habits, physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption in adolescents attending school in the province of Buenos Aires

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrés H., Mulassi; Claudio, Hadid; Raúl A., Borracci; María C., Labruna; Aníbal E., Picarel; Analía N., Robilotte; Marcela, Redruello; Osvaldo, Masoli.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar los hábitos de alimentación, actividad física y consumo de tabaco y alcohol en adolescentes escolarizados de la provincia y el conurbano bonaerenses, para obtener información sobre factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Material y métodos. Estudio observacional transversal en adolescen [...] tes de 11-16 años de 12 escuelas urbanas y rurales, públicas y privadas de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Se realizaron encuestas anónimas que incluyeron datos demográficos, de alimentación, actividad física, tabaquismo y consumo de alcohol. Resultados. Se encuestaron 1230 adolescentes, 46% de zonas rurales. El 42,5% se alimentaba prudentemente para controlar el peso. El 92% realizaba actividad física al menos 1 h por semana. Fumaba el 29,3% y el 38,4% consumía alcohol. Las mujeres se cuidaban más en la alimentación (46,3% contra 37,7%; p= 0,003) y fueron más fumadoras (32,6% contra 25,2%; p= 0,005). El consumo de alcohol y tabaco estuvieron asociados (OR: 8,27; p Abstract in english Introduction. Knowledge on dietary habits, tobacco and alcohol consumption in adolescents is crucial to plan early preventive programs. The objective was to assess the eating habits, physical activity and tobacco and alcohol consumption in adolescents of Buenos Aires, in order to get information on [...] cardiovascular risk factors. Material and methods. Cross-sectional observational study in adolescents aged 11-16 years of 12 urban and rural, public and private schools of the province of Buenos Aires. An anonymous survey was carried out including demographical data, eating habits, physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption. Results. 1230 adolescents were surveyed, 46% of rural zones. Of them, 42.5% restrained food intake to control weight; 92% performed physical activity at least 1 h a week; 29.3% were smokers and 38.4% drank alcoholic beverages. Females restrained more food intake (46.3% vs. 37.7%; p=0.003) and were heavier smokers (32.6% vs. 25.2%; p=0.005). Alcohol consumption and smoking were associated (OR 8.27; p

  15. Factores de riesgo para adquirir VIH/SIDA en adolescentes escolarizados de Barranquilla, 2003 / Risk factors to acquire HIV/AIDS in scholar teenagers from Barranquilla, 2003

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    Edgar, Navarro Lechuga; Rusvelt, Vargas Morath.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos Se determinaron factores de riesgo, conocimientos, actitudes, y prácticas para contraer VIH/SIDA, en adolescentes de bachillerato de Barranquilla, durante julio - noviembre de 2003. Metodología Estudio descriptivo transversal. Mediante un muestreo bietápico, a través de un cuestionario tip [...] o CAP, se encuestaron 751 adolescentes entre 14 y 19 años, de los grados noveno, décimo y undécimo, de colegios pertenecientes a los núcleos educativos 2 y 4 de la ciudad. Resultados 42.8% del total de adolescentes no tienen conocimientoadecuado del tema, 1.2% de los hombres y 0.6% de las mujeres asumen actitudes de rechazo, 34.8% ya han tenido sexo, existe asociación entre género y haber tenido más de un compañero(a) sexual y tener relaciones con desconocidos (p Abstract in english Objectives There were determined: risk factors, knowledges, attitudes and practices in the teenagers of high school from the 2 and 4 nuclei between July and November of 2003, were determined. Methods Descriptive transversal study. Through a bietapic method, with a CAP formulary there were inquired 7 [...] 51 teenagers between 14 and 19 years in 9º, 10º and 11º grade from schools that belong to the 2 and 4 educational nuclei in Barranquilla. Results A 42.8% dont know exactly the related with HIV/AIDS, 1.2% males and 0.6% females have a refuse attitude for the condition. 34.8% said that they are not virgin, and there were found association between genre and to have had more than one sexual partner ant to have had relations with stranges (p

  16. Factores de riesgo para adquirir VIH/SIDA en adolescentes escolarizados de Barranquilla, 2003 Risk factors to acquire HIV/AIDS in scholar teenagers from Barranquilla, 2003

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    Edgar Navarro Lechuga

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos Se determinaron factores de riesgo, conocimientos, actitudes, y prácticas para contraer VIH/SIDA, en adolescentes de bachillerato de Barranquilla, durante julio - noviembre de 2003. Metodología Estudio descriptivo transversal. Mediante un muestreo bietápico, a través de un cuestionario tipo CAP, se encuestaron 751 adolescentes entre 14 y 19 años, de los grados noveno, décimo y undécimo, de colegios pertenecientes a los núcleos educativos 2 y 4 de la ciudad. Resultados 42.8% del total de adolescentes no tienen conocimientoadecuado del tema, 1.2% de los hombres y 0.6% de las mujeres asumen actitudes de rechazo, 34.8% ya han tenido sexo, existe asociación entre género y haber tenido más de un compañero(a sexual y tener relaciones con desconocidos (pObjectives There were determined: risk factors, knowledges, attitudes and practices in the teenagers of high school from the 2 and 4 nuclei between July and November of 2003, were determined. Methods Descriptive transversal study. Through a bietapic method, with a CAP formulary there were inquired 751 teenagers between 14 and 19 years in 9º, 10º and 11º grade from schools that belong to the 2 and 4 educational nuclei in Barranquilla. Results A 42.8% dont know exactly the related with HIV/AIDS, 1.2% males and 0.6% females have a refuse attitude for the condition. 34.8% said that they are not virgin, and there were found association between genre and to have had more than one sexual partner ant to have had relations with stranges (p<0.05 (22%. Majority of male (73.9% and female (67.1% don’t use preservative everytime, 37.3% thinks that their risk of infection is nule and 34.6% don’t know it, but many of them have risk factors. Conclussions Many teenagers don’t have enough knowledge about AIDS-HIV, they have a good attitude in the managing of the theme, but they have risk factors to be infected unknowing their real risk. Is necessary to teach trough to modify risk practices in this population. Key words: Risk factors, knowledge attitudes and health practices, teenager‘s behavior, HIV-AIDS, HIV infection.

  17. PRÁCTICAS EDUCATIVAS FAMILIARES Y DESEMPEÑO ACADÉMICO EN ADOLESCENTES ESCOLARIZADOS EN EL GRADO NOVENO DE INSTTUCIONES EDUCATIVAS OFICIALES DEL MUNICIPIO DE ENVIGADO

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    Gloria Cecilia Henao

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo, se plantea la relación entre las prácticas educativas familiares y el desempeño académico de 451 adolescentes ( hombres y mujeres de noveno grado de Instituciones oficiales del Municipio de Envigado/Antioquia. Con una selección aleatoria simple y la aplicación de las escalas de afecto (EA-P y de normas y exigencias (ENE-P de Bersabé, Fuentes y Montrico (2001 con hijos y padres, se obtiene que los estilos de autoridad inductivos favorecen el desempeño académico, mientras que los rígidos propician un desempeño académico deficitario, siendo mas bajo en los permisivos. Además, los padres son percibidos más permisivos y rígidos que las madres, finalmente se observan divergencias entre las percepciones de los hijos y los padres, quienes tienden a evaluarse de manera positiva.

  18. Validação da Escala de Auto-estima de Rosenberg com adolescentes Portugueses em contexto forense e escolar / Validation of the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale with Portuguese adolescents in forensic and school contexts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro, Pechorro; João, Marôco; Carlos, Poiares; Rui Xavier, Vieira.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente investigação teve como objectivo proceder à validação da versão portuguesa da Escala de Auto-Estima de Rosenberg (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale -RSES) com adolescentes portugueses em contexto forense e escolar. Recorrendo a 760 adolescentes de ambos os sexos divididos em amostra forense (n [...] = 250) e amostra escolar (n = 510) foram demonstradas propriedades psicométricas que na generalidade justificam a sua utilização na população portuguesa adolescente geral e forense, nomeadamente a nível de validade de constructo, consistência interna, estabilidade temporal, validade discriminante e validade divergente. Foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas quanto à pontuação na RSES entre as amostras escolares masculina e feminina, mas o mesmo não aconteceu relativamente às amostras forenses masculina e feminina. Abstract in english The purpose of the present study was to validate a Portuguese version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) with Portuguese adolescents. With a total of 760 youths of both genders divided in a forensic sample (n = 250) and a community sample (n = 510) we were able to demonstrate psychometric pro [...] perties that justify its use with the Portuguese adolescent general and forensic populations, namely in terms of factorial validity, internal consistency, temporal stability, discriminant validity and divergent validity. Statistical significant differences regarding RSES scores were found between the male and female school samples, but not between the male and female forensic samples.

  19. El Consumo de Alcohol en Adolescentes Escolarizados: Propuesta de un Modelo Sociocomunitario / Alcohol Consumption Among Scholarized Adolescents: A Socio-Communitarian Model

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    María Elena, Villarreal-González; Juan Carlos, Sánchez-Sosa; Gonzalo, Musitu; Rosa, Varela.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar las relaciones existentes entre variables individuales, familiares, escolares y sociales con el consumo de alcohol en adolescentes. El tipo de estudio realizado es explicativo causal. La muestra estuvo conformada por 1,245 adolescentes de ambos sexos proc [...] edentes de dos centros educativos de secundaria y dos de preuniversitario, con edades comprendidas entre los 12 y los 17 años de edad. Se utilizó un muestreo probabilístico estratificado, considerando la proporción de alumnos por grado escolar, grupos y turno. Para el análisis de los datos se calculó un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales que explicó el 66% de la varianza. Los resultados mostraron que el apoyo social comunitario y el funcionamiento familiar se relacionaban con el consumo de alcohol de forma indirecta. El primero lo hacía de forma positiva y significativa a través del apoyo de amigos y el consumo de alcohol de familiares y amigos; y el segundo, lo hacía a través de dos paths: uno, de forma positiva y significativa, con el apoyo familiar y el consumo de alcohol de familiares y amigos y, dos, de forma positiva a través del ajuste escolar y la autoestima escolar y ésta, de forma negativa, con el consumo de alcohol. También se observó una relación positiva y significativa entre funcionamiento familiar y el apoyo social comunitario. Los resultados obtenidos se discuten en función de los estudios más relevantes en la temática de esta investigación y se hace referencia a las limitaciones metodológicas de este estudio. Abstract in english The aim of this study is to analyze the relationships that the individual, family, social and school variables have with the risk of alcohol consumption among adolescents. This is an explanatory causal study. The sample consisted of 1,245 adolescents of both sexes drawn from two secondary level and [...] two pre-university level educational institutions, and were all aged between 12 and 17 years old. Stratified probability sampling was used, taking into account the proportion of students in each grade, level, group and timetable. To analyze the data, a structural equation model was calculated that explained 66% of the variance. The results showed that community social support and family functioning were indirectly related to alcohol consumption. The former was positively and significantly related, through friends' support and also alcohol use by family and friends, while the latter was related through two paths: firstly, a positive and significant relationship, with family support and alcohol use by family and friends and, secondly, positively through school adjustment and school self-esteem which was negatively related with alcohol consumption. A significant and positive relationship was also observed between family functioning and social support. The results are discussed in terms of the most relevant studies on the subject of this research and the methodological limitations of this study are also considered.

  20. Illegal psychoactive substance consumption amongst older schoolchildren in the city of Tunja, Colombia / Consumo de sustancias psicoactivas ilegales en adolescentes escolarizados de Tunja, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan M., Ospina-Díaz; Giomar M., Herrera-Amaya; Fred G., Manrique-Abril.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Evaluar la prevalencia de vida del consumo de sustancias ilegales y la accesibilidad a sustancias ilegales. Determinar factores de riesgo y factores protectores relacionados con el consumo. Métodos Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal mediante el análisis descriptivo y bivariado. Se a [...] plicó una encuesta a 1 515 estudiantes de los grados 8 al 11 en las escuelas de la ciudad, entre las edades de 12 a 18. Resultados Se encontró un aumento de la prevalencia de vida y una disminución en la edad de inicio al consumo. Los principales factores de riesgo encontrados fueron: ambiente académico y las actitudes hacia las autoridades escolares, la vinculación a los grupos de deportes recreativos, no respeto a los mayores, pertenecer a pandillas y participar en actividades riesgosas y peligrosas. Conclusiones Los resultados mostraron la necesidad de una revisión crítica de la promoción actual y las estrategias de prevención destinadas a controlar el uso de sustancias psicoactivas entre los niños y adolescentes, de acuerdo a la nueva realidad de la tráfico y consumo interno en Colombia. Abstract in english Objectives Assessing lifetime prevalence of illegal substance use and accessibility to such substances. Determining risk factors and the protective factors linked to them. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using descriptive and bivariate analysis. A survey was applied to 1,515 students from 8 [...] th to 11th grades in the city's schools, ages ranging from 12 to 18. Results An increase in lifetime prevalence and lower age for consumption onset were found. The main risk factors were determined to be academic environment and attitudes towards school authorities, linked to recreational and sports groups without control by elders, gang membership and engaging in risky and dangerous activities. Conclusions The results showed the need for a critical review of current promotion and prevention strategies aimed at controlling the use of psychoactive substances amongst children and adolescents, according to the current reality of trafficking and domestic consumption in Colombia.

  1. Illegal psychoactive substance consumption amongst older schoolchildren in the city of Tunja, Colombia Consumo de sustancias psicoactivas ilegales en adolescentes escolarizados de Tunja, Colombia

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    Juan M. Ospina-Díaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Assessing lifetime prevalence of illegal substance use and accessibility to such substances. Determining risk factors and the protective factors linked to them. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using descriptive and bivariate analysis. A survey was applied to 1,515 students from 8th to 11th grades in the city's schools, ages ranging from 12 to 18. Results An increase in lifetime prevalence and lower age for consumption onset were found. The main risk factors were determined to be academic environment and attitudes towards school authorities, linked to recreational and sports groups without control by elders, gang membership and engaging in risky and dangerous activities. Conclusions The results showed the need for a critical review of current promotion and prevention strategies aimed at controlling the use of psychoactive substances amongst children and adolescents, according to the current reality of trafficking and domestic consumption in Colombia.Objetivo Evaluar la prevalencia de vida del consumo de sustancias ilegales y la accesibilidad a sustancias ilegales. Determinar factores de riesgo y factores protectores relacionados con el consumo. Métodos Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal mediante el análisis descriptivo y bivariado. Se aplicó una encuesta a 1 515 estudiantes de los grados 8 al 11 en las escuelas de la ciudad, entre las edades de 12 a 18. Resultados Se encontró un aumento de la prevalencia de vida y una disminución en la edad de inicio al consumo. Los principales factores de riesgo encontrados fueron: ambiente académico y las actitudes hacia las autoridades escolares, la vinculación a los grupos de deportes recreativos, no respeto a los mayores, pertenecer a pandillas y participar en actividades riesgosas y peligrosas. Conclusiones Los resultados mostraron la necesidad de una revisión crítica de la promoción actual y las estrategias de prevención destinadas a controlar el uso de sustancias psicoactivas entre los niños y adolescentes, de acuerdo a la nueva realidad de la tráfico y consumo interno en Colombia.

  2. Uso de tabaco por estudantes adolescentes portugueses e fatores associados Smoking and its associated factors in Portuguese adolescent students

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    Sílvia Fraga

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o uso de tabaco e identificar os seus determinantes em estudantes adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, tendo sido avaliadas 1.052 meninas e 984 meninos de 13 anos de idade matriculados em escolas públicas e privadas da cidade do Porto, Portugal. A proporção individual de participação foi de 77,5%. O adolescente e o seu responsável preencheram um questionário sobre informações sociodemográficas e de comportamento em suas casas. Na escola, o adolescente completou outro questionário, com informações sobre o tabagismo. As variáveis contínuas foram comparadas pelo teste Kruskal-Wallis e as proporções pelo teste de qui-quadrado. As estimativas de risco e respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% foram calculados por regressão logística não condicional. RESULTADOS: Dos adolescentes avaliados, 19,9% (22,4% das meninas e 17,1% dos meninos experimentaram fumar mas não eram fumantes; 1,8% (2,0% das meninas e 1,5% dos meninos fumavam ocasionalmente e 1,3% (2,0% das meninas e 0,4% dos meninos fumavam pelo menos um cigarro por dia. A razão mais referida como a mais importante para experimentar fumar foi a curiosidade (46,3% das meninas e 45,6% dos meninos. Após ajuste para os hábitos tabágicos dos progenitores, dos irmãos e dos amigos, a associação mais forte foi com o tabagismo dos amigos, nas meninas (OR=4,03; IC 95%: 2,69-6,04 e nos meninos (OR=5,39; IC 95%: 3,34-8,70. CONCLUSÕES: Uma elevada proporção tinha experimentado fumar e ter amigos fumantes foi o mais forte determinante para experimentar fumar.OBJECTIVE: To describe smoking habits and to identify their determinants in adolescent students. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out on smoking habits comprising 1,052 girls and 984 boys aged 13 years attending public and private schools in the city of Porto, Portugal. The proportion of participation was 77.5%. Information on sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics was obtained from a questionnaire filled out at home by participants and their parents. At school, another self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information about tobacco use. Several independent samples were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test and proportions were compared by Chi-square test. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 19.9% (22.4% of girls and 17.1% of boys students only had ever experimented smoking but were not smokers; 1.8% (2.0% of girls and 1.5% of boys were occasional smokers and 1.3% (2.0% of girls and 0.4% of boys smoked at least one cigarette/day. Curiosity was the main reason given by adolescents to experiment smoking (48.4% of girls and 45.6% of boys. After adjustment to parental, siblings' and friends' smoking habits, the stronger association was with the smoking habits of their friends for both girls (OR=4.03; 95% CI: 2.69-6.04 and boys (OR=5.39; 95% CI: 3.34-8.70. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of students had ever experimented smoking. Smoking habits among peers proved to be the strongest determinant of smoking during adolescence.

  3. Relaciones sexuales en adolescentes escolarizados de Santa Marta, Colombia: una encuesta transversal / Sexual intercourse among adolescent students of Santa Marta, Colombia: a cross-sectional survey

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guillermo Augusto, Ceballos; Adalberto, Campo-Arias.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: La prevalencia de relaciones sexuales (RS) en adolescentes varía de un país a otro e, incluso, dentro del mismo país, de una región a otra. No se conoce esta información en una muestra representativa de estudiantes de Santa Marta, Colombia. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia y los fac [...] tores relacionados con RS en estudiantes de bachillerato, colegios públicos y privados, urbanos y rurales. Método: Una muestra probabilística por conglomerados de estudiantes diligenció en forma anónima una encuesta. Mediante regresión logística se controlaron factores de confusión para haber tenido relaciones sexuales alguna vez en la vida. Resultados: Un total de 3,575 estudiantes de todos los grados y estratos respondió la encuesta. La edad promedio fue 13.6 (DE=1.9), la escolaridad promedio fue 8.2 años (DE=1.6), 57% mujeres. Un grupo de 804 estudiantes (22.5%) manifestó haber tenido RS. Haber tenido RS se asoció con ser varón (OR=8.5), consumo de alcohol (OR=4.3), consumo de marihuana (OR=4.2), consumo de cigarrillo (OR=2.8), mayor edad (OR=1.7), colegio privado (OR=1.3) y mayor escolaridad (OR=1.2). Conclusiones: Una cuarta parte de los estudiantes informa haber tenido RS. Se encontró relación estadísticamente significativa con el consumo de alcohol, marihuana y cigarrillos. Abstract in english Background: Among teenagers, the prevalence of sexual intercourse (SI) varies from one country to another, and inside the same country, it varies from region to region. Information regarding SI in teenagers is unknown for a representative portion of students in Santa Marta, Colombia Objective: To de [...] terminate the prevalence and factors associated with SI in middle-and high-school students from public and private schools from urban and rural zones. Method: A statistical sample provided by an anonymous survey done to a group of students. Logistic regression was used to control confounders associated with the fact of the student having had SI in his/her lifetime. Results: A total of 3,575 students, all grades and socioeconomic status, answered the survey. The mean age was 13.6 (SD=1.9), mean scholarship was 8.2 years (SD=1.6), and 57% were girls. A group of 804 (22.5%) students accepted having had SI. The having had SI was associated with being a boy (OR=8.5), alcohol drinking (OR=4.3), cannabis use (OR=4.2), cigarette smoking (OR=2.8), being older (OR=1.7), attending to private school (OR=1.3), and higher scholarship (OR=1.2). Conclusions: Twenty-five percent of the students reported having had SI. This is associated with unhealthy habits such as alcohol, cannabis and cigarettes consumption.

  4. Validação da versão reduzida da escala de comportamento interpessoal para adolescentes Portugueses / Validation of the short version of the scale for interpersonal behavior for Portuguese adolescents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paula, Vagos; Anabela, Pereira; Willem, Arrindell.

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta a adaptação linguística para português da Escala de Comportamento Interpessoal - versão reduzida, e a avaliação das suas características psicométricas, em uma amostra de adolescentes tardios (dos 16 aos 21 anos; N = 872). Foi encontrada uma organização interna em quatro dimen [...] sões e uma medida geral para os dois componentes avaliados: desconforto ao ser assertivo e frequência de prática de comportamento assertivo. Todas as medidas obtiveram valores aceitáveis de consistência interna e níveis moderados de validade por relação com outras variáveis, face à versão reduzida da Escala de Assertividade de Rathus. Algumas diferenças por sexo foram observadas. Este instrumento mostrou-se útil para ser empregado na avaliação e investigação em psicologia. Abstract in english This work presents the Portuguese linguistic adaptation of the short version of the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior and the evaluation of its psychometric characteristics using a sample of late adolescents (aged 16 to 21 years; N = 872). An internal organization of four dimensions was found along w [...] ith a general measure for the two components under evaluation: discomfort while being assertive and frequency of practicing assertive behavior. All measures obtained acceptable internal consistency values and moderate levels of validity based on the relation to other variables, namely the short version of Rathus Assertiveness Scale. Some sex differences were observed. The instrument showed to be useful to be employed for evaluation and research in psychology.

  5. Satisfação escolar e bem-estar psicológico em adolescentes portugueses / School satisfaction and psychological well-being in Portuguese adolescents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Helder Miguel, Fernandes; José, Vasconcelos-Raposo; Rosângela, Bertelli; Leandro, Almeida.

    Full Text Available Estudos anteriores têm demonstrado a importância da satisfação com o contexto escolar nos níveis de saúde e bem-estar subjectivo dos adolescentes. Como tal, o presente estudo pretende ampliar esta evidência empírica através da análise do efeito de variáveis sociodemográficas (género, idade, local de [...] residência, estatuto socioeconómico e relação com os pais) nos níveis de satisfação escolar e o contributo desta dimensão para a explicação do bemestar psicológico dos alunos, de acordo com o modelo de Ryff (1989a, 1989b). A amostra foi constituída por 698 adolescentes (381 raparigas e 317 rapazes) com idades compreendidas entre os 12 e os 18 anos (M=15.02, DP=1.83). Os principais resultados demonstraram não existirem diferenças significativas de satisfação com a escola entre género, local de residência (rural vs urbano) e níveis de estatuto socioeconómico. Por outro lado, observou-se que a satisfação escolar diminui ao longo da idade e associa-se positivamente com melhores relações entre pais e filhos. Verificou-se, ainda, que a satisfação com a escola se correlaciona positivamente com todas as dimensões do bem-estar psicológico e exerce um efeito positivo moderado nos níveis de bem-estar global, mesmo após o controlo da influência das variáveis sociodemográficas. Abstract in english Previous research has already shown the importance of the adolescents' school satisfaction on their levels of health and subjective well-being. As such, the present study intended to provide additional support to the available empirical evidence through the analysis of the effect of some sociodemogr [...] aphic variables (gender, age, place of residence, socioeconomic status and relationship with parents) on the levels of the adolescents satisfaction with their school context and also on their psychological well-being according to Ryff's model (1989a, 1989b). The sample comprised 698 adolescents (381 girls and 317 boys) between 12 and 18 years of age (M=15.02, SD=1.83). Main results showed no significant differences in satisfaction with school context considering gender, place of residence (rural versus urban) and socioeconomic status. On the other hand, satisfaction with school context decreased with age and was positively associated with a better relationship between parents and children. Moreover, satisfaction with school context positively correlated with all dimensions of psychological well-being and exerted a moderately positive effect on the levels of global well-being even after controlling for the influence of sociodemographic variables.

  6. Literacia em saude mental de adolescentes e jovens portugueses sobre abuso de alcool / Mental health literacy of portuguese adolescents and youth about alcohol abuse / Instruccion en salud mental de adolescentes y jovenes portugueses sobre el abuso del alcohol

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Manuel de Jesus, Loureiro; Teresa Maria Mendes Dinis de Andrade, Barroso; Aida Maria de Oliveira Cruz, Mendes; Manuel Alves, Rodrigues; Rui Aragao Aleixo Neves, Oliveira; Nuno Rafael Neves de, Oliveira.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar a literacia em saúde mental de adolescentes e jovens relativamente ao consumo abusivo de álcool, nas diversas componentes do conceito de literacia. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo-exploratório, em que foi aplicado o QuALiSMental a uma amostra representativa de 4.938 adolescen [...] tes e jovens, com idades compreendidas entre os 14 e os 24 anos, que frequentam escolas do 3º ciclo do ensino básico e do ensino secundário da região centro de Portugal. RESULTADOS: O reconhecimento da vinheta do consumo abusivo de álcool pelos participantes é elevado (72,4%), ainda que seja também identificado como alcoolismo (70,3%), o que no entanto indica a percepção do problema como grave. Os participantes apresentam níveis modestos de literacia nas restantes componentes, preferindo as fontes informais de ajuda. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que há necessidade de implementação de programas nas escolas que promovam a literacia em saúde mental, para adoção de comportamentos saudáveis nos jovens, que os transferem para a idade adulta. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Caracterizar la instrucción en salud mental de adolescente y jóvenes con respecto al abuso del alcohol, en los diversos componentes del concepto de instrucción. MÉTODOS: Estudio exploratorio-descriptivo, con aplicación del instrumento QuALiSMental a partir de la muestra representativ [...] a de 4938 adolescentes y jóvenes adultos, con edades entre 14 y 24 años, que frecuentan escuelas del tercer ciclo de enseñanza básica y de educación secundaria en la región central de Portugal. RESULTADOS: El reconocimiento de la viñeta del abuso de alcohol por los participantes es alto (72,4%), aunque se identifica también como alcoholismo (70,3%), que sin embargo, indica la percepción del problema como siendo grave. Los participantes tienen modestos niveles de instrucción en los componentes restantes, prefiriendo las fuentes informales de ayuda. CONCLUSIÓN: Se concluye, así, que la necesidad de implementar en las escuelas programas que promueven la instrucción en salud mental para la adopción de conductas saludables en los jóvenes, que los transfieren hacia la edad adulta. Abstract in english Characterize the mental health literacy of adolescents and young people about alcohol abuse, in the various components of the concept. Exploratory descriptive study, through the application of the instrument QuALiSMental to a representative sample of 4938 adolescents and young adults aged between 1 [...] 4 and 24 years, attending schools in the 3rd cycle of basic and secondary education of the central region of Portugal. The recognition of the vignette of alcohol abuse by the participants is high (72.4%), although it is also identified as alcoholism (70.3%), which indicates the perception of the problem as serious. Participants have modest levels of literacy in the remaining components, preferring informal sources of help. Therefore, we conclude that there is a need to implement school programs that promote mental health literacy, to promote the adoption of healthy behaviors in young people, which transfer them into adulthood.

  7. Contributos para a validação duma versão curta da Escala de Desejabilidade Social de Marlowe-Crowne com adolescentes portugueses / Contributions to the validation of a short version of the marlowe-crowne social desirability scale with portuguese adolescents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro, Pechorro; Rui Xavier, Vieira; Carlos, Poiares; João, Marôco.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A presente investigação teve como objectivo fornecer alguns contributos para a validação duma versão curta da Escala de Desejabilidade Social de Marlowe-Crowne (MCSDS) elaborada por Ballard (1992; MCSDS-SF). Recorrendo a 760 adolescentes de ambos os sexos divididos em amostra forense (n = 250) e amo [...] stra escolar (n = 510) foram demonstradas algumas propriedades psicométricas que na generalidade justificam a sua utilização na população portuguesa adolescente escolar e forense, nomeadamente a nível de validade factorial, consistência interna, estabilidade temporal, validade discriminante e validade divergente. Não foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os grupos masculino e feminino. Abstract in english The purpose of the present study was to present some contributions to the validation of a short version of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS) constructed by Ballard (1992; MCSDS-SF). With a total of 760 youths of both genders divided in a forensic sample (n = 250) and a community s [...] ample (n = 510) we were able to demonstrate some psychometric properties that justify its use with the Portuguese adolescent general and forensic populations, namely in terms of factorial validity, internal consistency, temporal stability, discriminant validity and divergent validity. No statistical significant differences regarding scale scores were found between the male and female groups.

  8. Análise fatorial confirmatória do Extended Class Play numa amostra portuguesa de jovens adolescentes / Confirmatory factor analysis of the Extended Class Play on a sample of portuguese young adolescents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João V., Correia; António J., Santos; Miguel, Freitas; António, Rosado; Kenneth, Rubin.

    Full Text Available O Extended Class Play (ECP; Burgess, Rubin, Wojslawowicz, Rose-Krasnor, & Booth, 2003) procura avaliar, através dos relatos dos pares, a reputação social dos sujeitos. O objetivo deste trabalho é testar a estrutura hexafatorial recentemente proposta, averiguando igualmente a sua adequação para géner [...] o e idade, numa amostra portuguesa de 465 adolescentes (230 raparigas). Uma Análise Fatorial Confirmatória revelou que o modelo de seis fatores apresenta bons índices de ajustamento, de fiabilidade e validade e ainda boa adequação para gênero e idade. Estes resultados são consistentes com outros trabalhos, ao sugerir que o modelo hexafatorial do ECP apresenta capacidades psicométricas aceitáveis, constituindo-se como uma medida válida a utilizar na investigação sobre a reputação e o funcionamento sociais de adolescentes. Abstract in english The Extended Class Play (ECP) assesses individuals' social reputation through peer reports. In this study, the recently presented six-factor structure was tested on a Portuguese sample of 465 adolescents (230 girls). A Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated good fit of the data to this six-factor [...] structure, good composite reliability and validity. Results also showed good fit to both genders and age groups. Therefore, results are consistent with previous research and suggest that this six-factor structure has good psychometric characteristics and that the ECP seems to be a valid measure for investigation on adolescents' social functioning and reputation.

  9. Conhecimentos e atitudes sobre o VIH/SIDA em adolescentes portugueses / Knowlege and attitudes about HIV/AIDS issues of portuguese adolescents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Margarida Gaspar de, Matos; Diana, Battistutta; Celeste, Simões; Suzana Fonseca, Carvalhosa; Sónia, Dias; Aldina, Gonçalves.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A resposta social às pessoas infectadas com o vírus da SIDA bem como a prevenção do VIH/SIDA é limitada pelo estigma associado à SIDA. A prevenção do VIH/SIDA e da exclusão social das pessoas infectadas com o vírus, é pois um assunto fundamental na área da saúde. Neste contexto, torna-se fundamental [...] desenvolver estudos sobre o "estado de arte", no que diz respeito ao conhecimento dos jovens acerca dos aspectos relevantes sobre o VIH/SIDA e das suas atitudes face às pessoas infectadas com o vírus, que variam em geral entre a negligência, a precaução e a exclusão social (Potsonen & Kontula, 1999; Thompson, Currie, Todd, & Elton, 1999). Neste trabalho é estudado o modo como os dados demográficos, as características pessoais, as relações com os pais com os pares e ainda o envolvimento escolar estão associados ao conhecimento sobre as formas de transmissão e a atitude face a pessoas infectadas. Foram utilizados dados da amostra Portuguesa de 1998, estudo integrado na rede Europeia HBSC ("Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children: a WHO Cross Cultural Study"), cujo objectivo é o estudo dos estilos de vida e comportamentos de saúde em jovens em idade escolar (Currie, Hurrelmann, Settertobulte, Smith, & Todd, 2000; King, Wold, Tudor & Harel, 1996; Matos, Simões, Carvalhosa, Reis, & Canha, 2000). Este estudo baseia-se num questionário, preenchido pelos alunos, que é administrado nas escolas, e inclui alunos do sexto, oitavo e décimo ano do ensino regular com uma média de idade de M=14,1 anos (DP=1,7). Na metodologia de análise foi utilizado um modelo de regressão logística, afim de obter a contribuição independente de cada uma das variáveis explicativas na variação das variáveis em estudo: (1) conhecimento do modo de transmissão e (2) atitudes face a pessoas infectadas com o VIH/SIDA. Os resultados são expressos em "odds ratios" com 95% de intervalo de confiança. A análise dos resultados sugere que quando o conhecimento acerca dos modos de transmissão é deficitário, as atitudes face às pessoas infectadas tendem a ser menos positivas. As raparigas parecem ter uma atitude mais positiva e melhores conhecimentos dos modos de transmissão, assim como os adolescentes mais velhos. Os adolescentes com um estatuto socio-económico médio, com melhores expectativas face ao futuro e com uma melhor percepção da escola e do seu desempenho escolar tendem a demonstrar uma atitude mais positiva face às pessoas infectadas, bem como melhores conhecimentos sobre as formas de transmissão. O envolvimento e apoio dos pais é relevante. A percepção dos adolescentes acerca do seu bem-estar está relacionada com a percepção de um meio escolar positivo (Matos & Carvalhosa, 2001b; Matos, 2002), e com a probabilidade de escolherem estilos de vida e comportamentos de saúde (Nutbeam, Smith, Moore, & Bauman, 1993). As escolas são contextos privilegiados para abordar os adolescentes e para planear intervenções que proporcionem a participação dos alunos na construção da sua própria saúde e na construção de atitudes positivas face aos outros, e face às pessoas infectadas com VIH, em particular. Muito trabalho há a fazer na área da Educação para a Saúde em geral, e na Educação para a Saúde Sexual em particular. As competências sociais, o desenvolvimento do auto-conceito, a participação, a resolução de problemas e a tomada de decisão são aspectos fundamentais na denominada "segunda geração" de estratégias da Educação//Promoção de Saúde nas escolas (Matos, 1997; Matos, 2002). É necessário fazer esforços para promover um sentimento de filiação dos adolescentes ao contexto escolar, como forma de aumentar a percepção de um meio escolar positivo, a percepção subjectiva de bem-estar, o sentimento de pertença, a percepção de auto-eficácia e de valor e consequentemente, as suas escolhas por estilos de vida saudáveis. Abstract in english Social response to HIV infected people, and social response in HIV prevention is limited by the AIDS relate

  10. Valores poblacionales de referencia del perfil de salud CHIP-AE a partir de una muestra representativa de adolescentes escolarizados / Reference population values for the Spanish Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition [CHIP-AE] using a representative school-based sample

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V., Serra-Sutton; L., Rajmil; J., Alonso; A., Riley; B., Starfield.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El perfil de salud CHIP-AE (Child Health and Illness Profile, Adolescent Edition) es un instrumento genérico para adolescentes de 12 a 19 años que ha sido adaptado para uso en España. El objetivo del estudio fue obtener los valores poblacionales de referencia de la versión española del CHI [...] P-AE. Métodos: Se administró el CHIP-AE a una muestra representativa de adolescentes escolarizados de Barcelona, mediante muestreo por conglomerados, estratificado según la titularidad del centro (público o concertado) y el índice de capacidad económica familiar (bajo, medio y alto). Se estandarizaron las puntuaciones a una media de 20 y desviación estándar (DE) de 5. Se calcularon las medias y los percentiles. Las medias se compararon por edad, género y nivel socioeconómico mediante análisis de la varianza. Resultados: Las proporción de respuesta fue del 81% (n = 902). Las puntuaciones presentaron un amplio rango de distribución, y aunque en general fueron algo sesgadas hacia las puntuaciones de buena salud, sugieren que la muestra de población general no está exenta de problemas de salud. El 25% presentó puntuaciones por debajo de 17,2 en la dimensión de bienestar, lo que indica un tamaño de efecto de 0,56 unidades estandarizadas de DE. La distribución de las puntuaciones de las muestras de referencia de Barcelona fueron muy similares a las originales de Baltimore (Estados Unidos), con diferencias mínimas en riesgo individual. Conclusiones: El CHIP-AE recoge de manera sistemática las dimensiones propias de la salud de los adolescentes. Los resultados permitirán establecer comparaciones con adolescentes de otras regiones, y/o con diferentes problemas de salud y analizar las desigualdades en salud durante la adolescencia. Abstract in english Aim: The Child Health and Illness Profile (CHIP-AE) is a generic health status instrument for adolescents aged 12-19 years adapted for use in Spain. The aim of this study was to obtain reference population values of the Spanish version of the CHIP-AE. Methods: The CHIP-AE was administered to a repre [...] sentative sample of adolescents from schools in Barcelona. The sample was selected by using cluster-sampling, stratified by type of school (public or private) and an ecological socioeconomic index (Índice de Capacidad Familiar: low, middle, and high). The CHIP-AE scores were standardized to a mean of 20 and a standard deviation (SD) of 5. Means and percentiles were computed. Means were compared by age, gender, and socioeconomic status using analysis of variance. Results: The response rate was 81% (n = 902). The distribution of the CHIP-AE scores presented a wide range with scores generally skewed toward positive health status. Nevertheless, the results suggest that the sample selected from a general population was not free of health problems. Twenty-five percent of adolescents presented scores below 17.2 in the domain of discomfort, indicating an effect size of 0.56 standardized SD units. The distribution of scores in the reference samples from Barcelona was similar to the original results in Baltimore (USA), with some marginal differences in individual risks. Conclusions: The CHIP-AE systematically gathers information on health domains in adolescents. The results from this reference sample will allow comparisons with adolescents from other regions, and/or with different health problems, as well as description of inequalities in health during adolescence.

  11. Discursos de jovens adolescentes portugueses sobre sexualidade e amor: implicações para a educação sexual / Discourses of portuguese adolescents about sexuality and love: implications for sexual education

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luísa, Saavedra; Conceição, Nogueira; Sara, Magalhães.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os esforços para diminuir os comportamentos sexuais de risco de adolescentes e jovens têm conduzido a resultados que ficam aquém das expectativas. Algumas causas para este fracasso parecem dever-se ao seu desconhecimento sobre os mitos e crenças associados à sexualidade. Tentando ultrapassar algumas [...] das limitações de estudos anteriores, o objectivo deste trabalhar foi auscultar directamente jovens adolescentes,1 procurando entender, de uma forma mais espontânea e profunda, as percepções e crenças associadas às relações amorosas e sexuais. Para isso, recolheram-se os seus discursos ao longo de um programa de educação sexual e usou-se a Análise Foucaudiana do Discurso como método de análise dos resultados. Estes apontam para a presença do duplo padrão sexual, embora pareça desenhar-se uma tendência para um padrão sexual singular e para a pouca importância atribuída aos comportamentos de prevenção. Conclui-se com a referência a algumas pistas para a educação sexual. Abstract in english The efforts to lower adolescents sexual risk behaviors have led to results that did not come up to the expectations. Lack of knowledge on myths and beliefs on sexuality may be the main cause of this failure. Trying to overcome some of the limitations of previous studies, this work aimed to directly [...] hear adolescents trying to understand, in a more spontaneous and deeply way, the perceptions and beliefs associated with love and sexual relations. To do so, the discourses of adolescents during a sexual education program were collected and analyzed through Foucauldian Discourse Analysis. Results point out the recognition of sexual double standard, although there seem to exist a tendency to consider a single sex standard and disregard the importance of prevention behaviors. We conclude with some clues about sexual education.

  12. Discursos de jovens adolescentes portugueses sobre sexualidade e amor: implicações para a educação sexual Discourses of portuguese adolescents about sexuality and love: implications for sexual education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Saavedra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os esforços para diminuir os comportamentos sexuais de risco de adolescentes e jovens têm conduzido a resultados que ficam aquém das expectativas. Algumas causas para este fracasso parecem dever-se ao seu desconhecimento sobre os mitos e crenças associados à sexualidade. Tentando ultrapassar algumas das limitações de estudos anteriores, o objectivo deste trabalhar foi auscultar directamente jovens adolescentes,1 procurando entender, de uma forma mais espontânea e profunda, as percepções e crenças associadas às relações amorosas e sexuais. Para isso, recolheram-se os seus discursos ao longo de um programa de educação sexual e usou-se a Análise Foucaudiana do Discurso como método de análise dos resultados. Estes apontam para a presença do duplo padrão sexual, embora pareça desenhar-se uma tendência para um padrão sexual singular e para a pouca importância atribuída aos comportamentos de prevenção. Conclui-se com a referência a algumas pistas para a educação sexual.The efforts to lower adolescents sexual risk behaviors have led to results that did not come up to the expectations. Lack of knowledge on myths and beliefs on sexuality may be the main cause of this failure. Trying to overcome some of the limitations of previous studies, this work aimed to directly hear adolescents trying to understand, in a more spontaneous and deeply way, the perceptions and beliefs associated with love and sexual relations. To do so, the discourses of adolescents during a sexual education program were collected and analyzed through Foucauldian Discourse Analysis. Results point out the recognition of sexual double standard, although there seem to exist a tendency to consider a single sex standard and disregard the importance of prevention behaviors. We conclude with some clues about sexual education.

  13. Exploración de la validez de constructo de la escala de Zung para depresión en adolescentes escolarizados / Exploration of construct validity of the Zung’s self-rating depression scale among adolescent students

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Zuleima, Cogollo; Carmen Elena, Díaz; Adalberto, Campo.

    2006-06-30

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: La escala de Zung para depresión se ha usado en varios estudios en adolescentes colombianos. No obstante, la validez de constructo de esta escala no se conoce en este grupo etáreo. Objetivo: Validar el constructo de la escala de Zung para depresión en adolescentes que asistían a un col [...] egio ubicado en un estrato bajo de la ciudad de Cartagena, Colombia. Método: Un grupo de 408 estudiantes entre 13 y 17 años (promedio 14.7) diligenciaron en el aula de clase la escala de Zung para depresión, 50% mujeres y 50% varones. Se determinó la consistencia interna y los factores que componen esta escala. Resultados: La consistencia interna de la escala fue 0.689 (alfa de Cronbach). Se observó un primer factor principal (estado de ánimo deprimido) que explicaba el 15.8% de la varianza y un segundo factor (síntomas cognoscitivos y somáticos) que daba cuenta de 9.1% de la varianza. Conclusiones: En adolescentes, la escala de Zung para depresión muestra una aceptable consistencia interna y un constructo de dos factores principales, similar al observado en adultos colombianos. Abstract in english Background: The Zung´s self-rating depression scale has been used in various Colombian studies among adolescents. However, its construct validation has not been yet reported. Objective: To validate the construct of the Zung´s self-rating depression scale in adolescent attending a low income public s [...] chool at the city of Cartagena, Colombia. Method: A total of 408 students aged 13-17 years old (mean 14.7 years) completed the Zung´s self-rating depression scale considering the last two weeks, in the classroom, 50% boys and 50% girls. Internal consistency and factor analysis were computed. Results: The Cronbach’s alpha test was 0.689. The first factor (depressive mood) explained 15.8% of the variance and the second factor (cognitive and somatic complaints) accounted for 9.1% of the variance. Conclusions: The Zung´s self-rating depression scale in adolescents exhibits an acceptable internal consistency and a construct of two principal factors, like in adults.

  14. Preditores da intenção de adoptar comportamentos preventivos face ao HIV/SIDA em adolescentes portugueses / Predictors of intention to adopt preventive behaviours for HIV/AIDS in Portuguese teenagers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria João, Figueiras; Dália, Marcelino; Maria Manuela, Ferreira.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectivo: Este estudo tem como objectivo investigar em que medida a teoria da acção planeada e o modelo crenças sobre a saúde podem predizer a intenção de adoptar comportamentos preventivos para o HIV/SIDA, em raparigas e rapazes adolescentes saudáveis. Método: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, em [...] que participaram 546 adolescentes saudáveis (50% mulheres), que completaram um questionário que avaliou as crenças sobre o HIV/SIDA, e as características sócio-demográficas. Foram utilizadas análises de regressão linear. Resultados: Em geral os adolescentes apresentam uma baixa percepção de vulnerabilidade e risco de contrair o HIV/SIDA. Apresentam uma atitude positiva face a adopção de comportamentos preventivos, uma forte crença em relação à intenção de vir a adoptar comportamentos preventivos, percepção de controlo do comportamento, benefícios e pistas para a acção. Existem diferenças de sexo significativas nos preditores da intenção de vir a adoptar comportamentos preventivos. Conclusão: Apesar do seu carácter exploratório, as diferenças de sexo encontradas nos preditores da adopção de comportamentos preventivos têm efeito no processamento cognitivo da informação face ao SIDA e poderão ter implicações na adopção de comportamentos preventivos. Abstract in english Aim: This study aims to investigate the extent to which the dimensions of the health belief model and the theory of planned behaviour are predictive of the adoption of preventive behaviours for AIDS in healthy teenagers. Method: Cross-sectional study in which 546 Portuguese healthy teenagers, (50% f [...] emale), completed a questionnaire measuring individual beliefs about HIV/AIDS, and sociodemographic variables. Statistical analyses were performed using linear regression analysis. Results: In general, the perceived vulnerability and perceived risk to HIV/AIDS were low. There was a positive attitude towards the adoption of preventive behaviours, and strong beliefs concerning the intention of adopting preventive behaviours, perceived control over behaviour, benefits, and clues for action. There were significant gender differences in the predictors of intention to adopt preventive behaviours. Conclusion: Gender seems to have an effect in the way teenagers cognitively process information concerning AIDS, which may have implications for the adoption of preventive behaviours.

  15. Smoking, alcohol consumption and obesity in a social network of adolescents attending school in the city of Lobos, Buenos Aires / Redes sociales de tabaquismo, consumo de alcohol y obesidad en adolescentes escolarizados de la ciudad de Lobos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrés H, Mulassi; Raúl A, Borracci; José G. E, Calderón; Patricio, Vinay; Maximiliano, Mulassi.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El objetivo fue estudiar las estructuras de distintas redes sociales de adolescentes con respecto a la presencia de tabaquismo, consumo de alcohol y obesidad, para conocer las vías de influencia que pudieran ejercer las amistades sobre el mantenimiento o cesación de estos hábitos. Mate [...] rial y métodos. Mediante una encuesta y mediciones directas se realizó un estudio observacional y transversal en 296 adolescentes de entre 14 y 18 años de una escuela de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Se obtuvo información sobre parámetros antropométricos, tabaquismo, consumo de alcohol y sobre las relaciones de amistades entre los encuestados, a fin de construir las redes sociales. Resultados. El 18,8% de las mujeres y el 16,5% de los varones fumaban, el 23,3% y el 39,4% consumían alcohol y el 15,3% y el 19,0% presentaban sobrepeso, respectivamente. Las redes construidas mostraron que tanto los tabaquistas como los consumidores de alcohol tenían un alto grado de conexión y centralidad en la red. El análisis de afinidad demostró que la formación de conglomerados favorece el contacto entre quienes tienen los mismos hábitos. Conclusiones. El estudio de redes sociales de adolescentes permitió conocer las relaciones de afinidad entre quienes presentaban hábitos de consumo de tabaco o alcohol, u obesidad. Tanto los fumadores como los bebedores parecen estar estrechamente enlazados en la red, mientras que los obesos ocuparían una ubicación más marginal. El conocimiento de la conformación de las redes sociales y la intervención sobre sólo algunos de sus actores podrían usarse para propagar conductas saludables entre los adolescentes. Abstract in english Introduction. The objective was to study different social networks of adolescents regarding the use of tobacco, alcohol use or obesity, in order to know to what extent friends and schoolmates influenced them in keeping or quitting these habits. Materials and Methods. Two hundred and ninety six adole [...] scents aged 14-18 years attending an urban school in the province of Buenos Aires were surveyed and clinically studied. Information was obtained on anthropometric parameters, tobacco and alcohol use and friendship relations were assessed so as to construct different social networks. Results: 18.8% of female adolescents and 16.5% of male adolescents were smokers; 23.3 and 39.4% drank alcohol and 15.3 and 19.0% were overweight. The networks showed that both smokers and alcohol users have close connections and a high level of centrality. The analysis showed that there is a strong affinity among people sharing the same habits. Conclusions. The study of adolescent social networks allowed to show the relation of affinity among people having the habit of smoking, alcohol use or presenting obesity. Both smokers and alcohol users are closely connected in the network, while obese adolescents seem to stay marginal. Knowledge on social networks and the possibility of working on their members could be used to disseminate healthy behaviors among adolescents.

  16. Estrategias novedosas de prevención de embarazo e ITS/VIH/sida entre adolescentes escolarizados mexicanos / A novel school-based strategy for the prevention of HIV/AIDS, Sexually Transmitted Disease (STDs), and teen pregnancies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pilar, Torres; Dilys M., Walker; Juan Pablo, Gutiérrez; Stefano M., Bertozzi.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir el diseño de un estudio en escuelas preparatorias para evaluar una intervención de prevención de VIH/sida y embarazos no planeados, y presentar los resultados de su encuesta basal. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se implementó una intervención sobre VIH/sida/ITS, dirigida a adolescentes, inc [...] luyendo anticoncepción de emergencia (AE), y se diseñó una evaluación prospectiva aleatorizada controlada para medir la efectividad de la misma. Se llevó a cabo una encuesta basal, de la que se deriva un diagnóstico de los conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos sexuales de la población objetivo. RESULTADOS: De las 40 escuelas participantes, 11 177 estudiantes de primero de preparatoria (52% mujeres; edad media de ambos sexos de 15.5 años) participaron en la encuesta basal. De ellos, 10% de las mujeres y 24% de los hombres dijeron tener experiencia sexual, y únicamente 39% reportó haber usado condón en la primera relación. De los sexualmente activos, un tercio de los hombres y la quinta parte de las mujeres reportaron haber experimentado zafadura o rotura del condón. La mayor parte de los participantes había escuchado previamente sobre la AE. CONCLUSIONES: La baja proporción del uso de condón, aunado al hecho de que se reportan problemas para su uso efectivo, refuerza la idea del diseño de este estudio: proponer un método anticonceptivo de respaldo al condón, como la AE, razonablemente conocida y con disposición para su uso. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To introduce the study design of an HIV/AIDS and unplanned pregnancy prevention program targeting high school students, and to present the results from the baseline survey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A school curriculum was developed to inform adolescent students about HIV/AIDS/STD prevention, [...] which included information on emergency contraception (EC) for adolescent students. A randomized controlled study was conducted to simultaneously evaluate the effect of this intervention. The baseline survey collected data on contraception knowledge and attitudes regarding sexual behaviors. RESULTS: A total of 11 117 students from 40 schools participated in the baseline (52% female, the mean age of both males and females was 15.5). A total of 10% of the females and 24% of the men surveyed were sexually active at baseline, but only 39% of those sexually active reported using a condom at the time of their first sexual intercourse. Among the sexually active students surveyed, a third of the males and a fifth of the females reported at least one condom slip or breakage. Most of the students were aware of EC. CONCLUSIONS: The low proportion of students that report using condoms accompanied by their incorrect use points to the need for HIV/AIDS and unplanned pregnancy prevention efforts. This novel approach offers adolescents EC, a backup method to the condom. The approach is feasible as students know what EC is and furthermore it appears that they are willing to use this method.

  17. Estrategias novedosas de prevención de embarazo e ITS/VIH/sida entre adolescentes escolarizados mexicanos A novel school-based strategy for the prevention of HIV/AIDS, Sexually Transmitted Disease (STDs, and teen pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Torres

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir el diseño de un estudio en escuelas preparatorias para evaluar una intervención de prevención de VIH/sida y embarazos no planeados, y presentar los resultados de su encuesta basal. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se implementó una intervención sobre VIH/sida/ITS, dirigida a adolescentes, incluyendo anticoncepción de emergencia (AE, y se diseñó una evaluación prospectiva aleatorizada controlada para medir la efectividad de la misma. Se llevó a cabo una encuesta basal, de la que se deriva un diagnóstico de los conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos sexuales de la población objetivo. RESULTADOS: De las 40 escuelas participantes, 11 177 estudiantes de primero de preparatoria (52% mujeres; edad media de ambos sexos de 15.5 años participaron en la encuesta basal. De ellos, 10% de las mujeres y 24% de los hombres dijeron tener experiencia sexual, y únicamente 39% reportó haber usado condón en la primera relación. De los sexualmente activos, un tercio de los hombres y la quinta parte de las mujeres reportaron haber experimentado zafadura o rotura del condón. La mayor parte de los participantes había escuchado previamente sobre la AE. CONCLUSIONES: La baja proporción del uso de condón, aunado al hecho de que se reportan problemas para su uso efectivo, refuerza la idea del diseño de este estudio: proponer un método anticonceptivo de respaldo al condón, como la AE, razonablemente conocida y con disposición para su uso.OBJECTIVE: To introduce the study design of an HIV/AIDS and unplanned pregnancy prevention program targeting high school students, and to present the results from the baseline survey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A school curriculum was developed to inform adolescent students about HIV/AIDS/STD prevention, which included information on emergency contraception (EC for adolescent students. A randomized controlled study was conducted to simultaneously evaluate the effect of this intervention. The baseline survey collected data on contraception knowledge and attitudes regarding sexual behaviors. RESULTS: A total of 11 117 students from 40 schools participated in the baseline (52% female, the mean age of both males and females was 15.5. A total of 10% of the females and 24% of the men surveyed were sexually active at baseline, but only 39% of those sexually active reported using a condom at the time of their first sexual intercourse. Among the sexually active students surveyed, a third of the males and a fifth of the females reported at least one condom slip or breakage. Most of the students were aware of EC. CONCLUSIONS: The low proportion of students that report using condoms accompanied by their incorrect use points to the need for HIV/AIDS and unplanned pregnancy prevention efforts. This novel approach offers adolescents EC, a backup method to the condom. The approach is feasible as students know what EC is and furthermore it appears that they are willing to use this method.

  18. Representaciones sociales del noviazgo, en adolescentes escolarizados de estratos bajo, medio y alto, en Bogotá / Social representations of having a boy/girlfriend in adolescents still in school from low, middle and high social strata in Bogotá

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lilián, Sánchez; María E, Gutiérrez; Nelson, Herrera; Magnolia, Ballesteros; Romina, Izzedin; Ángela, Gómez.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos Abordar el significado del noviazgo mediante la teoría de las representaciones sociales. Determinar las convergencias y divergencias de los participantes en torno a los núcleos figurativos de la representación Métodos Aproximación cualitativa interpretativa. En tres colegios diferenciados [...] por estrato, se utilizaron observación, red de asociaciones, entrevista en profundidad y talleres grupales. La triangulación intra estrato, intra género y de totalidad de los participantes, permitió verificar los resultados convergentes y divergentes. Resultados En los tres estratos, el noviazgo hace parte del proyecto de vida centrado en independencia de la familia, éxito laboral y conformación de familia en la vida adulta. El noviazgo no es prioritario y constituye una experiencia de aprendizaje afectivo. La sexualidad coital es concebida como una posibilidad postergable dados los riesgos de embarazo. Las diferencias por estrato, se centraron en los obstáculos o facilidades económicas para realizar las metas. Las diferencias por género se encontraron entre los estratos bajo y alto. Las mujeres de estrato bajo, son más conservadoras, resienten mayor control social y pérdida de independencia. En cambio las del alto, reclaman independencia y critican los modelos tradicionales. Los hombres de estrato bajo, son más tradicionalistas que los de estrato alto y el sufrimiento está ligado a la infidelidad. Discusión Se destaca la responsabilidad en el diseño de políticas sociales que permitan crear y apoyar los caminos que estos jóvenes transiten hacia el logro de sus metas futuras, en especial a los adolescentes del estrato socioeconómico bajo, quienes enfrentan desventajas económicas, sociales y culturales. Abstract in english Objectives Studying the significance of having a boy/girlfriend by social representations theory. Identifying participants' convergence and difference around a figurative nuclei, focusing on representation by socio-economic strata and gender. Methods A qualitative interpretative approach was adopted [...] . Three schools from different socio-economic strata were used for observation, network association, in-depth interviews and group workshops. Intra-strata, intra-gender and participant triangulation allowed convergent and divergent results to be verified. Results Having a boy/girlfriend (courtship) in all three strata was considered part of adolescents' life projects aimed at becoming independent from the family, successfully obtaining a job and forming a family in future adult life. Thus, having a boy/girlfriend was not a priority and was seen more as an emotional learning experience. Sexuality was seen as something to be postponed due to the risks of pregnancy. Differences by strata focused on economic obstacles to or chances for achieving goals. Gender differences were found between low and high strata. Girls having low economic status were more conservative, resented greater social control and their loss of independence compared to girls from high socioeconomic strata who demanded their independence and criticised traditional models. Boys having low economic status were more traditional than their upper strata counterparts and the suffering involved in having a girlfriend was linked to infidelity. Suffering in having a boy/girlfriend was linked to such relationship breaking up for upper and middle strata. Masculinity regarding having a boy/girlfriend was affirmed in all strata. Discussion Emphasis should be placed on designing social policies helping these young people to achieve their future goals, especially teenagers from lower socioeconomic strata who face economic, social and cultural disadvantages.

  19. Representaciones sociales del noviazgo, en adolescentes escolarizados de estratos bajo, medio y alto, en Bogotá Social representations of having a boy/girlfriend in adolescents still in school from low, middle and high social strata in Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilián Sánchez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos Abordar el significado del noviazgo mediante la teoría de las representaciones sociales. Determinar las convergencias y divergencias de los participantes en torno a los núcleos figurativos de la representación Métodos Aproximación cualitativa interpretativa. En tres colegios diferenciados por estrato, se utilizaron observación, red de asociaciones, entrevista en profundidad y talleres grupales. La triangulación intra estrato, intra género y de totalidad de los participantes, permitió verificar los resultados convergentes y divergentes. Resultados En los tres estratos, el noviazgo hace parte del proyecto de vida centrado en independencia de la familia, éxito laboral y conformación de familia en la vida adulta. El noviazgo no es prioritario y constituye una experiencia de aprendizaje afectivo. La sexualidad coital es concebida como una posibilidad postergable dados los riesgos de embarazo. Las diferencias por estrato, se centraron en los obstáculos o facilidades económicas para realizar las metas. Las diferencias por género se encontraron entre los estratos bajo y alto. Las mujeres de estrato bajo, son más conservadoras, resienten mayor control social y pérdida de independencia. En cambio las del alto, reclaman independencia y critican los modelos tradicionales. Los hombres de estrato bajo, son más tradicionalistas que los de estrato alto y el sufrimiento está ligado a la infidelidad. Discusión Se destaca la responsabilidad en el diseño de políticas sociales que permitan crear y apoyar los caminos que estos jóvenes transiten hacia el logro de sus metas futuras, en especial a los adolescentes del estrato socioeconómico bajo, quienes enfrentan desventajas económicas, sociales y culturales.Objectives Studying the significance of having a boy/girlfriend by social representations theory. Identifying participants' convergence and difference around a figurative nuclei, focusing on representation by socio-economic strata and gender. Methods A qualitative interpretative approach was adopted. Three schools from different socio-economic strata were used for observation, network association, in-depth interviews and group workshops. Intra-strata, intra-gender and participant triangulation allowed convergent and divergent results to be verified. Results Having a boy/girlfriend (courtship in all three strata was considered part of adolescents' life projects aimed at becoming independent from the family, successfully obtaining a job and forming a family in future adult life. Thus, having a boy/girlfriend was not a priority and was seen more as an emotional learning experience. Sexuality was seen as something to be postponed due to the risks of pregnancy. Differences by strata focused on economic obstacles to or chances for achieving goals. Gender differences were found between low and high strata. Girls having low economic status were more conservative, resented greater social control and their loss of independence compared to girls from high socioeconomic strata who demanded their independence and criticised traditional models. Boys having low economic status were more traditional than their upper strata counterparts and the suffering involved in having a girlfriend was linked to infidelity. Suffering in having a boy/girlfriend was linked to such relationship breaking up for upper and middle strata. Masculinity regarding having a boy/girlfriend was affirmed in all strata. Discussion Emphasis should be placed on designing social policies helping these young people to achieve their future goals, especially teenagers from lower socioeconomic strata who face economic, social and cultural disadvantages.

  20. Comportamento sexual de adolescentes escolarizados do gênero masculino em recife

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    Iraneide Nascimento dos Santos, Janniele Carla Malaquias de Lima, Tatiana Melo Lopes, Ednaldo Cavalcante de Araújo, Eliane Maria Ribeiro de Vasconcelos, Betinha (Elizabeth Cordeiro Fernandes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory and descriptive study, of quantitative boarding, with the objective of identifying sexual behaviors of male adolescents of private and public schools of Recife for contributing to the planning of health actions in sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS, in especial. The population was constituted by students, from 15 to 19 years old, whose sample not probabilistic intentional was 113. The data had been collected through a questionnaire, after the project to have been approved for the Ethics Committee in Research of the Hospital Agamenon Magalhães, and with the authorization by means of the term of free and clarified assent, after presentation and project legal clarification to the adolescents, parents or for the responsible by the same ones. The data had been organized in microcomputer, using EXCEL program, analyzed and had evidenced that 62,7% of the adolescents of the private school declared already to have had to first sexual relation and 33,9% did not it have yet. However, in the public school, 72,2% initiated the sexual life. In the private school, 33,3% answered to have had to first sexual relation to the 14 years old and only 2,7% with nine years old. On the basis in these data, become evident that is each more urgent time to enable the adolescents to the taking of conscientious and responsible decision through a preventive program of specific sexual education of long stream in the searched schools, for the sexuality exercise with a little risks of involving in sexual risk relations, whose undesirable resulted can be infecting themselves with a sexually transmissible infection, also the human immunodeficiency virus or becoming a pregnant woman.

  1. Adaptación del Indice de Bienestar Personal para adolescentes en lengua española y portuguesa / Adjustment of Personal Well-Being Index for adolescents on Spanish and Portuguese Language

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jaime, Alfaro; Jorge, Castellá Sarriera; Lívia, Bedin; Daniel, Abs; Ferran, Casas; Boris, Valdenegro; Denise, Oyarzún.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron las propiedades psicométricas del Indice de Bienestar Personal en una muestra de adolescentes chilenos y brasileños. Se examinó la fiabili-dad de la escala mediante el alfa de Cronbach, complementándose con un análisis de las correlaciones ítem-total de los distintos ámbitos de bienest [...] ar que la componen. Se realizó un análisis factorial exploratorio (componentes principales) y un análisis factorial confirmatorio multigrupo. Los resultados arrojan un alfa de Cronbach de 0.79 para la versión chilena y de 0.78 para la versión brasileña, que confirman niveles adecuados de fiabilidad encontrados en anteriores estudios. Las correlaciones entre ámbitos de bienestar arroja valores que van entre 0.224 y 0.496 para Chile y 0.24 a 0.46 para Brasil, similares a resultados obtenidos en otros países. Se confirman la estructura monofactorial de la escala, la adecuación de la estructura de la escala para los datos de las dos muestras y la comparabilidad de las medias de sus índices globales. Los resultados permiten suponer la existencia de otros ámbitos del bienestar de los sujetos que no fueron considerados en la propuesta original de la escala. Abstract in english The psychometric properties of the Personal Wellbeing Index are analyzed on a Spanish and Portuguese adolescent sample. We test the reliability of the scale using Cronbach's alpha. And complementarily we analyze the item-total correlations in the different wellbeing domains included. We execute an e [...] xploratory factor analysis (principal components) and a multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The results show that Cronbach's alpha is 0.79 for the Chilean version and in the Brazilian version is 0.78. confirming adequate levels of reliability found in previous studies. Correlations between fields of well-being shows values ranging between 0.224 and 0.496 for Chile and from 0.24 to 0.46 for Brazil. The results are similar to those obtained in other countries. The monofactorial structure of the scale is confirmed. also the adjustment to the scale structure to the data of the two samples and the comparability of means of global indices. The results suggest the existence of other well-being domains that had not been considered in the original proposal of the scale.

  2. Comportamentos autolesivos em adolescentes: uma revisão da literatura com foco na investigação em língua portuguesa / Deliberate self-harm in adolescents: A literature review with focus on Portuguese language research

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    Diogo Frasquilho, Guerreiro; Daniel, Sampaio.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Os comportamentos autolesivos em adolescentes são de grande relevância, estando associados a doença psiquiátrica e à maior probabilidade de suicídio futuro. O nosso objetivo é rever os conceitos atuais, epidemiologia e clínica destes comportamentos, assim como sistematizar que investigação e qual a [...] conceptualização do tema na comunidade científica de língua portuguesa. Os principais resultados apontam para um claro problema de saúde pública, sendo que os estudos encontrados revelam elevadas prevalências em amostras comunitárias e clínicas. A investigação em língua portuguesa tem dado um contributo ainda modesto para a clarificação deste problema, verificando-se pouco consenso na nomenclatura e definição do problema. Abstract in english Deliberate self-harm in adolescents is a very relevant subject, that is associated with psychiatric disease and greater probability of future suicide. The main goal of this paper is to review the actual concepts, epidemiology and clinical aspects of this behaviour. Also we will try to systematize, f [...] ocusing on the research in Portuguese language, what is the current data and conceptualization of this problem. Result point to a clear public health issue, the studies found show high prevalence in community or clinical samples. Research in Portuguese language still contributes modestly to clarify the issue, showing little consensus in nomenclature and definition.

  3. Reconhecimento de sentenças no silêncio e no ruído versus benefício de crianças e adolescentes usuários de próteses auditivas / Recognition of Portuguese sentences lists test in silence and noise versus benefits for children and teenagers using hearing aids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Enma Mariángel Ortiz, Torres; Alexandre Hundertmarck, Lessa; Nilvia Herondina Soares, Aurélio; Sinéia Neujahr dos, Santos; Maristela Júlio, Costa.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar crianças e adolescentes, usuários de próteses auditivas, buscando investigar o benefício proporcionado pela amplificação sonora por meio do teste Listas de Sentenças em Português e do Questionário de avaliação do benefício em crianças e adolescentes, e verificar se existe correlaçã [...] o entre os resultados obtidos por meio dos dois instrumentos de avaliação. MÉTODO: estudo retrospectivo, onde foram avaliados 13 sujeitos com idades entre oito e 14 anos, de ambos os sexos, com perda auditiva de no máximo, grau moderadamente severo na melhor orelha, usuários de próteses auditivas bilateralmente há mais de dez meses e protetizados por um Programa de Saúde Auditiva. Foi realizada anamnese, nova avaliação audiológica básica e aplicados o teste Listas de Sentenças em Português e o Questionário de Avaliação do Beneficio em crianças e adolescentes. RESULTADOS: os resultados obtidos no Teste de Listas de Sentenças em Português e no questionário mostraram que houve benefício com o uso das próteses, tanto no silêncio, quanto no ruído. Entretanto, não houve correlação estatisticamente significante entre os resultados. CONCLUSÃO: embora não tenha sido verificada correlação estatisticamente significante entre os resultados obtidos por meio dos dois instrumentos de avaliação, foi observada melhora no desempenho de reconhecimento de fala fazendo uso das próteses através do teste Listas de Sentenças em Português, tanto na avaliação no ruído, quanto no silêncio e, em resposta ao questionário, os avaliados referiram benefício com o uso da amplificação sonora. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to evaluate children and teenagers musing hearing aids, investigate the benefit provided by sound amplification, through the Portuguese Sentences Lists Test and a benefit assessment questionnaire for children and teenagers; and to check the correlation between the results obtained from thes [...] e two instruments. METHOD: 13 children and teenagers, between eight and 14 years old, both sexes, with a moderately severe hearing loss as the maximun level on the best ear, hearing aids users bilaterally for more than ten months and fitted by a Hearing Health Program were evaluated. An anamnesis was applied, then the subjects were submitted to a basic audiological evaluation, and were evaluated by the Portuguese Sentences Lists Test and a benefit assessment questionnaire for children and teenagers. RESULTS: the results obtained from the Portuguese Sentences Lists Test and the questionnaire showed the subject's benefit with the use of the hearing aids, both in silence and in noise. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between these two instruments. CONCLUSION: although statistically significant correlation has not been verified between the results obtained using two assessment instruments, through the Portuguese Sentences Lists Test, the individuals had improvement in the performance of speech recognition, using the hearing aids, both in quiet and in noise, and in response to the questionnaire, the subjects reported benefit with the use of sound amplification.

  4. A influência da comunicação com a família e grupo de pares no bem-estar e nos comportamentos de risco nos adolescentes Portugueses / The influence of communication with family and peer group on well-being and risky behavior of Portuguese adolescents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gina, Tomé; Inês, Camacho; Margarida Gaspar de, Matos; José Alves, Diniz.

    Full Text Available O objectivo do presente estudo foi analisar a influência e o impacto dos pais e do grupo de pares nos comportamentos de saúde e risco dos adolescentes portugueses. Para isso, estudou-se o tipo de comunicação que os adolescentes mantêm com os pais e com os pares. A amostra foi constituída pelos sujei [...] tos participantes no estudo realizado em Portugal Continental, que integra o estudo Europeu HBSC-Health Beaviour in School-aged Children. O estudo incluiu um total de 4877 estudantes do 6º, 8º e 10º ano de escolaridade de escolas públicas portuguesas, com média de idades igual a 14 anos. Os resultados revelaram que uma boa comunicação com os pais tem um maior efeito protector sobre os comportamentos de risco do que uma boa comunicação com os amigos. Adolescentes com boa comunicação com os pais e amigos revelaram serem mais felizes e satisfeitos com a vida. Os resultados encontrados salientam a importância da comunicação e do relacionamento positivo com os pais e com os pares simultaneamente. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of parents and peer group on health and risky behaviors of Portuguese adolescents. It was studied the type of communication that adolescents have with their parents and with peers. The sample consisted of subjects who participated in a study per [...] formed in Portugal, which incorporates the European HBSC-Health Behavior in School-aged Children study. The study included a total of 4.877 students in 6th, 8th and 10th grades of public school in Portugal, with an average age of 14 years old. The overall results revealed that good communication with parents has a more protective effect on adolescents' risky behavior than good communication with friends. Adolescents with closer and better communication with their parents and friends have also revealed to have a happier and more pleased life. The results highlight the importance of communication and positive relationship simultaneously with parents and peers.

  5. La perspectiva moral de las relaciones de victimización entre iguales: un análisis exploratorio de las atribuciones de adolescentes españoles y portugueses The moral perspective of the relations of peer bullying: An exploratory analysis of the attributions of Spanish and Portuguese adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Jesús Caurcel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    En el presente estudio, se exploran las atribuciones de emociones morales de los adolescentes, ante una historia de maltrato entre iguales en el contexto escolar. Con ese objetivo, les preguntamos a cerca de los sentimientos de culpa, vergüenza, orgullo e indiferencia de agresores, víctimas y espectadores y les pedimos que justificaran la atribución de los mismos. Procuramos además saber si en términos de su experiencia personal se identifican o se desvinculan de cualquiera de ellos. Participaron un total de 1.237 preadolescentes y adolescentes españoles y portugueses de edades comprendidas entre los 11 y los 16 años. Para el estudio diseñamos el cuestionario SCAN-Bullying 2005 con soporte gráfico (conjunto de viñetas que representan una historia típica de maltrato entre iguales en el contexto escolar. Los resultados muestran un patrón emocional diferente en función del rol: orgullo e indiferencia fueron las emociones más atribuidas a los agresores, inversamente la vergüenza fue la emoción más atribuida a la víctima, mientras que la indiferencia, vergüenza y culpa se atribuyeron en porcentajes muy semejantes a los espectadores. La investigación se inscribe en el cuadro teórico de estudios anteriores que analizan el fenómeno del agresor feliz y de la desvinculación moral, y a la luz de este encuadramiento teórico, procuraremos discutir los resultados.

    Palabras clave: Maltrato entre iguales, emociones morales, razonamiento sociomoral, adolescentes.

    This study explores moral emotions associated to adolescents when discussing about peer bullying in school contexts. Bearing this objective in mind, we asked participants about the emotional experience of guilt, shame, pride, and indifference of bullies, victims and bystanders. In addition, we asked them to justify these associations. Secondly, we analysed whether their personal experience is distinctive from the emotional experience of story’s protagonists in any of the above-mentioned roles. A total of 1237 Spanish and Portuguese pre-adolescents and adolescents from 11 to 16 year-olds took part in this study. We applied the SCAN-Bullying 2005 questionnaire, with graphic support (drawings depicting a typical story on peer bullying in a school context. Results showed a different emotional profile depending on the role: pride and indifference were mostly associated with bullies; shame was more associated with the victims; and indifference, shame and guiltiness with bystanders. This research is embedded in former studies that analyse the happy victimizer phenomenon and moral disengagement, and in the results are discussed in line with this theoretical framework.

    Key words: Peer bullying, moral emotions, sociomoral reasoning, adolescents.

  6. Atención individualizada y tratamiento en grupo de adolescentes con fobia social generalizada

    OpenAIRE

    Jos\\u00E9 Olivares-Rodr\\u00EDguez; Ana Isabel Rosa-Alc\\u00E1zar; Pablo J. Olivares-Olivares

    2006-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio experimental es analizar la eficacia diferencial de la atención individualizada (tutoría) en el programa multicomponente Intervención en Adolescentes con Fobia Social (IAFS) con un grupo de 25 adolescentes escolarizados que presentaban fobia social generalizada. La edad media de los sujetos es de 15,32 años, siendo la mayoría chicas (64%) que cursaban 3º y 4º de Enseñanza Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO). Los sujetos fueron distribuidos aleatoriamente a ...

  7. Body composition in portuguese adolescents: are physical activity and maturity status sex-specific determinant factors? / Composição corporal em adolescentes portugueses: a atividade física e a maturidade são fatores determinantes específicos do sexo?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sofia, Silva; Filomena, Vieira; Filomena, Carnide; Ana, Assunção; José, Araújo; Ana, Vasco.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A influência da maturação biológica e atividade física (AF) nas diferenças de composição corporal em adolescentes tem sido pouco estudada. O objetivo deste estudo foi examinar se, na composição corporal dos adolescentes, a AF e a maturidade eram fatores determinantes específicos do sexo. Foram avali [...] ados noventa e quatro adolescentes (50 meninos e 44 meninas). Todas as medidas antropométricas foram obtidas de acordo com os procedimentos do ISAK, a idade óssea foi estimada pelo método TW3 e a AF foi avaliada com o Actigraph (r) GT1M, durante sete dias consecutivos. A maturidade explicou 33% do índice de massa corporal (IMC) e da circunferência da cintura (CC) e 31% do diâmetro abdominal-sagital (DAS), nos rapazes. Nas raparigas, a maturidade explicou 27% do índice cintura-anca (ICA), a AF moderada explicou 17% do IMC e 12% da CC e, a AF moderada-a-vigorosa explicou 11% do DAS. Estes resultados parecem indicar que os fatores determinantes da composição corporal dos adolescentes são específicos do sexo. A maturidade foi o principal fator preditivo nos rapazes e, em conjunto com a AF moderada, nas raparigas. Os nossos resultados suportam a evidência de que os investigadores precisam considerar a maturidade biológica quando explicam as alterações da composição corporal nos adolescentes. Abstract in english The influence of biological maturation and physical activity (PA) on the differences of body composition in adolescents have been little studied. The purpose of this study was to examine if PA and maturity status were sex-specific determinant factors in the adolescents' body composition. Ninety-four [...] adolescents (50 boys and 44 girls) were evaluated. All anthropometric measures were obtained according to ISAK procedures, bone age was estimated by the TW3 method, and PA was assessed with Actigraph (r) GT1M, over seven consecutive days. Maturity status explained 33% of the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) and 31% of the sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) in boys. In girls, maturity status explained 27% of the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), moderate PA explained 17% of the BMI and 12% of the WC, and moderate to vigorous PA explained 11% of the SAD. These results seem to indicate that the determinant factors of the adolescents' body composition are sex-specific. Maturity status was the main predictive factor in boys and interacted with PA in girls. Our findings support the evidence that researchers need to consider biological maturity when explaining body composition changes in adolescents.

  8. Versión Breve del STAI en Adolescentes y Universitarios Españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Guill\\u00E9n-Riquelme

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El STAI es uno de los instrumentos de evaluación psicológica más empleados, generándose diversas ver - siones breves del mismo. No se han hallado versiones breves en las que se haya comprobado el ajuste para muestras de adolescentes ni universitarios españoles. El objetivo de este artículo es comprobar cuál de las versiones cortas propuestas en la literatura tiene un mejor ajuste en adolescentes y universitarios. Para ello, se aplicó el STAI a 482 adolescentes escolarizados y 510 estudiantes universitarios, de diversas ciudades españolas. Mediante AFC se evaluó el ajuste de cinco versiones breves del STAI. En los universitarios hay dos modelos en los que se observa un buen ajuste. En los adolescentes no ajusta ningún modelo. Puede que el proceso de diferenciación emocional con la edad explique que en los adolescentes las versiones breves halladas (siempre con adultos no serían válidas, sí pudiendo emplearse con universitarios.

  9. Prevenção do consumo de álcool em manuais escolares de Ciências Naturais portugueses / Prévention de la consommation d’alcool dans les manuels scolaires de Sciences Naturelles portugaises / Prevention of alcohol consumption in Portuguese Natural Sciences’ textbooks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Augusta, Dias; José, Precioso.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de álcool é um problema grave, muito prevalente e em crescimento entre adolescentes escolarizados. Por este motivo, a prevenção do consumo de álcool deve ser realizada na escola. Os manuais escolares são um recurso a ser usado nos processos preventivos. A presente investigação tem como obj [...] etivo analisar as abordagens ao tema do consumo de álcool propostas pelos manuais escolares portugueses de Ciências Naturais para o 9.º ano de escolaridade. Neste sentido, procedeu-se à análise de conteúdo de sete manuais escolares existentes em Portugal para o ano letivo de 2008/2009, que estarão em vigor até ao ano de 2014. Os manuais escolares abordam a problemática do consumo de álcool de forma muito incompleta e superficial. Em nenhum manual são sugeridas atividades que desenvolvam nos estudantes competências para resistir às pressões que frequentemente conduzem ao consumo. Os autores dos manuais devem ter em conta a necessidade de aprofundar este tema. Abstract in english Alcohol consumption is a serious problem, very prevalent and growing among schooled adolescents. For that reason, the prevention of alcohol consumption should be carried out at school. School textbooks are a resource to be used in preventive processes. The objective of the present investigation is t [...] o analyze the approaches to contents concerning alcohol consumption proposed in 9th grade Portuguese Natural Sciences’ school textbooks. For that, one has proceeded to the contents analysis of the seven school books in Portugal for the school year of 2008/2009. These textbooks will be used until 2014. School textbooks approach the alcohol consumption problem in a very incomplete and superficial way. None suggests activities to develop students’ competences to resist to pressures leading to consumption. School textbook authors should take into account the need to discuss this topic.

  10. Adaptação cultural e validação da versão portuguesa da Escala de Expectativas acerca do Álcool: versão adolescentes / Cultural adaptation and validation of the portuguese version of the Alcohol Expectations Scale: Adolescent Form / Estudios de traducción y adaptación del Cuestionario de Expectativas Acerca del Alcohol: formato para adolescentes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Teresa, Barroso; Aida, Mendes; António, Barbosa.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos empíricos têm mostrado que as expectativas acerca do álcool são adquiridas precocemente, mesmo antes das experiências pessoais de consumo de álcool, sendo consideradas importantes mediadores do início e da manutenção do consumo de álcool. Neste quadro, é importante a investigação das expe [...] ctativas acerca do álcool nos adolescentes e o seu papel na transição para os padrões de consumo em adultos. Neste artigo é apresentada a tradução e adaptação do Álcool Expectancy Questionaire - Adolescent Form (AEQ-A). O processo de adaptação realizado incluiu três estudos com adolescentes (N=654; N=205 e N=212). Foi avaliada a consistência interna, a validade de constructo e a validade concorrente. Os três estudos psicométricos realizados resultaram no desenvolvimento da Escala de Expectativas Positivas Acerca do Álcool (EEPA-A/AEQ-A) que integra 49 itens em formato de resposta likert, que apresenta índices de fidelidade bons (a = .82 a .85), assim como validade de construto. A análise fatorial revelou uma estrutura com quatro fatores que designámos por: facilitador da relação com os outros; estimulação e redução da tensão; escape a estados emocionais negativos; e fator IV - Alteração do comportamento social e ativação sexual. A EEPA-A revelou propriedades que atestam a sua qualidade para analisar as expectativas acerca do álcool nos adolescentes. Abstract in spanish Los estudios empíricos han mostrado que las expectativas en relación al alcohol se adquieren de manera precoz, incluso antes de vivir experiencias personales relacionadas con su consumo, y se consideran además importantes mediadores del inicio y de la persistencia en el consumo. En este marco, es im [...] portante investigar las expectativas que los adolescentes tienen en torno al alcohol y su papel en la transición hacia patrones de consumo en adultos. En este artículo se presenta la traducción y adaptación del Cuestionario de Expectativas Acerca del Alcohol - formato para adolescentes [Alcool Expectancy Questionnaire - Adolescent Form (AEQ-A). El proceso de adaptación realizado incluye tres estudios con adolescentes (N=654; N=205 y N=212). Se evaluaron la consistencia interna, la validez de constructo y la validez concurrente. Los tres estudios psicométricos realizados dieron como resultado el desarrollo de una Escala de Expectativas Positivas Acerca del Alcohol (EEPA-A/AEQ-A) que integra 49 ítems en formato de respuesta Likert, que presenta buenos índices de fidelidad (a = .82 a .85), así como validez de constructo. El análisis factorial reveló una estructura con cuatro factores que designamos: factor I - Facilitador de la relación con los demás; factor II - Estimulación y reducción de la tensión; factor III - Escape a estados emocionales negativos y factor IV - Alteración del comportamiento social y activación sexual. Abstract in english Empirical studies have shown that alcohol expectations are acquired early in life, even before personal experiences of alcohol consumption. These expectations are important mediators of the onset and maintenance of alcohol consumption. In this regard, it is important to develop further research on a [...] lcohol expectations among teenagers and their role in the transition to their consumption patterns as adults. This article presents the translation and adaptation into Portuguese of the Alcohol Expectations Scale - Adolescent Form (AES-A). This process of adaptation included three studies with adolescents (n=654; n=205 and n=212). Internal consistency, construct validity and concurrent validity were assessed. The three psychometric studies resulted in the development of a Scale of Positive Alcohol Expectancies (EEPA-A/AES-A). It contains 49 Likert-type items, with good reliability (a = .82 to .85) and construct validity. Factor analysis showed the following four-factor structure: factor I - Facilitator of interpersonal relationships; factor II - Stimulation and tension reduction; factor III - Escape from negative emotional states; a

  11. Adaptação cultural e validação da versão portuguesa da Escala de Expectativas acerca do Álcool: versão adolescentes Estudios de traducción y adaptación del Cuestionario de Expectativas Acerca del Alcohol: formato para adolescentes Cultural adaptation and validation of the portuguese version of the Alcohol Expectations Scale: Adolescent Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Barroso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos empíricos têm mostrado que as expectativas acerca do álcool são adquiridas precocemente, mesmo antes das experiências pessoais de consumo de álcool, sendo consideradas importantes mediadores do início e da manutenção do consumo de álcool. Neste quadro, é importante a investigação das expectativas acerca do álcool nos adolescentes e o seu papel na transição para os padrões de consumo em adultos. Neste artigo é apresentada a tradução e adaptação do Álcool Expectancy Questionaire - Adolescent Form (AEQ-A. O processo de adaptação realizado incluiu três estudos com adolescentes (N=654; N=205 e N=212. Foi avaliada a consistência interna, a validade de constructo e a validade concorrente. Os três estudos psicométricos realizados resultaram no desenvolvimento da Escala de Expectativas Positivas Acerca do Álcool (EEPA-A/AEQ-A que integra 49 itens em formato de resposta likert, que apresenta índices de fidelidade bons (a = .82 a .85, assim como validade de construto. A análise fatorial revelou uma estrutura com quatro fatores que designámos por: facilitador da relação com os outros; estimulação e redução da tensão; escape a estados emocionais negativos; e fator IV - Alteração do comportamento social e ativação sexual. A EEPA-A revelou propriedades que atestam a sua qualidade para analisar as expectativas acerca do álcool nos adolescentes.Los estudios empíricos han mostrado que las expectativas en relación al alcohol se adquieren de manera precoz, incluso antes de vivir experiencias personales relacionadas con su consumo, y se consideran además importantes mediadores del inicio y de la persistencia en el consumo. En este marco, es importante investigar las expectativas que los adolescentes tienen en torno al alcohol y su papel en la transición hacia patrones de consumo en adultos. En este artículo se presenta la traducción y adaptación del Cuestionario de Expectativas Acerca del Alcohol - formato para adolescentes [Alcool Expectancy Questionnaire - Adolescent Form (AEQ-A. El proceso de adaptación realizado incluye tres estudios con adolescentes (N=654; N=205 y N=212. Se evaluaron la consistencia interna, la validez de constructo y la validez concurrente. Los tres estudios psicométricos realizados dieron como resultado el desarrollo de una Escala de Expectativas Positivas Acerca del Alcohol (EEPA-A/AEQ-A que integra 49 ítems en formato de respuesta Likert, que presenta buenos índices de fidelidad (a = .82 a .85, así como validez de constructo. El análisis factorial reveló una estructura con cuatro factores que designamos: factor I - Facilitador de la relación con los demás; factor II - Estimulación y reducción de la tensión; factor III - Escape a estados emocionales negativos y factor IV - Alteración del comportamiento social y activación sexual.Empirical studies have shown that alcohol expectations are acquired early in life, even before personal experiences of alcohol consumption. These expectations are important mediators of the onset and maintenance of alcohol consumption. In this regard, it is important to develop further research on alcohol expectations among teenagers and their role in the transition to their consumption patterns as adults. This article presents the translation and adaptation into Portuguese of the Alcohol Expectations Scale - Adolescent Form (AES-A. This process of adaptation included three studies with adolescents (n=654; n=205 and n=212. Internal consistency, construct validity and concurrent validity were assessed. The three psychometric studies resulted in the development of a Scale of Positive Alcohol Expectancies (EEPA-A/AES-A. It contains 49 Likert-type items, with good reliability (a = .82 to .85 and construct validity. Factor analysis showed the following four-factor structure: factor I - Facilitator of interpersonal relationships; factor II - Stimulation and tension reduction; factor III - Escape from negative emotional states; and factor IV - Change in social behaviour and sexual arousal. The EEPA has

  12. Portuguese compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Rio-torto, Grac?a; Ribeiro, Si?lvia

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of compounding in Portuguese. Conceived as a plurilexematic unit used as a holistic denomination, a compound is characterized by lexical atomicity. The compound classes’ continuum we propose is based on the morpho-lexical nature of the internal units (root, word) and on the (non) conformity of compound constructions with Portuguese syntactic templates. Since Portuguese compounds constitute a heterogeneous and bordering class, this analysis al...

  13. Instruments for assessing social phobias in infants and adolescents in the Portuguese language / Instrumentos de avaliação da fobia social para crianças e adolescentes em língua portuguesa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriel José Chittó, Gauer; Cristine, Boaz; Prisla Ücker, Calvetti; Leonardo Machado da, Silva.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico de fobia social é o mais prevalente dentre os transtornos de ansiedade. Alguns instrumentos de avaliação diagnóstica vêm sendo validados no Brasil visando a avaliações cada vez mais precisas e específicas para cada faixa etária. O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar os instrumentos de av [...] aliação da fobia social para crianças e adolescentes validados no Brasil e fazer uma discussão sobre os mais utilizados, bem como sobre as intervenções para este transtorno. Com este objetivo, foi realizada uma revisão bibliográfica em bases de dados. Pôde-se observar um número significativo de estudos sobre instrumentos validados para avaliação de fobia social para crianças e adolescentes, porém com pouca expressão e utilização clínica. Em relação à intervenção da fobia social, o Brasil se destaca nas intervenções psicoterapêuticas estruturadas para auxiliar na melhora do transtorno, embora nenhum protocolo desenvolvido e validado no Brasil tenha sido encontrado neste estudo. Abstract in english The diagnosis of social phobia is the most prevalent of the anxiety disorders. Some diagnostic evaluation tools have been validated in Brazil targeting more precise and specific evaluations for each age group. The main objective of this study is to review the tools for assessing social phobias in in [...] fants and adolescents, currently validated in Brazil. The most commonly used tools and their purpose to evaluate social phobias are discussed, as well as their interventions. With this goal in mind, a bibliographical review was conducted in databases. The existence was observed of a significant number of studies about tools that have already been evaluated for the assessment of social phobias in infants and adolescents, though with little relevance and narrow application in the clinical setting. Psychotherapeutic interventions for social phobias in Brazil show themselves to be structured and systematic, though there has been no widely employed, validated protocol to help the diagnosis.

  14. Versão portuguesa do questionário de pensamentos automáticos-revisto: relação com sintomatologia depressiva em adolescentes / Portuguese version of the automatic thoughts questionnaires - revised: relation with depressive symptomatology in adolescents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Inês Margarida, Pereira; Ana Paula, Matos; Andreia, Azevedo.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O papel das cognições e dos pensamentos automáticos na Depressão é evidenciado por vários modelos cognitivos de psicopatologia, sendo a sua avaliação essencial, não apenas para a discriminação de sujeitos deprimidos e não deprimidos, como também devido à sua utilidade para a intervenção. A presente [...] investigação apresenta a estrutura fatorial da versão Portuguesa do Questionário de Pensamentos Automáticos-Revisto (QPA-R; Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire-Revised, ATQ-R; Kendall, Howard, & Hays, 1989), desenvolvido para avaliar cognições depressogénicas, e estuda a sua relação com sintomatologia depressiva. A amostra é constituída por 245 adolescentes da população geral, 88 do sexo masculino e 157 do sexo feminino, com idades entre os 14 e os 18 anos (M=15,61; DP = 1,3). A análise fatorial revelou a existência de três fatores que explicam 54% da variância. Os dois primeiros fatores, “Baixo Auto-Conceito e Expectativas Negativas” e “Desajustamento Pessoal e Desejo de Mudança”, são constituídos por pensamentos negativos e o terceiro, “Pensamentos Automáticos Positivos”, constituído por cognições positivas. O QPA-R distingue ainda adolescentes que pontuam acima e abaixo do ponto de corte no CDI (Children´s Depression Inventory; Kovacs, 1985, 1992; Marujo, 1994). Os resultados sugerem que este instrumento é válido para identificar cognições depressogénicas e que as mesmas se encontram associadas à sintomatologia depressiva.: O QPA-R avalia um constructo importante associado à depressão e poderá ser utilizado com adolescentes, em investigação e na clínica, tanto na identificação precoce de sintomatologia depressiva, como no tratamento da mesma. Abstract in english Cognitive models of psychopathology have emphasized the role of cognitions and automatic thoughts in Depression. Assessment of these self- statements has proved to be essential not only to distinguish between depressed and non-depressed subjects, but also because of its use in therapy. The current i [...] nvestigation presents the fatorial structure of the Portuguese version of the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaires - Revised (QPA-R; Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire-Revised, ATQ-R; Kendall, Howard, & Hays, 1989) which was developed to evaluate depressogenic cognitions and studies its relation with depressive symptomatology. The sample is comprised by 245 adolescents from the general population, 88 males and 157 females, aged 14 to 18 (M=15.61; SD = 1.3). Fatorial analysis revealed three fators, which explain 54% of the variance. The first two fators, “Low/Negative Self-Concept and Negative Expectations” and “Personal Maladjustment and Desire for Change”, consisting of negative automatic thoughts and the third, “Positive Automatic Thoughts”, with positive automatic thoughts. The ATQ-R was able to differentiate adolescents who scored higher than a cut-off point in the CDI (Children´s Depression Inventory; Kovacs, 1985, 1992; Marujo, 1994) from a comparison group scoring lower. Results suggest that this is a valid instrument in identifying depressogenic cognitions and that these are associated with depressive symptomatology. The ATQ-R evaluates an important construct associated with depression and may be used in investigation and therapy with adolescents, not only in the early identification of depressive symptomatology but also in its treatment.

  15. Perfil epidemiológico de la salud sexual y reproductiva de un grupo de adolescentes escolarizados: una perspectiva desde los derechos. Bello-Colombia. 2005-2008; Epidemiological profile of sexual and reproductive health among school teenagers: a perspective from human rights. Bello-Colombia. 2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ramírez Gómez, Enf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir la situación de la SSR, y sus determinantes protectores y deteriorantes, en los adolescentes de una institución de educación pública de Bello-Colombia. Método. Estudio descriptivo en el que se encuestaron estudiantes entre los 10 y 19 años de una institución educativa de Bello (Colombia, seleccionados mediante muestreo aleatorio simple; también se realizaron grupos de discusión con adolescentes, padres y profesores de la institución educativa. Resultados. Participaron 233 adolescentes, el 56% del sexo masculino, edad promedio de 14 años con una desviación estándar de 2.2 años. En las variables sociales el 62% se encuentran en el estrato socioeconómico 2 y 3, en la afiliación al SGSSS el 39% está afiliado al régimen contributivo y el 34% al subsidiado; el resto no lo sabía o no estaba carnetizado. En comportamiento sexual el 32% había experimentado la sexarquia, y de éstos el 9% fue a una edad menor a los 10 años, el 28% entre los 10 y 13 años, el 55% entre los 14 y 16 años, y el resto a edad mayor de los 17 años; del total el 17% había tenido menos de dos compa??eros sexuales el año anterior a la encuesta y el 14% tres o más compañeros, solamente un hombre refirió más de 10 parejas diferentes el último año. El 11% de los encuestados tenía antecedentes de embarazo, y de éstos el 58% terminó en aborto, y el 2.1% refirió antecedentes de infecciones de transmisión sexual; los derechos más vulnerados fueron el de formación oportuna completa e imparcializada en el tema de la sexualidad, la autonomía, la libre expresión de la sexualidad, la opción de reproducción, la intimidad personal y el buen nombre. Conclusión. Se encontró alto porcentaje de adolescentes con experiencias sexuales en etapas tempranas de la adolescencia, así mismo falta de formación en temas de sexualidad, salud sexual y reproductiva en los padres de familia y docentes de la institución educativa; la institución de salud no aporta a la educación de los adolescentes en estos temas.______________________________________________________________________Objective. Describe the status of sexual and reproductive health (S&RH, and its protective and deterring determinants, of adolescents from a public´s education institution of Bello, Colombia. Method. Descriptive study that surveyed students between 10 and 19 years, from an educational institution of Bello (Colombia, selected by simple random sampling, focus groups with teens, parents and teachers of the school were also conducted. Results. In the study participated 233 adolescents, 56% male, median age was 14 year-old and standard deviation was 2.2 year-olds. Social variables show that 62% are from 2and 3 socioeconomic strata, Related to the Social Security System in Health (SSSH enrolment 39% members are affiliated to the contributory regime and 34% to subsidize system, the rest did not know whether or not have an affiliation to health system. Related to sexual behavior, 32% had experienced the first intercourse, from them 9% were ayounger than 10 year-old, 28% between 10 and 13 year-old, 55% between 14 and 16 year-old, and the rest were above 17 year-old, from the total less than 17% had two sexual partners in the year before the survey and 14% had three or more partners, only one man referred to have over 10 different partners last year. Eleven percent of respondents had a history of pregnancy, and of them 58% ended inabortion, and 2.1% reported a history of sexually transmitted infections, the most violated rights were: complete, unbiased and timely information on sexual issues, autonomy, and free expression of sexuality, reproductive choice, personal privacy and reputation.Conclusion. We found a high percentage of teenagers with sexual experiences early in adolescence as well as lack of education about sexuality; sexual and reproductive health in parents and teachers of the school, the health facility does not contribute to educate adolescents on these issues.

  16. Cambios persistentes en conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre sexualidad en adolescentes y jóvenes escolarizados de cuatro municipios de Santander - Colombia Persistent changes in knowledge, attitudes and practices related to sexuality in adolescents and young students from four municipalities in Santander - Colombia

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    Lucila Niño Bautista

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La educación para la sexualidad hace parte del compromiso de formación integral de las instituciones educativas en Colombia; por eso evaluar características de estos procesos educativos y buscar asociación con cambios en conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas en adolescentes y jóvenes, aporta información para reorientar y enriquecer estrategias y programas en este campo. Metodología: Estudio observacional de corte longitudinal analítico en adolescentes y jóvenes entre 12 y 19 años quienes recibieron un proceso de educación para la sexualidad y tres mediciones de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas mediante encuesta, previo consentimiento informado. La última medición se hizo dos años después del proceso educativo inicial. En el análisis se buscó la asociación de variables mediante coeficiente de correlación de Spearman, la t de Student o chi cuadrado dependiendo del tipo y características de las variables. Resultados: Grupos de 244, 111 y 139 estudiantes participaron en las mediciones. En conocimientos se encontró diferencia significativa por sexo a favor de las mujeres y mejores conocimientos en el grupo que ha tenido relaciones sexuales, en tanto que las actitudes fueron mejores entre quienes no las han tenido; así mismo se encontró correlación entre actitudes y prácticas. Las técnicas didácticas con significancia estadística fueron el cine-foro para conocimientos y el taller para actitudes. Y como agente educativo solo mostró diferencia el personal de bienestar estudiantil para trabajar las actitudes. Conclusiones: Es necesario continuar desarrollando investigación sobre los procesos de educación para la sexualidad, pues la efectividad del trabajo educativo observado en la persistencia e integralidad de cambios en conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas aún deja muchos interrogantes. Salud UIS 2012; 44 (2:21-33Introduction: The education for sexuality is part of the commitment to integral formation made by educative institutions in Colombia; therefore, the evaluation of these features of the educative processes and the search of association with changes in knowledge, attitudes and practices among adolescents and youngsters provide information to guide and enrich strategies and programs in this field. Methodology: Observational and analytical longitudinal study among adolescents and youngsters with age between 12 and 19 years who received an educational process for sexuality and three measures tests of their knowledge, attitudes and practices were taken throughout a inquest, with a previous informed consent. The last measurement was done two years later from the initial educative process. In the analysis the association of variables was sought out using the Spearman correlation coefficient, the Student's T distribution or chi squared test depending on the type and characteristics of the variables. Results: groups of 244, 111 and 139 students participated in the measuring. In terms of their knowledge a significant difference was found between genders favoring women and the group who has had sexual intercourse; in contrast, the attitudes were best between those who have not had it. Likewise, it was found that there was a correlation between attitudes and practices. The didactic techniques with a statistical significance were the movie forum for knowledge and the workshop for attitudes. As educative agent the students welfare staff was the only that showed a difference when working with attitudes. Conclusions: Since the effectiveness of the educative training observed in the persistence and integrality of changes in knowledge, attitudes and practices still leaves many questions, it is necessary to continue the development of research about the processes of education for sexuality. Salud UIS 2012; 44 (2:21-33

  17. Cambios persistentes en conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre sexualidad en adolescentes y jóvenes escolarizados de cuatro municipios de Santander - Colombia / Persistent changes in knowledge, attitudes and practices related to sexuality in adolescents and young students from four municipalities in Santander - Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucila, Niño Bautista; María Constanza, Hakspiel Plata; Alba Yaneth, Rincón Méndez; Darlen, Aragón Borré; Zayne Milena, Roa Diaz; Diana Carolina, Galvis Padilla; Alba, Luna.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La educación para la sexualidad hace parte del compromiso de formación integral de las instituciones educativas en Colombia; por eso evaluar características de estos procesos educativos y buscar asociación con cambios en conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas en adolescentes y jóvenes, a [...] porta información para reorientar y enriquecer estrategias y programas en este campo. Metodología: Estudio observacional de corte longitudinal analítico en adolescentes y jóvenes entre 12 y 19 años quienes recibieron un proceso de educación para la sexualidad y tres mediciones de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas mediante encuesta, previo consentimiento informado. La última medición se hizo dos años después del proceso educativo inicial. En el análisis se buscó la asociación de variables mediante coeficiente de correlación de Spearman, la t de Student o chi cuadrado dependiendo del tipo y características de las variables. Resultados: Grupos de 244, 111 y 139 estudiantes participaron en las mediciones. En conocimientos se encontró diferencia significativa por sexo a favor de las mujeres y mejores conocimientos en el grupo que ha tenido relaciones sexuales, en tanto que las actitudes fueron mejores entre quienes no las han tenido; así mismo se encontró correlación entre actitudes y prácticas. Las técnicas didácticas con significancia estadística fueron el cine-foro para conocimientos y el taller para actitudes. Y como agente educativo solo mostró diferencia el personal de bienestar estudiantil para trabajar las actitudes. Conclusiones: Es necesario continuar desarrollando investigación sobre los procesos de educación para la sexualidad, pues la efectividad del trabajo educativo observado en la persistencia e integralidad de cambios en conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas aún deja muchos interrogantes. Salud UIS 2012; 44 (2):21-33 Abstract in english Introduction: The education for sexuality is part of the commitment to integral formation made by educative institutions in Colombia; therefore, the evaluation of these features of the educative processes and the search of association with changes in knowledge, attitudes and practices among adolesce [...] nts and youngsters provide information to guide and enrich strategies and programs in this field. Methodology: Observational and analytical longitudinal study among adolescents and youngsters with age between 12 and 19 years who received an educational process for sexuality and three measures tests of their knowledge, attitudes and practices were taken throughout a inquest, with a previous informed consent. The last measurement was done two years later from the initial educative process. In the analysis the association of variables was sought out using the Spearman correlation coefficient, the Student's T distribution or chi squared test depending on the type and characteristics of the variables. Results: groups of 244, 111 and 139 students participated in the measuring. In terms of their knowledge a significant difference was found between genders favoring women and the group who has had sexual intercourse; in contrast, the attitudes were best between those who have not had it. Likewise, it was found that there was a correlation between attitudes and practices. The didactic techniques with a statistical significance were the movie forum for knowledge and the workshop for attitudes. As educative agent the students welfare staff was the only that showed a difference when working with attitudes. Conclusions: Since the effectiveness of the educative training observed in the persistence and integrality of changes in knowledge, attitudes and practices still leaves many questions, it is necessary to continue the development of research about the processes of education for sexuality. Salud UIS 2012; 44 (2):21-33

  18. Conduites a risques et devalorisation de soi: etude de la consommation de toxiques (tabac, alcool, et drogue) chez les adolescents scolarises / Risk behaviour and low self-esteem: study on the toxic substance use (cigarettes, alcohol and drugs) of adolescent s students / Comportamento de risco e baixa de auto-estima: estudo do consumo de substâncias tóxicas (tabaco, álcool e droga) em adolescentes escolarizados

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N., Oubrayrie-Roussel; C., Safont-Mottay.

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available A presente investigação visa identificar os comportamentos de risco, particularmente o consumo de tabaco, álcool e drogas. A população do estudo é constituída por 2000 alunos, com idades entre os 13 e 20 anos, que frequentavam as escolas de uma zona rural do sudoeste da França. Estes responderam a d [...] ois questionários, um relativo à auto-estima e outro ao consumo de substâncias tóxicas e comportamentos violentos. Os resultados mostraram diferenças estatisticamente significativas relativamente ao consumo precoce de substâncias toxicas (13 anos) e a outras condutas de risco (violência agida) colocando o acento na necessidade de aquisição de confiança em si, e sobre a necessidade de ser reconhecido pelos outros. Certos consumos associados a uma desvalorização de si exprimem mal-estar adolescente, com base na incerteza sobre o futuro e exprimindo dificuldades no controlo das situações quotidianas. Os resultados apontam para a necessidade de uma despistagem precoce e também de uma colaboração entre os pais, professores e profissionais de saúde. Abstract in english The aims of this research are to identify risk behaviour, more specifically drug use (cigarette, alcohol, and drugs). Sample includes 2000 students aged between and 20 years, belonging to a country school, south east of France. The participants answer to a questionnaire design to access self-esteem, [...] and to access drug use and violent behaviour. Results show statistically significant differences on early use of drugs (13 years) and other risk behaviour (violent behaviour) related to low self-esteem. Drug use seems to express low well-being, uncertain about the future and low control on everyday life situations. Results suggests that it is important to screen young people and the collaboration between family and teachers to protect young people from risk behaviour.

  19. Calidad de vida en adolescentes: Análisis desde las fortalezas personales y las emociones negativas

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    Japcy Margarita Quiceno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar las relaciones de las fortalezas personales y las emociones negativas sobre la calidad de vida de 686 adolescentes escolarizados de la ciudad de Bogotá, Colombia, según el sexo y el estrato socioeconómico. Instrumentos: escala de resiliencia adolescente ARS, escala de autotrascendencia adolescente STS, escala subjetiva de felicidad SHS, test de orientación de vida en jóvenes YLOT, inventario de depresión infantil CDI, inventario infantil de estresores cotidianos IIEC y The KIDSCREEN-52. Los resultados mostraron niveles moderados en calidad de vida y resiliencia, y niveles bajos de emociones negativas. El análisis de regresión lineal múltiple indicó que las fortalezas personales y las emociones negativas pesan sobre la calidad de vida más en los hombres y en el estrato socioeconómico medio y alto. Conclusión: la calidad de vida en adolescentes es mediada por la autotrascendencia, la felicidad y emociones negativas como depresión.

  20. Conductas de riesgo, síntomas depresivos, auto y heteroagresión en una muestra de adolescentes escolarizados en la Región Metropolitana de Santiago de Chile, 2007 Risk behaviors, depressive symptoms, auto and heteroaggresion in a sample of adolescent students in Metropolitan Santiago de Chile, 2007

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    Ramón Florenzano U

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio busca corroborar en Santiago de Chile el marco referencial de Brian Barber¹ que relaciona consumo de drogas, depresión, suicidalidad y conductas violentas con estilos parentales. Encontramos que la aceptación de los padres se correlaciona positivamente con iniciativa adolescente y negativamente con síntomas depresivos y suicidas; el control psicológico con depresión, y el control conductual con conducta antisocial. Material y Métodos: En conjunto con su autor, se adapta el instrumento CNAP, Cross National Adolescent Program (Versión CNAP Plus y se aplica a una muestra representativa aleatoria trietápica de la Región Metropolitana (n = 1.447. Resultados: A peor relación con los padres mayor consumo, depresión, ideación suicida, y conductas heteroagresivas. Se encuentran coeficientes de correlación de Spearman en la misma dirección de los del estudio internacional CNAP. Se encontró consumo frecuente de alcohol en 26,9%>, de tabaco en 31,2%, de marihuana en 6,9%, de cocaína u otras drogas en 2,3% de la muestra estudiada. Hay en la misma muestra ideación suicida en 7,7% y síntomas depresivos en 6,9%. La autoagresión predomina en mujeres y la heteroagresión en varones. Con la edad aumenta el consumo de alcohol (%² =107,95, p = 0,0001, de tabaco (%²= 63,02, p = 0,0001, de marihuana (%² = 18,78, p = 0,001 y de cocaína (%² = 8,995, p = 0,06. No hay diferencias por edad en conductas violentas, ideación suicida o síntomas depresivos. Conclusiones: Los resultados obtenidos por Barber en la aplicación multicultural de su modelo en 16 países se confirman en este estudio en Santiago de Chile, lo que importa como base de información posible de considerar en el diseño de políticas públicas (estatales y privadas y de intervenciones preventivas. Esta encuesta confirma estudios previos sobre sexo, edad y estilos parentales: hay mayor consumo desustancias químicas y conductas heteroagresivas entre los varones y de sentimientos depresivos e ideación suicida entre las mujeres. Las conductas estudiadas aumentan con la edad, con excepción de la violencia; estas conductas se correlacionan entre sí, y disminuyen con una buena relación con los padres.The aim of this study is to corroborate a reference framework that relates parental styles with drugs consumption, depression, self and other aggressive behaviors. We found that parents' acceptance correlates positively with adolescents' initiative and negatively with depressive and suicidal symptoms; psychological control with depression and behavioral control with antisocial behavior. Material and Methods: The CNAP+ (Cross National Adolescent Program questionnaire (version CNAP Plus was adapted in interaction with its author; and then was applied to a representative, random, three-stages sample of the Metropolitan Region (n = 1.447. Results: The worse the relation with parents, the higher the consumption, depression, suicidal ideation and hetero aggressive behaviors. Spearman's correlation coefficients were found in the same direction of a previous transcultural CNAP study. Frequent consumption of alcohol was found in 26.9%, of tobacco in 31.2%, of marihuana in 6.9% and of cocaine or other drugs in 2.3% of the sample studied. The same sample has suicide ideation 7.76% and depressive symptoms 6.9%. Self aggression prevailed among women and hetero aggression among men. With age there was an increase in alcohol consumption (%2 = 107.95, p = 0.0001, of tobacco (f = 63.02, p = 0.0001, of marihuana (f = 18.78, p = 0.001 and of cocaine (%2 = 8.995, p = 0.06. There is differential by age in violent behaviors, suicide ideation or depressive symptoms. Conclusion: The results obtained by Barber et al in the multicultural application of his model in 16 countries is confirmed in this study run in Santiago de Chile. This is relevant to consider when designing public policies and preventive interventions. This survey confirms previous studies regarding sex, age and parental styles; there is higher consumption of chemical substances and hetero

  1. Conductas de riesgo, síntomas depresivos, auto y heteroagresión en una muestra de adolescentes escolarizados en la Región Metropolitana de Santiago de Chile, 2007 / Risk behaviors, depressive symptoms, auto and heteroaggresion in a sample of adolescent students in Metropolitan Santiago de Chile, 2007

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ramón, Florenzano U; Eugenio, Cáceres C; Macarena, Valdés C; Silvia, Calderón S; Sylvia, Santander R; Martín, Casassus T.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio busca corroborar en Santiago de Chile el marco referencial de Brian Barber¹ que relaciona consumo de drogas, depresión, suicidalidad y conductas violentas con estilos parentales. Encontramos que la aceptación de los padres se correlaciona positivamente con iniciativa adolescente y negat [...] ivamente con síntomas depresivos y suicidas; el control psicológico con depresión, y el control conductual con conducta antisocial. Material y Métodos: En conjunto con su autor, se adapta el instrumento CNAP, Cross National Adolescent Program (Versión CNAP Plus) y se aplica a una muestra representativa aleatoria trietápica de la Región Metropolitana (n = 1.447). Resultados: A peor relación con los padres mayor consumo, depresión, ideación suicida, y conductas heteroagresivas. Se encuentran coeficientes de correlación de Spearman en la misma dirección de los del estudio internacional CNAP. Se encontró consumo frecuente de alcohol en 26,9%>, de tabaco en 31,2%, de marihuana en 6,9%, de cocaína u otras drogas en 2,3% de la muestra estudiada. Hay en la misma muestra ideación suicida en 7,7% y síntomas depresivos en 6,9%. La autoagresión predomina en mujeres y la heteroagresión en varones. Con la edad aumenta el consumo de alcohol (%² =107,95, p = 0,0001), de tabaco (%²= 63,02, p = 0,0001), de marihuana (%² = 18,78, p = 0,001) y de cocaína (%² = 8,995, p = 0,06). No hay diferencias por edad en conductas violentas, ideación suicida o síntomas depresivos. Conclusiones: Los resultados obtenidos por Barber en la aplicación multicultural de su modelo en 16 países se confirman en este estudio en Santiago de Chile, lo que importa como base de información posible de considerar en el diseño de políticas públicas (estatales y privadas) y de intervenciones preventivas. Esta encuesta confirma estudios previos sobre sexo, edad y estilos parentales: hay mayor consumo desustancias químicas y conductas heteroagresivas entre los varones y de sentimientos depresivos e ideación suicida entre las mujeres. Las conductas estudiadas aumentan con la edad, con excepción de la violencia; estas conductas se correlacionan entre sí, y disminuyen con una buena relación con los padres. Abstract in english The aim of this study is to corroborate a reference framework that relates parental styles with drugs consumption, depression, self and other aggressive behaviors. We found that parents' acceptance correlates positively with adolescents' initiative and negatively with depressive and suicidal symptom [...] s; psychological control with depression and behavioral control with antisocial behavior. Material and Methods: The CNAP+ (Cross National Adolescent Program) questionnaire (version CNAP Plus) was adapted in interaction with its author; and then was applied to a representative, random, three-stages sample of the Metropolitan Region (n = 1.447). Results: The worse the relation with parents, the higher the consumption, depression, suicidal ideation and hetero aggressive behaviors. Spearman's correlation coefficients were found in the same direction of a previous transcultural CNAP study. Frequent consumption of alcohol was found in 26.9%, of tobacco in 31.2%, of marihuana in 6.9% and of cocaine or other drugs in 2.3%) of the sample studied. The same sample has suicide ideation 7.76% and depressive symptoms 6.9%. Self aggression prevailed among women and hetero aggression among men. With age there was an increase in alcohol consumption (%2 = 107.95, p = 0.0001), of tobacco (f = 63.02, p = 0.0001), of marihuana (f = 18.78, p = 0.001) and of cocaine (%2 = 8.995, p = 0.06). There is differential by age in violent behaviors, suicide ideation or depressive symptoms. Conclusion: The results obtained by Barber et al in the multicultural application of his model in 16 countries is confirmed in this study run in Santiago de Chile. This is relevant to consider when designing public policies and preventive interventions. This survey confirms previous studies regarding sex, age and parental styles; there is hig

  2. ADOLESCENTES EN RIESGO PSICOSOCIAL Y RESILIENCIA

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    Griselda Cardozo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue detectar las variables individuales y sociales que contribuyen al fortalecimiento del proceso de resiliencia en 210 adolescentes escolarizados de ambos sexos de un nivel socioeconómico bajo, residentes en la ciudad de Córdoba (Argentina. La investigación permitió detectar dos grupos (resilientes- no resilientes, los cuales fueron comparados en relación a las características sociodemográficas y con las variables en estudio. Se observaron diferencias significativas en relación con auto-concepto, soporte social, inteligencia y sucesos estresantes de vida por problemas personales. El análisis realizado a través de la regresión múltiple logística indica que el autoconcepto es la variable mejor predictora de la resiliencia, seguida de soporte social y autorregulación de habilidades (cognitivas- emocionales.

  3. Portuguese in Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jon

    This report addresses itself to questions asked by Toronto teachers of Portuguese New Canadians. It aims at a comprehensive understanding of the socio-historical development of Portuguese people as related to present urbanization problems faced by the Portuguese immigrants in Toronto. The introduction establishes the cultural and historical…

  4. Bullying among schoolchildren: differences between victims and aggressors / Acoso escolar en jóvenes escolarizados: diferencias entre víctimas y agresores

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Xavier, Garcia-Continente; Anna, Pérez-Giménez; Albert, Espelt; Manel, Nebot Adell.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar los factores asociados al acoso escolar entre adolescentes escolarizados, analizando víctimas, agresores y víctimas/agresores por separado. Métodos: Estudio transversal en una muestra representativa de 3089 estudiantes de escuelas de secundaria (13-18 años) de Barcelona. Los ro [...] les de acoso escolar se definieron a partir de tres ítems sobre diferentes tipos de maltrato (insultos, agresión física y marginación social). Resultados: Los escolares involucrados en acoso escolar tenían mayor probabilidad de ser chicos y presentar un estado de ánimo negativo con respecto a los no involucrados. Además, las víctimas eran más jóvenes, presentaban más sobrepeso u obesidad, y consumían menos cannabis, mientras que los agresores también eran más jóvenes pero declaraban realizar conductas antisociales en mayor medida, y un mayor consumo de cannabis y alcohol. Las víctimas/agresores realizaban más conductas antisociales y presentaban sobrepeso. Conclusiones: Estar involucrado en acoso escolar, con independencia del rol, se asoció a problemas relacionados con la salud, que podrían llegar a derivar en trastornos psicológicos en la edad adulta. Abstract in english Objective: To identify the factors associated with bullying behaviors among adolescents by analyzing victims, aggressors and victims/aggressors separately. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in a representative sample of 3,089 secondary school students (13-18 years old) in Barcelona (Spa [...] in). To define bullying behaviors, we used three questions about different types of mistreatment (jeering, attacking, marginalizing). Results: Compared with secondary school students not involved in bullying, victims, aggressors and victims/aggressors were more likely to be boys and to report negative mood states. Victims were younger, were more overweight or obese and were lighter cannabis users, while aggressors were also younger but reported more antisocial behaviors and more cannabis and alcohol use. Victims/aggressors reported more antisocial behaviors and were overweight. Conclusions: Being involved in bullying, independently of the role adopted, was associated with health-related problems, which can lead to psychological disorders in adulthood.

  5. Adaptación del Inventario de Resiliencia ante el Suicidio (SRI-25) en adolescentes y jóvenes de Colombia Adapting the Suicide Resilience Inventory (SRI-25) for adolescents and young adults in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Fredy Hernán Villalobos-Galvis; Carolina Arévalo Ojeda; Fabio Darío Rojas Rivera

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Describir las propiedades psicométricas del Suicide Resilience Inventory (SRI-25), adaptado al español, en una muestra de adolescentes y jóvenes escolarizados de San Juan de Pasto, Colombia. MÉTODOS: Se adaptó el SRI-25 al idioma español por medio de una traducción simple. Se contó con 573 participantes, estudiantes de colegios y universidades, de 10 a 25 años de edad. RESULTADOS: En un análisis factorial exploratorio por componentes principales se encontró una estructura...

  6. Orientación al suicidio en adolescentes en una zona de Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón E. Paniagua S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El riesgo de orientación suicida es un estado que antecede a la ideación suicida que puede conducir a un intento de suicidio y posiblemente a un suicidio consumado; para la Salud Pública es un tema de interés por su magnitud y por la presión que ejerce sobre los sistemas de salud. Objetivo: el estudio buscó determinar la asociación del riesgo de orientación suicida con variables sociodemográficas y los indicadores de salud mental: dominios de depresión, funcionamiento familiar, vulnerabilidad familiar y consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en adolescentes escolarizados de la zona noroccidental de Medellín, 2010. Metodología: se realizó un estudio de corte transversal con una muestra aleatoria de 604 estudiantes. Se utilizaron los instrumentos: Inventario de orientación suicida (iso; Inventario de depresión en niños y adolescentes (cdi-la; ¿Cómo es tu Familia?; Entrevista Diagnóstica Internacional Compuesta (cici ii y el Apgar familiar. Se realizaron un análisis factorial confirmatorio y una regresión logística. Resultados: existe asociación del riesgo de orientación suicida en un adolescente escolarizado con los indicadores: acumulación de tensiones en la familia, escasa búsqueda de apoyo, mal funcionamiento familiar, vulnerabilidad en valores morales y la presencia de sintomatología depresiva. Conclusión: el buen funcionamiento de la familia es una estrategia inmediata muy importante para la salud mental del adolescente escolarizado. Abstract The risk of suicide orientation is a state preceding suicidal ideation that can lead to a suicide attempt and, possibly, to a successful suicide. Given its magnitude and the pressure it exerts on health systems, suicide is considered a topic of interest for public health. Objective: the study sought to determine the association of suicide orientation risk with: sociodemographic variables and mental health indicators such as: domains of depression, family functioning, family vulnerability and psychoactive substance consumption among adolescent students in the northwest area of Medellin, 2010. Methodology: the researchers performed a cross-sectional study with a random sample of 604 students. The following instruments were used: Inventory of Suicide Orientation (iso 30, Children's Depression Inventory (cdi-la, ¿How is your family? Composite International Diagnostic Interview (cidi ii and the Apgar family test. Similarly, a confirmatory factor analysis and a logistic regression were conducted. Results: there is association between suicide orientation risk among adolescent students and the following indicators: accumulation of stress in the family, poor search for support, poor family functioning, vulnerability in their moral values and presence of depression symptoms. Conclusion: good family functioning is a very important immediate strategy for achieving good mental health among adolescent students.

  7. The portuguese in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Victor M. P. Da; Gandsman, Ari; Trigo, Salvato

    2010-01-01

    Desde a época colonial que os portugueses fazem parte da história da venezuela e continuam a ser um dos grupos mais importantes do mosaico nacional. Utilizando uma abordagem simultaneamente histórica e antropológica, os autores tentam demonstrar como a comunidade de origem lusitana constitui um bom exemplo de integração na sociedade venezuelana. The Portuguese have played a formative role in the history of venezuela since the colonial period...

  8. Tradução do questionário Children Helping Out - Responsibilities, Expectations and Supports (CHORES) para o português - Brasil: equivalências semântica, idiomática, conceitual, experiencial e administração em crianças e adolescentes normais e com paralisia cerebral / Translation of the Children Helping Out - Responsibilities, Expectations and Supports (CHORES) questionnaire into Brazilian-Portuguese: semantic, idiomatic, conceptual and experiential equivalences and application in normal children and adolescents and in children with cerebral palsy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maíra, Amaral; Rebeca L., Paula; Adriana, Drummond; Louise, Dunn; Marisa C., Mancini.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A participação de crianças com deficiência nas ocupações diárias em diferentes contextos tem sido uma meta terapêutica compartilhada por pais e profissionais da área de reabilitação, gerando crescente demanda na elaboração de instrumentação. O Children Helping Out: Responsibilities [...] , Expectations and Supports (CHORES) foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de mensurar a participação de crianças e adolescentes na rotina domiciliar. OBJETIVOS: Traduzir o questionário CHORES para a língua portuguesa - Brasil, avaliar as equivalências semântica, idiomática, experiencial e conceitual, administrá-lo em crianças e adolescentes com e sem deficiência e testar a confiabilidade teste-reteste. MÉTODO: Estudo metodológico desenvolvido nos seguintes estágios: (1) tradução do questionário por dois tradutores diferentes; (2) síntese das traduções; (3) retrotradução para o inglês; (4) análise por comitê de especialistas para desenvolver a versão pré-final; (5) confiabilidade teste-reteste; (6) administração em uma amostra de 50 pais de crianças com e sem deficiência. RESULTADOS: A tradução do CHORES foi validada em todos os estágios. As adaptações implementadas visaram a promover a compreensão do conteúdo por famílias de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos e escolaridade. O questionário apresentou forte consistência no intervalo de 7 a 14 dias (ICCs= 0,93 a 0,97; p=0,0001). Após a administração, não houve necessidade de modificação de item do questionário. CONCLUSÕES: A versão traduzida do CHORES para o português disponibiliza um instrumento inédito para os profissionais da saúde no Brasil, permitindo a documentação da participação de crianças e adolescentes na rotina doméstica e viabilizando pesquisa científica sobre o tema. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The participation of children with disabilities in daily chores in different environments has been a therapeutic goal shared by both parents and rehabilitation professionals, leading to increased demand for instrument development. The Children Helping Out: Responsibilities, Expectations [...] and Supports (CHORES) questionnaire was created with the objective of measuring child and teenager participation in daily household tasks. OBJECTIVES: To translate the CHORES questionnaire into Brazilian Portuguese, evaluate semantic, idiomatic, experiential, and conceptual equivalences, apply the questionnaire to children and teenagers with and without disabilities, and test its test-retest reliability. METHOD: Methodological study developed through the following stages: (1) translation of the questionnaire by two different translators; (2) synthesis of translations; (3) back-translation into English; (4) analysis by an expert committee to develop the pre-final version; (5) test-retest reliability; (6) administration to a sample of 50 parents of children with and without disabilities. RESULTS: The CHORES translation was validated in all stages. The implemented adaptations aimed to improve the understanding of the instrument's content by families of different socioeconomic and educational levels. The questionnaire showed strong consistency within a 7 to 14-day interval (ICCs=0.93 a 0.97; p=0.0001). After application, there was no need to change any items in the questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: The translation of the CHORES questionnaire into Brazilian Portuguese offers a unique instrument for health professionals in Brazil, enabling the documentation of child and teenager participation in daily household tasks and making it possible to develop scientific investigation on the topic.

  9. Adolescente varón: iniciación sexual y anticoncepción

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    SILVIA, NECCHI; MARTA, SCHUFER.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Descrever condutas e circunstancias psicosociais da iniciação sexual e conhecimentos, valorização e condutas anticoncepcionais. População: Adolescentes sexo masculino de 15 a 19 anos com escolaridade na cidade de Buenos Aires. Amostra: Estudaram-se 420 adolescentes de uma amostra aleatóri [...] a representativa das escolas. Método: questionário autoadministrado. Analise univariados, bivariados e multivariados de dados. Resultados: Um 55,5% dos adolescentes estavam iniciados sexualmente. Sua idade promédio de início foi de 14,9 anos (ds = 1,5 anos). Iniciaram-se com prostitutas (41,6%), con suas namoradas (26,6%), com amigas (20,2%) o com companheiras ocasionais (10,7%). Em muitos casos, não houve processo de decisão prévio (27,5) em outros casos a decisão foi tomada com sua companheira (21,9%) ou com grupo de amigos (21,5%). Um 57,5% manifestam ter tido alguma procupação, principalmente com a AIDS. Consideram como muito bom ou bom o efeito da camisinha (93,8%), do DIU (51,0%), do diafragma (47,6%) e dos métodos hormonais (47,4%). O método anticoncepcional mais utilizado na iniciação sexual e nas seguintes foi a camisinha, embora o coitus interruptus e os métodos hormonais, pouco utilizados na iniciação adquiriram um valor mais relevante nas relação seguintes. A decisao de cuidado foi tomada por si mesmo (58,7%) quando a companheira sexual foi uma prostituta ou uma relação ocasional. Porém quando existia uma relação afetiva (amiga ou namorada), a decisão foi compartilhada (60,7%). A tipologia apresenta três grupos no momento da iniciaçao sexual: "impulsado", "ocasional" e "integrado". Conclusões: Existe uma importante heterogeneidade das condutas e circunstancias psicosociais da iniciação sexual do homem: alguns optaram por um modelo de integração sexualidade/afetividade, outros atuam impulsados pela cultura machista e iniciaram-se em forma precose e alguns outros iniciaram-se provocados ou seduzidos com pouco domínio da situação. O uso da camisinha como proteção da AIDS associou-se nestes adolescentes com o cuidado para evitar a gravidez; tal vez estejamos em presença de um aumento da conciência reprodutiva do homem nas novas gerações. Em benefício da democratização da responsabilidade reprodutiva, é importante continuar desenvolvendo investigações que aprofundem a posição do homem adolescente no processo da anticoncepção. Abstract in spanish Objetivos: describir conductas y circunstancias psicosociales de la iniciación sexual y conocimientos, valoración y conductas acerca de la anticoncepción. Población: adolescentes, varones entre 15 y 19 años, escolarizados de la ciudad de Buenos Aires. Muestra: se estudiaron 420 varones de una muestr [...] a aleatoria representativa de escuelas. Método: cuestionario autoadministrado. Análisis univariados, bivariados y multivariados de datos. Resultados: 55,5% de los varones estaban iniciados sexualmente. Su edad promedio de inicio fue de 14,9 años (desviación estándar = 1,5 años). Se iniciaron con prostitutas (41,6%), con sus novias (26,6%), con amigas (20,2%) o con parejas ocasionales (10,7%). En muchos casos, no hubo proceso decisorio previo (27,5%), en otros la decisión fue tomada con su pareja (21,9%) o con el grupo de amigos (21,5%). 57,5% manifestó haber tenido alguna preocupación, preponderantemente temor al SIDA. Valoraron como muy buena o buena la efectividad del preservativo (93,8%), del DIU (51,0%), del diafragma (47,6%) y de los métodos hormonales (47,4%). El método anticonceptivo más utilizado en la iniciación sexual y en las siguientes fue el preservativo, aunque el coitus interruptus y los métodos hormonales, poco utilizados en la iniciación, adquirieron un valor más relevante en las relaciones siguientes. La decisión de cuidarse fue tomada por sí mismo (58,7%) cuando la compañera sexual fue una prostituta o una relación ocasional. En cambio, cuando había una relación afectiva (amiga o novia), la decisión fue compartida (60,7%). La tipología mostró tre

  10. Validación del cuestionario de auto-reporte de comportamiento antisocial en adolescentes: CACSA Validação de questionário de auto-relato de comportamento anti-social em adolescentes: CACSA Validation of a self-report questionnaire addressing antisocial behavior in adolescents: CACSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Alarcón Bañares

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tiene por objetivo presentar la validación de un instrumento formulado racionalmente para evaluar, mediante auto-reporte, el comportamiento social en adolescentes chilenos (CACSA y describir el comportamiento social de dos grupos: adolescentes escolarizados (N=1914 y adolescentes infractores de ley (N=264. El cuestionario posee 56 ítemes que exploran tres dimensiones generales, a Comportamiento Prosocial (CPRO, b Comportamiento Antisocial Total (CAT; y c Víctima de Abuso de Poder (VAP; CAT contiene seis dimensiones específicas: Delitos (D, Transgresiones Contra la Propiedad (TPRO, Transgresiones Contra las Personas (TPER, Comportamiento Abusivo con Pares (CAP, Consumo de Alcohol y Drogas (OHD; y Transgresiones Sociales Leves (TSL. El estudio incluye también una escala de deseabilidad social y otra actitudinal. Los resultados revelan importantes fortalezas psicométricas del instrumento y capacidad de discriminación entre adolescentes escolarizados e infractores de ley. Se discute la importancia de reconocer por auto-reporte la prevalencia de comportamientos antisociales y la relación entre conductas prosociales y antisociales en adolescentes chilenos.O estudo tem por objetivos apresentar a validação de um instrumento formulado racionalmente para avaliar, mediante auto-relato, o comportamento social de adolescentes chilenos (CACSA e descrever o comportamento social de dois grupos: adolescentes escolarizados (N=1914 e adolescentes infratores da lei (N=264. O questionário consiste de 56 itens que exploram três dimensões gerais: a Comportamento Pró-social (CPRO, b Anti-Social (CAT c Vítimas de Abuso de Poder (VAP. CAT contém seis dimensões específicas: Delitos (D, Transgressões de Ofensa à Propriedade (TPRO, Transgressões Contra as Pessoas (TPER, Comportamentos Abusivos entre Pares (CAP, Consumo do Álcool e Drogas (OHD e Transgressões Sociais Leves (TSL. O estudo incluiu também uma escala de desejabilidade social e outra atitudinal. Os resultados revelam que o instrumento mostra excelentes qualidades psicométricas e capacidade de discriminação entre os adolescentes escolarizados e os infratores da lei. Discute-se a importância de reconhecer a prevalência de comportamentos anti-sociais por meio de auto-relato e a relação entre condutas pró-sociais e anti-sociais em adolescentes chilenos.This paper reports the validation of a rationally built self-report instrument to assess social behavior in Chilean adolescents (CACSA and presents the findings on social behavior from two samples: school attending adolescents (N=1914 and juvenile offenders (N=264. The questionnaire consists of 56 items, which explore three general behavioral dimensions: Prosocial (CPRO and Antisocial (CAT behavior, and Victims of Abuse of Power (VAP; CAT contains six specific dimensions: Crimes (D, Transgressions Against Property (TPRO, Transgressions Against Persons (TPER; Abusive Behavior with Peers (CAP, Substance Abuse (OHD; and Minor Social Transgressions (TSL. The study also includes a social desirability scale and an attitudinal scale. Results revealed the questionnaire has important psychometric strengths, as well as discriminative properties between the school attending adolescents and the juvenile offenders. The importance and reliability of self-report data for building indices of antisocial behavior is discussed, as well as the relationship between prosocial and antisocial behavior among Chilean adolescents.

  11. Validación del cuestionario de auto-reporte de comportamiento antisocial en adolescentes: CACSA / Validation of a self-report questionnaire addressing antisocial behavior in adolescents: CACSA / Validação de questionário de auto-relato de comportamento anti-social em adolescentes: CACSA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paula Alarcón, Bañares; Ricardo, Pérez-Luco; Sonia, Salvo; Gloria, Roa; Katherine, Jaramillo; Carla, Sanhueza.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem por objetivos apresentar a validação de um instrumento formulado racionalmente para avaliar, mediante auto-relato, o comportamento social de adolescentes chilenos (CACSA) e descrever o comportamento social de dois grupos: adolescentes escolarizados (N=1914) e adolescentes infratores da [...] lei (N=264). O questionário consiste de 56 itens que exploram três dimensões gerais: a) Comportamento Pró-social (CPRO), b) Anti-Social (CAT) c) Vítimas de Abuso de Poder (VAP). CAT contém seis dimensões específicas: Delitos (D), Transgressões de Ofensa à Propriedade (TPRO), Transgressões Contra as Pessoas (TPER), Comportamentos Abusivos entre Pares (CAP), Consumo do Álcool e Drogas (OHD) e Transgressões Sociais Leves (TSL). O estudo incluiu também uma escala de desejabilidade social e outra atitudinal. Os resultados revelam que o instrumento mostra excelentes qualidades psicométricas e capacidade de discriminação entre os adolescentes escolarizados e os infratores da lei. Discute-se a importância de reconhecer a prevalência de comportamentos anti-sociais por meio de auto-relato e a relação entre condutas pró-sociais e anti-sociais em adolescentes chilenos. Abstract in spanish El estudio tiene por objetivo presentar la validación de un instrumento formulado racionalmente para evaluar, mediante auto-reporte, el comportamiento social en adolescentes chilenos (CACSA) y describir el comportamiento social de dos grupos: adolescentes escolarizados (N=1914) y adolescentes infrac [...] tores de ley (N=264). El cuestionario posee 56 ítemes que exploran tres dimensiones generales, a) Comportamiento Prosocial (CPRO), b) Comportamiento Antisocial Total (CAT); y c) Víctima de Abuso de Poder (VAP); CAT contiene seis dimensiones específicas: Delitos (D), Transgresiones Contra la Propiedad (TPRO), Transgresiones Contra las Personas (TPER), Comportamiento Abusivo con Pares (CAP), Consumo de Alcohol y Drogas (OHD); y Transgresiones Sociales Leves (TSL). El estudio incluye también una escala de deseabilidad social y otra actitudinal. Los resultados revelan importantes fortalezas psicométricas del instrumento y capacidad de discriminación entre adolescentes escolarizados e infractores de ley. Se discute la importancia de reconocer por auto-reporte la prevalencia de comportamientos antisociales y la relación entre conductas prosociales y antisociales en adolescentes chilenos. Abstract in english This paper reports the validation of a rationally built self-report instrument to assess social behavior in Chilean adolescents (CACSA) and presents the findings on social behavior from two samples: school attending adolescents (N=1914) and juvenile offenders (N=264). The questionnaire consists of 5 [...] 6 items, which explore three general behavioral dimensions: Prosocial (CPRO) and Antisocial (CAT) behavior, and Victims of Abuse of Power (VAP); CAT contains six specific dimensions: Crimes (D), Transgressions Against Property (TPRO), Transgressions Against Persons (TPER); Abusive Behavior with Peers (CAP), Substance Abuse (OHD); and Minor Social Transgressions (TSL). The study also includes a social desirability scale and an attitudinal scale. Results revealed the questionnaire has important psychometric strengths, as well as discriminative properties between the school attending adolescents and the juvenile offenders. The importance and reliability of self-report data for building indices of antisocial behavior is discussed, as well as the relationship between prosocial and antisocial behavior among Chilean adolescents.

  12. Orientación al suicidio en adolescentes en una zona de Medellín, Colombia / Adolescent suicide orientation in an area of Medellin, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ramón E, Paniagua S; Carlos M, González P; Sandra M, Rueda R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El riesgo de orientación suicida es un estado que antecede a la ideación suicida que puede conducir a un intento de suicidio y posiblemente a un suicidio consumado; para la Salud Pública es un tema de interés por su magnitud y por la presión que ejerce sobre los sistemas de salud. OBJETIVO: el estud [...] io buscó determinar la asociación del riesgo de orientación suicida con variables sociodemográficas y los indicadores de salud mental: dominios de depresión, funcionamiento familiar, vulnerabilidad familiar y consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en adolescentes escolarizados de la zona noroccidental de Medellín, 2010. METODOLOGIA: se realizó un estudio de corte transversal con una muestra aleatoria de 604 estudiantes. Se utilizaron los instrumentos: Inventario de orientación suicida (ISO); Inventario de depresión en niños y adolescentes (CDI-LA); ¿Cómo es tu Familia?; Entrevista Diagnóstica Internacional Compuesta (CICI II) y el Apgar familiar. Se realizaron un análisis factorial confirmatorio y una regresión logística. RESULTADOS : existe asociación del riesgo de orientación suicida en un adolescente escolarizado con los indicadores: acumulación de tensiones en la familia, escasa búsqueda de apoyo, mal funcionamiento familiar, vulnerabilidad en valores morales y la presencia de sintomatología depresiva. CONCLUSIÓN:el buen funcionamiento de la familia es una estrategia inmediata muy importante para la salud mental del adolescente escolarizado. Abstract in english The risk of suicide orientation is a state preceding suicidal ideation that can lead to a suicide attempt and, possibly, to a successful suicide. Given its magnitude and the pressure it exerts on health systems, suicide is considered a topic of interest for public health. OBJECTIVE:the study sought [...] to determine the association of suicide orientation risk with: sociodemographic variables and mental health indicators such as: domains of depression, family functioning, family vulnerability and psychoactive substance consumption among adolescent students in the northwest area of Medellin, 2010. METHODOLOGY: the researchers performed a cross-sectional study with a random sample of 604 students. The following instruments were used: Inventory of Suicide Orientation (iso 30), Children's Depression Inventory (cdi-la), ¿How is your family? Composite International Diagnostic Interview (cidi ii) and the Apgar family test. Similarly, a confirmatory factor analysis and a logistic regression were conducted. RESULTS:there is association between suicide orientation risk among adolescent students and the following indicators: accumulation of stress in the family, poor search for support, poor family functioning, vulnerability in their moral values and presence of depression symptoms. CONCLUSION: good family functioning is a very important immediate strategy for achieving good mental health among adolescent students.

  13. Consumo de alcohol y factores relacionados con el contexto escolar en adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mar\\u00EDa Carrasco Gonz\\u00E1lez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza la relación entre el consumo de alcohol y diversos factores vinculados al contexto escolar, tales como la satisfacción escolar, autoconcepto académico, repetición de curso, presión escolar, tiempo diario dedicado a la realización de los deberes y expectativas académicas. La muestra utilizada fue aleatoria y es representativa de los adolescentes escolarizados españoles de once, trece, quince y diecisiete años, de ambos sexos. Se utilizó un cuestionario anónimo que los propios escolares respondieron en el aula. Los resultados obtenidos indican que el consumo de cerveza y bebidas destiladas, así como la frecuencia de embriaguez, están asociados negativamente con la satisfacción escolar, el autoconcepto académico, el tiempo dedicado a la realización de los deberes y las expectativas académicas; en cambio, se relaciona positivamente con la presión escolar y el haber repetido curso. Los efectos de la edad se controlaron adecuadamente.

  14. Apropiación de los derechos sexuales y reproductivos en los adolescentes: una experiencia desde la teoría de la acción razonada

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    María Eugenia Villaquirán

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Se realizó un estudio para evaluar la influencia que tienen las creencias, actitudes y normas subjetivas en el ejercicio de los derechos sexuales y reproductivos, en adolescentes escolarizados de Jamundí, Departamento del Valle del Cauca.Metodología: El diseño fue series de tiempo con muestras pareadas. Se aplicó una escala psicométrica a 128 adolescentes, antes de una intervención educativa, tres y seis meses después de la misma, y se obtuvieron resultados que demuestran que los(as adolescentes lograron modificar positivamente la mayoría de las intenciones, actitudes y normas subjetivas relacionadas con los derechos sexuales y reproductivos. Resultados: Se encontraron cambios significativos con relación a: consultar a los profesionales de salud sobre los métodos anticonceptivos y sus usos; utilizar los métodos anticonceptivos en caso de tener relaciones sexuales, disminuir cualquier forma de abuso o violencia sexual y no tener pareja porque desea abstenerse de relaciones sexuales.Conclusiones: Estos resultados pueden configurarse como factores protectores frente a los riesgos derivados del ejercicio de la sexualidad sin responsabilidad, para concluir que la ejecución de una estrategia de educación en salud sexual y reproductiva integral enfocada hacia el apoderamiento de los(as adolescentes frente a sus derechos sexuales y reproductivos puede modificar positivamente las intenciones, actitudes, y percepciones ante la sexualidad. Esta experiencia se convierte en un ejemplo útil para ejecutar en las instituciones educativas de educación media y así apoyar la Política Nacional de Educación Sexual en Colombia.

  15. Trade and Portuguese Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNO CARLOS LEITÃO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript examines the link between trade and migration flows using a gravity model for the period 1995-2007 between Portugal and European Union countries. We also include in our sample the Portuguese speaking countries (PALOPS, i.e., ex-colonies. Globalization drives people to migrate, in some countries, immigration being more pronounced las in Portugal, in last decade, this country receiving foreign residents. This is a new reality to Portuguese economy. For many years, the Portuguese have emigrated to European countries, the United States of America and other countries. Currently, Portugal is witnessing a reverse trend, Brazilian, Cape Verde, Ukrainian and Romanian communities choose Portugal as a destination country. We find evidence that immigration has a positive influence in bilateral trade. We also introduce economic size and regional trade agreements (RTA; these proxies confirming a positive impact of bilateral trade. These results show that the gravity model can explain the pattern of bloc’s trade. Our results also confirm the hypothesis that trade increases if the transport decreases. Classification-JEL:F14,F22Keywords:Trade, Immigration, Gravity model; PortugalJournal:Romanian Journal of EconomicsPages:38-48Volume:31Issue:2(40Year:2010(XXMonth: DecemberFile-URL: http://www.revecon.ro/articles/2010-2/2010-2-2.pdf

  16. Consumo digital de jóvenes escolarizados en Villavicencio, Colombia / Digital Consumption among School Children in Villavicencio, Colombia / Consumo digital por jovens escolarizados em Villavicencio, Colômbia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Héctor Rolando, Chaparro-Hurtado; Claudia Maritza, Guzmán-Ariza.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo parte do reconhecimento da crise de paradigma que envolve as instituições educativas com relação às emergentes subjetividades juvenis e suas práticas de consumo digital, que obriga a uma revisão profunda sobre o que dizem e fazem os jovens ante as tecnologías da informação e comunicação (TI [...] C) e como suas mediações transformam o mundo da escola, seus esquemas de interação e as formas nas quais constroem sua identidade. A pesquisa teve como objetivos reconhecer e analisar essas práticas e discursos dos jovens urbanos escolarizados na cidade de Villavicencio, Colômbia. O trabalho de campo desenvolveu tarefas exploratórias em dois contextos: a escola e a Internet, a partir da observação e da observação participante, ao registrar e fazer parte das aproximações dos jovens nesses espaços de lazer em um exercício etnográfico. Conclui-se que existem espaços de lazer que disputam, em termos quantitativos e qualitativos, com os espaços para a aprendizagemformal: tempos para o jogo (considerados socialmente improdutivos e deficitários) e tempos para o saber formalizado, ao qual devem anteceder o rigor, a atenção e a focalização. Ante os processos de subjetivação juvenil, a execução do projeto permitiu reconhecer que as tecnologías digitais admitem novas formas de identificação consigo mesmos, com o ambiente e com os outros, em uma inter-relação na qual se manifestam a subjetividade, os vínculos intersubjetivos e a cultura historicamente construída. Abstract in spanish El artículo parte del reconocimiento de la crisis de paradigma que envuelve a las instituciones educativas en relación con las emergentes subjetividades juveniles y sus prácticas de consumo digital, que obliga a una revisión profunda sobre lo que dicen y hacen los jóvenes frente a las tecnologías de [...] la información y la comunicación (TIC) y cómo sus mediaciones transforman el mundo de la escuela, sus esquemas de interacción y las formas en que construyen su identidad. La investigación tuvo como objetivos reconocer y analizar dichas prácticas y discursos de los jóvenes urbanos escolarizados en la ciudad de Villavicencio, Colombia. El trabajo de campo desarrolló tareas exploratorias en dos contextos: la escuela e Internet, a partir de la observación y la observación participante, registrando y haciendo parte de los acercamientos de los jóvenes en esos espacios de ocio en un ejercicio etnográfico. Se concluye que existen espacios de ocio que riñen, en términos cuantitativos y cualitativos, con los espacios para el aprendizaje formal: tiempos para el juego (considerados socialmente improductivos y deficitarios) y tiempos para el saber formalizado, al que deben anteceder el rigor, la atención y la focalización. Frente a los procesos de subjetivación juvenil, la ejecución del proyecto permitió reconocer que las tecnologías digitales admiten nuevas formas de identificación consigo mismos, con el entorno y con los otros, en una interrelación en la que se despliegan la subjetividad, los vínculos intersubjetivos y la cultura históricamente construida. Abstract in english This article is based on recognition of the crisis in the paradigm surrounding educational institutions with respect to the emerging subjectivities of youngsters and their digital consumption practices, which calls for a thorough review of what they say and do about information and communication tec [...] hnologies (ICT) and how the intervention of these technologies transforms the world at school, children's patterns of interaction, and the ways in which they construct their own identity. The study was intended to detect and analyze those practices and the discourses of urban school children in the city of Villavicencio (Colombia). The fieldwork included exploratory tasks in two contexts: the school and the Internet, based on scrutiny and participatory observation by recording and sharing in the convergences of children in these leisure spaces as part of an ethnographic exercise. The conclusions

  17. Portuguese websites obesity information

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Diana; Almendra, Joana; Jesus, Marta de; Soares, Sandra; Dias, Tânia; Ferro-Lebres, Vera; Fernandes, António

    2012-01-01

    The internet is widely used by everyone as a source of health information, namely in obesity and weight lost. However, the easy production and edition of documents on the Internet enables any user to be an author and write the information according to their will, not ensuring the veracity of it. In this context the internet may be seen as a threat to one’s health. Thus, the aim of the study was to characterize and evaluate Portuguese websites obesity information and verify...

  18. Os portugueses na Venezuela / The Portuguese community in Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nancy, Gomes.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Na Venezuela, há aproximadamente meio milhão de portugueses. Trata-se da segunda maior comunidade portuguesa na America Latina, a seguir ao Brasil. Perfeitamente integrados na sociedade venezuelana e desde o ponto de vista da actividade económica, os portugueses na Venezuela hoje exigem um papel mai [...] s activo do Governo portugues na defesa dos seus interesses. Assuntos como a seguranca e o comércio são alvo das principais preocupacões dos portugueses na Venezuela. Reforçar o eixo ibero-americano, um dos principais objectivos da política externa de Portugal hoje, passa necessariamente pela institucionalização de uma relação histórica, cultural mas tambem humana de mais de quinhentos anos, assim como pelo reforco da cooperação nas áreas, política e económica, mas tambem educativa e cultural. Abstract in english In Venezuela there is approximately half a million of Portuguese. With the exception of Brazil, this is the largest Portuguese community in Latin America. Fully integrated in Venezuelan society and with a relevant stand in terms of their role in the local economy, today the Portuguese in Venezuela r [...] eclaim a more active role of the Portuguese Government in terms of the defence of their interests. Issues such as security and trade are subjects of the main concern of the Portuguese of Venezuela. If to strengthen the Ibero-American axis is today one of the main goals of Portuguese foreign policy, it must pass necessarily by institutionalizing historical, cultural and human relations dating more than 500 years ago, as well as strengthening forms of cooperation, not only political and economical but also educational and cultural.

  19. Os portugueses na Venezuela The Portuguese community in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Gomes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Na Venezuela, há aproximadamente meio milhão de portugueses. Trata-se da segunda maior comunidade portuguesa na America Latina, a seguir ao Brasil. Perfeitamente integrados na sociedade venezuelana e desde o ponto de vista da actividade económica, os portugueses na Venezuela hoje exigem um papel mais activo do Governo portugues na defesa dos seus interesses. Assuntos como a seguranca e o comércio são alvo das principais preocupacões dos portugueses na Venezuela. Reforçar o eixo ibero-americano, um dos principais objectivos da política externa de Portugal hoje, passa necessariamente pela institucionalização de uma relação histórica, cultural mas tambem humana de mais de quinhentos anos, assim como pelo reforco da cooperação nas áreas, política e económica, mas tambem educativa e cultural.In Venezuela there is approximately half a million of Portuguese. With the exception of Brazil, this is the largest Portuguese community in Latin America. Fully integrated in Venezuelan society and with a relevant stand in terms of their role in the local economy, today the Portuguese in Venezuela reclaim a more active role of the Portuguese Government in terms of the defence of their interests. Issues such as security and trade are subjects of the main concern of the Portuguese of Venezuela. If to strengthen the Ibero-American axis is today one of the main goals of Portuguese foreign policy, it must pass necessarily by institutionalizing historical, cultural and human relations dating more than 500 years ago, as well as strengthening forms of cooperation, not only political and economical but also educational and cultural.

  20. Riesgo de trastorno alimentario en niños escolarizados de Buenos Aires: su asociación con perfeccionismo / Risk of eating disorder in school children from Buenos Aires: its relationship with perfectionism

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana, Elizathe; Brenda, Murawski; Jésica, Custodio; Guillermina, Rutsztein.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se propone evaluar riesgo de trastorno alimentario (TA) y perfeccionismo en niñas y niños escolarizados y analizar si existe asociación entre ambas variables. La muestra estuvo conformada por 337 niños (51% niñas-49% varones) de entre 9 y 13 años. Se realizó un estudio en dos fas [...] es. En la primera, los niños completaron los siguientes instrumentos: Cuestionario sociodemográfico, Test de Actitudes Alimentarias para Niños (ChEAT), Cuestionario de Perfeccionismo Infantil y Escala de Siluetas para niños y adolescentes. Fueron pesados y medidos por una nutricionista, según normas de la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría. En la segunda fase, los niños en riesgo de TA y un grupo control fueron entrevistados con el fin de corroborar o no dicho riesgo. Tras la primera fase se identificó un 30.56% de niños con posible riesgo de TA. Luego de la segunda fase se confirmó el riesgo en un 9.79% de los niños de la muestra total, no existiendo diferencias por sexo en esta variable. Se halló una asociación significativa positiva entre la puntuación total del ChEAT y la puntuación total en la medida de Perfeccionismo. Finalmente, se puede concluir que el perfeccionismo constituye una variable asociada al riesgo de TA en niños. Abstract in english The aim of this study is to evaluate risk of eating disorder (ED) and perfectionism in school girls and boys, and to analyze whether there is an association between both variables. The sample was composed by 337 children (51% girls-49% boys) aged between 9 and 13 years. A two-stage study was carried [...] out. In the first stage, the children completed the following instruments: Sociodemographic questionnaire, Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT), Cuestionario de Perfeccionismo Infantil-Child Perfectionism Questionnaire- and Child/adolescent Version of the Silhouette Rating Scale. They were weighed and measured by a nutritionist, according to the rules of the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría. In the second stage, the children at risk for ED and a control group were interviewed in order to confirm or not such risk. After the first stage, a possible risk for ED was identified in a 30.56% of children. After the second stage, the risk was confirmed in a 9.79% of the children from the total sample, with no gender differences in this variable. It was found a significant positive association between the ChEAT total scores and the total score of Perfectionism measure. Finally, it was concluded that perfectionism is a key variable associated to risk for ED in children.

  1. Versión Breve del STAI en Adolescentes y Universitarios Españoles / STAI Short Version in Adolescents and College Spanish

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alejandro, Guillén-Riquelme; Gualberto, Buela-Casal.

    Full Text Available El STAI es uno de los instrumentos de evaluación psicológica más empleados, generándose diversas versiones breves del mismo. No se han hallado versiones breves en las que se haya comprobado el ajuste para muestras de adolescentes ni universitarios españoles. El objetivo de este artículo es comprobar [...] cuál de las versiones cortas propuestas en la literatura tiene un mejor ajuste en adolescentes y universitarios. Para ello, se aplicó el STAI a 482 adolescentes escolarizados y 510 estudiantes universitarios, de diversas ciudades españolas. Mediante AFC se evaluó el ajuste de cinco versiones breves del STAI. En los universitarios hay dos modelos en los que se observa un buen ajuste. En los adolescentes no ajusta ningún modelo. Puede que el proceso de diferenciación emocional con la edad explique que en los adolescentes las versiones breves halladas (siempre con adultos) no serían válidas, sí pudiendo emplearse con universitarios. Abstract in english The STAI is an instrument very used, generating different short versions. We found no short versions in which it is tests the fit for teenagers and college samples Spanish. The aim of this paper is to test which of the short versions proposed in the literature have a better fit in adolescents and co [...] llege students. To do this, we applied the STAI to 482 adolescent students and 510 university students from different Spanish cities. Through AFC we evaluated five short versions of the STAI. At the university there are two models in which there is a good fit. In adolescents not fit any model. Maybe the emotional differentiation process explains that the found short versions (always with adults) are not valid in teenagers, and can be used with university students.

  2. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LAS FAMILIAS TARIJEÑAS DESDE LAS DIMENSIONES VINCULARES Estudio de caso de familias con al menos un hijo adolescente en la ciudad de Tarija / CHARACTERIZATION OF FAMILIES IN THE CITY OF TARIJA BY RELATIONAL DIMENSIONS Case study of families with at least one teenager in the city of Tarija / CARACTERIZAÇÃO DAS FAMÍLIAS TARIJENAS A PARTIR DE UMA DIMENSÃO EMOCIONAL Pesquisa de caso de famílias com pelo menos um filho adolescente na cidade de Tarija

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina, Valencia; Carolina, Soto Montenegro; Alma Luz, Forte; Alba, van der Valk.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A presente investigação, a partir de umaabordagemsistêmica, realiza umacaracterização das famíliascom pelo menos umfilhooufilha adolescente, escolarizado na cidade de Tarija, considerando a estruturaou a organização familiar e emocional das relações que sãoestabelecidascom base na afetividade, as re [...] gras, os limites, as práticas e experiências religiosas, padrões de comunicação e os modos de consumos dentro e fora da casa, analisado no ámbito das relaçõeseconômicas e sociais que establece a familia comseumeio ambiente. Abstract in spanish La presente investigación, desde un enfoque sistémico, realiza una caracterización de las familias con al menos un hijo o hija adolescente, escolarizado en la ciudad de Tarija, considerando la estructura u organización familiar y las relaciones vinculares que se establecen a partir de la afectividad [...] , las reglas, los límites, las prácticas y experiencias religiosas, las pautas de comunicación y los modos de consumos dentro y fuera del hogar, analizada en el marco de las relaciones socioculturales que establece la familia con su entorno. Abstract in english This research is a systemic approach, carried out a characterization of families with at least one School teenager in the city of Tarija. The focus are the families structure and organisation and the relationships set out from affectivity, rules, limits, practices and religious experiences, patterns [...] of communication and consumption modes inside and outside the home. This analysis is done in the context of socio-cultural family relationships established with their environment.

  3. adolescentes do ensino médio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis\\u00E2ngela Maria Machado Pratta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio buscó verificar los factores de riesgo asociados al uso en la vida y en el año de alcohol por adolescentes de la enseñanza media. Participaron de ese 568 adolescentes entre 14 y 20 años. Los datos fueron colectados a través de cuestionario anónimo de auto-relleno. Los análisis envolvieron: a descripción de la distribución de las variables en la muestra estudiada; b prueba Jue-cuadrado; c regresión logística. Con relación al uso de alcohol, los factores de riesgo observados fueron sexo, escolaridad, nivel socio- económico, frecuentar bares, salir con amigos y no practicar deportes. Estos factores identificados pueden auxiliar directamente en la elaboración de acciones preventivas con relación al uso de drogas entre adolescentes.

  4. Orthographic Context Sensitivity in Vowel Decoding by Portuguese Monolingual and Portuguese-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the pronunciation of the first vowel in decoding disyllabic pseudowords derived from Portuguese words. Participants were 96 Portuguese monolinguals and 52 Portuguese-English bilinguals of equivalent Portuguese reading levels. The results indicate that sensitivity to vowel context emerges early, both in monolinguals and in…

  5. Inteligencia emocional en adolescentes de dos colegios de Bogotá* Emotional Intelligence (EI in Adolescents from Two Schools in Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marcela Cerón Perdomo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En 1990, se propuso la inteligencia emocional (IE como una habilidad mental dada por los componentes social y emocional de la personalidad, constituidos a su vez por el percibir, facilitar, comprender y manejar las emociones. La Trait Meta-Mood Scale 24 (TMMS-24 es la versión española de autoinforme de la IE. Objetivo: Determinar las diferencias en el grado de desarrollo de la IE asociadas con sexo, edad y escolaridad en población adolescente de dos colegios de Bogotá. Método: Diseño observacional de corte transversal, comparativo entre dos grupos de adolescentes escolarizados en educación oficial, uno en colégio femenino y el otro en colegio masculino, de los grados 6° a 11°. Se empleó la TMMS-24 y un cuestionario de datos sociodemográficos autodiligenciables. Resultados: Se incluyeron un total de 451 adolescentes, 224 mujeres (edad: 14,04 ± 1,58 años y 227 hombres (edad: 14,25 ± 1,68 anos. El alfa de Cronbach de la TMMS-24 obtenido fue de 0,802 en percepción, 0,756 en comprensión y 0,748 en regulación. Conclusiones: La TMMS-24 tiene adecuada consistencia interna para evaluar la IE de adolescentes entre los 12 y 17 anos de edad escolarizados en Bogotá. La IE se relacionó con el sexo y confirmó aportes de la literatura científica. Hay necesidad de realizar más investigación acerca de IE en nuestro medio.Introduction: In 1990, emotional intelligence (EI was proposed as a mental ability given by the social and emotional components of personality, made up in turn by the ability to perceive, facilitate, understand, and manage emotions. The Trait Meta-Mood Scale 24 (TMMS-24 is the Spanish version of EI self-report. Objective: To determine differences in the degree of development of EI associated with gender, age, and education among adolescents from two schools in Bogotá. Method: Observational cross-sectional comparison between two groups of adolescents enrolled in formal education in a girls' and a boys' schools, grades 6 through 11. We used the TMMS-24 and a demographic data questionnaire, both were self-reports. Results: A total of 451 adolescents, 224 females (age 14.04 ± 1.58 years and 227 males (age 14.25 ± 1.68 years were included. TMMS-24's Cronbach's alpha obtained in this study was 0.802 for attention, 0.756 for clarity, and 0.748 for repair. Conclusions: The TMMS-24 has good internal consistency to assess the EI of adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age attending school in Bogotá. EI was related to gender, confirming findings in the scientific literature. There is need for more research on EI in our environment.

  6. " Mi mente decía no... mi cuerpo decía sí...": embarazo en adolescentes escolarizadas Minha mente falava não... mas meu corpo falava sim..." : Gravidez em adolescentes escolarizadas My mind said no... my body said yes...": Pregnancy in school adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA ENRIQUETA CORTÉS ORTIZ

    Full Text Available La sexualidad, como dimensión trascendental del ser humano, se afecta con la cultura donde están inmersos significados y símbolos que expresan cómo la viven los adolescentes desde su cosmovisión. Esta investigación describe, desde la perspectiva de los roles de género, los procesos de construcción de decisiones frente al embarazo de los adolescentes escolarizados. El estudio fue una etnografía focalizada, que se realizó durante un año en una institución educativa pública del Distrito de Aguablanca en Cali, Colombia. Participaron como informantes claves seis adolescentes madres escolarizadas y, como informantes generales, quince hombres, quince mujeres no embarazadas, diez profesores y trece padres de familia. Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad y grupos focales hasta la saturación de datos. Para el análisis se utilizó el método de Spradley. A partir de la etnosemántica se identificaron cuatro dominios relacionados con el género, la cultura, la educación y la decisión de embarazarse. Adicionalmente, a partir del estudio de los dominios se pudieron identificar y agrupar cuatro temas culturales relacionados con el significado de ser mujer durante la adolescencia, el establecimiento de las relaciones de género, la planificación familiar y la realidad frente a la decepción de los padres y la frustración del proyecto de vida. Los adolescentes se desenvuelven en entornos culturales de liberalidad, espacialidad y temporalidad que los predisponen y precipitan no solo a vivir con celeridad la sexualidad, sino a transitar del amor romántico al amor apasionado.A sexualidade, como dimensão transcendental do ser humano, é afetada com a cultura onde convergem significados e símbolos que expressam como as e os adolescentes a vivem desde sua cosmovisão. Essa pesquisa descreve, com base na perspectiva dos roles de gênero, os processos de tomada de decisões ante a gravidez das e dos adolescentes escolarizados. O estudo foi uma etnografia focalizada, que se realizou durante um ano numa instituição educativa pública do Distrito de Aguablanca em Cali, Colômbia. Participaram como informantes chaves seis adolescentes mães escolarizadas e, como informantes gerais, quinze homens, quinze mulheres não grávidas, dez professores e treze pais de família. A pesquisa inclui entrevistas em profundidade e focus groups até atingir saturação de dados. O método utilizado para a análise foi o método Spradley. A partir da etnosemántica se identificaram quatro domínios relacionados com o gênero, a cultura, a educação e a decisão de ficar grávida. Adicionalmente, e baseado no estudo dos domínios a pesquisa conseguiu identificar e agrupar quatro temas culturais relacionados com o significado de ser mulher durante a adolescência, o estabelecimento das relações de gênero, o planejamento familiar e a realidade ante a decepção dos pais e a frustração do projeto de vida. As e os adolescentes se desenvolvem em contextos culturais de liberalidade, espacialidade e temporalidade que os predispõem e precipitam não só a viver a sexualidade rapidamente, mas a passar do amor romântico ao amor apaixonado.Sexuality, as a very important dimension of the human being, is affected by culture where the meaning and symbols are immersed and which express how adolescents experience it from their cosmovision. This study describes, from the perspective of gender roles, the decision making process in regard to pregnancy of school adolescents. The study was a focused ethnography that was carried out during one year in a public educational institution from the District of Aguablanca in Cali, Colombia. Key informants were six school adolescents who have become mothers and as general informants, fifteen men, fifteen nonpregnant women, ten teachers and thirteen parents. In depth interviews took place and focus groups until data saturation. The Spradley method was used for the analysis. Based on ethnosemantic, four domains were identified which were related with gender, culture, education and the decision

  7. " Mi mente decía no... mi cuerpo decía sí...": embarazo en adolescentes escolarizadas / My mind said no... my body said yes...": Pregnancy in school adolescents / Minha mente falava não... mas meu corpo falava sim..." : Gravidez em adolescentes escolarizadas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARÍA ENRIQUETA, CORTÉS ORTIZ; SUSANA GENITH, VALENCIA MICOLTA; MARTHA LUCíA, VÁSQUEZ TRUISSI.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A sexualidade, como dimensão transcendental do ser humano, é afetada com a cultura onde convergem significados e símbolos que expressam como as e os adolescentes a vivem desde sua cosmovisão. Essa pesquisa descreve, com base na perspectiva dos roles de gênero, os processos de tomada de decisões ante [...] a gravidez das e dos adolescentes escolarizados. O estudo foi uma etnografia focalizada, que se realizou durante um ano numa instituição educativa pública do Distrito de Aguablanca em Cali, Colômbia. Participaram como informantes chaves seis adolescentes mães escolarizadas e, como informantes gerais, quinze homens, quinze mulheres não grávidas, dez professores e treze pais de família. A pesquisa inclui entrevistas em profundidade e focus groups até atingir saturação de dados. O método utilizado para a análise foi o método Spradley. A partir da etnosemántica se identificaram quatro domínios relacionados com o gênero, a cultura, a educação e a decisão de ficar grávida. Adicionalmente, e baseado no estudo dos domínios a pesquisa conseguiu identificar e agrupar quatro temas culturais relacionados com o significado de ser mulher durante a adolescência, o estabelecimento das relações de gênero, o planejamento familiar e a realidade ante a decepção dos pais e a frustração do projeto de vida. As e os adolescentes se desenvolvem em contextos culturais de liberalidade, espacialidade e temporalidade que os predispõem e precipitam não só a viver a sexualidade rapidamente, mas a passar do amor romântico ao amor apaixonado. Abstract in spanish La sexualidad, como dimensión trascendental del ser humano, se afecta con la cultura donde están inmersos significados y símbolos que expresan cómo la viven los adolescentes desde su cosmovisión. Esta investigación describe, desde la perspectiva de los roles de género, los procesos de construcción d [...] e decisiones frente al embarazo de los adolescentes escolarizados. El estudio fue una etnografía focalizada, que se realizó durante un año en una institución educativa pública del Distrito de Aguablanca en Cali, Colombia. Participaron como informantes claves seis adolescentes madres escolarizadas y, como informantes generales, quince hombres, quince mujeres no embarazadas, diez profesores y trece padres de familia. Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad y grupos focales hasta la saturación de datos. Para el análisis se utilizó el método de Spradley. A partir de la etnosemántica se identificaron cuatro dominios relacionados con el género, la cultura, la educación y la decisión de embarazarse. Adicionalmente, a partir del estudio de los dominios se pudieron identificar y agrupar cuatro temas culturales relacionados con el significado de ser mujer durante la adolescencia, el establecimiento de las relaciones de género, la planificación familiar y la realidad frente a la decepción de los padres y la frustración del proyecto de vida. Los adolescentes se desenvuelven en entornos culturales de liberalidad, espacialidad y temporalidad que los predisponen y precipitan no solo a vivir con celeridad la sexualidad, sino a transitar del amor romántico al amor apasionado. Abstract in english Sexuality, as a very important dimension of the human being, is affected by culture where the meaning and symbols are immersed and which express how adolescents experience it from their cosmovision. This study describes, from the perspective of gender roles, the decision making process in regard to [...] pregnancy of school adolescents. The study was a focused ethnography that was carried out during one year in a public educational institution from the District of Aguablanca in Cali, Colombia. Key informants were six school adolescents who have become mothers and as general informants, fifteen men, fifteen nonpregnant women, ten teachers and thirteen parents. In depth interviews took place and focus groups until data saturation. The Spradley method was used for the analysis. Based on ethnosemantic, four domains were identified which

  8. Consumo de alcohol y drogas en adolescentes evaluado a través del MMPI-A / Alcohol and drugs use in adolescents assessed through the MMPI-A

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eugenia V, Vinet; Ximena, Faúndez.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, el consumo de alcohol y drogas es uno de los mayores problemas de salud pública en el mundo, debido a su alto costo social y económico. En Chile, las prevalencias más altas y la mayor intensidad en el consumo de drogas se registran en los jóvenes de 19 a 25 años, siendo la adolesce [...] ncia la etapa más vulnerable para el inicio del consumo de drogas. El último estudio del CONACE (Comisión Nacional de Control de Estupefacientes) en población escolar señala que 15.1% de los estudiantes chilenos declaran haber consumido marihuana en el último año, mientras que 33% reconoce un consumo actual de tabaco y 36% de alcohol. El consumo de drogas en adolescentes se agrava al comprobarse su relación con otras conductas de riesgo, lo que plantea la necesidad de desarrollar instrumentos de evaluación psicológica que consideren el consumo de drogas en la adolescencia de modo específico. Entre los instrumentos de evaluación psicológica, las medidas de autorreporte han sido el método más utilizado para evaluar el uso de alcohol y drogas, pues permiten detectar este problema en personas que por diferentes motivos desearían esconder su condición de abusadores de sustancias. Uno de los instrumentos de autorreporte es el Inventario Multifásico de la Personalidad de Minnesota para Adolescentes (MMPI-A) el cual posee tres escalas que evalúan el consumo de alcohol y drogas: Alcoholismo de MacAndrew Revisada (MAC-A; en inglés, MAC-R), Reconocimiento de Problemas con el Alcohol y/o Drogas (RPAD; en inglés, ACK) y Tendencia a Problemas con el Alcohol y/o Drogas (TPAD; en inglés, PRO). Aunque en Chile existe una versión en español de la prueba y estudios empíricos que respaldan su uso con adolescentes chilenos, no se había estudiado su funcionamiento con adolescentes consumidores de drogas, lo cual motivó el desarrollo de la presente investigación. Los objetivos del estudio fueron: 1. conocer el comportamiento de las escalas MAC-A, RPAD y TPAD en diferentes muestras de adolescentes chilenos, 2. evaluar la capacidad de estas escalas para discriminar el consumo problemático de sustancias en adolescentes con y sin otros problemas clínicos y 3. proponer puntajes de corte discriminativos para las escalas señaladas. La muestra está compuesta por 74 adolescentes (44 hombres y 30 mujeres) con problemas clínicos que presentaban consumo de sustancias, diagnosticado según los criterios del CONACE para las categorías de consumo no problemático (ocasional y habitual) y del DSM-IV para el consumo problemático (abuso y dependencia). Este grupo fue denominado adolescentes Clínicos Con Consumo (CCC). A partir de él se seleccionó a dos grupos de contrastación: un grupo de adolescentes consultantes por problemas clínicos pero sin consumo de sustancias, los cuales fueron denominados adolescentes Clínicos Sin Consumo (CSC) y un grupo de adolescentes escolarizados de población general sin problemas de consumo ni otros problemas psicopatológicos que ameritaran una consulta clínica, denominados adolescentes Escolares de Población General (EPG). Los principales resultados de este estudio muestran que el MMPI-A es capaz de discriminar a los adolescentes clínicos consumidores de drogas de los adolescentes clínicos sin consumo y de los escolares de población general. Las puntuaciones de las escalas clínicas en general son superiores en los dos grupos de procedencia clínica que en el grupo normal. Las escalas suplementarias, MAC-A, RPAD y TPAD, poseen una capacidad de discriminación muy alta; la mayor capacidad de discriminación de las tres escalas se logra al diferenciar entre los adolescentes del grupo CCC y los del grupo EPG en los dos sexos, siendo TPAD la que mejor discrimina. Además, cabe destacar la utilidad de MAC-A y RPAD para distinguir entre adolescentes con consumo problemático y no problemático. Estos resultados demuestran la utilidad del MMPI-A para evaluar a adolescentes chilenos con sospecha de consumo de drogas e incentivan el estudio, adaptación y utilizaci

  9. Validação e reprodutibilidade da Escala de Evaluación de Insatisfación Corporal para Adolescentes Validación y reproducibilidad de la Escala de Evaluación de la Insatisfacción Corporal para Adolescentes Validity and reproducibility of Escala de Evaluación da Insatisfación Corporal para Adolescentes

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    Maria Aparecida Conti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Validar escala de insatisfação corporal para adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 386 adolescentes, de ambos os sexos, entre dez e 17 anos de idade, de uma escola particular de ensino fundamental e médio, de São Bernardo do Campo, SP, em 2006. Foram realizadas tradução e adaptação cultural da "Escala de Evaluación de Insatisfación Corporal para Adolescentes" para o português. Foram avaliadas consistência interna por meio do coeficiente alfa de Cronbach, análise fatorial pelo método Varimax e validade discriminante pelas diferenças entre médias de estado nutricional, utilizando-se o teste de Kruskal-Wallis. Na validação concorrente, calculou-se o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman entre a escala e o índice de massa corporal, a razão circunferência quadril e a circunferência da cintura. Para reprodutibilidade, foram utilizados o teste de Wilcoxon, o coeficiente de correlação intra-classe. RESULTADOS: A escala traduzida não apresentou discordâncias significativas com a original. A escala apresentou consistência interna satisfatória para todos os subgrupos estudados (fases inicial e intermediária de adolescência, ambos os sexos e foi capaz de discriminar os adolescentes segundo o estado nutricional. Na análise concorrente, as três medidas corporais foram correlacionadas, exceto adolescentes do sexo masculino em fase inicial, e sua reprodutibilidade foi confirmada. CONCLUSÕES: A Escala de Avaliação da Insatisfação Corporal para Adolescentes está traduzida e adaptada para o português e apresentou resultados satisfatórios, sendo recomendada para avaliação do aspecto atitudinal da imagem corporal de adolescentes.OBJETIVO:Validar escala de insatisfacción corporal para adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Participaron del estudio 386 adolescentes, de ambos sexos, entre diez y 17 años de edad, de una escuela particular de enseñanza fundamental y media, de São Bernardo do Campo, Sureste de Brasil, en 2006. Fueron realizadas traducción y adaptación cultural de la "Escala de Evaluación de Insatisfacción Corporal para Adolescentes" para el portugués. Fueron evaluados consistencia interna por medio del coeficiente alfa de Cronbach, análisis factorial por el método Varimax y validez discriminante por las diferencias entre promedios de estado nutricional, utilizándose la prueba de Kruskal-Wallis. En la validación concurrente, se calculó el coeficiente de correlación de Spearman entre la escala y el índice de masa corporal, la razón circunferencia cuadril y la circunferencia de la cintura. Para reproducibilidad, fueron utilizados la prueba de Wilcoxon, el coeficiente de correlación intra-clase. RESULTADOS: La escala traducida no presentó discordancias significativas con la original. La escala presentó consistencia interna satisfactoria para todos los subgrupos estudiados (fases inicial y final de adolescencia, ambos sexos y fue capaz de discriminar los adolescentes según el estado nutricional. En el análisis concurrente, las tres medidas corporales fueron correlacionadas, excepto adolescentes del sexo masculino en fase inicial, y su reproducibilidad fue confirmada. CONCLUSIONES: La Escala de Evaluación de la Insatisfacción Corporal para Adolescentes esta traducida para el portugués y presentó resultados satisfactorios, siendo recomendada para evaluación del aspecto de la actitud de la imagen corporal de adolescentes.OBJECTIVE:To validate a body dissatisfaction scale for adolescents. METHODS: The study included 386 female and male adolescents aged 10 to 17 years enrolled in a private elementary and middle school in the city of São Bernardo do Campo, southeastern Brazil, in 2006. "Escala de Evaluación da Insatisfación Corporal para Adolescentes" (body dissatisfaction scale for adolescents was translated and culturally adapted. The Portuguese instrument was evaluated for internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha, factor analysis with Varimax rotation, discriminant validity by comparing score means according to nutritional status (low weigh

  10. Uso del condón entre adolescentes mexicanos para la prevención de las infecciones de transmisión sexual Condom use among Mexican adolescents to prevent sexually transmitted infections

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    Cecilia Gayet

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar el comportamiento sexual actual y el uso de condón en la primera relación sexual de adolescentes de 12 a 19 años de edad, la variación en distintos contextos y la influencia de factores sobre el uso del condón en esa primera relación. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se utiliza la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2000, y se consideran adolescentes a jovenes de 12 a 19 años de edad, de ambos sexos (n=16 285. Se presenta en primer lugar un análisis descriptivo básico y luego una regresión logística multivariada para determinar la influencia de cuatro tipos de factores (demográficos, socioeconómicos, culturales y cognitivos sobre el uso de condón en el debut sexual. RESULTADOS: Se reporta mayor actividad sexual y un mayor uso de condón entre los hombres y en áreas urbanas. El perfil del adolescente que usó condón en la primera relación es ser adolescente que inicia la vida sexual a una mayor edad, de residencia urbana, que no habla lengua indígena, altamente escolarizado, o de sexo masculino. CONCLUSIONES: Deben diseñarse nuevas políticas de prevención de infecciones de transmisión sexual para cerrar la brecha entre conocimiento y práctica, y dirigidas a los adolescentes que inician su vida sexual más temprano, a los que hablan lengua indígena, a los que viven en áreas rurales, a los menos escolarizados y a las mujeres.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current sexual behavior and condom use during the first sexual intercourse among adolescents, as well as variations and factors influencing condom use at first sexual intercourse. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data source for this study was Mexico's National Health Survey 2000. Study subjects were male and female adolescents aged 12 to 19 years (n=16,258. Statistical analysis consisted of descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression, to assess the association of four types of factors (demographic, socioeconomic, cultural, and cognitive with condom use during the first sexual intercourse. RESULTS: Males and residents of urban areas reported greater sexual activity and condom use. Typically, adolescents who used condoms during the first sexual intercourse were male, older, resided in urban areas, non-speakers of an indigenous language, and with higher schooling. CONCLUSIONS: New policies should be framed to prevent sexually transmitted infections to span the gap between knowledge and practice, targeting adolescents starting sexual activity earlier, those who speak an indigenous language, living in rural areas, with less schooling, and females.

  11. Uso del condón entre adolescentes mexicanos para la prevención de las infecciones de transmisión sexual / Condom use among Mexican adolescents to prevent sexually transmitted infections

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cecilia, Gayet; Fátima, Juárez; Laura A., Pedrosa; Carlos, Magis.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar el comportamiento sexual actual y el uso de condón en la primera relación sexual de adolescentes de 12 a 19 años de edad, la variación en distintos contextos y la influencia de factores sobre el uso del condón en esa primera relación. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se utiliza la Encuesta N [...] acional de Salud 2000, y se consideran adolescentes a jovenes de 12 a 19 años de edad, de ambos sexos (n=16 285). Se presenta en primer lugar un análisis descriptivo básico y luego una regresión logística multivariada para determinar la influencia de cuatro tipos de factores (demográficos, socioeconómicos, culturales y cognitivos) sobre el uso de condón en el debut sexual. RESULTADOS: Se reporta mayor actividad sexual y un mayor uso de condón entre los hombres y en áreas urbanas. El perfil del adolescente que usó condón en la primera relación es ser adolescente que inicia la vida sexual a una mayor edad, de residencia urbana, que no habla lengua indígena, altamente escolarizado, o de sexo masculino. CONCLUSIONES: Deben diseñarse nuevas políticas de prevención de infecciones de transmisión sexual para cerrar la brecha entre conocimiento y práctica, y dirigidas a los adolescentes que inician su vida sexual más temprano, a los que hablan lengua indígena, a los que viven en áreas rurales, a los menos escolarizados y a las mujeres. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current sexual behavior and condom use during the first sexual intercourse among adolescents, as well as variations and factors influencing condom use at first sexual intercourse. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data source for this study was Mexico's National Health Survey 2 [...] 000. Study subjects were male and female adolescents aged 12 to 19 years (n=16,258). Statistical analysis consisted of descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression, to assess the association of four types of factors (demographic, socioeconomic, cultural, and cognitive) with condom use during the first sexual intercourse. RESULTS: Males and residents of urban areas reported greater sexual activity and condom use. Typically, adolescents who used condoms during the first sexual intercourse were male, older, resided in urban areas, non-speakers of an indigenous language, and with higher schooling. CONCLUSIONS: New policies should be framed to prevent sexually transmitted infections to span the gap between knowledge and practice, targeting adolescents starting sexual activity earlier, those who speak an indigenous language, living in rural areas, with less schooling, and females.

  12. Processo adolescente e saúde positiva: âmbitos afectivo e cognitivo Adolescent process and positive health: affective and cognitive scope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Borges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Os adolescentes portugueses percepcionam-se prevalentemente como saudáveis. Questiona-se se nesta percepção tem mais relevo a componente afectivo-emocional ou a componente cognitiva da saúde positiva. Este estudo fixou-se nas medidas sobre a auto-percepção da qualidade de vida relacionada com a saúde, sobre a satisfação com a vida e sobre a felicidade, enquanto variáveis de cariz afectivo-emocional e de índole cognitiva. Procurou-se perceber a influência do género, da idade, do nível socioeconómico e do nível de instrução da família nos índices da saúde positiva dos adolescentes portugueses. Utilizaram-se dados da amostra portuguesa do estudo Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children 2006 constituída por 4877 adolescentes, com uma média de idade de 14 anos, 49,6% do género masculino e 50,4% do género feminino. Após análise estatística descritiva, procedeu-se à comparação de médias entre grupos e à regressão linear para delinear os factores preditores de cada variável. Em todos os âmbitos do estudo observa-se uma maior relevância da dimensão afectivo-emocional na percepção do índice de saúde positiva dos adolescentes portugueses.Portuguese adolescents perceive themselves prevailingly as healthy subjects. It is questioned whether, in this perception, the affective-emotional component or the cognitive component of the positive health has more relevance. This study focused on the measures of quality of life self-perception related to health, satisfaction with life and happiness as variables of cognitive and affective-emotional nature. It was sought to perceive the influence of gender, age, socio-economic and family instruction level on the index of positive health of the Portuguese adolescents. Data from the Portuguese sample of the study on Health Behavior in School-Aged Children 2006 were used. The sample is made up by 4877 adolescents, with an average age of 14 years old, 49.6% male and 50.4% female. After analyzing the descriptive statistics, it was proceeded the comparison of averages between the groups and the linear regression to design the predictor factors of each variable. In all the scopes of the study, it was observed a particular distinctness in the perception of the index of positive health by the Portuguese adolescent.

  13. Processo adolescente e saúde positiva: âmbitos afectivo e cognitivo / Adolescent process and positive health: affective and cognitive scope

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    António, Borges; Margarida Gaspar de, Matos; José Alves, Diniz.

    Full Text Available Os adolescentes portugueses percepcionam-se prevalentemente como saudáveis. Questiona-se se nesta percepção tem mais relevo a componente afectivo-emocional ou a componente cognitiva da saúde positiva. Este estudo fixou-se nas medidas sobre a auto-percepção da qualidade de vida relacionada com a saúd [...] e, sobre a satisfação com a vida e sobre a felicidade, enquanto variáveis de cariz afectivo-emocional e de índole cognitiva. Procurou-se perceber a influência do género, da idade, do nível socioeconómico e do nível de instrução da família nos índices da saúde positiva dos adolescentes portugueses. Utilizaram-se dados da amostra portuguesa do estudo Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children 2006 constituída por 4877 adolescentes, com uma média de idade de 14 anos, 49,6% do género masculino e 50,4% do género feminino. Após análise estatística descritiva, procedeu-se à comparação de médias entre grupos e à regressão linear para delinear os factores preditores de cada variável. Em todos os âmbitos do estudo observa-se uma maior relevância da dimensão afectivo-emocional na percepção do índice de saúde positiva dos adolescentes portugueses. Abstract in english Portuguese adolescents perceive themselves prevailingly as healthy subjects. It is questioned whether, in this perception, the affective-emotional component or the cognitive component of the positive health has more relevance. This study focused on the measures of quality of life self-perception rel [...] ated to health, satisfaction with life and happiness as variables of cognitive and affective-emotional nature. It was sought to perceive the influence of gender, age, socio-economic and family instruction level on the index of positive health of the Portuguese adolescents. Data from the Portuguese sample of the study on Health Behavior in School-Aged Children 2006 were used. The sample is made up by 4877 adolescents, with an average age of 14 years old, 49.6% male and 50.4% female. After analyzing the descriptive statistics, it was proceeded the comparison of averages between the groups and the linear regression to design the predictor factors of each variable. In all the scopes of the study, it was observed a particular distinctness in the perception of the index of positive health by the Portuguese adolescent.

  14. Escala de Miedo a la Evaluación Negativa y Escala de Evitación y Malestar Social: fiabilidad y validez en una muestra de adolescentes españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihab Zubeidat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es examinar las propiedades psicométricas de la Escala de Miedo a la Evaluación Negativa (FNES y la Escala de Evitación y Malestar Social (SADS en una muestra de 1.012 jóvenes españoles escolarizados. El análisis factorial de primer orden señala la existencia de un factor dominante (alfa = 0,85 para la FNES (y otros cinco de menor relevancia, mientras que el método de rotación normalización Oblimin con Kaiser indica que la SADS tiene dos factores (evitación social y malestar social con valores alfa de 0,77 y 0,73, respectivamente. La FNES discriminó entre adolescentes con y sin psicopatologías frente a otros con ansiedad social específica y generalizada, mientras que la SADS lo hizo entre cada uno de los cuatro grupos frente al resto. Ambas escalas muestran una validez de constructo adecuada con distintas variables evaluadas por instrumentos específicos de ansiedad y fobia social y por otros de screening.

  15. de los adolescentes

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    Laura Oliva Z\\u00E1rate

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el nivel de autoestima en los adolescentes que cursaban secundaria o bachillerato, cuya condición era la de ser hijos de padres emigrantes, mediante un enfoque mixto, utilizando instrumentos de evaluación y cuestionarios. Los resultados muestran que la tercera parte de dichos jóvenes manifiestan una baja autoestima en dos de las cuatro áreas valoradas, evidenciándose la necesidad de una intervención oportuna a fin de mejorarla.

  16. Incremento del consumo de tabaco y disminución del nivel de práctica de actividad física en adolescentes españoles: Estudio AVENA / Increase in cigarette smoking and decrease in the level of physical activity among Spanish adolescents: AVENA study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P., Tercedor; M., Martín-Matillas; P., Chillón; I. J., Pérez López; F. B., Ortega; J., Wärnberg; J. R., Ruiz; M., Delgado.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El consumo de tabaco entre los adolescentes así como la disminución de los niveles de práctica de actividad física constituyen un problema de salud pública. El objetivo es conocer la relación existente entre el consumo de tabaco y la práctica de actividad física. Ámbito: Adolescentes españ [...] oles escolarizados. Sujetos: 2.859 adolescentes españoles (1.357 hombres, 1.502 mujeres; rango de edad: 13-18,5 años). Intervenciones: Se aplica un cuestionario para conocer el consumo de tabaco y otros cuatro cuestionarios para conocer la práctica de actividad física en diferentes periodos de tiempo. Resultados: Un 40,8% de los adolescentes indicaron no practicar actividad física, mostrándose los varones más activos que las mujeres (p Abstract in english Objetive: Cigarette smoking among adolescents as well as the level of physical activity constitutes a public health care issue. The aim is knowing the relationship between cigarette smoking and practice of physical activity. Setting: Schooled Spanish adolescents. Subjects: 2859 Spanish adolescents ( [...] 1357 boys, 1502 girls; age range: 13-18.5 years). Interventions: A questionnaire is applied to know the level of cigarette smoking and four other questionnaires to know the level of physical activity during different periods. Results: 40.8% of the adolescents stated not doing any physical activity at all, boys being more active than girls (p

  17. Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas acerca de infecciones de transmisión sexual en adolescentes del municipio de Caldas (Colombia

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    Jaiberth Antonio Cardona Arias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar los conocimientos actitudes y prácticas acerca de las infecciones de transmisión sexual en adolescentes escolarizados del municipio de Caldas (Antioquia, Co- lombia, según aspectos sociodemográficos. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal en 567 adolescentes. Los datos se almacena- ron y analizaron en SPSS 18.0 con base en proporciones, medidas de resumen, intervalos de confianza para la diferencia de proporciones y pruebas no paramétricas como chi-cua- drado, H de Kruskal Wallis y U de Mann Whitney. Resultados: El nivel de conocimientos fue insatisfactorio, mientras que las actitudes y las prácticas fueron satisfactorias; solo se hallaron diferencias significativas en los conoci- mientos según la residencia, siendo mayor en los habitantes de zonas urbanas, y el nivel actitudes y prácticas fue significativamente mayor en las mujeres. Conclusión: El nivel de conocimientos en este grupo fue deficiente respecto a los esfuerzos realizados por las instituciones educativas y las secretarías de salud; no obstante, las acti- tudes presentaron una cualificación satisfactoria, lo que podría derivar en el logro de unas prácticas sexuales más seguras. Con estos resultados se podrían mejorar los programas de educación en salud sexual y reproductiva.

  18. Habilidades mentalistas y conducta prosocial en niños escolarizados / Mental abilities and prosocial behavior in school Children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eliana Isabel, Parra Esquivel.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Establecer la relación entre las habilidades mentalistas y la conducta prosocial en niños con características de deprivación social, identificar el uso de las habilidades mentalistas en contextos de deprivación social y favorecer por medio del juego de roles el uso de las habilidades menta [...] listas. Materiales y métodos: Investigación descriptiva de índole cualitativa a partir del estudio de caso. La muestra son niños de 7 años, quienes se encuentran escolarizados y no presentan diagnóstico de problemas de aprendizaje ni otros diagnósticos relacionados. Una vez realizados los procedimientos de pilotaje y línea base se administraron las mediaciones, de manera que se identificaron dos grupos entre los niños del estudio: el primero se caracterizaba por tener un uso adecuado de las habilidades mentalistas y el segundo presentaba dificultad en el uso de estas. Resultados: El primer grupo mostró un uso correcto de las habilidades mentalistas, debido a que empleaban la categoría de predecir y simular adecuadamente, lo que les permitía manipular cooperativamente; el segundo grupo mostró dificultades en el uso de habilidades como predecir y simular, lo que no les permite manipular en beneficio de otros. Conclusiones: Las conductas prosociales de carácter altruista requieren del componente cognitivo especificamente del desarrollo de las habilidades mentalistas. Se evidenció que los niños que no logran manipular cooperativamente tienen dificultades para hacer relaciones representacionales adecuadas de las creencias y deseos de los estados mentales propios y ajenos. Así mismo, favorecer por medio del juego de roles el uso de habilidades mentalistas en niños con características de deprivación social posibilita una mejor resolución en las situaciones de conflicto. Abstract in english Objective: To establish the relationship between mental abilities and prosocial behavior in children with features of social deprivation, identify the use of mentalistic skills in contexts of social deprivation and to promote the use of mental abilities through role-play. Materials and methods: This [...] research is descriptive and qualitative in nature from the case study. The sample consists of children aged 7 years, who are educated and have no diagnosis of learning problems or other related diagnoses. Once the pilot procedures and baseline were carried out, mediations were administered so that two groups were identified within the studied children. The first was characterized by appropriate use of mentalistic skills and the second was having difficulty in using them. Results: The first group showed a correct use of mental abilities because the use of categories of predict and simulate properly allow them to manipulate cooperatively. The second group showed difficulties in the use of the skills to predict and simulate what not allow it to manipulate in benefit of others. Conclusions: It was found that altruistic prosocial behaviors require a cognitive component, specifically the development of mental abilities. At the same time, it was found that children, who cannot manipulate cooperatively, have difficulty making appropriate representational relationships of beliefs and desires of their own and others' mental states. And it was found that promoting the use of mental abilities in children with features of social deprivation through role playing, improves their conflict resolutions abilities.

  19. The fundamentals of the Portuguese crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade João Sousa; Duarte Adelaide

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the fundamentals of the Portuguese crisis. The financial crisis of 2007 worsened and triggered the current Portuguese crisis. We argue that the main problem the economy is facing is its output stagnation due to a kind of Dutch disease that has created high and increasing levels of indebtedness, low and decreasing levels of saving and has reduced Portuguese competitiveness. Moreover, the existence of a dualist labour market and a new wave of emigration produce ineffic...

  20. Nouns in apposition : Portuguese data

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    Graça Rio-Torto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of N1N2 constructions, or nouns in apposition, is controversial: depending on the theoretical framework, they can be considered as compounds or as syntactic constructions. Indeed, nouns in apposition function as a hybrid category, in a double way: (i the same lexical structure in apposition is viewed either as a coordinative construction, as a subordinative or as an attributive construction. (ii N2 functions as a modifier or as an attributive item of N1; in Portuguese, when plural is syntactically mandatory, N1 (the head is systematically pluralized; N2 either rejects inflection or behaves as a predicator, allowing inflectional marks. We claim that Romance NN behave as a specific type of compounds. This assumption is grounded on their behaviour by contrast with phrasal properties. Portuguese compounds are characterized by a narrow relationship between internal structure, headness and inflectional patterns. In Portuguese, by default, the head of compound is inflected. NN related by an attributive semantic link are nowadays particularly unstable and problematic regarding inflection. Inflectional variation — widely attested — helps in determining the status of NN in apposition: as two inflectional patterns are available, we must verify if they correspond to two different constructions or to one structure with two readings. The analysis addressed is supported by empirical data of contemporary Portuguese language extracted from Brazilian and European databases, and requires the theoretical articulation of a double predicative class of N2 (holistic and partitive with inflectional fluctuation of attributive N2 in the second situation: performing a continuum, double inflection is close to holistic predication and single inflection (of N1 is close to partitive predication; systematic double inflection is close to coordination and inflectional oscillation is close to attribution. The predicative power of nouns in apposition supports their partitive and their holistic reading. Inflectional fluctuation of N2 illustrate in an optimistic way their hybrid nature

  1. Consumers behavior of Portuguese wine

    OpenAIRE

    Martinho, Vitor Joao Pereira Domingues

    2012-01-01

    There are few papers about the consumption pattern of the Portuguese wine, using econometrics techniques. This work, pretend to analyze the consumers behavior of the wine produced in Portugal, determining the demand equation with panel data methods. There were used statistical data available in the Alentejo Regional Winegrowing Commission (CVRA) website. These data were obtained from a study about the market analysis, made, in 2009, by the A.C. Nielsen. The data are disaggre...

  2. Portuguese as a Minority Language: Attitudes of Undergraduate Students Studying Portuguese Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Sonia Maria Nunes

    2011-01-01

    The differences between European Portuguese (EP) and Brazilian Portuguese (BP) raise some interesting issues that are well worth considering through undergraduate university students' perceptions and attitudes. Instructors of undergraduate courses in Portuguese literature suggest that in terms of curriculum design, curriculum delivery, and…

  3. Risk factors for adolescent pregnancy in Bogotá, Colombia, 2010: a case-control study / Factores de riesgo de embarazo adolescente en Bogotá, Colombia, 2010: estudio de casos y testigos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lina Sofía, Morón-Duarte; Catalina, Latorre; José Rafael, Tovar.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar los factores de riesgo de embarazo adolescente entre las estudiantes de Bogotá, Colombia MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo de casos y testigos pareados por edad e identificados por medio de una encuesta sobre el comportamiento sexual de los adolescentes escolarizados en Bogotá (En [...] cuesta sobre el Comportamiento Sexual de los Adolescentes Escolarizados en Bogotá) realizada el primer trimestre del 2010. Los 272 casos y 544 testigos seleccionados aleatoriamente se tomaron de un total de 39 044 registros. Se consideraron variables sociodemográficas, estructura de los hogares y entorno familiar; relaciones sexuales y embarazo, y conocimientos sobre salud sexual y reproductiva. Los métodos utilizados para el ajuste por posibles factores de confusión fueron pareamiento y regresión logística condicional RESULTADOS: Sobre la base de los análisis multifactoriales, los factores asociados con mayor riesgo de embarazo adolescente fueron: asistencia a una escuela pública (razón de posibilidades [OR]=2,25; intervalo de confianza [IC] 95%: 1,45-3,51); antecedentes de embarazo adolescente de una hermana (OR =1,98; IC 95%: 1,55-2,76); primera relación sexual a edad temprana (a los 12 años o antes) (OR =2,34; IC 95%: 1,01-5,40); nivel bajo o medio de conocimiento autoinformado sobre anticonceptivos (OR =3,92; IC 95%: 1,96-7,83); embarazo anterior (OR =14,09; IC 95%: 8,74-22,70), y hogar monoparental (OR=3,58; IC 95%: 2,10-6,16 CONCLUSIONES: Los factores relacionados con el entorno individual, familiar y social que influyen en la incidencia del embarazo adolescente se deben tomar en consideración y abordar cuando se diseñen intervenciones. La inclusión de la educación sexual en el programa de estudios es un componente importante para prevenir el embarazo adolescente; sin embargo, para lograr el éxito es necesaria la participación de los padres o cuidadores. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for adolescent pregnancy among female students in Bogotá, Colombia METHODS: This was a retrospective study of cases and controls matched by age, identified by means of a survey on the sexual behavior of adolescent students in Bogotá (Encuesta sobre el Comportamien [...] to Sexual de los Adolescentes Escolarizados en Bogotá) conducted in the first semester of 2010. All 272 cases and 544 randomly-selected controls were taken from 39 044 total records. Variables considered were sociodemographics, household structure, and family environment; sexual relationships and pregnancy; and knowledge of sexual and reproductive health. Matching and conditional logistic regression were used to adjust for possible confounding factors RESULTS: The factors associated with increased risk of adolescent pregnancy based on multivariate analyses were: attending public school (odds ratio [OR]=2.25; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.45-3.51); history of siblings with adolescent pregnancy (OR =1.98; 95% CI: 1.55-2.76); early first sexual intercourse (12 years of age or less) (OR =2.34; 95% CI: 1.01-5.40); having a self-reported low- or average-level of contraceptive knowledge (OR =3.92; 95% CI: 1.96-7.83); previous pregnancy (OR =14.09; 95% CI: 8.74- 22.70); and not living with both parents (OR 3.58; 95% CI: 2.10-6.16 CONCLUSIONS: Factors related to individual, family, and social environments that influence the incidence of adolescent pregnancy must be considered and addressed when designing interventions. The existing sex education curriculum is an important component in preventing adolescent pregnancy, however, parent/caregiver participation is required for success.

  4. PAPEL: A lexical ontology for Portuguese

    OpenAIRE

    Gonc?alo Oliveira, Hugo; Santos, Diana; Gomes, Paulo; Seco, Nuno

    2008-01-01

    PAPEL is a lexical resource for natural language processing (NLP) of Portuguese which is being built by Linguateca, based on processing a major commercial Portuguese dictionary, the Dicionário da Lí­ngua Portuguesa (DLP) developed and owned by the largest Portuguese dictionary publisher, Porto Editora. As far as we know, PAPEL is the first lexical ontology built by semi-automatic means for Portuguese. We are currently working on CAUSADOR-DE/RESULTADO-DE, TODO-DE/PARTE-DE and MEIO-PARA/FINA...

  5. Actividad físico-deportiva, gasto calórico y consumo de tabaco en adolescentes de Murcia (España) / Physical exercise, energy expenditure and tobacco consumption in adolescents from Murcia (Spain)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro Luis, Rodríguez García; Francisco José, López Villalba; Pedro Ángel, López Miñarro; Eliseo, García Cantó.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La práctica físico-deportiva es un elemento primordial dentro de los estilos de vida saludables y está considerado uno de los factores preventivos para diversos hábitos nocivos para la salud. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer la relación entre el nivel de actividad física real [...] izado, el gasto calórico y el hábito de consumo de tabaco de los adolescentes escolarizados. Población y métodos. Se incluyeron adolescentes escolarizados de entre 14 y 17 años de la región de Murcia. Se valoró el nivel de actividad física realizada mediante el International Physical Activity Questionnaire y el hábito tabáquico mediante el Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance. Resultados. De un total de 344 adolescentes, 20,3% presentaban sobrepeso y 5,8%, obesidad. El 44,2% se consideraron regularmente activos, mientras que 55,8% fueron irregularmente activos o inactivos. El nivel de práctica de actividad física de los varones fue superior al de las mujeres. El 20,3% de la muestra consumía tabaco, sin diferencias signifcativas en función del sexo. El mayor gasto energético derivado de la práctica de actividad física se asoció positivamente a no consumir tabaco. Conclusiones. En los adolescentes, un mayor nivel de actividad física y un mayor gasto energético se asocian positivamente a no consumir tabaco. Abstract in english Introduction. Physical and sports activity is essential for a healthy lifestyle and is considered a prevention factor for several harmful habits on health. The purpose of this study was to establish the relationship between the level of physical activity, energy expenditure and tobacco consumption a [...] mong adolescent students. Population and Methods. Adolescent students aged 14 to 17 years old from the province of Murcia were included. Their level of physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and smoking was evaluated using the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance. Results. Out of 344 adolescents, 20.3% were overweight and 5.8%, obese. Of the total, 44.2% reported being active on a regular basis, while 55.8% were irregularly active or inactive. The level of physical exercise was higher among boys than girls. Tobacco was consumed by 20.3% of the sample, but no signifcant differences were observed based on sex. The highest energy expenditure from physical activity was positively associated with non consumption of tobacco. Conclusions. Among adolescents, a higher level of physical activity and a higher energy expenditure are positively associated with non consumption of tobacco.

  6. Exercise, eating disordered behaviors and psychological well-being: a study with Portuguese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se realizó en una muestra de 192 adolescentes portugueses. Se analizó la importancia de la frecuencia de la práctica en conductas alimentarias y en el bienestar psicológico. Además, se intenta explicar las conductas alimentarias tomando en consideración las características deportivas, individuales y psicológicas. Las variables evaluadas fueron: los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria, la tendencia a realizar dietas, las rutinas en la práctica de ejercicio, la orientación de objetivos, la ansiedad física social y la autoestima. Los resultados mostraron que mantenían una práctica regular de ejercicio principalmente los adolescentes varones, quienes tenían una atracción positiva por el ejercicio y menor tendencia a conductas dietéticas. También se ha encontrado que el grupo con práctica regular de ejercicio presentaba menos trastornos de la conducta alimentaria, así como un mejor funcionamiento psicológico. La predicción de perturbacio - nes alimentarias confirma la importancia de las variables deportivas, individuales y psicológicas. En resumen, los resultados confirmaron la importancia de la práctica de ejercicio no solo en términos de bienestar psicológico, sino también en la prevención de conductas alimentarias problemáticas en adolescentes

  7. Função respiratória em bombeiros portugueses / Pulmonary function in portuguese firefighters

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A G, Almeida; R, Duarte; L, Mieiro; C, Paiva; A M, Rodrigues; M H, Almeida; C, Bárbara.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Nos últimos anos, Portugal tem sido afectado por muitos incêndios florestais. O fumo produzido pela combustão de material orgânico é responsável por efeitos a curto e longo prazo na função respiratória de indivíduos expostos. Objectivo: Caracterizar a função respiratória de bombeiros vol [...] untários portugueses no activo expostos a fumo de incêndio florestal. Métodos: Estudo descritivo transversal. Aplicou-se um questionário individual sobre hábitos pessoais e ocupacionais e mediram-se parâmetros espirométricos, através do Piko-6®, a uma amostra de conveniência de 209 bombeiros voluntários. Resultados: Constatou-se uma elevada taxa de hábitos tabágicos (42,9%). Encontrou-se uma prevalência de padrão obstrutivo de 11,8%. Dos indivíduos obstruídos, 41,7% não fumavam, não tinham conhecimento de doença respiratória nem outra actividade ocupacional que condicionasse risco de alterações respiratórias e negavam o uso de meios de protecção das vias aéreas. Durante o combate a incêndios, 85,7% não usava meios de protecção das vias respiratórias, tendo-se observado carência deste tipo de material nas diferentes corporações. Conclusão: Os resultados obtidos permitiram constatar elevada prevalência de hábitos tabágicos nesta amostra de bombeiros portugueses, baixo grau de utilização de meios de protecção das vias respiratórias e uma prevalência de obstrução brônquica superior à média nacional de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica (DPOC). Recomendam-se medidas de cessação tabágica e de uso de material protector das vias respiratórias. Abstract in english Introduction: Portugal has had a high rate of forest fires in recent years. Inhaled wood smoke can have short- and long-term effects on the lung function of people exposed to it. Study objectives: To assess the lung function of active wildland (forest) firefighters. Methods: Cross-sectional study. A [...] self-questionnaire on personal and work habits was used and spirometry values were obtained using Piko-6® for a 209 people sample. Results: We found a high rate of smoking (42.9%) and an 11.8% prevalence of obstruction. 41.7% of the obstructed individuals were non-smokers, did not state a knowledge of any respiratory disease, engaged in no other activity that could be related to lung function decrease and did not wear airway protection apparatus. 85.7% did not use any airway protection apparatus when firefighting due to lack of such equipment in their brigades. Conclusions: Data showed that there is a high prevalence of smoking habits in this sample of Portuguese firefighters; there is an unsatisfactory usage of airway protection apparatus and the prevalence of airway obstruction is higher than the COPD prevalence in the Portuguese population. We recommend stopping smoking and use of equipment for respiratory protection.

  8. Adolescentes en riesgo psicosocial y resiliencia / Adolescents in psychosocial risk and resilience

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Griselda, Cardozo; Ana María, Alderete.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue detectar las variables individuales y sociales que contribuyen al fortalecimiento del proceso de resiliencia en 210 adolescentes escolarizados de ambos sexos de un nivel socioeconómico bajo, residentes en la ciudad de Córdoba (Argentina). La investigación permitió [...] detectar dos grupos (resilientes- no resilientes), los cuales fueron comparados en relación a las características sociodemográficas y con las variables en estudio. Se observaron diferencias significativas en relación con auto-concepto, soporte social, inteligencia y sucesos estresantes de vida por problemas personales. El análisis realizado a través de la regresión múltiple logística indica que el autoconcepto es la variable mejor predictora de la resiliencia, seguida de soporte social y autorregulación de habilidades (cognitivas- emocionales). Abstract in english The goal of this investigation was to detect individual and social variables that contribute to the strengthening of the resilience process in 210 school adolescents (male and female) of a low social-economic level residing in the City of Córdoba (Argentina). The research carried out detected two gr [...] oups (resilient and non-resilient) which were compared in relation to social demographic characteristics and with variables now being study. The research found significant differences concerning self-concept, social support, intelligence and stressful situations in life due to personal problems. The analysis done through the logistic multiple regressions indicates that self-concept is the best predictable variable of resilience, followed by social support and self-regulation skills (cognitive and emotional).

  9. Metas de adolescentes argentinos: un estudio exploratorio / Goals in Argentinean adolescents: an exploratory research

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Elisa, Cattaneo.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo examina las metas de vida de adolescentes argentinos, de entre 17 y 19 años, escolarizados de ambos sexos, de distintas provincias del norte, centro y sur del país. Hace referencia a la importancia que adquiere en la actualidad la comprensión de la adolescencia como proceso de au [...] tonomización. Luego se trata de investigar las características de las metas expresadas por los/las adolescentes en un total de 3867 protocolos; establecer categorías de análisis, definirlas desde el marco teórico y ejemplificar las tipologías halladas. Asimismo, se plantean las condiciones que las articulan, y se mencionan algunas subcategorías. Desde esta mirada, estamos considerando las metas como el fruto de la actividad del sujeto. De un sujeto perteneciente a una comunidad, un sujeto que "se piensa", que produce sentidos en función de modos específicos de relación y en su contexto. A su vez estos significados se enlazan en una trama histórico-temporal y se organizan formado patrones motivacionales que inciden en sus proyectos de vida. Abstract in english The present work examines the goals of life female and male argentinian adolescents have: they are aged 17 to 19, attending classes at school, living in the North, centre and the South of the country. This article refers to the importance of understanding adolescence as a process of autonomy in the [...] present time. The aim is to investigate the characteristics of students' goals aforesaid loaded in 3687 protocols; to establish category of analisys, to define from theoretic framework and to illustrate the tipology to find. Also, to consider these articulated conditions, and to mention some subclases. From this point of view , we are considering the goals as the product of the individual activity. The fellow being a member of his community, the fellow that "thinks about himself", that yields according to specific ways to relate in his context. Moreover, these meanings link in one temporary- historical plot and they join to grow motivational patrons that incise into their life projects.

  10. An Updated Portrait of the Portuguese Web

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Joa?o; Gomes, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This study presents an updated characterization of the Portuguese Web derived from a crawl of 48 million contents belonging to all media types (2.5 TB of data), performed in March, 2008. The resulting data was analyzed to characterize contents, sites and domains. This study was performed within the scope of the Portuguese Web Archive.

  11. IMPERATIVES IN THE TEACHING OF PORTUGUESE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FELDMAN, DAVID M.

    THE INCREASING NUMBERS OF STUDENTS WISHING TO STUDY PORTUGUESE, WHETHER AT THE HIGH SCHOOL OR COLLEGE LEVEL, ARE OFTEN MOTIVATED BY FACTORS EXTERNAL TO TRADITIONAL INTEREST IN THE MORE COMMONLY TAUGHT LANGUAGES. THE PROSPECTIVE STUDENT OF PORTUGUESE HAS OFTEN SUCCESSFULLY STUDIED FRENCH OR SPANISH AND PERHAPS HAS EVEN HAD FLES TRAINING IN A THIRD…

  12. “Environmental sustainabity” in portuguese textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Tracana, Rosa Branca; Ferreira, Cláudia; Ferreira, Maria Eduarda; Carvalho, Grac?a Simo?es

    2007-01-01

    The sustainable development is the principal issue of the society contemporary, in order to have a future. We have to care about the resources to avoid their over exploration and to protect the nature, not only for the human but also for the other living beings. The aim of this study is to analyse in Portuguese textbooks the item Sustainability which is associated to the conception – “Relation of humans in respect to nature” and its relation to the topic “Human-Nature”. Our results ...

  13. Comparación del Perfil Neuropsicológico en una Muestra de Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes con y sin Sintomatología Depresiva / Comparison of the Neuropsychological Profile in a Sample of Boys, Girls, and Adolescents with and without Symptoms of Depression / Comparação do Perfil Neuropsicológico em uma Amostra de Crianças e Adolescentes com e sem Sintomatologia Depressiva

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LILIANA, CALDERÓN DELGADO; MAURICIO, BARRERA VALENCIA.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi comparar a atenção, memória e função executiva em uma amostra de crianças e adolescentes com e sem sintomatologia depressiva. Participaram 50 crianças e adolescentes escolarizados, com idades entre 9 e 16 anos, de classe socioeconômica baixa. Selecionaram-se 25 crianças com pontuação [...] significativa no CDI e 25 com pontuação baixa; ambos os grupos foram equiparados em idade, sexo e escolaridade. Em seguida, aplicou-se uma bateria neuropsicológica para comparar a atenção, memória e funcionamento executivo de ambos os grupos. Os resultados mostram um perfil caracterizado por baixo desempenho em atenção, memória semântica e lógica, bem como dificuldades no controle inibitório no grupo com sintomatologia depressiva. Abstract in spanish El objetivo fue comparar la atención, memoria y funcionamiento ejecutivo en una muestra de niños, niñas y adolescentes con y sin sintomatología depresiva. Participaron 50 niños y adolescentes escolarizados, con edades entre los 9 y los 16 años, de estrato socioeconómico bajo. Se seleccionaron 25 niñ [...] os con puntajes significativos en el Children Depression Inventory (CDI) y 25 niños con puntajes bajos; ambos grupos fueron equiparados en edad, sexo y escolaridad. Posteriormente, se aplicó una batería neuropsicológica para comparar la atención, memoria y funcionamiento ejecutivo de ambos grupos. Los resultados muestran un perfil caracterizado por bajo desempeño en atención, memoria semántica y lógica, así como dificultades en control inhibitorio en el grupo con sintomatología depresiva. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to compare attention, memory, and executive function in a sample of boys, girls, and adolescents with and without symptoms of depression. Participants included 50 low income, school age children and adolescents between the ages of 9 and 16. Twenty five children with h [...] igh scores and 25 with low scores on the Children Depression Inventory (CDI) were selected, and the groups were matched according to age, gender, and degree of schooling. They were then given a battery of neuropsychological tests in order to compare the attention, memory, and executive function of both groups. Results show a profile characterized by low performance in attention, semantic memory, and logic, as well as inhibitory control difficulties, in the group with symptoms of depression.

  14. Ideação suicida e sintomatologia depressiva em adolescentes / Suicidal ideation and depressive symptomatology in adolescents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andreia, Azevedo; Ana Paula, Matos.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dados recentes da Direção-Geral de Saúde (2013) apontam para um aumento do número de suicídios nos últimos anos, em Portugal. Nos adolescentes, o suicídio é a segunda causa de morte. Estudos internacionais têm mostrado que ideação suicida é um indicador fundamental para o risco de suicídio, aparece [...] em cerca de 4 a 10% dos adolescentes da população geral, sendo mais prevalente no género feminino, e associa-se frequentemente com depressão. Este estudo teve como principais objetivos avaliar a presença de ideação suicida em adolescentes da população geral e analisar a relação entre a ideação suicida medida pelo Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (SIQ, Reynolds, 1988; versão portuguesa de Ferreira & Castela, 1999) e a sintomatologia depressiva avaliada pelo Children´s Depression Inventory (CDI, Kovacs, 1985; versão portuguesa de Marujo, 1994). A amostra incluiu 233 adolescentes com idades compreendidas entre os 14 e os 18 anos (M=15,69; DP=1,287), 86 (36,9%) do género masculino e 147 (63,1%) do género feminino.26 (10,7%) adolescentes apresentaram ideação suicida (pontuação acima do ponte de corte de Reynolds, 1988), dos quais 76,9% eram raparigas. Os resultados indicam ainda que a ideação suicida se correlaciona significativamente com a sintomatologia depressiva, explicando 39,5% da variância da mesma. Estes resultados suportam a existência de uma relação entre ideação suicida e sintomatologia depressiva e alertam para a presença de ideação suicida nos adolescentes portugueses da população geral. Salienta-se, assim, a necessidade de se desenvolverem estratégias de intervenção, nomeadamente preventivas, nas problemáticas da ideação suicida e da depressão, em Portugal. Abstract in english Recent data from the Portuguese General Directorate of Health (2013) point to an increase in the number of suicides in recent years. Among adolescents, suicide is the second leading cause of death. International studies have shown that suicidal ideation is a key indicator for suicide risk. It appear [...] s in about 4-10% of adolescents in the general population, is more prevalent in females and is often associated with depression. This study aims to evaluate the presence of suicidal ideation in adolescents from the general population and to analyze the relationship between suicidal ideation measured by Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (SIQ, Reynolds, 1988; Portuguese version by Ferreira & Castela, 1999) and depressive symptomatology assessed by the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI, Kovacs, 1985; Portuguese version by Marujo, 1994). The sample is comprised by 233 adolescents from the general population, aged between 14 and 18 years (M = 15.69, SD = 1.287), 86 males (36.9%) and 147 females (63.1%).26 (10.7%) adolescents present suicidal ideation (score above the cutoff point proposed by Reynolds), of whom 76.9% are girls. The results also indicate that suicidal ideation is significantly correlated with depressive symptoms, explaining 39.5% of its variance. These results support the existence of a relationship between suicidal ideation and depressive symptomatology and call attention to the presence of suicidal ideation in Portuguese adolescents of the general population. Thus, it is stressed the need to develop intervention strategies, including preventive ones, to address the problem of suicidal ideation and depression in Portugal.

  15. Calidad de vida en adolescentes: Análisis desde las fortalezas personales y las emociones negativas / Quality of life in adolescents: analysis from personal strengths and negative emotions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Japcy Margarita, Quiceno; Stefano, Vinaccia.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar las relaciones de las fortalezas personales y las emociones negativas sobre la calidad de vida de 686 adolescentes escolarizados de la ciudad de Bogotá, Colombia, según el sexo y el estrato socioeconómico. Instrumentos: escala de resiliencia adolescente ARS, [...] escala de autotrascendencia adolescente STS, escala subjetiva de felicidad SHS, test de orientación de vida en jóvenes YLOT, inventario de depresión infantil CDI, inventario infantil de estresores cotidianos IIEC y The KIDSCREEN-52. Los resultados mostraron niveles moderados en calidad de vida y resiliencia, y niveles bajos de emociones negativas. El análisis de regresión lineal múltiple indicó que las fortalezas personales y las emociones negativas pesan sobre la calidad de vida más en los hombres y en el estrato socioeconómico medio y alto. Conclusión: la calidad de vida en adolescentes es mediada por la autotrascendencia, la felicidad y emociones negativas como depresión. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to compare the relationship of personal strengths and negative emotions on the quality of life of 686 adolescent students by sex and socioeconomic strata from Bogotá city, Colombia. Instruments: Adolescent Resilience Scale ARS, Self-Trascendence Scale, adolescent version ST [...] S, Subjective Happiness Scale SHS, The Youth Life Orientation Test YLOT, Children's Depression Inventory CDI, the Inventory of Daily Stressors Child IIEC and the KIDSCREEN-52. Results showed moderate levels in quality of life, resilience and low in negative emotions. It was found in the multiple linear regression analysis that personal strengths and negative emotions weigh on the quality of life in men more than women and in middle and high socioeconomic strata rather than low. Conclusion, quality of life in adolescents is mediated by self-transcendence and happiness and negative emotions as depression.

  16. La autoestima en adolescentes agresores y víctimas en la escuela: La perspectiva multidimensional / Self-esteem in aggressive and victimized adolescents at school: The multidimensional perspective

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Estefanía, Estévez López; Belén, Martínez Ferrere; Gonzalo, Musitu Ochoa.

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar las diferencias en autoestima entre adolescentes con problemas de agresividad en la escuela, adolescentes victimizados por sus iguales y adolescentes que son al mismo tiempo agresores y víctimas en el contexto escolar. Se adopta una concepción multidimension [...] al de la autoestima y se analizan las dimensiones familiar, escolar, social y emocional. Para ello, participaron en la investigación 965 adolescentes con edades comprendidas entre los 11 y 16 años y escolarizados en cuatro centros de enseñanza de la Comunidad Valenciana. Los resultados obtenidos vienen a confirmar la existencia de diferencias entre agresores, víctimas y agresores/víctimas en la siguiente dirección: el grupo de agresores presenta las puntuaciones más elevadas en las dimensiones de autoestima social y emocional; el grupo de víctimas muestra los mayores niveles de autoestima familiar y escolar; finalmente, el grupo de agresores/víctimas es el que presenta, en general, las puntuaciones más bajas en las cuatro dimensiones de autoestima analizadas en el estudio. Abstract in english This study aims to analyze differences in self-esteem among aggressive adolescents at school, victimized adolescents by peers, and adolescents who are both aggressors and victims in the school context. This research adopts a multidimensional conception of selfesteem: family, school, social and emoti [...] onal dimensions are analyzed. The sample was composed of 965 adolescents whose ages range from 11 to 16 years old and studying in four school of the Valencian Community. The results obtained confirm the existence of differences among aggressors, victims and aggressors/victims in the following way: the group of aggressors showed the highest scores in the dimensions of social and emotional self-esteem; the group of victims obtained the highest levels of family and school selfesteem; finally, the group of aggressors/victims showed, in general, the lowest scores in the four dimensions of self-esteem analyzed in the study.

  17. Exploração vocacional em adolescentes: avaliação de uma intervenção em classe / Adolescents career exploration: evaluation of an intervention / Exploración vocacional en adolescentes: evaluación de una intervención en clase

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Martina, Königstedt; Maria do Céu, Taveira.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisa-se o impacto de uma intervenção psicológica na exploração e tomada de decisão vocacional em adolescentes portugueses. Em contexto curricular e de classe, desenvolveram-se actividades de exploração do meio e do Eu com 39 alunos e 43 alunas do 9º ano, entre 13 e 17 anos (M=14,4, DP=0,95). Em u [...] m design pré/pós-teste, aplicaram-se o Career Exploration Survey (CES) e o Career Decision Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ). Os resultados do teste do sinal evidenciaram ganhos significativos (p Abstract in spanish Evalúa-se el impacto de una intervención psicológica que fomenta la exploración y la decisión vocacional en adolescentes portugueses. Fueran efectuadas actividades de exploración del medio ambiente y del yo en contexto curricular de clase con 39 alumnos y 43 alumnas del curso 3º ESO, 13 hasta 17 año [...] s (M=14,4, DP=0,95). Utilizó-se un diseño pre/pos-teste, con aplicación del Career Exploration Survey (CES) y Career Decision Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ). Resultados del test del señal evidencian beneficios significativos (p Abstract in english This study analyses the impact of a psychological intervention to promote vocational exploration and decision-making in Portuguese adolescents. Activities to foster exploration of self and environment were developed in a classroom program with 39 boys and 43 girls, all 9th grade students, between 13 [...] and 17 years of age (M=14,4, SD=0.95). Following a pre/post-test design, the Career Exploration Survey (CES), and the Career Decision Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ) were administered. Results of sign-test showed significant increments (p

  18. Adaptación y evaluación de las propiedades psicométricas de la BAS-3 para población adolescente de Tucumán (Argentina) / Adaptation and Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the BAS-3 Socialization Battery to Adolescents Sample from Tucumán (Argentina)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana, Betina Lacunza; Silvina, Valeria Caballero; Evangelina, Norma Contini.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describió la adaptación y evaluación de las propiedades psicométricas de la Batería de Socialización para Adolescentes (BAS-3) en adolescentes de Tucumán (Argentina). Se aplicó la batería a 381 adolescentes escolarizados, entre 10 y 15 años, con el previo consentimiento informado a sus padres. Se [...] encontró una solución de dos factores que explicaban el 53,13% de la varianza. Las asociaciones estadísticas observadas dan cuenta de la presencia de factores primarios, secundarios y terciarios de la socialización. El estudio aporta datos respecto a las propiedades psicométricas del instrumento en población local, indicando su sensibilidad para la evaluación de la autopercepción de los comportamientos sociales. Abstract in english This article describes the adaptation and evaluation of psychometric properties of the BAS-3 Adolescent Socialization Battery in adolescents from Tucumán (Argentina). A total of 381 adolescents, between the ages of 10 and 15 that attend state and public schools, were evaluated with the BAS-3. The pa [...] rticipants were administered the test with their parents' consent. A two-factor solution explaining the 53.13 % of the variance was found. The statistical relations observed account for the presence of primary, secondary and third factors of socialization. The study provides data of Argentinean adolescents in relation to the psychometric properties of the test indicating its sensibility to the evaluation of social behavior self-perception.

  19. A compreensão leitora de jovens e adultos tardiamente escolarizados / Under-schooled youngsters' and adults' reading comprehension

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andréa Giglio, Bottino; Jane, Correa.

    Full Text Available Foi analisada a importância de diversas habilidades linguístico-cognitivas para a compreensão leitura de jovens e adultos tardiamente escolarizados: leitura de palavras, consciência fonológica, consciência morfológica, nomeação automatizada rápida, memória de trabalho e vocabulário. A escolaridade a [...] parece entre os melhores preditores para a compreensão leitora, incluindo as perguntas de macroestrutura, argumentação e inferência, mas não para os itens de detalhe. Além da escolaridade figuram entre os melhores preditores da compreensão leitora e das perguntas de macroestrutura a leitura de palavras e o vocabulário. O vocabulário é também um bom preditor para as perguntas de argumentação e juntamente com a memória de trabalho e a RAN para os itens de inferência. Finalmente, os melhores preditores para as perguntas de detalhe são memória de trabalho e RAN. Abstract in english The importance of different linguistic and cognitive abilities of reading comprehension (word reading, phonological awareness, morphological awareness, Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN), working memory and vocabulary) to under-schooled youngsters and adults was examined. Schooling is one of the best pr [...] edictors for reading comprehension as well as for items related to macrostructure, argumentation and inference; but it is not to questions related to specific details. Best predictors for reading comprehension and items of macrostructure also included word reading and vocabulary. Vocabulary was also a good predictor to items related to argumentation, and along with working memory and RAN to inferential questions. Finally, best predictors to items related to specific details include working memory and RAN.

  20. Percepción de actos de intimidación hacia adolescentes embarazadas en colegios de Bogotá, Colombia / Intimidation acts perception at pregnant adolescents in schools of Bogotá, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Catalina, Latorre-Santos; Fernando, Pinilla-Moya; Lina Sofía, MorónDuarte; José Rafael, Tovar Cuevas.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El embarazo en adolescentes continúa siendo uno de los grandes problemas de Salud Pública en Colombia. Aunque existe un mayor reconocimiento de las medidas preventivas, más educación en salud sexual y reproductiva y fácil acceso a los anticonceptivos, las cifras de embarazos en adolesc [...] entes siguen siendo altas debido a múltiples factores agravados por la pérdida de valores, diferentes formas de maltrato y discriminación a nivel familiar, de la pareja, de los vecinos y/o de los profesores y compañeros dentro de los ambientes escolares y malas condiciones socioeconómicas. Materiales y métodos: Se estudió la percepción de los adolescentes escolarizados sobre actos de intimidación que rodean a las adolescentes embarazadas en colegios de educación media. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en el que se utilizaron las respuestas de 39.044 adolescentes matriculados en los grados noveno a once en 273 colegios, a cinco preguntas que indagaban sobre actos de intimidación en la Encuesta sobre el Comportamiento Sexual de Adolescentes Escolarizados en Bogotá (ECSAE), efectuada en Bogotá durante el primer semestre de 2010. Resultados: Del total de registros, el 45,4% (17.737) pertenecían a adolescentes hombres, el 23% de la muestra eran estudiantes de colegios privados. Doscientas setenta y dos niñas (0,69%) estaban embarazadas en el momento de realizar la encuesta; de ese grupo, el 10,3% estudiaba en colegios privados El acto de intimidación más percibido fue: los profesores dicen en público que las niñas cometieron un gran error al quedar embarazadas. Discusión: Se estableció que las adolescentes embarazadas son objeto de actos de intimidación por parte de sus compañeros y profesores. Abstract in english Introduction: Adolescent pregnancy continues to be a public health issue in Colombia. Although there has been an increase on sexual and reproductive health education, and facilitation of access to both health services and contraceptive methods, the number of adolescent pregnancies continues to be hi [...] gh. Other studies have shown that pregnancy is related to other social determinants such as loss of values, human rights violations, cultural characteristics and socioeconomic conditions. Methods: The study inquired about adolescent perception on bullying surrounding pregnant adolescents at school. A descriptive study was conducted upon the answer of 39,044 adolescent students enrolled on grades ninth to eleventh at 273 schools in Bogota on a survey regarding their sexual behavior during the first semester of 2010. Five questions related to pregnant girls bullying were analyzed. Results: 45% (17,737) of the subjects were male, and 23% of the attended private schools. Two hundred seventy two girls (0.69%) were pregnant at the moment of the survey 10.3% from private schools. Discussion: The main intimidation act perceived was: teachers publicly tell their students that the girls made a big mistake getting pregnant. Answers showed that pregnant girls suffer bullying by their teachers and classmates.

  1. Adolescente varón: iniciación sexual y anticoncepción (Argentina)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia, Necchi; Marta, Schufer.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Describir conductas y circunstancias psicosociales de la iniciación sexual y conocimientos, valoración y conductas acerca de la anticoncepción. Población. Adolescentes, varones entre 15 y 19 años, escolarizados de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Muestra. Se estudiaron 420 varones de una muestr [...] a aleatoria representativa de escuelas. Métodos. Cuestionario autoadministrado. Análisis univariados, bivariados y multivariados de datos. Resultados. Un 55,5% de los varones estaban iniciados sexualmente. Su edad promedio de inicio fue de 14,9 años (desviación estándar = 1,5 años). Se iniciaron con prostitutas (41,6%), con sus novias (26,6%), con amigas (20,2%) o con parejas ocasionales (10,7%). En muchos casos no hubo proceso decisorio previo (27,5%), en otros la decisión fue tomada con su pareja (21,9%) o con el grupo de amigos (21,5%). Un 57,5% manifestó haber tenido alguna preocupación, preponderantemente temor al SIDA. Valoraron como muy buena o buena la efectividad del preservativo (93,8%), del DIU (51,0%), del diafragma (47,6%) y de los métodos hormonales (47,4%). El método anticonceptivo más utilizado en la iniciación sexual y en las siguientes fue el preservativo, aunque el coitus interruptus y los métodos hormonales, poco utilizados en la iniciación, adquirieron un valor más relevante en las relaciones siguientes. La decisión de cuidarse fue tomada por sí mismo (58,7%) cuando la compañera sexual fue una prostituta o una relación ocasional. En cambio, cuando había una relación afectiva (amiga o novia), la decisión fue compartida (60,7%). La tipología muestra tres grupos diferenciados en el momento del debut sexual: "impulsado", "ocasional" e "integrado". Conclusiones. Existe una importante heterogeneidad en las conductas y circunstancias psicosociales de la iniciación sexual en estos varones: algunos se acercaron a un modelo de integración sexualidad/afectividad, otros actuaron impulsados por la cultura machista y se iniciaron en forma precoz y disociada y algunos otros se iniciaron, provocados o seducidos, con escaso manejo de la situación. El uso del preservativo como protección frente al SIDA se asoció en estos varones con el cuidado para la prevención del embarazo; tal vez se esté en presencia de un aumento de la conciencia reproductiva del varón en las nuevas generaciones. En beneficio de la democratización de la responsabilidad reproductiva, es importante seguir desarrollando líneas de investigación que profundicen el papel del varón adolescente en el proceso de la anticoncepción Abstract in english Objectives. To describe behaviours and psychosocial circumstances of sexual initiation and knowlewdge, evaluations and behaviours related with contraception. Population. Adolescents, males, 15 to 18 years old, that attended secondary school in the city of Buenos Aires. Sample. 420 males from a repre [...] sentative sample of schools. Methods. A self-administred questionnaire of 72 questions was applied and univariated, bivariated and multivariated stastistical analysis were performed. Results: 55.5% of boys were sexually iniciated. Their mean age at iniciation was 14.9 (standard deviation = 1.5 years). Boys started sexual relations with prostitutes (41.6%), with their girlfriends (26.6%), with friends (20.2%) or with ocassional partners (10.7%). For 27.5% "it just happened", 21.9% took the decision with their partners and 21.5% decided it with a group of friends. Their principal worry was AIDS. Most of them (93.8%) evaluated that the condom is very effective as a contraceptive (between 47.4% to 51.0% gave the same evaluation to the pill or other hormonal contraceptives, the diaphragm and the IUD). 79.0% used a condom in their first intercourse and also in the following ones. But coitus interruptus and hormonal contraceptives were also important in the following intercourses. The decision of protecting themselves was taken alone when the first intercourse was with a prostitute or with an ocassional partner, and with their partner when it happened wi

  2. Adolescente varón: iniciación sexual y anticoncepción (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Necchi

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Describir conductas y circunstancias psicosociales de la iniciación sexual y conocimientos, valoración y conductas acerca de la anticoncepción. Población. Adolescentes, varones entre 15 y 19 años, escolarizados de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Muestra. Se estudiaron 420 varones de una muestra aleatoria representativa de escuelas. Métodos. Cuestionario autoadministrado. Análisis univariados, bivariados y multivariados de datos. Resultados. Un 55,5% de los varones estaban iniciados sexualmente. Su edad promedio de inicio fue de 14,9 años (desviación estándar = 1,5 años. Se iniciaron con prostitutas (41,6%, con sus novias (26,6%, con amigas (20,2% o con parejas ocasionales (10,7%. En muchos casos no hubo proceso decisorio previo (27,5%, en otros la decisión fue tomada con su pareja (21,9% o con el grupo de amigos (21,5%. Un 57,5% manifestó haber tenido alguna preocupación, preponderantemente temor al SIDA. Valoraron como muy buena o buena la efectividad del preservativo (93,8%, del DIU (51,0%, del diafragma (47,6% y de los métodos hormonales (47,4%. El método anticonceptivo más utilizado en la iniciación sexual y en las siguientes fue el preservativo, aunque el coitus interruptus y los métodos hormonales, poco utilizados en la iniciación, adquirieron un valor más relevante en las relaciones siguientes. La decisión de cuidarse fue tomada por sí mismo (58,7% cuando la compañera sexual fue una prostituta o una relación ocasional. En cambio, cuando había una relación afectiva (amiga o novia, la decisión fue compartida (60,7%. La tipología muestra tres grupos diferenciados en el momento del debut sexual: "impulsado", "ocasional" e "integrado". Conclusiones. Existe una importante heterogeneidad en las conductas y circunstancias psicosociales de la iniciación sexual en estos varones: algunos se acercaron a un modelo de integración sexualidad/afectividad, otros actuaron impulsados por la cultura machista y se iniciaron en forma precoz y disociada y algunos otros se iniciaron, provocados o seducidos, con escaso manejo de la situación. El uso del preservativo como protección frente al SIDA se asoció en estos varones con el cuidado para la prevención del embarazo; tal vez se esté en presencia de un aumento de la conciencia reproductiva del varón en las nuevas generaciones. En beneficio de la democratización de la responsabilidad reproductiva, es importante seguir desarrollando líneas de investigación que profundicen el papel del varón adolescente en el proceso de la anticoncepciónObjectives. To describe behaviours and psychosocial circumstances of sexual initiation and knowlewdge, evaluations and behaviours related with contraception. Population. Adolescents, males, 15 to 18 years old, that attended secondary school in the city of Buenos Aires. Sample. 420 males from a representative sample of schools. Methods. A self-administred questionnaire of 72 questions was applied and univariated, bivariated and multivariated stastistical analysis were performed. Results: 55.5% of boys were sexually iniciated. Their mean age at iniciation was 14.9 (standard deviation = 1.5 years. Boys started sexual relations with prostitutes (41.6%, with their girlfriends (26.6%, with friends (20.2% or with ocassional partners (10.7%. For 27.5% "it just happened", 21.9% took the decision with their partners and 21.5% decided it with a group of friends. Their principal worry was AIDS. Most of them (93.8% evaluated that the condom is very effective as a contraceptive (between 47.4% to 51.0% gave the same evaluation to the pill or other hormonal contraceptives, the diaphragm and the IUD. 79.0% used a condom in their first intercourse and also in the following ones. But coitus interruptus and hormonal contraceptives were also important in the following intercourses. The decision of protecting themselves was taken alone when the first intercourse was with a prostitute or with an ocassional partner, and with their partner when it happened with their girlfriend or a friend. The multivariate analysi

  3. Asma en la adolescente embarazada

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vickie, Shulman; Elizabeth, Alderman; Jeffrey N, Ewig; Michael R, Bye.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available El embarazo entre las adolescentes ha aumentado en la última década1-5 asociado con frecuencia a la pobreza, al bajo nivel cultural y a una inadecuada atención prenatal. Aunque se ha sugerido que los resultados adversos del embarazo son más comunes entre las adolescentes procedentes de las zonas más [...] pobres, datos recientes demuestran que dentro de la población blanca de clase media las madres adolescentes tienen más posibilidades de presentar resultados adversos.5 El asma también se está volviendo más común, con una incidencia de por lo menos un 6,6 % en muchachas de 15 a 16 años de edad.6,7 La pobreza y la vida en poblaciones marginadas están asociadas con el aumento de la mortalidad y la morbilidad del asma.8-11 Las adolescentes que padecen de asma y que quedan embarazadas representan un reto para el médico que debe considerar el impacto del asma sobre el embarazo y viceversa. El médico debe conocer los efectos tanto de los medicamentos que se usan para tratar el asma como de los efectos que puede tener sobre el feto la enfermedad inadecuadamente controlada. También el médico tiene que ser capaz de darle esta información a la adolescente de una manera apropiada que le permita tomar decisiones.12

  4. Asma en la adolescente embarazada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickie Shulman

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available El embarazo entre las adolescentes ha aumentado en la última década1-5 asociado con frecuencia a la pobreza, al bajo nivel cultural y a una inadecuada atención prenatal. Aunque se ha sugerido que los resultados adversos del embarazo son más comunes entre las adolescentes procedentes de las zonas más pobres, datos recientes demuestran que dentro de la población blanca de clase media las madres adolescentes tienen más posibilidades de presentar resultados adversos.5 El asma también se está volviendo más común, con una incidencia de por lo menos un 6,6 % en muchachas de 15 a 16 años de edad.6,7 La pobreza y la vida en poblaciones marginadas están asociadas con el aumento de la mortalidad y la morbilidad del asma.8-11 Las adolescentes que padecen de asma y que quedan embarazadas representan un reto para el médico que debe considerar el impacto del asma sobre el embarazo y viceversa. El médico debe conocer los efectos tanto de los medicamentos que se usan para tratar el asma como de los efectos que puede tener sobre el feto la enfermedad inadecuadamente controlada. También el médico tiene que ser capaz de darle esta información a la adolescente de una manera apropiada que le permita tomar decisiones.12

  5. Fulminant hepatic failure: a Portuguese experience

    OpenAIRE

    Areia, M; Romãozinho, JM; Ferreira, M.; Amaro, P; Leitão, M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is a rare condition. Several series have been reported either by individual centres or in multicentre studies but, to our knowledge, this is the first report from a Portuguese population and might be a good example of FHF cases in a SouthWestern European population. AIMS: To present the experience in FHF of a Portuguese Hepatogastroenterological Intensive Care Unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of 61 cases of FHF consecutively ...

  6. Quality and work organisation in Portuguese industry

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Zulema; Moniz, Anto?nio; Kova?cs, Ilona

    1994-01-01

    The present communication analyses the relationships between work organisation and quality systems. The analysis is based on results from a study funded by the "Specific Programme for the Development of Portuguese Industry" (PEDIP). The main issues which have been currently associated with work organisation and quality control in the Portuguese industry are characterized. Critical features related to the implementation of quality systems and new methods of work organisation for industrial dev...

  7. Introducing the Portuguese web archive initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Daniel; Nogueira, Andre?; Miranda, Joa?o; Costa, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the Portuguese Web Archive initiative, presenting its main objectives and work in progress. Term search over web archives collections is a desirable feature that raises new challenges. It is discussed how the terms index size could be reduced without significantly decreasing the quality of search results. The results obtained from the first performed crawl show that the Portuguese web is composed approximately at least by 54 million contents that cor...

  8. Business models in the portuguese football clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Bolas, Nuno Filipe Rodrigues Santana

    2012-01-01

    This work project discusses the key features that affect the Portuguese Football Market and the business models presented by its football clubs by analyzing its unique characteristics and performing a comparison with the main European championships. The business models of Sport Clube Beira-Mar - Futebol, SAD, Sport Lisboa e Benfica - Futebol, SAD, Sporting Clube de Braga - Futebol, SAD and three Portuguese Football Academies were analyzed in order to understand the differences ...

  9. Putting portuguese geosciences on the WEB

    OpenAIRE

    Brilha, J. B.; Legoinha, P.; Neves, Luí­s

    2001-01-01

    During the last five years, some portuguese geologists have made a strong effort in puttingGeoscience contents on the web, many of them available now to the general public and scholar population. This effort has been made mostly by isolated persons and does not reflect a wholetendency of the national geological community. In order to congregate these isolated initiatives, a new group of the Portuguese Geological Society has been constituted (GEOTIC). In this paper some of thegeology web conte...

  10. Snoring in Portuguese primary school children

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Am; Clemente, V.; Gozal, D.; Gomes, A.; Pissarra, C.; Ce?sar, H.; Coelho, I.; Silva, Cf; Azevedo, Mh

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of snoring and its potential associations with sleep problems, such as daytime symptoms, medical conditions, school performance, and behavioral disturbances in Portuguese children attending primary school. METHODS: A previously validated questionnaire was sent to the parents of 1381 children attending primary schools in a parish of Coimbra, Portugal. To assess behavioral disturbances, the Portuguese version of Rutter's Children's Behavior Questionnaire f...

  11. Future Present Progressive in Brazilian Portuguese

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Franciane

    2012-01-01

    The use of the present progressive to express future is a grammatical construction imported into Portuguese from English. In this construction here called Future Present Progressive (FPP), the verbal predicate expresses the present tense, while a temporal adverb locates the event in the future. The assimilation of this construction to Brazilian Portuguese (BP) enriches the language’s inventory of periphrastic expressions of the future tense. This work studied the internal structure of FPP c...

  12. Violencia en el Noviazgo Adolescente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Escoto Sainz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación con diseño no experimental y de carácter descriptivo, determina si existe la violencia en cualquiera de sus manifestaciones en el noviazgo adolescente actual. Se les aplicó un cuestionario a veinte mujeres adolescentes entre 15 y 18 años de edad, donde además se revelan los valores que no se encuentran involucrados en sus relaciones de pareja. Surgieron similitudes entre ellas obteniendo así que la mayor parte sufre de violencia tipo psicológica y, por otro lado, una minoría recibe abuso de tipo físico y sexual. Además se dejo ver que el respeto  no es un valor que caracterice su relación de pareja. Son datos que nos van introduciendo al nuevo estilo de noviazgo que entre adolescentes se lleva, en el cual influyen muchos factores como familiares, ambientales, culturales, etc.; que, no importa donde ni cuando, siempre tendrán consecuencias que se reflejan en la calidad de las relaciones interpersonales.

  13. Tres tipologías de salud mental de los adolescentes de una zona de Medellín-Colombia, 2006 / Three typologies for adolescents’ mental health in north-eastern Medellín, Colombia, 2006

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ramón E, Paniagua-Suárez; Carlos M, González-Posada; Brígida, Montoya-Gómez.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Obtener tipologías de adolescentes escolarizados en la zona nororiental de Medellín en el 2006, por medio de cinco indicadores de salud mental, nivel de depresión, nivel de funcionamiento familiar, nivel de riesgo de suicidio, consumo de sustancias psicoactivas y vulnerabilidad familiar. Mé [...] todos La información se produce desde una muestra aleatoria estratificada de 779 adolescentes que se asigna proporcionalmente al tamaño de las instituciones educativas en cada comuna de la zona y se calcula con un error del 3,5 % y una confianza del 95 %. Se aplica un cuestionario autodiligenciado a los estudiantes. Resultados Se muestran tres tipologías, dos de las cuales agrupan adolescentes sin dificultades en los cinco indicadores de salud mental y una tercera tipología con problemáticas en todos los indicadores de salud mental estudiados, formada principalmente por estudiantes de las comunas Popular y Santa Cruz, que representan el 35 % del total, 15 636 estudiantes, aproximadamente. Conclusión La salud mental de los adolescentes escolarizados de la zona nororiental de Medellín es un fenómeno multidimensional que requiere una intervención interdisciplinaria y presenta diferencias por sexo, grupo de edad y comuna de residencia. Abstract in english Objective Obtaining typologies for adolescent students in north-eastern Medellin in 2006 concerning five mental health indicators (depression level, family functioning level, risk of suicide, consuming psychoactive substances and family vulnerability) linked to gender, age group and commune. Method [...] The information was collected from a stratified random sample of 779 adolescents who were proportionally assigned by the size of educational institutions in each commune in the study area; a 3,5 % error and 95 % confidence interval were used in such calculation. The students were given a questionnaire to fill in by themselves. Results Three typologies were presented where adolescents were classified as follows: two grouped adolescents without difficulties regarding the five mental health indicators and a third category grouped adolescents having problems in all the mental health indicators studied formed mainly by students from the Popular and Santa Cruz communes (35 %, around 15,636 students). Conclusion The mental health of adolescent students from north-eastern Medellín was seen to be a multidimensional phenomenon needing interdisciplinary intervention and presented differences by gender, age group and commune.

  14. Tres tipologías de salud mental de los adolescentes de una zona de Medellín-Colombia, 2006 / Three typologies for adolescents' mental health in north-eastern Medellín, Colombia, 2006

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ramón E, Paniagua-Suárez; Carlos M, González-Posada; Brígida, Montoya-Gómez.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Obtener tipologías de adolescentes escolarizados en la zona nororiental de Medellín en el 2006, por medio de cinco indicadores de salud mental, nivel de depresión, nivel de funcionamiento familiar, nivel de riesgo de suicidio, consumo de sustancias psicoactivas y vulnerabilidad familiar. Mé [...] todos La información se produce desde una muestra aleatoria estratificada de 779 adolescentes que se asigna proporcionalmente al tamaño de las instituciones educativas en cada comuna de la zona y se calcula con un error del 3,5 % y una confianza del 95 %. Se aplica un cuestionario autodiligenciado a los estudiantes. Resultados Se muestran tres tipologías, dos de las cuales agrupan adolescentes sin dificultades en los cinco indicadores de salud mental y una tercera tipología con problemáticas en todos los indicadores de salud mental estudiados, formada principalmente por estudiantes de las comunas Popular y Santa Cruz, que representan el 35 % del total, 15 636 estudiantes, aproximadamente. Conclusión La salud mental de los adolescentes escolarizados de la zona nororiental de Medellín es un fenómeno multidimensional que requiere una intervención interdisciplinaria y presenta diferencias por sexo, grupo de edad y comuna de residencia. Abstract in english Objective Obtaining typologies for adolescent students in north-eastern Medellin in 2006 concerning five mental health indicators (depression level, family functioning level, risk of suicide, consuming psychoactive substances and family vulnerability) linked to gender, age group and commune. Method [...] The information was collected from a stratified random sample of 779 adolescents who were proportionally assigned by the size of educational institutions in each commune in the study area; a 3,5 % error and 95 % confidence interval were used in such calculation. The students were given a questionnaire to fill in by themselves. Results Three typologies were presented where adolescents were classified as follows: two grouped adolescents without difficulties regarding the five mental health indicators and a third category grouped adolescents having problems in all the mental health indicators studied formed mainly by students from the Popular and Santa Cruz communes (35 %, around 15,636 students). Conclusion The mental health of adolescent students from north-eastern Medellín was seen to be a multidimensional phenomenon needing interdisciplinary intervention and presented differences by gender, age group and commune.

  15. Tres tipologías de salud mental de los adolescentes de una zona de Medellín-Colombia, 2006 Three typologies for adolescents’ mental health in north-eastern Medellín, Colombia, 2006

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    Ramón E Paniagua-Suárez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Obtener tipologías de adolescentes escolarizados en la zona nororiental de Medellín en el 2006, por medio de cinco indicadores de salud mental, nivel de depresión, nivel de funcionamiento familiar, nivel de riesgo de suicidio, consumo de sustancias psicoactivas y vulnerabilidad familiar. Métodos La información se produce desde una muestra aleatoria estratificada de 779 adolescentes que se asigna proporcionalmente al tamaño de las instituciones educativas en cada comuna de la zona y se calcula con un error del 3,5 % y una confianza del 95 %. Se aplica un cuestionario autodiligenciado a los estudiantes. Resultados Se muestran tres tipologías, dos de las cuales agrupan adolescentes sin dificultades en los cinco indicadores de salud mental y una tercera tipología con problemáticas en todos los indicadores de salud mental estudiados, formada principalmente por estudiantes de las comunas Popular y Santa Cruz, que representan el 35 % del total, 15 636 estudiantes, aproximadamente. Conclusión La salud mental de los adolescentes escolarizados de la zona nororiental de Medellín es un fenómeno multidimensional que requiere una intervención interdisciplinaria y presenta diferencias por sexo, grupo de edad y comuna de residencia.Objective Obtaining typologies for adolescent students in north-eastern Medellin in 2006 concerning five mental health indicators (depression level, family functioning level, risk of suicide, consuming psychoactive substances and family vulnerability linked to gender, age group and commune. Method The information was collected from a stratified random sample of 779 adolescents who were proportionally assigned by the size of educational institutions in each commune in the study area; a 3,5 % error and 95 % confidence interval were used in such calculation. The students were given a questionnaire to fill in by themselves. Results Three typologies were presented where adolescents were classified as follows: two grouped adolescents without difficulties regarding the five mental health indicators and a third category grouped adolescents having problems in all the mental health indicators studied formed mainly by students from the Popular and Santa Cruz communes (35 %, around 15,636 students. Conclusion The mental health of adolescent students from north-eastern Medellín was seen to be a multidimensional phenomenon needing interdisciplinary intervention and presented differences by gender, age group and commune.

  16. “Mi mente decía no… mi cuerpo decía sí…”: el camino en decidir embarazarse las adolescentes escolarizadas My mind said no… my body said yes…”: Pregnancy in school adolescents Minha mente falava não… mas meu corpo falava sim…”: Gravidez em adolescentes escolarizadas

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    VÁSQUEZ TRUISSI MARTHA LUCÍA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La sexualidad, como dimensión trascendental del ser humano, se afecta con la cultura donde están inmersos significados y símbolos que expresan cómo la viven los adolescentes desde su cosmovisión. Esta investigación describe, desde la perspectiva de los roles de género, los procesos de construcción de decisiones frente al embarazo de los adolescentes escolarizados. El estudio fue una etnografía focalizada, que se realizó durante un año en una institución educativa pública del Distrito de Aguablanca en Cali, Colombia. Participaron como informantes claves seis adolescentes madres escolarizadas y, como informantes generales, quince hombres, quince mujeres no embarazadas, diez profesores y trece padres de familia. Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad y grupos focales hasta la saturación de datos. Para el análisis se utilizó el método de Spradley. A partir de la etnosemántica se identificaron cuatro dominios relacionados con el género, la cultura, la educación y la decisión de embarazarse. Adicionalmente, a partir del estudio de los dominios se pudieron identificar y agrupar cuatro temas culturales relacionados con el significado de ser mujer durante la adolescencia, el establecimiento de las relaciones de género, la planificación familiar y la realidad frente a la decepción de los padres y la frustración del proyecto de vida. Los adolescentes se desenvuelven en entornos culturales de liberalidad, espacialidad y temporalidad que los predisponen y precipitan no solo a vivir con celeridad la sexualidad, sino a transitar del amor romántico al amor apasionado.Sexuality, as a very important dimension of the human being, is affected by culture where the meaning and symbols are immersed and which express how adolescents experience it from their cosmovision. This study describes, from the perspective of gender roles, the decision making process in regard to pregnancy of school adolescents. The study was a focused ethnography that was carried out during one year in a public educational institution from the District of Aguablanca in Cali, Colombia. Key informants were six school adolescents who have become mothers and as general informants, fifteen men, fifteen non-pregnant women, ten teachers and thirteen parents. In depth interviews took place and focus groups until data saturation. The Spradley method was used for the analysis. Based on ethnosemantic, four domains were identified which were related with gender, culture, education and the decision to get pregnant. Additionally, from the domain study, one was able to identify and group four cultural topics related with the meaning of being a woman during the adolescence, establishment of gender relations, family planning and the reality in respect of the disappointment of parents and frustration of the life project. Adolescents move in cultural environments of freedom, space and temporality that predispose them and rush them not only to live sexuality rapidly, but also to move from romantic love to passionate love.A sexualidade, como dimensão transcendental do ser humano, é afetada com a cultura onde convergem significados e símbolos que expressam como as e os adolescentes a vivem desde sua cosmovisão. Essa pesquisa descreve, com base na perspectiva dos roles de gênero, os processos de tomada de decisões ante a gravidez das e dos adolescentes escolarizados. O estudo foi uma etnografia focalizada, que se realizou durante um ano numa instituição educativa pública do Distrito de Aguablanca em Cali, Colômbia. Participaram como informantes chaves seis adolescentes mães escolarizadas e, como informantes gerais, quinze homens, quinze mulheres não grávidas, dez professores e treze pais de família. A pesquisa inclui entrevistas em profundidade e focus groups até atingir saturação de dados. O método utilizado para a análise foi o método Spradley. A partir da etnosemántica se identificaram quatro domínios relacionados com o gênero, a cultura, a educação e a decisão de ficar grávida. Adicionalmente, e baseado no estudo do

  17. La construcción de proyectos de trabajo en jóvenes escolarizados / The construction of work projects in youth students

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    Silvia, Batlle; Marcela, Vidondo; Cristina, Sansone; María Clara, Núñez; Gabriela, Bory; Fanny, Kaliman; Lila, Solano; Silvia, Maldonado; María Florencia, Rodríguez.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza algunas dimensiones del proyecto de trabajo de jóvenes escolarizados: expectativas y aspiraciones, caracteristicas personales de iniciativa, estrategias de búsqueda de trabajo, valores laborales, definiciones del trabajo y percepción de recursos y obstáculos para la inserción la [...] boral. La metodología es cuantitativa. Se tomaron 1546 cuestionarios autoadministrables a alumnos de escuelas medias públicas de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires: 707 mujeres y 839 varones. El promedio de edad en primer año fue de 14 años; en tercer año de 16 años y en quinto año de 18 años. Se han realizado análisis descriptivos, análisis de varianzas (ANOVA) y utilizado pruebas no paramétricas. En este trabajo se han delimitado importantes dimensiones que inluyen en la construcción de los proyectos laborales y se han encontrado variables potentes para explicar las diferencias al interior de la población estudiada: sexo, especialidad, experiencia laboral, año de la trayectoria escolar y repetición. Abstract in english This paper analyzes some dimensions of work projects of youth students: expectations and aspirations, personal characteristics of initiative, work search strategies, work values, deinitions of work and perception of resources and obstacles for labor insertion. The methodology is quantitative. 1546 s [...] elf-managing questionnaires to students from public secondary schools of the C.A.B.A. were taken: 707 women and 839 men. The age's average in the irst year was of 14 years old; in the third year of 16 years old and in the ifth year of 18 years old. Descriptive analyses and analyses of variances have been made (ANOVA) and non-parametric tests were applied. In this work important dimensions that inluence in the construction of work projects have been delimited and there have been found powerful variables to explain the differences within the studied population: sex, specialty, work experience, year of the scholastic trajectory and repetition.

  18. Inteligencia emocional en adolescentes de dos colegios de Bogotá* / Emotional Intelligence (EI) in Adolescents from Two Schools in Bogotá

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    Diana Marcela, Cerón Perdomo; Isabel, Pérez-Olmos; Milciades, Ibánez Pinilla.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En 1990, se propuso la inteligencia emocional (IE) como una habilidad mental dada por los componentes social y emocional de la personalidad, constituidos a su vez por el percibir, facilitar, comprender y manejar las emociones. La Trait Meta-Mood Scale 24 (TMMS-24) es la versión español [...] a de autoinforme de la IE. Objetivo: Determinar las diferencias en el grado de desarrollo de la IE asociadas con sexo, edad y escolaridad en población adolescente de dos colegios de Bogotá. Método: Diseño observacional de corte transversal, comparativo entre dos grupos de adolescentes escolarizados en educación oficial, uno en colégio femenino y el otro en colegio masculino, de los grados 6° a 11°. Se empleó la TMMS-24 y un cuestionario de datos sociodemográficos autodiligenciables. Resultados: Se incluyeron un total de 451 adolescentes, 224 mujeres (edad: 14,04 ± 1,58 años) y 227 hombres (edad: 14,25 ± 1,68 anos). El alfa de Cronbach de la TMMS-24 obtenido fue de 0,802 en percepción, 0,756 en comprensión y 0,748 en regulación. Conclusiones: La TMMS-24 tiene adecuada consistencia interna para evaluar la IE de adolescentes entre los 12 y 17 anos de edad escolarizados en Bogotá. La IE se relacionó con el sexo y confirmó aportes de la literatura científica. Hay necesidad de realizar más investigación acerca de IE en nuestro medio. Abstract in english Introduction: In 1990, emotional intelligence (EI) was proposed as a mental ability given by the social and emotional components of personality, made up in turn by the ability to perceive, facilitate, understand, and manage emotions. The Trait Meta-Mood Scale 24 (TMMS-24) is the Spanish version of E [...] I self-report. Objective: To determine differences in the degree of development of EI associated with gender, age, and education among adolescents from two schools in Bogotá. Method: Observational cross-sectional comparison between two groups of adolescents enrolled in formal education in a girls' and a boys' schools, grades 6 through 11. We used the TMMS-24 and a demographic data questionnaire, both were self-reports. Results: A total of 451 adolescents, 224 females (age 14.04 ± 1.58 years) and 227 males (age 14.25 ± 1.68 years) were included. TMMS-24's Cronbach's alpha obtained in this study was 0.802 for attention, 0.756 for clarity, and 0.748 for repair. Conclusions: The TMMS-24 has good internal consistency to assess the EI of adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age attending school in Bogotá. EI was related to gender, confirming findings in the scientific literature. There is need for more research on EI in our environment.

  19. Risk of eating behavior disorders in adolescents from Cartagena, Colombia / Risco de transtorno do comportamento alimentário em adolescentes de Cartagena, Colômbia / Riesgo de trastorno del comportamiento alimentario en adolescentes de Cartagena, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Zuleima, Cogollo; Edna Margarita, Gómez-Bustamante.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estimar a prevalência e explorar a relação do risco de transtorno do comportamento alimentário (RTCA) com alguns fatores em adolescentes escolarizados de Cartagena, Colômbia. Metodologia. Estudo de corte transversal no que se empregou amostra probabilística por conglomerados dos estudantes [...] de secundária (sexto do primeiro grau a segundo ano do segundo grau) em 2012. Quantificou-se o RTCA com o questionário SCOFF (dois ou mais pontos). As associações se ajustaram mediante um modelo de regressão logística. Resultados. Participaram 2625 estudantes entre 10 e 20 anos (média=14 anos) e 54% foram mulheres. 32.5% pontuaram para RTCA. Associaram-se como fatores de risco: o consumo problemático de álcool (OR=1.9; IC95%: 1.4-2.5), o sexo feminino (OR=1.6; IC95% 1.4-1.9), a orientação sexual não heterossexual (OR=1.5; IC95% 1.1-2,1), o consumo de alguma substância ilegal (OR=1.5; IC95% 1.1-2.1), o consumo de cigarro alguma vez (OR=1.5; IC95% 1.2-1.8), sintomas depressivos com importância clínica (OR=1.5; IC95% 1.2-1.8) e disfunção familiar (OR=1.2; IC95% 1.1-1.5). Conclusão. Uma proporção importante dos adolescentes escolarizados de Cartagena apresentaram RTCA, o que esteve relacionado principalmente com o consumo problemático de álcool e o sexo feminino. Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia y explorar la relación del riesgo de trastorno del comportamiento alimentario (RTCA) con respecto a algunos factores en adolescentes escolarizados de Cartagena, Colombia. Metodología. Estudio de corte transversal en el que se empleó muestreo probabilístico por conglo [...] merados de los estudiantes de secundaria (sexto a undécimo grado) en 2012. Se cuantificó el RTCA con el cuestionario SCOFF (dos o más puntos). Las asociaciones se ajustaron mediante un modelo de regresión logística. Resultados. En este trabajo participaron 2 625 estudiantes entre 10 y 20 años (media=14 años), de ellos 54% mujeres. El 32.5% puntuó para RTCA. Se asociaron como factores de riesgo: el consumo problemático de alcohol (OR=1.9; IC95%: 1.4-2.5), el sexo femenino (OR=1.6; IC95% 1.4-1.9), la orientación sexual no heterosexual (OR=1.5; IC95% 1.1-2,1), el consumo de alguna sustancia ilegal (OR=1.5; IC95% 1.1-2.1), el consumo de cigarrillo alguna vez (OR=1.5; IC95% 1.2-1.8), síntomas depresivos con importancia clínica (OR=1.5; IC95% 1.2-1.8) y disfunción familiar (OR=1.2; IC95% 1.1-1.5). Conclusión. Una proporción importante de los adolescentes escolarizados de Cartagena presentaron RTCA, el que estuvo relacionado principalmente con el consumo problemático de alcohol y el sexo femenino. Abstract in english Objective. To estimate the prevalence and explore the relationship of the risk of eating behavior disorders (REDB) with some factors in school-age adolescents from Cartagena, Colombia. Methodology. This was a cross-sectional study, which used probability sampling by conglomerates of high school stud [...] ents (sixth to eleventh grades) in 2012. The REDB was quantified with the SCOFF questionnaire (two or more points). The associations were fitted through a logistic regression model. Results. A total of 2625 students between 10 and 20 years of age (mean = 14 years) participated; 54% were women. A total of 32.5% scored for REDB. The risk factors associated were: problematic consumption of alcohol (OR=1.9; CI95%: 1.4-2.5), female sex (OR=1.6; CI95%: 1.4-1.9), non-heterosexual sexual orientation (OR=1.5; CI95%: 1.1-2.1), consumption of any illegal substance (OR=1.5; CI95%: 1.1-2.1), cigarette smoking at any moment in life (OR=1.5; CI95%: 1.2-1.8), depressive symptoms with clinical importance (OR=1.5; CI95%: 1.2-1.8), and family dysfunction (OR=1.2; CI95%: 1.1-1.5). Conclusion. An important proportion of school-age adolescents from Cartagena presented REDB, which was mainly related to problematic consumption of alcohol and the female sex.

  20. Reconhecimento da Depressão e Crenças sobre Procura de Ajuda em Jovens Portugueses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luís, Loureiro; Ana, Pedreiro; Susana, Correia; Aida, Mendes.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Embora o despoletar das doenças mentais na adolescência e juventude seja comum, muitos adolescentes e jovens não procuram ajuda, sendo a baixa literacia em saúde mental apontada como tendo influência sobre o reconhecimento precoce da perturbação e os comportamentos de procura de ajuda. Em Portugal, [...] não existiam estudos que avaliassem a literacia em saúde mental de adolescentes e jovens. No âmbito do projeto "Educação e Sensibilização para a Saúde Mental: Um Programa de Intervenção com base na Escola para Adolescentes e Jovens" (PTDC/CPE-CED/112546/2009) está a ser administrado um questionário cujo propósito é avaliar a literacia da saúde mental de adolescentes e jovens. O QuALiSMental é a versão traduzida, adaptada e autorizada do Survey of Mental Health Literacy in Young People - Interview Version (Jorm, 1997; 2000) e é composto por três vinhetas, descrevendo uma pessoa fictícia com sintomas de depressão, esquizofrenia e abuso de substâncias (álcool), respetivamente. O objetivo deste artigo é caraterizar, partindo da análise de resultados do QuALiSMental, a capacidade de jovens portugueses residentes na zona centro de Portugal e que terminaram o 12º ano em 2011 identificarem a depressão através da leitura de uma vinheta bem como as suas crenças sobre a procura de ajuda para esta situação. Os dados foram colhidos partindo de uma amostra por conglomerados e esta seleção, apesar de aleatória, teve em consideração a representatividade em termos de indicadores geográficos e contextos urbanos, semiurbanos e rurais. Verificou-se que 32% da amostra identifica corretamente a depressão e que a afirmação de intenção de procura de ajuda é de 66,3%. As limitações encontradas ao nível da literacia em saúde mental de adolescentes e jovens podem explicar o não reconhecimento das perturbações mentais e o atraso na procura de ajuda, que leva a tratamentos mais demorados. São necessárias ações de educação e sensibilização para a saúde mental junto de adolescentes e jovens, preferencialmente em contexto escolar. Abstract in english Although the onset of mental disorders often occur during adolescence and youth, many teenagers and youths do not seek help, having the low mental health literacy influence over the early recognition of the disorder and the help-seeking behaviors. In Portugal, there were no studies that evaluate men [...] tal health literacy of teenagers and youths. In the scope of the project "Mental Health Education and Sensibilization: A School-based Intervention Program for Adolescents and Young" (PTDC/ CPE-CED/112546/2009) a questionnaire is being applied with the aim of evaluate the mental health literacy of teenagers and youths. The QuALiSMental is the translated and adapted version of the Survey of Mental Health Literacy in Young People - Interview Version (Jorm, 1997; 2000) and has three vignettes describing a fictitious person with symptoms of depression, schizophrenia and abuse of substances (alcohol), respectively. The objective of this article is to characterize, starting from the results of QuALiSMental, the ability of the Portuguese youths living in the center of Portugal and that finished the 12o year in 2011 identify depression after reading a vignette as well as their beliefs about the help seeking for this situation. The data were collected from a cluster sample and this selection, although randomized, considerate the geographical and urban, semi urban and rural representativeness. It was verified that 32% of the sample identified accurately depression and that the intention of help seeking is 66, 3%. The limitations we have identified in mental health literacy of adolescents and youths can explain the non-recognition of the mental disturb and delays in help-seeking, which leads to longer treatments. Actions of education and awareness of mental health with adolescents and youths are needed, preferably school-based.

  1. Parto pretérmino en adolescentes

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    Riscarle, Manrique; Airlen, Rivero; Magaly, Ortunio; Marianela, Rivas; Rosa, Cardozo; Harold, Guevara.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de parto pretérmino en las adolescentes, durante el año 2005, patologías asociadas y complicaciones perinatales. Método: Estudio descriptivo y transversal. La muestra estuvo conformada por 68 pacientes que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Se hizo revisión de [...] historias clínicas. Ambiente: Hospital "Dr. Adolfo Prince Lara". Puerto Cabello, Estado Carabobo. Resultados: La prevalencia de parto pretérmino fue 10,51 %. El grupo de edad más frecuente fue el de 17-19 años con 57,4 %. El estrato socioeconómico predominante fue el IV con 67,6 %. Se presentaron patologías maternas (85,3 %) y complicaciones perinatales (38,2 %). Se detectó asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la edad y las patologías maternas (P Abstract in english Objective: To determine the prevalence of preterm childbirth in adolescents in 2005, to distribute them according to age, socioeconomic level, associated pathologies and perinatal complications and to associate the age with pathologies and perinatal complications. Method: A descriptive, cross-sectio [...] nal study was made. The sample was 68 patients that completed the inclusion criteria. Revision of clinical histories was made. Setting: Hospital "Dr. Adolfo Prince Lara". Puerto Cabello, Estado Carabobo. Results: The prevalence of preterm childbirth was 10.51 %. The most frequent age range was 17-19 years with 57.4 %. The predominant socioeconomic level was the IV with 67.6 %. They showed up maternal pathologies (85.3 %) and perinatal complications (38.2 %). A significant statistically association was detected between the age and the maternal pathologies (P

  2. Parto pretérmino en adolescentes

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    Riscarle Manrique

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de parto pretérmino en las adolescentes, durante el año 2005, patologías asociadas y complicaciones perinatales. Método: Estudio descriptivo y transversal. La muestra estuvo conformada por 68 pacientes que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Se hizo revisión de historias clínicas. Ambiente: Hospital "Dr. Adolfo Prince Lara". Puerto Cabello, Estado Carabobo. Resultados: La prevalencia de parto pretérmino fue 10,51 %. El grupo de edad más frecuente fue el de 17-19 años con 57,4 %. El estrato socioeconómico predominante fue el IV con 67,6 %. Se presentaron patologías maternas (85,3 % y complicaciones perinatales (38,2 %. Se detectó asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la edad y las patologías maternas (PObjective: To determine the prevalence of preterm childbirth in adolescents in 2005, to distribute them according to age, socioeconomic level, associated pathologies and perinatal complications and to associate the age with pathologies and perinatal complications. Method: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was made. The sample was 68 patients that completed the inclusion criteria. Revision of clinical histories was made. Setting: Hospital "Dr. Adolfo Prince Lara". Puerto Cabello, Estado Carabobo. Results: The prevalence of preterm childbirth was 10.51 %. The most frequent age range was 17-19 years with 57.4 %. The predominant socioeconomic level was the IV with 67.6 %. They showed up maternal pathologies (85.3 % and perinatal complications (38.2 %. A significant statistically association was detected between the age and the maternal pathologies (P<0.05. Conclusion: The poverty and the low socioeconomic level are related with the pregnancy in adolescents.

  3. Portuguese Universities Sharing Remote Laboratories

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    Maria Teresa Restivo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a pedagogical assignment based on a cooperative work involving teachers/students from two Portuguese universities. As it happens one is the oldest in the country – University of Coimbra (UC - and the other the largest - University of Porto (UP, about 120 km apart. The authors, believing in the relevance of Information and Communication Technologies (ITs in teaching/learning methodologies and in cooperative teaching methods worked together to plan this pedagogical experience and to run it in a one semester course. Students from UC have been introduced to the remote lab at UP and got the first contact with the remote experiments using easily available sound and image resources based on Skype and an IP camera for better image quality. This first contact has been conducted by the first author at UP with support of the second author at UC. The work will describe briefly the remote experiments used, their inclusion in the course at UC, the associated assessment criteria and, finally, student comments.

  4. En voz de la experiencia: Estrategias de enfrentamiento en adolescentes que concluyeron un programa de intervención breve en consumo de alcohol

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    Kalina Isela Mart\\u00EDnez Mart\\u00EDnez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente estudio fue identificar las circunstancias de riesgo de consumo de alcohol y las estrategias para enfrentar exitosamente una recaída o el consumo abusivo, en un grupo de adolescentes que terminaron un programa de intervención breve. El estudio se realizó en la Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes entre los años 2007 y 2011; participaron 70 adolescentes escolarizados. La edad promedio de los participantes fue de 16.2 años (31 hombres y 39 mujeres. Los participantes respondieron a un registro de enfrentamiento durante las sesiones de seguimiento, donde describieron dos situaciones específicas de riesgo y contaron qué estrategias pusieron en marcha para no consumir o evitar el consumo abusivo. En la recolección y análisis de los datos se siguió un enfoque mixto de investigación, el cual permitió analizar y vincular datos cuantitativos y cualitativos en un mismo estudio para responder al planteamiento del problema. Se realizó la transcripción de los textos de cada registro, asignándose un código a cada tipo de evento potencial de consumo por medio del programa informático MAXQDA (Versión 5.0. El análisis de los resultados da cuenta de tres estrategias que usan los adolescentes para resistir el consumo: a nivel cognitivo, recordar las metas propuestas en el programa de intervención breve y las consecuencias negativas asociadas; a nivel conductual, en función de las reacciones que presentan ante la situación; y a nivel de emoción, reflejando una conciencia de estado anímico. Los hallazgos se discuten a la luz de analizar la relevancia de estudios de este tipo, que rescatan la experiencia en "viva voz" de los participantes y ubican el problema del consumo desde la comprensión y significación de los propios usuarios, el papel del consumo en su medio, y los diferentes agentes sociales y escenarios involucrados.

  5. Valores de referencia y prevalencia de las alteraciones del perfil lipídico en adolescentes / Reference values and prevalence of lipidic profle alterations in adolescents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Williams René, Pedrozo; Graciela, Bonneau; María S, Castillo Rascón; Marcos, Juárez; Jorge, Cardozo.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El metabolismo lipídico alterado junto a otros factores de riesgo cardiovascular promueven la aterosclerosis a edades tempranas y el desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares. Nos propusimos estimar la prevalencia de alteraciones del perfil lipídico en adolescentes escolarizados de l [...] a ciudad de Posadas, Misiones, Argentina y describir la distribución de los valores en un subgrupo aparentemente sano. Población y métodos. Estudio descriptivo transversal en alumnos de 12-18 años. Se obtuvieron datos personales y medidas antropométricas, y se efectuaron las determinaciones lipídicas. En un subgrupo de adolescentes aparentemente sanos se determinaron los percentilos del perfil lipídico. Resultados. Se estudiaron 523 adolescentes. Se encontró colesterol total ?200 mg/dl en 7,8%, entre 170 y 199 mg/dl en 18,7%, trigliceridemia >110 mg/dl en 20,1% y colesterol HDL Abstract in english Introduction. Altered lipid metabolism along with other cardiovascular risk factors promotes atherosclerosis at early age, leading to cardiovascular disease development. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of abnormal lipid profle in school adolescents from the city of Posadas, Misiones, Argentina, [...] and describe the distribution of values in an apparently healthy subgroup. Population and methods. Descriptive cross-sectional study in a sample of students from 12 to 18 years of age. We obtained personal data, anthropometric measurements and a blood sample with 12 hours fasting for lipid determinations. Lipid profle percentiles were determined in a subgroup of apparently healthy adolescents. Results. We studied 523 adolescents. We found cholesterolemia ?200 mg/dL in 7.8%, total cholesterol between 170 and 199 mg/dL in 18.7%; triglyceridemia >110 mg/dl in 20.1% and HDL cholesterol

  6. Modernismo nos Livros Didáticos de Ensino Médio: que Temas e Textos são Tidos como Fundadores? A que isso se Presta, na Formação do Leitor Escolarizado?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amélia Dalvi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Partindo de uma perspectiva cultural, este artigo apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa bibliográfico-documental. Traz, em primeiro lugar, uma breve síntese a respeito da pesquisa com livros didáticos e sua interrelação com a formação do leitor escolarizado no Brasil; depois, parte para uma brevíssima consideração acerca do que se entende por "moderno" e por "modernismo", passando pela instituição do termo e chegando às vanguardas européias, latino-americanas e brasileiras no século XX; por fim, organiza dados como os temas e subtemas relacionados ao Modernismo Brasileiro que comparecem em quatro livros didáticos contemporâneos, para a disciplina de Língua Portuguesa e Literatura no ensino médio, livros estes publicados por grandes grupos editoriais, elencando, também, os textos e os autores abordados (especialmente, Oswald de Andrade, Mário de Andrade, Manuel Bandeira e Carlos Drummond de Andrade. Como conclusão, analisa a que se presta o conjunto de temas, subtemas, autores e textos veiculados pelos impressos pedagógicos no processo de formação do leitor escolarizado. Defende, pois, que um livro didático menos previsível talvez fosse um meio de criticar tudo aquilo que reproduz um modelo de identidade – e de educação, verdade e formação – estanque e essencialista.

  7. The orthographic (dis)agreement and the Portuguese identity threat

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Michelly Santos; Cabecinhas, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Portuguese's opinion on the orthographic agreement recently implemented among the members of the Portuguese Speaking Countries Community. This agreement aims to uniformize Portuguese orthography. A survey was conducted about this issue in Portugal. Our hypothesis is that the Portuguese people will reject this agreement since it will be seen as an identity threat: the agreement is considered as a kind of submission by the former colonizer (Portugal) towards the former c...

  8. Validation of a Portuguese Version of the Children's Hope Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Susana C.; Pais-Ribeiro, J. L.; Lopez, Shane J.

    2009-01-01

    The article describes the development of the Portuguese version of the Children's Hope Scale and the examination of its psychometric properties. A sample of 367 Portuguese students completed the Portuguese-language versions of the Children's Hope Scale (CHS; Snyder et al., 1997), Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS; Huebner, 1991), Global…

  9. Teaching Portuguese to Spanish Speakers: A Case for Trilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana M.; Freire, Juliana Luna; da Silva, Antonio J. B.

    2010-01-01

    Portuguese is the sixth-most-spoken native language in the world, with approximately 240,000,000 speakers. Within the United States, there is a growing demand for K-12 language programs to engage the community of Portuguese heritage speakers. According to the 2000 U.S. census, 85,000 school-age children speak Portuguese at home. As a result, more…

  10. Do Portuguese SMEs Follow Pecking Order Financing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jan; Mateus, Cesario

    2012-01-01

    This paper tests for pecking order behavior in medium-sized private Portuguese firms. In contrast to the usual split between internal funds, debt, and external equity, we separate debt into four components – cheap trade credits (CTC), bank loans (BL), other loans, and expensive credits (EC). We use breakpoint tests to identify when firms switch between funding sources by examining the change in each funding source based on the financing deficit remaining after the previous pecking order funding source has been used. Our tests indicate that Portuguese companies generally move from lower cost to higher cost financing sources, but they do not exhaust each type of debt before moving on to the next funding source in the pecking order. Such behavior is consistent with a loose interpretation of pecking order financing, but not a strict interpretation of the theory. Instead, Portuguese firms may be balancing pecking order financing with a need to maintain some degree of financing flexibility.

  11. Servicios de salud sexual y reproductiva según los adolescentes varones (Bucaramanga, Colombia) / Sexual and reproductive health services according to adolescents boys (Bucaramanga, Colombia)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elvinia, Pinilla G; Clara M, Forero B; María C, Valdivieso C.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Los adolescentes se enfrentan a diferentes dilemas, que al no ser resueltos oportunamente, plantean grandes riesgos para la salud. OBJETIVO: caracterizar las necesidades básicas y las expectativas de los adolescentes varones en Bucaramanga, Colombia, desde su percepción, con respecto a los servicios [...] de salud sexual y reproductiva (SSR). METODOLOGÍA: estudio cualitativo etnográfico, mediante la estrategia de grupos de discusión. Se utilizaron diálogos informales, entrevistas focales y observación. Se seleccionó por conveniencia una muestra de varones adolescentes de Bucaramanga, de estratos 2 al 6, de instituciones públicas y privadas, así como no escolarizados, entre los 13 y los 18 años, con un total de 52 participantes y 7 grupos focales. RESULTADOS: a pesar de las diferencias culturales y socioeconómicas, los jóvenes concuerdan en sus percepciones, necesidades y expectativas acerca de la sexualidad y los servicios de SSR. El análisis final mostró cuatro categorías: experiencias sobre servicios de SSR, ideales sobre servicios de SSR, pornografía y sexualidad. CONCLUSIONES: es evidente la invisibilidad de los servicios de SSR y la percepción no favorable, desde la experiencia de los que la conocen. No obstante lo anterior, los adolescentes consideran necesario contar con esta clase de servicios. Esta investigación conduce a la reflexión sobre el desconocimiento del adolescente varón desde su ser, su sentir y su querer ser. Abstract in english Adolescents face different dilemmas, which may happen to be not timely solved, pose major risks to health. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the basic needs and expectations of male adolescents in Bucaramanga, Colombia, from ITS perception with respect to services for sexual and reproductive health (SRH). [...] METHODOLOGY: qualitative ethnographic study, using a strategy of discussion groups. We used informal discussions, interviews and focal point. Was selected by a convenience sample of male adolescents in Bucaramanga, 2-6 strata, from public and private institutions, and school, between 13 and 18 years, with a total of 52 participants and 7 focus groups. RESULTS: Despite the cultural and socioeconomic differences, young people are consistent in their perceptions, needs and expectations about sexuality and SRH services. The final analysis showed four categories: service experiences SSR, SSR ideal services, pornography and sexuality. CONCLUSIONS: It is apparent invisibility of the SSR and the perception of unfavorable, from the experience of those who know her. Nevertheless, adolescents need to consider this type of service. This research leads to reflection on the ignorance of young boys from their being, their feelings and their wish to be.

  12. Phenolic and furanic compounds of Portuguese chestnut and French, American and Portuguese oak wood chips

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Raquel; Soares, Bruno; Barrocas Dias, Cristina; Ana Maria, Costa Freitas; Cabrita, Maria Joao

    2012-01-01

    Botanical species used on aging process must be wisely and judiciously chosen, and for this selection, a basic knowledge of the chemical composition of woods is warranted. Aiming to contribute to extend the knowledge of the chemical composition of several wood species useful for enological purposes, we have focused our studies on Portuguese chestnut and French, American and Portuguese oak chips. The profile of low molecular weight phenolic composition of these chips wa...

  13. Contracepção em jovens universitários portugueses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marta, Reis; Margarida Gaspar de, Matos.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A sexualidade nos seus múltiplos aspectos é considerada uma área de grande importância no desenvolvimento do ser humano. O impacto causado pela infecção do vírus da imunodeficiência Humana/síndrome da imunodeficência adquirida (VIH/SIDA), juntando-se a outros riscos ligados à actividade sexual, como [...] a gravidez não desejada, fez com que a sexualidade passasse a ser considerada como uma questão de urgência social e epidemiológica e como um factor que pode ter um forte impacto negativo ao nível da saúde, considerando-se, assim, os jovens, a nível mundial, como um grupo especialmente vulnerável em termos de saúde sexual. Esta investigação avaliou os comportamentos sexuais, nomeadamente a contracepção dos jovens universitários portugueses. Administraram-se 436 questionários a 113 rapazes e 323 raparigas, entre os 18 e os 24 anos. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que a maioria é sexualmente activa, teve a sua primeira relação sexual aos 16 anos ou mais e utilizou como primeira contracepção o preservativo. Actualmente os métodos contraceptivos escolhidos habitualmente por estes jovens são o preservativo e a pílula com intenção de prevenir, quer uma infecção sexualmente transmissível, quer uma gravidez indesejada (70.2%). Os rapazes tiveram a primeira relação sexual mais cedo que as raparigas e não utilizaram qualquer método contraceptivo ou utilizaram o coito interrompido, o que sugere um elevado risco para contrair uma gravidez não desejada ou uma IST. Eles referiram mais parceiras ocasionais, maior frequência de actividade sexual sob o efeito de álcool ou drogas; ao passo que elas destacaram-se pelo carácter duradouro do relacionamento amoroso. Abstract in english Sexuality is shaped by a multitude of influences in a dynamic process and is, therefore, crucial for the development of the human being. The increase in STIs and unplanned pregnancies is responsible for ranking the young people as an important target group in terms of sexual health prevention. This [...] study assessed sexual behavior, including contraception in 18-24 year-old college students. Structured self-reported questionnaires were responded by 436 participants (113 college men and 323 college women). The findings show the majority is sexually active, had their first sexual intercourse from the age of 16 onwards and used either the condom or the contraceptive pill. Nowadays they continue using the condom and the pill, in order to prevent a STI and an unplanned pregnancy. College men report having had their first sexual intercourse earlier than women, not having used any contraceptive method or having used withdrawal more, which suggests a risky behavior. They also report having casual partners and having intercourse under the effects of alcohol and drugs more often than women; college women report having lasting relationships more often.

  14. About the Portuguese VIM3 version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, O.; Cruz, A.; Oliveira, J. C.; Filipe, E.

    2015-02-01

    For the first time, a unique Portuguese version of the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM) was organized and published by the National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) of Portugal and Brazil. This challenge could be met thanks to the experiences of the respective translations of the previous editions of the VIM and to the new Orthographic Agreement (AO) of the Portuguese speaking countries. After a brief historical review of the VIMs and their Portuguese versions, this communication aims to display the main steps that led to the final joint translation. Advantage was taken of this 3rd edition and of the AO to update the Portuguese multiplicative prefix writing "kilo" in coherence with the respective symbol "k". By way of answer to the questions raised by the recent edition of the VIM (VIM3) that stresses on the concepts associated to the terms, some suggestions are proposed and inconsistencies are identified, in order to facilitate the understanding and the dissemination of the document. These few suggestions for the next edition of the VIM also intended to standardize the terminology found in normative texts of different scientific fields which unfortunately does not necessarily tend to be consistent between them.

  15. Cognitive profiles in portuguese children with dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, A.; Araújo, Susana; Faísca, Luís; De Castro, S. L.; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Reis, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with reading disorders like dyslexia seem not be a homogeneous group, neither with respect to the underlying causes nor the resulting cognitive profile. Our purpose was to analyze the cognitive profile, using a hierarchical cluster analysis, in an attempt to isolate the main cognitive profiles present in a sample of dyslexic Portuguese children.

  16. The Evolution of Brazilian Portuguese: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, Henry W., Comp.

    This third section of the research project, "The Syntax of Contemporary Brazilian Portuguese," presents a descriptive and historical survey of the evolution of the language. Included in the work are: (1) a summary of historical concern with this subject reflecting literary and linguistic interest, (2) classification and discussion of language…

  17. The Portuguese Female Immigrant: The 'Marginal Man.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. Estellie

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes the role of Portuguese women in the migration decision of typical "male-dominated" families and their importance in the departure from Portugal and the acculturative process in the U.S. Seeks to redress the imbalance in previous migration literature that neglects the role of women in these processes. (Author/GC)

  18. Empire, postcoloniality and diasporas : the Portuguese case

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman-Bianco, Bela

    2007-01-01

    The text analyzes the contradictions, ambiguities and accommodations underlying the remodelling of Portugal from an imperial metropolis into a European post-colonial nation. It focuses on two interrelated and contradictory facets of national redefinition – namely, the incorporation of Portuguese transnational migrants into the nation and Portugal’s transformation into a receptor of immigrants from its former colonies.

  19. Building a Portuguese Food Microbiological Information Network

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas, Silvia; Machado, Claudia; Dantas, Maria; Oliveira, Lui?sa

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The integration of food data from research, microbiological monitoring, epidemiological investigation and disease surveillance is crucial to manage foodborne risk. Consequently, INSA launched the Portuguese Food Information Resource Programme (PortFIR) in a partnership with GS1 Portugal to create national food chain expert networks and sustainable databases on food composition, consumption and chemical and microbiological contamination. Presently, the Food Microbiological Inform...

  20. Percepción sobre estilos e inconsistencia parentales en adolescentes argentinos / Adolescent perceptions of parental styles and inconsistencies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Martina, Casullo; Mercedes Fernandez, Liporace.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan avances parciales de un estudio descriptivo realizado con 214 adolescentes escolarizados de 15 y 16 años, residentes en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, evaluados mediante una escala autoadministrable sobre Percepción de Control y Estilos e Inconsistencia Parentales, basada en la C [...] ontrolling and inconsistent parenting scale. Se verificó un grado considerable y significativo de consistencia en los niveles de Control/castigo/aceptación/perdón impartidos (r=.655**), así como en la consistencia o estabilidad temporal de tales comportamientos (r=.785**).entre los miembros de la pareja parental. Se halló, también, que el Control/castigo impartido por los padres varones resulta significativamente más elevado cuando los padres viven juntos, en tanto que cuando existe una separación o divorcio, es significativamente más bajo. El nivel educativo de ambos adultos introduce diferencias en el grado de consistencia o estabilidad temporal de las reacciones independientes, de cada uno, ante comportamientos indeseados de los hijos, y estas diferencias se dan en el mismo sentido para ambos padres: el grupo con educación primaria incompleta y completa exhibe una inconsistencia significativamente mayor que el que ha alcanzado niveles educativos medios y terciarios o universitarios. También la consistencia resulta significativamente mayor, en cada progenitor, para los casos en que el estatus económico autopercibido por el adolescente es alto. Abstract in english Partial results from a descriptive study performed on 214 adolescent students from the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, are presented herein. They were assessed by means of a self-administrable questionnaire involving Perception about Parenting Styles and Parental Inconsistency, based on Controlling [...] and Inconsistent parenting scale. Significant correlations in the levels of Acceptance/forgiveness/controlling/ punishment (r=.655**) amongst the individuals' parents, as well as with the temporal consistency of such behavior (r=.785**), were verified. Controlling/punishment carried out by fathers was significantly higher when both parents lived together, and significantly lower when they were separated or divorced. The educational level of the parents has an influence on the consistency of their reactions to the adolescents' undesirable behavior: consistency is significantly lower in parents with incomplete or complete elementary education compared with those who reached high school or college levels, where consistency is significantly higher. Where adolescents recognize they possess a higher economic status, the perception of consistency is significantly higher in each parent.

  1. Timed "Up & Go" test in children and adolescents / Teste Timed "Up & Go" em criancas e adolescentes / Prueba Timed "Up & Go" en ninos y adolescentes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata D' Agostini, Nicolini-Panisson; Marcio Vinicius F., Donadio.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar, mediante uma revisão da literatura, a utilização do teste Timed "Up & Go" (TUG) e seus principais aspectos metodológicos em crianças e adolescentes. FONTES DE DADOS Foram realizadas buscas nas seguintes bases de dados: PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, SciELO e Cochrane Librar [...] y, entre abril e julho de 2012. Selecionaram-se os estudos publicados de 1990 a 2012, utilizando-se os termos "timed up and go", "teste" ("test"), "equilíbrio" ("balance"), "criança" ("child") e "adolescente" ("adolescent"). Dividiram-se os resultados em categorias: características gerais dos estudos, populações avaliadas, metodologia de aplicação do teste, interpretação dos resultados e associações do teste com outras medidas. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS Incluíram-se 27 estudos e a maioria utilizou o TUG juntamente com outras medidas de desfecho para avaliar mobilidade ou equilíbrio funcional. Três trabalhos avaliaram o TUG em amostras expressivas de crianças e adolescentes com desenvolvimento típico e os diagnósticos específicos mais avaliados foram paralisia cerebral e traumatismo cranioencefálico. Não existe uma padronização quanto à metodologia utilizada, porém um estudo propôs adaptações para a população pediátrica. Em crianças e adolescentes com diagnósticos clínicos específicos, o coeficiente de confiabilidade intra-sessão mostrou-se alto na maioria dos estudos, assim como a confiabilidade intra e inter-examinador, caracterizando a boa reprodutibilidade do teste. CONCLUSÕES O TUG mostrou-se uma boa ferramenta para avaliar a mobilidade funcional em Pediatria, correlacionando-se com outros instrumentos de avaliação e apresentando boa reprodutibilidade. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO Evaluar, mediante una revisión de la literatura, la utilización de la prueba Timed "Up & Go" y sus principales aspectos metodológicos en niños y adolescentes. FUENTES DE DATOS Se realizaron búsquedas en las siguientes bases de datos: PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, SciELO y Cochrane L [...] ibrary, entre abril y julio de 2012. Se seleccionaron los estudios publicados de 1990 a 2012, utilizándose los términos "timed up and go", "prueba" ("test"), "equilibrio" ("balance"), "niño" ("child") y "adolescente" ("adolescent"). Se dividieron los resultados en categorías: características generales de los estudios, poblaciones evaluadas, metodología de aplicación de la prueba, interpretación de los resultados y asociaciones de la prueba con otras medidas. SÍNTESIS DE LOS DATOS Se incluyeron 27 estudios y la mayoría utilizó el TUG juntamente con otras medidas de desfecho para evaluar movilidad o equilibrio funcional. Tres trabajos evaluaron el TUG en muestras expresivas de niños y adolescentes con desarrollo típico y los diagnósticos específicos más evaluados fueron parálisis cerebral y traumatismo craneoencefálico. No existe una estandarización respecto a la metodología utilizada, pero un estudio propuso adaptaciones para la población pediátrica. En niños y adolescentes con diagnósticos clínicos específicos, el coeficiente de confiabilidad intrasesión se mostró alto en la mayoría de los estudios, así como la confiabilidad intra e inter-examinador, caracterizando buena reproductibilidad de la prueba. CONCLUSIONES El TUG se mostró una buena herramienta para evaluar la movilidad funcional en Pediatría, correlacionándose con otros instrumentos de evaluación y presentando buena reproductibilidad. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE To evaluate, by a literature review, the Timed "Up & Go" (TUG) test use and its main methodological aspects in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCES The searches were performed in the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, SciELO and Cochrane Library, from April to Jul [...] y 2012. Studies published from 1990 to 2012 using the terms in Portuguese and English "Timed "Up & Go", "test", "balance", "child", and "adolescent" were selected. The results were divided into categories: general characteristics of the studies, population, tes

  2. Methodological and ethical aspects of the sexual maturation assessment in adolescents / Aspectos metodologicos e eticos da avaliacao da maturacao sexual de adolescentes / Aspectos metodologicos y eticos de la evaluacion de la maturacion sexual de adolescentes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eliane Rodrigues de, Faria; Sylvia do Carmo C., Franceschini; Maria do Carmo G., Peluzio; Luciana Ferreira da R., Sant' Ana; Silvia Eloiza, Priore.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Analisar os aspectos metodológicos e éticos na avaliação da maturação sexual em adolescentes. FONTES DE DADOS Livros e teses, artigos e legislações encontrados nas bases Medline, SciELO e Science Direct, além de documentos de instituições como a Organização Mundial da Saúde e as Socie [...] dades Brasileira e Paulista de Pediatria. Considerou-se o período de 1962 a 2012. Utilizaram-se as palavras-chave em português e inglês: "maturidade sexual", "auto-avaliação", "ética", "avaliação clínica da maturação sexual", "puberdade", "adolescente" e "desenvolvimento do adolescente". SÍNTESE DOS DADOS A avaliação da maturação sexual é usada em estudos populacionais e em atendimento clínico, sendo a avaliação direta realizada por médico especializado e a autoavaliação realizada pelo próprio adolescente. Deve-se realizar essa avaliação em local adequado, de forma cuidadosa e ética, não constrangendo o paciente. Deve-se sempre manter a privacidade do adolescente e respeitar a confidencialidade. Antes da avaliação, independentemente do método usado, o adolescente deverá ser informado e esclarecido sobre o procedimento e os instrumentos que serão utilizados, tendo o direito de querer ou não um responsável junto a ele. CONCLUSÕES Os estudos de validação da autoavaliação mostraram que esta é inferior à avaliação clínica e, por isso, deve ser realizada apenas quando não for possível o exame direto por um médico. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO Analizar los aspectos metodológicos y éticos en la evaluación de la maturación sexual en adolescentes. FUENTES DE DATOS Libros y tesis, artículos y legislaciones encontrados en las bases Medline, SciELO y Science Direct, además de documentos de instituciones como la Organización Mundi [...] al de la Salud y las Sociedades Brasileña y Paulista de Pediatría. Se consideró el periodo de 1962 a 2012.Se utilizaron las palabras clave en portugués e inglés: "madurez sexual", "autoevaluación", "ética", "evaluación clínica de la maturación sexual", pubertad, "adolescente" y "desarrollo del adolescente". SÍNTESIS DE LOS DATOS La evaluación de la maturación sexual se usa en estudios poblacionales y en atención clínica, siendo la evaluación directa realizada por médico especializado y la autoevaluación realizada por el adolescente mismo. Se debe realizar esa evaluación en local adecuado, de modo cuidadoso y ético, no constriñendo al paciente. Se debe siempre mantener la privacidad del adolescente y respetar la confidencialidad. Antes de la evaluación, independiente del método usado, el adolescente deberá ser informado y aclarado sobre el procedimiento y los instrumentos que serán utilizados, teniendo el derecho de querer o no un responsable junto de sí. CONCLUSIONES Los estudios de validación de la autoevaluación mostraron que ésta es inferior a la evaluación clínica y, por ello, se debe realizarla solamente cuando no sea posible el examen directo por un médico. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE To analyze methodological and ethical aspects in the sexual maturation assessment of adolescents. DATA SOURCES Books and theses, articles and legislations on the Medline, SciELO, Science Direct databases, besides institutional documents of the World Health Organization and the Pediat [...] ric Societies of Brazil and São Paulo, considering the period from 1962 to 2012. The following keywords were used in Portuguese and English: "sexual maturation", "self-assessment", "ethics", "OBJECTIVE assessment of sexual maturation", "puberty", "adolescent", and "adolescentdevelopment". DATA SYNTHESIS The sexual maturation assessment is used in populatinal studies and in clinical daily care. The direct evaluation is performed by a specialized physician, whereas the self-assessment is carried out by the adolescent. This evaluation should be carefully performed in the appropriate place, taking into account the ethical aspects. The patient should not be constrained and the physician must respect the privacy and the

  3. Adolescent quality of life and health behaviors: a comparative study between adolescents from the south of Portugal and Spain / Calidad de vida y estilos de vida en adolescentes: un estudio comparativo entre el sur de España y el sur de Portugal / Qualidade de vida e comportamentos de saúde: um estudo comparativo entre adolescentes do sul de Portugal e da Espanha

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marta, Lima-Serrano; Ida, Lemos; Cristina, Nunes.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolvemos um estudo observacional, transversal para analisar eventuais diferenças na qualidade de vida percebida e em comportamentos de saúde em 319 adolescentes do sul de Portugal e do sul de Espanha. Utilizamos o Kidscreen-27, uma versão breve do "Health Behavior in School-aged Children" e um [...] questionário sociodemográfico. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os adolescentes portugueses e espanhóis nos comportamentos de saúde. Os portugueses consomem mais vinho e cerveja e experimentam mais drogas legais, os espanhóis apresentam um maior consumo de tabaco. Não foram encontradas diferenças no consumo de haxixe, e bebidas destiladas, embriaguês e idade da primeira relação sexual. Os espanhóis reportaram maiores níveis de qualidade de vida percebida. Foram encontradas diferenças de gênero em várias das suas dimensões. Os resultados são discutidos com base nos estudos prévios nestes tópicos, e podem contribuir para a prática profissional de enfermagem na promoção da saúde na adolescência. Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio observacional, transversal para examinar diferencias en calidad de vida percibida y estilos de vida de adolescentes del sur de Portugal y del sur de España. A 319 adolescentes, se les administró el Kidscreen-27, una versión corta del cuestionario "Health Behavior in School-aged [...] Children", y un cuestionario sociodemográfico. Se observaron diferencias estadísticas entre adolescentes portugueses y españoles. Los portugueses experimentan más drogas legales, y consumen más vino y cerveza. Los españoles consumen más tabaco. No se encontraron diferencias entre países en el uso de hachís, bebidas destiladas, embriaguez y edad de la primera relación sexual. Los españoles se perciben con mayor calidad de vida. Se encontraron diferencias de género en varias dimensiones de la calidad de vida, principalmente entre adolescentes españoles. Se discuten los resultados con investigaciones previas sobre estos tópicos, y pueden ser considerados por las enfermeras en la promoción de salud adolescente. Abstract in english An observational, transversal study was carried out to examine cross-cultural differences in perceived quality of life and health-related behaviors on adolescents from southern Portugal and southern Spain. Sample consists in 319 adolescents. The Kidscreen-27 child self-report, a short version of Hea [...] lth Behavior in School-aged Children Questionnaire, and a Socio-demographic questionnaire were used. Results suggest significant differences between Portuguese and Spanish adolescents health behaviors. Portuguese adolescents experiment more legal drugs and consume more wine and beer. More Spanish adolescents smoke. No differences were found between countries on hashish use, liquor consumption, inebriation, and on the age of first sexual intercourse. Spanish adolescents perceived themselves with better quality of life. Gender differences were found on several dimensions of Quality of Life. Results are discussed with previous research on these topic and might be considered by nurses when promoting adolescent health.

  4. Exploração vocacional em adolescentes: avaliação de uma intervenção em classe Exploración vocacional en adolescentes: evaluación de una intervención en clase Adolescents career exploration: evaluation of an intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Königstedt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisa-se o impacto de uma intervenção psicológica na exploração e tomada de decisão vocacional em adolescentes portugueses. Em contexto curricular e de classe, desenvolveram-se actividades de exploração do meio e do Eu com 39 alunos e 43 alunas do 9º ano, entre 13 e 17 anos (M=14,4, DP=0,95. Em um design pré/pós-teste, aplicaram-se o Career Exploration Survey (CES e o Career Decision Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ. Os resultados do teste do sinal evidenciaram ganhos significativos (pEvalúa-se el impacto de una intervención psicológica que fomenta la exploración y la decisión vocacional en adolescentes portugueses. Fueran efectuadas actividades de exploración del medio ambiente y del yo en contexto curricular de clase con 39 alumnos y 43 alumnas del curso 3º ESO, 13 hasta 17 años (M=14,4, DP=0,95. Utilizó-se un diseño pre/pos-teste, con aplicación del Career Exploration Survey (CES y Career Decision Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ. Resultados del test del señal evidencian beneficios significativos (pThis study analyses the impact of a psychological intervention to promote vocational exploration and decision-making in Portuguese adolescents. Activities to foster exploration of self and environment were developed in a classroom program with 39 boys and 43 girls, all 9th grade students, between 13 and 17 years of age (M=14,4, SD=0.95. Following a pre/post-test design, the Career Exploration Survey (CES, and the Career Decision Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ were administered. Results of sign-test showed significant increments (p<0.01 in all of the exploration dimensions, significant reduction of lack of occupational information (p<0.01 and of the total of career decision-making difficulties (p<0.05. Negative correlations (Spearman's rho between the two career measures was observed, evidencing a relationship between information explored during intervention and decreased difficulty with decision-making due to lack of motivation. In general, results support the importance of career exploration on diminishing decision-making difficulties.

  5. Análisis de las funciones cognoscitivas y del lenguaje en niños escolarizados con déficit de atención con y sin hiperactividad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinora Sanchez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduccion: En el modelo factorial de la organización cerebral de la cognición, existen componentes subyacentes compartidos en la estructura de coda una de las funciones cognoscitiva. Objetivos: Anali-zar las ejecuciones en las pruebas de memoria semántica y visual de puntos, de función ejecutiva, de tendón y del lenguaje en niños con deficiencia atencional con y sin hiperactividad, de 7 a 11 años y escolarizados en la ciudad de Medellín, que pudieran apoyar el modelo de factores cognoscitivos subyacentes compartidos. Pacientes y método: Se seleccionaron 32 niños con deficiencia atencional sin hiperactividad ( DDAJ-H, 28 con deficiencia atencional con hiperactividad ( DDAH-H, según los criterios del DSM-IV y con una puntuación T>60 en una checklist para DDA, y 32 controles, todos con un coeficiente intelectual manual VVISC-R ( CIM . 80 y con edades entre los 7 y los 11 años. Se recogio la edad, el sexo, la escolaridad y el estrato socioeconomico ( ESE. Se aplicaron diferentes pruebas para evaluar las fundones cognoscitivas como; subpruebas Digito - simbolo, Aritmetica y Fallas para mantener el principio de la prueba clasificacion de tarjetas del VVISCONSI para evaluar Atencion, Las pruebas de Memoria Semántica y Visual de Puntos para evaluar Memoria, la prueba clasificación de tarjetas del WISCONS, para evaluar funciones ejecutivas; y para evaluar lenguaje se utilizaron las pruebas de comprension, inferencias, narraciones, fluidez fonologica y semantica, analogias y denominacion rapida. Resultados: Los niños de ambos grupos de DDA tuvieron un coeficiente intelectual verbal ( CV, un CIM, un coeficiente intelectual total significativamente menores que los controles ( ANOVA - conexión - Bonferroni ( p <0,005 . Entre los grupos con DDA y control, se obtuvo puntuaciones significativas en la subprueba de digito - simbolo (p< 0.05, y en las subpruebas narracion, analogias, y FAS fonologico ( p<0.01 entre el grupo control y los dos grupos con DDA. En el análisis de correlación se observaron correlaciones significativa entre (Aritmetica y el FAS Fonologico, Narracion y comprension con un nivel modesto ( r = .26a .32. Tambien (r= .25 a .36 entre la prueba de Funcion Ejecutiva y las pruebas de FAS Fonolagico y Semantico, Narraciones, Comprension,Analogias, Comprensión de Oraciones y denominacion Rápida. Las variables de memoria Semantics se correlacionan de manera moderada con todas las pruebas de lenguaje excluyendo denominacion rapida ( r= 20 a .47. La memoria visual de punto se correlaciona con todas las pruebas del lenguaje, ( r = .20 a .46 menos denominacion rápida y narraciones. Conclusiones: Segun el modelo factorial existen correlaciones importantes entre pruebas subyacentes cognoscitivas y el lenguaje al comparar grupo de niños sanos con grupos de niños con DDA. El CIT, como covariable produce efectos significativos en los resultados de pruebas subyacentes cognoscitivas y de lenguaje en grupo de niños con DDA.

  6. Factores asociados al inicio de la actividad sexual en adolescentes de Tuluá, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yuri Paulin, Holguín M; Luis Alfonso, Mendoza T; Claudia Marcela, Esquivel T; Ricardo, Sánchez M; Andrés Felipe, Daraviña B; María, Acuña P.

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de actividad sexual (AS) y factores asociados del debut sexual en adolescentes escolarizados de una ciudad colombiana. Métodos: Estudio observacional, de corte transversal, con 947 estudiantes de 14 a 19 años. Las asociaciones se determinaron mediante Odds Ratio c [...] on 95% de intervalo de confianza. Para el análisis multivariado se empleó regresión logística. Resultados: La prevalencia de AS fue 52,8%. La mediana de edad de inicio fue 15 años (RI: 14-16). Las variables asociadas al inicio temprano de la AS para el nivel individual fueron: sexo masculino, aprobación y actitudes permisivas hacia el sexo del adolescente, consumo de licor, tabaco y drogas. Para el nivel familiar fueron: madre no da educación sexual al hijo, hermano/a que en la adolescencia hayan sido padre/madre, aprobación y actitudes permisivas de los padres hacia el sexo en la adolescencia. Para el nivel socio-cultural fueron: como factores de riesgo el pertenecer a los estratos socioeconómicos 1 y 2, aprobación y actitudes permisivas de los pares o grupo de amigos del adolescente a la AS en la adolescencia, y como factor protector el haber recibido educación en anticoncepción por personas diferentes a los padres, como equipos de educación en colegios o personal de salud. Conclusión: Factores individuales como sexo masculino, propia toma de decisiones, papel que desempeña la madre en la educación sexual de sus hijos y la influencia de pares o amigos en la toma de decisiones, se asociaron con el inicio temprano de la AS entre adolescentes. Abstract in english Objective: To determine the prevalence of sexual activity (SA), age of onset and factors associated with the onset of the SA in adolescent students of a Colombian city. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional, with 947 students from 14 to 19 years old. Associations were determined using Odds Rati [...] o with confidence interval of 95%. For multivariate analysis logistic regression was used. Results: The prevalence of SA was 52.8%. The median age of onset of SA was 15 years (RI: 14-16). The variables associated with early onset of SA for the individual were male approval and permissive attitudes toward sex by adolescent alcohol consumption, snuff and illicit drugs. For the family level, were the mother gives sex education to his children, a brother/daughter that in adolescence has been a parent and approval and permissive attitudes toward sex parents in adolescence. For the socio-cultural, socio-economic strata belong to 1 and 2, approval and permissive attitudes couple or group of friends to the AS teenager in adolescence, as risk factors and received education in contraception for persons other than parents and education teams in schools or health care as a protective factor, were associated with the onset of SA in adolescence. Conclusions: Individual factors such as male gender, one's decision-making, the role of the mother in the sex education of their children and the influence of peers and friends in decision making were found associated with early onset AS among adolescents.

  7. Efectos del consumo de alcohol vía vaginal en adolescentes en cuatro colegios de la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana, Arango M; Carla Valentina, Vanegas M.

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: La adolescencia es una etapa de la vida en la que los adolescentes intentan reafirmar su independencia y en muchas ocasiones se puede ver esto rechazando la escala de valores de sus padres. No es de sorprender que en este proceso los adolescentes tengan un consumo mayor de alcohol, el [...] cual puede traer muchas consecuencias tanto en la salud física como psicológica y social. Adicional al consumo vía oral las jóvenes buscan vías alternas para evitar ser descubiertos por la sociedad como es el uso de la vía vaginal. Objetivo: Describir los efectos del uso de alcohol vía vaginal y su entorno social en adolescentes escolarizadas. Método: Estudio descriptivo, en el que se efectuaron 1028 encuestas a las adolescentes de los grados 9, 10 y 11 de cuatro colegios de diferente estrato socio-económico en la ciudad de Medellín. El análisis y la interpretación de los datos se realizaron mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados: El consumo de alcohol en las adolescentes escolarizados es frecuente tanto vía oral como vaginal en un 59,2% y 1,7% respectivamente. El uso vaginal se acompaña de efectos locales y sistémicos. Los efectos locales en los genitales más frecuentes fueron: ardor, prurito y edema vulvo-vaginal; los efectos sistémicos se presentaron en la primera hora de uso con sensación de "borrachera". Conclusión: El consumo de alcohol vía oral y vaginal es frecuente en las adolescentes con efectos locales y sistémicos. Abstract in english Background: Adolescence is a stage in life when adolescents try to reaffirm their independence. In many occasions this can be observed in their disregard of their parents' values scale. It is not a surprise that through this process adolescents consume more alcohol; which brings many psychological, [...] social and physical health consequences. In addition to the oral consumption, adolescents look for alternative ways to avoid being discovered. Consumption via vagina is one example. Aims: Describe the side effects of alcohol consumption via vagina and the social environment of schooled adolescents. Method: Descriptive study in which 1028 surveys were administered to adolescents from 9°, 10° and 11° grades in 4 different socio-economic level schools in Medellin. The analysis and interpretation of the data was performed using descriptive statistics. Results: Schooled adolescents frequently consume alcohol orally in 59.2% as well as via vagina in 1.7%. The consumption via vagina brings with it local and systemic side effects. The most frequent local side effects in the genital area were burning sensation, itching, vulvo-vaginal edema. The only systemic side effect present during the first hour after consumption was a drunken sensation. Conclusion: The consumption of alcohol orally and via vagina is frequent among adolescents bringing with it local and systemic side effects.

  8. Maternidade Adolescente: Escolha, Aceitação ou Resignação? / Adolescent Motherhood: Choice, Acceptance or Resignation?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raquel, Pires; Joana, Pereira; Anabela Araújo, Pedrosa; Maria Cristina, Canavarro.

    Full Text Available O presente estudo pretendeu caracterizar os contextos relacionais e reprodutivos em que a gravidez adolescente ocorre e o processo de tomada de decisão reprodutiva subjacente ao seu prosseguimento, averiguando a existência de especificidades regionais. A amostra foi recolhida em 42 serviços de saúde [...] portugueses e consistiu num grupo nacionalmente representativo de grávidas adolescentes (N = 475). Os resultados revelaram diferenças regionais nos contextos de ocorrência da gravidez, nomeadamente ao nível da idade dos companheiros, da duração da relação, da história prévia de gravidez/interrupção, da utilização de contraceção à data da conceção e da identificação da falha contracetiva. Verificou-se ainda uma relevante heterogeneidade individual e regional no processo de tomada de decisão reprodutiva ao nível das circunstâncias, decisões e motivos que conduziram à maternidade. Estes resultados podem contribuir para uma prevenção mais eficaz da gravidez e para a especialização do apoio proporcionado às decisões reprodutivas nesta fase do ciclo de vida. Abstract in english The current study aimed to describe the relational and reproductive contexts in which adolescent pregnancy occurs and the decisional process underlying its continuation; we also aimed to explore whether there were significant differences in these processes according to adolescents’ place of residenc [...] e. The sample was collected at 42 Portuguese health services and consisted of a national representative group of pregnant adolescents (N = 475). Our results showed several differences between country areas regarding the contexts in which pregnancy occurred. Specifically, significant differences were found regarding partners’ age, relationship length, pregnancy/abortion history, and contraceptive behaviors that lead to pregnancy. Individual and regional differences were also found regarding the decision-making process; different circumstances, decisions and motivations lead to motherhood among the adolescents of our sample, namely according to their place of residence. These results may enable us to prevent adolescent pregnancy more effectively and to better support adolescents in their reproductive decisions.

  9. Portuguese corpus-based learning using ETL

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ruy Luiz, Milidiú; Cícero Nogueira dos, Santos; Julio Cesar, Duarte.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We present Entropy Guided Transformation Learning models for three Portuguese Language Processing tasks: Part-of-Speech Tagging, Noun Phrase Chunking and Named Entity Recognition. For Part-of-Speech Tagging, we separately use the Mac-Morpho Corpus and the Tycho Brahe Corpus. For Noun Phrase Chunking [...] , we use the SNR-CLIC Corpus. For Named Entity Recognition, we separately use three corpora: HAREM, MiniHAREM and LearnNEC06. For each one of the tasks, the ETL modeling phase is quick and simple. ETL only requires the training set and no handcrafted templates. ETL also simplifies the incorporation of new input features, such as capitalization information, which are sucessfully used in the ETL based systems. Using the ETL approach, we obtain state-of-the-art competitive performance in all six corpora-based tasks. These results indicate that ETL is a suitable approach for the construction of Portuguese corpus-based systems.

  10. Risco psicossocial e psicopatologia em adolescentes com percurso delinquente

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ida Timóteo, Lemos.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Muitos dos estudos realizados no âmbito da delinquência juvenil tendem a dar suporte a uma conceptualização socio-ecológica da delinquência juvenil, a qual sugere que esta é multideterminada pela inter-relação recíproca e dinâmica das características do indivíduo e dos sistemas sociais chave (Agnew, [...] 2003). Neste artigo, apresentamos os resultados de um estudo conduzido com o objectivo de identificar retrospectivamente, num grupo de adolescentes delinquentes, um conjunto de factores de risco psicossocial, tipologia do comportamento delinquente e história de risco ou adversidade psicossocial na infância. A investigação centrou-se ainda na compreensão da relação entre estes factores e indicadores de sintomatologia psicopatológica. O estudo integrou um total de 63 adolescentes abrangidos pela Lei Tutelar Educativa e os dados foram recolhidos na região sul do país. Como instrumentos de recolha de dados, foram utilizados o Índice Geral de Sintomas (IGS) do Brief Symptom Inventory e um questionário de caracterização construído com base na revisão da literatura sobre os indicadores de risco psicossocial para comportamento anti-social na adolescência, destacando-se a tipologia de risco psicossocial estabelecida por Born, Chevalier e Humblet (1997) e a taxonomia desenvolvimental do comportamento anti-social de Moffit (1993). Os resultados obtidos sugerem que os adolescentes cujos pais apresentam uma relação conflituosa tendem a apresentar um índice de sintomas psicopatológicos significativamente superior ao dos adolescentes cujos pais não revelam conflitos aparentes. No entanto, o relato de psicopatologia não parece ser significativamente superior nos jovens com indicadores de acontecimentos negativos na infância (separações de pais, ausência de figura paterna, institucionalizações, maus-tratos na infância, conflitos entre os pais). No presente artigo são discutidos os resultados obtidos, consideradas algumas limitações do estudo e efectuadas propostas de investigações futuras. Abstract in english Several investigations on juvenile delinquency sustain a socio-ecological conceptualization of juvenile delinquency, which suggests that this trend is determined by a reciprocal and dynamic inter-relation of the individuals’ characteristics and their key social systems (Agnew, 2003). In this paper, [...] we present the results of a study aimed at identifying retrospectively, in a group of juvenile delinquents, a set of psychosocial risk factors, patterns of anti-social behavior and previous events of risk or psychosocial adversity during infancy. The research has also focused on understanding the relationship between these factors and self-reported psychopathological symptoms. The study comprised a sample of 63 adolescents in the Portuguese Justice System for minors in judicial custody, and data were collected in the south of the country. To collect the required information we used the General Symptom Index (GSI) of the Brief Symptom Inventory, as well as a questionnaire designed for this study, based on literature review on psychosocial risk factors for antisocial behavior in adolescence, particularly, the typology of psychosocial risk established by Born, Chevalier, and Humblet (1997) and Moffit’s developmental taxonomy on adolescents’ anti-social behaviour (1993). The results suggest that adolescents whose parents have a clearly conflictual relationship tend to have an index of psychopathological symptoms significantly higher than those whose parents did not present apparent conflicts. However, the report of psychopathology is not significantly higher in people with indicators of negative events in childhood (separation from a parent, absence of a father figure, institutionalization, child abuse, conflict between parents).

  11. An assessment scale for trainee engagement in the Portuguese navy

    OpenAIRE

    Frade, Ana; Veiga, Feliciano

    2014-01-01

    In this study an Assessment Scale for Trainee Engagement in the Portuguese Navy (ASTE-PN) was designed for the Portuguese military context. The sample involved 149 trainees of the Training Course for Petty Officers 1st Class of the Portuguese Navy, ages ranging from 25 to 36, mostly of male gender. The psychometric properties of the study are presented and the results from the factor analysis displayed, which highlighted three factors – cognitive engagement, affective engagement and beha...

  12. Fitness Profiles of Elite Portuguese Rugby Union Players

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, Lui?s; Morais, Tomaz; Rocha, Henrique; James, Nic

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the fitness profiles of senior elite Portuguese rugby players. Forty-six senior Portuguese rugby players, classified as backs (n=22; age 26.2±2.8) and forwards (n=24; age 26.7±2.9) were assessed during physical testing sessions carried out for the Portuguese National rugby team. The body composition, maximum strength and anaerobic capacity of players are hypothesized to be important physical characteristics as successful performance in rugby is predicat...

  13. Marketing communication models in Portuguese Public Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Rua?o, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Our investigation discusses the use of marketing communication models in Portuguese public universities, since the 1990s. Through the case study of the University of Minho, we have looked for the correlation between organizational strategies and communication formats. The results suggested that the development of a market oriented approach in these institutions increased the emphasis on identity and communication management. Using these empirical findings and other research data, we have reco...

  14. Coda-avoiding : some Evidence from Portuguese

    OpenAIRE

    Veloso, Joa?o

    2008-01-01

    Romance languages are known to be more restrictive than Germanic languages as far as segmental coda-filling is concerned. Moreover, it is also known that within the Romance family some languages have more restrictive constraints ruling coda-filling than others. This paper deals with the specific question of segmental coda-filling in Portuguese. Looking at a large array of different historical phenomena, it is claimed that avoiding any segmental material in coda position corresponds to a very ...

  15. Design research applicability on Portuguese Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Jacinta Casimiro Da; Martins, Joa?o; Gonc?alves, Ricardo; Botelho, Sara Bento; Maia, Pedro Bandeira; Mendonc?a, Rui; Franqueira, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present paper works on the potential applicability of design research based on a practical experience with the Portuguese company Recipor — Recuperação e Valorização de Resíduos (residues recovery and valuation), S.A., who’s mission is to collect, treat and valuate in a profitable way plastic residues e non iron metals, with domestic or industrial origins. The ecological appeal, the economical recovery process and the innovation investment justified the choic...

  16. Portuguese entrepreneurial women – fostering learning communities

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Maria José

    2007-01-01

    This article repports findings on a project - DONA EMPRESA - that the Portuguese Association of Women Entrepreneurs has been promoting for four years now. The project aims at supporting unemployed women, having a business idea, to create their own employment. So far about one hundred enterprises have been created in the scope of this project, their surviving rate being very high after one year of business running.

  17. Portuguese media : new forms of concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Helena

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we will argue that if the Portuguese case is to be fully understood, economic arguments are far from sufficient. Media ownership and control is directly related with political and societal power. Media concentration has been, first of all, a consequence of power seeking, although economic considerations may have also played a role. This analysis will try to demonstrate that political decisions for the media take into consideration the ability of decision-makers to exercise power...

  18. Determinants of Portuguese local governments??? indebtedness

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga, Linda Gon Alves; Veiga, Francisco Jos

    2014-01-01

    Using an extensive dataset covering all Portuguese local governments (308), this paper analyzes the determinants of municipal deficits and debt. The results clearly indicate the existence of a political budget cycle, but there is no evidence that fiscal policy is used strategically to condition the decisions of subsequent governments. Furthermore, local governments that enjoy larger support in the town-hall and for which there is party similarity between the mayor and the prime-minister have ...

  19. Pain in Portuguese Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    DanielaSeixas; Maria JoséSá; JoanaGuimarães

    2011-01-01

    Early reports often ignored pain as an important symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS). Pain prevalence figures in MS from European countries other than Portugal range between 40% and 65%. To our knowledge there is no published data in English on pain in MS in Portugal. We describe the demographic and clinical characteristics, with an emphasis on pain, of 85 MS patients followed-up in a Portuguese hospital, contributing to pain epidemiology in MS. Patients were interviewed sequentially after the...

  20. People management in the Portuguese nonprofits

    OpenAIRE

    Valentim, João Andrade e Sousa Brito

    2010-01-01

    This study is focused on the People Management – Human Resources – in the Portuguese nonprofit organizations. The objective of this research is to contribute to the understanding of the nonprofit sector in terms of the human factor, and at the same time intends to cast light on the factors that compensate and motivate employees. Through a qualitative approach, after conducting a number of interviews to assorted nonprofit organizations, we reach the result that more often th...

  1. Buyer and consumer's portuguese "quality wine" behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, M. F.; Ruivo, Paula Lúcia

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the results of a regional survey on buyer and consumer's behaviour. Results allow us to identify consuming buyer patterns and relate them to consumer's attitudes and caracteristics such as age, sex and educacional levels.They also suggest some important variables than can be used to differentiate portuguese "Quality Wines Produced in Specified Regions" (QWPSR) and are potencial material to develop satrategies, useful to the new "quality...

  2. Training needs in TQM: the Portuguese perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, Roge?rio P.; Oliveira, Paula; Dias, Jose? M.; Pereira, Zulema L.

    2005-01-01

    A survey to assess training needs in TQM was developed in several European countries, within the framework of a Leonardo’s project named IMVOCED. Beyond a comparison of the results in each country, a global analysis was performed to design a TQM programme to be delivered by WBL (Work Based Learning). Differences were found between countries, and the Portuguese results also revealed that different approaches to TQM training should be adopted according to the organisation’s dimension. Based...

  3. Comparative efficiency analysis of Portuguese bank branches

    OpenAIRE

    Portela, Maria; Thanassoulis, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    The advent of Internet banking and phone banking is changing the role of bank branches from a predominantly transaction- based one to a sales-oriented role. This paper reports on an assessment of the branches of a Portuguese bank in terms of their performance in their new roles in three different areas: Their efficiency in fostering the use of new transaction channels, their efficiency in increasing sales and their customer base, and their efficiency in generating profits. Service qu...

  4. Comparative performance analysis of portuguese bank branches

    OpenAIRE

    Portela, Maria; Thanassoulis, Emmanuel

    2003-01-01

    The advent of Internet banking and phone banking is changing the role of bank branches from a predominantly transaction-based one to a sales-oriented role. This paper reports on an assessment of the branches of a Portuguese bank in terms of their performance in their new roles in three different areas: Their effectiveness in fostering the use of new transaction channels such as the internet and the telephone, their effectiveness in increasing sales and their customer base, and the...

  5. Portuguese immigrant families: the impact of acculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Marie; James, Susan

    2009-03-01

    Portuguese immigrants to North America represent a large ethnic group with unique family therapy needs. The present study investigates acculturation and the family lives of Portuguese (Azorean) immigrants in Canada. Methods of analytic induction and constant comparison from grounded theory were used to examine transcripts of interviews with 21 Azorean immigrant women and 28 Azorean immigrant men. A model emerged wherein (a) immigration and acculturation act as stressors on the family unit, as described by the categories Process of Change and Family Relationships; (b) family members adopt generation- and gender-specific acculturative strategies, as illustrated by the categories Duas Culturas (Two Cultures) and Falando Portuges (Speaking Portuguese); and (c) as family members acculturate, discords arise and are resolved according to the cultural traits different members have adopted. The categories Discord Resolution and Preocupação (Preoccupations) illustrate this last dynamic. Implications for family therapy with immigrant families include an indication for community-level interventions, emphasis on confidentiality, awareness of acculturation stress and different acculturative strategies within the family, and aiding the family in the negotiation and integration of a new bicultural reality. PMID:19378651

  6. Habilidades para la vida en adolescentes: diferencias de género, correlaciones entre habilidades y variables predictoras de la empatía / Life Skills in Adolescents: Factors Predictors of Empathy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Griselda, Cardozo; Patricia, Dubini; Ivana, Fantino; Romina, Ardiles.

    2011-07-15

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue indagar la existencia de diferencias de género en las habilidades para la vida aquí analizadas; explorar las re laciones que entre las mismas habilidades se dan e identificar las variables predictoras de la empatía en 124 adolescentes escolarizados de ambos sexo [...] s residentes en la ciudad de Córdoba (Argentina). El Anova muestra diferencias de género con respecto a algunas variables. Se advierte que las mujeres presentan mayor ansiedad-timidez, empatía, autoconcepto social y conducta sumisa/pasiva. El análisis correlacional indica relaciones significativas entre las diferentes variables analizadas. Finalmente, el análisis de regresión múltiple identificó como predictoras de la empatía la conducta de consideración por los demás, el autoconcepto social, la conducta agresiva y el autoconcepto académico. Abstract in english The goal of this investigation was to investigate the existence of gender differences in the life skills analyzed; to explore the relations between them, and identify the predictors of empathy in 124 school adolescents (male and female) residing in the City of Córdoba (Argentina). The ANOVA shows ge [...] nder differences in some variables. Women show more anxiety-shyness, empathy, social self-concept and submissive / passive behavior. The correlation analysis indicates significant relationships between the different variables. Finally multiple regression analysis identied as predictive of empathy behavior, consideration for others, social self-concept, aggressive behavior and academic self-concept.

  7. Correlatos psicosociales del consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en adolescentes españoles Psychosocial correlations of the experimentation with psychoactive substances in Spanish teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Villa Moral

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Analizar los factores que determinan el consumo juvenil de sustancias psicoactivas evaluando la capacidad predictiva de variables actitudinales, afectivas, relacionales a nivel familiar y grupal, así como académicas, entre otras. Material y métodos. Se ha seleccionado una muestra de 750 adolescentes del Principado de Asturias (España (moda 15 años, media=14.69 escolarizados en el curso académico 2008-2009. Resultados. Se ha confirmado que los adolescentes que consumen alcohol y otras drogas presentan un perfil diferencial respecto a los no consumidores en factores relativos a la mayor permisividad actitudinal, efecto de modelado paterno y del grupo de iguales, insatisfacción institucional, inestabilidad emocional y manifestación de más conductas disruptivas con problemas de relación y búsquedas de atención. Conclusiones. A partir de nuestro modelo etiológico se concluye que el consumo juvenil de drogas está determinado por la interrelación de variables personales, familiares, escolares y psicosociales.Objective. To offer an analysis of the factors that determine the consumption of psychoactive substances by youth and to evaluate the predictive capacity of variables related to attitude, affect, the family and groups, as well as academics, among others. Materials and Methods. A sample of 750 adolescents was selected at the Principado de Asturias (Spain (mode 15 years of age, mean=14.69 enrolled during the 2008-2009 academic year. Results. It was confirmed that the teenagers who consumed alcohol and other drugs present a differential profile as compared to non-consumers with respect to greater attitudinal permissiveness, effect of paternal modelling and peer groups, institutional dissatisfaction, emotional instability, and manifestation of more disruptive conducts with problems relating to others and attention-seeking. Conclusions. From our ethiological model we conclude that the consumption of drugs by youth is determined by an interrelation of personal, familiar, school and psychosocial variables.

  8. Validação cultural do Adolescent Pediatric Pain Tool (APPT) em crianças portuguesas com cancro / Cultural Validation of the Adolescent Pediatric Pain Tool (APPT) in portuguese children with cancer / Validación cultural del Adolescent Pediatric Pain Tool (APPT) en niños portugueses con cáncer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ananda, Fernandes; Luís, Batalha; Ana, Perdigão; Catarina de, Campos; Lucila, Nascimento; Eufemia, Jacob.

    2015-02-25

    Full Text Available Enquadramento: A avaliação da dor em crianças com doença crónica requer a utilização de instrumentos multidimensionais, como o Adolescent Pediatric Pain Tool (APPT), que identifiquem a intensidade, localização e qualidade da dor. Objetivos: Validar a tradução e adaptação cultural do APPT, para uso d [...] e crianças e adolescentes portugueses com cancro. Metododologia: Para validar a tradução foi utilizado um processo independente de tradução e retroversão do instrumento e a sua análise por um painel de revisores até obtenção de consenso. Os descritores da qualidade da dor foram submetidos a validação semântica por crianças com cancro dos 8-17 anos através do método Q-sort. Resultados: Obtivemos uma versão final com equivalência concetual, semântica, idiomática e experiencial ao instrumento original. As crianças revelaram capacidade discriminativa relativamente aos descritores, diferenciando as palavras que utilizam para descrever a dor das palavras que não utilizam. Conclusão: A versão Portuguesa do APPT é um instrumento culturalmente adaptado para a avaliação da localização, intensidade e qualidade da dor em crianças portuguesas com cancro. Abstract in spanish Marco contextual: La evaluación del dolor en niños con enfermedades crónicas requiere la utilización de instrumentos multidimensionales, como el Adolescent Pediatric Pain Tool (APPT), que identifiquen la intensidad, la localización y las características del dolor. Objetivos: Validar la traducción y [...] adaptación cultural del APPT para utilizarlo con niños y adolescentes portugueses con cáncer. Metodología: Para validar la traducción, un grupo de revisores realizó un proceso independiente de traducción y retroversión del instrumento y su análisis hasta obtener el consenso. Los descriptores de las características del dolor fueron sometidos a una validación semántica por niños con cáncer (de 8 a 17 años) a través del método Q-sort. Resultados: Obtuvimos una versión final con equivalencia conceptual, semántica, idiomática y experiencial en relación al instrumento original. Los niños mostraron capacidad discriminatoria en torno a los descriptores, diferenciando las palabras que utilizan para describir el dolor de las palabras que no utilizan. Conclusión: La versión portuguesa del APPT es un instrumento culturalmente adaptado para evaluar la localización, la intensidad y las características del dolor en niños portugueses con cáncer. Abstract in english Theoretical framework: Pain assessment in children with chronic conditions requires the use of multidimensional tools, such as the Adolescent Pediatric Pain Tool (APPT), which identify the intensity, location and quality of pain. Objectives: To validate the translation and cultural adaptation of the [...] APPT for use in portuguese children and adolescents with cancer. Methodology: The translation was validated through an independent process of translation and back-translation of the tool and its analysis was performed by a panel of reviewers until consensus was reached. The semantic validation of the descriptors of pain quality was performed by children with cancer aged 8-17 years, using the Q-sort method. Results: A final version with conceptual, semantic, idiomatic and experiential equivalence to the original tool was obtained. Children revealed discriminative ability of the descriptors, being able to distinguish the words that they used to describe pain from those that they did not use. Conclusion: The Portuguese version of the APPT is a culturally adapted tool to assess the location, intensity and quality of pain in Portuguese children with cancer.

  9. Falando de Morte com o Adolescente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Fernanda Rodriguez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A adolescência é um período de risco para mortes inesperadas. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a relação entre o tema da morte e a educação utilizando o vídeo “Falando de Morte com o Adolescente” (KOVÁCS; ESSLINGER;, BROMBERG; VAICIUNAS; MARQUES, 1999, enfocando o tema do limite entre o prazer e a autodestruição. Objetivou-se criar espaços de comunicação entre adolescentes e educadores sobre a morte. Utilizando questionários, procurou-se verificar se o vídeo abordava o tema de maneira adequada para os jovens. Participaram 16 profissionais e 48 adolescentes de duas escolas da cidade de São Paulo. Na opinião dos adolescentes, o vídeo favoreceu a reflexão, entretanto esperavam um filme com cenas mais chocantes e reais. Sugeriram a inclusão de temas sobre como enfrentar a morte e não tanto como esta pode ser provocada. Alguns profissionais demonstraram receio que certas cenas do vídeo estimulassem atos autodestrutivos, diferentemente dos jovens.

  10. HABILIDADES SOCIALES, AISLAMIENTO Y COMPORTAMIENTO ANTISOCIAL EN ADOLESCENTES EN CONTEXTOS DE POBREZA / SOCIAL SKILLS, ISOLATION AND ANTI-SOCIAL BEHAVIOR IN ADOLESCENTS FROM POVERTY CONTEXTS / HABILIDADES SOCIAIS, ISOLAMENTO E COMPORTAMENTO ANTISSOCIAL EM ADOLESCENTES EM CONTEXTOS DE POBREZA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    SILVINA, COHEN IMACH; SILVINA VALERIA, CABALLERO; SERGIO, MEJAIL; KARINA, HORMIGO.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho explora as habilidades sociais e a presença de comportamentos antissociais, isolamento social e sentimentos de solidão em adolescentes de nível socioeconômico baixo de Tucumán, Argentina. Tratou-se de um estudo descritivo-correlacional, com mostra intencional formado por 106 mulheres e ho [...] mens escolarizados de 5° e 6° grado. Os instrumentos utilizados foram o BAS-3, o CC-A (Martorell e González, 1992), o CAS (Casullo, 1996) e uma pesquisa sociodemográfica. A análise dos dados realizou-se com o pacote PAWS Statistics 18. Observou-se a prevalência de comportamentos de Consideração pelos demais (M=10.84; DE=2.62), Autocontrole (M=8.74; DE=2.50) e Liderança (M=7.50; DE=2.66) sobre os comportamentos de Isolamento social (M=6.25; DE=2.50) e Retraimento (M=4.38; DE=2.14). Em quanto ao gênero, se encontraram diferenças significativas em Liderança, sendo mais alto em mulheres que em homens (t=2.46, p=0.05). Abstract in spanish El trabajo explora las habilidades sociales y la presencia de comportamientos antisociales, aislamiento social y sentimientos de soledad en adolescentes de nivel socioeconómico bajo de Tucumán, Argentina. Se trató de un estudio descriptivo-correlacional, con muestreo intencional formado por 106 muje [...] res y varones escolarizados de 5° y 6° grado. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron el BAS-3, el CC-A (Martorell y González, 1992), el CAS (Casullo, 1996) y una encuesta sociodemográfica. El análisis de los datos se realizó con el paquete PAWS Statistics 18. Se observó la prevalencia de comportamientos de consideración por los demás (M=10.84; DE=2.62), Autocontrol (M=8.74; DE=2.50) y Liderazgo (M=7.50; DE=2.66) sobre los comportamientos de Aislamiento social (M=6.25; DE=2.50) y Retraimiento (M=4.38; DE=2.14). En cuanto al género, se hallaron diferencias significativas en Liderazgo, siendo más alta en mujeres que en varones (t=2.46, p=0.05). Abstract in english The paper explores social skills and the presence of anti-social behavior, social isolation and feelings of loneliness in adolescents of low socioeconomic status from Tucumán, Argentina. It was a descriptive-correlational study using an intentional sampling consisting of 106 school girls and boys fr [...] om 5° and 6°grade. The instruments used were the BAS-3, the CC-A (Gonzalez & Martorell, 1992), the CAS (Casullo, 1996) and a demographic survey. Data were analyzed with the statistical package PAWS Statistics 18. Results showed the prevalence of behaviors of Consideration for others (M=10.84; S=2.62), Self-control (M=8.74; S=2.50) and Leadership (M=7.50; S=2.66), compared with the social isolation behavior (M=6.25; S=2.50) and withdrawal (M=4.38; S=2.14). Regarding gender, significant differences were found in Leadership, being higher in women than in men (t=2.46, p=0.05)

  11. Experiencias de adolescentes embarazadas en control prenatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Evelia Pr\\u00EDas-Vanegas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir e interpretar las experiencias relacionadas con los sentimientos e ideas experimentados por las adolescentes al conocer su estado de embarazo. Método: se trabajó con un grupo de 22 adolescentes de instituciones públicas de I nivel de salud de Sincelejo, Colombia. El estudio, realizado en 2005, se abordó desde un enfoque cualitativo, con información recogida en entrevistas personales, grabadas con consentimiento de las jóvenes. Resultados: el embarazo genera en la adolescente sentimientos de displacer relacionados con miedo, tristeza, dolor, sufrimiento, culpa, vergüenza y decepción, acompañados de ideas de negación, evasión, duda, arrepentimiento y deseos de abortar, los cuales no aparecen cuando la adolescente cuenta con el apoyo de su compañero sentimental o el de sus padres. Conclusión: las adolescentes necesitan apoyo, comprensión y ayuda, dado que están más sensibles, lábiles, inseguras y con baja autoestima, situación que requiere que el equipo de salud desarrolle y muestre competencias en el área humanística, acercamiento personal, empatía y trato humanizado e individualizado en la atención de la población de adolescentes embarazadas.

  12. Percepções de adolescentes sobre sua sexualidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Ribeiro de Freitas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo de naturaleza descriptiva, con el objetivo de conocer las percepciones de los adolescentes sobre el desarrollo de su sexualidad. Se utilizó el enfoque del método creativo y sensible que presenta una alternativa a la investigación en enfermería a través de la dinámica de grupos de "creatividad y sensibilidad". Los participantes del estudio son 12 adolescentes de una escuela estatal de Porto Alegre. Para la recolección de los datos se hicieron cuatro talleres. El análisis siguió las etapas del método en el contexto de la pedagogía crítica de Paulo Freire. Tres temas emergieron del análisis: el adolescente: conflictos y dificultades de vida; la sexualidad para los adolescentes; y el acto sexual. Se considera importante hacer hincapié en que las percepciones de los adolescentes sobre su sexualidad surgieron en los debates y la alianza de conocimientos durante las reuniones, lo que contribuyó a la creación de un nuevo ambiente de diálogo en el contexto escolar que promovió y ayudó a la profundización del tema en un lenguaje accesible, en colaboración con los adolescentes.

  13. Comportamento parental de mães adolescentes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Isabel, Carlos; António, Pires; Telma, Cabrita; Helena, Alves; Cármen, Araújo; Maria Helena, Bentes.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objectivo é o de construir um modelo teórico sobre o comportamento parental de mães adolescentes. O estudo teve a participação de 21 mulheres que foram mães na sua adolescência, com idades compreendidas entre os 14 e os 18 anos na altura do parto e de uma psicóloga que trabalha com mães adolescent [...] es. Na altura das entrevistas as mães tinham idades compreendidas entre os 15 e os 35 anos de idade. Foram analisadas 22 entrevistas das quais 17 pertencem a estudos anteriores (Bentes, 1996; Araújo, 2000; Alves, 2003; Cabrita, 2004). Como instrumento foram utilizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas que foram gravadas, e depois transcritas e analisadas pelo método da Grounded Theory. Verificámos que algumas mães adolescentes revelam uma indisponibilidade materna em relação aos seus filhos, manifestada pela falta de paciência, indiferença, respostas inadequadas, dificuldade nos cuidados maternos, dificuldade de compreensão dos sinais do bebé, agressividade e atribuição de características negativas ao bebé. Pelo contrário, algumas mães adolescentes conseguem adaptar-se à maternidade e mostram ter disponibilidade materna manifestada pela facilidade nos cuidados maternos, preocupação com o filho, paciência, compreensão dos sinais do bebé e pelo brincar com ele. O apoio social revelou-se como um factor protector da adaptação à maternidade. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to build a theoretical model about the parental behaviour of adolescent mothers. The study had the participation of twenty-one teenage mothers, aged between 14 and 18 years old at the time of delivery, and one psychologist that work with young mothers. At the moment of i [...] nterviews mothers aged 15 to 32 years old. Twenty-two interviews were analysed in witch seventeen of these belong to previous studies (Bentes, 1996; Araújo, 2000; Alves, 2003; Cabrita, 2004). We used semi-structured interviews that were taped and than transcribed and analysed through the Grounded Theory method. We found that some of the adolescent mothers reveal a maternal unavailability towards their children, reflected by lack of patience, indifference, inadequate responses, difficulty in baby care, difficulty in understanding the baby’s signals, aggressive behaviour and negative characteristics attributed to the baby. On the contrary, some adolescent mothers overcome the difficulties of adapting to maternity and reveal a maternal availability, reflected facility in baby care, concern with the child, patience, comprehension of the baby’s signals and play when interacting with their children. Social support revealed as a protective factor in the maternity adaptation.

  14. O SIGNIFICADO DE MEDIDAS SOCIOEDUCATIVAS PARA ADOLESCENTES PRIVADOS DE LIBERDADE / THE MEANING OF SOCIO-EDUCATIONAL MEASURES FOR YOUNG OFFENDERS DEPRIVED OF THEIR FREEDOM / EL SIGNIFICADO DE LAS MEDIDAS EDUCATIVAS PARA LOS ADOLESCENTES PRIVADOS DE LIBERTAD

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LUANA, ALVES DE SOUZA; LIANA, FORTUNATO COSTA.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetiva apresentar o significado que os adolescentes atribuem à medida socioeducativa de internação e às medidas socioeducativas cumpridas anteriormente à internação. A pesquisa qualitativa abordou três adolescentes, com idades entre 17 e 19 anos, que cumprem a internação no Centr [...] o de Integração de Adolescentes de Planaltina (CIAP), DF, Brasil. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: a observação participante, o diário de campo e entrevistas semiestruturadas. Para a interpretação dos dados, foi utilizada a análise de conteúdo na construção de núcleos de sentido. As medidas socioeducativas são significadas pelos adolescentes como sem importância para suas vidas, exceto a internação, por ser a única medida que consegue provocar "alguma coisa", seja raiva, revolta ou sentimento de injustiça. Em geral, a internação é concebida de modo paradoxal, ao mesmo tempo em que restringe a liberdade, um direito fundamental, ela garante aos adolescentes o mínimo de proteção que as demais medidas não conseguem. Abstract in spanish El presente estudio tiene como objetivo presentar el significado que los adolescentes confieren a la medida socioeducativa de internación en una correccional de menores y a las medidas socioeducativas cumplidas anteriormente a dicha internación. La investigación cualitativa estuvo dirigida a tres ad [...] olescentes, de edades entre 17 y 19 años, que cumplen la medida de internación en el Centro de Integración de Adolescentes de Planaltina (CIAP), Distrito Federal, Brasil. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron: observación participante, diario de campo y entrevistas semi-estructuradas. En la interpretación de los datos, se utilizó el análisis de contenido para la construcción de núcleos de sentido. Los adolescentes perciben las medidas socioeducativas como poco importantes para sus vidas, a excepción de la medida de internación, por ser la única que puede causar "algo" en ellos, ya sea rabia, ira o sensación de injusticia. En general, la internación ha sido concebida de manera paradójica, pues además de restringir la libertad, un derecho fundamental, garantiza una protección mínima a los adolescentes, algo que las otras medidas no logran. Abstract in english This study aims to present the meaning that adolescents give to the socio-educational measure of being sent to a juvenile correctional and to the measures taken before such placement. The qualitative research was carried out with three adolescents aged between 17 and 19, who serve the measure of pla [...] cement in a youth correctional at the Centro de Integração de Adolescentes de Planaltina (CIAP, for its Portuguese acronym), DF, Brazil. The instruments used were: participant observation; field notes and semi structured interviews. Data were processed using content analysis for the construction of meaning nuclei. The socioeducational measures are perceived by the adolescents as unimportant to their lives, except the correctional service, which is regarded as the only one that can provoke "something" to them such as anger, annoyance or sense of injustice. In general, the correctional placement has been conceibed in a paradoxical manner since in addition to restricting freedom -a fundamental right- it guarantees a minimal protection to the adolescents, which other measures cannot achieve.

  15. Values of Portuguese/Non-Portuguese Mothers of Kindergarten Children, and of Kindergarten Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Helena; d'Orey, Ines

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify continuities/discontinuities in the values of Portuguese mothers with kindergarten children belonging to high and low socio-cultural backgrounds, mothers from different cultures and kindergarten teachers. The sample was composed of sixty-five mothers (fourteen Roma, fifteen Indian, twelve African, and ten…

  16. Portuguese Study in Higher Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milleret, Margo

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the results of a national survey of Portuguese instructors that investigates enrollment growth in regions and institutions of higher education in the United States. It details the reasons why Portuguese enrollments have grown steadily since 1998, while providing data on the numbers of students enrolled in classes and the number…

  17. Bullying and school disruption assessment: studies with Portuguese adolescent students

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga, Feliciano

    2011-01-01

    Problem Statement: The question of bullying and school disruptive behavior has emerged as a powerful issue in Portuguese educational context. The lack of evaluation instruments, with studied psychometric characteristics, has constituted a problem. Purpose of Study: School disruption and bullying assessment, in Portuguese adolescents, was the focus of this research. Research Methods: The psychometric qualities — internal consistency and the external validity — were analyzed i...

  18. Towards a Portuguese database of food microbiological occurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas, Silvia; Machado, Claudia; Dantas, M.Ascenção; Oliveira, Luísa

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To expand the Portuguese Food Information Resource Programme (PortFIR) by building the Portuguese Food Microbiological Information Network (RPIMA) including users, stakeholders, food microbiological data producers that will provide data and information from research, monitoring, epidemiological investigation and disease surveillance. The integration of food data in a national database will improve foodborne risk management. Methods and results Potential members were identified and...

  19. Factores asociados con el inicio temprano de relaciones sexuales en estudiantes adolescentes de un colegio de Bucaramanga, Colombia Associated Factors with Early Initiation of Sexual Relations in Adolescent Students of a School in Bucaramanga, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Campo Arias

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: la edad de inicio de las actividades sexuales en adolescentes ha disminuido en forma paulatina. Tal hecho está relacionado con conductas de alto riesgo para la salud física y mental de los adolescentes. Objetivo: establecer la edad de inicio de las relaciones sexuales y algunos factores asociados en adolescentes escolarizados. Método: fue realizado un estudio de corte transversal. Una encuesta autoadministrada fue aplicada a 646 estudiantes de un colegio oficial de Bucaramanga, Colombia. Un total de 122 estudiantes (18,9% informó haber relaciones sexuales. Se tomaron como casos 64 adolescentes que manifestaron inicio de relaciones antes de cumplir catorce años y se compararon con el grupo de 58 estudiantes que refirió un inicio posterior a los catorce años y con un grupo de estudiantes de catorce años o más que negó haber tenido relaciones sexuales. Resultados: el análisis multivariado mostró que el inicio temprano guardaba relación positiva con la edad menor y sexo masculino. Conclusiones: los adolescentes de este colegio de Bucaramanga inician relaciones sexuales antes de alcanzar la mayoría de edad. Se necesita mayor investigación y promover la educación sexual en instituciones educativas.Background: The age of initiation of sexual relations has been gradually declining. Early initiation of coital activities is related to highrisk behaviors for physical and mental health in adolescents. Objective: To establish the age of initiation of sexual relations and some related factors in scholarized adolescents. Method: A transversal study was performed. A self-administered survey was applied to 646 students of a public school in Bucaramanga, Colombia. A total of a 122 students (18.9% informed having had sexual intercourse. 64 adolescents that declared initiation of sexual relations before age 14 were taken as cases and were compared with a group of 58 students that declared beginning of sexual relations after age 14 and with a group of students aged 14 or more that declared to never have had sexual relations. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that early initiation had a positive relation with younger age and male gender. Conclusions: Adolescents from this school in Bucaramanga begin sexual relations before coming of age. More research and promotion of sexual education in educational institutions is needed.

  20. Factores asociados con el inicio temprano de relaciones sexuales en estudiantes adolescentes de un colegio de Bucaramanga, Colombia / Associated Factors with Early Initiation of Sexual Relations in Adolescent Students of a School in Bucaramanga, Colombia.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adalberto, Campo Arias; José Leonardo, Silva Durán; Mariluz, Meneses Moreno; Melany, Castillo Suárez; Paola Andrea, Navarrete Hernández.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: la edad de inicio de las actividades sexuales en adolescentes ha disminuido en forma paulatina. Tal hecho está relacionado con conductas de alto riesgo para la salud física y mental de los adolescentes. Objetivo: establecer la edad de inicio de las relaciones sexuales y algunos factore [...] s asociados en adolescentes escolarizados. Método: fue realizado un estudio de corte transversal. Una encuesta autoadministrada fue aplicada a 646 estudiantes de un colegio oficial de Bucaramanga, Colombia. Un total de 122 estudiantes (18,9%) informó haber relaciones sexuales. Se tomaron como casos 64 adolescentes que manifestaron inicio de relaciones antes de cumplir catorce años y se compararon con el grupo de 58 estudiantes que refirió un inicio posterior a los catorce años y con un grupo de estudiantes de catorce años o más que negó haber tenido relaciones sexuales. Resultados: el análisis multivariado mostró que el inicio temprano guardaba relación positiva con la edad menor y sexo masculino. Conclusiones: los adolescentes de este colegio de Bucaramanga inician relaciones sexuales antes de alcanzar la mayoría de edad. Se necesita mayor investigación y promover la educación sexual en instituciones educativas. Abstract in english Background: The age of initiation of sexual relations has been gradually declining. Early initiation of coital activities is related to highrisk behaviors for physical and mental health in adolescents. Objective: To establish the age of initiation of sexual relations and some related factors in scho [...] larized adolescents. Method: A transversal study was performed. A self-administered survey was applied to 646 students of a public school in Bucaramanga, Colombia. A total of a 122 students (18.9%) informed having had sexual intercourse. 64 adolescents that declared initiation of sexual relations before age 14 were taken as cases and were compared with a group of 58 students that declared beginning of sexual relations after age 14 and with a group of students aged 14 or more that declared to never have had sexual relations. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that early initiation had a positive relation with younger age and male gender. Conclusions: Adolescents from this school in Bucaramanga begin sexual relations before coming of age. More research and promotion of sexual education in educational institutions is needed.

  1. Propiedades psicométricas de la Escala de Actitudes hacia la Autoridad Institucional en adolescentes (AAI-A) / Psychometric properties of the Attitudes to Institutional Authority in adolescence Scale (AAI-A)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María J., Cava; Estefanía, Estévez; Sofía, Buelga; Gonzalo, Musitu.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Las actitudes de los adolescentes hacia la autoridad institucional se relacionan con su implicación en comportamientos transgresores y con conductas de riesgo tales como el consumo de sustancias o las conductas predelictivas. Las actitudes que mantienen hacia profesores, policía, escuela y leyes con [...] stituyen, por tanto, una variable relevante en el estudio del ajuste psicosocial de los adolescentes. El objetivo de este trabajo es el de aportar un instrumento fiable para la medición de estas actitudes, analizando las propiedades psicométricas de la Escala de Actitudes hacia la Autoridad Institucional en adolescentes (AAI-A). La estructura factorial de esta escala es analizada mediante análisis factorial exploratorio, análisis confirmatorio y análisis multigrupo utilizando dos muestras independientes de adolescentes escolarizados (1795 españoles y 1494 mexicanos). Los resultados obtenidos muestran una estructura compuesta por dos factores, Actitud positiva hacia la autoridad institucional y Actitud positiva hacia la transgresión de las normas. La escala muestra además adecuados coeficientes de fiabilidad y correlaciones significativas con las conductas agresivas de los adolescentes y con su percepción del profesor en el contexto escolar. Abstract in english Adolescent attitudes to institutional authority are related to their implication in deviant and risk behaviors such as substance abuse and predelinquency. Attitudes towards teachers, the police, the school and laws constitute, therefore, a relevant variable in the study of psychosocial adjustment in [...] adolescence. The objective of the present work is to contribute a reliable instrument for the measurement of these attitudes, and to analyze the psychometric properties of the Attitudes to Institutional Authority in Adolescence Scale (AAI-A). Factor structure of this scale is examined by means of exploratory factor analyses, confirmatory factor analyses, and multigroup analyses, in two independent samples of adolescent students (1795 Spanish and 1494 Mexican). Results obtained show a bifactorial structure, being factors referred to Positive attitude to institutional authority and Positive attitude towards transgression of rules. This scale also shows adequate reliability coefficients and significant correlations with adolescent aggressive behavior and their perception of teachers in the school context.

  2. Características psicométricas da versão portuguesa da escala de Socialização Parental na Adolescência ESPA-29 / Psychometric properties of the portuguese version of the Parental Socialization Scale in Adolescence (ESPA-29)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristina, Nunes; Karina, Luís; Ida, Lemos; Gonzalo Musitu, Ochoa.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi validar a versão portuguesa da Escala de Estilos de Socialização Parental na Adolescência (ESPA-29) de Musitu e García (2001, 2004). Participaram 849 adolescentes de ambos os sexos (57,2% raparigas e 42,8% rapazes), com idades compreendidas entre os 10 e os 18 anos (M = 14,5 [...] 7, DP = 2,43) e residentes no sul de Portugal. A validade de constructo foi estudada através da análise fatorial exploratória e a fidelidade do instrumento através da análise da consistência interna e da estabilidade temporal (pelo método de teste-reteste). Os resultados obtidos foram consistentes com os da versão original e reproduziram a estrutura bidimensional da escala. A versão portuguesa da ESPA-29 apresentou boas características psicométricas, com níveis de consistência interna e de estabilidade temporal bastante satisfatórias. Estes resultados sugerem que a versão portuguesa da ESPA-29 é fiável para o estudo dos estilos de socialização parental em adolescentes portugueses. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to validate the Portuguese version of the Parental Socialization Scale in Adolescence (ESPA-29) by Musitu and García (2001, 2004). A sample of 849 adolescents (57.2% girls and 42.8% boys), aged 10 to 18 years (M = 14.57, SD = 2.43), from the southern region of Portugal, par [...] ticipated in the study. Construct validity was studied using exploratory factor analysis, and the reliability study was conducted through the analysis of internal consistency and temporal stability (through the test-retest method). Results were consistent with those obtained in the original version of the instrument and reproduced the bi-dimensional structure of the scale. Furthermore, the Portuguese version of ESPA-29 showed good psychometric characteristics, with satisfactory levels of internal consistency and temporal stability. These results suggest that this is a reliable instrument for studying parental socialization styles in Portuguese adolescents.

  3. VALIDACIÓN DEL INVENTARIO DE ANSIEDAD ESTADO - RASGO (STAIC) EN NIÑOS ESCOLARIZADOS ENTRE LOS 8 Y 15 AÑOS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    DIEGO ALONSO, CASTRILLÓN MORENO; PABLO EMILIO, BORRERO COPETE.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tuvo como propósito estandarizar el Inventario de Ansiedad Estado - Rasgo (STAIC) en niños y adolescentes entre 8 y 15 años de edad. La estandarización del cuestionario STAIC, es el resultado de la evaluación de 670 niños de ambos géneros, en 35 instituciones educativas públicas y [...] privadas de la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia, La base de datos tuvo un análisis a través del programa SPSS versión 10.0. El análisis consistió en evaluar las propiedades estructurales de la prueba a través de la validez de constructo hallada bajo el análisis factorial con rotación varimax por el método de componentes principales y la confiabilidad por alpha de Cronbach con coeficiente de correlación intraclase. El análisis de dichas condiciones arrojó como resultado seis factores en su análisis factorial. Se estableció un alpha de Cronbach de 0.70. Abstract in english The purpose of this investigation was to standarize State - Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) in children and adolescents between the ages of 8 and 15. The standarization of the STAIC questionnaire is the result of the evaluation of 670 children of both genders, in 35 public and private e [...] ducational institutions in the city of Medellín, Colombia. The data base had an analysis through the program SPSS version 10.0. The analysis consisted in evaluating the structural properties of the test through the construct validity found in the factorial analysis with varimax rotation by the principal components method and the reliability by the Cronbach alpha with the intraclass correlation coefficient. The analysis of the above conditions brought up a result of six factors in its factorial analysis. A Cronbach alpha of 0.70 was established.

  4. Adaptación del Inventario de Resiliencia ante el Suicidio (SRI-25 en adolescentes y jóvenes de Colombia Adapting the Suicide Resilience Inventory (SRI-25 for adolescents and young adults in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Hernán Villalobos-Galvis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir las propiedades psicométricas del Suicide Resilience Inventory (SRI-25, adaptado al español, en una muestra de adolescentes y jóvenes escolarizados de San Juan de Pasto, Colombia. MÉTODOS: Se adaptó el SRI-25 al idioma español por medio de una traducción simple. Se contó con 573 participantes, estudiantes de colegios y universidades, de 10 a 25 años de edad. RESULTADOS: En un análisis factorial exploratorio por componentes principales se encontró una estructura de tres factores que explican el 52,83% de la varianza. Se realizaron análisis factoriales según el sexo, el nivel educativo y la etapa evolutiva, a partir de los cuales se confirmó que en todos los grupos, los ítems cargan en los mismos factores de la prueba original, a saber: protección interna, estabilidad emocional y protección externa. Se obtuvo un coeficiente alfa de Cronbach de 0,922 para la prueba total. En cuanto a la validez de constructo, el SRI-25 presentó correlaciones significativas con medidas de autoestima, apoyo social, solución de problemas, razones para vivir, depresión, desesperanza e ideas suicidas. CONCLUSIÓN: Se comprobó que el SRI-25 es un instrumento útil para medir la resiliencia ante el suicidio en adolescentes y jóvenes escolarizados de San Juan de Pasto, Colombia.OBJECTIVE: Describe the psychometric properties of the Suicide Resilience Inventory (SRI-25, adapted to Spanish, in a student sample of adolescents and young adults from San Juan de Pasto, Colombia. METHODS: The SRI-25 was adapted to the Spanish language by means of a simple translation. This involved the participation of 573 schoolchildren and college/ university students between 10 and 25 years of age. RESULTS: In an exploratory factorial analysis by principal components, a structure of three factors was found to explain 52.83% of the variance. Factorial analysis was carried out by sex, educational level, and developmental stage. On this basis, it was confirmed that in all the groups, the items are weighted on the same factors as in the original test: namely, internal protection, emotional stability, and external protection. A Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.922 was obtained for the total test. Concerning the validity of the construct, the SRI-25 presented significant correlations with measurements of self-esteem, social support, problem-solving skills, reasons for living, depression, despair, and suicidal ideas. CONCLUSIONS: It was proved that the SRI-25 is a useful instrument for measuring resilience to suicide among adolescents and young people pursuing their education in San Juan de Pasto, Colombia.

  5. Adaptación del Inventario de Resiliencia ante el Suicidio (SRI-25) en adolescentes y jóvenes de Colombia / Adapting the Suicide Resilience Inventory (SRI-25) for adolescents and young adults in Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fredy Hernán, Villalobos-Galvis; Carolina, Arévalo Ojeda; Fabio Darío, Rojas Rivera.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir las propiedades psicométricas del Suicide Resilience Inventory (SRI-25), adaptado al español, en una muestra de adolescentes y jóvenes escolarizados de San Juan de Pasto, Colombia. MÉTODOS: Se adaptó el SRI-25 al idioma español por medio de una traducción simple. Se contó con 573 [...] participantes, estudiantes de colegios y universidades, de 10 a 25 años de edad. RESULTADOS: En un análisis factorial exploratorio por componentes principales se encontró una estructura de tres factores que explican el 52,83% de la varianza. Se realizaron análisis factoriales según el sexo, el nivel educativo y la etapa evolutiva, a partir de los cuales se confirmó que en todos los grupos, los ítems cargan en los mismos factores de la prueba original, a saber: protección interna, estabilidad emocional y protección externa. Se obtuvo un coeficiente alfa de Cronbach de 0,922 para la prueba total. En cuanto a la validez de constructo, el SRI-25 presentó correlaciones significativas con medidas de autoestima, apoyo social, solución de problemas, razones para vivir, depresión, desesperanza e ideas suicidas. CONCLUSIÓN: Se comprobó que el SRI-25 es un instrumento útil para medir la resiliencia ante el suicidio en adolescentes y jóvenes escolarizados de San Juan de Pasto, Colombia. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Describe the psychometric properties of the Suicide Resilience Inventory (SRI-25), adapted to Spanish, in a student sample of adolescents and young adults from San Juan de Pasto, Colombia. METHODS: The SRI-25 was adapted to the Spanish language by means of a simple translation. This invol [...] ved the participation of 573 schoolchildren and college/ university students between 10 and 25 years of age. RESULTS: In an exploratory factorial analysis by principal components, a structure of three factors was found to explain 52.83% of the variance. Factorial analysis was carried out by sex, educational level, and developmental stage. On this basis, it was confirmed that in all the groups, the items are weighted on the same factors as in the original test: namely, internal protection, emotional stability, and external protection. A Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.922 was obtained for the total test. Concerning the validity of the construct, the SRI-25 presented significant correlations with measurements of self-esteem, social support, problem-solving skills, reasons for living, depression, despair, and suicidal ideas. CONCLUSIONS: It was proved that the SRI-25 is a useful instrument for measuring resilience to suicide among adolescents and young people pursuing their education in San Juan de Pasto, Colombia.

  6. Atitudes face à sexualidade nos adolescentes num programa de educação sexual / Changes in attitudes towards sexuality in adolescents through a program of sex education

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.M., Ribeiro; A., Pontes; L.R., Santos.

    Full Text Available A educação sexual é fundamental na promoção da saúde sexual dos adolescentes, e a escola é, de acordo com a legislação portuguesa, a responsável pela sua abordagem formal. É objetivo deste estudo avaliar o impacto de um programa de educação sexual na turma (PEST) nas atitudes face à sexualidade de a [...] dolescentes. A amostra é constituída por 99 adolescentes, com idades entre os 12 e os 14 anos, que foram divididos em 2 grupos: o experimental, que participou no PEST, e o grupo de controle. O instrumento utilizado foi Escala de Atitudes Sexuais - versão Adolescente e foi aplicado, nos dois grupos em simultâneo, antes e depois da implementação do PEST. A conceção e implementação do PEST está em consonância com as exigências da legislação vigente. Constatou-se que a participação no PEST alterou efetivamente as atitudes dos adolescentes, sendo essa alteração significativa nas raparigas, nos adolescentes com maior sucesso escolar, e nos adolescentes com melhor estatuto económico. Parece assim reforçada a importância da escola na educação para a saúde dos adolescentes, bem como a necessidade de ajustar estes programas às características específicas da sua população-alvo. Abstract in english Sexual education is crucial in promoting adolescent sexual health, and the school is, according to portuguese law, responsible for its formal approach. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact that a program of sexual education in the classroom (PEST) has on attitudes towards sexuality [...] of teenagers. The sample consisted of 99 adolescents, aged between 12 and 14 years, who were divided into two groups: the experimental group, that participated in PEST, and the control group. The instrument used was the Escala de Atitudes Sexuais - versão Adolescente and was applied in both groups simultaneously, before and after implementation of PEST. The PEST designing and implementation is in line with the requirements of current legislation. It was found that participation in the PEST changed the attitudes of adolescents, with significant changes in girls, adolescents with higher educational attainment, and adolescents with better economic status. It seems thus reinforced the importance of school education for the health of adolescents, as well as the need to adjust these programs to the specific characteristics of the target population.

  7. 11th Portuguese Conference on Automatic Control

    CERN Document Server

    Matos, Aníbal; Veiga, Germano

    2015-01-01

    During the last 20 years the Portuguese association of automatic control, Associação Portuguesa de Controlo Automático, with the sponsorship of IFAC have established the CONTROLO conference as a reference international forum where an effective exchange of knowledge and experience amongst researchers active in various theoretical and applied areas of systems and control can take place, always including considerable space for promoting new technical applications and developments, real-world challenges and success stories. In this 11th edition the CONTROLO conference evolved by introducing two strategic partnerships with Spanish and Brazilian associations in automatic control, Comité Español de Automática and Sociedade Brasileira de Automatica, respectively.

  8. Phenolic profile of seventeen Portuguese wild mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, Josiana A.; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C .F. R.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of phenolic compounds in seventeen Portuguese wild mushroom species was 26 carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array 27 detection (HPLC-DAD). Protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric and cinnamic acid 28 were found and quantified. Fistulina hepatica showed the highest phenolic acids 29 concentration (111.72 mg/Kg, dw) due to the significant contribution of protocatechuic 30 (67.62 mg/Kg) and p-hydroxybenzoic (41.92 mg/kg) aci...

  9. Trace elements quantification in Portuguese red wines

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Susana Isabel Barros Dos

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to characterize Portuguese red wines in terms of trace elements composition. The wines were chosen so that all the country was represented and studied. For trace elements quantification (As, Hg, Cd, Ni and Pb) were tested various sample treatments including for all trace elements: acid digestion or presence and absence of spike. The need for H2O2 addition in order to oxidize organic compounds was analyzed for Hg, Cd, Ni and Pb. Quantification of all trace el...

  10. Approaches to Studying in Higher Education Portuguese Students: A Portuguese Version of the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadas, Sandra A. T. S.; Goncalves, Fernando R.; Faisca, Luis

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the validity of the "Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students--short version" (ASSIST; Tait et al. in "Improving student learning: Improving students as learners", 1998), to be used with Portuguese undergraduate students. The ASSIST was administrated to 566 students, in order to analyse a Portuguese version of this…

  11. Escala de atitudes face ao lazer em adolescentes e jovens adultos / Leisure attitude scale in adolescents and young adults / Escala de actitud ante la diversión en adolescentes y jóvenes adultos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Teresa, Freire; Carla, Fonte.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, o lazer e as atitudes face ao lazer têm sido alvo de interesse na investigação psicológica, concretamente no domínio da Psicologia Social. O objetivo do presente estudo foi adaptar a escala Leisure Attitude Scale de Raghb e Beard, construída para avaliar as atitudes face ao lazer em funç [...] ão das três componentes de atitude (cognitiva, afetiva e comportamental) para a população de estudantes, adolescentes e jovens adultos portugueses. Participaram no estudo 462 sujeitos (57,8% do sexo feminino e 42,2% do sexo masculino), com uma média de idades de 19,97 (desvio padrão de 4,85). Os resultados obtidos confirmam a estrutura e as características psicométricas da versão original, refletindo valores largamente aceitáveis de fidelidade (consistência interna) e validade (validade de conteúdo) quer para a escala total quer para as várias sub-escalas (cognitiva, afetiva e comportamental). Conclui-se pela adequação da escala na medida das atitudes face ao lazer, no contexto português. Abstract in spanish La diversión y las actitudes frente a ella vienes siendo objeto de interés en la investigación de la Psicología Social. Nuestro objetivo fue adaptar la escala Leisure Actitudes Scale de Raghb y Beard, que evalúa actitudes frente a la diversión en función de tres componentes (cognitivo, afectivo , y [...] comportamental), para la población de estudiantes, adolescentes y jóvenes adultos portugueses. Participaron 462 sujetos (57,8% del sexo femenino y 42,2% del sexo masculino), con media de edades de 19,97 (desviación standar de 4,85). Se confirmó la estructura y características psicométricas de la versión original, reflejando valores de fidelidad (consistencia interna) y validad (validad de contenido) en la escala total y en las varias sub-escalas (cognitiva, afectiva y comportamental). Concluimos que fue realizada la adaptación de la escala en el contexto portugués. Abstract in english Nowadays, the leisure and its attitudes constitute an important issue in Social Psychology research. The aim of this study was to realize the adaptation of the Leisure Attitude Scale (Ragheb and Beard) for Portuguese individuals, including adolescents and young adults. This scale measures leisure at [...] titude according to the three components (cognitive, affective and behavioural). A sample of 462 students (57.8% girls and 42.2% boys) with a mean age of 19.97 (standard deviation of 4.85). The results confirm the original scale. Validity measures of internal consistency and content validity in the total scale and in the three subscales (Cognitive, affective and behavioural). The scale is an adequate instrument to measure leisure attitudes in the Portuguese context.

  12. Escala de atitudes face ao lazer em adolescentes e jovens adultos Escala de actitud ante la diversión en adolescentes y jóvenes adultos Leisure attitude scale in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Freire

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, o lazer e as atitudes face ao lazer têm sido alvo de interesse na investigação psicológica, concretamente no domínio da Psicologia Social. O objetivo do presente estudo foi adaptar a escala Leisure Attitude Scale de Raghb e Beard, construída para avaliar as atitudes face ao lazer em função das três componentes de atitude (cognitiva, afetiva e comportamental para a população de estudantes, adolescentes e jovens adultos portugueses. Participaram no estudo 462 sujeitos (57,8% do sexo feminino e 42,2% do sexo masculino, com uma média de idades de 19,97 (desvio padrão de 4,85. Os resultados obtidos confirmam a estrutura e as características psicométricas da versão original, refletindo valores largamente aceitáveis de fidelidade (consistência interna e validade (validade de conteúdo quer para a escala total quer para as várias sub-escalas (cognitiva, afetiva e comportamental. Conclui-se pela adequação da escala na medida das atitudes face ao lazer, no contexto português.La diversión y las actitudes frente a ella vienes siendo objeto de interés en la investigación de la Psicología Social. Nuestro objetivo fue adaptar la escala Leisure Actitudes Scale de Raghb y Beard, que evalúa actitudes frente a la diversión en función de tres componentes (cognitivo, afectivo , y comportamental, para la población de estudiantes, adolescentes y jóvenes adultos portugueses. Participaron 462 sujetos (57,8% del sexo femenino y 42,2% del sexo masculino, con media de edades de 19,97 (desviación standar de 4,85. Se confirmó la estructura y características psicométricas de la versión original, reflejando valores de fidelidad (consistencia interna y validad (validad de contenido en la escala total y en las varias sub-escalas (cognitiva, afectiva y comportamental. Concluimos que fue realizada la adaptación de la escala en el contexto portugués.Nowadays, the leisure and its attitudes constitute an important issue in Social Psychology research. The aim of this study was to realize the adaptation of the Leisure Attitude Scale (Ragheb and Beard for Portuguese individuals, including adolescents and young adults. This scale measures leisure attitude according to the three components (cognitive, affective and behavioural. A sample of 462 students (57.8% girls and 42.2% boys with a mean age of 19.97 (standard deviation of 4.85. The results confirm the original scale. Validity measures of internal consistency and content validity in the total scale and in the three subscales (Cognitive, affective and behavioural. The scale is an adequate instrument to measure leisure attitudes in the Portuguese context.

  13. Marcadores reduzidos para a avaliação da personalidade em adolescentes / Brazilian mini-markers for assessing personality in adolescents / Marcadores reducidos para la evaluación de la personalidad en adolescentes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nelson, Hauck Filho; Marco Antônio Pereira, Teixeira; Wagner de Lara, Machado; Denise Ruschel, Bandeira.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Os Marcadores Reduzidos para a Avaliação da Personalidade mensuram os Cinco Grandes Fatores (CGF) mediante 25 adjetivos comumente utilizados para descrever diferenças individuais em português brasileiro. Contudo, até o momento, suas propriedades psicométricas com adolescentes não haviam sido investi [...] gadas. Dessa maneira, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a estrutura fatorial do instrumento em duas amostras de estudantes adolescentes. O primeiro estudo contou com 208 estudantes escolares (média de idades=15,97; DP=1,00). Análises de componentes principais do instrumento revelaram uma estrutura de cinco componentes oblíquos com apenas 20 marcadores. Esse modelo foi testado em uma segunda amostra com 280 estudantes (média de idades=15,53; DP=1,00) de forma confirmatória contra modelos alternativos. Os índices de ajuste também favoreceram um modelo de cinco fatores oblíquos. Os resultados, em conjunto, sugerem a adequação de uma versão do instrumento com apenas 20 marcadores para uso com adolescentes. Abstract in spanish Los Marcadores Reducidos para la Evaluación de la Personalidad mensuran los Cinco Grandes Factores (CGF) mediante 25 adjetivos comúnmente utilizados para describir diferencias individuales en portugués brasileño. Todavía, hasta ahora, sus propiedades psicométricas con adolescentes no habían sido inv [...] estigadas. De esa manera, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la estructura factorial del instrumento en dos muestras de estudiantes adolescentes. El primer estudio contó con 208 estudiantes (promedio de edades=15,97; DP=1,00). Análisis de componentes principales del instrumento revelaron una estructura de cinco componentes oblicuos con apenas 20 marcadores. Ese modelo fue testado en una segunda muestra con 280 estudiantes (promedio de edades=15,53; DP=1,00) de forma confirmatoria contra modelos alternativos. Los índices de ajuste también favorecieron un modelo de cinco factores oblicuos. Los resultados, en conjunto, sugieren la adecuación de una versión del instrumento con sólo 20 marcadores para uso con adolescentes. Abstract in english Brazilian Mini-Markers of Personality measure the Five-Factor Model with 25 adjectives frequently used for describing individual differences in Brazilian Portuguese. However, up to date, there were no studies focusing on its psychometric properties in adolescent groups. Therefore, the aim of the pre [...] sent study was to evaluate the factor structure of the instrument in two adolescent student samples. The Study I used data from 208 high school students (mean age=15.97; SD= 1.00) and showed an oblique solution composed of five principal components and 20 markers. This structure was then tested with confirmatory factor analysis using data from 280 school and high school students (mean age=15.53; SD= 1.00). Fit indexes showed that an oblique five-factor model performed better than theoretically-derived concurrent structures. Results showed that a 20 marker version of the instrument is adequate for use with adolescents in Brazil.

  14. Marcadores reduzidos para a avaliação da personalidade em adolescentes Marcadores reducidos para la evaluación de la personalidad en adolescentes Brazilian mini-markers for assessing personality in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Hauck Filho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Os Marcadores Reduzidos para a Avaliação da Personalidade mensuram os Cinco Grandes Fatores (CGF mediante 25 adjetivos comumente utilizados para descrever diferenças individuais em português brasileiro. Contudo, até o momento, suas propriedades psicométricas com adolescentes não haviam sido investigadas. Dessa maneira, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a estrutura fatorial do instrumento em duas amostras de estudantes adolescentes. O primeiro estudo contou com 208 estudantes escolares (média de idades=15,97; DP=1,00. Análises de componentes principais do instrumento revelaram uma estrutura de cinco componentes oblíquos com apenas 20 marcadores. Esse modelo foi testado em uma segunda amostra com 280 estudantes (média de idades=15,53; DP=1,00 de forma confirmatória contra modelos alternativos. Os índices de ajuste também favoreceram um modelo de cinco fatores oblíquos. Os resultados, em conjunto, sugerem a adequação de uma versão do instrumento com apenas 20 marcadores para uso com adolescentes.Los Marcadores Reducidos para la Evaluación de la Personalidad mensuran los Cinco Grandes Factores (CGF mediante 25 adjetivos comúnmente utilizados para describir diferencias individuales en portugués brasileño. Todavía, hasta ahora, sus propiedades psicométricas con adolescentes no habían sido investigadas. De esa manera, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la estructura factorial del instrumento en dos muestras de estudiantes adolescentes. El primer estudio contó con 208 estudiantes (promedio de edades=15,97; DP=1,00. Análisis de componentes principales del instrumento revelaron una estructura de cinco componentes oblicuos con apenas 20 marcadores. Ese modelo fue testado en una segunda muestra con 280 estudiantes (promedio de edades=15,53; DP=1,00 de forma confirmatoria contra modelos alternativos. Los índices de ajuste también favorecieron un modelo de cinco factores oblicuos. Los resultados, en conjunto, sugieren la adecuación de una versión del instrumento con sólo 20 marcadores para uso con adolescentes.Brazilian Mini-Markers of Personality measure the Five-Factor Model with 25 adjectives frequently used for describing individual differences in Brazilian Portuguese. However, up to date, there were no studies focusing on its psychometric properties in adolescent groups. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the factor structure of the instrument in two adolescent student samples. The Study I used data from 208 high school students (mean age=15.97; SD= 1.00 and showed an oblique solution composed of five principal components and 20 markers. This structure was then tested with confirmatory factor analysis using data from 280 school and high school students (mean age=15.53; SD= 1.00. Fit indexes showed that an oblique five-factor model performed better than theoretically-derived concurrent structures. Results showed that a 20 marker version of the instrument is adequate for use with adolescents in Brazil.

  15. O Português Europeu e a colocação dos pronomes átonos / European Portuguese and the position of clitic pronouns

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria de Fatima, Vieira.

    Full Text Available A presente investigação versa sobre a colocação dos pronomes átonos em relação a um e a mais de um constituinte verbal, tendo como foco a modalidade oral do Português Europeu popular a partir de um conjunto de registros do fim do século XX. De cunho variacionista (WEINREICH, LABOV & HERZOG, 1968; LA [...] BOV, 1972, 1994), a atual pesquisa, que busca sistematizar os parâmetros da ordem dos clíticos pronominais (KLAVANS, 1985), determina as variáveis linguísticas e extralinguísticas que se mostram relevantes em contextos com um e mais de um verbo. Para tanto, observa as ocorrências pré-verbal (Não se faz) e pós-verbal (Faz-se), em relação às lexias verbais simples, bem como as variantes pré-complexo verbal (Não se pode fazer), intra-complexo verbal (Pode-se fazer) e pós-complexo verbal (Pode fazer-se), nas estruturas com mais de uma forma verbal. O estudo conta com dados do Português Europeu extraídos do corpus CORDIAL-SIN, que contém registros orais da fala de informantes não escolarizados do final do século XX, coletados de diversas regiões de Portugal. Com o auxílio do instrumental técnico-computacional GOLDVARB-X, analisam-se sociolinguisticamente as ocorrências coletadas no material. Vale ressaltar que o presente trabalho colabora para a ampliação dos estudos referentes à colocação dos pronomes átonos, já que não só confirma resultados de pesquisas anteriores (Vieira, 2002), como tambémacrescenta informações a respeito dos padrões de uso do Português Europeu popular, ao determinar o condicionamento linguístico e extralinguístico das estruturas sob análise. Abstract in english The present investigation concerns about object clitic pronouns positioning in relation to single word verbs and compound ones, keeping its focus on the oral modality of popular European Portuguese, departing from a set of records collected at the end of the twentieth century. Variationist nature (W [...] EINREICH, LABOV & HERZOG, 1968, LABOV, 1972, 1994) of the current research, which aims at providing information about the parameters of the clitic pronouns order (KLAVANS, 1985), determines linguistic and extra-linguistic variables that turn out to be relevant in contexts with single or compound verbs. For this purpose, pre-verbal (Não se faz) and post-verbal (Faz-se) occurrences, with single word verbs, as well as the variants pre-verbal complex (Não se pode fazer), intra-complex verbal (Pode-se fazer) and post-verbal complex (Pode fazer-se), in structures with more than one verbal form, have been observed. The study is supplied with European Portuguese data extracted from the corpus CORDIAL-SIN, which contains oral records produced by unschooled informants from several regions of Portugal, by the end of the twentieth century. With the assistance of the techno-computational program GOLDVARB-X, occurrences collected from the material have been sociolinguistically analysed. It's worth enhancing that the current work contributes to amplify the studies regarding object pronouns positioning, once it does not only confirm previous results (VIEIRA, 2002), but also aggregates further information respective to the usual pattern of popular European Portuguese, as it determines linguistic and extra-linguistic restrictions of the structures under analysis

  16. Creencias sobre caries e higiene oral en adolescentes del Valle del Cauca / Beliefs on cavity and oral hygiene in adolescents of the Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge Eduardo, Tascón; Gustavo Alonso, Cabrera.

    2005-06-14

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer las creencias que sobre caries e higiene oral tienen los adolescentes escolarizados del departamento del Valle del Cauca, Colombia. MÉTODO: Se utilizó el Modelo de Creencias en Salud como referente en un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal efectuado en 38 de los 42 municipios [...] del departamento. Se seleccionó una muestra de 5,400 adolescentes matriculados en instituciones educativas públicas y privadas por muestreo probabilístico, trietápico, estratificado y de conglomerados. Se aplicó un cuestionario estructurado de 47 puntos para las variables de interés. RESULTADOS: Con respecto a la etiología, 65% cree que la caries dental se debe a mala higiene oral, 18% por bacterias, 7% por consumo de azúcar y 10% no sabe; 41% refirió haber sufrido alguna vez de caries; 14% cree que actualmente no tiene esta enfermedad oral y 37% dijo no tener historia percibida de caries; 99.8% respondió que se cepilla los dientes; la frecuencia de cepillado tuvo una mediana de 3 veces por día; 55% utiliza la seda dental y 51% el enjuague bucal; 14% refirió no haber visitado nunca al odontólogo y 27% dijo haberlo visitado al menos una vez, pero hacia más de 7 meses. CONCLUSIONES: El uso del Modelo de Creencias en Salud permitió conocer las creencias básicas que sobre caries e higiene oral tienen los adolescentes escolarizados del Valle del Cauca. Las creencias y prácticas de los participantes no son favorables para la prevención y control de la caries. Es necesario diseñar intervenciones preventivas para mejorar las percepciones y reducir la presencia y efectos de la caries dental. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To know the beliefs about tooth decay and oral hygiene in adolescents from the Department of Valle of Cauca, Colombia . METHODS: The Health Belief Model was used in a descriptive study in 38 out of 42 municipalities of the Department. The sample of 5,400 adolescent students from public an [...] d private high schools was selected trough a probabilistic, stratified, tri-stage cluster sampling. A structured questionnaire made of 47 items related to the variables of the study was used. RESULTS: Respecting the etiology, 65% beliefs that dental caries is due to bad oral hygiene, 18% due to bacteria, 7% associates it to the sugar consumption and 10% didn’t know; 41% referred that they have had tooth decay already, 14% said that had decay at moment, 37% did not have perceived history of decay; 99.8% answered that they do bush their teeth, the brushing frequency had a median of 3 times per day; 55% uses dental floss and 51% mouth wash; 14% referred that never have visited the dentist and 27% said that visited him/her 7 months ago or more. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the Health Belief Model allowed know the basic beliefs about tooth decay and oral hygiene in adolescents of the Valley of Cauca. Beliefs and preventive practices of the participants are not favorable. It is necessary to design preventive interventions for improving perceptions and reducing the presence and effects of the dental caries.

  17. Continental Portuguese Territory Flood Social Susceptibility Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, N.; Dias, L.; Costa, H. P.; Santos, F. D.; Garrett, P.

    2014-12-01

    The combination of human exposure, extreme weather events and lack of adaptation strategies to cope with flood related impacts can potentially increase losses not only on infrastructure but also on human lives. These impacts are usually difficult to quantify due to the lack of data and for this reason most of the studies developed at the national scale only include the main characteristics that define the societal or individual predisposition to be affected, resist, adapt or recover, when exposed to a flood. The main objective of this work was to develop a flood social susceptibility index for the continental Portuguese territory based on the most representative variables able to characterize different influencing factors. This index is part of the national vulnerability index developed in the scope of Flood Maps in Climate Change Scenarios (CIRAC) project, supported by the Portuguese Association of Insurers (APS). The main results showed that the proposed index correctly identified populations more socially susceptible to floods, mostly concentrated in rural inland areas with lower income and education levels, when compared with the coastal region between Viana do Castelo and Setúbal.

  18. Continental Portuguese Territory Flood Social Susceptibility Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Grosso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The combination of human exposure, extreme weather events and lack of adaptation strategies to cope with flood related impacts can potentially increase losses not only on infrastructure but also on human lives. These impacts are usually difficult to quantify due to the lack of data and for this reason most of the studies developed at the national scale only include the main characteristics that define the societal or individual predisposition to be affected, resist, adapt or recover, when exposed to a flood. The main objective of this work was to develop a flood social susceptibility index for the continental Portuguese territory based on the most representative variables able to characterize different influencing factors. This index is part of the national vulnerability index developed in the scope of Flood Maps in Climate Change Scenarios (CIRAC project, supported by the Portuguese Association of Insurers (APS. The main results showed that the proposed index correctly identified populations more socially susceptible to floods, mostly concentrated in rural inland areas with lower income and education levels, when compared with the coastal region between Viana do Castelo and Setúbal.

  19. Sexualidad y embarazo adolescente en México

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    Catherine Menkes Bancet

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En nuestro país, el tema del embarazo adolescente se ha vuelto uno de los asuntos fundamentales de las políticas de población; desde distintas perspectivas se habla sobre el volumen de población adolescente, sobre su ritmo de crecimiento y reproducción, así como del riesgo biopsicosocial que implica la maternidad adolescente Sin duda todo esto es cierto, sin embargo, varias investigaciones y políticas dirigidas a mejorar la salud reproductiva de los adolescentes, se olvidan de que la maternidad temprana en nuestro país, responde a un contexto económico, social y cultural. Mediante el uso de algunas encuestas demográficas con representatividad nacional, se profundiza en esta asociación. De la misma forma, se prueba que un nivel bajo de escolaridad femenino se asocia con un menor conocimiento y uso de métodos anticonceptivos, una menor planeación en la primera relación sexual y una edad más temprana en la iniciación sexual, lo que hace que estas adolescentes sean más vulnerables al embarazo y a las enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Ciertamente, la inequidad de género y otros aspectos socioculturales relacionados con las condiciones de desigualdad de las mujeres se agravan en un contexto de pobreza y falta de oportunidades.

  20. Portuguese validation of the children's eating attitudes test / Validação portuguesa do teste de atitudes alimentares para crianças

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Del Carmen Bento, Teixeira; Ana Telma Fernandes, Pereira; Jorge Manuel Tavares, Saraiva; Mariana, Marques; Maria João, Soares; Sandra Carvalho, Bos; José, Valente; Maria Helena Pinto De, Azevedo; António João Ferreira De, Macedo.

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: O Teste de Atitudes Alimentares é o instrumento mais utilizado para avaliar distúrbios alimentares em adultos e adolescentes em uma variedade de culturas e amostras. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as propriedades psicométricas da versão portuguesa da Escala de Atitudes Alime [...] ntares para Crianças (ChEAT). MÉ;TODO: Novecentos e cinquenta e seis alunos do ensino secundário (565 moças e 391 moços) responderam ao ChEAT. O cálculo da fidelidade teste-reteste foi feito por meio das respostas de 206 participantes da amostra total que voltaram a responder ao questionário após quatro a seis semanas. As análises psicométricas foram realizadas para o total da amostra e para ambos os sexos separadamente. RESULTADOS: A consistência interna e a fidelidade teste-reteste foram satisfatórias. A análise fatorial em componentes na amostra total resultou em quatro fatores que explicam 42,35% da variância total. A composição dos fatores foi semelhante na amostra total e em ambos os sexos. Os fatores denominaram-se: F1 "Medo de Engordar"; F2 "Comportamentos Restritivos e Purgativos"; F3 "Preocupação com a Comida" e F4 "Pressão Social para Comer". A validade concorrente foi explorada com a Escala de Silhuetas Corporais (CDFRS) e foi elevada. CONCLUSÃO: A versão portuguesa do ChEAT é um instrumento útil e válido para a avaliação de atitudes e comportamentos alimentares em adolescentes portugueses. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) is the most widely used instrument for evaluating eating disorders in adults and adolescents in a variety of cultures and samples. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Children's Eatin [...] g Attitudes Test (ChEAT). METHOD: Nine hundred and fifty-six Portuguese secondary students (565 girls and 391 boys) answered the ChEAT. The test-retest reliability was obtained with data from 206 participants from the total sample who re-answered the questionnaire after 4-6 weeks. Psychometric analyses were carried out for the total sample and separately for girls and boys. RESULTS: Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were satisfactory. Principal components factorial analysis yielded four factors in the total sample, accounting for 42.35% of the total variance. Factor structure was similar in the total sample and in both genders. Factors were labelled: F1 "Fear of Getting Fat", F2 "Restrictive and Purgative Behaviours", F3 "Food Preoccupation" and F4 "Social Pressure to Eat". The concurrent validity, explored using the Contour Drawing Figure Rating Scale (CDRS) was high. DISCUSSION: The Portuguese version of the ChEAT is a valid and useful instrument for the evaluation of abnormal eating attitudes and behaviours among Portuguese adolescents.

  1. PERCEPCIONES DE ADOLESCENTES MEXICANOS ACERCA DEL ADOLESCENTE Y EL HOMBRE Y LA MUJER IDEALES

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    Pedro Antonio S\\u00E1nchez Escobedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del estudio es describir las percepciones de adolescentes de educación secundaria, hombres y mujeres, acerca del adolescente, el hombre y la mujer ideales, y su relación con el género y grado escolar. La información se recolectó mediante un diferencial semántico bipolar diseñado ex profeso y con alta confiabilidad. Se seleccionó una muestra representativa probabilística de 283 estudiantes de una escuela secundaria pública. Los resultados evidencian que los adolescentes varones poseen en general una percepción positiva del ideal de los hombres y mujeres, y que las mujeres mantienen una visión más positiva de las mujeres en lo relativo a su desempeño.

  2. Neoplasias intraepiteliales cervicales en adolescentes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mario, Salas; María E, Noguera; Pierina, Petrosino; Asmiria, Arenas.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia y evolución clínico patológica de las neoplasias intraepiteliales cervicales en adolescentes, que acudieron al Servicio de Ginecología del Hospital Universitario de Los Andes. Mérida. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y longitudinal, donde se evalúan 74 pa [...] cientes adolescentes con patología cervical, captadas durante un período de 6 años (Los datos fueron organizados en cuadros y figuras. Se realizaron las correlaciones estadísticas, mediante el método de Chi cuadrado). Se analizó la evolución clínica de las lesiones presentes en el grupo estudiado, y se determinó su persistencia, regresión o progresión. Resultados: La mayor frecuencia de patología cervical, está en el grupo entre los 18 y 19 años. En las citologías de ingreso, 43,24 % de los casos reportaron lesión intraepitelial de bajo grado y 5,41 % lesión intraepitelial de alto grado. En la primera biopsia, 60,81 % presenta neoplasia intraepitelial cervical 1/por virus papiloma humano. 9,46 % reporta neoplasia intraepitelial cervical 2, y 8,11 % presenta neoplasia intraepitelial cervical 3/por cáncer in situ. Un 90,54 % de las pacientes presentaron signos histológicos sugestivos de infección por virus papiloma humano. En cuanto al uso de electrocirugía, el procedimiento fue omitido en el 77,03 %. A 14,86 % se les realizó cono por radiocirugía. Los informes de conos, muestran que 54,55 % reportaron neoplasia intraepitelial cervical 1/ virus papiloma humano, y 27,27 % reportaron neoplasia intraepitelial cervical 3. Al analizar la evolución de la patología, se observa que 82,60 % presentó regresión de sus lesiones. Conclusiones: Por la edad y competencia inmunológica, el manejo de las lesiones cervicales debe ser conservador en adolescentes. En un alto porcentaje del grupo estudiado, se mantuvo una conducta conservadora y se determinó una alta tasa de regresión. Abstract in english Objective: To determine the frequency and pathologic evolution of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in adolescents who attended in the Gynecology Service of the University Hospital of the Andes in Merida, Venezuela. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study, which evaluated 74 adolescent patients [...] with cervical pathology, collected over a period of six years. The data were organized in tables and figures. Statistical correlations were made by Chi square method. Subsequently, we analyzed the clinical course of the lesions present in the group studied, determining their persistence, regression or progression. Results: The increased frequency of cervical pathology is in the group between 18 and 19 years. In smears of income, 43.24 % of the cases reported low grade squamous intraepitheliel lesion and 5.41 % high grade squamous intraepitheliel lesion. In the first biopsy, 60.81 % presents cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1/ human papillomavirus. 9.46 % reported cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 8.11 % present cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3/cancer in situ. 90.54 % of the patients had histological signs suggestive of human papillomavirus infection. Regarding the use of electrosurgery, the procedure was omitted from the 77.03 %. 14.86 % underwent radiosurgery cone. Cones reports show that 54.55 % reported cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1/human papillomavirus, and 27.27 % reported cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3. When analyzing the evolution of the disease, it is observed that 82.60 % had regression of their lesions. Conclusions: By age and immune competence, management of cervical lesions in adolescents should be conservative. In a high percentage of the study group, remained a conservative therapy and found a high rate of regression.

  3. Lesión intraepitelial cervical en adolescentes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Giselle, Posso Moar; Mariela Alejandra, Rangel Pérez; Norma, Marchán; Mireya, González Blanco.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar las lesiones intraepiteliales cervicales en pacientes adolescentes que acuden a la consulta del Servicio de Ginecología de la Maternidad “Concepción Palacios”. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo, descriptivo, transversal. Se incluyeron 76 pacientes adolescentes en edades comprendidas ent [...] re los 10 y 19 años que hubiesen iniciado relaciones sexuales, con hallazgos citológicos y/o histológicos de patología cervical, a las cuales se les tomó muestra para determinar ácido desoxirribonucleico de virus de papiloma humano por reacción en cadena de polimerasa, se realizó colposcopia y de presentar cambios, se tomó biopsia. Se registraron factores de riesgo a partir de la historia clínica. Resultados: La edad promedio fue 17 ± 1 años, el inicio de las relaciones sexuales fue 15 ± 1 años, el número de parejas sexuales tuvo una mediana de 2. En 41 pacientes se encontró un solo tipo viral (53,9 %), el más frecuente fue el tipo 6 (43,1 %). El hallazgo citológico más frecuente fue lesión intraepitelial cervical de bajo grado con 52 pacientes. El epitelio acetoblanco plano se presentó en 32 pacientes, en 57 casos (75 %) las lesiones fueron exocervicales. El diagnóstico histológico más frecuente fue neoplasia intraepitelial 1 (77,6 %). Conclusiones: El tipo viral más frecuente fue el tipo 6, el alcohol fue el factor de riesgo con importancia estadística. Abstract in english Objective: To evaluate cervical intraepithelial lesions in adolescent patients attending the Gynecology Service Consultation to the Concepción Palacios Maternity Hospital. Methods: Prospective, descriptive, transversal. 76 patients were included, adolescents aged between 10 and 19 who had initiated [...] sex with cytologic findings and/or histological cervical pathology, to which sample was taken to determine deoxyribonucleic acid from human papilloma virus by reaction polymerase chain. We practice colposcopy and biopsy was taken, when it was necessary. The risk factors were registration for the medical history. Results: The mean age was 17 ± 1 years, the onset of sexual intercourse was 15 ± 1 years, the number of sexual partners had a median of 2. In 41 patients there was a single viral type (53.9 %), the most frequent was type 6 (43.1 %). The most common cytologic finding was cervical intraepithelial lesion low grade with 52 patients. Flat acetowhite epithelium occurred in 32 patients, 57 cases (75 %) were ectocervical lesions. The most frequent histological diagnosis was intraepithelial neoplasia I (77.6 %). Conclusions: The most frequent viral type was type 6, the alcohol was the risk factor with statistical significance.

  4. The Economic Role of the Portuguese Agricultural Cooperatives

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João, Rebelo; José, Caldas.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 2008 Portugal began to be influenced by a financial crisis, public budget troubles and an economic crisis. In line with the new economic paradigm within the EU, is publicly acknowledged that the overcoming of this crisis should be based on the production of transactional goods, where the agric [...] ultural sector deserves a special attention. The objective of this paper is to analyze the economic role of the Portuguese agricultural marketing cooperatives, including an overview of the Portuguese agricultural sector, the typology of Portuguese cooperatives and position in the agro food chain, the institutional environment, internal governance and performance of the agricultural cooperatives.

  5. Atlántida: una aproximación al adolescente escolar colombiano

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    Francisco Cajiao Restrepo

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquí se resumen las conclusiones más importantes del Proyecto ATLANTIDA, orientado a conocer integralmente aspectos culturales del adolescente escolar colombiano, el cual se realizó bajo la dirección del autor por la Fundación FES. Específicamente, se muestra el atraso social de la escuela en cuanto a la concepción y práctica del conocimiento y en cuanto a su organización social, lo cual acentúa la ruptura entre las expectativas y el mundo del adolescente y el mundo adulto. Igualmente, describe la visión predominante negativa que tienen los adolescentes de esa institución y las inmensas posibilidades que tendría de desarrollarse si se adecua a las formas en que los jóvenes despliegan su capacidad y deseos de saber dentro de un clima de verdadero compromiso, libertad y aceptación afectiva.

  6. Autoestima y depresión en adolescentes guatemaltecos

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    Guido Aguilar

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron la depresión y la autoestima como replicación y extensión del estudio de Berganza y Aguilar (1992 sobre Depresión en Adolescentes Guatemaltecos. Se encontraron niveles significativos de depresión en los adolescentes (28.78% y las diferencias de género persistieron, presentando las mujeres mayores porcentajes de depresión que los varones (36.61 vs. 21.56%. Se midió la autoestima total, lo mismo que la autoestima global, familiar, académica, física y social. Se encontró una correlación negativa significativa entre la depresión y la autoestima (r = -.612, P < .05. Usando un análisis de regresión, se encontró que la autoestima y sus componentes contribuían significativamente a los niveles de depresión: Total (37.4%, global (2S.7%, académica (14.9%, física (20.S%, familiar (22.8%, y social (19.2%. Se discuten las implicaciones de estos resultados y su relación con el Modelo Económico Transaccional en Adolescentes Guatemaltecos (Berganza y Aguilar, 1989.

  7. Os museus portugueses e a Web 2.0 / Portuguese museums and Web 2.0

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandra Raquel, Pedro.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo dá a conhecer um projecto de investigação que teve como objectivo determinar e analisar a partir da observação dos sítios Web dos museus portugueses quais as ferramentas Web 2.0 usadas por estas instituições no desenvolvimento das suas actividades. Neste sentido, foram seleccionado [...] s como amostra os 125 museus pertencentes à Rede Portuguesa de Museus. Os resultados obtidos permitem-nos afirmar que utilização das ferramentas Web 2.0 por parte dos museus portugueses analisados está numa fase inicial. A ferramenta mais usada é o blogue. Foram, também, identificados projectos pioneiros ao nível dos wikis, Licenças Creative Commons, Youtube, Flickr e redes sociais on-line. Abstract in english This article presents the results of an investigation work that had as main objective the determination and analysis of the Web 2.0 tools used by Portuguese museums in the development of their activities. The selected samples were the 125 museums from the Rede Portuguesa de Museus. The conclusion is [...] that this practice is only at an early stage. The most used tool is the blog. Pioneer projects were also identified namely wikis, Creative Commons Licenses, Youtube, Flickr and online social networks.

  8. Ansiedad y acontecimientos vitales en adolescentes

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    C. Moreno

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se examina la posible relación entre acontecimientos vitales (AV y ansiedad en población adolescente. Para la evaluación de AV se ha usado el AV.I.A (Inventarlo de Acontecimeintos Vitales en Infancia y Adolescencia (adaptado de P. Morató y para la evaluación de la ansiedad, el S.T.A.I.C. (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory of Children (Spielberger, 1973. La muestra consta de 695 adolescentes de 14 a 15 años de edad. Los resultados muestran que un mayor número de AV negativos repercute en la elevación de las tasas de ansiedad.

  9. Portuguese experience on the use of GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Francisco; Pais, Jorge; Gonçalves, Luísa

    2014-05-01

    Ground penetrating radar has been used for several decades in a wide range of applications, from pure research towards structural diagnostics and infrastructure survey. This method has proven to be very useful for fast and nondestructive quality check of structures, especially road pavements. Due to this fact, the use of this method is mandatory in a number of countries (United States, United Kingdom, Norway, etc.) before any digging operation or for the quality inspection of bituminous road beds, for example. In those countries, national guidelines exist to regulate the use of these equipments as well as rules and protocols to be followed by the professionals that provide those kinds of services. In Portugal, despite the advanced level of the structural engineering and construction professionals, and the existence of complex structures, the use of ground penetrating radar has exhibited a rather low penetration rate, comparatively to other European countries. This situation is due in part to the fact that GPR services are still more expensive than a more traditional way, which generally does not have the same degree of precision or implies the destruction of a part of the inspected area, and also because of the nature of Portuguese professionals. There is also a lack of national rules to regulate the use of GPR, which is the responsibility of ANACOM, as well as a certain lack of knowledge from national and regional authorities in order to make it mandatory in particular applications, namely in the case of intervention in the underground and road infrastructure. Despite this situation, GPR has been used in Portugal in recent years, although being mostly confined to the academic world. Thus, this communication presents several examples of the Portuguese experience on the use of GPR, which ranges from academic research towards structural and infrastructure inspection, to archaeological survey. This work is a contribution to COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar".

  10. Pain in Portuguese patients with multiple sclerosis.

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    DanielaSeixas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Early reports often ignored pain as an important symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS. Pain prevalence figures in MS from European countries other than Portugal range between 40% and 65%. To our knowledge there is no published data in English on pain in MS in Portugal. We describe the demographic and clinical characteristics, with an emphasis on pain, of 85 MS patients followed-up in a Portuguese hospital, contributing to pain epidemiology in MS. Patients were interviewed sequentially after their regular appointments at the MS clinic; patients with pain completed The Brief Pain Inventory and The McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ. The prevalence of pain found was 34%. Headache and back pain were the most common anatomical sites described, followed by upper and lower limbs. Intensity of pain in an 11-point scale was, for the maximum pain intensity 6.7±1.8, for the minimum pain intensity 2.2±2.0, for the mean pain intensity 4.5±1.5 and for the actual pain intensity 2.4±2.9. Pain interfered significantly with general activity, mood, work, social relations and enjoyment of life. All MS patients with pain employed words from both the sensory and affective categories of the MPQ to describe it. Patient pain descriptions’ included the word “hot-burning” in 59% of the cases, common in the report of central pain, but neuropathic pain medications were only used by 10% of them. Pain is an important symptom in Portuguese patients with MS, not only because of the high prevalence found, concordant with other European countries, but also because of its interference with quality-of-life.

  11. Caries in Portuguese children with Down syndrome

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    Cristina Maria Areias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Oral health in Down syndrome children has some peculiar aspects that must be considered in the follow-up of these patients. This study focuses on characterizing the environmental and host factors associated with dental caries in Portuguese children with and without Down syndrome. METHODS: A sibling-matched, population-based, cross-sectional survey was performed. RESULTS: Down syndrome children presented a significantly greater percentage of children without caries, 78% vs. 58% of non-Down syndrome siblings. This difference in the DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth essentially reflects data obtained from treated teeth, for which 91% of children with Down syndrome had never had a tooth treated vs. 67% of siblings. This result was statistically significant, whereas results for decayed and lost teeth did not differ between Down syndrome children and their unaffected siblings. Additionally, in Down syndrome children, a delayed eruption of the second molar occurs. Down syndrome children and their siblings have similar oral hygiene habits, but a higher percentage of Down syndrome children visit a dentist before the age of three years, in comparison to their siblings. Bruxism was also more common in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that Portuguese children with Down syndrome have lower caries rates than children without Down syndrome. This reduced prevalence may be associated with the parents' greater concern about oral health care in Down syndrome children, resulting in their taking them sooner to visit a dentist, as well as to a higher bruxism prevalence and delayed tooth eruption.

  12. Caries in Portuguese children with Down syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristina Maria, Areias; Benedita, Sampaio-Maia; Hercilia, Guimaraes; Paulo, Melo; David, Andrade.

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Oral health in Down syndrome children has some peculiar aspects that must be considered in the follow-up of these patients. This study focuses on characterizing the environmental and host factors associated with dental caries in Portuguese children with and without Down syndrome. METHODS [...] : A sibling-matched, population-based, cross-sectional survey was performed. RESULTS: Down syndrome children presented a significantly greater percentage of children without caries, 78% vs. 58% of non-Down syndrome siblings. This difference in the DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth) essentially reflects data obtained from treated teeth, for which 91% of children with Down syndrome had never had a tooth treated vs. 67% of siblings. This result was statistically significant, whereas results for decayed and lost teeth did not differ between Down syndrome children and their unaffected siblings. Additionally, in Down syndrome children, a delayed eruption of the second molar occurs. Down syndrome children and their siblings have similar oral hygiene habits, but a higher percentage of Down syndrome children visit a dentist before the age of three years, in comparison to their siblings. Bruxism was also more common in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that Portuguese children with Down syndrome have lower caries rates than children without Down syndrome. This reduced prevalence may be associated with the parents' greater concern about oral health care in Down syndrome children, resulting in their taking them sooner to visit a dentist, as well as to a higher bruxism prevalence and delayed tooth eruption.

  13. Teachers’ discourses on young lesbians in the portuguese school context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rodrigues

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze teachers’ discourses on young lesbians in the Portuguese schools. To that end, we carried out semi-structured interviews with 24 Portuguese teachers of middle and secondary schools. After having analyzed the retrieved data from the interviews, we identified four main themes: gender polarization; lesbian invisibility; homophobia; and measures against homophobia. Based on their discourses, we concluded that these interviewees have a small amount of knowledge about lesbian women’s sexuality. Despite the legislative progress concerning the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People's rights in Portugal, teachers are not prepared to deal with this issue both inside and outside the school environment. Furthermore, this research includes some recommendations to deal with homophobia in the Portuguese school context. This study will hopefully contribute to a better understanding of the discourses and practices towards young lesbians in the school panorama, highlighting the importance of promoting non-discriminatory attitudes in the Portuguese schools

  14. Os Portugueses No Sudoeste Da Nova Inglaterra E A Sua Literatura Infantil (The Portuguese in Southeast New England and Their Children's Literature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinkscales, Rosalie Duggan

    The four sections of this paper deal with Portuguese immigrants in southeast New England and with Portuguese-language children's literature. The first section contains a description of Portuguese immigration to the United States from 1511 to the present and notes changes in immigration laws. The second section presents descriptions of the…

  15. Adolescentes estrangeiros em Portugal: uma questão de saúde / Foreign adolescents in Portugal: a question of health

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Margarida Gaspar de, Matos; Aldina, Gonçalves; Tania, Gaspar.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available O objectivo principal deste estudo foi a investigação sobre as diferenças e semelhanças entre adolescentes portugueses e africanos de língua portuguesa, que vivem em Portugal, quanto a diversos comportamentos de saúde, em diferentes contextos, tais como, actividades de lazer, imagem do corpo, comuni [...] cação com os pais, violência, consumo de substâncias, escola, amizade, par sexual e expectativas de futuro. Este estudo teve como base os dados recolhidos pelo estudo nacional do Health Behaviour School Aged-Children (HBSC) (Matos, Gaspar & Equipa Aventura Social, 2003), e procurou clarificar e aprofundar o conhecimento acerca das diferenças nos comportamentos de saúde destes adolescentes. As diferenças entre os jovens apontam em geral para um agravamento na situação dos jovens estrangeiros. No entanto, uma análise realizada com controlo da variável socio-económica praticamente anula estas diferenças. Num segundo estudo foi utilizada uma metodologia qualitativa de recolha de dados, denominada "focus group" ou grupo de discussão centrada num determinado assunto "foco", constituída por grupos de adolescentes dos 13 aos 17 anos. Nos grupos de discussão com jovens de outra nacionalidade verificou-se que passam o seu tempo livre com os amigos na rua ou a praticar desporto; a maioria dos jovens refere ter problemas de saúde; o envolvimento escolar é fraco e sentem a escola como um lugar inseguro e no qual são alvo de discriminação. Os jovens relatam actos de vandalismo no seu bairro; a amizade com jovens do mesmo bairro apresenta-se como algo muito importante para estes jovens; referem haver várias alterações no agregado familiar; referem as dificuldades do processo de aculturação; estes jovens apresentam um projecto de futuro bastante concreto e com expectativas elevadas. Algumas temáticas não são desenvolvidas pelos jovens, tais como, percepção do corpo, sexualidade e comunicação com o pai. O presente estudo sublinha a importância da utilização de metodologias qualitativas para clarificar conclusões oriundas de estudos quantitativos, e confirma que os jovens têm alguma noção das diferenças étnicas quanto aos comportamentos de saúde e aos seus contextos. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to identify the differences between health behaviours in a sample of portuguese adolescents and adolescents from african portuguese speaking adolescents, living in Portugal. Health behaviours and social and physical contexts, such as, free time activities, body image, paren [...] t's communication, violence, substance use, school, peers and future expectations were identified using a questionnaire. This paper was based on data collected during a quantitative national study Health Behaviour School Aged-Children (HBSC) (Matos, Gaspar & Equipa Aventura Social, 2003), trying to clarify this issue health behaviour in adolescence. In general african adolescents presented a worst health related condition. However, when in the analysis, socio-economic status was controlled, those differences disappear. A second study used a qualitative methodology: "focus groups" and included african adolescents from 13 to 17 years old. During the focus group, adolescents said that they spend their free time with friends, and practising sports. Most of the adolescents said that have same health problems. The school involvement is wick, and they feel that school is an insecure and discriminator place. The adolescents refer same violent acts in their neighbourhood. Their friends from the neighbourhood are very important for these adolescents. They said that they have many alterations in their family. The adolescents feel many difficulties in the acculturation process. These adolescents show a clear future project, with high expectations. Same issues were not developed by the adolescents, such as, body image, sexuality and father communication. The present study highlights the importance of using qualitative research in the clarification of special issues raised during qualitative studies,

  16. Amamentação entre mães adolescentes e não-adolescentes, Montes Claros, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frota Denise Ataide Linhares

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de amamentação entre mães adolescentes (menores de 20 anos de idade e não-adolescentes aos seis meses de vida da criança e identificar fatores associados ao desmame. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal feito por amostragem, com entrevista aplicada no domicílio a 237 mães adolescentes e 239 não-adolescentes, residentes na cidade de Montes Claros, MG, com filhos de seis meses de idade no momento da entrevista. Para avaliar fatores associados ao desmame, realizou-se análise univariada, seguida de bivariada de Mantel-Haenszel e regressão logística múltipla. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de amamentação aos seis meses de vida foi de 71,3% entre as mães adolescentes e 77,4% entre as não-adolescentes (OR bruta =1,38; p=0,128. O papel da adolescência no desmame ganhou importância com o ajuste para variáveis de controle. Os fatores associados ao desmame foram: estado conjugal, atividade fora do lar após o parto (esses dois apresentaram interação com adolescência, dificuldade para amamentar nos primeiros dias e aleitamento exclusivo ao peito na alta hospitalar. CONCLUSÕES: As interações observadas com a adolescência em relação ao desmame sugerem que a maternidade nessa faixa etária tem peculiaridades que a mantém como objeto especial de estudo.

  17. 24th Portuguese National Astronomy and Astrophysics Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Nuno; Ascenso, Joana

    2014-08-01

    ENAA is the annual meeting of the Portuguese Astronomy and Astrophysics community. The goal of the meeting is to present a panorama of the Portuguese research and development in all areas currently being developed in the country. The meeting is also an opportunity to strengthen the interactions between the members of the community, for young researchers to present their work, and to debate the national science policy for Astronomy & Astrophysics.

  18. Epidemiology of Asthma and Allergic Diseases in Portuguese Speaking Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado-Pinto, J; A Gaspar; Morais-Almeida, M

    2006-01-01

    The application of the same epidemiological methods in different countries allows important comparisons between different races and cultures. During the last decade, two large multi-centres epidemiological studies, the Portuguese Study of Allergic Diseases in Childhood (PAC study) and the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC study), were implemented in Portuguese speaking regions. The main objectives were to assess and compare allergic diseases prevalence. The...

  19. Shallow parsing for Portuguese-Spanish machine translation

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido Alenda, Alicia; Gilabert Zarco, Patricia; Pérez Ortiz, Juan Antonio; Pertusa Ibáñez, Antonio; Ramírez Sánchez, Gema; Sánchez Martínez, Felipe; Scalco, Miriam A.; Forcada Zubizarreta, Mikel L.

    2004-01-01

    To produce fast, reasonably intelligible and easily correctable translations between related languages, it suffices to use a machine translation strategy which uses shallow parsing techniques to refine what would usually be called word-for-word machine translation. This paper describes the application of shallow parsing techniques (morphological analysis, lexical disambiguation, and flat, local parsing) in a Portuguese–Spanish, Spanish–Portuguese machine translation system which is curren...

  20. Portuguese building stock indoor environmental quality “in-situ” assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Pedro Correia Pereira da; Silva, Sandra Monteiro; Almeida, Manuela Guedes de, ed. lit.; Bragança, L; Mesquita, Vasco

    2010-01-01

    Since the implementation of the Energy Performance of Building Directive, EPBD, in general, and the entrance into force of the respective Portuguese codes, in particular, buildings are requested to have better energy performances. However, during the buildings performance evaluation, energy issues should not be the only concerns since the indoor environmental quality is also as important. Thus, in this paper it is presented an “in-situ” evaluation of the Portuguese building st...

  1. Abundance and diversity of Heteropteran species in portuguese olive groves

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, So?nia A. P.; Rei, F.; Miranda Arabolaza, Maria Jose?; Gonc?alves, F.; Pereira, J. A.; Torres, L.

    2009-01-01

    The olive tree canopy is a habitat for phytophagous and predaceous Heteropteran specimens whose biodiversity is important to be characterized. The aim of this world was to study the abundance and diversity of Heteropteran specimens in Portuguese olive groves with different plant protection systems (conventional. integrated protection and organic farming groves). Therefore, data were obtained in olive groves located in the main olive Portuguese regions (Alto Alentejo and Trás-os-M...

  2. Particulate matter distribution in selected Portuguese archives: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Ana Catarina; Viegas, Carla; Viegas, Susana; Veríssimo, Cristina; Brandão, João; Macedo, Maria Filomena

    2014-01-01

    and kept inside museums and archives. To the author's knowledge, its immediate and/or longterm concentrations and distribution on Portuguese archives has never been determined. Four Portuguese archives (with and without HVAC/air filtration systems) were selected and the immediate concentration of airborne particulate matter was measured by active sampling. Indoor-outdoor ratios were also determined. International and national guidelines were used to ascertain the environment’s quality, both...

  3. Effects of traffic loading on portuguese and brazilian pavements performance

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes Junior, Jose? Leomar; Pais, Jorge C.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.

    2006-01-01

    This work investigated the effects of traffic loading on the performance of Portuguese and Brazilian pavements, aiming to contribute to a better technical regulation of heavy vehicles and cost allocation related to the pavement deterioration. Among the traffic loading factors, this work considered axle load, axle type, tire inflation pressure, and wheel type. Six pavement structures were analyzed where three of them are representative of Portuguese pavements, and three are representative of B...

  4. The portuguese stock market cycle : chronology and duration dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Vi?tor

    2011-01-01

    This paper tries to identify, for the first time, a chronology for the Portuguese stock market cycle and test for the presence of duration dependence in bull and bear markets. A duration dependent Markov-switching model is estimated over monthly growth rates of the Portuguese Stock Index for the period 1989-2010. Six episodes of bull/bear markets are identified during that period, as well as the presence of positive duration dependence in bear but not in bull markets.

  5. Treasury stocks: Evidence from Portuguese listed companies in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Francisco João de Almeida

    2012-01-01

    The Miller and Modigliani (1961) curiosity awoke the interest of professionals to look into share repurchases. The aim of this study is to analyse how relevant were the treasury stocks in the Portuguese listed companies accounts for 2010. From the sample analysis of the PSI Geral (Portuguese Stock Exchange companies), most of the companies had in their account treasury stocks and half of them traded them during the year. The research contributes to present the reality of the Portugue...

  6. Health service quality scale: Brazilian Portuguese translation, reliability and validity

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha Luiz Roberto Martins; Veiga Daniela Francescato; e Oliveira Paulo; Song Elaine Horibe; Ferreira Lydia Masako

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The Health Service Quality Scale is a multidimensional hierarchical scale that is based on interdisciplinary approach. This instrument was specifically created for measuring health service quality based on marketing and health care concepts. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Health Service Quality Scale into Brazilian Portuguese and to assess the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument. Methods We conduct...

  7. Representaciones sociales y construcción de proyectos e identitaria de jóvenes escolarizados / Social representations, project and the identitary constructions of young people in secondary school

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diana Beatriz, Aisenson.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La Psicología Vocacional estuvo desde sus orígenes vinculada a ayudar a los jóvenes a afrontar problemáticas sociales. Las prácticas derivaron hacia el ajuste a las ocupaciones y a intervenciones para sectores favorecidos. Finalizando el siglo XX, en contextos de mundialización de la economía y el t [...] rabajo, surgieron nuevos modelos para abordar necesidades de la mayoría de la población. La teoría de las representaciones sociales ha abierto una vía mayor para la investigación de las anticipaciones para el futuro y los proyectos de los jóvenes, permitiendo enfocar los procesos psicológicos en sus interacciones con los contextos de socialización. Mediante experiencias de vida en distintos espacios sociales, los jóvenes desarrollan sus representaciones acerca del mundo, los otros y sí mismos. La ausencia de proyectos sociales y apoyo social dificulta a muchos la construcción de sus proyectos de vida. Se presentan resultados de investigaciones que abordan representaciones sociales de jóvenes escolarizados que inciden en las intenciones y proyectos para el futuro que ellos construyen junto con sus identidades y trayectorias. Abstract in english Since its inception, helping young people confront social problems has been a prime goal in Vocational Psychology. Over time guidance practices narrowed their scope to concentrate on fitting young people into occupations and interventions for favored sectors. In the late 20th century new theoretical [...] models appeared in response to population needs arising from a globalized economy and job market. The theory of social representations has opened the way for research into how young people see and construct projects for their future. By means of life experiences in different social spaces, they develop representations regarding the world, other people and themselves. The absence of social projects and support makes constructing life projects difficult for many of them at the present time. The results of research on social representations carried out among youngsters in high schools is included, that play a role in the intentions and projects for the future that young people construct, along with their identity and trajectories.

  8. Estrato Socioeconómico y Habilidades Cognitivas en Niños Escolarizados: Variables Predictoras y Mediadoras / Socioeconomic Status and Cognitive Skills in School-Age Children: Predicting and Mediating Variables

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa, Arán Filippetti.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del estudio fue analizar el efecto del estrato socioeconómico (ESE) y de la edad sobre el desempeño en tareas de lenguaje, atención y memoria de niños escolarizados y examinar las variables socioeconómicas que predicen su ejecución. Se seleccionó una muestra intencionada de 228 niños ar [...] gentinos de 8 a 11 años de edad de dos ESE (bajo y medio). Se empleó análisis multivariado de varianza y análisis de regresión jerárquica. Los resultados indicaron un efecto significativo del ESE y de la edad sobre las tareas cognitivas evaluadas. De las variables socioeconómicas analizadas, el nivel de instrucción de la madre (NIM) fue el principal predictor del desempeño cognitivo del niño. Además, el NIM explicó un porcentaje de la varianza del desempeño obtenido por el niño, aun después de controlar su edad y nivel de lenguaje comprensivo. Se discuten los resultados en función de la influencia del ESE sobre el desempeño cognitivo y de los posibles factores predictores y mediadores de esta asociación. Abstract in english The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) and age on school-age children's performance in language, attention, and memory tasks and to examine the socioeconomic variables that predict their execution. An intentional sample of 228 Argentinean children aged 8-11 y [...] ears from two SES (low and medium) was used. Multivariate analysis of variance and hierarchical regression analysis were employed. Results revealed a significant effect of SES and age on the cognitive functions studied. Based on the socioeconomic variables analyzed, maternal instruction level (MIL) was found to be the main predictor of the child's cognitive performance. In addition, MIL explained a percentage of variance in the child's performance, even after controlling for the child's age and receptive language level. Results are discussed in terms of the influence of SES on cognitive performance and the possible predicting and mediating factors of this association.

  9. Estrato Socioeconómico y Habilidades Cognitivas en Niños Escolarizados: Variables Predictoras y Mediadoras Socioeconomic Status and Cognitive Skills in School-Age Children: Predicting and Mediating Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Arán Filippetti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del estudio fue analizar el efecto del estrato socioeconómico (ESE y de la edad sobre el desempeño en tareas de lenguaje, atención y memoria de niños escolarizados y examinar las variables socioeconómicas que predicen su ejecución. Se seleccionó una muestra intencionada de 228 niños argentinos de 8 a 11 años de edad de dos ESE (bajo y medio. Se empleó análisis multivariado de varianza y análisis de regresión jerárquica. Los resultados indicaron un efecto significativo del ESE y de la edad sobre las tareas cognitivas evaluadas. De las variables socioeconómicas analizadas, el nivel de instrucción de la madre (NIM fue el principal predictor del desempeño cognitivo del niño. Además, el NIM explicó un porcentaje de la varianza del desempeño obtenido por el niño, aun después de controlar su edad y nivel de lenguaje comprensivo. Se discuten los resultados en función de la influencia del ESE sobre el desempeño cognitivo y de los posibles factores predictores y mediadores de esta asociación.The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of socioeconomic status (SES and age on school-age children's performance in language, attention, and memory tasks and to examine the socioeconomic variables that predict their execution. An intentional sample of 228 Argentinean children aged 8-11 years from two SES (low and medium was used. Multivariate analysis of variance and hierarchical regression analysis were employed. Results revealed a significant effect of SES and age on the cognitive functions studied. Based on the socioeconomic variables analyzed, maternal instruction level (MIL was found to be the main predictor of the child's cognitive performance. In addition, MIL explained a percentage of variance in the child's performance, even after controlling for the child's age and receptive language level. Results are discussed in terms of the influence of SES on cognitive performance and the possible predicting and mediating factors of this association.

  10. Predicción del tipo de experiencia sexual en función de variables psicológicas y sociodemográficas en adolescentes panameños / Predicting the kind of sexual experience in terms of sociodemographic and psychological variables in panamanians adolescents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mª Teresa, Ramiro; Mª Paz, Bermúdez; Juan Carlos, Sierra; Gualberto, Buela-Casal.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es establecer un modelo predictivo del tipo de experiencia sexual, a través de la evaluación de una serie de variables psicológicas y sociodemográficas. La muestra, representativa de la población de adolescentes escolarizados de Chiriquí (Panamá), está formada por 1.897 a [...] dolescentes de ambos sexos, de edades comprendidas entre los 14 y los 18 años (M = 16.25; DT = 1.47). Los resultados mostraron que existen diferencias significativas en las variables evaluadas en función del tipo de experiencia sexual. Además, el sexo, la religión, el nivel de estudios del padre, el locus de control interno, la autoeficacia, la comunicación con la madre, la comunicación con amigos y la susceptibilidad, resultaron ser variables predictoras del tipo de experiencia sexual. Abstract in english The aim of this work is to determine whether sociodemographic and psychosocial variables predict the kind of sexual experience. Participants were 1.897 adolescents. Ages ranging from 14 to 18 years old (M = 16.25; SD = 1.47). The results showed significant differences in the variables evaluated acco [...] rding to the type of sexual experience. In addition, sex, religion, parent educational level, internal locus control, self-efficacy, communication with mother, communication with friends and susceptibility were found to be significant predictors of type of sexual experience.

  11. Repercussões do uso do calçado de salto alto na postura corporal de adolescentes / Implications of high-heeled shoes on body posture of adolescents / Repercusiones del uso de zapatos con tacones en la postura corporal de adolescentes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anniele Martins, Silva; Gisela Rocha de, Siqueira; Giselia Alves P. da, Silva.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar estudos referentes às repercussões do uso de calçado com salto alto na postura corporal de adolescentes. FONTES DE DADOS: Pesquisa realizada nas bases de dados Scopus, SciELO e PubMed entre 1980 e 2011, incluindo artigos escritos em inglês e português. Foram utilizados os descritor [...] es: "postura", "centro de gravidade" e "calçado de salto alto". Foram encontrados 55 artigos, independentemente do desenho do estudo, incluindo-se 20 relacionados à postura da coluna vertebral e membros inferiores, à localização do centro de gravidade e às repercussões do uso do calçado de salto alto no sistema musculoesquelético em adolescentes. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O uso frequente do calçado de salto alto acarreta modificação do centro de gravidade e do equilíbrio corporal, podendo ocasionar mudança no alinhamento dos segmentos corporais. Isso traz repercussões negativas ao desenvolvimento motor das adolescentes, pois nessa fase há a necessidade de manutenção da postura fisiológica para que ocorra o crescimento e o desenvolvimento do sistema musculoesquelético. CONCLUSÕES: O uso do calçado de salto alto por adolescentes pode favorecer o aparecimento de distúrbios posturais, dentre os quais se destacam anteriorização da cabeça, hiperlordose lombar, anteversão pélvica e joelho em valgo. Identificou-se que a altura e a largura do salto são as características do calçado que mais influenciam no surgimento de alterações posturais e desequilíbrio corporal. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Revisar estudios referentes a las repercusiones del uso de zapatos con tacones en la postura corporal de adolescentes. FUENTES DE DATOS: Investigación realizada en las bases de datos Scopus, Scielo y Pubmed, entre 1980 y 2011, incluyendo artículos escritos en inglés y portugués. Se utiliza [...] ron los descriptores: «postura», «centro de gravedad», «zapatos con tacones». Se encontraron 55 artículos, independiente de la delineación del estudio, incluyendo 20 artículos relacionados a la postura de la columna vertebral y miembros inferiores, a la localización del centro de gravedad y a las repercusiones del uso de zapatos con tacones en el sistema osteomuscular en adolescentes. SÍNTESIS DE LOS DATOS: El uso frecuente de zapatos con tacones causa modificación del centro de gravedad y del equilibrio corporal, pudiendo ocasionar cambio en la alineación de los segmentos corporales. Eso trae repercusiones negativas en el desarrollo motor de las adolescentes, pues en esa etapa hay necesidad de mantenimiento de la postura fisiológica para que haya el crecimiento y desarrollo del sistema musculoesquelético, que cuando expuesto a la sobrecarga puede ocasionar desviaciones posturales con potencial para que se conviertan en irreversibles. CONCLUSIONES: El uso de zapatos con tacones por adolescentes puede favorecer el aparecimiento de disturbios posturales, entre los que se destacan la anteriorización de la cabeza, hiperlordosis lumbar, anteversión pélvica y rodillas valgas. Se identificó que la altura y el ancho del tacón son las características del zapato que más influencian en el surgimiento de alteraciones posturales y en el desequilibrio corporal. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE:To review studies regarding effects of high-heeled shoes on body posture of adolescents. DATA SOURCES: The research was conducted in the Scopus, SciELO and PubMed databases between 1980 and 2011, searching for articles written in English and Portuguese with the following key-words: "postur [...] e", "center of gravity", and "high-heeled shoes". Among 55 retrieved articles, 20 were analyzed regarding posture of the spine and lower limbs, the center of gravity, and the effects of high-heeled shoes in the musculoskeletal system in adolescents. DATA SYNTHESIS:Frequent use of high-heeled shoes leads to modification of the gravity center and body balance, which can lead to changes in the alignment of body segments. This has a negative impact on motor development of adolescents. In this phase, it is nece

  12. Nivel de Adaptación en Adolescentes Mexicanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elena del Bosque Fuentes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, la adaptación es considerada como un proceso dinámico y relacional entre la persona y el medio, en el cual se espera el ajuste de la conducta del individuo a sus propios deseos, preferencias y necesidades; más aún, se espera que tal conducta se adapte a las circunstancias del entorno, a las normas, deseos y necesidades de las personas con quienes interactúa. En la adolescencia ocurren cambios importantes en las diferentes esferas de la vida de los individuos. En medio de estos cambios, los adolescentes tienen que lograr desarrollar conductas que les permitan adaptarse a los diferentes ambientes en los que se desenvuelven y sentirse satisfechos al lograr también ajustar su propio comportamiento a lo que ellos necesitan. Se pueden presentar diferentes problemas tales como un pobre autoconcepto y autoestima, en la interacción familiar y en el ámbito académico, si el adolescente no consigue una adaptación satisfactoria que le permita desenvolverse en los ambientes donde interactúan. El presente trabajo, tuvo dos objetivos: obtener normas de puntuación para la zona metropolitana de la ciudad de México del Cuestionario de Adaptación para Adolescentes de Bell, así como observar las diferencias significativas entre los adolescentes hombres y mujeres y entre los diferentes niveles escolares.

  13. O impacto dos estilos educativos parentais e do desenvolvimento vocacional no rendimento escolar de adolescentes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana, Prata; Maria, Barbosa-Ducharne; Carlos, Gonçalves; Orlanda, Cruz.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Compreender a complexidade da problemática do in/sucesso e/ou do abandono escolar, tem sido uma das preocupações dominantes da investigação nas últimas décadas, sendo não só objeto do interesse geral, como também tem vindo a municiar os discursos críticos em relação à dita escola de massas. Neste se [...] ntido, a presente investigação incide na análise dos preditores familiares e individuais do rendimento escolar de adolescentes. Participaram neste estudo 222 adolescentes com idades compreendidas entre os 14 e os 16 anos, que frequentavam o 9º ano de escolaridade. Os dados foram recolhidos em escolas secundárias, através do Questionário de Estilos Educativos Parentais e da Escala de Exploração e Investimento Vocacional. O nível de escolaridade das mães, a monitorização parental e o investimento vocacional revelaram-se preditores do rendimento escolar. Os resultados são discutidos à luz de uma abordagem psicossocial sendo retiradas implicações para a intervenção psicológica. Abstract in english Understanding the complexity of school failure and school dropout has been one of the main concerns of research in recent decades, being not only the object of general interest, but also providing the substance for critics regarding a school of masses. The present research focuses on the analysis of [...] family and individual predictors of adolescents’ school achievement. Participants were 222 adolescents aged between 14 and 16 years, attending the 9th grade. Data collection was made on higher/secondary schools with a Portuguese version of the Parenting Scales and the Vocational Exploration and Investment Questionnaire. Results indicated three main predictors of school achievement amongst teenagers namely, mothers’ school years, parental monitoring and vocational investment. Results are discussed from a psychosocial standpoint and implications for psychological intervention are drawn.

  14. Habilidades sociais e abuso de drogas em adolescentes / Social skills and drug abuse in adolescents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcia Fortes, Wagner; Margareth da Silva, Oliveira.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo propõe uma revisão bibliográfica sobre habilidades sociais e abuso de substâncias. Este artigo foi elaborado a partir de pesquisa nas Bases de Dados Pschynfo, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Proquest, Medline e Lilacs, entre 1996 e 2006. Os descritores foram: social skills, socia [...] l skills training, social competence, assertiveness, adolescents, teeenagers, substance abuse, drug abuse, cannabis e marijuana. Nas bases de língua portuguesa, foram: habilidades sociais, treinamento em habilidades sociais, assertividade, adolescentes, abuso de substâncias, drogas e maconha. Os estudos, a maioria de língua inglesa, apontaram a existência de déficits, principalmente a dificuldade em resistir às drogas e dizer não. Conclui-se que a construção de habilidades de resistência ao oferecimento de drogas, a auto-eficácia e o estímulo à capacidade de tomada de decisões pode reduzir o uso de substâncias. Poucos estudos brasileiros foram encontrados abordando esta temática. Abstract in english The present article proposes a bibliographic revision on social skills and drug abuse. This article was elaborated from a research in the following Databases: Pschynfo, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Proquest, Medline and Lilacs, between 1996 and 2006. The used describers were: social skills, soc [...] ial skills training, social competence, assertiveness, adolescents, teenagers, substance abuse, drug abuse, cannabis and marijuana. In the databases in Portuguese language we used the terms habilidades sociais, treinamento em habilidades sociais, assertividade, adolescentes, abuso de substâncias, drogas and maconha. The studies, the majority of which were in English, pointed the existence of deficits, mainly the difficulty in resisting to drugs and in saying no. It can be concluded that the construction of resistance skills to the offering of drugs, self-efficacy training and the stimulation of decision making capabilities can reduce substance use. Few Brazilian studies were found approaching this subject.

  15. Habilidades sociais e abuso de drogas em adolescentes Social skills and drug abuse in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Fortes Wagner

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo propõe uma revisão bibliográfica sobre habilidades sociais e abuso de substâncias. Este artigo foi elaborado a partir de pesquisa nas Bases de Dados Pschynfo, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Proquest, Medline e Lilacs, entre 1996 e 2006. Os descritores foram: social skills, social skills training, social competence, assertiveness, adolescents, teeenagers, substance abuse, drug abuse, cannabis e marijuana. Nas bases de língua portuguesa, foram: habilidades sociais, treinamento em habilidades sociais, assertividade, adolescentes, abuso de substâncias, drogas e maconha. Os estudos, a maioria de língua inglesa, apontaram a existência de déficits, principalmente a dificuldade em resistir às drogas e dizer não. Conclui-se que a construção de habilidades de resistência ao oferecimento de drogas, a auto-eficácia e o estímulo à capacidade de tomada de decisões pode reduzir o uso de substâncias. Poucos estudos brasileiros foram encontrados abordando esta temática.The present article proposes a bibliographic revision on social skills and drug abuse. This article was elaborated from a research in the following Databases: Pschynfo, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Proquest, Medline and Lilacs, between 1996 and 2006. The used describers were: social skills, social skills training, social competence, assertiveness, adolescents, teenagers, substance abuse, drug abuse, cannabis and marijuana. In the databases in Portuguese language we used the terms habilidades sociais, treinamento em habilidades sociais, assertividade, adolescentes, abuso de substâncias, drogas and maconha. The studies, the majority of which were in English, pointed the existence of deficits, mainly the difficulty in resisting to drugs and in saying no. It can be concluded that the construction of resistance skills to the offering of drugs, self-efficacy training and the stimulation of decision making capabilities can reduce substance use. Few Brazilian studies were found approaching this subject.

  16. Vinculação e comportamentos de saúde: estudo exploratório de uma escala de avaliação da vinculação em adolescentes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Luis Pais, Ribeiro; Marisa, Sousa.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objectivos da presente investigação são: estudar as propriedades psicométricas do Questionário de Vinculação para Adolescentes e a relação entre dimensões de vinculação e comportamentos de saúde. Procedeu-se à adaptação para português (lexical, cultural, conceptual, operacional, e de medida) da v [...] ersão em língua inglesa que se passou-se a uma amostra de 515 participantes de uma população de estudantes do ensino secundário, dos 9.º e 12.º anos de escolaridade, de ambos os sexos (60,7% sexo feminino), com idades entre os 14 e os 20 anos. Utilizou-se também um questionário de avaliação de comportamentos de saúde com 28 itens distribuídos por 10 dimensões. A exploração das características métricas do questionário mostra que a versão portuguesa exibe características semelhantes à escala original, pelo que os pressupostos associados à escala original se podem generalizar à versão portuguesa. Os resultados mostram ainda que melhor vinculação está associada a melhores comportamentos de saúde, sugerindo-se que esta variável deve ser considerada em programas de promoção de comportamentos de saúde em adolescentes. Abstract in english The objectives of the present research are: to study the metric properties of the Adolescent Attachment Questionnaire and the relationships between attachment and health behaviour. The adaptation process includes the inspection of the lexical, cultural, conceptual, operational, and measurement equiv [...] alence. A sample of 515 participants, both sexes (60.7% females), students at high-school level (9-12 levels), and ages between 14 and 20 years. We use the Adolescent Attachment Questionnaire, a 9 items questionnaire with three dimensions. We used also a questionnaire of health behaviour with 28 items distributed by 10 sub-scales. Results show that the Portuguese version of the questionnaire is similar to the English version. The results show that there are a statistically significant relationship between better health behaviours and better attachment. Health promotion programs must consider this variable.

  17. Insatisfação corporal em adolescentes rurais e urbanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edio Luiz Petroski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objectivo do estudo foi identificar a prevalencia de insatisfacao com a imagem corporal em adolescentes domiciliados nas areas rurais e urbanas, e analisar a influencia das variaveis demograficas e antropometricas na insatisfacao com a imagem corporal. Participaram do estudo 629 adolescentes de 13 a 17 anos, de areas urbanas e rurais. Foram coletadas informacoes demograficas (sexo, idade, area de domicilio, antropometricas (massa corporal, estatura, espessura de dobras cutaneas e imagem corporal. O IMC (baixo peso: <18,5kg/m2; eutrofico: entre 18,5-25,0kg/m2; excesso de peso: >25kg/m2 e somatorio de espessura de duas dobras cutaneas . ƒ°2DC (baixo: <16mm; ideal: de 16-36mm; alto: >36mm para mocas; baixo: <12mm; ideal: de 12-25mm; alto: >25mm, para rapazes foram derivados subsequentemente. A prevalencia de insatisfacao com a imagem corporal foi similar (p.0,05 entre os adolescentes rurais (64,2% e urbanos (62,8%. Enquanto os rapazes desejavam aumentar a silhueta corporal (41,3%, as mocas, desejavam reduzir (50,5% (p<0,001. Os adolescentes com baixo peso e excesso de peso, pelo IMC, e aqueles com o ƒ°2DC alto, respectivamente, apresentaram 3,14, 8,45 e 2,08 vezes mais probabilidades de insatisfacao com a imagem. Elevada prevalencia de insatisfacao com a imagem corporal foi observada em adolescentes da area rural e urbana. A inadequacao do estado nutricional e a adiposidade corporal aumentam as probabilidades de insatisfacao com a imagem corporal. Esses achados enfatizam a pressao social sobre o sexo feminino de almejar a magreza, e o masculino de ressaltar o sobrepeso desejando um porte atletico.

  18. Prevalencia del consumo de tabaco en una muestra de adolescentes escolarizados del municipio de Ebéjico, departamento de Antioquia, Colombia / Prevalence of tobacco use in a sample of adolescents attending school in the municipality of Ebejico, department of Antioquia, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arnaldo, Betancur Girón; Renato, Zambrano Cruz.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Establecer la prevalencia del consumo de tabaco en escolares del Municipio de Ebéjico, Departamento de Antioquia. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo-transversal en el que se utilizó la Encuesta Mundial de Tabaquismo en Jóvenes (EMTAJOVEN) y se analizaron las frecuencias y las diferencias estadís [...] ticamente significativas en una muestra de 314 estudiantes de secundaria del sector urbano y rural del municipio. Resultados: El 22.6% de los encuestados ya ha fumado; el 6.7% lo hizo entre los 10 y 11 años; el consumo actual fue del 10.8%; el 7% compró cigarrillos en tiendas y el 9.2% los compró por unidades; el 9.2% no tuvo impedimentos para comprar a pesar de la edad; el 20.1% de los padres hombres y el 33.4% de los tíos fuma; el 22.6% vio fumar en el colegio a los profesores; el 13.1% fumaría ante el ofrecimiento de amigos; el 39.2% tiene algún amigo fumador; el 17.2% vio fumar a otros en la propia casa; y, el 10.2% recibió cigarrillos gratis de las vendedoras. Discusión: Factores sociales como la escuela, los pares y el ambiente familiar, fueron elementos de identificación para que los jóvenes de edad temprana decidieran o no fumar. Abstract in english Objective: To establish the prevalence of tobacco use in school children of the Municipality of Ebejico, Department of Antioquia. Methods: Descriptive-transversal study that used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in which frequencies and statistically significant differences were analyzed in a [...] sample of 314 high school students from the rural and urban Municipality of Ebejico. Results: 22.6% of the survey respondents has already smoked; 6.7% did so between 10-11 years; current consumption was 10.8%; 7% bought cigarettes at stores and the 9.2% bought them by units; 9.2% had no impediments to buy despite their ages; the 20.1% of their fathers and the 33.4% of their uncles smoke; 22.6% saw the teachers smoking at the school; 13.1% will smoke if a friend ask them to; 39.2% have a friend who smokes; 17.2% saw others smoking in their homes; and 10.2% received free cigarettes from vendors. Discussion: Social factors such as school, peers, and family environment, were elements of identification so that young people from early age decided to smoke or not to smoke.

  19. Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire - versão portuguesa de autorrelato / Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire - the portuguese self-report version

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marta Figueiredo, Pedro; Elsa, Carapito; Teresa, Ribeiro.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Os estilos parentais educativos constituem um conceito central na área de estudos da parentalidade e do desenvolvimento infantil. Neste sentido, décadas de investigação demonstram o impacto dos estilos parentais em vários aspectos do ajustamento socioemocional da criança e do adolescente. Este estud [...] o teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades psicométricas e a validade fatorial da versão portuguesa de autorrelato do Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. A amostra foi constituída por 2081 indivíduos portugueses (1085 mães; 996 pais) com filhos dos 3 aos 15 anos. Os resultados da análise fatorial confirmatória replicaram a estrutura original de três fatores: autoritativo, autoritário e permissivo. Os índices de ajustamento revelaram uma boa adequação do modelo aos dados. Os níveis de consistência interna dos fatores autoritativo e autoritário revelaram-se adequados, mas o fator permissivo apresentou valores ligeiramente abaixo dos aceitáveis. Os valores de validade convergente e discriminante também se revelaram adequados. Apesar dos níveis menos aceitáveis de consistência interna do factor permissivo, o QDEP revelou, em geral, qualidades psicométricas adequadas para fins de investigação e clínicos, permitindo não só a avaliação de estilos parentais como também de diferentes dimensões e comportamentos parentais com impacto relevante no ajustamento socioemocional da criança e do adolescente. Abstract in english Parenting styles have been a central construct in the field of parenting and child development studies. Many decades of research have supported the impact of parenting styles on several aspects of the social and emotional adjustment of children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to exami [...] ne the psychometric properties and the factorial validity of the Portuguese version of the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire, through confirmatory factor analysis. Data were collected from 2081 participants (1085 mothers; 996 fathers) with children between 3 and 15 years old. Results replicated the original three-factor structure: authoritative, authoritarian and permissive. The results of confirmatory analysis indicated a good fit of the model. Authoritative and authoritarian factors showed good internal reliability coefficients, but the permissive factor presented values slightly below acceptable levels. Convergent and discriminant validity also showed appropriate values. In general, and despite the less acceptable levels of internal reliability demonstrated by the permissive factor, PSDQ revealed psychometric properties appropriate for research and clinical purposes. This instrument not only allows for the assessment of parenting styles, but also enables the measurement of parental dimensions and behaviors with a significant impact on child and adolescent well-being.

  20. Effects of Liberalising the Portuguese Energy Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the successful restructuring and privatisation of the national power system, and after opening of a third of the national electricity market, no major changes have occurred as yet. However, a smaller part of eligible customers have switched suppliers, a significant increase in cogeneration-type power generation has been recorded - although from a relatively minor base, and consolidation of energy sector has happened through ownership binding of national oil and gas and power industries. Through both vertical and horizontal integration of oil, gas and electricity, Portugal has opted for the national champion strategy, and left the position of competition to foreign companies. By entering into strategic partnerships with Spanish Iberdrola and Italian ENI, as well as through the specific character of its geographic position, the actual competition on electricity market has been reduced to Endesa. Still, all this can be marked as a certain repositioning/reorganisation in face of the ensuing real market battle, when the influence of European internal energy market will no doubt prevail, and the current stress is being put on increasing the efficiency of the energy sector. Rapid development of natural gas system in Portugal has based on the better efficiency of natural gas resulted in carbon dioxide emission avoidance of some 6 million tons, representing around a tenth of total emissions. Finally, a comparison has been made between the process of restructuring the Portuguese energy sector and the currently ongoing process in Croatia.(author)

  1. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PORTUGUESE ITALIAN RYEGRASS LANDRACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V LOPES

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. is one of the most important forage grass species in Europe. In Portugal 34% of the cultivated area is dedicated to animal fodder. Italian ryegrass area in Entre Douro e Minho (EDM region was mainly with landraces. Changes in traditional agricultural systems are contributing to a major loss of genetic diversity mainly to landraces. Portuguese Italian ryegrass landraces are threatened since nineteen years and collecting missions took place in EDM to ex situ conservation. The main Italian ryegrass landraces from EDM are “castelhano’s” and “verdeal’s” agro type. The aim of this study was to evaluate the existence of morphological variability between EDM Italian ryegrass landraces, to analyse the existence of duplicates in the germplasm collection and to evaluate the farmer’ classification. The landraces were characterised based on morphological traits of International Plant Genetic Resources Institute and International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants descriptors list and the most discriminated traits were utilised in the multivariate analysis, using NTSYS v.2.0. Italian ryegrass accessions belong to two different agro types based on morphological characteristics and farmers identified. Each landrace showed inter-population variability mainly on “verdeal” landrace. It was possible to differentiate the most of ryegrass accessions using the morphological traits used were initial stage of plant maturity. The EDM germplasm preserves the Italian ryegrass genetic diversity, which is conserved in ex situ and is a good basis for research programs.

  2. Elementos para a elaboração de um projeto de promoção à saúde e desenvolvimento dos adolescentes: o olhar dos adolescentes

    OpenAIRE

    Muza Gilson Maestrini; Costa Marisa Pacini

    2002-01-01

    Trata-se de um estudo que busca apreender as opiniões, sentimentos e saberes dos adolescentes escolares sobre a realidade vivida nas suas comunidades, com o propósito de implantar um projeto de promoção à saúde. Foi realizado um estudo qualitativo com adolescentes escolares de duas cidades-satélites do Distrito Federal, Brasil. A coleta de dados foi conduzida com a técnica do grupo focal. Foram realizados dois grupos focais com adolescentes com idade 13 e 17 anos e os dados foram subm...

  3. Evaluation of the vitro antioxidant activity of three Lamiaceae oten use in Portuguese folk medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2009-01-01

    Several ethnobotanical surveys conducted in this Portuguese region have highlighted the use of three particular Lamiaceae. This poster reports the first approach to the antioxidant potential evaluation of these Lamiaceae species often used in Portuguese folk medicine.

  4. The Portuguese contribution to the brain drain from Portuguese speaking African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrinho, Paulo; Antunes, Ana Rita; Silva, Augusto Paulo; Dal Poz, Mário R; Gilles, Dussault

    2007-01-01

    In the first part of this paper, a secondary analysis of multiple data sources was done to identify how many nurses, physicians, dentists, pharmacists and other health workers have migrated from the Portuguese speaking African countries (PSAC) to Portugal between 1998 and 2002. In the second part, the results of a 2003 questionnaire based survey of 45 nurses, from Guinea-Bissau, residing in Portugal are reported. Health professionals are increasing as a proportion of total immigrants into Portugal. Relatively to the countries' of origin population, the PSAC contribute the most with foreign health professionals to the Portuguese healthcare system. Our study of Guinea-Bissau nurses in Portugal replicates the results of other studies and suggests that the decision to emigrate is multiply determined. The implication for policy makers is that the causal complexity among factors spurring emigration makes that the marginal effect of policy reforms addressing one or more of the multiple determinants of emigration may be sufficient to retain some proportion of health professionals, even when other determinants of emigration are present. The situation observed is also indicative of the need of programs for social integration of these professionals. PMID:17665843

  5. Spontaneous Emotional speech in European Portuguese using Feeltrace system – first approaches [In Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNES, A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work studies spontaneous emotional speech in European Portuguese, comparing thevalues obtained in measuring acoustic parameters in this study with the ones known for otherlanguages and for simulated. The spontaneous expression of emotions recorded in the street or fromtelevision programs may bring very relevant results, but even in those situations it is difficult todetermine the individual’s true emotion (it is often only possible to be identify through the context(Patrick, 2008. The main focus of our study is on voice related parameters such as F0, jitter, shimmerand HNR that will be liable to compare with previous studies of emotions produced by an actor. Usingthe Feeltrace system it is possible to better describe the sensation caused by the stimuli (in any of theemotions in question and describe in more dynamic manner the emotion. We also realize that,although the emotions produced by actors show some differences, because they are necessarilyexaggerated, the parameter values are all very similar, valuing the studies that are usually obtainedbased on utterances produced by performers. Given the scarcity of studies on voice quality inEuropean Portuguese, it is important to highlight that this work presents an original corpusspecifically created for this study. We recognize the limitations of the presented research seeing theresults as first approaches that must be deeply studied being important to areas such as robotics andhealth technology.

  6. Correlatos psicosociales del consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en adolescentes españoles / Psychosocial correlations of the experimentation with psychoactive substances in Spanish teenagers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María de la Villa, Moral; Francisco Javier, Rodríguez; Anastasio, Ovejero.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Analizar los factores que determinan el consumo juvenil de sustancias psicoactivas evaluando la capacidad predictiva de variables actitudinales, afectivas, relacionales a nivel familiar y grupal, así como académicas, entre otras. Material y métodos. Se ha seleccionado una muestra de 750 ad [...] olescentes del Principado de Asturias (España) (moda 15 años, media=14.69) escolarizados en el curso académico 2008-2009. Resultados. Se ha confirmado que los adolescentes que consumen alcohol y otras drogas presentan un perfil diferencial respecto a los no consumidores en factores relativos a la mayor permisividad actitudinal, efecto de modelado paterno y del grupo de iguales, insatisfacción institucional, inestabilidad emocional y manifestación de más conductas disruptivas con problemas de relación y búsquedas de atención. Conclusiones. A partir de nuestro modelo etiológico se concluye que el consumo juvenil de drogas está determinado por la interrelación de variables personales, familiares, escolares y psicosociales. Abstract in english Objective. To offer an analysis of the factors that determine the consumption of psychoactive substances by youth and to evaluate the predictive capacity of variables related to attitude, affect, the family and groups, as well as academics, among others. Materials and Methods. A sample of 750 adoles [...] cents was selected at the Principado de Asturias (Spain) (mode 15 years of age, mean=14.69) enrolled during the 2008-2009 academic year. Results. It was confirmed that the teenagers who consumed alcohol and other drugs present a differential profile as compared to non-consumers with respect to greater attitudinal permissiveness, effect of paternal modelling and peer groups, institutional dissatisfaction, emotional instability, and manifestation of more disruptive conducts with problems relating to others and attention-seeking. Conclusions. From our ethiological model we conclude that the consumption of drugs by youth is determined by an interrelation of personal, familiar, school and psychosocial variables.

  7. Consumo abusivo de alcohol en adolescentes españoles: tendencias emergentes y percepciones de riesgo / Improper Consumption of Alcohol in Spanish Teenagers: Emergent Trends and Perceptions of Risk

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARÍA DE LA VILLA, MORAL JIMÉNEZ; ANASTASIO, OVEJERO BERNAL.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo juvenil de alcohol representa, en la cultura mediterránea, una práctica caracterizada por usos recreativos, ligada a procesos de interacción grupal e identitarios. Nuestro objetivo es ofrecer un análisis descriptivo y diferencial, por niveles de edad e ingesta realizada, de las tendencias [...] de consumo de alcohol, así como de las percepciones de riesgo y de los motivadores de consumo, en un colectivo de 845 adolescentes escolarizados del Principado de Asturias (España). Se confirman las tendencias emergentes sobre hábitos de consumo de alcohol y los patrones de uso/abuso representativos del estilo de ocio juvenil, así como motivaciones y percepciones de riesgo diferenciales, en virtud de la mentalidad del usuario. Se avanzan líneas prospectivas de actuación basadas en intervenciones psicosociales y sociocomunitarias. Abstract in english In the Mediterranean culture the young consumption of alcohol represents a practice associated with a recreative culture tied to processes of group interaction and identity. Our aim is to offer a descriptive and differential analysis for levels of age and ingestion realized of the trends of consumpt [...] ion of alcohol, as well as the perceptions of risk and motivations of consumption in a group of 845 Spanish teenagers of the Principado de Asturias. The emergent trends are confirmed on habits of consumption of alcohol and the representative bosses of use/abuse of the style of juvenile leisure, as well as motivations and differential perceptions of risk by virtue of the mentality of the user. There are advanced market lines of prevention based on psychosocial interventions and socio community.

  8. Ansiedad social consumo riesgoso de alcohol en adolescentes mexicanos / Social anxiety and alcohol risky drinking among mexican adolescents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leticia María, Jiménez-López; Samuel, Jurado Cárdenas.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gradualmente se incrementa la investigación acerca de la fobia social, argumentando asociación entre ésta y diversas medidas de disfuncionalidad. Se obtuvieron datos sociodemográficos, mediciones de ansiedad social y de consumo de alcohol, de 3164 adolescentes mexicanos escolarizados voluntarios (ho [...] mbres y mujeres) entre 12 y 18 años de edad (X = 14.7, DE 1.7), en distinto turno escolar (matutino o vespertino) y con registro de sus actividades extracurriculares (realizar o no actividades deportivas, artísticas y tener o no una relación de noviazgo). Se formaron dos grupos de acuerdo a su calificación en la Escala de ansiedad social para adolescentes: el primero con bajo (n = 2640) (X = 25.9, DE = 5.8) y el segundo con alto grado (n = 524 ) (X = 44.2, DE = 5.7) de ansiedad social, y se compararon sus niveles de consumo de alcohol, encontrando que: contrario a lo que establece la literatura del tema en adultos, el patrón de consumo de alcohol en los grupos de adolescentes de alta y baja ansiedad social, no presentó diferencias estadísticamente significativas (X² = 1.201, gl = 2, p = .361). Probablemente, las diferencias reportadas en el consumo de alcohol entre adultos social y no socialmente ansiosos, surjan sólo en ciertas variantes de la fobia social, o bien, se requiere de otras variables mediadoras, entre fobia social y el consumo abusivo de alcohol. Abstract in english The study of social phobia is gradually increasing, arguing association between social phobia and multiple measures of dysfunction. After institutional approval, and in accordance with the ethical principles required for social research, socio-demographic data, measurements of social anxiety and alc [...] ohol consumption pattern, were obtained from 3164 Mexican adolescents volunteers (men and women) ages 12-18 years (X = 14.7, SD 1.7), in different school schedule (morning or afternoon) and with record of their extracurricular activities" (to participate or not in sports, arts and been involved or not in a dating relationship). The participants were divided into two groups, according to the score on the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents: high (n = 524) (X = 44.2, SD= 5.7), and low (n = 2640) (X = 25.9, SD= 5.8), degree of social anxiety. Also, their levels of alcohol consumption were compared. The results of the study showed that: In contrast to the suggested by the literature in adults, the pattern of alcohol consumption in adolescents of low social anxiety group and the high social anxiety group, did not presented statistically significant differences (X² = 1.201, gl = 2, p = .361). A likely explanation of these reported differences in drinking among socially anxious and not socially anxious adults, is that they occur only in certain variants of social phobia, or maybe, it requires other mediating variables between social phobia and alcohol abuse.

  9. Goal instability, self-esteem, and vocational identity of high school Portuguese students

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Jorge, Santos.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available De acordo com a psicologia do self de Heinz Kohut o desenvolvimento de um narcisismo saudável, que se reflecte no sentimento de segurança do self, permite aos indivíduos determinar e prosseguir objectivos de vida e manter a auto-estima, particularmente em períodos de transição e mudança. Baseado nes [...] ta perspectiva, o principal objectivo deste estudo, que utilizou uma amostra com 375 estudantes que frequentavam o Ensino Secundário, consistiu em avaliar a contribuição da instabilidade de objectivos e da auto-estima para a identidade vocacional de adolescentes. A influência do género e da idade foi igualmente considerada. A equação de regressão permitiu explicar 32% da variância da variável critério e a instabilidade de objectivos demonstrou ser a variável independente mais importante. São discutidas implicações para a teoria e consulta vocacionais. Abstract in english According to the self-psychology of Heinz Kohut, development of a healthy narcissism that is reflected in a secure sense of self, permits individuals to set and pursue meaningful life goals and maintain a sense of well-being, particularly in periods of transition and change. Based on this perspectiv [...] e, the primary purpose of this study was to assess the contribution of goal instability and self-esteem to the vocational identity of Portuguese high school students using a sample of 375 individuals. Additionally, the effect of gender and age on vocational identity was assessed. A regression equation accounted for 32% of the variance of the dependent variable with goal instability emerging as the strongest predictor. Implications for career theory and counseling are discussed.

  10. Coeficiente intelectual y factores asociados en niños escolarizados en la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia / Intelligence quotient and associated facts in children attending school in Medellin, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maryoris E., Zapata-Zabala; Martha C., Álvarez-Uribe; Daniel C., Aguirre-Acevedo; Martha A., Cadavid-Castro.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar el coeficiente intelectual y los factores asociados en niños escolarizados de 6 a 8 años en las comunas Nororiental y Norocidental de la ciudad de Medellín-Colombia. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un muestreo aleatorio simple, polietápico y estratificado según grado escolar y co [...] muna, la muestra estuvo constituida por 423 niños de ambos sexos. El coeficiente intelectual se evaluó con la Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Niños WISCIV y la estimulación psicosocial con Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME). Para la valoración del estado nutricional se utilizó las normas de referencia y puntos de corte de la OMS. Resultados: Los factores de riesgo que explican las puntuaciones en el Coeficiente Intelectual Total y sus índices fueron: Historia de problemas académicos de la madre y padre e historia de problemas de comportamiento de los hermanos, alcoholismo de la madre durante el embarazo y conductas agresivas en el hogar. Conclusión: En los niños que cursan los primeros años de escolaridad en las dos comunas más pobres de Medellín, el coeficiente intelectual y sus índices se encuentra correlacionado con factores de antecedencia psicosocial y conductas agresivas en el hogar. Abstract in english Objective: Analyzing the IQ and associated factors in school children aged 6 to 8 years old from the northeastern and northwestern districts of Medellin, Colombia. Materials and Methods: Simple, random, stratified sampling was carried out according to grade, level and commune; the sample consisted o [...] f 423 male and female children. The Wechsler intelligence scale (WISCIV) was used for evaluating the children’s IQ and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) for evaluating the children’s psychosocial stimulation/quality of their home environment. WHO cutoff points were used as reference standards for assessing their nutritional status. Results: The following risk factors explained IQ scores and rates: the parents’ academic problems, the siblings’ behavioral problems, the mothers’ alcoholism during pregnancy and aggressive behavior at home. Conclusion: The IQ scores and associated rates for children who attended early school years in the two poorest districts of Medellin were correlated with psychosocial background factors and aggressive behavior at home.

  11. Coeficiente intelectual y factores asociados en niños escolarizados en la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia / Intelligence quotient and associated facts in children attending school in Medellin, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maryoris E, ZapataZabala; Martha C, ÁlvarezUribe; Daniel C, AguirreAcevedo; Martha A, CadavidCastro.

    2012-08-15

    Full Text Available ObjetivoAnalizar el coeficiente intelectual y los factores asociados en niños escolarizados de 6 a 8 años en las comunas Nororiental y Norocidental de la ciudad de MedellínColombia. Materiales y MétodosSe realizó un muestreo aleatorio simple, polietápico y estratificado según grado escolar y comuna, [...] la muestra estuvo constituida por 423 niños de ambos sexos. El coeficiente intelectual se evaluó con la Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Niños WISCIV y la estimulación psicosocial con Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME). Para la valoración del estado nutricional se utilizó las normas de referencia y puntos de corte de la OMS. ResultadosLos factores de riesgo que explican las puntuaciones en el Coeficiente Intelectual Total y sus índices fueron: Historia de problemas académicos de la madre y padre e historia de problemas de comportamiento de los hermanos, alcoholismo de la madre durante el embarazo y conductas agresivas en el hogar. ConclusiónEn los niños que cursan los primeros años de escolaridad en las dos comunas más pobres de Medellín, el coeficiente intelectual y sus índices se encuentra correlacionado con factores de antecedencia psicosocial y conductas agresivas en el hogar. Abstract in english ObjectiveAnalyzing the IQ and associated factors in school children aged 6 to 8 years old from the northeastern and northwestern districts of Medellin, Colombia. Materials and MethodsSimple, random, stratified sampling was carried out according to grade, level and commune; the sample consisted of 42 [...] 3 male and female children. The Wechsler intelligence scale (WISCIV) was used for evaluating the children’s IQ and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) for evaluating the children’s psychosocial stimulation/quality of their home environment. WHO cutoff points were used as reference standards for assessing their nutritional status. ResultsThe following risk factors explained IQ scores and rates: the parents’ academic problems, the siblings’ behavioral problems, the mothers’ alcoholism during pregnancy and aggressive behavior at home. ConclusionThe IQ scores and associated rates for children who attended early school years in the two poorest districts of Medellin were correlated with psychosocial background factors and aggressive behavior at home.

  12. Caracterización de memoria y atención en niños escolarizados con desnutrición crónica / Characterization of memory and attention in school children with chronic malnutrition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yenny Vicky, Paredes Arturo.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Caracterizar las funciones de atención y memoria en un grupo de 70 menores escolarizados, 35 de ellos con desnutrición. Métodos: La investigación es de carácter cuantitativo, con un diseño ex post facto prospectivo simple, la población estuvo conformada por un grupo de 70 menores escolariz [...] ados, 35 sujetos hicieron parte del grupo control (sin desnutrición) y 35 conformaron el grupo caso (con desnutrición crónica). Los procesos cognitivos como atención y memoria se evaluaron a través de diferentes pruebas neuropsicológicas. Resultados: En el componente atencional se encontró mejor desempeño por parte del grupo caso en la sub-prueba dígitos directos y puntuación total; sin embargo, no se presentaron diferencias significativas entre los grupos en relación a las puntuaciones obtenidas con las pruebas que miden atención. Respecto a la función memoria, el grupo caso tuvo un desempeño significativamente más bajo en memoria lógica en comparación con el grupo control. Conclusiones: El grupo caso evidencia algunas dificultades relacionadas con la capacidad de memoria lógica, aspecto que puede influir en los aprendizajes académicos de asignaturas con contenido narrativo cuando éstas se enfocan en la dimensión de memorización; no obstante este déficit parece ser compensado por habilidades para procesamiento secuencial y memoria a corto plazo. Abstract in english Objective: To characterize the memory and attention functions in a group of 70 school children, 35 of them diagnosed with malnutrition. Methods: This is a quantitative research, with an ex post facto prospective simple design. The population was a group of 70 school children, 35 subjects were part o [...] f the control group (without malnutrition) and 35 for case group (with chronic malnutrition). Cognitive processes such as attention and memory were evaluated through various neuropsychological tests. Results: Better performance was found in the case group in the subtest "direct digits" and total score; however, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in relation to the scores obtained with tests that measured attention. Regarding the memory function, the case group had a significantly lower performance in logical memory compared with the control group. Conclusions: The group case evidences some difficulties related to logical memory, which may influence academic learning with narrative content subjects when they focus on the dimension of memorization; however, this deficit seems to be offset by sequential processing and short term memory.

  13. Aproximación al secreto médico del adolescente

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriel, Adriasola.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Introdução: este artigo faz uma aproximação do ponto de vista jurídico do alcance do segredo médico em pacientes menores de 18 anos. Este tema apresenta complicaçoes devidas não somente à casuística como também pela regulamentação jurídica que é escassa. Considerando que o alcance da confiden [...] cialidade médica nos casos de pacientes maiores de idade produz divergencias, é óbvia a dificuldade para abordar esse aspecto nos pacientes adolescentes. Objetivo: propomos demonstrar que, de acordo com as normas jurídicas uruguaias, quando se trata de um adolescente maduro, o paciente menor de idade tem direito a confidencialidade. Para chegar a essa conclusão deve-se fazer uma combinação do conceito médico de adolescente maduro e das convençoes internacionais sobre direitos das crianças e dos adolescentes assinadas por nosso país. Dessa forma podemos demonstrar que de acordo com a regulamentaçao uruguaia o paciente menor tem direito à confidencialidade quando for um adolescente maduro para estabelecer, não somente um criterio médico mas também um limite etario legalmente definido. Desse modo o menor teria direito a confidencialidade tanto em relaçao às pessoas que exercem poder familiar ou tutela como também em relação a pedidos judiciais de informação médica. Conclusões: depois da análise concluimos que: a) os menores entre 12 e 18 anos estão amparados pelo segredo profissional médico; b) os menores entre 15 e 18 anos podem inclusive manter o segredo profissional em relaçao a seus pais ou tutores; c) no que diz respeito à saúde sexual e reprodutiva, os menores entre 12 e 18 anos podem receber assessoramento confidencial sobre métodos anticoncepcionais; d) as menores entre 15 e 18 anos podem, em determinadas circunstâncias, pedir confidencialidade em relação a seus pais no que diz respeito ao assessoramento dos programas pré e pós aborto; e) nesses programas as menores entre 12 e 15 anos devem contar com o consentimento dos pais; f) o direito de menores limita parcialmente o segredo médico pelo principio de tutela nos casos de negação a tratamentos de doenças graves ou por motivos religiosos; g) dentro desses limites etários o médicos deve avaliar o amadurecimento do menor para ampará-lo no segredo profissional. Abstract in spanish Introducción: este artículo pretende aproximarse desde un punto de vista jurídico al alcance del secreto médico en pacientes menores de 18 años. El tema presenta complicaciones no sólo por la casuística sino también por la escasa regulación legislativa. Si a veces se debate el alcance de la confiden [...] cialidad médica en casos de pacientes mayores, con más razón se erige en un tema espinoso el alcance del secreto en pacientes adolescentes. Objetivo: proponemos demostrar que en el marco normativo uruguayo el paciente menor tiene derecho a la confidencialidad cuando se trata de un adolescente maduro. Para llegar a esa conclusión se combinarán tanto el concepto médico de adolescente maduro como las convenciones internacionales sobre derechos de los niños y los jóvenes ratificadas por Uruguay, de manera de poder establecer no sólo un criterio médico sino también un límite etario de fuente legal a partir del cual el menor goza del derecho a la confidencialidad tanto con relación a quienes detentan su patria potestad o tutela como con relación a pedidos judiciales de información médica. Conclusiones: luego del análisis llegamos a las siguientes conclusiones: a) los menores entre 12 y 18 años están amparados por el secreto profesional médico; b) los menores entre 15 y 18 años pueden incluso oponer el secreto profesional a sus padres o tutores; c) en materia de salud sexual y reproductiva los menores entre 12 y 18 años pueden pedir asesoramiento confidencial sobre métodos contraceptivos; d) las menores entre 15 y 18 años pueden, bajo determinadas circunstancias, pedir confidencialidad con relación a sus padres en el marco de los programas de asesoramiento pre y posaborto; e) en dichos

  14. Raising the Achievement of Portuguese Pupils in British Schools: A Case Study of Good Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demie, Feyisa; Lewis, Kirstin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the research was to study the experiences of Portuguese heritage pupils in British schools. The main findings from empirical data suggest Portuguese children are underachieving at the end of primary education but the case study confirms that in good schools Portuguese pupils do well and have made huge improvements over the periods. The…

  15. Why Is It Difficult to Grasp the Impacts of the Portuguese Quality Assurance System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Amélia; Rosa, Maria João; Dias, Diana; Amaral, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses the impacts of the Portuguese quality assurance system on academic cultures, using the Cultural Theory proposed by Douglas (1970, 1982) and developed by Thompson, Ellis and Wildavsky (1990) as an explanatory framework for Portuguese academics' preference formation in relation to quality assessment. The Portuguese higher…

  16. 75 FR 15611 - Safety Zone; United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa, San Diego Bay...San Diego Bay in support of the United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa. This temporary...Spectaculars is sponsoring the United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa, which will...

  17. Negative Transfer from Spanish and English to Portuguese Pronunciation: The Roles of Inhibition and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trude, Alison M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    We examined negative transfer from English and Spanish to Portuguese pronunciation. Participants were native English speakers, some of whom spoke Spanish. Participants completed a computer-based Portuguese pronunciation tutorial and then pronounced trained letter-to-sound correspondences in unfamiliar Portuguese words; some shared orthographic…

  18. La Resiliencia en adolescentes del Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Cordini

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se sitúa en el campo de la sicología del desarrollo y la base teórica de la resiliencia, que desarrollara Antonovsky (1979, 1987 sobre la actitud de personas que han superado experiencias traumáticas y de estrés. El estudio explora los elementos del Sentido de Coherencia que componen la resiliencia de adolescentes en el desarrollo de una identidad resiliente frente a las adversidades de la vida, y lo expande por medio del “Yo Proteo” que indica fexibilidad y adaptación (Hill, 1998. Los tres elementos que configuran el Sentido de Coherencia –SOC– son: 1. Cognitivo (El conocimiento de la realidad, 2. Instrumental (El manejo de los problemas, y 3. Afectivo (El significado de la vida, y la escala SOC los mide.La resiliencia está basada en una actitud saludable frente a la vida, y a las dificultades que ella impone. El estudio se realizó: a. Con adolescentes de 14 a 18 años que habían tenido una experiencia traumática o de estrés en los dos años que precedieron el estudio; b. En dos diferentes estratos sociales de la clase media (clase media alta y media baja; c. Identificando como los elementos del SOC actúan relacionados con género; d. Explorando cinco contextos diferenciados de violencia urbana en el Brasil.El estudio avanza sobre las investigaciones anteriores relacionando el bienestar experimentado por adolescentes al desarrollar una identidad resiliente como respuesta versátil en la construcción del “Yo Proteo”. El abordaje del estudio de la resiliencia basado en los elementos del Sentido de Coherencia, es de cierta forma innovadora en nuestro medio científico, en la medida en que es un abordaje de perspectiva saludable.Los resultados se discuten en relación con las implicaciones para el modelo de resiliencia centrado en el Sentido de Coherencia, y con sus implicaciones para la teoría y futuros estudios e intervenciones orientados para los adolescentes (relación con los padres, educadores, animadores sociales y planeadores sociales.

  19. In search of better energy performance in the Portuguese buildings—The case of the Portuguese regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) is an important European policy tool to improve energy performance of buildings and has been applied in 27 countries with specific adjustments. The aim of this paper is to analyze the application of the Portuguese energy certification system and regulation to the residential sector using a case type, whilst considering a set of alternative and complementary solutions involving the regulation values for the envelope, interior and exterior thermal insulation, lower air renovation ratio, light colored exterior walls, better glazing system, shading elements and a Trombe Wall. In order to understand the role and the importance of bioclimatic measures in the Portuguese application of the EPBD, a comparison with the Passivhaus Norm applied to warm countries in Europe will be made. Due to the diversity of the Portuguese climate, three different climate regions were considered. Finally, we will discuss what new measures should be added to the Portuguese regulation, so that the proposed recast of the Directive might be transformed into a more effective tool in the search for better energy performance, passive house buildings and sustainable constructions. - Highlights: ? We have analyzed the Portuguese residential application of the EPBD. ? The analysis was based on a case-study building located in 3 climatic zones. ? We conducted a comparative study between the RCCTE demands and the Passivhaus ones. ? The energy demaPassivhaus ones. ? The energy demand was improved, introducing different measures by climatic zone. ? To improve buildings performance, the Regulation should consider more passive demands.

  20. Health care to immigrant and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Emília de Carvalho; Silva, Alcione Leite da; Pereira, Carlos Manuel Figueiredo Pereira; Almeida, Alexandra Isabel; Nelas, Paula Alexandra Batista; Parreira, Vitória Barros Castro; Amaral, Maria Odete

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the care received and the barriers faced by immigrants and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal. This is an exploratory qualitative study, resorting to applying semi-structured interviews to 60 immigrant and 22 Portuguese women. Content analysis supported by QSR Nvivo10 program was used. The study was approved by an Ethics Committee. The results showed four categories related to affective dimensions-relational, cognitive, technical-instrumental and health care policy for pregnant women. As for the barriers in health care, these were mentioned by some of the expectant mothers, especially immigrant women. Almost all, both immigrant and Portuguese, pregnant women were satisfied with the health care. PMID:25830730

  1. Prevalencia de trastorno obsesivo compulsivo en adolescentes colombianos y su asociación con la doble condición de trabajo y estudio Prevalence of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder among Colombian Adolescents and its Association with Working while Going to School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Andrés Navarro-Mancilla

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estimar la prevalencia del trastorno obsesivo compulsivo (TOC en niños y adolescentes escolarizados y determinar los factores sociodemográficos asociados. Método: Se desarrolló un estudio transversal con una muestra de 501 niños y niñas de 10 a 17 años de colegios de Bucaramanga. Se tomaron los datos sociodemográficos y se les realizó la entrevista clínica estructurada para los trastornos del eje I del DSM-IV, versión clínica. Se examinaron los factores sociodemográficos con un análisis bivariado. Se realizó análisis estratificado y una regresión logística no condicional, tomando el trabajo por dinero como una variable explicatoria de riesgo para el desarrollo de TOC. Resultados: La prevalencia del TOC fue de 7,4% (IC 95%: 5,3-10,0. Los estudiantes con TOC presentan una prevalencia de trabajo por dinero mayor que en los que no tienen (OR: 2,23; IC 95%: 1,0-4,4. Al controlar variables confusoras, las niñas que trabajaban por dinero mostraron un mayor riesgo en la presencia de TOC (OR: 5,4; IC 95%: 1,7-17,4. Conclusión: El estudio sugiere que la prevalencia del TOC en niños escolarizados de Bucaramanga es alta. La doble condición de trabajar y estudiar en las niñas podría ser un factor de riesgo asociado con TOC.Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD in children and adolescents attending school in Bucaramanga, Colombia, and to determine its associated socio-demographic factors. Method: A cross-sectional design was used with a sample size of 501 individuals between the ages of 10 to 17 years enrolled in Bucaramanga's schools. They were administered a structured clinical interview OCD module. Socio-demographic data was also collected. The inquired sociodemographic factors were analyzed with bivariate analysis. Work for money was taken as a risk explanatory variable for developing OCD; stratified analysis and unconditional logistic regression were carried out. Results: Prevalence of OCD was found to be 7.4% (95% CI: 5.3-10.0 in this population. Students with OCD had a prevalence of working for money higher than those who did not (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.0-4.4. Girls who worked for money showed a higher risk of having OCD than those who did not (OR: 5.4; 95% CI: 1.7-7.4, in a logistic regression model. Conclusion: These results suggest that the prevalence of OCD among Colombian school children is higher than elsewhere. In addition, working while going to school might be a risk factor associated with OCD in girls.

  2. Prevalencia de trastorno obsesivo compulsivo en adolescentes colombianos y su asociación con la doble condición de trabajo y estudio / Prevalence of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder among Colombian Adolescents and its Association with Working while Going to School

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Álvaro Andrés, Navarro-Mancilla; Germán Eduardo, Rueda-Jaimes; Paul Anthony, Camacho López; Jorge Augusto, Franco López; Mauricio, Escobar Sánchez; Luis Alfonso, Díaz-Martínez.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estimar la prevalencia del trastorno obsesivo compulsivo (TOC) en niños y adolescentes escolarizados y determinar los factores sociodemográficos asociados. Método: Se desarrolló un estudio transversal con una muestra de 501 niños y niñas de 10 a 17 años de colegios de Bucaramanga. Se toma [...] ron los datos sociodemográficos y se les realizó la entrevista clínica estructurada para los trastornos del eje I del DSM-IV, versión clínica. Se examinaron los factores sociodemográficos con un análisis bivariado. Se realizó análisis estratificado y una regresión logística no condicional, tomando el trabajo por dinero como una variable explicatoria de riesgo para el desarrollo de TOC. Resultados: La prevalencia del TOC fue de 7,4% (IC 95%: 5,3-10,0). Los estudiantes con TOC presentan una prevalencia de trabajo por dinero mayor que en los que no tienen (OR: 2,23; IC 95%: 1,0-4,4). Al controlar variables confusoras, las niñas que trabajaban por dinero mostraron un mayor riesgo en la presencia de TOC (OR: 5,4; IC 95%: 1,7-17,4). Conclusión: El estudio sugiere que la prevalencia del TOC en niños escolarizados de Bucaramanga es alta. La doble condición de trabajar y estudiar en las niñas podría ser un factor de riesgo asociado con TOC. Abstract in english Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children and adolescents attending school in Bucaramanga, Colombia, and to determine its associated socio-demographic factors. Method: A cross-sectional design was used with a sample size of 501 individuals between the [...] ages of 10 to 17 years enrolled in Bucaramanga's schools. They were administered a structured clinical interview OCD module. Socio-demographic data was also collected. The inquired sociodemographic factors were analyzed with bivariate analysis. Work for money was taken as a risk explanatory variable for developing OCD; stratified analysis and unconditional logistic regression were carried out. Results: Prevalence of OCD was found to be 7.4% (95% CI: 5.3-10.0) in this population. Students with OCD had a prevalence of working for money higher than those who did not (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.0-4.4). Girls who worked for money showed a higher risk of having OCD than those who did not (OR: 5.4; 95% CI: 1.7-7.4), in a logistic regression model. Conclusion: These results suggest that the prevalence of OCD among Colombian school children is higher than elsewhere. In addition, working while going to school might be a risk factor associated with OCD in girls.

  3. Parámetros periodontales en adolescentes con ortodoncia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mart\\u00EDn Ardila Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la ortodoncia puede dificultar la remoción de la placa bacteriana e incrementar el efecto inflamatorio que produce sobre los tejidos gingivales. Objetivo: evaluar el estado de salud gingival de adolescentes con y sin ortodoncia, comparando sus parámetros periodontales. Métodos: en el presente estudio observacional de corte trasversal, el universo estuvo constituido por 64 sujetos (32 con ortodoncia y 32 sin ortodoncia. La profundidad de sondaje se midió con una sonda calibrada en seis sitios por diente (mesobucal, bucal, distobucal, distolingual, lingual y mesolingual en todos los dientes, se excluyó el tercer molar. En cada sitio del diente también se evaluó el nivel de inserción clínica, la presencia de placa y el sangrado al sondaje. Resultados: se observaron diferencias significativas en los niveles de placa y en el sangrado al sondaje entre los dos grupos, superiores en los adolescentes con ortodoncia. La asociación entre los niveles de placa y sangrado al sondaje para los dos grupos de estudio fue estadísticamente significativa (p< 0.01. Conclusiones: las condiciones periodontales de los adolescentes con aparatología ortodóntica se deben monitorear regularmente debido a que presentan una mayor tendencia a la acumulación de la placa bacteriana que ocasiona sangrado e inflamación gingival.

  4. EMBARAZO ADOLESCENTE ¿UNA POBLACIÓN DE RIESGO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garc\\u00EDa Minuzzi

    2010-01-01

    Resultados. En 2005 se produjeron en la Maternidad Sardá 7360 nacimientos, de los cuales 1435 (19,5% pertenecieron a madres menores a 19 años. Ingresaron al PROAMA 420 adolescentes de 16 años o menos. Se estudiaron 380 madres que presentaron una edad promedio de 15 años y 5 meses, siendo primigestas el 82%. Las mujeres adolescentes presentan mayor porcentaje de primiparidad y menor número de cesáreas (p< 0.01. No hubo diferencia en el peso y la edad gestacional entre ambos grupos (3205 g vs. 3225 g y 39,3 semanas vs. 39.1 semanas de edad gestacional respectivamente. La tasa de recién nacidos menores a 2500 g fueron similares en los dos grupos (8,8% vs. 8,1%, al igual que los de muy bajo peso (1,5% vs. 1,3%. Conclusiones. Este estudio permite demostrar que las adolescentes y sus hijos con atención precoz y multidisciplinaria en cuidados perinatales no presentarían mayores riesgos que los descriptos para mujeres embarazadas adultas de igual medio socioeconómico y cultural.

  5. Acidentes de trabalho ocorridos entre adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Alc\\u00E2ntara Pimenta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar los accidentes de trabajo producidos entre los adolescentes en una fundación de educación para el trabajo. Estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo que investigó 117 adolescentes trabajadores a través de un cuestionario multidimensional. De los encuestados, el 72,6% eran mujeres, el 80,3% tenían 15 años, el 60% eran pardos y el 62,4% no trabajaba anteriormente. Las actividades más populares realizadas fueron las siguientes: Recepcionista (46,2% y auxiliar administrativo (37,6%. Sufrieron accidentes en el trabajo o antes de llegar a este el 11% de los encuestados, de los cuales 76,9% eran típicos y se produjeron en la tarde (61,5%. Las piernas y los pies fueron los miembros mas heridos (46,2%, seguido por abrasiones y lesiones graves (30,8%. El trabajo de niños y adolescentes pueden presentar agravios, que se clasifican como accidentes. El enfrentamiento de este problema no puede ser pensado sólo en términos de vigilancia de los lugares de trabajo y de las políticas dirigidas a la salud del trabajador; hay una necesidad de una mayor transformación en la estructura de la sociedad, de modo que el trabajo perjudique la salud.

  6. Representação social do sexo nos jovens adultos portugueses / Social representation of sex in portuguese young adults

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandra, Gomes; Cristina, Nunes.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi nosso objetivo medir a representação social do sexo através das evocações livres de 1138 jovens adultos portugueses, com idades entre os 18 e os 25 anos, explorando uma abordagem explicativa da possível influência desta representação social nos comportamentos sexuais de risco observados nesta fa [...] ixa etária. As evocações foram recolhidas através de um questionário online, divulgado pelas universidades e escolas profissionais portuguesas. Foi realizada uma análise prototípica de representações sociais. Os resultados sugerem uma representação social do sexo romantizada, com um núcleo central baseado na ideia de amor e prazer, em que aspetos relacionados com o risco, como preservativo ou infeções sexualmente transmissíveis, pertencem apenas ao sistema periférico, considerando-se que aí são integrados como uma forma de preservar o núcleo central, mas sem interferir na forma como os participantes vivem as suas experiências sexuais. A associação entre a ideia de amor e preservativo parece estar mais associada à heurística de quem "ama protege" o que facilita a não utilização do preservativo, em vez de a aumentar. A representação social do sexo, centrada no amor e no prazer, poderá enquadrar as questões cognitivas, afetivas e comportamentais presentes na explicação e predição da utilização do preservativo, complementando os modelos sociocognitivos já conhecidos. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to measure the social representation of sex through free evocations of 1,138 young Portuguese adults, aged between 18 and 25 years, with the goal of exploring an explicative approach of a possible influence of this social representation in risky sexual behaviors obser [...] ved in this age group. Evocations were collected through an online questionnaire made available by Portuguese universities and professional schools. Data were analyzed according to Vergès' prototypical analysis for social representations. The results suggest a romanticized social representation of sex, based on love and pleasure ideas, in which risky aspects such as use of condoms or sexually transmitted infections belong to the peripheral system. These aspects are integrated in order to preserve the central nucleus without interfering in the way participants live their sexual experiences. In addition, the association between love and condom use seems to be associated to the concept of "who loves, protects" which reduces condom use, instead of increasing it. Therefore, social representation of sex, focused on love and pleasure, might include cognitive, affective and behavioral aspects present in the well-known socio-cognitive models used for explaining and predicting condom use behavior.

  7. Epidemiología clínica de la epilepsia en niños y adolescentes del municipio Sancti Spíritus / Clinical epidemiology epilepsy in children and adolescents of Sancti Spíritus municipality

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daikelin, Díaz González; Yoel Alberto, Conde Pérez; Miriela, Conde Pérez; Isela de la C., Navia Reyes; Berto D., Conde Fernández.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la epilepsia es una enfermedad crónica no transmisible caracterizada por su elevada prevalencia en las edades más jóvenes. Objetivos: describir las características clínico epidemiológicas de los niños y adolescentes con diagnóstico de epilepsia, radicados en el municipio de Sancti Spír [...] itus. Metodología: se realizó una investigación descriptiva de corte transversal de enero a diciembre del año 2011; en el análisis de los datos se emplearon técnicas de estadística descriptiva. Resultados: s e registró una prevalencia de pacientes con epilepsia de 7,86 por cada 1000 habitantes, la que resultó mayor entre los 10 y 18 años de edad, con similar distribución en ambos sexos y predominio en la raza blanca. Resultaron más frecuentes en estos pacientes las crisis focales. Todos los enfermos están escolarizados y el 92,8 % se encuentran controlados en su consultorio de la familia. Conclusiones: Los resultados encontrados en cuanto a prevalencia de epilepsia en niños y adolescentes radicados en el municipio Sancti Spiritus, resultan superiores a la prevalencia estimada para Cuba. Existió un predominio de las crisis focales y un elevado porcentaje de control de los enfermos según la educación escolarizada y el seguimiento de estos pacientes en la atención primaria de salud. Abstract in english Background: epilepsy is a non transmissible chronic disease characterized by its prevalence in the younger ages. Objectives: to describe the clinical epidemiological characteristics in children and adolescents with epilepsy diagnosis living in Sancti Spíritus. Methodology: a descriptive investigatio [...] n was carried out in a transversal cut from January to December 2011; in the data analysis some descriptive statistical techniques were used. Results: it was registered a prevalence of patients with epilepsy of 7.86 per every 1000 inhabitants which was greater between 10 and 18 years old with similar distribution in both sexes mainly in the white race. Focal crisis were the most frequent in these patients. All the patients have 92.8 % of school level and they are controlled by their family doctors. Conclusions: the results found according to the prevalence of epilepsy in children and adolescents in Sancti Spíritus municipality are higher than the prevalence estimated in Cuba . There were more focal crisis and high percentage of control of the patient according to the education level and the follow up of these in the primary care of health.

  8. The Economic Theory and the Portuguese Manufactured Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Martinho, Vi?tor Joa?o Pereira Domingues

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to test the Verdoorn Law, with the alternative specifications of (1)Kaldor (1966), for the five Portuguese regions (NUTS II), from 1986 to 1994. It is intended to test, yet in this work, the alternative interpretation of (2)Rowthorn (1975) about the Verdoorn's Law for the same regions and period. The results of this study are about each one of the manufactured industries operating in the Portuguese regions. The aim of this paper is, also, to present a further contribution to th...

  9. Fecundidad adolescente, género y desarrollo. Evidencias de la investigación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Henao Escovar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo sintetiza algunos hallazgos de investigación que permiten dilucidar las relaciones que existen entre la fecundidad adolescente, el género y el desarrollo. En primer lugar, se describen las tendencias generales del fenómeno del embarazo adolescente en Colombia, algunas de sus implicaciones y sus determinantes socioeconómicos, contextuales e individuales. En segundo lugar, se sintetizan los resultados de un estudio en el cual participaron las autoras de este artículo, sobre la incidencia, las tendencias y los determinantes de la fecundidad adolescente en Bogotá y Cali. En seguida, se ilustra la manera como el proceso de socialización sexual favorece la construcción de las normas y expectativas de género que inciden en las decisiones sexuales y reproductivas de las adolescentes estudiadas y de sus parejas. Al finalizar, formulamos algunas recomendaciones generales para el diseño de iniciativas dirigidas a incidir sobre la fecundidad adolescente y favorecer el desarrollo desde la perspectiva de género.

  10. Uma geração digital? A influência familiar na experiência mediática de adolescentes / Une génération numérique? L’influence familiale dans l’expérience médiatique des adolescents / A digital generation? The influence of the family on adolescents’ media experience / Una generación digital? La influencia familiar en la experiencia mediática de adolescentes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristina, Ponte.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir do lugar dos média nas definições de geração, este artigo discute a expressão “geração digital”, associada aos nascidos nas duas últimas décadas, com atenção a contextos nacionais, aos acessos e usos e à relação familiar. A discussão da diferenciação digital dos mais novos na sociedade port [...] uguesa assenta em investigações transnacionais, as quais permitem um olhar comparado. Recentes resultados de Portugal num inquérito europeu sobre acessos e usos da internet por crianças e adolescentes (9-16 anos) antecedem análises de histórias de vida e de dietas mediáticas de adolescentes (15-17 anos) e dos seus pais. Abstract in spanish Desde la posición de los medios de comunicación en las definiciones de generación este artículo discute la expresión “generación digital”, asociada a los nacidos en las dos últimas décadas, con atención a contextos nacionales, a los accesos y usos y a la relación familiar. La discusión de la diferen [...] ciación digital de los más nuevos en la sociedad portuguesa se basa en investigaciones transnacionales, las cuales permiten realizar una mirada comparativa. Recientes resultados de Portugal en una encuesta europea sobre accesos y usos de la internet por niños y adolescentes (9-16 años) anteceden a los análisis de historias de vida y de dietas mediáticas de adolescentes (15-17 años) y de sus padres. Abstract in english Starting from the place of the media in definitions of “generation”, this article discusses the expression “digital generation” in relation to those born in the last two decades, with attention being paid to access and usage, national contexts and the family relationship. Discussion of the digital d [...] ifferentiation of the youngest members of Portuguese society is based on transnational research that allows us a comparative view. Recent results for Portugal in a European survey of internet access and usage among children and adolescents (aged 9-16 years) precede analyses of the life histories and media diets of adolescents (15-17 years) and their parents.

  11. Valores e criatividade em trabalhadores portugueses / Portuguese workers values and creativity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonor, Almeida; Sara Ibérico, Nogueira; Adelaide Lopes, Jesus; Teresa, Mimoso.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pretendeu-se caracterizar o sistema de valores e os níveis de criatividade de uma amostra de trabalhadores portugueses, bem como analisar as diferenças entre grupos com base nas variáveis: sexo, habilitações literárias, tipo de empresa e estatuto socioprofissional. O estudo da correlação entre os ní [...] veis de criatividade e os valores de vida foi, também, objeto de análise. A amostra foi constituída por 198 indivíduos, 91 do sexo masculino e 107 do sexo feminino. Para operacionalização das variáveis foram utilizados o Inventário dos Valores de Vida e o Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production. Entre os principais resultados salienta-se a correlação positiva entre o valor Criatividade e o nível de criatividade. Quando consideradas as variáveis sexo e empresa pública versus privada, foram encontradas diferenças estatísticamente significativas para o nível dos valores. As implicações dos resultados serão discutidas. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to characterize the values system and the creativity levels from a sample of Portuguese workers, as well as to analyze the differences between groups based on gender, qualifications, type of business, and socio-professional status. The study of the correlation between level [...] s of creativity and values was also examined. The sample consisted of 198 individuals, 91 males and 107 females. For operationalization of the variables the Life Values Inventory, and the Test for Creative Thinking - Drawing Production were used. Among the main results, the positive correlation between creativity level and creativity value was highlighted. When considering variables such as gender and public versus private company, statistically significant differences were found in terms of values. The implications of these results are discussed.

  12. La Resiliencia en adolescentes del Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mabel, Cordini.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo explora a resilencia em adolescentes, usando a teoria do desenvolvimento. O termo resilencia é usado significando a capacidade que um individuo tem para sobrepor-se a situações adversas A base teórica do Sentido de Coerência -SOC- foi desenvolvida porA. Antonovsky (1979-1987) ident [...] ificando como os diferentes elementos (cognitivo, instrumental e afetivo) se inter-relacionam para conseguir uma atitude saudável frente à vida -resiliente-. O estudo focalizou o desenvolvimento da identidade de adolescentes de 14 a 18 anos que tem passado por experiências traumáticas ou de um forte estresse num contexto de violência urbana diferenciado. a. Em dois diferentes estratos sociais ( classe media alta e classe media baixa); b. Relacionado ao gênero; c. Em cinco contextos diferenciados de violência urbana. Os resultados têm demonstrado que existem diferenças na construção da resilencia em relação a gênero, estratos sociais e contexto urbano. A família e em particular alguns membros da família - mãe- são protagonistas importantes na construção da resilencia. A prática de alguma religião e a participação de grupos de interesse são fatores significativos na construção da resilencia. O rasgo principal do adolescente resiliente é a capacidade de ser flexível frente aos problemas da vida e de aceitar a diversidade na busca do bem estar e equilíbrio emocional. Abstract in spanish Este artículo se sitúa en el campo de la sicología del desarrollo y la base teórica de la resiliencia, que desarrollara Antonovsky (1979, 1987) sobre la actitud de personas que han superado experiencias traumáticas y de estrés. El estudio explora los elementos del Sentido de Coherencia que componen [...] la resiliencia de adolescentes en el desarrollo de una identidad resiliente frente a las adversidades de la vida, y lo expande por medio del "Yo Proteo" que indica fexibilidad y adaptación (Hill, 1998). Los tres elementos que configuran el Sentido de Coherencia -SOC- son: 1. Cognitivo (El conocimiento de la realidad), 2. Instrumental (El manejo de los problemas), y 3. Afectivo (El significado de la vida), y la escala SOC los mide. La resiliencia está basada en una actitud saludable frente a la vida, y a las dificultades que ella impone. El estudio se realizó: a. Con adolescentes de 14 a 18 años que habían tenido una experiencia traumática o de estrés en los dos años que precedieron el estudio; b. En dos diferentes estratos sociales de la clase media (clase media alta y media baja); c. Identificando como los elementos del SOC actúan relacionados con género; d. Explorando cinco contextos diferenciados de violencia urbana en el Brasil. El estudio avanza sobre las investigaciones anteriores relacionando el bienestar experimentado por adolescentes al desarrollar una identidad resiliente como respuesta versátil en la construcción del "Yo Proteo". El abordaje del estudio de la resiliencia basado en los elementos del Sentido de Coherencia, es de cierta forma innovadora en nuestro medio científico, en la medida en que es un abordaje de perspectiva saludable. Los resultados se discuten en relación con las implicaciones para el modelo de resiliencia centrado en el Sentido de Coherencia, y con sus implicaciones para la teoría y futuros estudios e intervenciones orientados para los adolescentes (relación con los padres, educadores, animadores sociales y planeadores sociales). Abstract in english This study examines the components of resilience, using the SOC (Sense of Coherence) approach in order to understand how adolescents with experience of prior trauma or stress construct their identity of well being in a perspective of the protean self. Previous research by A. Antonovsky (1979-1988) d [...] efines this ability as composed of three parts: a cognitive, an instrumental and an affective and developed the SOC scale to measure it. The studies expands the utility of the SOC measure, combining it with Protean Self (Hill, 1998) and increasing the broad context of its application in

  13. Sentidos de ciudadanía en un grupo de jóvenes escolarizados de la ciudad de Manizales, Colombia / Meanings of citizenship in a group of high school students from Manizales ,Colombia / Sentidos de cidadania em um grupo de jovens escolarizados da cidade de Manizales, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hernán Humberto, Vargas López; Carlos Valerio, Echavarría Grajales; Sara Victoria, Alvarado Salgado; Jaime Alberto, Restrepo.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo deriva-se de uma pesquisa realizada com 29 jovens escolarizados da cidade de Manizales, na qual se indagou pelos sentidos e significados da cidadania. Para a coleta de informação foi utilizada uma oficina pedagógica, por quanto permitiu combinar diversas técnicas e instrumentos tai [...] s como a entrevista semi-estruturada, a entrevista em profundidade e a discussão. O estudo conclui que os jovens significam e compreendem a cidadania desde quatro referentes: o lugar do sujeito na sociedade e a cultura, o sentido do direito e a lei na organização e a convivência, percepções a respeito do acionar moral e político dos líderes e dos políticos e as percepções e consumos da cidade que fazem os cidadãos. Conclui-se que os jovens situam a cidadania desde o referente da ação, o qual se manifesta, fundamentalmente, na participação, o juízo político e a possibilidade de ser representado por outros. Igualmente, se planteia que os jovens orientam a cidadania desde os princípios e marcos de significação cultural da cidade, expressados nos vínculos e compromissos que adquirem os cidadãos com a sua cidade, e vice-versa. Finalmente, se afirma que se trata de uma cidadania significada no respeito, a liberdade, a justiça social e o reconhecimento do potencial humano universal. Abstract in spanish El presente artículo se deriva de una investigación realizada con 29 jóvenes escolarizados de la ciudad de Manizales, Colombia, en la cual se indagó por los sentidos y significados de la ciudadanía. Para la recolección de información se utilizó el taller pedagógico, en tanto permitió combinar divers [...] as técnicas e instrumentos tales como la entrevista semiestructurada, la entrevista a profundidad y la discusión. El estudio concluye que las y los jóvenes significan y comprenden la ciudadanía desde cuatro referentes: el lugar del sujeto en la sociedad y la cultura, el sentido del derecho y la ley en la organización y la convivencia, las percepciones del actuar moral y político de los líderes y de los políticos, y las percepciones y consumos de ciudad que hacen los ciudadanos. Se concluye que las y los jóvenes sitúan la ciudadanía desde un referente de la acción, manifestado fundamentalmente en la participación, el enjuiciamiento político y la posibilidad de ser representados por otros. Igualmente, se plantea que las y los jóvenes orientan la ciudadanía desde los principios y marcos de significación cultural de ciudad, expresados en los vínculos y compromisos que adquieren los ciudadanos con su ciudad y viceversa. Finalmente, se afirma que se trata de una ciudadanía significada en el respeto, la libertad, la justicia social y el reconocimiento del potencial humano universal. Abstract in english This paper gives an account of a research project that inquired for the meanings of citizenship in a group of 29 high-school students in Manizales (Colombia). The technique of pedagogical workshops was used to obtain information, because it has advantages such as combining semi-structured interviews [...] , in-depth interviews and group discussions. Conclusions indicate that this group of high school boys and girls understand citizenship as referred to four main ideas: the position occupied by the subject in society and culture, the sense of law in the organization of society, the perceptions of the moral and political behavior of leaders and politicians, and the perceptions of the meaning of the city and their relationship to it. It was concluded that this group of boys and girls refers citizenship to action expressed in participation, judgments on the political reality, and the possibility of being represented by others. It is also argued that these students see citizenship within the principles and frameworks of the cultural meaning of the city, expressed in the duties of citizens towards the city, and viceversa. Finally, it si concluded that this group's understanding of citizenship is related to ideas of respect, freedom, social justice and recognition of

  14. Identificación de factores de riesgo de embarazo en población adolescente escolar urbana y rural colombiana / Identifying risk factors for pregnancy amongst Colombian adolescents from urban and rural school populations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan C, González-Quiñones; Jenny P, Salamanca-Preciado; Ruth M, Quiroz-Rivera; Ángela M, Hernández-Pardo; Astrid D, Hernández-Rojas; Beselink, Quesada-Núñez.

    2012-06-30

    Full Text Available ObjetivoEstimar los factores intervinientes para el embarazo en población adolescente escolarizada. MetodologíaEstudio observacional de corte transversal con 7 068 jóvenes escolarizados entre 11 y 20 años de edad de 14 colegios públicos de Bogotá y municipios aledaños. Se aplicó encuesta auto dilige [...] nciada que indaga factores socio-demográficos, familiares, sentimentales y conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de sexualidad. Resultados: Edad media de encuestados 15,3 años. Haber recibido información sobre planificación 80 %. Reconocer ciclo menstrual: 32 %. Prevalencia de haber tenido relaciones sexuales 40 %. Vida sexual activa 20 %. Prevalencia de embarazo 4 % y de aborto de 1 %. Factores de riesgo: No haber recibido información sobre planificación vs. (Versus) entender con dudas sobre planificación (OR 0,1 con IC 95 % de 0,03-0,4). Haber tenido aborto previo (OR 7,8 IC 95 % 2,3-25,8). No planificó en primera relación (OR de 3,9 IC 95 % de 2,2–7). No se encontraron como factores de riesgo la autoestima, la relación con padres y la percepción de futuro. ConclusionesEl embarazo en adolescentes parece más una situación accidental propiciada por desconocimiento, que propia de adolescentes con problemas. Abstract in english ObjectiveAssessing risk factors for pregnancy in an adolescent school population. MethodologyA cross-sectional observational study was carried out on 7,068 ado-lescents whose ages ranged from 11 to 20 years who were attending 14 public schools in Bogotá and the surrounding municipalities. A self-que [...] stionnaire was ad-ministered focusing on socio-demographic, family and sentimental factors and the adolescents' knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding sexuality. ResultsThe average age was 15.3 years. 80 % had received family-planning in-formation; 32 % recognised the menstrual cycle. The prevalence of sexual activity was 40 % and 20 % were leading a sexually-active life. The prevalence of preg-nancy was 4 % and the declared abortion rate was 1%. The risk factors involved not having received information about family-planning compared to understanding family-planning but with some doubts (OR 0.1: 0.03 to 0.4 95 % CI), previous abor-tion (OR 7.8: 2.3 to 25.8 95 % CI), not having planned against pregnancy during the first sexual relationship (OR 3.9: 2.2-7 95 % CI). Self-esteem, relationship with parents and perception of the future were not identified as being risk factors. ConclusionsTeenage pregnancy seemed to be an accidental situation due to lack of knowledge rather than occurring because some teenagers were having trouble.

  15. Identificación de factores de riesgo de embarazo en población adolescente escolar urbana y rural colombiana / Identifying risk factors for pregnancy amongst Colombian adolescents from urban and rural school populations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan C, González-Quiñones; Jenny P, Salamanca-Preciado; Ruth M, Quiroz-Rivera; Ángela M, Hernández-Pardo; Astrid D, Hernández-Rojas; Beselink, Quesada-Núñez.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estimar los factores intervinientes para el embarazo en población adolescente escolarizada. Metodología: Estudio observacional de corte transversal con 7 068 jóvenes escolarizados entre 11 y 20 años de edad de 14 colegios públicos de Bogotá y municipios aledaños. Se aplicó encuesta auto di [...] ligenciada que indaga factores socio-demográficos, familiares, sentimentales y conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de sexualidad. Resultados: Edad media de encuestados 15,3 años. Haber recibido información sobre planificación 80 %. Reconocer ciclo menstrual: 32 %. Prevalencia de haber tenido relaciones sexuales 40 %. Vida sexual activa 20 %. Prevalencia de embarazo 4 % y de aborto de 1 %. Factores de riesgo: No haber recibido información sobre planificación vs. (Versus) entender con dudas sobre planificación (OR 0,1 con IC 95 % de 0,03-0,4). Haber tenido aborto previo (OR 7,8 IC 95 % 2,3-25,8). No planificó en primera relación (OR de 3,9 IC 95 % de 2,2–7). No se encontraron como factores de riesgo la autoestima, la relación con padres y la percepción de futuro. Conclusiones: El embarazo en adolescentes parece más una situación accidental propiciada por desconocimiento, que propia de adolescentes con problemas. Abstract in english Objective: Assessing risk factors for pregnancy in an adolescent school population. Methodology: A cross-sectional observational study was carried out on 7,068 ado-lescents whose ages ranged from 11 to 20 years who were attending 14 public schools in Bogotá and the surrounding municipalities. A self [...] -questionnaire was ad-ministered focusing on socio-demographic, family and sentimental factors and the adolescents' knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding sexuality. Results: The average age was 15.3 years. 80 % had received family-planning in-formation; 32 % recognised the menstrual cycle. The prevalence of sexual activity was 40 % and 20 % were leading a sexually-active life. The prevalence of preg-nancy was 4 % and the declared abortion rate was 1%. The risk factors involved not having received information about family-planning compared to understanding family-planning but with some doubts (OR 0.1: 0.03 to 0.4 95 % CI), previous abor-tion (OR 7.8: 2.3 to 25.8 95 % CI), not having planned against pregnancy during the first sexual relationship (OR 3.9: 2.2-7 95 % CI). Self-esteem, relationship with parents and perception of the future were not identified as being risk factors. Conclusions: Teenage pregnancy seemed to be an accidental situation due to lack of knowledge rather than occurring because some teenagers were having trouble.

  16. Identificación de factores de riesgo de embarazo en población adolescente escolar urbana y rural colombiana Identifying risk factors for pregnancy amongst Colombian adolescents from urban and rural school populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C González-Quiñones

    Full Text Available ObjetivoEstimar los factores intervinientes para el embarazo en población adolescente escolarizada. MetodologíaEstudio observacional de corte transversal con 7 068 jóvenes escolarizados entre 11 y 20 años de edad de 14 colegios públicos de Bogotá y municipios aledaños. Se aplicó encuesta auto diligenciada que indaga factores socio-demográficos, familiares, sentimentales y conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de sexualidad. Resultados: Edad media de encuestados 15,3 años. Haber recibido información sobre planificación 80 %. Reconocer ciclo menstrual: 32 %. Prevalencia de haber tenido relaciones sexuales 40 %. Vida sexual activa 20 %. Prevalencia de embarazo 4 % y de aborto de 1 %. Factores de riesgo: No haber recibido información sobre planificación vs. (Versus entender con dudas sobre planificación (OR 0,1 con IC 95 % de 0,03-0,4. Haber tenido aborto previo (OR 7,8 IC 95 % 2,3-25,8. No planificó en primera relación (OR de 3,9 IC 95 % de 2,2–7. No se encontraron como factores de riesgo la autoestima, la relación con padres y la percepción de futuro. ConclusionesEl embarazo en adolescentes parece más una situación accidental propiciada por desconocimiento, que propia de adolescentes con problemas.ObjectiveAssessing risk factors for pregnancy in an adolescent school population. MethodologyA cross-sectional observational study was carried out on 7,068 ado-lescents whose ages ranged from 11 to 20 years who were attending 14 public schools in Bogotá and the surrounding municipalities. A self-questionnaire was ad-ministered focusing on socio-demographic, family and sentimental factors and the adolescents' knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding sexuality. ResultsThe average age was 15.3 years. 80 % had received family-planning in-formation; 32 % recognised the menstrual cycle. The prevalence of sexual activity was 40 % and 20 % were leading a sexually-active life. The prevalence of preg-nancy was 4 % and the declared abortion rate was 1%. The risk factors involved not having received information about family-planning compared to understanding family-planning but with some doubts (OR 0.1: 0.03 to 0.4 95 % CI, previous abor-tion (OR 7.8: 2.3 to 25.8 95 % CI, not having planned against pregnancy during the first sexual relationship (OR 3.9: 2.2-7 95 % CI. Self-esteem, relationship with parents and perception of the future were not identified as being risk factors. ConclusionsTeenage pregnancy seemed to be an accidental situation due to lack of knowledge rather than occurring because some teenagers were having trouble.

  17. Is There Yardstick Competition among Portuguese Municipalities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos\\u00E9 Silva Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un tema de la literatura especializada determinar si la competencia fiscal a nivel municipal viene de la mano de la "yardstick competition" o por la "competition for resources". En la primera hipótesis, los gobiernos municipales establecen sus tipos impositivos, influenciados por la "competencia en los votos", dentro del mercado político, más que influenciados por la competencia por los recursos móviles. En un trabajo anterior (Coimbra et al., 2011, hemos presentado evidencia empírica de la interacción estratégica entre los municipios portugueses a la hora de fijar los tipos impositivos municipales. Sin embargo, no pudimos determinar si esta interacción estratégica era del tipo "yardstick competition" o del tipo "competition for resources". En este trabajo exploramos la hipótesis del "yardstick", incorporando en las funciones de reacción política, variables utilizadas como proxy para la intensidad de la competencia en el mercado político. Calculamos las funciones de reacción para RATE_RIS (impuesto sobre la renta, RATE_ DERRAMA (impuesto sobre actividades económicas, y RATE_IMI (impuesto sobre la propiedad. Las estimaciones fueron obtenidas utilizando datos de panel para los 278 municipios de Portugal continental. Cuando la variable dependiente es la tasa de IMI, se hace para el período 2005-2009, puesto que esta variable sólo se recopila desde el año 2004. En las estimaciones para RATE_DERRAMA y RATE_IRS hemos tomado el período 2004-2009 y el año de 2009, respectivamente. Debido a los cambios legislativos en el impuesto sobre la propiedad (primero en 2004 y segundo cambio en 2008 se realizaron regresiones separadas para los dos períodos, con una pausa de tiempo en 2008. Los modelos de RATE_IMI fueron ajustados de manera independiente para los impuestos sobre la propiedad ¿revisada y no revisada¿, así como para los periodos 2005-2007 y 2008-2009. Los Modelos en RATE_DERRAMA se estiman para los intervalos 2004-2007 y 2008-2009. Las estimaciones confirman la existencia de interacción estratégica entre municipios, cuando fijan los tipos impositivos sobre la renta, impuesto de propiedad y actividades económicas, lo cual es compatible con una hipótesis de "yardstick competition". Esta evidencia empírica es menos clara cuando utilizamos modelos con efectos fijos espaciales. Relajando las especificidades locales, los municipios donde el alcalde tiene un mayor porcentaje de votos, compite en el mercado político y establece tasas impositivas más altas, sobre la propiedad y los negocios. Además, si tiene mayoría en el ejecutivo municipal y pertenece a partidos de izquierdas, sus impuestos son mayores. Sin embargo, los resultados también indican, que los ejecutivos municipales administran el ciclo político, de tal manera que bajan los tipos impositivos en períodos preelectorales.

  18. Percepções de professores portugueses sobre educação sexual Percepciones de profesores portugueses sobre educación sexual Perceptions of Portuguese teachers about sex education

    OpenAIRE

    Lúcia Ramiro; Margarida Gaspar de Matos

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar percepções e atitudes em relação à educação sexual entre professores portugueses do ensino básico e secundário. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 371 professores de ambos os sexos, do segundo e terceiro ciclos e do ensino secundário do continente Português, entre Fevereiro e Março de 2006. A coleta de dados foi feita por meio de questionário, pela técnica bola de neve, constituído por duas partes; a primeira abordava dados sociodemográficos, caracterização profissional, crença...

  19. Asymmetric price transmission within the Portuguese stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Rui; Dionisio, Andreia; Mendes, Diana A.

    2004-12-01

    This paper uses threshold autoregressive (TAR) and momentum threshold autoregressive (M-TAR) models to address the problem of asymmetry within the Portuguese stock market. These asymmetric error correction models extend the original cointegration models to deal with the problem of low power of unit roots and cointegration tests in the presence of asymmetric adjustment.

  20. Values, Classical Political Economy, and the Portuguese Empire

    OpenAIRE

    Rothschild, Emma

    2012-01-01

    The article explores early criticisms of Adam Smith, with particular reference to long-distance commerce, the Portuguese empire, and the writings of William Julius Mickle. The changing relationship between merchants and sovereigns, and between economic and political power, was of central importance, the article suggests, to disputes over Smith's ideas of self-interest.

  1. Genetic evaluation of Addison's disease in the Portuguese Water Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belanger JM

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Addison's disease, also known as hypoadrenocorticism, has been reported in many individual dogs, although some breeds exhibit a greater incidence than the population as a whole. Addison's is presumed to be an autoimmune mediated hereditary defect but the mode of inheritance remains unclear. In particular, the heritability and mode of inheritance have not been defined for the Portuguese Water Dog although Addison's is known to be prevalent in the breed. Results The analyses present clear evidence that establishes Addison's disease as an inherited disorder in the Portuguese Water Dog with an estimate of heritability of 0.49 (± 0.16; there were no differences in risk for disease across sexes (p > 0.49. Further, the complex segregation analysis provides suggestive evidence that Addison's disease in the Portuguese Water Dog is inherited under the control of a single, autosomal recessive locus. Conclusion The high heritability and mode of inheritance of Addison's disease in the Portuguese Water Dog should enable the detection of segregating markers in a genome-wide scan and the identification of a locus linked to Addison's. Though the confirmation of Addison's disease as an autosomal recessive disorder must wait until the gene is identified, breeders of these dogs may wish to keep the present findings in mind as they plan their breeding programs to select against producing affected dogs.

  2. Students in Higher Education Governance: The Portuguese Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Sonia; dos Santos, Sergio Machado

    2011-01-01

    This article aims at analysing and discussing student participation in Portuguese higher education institutions and, specifically, in university governance. In a first moment, it describes this participation under both the previous (1988-2007) and the new legal frameworks (since 2007). A discussion of the changes introduced by this last framework…

  3. Funding Allocation and Staff Management. A Portuguese Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Maria Joao; Amado, Diana; Amaral, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    For many years the Portuguese Ministry of Education used a funding formula to allocate the State budget to public higher education institutions. Some of its major objectives were higher enrolments and allocation equity. As the expenditure on salaries was a major component of the budget, the formula was supposed to force convergence to established…

  4. The Faculty Conjugated as Feminine: A Portrait of Portuguese Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Diana; Sa, Maria Jose; de Lourdes Machado-Taylor, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Portuguese higher education is changing, with a significant impact on academic careers, reinforcing the academic "estate." The focus of this paper is the analysis not only of the gender differences per se, but it also relates them to other variables such as the higher education subsystem, career positioning, the sociocultural background…

  5. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  6. Dyslexia Heterogeneity: Cognitive Profiling of Portuguese Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Andreia; Reis, Alexandra; Araújo, Susana; Inácio, Filomena; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Faísca, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have emphasized that developmental dyslexia is a multiple-deficit disorder, in contrast to the traditional single-deficit view. In this context, cognitive profiling of children with dyslexia may be a relevant contribution to this unresolved discussion. The aim of this study was to profile 36 Portuguese children with dyslexia from…

  7. Tocopherols composition of Portuguese wild mushrooms with antioxidant capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Heleno, Sandrina A.; Barros, Lillian; Sousa, Maria Joa?o; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant composition and properties of 18 Portuguese wild mushrooms (Clitocybe alexandri, Cortinarius glaucopus, Fistulina hepatica, Hydnum repandum, Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca, Hypholoma capnoides, Laccaria amethystina, Laccaria laccata, Lactarius aurantiacus, Lactarius salmonicolor, Lepista inversa, Lepista sordida, Mycena rosea, Russula delica, Russula vesca, Suillus collinitus, Suillus mediterraneensis, Tricholoma sulphureum) were evaluated, in order to contribute to the...

  8. Language Maintenance and Ethnic Survival: The Portuguese in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the scope of Portuguese language maintenance and ethnicity in and around Newark, New Jersey, and analyzes social and linguistic situations that demonstrate how the relatively homogeneous immigrant group responded to external stimuli (educational, media, religious, and social) regarding language, culture, and ethnicity. (CB)

  9. All-Day Schooling: Improving Social and Educational Portuguese Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Jorge; Vale, Ana; Mouraz, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, several European countries have implemented policies and programmes leading to the introduction of the concept of "all-day schooling," thus acknowledging the need to guarantee the guard of all children and to enhance equal opportunities of success at school. The Portuguese Ministry of Education created and funded…

  10. Early childhood intervention: the Portuguese pathway towards inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, Ana Maria; Boavida, Jose?

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the Early Childhood Intervention (ECI) system in Portugal and how it evolved since the 80’s until our days, based on a set of principles recommended by research and empirical data. So it describes the characteristics, organization and legislation and implementation of the ECI Portuguese system which pertain to be an inclusive and community resource based early intervention system.

  11. Exploration of the Portuguese shipwreck in Goa waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    2006-01-01

    12). From the above description it appears that lead sheets were not used by the native shipwrigt~ts for caulking the vessels. Cat~lking by Isad sheet was probably introduced by the Portuguese in India. The explora- tion has brought to light a...

  12. Relative importance of estuarine flatfish nurseries along the Portuguese coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Henrique N.; Vasconcelos, Rita; Vinagre, Catarina; França, Susana; Fonseca, Vanessa; Maia, Anabela; Reis-Santos, Patrick; Lopes, Marta; Ruano, Miguel; Campos, Joana; Freitas, Vânia; Santos, Paulo T.; Costa, Maria José

    2007-02-01

    The relative importance of nursery areas and their relationships with several environmental variables were evaluated in nine estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast based on trawl surveys. Historical data were used to outline changes and trends in the nursery function of some of these estuaries over the past decades. The dominant flatfish species in Portuguese estuaries were Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758), Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858 and Monochirus hispidus Rafinesque, 1814, but their occurrence differed among the estuaries. P. flesus only occurred in estuaries north of the Tejo estuary (39°N), S. solea was quite rare along the southern Portuguese coast (south of 37°30'N), S. senegalensis occurred in estuaries throughout the coast, but its abundance varied considerably, and the occurrence of M. hispidus was limited to the Sado estuary and Ria Formosa. A Correspondence Analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between flatfish species abundance and geomorphologic and hydrologic characteristics of estuaries (latitude, freshwater flow, estuarine area, intertidal area, mean depth and residence time). Abiotic characteristics (depth, temperature, salinity, sediment type) of nursery grounds of each flatfish species were also evaluated. Results showed that some estuaries along the Portuguese coast have nursery grounds used by several flatfish species (e.g. Ria de Aveiro, Sado estuary), while in other systems a segregation was noticed, with juveniles of different species occurring in distinct estuarine areas (e.g. Minho and Mondego estuaries). This emphasizes the relevance of niche overlap, but the potential for competition may be considerably minimized by differences in resource use patterns and by an extremely high abundance of resources. Peak densities of flatfishes recorded in nurseries areas along the Portuguese coast were within the range of values reported for other geographical areas. Inter-annual abundance variability of all the species in the Tejo and Sado estuaries was extremely high, with a drastic decrease in P. flesus in the Tejo estuary, probably related to higher water temperature in recent years due to global climate change.

  13. Medicina del adolescente / Medicine in the adolescent

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I., Villamil Cajoto; M. J., Villacián Vicedo; C., Canedo Romero; G., Villacián Vicedo; M., Rodríguez Framil.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Los numerosos cambios biológicos, cognitivos y socioculturales que suceden durante la adolescencia, podrían ser seguidos por Medicina Interna, pero el interés en las edades avanzadas es creciente y los más jóvenes están siendo tratados por otros especialistas. Presentamos los datos disponibles sobre [...] adolescentes ingresados en nuestro Hospital y discutimos el interés de la Medicina Interna por los adolescentes. Material y métodos: Revisión de los datos de los pacientes entre 15 y 21 años ingresados durante el período 1996-2002. Resultados: Ingresaron 5.894 pacientes adolescentes en este período, 1326 (23%) en el Servicio de Medicina Interna de ellos 755 (57%), eran varones. Las principales causas de ingreso fueron enfermedades infecciosas (fundamentalmente infecciones urinarias y de vías respiratorias). 160 pacientes (6%) eran consumidores de tabaco. Discusión: La adolescencia marca la transición a al edad adulta. La mayoría de los problemas de salud entre adolescentes resulta de accidentes (fundamentalmente de tráfico) pero existe un número importante de patologías que son sin duda tratadas por internistas en otros grupos de edad. Un número importante de pacientes es seguido por Pediatría y la "especialidad" de Medicina del Adolescente está constituida sobre todo por pediatras. Consideramos, como muestra este trabajo, que este grupo de edad podría ser seguido habitualmente por Medicina Interna pero parece necesario un mayor énfasis en la formación en estas edades. La oportunidad para incorporar adolescentes en la práctica de Medicina Interna es un desafío a tener en cuenta. Abstract in english The biologic, cognitive and sociocultural changes that occur during adolescence include a wide range such as to be best treated by internists, but focus in old ages is increasing and younger are being treated by others specialists. We review the data of those adolescents attended in our Hospital and [...] discuss Internal Medicine interest in adolescents. Material and methods: Epidemiological data, and clinical status of those patients between 15 and 21 years old admitted in our hospital during the period 1996-2002 were analysed. Results. 5894 admissions of adolescent's patients were made in this period. 1326 (23%) where attended in the Internal Medicine Department. 755 (57%) were male. Main causes of admission were infectious diseases, (mostly urinary tract and respiratory infections). Tobacco and alcohol abuse were present in 160 (6%) patients. Discussion: Adolescence marks the transition from childhood to adulthood. Health problems and deaths among adolescents and young adults result from accidents (mostly from motor vehicle), but there are conditions usually matter of our speciality. A significant number of patients are been attended by Paediatrics Department and such a speciality as Adolescence Medicine is mostly integrated by paediatric specialists. We consider as this paper show, these ages' ranges are clearly matter of our specialty and best treated by internists, but probably need a better consideration in our training. The opportunity to incorporate more adolescents into practice if realized, could prove challenging for internists.

  14. Telehealth application on the rehabilitation of children and adolescents / Aplicacao da telessaude na reabilitacao de criancas e adolescentes / Aplicacion de la tele salud en la rehabilitacion de ninos y adolescentes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Tereza N. dos, Santos; Sarah Costa D. O., Moura; Ludmila Mourao X., Gomes; Ana Henriques, Lima; Rafaela Silva, Moreira; Caroline Duarte, Silva; Eliane Marina P., Guimaraes.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conhecer as iniciativas de aplicação da telessaúde nas práticas de telerreabilitação em crianças e adolescentes de zero a 18 anos, a partir de revisão sistemática da literatura. Fontes de dados: Ensaios clínicos controlados e randomizados publicados nos últimos dez anos (janeiro de 2 [...] 002 a fevereiro de 2012) nas bases Medline/PubMed, Medline/BVS, PEDro e Biblioteca Cochrane. Os descritores "telemedicina", "reabilitação" e "telessaúde" foram utilizados em três diferentes idiomas (português, inglês e espanhol). Síntese dos dados: Dos 20 estudos encontrados na literatura, nove foram incluídos nesta revisão. A maioria dos estudos demonstrou que a telerreabilitação é capaz de produzir melhores resultados no tratamento quando comparada aos métodos de reabilitação tradicionais, proporcionando diminuição na ocorrência de sintomas, melhora na qualidade de vida, maior controle das doenças e maior adesão ao tratamento. Conclusões: A telerreabilitação é uma estratégia viável e efetiva no tratamento de doenças frequentes em crianças e adolescentes. No entanto, encontraram-se poucos estudos sobre o uso da telereabilitação nessa faixa etária. Embora a telessaúde já esteja consolidada em nível mundial, não se localizaram estudos realizados no Brasil que utilizassem a telerreabilitação em crianças e adolescentes, o que reforça a necessidade de maior número de pesquisas e investimentos. Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Conocer las iniciativas de aplicación de la tele salud en las prácticas de tele-rehabilitación en niños y adolescentes de cero a 18 años, a partir de revisión sistemática de la literatura. Fuentes de datos : Ensayos clínicos controlados y aleatorios publicados los últimos diez años (e [...] nero de 2002 a febrero de 2012) en las bases Medline/PubMed, Medline/BVS, PEDro y Biblioteca Cochrane. Los descriptores "telemedicina", "rehabilitación" y tele salud fueron utilizados en tres distintos idiomas (portugués, inglés y español). Síntesis de los datos: De los 20 estudios encontrados en la literatura, nueve fueron incluidos en esta revisión. La mayoría de los estudios demostró que la tele-rehabilitación es capaz de producir mejores resultados en el tratamiento cuando comparada a los métodos de rehabilitación tradicionales, proporcionando reducción en la ocurrencia de síntomas, mejora en la calidad de vida, mayor control de las enfermedades y mayor adhesión al tratamiento. Conclusiones: La tele-rehabilitación es una estrategia viable y efectiva en el tratamiento de patologías frecuentes en niños y adolescentes. Sin embargo, hay pocos estudios sobre el uso de la tele-rehabilitación en esa franja de edad. Aunque la salud ya esté consolidada en nivel mundial, no se localizaron estudios realizados en Brasil que utilizaran la tele-rehabilitación en niños y adolescentes, lo que refuerza la necesidad de mayor número de investigaciones e inversiones. Abstract in english Objective: To systematically review the literature on the telehealth initiatives in telerehabilitation practices in children and adolescents from zero to 18 years old. Data sources: Randomized and controlled clinical trials published in the past ten years (January 2002 to February 2012) in Med [...] line/PubMed, Medline/BVS, PEDro and Cochrane Library databases. The descriptors "telemedicine", "rehabilitation" and "telehealth" were used in three different languages (English, Portuguese and Spanish). Data synthesis: From the 20 studies found in the literature, nine were included in this review. Most of the studies showed that telerehabilitation is able to produce better results in the treatment when compared to the traditional methods, providing less frequency of symptoms, better disease control, better quality of life and greater adherence to treatment. Conclusions: Telerehabilitation is a viable and effective strategy in the treatment of common diseases in children and adolescents. However, there are few studies on the subject in this age group. Although t

  15. Factores de riesgo asociados con malnutrición por exceso en adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Yunior Velasco Peña

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: en la actualidad la obesidad y el sobrepeso son un importante problema de salud para los niños y adolescentes cubanos. Objetivo: determinar algunos factores de riesgo asociados con malnutrición por exceso en adolescentes del policlínico Julio Grave de Peralta de la provincia Holguín durante el periodo de agosto del 2011 a febrero del 2012. Métodos: se realizó un estudio analítico y transversal. Se estudiaron 37 adolescentes entre 15-19 años. Las variables analizadas en el estudio fueron: sexo, evaluación nutricional, presión arterial, colesterol total y triglicéridos. Para el análisis comparativo se empleó el test de Chi cuadrado. En todos los casos, se trabajó con un nivel de significación de p < 0,05. Resultados: se encontró obesidad en el 24,32 % de los adolescentes y fue más frecuente en el sexo femenino. En el grupo de pacientes con malnutrición por exceso 12 presentaron antecedentes patológicos familiares de obesidad (80 %, X2 = 13,87. Los adolescentes con malnutrición por exceso tuvieron altos niveles de colesterol y triglicéridos. El 20 % de los adolescentes con malnutrición por exceso presentó hipertensión grado I. Se encontró asociación significativa entre la malnutrición por exceso y los niveles elevados de colesterol y triglicéridos. Conclusiones: los antecedentes patológicos familiares de obesidad, los niveles altos de colesterol y triglicéridos y las cifras tensionales elevadas, resultaron factores de riesgo asociados a la malnutrición por exceso en los adolescentes.

  16. Intervención educativa sobre conocimientos de anticoncepción en adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Amaro Hern\\u00E1ndez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el embarazo precoz es un grave problema que afecta a muchos adolescentes. Objetivo: incrementar el nivel de conocimientos sobre anticoncepción en los adolescentes de una secundaria básica. Método: se realizó un estudio de intervención educativa en la secundaria básica Alfredo Álvarez Mola en el municipio de Camagüey desde septiembre de 2005 a Junio de 2006. Constituyeron el universo trescientos noventa y ocho adolescentes, conformaron la muestra ciento treinta y seis estudiantes. Se aplicó una encuesta antes y después de la intervención. El procesamiento de la información se realizó según el paquete estadístico microsat. Resultados: más de la mitad de los adolescentes tenían un conocimiento inadecuado sobre anticoncepción, el 29,41% tuvieron relaciones sexuales previas, sin embargo, se evaluaron de mal al 20,60% de ellos y los padres no se encontraban dentro de las principales fuentes de información; al concluir el programa educativo se incrementó el nivel de conocimiento en el 57,35% de los adolescentes. Conclusiones: se identificó que existía un conocimiento inadecuado sobre anticoncepción en la mayoría de los adolescentes, muchos iniciaron de forma precoz su vida sexual sin recibir orientación por sus padres. Al concluir la intervención se logró un incremento del nivel de conocimiento en la mayoría de los adolescentes.

  17. Treinamento resistido para crianças e adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucemar Benedet

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Em uma sociedade onde a aparência corporal é muito valorizada, as academias de musculação são procuradas de forma cada vez mais precoce pelos jovens. O objetivo deste estudo foi fazer uma análise retrospectiva sobre a evolução das recomendações do treinamento resistido para crianças e adolescentes. A busca bibliográfica foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed, Web of Science e Scielo. As estratégias de busca incluíram a combinação dos seguintes descritores: “resistance training”, “strength training”, “weight-training” “adolescents”, “children” e “youth”. A busca bibliográfica resultou em 349 artigos. A leitura e análise dos resumos pelos autores resultou na seleção de 25 artigos, respeitando os critérios de inclusão adotados. Os resultados indicam que as primeiras publicações sobre o tema ocorreram em 1990 e, a partir de então, observou-se uma evolução substancial tanto no número de publicações quanto nas abordagens do treinamento resistido para crianças e adolescentes. A análise dos artigos mostra que atualmente é possível encontrar informações qualificadas cujos indicativos suportam a prática do treinamento resistido por parte de crianças e adolescentes de forma segura e eficaz. Pode-se concluir que não restam dúvidas sobre os benefícios do treinamento resistido para a saúde dos jovens, respeitadas as recomendações vigentes as quais são pontuadas ao longo desta revisão. Convém destacar que permanecem latentes questões associadas às respostas crônicas do treinamento resistido nesta faixa etária, assim como dúvidas em relação à prescrição para as diferentes idades, ergonomia dos equipamentos e ambientes.

  18. Composición corporal por bioimpedancia en adolescentes jujeños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quispe, Yolanda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Debido al aumento de prevalencia de obesidad en niños y adolescentes existe un interés creciente por la evaluación de la composición corporal por distintos métodos. Uno de los más utilizados por su inocuidad, bajo costo y dificultad técnica y alta precisión y reproducibilidad es la bioimpedancia eléctrica (BI. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar por BI el porcentaje de masa grasa (%MG y de masa libre de grasa (%MLG en adolescentes jujeños. Los datos provinieron de 272 estudiantes (157 mujeres y 115 varones de 12 a 16 años de edad asistentes a una escuela de un barrio periférico de San Salvador de Jujuy. La BI se midió con un analizador BF-905 (Maltron, 50kHZ y configuración tetrapolar. Las diferencias entre sexos y edades se establecieron con ANOVA. Se constataron las diferencias intersexuales esperadas, siendo el %MLG en varones mayor que en mujeres, lo contrario sucede con el %MG. No se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativa por edad en ambos compartimentos en mujeres, mientras que en hombres la diferencia fue estadísticamente significativa entre 14 y 16 años. El %MG promedio en varones de 12 a 16 años fue el siguiente: 16.4, 15.1, 12.4, 14.2, 19.2. En mujeres fue: 22.6, 26.7, 27.1, 26.5, 29.9. No existen antecedentes de estudios similares en poblaciones de adolescentes jujeños. Generalmente se evalúa el peso corporal sin considerar sus compartimentos, modificables por factores ambientales (altura geográfica, nutrición, etc. y biológicos (étnicos, edad, sexo, etc.. La BI posibilitaría estimar fácilmente la variación intra e interpoblacional de la composición corporal y su relación con estos factores en las poblaciones jujeñas.

  19. Análise da gestão ambiental nos hotéis portugueses / An analysis of environmental management of Portuguese hotels / Análisis de la gestión ambiental en los hoteles portugueses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Natalina, Sousa; Celeste, Eusébio.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As ameaças ambientais ao futuro da Humanidade constituem uma das maiores preocupações da sociedade moderna. Apesar de esta preocupação encorajar as empresas a adotar práticas de gestão ambiental, a pesquisa realizada sobre a resposta da indústria hoteleira em Portugal a este desafio é escassa. Este [...] estudo analisa as práticas de gestão ambiental adotadas pelos hotéis portugueses. Para alcançar este objetivo foram inquiridos, em 2010, os diretores dos hotéis localizados em Portugal continental. Os resultados sugerem que a maioria dos hotéis implementa medidas de gestão ambiental, mas apenas cerca de 40% adota uma política de gestão ambiental formal. A energia, a água e a gestão de resíduos são as principais áreas de intervenção. As implicações dos resultados são discutidas e tecem-se recomendações sobre futuros trabalhos de investigação que permitam aprofundar o conhecimento da adoção de práticas ambientalmente responsáveis por parte dos hotéis. Abstract in spanish Las amenazas ambientales para el futuro de la humanidad es una de las principales preocupaciones de la sociedad moderna. A pesar de esta preocupación animar a las empresas a adoptar prácticas de gestión ambiental, la investigación llevada a cabo sobre la respuesta de la industria hotelera en Portuga [...] l a este reto es escasa. Este estudio analiza las prácticas de gestión ambiental adoptadas por los establecimientos hoteleros portugueses. Para lograr este objetivo fueron encuestados en 2010, los directores de los hoteles ubicados en Portugal continental. Los resultados sugieren que la mayoría de los hoteles implementa medidas de gestión medioambiental, pero sólo un 40% ha adoptado una política de gestión ambiental formal. La energía, el agua y la gestión de residuos son las principales áreas de intervención. Las implicaciones de los resultados se discuten y se tejen en recomendaciones sobre futuros trabajos de investigación que permitan profundizar el desarrollo del conocimiento de la adopción de prácticas ambientalmente responsables por los hoteles. Abstract in english Environmental threats to the future of Humanity constitute a main concern of the modern society. Notwithstanding this concern to encourage companies to adopt environmental management practices, little research has focused on Portuguese hotel industry's response to this challenge. This paper analyses [...] the environmental practices implemented by Portuguese hotels. In order to achieve this objective, in 2010, a questionnaire was e-mailed to managers of all Portuguese mainland hotels. The results suggest that most hotels implement environmental management practices, but only about 40% adopts a written environmental policy. Energy, water and solid waste management are the main areas of intervention. Implications of the findings and recommendations to further investigate environmental management practices in the hotel industry are discussed.

  20. Información sexual en un grupo de adolescentes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Zhenia, Pérez Palmero; Ludmila, Casas Rodríguez; Liuba Y., Peña Galbán; Osvaldo, Miranda Rodríguez; Miguel, Zaldívar Gari.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La educación sexual constituye una necesidad en la sociedad porque tiene entre sus objetivos capacitar al hombre para que en sus relaciones con el otro sexo pueda disfrutar de los más humanos valores y crear las condiciones materiales y espirituales óptimas para el fortalecimiento de los más legítim [...] os sentimientos de amor, respeto y solidaridad que sobre la base de la plena igualdad deben existir entre sus miembros. Por ello es necesario determinar qué grado de conocimiento e información sexual tienen los jóvenes y adolescentes entre 15 y 17 años de edad pertenecientes a una escuela de nivel medio superior. La muestra estuvo integrada por 250 adolescentes que voluntariamente decidieron participar en la investigación, a quienes se les realizó una entrevista por parte del médico en condiciones de privacidad, sobre algunos temas de sexualidad. Predominó el sexo masculino, estado civil soltero, y el décimo grado como nivel escolar. Todos los adolescentes habían recibido información sexual, cuya fuente fundamental fue la escuela; existe deficiente comunicación padres-hijos por la falta de confianza entre ellos. El nivel cognoscitivo sobre las enfermedades de transmisión sexual y su prevención es buena, aunque uno de cada 9 adolescentes ha padecido una de dichas enfermedades. Predominó la precocidad en la edad de realización del primer coito. Abstract in english Sex education is a need to society because one of its objectives is to prepare man to enjoy the highest human values in his relation with the other sex and to create the optimun material and spiritual conditions to strengthen the most legitimate feelings of love, respect and solidarity that should e [...] xist between the members of the couple on the basis of full equality. That's why, it is necessary to determine the degree of knowledge and sex information the young persons and adolescents aged 15-17 from a higher middle level educational institution have. The sample was composed of 250 adolescents that voluntarily decided to participate in the research. The physician interviewed them privately about some topics of sexuality. It was observed a predominance of males, single marital status and tenth grade as educational level. All the adolescents had received sex information, mainly at school. There is a deficient parents-children communication due to the lack of confidence between them. The cognoscitive level on sexually transmitted diseases and its prevention is good, although one out of nine adolescents has suffered from one of these diseases. Precocity prevailed at the age of having sexual relations for the first time.

  1. Resiliencia y salud en niños y adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Ivonne Gonz\\u00E1lez Arratia L\\u00F3pez Fuentes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se exponen algunas reflexiones en torno a acciones preventivas específicamente en los niños y adolescentes, desde el enfoque de la resiliencia, puesto que hay un creciente interés en los últimos años por el estudio de la capacidad que pueden tener algunos individuos cuando están expuestos a situaciones difíciles y que logran superar e incluso salir fortalecidos a pesar de la adversidad. Por lo que se analizan las implicaciones de promover el desarrollo de la resiliencia en lugar de prevenir daños específicos, como una forma de mejorar las condiciones de vida en el periodo de la infancia y adolescencia que son grupos particularmente vulnerables para la salud.

  2. para medir adicción al amor en adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Estela Retana Franco

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La llamada ?adicción al amor? no es privativa de cierto grupo de individuos, máxime en etapas de la vida en las que se inicia el proceso de atracción y cortejo. Dado lo anterior, resultó importante desarrollar un instrumento para