Okamoto, Shinichi; Arai, Yuji; Hara, Kunio; Tsuzihara, Takashi; Kubo, Toshikazu
This report presents a case of a displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with amenorrhea. Both reduction and internal fixation were performed early after the injury. At 24 months postoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy showed no positive signs of femoral head necrosis and bone union was confirmed on plain X-ray. A medical examination for the presence of the signs of the female athlete triad by checking weight, calorie intake and menstrual cycles is most important to prevent such stress fractures. Athletes as well as their coaches or parents therefore need to understand female athlete triad. PMID:20205723
Full Text Available Abstract This report presents a case of a displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with amenorrhea. Both reduction and internal fixation were performed early after the injury. At 24 months postoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy showed no positive signs of femoral head necrosis and bone union was confirmed on plain X-ray. A medical examination for the presence of the signs of the female athlete triad by checking weight, calorie intake and menstrual cycles is most important to prevent such stress fractures. Athletes as well as their coaches or parents therefore need to understand female athlete triad.
Mundy, Marie-Anne; Kupczynski, Lori; DAVIS, Rebecca; SPILLETT, Marydee A.
Gender disparity is evident in tenure track and tenured faculty positions at universities. However, distance education may provide more supportive environments for female academicians to grow and develop. The term distance learning is used to encompass any type of instruction delivered off campus. Distance learning has increased dramatically and has gained strategic importance possibly presenting women with a new realm for advancement. Leaders in distance learning must have qualities such as ...
This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…
This article describes the life conditions of female adolescents in India and issues such as health, discrimination in nutrition and literacy, child labor, early marriage, juvenile delinquency, and violence against girls in rural areas of India. Data are obtained from interview samples conducted among 12 villages in north India. Female adolescents suffer from a variety of poverty-ridden village life conditions: caste oppression, lack of facilities, malnutrition, educational backwardness, early marriage, domestic burden, and gender neglect. Girls carry a heavy work burden. Adolescence in rural areas is marked by the onset of puberty and the thrust into adulthood. Girls have no independent authority to control their sexuality or reproduction. Girls are expected to get married and produce children. Control of female sexuality is shifted from the father to the husband. There is a strong push to marry girls soon after menstruation, due to the burden of imposing strict restrictions on female sexuality, the desire to reduce the burden of financial support, and the need to ensure social security for daughters. Girls may not go out alone or stay outside after dark. Many rural parents fear that education and freedom would ruin their daughter. Girls develop a low self-image. Rural villages have poor sanitation, toilet facilities, and drainage systems. Girls are ignorant of health and sex education and lack access to education. The neglect of female children includes malnutrition, sex bias, and early marriage. In 1981, almost 4 out of every 100 girls had to work. 5.527 million girls 5-14 years old were child laborers. Girls are veiled, footbound, circumcised, and burnt by dowry hungry in-laws. Female delinquents are subjected to sexual harassment and sometime to sexual abuse while in custody. Cows are treated better in rural India than women. Gender disparity is caused by the perpetuation of patriarchal masculine values. PMID:12158005
Dominé, F; Dadoumont, C; Bourguignon, J-P
Eating disorders (EDs) are conditions which are becoming more and more widespread among adolescents and they often lead them to seek the opinion of a professional health caregiver, including gynecologists and pediatricians. EDs, and particularly anorexia nervosa (AN), are usually classified as psychological or psychiatric disorders, but they may have major somatic implications and complications as osteoporosis, nutritional deficiencies, cerebral atrophy, cardiac and metabolic disorders. A key issue in the management is prevention or reduction of both the serious somatic consequences and the important mental health consequences (e.g. depression, psychosocial withdrawal, phobia and suicide), integrating different perspectives (psychological or psychiatric - individual and familial -, genetic, nutritional, pediatric, gynecological). Adolescence is a critical period for the onset of EDs though they may also involve younger children. In this case, the consequences on the development (height, weight, puberty) can also be significant. In this review, we will focus on eating disorders in adolescent girls with an emphasis on AN. We describe variations in ED characteristics and their management depending on age at occurrence. A possible ED should be considered by pediatricians consulted about delayed female growth and puberty as well as gynecologists in patients with primary or secondary amenorrhea or infertility. PMID:22846535
Burgić-Radmanović, Marija; Gavrić, Živana; Štrkić, Dijana
Background: Adolescence is a period of significant physical, emotional and intellectual changes, as well as changes in social roles, relations and expectations. Objective: Our objective was to inquire into eating attitudes among female adolescents. Subjects and method: The sample consisted of female adolescents, age of 16-17, attending first grade Economic and Medical Secondary School pupils in Banja Luka, 2007. Survey questionnaire (16 questions) is a scale for self-rating of eating di...
Milne, Lisa A.; Lancaster, Sandra
Study examined factors associated with symptoms of depression in female adolescents. Specifically, the relationship between theoretically related measures-separation-individuation; interpersonal concerns; attachment style; parental representations-and symptoms of depression was investigated. The model developed explained interrelationships of…
Full Text Available Abstract Numerous studies have examined the association between the surrounding neighborhood environment and physical activity levels in adolescents. Many of these studies use a road network buffer or Euclidean distance buffer around an adolescent's home to represent the appropriate geographic area for study (i.e., neighborhood. However, little empirical research has examined the appropriate buffer size to use when defining this area and there is little consistency across published research as to the buffer size used. In this study, 909 12th grade adolescent girls of diverse racial and geographic backgrounds were asked to report their perceptions of an easy walking distance and a convenient driving distance. These two criterions are often used as the basis for defining one's neighborhood. The mean easy walking distance in minutes reported by adolescent girls was 14.8 minutes (SD = 8.7. The mean convenient driving distance in minutes reported was 17.9 minutes (SD = 10.8. Nested linear multivariate regression models found significant differences in reported 'easy walking distance' across race and BMI. White adolescents reported on average almost 2 minutes longer for an easy walking distance compared to African American adolescents. Adolescents who were not overweight or at risk for overweight reported almost 2 minutes fewer for an easy walking distance relative to those who were overweight or at risk for overweight. Significant differences by urban status were found in the reported 'convenient driving distance'. Those living in non-urban areas reported on average 3.2 minutes more driving time as convenient compared to those living in urban areas. Very little variability in reported walking and driving distances was explained by the predictors used in the models (i.e., age, race, BMI, physical activity levels, urban status and SES. This study suggests the use of a 0.75 mile buffer to represent an older female adolescent's neighborhood, which can be
Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Møller, Merete;
BACKGROUND: Previous studies report varying rates of time-loss injuries in adolescent female soccer, ranging from 2.4 to 5.3 per 1000 athlete-exposures or 2.5 to 3.7 per 1000 hours of exposure. However, these studies collected data using traditional injury reports from coaches or medical staff......, with methods that significantly underestimate injury rates compared with players' self-reports. PURPOSE: The primary aim was to investigate the injury incidence in adolescent female soccer using self-reports via mobile telephone text messaging. The secondary aim was to explore the association between soccer...... exposure, playing level, and injury risk. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study and cohort study; Level of evidence, 2 and 3. METHODS: During a full adolescent female soccer season in Denmark (February-June 2012), a population-based sample of 498 girls aged 15 to 18 years was included...
Domine, F.; Dadoumont, C.; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre
Eating disorders (EDs) are conditions which are becoming more and more widespread among adolescents and they often lead them to seek the opinion of a professional health caregiver, including gynecologists and pediatricians. EDs, and particularly anorexia nervosa (AN), are usually classified as psychological or psychiatric disorders, but they may have major somatic implications and complications as osteoporosis, nutritional deficiencies, cerebral atrophy, cardiac and metabolic disorders. A key...
Covey, Linda A.; Feltz, Deborah L.
Relationships between self-reported past and present physical activity levels and self-image, sense of mastery, gender role identity, self-perceived physical ability, and self-perceived attractiveness were studied for 149 female high school sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Results are discussed in terms of adolescent emotional health. (SLD)
Chisholm, June F
Children and adolescents today are the first generation raised in a society in which technological literacy is essential for effective citizenship in the 21st century. With many more youth using digital technologies for educational and recreational purposes, there has been an increase in social problems in cyberspace, exposing them to different forms of cyberviolence. This article gives an overview of the developments in cyberspace, describes different types of cyberviolence, and focuses on cyberbullying among girls and adolescent females as both victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. At-risk online activities among girls and adolescent females as well as strategies to promote cybersafety are presented. Current research and future directions for research are reviewed. PMID:17189499
This study examines individual and family characteristics of a population of 29 adolescent females charged with homicide or attempted homicide in the juvenile justice system. The purpose of this study is to contribute to the limited knowledge about adolescent females charged with homicide. Data were collected including the MAYSI-2, a risk classification instrument, and social, educational and family histories. Findings include high rates of reported substance use, delinquent peers, early indicators of mental health problems, and limited control and supervision by parents. The most common weapon used was a car and the most common victim was a known person. A comparison was conducted on girls charged with homicide during the commission of another crime or committed during a conflict. The conflict group was found to victimize friends and family significantly more often than the crime group. The crime group showed higher use of alcohol and drugs, used a gun more and had co-offenders at a higher rate. A profile was developed to describe the typical adolescent female homicide offender found in this study. Treatment recommendations and future research were discussed. PMID:17696677
Full Text Available Background: Gender is one of the risk factors accounting for the high prevalence of adolescent myopia. Considerable research results have shown that myopia incidence of female is higher than that of male. This study aimed to analyze the correlation between ocular parameters and serum estrogen level and to investigate the vision changes along with estrogen change in menstrual cycle of adolescent females. Methods: A total of 120 young females aged between 15 and 16 years, diagnosed with myopia were recruited. Spherical lens, cylindrical lens, axis, interpupillary distance (IPD, and vision in each tested eye of the same subject were measured by automatic optometry and comprehensive optometry, with repetition of all measurements in the menstrual cycle of the 2 nd or 3 rd days, 14 th days, and 28 th days, respectively. Serum estradiol (E 2 levels were assayed by chemiluminescence immunoassay at the same three times points of the menstrual cycle mentioned above. Results: In young females with myopia, the spherical lens showed a statistically significant difference among all different time in menstrual cycle (all P < 0.0001. The cylindrical lens, axis, and IPD were changed significantly during the menstrual cycle (P < 0.05. The vision of the three different time points in menstrual cycle had a significant difference (χ2 = 6.35, P = 0.042. The vision during the 14 th and 28 th day was higher compared to that on the 2 nd or 3 rd days (P = 0.021. Serum E 2 levels were significantly different at different time points in menstrual cycle (P < 0.05. E 2 levels reached its maximum value on the 14 th day and the minimum value on the 2 nd or 3 rd day. Conclusions: In adolescent females, the spherical lens and other related ocular parameters vary sensitively with different levels of E 2 in menstrual cycle. Vision in late menstrual stage is significantly higher than that in premenstrual stage.
Juliana Hilario Maranhão
Full Text Available This article came from the monographic study “Resilience and Sexual Violence: a study of adolescents victimized by sexual abuse assistance” (MARANHÃO, 2008, in which was investigated the building resilience in victimized adolescents. Resilience is characterized as overcoming adversity, setting up as something procedural, promoted by the interaction of personal and collective protection, in particular context of risk or social vulnerability. We made the trimming about the meanings and feelings of sexual victimization within the family from the perception of adolescents between 12 and 16 years of age that received care in a Specialized Reference Social Assistance in 2010. The research is qualitative, having as theoretical-methodological referential the Historic-Cultural Theory. Data collection was used by semi-structured interview. We realize that the profile of the victims are set up by females, the beginning of sexual abuse occurred between childhood and preadolescence. The profile of perpetrators are men, adults, acting the role of the stepfather, father and uncle. Despite an abject sense, adolescents could not break the cycle of violence. Friends, extended family, and the work of professionals emerged as support for the redefinition of the abusive relationships.
Juan-Fen Gong; Hong-Li Xie; Xin-Jie Mao; Xue-Bo Zhu; Zuo-Kai Xie; Hai-Hong Yang; Yang Gao; Xiao-Feng Jin; Yu Pan; Fen Zhou
Background: Gender is one of the risk factors accounting for the high prevalence of adolescent myopia. Considerable research results have shown that myopia incidence of female is higher than that of male. This study aimed to analyze the correlation between ocular parameters and serum estrogen level and to investigate the vision changes along with estrogen change in menstrual cycle of adolescent females. Methods: A total of 120 young females aged between 15 and 16 years, diagnosed with myo...
Norimitsu Kinoshita; Fuminori Katsukawa; Hajime Yamazaki
Purpose Left ventricular (LV) enlargement has been linked to sudden cardiac death among young athletes. This study aimed to model the effect of long-term incessant endurance training on LV dimensions in female adolescent runners. Methods Japanese female adolescent competitive distance runners (n = 36, age: 15 years, height: 158.1 ± 4.6 cm, weight: 44.7 ± 6.1 kg, percent body fat: 17.0 ± 5.2%) underwent echocardiography and underwater weighing every 6 months for 3 years. Since the measurement ...
Olutunmbi, Yetunde; Paley, Kristina; English, Joseph C
Acne vulgaris, a multifactorial condition often conferring significant psychosocial morbidity, affects an estimated 40 million people in the United States. The majority of these individuals are adolescents and young adults. The pathophysiology of the condition is still not fully known, but it is believed to be related in part to excess sebum production, follicular hyperkeratinization, microbial colonization by P acnes, and inflammation. Prior to initiating treatment in a female patient, a hyperandrogenic state must be considered and ruled out through history, physical exam, and laboratory evaluation if necessary. Treatment options are vast and include hormonal therapy among others. Hormonal therapies have long been noted to reduce acne lesions and offer a valuable adjuvant to standard therapy. Hormonal agents are thought to improve acne by blocking the androgen receptor and/or decreasing circulating androgens which leads to decreased sebum production. Hormonal treatment options include spironolactone, other antiandrogens, and oral contraceptives. The use of these agents to effectively treat acne has been demonstrated in several randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Optimal results are often achieved with combination therapy with the goal of targeting multiple pathogenic pathways in acne development. PMID:18656070
Sommers, Ira; Baskin, Deborah R.
Studied when and how adolescent girls become involved in violent street crime as well as the explanatory factors for this criminal behavior. Subjects were 85 incarcerated women in New York City. Results suggest a need to better understand the impact of neighborhood, peer, and addiction factors in female adolescent criminal violence. (GLR)
Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Lenz, Klaus; Simmendinger, Nicole; Klinkowski, Nora; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Pfeiffer, Ernst
This study investigated current comorbid Axis I diagnoses associated with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) in adolescents. The sample included 101 female adolescents treated at a psychiatric unit for primary DSM-IV diagnoses of AN. 73.3% of the AN patients were diagnosed as having a current comorbidity of at least one comorbid Axis I diagnosis, with no…
Hancock, Adrienne; Helenius, Lauren
Current research to describe and evaluate effectiveness of voice and communication therapy for male-to-female transgender people is limited to adults. This paper provides rationale, procedures, and outcomes from voice and communication therapy for a male-to-female transgender adolescent 15 years of age. Treatment addressed vocal hygiene, breath…
A considerable percentage of youth in the Netherlands has been victimized by rape during adolescence. The present research shows that adolescence rape is correlated with high levels of psychological distress, neurobiological dysregulations and increased risk for problems with sexual and pelvic floor
A considerable percentage of youth in the Netherlands has been victimized by rape during adolescence. The present research shows that adolescence rape is correlated with high levels of psychological distress, neurobiological dysregulations and increased risk for problems with sexual and pelvic floor functioning. These results are comparable to results from previous research in chronic sexual abuse victims, suggesting that problems related to single rape are serious and should receive sufficie...
Juliana Hilario Maranhão; Alessandra Silva Xavier
This article came from the monographic study “Resilience and Sexual Violence: a study of adolescents victimized by sexual abuse assistance” (MARANHÃO, 2008), in which was investigated the building resilience in victimized adolescents. Resilience is characterized as overcoming adversity, setting up as something procedural, promoted by the interaction of personal and collective protection, in particular context of risk or social vulnerability. We made the trimming about the meanings and feeling...
Hofford, Rebecca S.; Roberts, Kris W; Wellman, Paul J.; Eitan, Shoshana
We recently observed that social interactions influence morphine responsiveness in adolescent males. Given sex-related differences in both social interactions and responses to morphine, the present study examines social influences on morphine sensitization in adolescent female mice. Four experimental groups were examined:  morphine-treated mice (twice daily, 10–40 mg/kg, s.c.) housed physically and visually separated from saline-treated mice (‘morphine only’),  morphine-treated mice hou...
Hardy, Sam A.; Bhattacharjee, Amit; Reed, Americus, II; Aquino, Karl
A mediation model using a sample of 1059 adolescents (56% girls; "M" age = 16.02, SD = 1.37) tested relations between parenting, adolescent moral identity, and the formation of psychological distance towards others. In short, adolescent moral identity mediated relations between parenting and the ways in which adolescents oriented others in their…
Blythe, M J; Rosenthal, S L
Health care providers must recognize the specific challenges and rewards of providing services for adolescents. Quality care begins with the establishment of trust, respect, and confidentiality between the health care provider and the adolescent. Data suggest that the normal age for beginning puberty is decreasing, which has important clinical, educational, and social implications. The health care provider should be aware of the broad range of potential sexual behaviors involving adolescents, as well as the teen's acceptance of such behaviors, often dictated by age, gender, culture, and education. When providing gynecologic care to adolescent girls, the physician should not only provide contraception and screen for sexually transmitted diseases but should contribute to the development of the patient's sexual health. Especially when providing care for the younger teen, the health care provider must focus on involving a member of the family or another significant adult to provide needed support and guidance. Anticipatory guidance for parents should focus on assessing their parenting styles and promoting supervision. Although parents should strive to maintain open communication with their adolescents, they may not accurately estimate the sexual activity of and the sexual risk for their teenage children. Parents need to be encouraged to consider the implications of their own sexual behaviors. The provider should attempt to foster a comfortable environment in which youth may seek help and support for appropriate medical care while reserving the right to disclose their sexual identity when ready. Health care professionals cannot exclude heterosexual behavior on the basis that a young woman self-identifies as homosexual. Her reported sexual behaviors may not indicate her sexual orientation. Self-definition of sexual orientation is a dynamic process including factors such as fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Self-definition of sexual identity is affected by individual
Lopez, Vera; Kopak, Albert; Robillard, Alyssa; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Holliday, Rhonda C.; Braithwaite, Ronald L.
Sexual risk taking among female delinquents represents a significant public health problem. Research is needed to understand the pathways leading to sexual risk taking among this population. This study sought to address this issue by identifying and testing two pathways from child maltreatment to non-condom use among 329 White and 484 African American female adolescent detainees: a relational pathway and a substance use coping pathway. The relational pathway indicated that child maltreatment ...
Hofford, Rebecca S; Roberts, Kris W; Wellman, Paul J; Eitan, Shoshana
We recently observed that social interactions influence morphine responsiveness in adolescent males. Given sex-related differences in both social interactions and responses to morphine, the present study examines social influences on morphine sensitization in adolescent female mice. Four experimental groups were examined: (1) morphine-treated mice (twice daily, 10-40 mg/kg, s.c.) housed physically and visually separated from saline-treated mice ('morphine only'), (2) morphine-treated mice housed together with saline-treated mice ('morphine cage-mates (of saline)'), (3) saline-treated mice housed together with morphine-treated mice ('saline cage-mates (of morphine)'), and (4) saline-treated mice housed physically and visually separated from morphine-treated mice ('saline only'). Following the treatment period, mice were tested individually for their locomotor response to 20 mg/kg morphine (s.c.). There were no significant differences in morphine-induced hyper-locomotion between saline only and saline cage-mates (of morphine) female adolescent mice. Notably, morphine only mice exhibited significantly greater morphine sensitization as compared to morphine cage-mates (of saline). Thus, this study demonstrates social influences on morphine sensitization in adolescent females. Drug use during early adolescence is a key predictor of later drug abuse and dependence during adulthood. Thus, understanding the specific vulnerabilities to drug use in this age group may represent a first step in helping develop more effective treatment programs. PMID:20456874
There has been a paucity of research on gifted individuals' perceptions of gender stereotypes. The purpose of this study was to explore mathematically gifted adolescent females' perceptions of gender stereotypes through a research design of the qualitative multiple case study involving the constant comparison and the Three C's analysis scheme.…
Rubin, Roger H.
Examines the relationship of family structure, peer group affiliation, social class, and sex with five dependent variables concerned with attitudes toward dating values, marriage, romanticism, premarital pregnancy, and premarital sexual permissiveness among 85 rural, Black adolescent males and females. Findings suggest general community norms and…
Investigated responses of menarcheal age females to menarche. Results from 95 girls indicated that premenarcheal girls thought menses was more debilitating than did postmenarcheal girls. Subjects who had been menstruating longer considered menses natural event but denied its effects. Found no significant difference in overall self-esteem and…
Sircar, Ratna; Basak, Ashim K.; Sircar, Debashish
Ethanol has been reported to disrupt spatial learning and memory in adolescent male rats. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of ethanol on the acquisition of spatial memory in adolescent female rats. Adolescent female rats were subjected to repeated ethanol or saline treatments, and spatial learning was tested in the Morris water maze. For comparison, adult female rats were subjected to similar ethanol treatment and behavioral assessments as for adolescent rats. Ethanol...
Chung, Sungho; Joung, Yoo Sook
Oseltamivir was developed for prophylactic and therapeutic use against influenza, specifically targeting the viral enzyme's highly-conserved active site. In recent years, there have been case reports of neuropsychiatric events during or after oseltamivir treatment, in Japan and other countries. However, a search of the literature revealed no such cases in South Korea. We present the case of a 15-year-old female adolescent diagnosed with depressive episode after taking oseltamivir. Oseltamivir...
Maguire, Katheryn C.; Kinney, Terry A.
The purposes of this study are to gain an in-depth understanding of the situations in which long-distance dating relationships (LDDRs) are distressing for female college students, and to examine the associations between the perceived helpfulness of various communication coping strategies and relational satisfaction in both high and low distress…
Hope E. Yungblut
Full Text Available Early adolescence is a time when a transition away from sport and physical activity participation is at its highest level among female youth (Hedstrom & Gould, 2004. This has led to the identification of barriers and facilitators of physical activity participation for adolescent females. Consequently there have been calls to overcome barriers and augment facilitators via the creation of gender-relevant programming. Despite these calls and efforts, a gender disparity remains, and a detailed understanding of how girls experience and interpret physical activity within the context of their lives is still lacking. The current project aimed to gain further insight into the foregoing using tenets of Interpretive Phenomenology to further understand the lived physical activity experiences of females during early adolescence, delineating their barriers to participation and the factors enabling participation. Five themes were identified and made into vignettes to facilitate understanding from adolescent females' perspectives: friends or don't know anyone, good or not good enough, fun or not fun; good feeling or gross; and peer support or peer pressure. The physical activity promotion implications for female youth are discussed within the context of these themes.
Leonardo de Sousa Fortes
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the inappropriate eating behaviors (IEB of female adolescents over a one-year period. Methods: 290 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old participated in the three research stages (T1: first four months, T2: second four months and T3: third four months. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was applied to assess the IEB. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI in the three study periods. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data, adjusted for the scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Brazil Economic Classification Criteria. Results: Girls at T1 showed a higher frequency of IEB compared to T2 (p=0.001 and T3 (p=0.001. The findings also indicated higher values for BMI in T3 in relation to T1 (p=0.04. The other comparisons did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: IEB scores of female adolescents declined over one year.
Robab Latifnejad Roudsari; Mojgan Javadnoori; Marzieh Hasanpour; Seyyed Mohammad Mehdi Hazavehei; Ali Taghipour
Background: Despite clear reasons for necessity of sexual health education for adolescents, it is a contested issue and has faced challenges in most cultures. Providing sexual education for non-married adolescents is culturally unacceptable in most Muslim societies. Objective: This qualitative study addressed socio-cultural challenges to sexual health education for female adolescents in Iran. Materials and Methods: Qualitative data from female adolescents (14-18 yr), mothers, teachers, author...
K. O. Abulnaja
Acne vulgaris is a multifactorial disease affecting a majority of the adolescent population. The objective of this study was to test for a correlation between fasting serum lipid profiles and levels of testosterone, insulin, leptin, and interleukin 1-β (IL-1β) and the incidence of severe acne vulgaris in obese adolescent females. Four groups of adolescent females were studied: obese with acne, obese without acne, non-obese with acne, and non-obese without acne. Obese females with ac...
Liskey, Natalie A.
This research investigated the relationships between clothing interest and self-perception among scoliosis patients and their non-handicapped peers. The objectives were (1) to investigate the differences in selected clothing interest factors and self-perception domains between female adolescents with scoliosis and non-handicapped female adolescents and (2) to investigate relationships between clothing interests and self-perception among female adolescents with scoliosi...
De Bourdeaudhuij Ilse
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since physical activity levels in older adolescents have the potential to be increased by stimulating active transportation to school (ATS, the most important correlates of ATS should be determined before developing interventions, especially in those adolescents for whom the distance to school is feasible for active commuting. The main aims of this study were to determine criterion distances for ATS in Belgian older adolescents, to examine multidimensional correlates of ATS in adolescents living within a feasible distance from school and to investigate the associations of ATS with total physical activity and with other physical activities besides ATS. Methods In total, 1281 older adolescents (17-18 years from 20 general secondary schools in East- and West-Flanders completed a questionnaire on physical activity behaviors, demographic factors and psychosocial and physical environmental correlates of physical activity. Distance to school was objectively measured using Routenet online route planner. Results In total, 58.4% of the participants commuted actively to school. The criterion distance for ATS could be set at eight kilometers for cycling and two kilometers for walking. For those adolescents living within a feasible distance for ATS, gender, smoking status, walkability of the neighborhood and social modeling were associated with transportation mode choice. ATS was positively associated with total physical activity, but not significantly related to min/week of other physical activities. Conclusions For older adolescents living within eight kilometers of their school, interventions taking into account the correlates found to be related to ATS could possibly be effective to enhance ATS and to increase total physical activity levels. In the context of the overall physical activity decline in adolescence, also interventions targeting physical activity behaviors of adolescents living further away from school might be needed, but
Conclusion: In this research, it was endeavored to provide a more realistic image of body dysmorphic disorder in Yazd adolescents by utilizing a precise methodology. Considering the high prevalence of this disorder in female adolescents and its adverse consequences, some programs are recommended to be applied for diagnosis and early treatment of body dysmorphic disorder to promote adolescents mental health.
Granillo, M. Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela
The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder.…
Coleman, Katherine; Mills, Bethany
This psychoeducational counselling group is designed to explore the many facets of the emerging female adolescent identity and foster a high level of self-esteem. According to Powell (2004) adolescence is a time, and even more so for females, which can be marked by many identity conflicts and low levels of self-esteem. As such, this 14 week…
Julie M. Krupa
Full Text Available Previous research suggests that social environmental and individual-level factors influence adolescent development and behavior over time. However, little attention has been devoted to examining how risk factors (i.e., parental support, peer delinquency, self-control affect trajectories of criminal behavior among female adolescents. Utilizing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 5138 females and latent class analysis, three offending trajectories among females from late adolescence to early adulthood were identified: late escalators, late de-escalators, and stable low/abstainers. Next, the influence of social environmental and individual-level factors during adolescence (Wave 1 on these trajectories was assessed. Results identified key differences in the risk factors related to group placement. The implications of the findings for prevention and treatment services targeting adolescent females, and directions for future research, are discussed.
Schneider, A S; Mayer, H M; Geißler, U; Rumpf, M C; Schneider, C
This study addresses the epidemiology of injuries in adolescent male and female soccer players in Germany. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to analyse the injuries in male and female youth soccer players in Germany. This study was designed as a cross-sectional web-based survey. From March until December 2011 we investigated 1110 soccer players (male n = 841; female n = 269) aged 12 - 19 years (15.0 ± 2.0 years) from 60 clubs in Southern Germany. A total of 664 (79 %) of the 841 boys and 67 (25 %) of the 269 girls reported being injured due to soccer. The total number of injuries was 2373. Respectively the frequency of injury was 2.85 in boys and 7.10 in girls. The lower extremities were affected in 70 % of all reported cases. Strains were the most common injuries in the lower and upper extremities (35 %). The boys reported in 51.5 % of all injuries that the injury was non-contact in nature. In contrast, 52.1 % of the injuries in girls were reported as contact injuries. Similar amounts of injuries were observed in training versus games for both genders. Prevention procedures, such as a thorough warm-up, should be implemented before every game and training to reduce the risk of injury. PMID:23446953
Mohamadian, Hashem; Ghannaee Arani, Mohammad
Objectives Physical activity behavior begins to decline during adolescence and continues to decrease throughout young adulthood. This study aims to explain factors that influence physical activity behavior in a sample of female adolescents using a health promotion model framework. Methods This cross-sectional survey was used to explore physical activity behavior among a sample of female adolescents. Participants completed measures of physical activity, perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem, so...
Talakoub, Sedigheh; Gorbani, Sakineh; Hasanpour, Marzieh; Zolaktaf, Vahid; Amini, Masoud
Background: Adolescent is a time of profound biologic, intellectual, psychological, and socioeconomic change that they will face a crisis. Therefore, compatibility may be exposed to many hazards, such as depression, anxiety, and other emotional problems. Nevertheless, a planned regular exercise enhances physical and mental health of adolescent female with diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exercise on emotional reactions of female adolescents with type I diabetes. ...
Nyarko, Samuel H.
Background Adolescence is a critical stage in the life course and evidence suggests that even though contraceptive use has been steadily increasing among women in Ghana over the past years, contraceptive prevalence and determinants among female adolescents is quite lacking. This paper examines the prevalence and correlates of contraceptive use among female adolescents in Ghana. Methods The paper used data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health survey. Bivariate analysis was carried out to...
N Esnaashari; AR Bakhshayesh; AR Afshani
Introduction: Body dysmorphic disorder is one of the common disorders in which adolescents give excessive attention to their appearances. In fact, it may causes disruptions in adolescents' individual and social life. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in female adolescents of Yazd. Method: In this cross-sectional study, the population consisted of all high school female students of Yazd (N= 10737) in 2012-2013, among which 371 students wer...
Valter Paulo N. Miranda; Franciane Rocha de Faria; Eliane Rodrigues de Faria; Silvia Eloiza Priore
Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1), eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2), eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assesse...
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was developed to establish whether betaine was present in the sweat of females and to determine any correlations with other sweat components. Methods Sweat patches were placed on eight trained adolescent Highland dancers (age = 13.6 ± 2.3 yr, who then participated in a dance class for 2 hours. Patches were removed, and the sweat recovered via centrifugation. The sweat was subsequently analyzed for betaine, choline, sodium, potassium, chloride, lactate, glucose, urea and ammonia. Results Betaine was present in the sweat of all subjects (232 ± 84 μmol·L-1, which is higher than typically found in plasma. The concentration of several sweat components were correlated, in particular betaine with most other measured components. Conclusion Betaine, an osmoprotectant and methyl donor, is a component of sweat that may be lost from the body in significant amounts.
Shannonhouse, John L; DuBois, Dustin W; Fincher, Annette S; Vela, Alejandra M; Henry, Morgan M; Wellman, Paul J; Frye, Gerald D; Morgan, Caurnel
Initial antidepressant treatment can paradoxically worsen symptoms in depressed adolescents by undetermined mechanisms. Interestingly, antidepressants modulate GABAA receptors, which mediate paradoxical effects of other therapeutic drugs, particularly in females. Although the neuroanatomic site of action for this paradox is unknown, elevated GABAA receptor signaling in the nucleus accumbens can disrupt motivation. We assessed fluoxetine's effects on motivated behaviors in pubescent female hamsters - anhedonia in the reward investigational preference (RIP) test as well as anxiety in the anxiety-related feeding/exploration conflict (AFEC) test. We also assessed accumbal signaling by RT-PCR and electrophysiology. Fluoxetine initially worsened motivated behaviors at puberty, relative to adulthood. It also failed to improve these behaviors as pubescent hamsters transitioned into adulthood. Low accumbal mRNA levels of multiple GABAA receptor subunits and GABA-synthesizing enzyme, GAD67, assessed by RT-PCR, suggested low GABAergic tone at puberty. Nonetheless, rapid fluoxetine-induced reductions of α5GABAA receptor and BDNF mRNA levels at puberty were consistent with age-related differences in GABAergic responses to fluoxetine and disruption of the motivational state. Whole-cell patch clamping of accumbal slices also suggested low GABAergic tone by the low amplitude of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) at puberty. It also confirmed age-related differences in GABAergic responses to fluoxetine. Specifically, fluoxetine potentiated mIPSC amplitude and frequency at puberty, but attenuated the amplitude during adulthood. These results implicate GABAergic tone and GABAA receptor plasticity in adverse motivational responses and resistance to fluoxetine during adolescence. PMID:27068049
Berlin, Richard; And Others
Explores some of the difficulties children of alcoholics experience in separating from their homes. Describes relationship fantasies used by adolescents to work through unresolved feelings about their families. Discusses the nature of these fantasy types: nurturance, self-sufficiency, incompetence, perfectionist, revenge, and…
Ramona C. Krauss
Full Text Available This paper investigated weight misperceptions as determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in body mass index (BMI among adolescent females using data from the National Survey of Youth 1997. Compared to their white counterparts, higher proportions of black and Hispanic adolescent females underperceived their weight status; that is, they misperceived themselves to have lower weight status compared to their clinically defined weight status. Compared to their black counterparts, higher proportions of white and Hispanic adolescent females misperceived themselves to be heavier than their clinical weight status. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis showed that accounting for weight misperceptions, in addition to individual and contextual factors, increased the total explained portion of the black-white female BMI gap from 44.7% to 54.3% but only slightly increased the total explained portion of the Hispanic-white gap from 62.8% to 63.1%. Weight misperceptions explained 13.0% of the black-white female BMI gap and 3.3% of the Hispanic-white female BMI gap. The regression estimates showed that weight underperceptions were important determinants of adolescent female BMI, particularly among black and Hispanic adolescents. Education regarding identification and interpretation of weight status may play an important role to help reduce the incidence and racial disparity of female adolescent obesity.
Clausen, M. B.; Tang, L.; Zebis, M. K.;
Knee injuries are common in adolescent female football. Self-reported previous knee injury and low Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are proposed to predict future knee injuries, but evidence regarding this in adolescent female football is scarce. The aim of this study was to...... investigate self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale score as risk factors for future knee injuries in adolescent female football. A sample of 326 adolescent female football players, aged 15–18, without knee injury at baseline, were included. Data on self-reported previous knee injury and KOOS...... injury in adolescent female football....
This study focuses on the relationship between body image and the Muslim religious dress code of South African Indian Muslim female adolescents. During the literature search conducted by the researcher no research specifically on body image of female adolescents when wearing the Muslim dress code in South Africa could be found. South African Indian Muslim adolescents are faced with challenges in a changing environment. In the aftermath of 9/11 South African Indian Muslim adolescent females ar...
Barrett, Emily S.; Parlett, Lauren E.; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Liu, Fan; Redmon, J. Bruce; Wang, Christina; Swan, Shanna H.
In animal models, prenatal stress programs reproductive development in the resulting offspring, however little is known about effects in humans. Anogenital distance (AGD) is a commonly used, sexually dimorphic biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure in many species. In rodents, prenatally stressed males have shorter AGD than controls (suggesting lower prenatal androgen exposure), whereas prenatally stressed females have longer AGD than controls (suggesting greater prenatal androgen exposure)....
Schneider, Sven; Weiss, Melanie; Thiel, Ansgar; Werner, Anne; Mayer, Jochen; Hoffmann, Holger; Diehl, Katharina
This study aimed to assess the extent, patterns, and predictors of feelings of body dissatisfaction experienced by female German adolescents. Using 3D-avatar software, a sample population of 144 girls between 14 and 17 years of age was asked to estimate their actual body image, their desired body image (individual ideal), and the body image they believed their parents and their best female friend considered to be the ideal body image for them. The participants estimated their actual body mass index (BMI) to be 18.82 ± 3.01. The individual ideal body shape reported was significantly thinner, with a BMI score of 16.84 ± 2.51. Given a girl who stands 1.65 m and weighs 55 kg, this corresponds to a difference in weight of about 5.5 kg. After adjustment for the participant's self-reported BMI, participating in an esthetic sport was correlated with a significantly lower body dissatisfaction. Conversely, low socio-economic status and the amount of time spent watching TV was correlated with a significantly higher body dissatisfaction. Negative body image-related comments made by parents were significantly associated with body dissatisfaction. The girls who participated in this study would like to be an average of 1.97 BMI units thinner. The findings presented here suggest that future intervention measures should focus on the risk groups of physically inactive girls, those who smoke, and those with a lower social status and high rates of TV consumption. Intervention measures would be especially effective in German schools which offer lower education levels and should include the pupils' parents, who should be informed about the negative effects weight- and diet-related comments have on their children's body images. PMID:23207738
Longnecker Matthew P
Full Text Available Abstract Background In animal studies of the effects of hormonally active agents, measurement of anogenital distance (AGD is now routine, and serves as a bioassay of fetal androgen action. Although measurement of AGD in humans has been discussed in the literature, to our knowledge it has been measured formally in only two descriptive studies of females. Because AGD has been an easy-to-measure, sensitive outcome in animals studies, we developed and implemented an anthropometric protocol for measurement of AGD in human males as well as females. Methods We first evaluated the reliability of the AGD measures in 20 subjects. Then measurements were taken on an additional 87 newborns (42 females, 45 males. All subjects were from Morelos, Mexico. Results The reliability (Pearson r of the AGD measure was, for females 0.50, and for males, 0.64. The between-subject variation in AGD, however, was much greater than the variation due to measurement error. The AGD measure was about two-fold greater in males (mean, 22 mm than in females (mean, 11 mm, and there was little overlap in the distributions for males and females. Conclusion The sexual dimorphism of AGD in humans comprises prima facie evidence that this outcome may respond to in utero exposure to hormonally active agents.
Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang
This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.
Damiano, Stephanie R; Reece, John; Reid, Sophie; Atkins, Linsey; Patton, George
Recent research has highlighted the presence of Young's Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) in individuals with an eating disorder (ED). This study assessed the EMSs reported by adolescent females with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) compared with a community group. Thirty-six adolescent females diagnosed with AN or subthreshold AN and 111 female secondary school students completed a questionnaire that included the Young Schema Questionnaire, the Behavior Assessment System for Children Self-report of Personality, and the Eating Disorder Screen for Primary Care. Two independent AN subtypes and two community subtypes were derived from responses to the questionnaire, and significant differences between the four comparison groups were found. High Pathology AN participants reported the highest level of psychological maladjustment. Social Isolation and Emotional Inhibition appeared to be most characteristic of adolescent AN in this sample. The results suggest that EMSs may require attention in the treatment of AN in adolescent females, and that different AN subtypes may require individualized treatment approaches. PMID:25464069
de Carvalho, Filipe Ricardo Pires; Figueira Martins, Ana Teresa da Conceição; Teixeira, Ana Maria Miranda Botelho
In spite of the advances in knowledge on the multi-factorial nature of obesity, many questions related to the consequences of the disease continue to be unanswered. Several studies have reported biomechanic and kinematic adaptation and alterations in walking and in tasks of every day life, motivated by the additional load of fat mass in children and adults. The main objective of this study was to understand the effect of obesity in the electromyographic activity of four lower extremity muscles during three speeds of walking and during a countermovement jump (CMJ) in twenty two (9 obese and 13 normal weight) female adolescents aged 13. Although electromyographic differences were not observed between groups for normal, slow and fast speeds, data suggests that the preferred pace of the obese is less efficient than that of the normal weight group. In CMJ task, differences in the after-fall jump phase were observed. More studies are needed to explain if the few differences observed between groups are caused by the bigger amount of fat mass. PMID:22433262
Valter Paulo N. Miranda
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1, eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2, eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assessed by the formula for estimating the Peak Height Velocity (PHV. Results: The PHV had higher average score in G1 adolescents compared to G2 (0.26 versus 0.05; p=0.032. There was an association between G1, G2 and the somatic maturation (p=0.049. The female adolescents before and during PHV presented higher values of fat body BMI (p=0.034 and percentage of central fat (p=0.039 compared to the adolescents after PHV. There was a correspondence between before PHV stage and the excess of body fat (α=0.751. Conclusions: There was an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Length, BMI and fat percentage were different among the somatic maturation stages. It is relevant to evaluate the somatic maturation and the changes occurring in the body composition during adolescence in order to better evaluate and manage the nutritional status and the body fat excess.
Page, Randy M.
Investigated relationship between perceived physical attractiveness and frequency of substance use among 1,297 adolescents. Female adolescents who rated themselves as unattractive were more likely to use illicit psychoactive substances than those who rated themselves as average or attractive. Perceived attractiveness did not contribute to…
Harrison, Kristen; Fredrickson, Barbara L.
Considers that sports media exposure may be linked to female adolescents' body perceptions. Tests this relationship from the perspective of objectification theory. Finds that self-objectification appears to be as problematic for adolescent girls as for college women, regardless of race or body mass. Focuses on self-objectification in adolescents…
Abrams, Laura S.; Stormer, Colleen Cook
Investigated the influences of ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and ethnic peer group composition on awareness and internalization of socially sanctioned standards of appearance using the Sociocultural Attitudes towards Adolescence Questionnaire. Findings for 208 adolescent females highlight the importance of multiple ecological factors in…
Ramona C. Krauss; Powell, Lisa M.; Roy Wada
This paper investigated weight misperceptions as determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in body mass index (BMI) among adolescent females using data from the National Survey of Youth 1997. Compared to their white counterparts, higher proportions of black and Hispanic adolescent females underperceived their weight status; that is, they misperceived themselves to have lower weight status compared to their clinically defined weight status. Compared to their black counterparts, higher proporti...
Jansen Lucres MC; Vermeiren Robert; Cohen-Kettenis Peggy T; Hamerlynck Sannie MJJ; Bezemer Pieter D; Doreleijers Theo AH
Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of teenage pregnancy in the histories of detained adolescent females and to examine the relationship between teenage pregnancy on the one hand and mental health and sexuality related characteristics on the other. Methods Of 256 admitted detained adolescent females aged 12–18 years, a representative sample (N = 212, 83%) was examined in the first month of detention. Instruments included a semi-structured i...
Rodríguez, Daniel A; Cho, Gi-Hyoug; Evenson, Kelly R; Conway, Terry L.; Cohen, Deborah; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Pickrel, Julie L.; Veblen-Mortenson, Sara; Lytle, Leslie A.
Locational data, logged on portable GPS units and matched with accelerometer data, was used to examine associations of the built environment with physical activity and sedentary behaviors of adolescent females. In a sample of 293 adolescent females ages 15 to 18 years old in Minneapolis and San Diego, the built environment around each GPS point and its corresponding sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity were examined using random intercept multinomial logistic...
Bourke Alan K; Dowd Kieran P; Harrington Deirdre M; Donnelly Alan E
Abstract Background Adolescent females have been highlighted as a particularly sedentary population and the possible negative effects of a sedentary lifestyle are being uncovered. However, much of the past sedentary research is based on self-report or uses indirect methods to quantity sedentary time. Total time spent sedentary and the possible intricate sedentary patterns of adolescent females have not been described using objective and direct measure of body inclination. The objectives of th...
Lo, Denise Swei; Shieh, Huei Hsin; Barreira, Eliane Roseli; Ragazzi, Selma Lopes Betta; Gilio, Alfredo Elias
Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a rarely reported agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) in the pediatric population. In our retrospective 3-year study, S. saprophyticus comprised 24.5% of 106 isolates of UTIs in female adolescents 12-15 years of age who attended an emergency department. Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence of this etiology when empirically treating UTIs in female adolescents. PMID:26075812
Petty, Tiffany J.; Callahan, S Todd; Chen, Qingxia; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Dempsey, Amanda F.
The development of a vaccine against cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been designated as a high priority and adolescent females are a likely target population for CMV vaccination. A self-administered, internet-based survey was developed using constructs from the Health Belief Model to identify factors that may be associated with parental acceptance of a CMV vaccine for their adolescent daughters. Data from 516 parents were analyzed, the majority of whom were female, white, and college educated. Pare...
Chin, Yit Siew; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin
The present study was conducted to develop a Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents. Data were collected among 328 female adolescents from a secondary school in Kuantan district, state of Pahang, Malaysia by using a self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The self-administered questionnaire comprised multiple measures of body image, Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26; Garner & Garfinkel, 1979) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965...
van Vliet, Jolanda S.; Rasanen, Leena; Gustafsson, Per A.; Nelson, Nina
Background: Overweight perception has been shown to be important for health related adolescent behavior, particularly in girls. Body perception may be affected by bodily changes, especially changes visible for others. Female pubertal development is characterized by many physical changes, such as accelerated growth and altered body fat distribution. This study examined the role of appearance of female characteristics in the risk for overweight perception among healthy adolescent girls. Methods...
Brogan, Kathryn; Idalski Carcone, April; Jen, K.-L. Catherine; Ellis, Deborah; Marshall, Sharon; Naar-King, Sylvie
This study used a descriptive, cross-sectional analysis to examine a social ecological model of obesity among African-American female adolescents residing in obesogenic environments. The goal was to identify factors that promote weight resilience, defined as maintaining a healthy body weight despite living in an environment that encourages inactivity and undermines healthy weight behaviors. During 2005 to 2008, weight-resilient (n=32) and obese (n=35) African-American female adolescents (12 t...
Marzieh Hasanpour; Mansooreh Tabatabaei; Mousa Alavi; Vahid Zolaktaf
Introduction. Deprivation of parents might decrease self-esteem (SE) and result in affective and social incompatibility. In this randomized control trial, we examined the effect of aerobics exercise on SE among female adolescents living with no natural family. Materials and Methods. The sample consisted of all female adolescents aged 13 to 19 years (n: 72) who were covered by Isfahan Welfare organization. Participants were assigned into intervention and control groups by matched random sampli...
Full Text Available This study aims at an examination of the relationship between level of content with body image and self-esteem among female adolescents. In the study, descriptive method was employed. The sample group of the study is 300 secondary school female students between 16-18 years of age. Body Cathexis Scale and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory were applied to the adolescents in the sample group. Results have shown that there are a high level, negative and significant relationship between the body image and self-esteem (r=-0,365, p<.01 of female adolescents. Findings also illustrate that an increase in female adolescents’ content with their body image leads to an increase in their self-esteem. Results of the study revealed that female adolescents with positive body image have a high level of self-esteem and so female adolescents with negative body image have a low level of self-esteem. In this respect, in this study, the importance of female adolescents’ realistic appreciation concerned with their body image is discussed.
Full Text Available Introduction: Body dysmorphic disorder is one of the common disorders in which adolescents give excessive attention to their appearances. In fact, it may causes disruptions in adolescents' individual and social life. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in female adolescents of Yazd. Method: In this cross-sectional study, the population consisted of all high school female students of Yazd (N= 10737 in 2012-2013, among which 371 students were selected as the study sample by using Cochran formula and cluster sampling method. Moreover, the participants completed a series of demographic questions as well as the questionnaire of Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Body Dysmorphic Disorder (Y-BOCS-BDD. Results: The findings revealed that 41% of sample were reported to have unusual concern about appearance and body shape in range of low to very severe. As a matter of fact, most of them experienced moderate severity and 7.1% showed severe body dysmorphic disorder that required immediate psychological intervention. The prevalence in female adolescents was estimated as 7.1% and most prevalent age of suffering was 17. Conclusion: In this research, it was endeavored to provide a more realistic image of body dysmorphic disorder in Yazd adolescents by utilizing a precise methodology. Considering the high prevalence of this disorder in female adolescents and its adverse consequences, some programs are recommended to be applied for diagnosis and early treatment of body dysmorphic disorder to promote adolescents mental health.
Monaco, Nanci M.; Gaier, Eugene L.
Suggests that, if high school environment reduces discrepancy between conflicting roles, adolescent females may place greater emphasis on achievement. Within this context, explores differential benefits of single-sex and coeducational schooling. Issue explored is not whether one is preferable for females; rather, the concern is how each of these…
Tschann, Jeanne M.; Adler, Nancy E.
Examined relationships among sexual self-acceptance, communication with sexual partners about sex and contraception, and contraceptive use in 201 adolescent females, ages 14 to 19. Found that females with greater sexual self-acceptance communicated more with partners about sex and contraception. Discussion about contraception, but not about sex,…
Sears, Heather A.; Graham, Joanna; Campbell, Anna
This study examined adolescent boys' intentions of seeking help from male friends and female friends. We evaluated mean differences in boys' help-seeking intentions; assessed whether boys' individual characteristics predicted their intentions; and examined perceived support from male friends and female friends as mediators of these relationships.…
Sircar, Ratna; Basak, Ashim; Sircar, Debashish; Wu, Li-Cheng
γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has been reported to disrupt spatial learning and memory in adolescent male rats. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of GHB on the acquisition of spatial memory in adolescent female rats, and to investigate age specificity of the behavioral impairments. Adolescent female rats were subjected to repeated GHB or saline administrations, and tested in the Morris water maze. Compared to age-matched saline controls, adolescent GHB-treated rats took ...
Wisnieski, Deborah; Sieving, Renee E.; Garwick, Ann W.
Background: Initiation of sexual intercourse during early adolescence is a known risk factor for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Purpose: To examine young women's stories describing peer in?uences on their romantic and sexual decisions and behavior during early adolescence. Methods: Semistructured ethnographic interviews were…
Chin, Yit Siew; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin
The present study was conducted to develop a Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents. Data were collected among 328 female adolescents from a secondary school in Kuantan district, state of Pahang, Malaysia by using a self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The self-administered questionnaire comprised multiple measures of body image, Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26; Garner & Garfinkel, 1979) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965). The 152 items from selected multiple measures of body image were examined through factor analysis and for internal consistency. Correlations between Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale and body mass index (BMI), risk of eating disorders and self-esteem were assessed for construct validity. A seven factor model of a 62-item Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents with construct validity and good internal consistency was developed. The scale encompasses 1) preoccupation with thinness and dieting behavior, 2) appearance and body satisfaction, 3) body importance, 4) muscle increasing behavior, 5) extreme dieting behavior, 6) appearance importance, and 7) perception of size and shape dimensions. Besides, a multidimensional body image composite score was proposed to screen negative body image risk in female adolescents. The result found body image was correlated with BMI, risk of eating disorders and self-esteem in female adolescents. In short, the present study supports a multi-dimensional concept for body image and provides a new insight into its multi-dimensionality in Malaysian female adolescents with preliminary validity and reliability of the scale. The Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale can be used to identify female adolescents who are potentially at risk of developing body image disturbance through future intervention programs. PMID:20126371
Murray, Kristen; Rieger, Elizabeth; Byrne, Don
This study investigated the relationship between stress and body satisfaction in adolescence. A sample consisting of 515 adolescents aged 12-16 years completed a series of self-report questionnaires assessing general and specific aspects of adolescent stress, body satisfaction and the psychological constructs of self-esteem, depressive symptoms and body importance. Results revealed a significant association between higher body dissatisfaction and higher ratings of peer stress, lower self-esteem and greater body importance for female and male adolescents. These findings suggest that adolescent stress relates to satisfaction with the body and that this stress is specifically focused on the peer environment for both genders during adolescence. This may have implications for intervention programmes aimed at improving body satisfaction, suggesting that the inclusion of stress management training in these programmes could specifically focus on difficulties within the peer domain. PMID:23897844
David W. Foy; Ritchie, Iya K.; Alison H. Conway
Background: While males constitute the majority, female adolescent offenders are a sizeable minority of the overall delinquent population. Further, those females who become involved in delinquent activities appear to be doing so at a younger age, and they are involved in a wide range of criminal activities, including violent offenses. Objective: The goal of this article is to consolidate an empirical base for our current knowledge about female juvenile offenders’ trauma-related mental health ...
Toscano Sharyl E
Abstract Background This paper describes the nature and characteristics of the dating relationships of adolescent females, including any of their experiences of abuse. Methods A grounded theory approach was used with 22 theoretically sampled female adolescents ages 15–18. Results Several important themes emerged: Seven stages of dating consistently described the relationships of female adolescents. A circle consisting of two interacting same sex peer groups provided structure for each teen as...
Rebecca Pellett Madan
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genital secretions collected from adult women exhibit in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV and Escherichia coli (E. coli, but prior studies have not investigated this endogenous antimicrobial activity or its mediators in adolescent females. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Anti-HSV and anti-E.coli activity were quantified from cervicovaginal lavage (CVL specimens collected from 20 sexually active adolescent females (15-18 years. Soluble immune mediators that may influence this activity were measured in CVL, and concentrations of Lactobacillus jensenii and crispatus were quantified by PCR from vaginal swabs. Results for adolescents were compared to those obtained from 54 healthy, premenopausal adult women. Relative to specimens collected from adults, CVL collected from adolescent subjects had significantly reduced activity against E. coli and diminished concentrations of protein, IgG, and IgA but significantly increased anti-HSV activity and concentrations of interleukin (IL-1α, IL-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Vaginal swabs collected from adolescent subjects had comparable concentrations of L. crispatus but significantly reduced concentrations of L. jensenii, relative to adult swabs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Biomarkers of genital mucosal innate immunity may differ substantially between sexually active adolescents and adult women. These findings warrant further study and may have significant implications for prevention of sexually transmitted infections in adolescent females.
Lepusić, Dubravko; Radović-Radovcić, Sandra
Alcohol use has been linked to risky sexual practices among adolescents. However, limited research on alcohol use and risky sexual behavior has been conducted among female adolescents. This study examined a high quantity of alcohol as a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among female adolescents. Three hundred ninety-three adolescent females aged 15-21 were assessed for alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors. Participants also provided 2 swab specimens that were assayed for STDs. Use of high alcohol quantity was defined as > or = 3 drinks in 1 sitting. Binary generalized estimating equation models were conducted assessing the impact of alcohol use at baseline on risky sexual behavior and STDs over a 12-month period. Age, intervention group and baseline outcome measures were entered as covariates. The results indicated that use of high alcohol quantity predicted inconsistent condom use, high sexual sensation seeking, multiple sexual partners, sex while high on alcohol or drugs, and having anal sex during 12-month follow-up period. These findings suggest that STD-related behavioral interventions for adolescents should discuss the link between alcohol and STD-risk behavior. Deeper understanding of alcohol as a predictor of risky sexual behavior among female adolescents is of paramount importance for development of efficient prevention programs at individual and community levels. The risk of acquiring an STD is higher among teenagers than among adults. PMID:23837266
Abdou Tarek A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents rarely seek psychiatric help; they even hesitate to disclose their feelings to their parents. However; the adolescents especially the females experience depressive symptoms more frequently than general population. Do they experience classic depressive symptoms? Are there symptoms specific to this subpopulation? Aim of the study Through this study, the authors aimed to estimate the prevalence of depressive disorders in Egyptian adolescent female students. They also expected a characteristic profile of symptoms for the adolescent females. However available literature provides no guidance in the description of this profile of symptoms. Methods A number of 602 adolescent females were interviewed, and subjected to General Health Questionnaire (GHQ; Children Depression Inventory (CDI, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders (SCID-I, then Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Ham-D. Results were analyzed by the use of SPSS-15. Results The study revealed the prevalence of depression in the sample of the study to be 15.3% (measured by CDI, and 13.3% (measured by SCID-I. Fatigue was the most common presenting depressive symptom (81.3%, in addition to other emotional, cognitive and physiological symptoms. Suicidal ideations were the most common suicidal symptoms in depressed adolescent females (20%, with 2.5% serious suicidal attempts. Conclusions The somatic symptoms were by far the most common presenting symptom for female adolescents suffering from depressive disorders. Depressive phenomena including unexplained fatigue, decreased energy, psychomotor changes, lack of concentration, weight changes and suicidal ideations may be the presenting complaints instead of the classic sad mood.
Berrones, Adam J; Kurti, Stephanie P; Kilsdonk, Korey M; Cortez, Delonyx J; Melo, Flavia F; Whitehurst, Michael
Berrones, AJ, Kurti, SP, Kilsdonk, KM, Cortez, DJ, Melo, FF, and Whitehurst, M. Barefoot running reduces the submaximal oxygen cost in female distance runners. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2348-2353, 2016-Being a competitive distance runner is, in part, attributable to a high V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. However, running economy (RE) is a more robust indicator of distance running performance among endurance athletes of similar V[Combining Dot Above]O2max levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of unshod (barefoot) vs. shod (wearing shoes) running on RE (expressed as ml·kg·min) during three 5-minute submaximal running trials representing 65, 75, and 85% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. Other physiologic and perceptual variables such as respiratory exchange ratio, lactate, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion were also chosen as dependent variables. We measured V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in 14 recreationally active trained distance female runners (age = 27.6 ± 1.6 years; height = 163.3 ± 1.7 cm; weight = 57.8 ± 1.9 kg) who were completely inexperienced with unshod running. After initial testing, each subject was randomized to either unshod or shod for days 2 and 3. We analyzed the data with a 2-way (condition by intensity) repeated-measures analysis of variance. Submaximal oxygen consumption was significantly reduced at 85% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (p = 0.018), indicating an improvement in RE, but not during the 65% or 75% trials (p > 0.05, both). No other dependent measure was different between unshod and shod conditions. Our results indicate that the immediate improvement to RE while barefoot occurs at a relatively high fraction of maximal oxygen consumption. For the recreational or competitive distance runner, training or competing while barefoot may be a useful strategy to improve endurance performance. PMID:26808847
Talbani, A; Hasanali, P
The study examines the social and cultural experiences of adolescent female belonging to various south Asian immigrant groups in Canada. Applying qualitative research method, the authors interviewed 22 adolescent girls of Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin in Montreal. Like other immigrant communities, south Asian families undergo acculturation stress. South Asians tend to integrate secular European cultural elements with their culture; however, family and community structure remain male dominated. The study showed that gender roles were maintained through gender segregation, control over social activities of girls and arranged marriage. Interviewees felt that their parents and communities have more stringent rules for female socialization than any other community in Canada. The study also found that adolescent girls perceived high social cost attached to protest and dissent, therefore, they accept prevalent conditions and expect to change social situation gradually. Some adolescents undergo stress resulting in behavioral problems. PMID:11073702
Gulsen Unlu, Burcu Cakaloz Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey Purpose: Child sexual abuse and sexual dating violence victimization are common problems that are known to have long-term negative consequences. This study aimed to compare the sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features of female adolescents who were sexually abused by different perpetrators, and identify the factors associated with suicidality and...
R Majdzadeh; A Rashidian; Bazargan, M.; N. Omidvar; Karimi-Shahanjarini, A; Shojaeizadeh, D.
"nBackground: Given the increasing prevalence of obesity among Iranian adolescents and the role of consumption of unhealthy snacks in this issue, interventions that focus on factors influencing food choice are needed. This study was designed to delineate factors associated with unhealthy snack use among female Iranian adolescents."nMethods: The theory of Planned Behavior served as the framework of the study. Qualitative data were collected via nine focus group discussion...
Min J. Lee; Keith D. Burau; Dafny, Nachum
Cocaine is one of well-known drugs of abuse, and many children experience early exposure to cocaine. Because of an immature neuronal system in adolescents, they may react differently to repeated cocaine administration compared to adults. Most of the published papers report the effect of cocaine on adult male rats and this paper focused on the effects of cocaine on the 24 h locomotor activity rhythm patterns activity of adolescent Sprague Dawley (SD) female rats. Changes in the locomotor activ...
Leonardo de Sousa FORTES; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Coelho, Fernanda Dias; Paes, Santiago Tavares; Maria Elisa Caputo FERREIRA
Objective: To evaluate the influence of self-esteem on levels of body dissatisfaction among adolescent females. Methods: A group of 397 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were enrolled in the study. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was applied to assess body dissatisfaction. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to assess self-esteem. Weight, height, and skinfold thickness were also measured. These anthropometric data were controlled in the statistical analyses. Results: The multiple regres...
Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Juliana Fernandes Filgueiras Meireles; Clara Mockdece NEVES; Sebastião Sousa ALMEIDA; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo
Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, mood, and disordered eating in female adolescents. Methods Three hundred and seventy one adolescents aged between 12 and 16 years of age participated in this research. The Body Shape Questionnaire, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, Brunel Mood Scale, and the Eating Attitudes Test - 26 were used to assess, respectively, body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, mood state, and disord...
Manish S Dalwani
Full Text Available Structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated lower regional gray matter volume in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems. These research studies, including ours, have generally focused on male-only or mixed-sex samples of adolescents with conduct and/or substance problems. Here we compare gray matter volume between female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems and female healthy controls of similar ages.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems will show significantly less gray matter volume in frontal regions critical to inhibition (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, conflict processing (i.e., anterior cingulate, valuation of expected outcomes (i.e., medial orbitofrontal cortex and the dopamine reward system (i.e. striatum.We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric comparison of structural MR images of 22 patients (14-18 years with severe substance and conduct problems and 21 controls of similar age using statistical parametric mapping (SPM and voxel-based morphometric (VBM8 toolbox. We tested group differences in regional gray matter volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and IQ at p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons at whole-brain cluster-level threshold.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems compared to controls showed significantly less gray matter volume in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, bilateral somatosensory cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus. Considering the entire brain, patients had 9.5% less overall gray matter volume compared to controls.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems in comparison to similarly aged female healthy controls showed substantially lower gray matter volume in brain regions involved in inhibition, conflict processing, valuation
Swartzendruber, Andrea; Sales, Jessica M; Brown, Jennifer L; DiClemente, Ralph J; Rose, Eve S
African American female adolescents have a disproportionate risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other adverse sexual health outcomes. Both alcohol and marijuana use have been shown to predict sexual risk among young African American women. However, no studies have attempted to differentiate alcohol and marijuana typologies use as predictors of sexual risk outcomes exclusively among adolescents who use these substances. This study compared recent alcohol and/or marijuana use as predictors of sexual risk outcomes over 18 months among 182 African American female adolescents. African American females (14-20 years) completed interviews at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-months. At each assessment, pregnancy testing was conducted and self-collected vaginal swab specimens were assayed for Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using DNA amplification. Logistic subject-specific random-intercept models compared sexual risk outcomes during follow-up among adolescents who reported recent use of alcohol only (AO), marijuana only (MO) or both substances (A + M) at the baseline assessment. Relative to baseline AO use, baseline MO use predicted condom non-use at last sex. Relative to AO use, A + M use predicted pregnancy. Relative to MO use, A + M use predicted pregnancy and acquisition of T. vaginalis and any STI. The results suggest that African American female adolescents who use A + M may represent a priority population for STI, HIV, and pregnancy prevention efforts. PMID:25929200
Full Text Available The article concerns somatic and reproductive health issues (menstrual cycle and functioning of mammary glands. The data has been received from of the total examination and questionnaires of female adolescents. The study has revealed 96% of orthopedic disorders and 72% of endocrine disorders. The investigation has found out that 97% of girls have had menstrual disorders. Dysmenorrhea has been observed in 84% of patients. The study demonstrated that 57% of girls had the cyclic (premenstrual and 20% girls had the persistent mastalgia. The dysplasia of mammary glands was diagnosed in 92% of patients. The hypodynamia, smoking and pessimism are more typical for female adolescents
Rathleff, Michael S.; Samani, Afshin; Olesen, Jens L.; Roos, Ewa M.; Rasmussen, Sten; Madeleine, Pascal
random subsample of 57 female adolescents was included and tested at baseline and after 3months. Neuromuscular control of the knee was quantified as the complexity of surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis during stair descent. Secondary outcomes were complexity of knee...... during stair descent than those receiving patient education alone. This suggest that exercise therapy has an effect not only on self-reported outcome measures but also on objective measures of thigh muscle function in female adolescents with patellofemoral pain....
Oktan, Vesile; Şahin, Mustafa
This study aims at an examination of the relationship between level of content with body image and self-esteem among female adolescents. In the study, descriptive method was employed. The sample group of the study is 300 secondary school female students between 16-18 years of age. Body Cathexis Scale and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory were applied to the adolescents in the sample group. Results have shown that there are a high level, negative and significant relationship between the body i...
Amies Oelschlager, Anne-Marie E; Gow, Kenneth W; Morse, Christopher B; Lara-Torre, Eduardo
The overwhelming majority of ovarian cysts in pediatric and adolescent girls are physiologic; however, large simple and complex ovarian lesions often require surgical intervention due to the increased risk of neoplasia. In this review article, we discuss the preoperative evaluation and intraoperative management of large ovarian neoplasms. We review the current literature regarding long term ovarian function and fertility, rates of recurrence and residual disease, and novel surgical approaches. Managing large ovarian neoplasms in the pediatric and adolescent population requires careful preoperative and intraoperative care to optimally resect neoplasia while maximizing fertility and minimizing pain. PMID:26165911
Leroux, Janice A.; Cuffaro, Maria Assunta
This article provides an overview of the internal and external predisposing factors that signal potential eating disorders in females. It outlines the psychology of high ability females, which places them at greater risk for the development of an eating disorder and provides recommendations for identification and intervention. (Contains…
Williams, Melinda; Jones, Sandra C.; Caputi, Peter; Iverson, Don
Objective: To determine differences in sun-protection behaviours, and incidence of sunburn, between Australian adolescent female fake tan users and non-users. Design: Cross sectional survey. Method: 398 adolescent females aged 12 to 18 years participated in a survey at public venues, schools, and online. The main outcome measures were…
C.E. van der Put
To our knowledge, there are no former studies in which subgroups of female adolescent sexual offenders are studied. Therefore, we examined differences in risk factors for general recidivism between female adolescents who have committed a felony sexual offense against a younger child (CSO, n = 25), f
Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate; Madeley, Mary Clare
This article examines the prevalence and consequences of body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys and girls and discusses the role of body dissatisfaction in psychological disorders, including depression and eating disorders. Additionally, it explores predictors of the development of body dissatisfaction, including individual, familial, peer,…
Gold, Melanie A.; Chiappetta, Laurel; Young, Amanda J.; Zuckoff, Allan; DiClemente, Carlo C.
Purpose: To assess girls' reproductive educational choices, satisfaction with choice, and relationship between demographics, module choice, and satisfaction. Methods: We recruited 286 girls, aged 13 to 21 years, from a hospital-based adolescent clinic, from advertisements, and by word of mouth. At enrollment, participants completed a 60-minute…
Penney, Stephanie R
The present study seeks to expand our understanding of psychopathy in female youth by examining how the relationship between psychopathic traits and aggressive and antisocial behavior may be moderated by gender. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist, Youth Version (PCL:YV) was administered to a clinical sample of 129 adolescent males and females. Regression analyses were run to assess main and interaction effects of gender and psychopathy on aggressive and antisocial behaviors. Scores on the PCL:YV ...
Ver Hoeve, Elizabeth S.; Kelly, Geralyn; Luz, Sandra; Ghanshani, Serena; Bhatnagar, Seema
Accumulating evidence suggests that adolescence represents a sensitive period during which social stressors may serve to influence adult behavior and stress reactivity. However, relatively little is known about the impact of social stress in adolescence on behaviors or stress reactivity in females. In this study, we exposed adolescent or adult female rats to the repeated social stress of defeat for 7 consecutive days. Repeated defeat resulted in distinctly different behavioral repertoires dur...
Chuang, Jie-Yu; Whitaker, Kirstie; Graham K Murray; Elliott, Rebecca; Hagan, Cindy C.; Julia M.E. Graham; Ooi, Cinly; Tait, Roger; Holt, Rosemary J; van Nieuwenhuizen, Adrienne O.; Reynolds, Shirley; Wilkinson, Paul O.; Bullmore, Edward T; Belinda R. Lennox; Sahakian, Barbara J.
AbstractBackground Depression in adolescence is debilitating with high recurrence in adulthood, yet its pathophysiological mechanism remains enigmatic. To examine the interaction between emotion, cognition and treatment, functional brain responses to sad and happy distractors in an affective go/no-go task were explored before and after Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) in depressed female adolescents, and healthy participants. Methods Eighty-two Depressed and 24 healthy female adolescents, ...
Patrice-Coy, Celestine; Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan; Boodram, Cheryl Ann Sarita
This article explores information relating to female adolescents knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Carriacou. The authors aimed at finding out whether adolescent females in Carriacou receive adequate information about HIV and other STDs. Where did students receive most of their information about HIV/STDs and whether the knowledge has influenced their sexual behaviors? Furthermore, this study focused on how female adolescents feel toward people living with HIV/STDs.Focus group method was employed with 2 age groups of female adolescent students. Content analysis was carried out by the researcher to analyze the data. Themes were developed using coding and thematic analysis.The findings revealed that female adolescents were highly aware of HIV/STDs-related facts. They were knowledgeable and have received adequate information about HIV/STDs. PMID:27603390
Alaine Souza Lima
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living (ADL in female adolescent students.METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled 228 female adolescents from a public school in the city of Petrolina, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, aged ten to 19 years. A self-administered structured questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, occurrence of headache and its characteristics was employed. Headaches were classified according to the International Headache Society criteria. The chi-square test was used to verify possible associations, being significant p<0.05.RESULTS: After the exclusion of 24 questionnaires that did not met the inclusion criteria, 204 questionnaires were analyzed. The mean age of the adolescents was 14.0±1.4 years. The prevalence of headache was 87.7%. Of the adolescents with headache, 0.5% presented migraine without pure menstrual aura; 6.7%, migraine without aura related to menstruation; 1.6%, non-menstrual migraine without aura; 11.7%, tension-type headache and 79.3%, other headaches. Significant associations were found between pain intensity and the following variables: absenteeism (p=0.001; interference in ADL (p<0.001; medication use (p<0.001; age (p=0.045 and seek for medical care (p<0.022.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of headache in female adolescents observed in this study was high, with a negative impact in ADL and school attendance.
Ng, Judy; Ye, Faye; Roth, Lindsey; Sobel, Katherine; Byron, Sepheen; Barton, Mary; Lindley, Megan; Stokley, Shannon
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection, with a reported 79 million persons aged 15–59 years in the United States currently infected with HPV, and approximately 14 million new cases diagnosed each year. Although most HPV infections are asymptomatic, transient, and do not cause disease, persistent HPV infection can lead to cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancer. In the United States, approximately 27,000 HPV-attributable cancers occur each year. HPV vaccination is an effective primary prevention strategy that can reduce many of the HPV infections that lead to cancer, and is routinely recommended for adolescents aged 11–12 years. To determine whether the recommended HPV vaccination series is currently being administered to adolescents with health insurance, CDC and the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) assessed 2013 data from the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS). The HEDIS HPV Vaccine for Female Adolescents performance measure evaluates the proportion of female adolescent members in commercial and Medicaid health plans who receive the recommended 3-dose HPV vaccination series by age 13 years. In 2013, in the United States, the median HPV vaccination coverage levels for female adolescents among commercial and Medicaid plans were 12% and 19%, respectively (ranges = 0%–34% for commercial plans; 5%–52% for Medicaid plans). Improving HPV vaccination coverage and understanding of what health plans might do to support HPV vaccination are needed, including understanding the barriers to, and facilitators for, vaccination coverage. PMID:26513219
Henje Blom, Eva
The prevalence of anxiety and depression is on the increase in adolescent girls, as estimated by self-assessed symptom reports. There is a need for implementation of validated instruments to identify those in need of treatment. The concept of autonomic self-regulation may help us to elucidate possible pathophysiological pathways of anxiety disorders and depression. Heart rate variability (HRV) provides a tool to assess the descending vagal inhibitory tone, i.e. the capacity ...
Md. Musa Khan; Mohammad Emdad Hossain; Mohammad Nazmul Hoq
The purpose of this study is to examine various socio-economic and demographic factors associated with contraception use among adolescents of Bangladesh. For this purpose, the present study utilizes the nationally representative survey data of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, (National Institute of Population Research and Training (NIPORT), 2009). The cross-tabulation and Logistic regression analyses have been used to estimate the factors affected the use of contraception in Banglade...
Hazler, Richard J.; Mellin, Elizabeth A.
Rates of female to male depression rapidly soar during adolescence to a 2:1 ratio despite fairly equal rates throughout childhood. The literature suggests that changes in social development, social role expectations, and/or biology may play significant roles, but research considering these factors is scarce and inconsistent. This review considers…
Examines whether feminine media stars idolized by adolescent girls provide a safe target of romantic love before girls start dating and become sexually active. Surveys of seventh and ninth grade Israeli girls indicate that idolizing feminine stars may be an intermediate step in a sequence that starts with idolizing females and continues to the…
Rothman, Emily F.; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G.; Miller, Elizabeth
The authors used qualitative research methods to explore the context and sexual risk behavior associated with sexual intercourse involving multiple males and one female, commonly called "running a train." Participants were 20 adolescent males aged 14 to 22 years who were either perpetrators of dating violence or perceived by teachers to be at risk…
Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Mick, Eric; Spencer, Thomas J.; McCreary, Michelle; Cote, Michelle; Faraone, Stephen V.
The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depression (MD) in adolescent and young adult females is evaluated. Findings indicate that MD emerging in the context of ADHD is an impairing and severe comorbidity that needs to be considered further clinically and scientifically.
Linville, Deanna; O'Neil, Maya; Huebner, Angela
This study examined linkages between depression symptoms (DEP) and positive adult support (PAS) in female adolescents and the partially mediating influence of eating disturbances (ED). Structural equation modeling was used to establish measurement models for each of the latent constructs, determine the relationships among the latent constructs,…
Morrow, K. Brent; Sorell, Gwendolyn T.
Used symbolic interaction theoretical framework to predict association of seven variables with self-esteem, depression level, and negative behaviors of female adolescent incest victims (N=101). Found type of sexual act single most powerful distress predictor. Found age and race had unexpected associations with victim outcomes. (Author/CM)
Stachowitz, Annie L.
Eating disorders, disordered eating, and body dissatisfaction prevalence rates are on the rise among adolescent females. The present study sought to examine a commonly used social-emotional instrument, the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition, Self-Report of Personality (BASC-2, SRP), for the emergence of a common profile of…
Bamaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Gayles, Jochebed G.; Lara, Rebecca
This study used a person-centered approach to examine patterns of adjustment along psychological (i.e., depression, self-esteem, anxiety) and academic (i.e., academic motivation) domains in a sample (N = 338) of Mexican-origin female adolescents. Four adjustment profiles were identified. A "High Functioning" (n = 173) group, which exhibited high…
Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Schneider, Margaret; Cooper, Dan M.
Objective: To determine whether individual factors influenced rates of physical activity change in response to a school-based intervention. Methods: Sedentary adolescent females (N = 63) participated in a 9-month physical activity program. Weekly levels of leisure-time physical activity were reported using an interactive website. Results: Change…
Turnage, Barbara F.
This study of 105 senior high school Southern African American adolescent females examined the relationship between global self-esteem, appearance evaluation (body image), and ethnic identity. As predicted, the relationship between global self-esteem, appearance evaluation (r = 0.46, p less than 0.001), and ethnic identity (r = 40, p less than…
Edwards, Kemberly V.
The purpose of this study is to increase the knowledge base about female adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS). The findings will be useful in providing educators with an insight into the social world of Asperger syndrome in order to give them a better understanding of the syndrome, and to assist them in teaching students more effectively. The…
In this case study focusing on a gifted adolescent female who took her life at the age of 18 using a firearm, the researcher investigated the personal, environmental, and cultural variables that may have contributed to her suicide. Data were collected from interviews, documents, and other artifacts, including a videotape that was a compilation of…
Beevers, Christopher G.; Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan
This study examined the psychosocial consequences of experiencing major depressive disorder (MDD). In a 7-year longitudinal study of 496 female adolescents, the authors identified 49 girls who experienced their first episode of MDD and then recovered. They were compared with a randomly selected group of 98 never depressed participants on 13…
Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Ferranti, Dina; Halstead, Valerie; Ilias, Vanessa M
Hispanic females in their late adolescence appear to be disproportionately affected by dating violence, yet the majority of victims never seek out formal services. The purpose of this study was to explore the dating violence and help-seeking experiences of Hispanic females in their late adolescence. Participants were recruited from a social service agency providing wrap-around services to individuals and families affected by abuse in South Florida. Eleven in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with Hispanic female victims of dating violence in their late adolescence (18 to 24 years of age) in English or Spanish. A thematic analysis of transcripts identified four major themes: (a) conflict, culture, and context influences Hispanic couples; (b) missed opportunities to accessing help; (c) pivotal moments are needed to access formal services; and (d) family matters. Participants of this study believed that dating violence was more normative in Hispanic relationships than "American" relationships. Although participants had opportunities to seek formal services early in their relationships, formal services were only sought after pivotal moments. Families played an important role in supporting or further victimizing the participants. Findings from this study can be used to inform interventions addressing both informal and formal sources of support for Hispanic female victims of dating violence in their late adolescence. PMID:27077507
Tergerson, Jennifer L.; King, Keith A.
Surveyed adolescents at single-sex high schools to examine whether perceptions of physical activity differed by gender. The most helpful cue to physical activity for males and females was having a friend to exercise with. Parental encouragement and having a parent who exercised were also helpful. Wanting to do other things was a common barrier to…
Thun, Debra; Sims, Patricia L.; Adams, Mary Ann; Webb, Thomas
Explores treatment interventions for female sexual abuse survivors through a pilot study examining the relationship between group treatment and adolescent self-image. Results revealed that participants who received group therapy increased in levels of impulse control and that the experimental group had a decrease in self-reliance whereas the…
Everall, Robin D.; Altrows, K. Jessica; Paulson, Barbara L.
The authors designed this study to understand how adolescents overcome suicidality from the subjective perspective of 13 previously suicidal female participants. A resilience framework was used to conceptualize the process. Data analysis using basic interpretive qualitative inquiry revealed 4 domains of resilience: social processes, emotional…
Wirta-Leiker, Chaitra Elizabeth
This qualitative study compared the perceptions of self-identified victims and school authority figures in regards to adolescent relational aggression among female middle school students. Six significant aspects of this issue were explored, including causal conditions; contextual factors; definitions and descriptions of relationally aggressive…
Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri
This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…
Clark, Sarah J; Cowan, Anne E; Filipp, Stephanie L; Fisher, Allison M; Stokley, Shannon
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage among adolescent females is well below national public health goals. Many known barriers to HPV vaccine receipt can be addressed in parent-physician conversations. This study sought to explore parent experiences and attitudes related to HPV vaccination of adolescent girls, focused on interactions with providers. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of parents using a nationally representative online panel. Among parents with ≥1 daughter aged 11 to 17 years, provider recommendations for HPV vaccine and specified age to begin the HPV vaccine series were associated with HPV vaccine status. Parents who reported their daughters were unlikely to complete the HPV series were more likely to have had no discussion of HPV vaccine with the provider. Efforts to increase HPV vaccination rates among adolescent females should continue to focus on improving provider discussion of HPV vaccine. PMID:26450982
Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Koenig, Julian; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald
Research to elucidate early alterations of higher cognitive processes in adolescents with BPD is rare. This study investigated differences in dual-task performance in adolescents with BPD during stress and non-stress conditions. The study sample comprised 30 female adolescents with BPD and 34 healthy controls. The impact of stress on dual-task performance was measured using a standardized stressor. Self-reports of distress and measures of heart rate (HR) were obtained to measure stress reactivity. There were no group differences in task performance. Under stress conditions, the performance on the auditory task decreased in both groups but without significant group differences. Healthy controls showed an increase of mean HR after stress induction compared to no change in the BPD group. The finding of attenuated HR response to acute stress in adolescent patients with BPD may contradict current theories that the affective hyperresponsivity in BPD is based on a biologically determined mechanism. PMID:26852226
Cullen Karen W
Full Text Available Abstract Background The physical environments in which adolescents reside and their access to food stores may influence their consumption of fruit and vegetables. This association could either be direct or mediated via psychosocial variables or home availability of fruit and vegetables. A greater understanding of these associations would aide the design of new interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between distance to food stores and restaurants and fruit and vegetable consumption and the possible mediating role of psychosocial variables and home availability. Methods Fruit and vegetable consumption of 204 Boy Scouts was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire in 2003. Participant addresses were geo-coded and distance to different types of food stores and restaurants calculated. Fruit and vegetable preferences, home availability and self-efficacy were measured. Regression models were run with backward deletion of non-significant environmental and psychosocial variables. Mediation tests were performed. Results Residing further away from a small food store (SFS (convenience store and drug store was associated with increased fruit and juice and low fat vegetable consumption. Residing closer to a fast food restaurant was associated with increased high fat vegetable and fruit and juice consumption. Vegetable preferences partially mediated (26% the relationship between low fat vegetable consumption and distance to the nearest SFS. Conclusion Distance to SFS and fast food restaurants were associated with fruit and vegetable consumption among male adolescents. Vegetable preferences partially mediated the distance to low fat vegetable relationship. More research is needed to elucidate how environmental variables impact children's dietary intake.
Full Text Available "nBackground: Given the increasing prevalence of obesity among Iranian adolescents and the role of consumption of unhealthy snacks in this issue, interventions that focus on factors influencing food choice are needed. This study was designed to delineate factors associated with unhealthy snack use among female Iranian adolescents."nMethods: The theory of Planned Behavior served as the framework of the study. Qualitative data were collected via nine focus group discussions in two middle schools (6th to 8th grades in a socio-economically diverse district in the city of Tehran in spring 2008. The study sample included 90 female adolescents aged 12-15 years. The sampling strategy was purposive method. Data analyzed using the "framework" method."nResults: Major factors identified by the respondents were taste, peer pressure, parental influence, easy access to unhealthy snacks, limited availability of healthy snacks, appeal of snacks, habit, high price of healthy snacks, and media advertisements. Nutritional value and healthiness was not one of the first priorities when buying snacks, as adolescents thought it was too early for them to worry about illness and adverse consequences of eating junk foods."nConclusions: For developing culturally sensitive evidence-based interventions that can motivate adolescents to choose healthy snacks, a broad range of factors should be taken into account.
Khuwaja, Salma A; Selwyn, Beatrice J; Mgbere, Osaro; Khuwaja, Alam; Kapadia, Asha; McCurdy, Sheryl; Hsu, Chiehwen E
This study explored post-migration experiences of recently migrated Pakistani Muslim adolescent females residing in the United States. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with thirty Pakistani Muslim adolescent females between the ages of 15 and 18 years living with their families in Houston, Texas. Data obtained from the interviews were evaluated using discourse analysis to identify major reoccurring themes. Participants discussed factors associated with the process of adaptation to the American culture. The results revealed that the main factors associated with adaptation process included positive motivation for migration, family bonding, social support networks, inter-familial communication, aspiration of adolescents to learn other cultures, availability of English-as-second-language programs, participation in community rebuilding activities, and faith practices, English proficiency, peer pressure, and inter-generational conflicts. This study provided much needed information on factors associated with adaptation process of Pakistani Muslim adolescent females in the United States. The results have important implications for improving the adaptation process of this group and offer potential directions for intervention and counseling services. PMID:22940911
Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M.; Pettifor, John M.; Norris, Shane A.
This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID) scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS). Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal ( 2). Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all pbody dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter). The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (pbody size among South African adolescents. PMID:27171420
Leonardo de Sousa FORTES
Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, mood, and disordered eating in female adolescents. Methods Three hundred and seventy one adolescents aged between 12 and 16 years of age participated in this research. The Body Shape Questionnaire, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, Brunel Mood Scale, and the Eating Attitudes Test - 26 were used to assess, respectively, body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, mood state, and disordered eating. Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to determine the relationship between the independent variables and the Eating Attitudes Test subscale scores. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to compare the Eating Attitudes Test subscale scores according to body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, and mood state classifications. Results The findings showed that body dissatisfaction (p=0.001, perfectionism (p=0.04, and mood state (p=0.05 were associated with disordered eating in the female adolescents evaluated. Despite the statistically significant results obtained for all independent variables, it is worth mentioning that body dissatisfaction was the main determinant of disordered eating in the multiple regression model. Conclusion It can be concluded that body dissatisfaction explains the variance in disordered eating; however, it is also important to note that perfectionism and mood state are also associated to the disordered eating in female adolescents, although to a lesser extent.
Clausen, M B; Tang, L; Zebis, M K; Krustrup, P; Hölmich, P; Wedderkopp, N; Andersen, L L; Christensen, K B; Møller, M; Thorborg, K
Knee injuries are common in adolescent female football. Self-reported previous knee injury and low Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are proposed to predict future knee injuries, but evidence regarding this in adolescent female football is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale score as risk factors for future knee injuries in adolescent female football. A sample of 326 adolescent female football players, aged 15-18, without knee injury at baseline, were included. Data on self-reported previous knee injury and KOOS questionnaires were collected at baseline. Time-loss knee injuries and football exposures were reported weekly by answers to standardized text-message questions, followed by injury telephone interviews. A priori, self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale scores (female football. PMID:26179111
Freeman, Elizabeth DeHart
The present study investigated hypothesized links between subjects' perceptions of their own physical appearance and other aspects of psychosocial functioning (e.g., general anxiety, social acceptance, athletic competence, and global self-worth) as rated by self, peers, and counselors. In addition, the study attempted to isolate the age at which young females first experience a decline in perceptions of their own physical appearance. To investigate these relationships, 554 f...
Full Text Available Abstract Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence, in this sport that emphasizes leanness. Although, these athletes apparently have sufficient osteogenic stimuli to mitigate the effects of possible low energy availability on bone health, the extent or magnitude of bone accrual also varies with training effects, which differ among skater disciplines. Purpose We studied differences in total and regional bone mineral density in 36 nationally ranked skaters among 3 skater disciplines: single, pairs, and dancers. Methods Bone mineral density (BMD of the total body and its regions was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Values for total body, spine, pelvis and leg were entered into a statistical mixed regression model to identify the effect of skater discipline on bone mineralization while controlling for energy, vitamin D, and calcium intake. Results The skaters had a mean body mass index of 19.8 ± 2.1 and % fat mass of 19.2 ± 5.8. After controlling for dietary intakes of energy, calcium, and vitamin D, there was a significant relationship between skater discipline and BMD (p = 0.002, with single skaters having greater BMD in the total body, legs, and pelvis than ice dancers (p Conclusions Single and pair skaters have greater BMD than ice dancers. The osteogenic effect of physical training is most apparent in single skaters, particularly in the bone loading sites of the leg and pelvis.
David W. Foy
Full Text Available Background: While males constitute the majority, female adolescent offenders are a sizeable minority of the overall delinquent population. Further, those females who become involved in delinquent activities appear to be doing so at a younger age, and they are involved in a wide range of criminal activities, including violent offenses. Objective: The goal of this article is to consolidate an empirical base for our current knowledge about female juvenile offenders’ trauma-related mental health and rehabilitation issues. Method: We searched for studies using PILOTS, PsycLIT, PsycINFO, and EBSCOhost electronic databases. Results: Accordingly, we present a review of findings from 33 recent studies showing consistently high rates of trauma exposure, PTSD, and common comorbidities among female adolescent offenders. We also examined recent literature on risk and protective factors for female delinquency, as well as treatments for offenders, and found that there was some early representation of trauma and PTSD as important variables to be considered in etiology and treatment. Conclusion: Future plans for addressing the mental health needs of female offenders should be better informed by these recent findings about widespread trauma exposure and related psychological consequences.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine among adolescent females with hearing impairment the frequency of symptoms of the premenstrual syndrome. The tested sample consisted of 62 adolescents with hearing impairment, and the control sample 62 “hearing” adolescents, the average age of 14-16 years in Sarajevo and Tuzla. Measuring instruments that were used Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV. The most dominant symptoms of PMS established in this research are: emotional instability, anger and irritability, sensitivity in breast area, headache and depressed mood. The following frequency of symptoms was found: apparent emotional instability (100%, permanent and visible anger or irritability (90.32%, apparent anxiety, feeling of tension (77.41, reduced interest in usual activities (70.96%. There is no qualitative difference in the symptoms between adolescents with and without hearing impairment. There is a statistically signifcant difference in the prevalence of symptoms of the premenstrual syndrome in adolescents with hearing impairments compared to the control group adolescents.
Full Text Available Ram Manohar Mishra,1 Madhulika Dube,2 Niranjan Saggurti,1 Arvind Pandey,3 Bidhubhusan Mahapatra,1 Sowmya Ramesh11Population Council, New Delhi, 2Department of Statistics, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, 3National Institute of Medical Statistics, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, IndiaAbstract: This study examines the relationship between entry into the trucking industry during adolescence and both sexually transmitted infections (STIs and infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among long-distance truck drivers in India. Data were sourced from a cross-sectional survey (sample size: 2066 undertaken in 2007 among long-distance truck drivers. The survey spread across major transshipment locations covering the bulk of India's transport volume along four routes. Participants were interviewed about sexual behaviors and were tested for HIV and STIs. The present authors constructed two synthetic cohorts based on the participants' duration of employment in the trucking industry: (1 low (duration ≤ 6 years and (2 high experience (duration ≥ 7 years. Based on age at entry into the trucking industry, participants were termed as either adolescent (age at entry < 18 complete years or adult entrants (age at entry ≥ 18 complete years. In the low-experience cohort, the adolescent entrants were more likely than the adult entrants to have sex with paid female partners (42.6% versus 27.2%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3–2.9 and to practice inconsistent condom use with such partners (69.1% versus 26.8%, respectively; adjusted OR: 5.3; 95% CI: 2.4–11.6. However, no significant differences were found in STI and HIV prevalence between the adolescent and the adult entrants in this cohort. In the high-experience cohort, the adolescent entrants were about two times more likely than the adult entrants to practice inconsistent condom use with paid female partners (38.5% versus
Resko, Stella M; Reddock, Ebony C; Ranney, Megan L; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen; Mountain, Sarah Kruman; Zimmerman, Marc A; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Walton, Maureen A
This qualitative study examines the self-reported reasons for fighting among female adolescents (N = 72). Data are drawn from brief intervention sessions addressing violent behavior and alcohol use. Young women age 14 to 18 (Mean = 16) were recruited in an urban emergency department (58.3% African American/Black, 31.9% White, and 9.7% other races/ethnicities). Participants identified multiple reasons that they engage in fights including self-protection/self-defense, enhancing social status and respect, safety (e.g., preventing future fights or sexual assaults), revenge/retaliation, social motivations (e.g., defending family or friends, fighting over romantic interests), coping, and enjoyment. Results provide insight into opportunities and challenges in developing interventions addressing aggression among female adolescents. PMID:27018828
Monaco, N M; Gaier, E L
For women, the nature and range of experiences during the high school years take on special significance, since it is during this period that they usually weigh their various roles and adjust their levels of aspirations accordingly. If the high school environment is successful in reducing the discrepancy between what are often viewed as conflicting roles, adolescent females may place greater emphasis on achievement. It is within this context that the present paper explored the differential benefits of single-sex and coeducational schooling. The issue explored is not whether one is preferable for females; rather, the concern here is how each of these settings influences both achievement and personal fulfillment. PMID:1414569
Cheong, Ji In; Lee, Chang Hun; Park, Jae Hong; Ye, Byeong Jin; Kwon, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Young Seok; Yoo, Jae Ho
Purpose This study examined the relationships between early menarche and sexual behaviors among Korean female adolescents. Methods We analyzed data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based survey that was conducted on female high school students in grades 10-12. The survey included 17,867 students, and 974 students were assigned to the early menarche group because they had experienced menarche when they were in grade four or below, and 16,893 students were assigned to the normal me...
Reichelt, Amy C; Abbott, Kirsten N; Westbrook, R Fred; Morris, Margaret J
Adolescents are the highest consumers of sugar sweetened drinks. Excessive consumption of such drinks is a likely contributor to the development of obesity and may be associated with enduring changes in the systems involved in reward and motivation. We examined the impact of daily sucrose consumption in young male and female rats (N=12 per group) across the adolescent period on the motivation to perform instrumental responses to gain food rewards as adults. Rats were or were not exposed to a sucrose solution for 2h each day for 28days across adolescence [postnatal days (P) 28-56]. They were then trained as adults (P70 onward) to lever press for a palatable 15% cherry flavored sucrose reward and tested on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule to assess motivation to respond for reinforcement. Female rats exposed to sucrose had higher breakpoints on the PR schedule than controls, whereas male rats exposed to sucrose had lower breakpoints than controls. These results show that consumption of sucrose during adolescence produced sex-specific behavioral changes in responding for sucrose as adults. PMID:26826605
van der Put, Claudia E
To our knowledge, there are no former studies in which subgroups of female adolescent sexual offenders are studied. Therefore, we examined differences in risk factors for general recidivism between female adolescents who have committed a felony sexual offense against a younger child (CSO, n=25), female adolescents who have committed a felony sexual offense with a peer victim (PSO, n=15) and female adolescents who have committed a misdemeanor sexual offenses (MSO, n=31). Results showed that CSOs had considerably fewer problems in the domains of school (truancy, behavior problems, dropping out of school), family (e.g., parental alcohol problems, parental mental health problems, poor authority and control, out of home placements and run away from home) and friends (antisocial friends) than MSOs and/or PSOs. No differences were found in the prevalence of mental health problems, physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:23830779
Walden, Markus; Atroshi, Isam; Magnusson, Henrik; Wagner, Philippe; Hagglund, Martin
Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of neuromuscular training in reducing the rate of acute knee injury in adolescent female football players. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanDesign Stratified cluster randomised controlled trial with clubs as the unit of randomisation. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanSetting 230 Swedish football clubs (121 in the intervention group, 109 in the control group) were followed for one season (2009, seven months). less thanbrgreate...
Kolar, David R.; Hammerle, Florian; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Huss, Michael; Bürger, Arne
Background Current models of Anorexia Nervosa (AN) emphasize the role of emotion regulation. Aversive tension, described as a state of intense arousal and negative valence, is considered to be a link between emotional events and disordered eating. Recent research focused only on adult patients, and mainly general emotion regulation traits were studied. However, the momentary occurrence of aversive tension, particularly in adolescents with AN, has not been previously studied. Method 20 female ...
Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Gayles, Jochebed G.; Lara, Rebecca
This study used a person-centered approach to examine patterns of adjustment along psychological (i.e., depression, self-esteem, anxiety) and academic (i.e., academic motivation) domains in a sample (N = 338) of Mexican-origin female adolescents. Four adjustment profiles were identified. A High Functioning (n = 173) group, which exhibited high positive adjustment and academic functioning, an Average Functioning (n = 83) group, who exhibited average psychological and academic functioning, an A...
Swartzendurber, Andrea; Murray, Sarah H.; Sales, Jessica M.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Graham, Cynthia A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.
Background: Ample evidence shows that partner sexual communication is related to condom use. Although communication about safer sex may often occur when sexual arousal is high, no studies have examined arousability, one’s propensity for sexual arousal and partner sexual communication. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between sexual arousability and partner-related mediators of condom use among African American female adolescents, who have disproportionate risk for HIV and...
Conclusions: Strategies need to be developed to identify early signs and symptoms of depression among Saudi female adolescents. Training can be given to groups of students to help their peers, and also to the teachers to identify, and help students identify early signs of depression and provide them with better-coping strategies to combat progression of depression and anxiety among such adolescents.
Dentith, Audrey M.
In this article, data collected from an ethnographic study of adolescent girls growing up in the city of Las Vegas in the US is used to further our understanding of the role of mediated sex and consumer culture and in relationship to emerging adolescent female identities. Girls in this study articulated a clear sense of their abilities to make…
Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Roos, Ewa Maria; Olesen, Jens Lykkegaard; Rasmussen, Sten; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars
female adolescents. Changes in localised and distal hyperalgesia from baseline to follow-up were compared to self-reported recovery. Adolescents were categorized as recovered if they rated themselves as "completely recovered" or "strongly recovered" (category 1 or 2) on a 7-point Likert scale. RESULTS...
Spitalnick, Joshua S.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sales, Jessica M.; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N.
The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a…
Jansen Lucres MC
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of teenage pregnancy in the histories of detained adolescent females and to examine the relationship between teenage pregnancy on the one hand and mental health and sexuality related characteristics on the other. Methods Of 256 admitted detained adolescent females aged 12–18 years, a representative sample (N = 212, 83% was examined in the first month of detention. Instruments included a semi-structured interview, standardized questionnaires and file information on pregnancy, sexuality related characteristics (sexual risk behavior, multiple sex partners, sexual trauma, lack of assertiveness in sexual issues and early maturity and mental health characteristics (conduct disorder, alcohol and drug use disorder and suicidality. Results Approximately 20% of the participants reported having been pregnant (before detention, although none had actually given birth. Sexuality related characteristics were more prevalent in the pregnancy group, while this was not so for the mental health characteristics. Age at assessment, early maturity, sexual risk behavior, and suicidality turned out to be the best predictors for pregnancy. Conclusion The lifetime prevalence of pregnancy in detained adolescent females is high and is associated with both sexuality related risk factors and mental health related risk factors. Therefore, prevention and intervention programs targeting sexual risk behavior and mental health are warranted during detention.
Full Text Available Introduction. Deprivation of parents might decrease self-esteem (SE and result in affective and social incompatibility. In this randomized control trial, we examined the effect of aerobics exercise on SE among female adolescents living with no natural family. Materials and Methods. The sample consisted of all female adolescents aged 13 to 19 years (n: 72 who were covered by Isfahan Welfare organization. Participants were assigned into intervention and control groups by matched random sampling. Intervention included 8 weeks of aerobics exercise. Coppersmith SE inventory was administered before and after intervention as well as after one month follow-up. Results. No significant difference was seen between pre-SE scores of intervention (32.7±8.4 and control (33.0±6.7 groups (t=.16, P=.87. A significant difference was obtained in post-SE scores (40.2±5.7 versus 34.7±6.8, t=3.58, P=.001 and in one month follow-up scores (36.4±5.2 versus 33.0±5.2, t=2.25, P=.03. Discussion. The results demonstrated a low level of pre-SE in both groups. However, a significant improvement was seen in posttest of intervention group which persisted even one month after intervention. It supports the use of aerobics for female adolescents deprived from family life.
Giedd Jay N
Full Text Available Abstract Improvements in neuroimaging technologies, and greater access to their use, have generated a plethora of data regarding male/female differences in the developing brain. Examination of these differences may shed light on the pathophysiology of the many illnesses that differ between the sexes and ultimately lead to more effective interventions. In this review, we attempt to synthesize the anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI literature of male/female brain differences with emphasis on studies encompassing adolescence – a time of divergence in physical and behavioral characteristics. Across all ages total brain size is consistently reported to be about 10% larger in males. Structures commonly reported to be different between sexes include the caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum – all noted to have a relatively high density of sex steroid receptors. The direction and magnitude of reported brain differences depends on the methodology of data acquisition and analysis, whether and how the subcomponents are adjusted for the total brain volume difference, and the age of the participants in the studies. Longitudinal studies indicate regional cortical gray matter volumes follow inverted U shaped developmental trajectories with peak size occurring one to three years earlier in females. Cortical gray matter differences are modulated by androgen receptor genotyope and by circulating levels of hormones. White matter volumes increase throughout childhood and adolescence in both sexes but more rapidly in adolescent males resulting in an expanding magnitude of sex differences from childhood to adulthood.
Batool Khodakarami; Seyede Zahra Masoomi; Javad Faradmal; Mojgan Nazari; Maryam Saadati; Fatemeh Sharifi; Maryam shakhbabaei
Background & aim: Primary dysmenorrhea is a common problem among women, resulting in a decline in their performance level and quality of life. Previous studies have not indicated a definite relationship between body mass index (BMI) and dysmenorrhea. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the severity of dysmenorrhea and investigate its relationship with BMI among female adolescents in Hamadan, Iran. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted on 579 single, female adolescents in schoo...
Waldén Markus; Hägglund Martin; Atroshi Isam
Background: Knee injuries in football are common regardless of age, gender or playing level, but adolescent females seem to have the highest risk. The consequences after severe knee injury, for example anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, are well-known, but less is known about knee injury prevention. We have designed a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effect of a warm-up program aimed at preventing acute knee injury in adolescent female football. Methods: In this...
Alexander R Gibson
Full Text Available The relative importance of genetic and socio-cultural influences contributing to the success of east Africans in endurance athletics remains unknown in part because the pre-training phenotype of this population remains incompletely assessed. Here cardiopulmonary fitness, physical activity levels, distance travelled to school and daily energy expenditure in 15 habitually active male (13.9±1.6 years and 15 habitually active female (13.9±1.2 adolescents from a rural Nandi primary school are assessed. Aerobic capacity ([Formula: see text] was evaluated during two maximal discontinuous incremental exercise tests; physical activity using accelerometry combined with a global positioning system; and energy expenditure using the doubly labelled water method. The [Formula: see text] of the male and female adolescents were 73.9±5.7 ml(. kg(-1. min(-1 and 61.5±6.3 ml(. kg(-1. min(-1, respectively. Total time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous physical activities per day was 406±63 min (50% of total monitored time, 244±56 min (30%, 75±18 min (9% and 82±30 min (10%. Average total daily distance travelled to and from school was 7.5±3.0 km (0.8-13.4 km. Mean daily energy expenditure, activity-induced energy expenditure and physical activity level was 12.2±3.4 MJ(. day(-1, 5.4±3.0 MJ(. day(-1 and 2.2±0.6. 70.6% of the variation in [Formula: see text] was explained by sex (partial R(2 = 54.7% and body mass index (partial R(2 = 15.9%. Energy expenditure and physical activity variables did not predict variation in [Formula: see text] once sex had been accounted for. The highly active and energy-demanding lifestyle of rural Kenyan adolescents may account for their exceptional aerobic fitness and collectively prime them for later training and athletic success.
Junice Y S Ng
Full Text Available We assessed the proportion of and socio-ecological factors associated with ever having had sex with female sex workers (FSWs among heterosexual adolescents. We also described the characteristics of the adolescents who reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs.This is a cross-sectional study (response rate: 73% of 300 heterosexually active male adolescents of 16 to 19 years attending a national STI clinic in Singapore between 2009 and 2014. We assessed the ecological factors (individual, parental, peer, school and medial influences and sexual risk behaviors using a self-reported questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to obtain the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR and confidence intervals (CI.The proportion of heterosexual male adolescents who had ever had sex with FSWs was 39%. Multivariate analysis showed that significant factors associated with ever having had sex with FSWs were sex initiation before 16 years old (aPR 1.79 CI: 1.30-2.46, never had a sexually active girlfriend (aPR 1.75 CI 1.28-2.38, reported lower self-esteem score (aPR 0.96 CI: 0.93-0.98, higher rebelliousness score (aPR 1.03 CI: 1.00-1.07 and more frequent viewing of pornography (aPR 1.47 CI: 1.04-2.09. Lifetime inconsistent condom use with FSWs was 30%.A significant proportion of heterosexual male adolescents attending the public STI clinic had ever had sex with FSWs. A targeted intervention that addresses different levels of influence to this behavior is needed. This is even more so because a considerable proportion of adolescents reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs, who may serve as a bridge of STI transmission to the community. National surveys on adolescent health should include the assessment of frequency of commercial sex visits and condom use with FSWs for long-term monitoring and surveillance.
Solveig C Mouterde
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Assessing the active space of the various types of information encoded by songbirds' vocalizations is important to address questions related to species ecology (e.g. spacing of individuals, as well as social behavior (e.g. territorial and/or mating strategies. Up to now, most of the previous studies have investigated the degradation of species-specific related information (species identity, and there is a gap of knowledge of how finer-grained information (e.g. individual identity can transmit through the environment. Here we studied how the individual signature coded in the zebra finch long distance contact call degrades with propagation. METHODOLOGY: We performed sound transmission experiments of zebra finches' distance calls at various propagation distances. The propagated calls were analyzed using discriminant function analyses on a set of analytical parameters describing separately the spectral and temporal envelopes, as well as on a complete spectrographic representation of the signals. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: We found that individual signature is remarkably resistant to propagation as caller identity can be recovered even at distances greater than a hundred meters. Male calls show stronger discriminability at long distances than female calls, and this difference can be explained by the more pronounced frequency modulation found in their calls. In both sexes, individual information is carried redundantly using multiple acoustical features. Interestingly, features providing the highest discrimination at short distances are not the same ones that provide the highest discrimination at long distances.
Harrington, Deirdre M.
Abstract Background Adolescent females have been highlighted as a particularly sedentary population and the possible negative effects of a sedentary lifestyle are being uncovered. However, much of the past sedentary research is based on self-report or uses indirect methods to quantity sedentary time. Total time spent sedentary and the possible intricate sedentary patterns of adolescent females have not been described using objective and direct measure of body inclination. The objectives of this article are to examine the sedentary levels and patterns of a group of adolescent females using the ActivPAL™ and to highlight possible differences in sedentary levels and patterns across the week and within the school day. A full methodological description of how the data was analyzed is also presented. Methods One hundred and eleven adolescent females, age 15-18 yrs, were recruited from urban and rural areas in the Republic of Ireland. Participants wore an ActivPAL physical activity monitor for a 7.5 day period. The ActivPAL directly reports total time spent sitting\\/lying every 15 seconds and accumulation (frequency and duration) of sedentary activity was examined using a customized MATLAB ® computer software programme. Results While no significant difference was found in the total time spent sitting\\/lying over the full 24 hour day between weekday and weekend day (18.8 vs. 18.9 hours; p = .911), significantly more sedentary bouts of 1 to 5 minutes and 21 to 40 minutes in duration were accumulated on weekdays compared to weekend days (p < .001). The mean length of each sedentary bout was also longer (9.8 vs. 8.8 minutes; p < .001). When school hours (9 am-3 pm) and after school hours (4 pm-10 pm) were compared, there was no difference in total time spent sedentary (3.9 hours; p = .796) but the pattern of accumulation of the sedentary time differed. There were a greater number of bouts of > 20 minutes duration during school hours than after school hours (4.7 vs. 3
Titilola M Pedro
Full Text Available This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26, and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS. Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal ( 2. Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all p<0.001. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5% of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter. The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001. There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be "unhappy" and "weak" and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the "best". These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents.
Pedro, Titilola M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A
This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID) scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS). Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal ( 2). Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all poverweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5%) of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter). The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001). There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be "unhappy" and "weak" and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the "best". These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents. PMID:27171420
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine differences in bone mineral density (BMD among adolescent female tennis players (TPs and nontennis players (NTPs and to assess body composition as a predictor variable of BMD. Nineteen female TPs and 19 female NTPs, ages 14 to 18 years, participated in this study. Lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, forearms BMD, and body composition were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Lumbar spine and total hip BMD measurements for TP were greater than NTP. However, these differences were not statistically significant (=0.37 and 0.12, resp.. TP had significantly greater femoral neck BMD than NTPs (=0.02. This difference might play an important role in preventing osteoporosis and decreasing the risk of fractures at the hip later in life.
Wulsin, Aynara C; Wick-Carlson, Dayna; Packard, Benjamin A; Morano, Rachel; Herman, James P
Adolescence is a period of substantial neuroplasticity in stress regulatory neurocircuits. Chronic stress exposure during this period leads to long-lasting changes in neuroendocrine function and emotional behaviors, suggesting adolescence may be a critical period for development of stress vulnerability. This study investigated the effects of exposure to 14 days of chronic variable stress (CVS) in late-adolescent (pnd 45-58) female rats on neuroendocrine function, neuropeptide mRNA expression and depressive-like behavior in adolescence (pnd 59) and in adulthood (pnd 101). Adult females exposed to CVS in adolescence have a blunted hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to a novel stressor and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Blunted HPA axis responses were accompanied by reduced vasopressin mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), suggesting decreased central drive. Adolescent females tested immediately after CVS did not exhibit differences in stress reactivity or immobility in the forced swim test, despite evidence for enhanced central HPA axis drive (increased CRH mRNA expression in PVN). Overall, our study demonstrates that exposure to chronic stress in adolescence is sufficient to induce lasting changes in neuroendocrine drive and behavior, potentially altering the developmental trajectory of stress circuits as female rats age into adulthood. PMID:26751968
Wisting, Line; Bang, Lasse; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Rø, Øyvind
Objective The aim of this study is to investigate psychological barriers (illness perceptions, insulin beliefs, and coping strategies) to optimal insulin therapy among adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D), with a specific focus on gender differences and mode of treatment (insulin pump vs pen). Methods A total of 105 males and females (12–20 years) participated in this study. The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire, and the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences were completed. Additionally, diabetes clinical data were collected by the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry. Results Females had significantly more negative illness perceptions than males on all dimensions (p<0.05), with moderate-to-large effect sizes. Regarding insulin beliefs, females scored significantly higher than males on insulin concern (p<0.001), indicating more concerns about insulin. There were no significant gender differences on perceptions of insulin necessity. Finally, females scored significantly higher on the coping strategies being social and solving family problems (p<0.01), indicating more positive coping among females than males for these subscales. In terms of treatment mode, the only statistically significant difference in the psychological aspects was for the illness perception treatment control, with patients using insulin pen reporting more negative perceptions on this dimension than patients using insulin pump. Conclusions Addressing psychological aspects may be a clinically important supplement to standard somatic T1D care. The consistent finding of gender differences across the psychological measures implies that a tailored treatment approach for males and females with T1D may be warranted. PMID:27403325
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Acne vulgaris is a distressing skin condition, which can carry with it significant psychological disability. Oxidant/antioxidant imbalance leads to increased production of free radicals, that cause many diseases. Some nutrients, along with systemic oxidative stress, have been implicated in acne vulgaris. The goal of the present study was to assess oxidant and antioxidant status in correlation with the incidence of acne vulgaris in adolescent obese females. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 adolescent females (age 16-22 years were divided into four groups (15 each as follows: The first included obese females with acne; the second included obese females without acne; the third included non obese with acne and the fourth included non obese without acne. Fasting serum Malondialdehyde (MDA, β-carotene, and Vitamins A, E, and C were measured. In addition, platelet monoamineoxidase (MAO, and erythrocyte catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT activities were determined. Results: It was found that serum MDA was statistically significantly decreased in obese and non obese subjects with acne, as compared to those without acne ( P < 0.05, P < 0.001 respectively. In contrast, the levels of β-carotene, vitamins A, E and C and the activity of MAO were significantly decreased in the obese and non obese with acne, as against the obese and non obese without acne. Interpretation: In obese subjects, increased fat content facilitates free radical production and lipid peroxidation, as indicated by increased MDA level, which is scavenged by the antioxidant vitamins. The decreased activity of MAO may be inhibited by free radicals and this causes psychological depression in adolescents. However there were non significant changes in the activity of COMT among the studied groups. Conclusion: The nutritional factors and a weakened antioxidant defense system may interplay, to increase the risk of psychological sequelae in acne vulgaris.
Zayed, Mouchira; Ahmed, Dalia; Halawa, Eman Fawzy
Violence among female adolescents is a major public health problem. The objective of this study is to detect the pattern and predicting factors of interpersonal violence among adolescent female students in a nursing high school in Cairo. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the academic year 2011-2012 and included a total of 220 students using a self-administered questionnaire. Physical violence exposure at home, school and community among studied adolescents were 65.5, 30.4 and 25.9% respectively. Verbal violence was found in 55, 69 and 60% at home, school and community respectively. Finally 5 and 41.3% of studied students were exposed to sexual violence at home and community respectively. The highest violence exposure score was at school from teachers while the highest score of being violent was mainly towards the community. Multivariate regression analysis for violence scores revealed that younger students, students from urban residence and higher crowding index were significant predictors for total violence exposure and being violent scores. Prevention programmes should be given for all students especially high risk ones (young age, urban residence and high crowdness index families) and their families to address and overcome this problem. PMID:24627151
Grimes, Lee Edmondson; Haizlip, Breyan; Rogers, Tiffany; Brown, Kimberly D.
Adolescent African American females face multiple obstacles that hinder their educational success. High school completion and college attendance rates remain lower for African American females than those for other racial and gender groups, while pregnancy rates for African American teens are higher. Group work holds promise for meeting the…
Werch, Chudley E.; Dunn, Michael; Woods, Robert
Examines the alcohol and cigarette use patterns of adolescent and young adult female patients (N=246). Results indicate that smoking differences between Whites and Blacks was inversely related to education: less-educated Whites and more-educated Blacks had a greater smoking risk. Conclusions show females' differential needs regarding alcohol and…
Pace, Ugo; Cacioppo, Marco; Schimmenti, Adriano
The present study examined the association between quality of attachment, perception of the father's bond, and binge eating symptoms in a sample of female late adolescents. In total, 233 female students aged between 18 and 20 years completed measures on binge eating, quality of attachment and parent-child relationship. Data showed that respondents…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity have become a global epidemic. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among U.S. adolescents has almost tripled in the last 30 years. Results from recent systematic reviews demonstrate that no single, particular intervention or strategy successfully assists overweight or obese adolescents in losing weight. An understanding of factors that influence healthy weight-loss behaviors among overweight and obese female adolescents promotes effective, multi-component weight-loss interventions. There is limited evidence demonstrating associations between demographic variables, body-mass index, and weight perception among female adolescents trying to lose weight. There is also a lack of previous studies examining the association of the accuracy of female adolescents' weight perception with their efforts to lose weight. This study, therefore, examined the associations of body-mass index, weight perception, and weight-perception accuracy with trying to lose weight and engaging in exercise as a weight-loss method among a representative sample of U.S. female adolescents. Methods A nonexperimental, descriptive, comparative secondary analysis design was conducted using data from Wave II (1996 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health. Data representative of U.S. female adolescents (N = 2216 were analyzed using STATA statistical software. Descriptive statistics and survey weight logistic regression were performed to determine if demographic and independent (body-mass index, weight perception, and weight perception accuracy variables were associated with trying to lose weight and engaging in exercise as a weight-loss method. Results Age, Black or African American race, body-mass index, weight perception, and weight perceptions accuracy were consistently associated with the likeliness of trying to lose weight among U.S. female adolescents. Age, body-mass index, weight perception, and weight
Falbo, Gilliatt; Caminha, Fátima; Aguiar, Florence; Albuquerque, Jácia; de Chacon Lourdes, M; Miranda, Simone; Marques, Sônia
The intergenerational transmission of violence and the tendency for abused and neglected children to become abusers, delinquents, and violent offenders in their adult life is an important field to be understood. It is also important to understand these backgrounds to guide future preventative interventions. Through a cross-sectional study, the occurrence of abuse during childhood and adolescence of adult women incarcerated in a female state prison at Recife in northeast Brazil was investigated. Among 219 prisoners, 190 accepted to join the research; 149 were young women (23-27 years) with severe educational deficiency. Living in poor socioeconomical conditions with problematic and violent familiar relations, 116 (61 per cent) left home at the end of their adolescence and the same number reported having been abused (p abuses suffered and witnessed by the subjects and the perpetration of abuse against children and adolescents by themselves (p abuse suffered in childhood and adolescence of these women drove them to be abusers in adult life and could have been a predictive marker for their conduct disorders and subsequent criminal behavior. PMID:15510761
Full Text Available Background: Menstruation is an important milestone that results in development of sexual and reproductive capacity of girls. Adolescent girls do not have adequate knowledge about the abnormalities and healthy practices to be followed during menstruation. Objective:To find out the knowledge, attitude, practices regarding menstruation and treatment seeking behaviour for menstrual problems in adolescent females.Material & methods: The present cross sectional study was carried out in an urban field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, LLRM Medical College, Meerut on adolescent girls. A sample of 384 was derived and girls were selected by systematic random sampling technique. Detailed information was collected on a predesigned and pretested questionnaire. Results:38.5% girls were aware of menstruation prior to its onset out of which 66.9% learned from their mother. Only 14.6% of the menstruating girls were aware of at least one menstrual disorder. Dysmenorrhoea was found to be the most frequently occurring problem (58.4%, followed by oligomenorrhoea (16.2%, menorrhagia (13.9%, premenstrual tension (13.6%, infrequent menstruation (12.3% and polymenorrhoea (12.2%. Out of the 226(72.7% girls having menstrual problems 77.9% did not seek any treatment for their problems. 55.2% of the menstruating girls were using sanitary pads during menstruation. Conclusion: The adolescent girls are not well prepared and do not have adequate information regarding menstruation which is an important event of life.
Toscano Sharyl E
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the nature and characteristics of the dating relationships of adolescent females, including any of their experiences of abuse. Methods A grounded theory approach was used with 22 theoretically sampled female adolescents ages 15–18. Results Several important themes emerged: Seven stages of dating consistently described the relationships of female adolescents. A circle consisting of two interacting same sex peer groups provided structure for each teen as they navigated the dating course. The circle was the central factor affecting a female adolescent's potential for risk or harm in dating relationships. Teens defined abuse as an act where the intention is to hurt. Having once succumbed to sexual pressure, teens felt unable to refuse sex in subsequent situations. Conclusion An awareness of both the stages of dating and the dynamics of the circle will assist health care providers to plan and implement interventions in the female adolescent population. Study findings on factors and influences that support non-abusive versus abusive relationship might help identify female teens at risk and/or support interventions aimed at preventing dating violence.
Franklin, K W; Cornell, D G
Highly intelligent and creative persons have long posed interpretation difficulties for users of the Rorschach Inkblot Test. This study examined Exner's (1993) Schizophrenia, Depression, and Coping Deficit indices as adjustment measures in a sample of 43 female adolescents enrolled in an early college entrance program and a comparison group of 19 girls enrolled in public high school gifted programs. Contrary to conventional interpretation, higher scores on the Rorschach Schizophrenia Index among the accelerants were correlated with healthy emotional adjustment on both the California Psychological Inventory and the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (SPPA). Further analyses offered support for the hypothesis that among accelerants, elevated scores on the Rorschach constellations did not indicate psychopathology, but rather their creative thinking style. PMID:9018850
Thralls, Katie J; Nichols, Jeanne F; Barrack, Michelle T; Kern, Mark; Rauh, Mitchell J
Early detection of the female athlete triad is essential for the long-term health of adolescent female athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between common anthropometric markers (ideal body weight [IBW] via the Hamwi formula, youth-percentile body mass index [BMI], adult BMI categories, and body fat percentage [BF%]) and triad components, (low energy availability [EA], measured by dietary restraint [DR], menstrual dysfunction [MD], low bone mineral density [BMD]). In the sample (n = 320) of adolescent female athletes (age 15.9± 1.2 y), Spearman's rho correlations and multiple logistic regression analyses evaluated associations between anthropometric clinical cutoffs and triad components. All underweight categories for the anthropometric measures predicted greater likelihood of MD and low BMD. Athletes with an IBW >85% were nearly 4 times more likely to report MD (OR = 3.7, 95% CI [1.8, 7.9]) and had low BMD (OR = 4.1, 95% CI [1.2, 14.2]). Those in measures should be tested for their ability as tools to minimize the risk for the triad. PMID:26252427
Emma L Anderson
Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence for associations of Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH with cardiometabolic risk factors is lacking. Existing evidence comes from small studies in select adult populations, and findings are conflicting. We aimed to assess whether AMH is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in a general population of adolescent females.AMH, fasting insulin, glucose, HDLc, LDLc, triglycerides and C-reactive protein (CRP were measured at a mean age 15.5 years in 1,308 female participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine associations of AMH with these cardiometabolic outcomes.AMH values ranged from 0.16-35.84 ng/ml and median AMH was 3.57 ng/ml (IQR: 2.41, 5.49. For females classified as post-pubertal (n = 848 at the time of assessment median (IQR AMH was 3.81 ng/ml (2.55, 5.82 compared with 3.25 ng/ml (2.23, 5.05 in those classed as early pubertal (n = 460, P≤0.001. After adjusting for birth weight, gestational age, pubertal stage, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic position, adiposity and use of hormonal contraceptives, there were no associations with any of the cardiometabolic outcomes. For example fasting insulin changed by 0% per doubling of AMH (95%CI: -3%,+2% p = 0.70, with identical results if HOMA-IR was used. Results were similar after additional adjustment for smoking, physical activity and age at menarche, after exclusion of 3% of females with the highest AMH values, after excluding those that had not started menarche and after excluding those using hormonal contraceptives.Our results suggest that in healthy adolescent females, AMH is not associated with cardiometabolic risk factors.
Put, Van Der, Marius
Background: This study adds to the scarce literature on female adolescent sexual offenders by examining differences between female adolescent sexual and nonsexual violent offenders in the prevalence and impact of dynamic risk and protective factors for general recidivism. Method: The sample consisted of female adolescents who were convicted for a sexual offense (FSOs; n =31) or nonsexual violent offense (FNSOs; n = 407), and for whom the Washington State Juvenile Court Assessment was complete...
Sales, Jessica M; Brown, Jennifer L; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Smearman, Erica L; Brody, Gene H; DiClemente, Ralph
Psychosocial stress, including stress resulting from racial discrimination (RD), has been associated with elevated depressive symptoms. However, individuals vary in their reactivity to stress, with some variability resulting from genetic differences. Specifically, genetic variation within the linked promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) is related to heightened reactivity to emotional environmental cues. Likewise, variations within this region may interact with stressful life events (e.g., discrimination) to influence depressive symptoms, but this has not been empirically examined in prior studies. The objective of this study was to examine whether variation in the 5-HTTLPR gene interacts with RD to predict depressive symptoms among a sample of African-American adolescent females. Participants were 304 African-American adolescent females enrolled in a sexually transmitted disease prevention trial. Participants completed a baseline survey assessing psychosocial factors including RD (low vs. high) and depressive symptomatology (low vs. high) and provided a saliva sample for genotyping the risk polymorphism 5-HTTLPR (s allele present vs. not present). In a logistic regression model adjusting for psychosocial correlates of depressive symptoms, an interaction between RD and 5-HTTLPR group was significantly associated with depressive symptomatology (AOR = 3.79, 95% CI: 1.20-11.98, p = 0.02). Follow-up tests found that high RD was significantly associated with greater odds of high depressive symptoms only for participants with the s allele. RD and 5-HTTLPR status interact to differentially impact depressive symptoms among African-American adolescent females. Efforts to decrease depression among minority youth should include interventions which address RD and strengthen factors (e.g., coping, emotion regulation, building support systems) which protect youth from the psychological costs of discrimination. PMID:26157407
Sales, Jessica M.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Swartzendruber, Andrea L.; Smearman, Erica L.; Brody, Gene H.; DiClemente, Ralph
Psychosocial stress, including stress resulting from racial discrimination (RD), has been associated with elevated depressive symptoms. However, individuals vary in their reactivity to stress, with some variability resulting from genetic differences. Specifically, genetic variation within the linked promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) is related to heightened reactivity to emotional environmental cues. Likewise, variations within this region may interact with stressful life events (e.g., discrimination) to influence depressive symptoms, but this has not been empirically examined in prior studies. The objective of this study was to examine whether variation in the 5-HTTLPR gene interacts with RD to predict depressive symptoms among a sample of African–American adolescent females. Participants were 304 African–American adolescent females enrolled in a sexually transmitted disease prevention trial. Participants completed a baseline survey assessing psychosocial factors including RD (low vs. high) and depressive symptomatology (low vs. high) and provided a saliva sample for genotyping the risk polymorphism 5-HTTLPR (s allele present vs. not present). In a logistic regression model adjusting for psychosocial correlates of depressive symptoms, an interaction between RD and 5-HTTLPR group was significantly associated with depressive symptomatology (AOR = 3.79, 95% CI: 1.20–11.98, p = 0.02). Follow-up tests found that high RD was significantly associated with greater odds of high depressive symptoms only for participants with the s allele. RD and 5-HTTLPR status interact to differentially impact depressive symptoms among African–American adolescent females. Efforts to decrease depression among minority youth should include interventions which address RD and strengthen factors (e.g., coping, emotion regulation, building support systems) which protect youth from the psychological costs of discrimination. PMID:26157407
Misterska, Ewa; Głowacki, Maciej; Panek, Sławomir; Ignyś-O’Byrne, Anna; Głowacki, Jakub; Ignyś, Iwona; Krauss, Hanna; Piątek, Jacek
Summary Background There are many factors influencing postoperative health-related quality of life of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients, including the degree of the deformity, culture, differences in geography, rural versus urban living environments, and social factors. The objective of this study was to analyze the significance of geographic factors and their differences influencing the postoperative quality of life in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis residing in urban and...
Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Wall, Melanie M.; Choo, Tse-Hwei J.; Larson, Nicole I; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Depression may be a risk factor for overweight status, but mechanisms involved in this relationship are unclear. This study explored behavioral factors involved in the relationship between adolescent depression symptoms and adult overweight status. A population-based cohort of female participants in Project EAT (n=1,035) was followed over 10 years and reported on psychological functioning, weight status, and eating and activity patterns in early/middle adolescence (1999=Time 1; T1), middle ad...
Zebis, Mette K.; Andersen, Lars L.; Brandt, Mikkel;
BACKGROUND: Adolescent female football and handball players are among the athletes with the highest risk of sustaining anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. AIM: This study evaluated the effects of evidence-based lower extremity injury prevention training on neuromuscular and biomechanical...... risk factors for non-contact ACL injury. METHODS: 40 adolescent female football and handball players (15-16 years) were randomly allocated to a control group (CON, n=20) or neuromuscular training group (NMT, n=20). The NMT group performed an injury prevention programme as a warm-up before their usual....... CONCLUSIONS: A 12-week injury prevention programme in addition to training and match play in adolescent females altered the pattern of agonist-antagonist muscle preactivity during side cutting. This may represent a more ACL-protective motor strategy....
Full Text Available Objectives: African-American women are affected by disproportionately high rates of violence and sexually transmitted infections (STI/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. It is imperative to address the intersection of these two urgent public health issues, particularly as these affect African-American adolescent girls. This study assessed the prevalence of rape victimization (RV among a sample of African-American adolescent females and examined the extent to which participants with a history of RV engage in STI/HIV associated risk behaviors over a 12-month time period.Methods: Three hundred sixty-seven African-American adolescent females ages 15-21, seeking sexual health services at three local teenager-oriented community health agencies in an urban area of the Southeastern United States, participated in this study. Participants were asked to complete an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI at baseline, six- and 12-month follow-up. We assessed sociodemographics, history of RV and sexual practices. At baseline, participants indicating they had experienced forced sex were classified as having a history of RV.Results: Twenty-five percent of participants reported a history of RV at baseline. At six- and 12-months, victims of RV had significantly lower proportions of condom-protected sex (p=.008, higher frequency of sex while intoxicated (p=.005, more inconsistent condom use (p=.008, less condom use at last sex (p=.017, and more sex partners (p=.0001 than non-RV victims. Over the 12-month follow-up period, of those who did not report RV at baseline, 9.5% reported that they too had experienced RV at some point during the 12-month time frame.Conclusion: African-American adolescent females who experience RV are engaging in more risky sexual behaviors over time than non-RV girls, thereby placing themselves at higher risk for contracting STIs. In light of the results from this unique longitudinal study, we discuss considerations for
Full text: Osteopenia/osteoporosis and fractures have been shown to occur with anorexia nervosa (AN). This study evaluated adolescent females diagnosed with AN less than 12 months previously to determine the presence of any significant bone mass reduction at this early stage of diagnosis and to evaluate the correlation between total body (TB) and lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral densities (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), and nutritional indices (body weight, body mass index (BMI), lean mass, fat mass and percentage fat). The subjects were 22 adolescent females aged 12-17 years (mean= 14.3 years) diagnosed with AN less than 12 months earlier (range 2.5-11 months; mean = 6.7 months). They had bone density measurements of the TB and LS using a Lunar DPX-L densitometer. Comparison was made with values of age-matched controls in the Lunar normative database. Although there was a tendency towards low TB and LS bone mass, these changes were not statistically significant. Bivariate analyses showed significant correlation between TB BMD and lean mass (P < 0.001) and weight (P < 0.001) and between TB BMC and lean mass (P < 0.001) and weight (P < 0.01). There was similar significant correlation between LS BMD and lean mass (P < 0.01) and weight (P<0.01), and between LS BMC and lean mass (P < 0.01) and weight (P < 0.01). With stepwise regression analysis, only lean mass remained significantly correlated with TB BMD and BMC and LS BMD and BMC. There was no longer any significant correlation with weight. In this study, the weight percentile was found to be correlated highly with the LS BMD Z-score (P < 0.01). Therefore, during adolescence, the lean mass in particular, but also body weight, are good indicators of bone densities. Adolescent females do not appear to show bone mass reduction in the early stages of diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. This suggests early intervention may preserve bone gain and attainment of normal peak bone mass
Full Text Available Gulsen Unlu, Burcu Cakaloz Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey Purpose: Child sexual abuse and sexual dating violence victimization are common problems that are known to have long-term negative consequences. This study aimed to compare the sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features of female adolescents who were sexually abused by different perpetrators, and identify the factors associated with suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI in these cases. Patients and methods: Data of 254 sexually abused female adolescents between the ages of 12–18 years were evaluated. The cases were classified into three groups, namely “sexual dating violence”, “incest”, and “other child sexual abuse”, according to the identity of the perpetrator. The three groups were compared in terms of sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features. Results: Major depressive disorder was the most common psychiatric diagnosis, which was present in 44.9% of the cases. Among all victims, 25.6% had attempted suicide, 52.0% had suicidal ideation, and 23.6% had NSSI during the postabuse period. A logistic regression analysis revealed that attempted suicide was predicted by dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.053; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.473, 6.330 and depression (AOR =2.238; 95% CI =1.226, 4.086. Dating violence victimization was also the strongest predictor of subsequent suicidal ideation (AOR =3.500; 95% CI =1.817, 6.741. In addition, revictimization was determined to be an important risk factor for both suicidal ideation (AOR =2.897; 95% CI =1.276, 6.574 and NSSI (AOR =3.847; 95% CI =1.899, 7.794. Conclusion: Perpetrator identity and revictimization are associated with negative mental health outcomes in sexually victimized female adolescents. Increased risk of suicidality and NSSI should be borne in mind while assessing cases with dating
Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Jeong-Il; Song, MiKyung; Lee, Donghun; Song, Jungbin; Kim, Soo Young; Park, Juyeon; Choi, Ho-Young; Kim, Hocheol
Eucommia ulmoides is one of the popular tonic herbs for the treatment of low back pain and bone fracture and is used in Korean medicine to reinforce muscles and bones. This study was performed to investigate the effects of E. ulmoides extract on longitudinal bone growth rate, growth plate height, and the expressions of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in adolescent female rats. In two groups, we administered a twice-daily dosage of E. ulmoides extract (at 30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively) per os over 4 days, and in a control group, we administered vehicle only under the same conditions. Longitudinal bone growth rate in newly synthesized bone was observed using tetracycline labeling. Chondrocyte proliferation in the growth plate was observed using cresyl violet dye. In addition, we analyzed the expressions of BMP-2 and IGF-1 using immunohistochemistry. Eucommia ulmoides extract significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate and growth plate height in adolescent female rats. In the immunohistochemical study, E. ulmoides markedly increased BMP-2 and IGF-1 expressions in the proliferative and hypertrophic zones. In conclusion, E. ulmoides increased longitudinal bone growth rate by promoting chondrogenesis in the growth plate and the levels of BMP-2 and IGF-1. Eucommia ulmoides could be helpful for increasing bone growth in children who have growth retardation. PMID:25087723
This study was an investigation of female adolescents' perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and reading science-related texts. Three surveys were used to collect data from 253 middle school students in Grade 7 and Grade 8 and six interviews were conducted with students. The interviews allowed a deeper analysis of the value students placed on science and on reading science-related texts. The quantitative data were collected through the following surveys: Test of Science Related Attitudes, Motivation for Reading Informational Books in School adapted, and Metacognitive Awareness Reading Strategies Inventory adapted. The purpose of the surveys was to provide a comprehensive picture of students' self-reported perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and the motivation to engage. Literacy processes and practices make engagement and learning in science possible; however, intrinsic motivation and cognitive strategies are critical influential components that educators cannot overlook. The female adolescents in this study expressed greater competence when involved in learning science through inquiry experimentation integrated with literacy presented in different formats.
Russo, J F; Ronkin, S; Furness, G
The lower genital tracts of 20 sexually active adolescent females were examined for the presence of Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Corynebacterium genitalium, and Corynebacterium pseudogenitalium. Fifty percent of the asymptomatic adolescent females and 50% of the symptomatic adolescent females were colonized with M. hominis, which is higher than the percentage reported in adult females. None of the asymptomatic adolescent females and only 10% of the symptomatic adolescent females were colonized with U. urealyticum, which is much lower than the percentage reported in adults. None of the study patients was colonized with C. genitalium, but 25% were colonized with C. pseudogenitalium. No relationship was found between the presence of M. hominis in the lower genital tract and a clinically identifiable vaginal discharge or inflammatory changes in exfoliated cervical and vaginal epithelial cells. The presence of M.hominis in the lower genital tract does not appear to be influenced by use of oral contraceptives or antecedent pregnancy. PMID:7333925
Odeyemi, Kofoworola; Onajole, Adebayo; Ogunowo, Babatunde
High rates of adolescent pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and unsafe abortions in Nigeria indicate the need for a greater understanding of factors that affect adolescent sexuality. The sexual health needs of adolescents remain poorly known and addressed particularly among vulnerable subpopulations like out-of-school adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the sexual behavior of female out-of-school adolescents and to identify factors that influence their sexual behavior. This cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of unmarried, out-of-school female adolescents (n = 332, mean age 17 y), selected using cluster sampling, who were working in a major market (Mushin) in Lagos, Nigeria. Data were collected using interviewer administered questionnaires. Many girls (43.7%) have had sexual intercourse. The mean age at initiation was 16 years. The main reason for initiation was curiosity. Risky sexual behavior and transactional sex was common. Nonconsensual sex was also reported. Sexual health knowledge was poor, and friends served as their main source of information on sexual health issues. Factors associated with the initiation of sexual activity were friends sexual behavior, the person adolescents reside with, parents marital status, availability of funds to meet basic needs, and watching pornography (p risky sexual behavior are exposed to sexual abuse, lack skills to resist pressure, and have limited access to credible reproductive health information. Appropriate interventions including provision of sexuality education and a supportive environment must be instituted to address their needs. PMID:19526700
Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J
IMPORTANCE Sexual violence can emerge in adolescence, yet little is known about youth perpetrators-especially those not involved with the criminal justice system. OBJECTIVE To report national estimates of adolescent sexual violence perpetration and details of the perpetrator experience. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Data were collected online in 2010 (wave 4) and 2011 (wave 5) in the national Growing Up With Media study. Participants included 1058 youths aged 14 to 21 years who at baseline read English, lived in the household at least 50% of the time, and had used the Internet in the last 6 months. Recruitment was balanced on youths' biological sex and age. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Forced sexual contact, coercive sex, attempted rape, and completed rape. RESULTS Nearly 1 in 10 youths (9%) reported some type of sexual violence perpetration in their lifetime; 4% (10 females and 39 males) reported attempted or completed rape. Sixteen years old was the mode age of first sexual perpetration (n = 18 [40%]). Perpetrators reported greater exposure to violent X-rated content. Almost all perpetrators (98%) who reported age at first perpetration to be 15 years or younger were male, with similar but attenuated results among those who began at ages 16 or 17 years (90%). It is not until ages 18 or 19 years that males (52%) and females (48%) are relatively equally represented as perpetrators. Perhaps related to age at first perpetration, females were more likely to perpetrate against older victims, and males were more likely to perpetrate against younger victims. Youths who started perpetrating earlier were more likely than older youths to get in trouble with caregivers; youths starting older were more likely to indicate that no one found out about the perpetration. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Sexual violence perpetration appears to emerge earlier for males than females, perhaps suggesting different developmental trajectories. Links between perpetration and violent sexual
Bodiba, P; Madu, S N; Ezeokana, J O; Nnedum, O A U
The study investigated the relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students. The study used a mixed research design (quantitative and qualitative methods). Media images of handsome faces and beautiful bodies are used to sell almost everything, from clothes and cosmetic to luncheon, meats, and so on. These images reinforce the western cultural stereotype that women should be thin and shapely to be attractive. Thus, as some girls go through puberty they may become dissatisfied with their weight, and to a lesser extent, with their shape, thus, developing low self-concept or imae of themselves. It is in this context that the study was conceptualised. First year female students from three different Schools and Faculties at the University of Limpopo, Turfloop Campus, South Africa, participated in the study. Using the availability and convenient sampling method, 75 students were selected for this study. For the quantitative aspect of the study, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Measure was used to measure self-esteem. For the qualitative part, a topic guide was used for the focus group discussions. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Pearson's Product Moment Correlation were used to analyse the quantitative data, while the phenomenological principle of open coding used for the thematic analysis. Results showed that there is a relationship between body mass and self-concept and that overweight participants tend to have a low self-esteem. Low self-esteem was perceived to be aggravated by a number of factors, like the attitude of the media and the society. Participants who are overweight also indicated that they are limited in certain activities of daily living (e.g., sports) as a result of their body mass. They expressed mixed feelings and frustration when it comes to such activities. The above results did not differ from those reported from western cultures. Support groups, life-skills programmes and psychotherapy should be
Faje, Alexander T.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Miller, Karen K.; Katzman, Debra K.; Ebrahimi, Seda; Lee, Hang; Mendes, Nara; Snelgrove, Deirdre; Meenaghan, Erinne; Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne
Objective To (i) compare fracture prevalence in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa (AN) vs. normal-weight controls and (ii) examine whether reductions in areal bone mineral density (aBMD) predict fracture risk in females with AN. Methods 418 females (310 with active AN and 108 normal-weight controls) 12–22 years old were studied cross-sectionally. Lifetime fracture history was recorded by a physician during participant interviews. Body composition and aBMD measurements of the whole body, whole body less head, lumbar spine, and hip were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) was calculated for the lumbar spine. Results Participants with AN and normal-weight controls did not differ for chronological age, sexual maturity, or height. The lifetime prevalence of prior fracture was 59.8% higher in those with AN compared to controls (31.0 % versus 19.4 %, p = 0.02), and the fracture incidence rate peaked in our cohort after the diagnosis of AN. Lower aBMD and lumbar BMAD were not associated with a higher prevalence of fracture in the AN or control group on univariate or multivariate analyses. Compared to controls, fracture prevalence was significantly higher in the subgroup of girls with AN who had normal aBMD or only modest reductions of aBMD (Z-scores > −1 or −1.5). Discussion This is the first study to show that the risk of fracture during childhood and adolescence is significantly higher in patients with AN than in normal-weight controls. Fracture prevalence is increased in this cohort of subjects with AN even without significant reductions in aBMD. PMID:24430890
C.E. van der Put
Background: This study adds to the scarce literature on female adolescent sexual offenders by examining differences between female adolescent sexual and nonsexual violent offenders in the prevalence and impact of dynamic risk and protective factors for general recidivism. Method: The sample consiste
Background The wellness construct has application in a number of fields including education, healthcare and counseling, particularly with regard to female adolescents. The effective measurement of wellness in adolescents can assist researchers and practitioners in determining lifestyle behaviors in which they are lacking. Behavior change interventions can then be designed which directly aid in the promotion of these areas. Methods The 5-Factor Wellness Inventory (designed to measure the Indivisible Self model of wellness) is a popular instrument for measuring the broad aspects of wellness amongst adolescents. The instrument comprises 97 items contributing to 17 subscales, five dimension scores, four context scores, total wellness score, and a life satisfaction index. This investigation evaluated the test-retest (intra-rater) reliability of the 5F-Wel instrument in repeated assessments (seven days apart) among adolescent females aged 12–14 years. Percentages of exact agreement for individual items, and the number of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 points for total wellness and the five summary dimension scores were calculated. Results Overall, 46 (95.8%) participants responded with complete data and were included in the analysis. Item agreement ranged from 47.8% to 100% across the 97 items (median 69.9%, interquartile range 60.9%-73.9%). The percentage of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 points for total wellness at the re-assessment was 87.0%, 97.8% and 97.8% respectively. The percentage of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 for the domain scores at the reassessment ranged between 54.3-76.1%, 78.3-95.7% and 89.1-95.7% respectively across the five dimensions. Conclusions These findings suggest there was considerable variation in agreement between the two assessments on some individual items. However, the total wellness score and the five dimension summary scores remained comparatively stable between assessments
Svaldi, Jennifer; Bender, Caroline; Caffier, Detlef; Ivanova, Viliana; Mies, Nina; Fleischhaker, Christian; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna
Objective Previous research has yielded evidence of increased attentional processing of negatively valenced body parts in women with anorexia nervosa (AN), especially for those with high depressive symptomatology. The present study extended previous research by implementing an experimental mood manipulation. Method In a within-subjects design, female adolescents with AN (n = 12) and an age matched female control group (CG; n = 12) were given a negative and a positive mood induction at a one-week interval. After each mood induction, participants underwent a 3-min mirror exposure, while their eye movements were recorded. Results After the positive mood induction, both AN and CG participants displayed longer and more frequent gazes towards their self-defined most ugly relative to their self-defined most beautiful body part. However, after the negative mood induction, only females with AN were characterized by increased attention to their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body part, while CG participants’ attention distribution was balanced. Furthermore, in the negative (but not in the positive) mood induction condition gaze frequency and duration towards the most ugly body part was significantly stronger in the AN group relative to the CG. Discussion The results emphasize the role of negative mood in the maintenance of pathological information processing of the self-body. This increased body-related negativity-bias during negative mood may lead to the persistence and aggravation of AN patients’ body image disturbance. PMID:27123587
Fahimeh Farzanegan; Farzin Heravi; Aidin Sooratgar; Parisa Dastmalchi
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of malocclusions on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) among female adolescents. Materials and Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional descriptive study. A total of 129 female students with age ranges between 14 and 17 years old were randomly selected from Mashhad (Iran) high schools and were asked to fill out an OHRQOL questionnaire included in four parts: Oral symptoms, functional limitations, emotional we...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Elite adolescent female figure skaters compete in an aesthetic-based sport that values thin builds and lithe figures. To conform to the sport’s physical requirements, skaters may alter their eating patterns in unhealthful directions. This study assesses the eating attitudes and dietary intakes of elite adolescent female figure skaters to assess the potential nutritional risks among them. Methods Thirty-six elite competitive adolescent female figure skaters (mean age 16 ± 2.5 SD years completed self-administered three-day records of dietary intake and simultaneous physical activity records during training season. Two months later, they attended a national training camp during which they completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40, provided fasting blood samples, and had heights and weights measured. Results Participants’ mean body mass index (BMI was 19.8 ± 2.1 SD. Their BMIs were within the normal range, and the majority (70% did not report a history of recent weight loss. The mean EAT-40 score was normal (19.5 ± 13.5 SD and below the cut-off score of 30 that indicates clinically significant eating pathology. However, one-quarter of the skaters had EAT-40 scores above 30. The skaters reported a mean energy intake of 1491 ± 471 SD kcal/day (31 ± 10 SD kcal/kg, with 61.6% of calories from carbohydrate, 14.6% from protein, and 23.7% from fat. Their reported dietary intakes were high in carbohydrates but low in total energy, fat, and bone-building nutrients. Conclusions Although these highly active young women compete in a sport that prizes leanness, they had appropriate weights. The athletes reported dietary intakes that were far below estimated energy needs and were at moderate risk of disordered eating. Anticipatory guidance is warranted to improve their dietary intakes, particularly of bone-building nutrients.
Faulkner, Guy; Irving, Hyacinth; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Adlaf, Edward
Stigma is a significant barrier to the improvement of the lives of people with schizophrenia. Little is known about the emergence of stigmatizing attitudes developmentally. The purpose of this study was to provide a provincial assessment of adolescent knowledge about schizophrenia and to identify the relationship between adolescent knowledge and…
Bartlett, Jacqueline A.; Peterson, Jane Anthony
A comprehensive review of literature was conducted to identify the barriers and facilitators, from the parents'/guardians' and primary care providers' (PCPs) perspective, that are associated with the uptake of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among adolescent females. Findings from 14 peer-reviewed articles indicate that 37% of adolescent…
Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Lescano, Celia M.; Brown, Larry K.; Harrington, Kathy; Davies, Susan
Theories of health behavior posit that change is accomplished by modifying factors deemed as mediators. A set of mediators from several theoretical models used in sexual risk reduction programs was assessed among a sample of 522 African American female adolescents. The goal was to determine whether self-esteem was associated with sexually…
Bhalla, Jennifer A.; Weiss, Maureen R.
Little is known about parental socialization processes for youth participants from different cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to examine parental influence on self-perceptions, task values, and achievement behaviors among female adolescents from two cultures using Eccles' expectancy-value theory (Eccles et al., 1983). Twelve…
Stachowitz, Annie L.; Choi, Hee-Sook; Schweinle, Amy
Eating disorders, disordered eating, and body dissatisfaction prevalence rates are on the rise among adolescent females. The present study examined the potential use of a commonly used social--emotional instrument, the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition (BASC-2), for detecting the presence of possible eating disorders in…
Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.; Armstrong, Kay; Rossi, Joseph S.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Sun, Xiaowu; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Yin, Hui-Qing; Coviello, Donna; Evers, Kerry; Velicer, Wayne F.
Smoking and sexual risk behaviors in urban adolescent females are prevalent and problematic. Family planning clinics reach those who are at most risk. This randomized effectiveness trial evaluated a transtheoretical model (TTM)-tailored intervention to increase condom use and decrease smoking. At baseline, a total of 828 14- to 17-year-old females…
Meuwissen, L.E.; Gorter, A.C.; Segura, Z.; Kester, A.D.M.; Knottnerus, J.A.
BACKGROUND: To meet the needs of female adolescents from low-income urban areas for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care, vouchers providing free-of-charge access to SRH care at 19 primary care clinics were distributed in Managua, Nicaragua. These vouchers substantially increased the use of ser
Mayer, Birgit; Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Zimmermann-van Beuningen, Ritine
This study explored correlations between risk factors and eating behavior problems in late adolescent, non-clinical females (N = 301). Participants completed questionnaires for assessing eating problems, the closely associated factors of Body Mass Index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction, and a number of other risk variables that are thought to be…
Lüdtke, Janine; In-Albon, Tina; Michel, Chantal; Schmid, Marc
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between various adverse childhood experiences, alexithymia, and dissociation in predicting nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in an inpatient sample of female adolescents. Seventy-two adolescents (aged 14-18 years) with NSSI disorder (n=46) or mental disorders without NSSI (n=26) completed diagnostic interviews and self-report measures to assess NSSI disorder according to the DSM-5 criteria, childhood maltreatment, alexithymia, and dissociation. Alexithymia and dissociation were highly prevalent in both study groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that only alexithymia was a significant predictor for NSSI, whereas childhood maltreatment and dissociation had no predictive influence. The association between alexithymia and NSSI emphasizes the significance of emotion regulation training for female adolescents with NSSI. Efforts to reduce NSSI behavior should therefore foster skills to heighten the perception and recognition of one's own emotions. PMID:27088878
Chin, Young Ran; Choi, Kyungwon
Using data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, this study seeks to investigate associations of suicide attempts with family, individual, and behavioral factors on the basis of gender. Among male adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, who had poor subjective academic achievement, depression, experiences of smoking and sexual coitus, drug abuse, suicidal ideation and plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Among the female adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, had depression, low self-rated health, experiences of drug abuse and sexual coitus, and expressed unhappiness, suicidal ideation and suicide plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Thus, the development of a suicide prevention program for Korean adolescents requires different approaches for males and females. PMID:25812547
Ferrari, J R; Olivette, M J
Late adolescent females (N = 86; M age = 19.1 years) completed reliable and valid self-report measures on their perception of both parents' authority style (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive) and their own tendency toward decisional procrastination. Households where daughters perceived both parents as high authoritarian (n = 32) were significantly more likely to raise daughters with strong indecision tendencies than were parents perceived as low authoritarian (n = 23). Mothers and fathers perceived as high (n = 22) or low (n = 22) authoritative, and high (n = 32) or low (n = 24) permissive, did not produce significant differences in daughters' self-reported decisional procrastination. Results suggest that parental authority characterized by stern inflexibility and overcontrol has the greatest influence on daughters who develop chronic indecision tendencies. PMID:8266848
Power, Yuri; Power, Lorena; Canadas, Maria Beatriz
The objective of this study was to study the proportion of Ecuadorian students fulfilling criteria on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) in relation to socioeconomic status. Seven hundred and twenty three female adolescent participants recruited from Quito, Ecuador were administered a brief questionnaire consisting of the EAT-40 as well as lifestyle questions. Mean EAT-40 score was 17.12, with 14% fulfilling criteria. Lower socioeconomic status and watching more television predicted higher scores; however BMI, age, and positive smoking status failed to correlate. The presently unvalidated Spanish version of the EAT-26 highly correlated with the validated EAT-40 (R=0.94). A higher than expected proportion of Ecuadorians are at risk for eating disorders, especially among lower socioeconomic groups. The EAT-26 should be considered for validation as a primary screening tool in Latin America. PMID:18307113
Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Stice, Eric; Wade, Emily; Bohon, Cara
The authors examined the reciprocal relations between rumination and symptoms of depression, bulimia, and substance abuse with longitudinal data from 496 female adolescents. Rumination predicted future increases in bulimic and substance abuse symptoms, as well as onset of major depression, binge eating, and substance abuse. Depressive and bulimic, but not substance abuse, symptoms predicted increases in rumination. Rumination did not predict increases in externalizing symptoms, providing evidence for the specificity of effects of rumination, although externalizing symptoms predicted future increases in rumination. Results suggest rumination may contribute to the etiology of depressive, bulimic, and substance abuse pathology and that the former two disturbances may foster increased rumination. Results imply that it might be beneficial for prevention programs to target this cognitive vulnerability. PMID:17324030
Full Text Available The study investigated the relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students. The study used a mixed research design (quantitative and qualitative methods. Media images of handsome faces and beautiful bodies are used to sell almost everything, from clothes and cosmetic to luncheon, meats, and so on. These images reinforce the western cultural stereotype that women should be thin and shapely to be attractive. Thus, as some girls go through puberty they may become dissatisfied with their weight, and to a lesser extent, with their shape, thus, developing low self-concept or imae of themselves. It is in this context that the study was conceptualised.
Farideh Zafari Zangeneh
Full Text Available Early life events influence life-long patterns of emotionality and stress responsiveness and alter the rate of brain and body aging. Much research attention has focused on the programming effects of the hypothalamus pituitary axis (HPA in early life and on understanding HPA function in response to stressors in adulthood. In comparison, there has been relatively little research on adolescence, a time of significant brain development particularly in the frontal lobe and a time which is of great importance for mental and physical health. The hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex undergo stress-induced structural remodeling, which alters behavioral and physiological responses. During adolescence, HPA function is characterized by a prolonged activation in response to stressors compared to adulthood, which may render ongoing development of the brain vulnerable. Stress reactivity is markedly influenced by both the pubertal maturation and the experience of the individual. The frequency of the pulses is increased in chronic stress, since the neuroendocrine system is such a good candidate for mediators of many diseases linked to chronic stress. The activity of HPA axis in life time of female, sex maturity, pregnancy or lactation is a plasticity of the diurnal rhythm of pulse amplitude; chronic stress can change this program for formation disorder in behavioral and physiological responses.
Barlow, Christopher; Lovetri, Jeannette
Although quantifiable assessment of the singing voice is now commonplace, research on young (child and adolescent) voices is still in its infancy. There is still insufficient data on young people's voices based on which, "norms" in behavior could be modeled, particularly for contemporary commercial music (CCM), such as musical theater (MT). The objective of this study was to assess if quantifiable differences in vocal production and acoustic output of young singers exist between "classical" and "MT" styles. The study was a prospective cohort study of 20 adolescent female singers aged 12-17 years training their voices using a system, which includes both "classical" and "MT" styles. The study examined laryngographically derived closed quotient (CQ), average vowel spectra (AVS) and long-term average spectra (LTAS) measures of the sung voices of singers in "classical" and "MT" styles. The spectral slope was shallower for the MT voice, and the mean CQ was significantly higher across the pitch range when singing in an MT style than in a "classical" style. The second to fifth harmonics were stronger in the MT style than in classical, with a significant difference between the two styles. The increase in relative intensity in the first five harmonics was disproportionately higher than the increase in CQ. Results, therefore, suggested that MT singing primarily uses change in resonance strategy rather than raised vocal tension to achieve the tonal changes associated with the genre. PMID:19595563
Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Eriksen, Michael D; DiClemente, Ralph J; Rose, Eve S
Adolescents experience elevated depressive symptoms which health promotion interventions may reduce. This study investigated whether HIV prevention trial participation decreased depressive symptoms among African-American female adolescents. Adolescents (N = 701; M age = 17.6) first received a group-delivered HIV prevention intervention and then either 12 sexual health (intervention condition) or 12 general health (comparison condition) phone counseling contacts over 24 months. ACASI assessments were conducted at baseline, and at 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-months post-baseline. Linear generalized estimating equations were used to detect percent relative change in depressive symptoms. Participants reported a 2.7% decrease in depressive symptoms (p = 0.001) at each assessment. Intervention participants endorsed an additional 3.6% decrease in depressive symptoms (p = 0.058). Trial participation was associated with reduced depressive symptomatology, particularly among those receiving personalized sexual health counseling. HIV prevention interventions may benefit from incorporating additional content to address adolescents' mental health needs. PMID:24366521
Ohya, Toshiyuki; Yamanaka, Ryo; Hagiwara, Masahiro; Oriishi, Marie; Suzuki, Yasuhiro
Ohya, T, Yamanaka, R, Hagiwara, M, Oriishi, M, and Suzuki, Y. The 400- and 800-m track running induces inspiratory muscle fatigue in trained female middle-distance runners. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1433-1437, 2016-Inspiratory muscle fatigue (IMF) may limit exercise performance. A few studies have reported that IMF occurs after short-duration swimming exercise, but whether short-duration running can induce IMF remains unclear. Intra-abdominal pressure is increased during running through diaphragmatic activation to stabilize the spine during movements of the upper limbs. This occurs along with the increased inspiratory muscle effort associated with increased respirations during exercise; thus, we hypothesized that short-duration running exercise would induce IMF. To test this hypothesis, we measured maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) before and after 400- and 800-m track running sessions. Eight female middle-distance (400, 800 m) runners performed a 400- and 800-m running test. Maximal inspiratory pressure was measured before and after each test using a portable autospirometer. The mean MIPs were significantly lower after running than before running; values obtained were 107 ± 25 vs. 97 ± 27 cmH2O (p = 0.01, effect size [ES] = 0.65) and 108 ± 26 vs. 92 ± 27 cmH2O (p = 0.01, ES = 0.74) before vs. after the 400- and 800-m tests, respectively. The mean MIP after the 800-m test was significantly lower than after the 400-m test (p = 0.04, ES = 0.48). There was no correlation between IMF value and running time (r = 0.53 and r = -0.28 for either the 400- and 800-m tests, respectively; p > 0.05). In conclusion, IMF occurs after short-duration running exercise. Coaches could consider prescribing inspiratory muscle training or warm-up in an effort to reduce the inevitable IMF associated with maximal effort running. PMID:26422611
Exposure to social defeat stress in adolescence improves the working memory and anxiety-like behavior of adult female rats with intrauterine growth restriction, independently of hippocampal neurogenesis.
Furuta, Miyako; Ninomiya-Baba, Midori; Chiba, Shuichi; Funabashi, Toshiya; Akema, Tatsuo; Kunugi, Hiroshi
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for memory impairment and emotional disturbance during growth and adulthood. However, this risk might be modulated by environmental factors during development. Here we examined whether exposing adolescent male and female rats with thromboxane A2-induced IUGR to social defeat stress (SDS) affected their working memory and anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. We also used BrdU staining to investigate hippocampal cellular proliferation and BrdU and NeuN double staining to investigate neural differentiation in female IUGR rats. In the absence of adolescent stress, IUGR female rats, but not male rats, scored significantly lower in the T-maze test of working memory and exhibited higher anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze test compared with controls. Adolescent exposure to SDS abolished these behavioral impairments in IUGR females. In the absence of adolescent stress, hippocampal cellular proliferation was significantly higher in IUGR females than in non-IUGR female controls and was not influenced by adolescent exposure to SDS. Hippocampal neural differentiation was equivalent in non-stressed control and IUGR females. Neural differentiation was significantly increased by adolescent exposure to SDS in controls but not in IUGR females. There was no significant difference in the serum corticosterone concentrations between non-stressed control and IUGR females; however, adolescent exposure to SDS significantly increased serum corticosterone concentration in control females but not in IUGR females. These results demonstrate that adolescent exposure to SDS improves behavioral impairment independent of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult rats with IUGR. PMID:25725425
Full Text Available Objective: In Nigeria the rate of contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents is about 30%, considerably lower than the rates reported for developed countries. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, perception and practice of emergency contraception among female adolescent hawkers in Rigasa community, a suburb of Kaduna town.Materials and Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study of 1200 adolescent female hawkers aged 15–29 years was carried out in 2008, using both self and interviewer administered questionnaires. Results: Vast majority of the respondents are divorcees, constituting 92%. About 46% of them have never attended formal school before marriage. Of the 18 participants who were aware of emergency contraception; none correctly identified 72 hours as the time limit for the method’s use. Antibiotics or home remedies such as dye Robin Blue mixed with Coca cola or mixed with lime or lime mixed with potash and salt water were mentioned as unlisted methods of emergency contraception by responders. Conclusion: It is glaring that there exist a yawning gap of information and knowledge on contraception in general and emergency contraception in particular among female adolescent hawkers. The need to inform this target group about reproductive health generally and unwanted pregnancy in particular would not be out of place.
Full Text Available Wendee M Wechsberg,1–4 Irene A Doherty,1 Felicia A Browne,1,5 Tracy L Kline,1 Monique G Carry,6 Jerris L Raiford,6 Jeffrey H Herbst6 1Substance Abuse Treatment Evaluations and Interventions Research Program, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, 2Gillings Global School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 3Psychology in the Public Interest, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, 4Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, 5Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 6Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16–19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001. The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04. Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02. Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40], experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5], report emotional abuse from
Li, Chao; Yang, Mingyuan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chuanfeng; Fan, Jianping; Chen, Ziqiang; Wei, Xianzhao; Zhang, Guoyou; Bai, Yushu; Zhu, Xiaodong; Xie, Yang; Li, Ming
Abstract In this article, a retrospective analysis of 161 female patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is performed who underwent posterior correction and fusion using all-pedicle screw instrument. The aim of this article is to find out preoperative factors that influence intraoperative blood loss (IOBL) in female patients with AIS. The IOBL in posterior correction and fusion surgery for patients with idiopathic scoliosis greatly varies. The variables affecting the IOBL also greatly vary among different studies. Medical records of all female patients with AIS who underwent posterior correction and fusion operations using the all-pedicle screw system in our hospital from January 2012 to January 2014 were reviewed. Patients with irregular menstruation, who underwent osteotomy, and using coagulants were excluded. Preoperative clinical data, including patient age, height, weight, Risser sign, day after last menstruation, major curve Cobb angle, fulcrum-bending Cobb angle, curve flexibility index, sagittal thoracic Cobb angle, sagittal lumbar Cobb angle, albumin, hemoglobin, platelet, activated partial thromboplastic time (APTT), prothrombin time, thrombin time, fibrinogen, fusion level, menstrual phase, and blood type, were collected. Data were further analyzed using multiple linear regression with forward elimination. A total of 161 patients were included in this study. The mean IOBL was 933.98 ± 158.10 mL (500–2000 mL). Forward selection showed that fulcrum-bending Cobb angle, fusion level, Risser sign, APTT, fibrinogen, and menstrual phase were the preoperative factors that influenced the IOBL in female patients with AIS. Equation of IOBL was built by multiple linear regression: IOBL = −966.228 + 54.738 Risser sign + 18.910 fulcrum-bending Cobb angle + 114.737 fibrinogen + 21.386 APTT − 71.312 team 2 − 177.985 team 3 − 165.082 team 4 + 53.470 fusion level. R = 0.782. Operation for patients with AIS was featured by large IOBL
Infurna, Maria Rita; Brunner, Romuald; Holz, Birger; Parzer, Peter; Giannone, Francesca; Reichl, Corinna; Fischer, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael
This study examined a broad variety of adverse childhood experiences in a consecutive sample of female adolescent inpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD; n = 44) compared with a clinical control (CC; n = 47) group with mixed psychiatric diagnoses. BPD was diagnosed using a structured clinical interview; different dimensions of childhood adversity were assessed using the Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse Questionnaire, the Parental Bonding Instrument, and the Family Assessment Device. A history of childhood adversity was significantly more common in patients with BPD than in the CC group. Using a multivariate model, sexual abuse (OR = 13.8), general family functioning (OR = 8.9), and low maternal care (OR = 7.6) were specific and independent predictors of adolescent BPD. The results increase our knowledge of the specific role of different dimensions of childhood adversity in adolescent BPD. They have important implications for prevention and early intervention as they highlight the need for specific strategies for involving the family. PMID:25905734
Lovelace, Jonathan W; Corches, Alex; Vieira, Philip A; Hiroto, Alex S; Mackie, Ken; Korzus, Edward
Cannabis continues to be the most accessible and popular illicit recreational drug. Whereas current data link adolescence cannabinoid exposure to increased risk for dependence on other drugs, depression, anxiety disorders and psychosis, the mechanism(s) underlying these adverse effects remains controversial. Here we show in a mouse model of female adolescent cannabinoid exposure deficient endocannabinoid (eCB)-mediated signaling and presynaptic forms of long-term depression at adult central glutamatergic synapses in the prefrontal cortex. Increasing endocannabinoid levels by blockade of monoacylglycerol lipase, the primary enzyme responsible for degrading the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), with the specific inhibitor JZL 184 ameliorates eCB-LTD deficits. The observed deficit in cortical presynaptic signaling may represent a neural maladaptation underlying network instability and abnormal cognitive functioning. Our study suggests that adolescent cannabinoid exposure may permanently impair brain functions, including the brain's intrinsic ability to appropriately adapt to external influences. PMID:25979486
Sales, Jessica M.; Smearman, Erica L.; Swartzendruber, Andrea; Brown, Jennifer L.; Brody, Gene; DiClemente, Ralph J.
Introduction Virtually no studies have examined the potential role that chronic stress, particularly the stress associated with socioeconomic (SES) strain, may play on STI risk. This study examined the association between SES-related risk at baseline to STI acquisition and reinfection over 36 months of follow-up. Methods 627 African-American female adolescents, ages 14–20 years, recruited from sexual health clinics in Atlanta, GA participated in a randomized controlled HIV prevention trial, and returned for at least 1 follow-up assessment. Following baseline assessment, 6 waves of data collection occurred prospectively over 36 months. Chronic SES-related risk was assessed as a sum of yes-no exposure to seven risk indicators. Laboratory confirmed tests for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrheoea were performed at each follow-up. Results In multivariable regression analysis, SES-related risk significantly predicted STI acquisition over 36 months (AOR = 1.22) and STI reinfection (AOR = 1.16) above and beyond other known correlates of STI. Discussion Findings demonstrate that SES-related risk was predictive of both STI acquisition and reinfection among young African-American females. They are consistent with propositions that some health disparities observed in adulthood may be linked to earlier chronically stress-inducing life experiences, particularly experiences associated with low SES conditions. Although various explanations exist for the observed connection between SES-related risk and subsequent STI acquisition and/or reinfection across 36 months of follow-up, these findings highlight the need for further research to elucidate the exact pathway(s) by which SES-related risk influences later STI acquisition in order to refine STI prevention interventions for this population. PMID:24974317
The physical environments in which adolescents reside and their access to food stores may influence their consumption of fruit and vegetables. This association could either be direct or mediated via psychosocial variables or home availability of fruit and vegetables. A greater understanding of these...
Guarraci, Fay A; Holifield, Caroline; Morales-Valenzuela, Jessica; Greene, Kasera; Brown, Jeanette; Lopez, Rebecca; Crandall, Christina; Gibbs, Nicole; Vela, Rebekah; Delgado, Melissa Y; Frohardt, Russell J
The present study was designed to test the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) exposure on the maturation of endocrine functioning and sexual behavior. Female rat pups received either MPH (2.0mg/kg, i.p.) or saline twice daily between postnatal days 20-35. This period of exposure represents the time just prior to puberty as well as puberty onset. Approximately five weeks after the last injection of MPH or saline, female subjects were hormone-primed and tested during their first sexual experience. Subjects were given the choice to interact with a sexually active male or a sexually receptive female rat (i.e., the partner-preference test). The partner-preference paradigm allows us to assess multiple aspects of female sexual behavior. MPH exposure during peri-adolescence delayed puberty and, when mated for the first time, affected sexual behavior (e.g., increased time spent with the male stimulus and decreased the likelihood of leaving after mounts) during the test of partner preference. When monitoring estrous cyclicity, female subjects treated with MPH during peri-adolescence frequently experienced irregular estrous cycles. The results of the present study suggest that chronic exposure to a therapeutic dose of MPH around the onset of puberty alters long-term endocrine functioning, but with hormone priming, increases sensitivity to sexual stimuli. PMID:26701751
Baumann, Michèle; Spitz, E.; Predine, R.; Choquet, M.; Chau, N
This study assesses the effects of individual and family characteristics on psychotropic drug use among male and female adolescents. The sample included 2,396 subjects attending two middle schools and two high schools. Respondents completed self-administered questionnaires covering gender, age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, illicit drug use, tiredness during the daytime, selfreported personality traits, family conditions, and psychotropic drug use. The data were analyzed using logist...
Spitz, E.; Chau, N; Predine, R.; Baumann, Michèle
Objectives. To assess the effects of individual and family characteristics on psychotropic drug use among male and female adolescents. Design and methods. The sample included 2,396 subjects attending two middle schools and two high schools. Respondents completed self-administered questionnaires covering gender, age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, illicit drug use, tiredness during the daytime, self-reported personality traits, family conditions, and psychotropic drug use. The data wer...
Robertson, Angela R.; Stein, Judith A.; Schaefer-Rohleder, Lacey
This study tested Agnew’s General Strain Theory (GST) by examining the roles of anger, anxiety, and maladaptive coping in mediating the relationship between strain and three outcomes (serious delinquency, minor delinquency, and continued involvement in the juvenile justice system) among adolescent female offenders (N = 261). Strains consisted of adverse life events and exposure to Hurricane Katrina. Greater exposure to Hurricane Katrina was directly related to serious delinquency and maladapt...
Juliana Lourenço de Araújo Veras; Cintia Regina Tornisiello Katz
This study aimed to assess cases of self-inflicted poisoning among adolescents reported by the Toxicological Care Center of a reference hospital in Recife-PE, Brazil. The data were collected between March and May 2010 from hospital charts and structured interviews with the participants and parents/guardians. Among the 25 cases of attempted suicide registered in the period, 21 were female adolescents, who made up the sample of the present study. The adolescents were between 13 and 19 years of ...
Arikawa, Shino; Eboua, Tanoh; Kouakou, Kouadio; N’Gbeche, Marie-Sylvie; Amorissani- Folquet, Madeleine; Moh, Corinne; Amoussou-Bouah, Ursula Belinda; Coffie, Patrick Ahuatchi; Becquet, Renaud; Leroy, Valériane; West Africa Working Group, for the Pediatric IeDEA
Objective: Adolescents living with HIV are sexually active and engaged in risky sexual behaviors. Knowledge on how and to what extent adolescents in HIV care are affected by pregnancy is needed so as to adopt better preventive services. We estimated 4-year pregnancy incidence and correlates among HIV-infected female adolescents in HIV care in urban Côte d’Ivoire.Design: We conducted retrospective analysis of a pediatric prospective cohort of the International epidemiological Databases to Eval...
Jill M Hagey; Eliud Akama; James Ayieko; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Cohen, Craig R.; Patel, Rena C
Introduction: Avoiding unintended pregnancies is important for the health of adolescents living with HIV and has the additional benefit of preventing potential vertical HIV transmission. Health facility providers represent an untapped resource in understanding the barriers and facilitators adolescents living with HIV face when accessing contraception. By understanding these barriers and facilitators to contraceptive use among adolescent females living with HIV, this study aimed to understand ...
Full Text Available Background & aim: Sexual health education is one of the responsibilities of healthcare workers at schools, which can reduce the risk of sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS, unwanted pregnancy, abortion, substance abuse, sexual violence, and suicidal tendencies. This study aimed to investigate healthcare workers’ competence in sexual health education for female adolescents at schools. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 healthcare workers, responsible for sexual health education at schools in 2015. A valid and reliable researcher-made questionnaire was completed by the healthcare workers in order to assess their competence in sexual health education at healthcare centers of Khuzestan, Iran. To assess the competence of the participants (i.e., knowledge, attitude, confidence, and performance, descriptive statistics were calculated for quantitative variables. Also, mean, standard deviation, frequency, and percentage were calculated for qualitative variables. Pearson’s correlation test was performed to assess the relationship between the subjects’ knowledge, attitude, confidence, and performance. Also, the association between demographic variables and participants’ knowledge, attitude, confidence, and performance was evaluated, using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Data were analyzed, using SPSS version 21.0. Results: Knowledge, attitude, and confidence of healthcare workers in sexual health education were desirable. However, the subjects showed a poor performance in teaching students the required skills to control their emotions, instincts, homosexual tendencies, and masturbation. There was a significant correlation between performance, attitude, and confidence, knowledge and attitude, performance and confidence, and confidence, performance, and attitude (P
Ali, Mir M; Rizzo, John A; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Heiland, Frank
This paper investigates the effect of body size on dating and sexual experiences of white (non-Hispanic) and African American (non-Hispanic) female adolescents. Using data from Add-Health, we estimate the effects of obesity and BMI z-score on the probability of having been involved in a romantic relationship, having ever been touched in the genital area in a sexual way, and having ever engaged in sexual intercourse. We find that obese white teenage girls are less likely to have been in a romantic relationship compared to their non-obese counterparts. In addition, obese white girls are less likely to ever have had sex (intercourse) or to ever have been intimate. There are no systematic differences in relationship experiences and sexual behaviors between obese and non-obese black girls. Overall, the estimated relationships are very robust to common environmental influences at the school-level and to the inclusion of proxies for low self-esteem, attitudes toward sex and interviewer assessment of appearance and personality. Instrumental variables estimates and estimates from models with lagged weight status confirm the overall patterns. PMID:24361085
Lee, Donghun; Kim, Young-Sik; Song, Jungbin; Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Guo, Hailing; Kim, Hocheol
This study aimed to investigate the effects of Phlomis umbrosa root on bone growth and growth mediators in rats. Female adolescent rats were administered P. umbrosa extract, recombinant human growth hormone or vehicle for 10 days. Tetracycline was injected intraperitoneally to produce a glowing fluorescence band on the newly formed bone on day 8, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine was injected to label proliferating chondrocytes on days 8-10. To assess possible endocrine or autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, we evaluated insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in response to P. umbrosa administration in either growth plate or serum. Oral administration of P. umbrosa significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate, height of hypertrophic zone and chondrocyte proliferation of the proximal tibial growth plate. P. umbrosa also increased serum IGFBP-3 levels and upregulated the expressions of IGF-1 and BMP-2 in growth plate. In conclusion, P. umbrosa increases longitudinal bone growth rate by stimulating proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocyte with the increment of circulating IGFBP-3. Regarding the immunohistochemical study, the effect of P. umbrosa may also be attributable to upregulation of local IGF-1 and BMP-2 expressions in the growth plate, which can be considered as a GH dependent autocrine/paracrine pathway. PMID:27070559
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of Phlomis umbrosa root on bone growth and growth mediators in rats. Female adolescent rats were administered P. umbrosa extract, recombinant human growth hormone or vehicle for 10 days. Tetracycline was injected intraperitoneally to produce a glowing fluorescence band on the newly formed bone on day 8, and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine was injected to label proliferating chondrocytes on days 8–10. To assess possible endocrine or autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, we evaluated insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 in response to P. umbrosa administration in either growth plate or serum. Oral administration of P. umbrosa significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate, height of hypertrophic zone and chondrocyte proliferation of the proximal tibial growth plate. P. umbrosa also increased serum IGFBP-3 levels and upregulated the expressions of IGF-1 and BMP-2 in growth plate. In conclusion, P. umbrosa increases longitudinal bone growth rate by stimulating proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocyte with the increment of circulating IGFBP-3. Regarding the immunohistochemical study, the effect of P. umbrosa may also be attributable to upregulation of local IGF-1 and BMP-2 expressions in the growth plate, which can be considered as a GH dependent autocrine/paracrine pathway.
Moore, R H
This study investigated the empirical validity of the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale as a measure of alcohol abuse, marijuana use, and related multiple substance use in a sample of N = 160. Classification accuracy was 45% for alcohol abuse, 48.8% for marijuana use, and 66% for related multiple substance use (n = 12). There were few differences in personality functioning as measured by the California Psychological Inventory between true positives and false negatives. Both groups exhibited adolescent qualities, i.e., irresponsibility, attraction to pleasure seeking, and minor rebelliousness. False negatives appeared to be slightly less impulsive and somewhat less secure about themselves. Both groups were also similar in terms of reported use of alcohol. They used alcohol to enhance a sense of well-being, i.e., to gain pleasure and to reduce dysphoric affect, but not to reduce inhibitions in social relationships. However, true positives tended to use alcohol to help cope with problems in personal relationships, such as rejection. Some limitations of the study, especially in relation to recent formulations of female alcoholism by MacAndrew (1986), were discussed. PMID:3216005
Drzewiecki, Carly M; Willing, Jari; Juraska, Janice M
Adolescence is a unique period of development, marked by maturation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a region important for executive functioning. During this time, the human PFC decreases in overall volume and thickness. Likewise in adolescent rodents, losses of neurons, dendrites, dendritic spines and neurotransmitter receptors have been documented within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), sometimes with sex and layer specificity. However, changes in the number of synapses during this time have not been examined. In the present study, we stereologically quantified the number of synaptophysin-immunoreactive boutons in the male and female rat mPFC across multiple time points from the juvenile period through adulthood (postnatal days (P) 25, 35, 45, 60 and 90). In females, there was a significant decrease in synaptophysin boutons between P35 and P45, coinciding with the onset of puberty. In males, there was no significant main effect of age on synaptophysin boutons; however, in both males and females, pubertal onset was associated with significant synaptic losses. These results suggest that puberty is a critical period for synaptic pruning within the rat mPFC, potentially contributing to maturation of adolescent executive function. Synapse 70:361-368, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27103097
Maleki, Farzaneh; Hosseini Nodeh, Zahra; Rahnavard, Zahra; Arab, Masoume
Background: Since type-2 diabetes is the most common chronic disease among Iranian female adolescents, we applied theory of planned behavior to examine the effect of training to intention to preventative nutritional behaviors for type-2 diabetes among female adolescents. Methods: In this experimental study 200 (11-14 year old) girls from 8 schools of Tehran city (100 in each intervention and control group) were recruited based on cluster sampling method during two stages. For intervention gro...