Christensen, Dirk L; Van Hall, Gerrit; Hambraeus, Leif
A nutritional survey based on twelve adolescent male Kalenjin runners in Kenya during a 2-week field study was carried out in order to determine the composition of their diet and make a comparison with macronutrient recommendations for athletes. Food samples were collected for analysis of macronutrient distribution and energy content from main meals and the macronutrient distribution and energy content of additional food intake were based on the information of a 24 h recall interview and estimated from food tables. The diet of the Kalenjin runners was very high in carbohydrate (71 % 8.7 g/kg body weight per d) and very low in fat (15 %). Intake of total protein (13 %; 1.6 g/kg body weight per d) was above the daily intake recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (FAO/WHO/UNU), while essential amino acid intake was estimated to be in the borderline-to-low range based on FAO/WHO/UNU recommendations for children Kalenjin runners met recommendations for endurance athletes for total protein and most essential amino acid intake as well as carbohydrate intake even though it was based on a small range of food items. PMID:12493093
Christensen, Dirk L; Van Hall, Gerrit; Hambraeus, Leif
A nutritional survey based on twelve adolescent male Kalenjin runners in Kenya during a 2-week field study was carried out in order to determine the composition of their diet and make a comparison with macronutrient recommendations for athletes. Food samples were collected for analysis of....../kg body weight per d) and very low in fat (15 %). Intake of total protein (13 %; 1.6 g/kg body weight per d) was above the daily intake recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (FAO/WHO/UNU), while essential amino acid intake was estimated to...
Christensen, Dirk Lund; Jakobsen, Jette; Friis, H
, and niacin all met RSDI by 208%, 107%, and 131%, respectively. Similarly, the intakes of magnesium, iron, and zinc were 272%, 404%, and 122% of RSDI, respectively, while calcium and selenium were below, 47% and 49%, respectively. The daily intakes of phosphorous, copper, and chromium were estimated to...
The National Urban League regards too early parenting among adolescents as an issue requiring high level, active attention from all segments of the Black community. Poverty, single parent households and adolescent pregnancies are not exclusively female problems. The role that males play has been missing from too many studies of these phenomena. In light of the fact that most sexual activity is male initiated, and most sexual behavior is male influenced, it becomes clear that there will be no resolution of the problem of teenage pregnancy without directing greater attention to the male. The issue of male responsibility is skirted too often due to parental pride on the part of mothers and fathers when their male children seek sexual relations with female partners. It is viewed as a sign that they are developing sexually within the norm. This is especially true, in many instances, in female headed households where the mother is concerned that she may not be providing her son with an adequate male role model. Sexual activity by female adolescents, however, is generally not condoned. This confusing double standard is further compounded by the disjointed fashion in which American society responds to adolescent sexuality on the whole. Although the home should be the focal point, many parents reluctantly admit an inability to communicate effectively about sex with their pre-adolescent children. Thus, the school, church, community and social agencies have all been enlisted in this task. The National Urban League's initiative in this area is expected to have significant impact on the course of adolescent sexuality and reproductive responsibility.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3745498
Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood
Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…
Ray, Shannon L.
Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…
The frequencies of quantitative and qualitative dermatoglyphic features of the toes and soles of 108 males and 108 females of two tribes from Northern Kenya are reported. These tribes are classified among the Kalenjin. The data are compared with those from other populations. PMID:6660840
Fox, L S
A sample of 100 adolescent males enrolled in 2 high schools in suburban New Jersey completed a 30 item questionnaire in 1980 to explore further the attitudes and intended behavior of white, middle-class adolescent males regarding their reproductive responsibility. Data were sought on attitudes toward sex, contraception, pregnancy, and fatherhood. Also questioned were preferences about contraceptive use as well as anticipated behavior in the event of a partner's pregnancy. The study also was designed to obtain information on responses the subjects anticipated from their paretns on preferred pregnancy outcome. All respondents were white. 94%, based on data on the subjects' fathers, were ranked middle class and higher according to Hollingshead's Two Factor Index of Social Position. Ages ranged from 15-19 with a mean age of 16. 88% were living in households with both parents. Only 4% agreed that there was nothing wrong with telling a girl that you love her (even if you do not) so that she will agree to have sexual relations. This contrasts markedly with 61% of Vadies and Hale's lower-class sample of adolescent males who felt that deception was acceptable to obtain sex. 59% of the study group agreed that contraceptive use "shows concern for the girl," but the percentage dropped slightly to 53% regarding attitude toward using "protection whenever possible." The subjects demonstrated a contrast between attitude and intended behavior with 67% indicating an intention to use contraception when participating in sex regularly. 62% thought that for most of their peers would have sex and count on luck. 54% assumed that the "girl will protect herself." Respondents were more often willing either to help the close girlfriend range an abortion (28%), to marry her (21%), or to help her seek an adoption (20%). They were less likely to do the same for a casual girlfriend except in the case of abortion. A double standard was significantly evident on the basis of several preferred types
Reiter, Paul L.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; KADIS, JESSICA A.; Brewer, Noel T.
In 2009, the United States approved quadrivalent HPV vaccine for males 9–26 years old, but data on vaccine uptake are lacking. We determined HPV vaccine uptake among adolescent males, as well as stage of adoption and vaccine acceptability to parents and their sons. A national sample of parents of adolescent males ages 11–17 years (n=547) and their sons (n=421) completed online surveys during August and September 2010. Analyses used multivariate linear regression. Few sons (2%) had received an...
Local, John; Lodge, Ken
The Kalenjin group of languages, spoken mainly in western Kenya, displays a harmony system involving the phonological feature Advanced Tongue Root ([ATR]). The study reported here addresses issues of the phonological representation of the [ATR] in Kalenjin and its phonetic interpretation. Specifically, it is shown that (1) the harmony system…
Although homosexual activity is prevalent among US teenagers, adolescent homosexuality per se has been a poorly understood phenomenon. The purpose of this investigation is to describe the meaning and experience of homosexuality from the adolescent's perspective. Twenty-nine male teenagers, self-described as gay (79%) or bisexual (21%), volunteered to participate in a structured interview, the purpose of which was to examine the definition of homosexuality, the acquisition of a gay identity, and the impact of sexuality on family, peers, and community. The youths demonstrated well-established sexual identities by the consistency of their sexual fantasies, interests, and behaviors over time. Homosexuality was more frequently described as a general attraction to men (48%) and an indicator of positive personal attributes (33%) than as an isolated sexual behavior. The subjects reported strong negative attitudes from parents (43%) and friends (41%) toward their sexualities. Discrimination (37%), verbal abuse from peers (55%), and physical assaults (30%) were frequently cited problems. These stressors may place the boys at high risk for physical and psychosocial dysfunction. PMID:3822631
Andersen, A E
Anorexia nervosa or bulimia in adolescent males occurs ten times less frequently than in adolescent females. When they occur, however, they can be clearly identified and differentiated from disorders also associated with weight loss such as swallowing phobias. Early diagnosis and treatment leads to improved outcome. While the formal psychopathology of male anorectics is similar to that of females, there is often a different motivation for the initial weight loss in males. They are more often concerned with attaining an idealized male body and avoiding teasing or criticism about their appearance. When males become ill, they tend to develop the full anorectic syndrome or not to become ill at all. Recognition of the special needs of adolescent males for individualized treatment increases the change of optimal outcome. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia in the teenage male should be seen as an ineffective method of dealing with developmental crises by gaining a sense of effectiveness and control through weight reduction and food restriction. Treatment seeks to improve quickly the starvation-related aspects of the illness while attempting to find more appropriate methods of dealing with the life crises prompting the illness. The real goal of treatment is to make the anorectic or bulimic illness unnecessary by encouraging the patient to continue the work of individuation and separation so that challenges in development and problems in living are resolved in a direct rather than an indirect way through an eating disorder. PMID:6596548
Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha
Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)
Full Text Available Objective:Substance abuse in adolescents may also be a marker to other harmful life styles. This study aims to find out the prevalence, pattern and sociodemographic risk factors of substance abuse in male adolescents. Methods:This study examined 390 male school children aged 10-19 years in the rural and urban areas of district Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. Data was analyzed by SPSS -10. Findings:Substance abuse was prevalent in 13.3% of adolescents of whom 96.1% were using various forms of tobacco and 3.8% were taking alcohol. While there was statistically significant association between the substance abuse and the age group of adolescents and size of their families, variables such as religion, socioeconomic status, place of residence were not associated with substance use. Most of the students reported initiation of substance use at 14 yrs of age due to peer pressure. Conclusion:Peer educators would be a useful strategy for communication with adolescents to counter peer pressure. The prevention and control measures should be started at primary education level.
Full Text Available Objective:Substance abuse in adolescents may also be a marker to other harmful life styles. This study aims to find out the prevalence, pattern and sociodemographic risk factors of substance abuse in male adolescents.Methods:This study examined 390 male school children aged 10-19 years in the rural and urban areas of district Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. Data was analyzed by SPSS -10.Findings:Substance abuse was prevalent in 13.3% of adolescents of whom 96.1% were using various forms of tobacco and 3.8% were taking alcohol. While there was statistically significant association between the substance abuse and the age group of adolescents and size of their families, variables such as religion, socioeconomic status, place of residence were not associated with substance use. Most of the students reported initiation of substance use at 14 yrs of age due to peer pressure.Conclusion:Peer educators would be a useful strategy for communication with adolescents to counter peer pressure. The prevention and control measures should be started at primary education level.
Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo
On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…
Montgomery, June M.
From Chaos to Calm Understanding Anger in Urban Adolescent Males by June Mardell Montgomery (ABSTRACT) This work is based on the premise that uncontrolled anger contributes to the violence committed by adolescent boys 13-17 years of age. In fact, in all countries, young males are both the principal perpetrators and victims of homicide (World Health Organization, 2002). Identifying the underlying reasons for the anger is instrumental in controlling this emotion and in develop...
Moore, Sharon E.
Explains the incidence and nature of drug trafficking and chemical dependency among adolescent black males. The paper also discusses the social science theories of Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, and Molefi Asante to better understand the behaviors, and the consequences of those behaviors, of young black males who participate in drug trafficking. (GR)
Hancock, Adrienne; Helenius, Lauren
Current research to describe and evaluate effectiveness of voice and communication therapy for male-to-female transgender people is limited to adults. This paper provides rationale, procedures, and outcomes from voice and communication therapy for a male-to-female transgender adolescent 15 years of age. Treatment addressed vocal hygiene, breath…
The pronounced gender imbalance in dance has been the norm for some time. Some studies focus on established male dancers and others focus on aspects of physical education in dance. However, studies about adolescent male dance students (nonprofessional dancers in any form) who take dance classes in a high school setting are almost nonexistent.…
Isaacsson, Viviane Christina Siena; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins
BACKGROUND Acne vulgaris has high prevalence, disturbing quality of life during adolescence. OBJECTIVES To measure dissastifaction and acne in 18-year-old male individuals and its associated factors. METHODS A questionnaire was applied by trained interviewers to all boys during selection for the military service. Dissatisfaction and acne was evaluated using a self-administered face scale. Facial, prestrernal and dorsal acne were evaluated separately. RESULTS A total of 2,200 adolescents, aged...
Muthwii, Margaret Jepkirui
The paper reports the results of a survey of parents (n=12), teachers (n=8) and pupils (n=20) in primary schools in rural Kenya. The sample was divided equally between multilingual and monolingual schools, the former using English or Kiswahili only, right through primary school, the latter using the mother tongue (in this case, Kalenjin) Kalenjin…
Younis Maha S
Full Text Available Abstract This is the first reported case of an adolescent male with anorexia nervosa in Iraq. This disorder is believed to be rare in males across cultures and uncommon for both genders in Arab countries. The patient met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa. He was hospitalized and received medical and psychiatric treatment at local facilities as discussed below and responded well to treatment.
This article formulates an overarching, inclusive model of integral counseling that enables school counselors to help male adolescents challenge the norm of conventional masculinity. The model draws from 3 areas: transpersonal counseling, holistic education, and mindful social action. The aim is to move the students' level of self-development and…
Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.
Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…
Smith, Billye J.
This study examines the reading lives of three adolescent male students who struggle in reading. The three students identified for this study are students who failed to meet the academic criteria for promotion from grade eight to grade nine as defined by the 2011 Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAKS) and were placed in grade nine by a school…
Rubin, Roger H.
Examines the relationship of family structure, peer group affiliation, social class, and sex with five dependent variables concerned with attitudes toward dating values, marriage, romanticism, premarital pregnancy, and premarital sexual permissiveness among 85 rural, Black adolescent males and females. Findings suggest general community norms and…
Kreager, Derek A.
This article examines the extent to which participation in high school interscholastic sports contributes to male violence. Deriving competing hypotheses from social control, social learning, and masculinity theories, I use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to test if (1) type of sport and (2) peer athletic…
When presented with the words self-esteem, it is most common in our society to immediately think of girls. It is not often that people ponder the effects of body image, athleticism, success, or even friendships for boys. Unfortunately in overlooking these concepts, we are doing a disservice to our male youth. This article addresses the effects of…
LEONARDO DE SOUSA FORTES
Full Text Available Background Evidence indicates a relationship between perfectionism and eating disorder symptoms (EDS. However, there is no such empirical evidence in Brazilian scientific literature. Moreover, studies of EDS in the male sex are scarce. Objective To analyze a possible association between EDS and perfectionism traits in adolescent males. Methods Participants were 368 adolescents aged 12 to 15 years. We used the subscales of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale to assess EDS and perfectionism traits, respectively. Results The results indicated a statistically significant association between the high perfectionism trait and EDS (X2 = 16.40; Wald = 15.92; p = 0.001. Moreover, the findings showed no difference in the scores of the Diet (F(1, 367 = 2.14; p = 0.23 or Concern for Food and Bulimia (F(1, 367 = 2.44; p = 0.19 subscales according to groups of perfectionism. However, we identified a higher score on the Oral Self-Control subscale of the EAT-26 in the group with high perfectionism trait than adolescents with a low perfectionism trait (F(1, 367 = 13.88; p = 0.02. Discussion: EDS were associated with perfectionism in adolescent males.
Girish H Banwari
Full Text Available Traditionally, sexual abuse is under-reported and under-recognized when the victims are boys. A study carried out by the Government of India in 2007 suggests that every second child/adolescent in the country faces some form of sexual abuse and it is nearly equally prevalent in both sexes. The significance of the problem is undermined all the more when the abuse is perpetrated by a peer. Sexual activity between children and adolescents that occurs without consent or as a result of coercion is tantamount to abuse. A majority of the victims do not disclose the occurrence to anyone. This often neglected issue of adolescent male peer sexual abuse in a sexually conservative country like India is highlighted and discussed through this case, which came to light only after the victim developed a venereal disease.
Ghufran Babar; Ramin Alemzadeh
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a disorder of calcium homeostasis. We report the case of a 17-year-old adolescent male, who presented with an acute psychosis coinciding with severe hypercalcemia and markedly elevated intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level and low vitamin D level. A Sestamibi scan showed a positive signal inferior to the left lobe of the thyroid gland. He had only a partial response to the initial medical and psychiatric management. The enlarged parathyroid gland was re...
Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.
Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a...
Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Penn, Joseph V.; Stein, L. A. R.; Lacher-Katz, Molly; Spirito, Anthony
The purpose of this study is to examine the problem behavior and self-medication models of alcohol abuse in incarcerated male adolescents. Male adolescents (N = 56) incarcerated in a juvenile correction facility were administered a battery of psychological measures. Approximately 84% of adolescents with clinically significant alcohol-related…
Taquette, Stella Regina; Rodrigues, Adriana de Oliveira; Bortolotti, Livia Rocha
`The gradual reduction in the incidence of AIDS among men who have sex with men has not occurred in the youngest age group; on the contrary, it is growing. This paper examines the vulnerabilities of adolescent males at risk of HIV infection. This is a qualitative study conducted through interviews with HIV positive young men undergoing treatment, whose diagnosis was made during adolescence. The interviews were recorded and transcribed in full. They were analyzed by intensive reading, classified by issues, and interpreted from a hermeneutic-dialectic perspective in dialogue with the literature. We interviewed 16 young men whose diagnosis occurred between the ages of 11 and 19 and for all of them the method of HIV transmission was sexual; 12 of the men were homosexual and 4 were heterosexual. It was evident that vulnerable situations included disbelief in the possibility of contamination, subjection to sex, homophobia and commercial sexual exploitation. This study demonstrates the importance of the formulation of public policies on sexual and reproductive health, which include adolescents and young men. These policies should embody the perspective of masculinity in all its widest aspects, as well as actions in favor of sexual diversity. PMID:26132259
Trotter, John Rhodes
In order to identify the relationships between the attitudes and perceptions of peer pressure and the academic achievement of academically able male adolescents, this study compares the school attitudes of high achieving and low achieving Black male youth. (EF)
Ogunfowokan, Adesola A; Olagunju, Oluwayemisi E; Olajubu, Aanuoluwapo O; Faremi, Funmilola A; Oloyede, Ajoke S; Sharps, Phyllis W
This study examined male adolescents' self-report of rape of adolescent girls and the socio-demographic variables that correlated with self-report of rape. Descriptive-correlational design was used and the study was conducted in five public senior secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Three hundred and thirty-eight male adolescents participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings from the study revealed the mean age of the adolescent males to be 16 years, with the majority (73%) of them in the middle adolescent stage. Six percent of the adolescent males reported they had raped an adolescent girl in the past. Among the boys who reported rape, 55% reported they had raped their sexual partners, and 55% reported they had perpetrated gang rape. Smoking (p = .0001), alcohol consumption (p = .001), and birth order (p = .006) predicted self-report of rape. The coefficient of birth order showed that odds of self-report of rape by first-born male increases by 6 times compared with other children. Study findings also provided evidence that adolescent males are moving from lone rape to gang rape in intimate partner relationships. Male adolescents are important group to target in rape prevention programs. PMID:25381280
Schneider, A S; Mayer, H M; Geißler, U; Rumpf, M C; Schneider, C
This study addresses the epidemiology of injuries in adolescent male and female soccer players in Germany. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to analyse the injuries in male and female youth soccer players in Germany. This study was designed as a cross-sectional web-based survey. From March until December 2011 we investigated 1110 soccer players (male n = 841; female n = 269) aged 12 - 19 years (15.0 ± 2.0 years) from 60 clubs in Southern Germany. A total of 664 (79 %) of the 841 boys and 67 (25 %) of the 269 girls reported being injured due to soccer. The total number of injuries was 2373. Respectively the frequency of injury was 2.85 in boys and 7.10 in girls. The lower extremities were affected in 70 % of all reported cases. Strains were the most common injuries in the lower and upper extremities (35 %). The boys reported in 51.5 % of all injuries that the injury was non-contact in nature. In contrast, 52.1 % of the injuries in girls were reported as contact injuries. Similar amounts of injuries were observed in training versus games for both genders. Prevention procedures, such as a thorough warm-up, should be implemented before every game and training to reduce the risk of injury. PMID:23446953
Watt, Michael J.; Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.
Social stress in adolescence is correlated with emergence of psychopathologies during early adulthood. In this study, we investigated the impact of social defeat stress during mid-adolescence on adult male brain and behavior. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to repeated social defeat for five days while controls were placed into a novel empty cage. When exposed to defeat-associated cues as adults, previously defeated rats showed increased risk assessment and behavioral inhibit...
Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Penn, Joseph V.; Stein, L. A. R.; Lacher-Katz, Molly; Spirito, Anthony
The purpose of this study is to examine the problem behavior and self-medication models of alcohol abuse in incarcerated male adolescents. Male adolescents (N = 56) incarcerated in a juvenile correction facility were administered a battery of psychological measures. Approximately 84% of adolescents with clinically significant alcohol-related problems prior to incarceration indicated use of alcohol for purposes of self-medication and 73% indicated that their alcohol use was associated with agg...
Dempster, Martin; G. Newell; Marley, John
Binge drinking among adolescents in Northern Ireland is prevalent and has detrimental eff ects on public health. Health education interventions, based on valid explanatory models of health behaviour, are required to reduce binge drinking behaviour among adolescents. " is paper examines the utility of the " eory of Planned Behaviour in explaining binge drinking behaviour among adolescent males. Using questionnaire responses from 94 adolescent boys attending secondary schools in the Belfast are...
Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT is a disorder of calcium homeostasis. We report the case of a 17-year-old adolescent male, who presented with an acute psychosis coinciding with severe hypercalcemia and markedly elevated intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH level and low vitamin D level. A Sestamibi scan showed a positive signal inferior to the left lobe of the thyroid gland. He had only a partial response to the initial medical and psychiatric management. The enlarged parathyroid gland was resected surgically and postoperatively serum calcium and iPTH levels normalized. The histopathology was compatible with a benign adenoma. Patient’s acute psychotic symptoms resolved gradually after surgery; however he remained under psychiatric care for the behavioral issues for about 6 months after surgery. While psychosis is a rare clinical manifestation of hypercalcemia secondary to PHPT in pediatric population, it should be considered as a clinical clue in an otherwise asymptomatic pediatric patient.
Cho, Sun-Mi; Sung, Min-Je; Shin, Kyoung-Min; Lim, Ki Young; Shin, Yun-Mi
This study investigated childhood psychopathology and Internet addiction in adolescents. Initial assessment data were obtained from 1998 to 1999, and a follow-up assessment was performed in 2006, when the original subjects entered middle school. Personal information for the 524 male subjects was obtained from the original data. The subjects were evaluated with the Korean version of the child behavior checklist, which was administered to the children's parents. Demographic and psychosocial factors were also evaluated. Children were reassessed with the self-reported Korea Internet Addiction Scale. Our results indicated that 3.6 % of the subjects had Internet addiction, and revealed a significant relationship between withdrawal and anxiety/depression and future Internet addiction. The results suggest that withdrawal and anxiety/depression during childhood should be considered in the etiology of problematic Internet use in boys. Accordingly, clinicians should consider anxiety/depression and withdrawal during childhood to prevent Internet addiction. PMID:23242708
Holtmann, Martin; Gerstner, Sandra; Schmidt, Martin H
We report two male adolescents who developed partial or complete retrograde ejaculation during risperidone treatment. Additionally, one patient complained of bladder outflow obstruction, and the other reported a reduced ejaculatory volume and decreased viscosity of semen. On rechallenge with risperidone, patient A showed a prompt recurrence of the ejaculatory dysfunction. The side effects were highly disturbing and led to reduced treatment compliance in both patients. The impact of risperidone, a strong alpha(1)-receptor antagonist, on the adrenergic system might induce retrograde ejaculation by altering the sympathetic tonus, allowing semen to pass retrogradely into the bladder during ejaculation. The reduced ejaculatory volume may be caused by risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Clinicians should regularly inquire about sexual dysfunction and symptoms suggestive of hyperprolactinemia before starting risperidone treatment and regularly thereafter. PMID:12804132
Full Text Available Abstract A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1 the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2 mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3 there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.
Fairchild, Graeme; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Stollery, Sarah J; Brown, Jamie; Gardiner, Julian; Herbert, Joe; Ian M Goodyer
Background Previous studies have reported lower basal cortisol levels and reduced cortisol responses to stress in children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD). It is not known whether these findings are specific to early-onset CD. This study investigated basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion in male participants with early-onset and adolescence-onset forms of CD. Methods Forty-two participants with early-onset CD, 28 with adolescence-onset CD, and 95 control subjects participated...
Full Text Available Background The prevalence of smoking in adolescents tends to increase. Smoking is associated with a higher risk of dyslipidemia. Objective To compare the lipid profiles of tobacco-smoking and non-tobacco-smoking male adolescents. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study in three vocational high schools in Yogyakarta from January to April 2011. Data on smoking status, duration of smoking and number cigarettes consumed per day were collected by questionnaires. We randomly selected 50 male smokers and 50 male non-smokers as the study subjects. Results Mean differences between smokers and non-smokers were 44.5 (95%CI 28.7 to 60.1 mg/dL for triglyceride levels; 8.0 (95% CI 1.0 to 14.9 mg/dL for low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol; 11.8 (1.1 to 22.4 mg/dL for total cholesterol and -5.7 mg/dL (95% CI -8.8 to -2.6 for high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol. Mean differences (95% CI between smokers who had engaged in smoking for >2 years and those who had smoked for ≤2 years were -18.1 (95% CI -33.9 to -2.3 mg/dL for total cholesterol; -49.4 (95% CI -67.2 to -31.5 mg/dL for triglycerides. Mean differences between those who smoked >5 cigarettes/day and ≤5 cigarettes per day were -18.4 (95% CI -32.8 to -4.1 mg/dL for total cholesterol and -29.1 (95% CI -53.6 to -4.6 mg/dL for triglycerides. Conclusion Smoking more than 5 cigarettes/day significantly increases total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, as well as reduces HDL cholesterol levels; while smoking more than 2 years significantly increases total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:232-5.].
Vaca, Federico E; Anderson, Craig L
The adolescent Latino male mortality profile is an anomaly when compared to an otherwise more favorable overall U.S. Latino population mortality profile. Motor vehicle crash fatalities bear a considerable proportion of mortality burden in this vulnerable population. Friend influence and relational connection are two contextual domains that may mediate crash injury risk behavior in these adolescents. Our study goal was to assess the role of friend influence over time and relational connections associated with crash injury risk behavior (CIRB) in adolescent Latino males. Waves I and II data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used. Scale of CIRB, and three relational connections; school connectedness, parent connectedness, and expectation of academic success were developed and tested. Friend nomination data were available and the index student responses were linked to friend responses. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship of relational connections and friend CIRB on index student CIRB at wave I and II. Longitudinal analysis did not show significant evidence for friend influence among adolescent Latino males on CIRB. The best predictor of CIRB at wave II for adolescent Latino males was their CIRB at wave I. Relational connections were important yet exaggerated cross-sectionally but their effect was substantially attenuated longitudinally. The lack of friend influence on CIRB for adolescent Latino males may be specific to this demographic group or characteristic of the sample studied. Prevention strategies that focus on modulating friend influence in adolescent Latino males may not yield the desired prevention effects on CIRB. PMID:22105382
Tatum, Alfred W.
Drawing from a sociohistorical understanding of the roles of texts for African American males and data from a recent survey of teens' meaningful experiences with texts, the author provides a general understanding of the roles of texts among African American males and African American male adolescents' meaningful relationships with texts. These…
DiCicco-Bloom, Benjamin; Romer, Daniel
The authors argue that the recent increase in poker play among adolescent males in the United States was primarily attributable to high-status male youth who are more able to organize "informal" gambling games (e.g., poker and sports betting) than are low-status male youth who are left to gamble on "formal" games (e.g., lotteries and slot…
Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.; Watt, Michael J.
The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which governs components of reward and goal-directed behaviors, undergoes final maturation during adolescence. Adolescent social stress contributes to adult behavioral dysfunction, and is linked to adult psychiatric and addiction disorders. Here, behavioral, corticosterone, and limbic dopamine responses to amphetamine were examined in adult male rats previously exposed to repeated social defeat stress during mid-adolescence. Amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, ip) w...
Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang
This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.
This study compared components of motor proficiency and physical fitness in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders, and assessed the associations between the two measures within each group. A total of 62 adolescent males with ("n" = 31) and without ("n" = 31) autism spectrum disorders aged 10-17 years completed…
Schechter, Julia C.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth
Stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age = 15) receiving…
Effeney, Gerard; Carroll, Annemaree; Bahr, Nan
This study investigated relationships between SRL and EF in a sample of 254 school-aged adolescent males. Two hypotheses were tested: that self-reported measures of SRL and EF are closely related and that as different aspects of EF mature during adolescence, the corresponding components of SRL should also improve, leading to an age-related…
Cook, Emily C.
This qualitative study explores the aspects of a residential wilderness experience that informed self-evaluations in male adolescents, ages 12-16. To assess change in self-evaluations and program factors associated with change, qualitative interviews were conducted with adolescents upon entry to the program and four months later. Participants'…
Balagué, Federico; Bibbo, Evelyne; Mélot, Christian; Szpalski, Marek; Gunzburg, Robert; Keller, Tony S.
The literature reports inconsistent findings regarding the association between low back pain (LBP) and trunk muscle function, in both adults and children. The strength of the relationship appears to be influenced by how LBP is qualified and the means by which muscle function is measured. The aim of this study was to examine the association between isoinertial trunk muscle performance and consequential (non-trivial) low back pain (LBP) in male adolescents. Healthy male adolescents underwent an...
Chirinos Jesús L.; Salazar Victor C.; Brindis Claire D.
To document knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual practices of male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru, a self-administered, anonymous survey was completed by 991 male adolescents aged 12-19 as part of a School-Based Sex Education Intervention model. Questions concerned sociodemographic information; family characteristics; personal activities; knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality; sexual experience; and contraceptive use. Knowledge related to sexuality was l...
Powell, L. A.; Potter, L.
The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of providing an intervention involving massage and yoga in a school exclusively for male disadvantaged adolescents who experience emotional and behavioural difficulties. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaires completed by teachers and pupils prior to, and completion of,…
Gurpreet Singh Chhabra
Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of psychosocial problems in male adolescents and find out various factors contributing to psycho-social ill health. Methods: 500 adolescents were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire to elicit the information about the psychosocial problems including depression, suicidal thoughts and suicidal attempts. Association of academic performance, family problems, psychological problems and substance abuse was also included. Results: More than one third (39.6% adolescents were having psychological problems. These problems were significantly higher in middle adolescence (14-16 years, large extended families (> 8 members and lower socioeconomic status. Residence had no significant relation to psychological problems in the adolescents. On correlation, these adolescents with psychological problems were having significantly more academic problems, family disputes, domestic violence, lesser number of close friends and greater substance abuse. Conclusion: Considering that male adolescents from large families with lesser education and lower income had higher prevalence of psychosocial problems, it is essential for health care planners to design comprehensive family and health education programs for the adolescents. The family support, teacher student rapport and peer group communication should be strengthened to counteract unsafe behaviours in the adolescents.
Rothman, Emily F.; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G.; Miller, Elizabeth
The authors used qualitative research methods to explore the context and sexual risk behavior associated with sexual intercourse involving multiple males and one female, commonly called "running a train." Participants were 20 adolescent males aged 14 to 22 years who were either perpetrators of dating violence or perceived by teachers to be at risk…
Lewis, Andrew J.; White, Jennifer
The study examined the role of defense mechanisms in homophobic attitudes of older male adolescents aged 17-18 years. A cross-sectional survey collected data from final year high school students (N = 86) attending an all male school in a regional centre in Victoria, Australia. The school was identified by teachers as having a problematic culture…
Burton, Meredith Greene
Adolescent gifted males behave, develop, and learn differently than their female peers. While there are many similarities between the genders, the unique socialization processes, typical characteristics, and common experiences of gifted males are important for school counselors and teachers of gifted boys to recognize and understand. Counselors…
Zimmerman, Marc A.; And Others
Substance use and delinquency, well-being, and social support were compared across 5 family constellations among 254 adolescent black males. The only difference found was that subjects living in single-mother households reported more parental support than those from other family structures. Data on father/male role model relationships challenged…
Blanchard, Ray; And Others
Examined the hypothesis that male homosexuals have a greater than average proportion of male siblings and a later than average birth order, by comparing a group of prehomosexual boys (individuals exhibiting cross-gender behaviors) and homosexual adolescents with a control group. Both predicted results were confirmed. (MDM)
Sears, Heather A.; Graham, Joanna; Campbell, Anna
This study examined adolescent boys' intentions of seeking help from male friends and female friends. We evaluated mean differences in boys' help-seeking intentions; assessed whether boys' individual characteristics predicted their intentions; and examined perceived support from male friends and female friends as mediators of these relationships.…
Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.
This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…
Murray, Kristen; Rieger, Elizabeth; Byrne, Don
This study investigated the relationship between stress and body satisfaction in adolescence. A sample consisting of 515 adolescents aged 12-16 years completed a series of self-report questionnaires assessing general and specific aspects of adolescent stress, body satisfaction and the psychological constructs of self-esteem, depressive symptoms and body importance. Results revealed a significant association between higher body dissatisfaction and higher ratings of peer stress, lower self-esteem and greater body importance for female and male adolescents. These findings suggest that adolescent stress relates to satisfaction with the body and that this stress is specifically focused on the peer environment for both genders during adolescence. This may have implications for intervention programmes aimed at improving body satisfaction, suggesting that the inclusion of stress management training in these programmes could specifically focus on difficulties within the peer domain. PMID:23897844
Stadler, Laura Patricia; Bernstein, David I; Callahan, S. Todd; Ferreira, Jennifer; Gorgone Simone, Gina A.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Stanberry, Lawrence R.; Rosenthal, Susan L.
Background Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a leading cause of disability, including sensorineural hearing loss, developmental delay, and mental retardation. Although the seroprevalence of CMV and associated exposure and behavioral risk factors have been reported in adolescent females, limited data exists in males. Method Serum was obtained from males (aged 12–17 years) from 6/2006 – 7/2007 in Cincinnati, OH, Galveston, TX, and Nashville, TN and tested for CMV IgG antibody using a commercial assay. Participants completed a computer assisted screening interview to assess seven risk categories. Results A total of 397 adolescent males were screened and 165 (47%) were seropositive. African American race, older age, and exposure to children ≤3 years of age in the home were significant predictors of CMV infection in the univariate analysis. Hispanic ethnicity, group living situations, saliva sharing behaviors, and intimate sexual contact were not associated with CMV infection. However, among those with a history of sexual contact, the number of life time partners was associated with CMV. In the final multivariate model, CMV seroprevalence was significantly higher in African American subjects (OR 1.99 (95% CI [1.27, 2.95]) and subjects >14 years of age (OR 1.1 (95%CI [1.00, 1.28]. With each additional risk factor, males had a 1.6x increased risk of CMV. Conclusions This study indicates that CMV infections are common in adolescent males, increase with age, and are associated with African American race. Further study is needed to understand these risk factors in preparation for a CMV vaccine targeted at both adolescent males and females. Summary This study indicates CMV infections are common in adolescent males, increase with age, and are associated with African Americans. Further study is needed to understand these risk factors in preparation for a CMV vaccine targeted at adolescent males and females. PMID:20936976
Epps, K J; Haworth, R; Swaffer, T
Adolescence is an important period in the development of adult sexual offending against women, yet it has received little attention in research on attitudes toward women and rape. The present study used the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS) and Burt's (1980) Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (BRMAS) to compare the attitudes of 31 male adolescents convicted of sexual assaults on women (rape, attempted rape, indecent assault) with the attitudes of 27 male adolescents convicted of nonsexual violent crimes. The results showed no significant difference between the two groups on either measure. Furthermore, a more traditional, conservative attitude toward women, as measured on the AWS, did not significantly correlate with the endorsement of rape myths as measured on the BRMAS. The findings are discussed with reference to the validity and reliability of these measures when used with adolescents. PMID:8271228
Dabaja, Ali A; Wosnitzer, Matthew S.; Bolyakov, Alexander; Schlegel, Peter N.; Paduch, Darius A.
Background Fertility preservation in adolescents undergoing sterilizing radiation and/or chemotherapy is the standard of care in oncology. The opportunity for patients to provide a semen sample by ejaculation is a critical issue in adolescent fertility preservation. Methods Fifty males with no medical or sexual developmental abnormalities were evaluated. The subjects were screened for evidence of orgasmic, erectile, and ejaculatory dysfunction. A detailed sexual development history was obtain...
Sandu, Sabine; Jackowski-Dohrmann, Sabine; Ladner, Axel; Haberhausen, Michael; Bachmann, Christian
Abstract Niemann?Pick disease, a neurovisceral lysosomal lipid storage disorder, is a rare disorder that is unknown to many clinicians. The disease, that often has its onset during childhood or adolescence, shows a polymorphic clinical picture, including psychiatric symptoms. Because of its infrequence, Niemann?Pick disease is diagnosed with an average delay of 6 years. This report presents a case of an adolescent male whose symptoms had led to various hospitalisations and psychiat...
Banwari, Girish H.
Traditionally, sexual abuse is under-reported and under-recognized when the victims are boys. A study carried out by the Government of India in 2007 suggests that every second child/adolescent in the country faces some form of sexual abuse and it is nearly equally prevalent in both sexes. The significance of the problem is undermined all the more when the abuse is perpetrated by a peer. Sexual activity between children and adolescents that occurs without consent or as a result of coercion is ...
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The cognitive determinants of social behaviors play an important role in adolescents' decision-making for starting smoking. The present study was therefore conducted to determine the predictors of tobacco smoking in male adolescents in Hamadan, Iran, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 810 male high school students in Hamadan selected through the multistage sampling method. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire with a section on participants' demographic information and another section based on the TPB constructs. Data were then analyzed in SPSS-18 and AMOS-18 using the Pearson correlation test and the indices of model fit. Results: Overall, 17.2% of the male adolescents reported to have smoked cigarettes in the past. Perceived behavioral control, subjective norms and attitude were the best predictors of behavioral intention for tobacco smoking, in the order of importance (P<0.001. Perceived behavioral control (&beta=-0.59 P<0.001 was a better predictor of the studied behavior than behavioral intention (&beta=0.11 P<0.001. In the structural equation model, TPB constructs accounted for 32% of behavioral intention variances and 50% of behavior variances. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the poor role of behavioral intention in reporting smoking behaviors in male adolescents. Other psychological factors that affect adolescents' decision-making regarding tobacco smoking should also be scrutinized.
Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate; Madeley, Mary Clare
This article examines the prevalence and consequences of body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys and girls and discusses the role of body dissatisfaction in psychological disorders, including depression and eating disorders. Additionally, it explores predictors of the development of body dissatisfaction, including individual, familial, peer,…
Sauder, Colin L.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Shannon, Katherine E.; Aylward, Elizabeth
Children and adolescents with externalizing behavior disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) often present with symptoms of comorbid internalizing psychopathology. However, few studies have examined central nervous system correlates of such comorbidity. We evaluated interactions between…
Racz, Sarah Jensen; Saha, Shonali; Trent, Maria; Adger, Hoover; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth
Background: Adolescent juvenile offenders are at high risk for problems associated with drug use, including polysubstance use (i.e., use of a variety of drugs). The combination of juvenile offending and polysubstance use presents a significant public and child health concern. Objective: This study explored polysubstance use among a sample of youth…
Discusses rarity of anorexia nervosa among male population with primary reference to differences from female symptomatology. Presents case which implies that anorexia nervosa in the male may be a marker for other more severe pathology. Presents findings which suggest a diagnostic strategy based on familial, behavioral, environmental, educational,…
C.E. van der Put; J.J. Asscher
This study aimed to examine the presence and impact of dynamic protective factors for delinquency in male adolescents with a history of sexual and/or violent offending. Bipolar factors (factors with risk and protective factors being the ends of the same continuum) were examined in male adolescents w
Hong, Soon-Beom; Kim, Jae-Won; Choi, Eun-Jung; Kim, Ho-Hyun; Suh, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Chang-Dai; Klauser, Paul; Whittle, Sarah; Yűcel, Murat; Pantelis, Christos; Yi, Soon-Hyung
Background The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has consistently been implicated in the pathology of both drug and behavioral addictions. However, no study to date has examined OFC thickness in internet addiction. In the current study, we investigated the existence of differences in cortical thickness of the OFC in adolescents with internet addiction. On the basis of recently proposed theoretical models of addiction, we predicted a reduction of thickness in the OFC of internet addicted individuals....
Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; Sonfield, Adam; Gemmill, Alison
Adolescent males are practicing safer sexual behaviors and experiencing healthier outcomes than their predecessors. In recent years, adolescent males have tended to start having sex later in life, have fewer sexual partners, use condoms and other contraceptive methods more often, and father fewer children. Yet sexual activity during adolescence remains the norm, and thus adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH) remains an important concern. Moreover, large disparities remain in risk and outcomes according to race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, social connectivity, and where men live. Policy and program advances have been limited. Adolescent males are less likely than they were a decade ago to be receiving broad-based SRH information in school, and their access to clinical services has increased only marginally. Most new funding has been provided for ineffective abstinence-only education programs. Prerequisites for continued progress include research to fill in gaps in our knowledge, arriving at societal consensus around key controversies, and new tactics and allies in the political arena. PMID:19477769
Cranford, James A.; Zucker, Robert A.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Puttler, Leon I.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.
Current models of adolescent drinking behavior hypothesize that alcohol expectancies mediate the effects of other proximal and distal risk factors. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that the effects of parental alcohol involvement on their children’s drinking behavior in mid-adolescence are mediated by the children’s alcohol expectancies in early adolescence. A sample of 148 initially 9–11 year old boys and their parents from a high-risk population and a contrast group of communit...
Chirinos Jesús L.
Full Text Available To document knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual practices of male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru, a self-administered, anonymous survey was completed by 991 male adolescents aged 12-19 as part of a School-Based Sex Education Intervention model. Questions concerned sociodemographic information; family characteristics; personal activities; knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality; sexual experience; and contraceptive use. Knowledge related to sexuality was limited. Males tended to mainly discuss sexuality with their male peers (49.8%. Attitudes towards sexual activity and condom use were largely positive, although some males expressed ambivalent feelings towards the latter. Of the sample, 43% had ever had sex; age at first sexual intercourse was 13 years. While 88% of the sample would use condoms, 74% also gave reasons for not using them. Sexual activity was related to age, ever having repeated a grade, living with only one parent or in a mixed family, activities such as going to parties, use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs, and viewing pornographic videos or magazines. Many male adolescents were at risk of causing an unintended pregnancy or acquiring an STD.
Full Text Available Social class, gender, and migration status notably influence social inequalities in the German educational system. Empirical studies reveal that especially male students from Turkish immigrant families belong to the most disadvantaged group with regard to educational opportunities. In order to identify causes for this we reconstruct and contrast biographies of successful and less successful educational careers of male adolescents from Turkish immigrant families. Our theoretical framework is based on the assumption that educational careers depend decisively on the way youths master the twofold challenge connected with adolescence and migration. Adolescent detachment processes are conceived as intergenerational occurrences (cf. King 2002, in which the quality of intergenerational family relationships as well as the biographical treatment of a particular migration project on the part of the parents play a significant role.
Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan
Fathers have often been ignored in the parenting literature. The current study focused on male cohabiting partners (MCPs) who can serve as "social stepfathers" and examined the association of coparent support and conflict with their positive parenting behavior (i.e., acceptance, firm control, and monitoring) of adolescents. Participants…
This paper outlines a study which investigated the experience of six male adolescent refugees during their transfer and adaptation to a secondary school in the UK. The research used a qualitative design. The approach adopted was Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The data generated three superordinate themes which reflected the…
Newman, Bernie Sue; Muzzonigro, Peter Gerard
Findings from 27 gay male adolescents revealed that most respondents reported feeling different from other boys as children. Average age of first crush on another boy was 12.7 years; average age for realizing they were gay was 12.5 years. Traditional family values played greater role in predicting coming out experiences than did race. (Author/NB)
Corkindale, Carolyn J.; Condon, John T.; Russell, Alan; Quinlivan, Julie A.
Little is known about what factors adolescent males consider important when making decisions concerning the resolution of an unplanned pregnancy with a teenage partner. Young men's influence on pregnancy outcome decisions can play an important part in the subsequent psychological adjustment of the female. The present report draws on data from a…
Gaines, Trudi; Barry, Leasha M.
This study sought to contribute to the identification of effective interventions in the area of male adolescent aggressive behavior. Existing research includes both group- and single-case studies implementing treatments which typically include an anger-management component and its attendant relaxation and stress-reduction techniques. The design of…
Howerton, D. Lynn; And Others
The relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement of at-risk adolescent black males was studied for 42 students in grades 6, 7, and 8. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) was used to provide global measures of self-esteem. School grades and scores from the Stanford Achievement Test battery were used to measure academic…
Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.
The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…
Tergerson, Jennifer L.; King, Keith A.
Surveyed adolescents at single-sex high schools to examine whether perceptions of physical activity differed by gender. The most helpful cue to physical activity for males and females was having a friend to exercise with. Parental encouragement and having a parent who exercised were also helpful. Wanting to do other things was a common barrier to…
O'Brien, Natalie; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Shelley-Tremblay, John
This study examined the prevalence of reading problems and self-reported symptoms of attentional deficits in a sample of adjudicated adolescent males (N = 101) aged 12 to 18 years who were residing in an alternative sentencing residential program. Thirty-four percent of the youth had reading problems while only 9% of the boys had self-reported…
García-Ael, Cristina; Cuadrado, Isabel; Molero, Fernando
From the perspective of the Think manager--think male, this study was conducted to examine the type of leadership role depending on gender in a sample of 158 Spanish adolescents -according to three types of leaders: "male middle leader", "female middle leader" and "middle leader in general". The kind of emotional expression (positive and negative) evoked by their leadership behaviors (task- and relationship- oriented) was also analyzed. Lastly, whether adolescents' sexist beliefs affected the attribution of traits and the emotional expression towards these leaders was examined. Results showed that task-oriented traits were more characteristic of the leadership role than relationship-oriented traits. Adolescents expressed more positive emotions towards a task-oriented leader and towards a leader behaving in ways associated with both task- and relationship- oriented styles, but only for men. Finally, hostile sexism predicted fewer task-oriented traits to female leaders, more negative affect towards task-oriented male leaders and towards counter-stereotypic leaders. These results were moderated by the sex of adolescents. PMID:24230951
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare the linear kinematics of the barbell and the angular kinematics of the lower limb during the snatch lifts of two different barbell weights in elite male adolescent weightlifters. In the national team level, nine elite male adolescent weightlifters participated in the study. The snatch lifts were recorded by two video cameras under competitive conditions in preparation period before the European Junior Championship (Sony MiniDv PAL- 50 field/s and the two heaviest successful lifts were selected for kinematic analysis. The little toe, ankle, knee, hip, and shoulder on the body and one point on the barbell were digitized using Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS, San Diego, CA, USA. Significant decreases were found in the maximum barbell height, the relative power output during the second pull, and the maximum vertical velocity of the barbell during the second pull of the heaviest lift (p < 0.05. Maximum extension velocity of the hip joint significantly increased during the first pull of the heaviest lift (p < 0.05. As the mass of the barbell increased, the maximum vertical velocity and the maximum height of the barbell and relative power output during the second pull decreased in the heaviest lift performed by adolescent weightlifters. Coaches should pay attention to assistant exercises to increase explosive strength during the second pull with maximum strength in male adolescent weightlifters.
Danielle L. Gomez
Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism is a very rare complication following radioactive iodine therapy. There is typically a latency period of more than a decade following radiation exposure and, therefore, it is observed almost exclusively in adults. Consequently, pediatricians are not aware of the association. We present a case of primary hyperparathyroidism due to a solitary parathyroid adenoma occurring in an adolescent male two years following radioactive iodine treatment for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Periodic screening of serum calcium following ablative doses of radioactive iodine for thyroid cancer may be justified even in adolescents.
Gavigan, Karen W.
Although graphic novels are an increasingly popular literary format, there is currently little empirical research that documents their use with struggling male adolescent readers in school settings. The purpose of this multiple case study was to examine the ways in which four struggling, eighth-grade, male readers responded to graphic novels…
Giedd Jay N
Full Text Available Abstract Improvements in neuroimaging technologies, and greater access to their use, have generated a plethora of data regarding male/female differences in the developing brain. Examination of these differences may shed light on the pathophysiology of the many illnesses that differ between the sexes and ultimately lead to more effective interventions. In this review, we attempt to synthesize the anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI literature of male/female brain differences with emphasis on studies encompassing adolescence – a time of divergence in physical and behavioral characteristics. Across all ages total brain size is consistently reported to be about 10% larger in males. Structures commonly reported to be different between sexes include the caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum – all noted to have a relatively high density of sex steroid receptors. The direction and magnitude of reported brain differences depends on the methodology of data acquisition and analysis, whether and how the subcomponents are adjusted for the total brain volume difference, and the age of the participants in the studies. Longitudinal studies indicate regional cortical gray matter volumes follow inverted U shaped developmental trajectories with peak size occurring one to three years earlier in females. Cortical gray matter differences are modulated by androgen receptor genotyope and by circulating levels of hormones. White matter volumes increase throughout childhood and adolescence in both sexes but more rapidly in adolescent males resulting in an expanding magnitude of sex differences from childhood to adulthood.
Tertia D Purves-Tyson
Full Text Available Adolescent males have an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, implicating testosterone in the precipitation of dopamine-related psychopathology. Evidence from adult rodent brain indicates that testosterone can modulate nigrostriatal dopamine. However, studies are required to understand the role testosterone plays in maturation of dopamine pathways during adolescence and to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s by which testosterone exerts its effects. We hypothesized that molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission [synthesis (tyrosine hydroxylase, breakdown (catechol-O-methyl transferase; monoamine oxygenase, transport [vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT, dopamine transporter (DAT] and receptors (DRD1-D5] would be changed by testosterone or its metabolites, dihydrotestosterone and 17β-estradiol, in the nigrostriatal pathway of adolescent male rats. We found that testosterone and dihydrotestosterone increased DAT and VMAT mRNAs in the substantia nigra and that testosterone increased DAT protein at the region of the cell bodies, but not in target regions in the striatum. Dopamine receptor D2 mRNA was increased and D3 mRNA was decreased in substantia nigra and/or striatum by androgens. These data suggest that increased testosterone at adolescence may change dopamine responsivity of the nigrostriatal pathway by modulating, at a molecular level, the capacity of neurons to transport and respond to dopamine. Further, dopamine turnover was increased in the dorsal striatum following gonadectomy and this was prevented by testosterone replacement. Gene expression changes in the dopaminergic cell body region may serve to modulate both dendritic dopamine feedback inhibition and reuptake in the dopaminergic somatodendritic field as well as dopamine release and re-uptake dynamics at the presynaptic terminals in the striatum. These testosterone-induced changes of molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission in males are primarily androgen
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Methods Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995–2004 were collected (n = 57. A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R by trained raters. Results No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle and 4 (antisocial. Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective and facets 1 (interpersonal and 2 (affective. The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide
Djurica, Dragana; Holt, Roberta R; Ren, Jingyan; Shindel, Alan W; Hackman, Robert M; Keen, Carl L
Previous studies have shown that the intake of freeze-dried strawberry powder (FDSP) improves select markers of cardiovascular health in adults with cardiovascular risk factors; however, whether these improvements can be observed in at-risk adolescents is unknown. A randomised, double-blind, cross-over study enrolled twenty-five overweight or obese males, aged 14-18 years, to consume 50 g of a FDSP or a control powder, daily for 1 week. Before and after each test period, measures of microvascular function, plasma nitrate/nitrite, platelet reactivity and blood lipids were collected at baseline and acutely 1 h after FDSP intake. Acute plasma nitrate/nitrite levels increased 1 h after consuming the FDSP during Study Visit 1 before daily FDSP intake (Pstrawberries can provide vascular health benefits to heavier adolescent males. PMID:27464461
Reichelt, Amy C; Abbott, Kirsten N; Westbrook, R Fred; Morris, Margaret J
Adolescents are the highest consumers of sugar sweetened drinks. Excessive consumption of such drinks is a likely contributor to the development of obesity and may be associated with enduring changes in the systems involved in reward and motivation. We examined the impact of daily sucrose consumption in young male and female rats (N=12 per group) across the adolescent period on the motivation to perform instrumental responses to gain food rewards as adults. Rats were or were not exposed to a sucrose solution for 2h each day for 28days across adolescence [postnatal days (P) 28-56]. They were then trained as adults (P70 onward) to lever press for a palatable 15% cherry flavored sucrose reward and tested on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule to assess motivation to respond for reinforcement. Female rats exposed to sucrose had higher breakpoints on the PR schedule than controls, whereas male rats exposed to sucrose had lower breakpoints than controls. These results show that consumption of sucrose during adolescence produced sex-specific behavioral changes in responding for sucrose as adults. PMID:26826605
Mohammadi, Mehrnoosh; RezaeiDehaghani, Abdollah; Mehrabi, Tayebeh; RezaeiDehaghani, Ali
Background: As adolescents spend much time on playing computer games, their mental and social effects should be considered. The present study aimed to investigate the association between playing computer games and the mental and social health among male adolescents in Iran in 2014. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 210 adolescents selected by multi-stage random sampling. Data were collected by Goldberg and Hillier general health (28 items) and Kiez social hea...
Gomez, Danielle L.; Shulman, Dorothy I
Primary hyperparathyroidism is a very rare complication following radioactive iodine therapy. There is typically a latency period of more than a decade following radiation exposure and, therefore, it is observed almost exclusively in adults. Consequently, pediatricians are not aware of the association. We present a case of primary hyperparathyroidism due to a solitary parathyroid adenoma occurring in an adolescent male two years following radioactive iodine treatment for papillary thyroid car...
Taubner, S.; White, L. O.; Zimmermann, J.; Fonagy, P.; Nolte, T.
Objective: To examine the role of mentalizing in the relationship between psychopathy and aggression in a sample of 75 male adolescents. Method: The participants were drawn from two other studies comparing mentalizing abilities of offenders with healthy community samples. Data was collected on mentalization capacities using the Adult-Attachment-Interview. Psychopathic traits and aggressive behavior were measured via self-report. Results: A mediator-analysis revealed that mentalization...
Black, Anne C.; Hochman, Edward; Rosen, Marc I.
Exercise acutely reduces cravings for tobacco and alcohol, but the mechanism accounting for this relationship is not fully understood. To explore exercise's effects on general risk-taking, we compared the performances of 20 adolescent male athletes on the balloon analog risk task (BART) immediately after periods of exercise (playing tennis) and rest. Statistically significant risk-taking effects were observed post-exercise. The established attenuating effect of exercise on desire for substanc...
Zehr, Julia L.; Nichols, Liana R.; Schulz, Kalynn M.; Sisk, Cheryl L.
Hippocampal function, including spatial cognition and stress responses, matures during adolescence. In addition, hippocampal neuron structure is modified by gonadal steroid hormones, which increase dramatically at this time. This study investigated pubertal changes in dendritic complexity of dentate gyrus neurons. Dendrites, spines, and cell bodies of Golgiimpregnated neurons from the granule cell layer were traced in pre-, mid-, and late pubertal male Syrian hamsters (21, 35, and 49 days of ...
Koury, Josely C; Trugo N, M F; Torres, Alexandre G
The aim of the current study was to assess phase angle (PA) and bioelectrical impedance vectors (BIVA) in adolescent (n = 105, 12-19 y) and adult (n = 90, 20-50 y) male athletes practicing varied sports modalities. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed with a single-frequency tetrapolar impedance analyzer after the athletes had fasted overnight for 8 h. PA and BIVA were determined from BIA data. PA presented correlations (P athletes and also with age in adolescent (r = .63) and adult (r = -.27) athletes. Compared with adults, adolescent athletes presented lower PA and higher frequency of PA below the 5th percentile of a reference population (P athletes were different (P athletes were in the 95th percentile of BIVA tolerance ellipses and in quadrants consistent with adequate body cell mass and total body water. The adolescent athletes outside the 95th percentile ellipse were all football and basketball players who showed indications of decreased water retention and body cell mass and of increased water retention, respectively. PA and BIVA ellipses showed that the intense training routine of the athletes changed functional and hydration parameters and that the magnitude of these changes in adolescents may depend on the sport modality practiced. PMID:24414089
Burke, Andrew R.; Forster, Gina L.; Novick, Andrew M.; Roberts, Christina L.; Watt, Michael J.
Maturation of mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems occurs during adolescence, and exposure to social stress during this period results in behavioral dysfunction including substance abuse disorders. Adult male rats exposed to repeated social defeat in adolescence exhibit reduced basal dopamine tissue content in the medial prefrontal cortex, altered dopamine tissue content in corticoaccumbal dopamine regions following acute amphetamine, and increased amphetamine conditioned place preference follo...
Donati, Maria Anna; Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina
This study aimed at testing a model in which cognitive, dispositional, and social factors were integrated into a single perspective as predictors of gambling behavior. We also aimed at providing further evidence of gender differences related to adolescent gambling. Participants were 994 Italian adolescents (64% Males; Mean age = 16.57).…
Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Pulaski, Sarah J.; Openshaw, Anne E.; Zamboni, Giovanna; Meer, Elke van der; Grafman, Jordan
The relationship between cortical grey matter density and media violence exposure in healthy male adolescents was investigated using voxel-based morphometry and the Childrens’ Report of Exposure to Violence. Adolescents with more frequent exposure have lower left lateral orbitofrontal cortex density - a possible risk factor for altered socio-emotional functioning.
Best, Paul; Gil-Rodriguez, Elena; Manktelow, Roger; Taylor, Brian
Online help-seeking is an emerging trend within the 21st century. Yet despite some movement towards developing online services, little is known about how young people locate, access and receive support online. This study aims to conceptualise the process of online help-seeking among adolescent males. Modified photo-elicitation techniques were employed within eight semi-structured focus group sessions with adolescent males aged 14 – 15 years (n= 56) across seven schools in Northern Ireland. Th...
Erling David Kaunang
Full Text Available Background Systematic exercise leads to increased left ventricular mass, which may be misleading in a differential diagnosis of heart disease in athletes (physiologic hypertrophy versus pathologic hypertrophy. The cause of left ventricular hypertrophy is an important risk factor in the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases. Objective To compare left ventricular mass and left ventricular hypertrophy in male adolescent athletes and non-athletes. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, analytic study, from September to December 2012 in male adolescents aged 15-18 years. The case group included athletes from the Bina Taruna Football Club Manado, while the control group included non-athlete adolescents. All subjects underwent history-taking, physical examinations and further supporting examinations. Left ventricular mass was measured by cardiovascular echocardio-graphy (Esaote Mylab 4.0 and calculated based on a formula. Left ventricular hypertrophy was defined as left ventricular mass of > 134 g/m2 body surface area. Results Subjects’ mean left ventricular masses were 359.69 (SD 188.4; 95%CI 283.58 to 435.81 grams in the athlete group and 173.04 (SD 50.69; 95%CI 152.56 to 103.51 grams in the non-athlete group, a statistically significant difference (P=0.0001. Ventricular hypertrophy was found 76.9% compared to 11.5% in the non-athlete group (P=0.0001. Conclusion Left ventricular mass in athletes is bigger than in non-athletes. In addition, left ventricular hypertrophy is more common in male adolescent athletes than in non-athletes. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:305-8.].
Boričević Maršanić, Vlatka; Margetić, Branka Aukst; Zečević, Iva; Herceg, Miroslav
Despite evidence that children of male war veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at particularly high risk for behavior problems, very little is currently known about suicidal behaviors in this population of youth. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent offspring of Croatian male PTSD veterans. Participants were psychiatric inpatients, ages 12-18 years. Self-report questionnaires assessed demographics, suicide attempts, psychopathology, parenting style, and family functioning. The prevalence of suicide attempts was 61.5% (65.2% for girls and 58.0% for boys). Internalizing symptoms, family dysfunction, lower levels of maternal and paternal care, and paternal overcontrol were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Our findings suggest that suicide attempts are common among inpatient adolescent offspring of male PTSD veterans and that interventions targeting both adolescent psychopathology and family relationships are needed for adolescents who have attempted suicide. PMID:24338268
Balottin, Laura; Selvini, Claudia; Luoni, Chiara; Mannarini, Stefania; Chiappedi, Matteo; Seri, Stefano; Termine, Cristiano; Cavanna, Andrea E
Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple tics and commonly associated with behavioral problems, especially obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The presence of specific personality traits has been documented in adult clinical populations with Tourette syndrome but has been underresearched in younger patients. We assessed the personality profiles of 17 male adolescents with Tourette syndrome and 51 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent version, along with a standardized psychometric battery. All participants scored within the normal range across all Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent version scales. Patients with Tourette syndrome scored significantly higher than healthy controls on the Obsessiveness Content Scale only (P = .046). Our findings indicate that younger male patients with Tourette syndrome do not report abnormal personality traits and have similar personality profiles to healthy peers, with the exception of obsessionality traits, which are likely to be related to the presence of comorbid obsessive compulsive symptoms rather than tics. PMID:26078419
Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Mao, Yu; Feng, Xiao-Li; Zheng, Na; Lü, Long-Bao; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Qin, Dong-Dong; Hu, Xin-Tian
Chronic stress is an important cause for depression. However, not everyone who is exposed to chronic stress will develop depression. Our previous studies demonstrated that early adversity can cause lasting changes in adolescent rhesus monkeys, but depressive symptoms have not been observed. Compared to adults, it is still unknown that whether adolescent rhesus monkeys experiencing early adversity are more likely to develop depressive symptoms. In this study, we investigated the long term relationship between early adversity, chronic stress and adolescent depression for the first time. Eight male rhesus monkeys were reared in maternal separation (MS) or mother-reared (MR) conditions. All of them went through unpredictable chronic stress for two months at their age four. The stressors included space restriction, intimidation, long illumination and fasting. Behavioral and physiological data were collected during the experiment. The results showed that, compared with the MR group, the locomotor activity of MS group was significantly decreased after one month of chronic stress while huddling up and stereotypical behaviors were significantly increased. Moreover, this trend continued and even worsened at the second month. Significantly higher hair cortisol levels and lower body weight were observed in MS group after two months of stress. These results indicate that early adversity is one of the environmental factors which can increase the susceptibility of depression when experiencing chronic stress in the later life. This will further clarify the important roles of early environmental factors in the development of adolescent depression and children rearing conditions should receive more attention. PMID:27025444
Xu, Ling-Zhi; Liu, Li-Jing; Yuan, Ming; Li, Su-Xia; Yue, Xiao-Dong; Lai, Ju-Lian; Lu, Lin
The seasonality of depressive symptoms is prevalent in children and adolescents. However, the mechanisms that underlie such susceptibility to seasonal influences on mood disorders are unclear. We examined the effects of a short photoperiod condition on the susceptibility to subchronic unpredictable mild stress (SCUS) and rhythmic alterations of plasma corticosterone (CORT), melatonin, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in adolescent male rats. Compared with the 12h/12h light/dark photoperiod control (CON) rats, the 8h/16h photoperiod SCUS rats exhibited significant anhedonia, a core symptom of human depression, together with a blunted diurnal rhythm and elevation of 24h CORT, melatonin, and NPY levels. The 8h/16h photoperiod condition also blunted the rhythmicity of CORT, caused a phase inversion of melatonin, and caused a phase delay of NPY compared with 12h/12h CON rats. Such abnormalities of plasma CORT, NPY, and melatonin might cause adolescent individuals to present higher stress reactivity and greater vulnerability to stress over their lifetimes. The present study provides evidence of the susceptibility to the seasonality of stress-related disorders in adolescence. PMID:26655789
Full Text Available Background: Aggressive behavior in adolescence can be expressed as a predictor for crime, substance abuse, depression and academic failure. The purpose of this study was to determine the prediction of aggression among Iranian adolescent based on theory of planned behavior (TPB as a theoretical framework. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Yasuj County, south of Iran, during 2011, a total of 256 male adolescents, were randomly enrolled. Participants filled out a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 using bivariate correlations, and linear regression statistical tests at 95% significant level. Result: The three predictor variables of 1 attitude, 2 subjective norms, and 3 perceived behavioral control, accounted for 40% of the variation in the outcome measure of the aggression intention. Besides, intention accounted for 15% of the variation in the outcome measure of the aggression behavior. There was a significant correlation between drug abuse and alcohol consumption, have friend drug user, unprotect sex and parents divorced with aggression (P< 0.05. Conclusions: Designing intervention to reduction positive attitude and subjective norms toward aggressive behavior among adolescents could be use-fulness result to aggression prevention.
Ozener, B; Duyar, I
Although the effect of labour and physical stress on the height and weight of growing children is relatively well known, rather limited information concerning the influences of the work environment on the physique of working children and adolescents is available. The purpose of this study was to increase our knowledge of the effects of mechanical stress on the human physique via somatotype during the adolescent growth period. Anthropometric measurements of 509 male apprentices aged 13.50-18.49 years and measurements of 451 nonworking youth (control group) of the same age group were taken. The members of both groups were from the lower socioeconomic strata and had similar living conditions. The apprentices were working an average of 11h per day in vocations requiring intense physical effort. The subjects were somatotyped using the Heath-Carter anthropometric protocol. The overall mean somatotypes were 2.3-4.4-3.3 for working adolescents, and 2.5-3.9-3.6 for the nonworking controls. A one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated significant differences between the groups. Working adolescents were more mesomorphic and less ectomorphic than their nonworking peers. In both groups, endomorphy decreased with age up to age 15; then remained stable for the labourers but increased for the nonworking peers. In both groups, mesomorphy was stable, but decreased with ectomorphy. These results indicate that physical stress not only causes retardation in linear growth, but also produces changes in human physique during the growth period. PMID:18222445
Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.
This study explored the beliefs of African American male adolescents concerning the high rates of HIV infection among their peers and their reasons for those beliefs. In-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of 16 male African Americans, and a thematic analysis of the data was conducted. Half of the participants believed that peers were…
Calzo, Jerel P.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Corliss, Heather L.; Scherer, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn
This study investigates body image concerns and disordered weight- and shape-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood in males and how patterns vary by sexual orientation. Participants were 5,388 males from the U.S. national Growing Up Today Study. In 2001, 2003, and 2005 (spanning ages 15-20 years), participants reported sexual…
Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L; Park, Chang G; Quinn, Laurie; Kong, In Deok
The purpose of this study was to compare the resting-state plasma catecholamine and anxiety levels of Korean male adolescents with Internet game addiction (IGA) and those without IGA. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with 230 male high school students in a South Korean city. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were employed, and data were collected using (1) participant blood samples analyzed for dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) and (2) two questionnaires to assess IGA and anxiety levels. Using SPSS 15.0, data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ(2)-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation tests. The plasma Epi (t = 1.962, p gaming over time induced decreased peripheral Epi and NE levels, thus altering autonomic regulation, and increasing anxiety levels in male high school students. Based on these physiological and psychological effects, interventions intended to prevent and treat IGA should include stabilizing Epi, NE, and anxiety levels in adolescents. PMID:26849530
Bruce, Marino A; Beech, Bettina M; Griffith, Derek M; Thorpe, Roland J
Spirituality and religion have been identified as important determinants of health for adults; however, the impact of faith-oriented factors on health behaviors and outcomes among African American adolescent males has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between religiosity and spirituality and obesity-related behaviors among 12-19 year old African American males (N = 105) in the Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study. Key variables of interest are church attendance, prayer, daily spirituality, weight status, attempts to lose weight, nutrition, physical activity, and stress. Daily spirituality is associated with whether an individual attempts to lose weight. The results from logistic regression models suggest that daily spirituality increases the odds that African American male adolescents attempt to lose weight (OR = 1.22, CI: 1.07-1.41) and have a history of diet-focused weight management (OR = 1.13, CI: 1.02-1.26). Future studies are needed to further explore the association between religion, spirituality, and obesity-related behaviors. PMID:27337622
Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L.; Park, Chang G.; Quinn, Laurie
Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare the resting-state plasma catecholamine and anxiety levels of Korean male adolescents with Internet game addiction (IGA) and those without IGA. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with 230 male high school students in a South Korean city. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were employed, and data were collected using (1) participant blood samples analyzed for dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) and (2) two questionnaires to assess IGA and anxiety levels. Using SPSS 15.0, data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ2-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation tests. The plasma Epi (t = 1.962, p gaming over time induced decreased peripheral Epi and NE levels, thus altering autonomic regulation, and increasing anxiety levels in male high school students. Based on these physiological and psychological effects, interventions intended to prevent and treat IGA should include stabilizing Epi, NE, and anxiety levels in adolescents. PMID:26849530
Reigeluth, Christopher S; Pollastri, Alisha R; Cardemil, Esteban V; Addis, Michael E
Decades of masculinity research have concluded that society places higher demands on males to adhere to norms for low emotional expression; yet, countless studies find that emotional expression is integral to well-being. Unfortunately, this contradiction places boys and men in a tenuous position as they must navigate a bombardment of societal messages about the importance of emotional stoicism and invincibility. For urban adolescents, the situation is more complicated as they encounter environmental stressors that place greater emphasis on projecting a tough façade. Thus, our primary aim was to assess to what degree dyads of close adolescent male friends from urban, low-income neighborhoods are able to engage in emotional expression and response and to explore some of the underlying mechanisms and interpersonal processes. Qualitative findings from our sample suggest that urban boys exhibit a wide range of behaviors when participating in dyadic emotional disclosure and response, including being highly emotionally expressive and supportive in the context of close male friendship. PMID:27124423
Full Text Available Objective: Goals for winning in sports can overshadow the virtues of fair play, friendship and unity among competitors. Adolescent athletes are using substances to achieve these goals, often at the expense of their health.The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of performance enhancing substance (PES use in South African male adolescents and to determine which substances are regularly used. Moreover, the study investigated whether the subjects were using legal or illegal substances, and also determined the reasons for using these in sports. Design: The study used a cross-sectional study design, using a self-administered questionnaire adapted from a previous South African study that investigated doping in elite athletes. The questionnaire included questions on high school sport participation, nutritional supplements and doping substances used to enhance performance. The sample of subjects was obtained from male adolescent high school athletes involved in regular competitive sports at the 1st and 2nd sports team levels. Results: The results indicated that the prevalence of PES use in this sample was reasonably low (30/100. The subjects indicated a variety of substances used for performance enhancement, including banned substances, (namely, growth hormone (5/100, anabolic androgenic steroids (4/100, and adrenaline/ephedrine (4/100, and permissible supplements, (namely, creatine (32/100, vitamins (61/100, protein (61/100, caffeine (57/100 and carbohydrates (54/100. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the use of banned substances for performance enhancement is present. A holistic approach to educational interventions and behaviour change may help to reduce the prevalence of banned substance use in adolescents.
Wisting, Line; Bang, Lasse; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Rø, Øyvind
Objective The aim of this study is to investigate psychological barriers (illness perceptions, insulin beliefs, and coping strategies) to optimal insulin therapy among adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D), with a specific focus on gender differences and mode of treatment (insulin pump vs pen). Methods A total of 105 males and females (12–20 years) participated in this study. The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire, and the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences were completed. Additionally, diabetes clinical data were collected by the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry. Results Females had significantly more negative illness perceptions than males on all dimensions (p<0.05), with moderate-to-large effect sizes. Regarding insulin beliefs, females scored significantly higher than males on insulin concern (p<0.001), indicating more concerns about insulin. There were no significant gender differences on perceptions of insulin necessity. Finally, females scored significantly higher on the coping strategies being social and solving family problems (p<0.01), indicating more positive coping among females than males for these subscales. In terms of treatment mode, the only statistically significant difference in the psychological aspects was for the illness perception treatment control, with patients using insulin pen reporting more negative perceptions on this dimension than patients using insulin pump. Conclusions Addressing psychological aspects may be a clinically important supplement to standard somatic T1D care. The consistent finding of gender differences across the psychological measures implies that a tailored treatment approach for males and females with T1D may be warranted. PMID:27403325
Gallo, Mia V.; Deane, Glenn D.; Nelder, Kyrie R.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Jacobs, Agnes
Background: Concern persists over endocrine-disrupting effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on human growth and sexual maturation. Potential effects of toxicant exposures on testosterone levels during puberty are not well characterized. Objectives: In this study we evaluated the relationship between toxicants [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and lead] and testosterone levels among 127 Akwesasne Mohawk males 10 to DeCaprio AP, Jacobs A; Akwesasne Task Force on the Environment. 2014. Relationships of polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE) with testosterone levels in adolescent males. Environ Health Perspect 122:304–309; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205984 PMID:24398050
Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J
IMPORTANCE Sexual violence can emerge in adolescence, yet little is known about youth perpetrators-especially those not involved with the criminal justice system. OBJECTIVE To report national estimates of adolescent sexual violence perpetration and details of the perpetrator experience. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Data were collected online in 2010 (wave 4) and 2011 (wave 5) in the national Growing Up With Media study. Participants included 1058 youths aged 14 to 21 years who at baseline read English, lived in the household at least 50% of the time, and had used the Internet in the last 6 months. Recruitment was balanced on youths' biological sex and age. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Forced sexual contact, coercive sex, attempted rape, and completed rape. RESULTS Nearly 1 in 10 youths (9%) reported some type of sexual violence perpetration in their lifetime; 4% (10 females and 39 males) reported attempted or completed rape. Sixteen years old was the mode age of first sexual perpetration (n = 18 [40%]). Perpetrators reported greater exposure to violent X-rated content. Almost all perpetrators (98%) who reported age at first perpetration to be 15 years or younger were male, with similar but attenuated results among those who began at ages 16 or 17 years (90%). It is not until ages 18 or 19 years that males (52%) and females (48%) are relatively equally represented as perpetrators. Perhaps related to age at first perpetration, females were more likely to perpetrate against older victims, and males were more likely to perpetrate against younger victims. Youths who started perpetrating earlier were more likely than older youths to get in trouble with caregivers; youths starting older were more likely to indicate that no one found out about the perpetration. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Sexual violence perpetration appears to emerge earlier for males than females, perhaps suggesting different developmental trajectories. Links between perpetration and violent sexual
Willis, Leigh A; Coombs, David W; Cockerham, William C; Frison, Sonja L
African-Americans have typically registered lower rates of suicide than other ethnic groups. In the last 20 years this pattern has changed, particularly among young African-Americans between the ages of 15 and 19 (National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Mortality Statistics, 1998, Atlanta, GA). Today, young African-American males are as likely to commit suicide as their White counterparts. To date, the research conducted regarding this phenomenon has been inconclusive and existing suicide interventions appear to have no effect on reducing this behavior among young African-Americans. This paper synthesizes classical (Durkheim, Suicide, 1979, Free Press, New York) and postmodern (Beck, Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity, 1992, Sage, London; Bauman, Modernity and Ambivalence, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1991) social theories in order to provide a more complete theoretical explanation for the increase in the suicide rate among adolescent African-American males. Postmodern society is typified by: (1) institutional deconstruction; (2) decreased collectivism; (3) increased normlessness and helplessness; and (4) exacerbated personal risk for stress. It is therefore possible to hypothesize that postmodernity characteristically loosens the bonds between the individual and society, thereby increasing vulnerability to depression, related pathologies (such as substance abuse), and suicide. African-Americans tend to be more affected/vulnerable because they are concentrated in resource-poor, low income areas, and institutions that provided social support (family, religious, community) and protected individuals from societal risk factors, have gradually been dissolving in postmodern societies. We argue that young African-American males of today are more exposed to stressors which increase psychological distress thus increasing depression and related pathological behaviors such as suicide. The main reason behind this increase is found in the inability of
Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited data from positron emission tomography (PET studies of subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD indicate alterations in brain dopamine neurotransmission. However, these studies have used conventional univariate approaches that are less sensitive to detect complex interactions that may exist between different brain dopamine pathways and individual symptoms of ADHD. We aimed to investigate these potential interactions in adolescents with ADHD. Methods We used a 3D PET scan to measure utilization of native L-[11C]-DOPA to map dopamine presynaptic function in various cortical, striatal and midbrain regions in a group of 8 male adolescents with ADHD and 6 age matched controls. To evaluate the interactions between the studied brain regions, multivariate statistical methods were used. Results Abnormal dopaminergic function was found in multiple brain regions of patients with ADHD. A main finding was lower L-[11C]-DOPA utilization in adolescent with ADHD as compared to control subjects, especially in subcortical regions. This pattern of dopaminergic activity was correlated specifically with symptoms of inattention. Conclusion Dopamine signalling in the brain plays an important modulatory role in a variety of motor and cognitive functions. We have identified region-specific functional abnormalities in dopaminergic function, which may help better account for the symptoms of ADHD.
ZinatMotlagh, Fazel; Ataee, Mari; Jalilian, Farzad; MirzaeiAlavijeh, Mehdi; Aghaei, Abbas; Karimzadeh Shirazi, Kambiz
Background: Aggressive behaviorin adolescencecan be expressed asa predictorfor crime, substanceabuse, depression and academic failure. The purpose of this study was to determine the prediction of aggression among Iranian adolescent based on theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a theoretical framework. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Yasuj County, south of Iran, during 2011, a total of 256 male adolescents, were randomly enrolled. Participants filled out a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 using bivariate correlations, and linear regression statistical tests at 95% significant level. Result:The three predictor variables of 1) attitude, 2) subjective norms, and 3) perceived behavioral control, accounted for 40% of the variation in the outcome measure of the aggression intention. Besides, intention accounted for 15% of the variation in the outcome measure of the aggression behavior. There was a significant correlation between drug abuse and alcohol consumption, have friend drug user, unprotect sex and parents divorced with aggression (P< 0.05). Conclusions: Designing intervention to reduction positive attitude and subjective norms toward aggressive behavior among adolescents could be usefulness result to aggression prevention. PMID:24688977
Chassin, Laurie; Dmitrieva, Julia; Modecki, Kathryn; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R; Knight, George P; Losoya, Sandra H
Multiple theories suggest mechanisms by which the use of alcohol and drugs during adolescence could dampen growth in psychosocial maturity. However, scant empirical evidence exists to support this proposition. The current study tested whether alcohol and marijuana use predicted suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among a sample of male serious juvenile offenders (n = 1,170) who were followed from ages 15 to 21 years. Alcohol and marijuana use prospectively predicted lower maturity 6 months later. Moreover, boys with the greatest increases in marijuana use showed the smallest increases in psychosocial maturity. Finally, heterogeneity in the form of age-related alcohol and marijuana trajectories was related to growth in maturity, such that only boys who decreased their alcohol and marijuana use significantly increased in psychosocial maturity. Taken together, these findings suggest that patterns of elevated alcohol and marijuana use in adolescence may suppress age-typical growth in psychosocial maturity from adolescence to young adulthood, but that effects are not necessarily permanent, because decreasing use is associated with increases in maturity. PMID:20307112
Lee, June-Young; Park, E-Jin; Kwon, Min; Choi, Ji-Hye; Jeong, Jo-Eun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Choi, Sam Wook; Lee, Chang-Uk; Kim, Dai-Jin
Objective This study examined the differences in psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral aspects in accordance with the severity of Internet addiction in male adolescents. Methods One hundred and twenty-five adolescents from four middle and high schools in Seoul were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into non-addict, abuse, and dependence groups according to a diagnostic interview by psychiatrists. The psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral aspects of subjects were evaluate...
Full Text Available Objective: To examine inter-methods agreement between dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and air displacement plethysmography (ADP in male adolescent cyclists for assessing percentage of body fat (PBF. Methods: PBF of 24 male adolescent cyclists was assessed by DXA and ADP. Agreement between ADP and DXA was determined according to a Bland-Altman plot; validity and lack of agreement was assessed by calculating inter-methods difference. The limits of agreement and differences between methods were also calculated by paired t-tests. Heteroscedasticity was also examined. Results: The values obtained by DXA were higher than those obtained by ADP, and the graph presented heteroscedasticity (both p < 0.05; r = 0.74. Conclusion: DXA and ADP methods were not comparable in terms of PBF assessment in our sample of male adolescent cyclists; it needs to be taken into account when evaluating longitudinal changes in this determined population.
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yang, Pinchen; Hu, Huei-Fan
The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence rates and multilevel correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators among male adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were also examined. The experiences of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration in 251 male adolescents with ADHD were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were examined using multiple regression analysis. A total of 48 (19.1%) and 36 (14.3%) participants reported that they were cyberbullying victims or perpetrators, respectively. Those who had increased age and a higher parental occupational socioeconomic status, and reported more severe traditional passive bullying victimization were more likely to be cyberbullying victims. Those who had increased age and combined-type ADHD, and reported lower BAS reward responsiveness, more severe Internet addiction and more severe traditional passive bullying perpetration were more likely to be cyberbullying perpetrators. Cyberbullying victims reported more severe depression and suicidality than those who were not cyberbullying victims. A high proportion of male adolescents with ADHD are involved in cyberbullying. Clinicians, educational professionals, and parents of adolescents should monitor the possibility of cyberbullying involvement among male adolescents with ADHD who exhibit the cyberbullying correlates identified in this study. PMID:25241113
Peres, Camila Alves; Peres, Rodrigo Alves; da Silveira, Fernando; Paiva, Vera; Hudes, Esther Sid; Hearst, Norman
The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding AIDS among incarcerated male adolescents in Brazil and to develop an AIDS prevention intervention for this population. A questionnaire administered to 275 boys in São Paulo covered demographic and social characteristics, drugs, and HIV risk perception and behavior. Subsequently, we collected qualitative data on the development and implementation of a prevention program. Ninety-eight percent of adolescents were sexually experienced, most initiating by age 13; 22% were fathers. Injection drug use was reported by 5.5%, 12% had exchanged sex for money, 35% had more than 15 partners and 8% had homosexual experience. Although 72% had used condoms, only 9% used them consistently, and only 35% used one in their last intercourse before incarceration. Predictors of condom use included carrying condoms and endorsing the statement "I would use condoms with my girlfriend." Many said their lives include other risks more important than AIDS, such as survival in the crime scene. Initial efforts at prevention based on commonly used approaches of providing information to guide future rational decisions generated limited participation. However, when we worked with them to develop interventions based on their interests and needs, using modalities such as music, hip-hop arts, graffiti, and helping them to create an AIDS prevention compact disk, they responded with enthusiasm. These incarcerated adolescents are at extremely high social risk and report high levels of risk behavior for HIV infection. Interventions for these youth were better received when developed in collaboration with them and based on their beliefs, aspirations, and culture. The intervention that resulted went beyond AIDS to include issues such as violence, drugs, sexuality and human rights. PMID:12413191
McDougall, Sanders A; Mohd-Yusof, Alena; Kaplan, Graham J; Abdulla, Zuhair I; Lee, Ryan J; Crawford, Cynthia A
Administering manganese chloride (Mn) to rats on postnatal day (PD) 1-21 causes long-term reductions in dopamine transporter levels in the dorsal striatum, as well as a persistent increase in D1 and D2 receptor concentrations. Whether dopamine autoreceptors change in number or sensitivity is uncertain, although D2S receptors, which may be presynaptic in origin, are elevated in Mn-exposed rats. The purpose of this study was to determine if early Mn exposure causes long-term changes in dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity that persist into adolescence and adulthood. To this end, male rats were exposed to Mn on PD 1-21 and autoreceptor functioning was tested 7 or 70 days later by measuring (a) dopamine synthesis (i.e., DOPA accumulation) in the dorsal striatum after quinpirole or haloperidol treatment and (b) behavioral responsiveness after low-dose apomorphine treatment. Results showed that low doses (i.e., "autoreceptor" doses) of apomorphine (0.06 and 0.12 mg/kg) decreased the locomotor activity of adolescent and adult rats, while higher doses increased locomotion. The dopamine synthesis experiment also produced classic autoreceptor effects, because quinpirole decreased dorsal striatal DOPA accumulation; whereas, haloperidol increased DOPA levels in control rats, but not in rats given the nerve impulse inhibitor γ-butyrolactone. Importantly, early Mn exposure did not alter autoreceptor sensitivity when assessed in early adolescence or adulthood. The lack of Mn-induced effects was evident in both the dopamine synthesis and behavioral experiments. When considered together with past studies, it is clear that early Mn exposure alters the functioning of various dopaminergic presynaptic mechanisms, while dopamine autoreceptors remain unimpaired. PMID:23458069
Restructuring the personality, developing a new we-feeling, coping with drive thrusts and ego-syntonically reorganizing infantile conflicts are key developmental functions during adolescence. Some characteristics of male adolescence explain why especially male teen-agers are susceptible to joining right-wing extremist groups ready to use violence. The surroundings of right-wing extremist violence offers specific stabilizations which support the adolescent configuration of the enlarged self but as the same time they also lead to deformations of the personality. Establishing a greater self by ideology, self reparative transformation of self hatred to xenophobia, masking the personality and the regression of sexual desire to the desire of violence are consequences of processes of adaption and assimilation as described in cases of serious inner or outer threats. PMID:7991504
Chin, Young Ran; Choi, Kyungwon
Using data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, this study seeks to investigate associations of suicide attempts with family, individual, and behavioral factors on the basis of gender. Among male adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, who had poor subjective academic achievement, depression, experiences of smoking and sexual coitus, drug abuse, suicidal ideation and plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Among the female adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, had depression, low self-rated health, experiences of drug abuse and sexual coitus, and expressed unhappiness, suicidal ideation and suicide plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Thus, the development of a suicide prevention program for Korean adolescents requires different approaches for males and females. PMID:25812547
Caldwell, Roslyn M.; Beutler, Larry E.; Ross, Sylvia An; Silver, N. Clayton
The present study examined relationships between parental monitoring (mother and father), self-esteem, and delinquency among 95 adjudicated Mexican American male adolescents who were on probationary status with the juvenile justice system. Consistent with previous literature pertaining to familial processes and delinquency among the general…
Full Text Available Background: Obesity has become an epidemic across the globe and it is a multifaceted disease which requires multi-pronged combat strategy to control it. The new generations are at high risk of obesity in both developing and developed countries. Body mass index (BMI, is one of the important parameters, used to assess over weight of an individual. Aim of study: To find out the influence of food intake in the overweight of the male adolescents. Materials and Methods: A total of 1950 male adolescents (750 Indians and 1200 Nepalese; ratio = 5:8 participated in the study from India and Nepal during the period of 1st January to 31st July, 2014. The BMI was calculated using the height and weight of the subjects. Microsoft Excel and SPSS-v16 were used for the data analysis. Results: Out of 1950 male adolescents 660 [33.84%] were overweight. Among the overweight individuals, 540 (81.82% were non-vegetarians and 120 (18.18% were vegetarians. Conclusion: The increased prevalence of overweight among male adolescents is an indicative for developing and implementing effective dietary strategies for weight management. It is reported that intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of obesity related diseases. Promoting increased awareness of better physical culture and dietary habits are necessary to prevent obesity
Valliant, P M; Jensen, B; Raven-Brook, L
A 6-wk. cognitive behavioural program administered to 24 adolescent male offenders assigned to open custody and 5 to probation showed no mean differences on the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, and the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory. Significant correlations were found for the personality measures with pretreatment and posttreatment scores on the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory. PMID:7568580
Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Chui, Wing Hong
Background: School bullying research on Macanese adolescents is limited. Macau is a Special Administrative Region of China with over 95 % of the population is of Chinese descent. Yet, Macanese people are under substantial Western influences. Objective: Using a two male-only school sample of 365 participants aged between 10 and 17 years, this study…
Fisher, Ryan A.
The purposes of the study are to describe characteristics of the voice change in sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade choir students using Cooksey's voice-change classification system and to determine if the singing self-efficacy of adolescent males is affected by the voice change, grade level, and experience. Participants (N = 80) consisted of…
Pendergrast, R A; DuRant, R H; Gaillard, G L
To determine correlates of condom use in adolescent males, we administered a sexual behavior questionnaire to 105 urban males attending a general adolescent clinic. The mean age was 16.5 +/- 1.6 years, and all reported heterosexual activity during the prior 3 months. Condom use was significantly (p less than 0.05) associated with perceived hassle of use (Spearman's rho = -0.40), perception of girlfriend's attitude toward condoms (rho = -0.36), self-confidence in correct use (rho = 0.26), younger age (rho = 0.25), reported degree of exposure to sexually transmitted disease (STD) education (rho = 0.23), perceived condom safety (rho = 0.23), and perceived risk of STD if not wearing a condom (rho = 0.21). Using stepwise multiple regression, four variables explained a significant amount of variation in condom use: perceived hassle of use, perceived girlfriend's attitude toward condom use, age, and self-confidence in correct use (adjusted R2 = 0.28, p less than 0.001). Intention to use free condoms was significantly (p less than 0.05) associated with past use (rho = 0.63), girlfriend's attitude toward use (rho = -0.46), self-confidence in correct use (rho = 0.36), perceived hassle (rho = -0.31), and degree of exposure to STD education (rho = 0.25). Three variables in a regression model explained a significant amount of variation in intent to use free condoms: self-reported past use, girlfriend's attitude, and self-confidence in correct use (adjusted R2 = 0.51, p less than 0.001). PMID:1627581
Fishbein, Diana H; Hyde, Christopher; Eldreth, Diana; Paschall, Mallie J; Hubal, Robert; Das, Abhik; Tarter, Ralph; Ialongo, Nick; Hubbard, Scott; Yung, Betty
The present experiment was designed to determine whether individual variation in neurobiological mechanisms associated with substance abuse risk moderated effects of a brief preventive intervention on social competency skills. This study was conducted in collaboration with the ongoing preventive intervention study at Johns Hopkins University Prevention Intervention Research Center (JHU PIRC) within the Baltimore City Public Schools. A subsample (N = 120) of male 9th grade students was recruited from the larger JHU study population. Approximately half of the participants had a current or lifetime diagnosis of CD while the other half had no diagnosis of CD or other reported problem behaviors. Measures of executive cognitive function (ECF), emotional perception and intelligence were administered. In a later session, participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group. The experimental group underwent a facilitated session using excerpted materials from a model preventive intervention, Positive Adolescent Choices Training (PACT), and controls received no intervention. Outcomes (i.e., social competency skills) were assessed using virtual reality vignettes involving behavioral choices as well as three social cognition questionnaires. Poor cognitive and emotional performance and a diagnosis of CD predicted less favorable change in social competency skills in response to the prevention curriculum. This study provides evidence for the moderating effects of neurocognitive and emotional regulatory functions on ability of urban male youth to respond to preventive intervention materials. PMID:16154296
Connell, Judith; Knight, Margaret
Twenty-first century literacy is more than being able to encode for spelling ability, decode for reading comprehension, and calculate for numeric reasoning. It demands the skills to negotiate the world of technology. Health literacy is lower than general literacy, and general literacy is lower among African American males than the overall population. The authors discuss the prospects of incorporating Game Based Learning approaches into strategies for teaching health literacy. Results of a survey administered to youth to determine their level of involvement in video game playing indicate that key elements must be in place to ensure that a game will be played. These include action, strategy, and entertainment. Future investigation will examine the knowledge level of African American adolescent males of the nexus of certain concepts of climate change and health literacy. Climate change has significant implications for human health. This understanding will produce a scientifically based foundation for curricular and instructional decisions that include GBL. Results of this study will be used to design a video game concept and will contribute to the body of knowledge concerning environmental justice and empower individuals to make informed decisions about their own health and those they influence.
Spence, S H
Seventy convicted young male offenders were videotaped during a 5-min standardized interview with a previously unknown adult. In order to determine the social validity of the behavioral components of social interaction for this population, measures of 13 behaviors were obtained from the tapes. These measures were then correlated with ratings of friendliness, social anxiety, social skills performance, and employability made by four independent adult judges from the same tapes. It was found that measures of eye contact and verbal initiations were correlated significantly with all four criterion rating scales. The frequencies of smiling and speech dysfluencies were both significantly correlated with ratings of friendliness and employability. The amount spoken was found to be a significant predictor of social skills performance whereas the frequency of head movements influenced judgments of social anxiety. The latency of response was negatively correlated with social skills and employability ratings and the frequency of question-asking and interruptions correlated significantly with friendliness, social skills, and employability ratings. Finally, the levels of gestures, gross body movements, and attention feedback responses were not found to influence judgments on any of the criterion scales. The implications of the study for selection of targets for social skills training for adolescent male offenders are discussed. PMID:7287599
Ng, Leo; Campbell, Amity; Burnett, Angus; Smith, Anne; O'Sullivan, Peter
There is a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP) in adolescent male rowers. In this study, regional lumbar spinal kinematics and self-reported LBP intensity were compared between 10 adolescent rowers with moderate levels of LBP relating to rowing with 10 reporting no history of LBP during a 15-minute ergometer trial using an electromagnetic tracking system. Adolescent male rowers with LBP reported increasing pain intensity during ergometer rowing. No significant differences were detected in mean upper or lower lumbar angles between rowers with and without LBP. However, compared with rowers without pain, rowers with pain: (1) had relatively less excursion of the upper lumbar spine into extension over the drive phase, (2) had relatively less excursion of the lower lumbar spine into extension over time, (3) had greater variability in upper and lower lumbar angles over the 15-minute ergometer trial, (4) positioned their upper lumbar spine closer to end range flexion for a greater proportion of the drive phase, and (5) showed increased time in sustained flexion loading in the upper lumbar spine. Differences in regional lumbar kinematics exist between adolescent male rowers with and without LBP, which may have injury implication and intervention strategies. PMID:26252195
Harper, Gary W; Serrano, Pedro A; Bruce, Douglas; Bauermeister, Jose A
One emerging avenue for the exploration of adolescents' sexual orientation identity development is the Internet, since it allows for varying degrees of anonymity and exploration. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the role of the Internet in facilitating the sexual orientation identity development process of gay and bisexual male adolescents. Qualitative interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 63 gay/bisexual male adolescents (ages 15-23). Participants reported using a range of Internet applications as they explored and came to accept their sexual orientation identity, with the intended purpose and degree of anonymity desired determining which applications were used. Youth reported that the Internet provided a range of functions with regard to the exploration and acceptance of their sexual orientation identity, including (1) increasing self-awareness of sexual orientation identity, (2) learning about gay/bisexual community life, (3) communicating with other gay/bisexual people, (4) meeting other gay/bisexual people, (5) finding comfort and acceptance with sexual orientation, and (6) facilitating the coming out process. Future research and practice may explore the Internet as a platform for promoting the healthy development of gay and bisexual male adolescents by providing a developmentally and culturally appropriate venue for the exploration and subsequent commitment to an integrated sexual orientation identity. PMID:25585861
Cullen Karen W
Full Text Available Abstract Background The physical environments in which adolescents reside and their access to food stores may influence their consumption of fruit and vegetables. This association could either be direct or mediated via psychosocial variables or home availability of fruit and vegetables. A greater understanding of these associations would aide the design of new interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between distance to food stores and restaurants and fruit and vegetable consumption and the possible mediating role of psychosocial variables and home availability. Methods Fruit and vegetable consumption of 204 Boy Scouts was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire in 2003. Participant addresses were geo-coded and distance to different types of food stores and restaurants calculated. Fruit and vegetable preferences, home availability and self-efficacy were measured. Regression models were run with backward deletion of non-significant environmental and psychosocial variables. Mediation tests were performed. Results Residing further away from a small food store (SFS (convenience store and drug store was associated with increased fruit and juice and low fat vegetable consumption. Residing closer to a fast food restaurant was associated with increased high fat vegetable and fruit and juice consumption. Vegetable preferences partially mediated (26% the relationship between low fat vegetable consumption and distance to the nearest SFS. Conclusion Distance to SFS and fast food restaurants were associated with fruit and vegetable consumption among male adolescents. Vegetable preferences partially mediated the distance to low fat vegetable relationship. More research is needed to elucidate how environmental variables impact children's dietary intake.
Broadwater, Margaret A.
Some evidence suggests that adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to alcohol-induced cognitive deficits and that these deficits may persist into adulthood. Five experiments were conducted to assess long-term consequences of ethanol exposure on tone and context Pavlovian fear conditioning in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Experiment 1 examined age-related differences in sensitivity to ethanol-induced disruptions of fear conditioning to a pre-conditioning ethanol challenge. Experiments 2 examined fear conditioning 22 days after early-mid adolescent (P28-48) or adult (P70-90) exposure to 4 g/kg i.g. ethanol or water given every other day (total of 11 exposures). In Experiment 3, mid-late adolescents (P35-55) were exposed in the same manner to assess whether timing of ethanol exposure within the adolescent period would differentially affect later fear conditioning. Experiment 4 assessed the influence of prior adolescent or adult ethanol exposure on the disrupting effects of a pre-conditioning ethanol challenge. In Experiment 5, neurogenesis (doublecortin---DCX) and cholinergic (choline acetyltransferase---ChAT) markers were measured to assess potential long-term ethanol-induced changes in neural mechanisms important for learning and memory. Results indicated that the long-lasting behavioral effects of ethanol exposure varied depending on exposure age, with early-mid adolescent exposed animals showing attenuated context fear retention (a relatively hippocampal-dependent task), whereas mid-late adolescent and adult exposed animals showed slower context extinction (thought to be reliant on the mPFC). Early-mid adolescent ethanol-exposed animals also had significantly less DCX and ChAT expression than their water-exposed counterparts, possibly contributing to deficits in context fear. Tone fear was not influenced by prior ethanol exposure at any age. In terms of age differences in ethanol sensitivity, adolescents were less sensitive than adults to ethanol
Baladi, Michelle G.; Horton, Rebecca E.; Owens, William A.; Lynette C Daws; France, Charles P.
Background: Feeding conditions can influence dopamine neurotransmission and impact behavioral and neurochemical effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems. This study examined whether eating high fat chow alters the locomotor effects of cocaine and dopamine transporter activity in adolescent (postnatal day 25) and adult (postnatal day 75) male Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: Dose-response curves for cocaine-induced locomotor activity were generated in rats with free access to either standard o...
Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy is one of the many public health problems facing the community in Bophuthatswana and neighbouring areas: Health professionals have attempted to address the problem yet little has been done to determine the role of the adolescent male in the prevention of this community problem. This study addresses the male adolescent’s sexual behaviour, his attitude towards contraception, contraceptive use and premarital pregnancy. The study revealed that most of the respondents commenced sexual practices at about 12years of age. These young men believed that girls should prove their fertility before marriage, although they viewed contraception as a joint responsibility between the two partners. The respondents were found to have a positive attitude towards contraception and contraceptive use, yet when they were asked what method of contraception they used since they were sexually active, only 24,5% reported use of a condom. Ignorance about reproduction and the effects of contraceptives Was confirmed When 48% of the respondents indicated that they were unaware of the fact that pregnancy could result from first coitus, and they also believed that oral contraceptives had dangerous side effects. The study further revealed that parents did not discuss teenage pregnancy and contraception with their children, instead this subject was discussed among friends at school. Respondents expressed fear when asked why the subject was never discussed with parents, some actually stated that their parents would ‘flog’ them if they initiated the subject on sex and related matters. The urgent need for formalised sex education in Bophuthatswana was expressed by 77% of the respondents.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare physical fitness parameters of male adolescent soccer players and sedentary counterparts. A total of 26 male adolescents participated in this study voluntarily: Active soccer players (n: 3, age x : 13,00 ± 0,00 and sedentary counterparts (n: 13, age x :12,92 ± 0,75. The EUROFIT test battery was used to determine physical fitness. The test battery includes body height and weight measurements, touching the discs, flamingo balan ce, throwing health ball, vertical jumping, sit and reach, sit - up for 30 s, 20 meter sprint run, and 20 meter shuttle run tests. Data were analyzed by Mann Whitney U test. Significance was defined as p.05. In conclusion, children who do sports are more successful on most of the fitness parameters than sedentary children.
Polonijo, Andrea N; Carpiano, Richard M; Reiter, Paul L; Brewer, Noel T
Research on prosocial attitudes, social networks, social capital, and social stratification suggest that lower-socioeconomic status (SES), Hispanic, and nonwhite individuals will be more likely than their higher-SES and non-Hispanic white counterparts to engage in health behaviors that serve a social good. Analyzing data from the University of North Carolina Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Immunization in Sons Study, we test whether SES and race-ethnicity are associated with willingness to vaccinate via prosocial attitudes toward HPV vaccination among adolescent males (n = 401) and parents (n = 518). Analyses revealed that (a) parents with lower education and (b) black and Hispanic parents and adolescent males reported higher prosocial vaccination attitudes, but only some attitudes were associated with higher willingness to vaccinate. We discuss these findings in terms of how prosocial attitudes may motivate certain health behaviors and serve as countervailing mechanisms in the (re)production of health disparities and promising targets of future public health interventions. PMID:27601412
Diaz-Aguado, Maria Jose; Martinez, Rosario
The recognition of the seriousness of intimate partner violence (IPV) and the need to prevent it has led to the study of its inception in relationships established in adolescence. This study uses latent class analysis to establish a typology of male adolescents based on self-reports of violence against a girl in dating relationships. The participants were 4,147 boys in Spain aged 14 to 18 years from a probabilistic sample. Four discrete, identifiable groups were derived based on 12 indicators of emotional abuse, intimidation, coercion, threats, physical violence, and violence transmitted via communication technologies. The first group consists of non-violent adolescent boys. A second group comprises those boys who isolate and control their partners. Boys who exert only medium-level emotional abuse form the third group, whereas the fourth is formed by teenage boys who frequently engage in all types of violence. Compared with the non-violent adolescents in a multinomial logistic regression, the other groups show lower self-esteem and display a greater justification of male dominance and IPV against women; greater justification of aggression in conflict resolution; they have also received more dominance and violence messages from adults in their family environment; and they perceive IPV behaviors against women as abuse of lesser importance. PMID:25326012
Full Text Available Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. The volleyball players were significantly taller, and had greater body weight and fat-free mass. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not show any significant differences between the volleyball players and non-athletes. Postural asymmetries were observed in both the volleyball players and the control participants. Lumbar lordosis was significantly less defined in the volleyball players compared to non-training individuals while no difference was observed in thoracic kyphosis. All athletes demonstrated a loss of lumbar lordosis and an increase in thoracic kyphosis. Significant differences in anteroposterior curvature of the spine between the volleyball players and the non-athletes might be associated with both training and body height. Considering the asymmetric spine overloads which frequently occur in sports training, meticulous posture assessment in young athletes seems well justified.
In the discourse on health, boys are emerging as a problem group. In contrast to girls who tended to be seen as fragile if not sickly, boys used to be thought of as strong and healthy. Gender-specific concepts stipulated much more exercise for boys, the masturbation discourse prevented a relaxed relationship to the own body. The paper first describes specific problems in the biography (babies, child labour, tuberculosis, school, fitness for military service) and their solutions up to the time of the Weimar Republic. During and after the two world wars school boys tended to be of poorer health than girls. The consequences of war affect the mental health of (half-) orphans gender-non-specifically up to the third generation. After 1945, attention to health concerns is rather restricted to the professional aptitude of mining trainees, health-related risk behaviour tends to be interpreted in terms of gender. Mothers sought medical advice slightly more frequently on behalf of boys up to puberty. Concerning the time between 1780 and 2010 inferior health is often noticeable in boys and male adolescents. This used to, and still does, apply to babies, child labour, industrial work and occupational accidents, conscription and direct consequences of war. It was mostly due to gender-specific separation of labour, but partly also to a higher risk preference. The gender-specific wider scope for exercise and sports up to the 1960s, in contrast, had a health-promoting effect. PMID:21796900
Brijesh Sathian; MG Ramesh Babu; Pradeep Aggarwal; Jayadevan Sreedharan; Elayedath Rajesh; Dixit, S.B.
Background: Obesity has become an epidemic across the globe and it is a multifaceted disease which requires multi-pronged combat strategy to control it. The new generations are at high risk of obesity in both developing and developed countries. Body mass index (BMI), is one of the important parameters, used to assess over weight of an individual. Aim of study: To find out the influence of food intake in the overweight of the male adolescents. Materials and Methods: A total of 1950 male adoles...
Torregrossa, Mary M.; Xie, Maylene; Taylor, Jane R.
Chronic stress during adolescence is associated with an increased risk for alcoholism and addictive disorders. Addiction is also associated with increased impulsivity, and stress during adolescence could alter cortical circuits responsible for response inhibition. Therefore, the present study determined the effect of chronic exposure to the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) during adolescence on tests of impulsivity in adulthood and examined possible biochemical mechanisms. Male Sprague-Da...
MUSTANSKI, BRIAN; DuBois, L. Zachary; Prescott, Tonya L.; Ybarra, Michele L.
Young men who have sex with men have the highest rates of new HIV infections in the U.S., but they have been understudied relative to other populations. As a formative step for the development of a text messaging HIV prevention intervention, this mixed methods study aimed to understand how adolescent gay and bisexual males (AGBM) make decisions about condom use and factors that may differ based on age, sexual experience, and rural versus urban residency. Four online, asynchronous focus groups...
Lauermann, Fernanda Tcatch; de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar
Background Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous follicle disorder affecting over 85% of adolescents to some degree. It frequently causes psychological distress that may persist into adulthood due to scarring. Little information about post-acne scarring epidemiology is available. Objectives To describe prevalence, distribution patterns and associated factors of acne scarring in young males, drawing on a representative population sample from a southern Brazilian city. Methods A cross-sectional stud...
Baumann, Michèle; Spitz, E.; Predine, R.; Choquet, M.; Chau, N
This study assesses the effects of individual and family characteristics on psychotropic drug use among male and female adolescents. The sample included 2,396 subjects attending two middle schools and two high schools. Respondents completed self-administered questionnaires covering gender, age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, illicit drug use, tiredness during the daytime, selfreported personality traits, family conditions, and psychotropic drug use. The data were analyzed using logist...
Spitz, E.; Chau, N; Predine, R.; Baumann, Michèle
Objectives. To assess the effects of individual and family characteristics on psychotropic drug use among male and female adolescents. Design and methods. The sample included 2,396 subjects attending two middle schools and two high schools. Respondents completed self-administered questionnaires covering gender, age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, illicit drug use, tiredness during the daytime, self-reported personality traits, family conditions, and psychotropic drug use. The data wer...
De Lorme, Kayla; Bell, Margaret R.; Sisk, Cheryl L.
Maturation of social cognition and a gain in social proficiency are universal aspects of adolescent development that prepare individuals for adulthood. Social cognition involves the perception and interpretation of social cues, followed by the generation of a behavioral response. Social proficiency is acquired through the ability to make behavioral adaptations as one learns from social experience; increased social proficiency facilitates successful social interactions. In males, the neuroendo...
Miner, Michael H; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Berg, Dianne; Knight, Raymond A
It has been suggested that child sexual abuse is related to poor attachment to parents, which is associated with an inability to form intimate relationships. Seto and Lalumière indicated that there were too few studies of adolescent males to determine whether poor attachment was associated with perpetration. This study was designed to follow up on a previous study and further explored the association between insecure attachment to parents, social isolation, and interpersonal adequacy to child sexual abuse perpetration in adolescents. We compared two samples of adolescent males who had committed sexual offenses, those who committed offenses against children (n = 140) and those who committed offenses against peer or adults (n = 92), with a sample of similarly aged males in treatment for mental health or substance use issues (n = 93). Data were collected using a semi-structured interview and computer-administered questionnaire. We found an indirect association between anxious attachment and sexual offenses against child victims, which was accounted for by measures of social involvement and social isolation. These involvement and isolation measures also did not have a direct association with sexual offenses against child victims, in that their contribution was accounted for by a measure of Masculine Adequacy. This Masculine Adequacy, combined with decreased levels of Sexual Preoccupation and Hypersexuality and increased Sexual Compulsivity, was associated with commission of child sexual abuse. The interpersonal variables did not enter a model predicting sexual offending against peers/adults, which seemed solely associated with the interaction between Sexual Compulsivity and Hypersexuality. PMID:25143437
Drzewiecki, Carly M; Willing, Jari; Juraska, Janice M
Adolescence is a unique period of development, marked by maturation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a region important for executive functioning. During this time, the human PFC decreases in overall volume and thickness. Likewise in adolescent rodents, losses of neurons, dendrites, dendritic spines and neurotransmitter receptors have been documented within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), sometimes with sex and layer specificity. However, changes in the number of synapses during this time have not been examined. In the present study, we stereologically quantified the number of synaptophysin-immunoreactive boutons in the male and female rat mPFC across multiple time points from the juvenile period through adulthood (postnatal days (P) 25, 35, 45, 60 and 90). In females, there was a significant decrease in synaptophysin boutons between P35 and P45, coinciding with the onset of puberty. In males, there was no significant main effect of age on synaptophysin boutons; however, in both males and females, pubertal onset was associated with significant synaptic losses. These results suggest that puberty is a critical period for synaptic pruning within the rat mPFC, potentially contributing to maturation of adolescent executive function. Synapse 70:361-368, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27103097
Jesús L. Chirinos; Victor C. Salazar; Brindis, Claire D.
To document knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual practices of male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru, a self-administered, anonymous survey was completed by 991 male adolescents aged 12-19 as part of a School-Based Sex Education Intervention model. Questions concerned sociodemographic information; family characteristics; personal activities; knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality; sexual experience; and contraceptive use. Knowledge related to sexuality was l...
Marc A. Briggs
Full Text Available Collecting accurate and reliable nutritional data from adolescent populations is challenging, with current methods providing significant under-reporting. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of a combined dietary data collection method (self-reported weighed food diary, supplemented with a 24-h recall when compared to researcher observed energy intake in male adolescent soccer players. Twelve Academy players from an English Football League club participated in the study. Players attended a 12 h period in the laboratory (08:00 h–20:00 h, during which food and drink items were available and were consumed ad libitum. Food was also provided to consume at home between 20:00 h and 08:00 h the following morning under free-living conditions. To calculate the participant reported energy intake, food and drink items were weighed and recorded in a food diary by each participant, which was supplemented with information provided through a 24-h recall interview the following morning. Linear regression, limits of agreement (LOA and typical error (coefficient of variation; CV were used to quantify agreement between observer and participant reported 24-h energy intake. Difference between methods was assessed using a paired samples t-test. Participants systematically under-reported energy intake in comparison to that observed (p < 0.01 but the magnitude of this bias was small and consistent (mean bias = −88 kcal·day−1, 95% CI for bias = −146 to −29 kcal·day−1. For random error, the 95% LOA between methods ranged between −1.11 to 0.37 MJ·day−1 (−256 to 88 kcal·day−1. The standard error of the estimate was low, with a typical error between measurements of 3.1%. These data suggest that the combined dietary data collection method could be used interchangeably with the gold standard observed food intake technique in the population studied providing that appropriate adjustment is made for the systematic under
Kepka, Deanna; Ding, Qian; Hawkins, Amy J; Warner, Echo L; Boucher, Kenneth M
Adolescent males' HPV vaccine initiation and completion in the United States is far below the Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% 3-dose completion among boys. In 2012, less than 7% of males ages 13-17 years had completed the 3-dose series. The Diffusion of Innovations framework guided this investigation of factors related to early adoption of HPV vaccination among male adolescents. Provider-validated data from the 2012 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen) for male adolescents ages 13-17 years were analyzed via a multivariable Poisson regression to estimate prevalence ratios for factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation and completion. Adolescent males who are Hispanic and those who are up to date on other recommended adolescent vaccinations were most likely to complete the HPV vaccine. Public health interventions are needed to improve low HPV vaccination rates among adolescent males in the United States. Description of early adopters of the HPV vaccine provides historical context of HPV vaccination acceptance that is needed to inform the design of targeted vaccination interventions to prevent negative HPV-associated outcomes. PMID:27413668
Scudine, Kelly Guedes de Oliveira; Pedroni-Pereira, Aline; Araujo, Darlle Santos; Prado, Daniela Galvão de Almeida; Rossi, Ana Claudia; Castelo, Paula Midori
Chewing behavior may show sex differences; thus, the present study aimed to compare the masticatory aspects and the prediction of masticatory performance between male and female adolescents. Ninety-one healthy subjects (47 girls, 44 boys), caries-free and aged 14-17years, were included. Masticatory performance and maximal bite force were evaluated using a color-changeable chewing gum and digital gnathodynamometer, respectively. Masticatory behavior was assessed by the subjective aspect of the quality of the masticatory function (validated questionnaire) and the Orofacial Myofunctional Evaluation with Scores expanded (OMES-e) was used to determine chewing time, frequency of chewing cycles and other aspects. Salivary flow rate was also assessed. The physical examination involved measurements of facial morphometry, body weight, height, skeletal muscle mass, and dental/occlusal evaluations. It was observed that boys showed larger facial dimensions, higher bite force and chewing frequency and better masticatory performance than girls. They also showed shorter chewing time, fewer chewing cycles and lower score for OMES-e (that is, more changes in orofacial myofunctional aspects). Bite force showed a weak correlation with skeletal muscle mass only in boys (r=0.3035; p=0.0451). The masticatory performance was dependent on the bite force in boys (Adj R(2)=19.2%; Power=84.1%); among girls, masticatory performance was dependent on the frequency of chewing cycles and masticatory behavior (subjective aspect) (Adj R(2)=34.1%; Power=96.1%). The findings support the existence of sex differences in many masticatory aspects of function and behavior, hence the importance of considering sex differences when evaluating masticatory function and myofunctional therapy outcomes among young subjects. PMID:27143251
Marwitz, Shannon E; Woodie, Lauren N; Blythe, Sarah N
The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents has increased rapidly over the past 30 years, as has the incidence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In 2012, it was found that overweight children have a twofold higher chance of developing ADHD than their normal weight counterparts. Previous work has documented learning and memory impairments linked to consumption of an energy-dense diet in rats, but the relationship between diet and ADHD-like behaviors has yet to be explored using animal models. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the role of diet in the etiology of attention and hyperactivity disorders using a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control diet or a Western-style diet (WSD) for ten weeks, and specific physiological and behavioral effects were examined. Tail blood samples were collected to measure fasting blood glucose and insulin levels in order to assess insulin insensitivity. Rats also performed several behavioral tasks, including the open field task, novel object recognition test, and attentional set-shifting task. Rats exposed to a WSD had significantly higher fasting insulin levels than controls, but both groups had similar glucose levels. The quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) indicated the development of insulin resistance in WSD rats. Performance in the open field test indicated that WSD induced pronounced hyperactivity and impulsivity. Further, control diet animals were able to discriminate between old and novel objects, but the WSD animals were significantly impaired in object recognition. However, regardless of dietary condition, rats were able to perform the attentional set-shifting paradigm. While WSD impaired episodic memory and induced hyperactivity, attentional set-shifting capabilities are unaffected. With the increasing prevalence of both obesity and ADHD, understanding the potential links between the two conditions is of clinical
Full Text Available Background Tobacco smoking among adolescents has been a concern for researchers and health organizations in recent years. However, predisposing factors to smoking initiation among Iranian adolescents are not well recognized. Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking and to investigate the role of psychologic, behavioral, and demographic risk factors in adolescents' smoking status. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 810 male adolescents recruited through cluster random sampling method in Hamadan in 2014. The participants received a self-administered questionnaire that contained questions about tobacco smoking behavior and demographic, behavioral, and psychologic variables. Data were analyzed by SPSS16 through independent-samples t test, Chi square, and logistic regression. Results A total of 139 persons (17.1% were tobacco smoker and the mean (SD age at smoking initiation was 13.7 (2.2 years. Sense of need, decreasing stress, having a smoker friend, and inability to reject smoking suggestion were common reasons associated with tobacco smoking (P < 0.05. In addition, statistically significant differences between tobacco smokers and nonsmokers were found in the age, grade, mother's job, and education (P < 0.05. In comparison to non-smokers, tobacco smokers evaluated a typical smoker as less immature, more popular, more attractive, more self-confident, more independent, and less selfish person (P < 0.05. Conclusions The results showed that the effect of several psychosocial, behavioral, and demographic risk factors on adolescents' smoking status. Thus, design and implementation of interventions based on the results of the present study may be effective in preventing tobacco smoking among adolescents.
Page, Randy M.
Investigated relationship between perceived physical attractiveness and frequency of substance use among 1,297 adolescents. Female adolescents who rated themselves as unattractive were more likely to use illicit psychoactive substances than those who rated themselves as average or attractive. Perceived attractiveness did not contribute to…
White, Helene Raskin; Fite, Paula; Pardini, Dustin; Mun, Eun-Young; Loeber, Rolf
Although longitudinal evidence has linked alcohol use with aggressive behavior during adolescence, most studies have failed to adequately control for the numerous between-individual differences that may underlie this association. In addition, few studies of adolescents have examined whether the nature of the within-individual association between…
The problem of middle adolescent substance use and abuse among high school age males was examined. Financial and socio-emotional costs and rates of incidence for substance use and abuse among high school males are addressed followed by a discussion of social, environmental, and intra-psychic factors, which influence substance use and abuse. To…
Family Rejection, Social Isolation, and Loneliness as Predictors of Negative Health Outcomes (Depression, Suicidal Ideation, and Sexual Risk Behavior) among Thai Male-to-Female Transgender Adolescents
Yadegarfard, Mohammadrasool; Meinhold-Bergmann, Mallika E.; Ho, Robert
This study examined the influence of family rejection, social isolation, and loneliness on negative health outcomes among Thai male-to-female transgender adolescents. The sample consisted of 260 male respondents, of whom 129 (49.6%) were self-identified as transgender and 131 (50.4%) were self-identified as cisgender (nontransgender). Initial…
Leone, James E.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Kittleson, Mark; Welshimer, Kathleen J.; Partridge, Julie A.; Robertson, Stacia L.
Background: Adolescent males are more likely to sustain intentional and unintentional injuries, be involved in a physical confrontation, and be successful in suicide attempts. Body image dissatisfaction (BID) has been linked as a possible contributing factor to these negative health behaviors and risks; however, research is limited with males. The…
Chan, Kara; Ng, Yu-Leung; Prendergast, Gerard
A study was conducted to examine how interpersonal norms, media norms, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy had an influence on healthy eating intention among adolescents. A probability sample of 544 adolescents aged 12 to 18 was conducted. Results indicated that girls had a more favorable attitude and intention toward healthy eating than boys. Healthy eating intention among boys was predicted by attitude, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy, and among girls was predicted by perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Different marketing strategies to promote healthy eating among adolescent boys and girls should be adopted. PMID:25405634
ZinatMotlagh, Fazel; Ataee, Mari; Jalilian, Farzad; MirzaeiAlavijeh, Mehdi; Aghaei, Abbas; Karimzadeh Shirazi, Kambiz
Background: Aggressive behaviorin adolescencecan be expressed asa predictorfor crime, substanceabuse, depression and academic failure. The purpose of this study was to determine the prediction of aggression among Iranian adolescent based on theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a theoretical framework.
Amrita Samanta; Shuvankar Mukherjee; Santanu Ghosh; Aparajita Dasgupta
A cross-sectional study was conducted among 199 (104 urban, 95 rural) male students of classes VIII and IX, of two schools, in urban and rural areas of West Bengal to compare the prevalence of protective factors, mental health issues, and violence among the urban and rural adolescents using a self-administered questionnaire. Higher proportion of urban students than rural (67.3% vs. 62.5%) reported that their guardians understood their problems. Mental health issues like loneliness (17.3% vs. ...
Maria eToledo; Carmen eSandi
Adolescence is a period of major physical, hormonal, and psychological change. It is also characterized by a significant increase in the incidence of psychopathologies and this increase is gender-specific. Likewise, stress during adolescence is associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. Previously, using a rat model of psychogenic stress (exposure to predator odor followed by placement on an elevated platform) during the pre-pubertal period (postnatal days 28–30),...
Fite, Paula J.; Raine, Adrian; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A.
There is limited knowledge about the unique relations between adolescent reactive and proactive aggression and later psychosocial adjustment in early adulthood. Accordingly, this study prospectively examined associations between adolescent (mean age = 16) reactive and proactive aggression and psychopathic features, antisocial behavior, negative emotionality, and substance use measured 10 years later in early adulthood (mean age = 26). Study questions were examined in a longitudinal sample of ...
Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Heinecke, Armin; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Knutson, Kristine M.; Meer, Elke van der; Grafman, Jordan
Aggressive behavior is common during adolescence. Although aggression-related functional changes in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and frontopolar cortex (FPC) have been reported in adults, the neural correlates of aggressive behavior in adolescents, particularly in the context of structural neurodevelopment, are obscure. We used functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the blood oxygenation level-depended signal and cortical thickness. In a block-desi...
White, Helene Raskin; Fite, Paula; Pardini, Dustin; Mun, Eun-Young; Loeber, Rolf
Although longitudinal evidence has linked alcohol use with aggressive behavior during adolescence, most studies have failed to adequately control for the numerous between-individual differences that may underlie this association. In addition, few studies of adolescents have examined whether the nature of the within-individual association between alcohol use and aggression depends on individual and contextual factors. To address these limitations, this study examined the association between wi...
Anecy de Fátima Faustino Almeida
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as relações de gênero vivenciadas por adolescentes do sexo masculino e como elas contribuem para torná-los vulneráveis à gravidez na adolescência. MÉTODOS: Estudo qualitativo realizado em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, em 2003. Participaram 13 adolescentes masculinos com menos de 20 anos, com um único filho de até 11 meses, cuja mãe estava na mesma faixa etária do pai. Realizaram-se entrevistas semi-estruturadas gravadas. Após transcrição, procedeu-se à análise temática de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: Identificaram-se estereótipos de gênero em que se destacavam papéis de líder, provedor e ativo sexualmente, bem como a rejeição a ser cuidador. Esses papéis apareceram consolidados principalmente na perspectiva dos entrevistados acerca do trabalho como marcador de sua condição de homem e provedor da família. A liderança dos adolescentes prevaleceu no relacionamento com a mãe de seu filho, notadamente na iniciativa das relações sexuais e no uso de contraceptivos. A gravidez foi considerada por eles como "por acaso" e inesperada, mas a paternidade foi vivenciada como uma prova final de sua condição de homens adultos. CONCLUSÕES: Verificou-se a condição de vulnerabilidade dos adolescentes para a paternidade em virtude da socialização de gênero nos moldes tradicionais. Isso foi evidenciado com a ausência dos papéis relativos ao cuidado consigo próprio e com os outros, com a incorporação precoce de papéis de dominação sexual masculina e de trabalhador e pai, ou seja, deixar de ser criança e alcançar a condição de homem.OBJECTIVE: To analyze gender relations perceived by male adolescents and how they contribute to making them more vulnerable to pregnancy during adolescence. METHODS: Qualitative study carried out in Campo Grande, Midwestern Brazil, in 2003. Subjects were 13 male adolescents under 20 years of age, fathers of an only child aged up to 11 months whose mother was in the same
Mellor, David; Hucker, Alice; Waterhouse, Monique; binti Mamat, Norul Hidayah; Xu, Xiaoyan; Cochrane, Jamie; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina
This study investigated how dissatisfaction with particular aspects of the body was associated with overall body dissatisfaction among male adolescents in Western and Asian cultures. One hundred and six Malaysian Malays, 55 Malaysian Chinese, 195 Chinese from China, and 45 non-Asian Australians aged 12 to 19 years completed a questionnaire assessing dissatisfaction with their overall body and dissatisfaction with varying aspects of their body. Dissatisfaction with the face, height, and hair was positively correlated with overall body dissatisfaction among Malaysian Malays after body mass index, age and dissatisfaction with body areas typically included in measures (weight/shape, upper, middle, and lower body, and muscles) had been controlled for. Dissatisfaction with the face was positively correlated with overall body dissatisfaction among Malaysian Chinese. These findings demonstrate the differences in body focus for males from different cultures and the importance of using assessment measures that address all possible areas of body focus. PMID:24707036
Enger, J M; Howerton, D L; Cobbs, C R
We investigated the relationship between three factors--internal/external locus of control, self-esteem, and parental verbal interaction--for at-risk Black male adolescents in the United States. Forty-two male students in Grades 6, 7, and 8 who had been identified by their teachers as being at risk completed the Locus of Control Scale for Children (Nowicki & Strickland, 1973), the Self-Esteem Inventory (Coopersmith, 1967), and the Verbal Interaction Questionnaire (Blake, 1991). A moderate positive relationship found between self-esteem and parental verbal interaction was consistent with a previous finding for White high school students. A moderate negative relationship found between locus of control and self-esteem differed from a previous finding of no significant relationship for Black elementary children. A weak, yet significant, negative relationship was found between locus of control and parental verbal interaction. PMID:8057628
Ananias K. Nyanjaya
Full Text Available This article revealed the degree of trauma experienced by male adolescents when their fathers are absent. The cost of this absence could not be balanced with the material benefits the children have enjoyed, for the benefits have been outweighed by the trauma that children experience in the absence of their fathers. The emotions and tears expressed during the research journey have revealed that material support cannot compensate for the love and presence children expect from their fathers. The deep hurt instilled in their hearts by the periods of absence angered them and led to traumatic experiences. The protracted period of living with only one primary caregiver has imprisoned them into the feminised environment, thereby robbing them of a male identity. Therefore, this article was devoted to creating a shepherding model of caring for boys whose fathers are absent.
Samanta, Amrita; Mukherjee, Shuvankar; Ghosh, Santanu; Dasgupta, Aparajita
A cross-sectional study was conducted among 199 (104 urban, 95 rural) male students of classes VIII and IX, of two schools, in urban and rural areas of West Bengal to compare the prevalence of protective factors, mental health issues, and violence among the urban and rural adolescents using a self-administered questionnaire. Higher proportion of urban students than rural (67.3% vs. 62.5%) reported that their guardians understood their problems. Mental health issues like loneliness (17.3% vs. 9.8%), worry (17.3% vs. 10.7%), and suicidal thoughts (19.2% vs. 14.1%) were higher among urban students. Physical fight (53.8% vs. 11.6%), bullying (46.4% vs. 17%), physical attack by family members (46% vs. 17%), and by teachers (53% vs. 10.7%) were all more in urban adolescents. Mental health- and violence-related issues were prevalent more among urban students than those among rural students in spite of having more protective factors suggesting the need of frequent supervision, monitoring, and support of adolescents. PMID:22910626
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted among 199 (104 urban, 95 rural male students of classes VIII and IX, of two schools, in urban and rural areas of West Bengal to compare the prevalence of protective factors, mental health issues, and violence among the urban and rural adolescents using a self-administered questionnaire. Higher proportion of urban students than rural (67.3% vs. 62.5% reported that their guardians understood their problems. Mental health issues like loneliness (17.3% vs. 9.8%, worry (17.3% vs. 10.7%, and suicidal thoughts (19.2% vs. 14.1% were higher among urban students. Physical fight (53.8% vs. 11.6%, bullying (46.4% vs. 17%, physical attack by family members (46% vs. 17%, and by teachers (53% vs. 10.7% were all more in urban adolescents. Mental health- and violence-related issues were prevalent more among urban students than those among rural students in spite of having more protective factors suggesting the need of frequent supervision, monitoring, and support of adolescents.
Agoglia, Abigail E.; Holstein, Sarah E.; Eastman, Vallari R.; Hodge, Clyde W.
Increased binge alcohol consumption has been reported among adolescents as compared to adults in both humans and rodent models, and has been associated with serious long-term health consequences. However, the neurochemical mechanism for age differences in binge drinking between adolescents and adults has not been established. The present study was designed to evaluate the mechanistic role of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor in adolescent and adult binge drinking. Binge consumption was established in adolescent and adult male C57BL/6J mice by providing access to 20% alcohol or 1% sucrose for 4 h every other day. Pretreatment with the CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist AM-251 (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) in a Latin square design dose-dependently reduced adolescent alcohol consumption to adult levels without altering adult intake. AM-251 (3 mg/kg) also reduced adolescent but not adult sucrose consumption. Adolescent reductions in alcohol and sucrose were not associated with alterations in open-field locomotor activity or thigmotaxis. These findings point to age differences in CB1 receptor activity as a functional mediator of adolescent-typical increased binge drinking as compared to adults. Developmental alterations in endocannabinoid signaling in the adolescent brain may therefore be responsible for the drinking phenotype seen in this age group. PMID:26800788
Suhail Ahmad Azmi
Full Text Available Background: A role model is perceived as worthy of imitation, their selection can indicate significant elements of psychosocial health and self-projection in adolescents. Patterns of behavior and lifestyle choices established during adolescence can have immediate and lasting effects on health. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was undertaken in the schools of Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. The sample frame was 2347, out of which a sample of 390 students was studied. Data collected were entered and analyzed by SPSS for Windows version 10%. Results: Majority (62.7% of adolescents revealed that their role models were Film Star (34.8% and their Teachers (27.9%, Parents (14.3%, Sportsman (12.0%. Politicians as the role models were opted by least proportion (1.2%. Desire of future occupation was Businessmen (27.9%, Doctor (18.6, and Engineer (14.4%. Conclusion: Nearly all adolescents had a role model. There is greater impact of cinema on the minds of adolescents, which resulted in choosing film actors as their role model. Aspiration of future occupation was not related to the characteristics of the role model.
Full Text Available Most smokers start young. Initiation of cigarette smoking at an earlier age leads to more life-years for tobacco use, makes quitting harder, and increases the risk of serious health consequences. Despite these challenges, research focusing on smoking behavior among adolescent boys in Taiwan is rare. Although the Taiwanese government enacted the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in 2009, aimed at prevention and reducing the rate of smoking, the percentage of high school students who smoke has continued to increase. In 2006, 7.5% of adolescent boys engaged in smoking. By 2012 the rate had increased to 24.6%. This paper explores the experiences that contribute to adolescent Taiwanese boys making the decision to smoke. A phenomenological approach to inquiry was used as the philosophical foundations for this study with twelve adolescent boys who engaged in smoking behaviors. Data was gathered through two face-to-face semi-structured interviews and a focus group. Data analysis was performed using Colaizzi’s analysis method. Findings indicated that decisions to begin smoking were motivated by curiosity and as a means of establishing friendships while decisions to continue smoking were linked to the addictive nature of smoking and as a means of coping with stress and passing the time. The findings can be used to inform the prevention of tobacco use and to reduce the high smoking rates among adolescent boys.
Hong, Rei-Mei; Guo, Su-Er; Chen, Mei-Yen
Most smokers start young. Initiation of cigarette smoking at an earlier age leads to more life-years for tobacco use, makes quitting harder, and increases the risk of serious health consequences. Despite these challenges, research focusing on smoking behavior among adolescent boys in Taiwan is rare. Although the Taiwanese government enacted the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in 2009, aimed at prevention and reducing the rate of smoking, the percentage of high school students who smoke has continued to increase. In 2006, 7.5% of adolescent boys engaged in smoking. By 2012 the rate had increased to 24.6%. This paper explores the experiences that contribute to adolescent Taiwanese boys making the decision to smoke. A phenomenological approach to inquiry was used as the philosophical foundations for this study with twelve adolescent boys who engaged in smoking behaviors. Data was gathered through two face-to-face semi-structured interviews and a focus group. Data analysis was performed using Colaizzi's analysis method. Findings indicated that decisions to begin smoking were motivated by curiosity and as a means of establishing friendships while decisions to continue smoking were linked to the addictive nature of smoking and as a means of coping with stress and passing the time. The findings can be used to inform the prevention of tobacco use and to reduce the high smoking rates among adolescent boys. PMID:26343695
van der Put, Claudia E; Asscher, Jessica J
This study aimed to examine the presence and impact of dynamic protective factors for delinquency in male adolescents with a history of sexual and/or violent offending. Bipolar factors (factors with risk and protective factors being the ends of the same continuum) were examined in male adolescents with a history of sexual offenses against younger children (CSOs; n = 341), a history of sexual offenses against peers and/or adult victims (PSOs; n = 207), and a history of nonsexual violent offenses (VOs; n = 1,356). We conducted secondary analyses on data collected with the Washington State Juvenile Court Assessment and on general recidivism data. ANOVA, correlations, Fisher's z tests, and logistic regression analyses were applied. Results showed that, in VOs, the number of risk factors was greater than the number of protective factors, whereas in PSOs, and especially CSOs, the number of protective factors was greater than the number of risk factors. Protective factors appeared to be especially important for juveniles with a history of sexual offenses for two reasons. First, the impact of most protective factors on recidivism was larger among juveniles with a history of sexual offenses than among those with a history of violent offenses. Second, protective factors added to the predictive accuracy over and above risk factors in juveniles with a history of sexual offenses, but not in those with a history of violent offenses. PMID:25186865
Joseph T Sakai
Full Text Available Some conduct-disordered youths have high levels of callous unemotional traits and meet the DSM-5's "with limited prosocial emotions" (LPE specifier. These youths often do aggressive, self-benefitting acts that cost others. We previously developed a task, the AlAn's game, which asks participants to repeatedly decide whether to accept or reject offers in which they will receive money but a planned charity donation will be reduced. In our prior work, more "costly helping" (i.e., rejecting the offered money and protecting the donation was associated with lower callous unemotional traits. Here we extend that prior work in a larger sample of adolescent male patients with serious conduct problems and controls, and test whether this association is mediated specifically by a Moral Elevation response (i.e., a positive emotional response to another's act of virtue.The adolescent male participants were: 45 patients (23 with LPE and 26 controls, who underwent an extensive phenotypic assessment including a measure of Moral Elevation. About 1 week later participants played the AlAn's game.All AlAn's game outcomes demonstrated significant group effects: (1 money taken for self (p = 0.02; (2 money left in the charitable donation (p = 0.03; and, (3 costly helping (p = 0.047. Controls took the least money and did the most costly helping, while patients with LPE took the most money and did the least costly helping. Groups also significantly differed in post-stimulus Moral Elevation scores (p = 0.005. Exploratory analyses supported that the relationship between callous unemotional traits and costly helping on the AlAn's game may be mediated in part by differences in Moral Elevation.The AlAn's game provides a standardized behavioral measure associated with callous unemotional traits. Adolescents with high levels of callous unemotional traits engage in fewer costly helping behaviors, and those differences may be related to blunting of positive emotional responses.
Examines whether feminine media stars idolized by adolescent girls provide a safe target of romantic love before girls start dating and become sexually active. Surveys of seventh and ninth grade Israeli girls indicate that idolizing feminine stars may be an intermediate step in a sequence that starts with idolizing females and continues to the…
Manseau, Helene; Blais, Martin; Engler, Kim; Bosse, Marie-Andre
This study presents the perspective of vulnerable Canadian (Quebecker) adolescents defined as such on account of their numerous experiences with potential or actual fatherhood or exposure to sexually transmitted infection. The interviews allowed youth to talk about their experiences with paternity, their sex lives and their views on sex education.…
This article describes a qualitative study exploring the effects of community-based human rights and pro-equality education on Bolivian adolescent boys. By privileging the boys' own voices, the study examines how the boys' sense of solidarity toward others, derived from the citizenship duties and collegiality emphasised in non-governmental…
The physical environments in which adolescents reside and their access to food stores may influence their consumption of fruit and vegetables. This association could either be direct or mediated via psychosocial variables or home availability of fruit and vegetables. A greater understanding of these...
R.J. van Holst; J.S. Lemmens; P.M. Valkenburg; J. Peter; D.J. Veltman; A.E. Goudriaan
Purpose The aim of this study was to examine whether behavioral tendencies commonly related to addictive behaviors are also related to problematic computer and video game playing in adolescents. The study of attentional bias and response inhibition, characteristic for addictive disorders, is relevan
Poulin, Francois; Dishion, Thomas J.; Haas, Eric
Tested hypothesis that primary-influence processes in adolescent friendships are social interactional and that quality of friendship has little to do with development of delinquent behavior. Found that antisocial boys showed poor-quality friendships and low levels of relationship quality. (Author)
Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri
This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…
Conclusions: Self-efficacy and perceived stress can be related to depression but the role of stress and self-efficacy in the etiology and forming of depression in adolescent are discussed. Therefore, more studies for approval of these associations should be considered.
Korobov, Neill; Bamberg, Michael
This article presents a discursive psychological approach in examining the ways that adolescent boys (ages 12-15 years) accomplish a sense of "maturity" by bringing off and managing certain features of "heterosexuality" in group interaction. We focus on and analyse moments when the boys negotiate implicit challenges, make evaluations and offer…
Lauermann, Fernanda Tcatch; de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar
Background Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous follicle disorder affecting over 85% of adolescents to some degree. It frequently causes psychological distress that may persist into adulthood due to scarring. Little information about post-acne scarring epidemiology is available. Objectives To describe prevalence, distribution patterns and associated factors of acne scarring in young males, drawing on a representative population sample from a southern Brazilian city. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken during presentation for military service, which is compulsory for all 18-year-old males. A questionnaire was applied, covering topics like diet, smoking habits, ethnicity, family structure, socio-economic level, as well as specific questions about active acne and resulting scars. Dermatologists conducted the clinical examination. Results A total of 2,201 male adolescents were interviewed and examined. The overall prevalence of acne scarring was 22%. The malar region was the most frequently involved, present in 80% of affected individuals, followed by the frontal region (31.5%), back (17%), anterior chest (8.2%) and mentonian region (6.4%). Correlation between the intensity of clinical acne and the presence of scars was found, but no association was observed with educational level, smoking, ethnicity, obesity or socio-economic status. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of acne scars among this population. This is the first study to ascertain a correlation between acne scarring and factors such as socio-economic status and educational level. The direct relation between acne severity and scarring indicates that prompt and effective treatment is the best way to reduce scarring. PMID:27438194
Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of major physical, hormonal and psychological change. It is also characterized by a significant increase in the incidence of psychopathologies and this increase is gender-specific. Likewise, stress during adolescence is associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. Previously, using a rat model of psychogenic stress (exposure to predator odor followed by placement on an elevated platform during the pre-pubertal period (postnatal days 28-30, we reported sex-specific effects on auditory and contextual fear conditioning. Here, we study the short-term impact of psychogenic stress before and during puberty (postnatal days 28-42 on behavior (novelty seeking, risk taking, anxiety and depression and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis activation during late adolescence (postnatal days 45-51. Peri-pubertal stress decreased anxiety-like behavior and increased risk taking and novelty seeking behaviors during late adolescence (measured with the elevated plus maze, open field and exposure to novel object tests and intake of chocopop pellets before or immediate after stress. Finally neither depressive-like behavior (measured at the forced swim test nor HPA response to stress (blood corticosterone and glucose were affected by peri-pubertal stress. Nevertheless, when controlling for the basal anxiety of the mothers, animals exposed to peri-pubertal stress showed a significant decrease in corticosterone levels immediate after an acute stressor. The results from this study suggest that exposure to mild stressors during the peri-pubertal period induces a broad spectrum of behavioral changes in late adolescence, which may exacerbate the independence-building behaviors naturally happening during this transitional period (increase in curiosity, sensation-seeking and risk taking behaviors.
Bridewealth : an ethnographic study on the narratives and descriptions of the practice of bridewealth establishing its purposes, effects and consequences among the Luo, Kikuyu, Kalenjin, Meru, Kamba, Maasai, Kisii and Luhya ethnic groups in Kenya
Diaz Delgado Raitala, Diana
Tämä tutkimus analysoi morsiushinnan tapaa seuraavissa Kenian etnisissä ryhmissä: Kalenjin, Kisii, Kikuju, Luhya, Meru, Maasai ja Kamba. Tämä analyysi perustuu pääasiassa minun etnograafiseen työhön, joka toteutettiin helmi-kesäkuussa 2012. Sen aikana keräsin tietoja käyttämällä avoimia haastatteluja ja myös osallistumalla informanttien rutiineihin, eli heidän jokapäiväiseen elämään. Morsiushinta aihe ilmentyi vasta syväanalyysin aikana kenttätyössä kerätyistä haastattelujen litteroin...
Zavras, Nikolaos; Siristatidis, Charalampos; Siatelis, Argyris; Koumarianou, Anna
Cancer represents the second cause of death in prepubertal children and adolescents, although it is currently associated with an overall survival rate of 80%–85%. The annual incidence rate is 186.6 per 1 million children and adolescents aged up to 19 years. Both disease and treatment options are associated with life-altering, long-term effects that require monitoring. Infertility is a common issue, and as such, fertility preservation represents an essential part in the management of young patients with cancer who are at risk of premature gonadal failure. This review deals with the up-to-date available data on fertility risk assessment and preservation strategies that should be addressed prior to antineoplastic therapy in this vulnerable subgroup of cancer patients. PMID:27398041
Waters Nicholas; Waters Susanna; Fernell Elisabeth; Forssberg Hans; Tedroff Joakim
Abstract Background Limited data from positron emission tomography (PET) studies of subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) indicate alterations in brain dopamine neurotransmission. However, these studies have used conventional univariate approaches that are less sensitive to detect complex interactions that may exist between different brain dopamine pathways and individual symptoms of ADHD. We aimed to investigate these potential interactions in adolescents with ADHD. M...
van Goozen, Stephanie H.M.; Langley, Kate; Northover, Clare; Hubble, Kelly; Rubia, Katya; Schepman, Karen; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Thapar, Anita
© 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Background: There is a known strong genetic contribution to aggression in those with ADHD. In a previous investigation of a large population cohort, impaired 'emotional/social cognitive' processing, assessed by questionnaire, was observed to mediate the link between COMT Val158Met and aggression in individuals with ADHD. We set out to replicate and extend this finding in a clinical sample, using task-based and physiological assessment...
Malete, L.; Motlhoiwa, K.; Shaibu, S.; B. H. Wrotniak; Maruapula, S. D.; Jackson, J; Compher, C. W.
Introduction. The purpose of this study was to examine linkages between obesity, physical activity, and body image dissatisfaction, with consideration of socioeconomic status (SES) and urbanization in adolescents in Botswana. Materials and Methods. A nationally representative, cross-sectional survey in 707 secondary school students included measured height and weight to determine overweight (OW) or obesity (OB) using World Health Organization standards; physical activity (PA) using the Intern...
Cotter, Katie L; Wu, Qi; Smokowski, Paul R
Using ecological theory and the peer socialization model, the current study identified risk and protective factors associated with internalizing and externalizing symptoms across ecological domains. It was hypothesized that the constellation of risk and protective factors within the peer microsystem would vary by gender: future optimism and negative peer influence were expected to be significant risk/protective factors for males, whereas peer victimization was expected to be significant risk factors among females. Using four waves of data, three-level hierarchical linear models were estimated for males and females. Results revealed that negative peer influence was a particularly salient risk factor for both internalizing and externalizing behaviors among males, although future optimism did not emerge as a significant protective factor. In addition, as hypothesized, peer victimization indicators were significant risk factors for females. Parent-child conflict was also significantly and positively associated with both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for males and females. Implications are discussed. PMID:26341092
Giedd Jay N; Raznahan Armin; Mills Kathryn L; Lenroot Rhoshel K
Abstract Improvements in neuroimaging technologies, and greater access to their use, have generated a plethora of data regarding male/female differences in the developing brain. Examination of these differences may shed light on the pathophysiology of the many illnesses that differ between the sexes and ultimately lead to more effective interventions. In this review, we attempt to synthesize the anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) literature of male/female brain differences with emphasi...
Mohammadi, Mehrnoosh; RezaeiDehaghani, Abdollah; Mehrabi, Tayebeh; RezaeiDehaghani, Ali
Background: As adolescents spend much time on playing computer games, their mental and social effects should be considered. The present study aimed to investigate the association between playing computer games and the mental and social health among male adolescents in Iran in 2014. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 210 adolescents selected by multi-stage random sampling. Data were collected by Goldberg and Hillier general health (28 items) and Kiez social health questionnaires. The association was tested by Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and independent t-test. Computer games related factors such as the location, type, length, the adopted device, and mode of playing games were investigated. Results: Results showed that 58.9% of the subjects played games on a computer alone for 1 h at home. Results also revealed that the subjects had appropriate mental health and 83.2% had moderate social health. Results showed a poor significant association between the length of games and social health (r = −0.15, P = 0.03), the type of games and mental health (r = −0.16, P = 0.01), and the device used in playing games and social health (F = 0.95, P = 0.03). Conclusions: The findings showed that adolescents’ mental and social health is negatively associated with their playing computer games. Therefore, to promote their health, educating them about the correct way of playing computer games is essential and their parents and school authorities, including nurses working at schools, should determine its relevant factors such as the type, length, and device used in playing such games. PMID:27095988
Ginus Partadiredja; Sutarman; Taufik Nur Yahya; Christiana Tri Nuryana; Rina Susilowati
OBJECTIVE:The present study aimed at investigating the effects of curcumin on the motor coordination and the estimate of the total number of cerebellar Purkinje cells of adolescent Wistar rats exposed to ethanol.METHODS:The total of 21 male Wistar rats aged 37 d old were divided into three groups,namely ethanol,ethanol-curcumin,and control groups.The ethanol group received 1.5 g/kg ethanol injected intraperitoneally and water given per oral; the ethanol-curcumin group received 1.5 g/kg ethanol injected intraperitoneally and curcumin extract given per oral; the control group received saline injection and oral water.The treatment was carried out daily for one month,after which the motor coordination performance of the rats was examined using revolving drum apparatus at test days 1,8,and 15.The rats were finally sacrificed and the cerebellum of the rats was further processed for stereological analysis.The estimate of the total number of Purkinje cells was calculated using physical fractionator method.RESULTS:The ethanol-curcumin group performed better than both ethanol and control groups in the motor coordination ability at day 8 of testing (P＜ 0.01).No Purkinje cell loss was observed as a result of one month intraperitoneal injection of ethanol.CONCLUSION:Curcumin may exert beneficial effects on the motor coordination of adolescent rats exposed to ethanol via undetermined hormetic mechanisms.
Tsang, Siny; Piquero, Alex R; Cauffman, Elizabeth
This study examined the applicability of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003) among a large sample of serious offending adolescent males. Adopting an item response theory approach, item properties of the PCL:YV were examined using the generalized partial credit model. Results showed that need for stimulation, "irresponsibility," and callous & unemotional were sensitive to changes in respondents' varying psychopathy levels, whereas lack of realistic, long-term goals; superficial charm; and revocation of conditional release were less so (quoted PCL:YV item published with permission by Multi-Health Systems, Inc.; see full permissions statement in footnote 1 in the article; other items are paraphrased). Substantial differential item functioning was also found in 15 of the 20 PCL:YV items among Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic offending boys, indicating that item functioning was not invariant across race/ethnicity. Questions remain regarding whether the construct of psychopathy as assessed with the PCL:YV is equivalent across adolescents in general and across different race/ethnic groups in particular. PMID:25181395
Tu, Pei-Chi; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Lan, Chen-Chia; Liu, Chia-Chien; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue
Behaviors associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been suggested to be considered as quantitative traits. This study investigated the structural and functional correlates of autistic traits measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in neurotypical adolescents. Twenty-six neurotypical male adolescents (12-18 years old) were recruited for this study and underwent structural and resting functional magnetic resonance image scanning, and intelligence quotient and SRS evaluations. We used the automated surface-based method (FreeSurfer) to measure cortical thickness and seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analysis to derive the FC map of the dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC). Brain-wise regression analyses of cortical thickness and FC maps on SRS scores were performed using a general linear model. The results indicated that higher autistic trait ratings of total SRS scores were associated with a thinner cortex in the left insula, right insula, and right superior temporal gyrus. Furthermore, we observed that only higher scores of social awareness were correlated with increased FC between the dACC and right superior temporal gyrus and decreased FC between the dACC and right putamen and thalamus. These results indicated that a quantitative trait in social cognition is associated with structural and connectivity variations linked to ASD patients. Autism Res 2016, 9: 570-578. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26284955
Donati, Maria Anna; Chiesi, Francesca; Ammannato, Giulio; Primi, Caterina
This study tested the predictive power of gaming versatility (i.e., the number of video game genres engaged in) on game addiction in male adolescents, controlling for time spent on gaming. Participants were 701 male adolescents attending high school (Mage=15.6 years). Analyses showed that pathological gaming was predicted not only by higher time spent on gaming, but also by participation in a greater number of video game genres. Specifically, the wider the array of video game genres played, the higher were the negative consequences caused by gaming. Findings show that versatility can be considered as one of the behavioral risk factors related to gaming addiction, which may be characterized by a composite and diversified experience with video games. This study suggests that educational efforts designed to prevent gaming addiction among youth may also be focused on adolescents' engagement in different video games. PMID:25684613
Mynarski, Wladyslaw; Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Rozpara, Michal; Garbaciak, Wieslaw
Study aim: To assess the physical activity of male and female adolescents from Poland living in a town (Czechowice-Dziedzice) and in a city (Katowice). Material and methods: The research involved 431 high school students aged 16-18 years (249 from Czechowice-Dziedzice and 182 from Katowice). Physical activity was measured by the short form of the…
Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Murphy, Christopher J.
This paper compares the results of two separate published studies regarding adolescent males with conduct disorders and/or personality disorders/traits. Both studies were published in the Behavior Analyst Today, Vol. 3, No. 4, Vol 5, No. 1, respectively. The concept is to evaluate two treatment research studies that represent "the best" practices…
Sarajlic Vukovic, Iris; Boricevic Maršanic, Vlatka; Aukst Margetic, Branka; Paradžik, Ljubica; Vidovic, Domagoj; Buljan Flander, Gordana
Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in male veterans has been linked with impaired family relationships and psychopathology in their children. Less is known about symptoms in children of veterans with partial PTSD. Objective: To compare mental health problems, family functioning and parent-child bonding among adolescent offspring of…
de Wied, Minet; van Boxtel, Anton; Matthys, Walter; Meeus, Wim
This study examined empathy-related responding in male adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), high or low on callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Facial electromyographic (EMG) and heart rate (HR) responses were monitored during exposure to empathy-inducing film clips portraying sadness, anger or happiness. Self-reports were assessed…
DEEM, MICHAEL A.; PORTER, WILLIAM R.
MAJOR OBJECTIVES OF THIS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT WERE (1) TO CONTINUE DEVELOPING A PROTOTYPE SPECIAL CLASS PROGRAM FOR EMOTIONALLY HANDICAPPED PUPILS (18 MALE ADOLESCENTS), (2) TO DEVISE METHODS OF EVALUATION FOR THE PROGRAM, AND (3) TO IDENTIFY SIGNIFICANT VARIABLES FOR FURTHER INVESTIGATION AND RESEARCH. IN PLANNING THE PROJECT DURING THE FIRST…
Part II: Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers and Delinquent Youth--Further Group Comparisons of Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Challenges
Leibowitz, George S.; Burton, David L.; Howard, Alan
In a recent paper published in the "Journal of Child Sexual Abuse," we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers (Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to…
Dwyer, R. Gregg; Boyd, Mary S.
Male adolescents have been credited with a significant percentage of sex crimes in recent years. They are a heterogeneous population with offenses spanning the same range found among adult offenders. A lack of interpersonal social skills relevant to intimate relationships and inaccurate knowledge regarding appropriate sexual behaviors contribute…
Rausch, John L.
The goal of this study was to utilize a phenomenological case study design to investigate the individual and social identity development of an adolescent male who had been placed in a high-security group home setting. The participant had been identified with emotional disturbance (ED), and 48, XYYY karyotype. The participant described his social…
Nicholas W Gilpin
Full Text Available Heavy episodic drinking early in adolescence is associated with increased risk of addiction and other stress-related disorders later in life. This suggests that adolescent alcohol abuse is an early marker of innate vulnerability and/or binge exposure impacts the developing brain to increase vulnerability to these disorders in adulthood. Animal models are ideal for clarifying the relationship between adolescent and adult alcohol abuse, but we show that methods of involuntary alcohol exposure are not effective. We describe an operant model that uses multiple bouts of intermittent access to sweetened alcohol to elicit voluntary binge alcohol drinking early in adolescence (~postnatal days 28-42 in genetically heterogeneous male Wistar rats. We next examined the effects of adolescent binge drinking on alcohol drinking and anxiety-like behavior in dependent and non-dependent adult rats, and counted corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF cell in the lateral portion of the central amygdala (CeA, a region that contributes to regulation of anxiety- and alcohol-related behaviors. Adolescent binge drinking did not alter alcohol drinking under baseline drinking conditions in adulthood. However, alcohol-dependent and non-dependent adult rats with a history of adolescent alcohol binge drinking did exhibit increased alcohol drinking when access to alcohol was intermittent. Adult rats that binged alcohol during adolescence exhibited increased exploration on the open arms of the elevated plus maze (possibly indicating either decreased anxiety or increased impulsivity, an effect that was reversed by a history of alcohol dependence during adulthood. Finally, CRF cell counts were reduced in the lateral CeA of rats with adolescent alcohol binge history, suggesting semi-permanent changes in the limbic stress peptide system with this treatment. These data suggest that voluntary binge drinking during early adolescence produces long-lasting neural and behavioral effects
Koss, W A; Sadowski, R N; Sherrill, L K; Gulley, J M; Juraska, J M
Human adolescents often consume alcohol in a binge-like manner at a time when changes are occurring within specific brain structures, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLN). In particular, the number of neurons and glia is changing in both of these areas in the rat between adolescence and adulthood (Markham et al., 2007; Rubinow and Juraska, 2009). The current study investigated the effects of ethanol exposure during adolescence on the number of neurons and glia in the adult mPFC and BLN in Long-Evans male and female rats. Saline or 3g/kg ethanol was administered between postnatal days (P) 35-45 in a binge-like pattern, with 2days of injections followed by 1 day without an injection. Stereological analyses of the ventral mPFC (prelimbic and infralimbic areas) and the BLN were performed on brains from rats at 100 days of age. Neuron and glia densities were assessed with the optical disector and then multiplied by the volume to calculate the total number of neurons and glia. In the adult mPFC, ethanol administration during adolescence resulted in a decreased number of glia in males, but not females, and had no effect on the number of neurons. Adolescent ethanol exposure had no effects on glia or neuron number in the BLN. These results suggest that glia cells in the prefrontal cortex are particularly sensitive to binge-like exposure to ethanol during adolescence in male rats only, potentially due to a decrease in proliferation in males or protective mechanisms in females. PMID:22627163
Alexander R Gibson
Full Text Available The relative importance of genetic and socio-cultural influences contributing to the success of east Africans in endurance athletics remains unknown in part because the pre-training phenotype of this population remains incompletely assessed. Here cardiopulmonary fitness, physical activity levels, distance travelled to school and daily energy expenditure in 15 habitually active male (13.9±1.6 years and 15 habitually active female (13.9±1.2 adolescents from a rural Nandi primary school are assessed. Aerobic capacity ([Formula: see text] was evaluated during two maximal discontinuous incremental exercise tests; physical activity using accelerometry combined with a global positioning system; and energy expenditure using the doubly labelled water method. The [Formula: see text] of the male and female adolescents were 73.9±5.7 ml(. kg(-1. min(-1 and 61.5±6.3 ml(. kg(-1. min(-1, respectively. Total time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous physical activities per day was 406±63 min (50% of total monitored time, 244±56 min (30%, 75±18 min (9% and 82±30 min (10%. Average total daily distance travelled to and from school was 7.5±3.0 km (0.8-13.4 km. Mean daily energy expenditure, activity-induced energy expenditure and physical activity level was 12.2±3.4 MJ(. day(-1, 5.4±3.0 MJ(. day(-1 and 2.2±0.6. 70.6% of the variation in [Formula: see text] was explained by sex (partial R(2 = 54.7% and body mass index (partial R(2 = 15.9%. Energy expenditure and physical activity variables did not predict variation in [Formula: see text] once sex had been accounted for. The highly active and energy-demanding lifestyle of rural Kenyan adolescents may account for their exceptional aerobic fitness and collectively prime them for later training and athletic success.
Sakai, Joseph T.; Dalwani, Manish S.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; McWilliams, Shannon K.; Raymond, Kristen M.; Crowley, Thomas J.
Background Some conduct-disordered youths have high levels of callous unemotional traits and meet the DSM-5’s “with limited prosocial emotions” (LPE) specifier. These youths often do aggressive, self-benefitting acts that cost others. We previously developed a task, the AlAn’s game, which asks participants to repeatedly decide whether to accept or reject offers in which they will receive money but a planned charity donation will be reduced. In our prior work, more "costly helping" (i.e., rejecting the offered money and protecting the donation) was associated with lower callous unemotional traits. Here we extend that prior work in a larger sample of adolescent male patients with serious conduct problems and controls, and test whether this association is mediated specifically by a Moral Elevation response (i.e., a positive emotional response to another’s act of virtue). Methods The adolescent male participants were: 45 patients (23 with LPE) and 26 controls, who underwent an extensive phenotypic assessment including a measure of Moral Elevation. About 1 week later participants played the AlAn’s game. Results All AlAn’s game outcomes demonstrated significant group effects: (1) money taken for self (p = 0.02); (2) money left in the charitable donation (p = 0.03); and, (3) costly helping (p = 0.047). Controls took the least money and did the most costly helping, while patients with LPE took the most money and did the least costly helping. Groups also significantly differed in post-stimulus Moral Elevation scores (p = 0.005). Exploratory analyses supported that the relationship between callous unemotional traits and costly helping on the AlAn’s game may be mediated in part by differences in Moral Elevation. Conclusions The AlAn's game provides a standardized behavioral measure associated with callous unemotional traits. Adolescents with high levels of callous unemotional traits engage in fewer costly helping behaviors, and those differences may be related
Full Text Available Trata-se de pesquisa quantitativa que teve como objetivo investigar a iniciação sexual de adolescentes do sexo masculino em Concórdia, Santa Catarina. Participaram da mesma 340 adolescentes do sexo masculino, com idades entre 14 e 19 anos, que freqüentavam o ensino médio em seis instituições de ensino do município de Concórdia, que aceitaram participar e que trouxeram o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido assinado pelos pais ou responsáveis. Destes, 69,7% afirmaram ter relações sexuais, sendo que a média de idade da primeira relação foi de 14,4 anos, menor que a média nacional de 15 anos. A primeira relação sexual ocorreu com uma ficante para 45,1% e 64,2% afirmaram que o principal motivo para a mesma foi vontade/tesão. A maioria (74,2% qualificou a experiência como boa ou muito boa. O uso da camisinha foi apontado como método utilizado na primeira relação sexual por 73,8% dos adolescentes e como método usado em todas as relações por 72,5%. Alguns adolescentes relataram não conversar sobre sexualidade, mas a maioria aponta os amigos como principal fonte de informações sobre sexo. Frente ao exposto, fica claro que apesar de terem sua primeira relação sexual cada vez mais precocemente, o diálogo sobre prevenção tem surtido efeito, o que é reforçado pelo uso expressivo do preservativo entre os adolescentes.This quantitative study aimed to investigate the onset of sexual activity in male adolescents from Concordia, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The studied sample consisted of a total of 340 14-19-year-old male adolescents attending secondary school in six local educational institutions, who accepted to answer the questionnaire and whose parents signed the Free and Informed Consent. From these, 69,7% affirmed that they already had sexual relations; the mean age at the first relation was 14,4, lower than national average of 15 years. The first sexual relation occurred with a date in the case of 45,1% and 64
Purves-Tyson Tertia D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased risk of schizophrenia in adolescent males indicates that a link between the development of dopamine-related psychopathology and testosterone-driven brain changes may exist. However, contradictions as to whether testosterone increases or decreases dopamine neurotransmission are found and most studies address this in adult animals. Testosterone-dependent actions in neurons are direct via activation of androgen receptors (AR or indirect by conversion to 17β-estradiol and activation of estrogen receptors (ER. How midbrain dopamine neurons respond to sex steroids depends on the presence of sex steroid receptor(s and the level of steroid conversion enzymes (aromatase and 5α-reductase. We investigated whether gonadectomy and sex steroid replacement could influence dopamine levels by changing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH protein and mRNA and/or dopamine breakdown enzyme mRNA levels [catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT and monoamine oxygenase (MAO A and B] in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We hypothesized that adolescent testosterone would regulate sex steroid signaling through regulation of ER and AR mRNAs and through modulation of aromatase and 5α-reductase mRNA levels. Results We find ERα and AR in midbrain dopamine neurons in adolescent male rats, indicating that dopamine neurons are poised to respond to circulating sex steroids. We report that androgens (T and DHT increase TH protein and increase COMT, MAOA and MAOB mRNAs in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We report that all three sex steroids increase AR mRNA. Differential action on ER pathways, with ERα mRNA down-regulation and ERβ mRNA up-regulation by testosterone was found. 5α reductase-1 mRNA was increased by AR activation, and aromatase mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy. Conclusions We conclude that increased testosterone at adolescence can shift the balance of sex steroid signaling to favor androgenic responses through promoting
Ozener, Baniş; Ertuğrul, Berna
The aim of this study was to determine the physical development level of post-adolescent automotive repair workers who had been employed in heavy work during adolescence, a critical developmental period. Young workers (Group 1, N = 106, Mean age = 18.33, SD = 0.65) employed an average of 6 years in workshops in the capital of Turkey, Ankara. For the control group, two groups of the same age but having a difference in terms of socioeconomic status were chosen. The first one of these was comprised of individuals who had the same socioeconomic status as the laborers (Group 2, N = 106, Mean age = 18.33, SD = 0.65) but were not laborers. The second control group was composed of individuals from the higher socioeconomic levels of society (Group 3, N = 100, Mean Age = 18.45 SD = 0.63). Weight, height and measures were taken from the individuals and the body mass index (kg/m2) was calculated. The results of the analysis show that, although all the variables of the labor group were lower than Group 2, the difference is only significant for the height variable (p youngsters are prone to chronic developmental retardation. PMID:22816205
Tavousi, Mahmoud; Montazeri, Ali; Hidarnia, Alireza; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Taremian, Farhad; Haerimehrizi, Aliasghar
The theory of reasoned action (TRA) is one of the most common models in predicting health-related behaviors and is used more often in health education studies. This study aimed to add two control constructs (perceived behavioral control - PBC and self-efficacy - SE) to the TRA and compare them using the structural equation modeling (SEM) for substance use avoidance among Iranian male adolescents in order to find out which model was a better fit in predicting the intention. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected from a random sample of high school male students (15-19 years of age) using a questionnaire containing items related to the TRA plus items reflecting two additional constructs (SE and PBC). In all, 433 students completed the questionnaires. The results obtained from SEM indicated a better fit to the data for the TRA with SE compared to the TPB (TRA with PBC) and TRA (χ2/df=2.55, RMSEA=0.072, CFI=0.96, NFI=0.94, NNFI=0.95, SRMR=0.058). Comparing SE and PBC, the results showed that self-efficacy was a better control construct in improving the TRA and predicting substance use avoidance intention (41%). The TRA with SE had a better model fit than TPB and the original version of the TRA. PMID:25427059
Svedin, Carl Goran; Akerman, Ingrid; Priebe, Gisela
Frequent use of pornography has not been sufficiently studied before. In a Swedish survey 2015 male students aged 18 years participated. A group of frequent users of pornography (N = 200, 10.5%) were studied with respect to background and psychosocial correlates. The frequent users had a more positive attitude to pornography, were more often…
Piquero, Alex R.; Connell, Nadine M.; Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Farrington, David P.; Jennings, Wesley G.
The perpetration of bullying is a significant issue among researchers, policymakers, and the general public. Although researchers have examined the link between bullying and subsequent antisocial behavior, data and methodological limitations have hampered firm conclusions. This study uses longitudinal data from 411 males in the Cambridge Study in…
R. Agricola (Rintje); J.H.J.M. Bessems (Gert); A.Z. Ginai (Abida); M.P. Heijboer (Rien); R.A. van der Heijden (Rianne); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); H.H. Weinans (Harrie); J.H. Waarsing (Jan)
textabstractBackground: Cam impingement is a well-recognized cause of hip pain and might cause osteoarthritis of the hip. Clinically, cam impingement is mostly observed in young, active male patients, but only a few studies have focused on the manifestation of cam-type deformities during skeletal de
Sarah P. Shultz, Lee Stoner, Danielle M. Lambrick, Andrew M. Lane
Full Text Available In New Zealand, obese Māori and Pasifika adolescents are at risk of numerous cardio-metabolic conditions with raising physical activity levels being proposed as a useful intervention. The present study used a mixed method design to explore the effects of a non-contact boxing-oriented training programme designed in terms of improvements to cardio-metabolic variables. Traditional recruitment strategies (media, referrals were employed, with limited success leading to 3 adolescent boys (14-15 y participating in the pilot intervention. Exercise sessions included 30 minutes of non-contact boxing training, followed by 30 minutes of progressive resistance training. Participants attended three 1h training sessions each week, for a total of 12 weeks. Physiological variables included anthropometric indices, visceral fat thickness, central blood pressures, central arterial stiffness (augmentation index: AIx, and carotid arterial stiffness (β. Results revealed that there was no trend for change in body weight (125.5 ± 12.1 kg vs. 126.5 ± 11.0 kg or BMI (39.3 ± 4.1 kg·m-2 vs. 39.0 ± 4.6 kg·m-2. However, there was a moderate decrease in visceral fat thickness (4.34 ± 2.51 cm vs 3.65 ± 1.11 cm, d = 0.36. There was no change in central pulse pressure (38.7 ± 7.3 mmHg vs. 38.3 ± 5.0 mmHg, however, there was a small improvement in β (3.01 ± 0.73 vs. 2.87 ± 0.84, d = 0.18. Focus group interview data with participants and their parents were used to explore issues related to motivation to participation. Results revealed participants commented on how the programme has led to new friendships, changes to their physical appearance, and increased physical fitness. Parents commented on increased self-confidence, better performance in school, and a willingness to take part in new activities. In conclusion, it appears participating in the boxing oriented training programme was motivating to participants who engaged and had some physiological benefits in obese
Shultz, Sarah P; Stoner, Lee; Lambrick, Danielle M; Lane, Andrew M
In New Zealand, obese Māori and Pasifika adolescents are at risk of numerous cardio-metabolic conditions with raising physical activity levels being proposed as a useful intervention. The present study used a mixed method design to explore the effects of a non-contact boxing-oriented training programme designed in terms of improvements to cardio-metabolic variables. Traditional recruitment strategies (media, referrals) were employed, with limited success leading to 3 adolescent boys (14-15 y) participating in the pilot intervention. Exercise sessions included 30 minutes of non-contact boxing training, followed by 30 minutes of progressive resistance training. Participants attended three 1h training sessions each week, for a total of 12 weeks. Physiological variables included anthropometric indices, visceral fat thickness, central blood pressures, central arterial stiffness (augmentation index: AIx), and carotid arterial stiffness (β). Results revealed that there was no trend for change in body weight (125.5 ± 12.1 kg vs. 126.5 ± 11.0 kg) or BMI (39.3 ± 4.1 kg·m(-2) vs. 39.0 ± 4.6 kg·m(-2)). However, there was a moderate decrease in visceral fat thickness (4.34 ± 2.51 cm vs 3.65 ± 1.11 cm, d = 0.36). There was no change in central pulse pressure (38.7 ± 7.3 mmHg vs. 38.3 ± 5.0 mmHg), however, there was a small improvement in β (3.01 ± 0.73 vs. 2.87 ± 0.84, d = 0.18). Focus group interview data with participants and their parents were used to explore issues related to motivation to participation. Results revealed participants commented on how the programme has led to new friendships, changes to their physical appearance, and increased physical fitness. Parents commented on increased self-confidence, better performance in school, and a willingness to take part in new activities. In conclusion, it appears participating in the boxing oriented training programme was motivating to participants who engaged and had some physiological benefits in obese
Riney, Lauren C; Shah, Meera; Lopez Domowicz, Denise A
Scalp eruptions are common in infants, children, and adolescents and the etiology can be broad. Allergic contact dermatitis can result after multiple non eventful uses of a hair care product, including shampoo, relaxers, and coloring agents. Symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis include intense pruritus with weeping, pain, and stinging sensations. Signs on physical examination include swelling with scaly erythematous plaques as well as bullae with vesicles and pustules in severe cases. The forehead, eyelids, and postauricular areas also are subject to swelling. Definitive diagnosis of allergic dermatitis involves patch testing to determine the specific allergen. Education about avoidance of the allergen and recommendations for allergen-free products are the most important aspects of managing patients with allergic contact dermatitis. Treatment depends on the severity and extent of involvement. First-line treatment is topical corticosteroids, followed by topical calcineurin inhibitors. For more extensive dermatitis, systemic corticosteroids are beneficial. PMID:26527634
Kerr, Robert A.
Per capita alcohol consumption by Irish teenagers has doubled over the past three decades. There has also been a doubling of the suicide rate among young men. The aim of this study was to measure the correlation between alcohol consumption and negative mood (as measured by elements of the Beck Depression Inventory) in a sample (n = 169) of final-year secondary school male students. A questionnaire was devised to ascertain frequency, type and quantity of alcohol consumed, as well as attitudes ...
Spence, S H
Seventy convicted young male offenders were videotaped during a 5-min standardized interview with a previously unknown adult. In order to determine the social validity of the behavioral components of social interaction for this population, measures of 13 behaviors were obtained from the tapes. These measures were then correlated with ratings of friendliness, social anxiety, social skills performance, and employability made by four independent adult judges from the same tapes. It was found tha...
Schell, Lawrence M.; Gallo, Mia V.; Deane, Glenn D.; Nelder, Kyrie R.; DeCaprio, Anthony P; Jacobs, Agnes; ,
Background: Concern persists over endocrine-disrupting effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on human growth and sexual maturation. Potential effects of toxicant exposures on testosterone levels during puberty are not well characterized. Objectives: In this study we evaluated the relationship between toxicants [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and lead] and testosterone levels among 127 Akwesasne Mohawk males 10 ...
Burrow-Sánchez, Jason J; Meyers, Kimberly; Corrales, Carolina; Ortiz-Jensen, Cynthia
Adolescent substance abuse is a serious public health concern, and in response to this problem, a number of effective treatment approaches have been developed. Despite this, retaining and engaging adolescents in treatment are 2 major challenges continuously faced by practitioners and clinical researchers. Low retention and engagement rates are especially salient for ethnic minority adolescents because they are at high risk for underutilization of substance abuse treatment compared to their White peers. Latino adolescents, in particular, are part of the fastest growing ethnic minority group in the United States and experience high rates of substance use disorders. Heretofore, the empirical examination of cultural factors that influence treatment retention and engagement has been lacking in the literature. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of the cultural variables ethnic identity, familism, and acculturation on the retention and engagement of Latino adolescents participating in substance abuse treatment. This study used data collected from a sample of Latino adolescent males (N = 96), predominantly of Mexican descent, and largely recruited from the juvenile justice system. Analysis was conducted using generalized regression models for count variables. Results indicated that higher levels of exploration, a subfactor of ethnic identity, and familism were predictive of attendance and engagement. In contrast, higher levels of Anglo orientation, a subfactor of acculturation, were predictive of lower treatment attendance and engagement. Clinical implications for the variables of ethnic identity, acculturation, and familism as well as suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:26168226
Bastle, Ryan M; Peartree, Natalie A; Goenaga, Julianna; Hatch, Kayla N; Henricks, Angela; Scott, Samantha; Hood, Lauren E; Neisewander, Janet L
Smoking initiation predominantly occurs during adolescence, often in the presence of peers. Therefore, understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the rewarding effects of nicotine and social stimuli is vital. Using the conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure, we measured immediate early gene (IEG) expression in animals following exposure either to a reward-conditioned environment or to the unconditioned stimuli (US). Adolescent, male rats were assigned to the following CPP US conditions: (1) Saline+Isolated, (2) Nicotine+Isolated, (3) Saline+Social, or (4) Nicotine+Social. For Experiment 1, brain tissue was collected 90min following the CPP expression test and processed for Fos immunohistochemistry. We found that rats conditioned with nicotine with or without a social partner exhibited CPP; however, we found no group differences in Fos expression in any brain region analyzed, with the exception of the nucleus accumbens core that exhibited a social-induced attenuation in Fos expression. For Experiment 2, brain tissue was collected 90min following US exposure during the last conditioning session. We found social reward-induced increases in IEG expression in striatal and amydalar subregions. In contrast, nicotine reduced IEG expression in prefrontal and striatal subregions. Reward interactions were also found in the dorsolateral striatum, basolateral amygdala, and ventral tegmental area where nicotine alone attenuated IEG expression and social reward reversed this effect. These results suggest that in general social rewards enhance, whereas nicotine attenuates, activation of mesocorticolimbic regions; however, the rewards given together interact to enhance activation in some regions. The findings contribute to knowledge of how a social environment influences nicotine effects. PMID:27435419
Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Harper, Gary W; Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Fortenberry, J Dennis
Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school- and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent males ages 15-19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one's sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., "top" or "bottom"); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who may be accessing SEM. PMID:25677334