The present study investigates the relationship between violent false memories and delinquent and aggressive behavior in a sample of adolescents. Two hundred eleven participants completed measures of aggressive and delinquent behavior and performed a modified version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, a false memory task for lists of associated words. Participants were presented with a list of ambiguously violent words and three lists of neutral words. For each list a free recall task was performed. Violent false memories were significantly associated with delinquent behaviors in both genders, whereas a significant correlation with aggressive behaviors was found only in males. A multilevel multiple regression showed that the prediction of delinquent behaviors was improved by entering violent false memories into the model as a further predictor, whereas no effect was found for aggressive behaviors. These findings indicate a significant association of violent false memories with delinquent behavior in adolescents. PMID:25310267
Vannucci, Manila; Nocentini, Annalaura; Chiorri, Carlo; Menesini, Ersilia
Internet gambling among adolescents is a growing phenomenon that has received little attention to date. This study examines associations between Internet gambling and the severity of gambling, substance use (SU), and delinquent behavior among 1,870 Quebec students aged 14 to 18. The results show a higher proportion of Internet-gambling (IG) students reporting problematic substance use and delinquency, compared with nongamblers (NG) and non-Internet gamblers (NIG). Furthermore, a higher proportion of at-risk and probable pathological gamblers are found among IG compared with NIG. A moderating effect (Baron & Kenny, 1986) of the gambler categories (NIG, IG) was found in the relationship between the associated problems and the severity of gambling. Among IG, the severity of delinquency and of substance use contributes to explaining gambling severity whereas, among NIG, the severity of delinquency is the only factor that significantly contributes to such an explanation. Discussion of the results is based on Jessor, Donovan, and Costa's (1991) general deviance syndrome theory. PMID:22352700
Brunelle, Natacha; Leclerc, Danielle; Cousineau, Marie-Marthe; Dufour, Magali; Gendron, Annie; Martin, Isabelle
Sensation seeking is associated with an increased propensity for delinquency, and emerging research on personality change suggests that mean levels of sensation seeking increase substantially from childhood to adolescence. The current study tested whether individual differences in the rate of change of sensation seeking predicted within-person…
Harden, K. Paige; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los comportamientos antisociales, tanto delictivos como no delictivos, han sido tratados en la literatura como un conjunto. Estos comportamientos antisociales han sido relacionados con la carencia de competencia psicosocial. Es posible que la relación entre competencia psicosocial y comportamientos [...] antisociales delictivos y no delictivos siga un efecto de escalada. Para someter a prueba esta hipótesis se diseñó un estudio de campo con 450 adolescentes, de los que 150 estaban cumpliendo una condena penal (delincuentes), 150 poseían comportamientos antisociales no delictivos y 150 pertenecían a población escolarizada normal, quienes fueron evaluados en las variables fundamentales de la competencia psicosocial. Los resultados se analizaron a partir de un MANOVA (factor población: reforma, antisocial y normativa) y evidenciaron una relación entre incompetencia social y comportamientos antisociales y delictivos, así como un efecto de escalada, es decir, el grado de conducta desviada (delictiva, antisocial no delictiva y normal) va ligado al grado de (in)competencia social. Se discuten las implicaciones de estos hallazgos para el tratamiento de los menores con comportamientos antisociales, delictivos y no delictivos. Abstract in english In the literature, antisocial populations, both with antisocial behavior and delinquent behavior are viewed as mutually interacting. The lack of psychosocial competence has been related with antisocial and delinquent behavior. Nevertheless, it has been suggested that antisocial and delinquent behavi [...] or is a consequence of different degrees of lack of social competence. In order to test this hypothesis, in a field study, 450 adolescents -150 juvenile offenders, 150 with antisocial non deviant behavior, and 150 from the normal school population- were evaluated in fundamental variables of psychosocial competence. Performed a MANOVA with the population factor (offenders, antisocial, normative), the results revealed a relationship between social incompetence and antisocial and delinquent behavior as well as an exponential increase in both parameters. The findings are discussed in terms of prevention and treatment strategies for antisocial, delinquent and non-deviant behavior in adolescents.
Ramón, Arce; Francisca, Fariña; María José, Vázquez.
Using a representative sample of low-income, primarily minority adolescents (N=647, aged 10-14 years at Wave 1), this study examined bidirectional longitudinal relations between nonresident father involvement, defined as contact and responsibility for children's care and behavior, and adolescent engagement in delinquent activities. Autoregressive…
Coley, Rebekah Levine; Medeiros, Bethany L.
Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the quality of life (QOL among delinquent adolescents. This study was a descriptive study with ex-post facto design. Using a random sampling technique 287 (consists of 144 normal and 143 delinquent adolescents were selected for the purpose of this study. The Quality of life (QOL questionnaire (WHO-QOL-BRIEF developed by WHO (1996 and standardized in Iran by Usefy (2010 was used to collect the data. Result showed that comparing to normal adolescents; delinquents had obtained fewer score on four domain of quality of life (QOL including Physical health, Psychological status, Social relationships and, Environment (p< 0.001.
SEYED MORTEZA ESHAGHI
Part II: differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers and delinquent youth: further group comparisons of developmental antecedents and behavioral challenges.
In a recent paper published in the Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers ( Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011 ). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to pornography) and behavioral difficulties (sexual aggression, arousal, pornography use, and nonsexual offenses). The present study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized adolescent sexual abusers with a group of nonsexually victimized delinquent youth. Findings included that delinquent youth had fewer behavioral and developmental problems than the comparison groups. In addition, sexually victimized sexual abusers had the highest mean scores on trauma and personality measures. Implications for research and treatment are offered. PMID:22574846
Leibowitz, George S; Burton, David L; Howard, Alan
Although delinquency is universal, few studies examined it from an Asian perspective, and even fewer considered adolescents of divorced families in Iran. The current study examined whether correlates of delinquency among western adolescents are similarly effective for predicting delinquency among adolescents from divorced families in the Mashhad city in Iran. Post-divorce parental conflict, maternal distress, economic hardship and parent-child relationship were regressed against delinquency. ...
Nooshin Sabour Esmaeili; Siti Nor Yaacob; Rumaya Juhari
This study examined attachment organization as a moderator of the link between the quality of the adolescents’ current friendships and delinquent behavior. Data were gathered from a moderately at-risk sample of 71 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse adolescents. Results revealed a moderating effect of attachment organization (as assessed by the AAI) such that strong and supportive friendships were linked to lower levels of delinquency, but only when adolescents’ attachment organizati...
Mcelhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Immele, Annalies; Smith, Felicia D.; Allen, Joseph P.
We tested 2 hypotheses derived from Moffitt's (1993) taxonomic theory of antisocial behavior, both of which are central to her explanation for the rise in delinquency during adolescence. We tested whether persistently delinquent individuals become more accepted by their peers during adolescence and whether individuals who abstain from delinquent behavior become less accepted. Participants were 4,359 adolescents from 14 communities in the PROSPER study, which assessed friendship networks and delinquency from 6th (M = 11.8 years) to 9th (M = 15.3 years) grade. We operationalized peer acceptance as number of nominations received (indegree centrality), attractiveness as a friend (adjusted indegree centrality), and network bridging potential (betweenness centrality) and tested the hypotheses with multilevel modeling. Contrary to Moffitt's hypothesis, persistently delinquent youths did not become more accepted between early and middle adolescence, and although abstainers were less accepted in early adolescence, they became more accepted over time. Results were similar for boys and girls; when differences occurred, they provided no support for Moffitt's hypotheses for boys and were opposite of her hypotheses for girls. Sensitivity analyses in which alternative strategies and additional data were used to identify persistently delinquent adolescents produced similar results. We explore the implications of these results for Moffitt's assertions that social mimicry of persistently antisocial adolescents leads to increases in delinquency and that social isolation leads to abstention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25243328
Rulison, Kelly L; Kreager, Derek A; Osgood, D Wayne
Subtle deficits or delays in the development of the central nervous system in young children are associated with problems affecting learning, behavior, and social adjustment. Less is known about the impact of such neurodevelopmental dysfunction in adolescents. This study assesses the possible association between neurodevelopmental delays and juvenile delinquency. An adolescent neurodevelopment examination was devised and administered to 54 delinquents and 51 secondary school students. Six areas were assessed. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of minor neurologic signs (P = 0.37) or in gross motor function (P = 0.02) and temporal sequential organization (P = 0.04). The greatest differences were in visual processing (P = 0.0002) and auditory-language function (P = 0.0001). Eighteen percent of delinquents and 4% of the comparison group were deficient in two or more neurodevelopmental areas. Nine percent of the delinquents and none of the comparison group had three or more dysfunctions. A neurodevelopmental examination may be a useful diagnostic tool for identifying endogenous factors in behavior, learning, and adjustment problems of this age group. Such findings have implications for the formulation of individualized management strategies. PMID:7153162
Karniski, W M; Levine, M D; Clarke, S; Palfrey, J S; Meltzer, L J
Full Text Available This study reviews several empirical researches which highlight the effect of post-divorce parental conflict as one of the most important factors on adolescents’ delinquency in divorced families. Research consistently shows that parental conflict affects parental relationship and this poor parental quality may transfer into poor parent-child relationship that may negatively influence adolescent functions and behaviors. Research showed that adolescents who are exposed to post-divorce parental conflict are at increased risk for high level of delinquency. Positive associations between parental conflict and adolescent delinquency have been accounted for by parental rejection or withdrawal, parental hostility toward adolescents, lack of parental warmth, and corporal punishment and parent-adolescent conflict.
Nooshin Sabour Esmaeili
On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish Diaspora adolescents from the FSU in Israel. The participants (15.2 years old) completed 3 annual assessments. Latent growth curve models showed that ethnic German adolescents reported higher initial levels of delinquency than native German adolescents and lower levels than the Russian Jewish adolescents. Groups did not differ in the rate of change, indicating a decrease in delinquency over time. Peer-oriented leisure related positively and parental knowledge negatively with levels and change rates in delinquency in all groups, but could not fully account for the ethnic differences in delinquency levels. School bonding was associated negatively with delinquency only among native German adolescents. Acculturation-related hassles were an additional predictor for higher levels and also associated with change rates in the immigrant groups. Thus, general theories of delinquency apply to immigrants, but may be complemented by adding acculturation-specific challenges. PMID:23586943
Titzmann, Peter F; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Mesch, Gustavo
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of violence attribution errors among female adolescent delinquents in the United States. Also of interest was to compare female delinquents’ violence attribution error rate to that of their male counterparts who were participating in the same delinquency intervention programs. A third purpose was to identify predictors (i.e., attitudes toward violence, peer victimization, self-esteem, demographic variables of violence attribution errors. Participants were 181 juvenile delinquents (28.2% female who participated in two delinquency intervention programs located in Florida during the 2005-2006 year. Findings revealed no statistically significant difference in violence attribution error rate between male (52.7% and female (46.5% juvenile delinquents. A multiple regression analysis identified six variables that predicted the violence attribution error rate. The Implications of the findings are discussed.
Vicki L Waytowich
Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) by adolescents is a significant public health concern. The present study investigated the profile of NMUPD in 1349 adolescent offenders from the Pathways to Desistance project, and whether NMUPD predicted future delinquency using longitudinal data. Results indicated that increased frequency and recency of NMUPD in adolescent offenders are related to some demographic factors, as well as increased risk for violence exposure, mental health diagnoses, other drug use, and previous delinquency, suggesting that severity of NMUPD is important to consider. However, ANCOVA analyses found that NMUPD was not a significant predictor of drug-related, non-aggressive, or aggressive delinquency 12months later beyond other known correlates of delinquency. Age, sex, exposure to violence, lower socioeconomic status, more alcohol use, and having delinquency histories were more important than NMUPD in predicting future delinquency. These findings suggest that although NMUPD is an important risk factor relating to many correlates of delinquency, it does not predict future delinquency beyond other known risk factors. PMID:25135798
Drazdowski, Tess K; Jäggi, Lena; Borre, Alicia; Kliewer, Wendy L
Full Text Available Contemporary approach in juvenile delinquency aims to identify risk factors that contributed to delinquent behavior and to focus interventions towards those risks.The aim of this paper is to explore how juvenile delinquents attribute their delinquent behavior and to explore differences in the structure of attribution regarding their risk level. High-risk delinquents are considered those who are place in an institutional treatment, who often do criminal acts, who are early-starters and whose delinquent behavior lasts longer. Research included 335 male juvenile delinquents in the Republic of Croatia within three types of sanctions: (1 probation, (2 open institution facility, (3 closed institution facility. 43,9% of juveniles were on probation (not in the institutional treatment and 56,1% of them were placed in the institutional treatment. Age range of participants was from 14 to 21 years of age (M=17,1; SD=1,858.Delinquent Behavior Attribution Scale for juvenile delinquents (Ricijaš, 2009 was used to identify the structure of attributions, and juveniles also answered some questions about their criminal behavior, contacts with police and court as well as some family circumstances questions.Results consistently show that high-risk juvenile delinquents attribute their delinquent behavior to a greater number of factors, which is in accordance with other criminological research that measured causes of delinquent behavior with other methods.
Although the well-documented association between parental divorce and adolescent delinquency is generally assumed to be environmental (i.e., causal) in origin, genetic mediation is also possible. Namely, the behavior problems often found in children of divorce could derive from similar pathology in the parents, pathology that is both heritable and…
Burt, S. Alexandra; Barnes, Ashlee R.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.
Although a social issue, juvenile delinquency still remains a very vague field. Early criminological research in the middle of the twentieth century stressed the role of parents in the upbringing of the child, while modern literature highlights the importance of the elements such as criminogenic setting and especially criminogenic peers. This doctoral thesis presents the results of SPMAD study (Study of Parental Monitoring and Adolescent Delinquency), a replication of the PADS+ study (Peterbo...
School climate is the quality and character of school life and reflects the norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and the organizational structure of a school. There is substantial literature documenting the negative association between positive school climate and adolescent delinquency, but little is known about the moderating and mediating mechanisms underlying this relationship. The aim of this study was to examine whether the direct and indirect pathways between school climate and adolescent delinquency would be moderated by effortful control. A sample of 2,758 Chinese adolescents (M age?=?13.53 years, SD?=?1.06) from 10 middle schools completed anonymous questionnaires regarding school climate, effortful control, deviant peer affiliation, and delinquency. After gender, age, geographical area, and socioeconomic status were included as covariates, the results revealed that school climate was significantly associated with adolescent delinquent behavior. This direct association was moderated by effortful control, such that the negative relationship between positive school climate and delinquency was only significant among adolescents low in effortful control. Moreover, the indirect association between school climate and delinquency via deviant peer affiliation was also moderated by effortful control. Specifically, the moderating effect of effortful control was not only manifested in the relationship between school climate and deviant peer affiliation, but also in the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and delinquency. These findings contribute to understanding the mechanisms through which positive school climate might reduce delinquent behavior and have important implications for prevention efforts aimed at diminishing adolescent delinquency. PMID:24962709
Bao, Zhenzhou; Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yanhui
Rising immigration rates to the United States have been associated with increased public sentiment against immigrant populations and fears that immigration will lead to escalations in crime and delinquency. However, surprisingly few researchers have studied delinquency among immigrant youth overall or in comparison with U.S.-born youth. Guided by…
Powell, Darci; Perreira, Krista M.; Harris, Kathleen Mullan
Objective: To examine the structure of emotions and affective dysregulation in juvenile delinquents. Method: Fifty-six juvenile delinquents from a local juvenile hall and 169 subjects from a local high school were recruited for this study. All participants completed psychometric testing for trait emotions followed by measurements of state emotions…
Plattner, Belinda; Karnik, Niranjan; Jo, Booil; Hall, Rebecca E.; Schallauer, Astrid; Carrion, Victor; Feucht, Martha; Steiner, Hans
Our aim in this study was to evaluate executive function and its relationship to delinquency and sexual crime in adolescents incarcerated for sexual crimes. Based on self-report data, 196 male adolescent sexual offenders from a Midwest state reported high rates of executive dysfunction. Although such deficits did not relate to the number of victims of sexual abuse, severity, or degree of force used in commission of the sexual crimes, poor executive function was significantly predictive of both general delinquency and felony theft. In both measures of delinquent conduct, behavioral regulation dysfunction was predictive of the frequency of commission of the crimes, whereas metacognition was not. Research and treatment implications are offered. PMID:25428928
Burton, David; Demuynck, Sophia; Yoder, Jamie R
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the relationships between parental attachment, peer attachment and delinquency among adolescents. 480 adolescents aged 13-17 were randomly selected from four secondary schools in Malaysia. The revised version of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA (Armsden & Greenberg, 1987 and the Self-report Delinquency Scale (Mak, 1993 were used in this study. The results revealed significant negative relationship between father and mother attachment with adolescents’ delinquency and significant positive relationship between peer attachments with adolescents’ delinquency. Statistically significant differences were obtained for males and females adolescents where males are more delinquent than females. Multiple regression analysis showed that gender is the strongest predictors for adolescents’ delinquency, followed by peer attachment, mother attachment and father attachment. Practical recommendation and implementation are discussed where attachment could be included as a target for implementing intervention.
Lim Jia Choon
Although the well-documented association between parental divorce and adolescent delinquency is generally assumed to be environmental (i.e., causal) in origin, genetic mediation is also possible. Namely, the behavior problems often found in children of divorce could derive from similar pathology in the parents, pathology that is both heritable and increases the risk that the parent will experience divorce. To test these alternative hypotheses, we made use of a novel design that incorporated t...
Burt, S. Alexandra; Barnes, Ashlee R.; Mcgue, Matt; Iacono, William G.
This cross-sectional study explores potential mediating effects of parental monitoring of peers on three adolescent problem behaviors (externalizing behavior, drug use, sexual risk behavior) among juvenile delinquents and their families. Participants are 190 African American and Hispanic adolescents and parent guardians enrolled in a family…
Dillon, Frank R.; Pantin, Hilda; Robbins, Michael S.; Szapocznik, Jose
Full Text Available Traumatic experiences in Serbia in the last two decades have caused significant psychological consequences in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms, exposure to aggression and delinquency proneness among high school and elementary school students in Belgrade, Serbia. The participants were 899 students (51.8% were female with no prior treatment for psychological problems, with a mean age of 16.70±1.95. All used instruments were taken from the modified Social and Health Assessment (SAHA. Our findings show that delinquent behavior or exposure to delinquency was significantly related to depressive symptoms. The strongest predictors of depression were variables concerning legal consequences, affiliation with delinquent peers, victimization by community violence and peer victimization. This study confirmed a strong correlation between depression and exposure to violence. Identifying adolescents with depressive symptoms is important for prevention of serious mental health consequences.
The purpose of this paper was to examine the following question: What is the relationship between parental interest and control over their adolescent children, and juvenile delinquency? Two hypotheses were tested: (1) fewer adolescents who report greater parental control will report engaging in delinquent behavior than adolescents who report less…
Peterson, Evan T.
Clinic and forensic studies have reported high rates of language impairments in conduct- disordered and incarcerated youth. In community samples followed to early adolescence, speech and language impairments have been linked to attention deficits and internalizing problems, rather than conduct problems, delinquency, or aggression. This study…
Brownlie, E.B.; Beitchman, Joseph H.; Escobar, Michael; Young, Arlene; Atkinson, Leslie; Johnson, Carla; Wilson, Beth; Douglas, Lori
This study examines internalizing mental health symptoms (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder) as potential intervening factors in the relationship between maltreatment and delinquency using data from the National Survey for Child and Adolescent Well-Being (N = 1,179). Significant mediating effects indicated that youth at greater risk of…
Bender, Kimberly; Postlewait, Ariana W.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Springer, David W.
Hirschi argued that delinquent youth tend to form relatively "cold and brittle" relationships with peers, depicting these youths as deficient in their attachments to others. The current analysis explores connections between delinquency and the character of adolescent romantic ties, drawing primarily on the first wave of the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, and focusing on 957 teens with dating experience. We examine multiple relationship qualities/dynamics in order to explore both the "cold" and "brittle" dimensions of Hirschi's hypothesis. Regarding the "cold" assumption, results suggest that delinquency is not related to perceived importance of the romantic relationship, level of intimate self-disclosure or feelings of romantic love, and more delinquent youth actually report more frequent contact with their romantic partners. Analyses focused on two dimensions tapping the "brittle" description indicate that while durations of a focal relationship do not differ according to level of respondent delinquency, more delinquent youths report higher levels of verbal conflict. PMID:21423845
Giordano, Peggy C; Lonardo, Robert A; Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A
Elucidating the conditions in which family strain takes effect in adolescent delinquency is one avenue along which to substantiate general strain theory. These conditions include family relationship and the type of delinquency. In the context of Chinese societies, the conditions also include the differences between socialist, collectivist Mainland…
Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Ngai, Ngan-Pun; Ngai, Steven Sek-Yum
Hirschi argued that delinquent youth tend to form relatively “cold and brittle” relationships with peers, depicting these youths as deficient in their attachments to others. The current analysis explores connections between delinquency and the character of adolescent romantic ties, drawing primarily on the first wave of the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, and focusing on 957 teens with dating experience. We examine multiple relationship qualities/dynamics in order to explore both t...
Giordano, Peggy C.; Lonardo, Robert A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.
This study was conducted to identify attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Korean juvenile delinquents. Intelligence tests (KEDI-WISC, K-WAIS), the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA), the Teacher Report Form (TRF), the Youth Self-Report (YSR), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were administered to 98 incarcerated Korean adolescents (the delinquent group) and 84 adolescent nondelinquents (the control group). The groups were compared, and significant differences were found for ADHD; 42.4% of the adolescents in the delinquent group were identified as having ADHD, in comparison to 11.9% of the adolescents in the control group. Delinquent adolescents and adolescents with ADHD were found to have lower IQ scores, poorer TOVA performance, more severe problem behaviors, and lower self-esteem than nondelinquent adolescents and adolescents without ADHD. Delinquent adolescents with ADHD consistently fared the worst on assessments of intelligence, TOVA performance, problem behaviors, and self-esteem. PMID:11928878
Chae, P K; Jung, H O; Noh, K S
Most studies that have found associations between delinquency and moral judgment generally compare incarcerated juveniles with adolescents in normal schooling. However, this comparison is subject to two criticisms. First, a large number of adolescents in school who are not charged with any crime in the legal system are still involved in unlawful behaviour. Second, adolescents involved with delinquency often have difficulties at school. The aim of the present study was to measure this association by matching a sample of adolescents involved with delinquency (n=18, M age=15.8, SD=1.1) to adolescents not involved in delinquency (n=42, M age=15.8, SD=0.8) according to their school grade and Conduct Disorder Intensity as measured by a self-report index using DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Participants who met four or more criteria were assigned to the High Conduct Disorder group (n=28), and the rest were assigned to the Low Conduct Disorder group (n=32). Their level of moral judgment was evaluated with the French version of the Sociomoral Reflection Measure-Short Form by Gibbs, Basinger, and Fuller, inspired by Kohlberg's model of moral development. Findings demonstrate that in both samples, adolescents in the High Conduct Disorder group presented moral judgment that was significantly less mature than that of adolescents in the Low Conduct Disorder group. However, the majority of participants in the Low Conduct Disorder group also scored low on the Sociomoral Reflection Measure-Short Form, suggesting more immature moral judgment. The bias introduced by the mode of recruitment in most comparisons of adolescents involved with delinquency to adolescents with no delinquency problems is discussed, and an argument is made for the importance of analysing moral judgment development within a framework of general cognitive development. PMID:17958130
This study examined the prevalence of and associations between specific psychiatric disorders, substance use problems, and trauma exposure in a sample of delinquent and nondelinquent adolescents. A nationally representative sample of adolescents ("n" = 3,614; "M" age = 14.5 years, "SD" = 1.7; 51% male; 71% White,…
Adams, Zachary W.; McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Sawyer, Genelle K.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.
The purpose of the current study was to test the ability of adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD to reliably self-report delinquency history. Data were examined from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a follow-up study of children diagnosed with ADHD between 1987 and 1996. Self-report of lifetime delinquency history was compared to concurrent parent-report and to self-report one year later. Participants included 313 male probands and 209 demographically similar compari...
Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Babinski, Dara E.; Biswas, Aparajita
This study investigates community-level prediction of adolescent substance use and problem behaviors using ratings by community leaders to assess the effects of four risk factors on levels of drug use and problem behaviors. Three questions are examined: (a) Can psychometrically sound measures of community leader perceptions of risk factors in…
Van Horn, M. Lee; Hawkins, J. David; Arthur, Michael W.; Catalano, Richard F.
Based on resilience and feminist criminological theories, several individual, family, and community characteristics were hypothesized to predict late-adolescent delinquency for girls varying in early-adolescent risk. Girls aged 12 and 13 were interviewed each year as part of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Predictors of…
Stevens, Tia; Morash, Merry; Park, Suyeon
Prospective longitudinal data from over 14,000 youth residing in 28 communities in the rural U.S. were analyzed to examine the emergence of mixed-sex friendship groups in early adolescence. Youth were surveyed on five occasions between fall of 6th grade and spring of 9th grade. At each assessment, youth reported the names of up to seven same-grade friends and described patterns of alcohol use, cigarette use and delinquency. Approximately 800 – 900 friendship groups (Mean = 10.5 members) were identified at each assessment and categorized in terms of gender composition (all-girl, mostly-girl, mixed-sex, mostly-boy, all-boy). The proportion of groups categorized as mixed-sex increased with grade level (10% in 6th grade, 22% in 9th grade), but gender-homogenous groups predominated at all grade levels (76% in 6th grade, 51% in 9th grade). Mixed-sex groups were slightly larger than all-girl groups but the same size as all-boy groups. All-girl groups had the highest levels of tightknittedness (i.e., density, reciprocity and transitivity), with mixed-sex groups having the lowest levels and all-boy groups having intermediate levels. After controlling for demographic factors, future mixed-sex group membership was predicted by lower popularity, higher levels of delinquency and lower levels of alcohol use; and mixed-sex friendship group membership was associated with increased likelihood of cigarette use. Results are partially consistent with Dunphy’s classic account of the emergence of mixed-sex groups in adolescence, but suggest that in early adolescence, mixed-sex group affiliation is significantly associated with deviant behavior and peripheral social status, not with popularity. PMID:25221839
Molloy, Lauren E.; Gest, Scott D.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Osgood, D. Wayne
The aim of this study was to gain greater insight into the relationship of delinquency to personality and social competence in incarcerated girls. It was hypothesized that agreeableness and conscientiousness would correlate negatively with delinquency, and that the sensation-seeking aspect of extroversion would correlate positively.
Laak, J. J. F. Ter; Goede, M. P. M.; Aleva, A. E.; Brugman, G. M. M.; Leuven, M.; Hussman, J.
This study examined factors that could moderate or compensate the link between exposure to deviant friends and delinquent behaviours in a sample of 265 early adolescents. The putative moderating or compensatory factors referred to the behavioural domain (i.e. novelty seeking, harm avoidance), the biological domain (i.e. physical maturation), the…
Fergusson, David M.; Vitaro, Frank; Wanner, Brigitte; Brendgen, Mara
This study found that lack of involvement in prosocial institutions, affiliation with other troubled youth, and indifference regarding personal safety partially mediate the relationship between depression and delinquency among justice-involved female adolescents. The results suggest that depression may not be the primary conduit to delinquency.…
Mellin, Elizabeth A.; Fang, Hong-Ning
In this article, we review the risk and protective factors for adolescent smoking, as well as current research on evidence-based practices. The relevance of structured expressive therapy in meeting the maturational and emotional needs of at-risk and delinquent adolescents, and the multicultural context of adolescents in Singapore's Asian society…
Kit, Phey Ling; Teo, Lan
The purpose of this study is to determine whether the parenting styles and life satisfaction predict delinquent behaviors frequently or not. Firstly the data were collected from 471 girls and 410 boys, a total of 881 high school students. Then the research was carried out with 502 students showing low (n = 262, 52.2%) and high level of delinquent…
Onder, Fulya Cenkseven; Yilmaz, Yasin
This study examined the co-occurrence of depression and delinquency in early adolescents, focusing on longitudinal associations with failure expectations and manipulativeness, and on perceptions of relationships with parents, school and teachers, and peers. Data were used from 1,059 Swedish adolescents aged 13 to 15, who participated in 2 waves…
Overbeek, Geertjan; Biesecker, Gretchen; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Hakan; Meeus, Wim; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
The present study was aimed at determining the family factors related to juvenile delinquency and identifying the effect of family violence, family functioning, parental partner dynamics, and adolescents' personality on delinquent behavior among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-reporting…
Kim, Hyun-Sil; Kim, Hun-Soo
Full Text Available Using a nationally representative data of rural adolescent boys and girls in 10th grade through 12th grade, this study explored the mediating effects of self-esteem and delinquency on the educational achievement of rural adolescents. Structural equation modeling analyses reveal that the combination of self-esteem and delinquency completely mediates the influence of family social capital on educational achievement. The findings of the models make a compelling case that the impact of family processes on educational achievement is indirect rather than direct.
Omolola Abiola Adedokun
This study examined adolescent attachment organization as a predictor of the development of social skills and delinquent behavior during midadolescence. Delinquent activity and skill levels were assessed for 117 moderately at-risk adolescents at ages 16 and 18, and maternal and adolescent attachment organization and autonomy in interactions were assessed at age 16. Adolescent attachment security predicted relative increases in social skills from age 16 to 18, whereas an insecure–preoccupied...
Allen, Joseph P.; Marsh, Penny; Mcfarland, Christy; Mcelhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Land, Deborah J.; Jodl, Kathleen M.; Peck, Sheryl
This paper describes a community-based approach to delinquency prevention utilizing indigenous nonprofessionals as behavior change agents. Adult residents in two Model Cities communities served as "buddies" of youth referred for behavior and academic problems. The principles and techniques of behavior modification were used in the training of…
Fo, Walter S. O.; O'Donnell, Clifford R.
Although substance abuse often accompanies delinquency and other forms of antisocial behavior, there is less scholarly agreement about the timing of substance use vis-à-vis an individual's antisocial trajectory. Similarly, although there is extraordinary evidence that onset is inversely related to the severity of the criminal career, there is surprisingly little research on the offense type of onset or the type of antisocial behavior that was displayed when an individual initiated his or her offending career. Drawing on data from a sample of serious adult criminal offenders (N = 500), the current study examined 12 forms of juvenile delinquency (murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, auto theft, arson, weapons, sexual offense, drug sales, and drug use) in addition to age at arrest onset, age, sex, race to explore their association with chronicity (total arrests), extreme chronicity (1 SD above the mean which was equivalent to 90 career arrests), and lambda (offending per year). The only onset offense type that was significantly associated with all criminal career outcomes was juvenile drug use. Additional research on the offense type of delinquent onset is needed to understand launching points of serious antisocial careers. PMID:24071557
DeLisi, Matt; Angton, Alexia; Behnken, Monic P; Kusow, Abdi M
This paper examines the interaction between social control and social risk mechanisms and genes within the dopaminergic system (DAT1 and DRD2) as related to serious and violent forms of delinquent behavior among adolescents and young adults. We use nine waves of data from the National Youth Survey Family Study to examine the relevance of protective or risky social factors at four social levels including school, neighborhood, friends, and family within the gene-environment interaction framework. We extend previous work in this area by providing a testable typology of gene-environment interactions derived from current theories in this area. We find consistent evidence that the associations between putatively risky genotypes and delinquent behavior are suppressed within protective social environments. We also provide some evidence that supports the differential susceptibility hypothesis for these outcomes. Our findings largely confirm the conclusions of previous work and continue to highlight the critical role of the social environment within candidate gene studies of complex behaviors. PMID:25419014
Boardman, Jason D; Menard, Scott; Roettger, Michael E; Knight, Kelly E; Boutwell, Brian B; Smolen, Andrew
The present study was designed to examine the effects of school engagement on risky behavior in adolescence. Using data from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development (PYD), a longitudinal study of U.S. adolescents, discrete-time survival analyses were conducted to assess the effect of behavioral and emotional school engagement on the initiation…
Li, Yibing; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Jianjun; Arbeit, Miriam R.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Bowers, Edmond P.; Lerner, Richard M.
The associations among suicidal behavior, negative affect, and delinquency were assessed via an anonymous self-report survey administered to male and female college students ( N = 383). Contrary to our hypothesized results, there were no gender differences in rates of suicidal ideation and attempts. Confirming our hypotheses about gender…
Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Arata, Catalina; Bowers, David; O'Brien, Natalie; Morgan, Allen
We report the results of a parallel-process, latent growth model analysis examining the relationships between cocaine use and delinquent behavior among youths. The study examined a sample of 278 justice-involved juveniles completing at least one of three follow-up interviews as part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded study. The results…
Dembo, Richard; Sullivan, Christopher
The authors examined co-occurrence among a wide range of adolescent problem behaviors: alcohol, smoking, marijuana, hard drugs, sexual activity, major and minor delinquency, direct and indirect aggression, and gambling. Using a large self-report survey of high school students, confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the problem syndrome…
Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Busseri, Michael A.
A total of 726 youths presenting a severe addiction were evaluated at the time of their request for services in an addiction rehabilitation center. Results show that the more delinquent youths have a more severe profile of substance use, thus confirming the strong association between psychoactive substance (PAS) use severity and delinquency. Girls…
Brunelle, Natacha; Tremblay, Joël; Blanchette-Martin, Nadine; Gendron, Annie; Tessier, Mélanie
Using longitudinal data from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development, the authors assessed 1,977 adolescents across Grades 5 to 8 to determine if there were distinctive developmental paths for behavioral and emotional school engagement; if these paths varied in relation to sex, race/ethnicity, and family socioeconomic status (SES); and whether…
Li, Yibing; Lerner, Richard M.
Full Text Available Previous research suggests that social environmental and individual-level factors influence adolescent development and behavior over time. However, little attention has been devoted to examining how risk factors (i.e., parental support, peer delinquency, self-control affect trajectories of criminal behavior among female adolescents. Utilizing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 5138 females and latent class analysis, three offending trajectories among females from late adolescence to early adulthood were identified: late escalators, late de-escalators, and stable low/abstainers. Next, the influence of social environmental and individual-level factors during adolescence (Wave 1 on these trajectories was assessed. Results identified key differences in the risk factors related to group placement. The implications of the findings for prevention and treatment services targeting adolescent females, and directions for future research, are discussed.
Julie M. Krupa
Full Text Available ... hand corner of the player. Maternal Depression and Adolescent Behavior HealthDay December 22, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages ... depression, how does it impact her child in adolescence? A new study published in the journal Pediatrics ...
Full Text Available ... corner of the player. Maternal Depression and Adolescent Behavior HealthDay December 22, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Depression ... maternal depression on a teenager’s engagement in risky behaviors. The researchers included more than 2,900 mother- ...
Engagement in school is crucial for academic success and school completion. Surprisingly little research has focused on the relationship between student engagement and delinquency. This study examines whether engagement predicts subsequent school and general misconduct among 4,890 inner-city Chicago elementary school students (mean age: 11 years…
Hirschfield, Paul J.; Gasper, Joseph
The primary purpose of this study was to compare the risk and protective factors for delinquent behaviors among American Indian youth in three distinct tribal communities. Focus group discussions were used to gather data from elders, parents, youth workers, and youth in each tribal community. Findings showed that the key source for increasing risk…
Mmari, Kristin N.; Blum, Robert Wm.; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette
Objective: To compare delinquent behavior and early substance use between the children in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA; N = 487) and those in a local normative comparison group (n = 272) at 24 and 36 months postrandomization and to test whether these outcomes were predicted by the randomly assigned treatments and…
Molina, Brooke S. G.; Flory, Kate; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James M.; Hechtman, Lily; Jensen, Peter S.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hoza, Betsy; Pelham, William E.; Elliott, Glen R.; Wells, Karen C.; Abikoff, Howard B.; Gibbons, Robert D.; Marcus, Sue; Conners, C. Keith; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; March, John S.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Severe, Joanne B.; Wigal, Timothy
Using a longitudinal sample of Puerto Rican adolescents living in the Bronx, New York, this study examines the predictors of exposure to violence within gender. Results from a series of negative binomial regressions suggested (a) sensation seeking, peer delinquency, coercive discipline, and initial delinquency increased the likelihood of exposure to violence for both males and females at multiple time points and (b) initial delinquency was the only consistent predictor of exposure to violence at all time points. Regarding the role of gender, the results indicated that some risk factors were similar across genders (e.g., sensation seeking, coercive discipline, peer delinquency, and delinquent behavior), whereas other risk factors differed across gender (e.g., age and welfare among males and school environment for females). Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:23914125
Reingle, Jennifer M; Jennings, Wesley G; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M; Piquero, Alex R; Canino, Glorisa
This study examines an emotion-based theory of the conscience, which provides forensic practitioners tools for assessing the state of the conscience. It is operationalized as an emotion-regulating function, making use of empathy, self-conscious emotions, such as shame, pride or guilt, and moral judgment. This was put to test in a questionnaire survey with 59 delinquent and 275 non-delinquent juveniles. As was hypothesized, the functioning of the conscience of these groups differed, with offenders having lower levels of some aspects of empathic capacity, being less prone to experiencing shame and guilt, being more prone to experiencing pride, and being more punishment oriented than victim oriented. The research confirmed that operationalization of the conscience in terms of empathy, self-conscious emotions, and moral orientation is feasible. PMID:25488941
Schalkwijk, Frans; Stams, Geert Jan; Stegge, Hedy; Dekker, Jack; Peen, Jaap
A large literature suggests associations between self-regulation and motivation and adolescent problem behavior; however, this research has mostly pitted these constructs against one another or tested them in isolation. Following recent neural-systems based theories (e.g., Ernst & Fudge, 2009 ), the present study investigated the interactions between self-regulation and approach and avoidance motivation prospectively predicting delinquency and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. The community sample included 387 adolescents aged 11 to 13 years old (55% female; 17% minority). Laboratory tasks were used to assess self-regulation and approach and avoidance motivation, and adolescent self-reports were used to measure depressive symptoms and delinquency. Analyses suggested that low levels of approach motivation were associated with high levels of depressive symptoms, but only at high levels of self-regulation (p = .01). High levels of approach were associated with high levels of rule breaking, but only at low levels of self-regulation (p < .05). These findings support contemporary neural-based systems theories that posit integration of motivational and self-regulatory individual differences via moderational models to understand adolescent problem behavior. PMID:23477426
Rhodes, Jessica D; Colder, Craig R; Trucco, Elisa M; Speidel, Carolyn; Hawk, Larry W; Lengua, Liliana J; Das Eiden, Rina; Wieczorek, William
Full Text Available ... Maternal Depression and Adolescent Behavior HealthDay December 22, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Depression Parenting Teen Health Transcript ... 11, they completed their own confidential surveys. The results showed that exposure to maternal depression, particularly when ...
Variáveis familiares preditoras do comportamento anti-social em adolescentes autores de atos infracionais Family variables that predict antisocial behavior in adolescents who committed criminal transgressions
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar variáveis individuais e familiares preditoras do comportamento anti-social. Os participantes foram 148 adolescentes, autores de atos infracionais, e 163 adolescentes não-infratores. Os adolescentes responderam individualmente a uma entrevista estruturada, que investigou estratégias educativas parentais, variáveis familiares e aspectos relacionados ao desenvolvimento do comportamento infrator. Uma análise de conteúdo das respostas permitiu a delimitação das principais práticas educativas relatadas pelos jovens. Uma análise de regressão indicou que o comportamento anti-social de familiares, o número de irmãos, o uso de drogas pelo adolescente, os conflitos na família e as práticas educativas parentais explicaram 53% da variância do comportamento infrator. Os resultados apontaram a importância da família no desenvolvimento da conduta infratora.The aim of the present study was to investigate individual and family variables that might predict delinquent behavior. The participants were 148 adolescents, institutionalized for committing criminal transgressions, and 163 adolescents who did not commit criminal transgressions. The participants were interviewed about parental practices, family variables, and other factors related to the development of the delinquent behavior. A content analysis of the answers allowed the delimitation of the main educational practices identified by the adolescents. Regression analysis showed that antisocial behavior of family members, number of siblings, drug use, conflicts within the family, and parental educational practices explained 53% of the variance of delinquent behavior. These results pointed to the importance of the family in the development of the delinquent behavior.
Janaína Thaís Barbosa Pacheco
The present study examined the relationship between Berry’s acculturation typology and HIV risk behaviors and whether family functioning mediated any such effects. A total of 235 high risk Hispanic adolescents were categorized into one of Berry’s four acculturation typologies through the use of cut-off scores on measures of Hispanicism and Americanism. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors and the indirect effects of a...
Farrelly, Colleen; Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Estrada, Yannine; Prado, Guillermo
Self-reported dietary caffeine and alcohol consumption were examined in relation to anger and violent behavior in Icelandic tenth-graders. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to investigate direct and indirect effects of measured and latent variables in the population sample of 3,670, controlling for parental financial standing, family structure, ADHD, and peer delinquency. Gender differences were observed that have not been reported previously, especially in relation to anger as a possible mediator of violent behavior against a background of caffeine and alcohol consumption. Study findings suggest the need to take account of caffeine consumption in relation to adolescent anger and violence. PMID:25412411
James, Jack E; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
This study examined how multiple dimensions and levels of the community context associated with early adolescent problem behaviors in rural communities. Four thousand, five hundred and nine eighth-grade students in 28 rural and small town school districts in two states participated in surveys regarding substance use and delinquency in 2005. Locations of alcohol retailers, tobacco retailers, youth-serving organizations, and student residences were geocoded. Associations of the number of proxim...
Chilenski, Sarah M.
Rates of STIs, HIV, and pregnancy remain high among adolescents in the US, and recent approaches to reducing sexual risk have shown limited success. Future expectations, or the extent to which one expects an event to actually occur, may influence sexual risk behavior. This prospective study uses longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (n = 3,205 adolescents; 49.8 % female) to examine the impact of previously derived latent classes of future expectations on sexual risk behavior. Cox regression and latent growth models were used to determine the effect of future expectations on age at first biological child, number of sexual partners, and inconsistent contraception use. The results indicate that classes of future expectations were uniquely associated with each outcome. The latent class reporting expectations of drinking and being arrested was consistently associated with the greatest risks of engaging in sexual risk behavior compared with the referent class, which reported expectations of attending school and little engagement in delinquent behaviors. The class reporting expectations of attending school and drinking was associated with having greater numbers of sexual partners and inconsistent contraception use but not with age at first biological child. The third class, defined by expectations of victimization, was not associated with any outcome in adjusted models, despite being associated with being younger at the birth of their first child in the unadjusted analysis. Gender moderated specific associations between latent classes and sexual risk outcomes. Future expectations, conceptualized as a multidimensional construct, may have a unique ability to explain sexual risk behaviors over time. Future strategies should target multiple expectations and use multiple levels of influence to improve individual future expectations prior to high school and throughout the adolescent period. PMID:24357042
Sipsma, Heather L; Ickovics, Jeannette R; Lin, Haiqun; Kershaw, Trace S
Recent research in the field of educational psychology points to the salience of self-control in accounting for the variance in students' report card grades. At the same time, a novel empirical study from molecular genetics drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data has revealed that polymorphisms in three dopaminergic genes (dopamine transporter [DAT1], dopamine D2 receptor [DRD2], and dopamine D4 receptor [DRD4]) are also linked to adolescents' grade point averages (GPAs). Juxtaposing these two lines of research, the current study reanalyzed the Add Health genetic subsample to assess the relative effects of these dopaminergic genes and self-control on GPAs. The results showed that the effects of the latter were far stronger than those of the former. The interaction effects between the dopaminergic genes and a set of environmental factors on academic performance were also examined, producing findings that are aligned with the "social push hypothesis" in behavioral genetics. Finally, based on the criminological literature on the link between academic performance and delinquency, we tested whether dopaminergic effects on violent delinquency were mediated by GPAs. The results demonstrated that academic performance fully mediated the linkage between these genes and violent delinquency. PMID:25326467
Yun, Ilhong; Lee, Julak; Kim, Seung-Gon
Full Text Available Social workers, psychologists and psychopharmacologists have devoted little attention to study the direct relationship between drugs and adolescents’ aggression. The main objective of this study was therefore to determine the extent of the level of aggressive behavior among adolescents who underwent rehabilitation of drug abuse. This study also sought to find out the relationship between type of drugs used with aggressive behavior among adolescents. Respondents were 200 adolescents from three juvenile Henry Gurney schools in Malaysia who took part in this exploratory cross-sectional survey research design. A set of questionnaire was constructed by the researcher based on the Aggression Questionnaires (AQ scale. Results showed that the majority of adolescents (95 percent indicated an aggressive behavior of moderate to high level. The result of the study also found that adolescents who have been using heroin (r = 0.016, p <0.05 and morphine drugs (r = 0.181, p <0.05 showed significant correlation with aggressive behavior. The findings provided evidence for the significant role of the goverment to enhance rehabilitation modules for adolescents involved in drug abuse. Education on how to effectively deal with aggressive behavior among adolescents at risk should be emphasized for building positive behavior among adolescents in order to produce potential young generation in the future.
Full Text Available Samantha Goldfarb, Will L Tarver, Bisakha Sen Department of Health Care Organization and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Background: Previous literature has asserted that family meals are a key protective factor for certain adolescent risk behaviors. It is suggested that the frequency of eating with the family is associated with better psychological well-being and a lower risk of substance use and delinquency. However, it is unclear whether there is evidence of causal links between family meals and adolescent health-risk behaviors. Purpose: The purpose of this article is to review the empirical literature on family meals and adolescent health behaviors and outcomes in the US. Data sources: A search was conducted in four academic databases: Social Sciences Full Text, Sociological Abstracts, PsycINFO®, and PubMed/MEDLINE. Study selection: We included studies that quantitatively estimated the relationship between family meals and health-risk behaviors. Data extraction: Data were extracted on study sample, study design, family meal measurement, outcomes, empirical methods, findings, and major issues. Data synthesis: Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria for the review that measured the relationship between frequent family meals and various risk-behavior outcomes. The outcomes considered by most studies were alcohol use (n=10, tobacco use (n=9, and marijuana use (n=6. Other outcomes included sexual activity (n=2; depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts (n=4; violence and delinquency (n=4; school-related issues (n=2; and well-being (n=5. The associations between family meals and the outcomes of interest were most likely to be statistically significant in unadjusted models or models controlling for basic family characteristics. Associations were less likely to be statistically significant when other measures of family connectedness were included. Relatively few analyses used sophisticated empirical techniques available to control for confounders in secondary data. Conclusion: More research is required to establish whether or not the relationship between family dinners and risky adolescent behaviors is an artifact of underlying confounders. We recommend that researchers make more frequent use of sophisticated methods to reduce the problem of confounders in secondary data, and that the scope of adolescent problem behaviors also be further widened. Keywords: family meals, adolescents, risk behaviors, review, study design, confounders
The role of deviant peers in adolescent antisocial behavior has been well documented, but less is known about individual differences in susceptibility to negative peer influence. This study examined whether specific temperament dimensions moderate the prospective relationship between peer deviance and delinquent behavior in early adolescence.…
Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have suggested impairment in facial expression recognition in delinquents, but controversy remains with respect to how such recognition is impaired. To address this issue, we investigated facial expression recognition in delinquents in detail. Methods We tested 24 male adolescent/young adult delinquents incarcerated in correctional facilities. We compared their performances with those of 24 age- and gender-matched control participants. Using standard photographs of facial expressions illustrating six basic emotions, participants matched each emotional facial expression with an appropriate verbal label. Results Delinquents were less accurate in the recognition of facial expressions that conveyed disgust than were control participants. The delinquents misrecognized the facial expressions of disgust as anger more frequently than did controls. Conclusion These results suggest that one of the underpinnings of delinquency might be impaired recognition of emotional facial expressions, with a specific bias toward interpreting disgusted expressions as hostile angry expressions.
Externalizing problem behavior is a robust predictor of early adolescent substance use (SU); however, findings regarding internalizing problems have been mixed, suggesting that there may be important moderators of the relationship between internalizing problems and SU. The present study used a community sample (mean age was 12.1 at the first assessment, 55% women, 83% White) to test a longitudinal latent variable interaction structural equation model to examine whether externalizing problems moderated the relationship between internalizing problems and SU. Peer delinquency was tested as a mediator in the model and prior levels of the mediator and outcome were controlled at each wave to establish temporal precedence. Results suggested that (1) internalizing problems were protective against associating with deviant peers, but only at high levels of externalizing symptomatology, (2) higher levels of peer delinquency were associated with increases in SU, and (3) peer delinquency mediated the effect of the problem behavior interaction on SU. Our findings suggest that the impact of internalizing problems on peer delinquency and SU needs to be considered in the context of externalizing problems. Moreover, developmental models involving internalizing symptoms should consider that internalizing symptoms are generally protective against substance use in early adolescence. PMID:25134030
Scalco, Matthew D; Colder, Craig R; Hawk, Larry W; Read, Jennifer P; Wieczorek, William F; Lengua, Liliana J
The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of health risk behaviors of adolescents. A cross-sectional and descriptive design was used. A convenience sample of 436 undergraduate students was recruited from departments and faculties of Atatürk University. The researcher visited university departments 5 working days each week to conduct interviews with the students. The students were asked to complete a questionnaire in their classrooms. The data analysis used multivariate testing to identify predictors of health risk behaviors. The mean score on the health risk behavior scale indicated that the participants sometimes engaged in risky behaviors concerning diet, anger, stress, and disease prevention. The adolescents frequently engaged in risky behavior concerning medical compliance and beliefs about masculinity. Demographically, age, gender, income, and education level of demographic characteristics of the adolescents and, in terms of health status, health behaviors and the experience of a serious disease were significant predictors of adolescent health risk behaviors. In this study, some demographic characteristics were predictors for health risk behaviors, in general, of adolescents. PMID:24722616
Saritas, Seyhan C; Erci, Behice
Although the co-occurrence between adolescent depression and delinquency has been well-studied, the nature of the longitudinal associations is not yet clear. To clarify this we examined whether personality type is a moderator in the longitudinal co-occurrence of depression and delinquency. A total of 338 young and middle adolescents completed questionnaires about depression, delinquency and personality in 3 yearly waves of the CONflict And Management Of RElationships (CONAMORE)...
Akse, J.; Hale, W. W.; Engels, R.; Raaijmakers, Q.; Meeus, W. H. J.
Full Text Available ... captioning, click the CC button on the lower right-hand corner of the player. Maternal Depression and Adolescent ... a mother suffers from depression, how does it impact her child in adolescence? A new study published in the ...
The incidence of reading disabilities in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been found at a higher proportion than would be expected by chance. This study explored the relationship between reading problems-comprehension and phonological awareness, and externalizing behaviors-hyperactivity (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). One hundred boys from Central Texas area alternative education schools between the ages of 11 and 15 were grouped by categories: ADHD-Combined Type (ADHD:C), ODD only, a combination of ADHD:C and ODD, and children without either ADHD or ODD. Results indicated that there were no significant differences among the four groups in terms of reading skills. However, findings suggest a significant negative linear relationship between hyperactivity and reading skills. Application of these findings is discussed. PMID:16083398
Palacios, Elizabeth Diane; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret
There is a large body of research that shows children from non-intact homes show higher rates of juvenile delinquency than children from intact homes, partially due to weaker parental control and supervision in non-intact homes. What has not been adequately addressed in the research is the influence of changes in family structure among individual adolescents over time on delinquent offending. Using the first and third waves of the National Youth Study, we assess the effect of family structure changes on changes in delinquent offending between waves through the intermediate process of changes in family time and parental attachment. Although prior research has documented adolescents in broken homes are more delinquent than youth in intact homes, the process of family dissolution is not associated with concurrent increases in offending. In contrast, family formation through marriage or cohabitation is associated with simultaneous increases in offending. Changes in family time and parental attachment account for a portion of the family formation effect on delinquency, and prior parental attachment and juvenile offending significantly condition the effect of family formation on offending. PMID:20879178
Schroeder, Ryan D; Osgood, Aurea K; Oghia, Michael J
Prosocial behavior is an important aspect of normal social and psychological development. Adult and child twin studies typically estimate the heritability of prosocial behavior to be between 30 and 50%, although relatively little is known about genetic and environmental influences upon prosocial behavior in adolescence. We therefore examined…
Gregory, Alice M.; Light-Hausermann, Jade H.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Eley, Thalia C.
Prosocial behaviors, actions intended to help others, may serve a protective function against association with deviant peers and subsequent delinquent and antisocial behaviors. The present study examined the relations among specific types of prosocial behaviors, deviant peer affiliation, and delinquent and aggressive behaviors. Six hundred and sixty-six adolescents (46% girls; M age = 15.33, SD = .47) from Valencia, Spain completed questionnaires of prosocial behaviors, affiliation with deviant peers, antisocial behaviors, and aggression. Results showed that antisocial behaviors were negatively related only to specific forms of prosocial behaviors. Further analyses showed that deviant peer affiliation mediated the relations between compliant prosocial behavior and delinquency and aggression. Although altruism was not directly related to delinquency and aggression, it was indirectly linked to the behaviors via deviant peer affiliation. Discussion focuses on the relevance of specific forms of prosocial behaviors to antisocial behaviors and the risk of deviant peers for prosocial youth. PMID:24793382
Carlo, Gustavo; Mestre, Maria Vicenta; McGinley, Meredith M; Tur-Porcar, Ana; Samper, Paula; Opal, Deanna
Full Text Available ... suffers from depression, how does it impact her child in adolescence? A new study published in the ... The researchers included more than 2,900 mother-child pairs, tracking their general health and social environment ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background This longitudinal study examined psychosocial factors associated with risky sexual behavior in early adolescence. Methods Data were collected through a self-report survey, the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA, which was administered in three waves between 2001 and 2003 to a cohort of incoming sixth grade students in the public school system (149 classes at 17 middle and high schools, N = 1,175 of a small northeastern city in the United States. We first examined whether internalizing and externalizing problems in sixth grade, and the rate of change in these factors during middle school, were predictive of sexual initiation two years later, when most of the sample was in eighth grade. We then assessed whether internalizing and externalizing problems in sixth grade, and the rate of change in these factors during middle school, were predictive of engaging in high risk sexual behavior over the subsequent two years. Results Externalizing factors are more predictive of sexual risk in early adolescence than are internalizing factors. Specifically, substance use and violent delinquency over the course of middle school were associated with higher, while anxiety with lower, sexual initiation rates during middle school. Additionally, increased substance use over the course of middle school was associated with greater likelihood of engaging in high risk sexual behavior. Conclusion By identifying particular psychosocial risk factors among young adolescents, the findings of this study have implications for designing multi-dimensional programs aimed at preventing health-compromising sexual behavior among young teens.
Full Text Available Objective: Suicide is a complex phenomenon associated with pyschological, biological and social factors. Suicide has been reported as the second or third most common cause of death in children and adolescents worldwide. Suicidal behaviour in children and adolescents will be discussed in the frame of motivational definition. Method: Published research studies and reviews on children and adolescent suicides have been reviewed. Furthermore, classical papers have been searched to obtain knowledge about suicide behavior. Results: It is reported that firearms have been the most important effect in adolescent suicide. Both fatal and nonfatal suicidal behaviors have been linked consistently to negative parent-child relationships, depression, substance use, overall number of life stressors, gender and impulsive behaviors. Discussion: Future efforts to investigate suicidal behavior should use new research methodologies that may lead to identification of the interactions between environmental factors and constitutional and biological factors that are associated with risk for suicidal behavior. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(2.000: 88-97
Full Text Available ... in adolescence? A new study published in the journal Pediatrics investigates the effect of maternal depression on ... Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...
Studied the relationship between self-esteem and delinquency using latent growth curve modeling. Analyses of panel data for 2,213 adolescent boys from the Youth in Transition Study supported Kaplan's self-derogation theory of delinquency (H. Kaplan, 1978) by showing that delinquency was positively associated with growth in self-esteem among…
Mason, W. Alex
Predictors of adolescent gambling behavior were examined in a sample of 436 males and females (ages 13-16). A biopsychosocial model was used to identify key variables that differentiate between non-gambling and gambling adolescents. Logistic regression found that, as compared to adolescent male non-gamblers, adolescent male gamblers were older,…
Casey, David M.; Williams, Robert J.; Mossiere, Annik M.; Schopflocher, Donald P.; el-Guebaly, Nady; Hodgins, David C.; Smith, Garry J.; Wood, Robert T.
Full Text Available The principles of the Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy point out to the role of irrational beliefs in the occurrence of aggressive and antisocial behavior. The goal of this research is to determine whether there are links between irrational beliefs and self-assessment of antisocial behavior and whether there are differences with respect to irrational beliefs between the young who were sentenced by juvenile court judges compared to the control group. The research was conducted on two subsamples - the first consisted of male adolescents (N=116, aged 16 to 19, and the second comprised male adolescents 50 out of whom were sentenced by juvenile court judges, aged averagely 17 and a half, and 50 members of the control group. The modified version of the General Attitude and Belief Scale (GABS (Mari?, 2002, 2003 and Antisocial Behavior Scale (ABS (Opa?i?, 2010, in print were used. Multiple regression analysis showed that the best predictor of the score on antisocial behavior scale was “the demand for absolute correctness of others and their devaluation”, followed by the aspiration towards perfectionism and success which acts as the factor that reduces the probability of antisocial behavior. Almost identical results were obtained by group comparison. The obtained results provide guidelines for designing preventive programs (sketched in the discussion that would be able to reduce the frequency of aggressive and antisocial behavior at adolescent age.
Using a large contemporary data set (the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement), the authors examined the effects of parental work schedules on adolescent risky behaviors at age 13 or 14 and the mechanisms that might explain them. Structural equation modeling suggests mothers who worked more often at night spent significantly less…
Han, Wen-Jui; Miller, Daniel P.; Waldfogel, Jane
Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…
Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran
This study examined how multiple dimensions and levels of the community context associated with early adolescent problem behaviors in rural communities. Four thousand, five hundred and nine eighth-grade students in 28 rural and small town school districts in two states participated in surveys regarding substance use and delinquency in 2005. Locations of alcohol retailers, tobacco retailers, youth-serving organizations, and student residences were geocoded. Associations of the number of proximal alcohol and tobacco retailers, and youth-serving organizations with an early-adolescent problem behavior index were tested in Nonlinear Mixed Models that controlled for multiple district-level and individual characteristics. Multi-level model results demonstrated that the number of alcohol and tobacco retail locations within a one-mile radius of each adolescent's home positively associated with student-reported problem behaviors above and beyond the influence of school district and individual characteristics. Results suggest that the proximal community context added significantly to the district context when understanding the occurrence of early adolescent problem behaviors. Recognizing this variability in geographically determined risk within a community will likely enhance the effectiveness of community prevention activities. PMID:21336674
Chilenski, Sarah M
Full Text Available The subject of my research in the paper are the children from dysfunctional families, primarily their delinquent behavior, education and moral, actually, who takes care of them and who undertakes the family roles and whether this care is sufficient for building these personalities.This research approaches towards the study of the delinquent behavior of children from dysfunctional families. It examines to what extent the educational level of parents, the material condition, the health condition, the leisure time, the average monthly income of the family, the available permanent goods, the educational resources, the social communications within the very family, all affect the delinquent behavior of children from dysfunctional families.
Full Text Available ... Pages Depression Parenting Teen Health Transcript When a mother suffers from depression, how does it impact her ... behaviors. The researchers included more than 2,900 mother-child pairs, tracking their general health and social ...
This paper investigates the impact of early noncognitive skills on social outcomes in adolescence. The child's attention span, approach, prevailing mood and distractibility in early childhood may be crucial predictors for school achievements, health risk behavior, delinquency and autonomy as adolescent. We investigate this issue using a…
Coneus, Katja; Laucht, Manfred
Correlations between adolescents' own antisocial behavior and adolescents' perceptions of the antisocial behavior of their best friends and friendship groups were examined in this study. The strength of those correlations was expected to vary as a function of the qualities of the dyadic friendships and group relationships. Perceptions of peers' antisocial behavior and dyadic friendship and group relationship qualities were collected through interviews with 431, 12- through 13-year-old adolesc...
Laird, Robert D.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.
BACKGROUND: Adolescent (10–19 years) is a transition of age during which hazardous sexual health behaviors may be adopted; increasing vulnerability to several kinds of behavioral disorders like drug use, unsafe sexual act leading to reproductive ill health. Objective of the study was to assess sexual health behaviors of adolescents in Pokhara, Nepal. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 15–19 years adolescents studying in grades 11 and 12. Probabil...
Shrestha Niranjan; Prasad Paneru Damaru; Jnawali Kalpana
The present study considered the relation between adolescent gambling behavior and the perceived environment, the component of Jessor and Jessor's (1977) Problem Behavior Theory that assesses the ways that adolescents perceive the attitudes and behaviors of parents and peers. The predominantly African-American sample included 188 sophomores from…
Wickwire, Emerson M.; Whelan, James P.; Meyers, Andrew W.; Murray, David M.
This narrative review summarizes current knowledge on adolescent gambling for the period 1990-2010, assesses adolescent gambling behavior and person and environment predictors, and suggests directions for future research. The review includes 99 studies that identified their subjects as adolescents, children, youth, and students, and discusses…
Communication between children and parents has been the subject of several studies, examining the effects of, for example, disclosure and secrecy on adolescents' social relationships and adjustment. Less attention has paid to adolescent deception. We developed and tested a new instrument on lying behavior in a sample of 671 parent-adolescent…
Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Finkenauer, Catrin; van Kooten, Dyana C.
DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS OF ADOLESCENT STUDENTS AND THE FACTORS UNDERLYING CONFORMITY-PERFORMANCE-DEVIANT BEHAVIOR WERE ATTEMPTED, AND A PREDICTIVE MEASURE OF NONCONFORMITY WAS FORMULATED. A QUESTIONNAIRE WAS DEVELOPED TO MEASURE ATTITUDES OF ADOLESCENTS TOWARD THE MAJOR VALUE AREAS OF AMERICAN CULTURES, ADOLESCENT PERCEPTIONS OF SOCIAL CONTROLS,…
REISS, ALBERT J., JR.; RHODES, ALBERT L.
The development of Physical Dating Aggression from the age of 16 to 18 years was investigated in relation to time-invariant predictors (gender, parental education, family composition, number of partners) and to time-varying effects of delinquent behavior and perception of victimization by the partner. The sample consisted of 181 adolescents with a…
Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia; Pastorelli, Concetta
Full Text Available The goal of this article is to briefly review and summarize the rationale and research support for cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT as a treatment for depressed adolescents. A primary focus of the paper is on our group CBT treatment for adolescent depression, entitled the Adolescent Coping With Depression Course. In addition, initial findings from a large, recently-completed study contrasting individual CBT to fluoxetine for depressed adolescents (Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study are presented. Although the research support for CBT as a treatment for depressed adolescents is generally encouraging, we need to better understand which depressed adolescents benefit from CBT, how and when to incorporate medication and family-based interventions into CBT treatment, how to treat depressed adolescents with comorbid psychiatric conditions, and how CBT interventions fare with non-European-American depressed adolescents.
This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems,…
Schwartz, Seth J.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose
A communication framework of persuasion and attitude change was utilized to analyze parent-adolescent communication about adolescent risk behavior. Three parent dimensions were deemed important: (a) perceived expertise, (b) perceived trustworthiness, and (c) perceived accessibility. Data were collected in surveys from 668 mother-adolescent dyads…
Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia; Bouris, Alida, M.
adolescent sexual activity and subsequent pregnancy are ii an increasing dilemma facing American society . There appears to be an increase in the incidence of casual sexual activity among adolescents that leads to over 50% of students between grades 9 and 12 having been involved in sexual intercourse. This study examines changes in adolescent sexual attitudes, behaviors, and values in a select population over a 2-year time span. A survey of 548 families with adolescents was used to determine ...
The purpose of this study is to (a) investigate the families of violent and nonviolent adolescents in terms of family functioning, trait anger and anger expression, and (b) compare incidence of psychological problems, alcohol usage and delinquent behaviors. The sample consisted of families of both violent (n = 54) and nonviolent adolescents (n =…
Avci, Rasit; Gucray, Songul Sonay
Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…
Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee
Adolescents' romantic relationships have been associated with higher levels of depression, although their links with externalizing behavioral problems remain unclear. The present study examined the impact of adolescent romantic relationships on depression and externalizing behaviors in a large sample of 10,509 Chinese secondary school students…
Chen, Zhiyan; Guo, Fei; Yang, Xiaodong; Li, Xinying; Duan, Qing; Zhang, Jie; Ge, Xiaojia
This study examined the factor structure and reliability of a brief but comprehensive measure, the adolescent risk inventory (ARI), designed to assess adolescent risk behaviors and attitudes. Measures assessing demographics and risk behaviors were administered to 134 youth (ages 12-19) in psychiatric treatment. A confirmatory factor analysis of…
Lescano, Celia M.; Hadley, Wendy S.; Beausoleil, Nancy I.; Brown, Larry K.; D'eramo, Domenic; Zimskind, Abigail
Teachers rated 948 boys from low socioeconomic environments on physical aggression at ages 6, 10, 11, and 12. Classified boys according to stability of fighting over time. Findings showed that developmental pathways of physically aggressive behavior for boys in low socioeconomic environments were related to familial adversity and poor parenting…
Haapasalo, Jaana; Tremblay, Richard E.
The purpose of this study is to explore narcissistic and prosocial behaviors as reported by adolescents with and without substance dependency disorder (SDD). This study employs a quasi-experimental design using SDD adolescents compared with two normative samples of adolescents. In comparison to normative adolescents, adolescents with SDD were strongly distinguished by overt narcissistic behaviors and less monetary giving. Levels of narcissistic and prosocial behaviors among adolescents with SDD suggest a connection between self-centeredness and addiction. Results also suggest volunteerism as a potential option to counter narcissism in substance dependent adolescents. PMID:22544995
CARTER, REBECCA R.; JOHNSON, SHANNON M.; EXLINE, JULIE J.; POST, STEPHEN G.; PAGANO, MARIA E.
Background and aims: Perceived parental permissiveness toward gambling may relate to adolescents’ engagement in various risky behaviors. To examine this possibility, we analyzed data from a high-school based risk-behavior survey to assess relationships between perceived parental permissiveness toward gambling and adolescent gambling behavior, substance use and related problems. We also evaluated predictions that relationships between perceived parental permissiveness toward gambling and ris...
Leeman, Robert F.; Patock-peckham, Julie A.; Hoff, Rani A.; Krishnan-sarin, Suchitra; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen J.; Potenza, Marc N.
The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N=887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic regressions indicated that adolescents reporting greater parental disapproval and limits on viewing at Wave 1 were less likely to initiate oral sex betw...
Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha
Some extant theory and empirical research suggests that youth problem behaviors, such as substance abuse and delinquency, reflect a single underlying dimension of behavior, whereas others suggest there are several different dimensions. Few studies have examined potential international differences in the structure of problem behavior, where…
Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; LaFazia, Andrea N.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Toumbourou, John W.; Arthur, Michael W.; Catalano, Richard F.; Hawkins, J. David; Bond, Lyndal
This study examined the bidirectional relations between authoritative parenting and adolescents' prosocial behavior over a 1-year time period. Data were taken from Time 2 and 3 of the Flourishing Families Project, and included reports from 319 two-parent families with an adolescent child (M age of child at Time 2 = 12.34, SD = 1.06, 52% girls).…
Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Carlo, Gustavo; Christensen, Katherine J.; Yorgason, Jeremy B.
The present study investigated sexual at-risk behaviors of sexually abused adolescent girls. Variables of interest were presence of consensual sexual activity, age at first consensual intercourse, number of sexual partners, condom use, and pregnancies. Participants were 125 sexually abused adolescent girls aged 12 to 17 years. Results showed that…
Cinq-Mars, Caroline; Wright, John; Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre
The study deals with the relationship between antisocial behavior in early adolescence and family environment. Sample consisted of 2,856 adolescents (53% girls, mean age 13.5 years, SD = 1.1) from urban areas in the Czech Republic. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a school survey, was used to measure sociodemographic characteristics of the…
Sobotková, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Hrdlicka, Michal
This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…
Sabia, Joseph J.
Background: Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. Methods: General education classes were…
Noland, Heather; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K.
This study examined the moderating effects of family cohesion on the relationship between community violence and child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 18. The study sample consisted of 728 children and families who were part of the Infant Health and Development Program, an intervention study for low-birthweight, preterm infants. Six of eight sites in the Infant Health and Development Program were in large metropolitan areas; two served rural and urban areas. About half of the sample was African American. Research teams collected data from caregivers multiple times in the first 3 years of the target child's life, and at 4, 5, 6½, 8, and 18 years. Caregivers reported on community violence, neighborhood problems with (a) drug users/sellers; (b) delinquent gangs; and (c) crime, assaults, and burglaries reports when children were 4, 5, and 8 years of age. Family cohesion was assessed twice, at ages 6½ and 8 years, using caregiver reports on the Family Environment Scale. Adolescent self-report of Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems at age 18 were assessed using the Behavior Problems Index. In this study, the association between adolescent psychosocial outcomes and community violence were moderated by family cohesion and gender such that being in a highly cohesive family as a child protected male children from the negative effects of community violence. Findings demonstrate the long-term protective effects of family cohesion on child behavioral development for male children but suggest a need to examine additional supports for females exposed to community violence during childhood. PMID:24787626
McKelvey, Lorraine M; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A; Mesman, Glenn R; Pemberton, Joy R; Casey, Patrick H
The current study tested whether greater monitoring by mothers and greater disclosure by early adolescents was linked to greater agreement in mothers' and adolescents' reports of rule-breaking behavior. In doing so, the article demonstrated how polynomial regression analyses can be used to test hypotheses in which informant discrepancies serve as the dependent variable. Data were obtained from 218 mother-adolescent dyads (M adolescent age = 11.5 years, 51% female, 49% European American, 47% African American). Mothers and early adolescents provided reports of their perceptions of maternal monitoring (i.e., solicitation and control through rules), adolescent disclosure, and adolescent rule-breaking behavior. Polynomial regression models tested monitoring and disclosure as moderators of the association between mothers' and adolescents' reports of the adolescents' rule-breaking behavior. Mothers' reports of rule-breaking behavior were more strongly associated with adolescents' reports of their own rule-breaking behavior when mothers reported engaging in more solicitation or control through rules. There was less agreement in mothers' and adolescents' reports of rule breaking when adolescents reported that their mothers engaged in more solicitation. Adolescent disclosure did not moderate agreement in reported rule-breaking behavior. Greater monitoring by mothers may reduce the discrepancy in mother-adolescent reports of rule-breaking behavior. Findings also demonstrate the greater validity of polynomial regression approaches over difference scores when testing hypotheses with informant agreement as the outcome. PMID:25470114
Laird, Robert D; LaFleur, Laura K
Marital breakup has been associated with numerous behavioral problems in children, such as sexual risk behaviors. This research is the first to examine sexual behaviors of Spanish adolescents related to whether their parents were married or divorced. Participants were 342 boys and girls aged between 14 and 18 years. The sample provided confidential information about their sexual behavior and birth control methods. Significant differences were only found in percentages of adolescents who had engaged in mutual masturbation, intercourse, or oral sex, and who had practiced these sexual relations in the last six months, in both cases, they were higher when the parents had broken their marital relationship. Regarding adolescents of divorced parents, engaging in intercourse is more likely in older teenagers who live with a stepparent. Moreover, older adolescents who were younger when parents divorced and who live in a reconstituted family, have more sexual partners. These and other findings are discussed. PMID:22420347
Orgilés, Mireia; Espada, José P; Johnson, Blair T; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Carratalá, Elena
Background: Discussion about dietary factors in relation to behavioral problems in children and adolescents has been going on for a long time. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional relation between diet and self-reported behavioral problems at school in adolescents in the southern part of Norway. Design: In total, 475 ninth- and tenth-grade students (236 boys and 239 girls) out of 625 eligible students from four different secondary schools in three different ...
Igaard, Rune H. X. F.; Verby, Nina X. D.
The present study explored the total adaptive behavior of children and adolescents with visual impairments, as well as their adaptive behavior in each of the domains of Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization. Moreover, the predictors of the performance and developmental delay in adaptive behavior were investigated. Instrumentation…
Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Metsiou, Katerina; Agaliotis, Ioannis
Objectives We examined the contribution of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination to disparities in problem behaviors among pre-adolescent Black, Latino, and White youth. Methods We used cross-sectional data from Healthy Passages, a three-community study of 5,119 fifth-graders and their parents. Multivariate regressions were used to examine the relationships of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and race/ethnicity to problem behaviors (physical and non-physical aggression, retaliatory behaviors, and delinquency). We used values from these regressions to calculate the percentage of disparities in problem behaviors associated with the discrimination effect. Results In multivariate models, perceived discrimination was associated with greater problem behaviors among Black and Latino youth. Compared to Whites, Blacks were significantly more likely to report problem behaviors, whereas Latinos were significantly less likely (a “reverse disparity”). When Blacks’ and Latinos’ discrimination experiences were set to zero, the adjusted disparity between Blacks and Whites was reduced by an estimated one-third to two-thirds; the reverse adjusted disparity favoring Latinos widened by about one-fifth to one-half. Conclusions Results suggest that the elimination of discrimination could lead to considerable reductions in mental health issues, including problem behaviors, among Black and Latino youth. PMID:23597387
Bogart, Laura M.; Elliott, Marc N.; Kanouse, David E.; Klein, David J.; Davies, Susan L.; Cuccaro, Paula M.; Banspach, Stephen W.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Schuster, Mark A.
Critiqued is Menard's and Morse's claim (AJS v89 p1347-78 May 1984) that the correlation of IQ with delinquency is not because IQ exerts any causal influence on delinquent behavior but because, in certain institutional settings (the schools), it may be selected by the institution as a criterion for differential treatment. (RM)
Harry, Joseph; Minor, W. William
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bicycle use entails high safety and health risks especially for adolescents. Most safety education programs aimed at adolescents focus on accident statistics and risk perceptions. This paper proposes the investigation of the social-cognitive correlates of risky cycling behaviors of adolescents prior to developing safety education programs. Method Secondary school students aged 13 to 18 years (n = 1446 filled out questionnaires regarding bicycle behavior, risky intentions, accident experience, and social-cognitive determinants as suggested by the theory of planned behavior. Results Regression analysis revealed that the proximal variables (i.e., self-efficacy, attitudes towards drunk driving, personal norm regarding safekeeping of self and others, and compared risk were able to predict 17% of the variance of risky behavior and 23% of the variance of risky intentions. The full model explained respectively 29% and 37% of the variance in risky behavior and risky intentions. Adolescents with positive attitudes towards risky behavior and low sense of responsibility report risky behavior, even when having been (close to an accident. Conclusions Adolescents realize whether they are risk takers or not. This implies that the focus of education programs should not be on risk perceptions, but on decreasing positive attitudes towards alcohol in traffic and increasing sense of responsibility instead. Cognitions regarding near accidents should be studied, the role of safe cycling self-efficacy is unclear.
Ruiter Robert AC
Full Text Available Introduction. The period of life known as adolescence generally refers to transition from childhood to adulthood. Adolescents' progress toward autonomy involves remaining connected with, as well as separated from parents. Young people and their parents usually have mixed feelings about adolescent autonomy and attachment. An estimated 50% of children born in the 80s have spent part of their developmental years in single-parent households. Divorce is almost always a stressful event in children's lives. Youthful suicide rate has increased dramatically and is the third leading cause of death among 15-19 year olds. Conduct disorder is one of the most frequently diagnosed conditions in adolescents. Suicidal adolescents and adolescents with conduct disorder are much more likely than their peers to have grown up in disrupted, disorganized homes with lack of attachment between parents and their children. Material and methods This prospective study was carried out during 2002, 2003, and 2004. The research included 60 adolescents treated at the Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Novi Sad, 30 with diagnosed conduct disorder and 30 with suicidal behavior. Results Along with other kinds of distress, suicidal adolescents have experienced an escalation of family problems a few months prior to attempted suicide. Discussion Divorce and life in single-parent households is almost always a stressful period in children's lives. Conduct disorder and suicidal behavior represent a desperate cry for help. Conclusion Most adolescents in both groups live in single-parent households. These young people have frequently passed into adolescence with little reason to feel that they could rely on their parents for support, or on their home as a place of sanctuary. .
OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. METHODS Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p homosexual/bisexual behavior and experiencing risk factors; suffering sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk frequently, and adolescents with heterosexual behavior and none of the risk factors investigated. More of the risk factors were found in adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior compared with those with heterosexual behavior. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior were more likely to talk about their positive personal experiences and negative relationship experiences that their heterosexual peers, but spoke less about religion. CONCLUSIONS Not only should this issue be studied in more detail, but preventative actions aimed at adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior should be widened. PMID:24789636
de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira
Objective: This study evaluated the ability of delinquent peer affiliation to mediate the effects of multidimensional treatment foster care (MTFC; Chamberlain, 2003) on girls' delinquent behavior. Method: This study used a sample of girls from 2 cohorts (N = 166; M = 15.31 years old at baseline, range 13-17 years; 74% European American, 2% African…
Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Leve, Leslie D.
Adolescent involvement in problem behaviors can compromise health, development, and successful transition to adulthood. The present study explores the appropriateness of a particular theoretical framework, Problem Behavior Theory, to account for variation in problem behavior among adolescents in informal settlements around a large, rapidly urbanizing city in sub-Saharan Africa. Data were collected from samples of never married adolescents of both sexes, aged 12-19, living in two Nairobi slum settlements (N = 1,722). Measures of the theoretical psychosocial protective and risk factor concepts provided a substantial, multi-variate, and explanatory account of adolescent problem behavior variation and demonstrated that protection can also moderate the impact of exposure to risk. Key protective and risk factors constitute targets for policies and programs to enhance the health and well-being of poor urban adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:20499192
Ndugwa, Robert P; Kabiru, Caroline W; Cleland, John; Beguy, Donatien; Egondi, Thaddeus; Zulu, Eliya M; Jessor, Richard
The impact of the individuals’ life condition on the relation between moral judgement and (delinquent) behaviour was investigated in a sample of 162 adolescents and young adults. The sample consisted of two groups: homeless youth and institutional youth, i.e. youth with a history of residential care. The difference in life conditions between both groups is characterised by a lack of stable social relationships and speci® c survival demands for the homeless youth group. Homel...
Tavecchio, L. W. C.; Stams, G. J. J. M.; Brugman, D.; Thomeer-bouwens, M. A. E.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, during adulthood, the offspring of adolescent rats differ in emotionality, learning and memory from the offspring of adult rats. The behavior of the offspring of adolescent (age, 50-55 days) and adult rats (age, 90-95 days) was tested in the ope [...] n field, activity cage, and passive and active avoidance apparatus. The latencies during training and testing in the passive avoidance apparatus of the offspring of adolescent parents were shorter than the latencies of control offspring (P
T., Zemunik; M., Peruzovic; V., Capkun; K., Milkovic.
We used a systems perspective to examine relationships between adolescents' perceptions of overall family system functioning and selected parental behaviors. Self-report questionnaire data from 160 ninth and tenth grade students were analyzed using MANCOVA and discriminant analysis. The results showed two parental behaviors, support and monitoring…
Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Neal, Rachel A.; Huey, Erron L.
Investigated middle and high school counselors' perceptions of adolescent health-compromising behaviors and motivations to intervene. Data from a survey based on protection motivation theory showed differences in counselors' perceptions of the severity of risk-taking behaviors. Perceptions were highly correlated with intentions to seek out…
Nagel, Liza; Scherer, David G.; Lee, William
Examined peer influence for 1,969 adolescents across 5 risk behaviors: smoking, alcohol consumption, marijuana use, tobacco chewing, and sexual debut. Results show that a random same-sex peer predicts a teen's risk behavior initiation through influence to initiate cigarette and marijuana use, and influence to initiate and stop alcohol and chewing…
Maxwell, Kimberly A.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adolescent (10–19 years is a transition of age during which hazardous sexual health behaviors may be adopted; increasing vulnerability to several kinds of behavioral disorders like drug use, unsafe sexual act leading to reproductive ill health. Objective of the study was to assess sexual health behaviors of adolescents in Pokhara, Nepal. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 15–19 years adolescents studying in grades 11 and 12. Probability sampling techniques were applied. A structured, pretested, envelope sealed self administered questionnaire was distributed among all (1584 adolescents of the 11 and 12 grades of selected institutions. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (16 versions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. RESULTS: About 19.37% adolescents had sexual contact and male participation was higher than females (P<0.05. Nearly one fifth of unmarried were found to be involved in sexual activities and most of them had first sex between 15-19 years age (median age 15.26 years. Of those who had sex, 6.91% had adopted all the three: vaginal, oral and anal sexes and majority had single followed by 2-5 sex partners in their sexual intercourse in the last one year and last month. About 13.93% adolescents were found to be indulged in group sex. Most of them had sex with regular partners and commercial sex workers. More than eight out of every ten who had sex had used contraceptive methods and condom was method of choice (94.77%. CONCLUSIONS: Premarital sexual involvement was prevalent among adolescents; sex with commercial sex workers and non commercial sex partners was perceived to be risk. Behavior change intervention strategies need to be formulated and implemented to promote adolescent reproductive and sexual health.
The association between poor school bonding and delinquency has only been partly addressed in earlier research. Using a longitudinal design, the objective of our study was to investigate possible bidirectional effects and sex differences between adolescents' experienced school bonding and self-rated delinquency over time. A total of 788…
Liljeberg, Jenny Freidenfelt; Eklund, Jenny M.; Fritz, Marie Vafors; Klinteberg, Britt af
Adolescents and young adults are the fastest-growing age group of people living with HIV infection in the United States. Yet many adolescents and young adults with high-risk behaviors for HIV are unaware of their HIV status and have never had an HIV test. The purpose of our work was to understand minority adolescents' beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors related to HIV testing. We conducted focus group sessions with 41 minority adolescents to assess their perceptions about HIV testing. We triangulated the findings from our focus group data with data from a 125-question survey. Analysis of focus group data demonstrated that Perceived Susceptibility, Perceived Severity, Perceived Benefits, Perceived Barriers, and Cues to Action influenced adolescents' decisions to get tested for HIV. Findings support the need to design interventions that address adolescents' perceived barriers to HIV testing and increase access to and knowledge about HIV testing. PMID:25283353
Schnall, Rebecca; Rojas, Marlene; Travers, Jasmine
This study examined predictability of inappropriate behavior in a random sample of 452 adolescents. Behaviors examined included dropping out, teen pregnancy, criminal activities and conviction, antisocial personality disorder, and alcohol abuse. Found that academic achievement and aspirations, and learning-focused school settings related to…
Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Brook, Judith S.
This study assessed the hypothesis that popularity in adolescence takes on a twofold role, both marking high levels of concurrent psychosocial adaptation, but also predicting increases over time in both positive and negative behaviors sanctioned by peer norms. This hypothesis was tested with multi-method, longitudinal data obtained on a diverse community sample of 185 adolescents. Sociometric popularity data were examined in relation to data from interview-based assessments of attachment secu...
Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances R.; Mcfarland, F. Christy; Marsh, Penny; Mcelhaney, Kathleen Boykin
There is growing evidence of a positive association between asthma and suicidal ideation and behavior in the general community, although information on this potential association is scarce among adolescents and Puerto Ricans, groups at-risk for both conditions. Data came from wave three of the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of youth in the Bronx and San Juan conducted from 2000–2004. Logistic regressions for correlated data (GEE) were conducted with asthma predicting suicidal ideation and behavior among participants aged 11 years or older. After adjustment for survey design, age, gender, poverty, DSM-IV mental disorders, cigarette smoking, and stressful life events, asthma was positively associated with suicidal ideation and behavior among Puerto Rican adolescents. Public health interventions targeting Puerto Rican adolescents with asthma and future studies investigating potential biological and psychological mechanisms of association are warranted. PMID:23817156
Bandiera, Frank C.; Ramirez, Rafael; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D.
Aggression and delinquency among youth form a major social concern, since adolescent externalizing problem behavior is associated with immediate and lasting problems throughout life. In response, there has been a surge of research investigating preventive strategies aiming to reduce these problem behaviors among adolescents. EQUIP for Educators (EFE) is one of those prevention programs, teaching youth (grades 5-8) to think and act responsibly. The program is based on cognitive-behavioral theo...
Methylphenidate is the first-choice treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but its mechanism of action is incompletely understood. The cognitive effects of methylphenidate have been extensively studied, but little is known about its effects on spontaneous social behavior. During adolescence, rats display a characteristic, highly vigorous form of social behavior, termed social play behavior, which is of critical importance for social and cognitive development. We invest...
Vanderschuren, Louk Jmj; Trezza, Viviana; Griffioen-roose, Sanne; Schiepers, Olga Jg; Leeuwen, Natascha; Vries, Taco J.; Schoffelmeer, Anton Nm
The percentage of people with mental retardation in the general population is estimated at about 2.3%, with adolescence (15-20 years) constituting the development period during which a peak in rates of mental retardation is observed. The increased prevalence of adolescence may be explained from the fact that the specified requirements of the school initially, and society later, inevitably lead to comparative evaluation of the teen with mental retardation in relation to peers, thus making mental retardation more apparent. Adolescents with mental retardation face a number of physical and psychological needs which are not often distinguishable and as a consequence undergo the deterioration of their already burdened quality of life. In particular, mental health problems occur 3 to 4 times more often in adolescents with mental retardation compared with adolescents of the general population. This review presents the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the correlation between behavioral disorders, substance use and the possible comorbidity in adolescents with intellectual disability, both at community level and residential care level. Epidemiological data indicate that behavioral disorders are among the most common types of psychopathology in mentally retarded adolescents with the severity and symptoms varying depending on the personal characteristics of each adolescent. Regarding substance use, the available data show that the rates of substance use (alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs) are lower in this specific population group but the differences over the last years tend to be eliminated. Finally, according to the few surveys that were examined referring to the comorbidity of behavioral disorders and substance use in adolescents with intellectual disability, the results were contradictory. Specifically, while behavioral disorders continued to be one of the most common types of psychopathology, the related substances disorders indicated lower rates compared to normal intelligence adolescents with behavioral disorders. Risk factors that increase the chances of developing either simple or more complicated types of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation have been found to be based on individual, family and social levels. On the other hand, the individual characteristics of adolescents (intellectual level, attention capacity, understandable linguistic expression, overall progress until adolescence), the existence of a supportive family environment and the presence of social support and awareness through the creation of special counseling, education and medical services, are the most important protective factors which contribute to the prevention of several forms of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation. For the writing of the literature review, the following electronic databases were used: PubMed, Scopus, Psycinfo, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google Scholar. The key words used were: Intellectual Disability, Behavioral disorders, Adolescents, Mental Retardation, Learning disabilities, Developmental Disabilities, Disruptive behaviour disorders, Conduct disorder, Substance Abuse, Substance Misuse, Oppositional defiant disorder, Alcohol and illicit drug use, Smoking Use, Young people, Teenagers, Youths. PMID:25035183
Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk
The present study investigated the role of identity in the relationship between family functioning and behavior problems in a sample of Hispanic immigrant early adolescents and their families. The sample consisted of 181 Hispanic immigrant adolescents (92 males, 89 females) and their participating caregivers (who were mostly mothers). Identity was measured using adolescent reports, whereas family functioning and early adolescent behavior problems were measured using both adolescent and parent...
Schwartz, Seth J.; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo; Sullivan, Summer; Szapocznik, Jose?
Evidence on the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and the full range of pervasive developmental disorder behavior (PDD behavior) is scarce. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and mild PDD behavior. We obtained data on 1044 ID-adolescents, aged…
Oeseburg, B.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.
Comorbidity between antisocial behavior and depression in adolescence is widely recognized. This paper examines whether links with depressed mood differ among three subtypes of antisocial behavior: oppositionality, physical aggression and delinquency. In addition we examine two possible contributors to these links: negative life events that are…
Rowe, Richard; Maughan, Barbara; Eley, Thalia C.
Full Text Available Background: Discussion about dietary factors in relation to behavioral problems in children and adolescents has been going on for a long time. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional relation between diet and self-reported behavioral problems at school in adolescents in the southern part of Norway. Design: In total, 475 ninth- and tenth-grade students (236 boys and 239 girls out of 625 eligible students from four different secondary schools in three different communities in Vest-Agder County, Norway, participated, giving a participation rate of 77%. The students filled in a questionnaire with food frequency questions of selected healthy (e.g. fruits, vegetables, and fish and unhealthy (e.g. sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and crisps food items, questions of meal frequency, and four questions regarding behavioral problems at school. Results: Having breakfast regularly was significantly associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems (OR: 0.29 (0.15???0.55, p?0.001. A high intake of unhealthy foods, such as sugar-sweetened soft drinks (OR: 2.8 (1.06???7.42, p=0.03 and sweets (OR: 2.63 (1.39???4.98, p=0.003, was significantly associated with increased odds of behavioral problems. At the same time, a high intake of fruits was associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems in Norwegian adolescents (OR: 0.30 (0.10???0.87, p=0.03. All ORs are adjusted for sex and BMI. Conclusions: This study shows that having an optimal diet and not skipping meals are associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents. Hence, it is important to improve the dietary intake and meal pattern of Norwegian adolescents. The cross-sectional design of this study limits any causal interpretations of the results of the study.
There is limited literature on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent risk behaviors, particularly among African Americans. We tested the association between psychometrically-derived subscales of the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and the intercepts and slopes of individual growth curves of conduct problems, sexual risk taking, and substance use from ages 13 to 18 years by sex. Boys and girls had different associations between sensation seeking and baseline levels and growth of risk behaviors. The Pleasure Seeking scale was associated with baseline levels of conduct problems in boys and girls, baseline substance use in boys, and growth in sexual risk taking and substance use by girls. Girls had the same pattern of associations with the Danger/Novelty scale as the Pleasure Seeking scale. Knowledge about the relationships between adolescent risk taking and sensation seeking can help in the targeted design of prevention and intervention programs for the understudied population of very low-income, African American adolescents. PMID:25112599
Byck, Gayle R; Swann, Gregory; Schalet, Benjamin; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian
Structured Learning Therapy (SLT) teaches aggressive adolescents prosocial skills (negotiation, self-relaxation, and anger control) by modeling, role playing, social reinforcement, and transfer of training. This article summarizes initial application of SLT with psychiatric clients, includes guidelines for improving trainee-trainer-treatment…
Goldstein, Arnold P.; And Others
Maternal and paternal psychological violence were examined as potential risk factors for internalized and externalized behavior problems displayed by adolescents. Childhood family violence (physical and psychological parental violence), current extrafamily violence (bullying and dating violence), and family structure were taken into account. A…
Melancon, Claudiane; Gagne, Marie-Helene
Whereas effective treatments exist for adults with recurrent binge eating, developmental factors specific to adolescents point to the need for a modified treatment approach for youth. We adapted an existing cognitive behavioral therapy treatment manual for adults with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder (Fairburn, 2008) for use with…
Yarborough, Bobbi Jo; DeBar, Lynn L.; Firemark, Alison; Leung, Sue; Clarke, Gregory N.; Wilson, G. Terence
Specific behavioral problems appear during early adolescence, and they become more pronounced. Although these problems are universal in many aspects, cultural differences are also conspicuous. The author, in addition to analyzing the five studies in the Special Issue, addresses questions concerning the cross-cultural context. The analysis reveals…
In this two-wave prospective study, the authors investigated whether level of dispositional affective empathy moderated the association between parental support and antisocial behavior in early adolescents. The sample consisted of 823 Dutch boys and girls (mean age = 12.8 years) enrolled in the first year of secondary education. Higher levels of…
de Kemp, Raymond A. T.; Overbeek, Geertjan; de Wied, Minet; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Scholte, Ron H. J.
Full Text Available The main research problem is focused on the following question: Is it possible to identify specific patterns of interaction between precipitating and protective factors for the risky behavior among adolescents. The research was conducted on the sample of 204 adolescents of both genders (18 to 20 years old. Specific personality traits and socio-demographic characteristics are manifested as the most important precipitating and/or protective factors for the risky behavior. The frame of reference for personality assessment was the alternative five-factor model (Zuckerman, 2002, specified in the ZKPQ-50-CC questionnaire, and consisted of the five biologically determined personality traits: activity, aggressiveness/hostility, impulsive sensation seeking, neuroticism/anxiety and sociability. Latent dimensions of the risky behavior: risky activities and life - conditions, were extracted by applying the homogeneity analyses (HOMALS. The matrix of squared Euclidean distances (in the common space of factor scores on the principal components of ZKPQ questionnaire, scores on HOMALS dimensions and school grades was a subject of the Ward hierarchical cluster analysis method, extracting three clusters. According to the discriminant functions: risk proneness and pro-social activity, the clusters were identified: the group of pro-social oriented adolescents, the aloof group and the group of adolescents prone to risky behavior. The results have considerable implications for the prevention programs’ development and implementation.
A reexamination of ethnicity as a risk factor for adolescent suicidal behavior, focusing on whether Mexican American youths are at increased risk, was undertaken. Data from a sample of 4,175 African, European, and Mexican Americans, aged 11-17, are presented. We examined lifetime attempts and past year attempts, thoughts, and plans. Odds ratios,…
Roberts, Robert E.; Roberts, Catherine Ramsay; Xing, Yun
Full Text Available Introduction. Investigation of adolescent sexual behavior carried out on a large sample is primarily motivated by health and social problems which can occur when young people practice sex without protection and necessary information. There is no data that the national study on adolescent sexual behavior has been conducted in the Serbian speaking area. Objective. Monitoring and follow-up of trends in adolescent sexual behavior. Methods. The investigation sample comprised 1101 adolescents (472 male and 629 female, aged 13-25 years. As an instrument of polling, the questionnaire 'Sexual Behavior' was used specifically designed for the purpose of this investigation. Results. Eighty-four percent of males and 65% of females reported having sexual experience. The age of the first sexual experience, total number of partners, number of sexual partners in the last year and the last month were investigated, and the number of loved and sexual partner compared. In addition, the length of foreplay, frequency of sexual activity, masturbation, sexual dreams and sexual daydreams and engagement into alternative sexual activities (oral sex, anal sex, group sex, exchange of partners were estimated, as well as the reasons for their practicing. Sexual desire and its correlation with personality dimensions, the frequency of sexual disorders (erectile and ejaculation problems, anorgasmia, abortion, rape and identification of the rapist, the use of condoms and other methods of contraception were assessed. Conclusion. It could be postulated that biological influence on sexual behavior is powerful and resistant to the influence of time and place, as well as socio-cultural religious influences. A high rate of premarital sexual activity with a number of sexual partners, a relatively low rate of condom use and the fact that 4% of the female adolescents in this sample had an induced abortion suggest that there are gaps in the education provided to adolescents about sexual and reproductive risks within the Serbian speaking territory. An alarming statistic is that 5% of the female adolescents in this sample reported that they had been raped, or forced to participate in non-consensual sex within an ongoing relationship with a regular partner. There is a need for systemic changes within the field of sexual education and protection from sexually risky behavior among young adults.
This study investigates characteristics of juvenile delinquency and youth violence by examining attachment and social problem skills. Attachment theory integrates features of psychoanalytic theory, ethology, and cognitive psychology. Research on adolescent attachment suggests that parents continue to function as a secure base for their teenage…
Mathew, Saritha S.; And Others
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between behavioral problems and tobacco smoking among adolescent students in Chile. METHODS: Data were drawn from a study that included questionnaire surveys of 46 907 school-attending adolescents in all 13 of the administrative regions of Chile. Assessments were based on an adapted, Spanish-language version of the Drug Use Screening Inventory. The conditional form of the logistic regression model was used for analysis, with matching of students on individual schools, and with further statistical adjustments for sex, age, and selected risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco smoking among the adolescents was very high across all of Chile, with a level between 56% and 65% in each of the 13 regions. The estimated odds of tobacco use in youths at the highest level of behavioral problems was about twice that for youths at the lowest levels, both before and after controlling for sex, age, lack of participation in recreational activities, level of irritability, and levels of problems with school, family attention, and mental health. CONCLUSIONS: These findings help to complement and complete the evidence of prior studies on tobacco smoking among adolescents with behavior problems, including recent research on Central American youths. Although the magnitude of observed associations in Chile was not as great as that for the associations found in Central America, both the strength of these associations and their statistical significance were observed throughout Chile. This is the first study in Chile on potentially causal relationships such as these.
The purpose of the present study was to examine relations between adolescents' social cognitions regarding parenting practices and adolescents' prosocial behavioral tendencies. A mediation model was tested whereby the degree to which adolescents perceived their parents as responding appropriately to their prosocial and antisocial behaviors was…
Hardy, Sam A.; Carlo, Gustavo; Roesch, Scott C.
This study focused on violent and prosocial behaviors by adolescents toward parents and teachers, and the relation between such behaviors and adolescents' perceptions about the family and school environment. Gender differences in child-to-parent violence and student-to-teacher violence were also studied. The sample comprised 687 adolescents…
Jaureguizar, Joana; Ibabe, Izaskun; Straus, Murray A.
This study explored whether adolescents with elevated symptoms of mania (ESM+) engage in more HIV risk behaviors than those with other psychiatric disorders and examined factors associated with HIV risk behavior among ESM+ adolescents. Eight hundred forty adolescents (56% female, 58% African American, "M" age = 14.9 years) who received mental…
Stewart, Angela J.; Theodore-Oklota, Christina; Hadley, Wendy; Brown, Larry K.; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph
Despite improvements in prevention, oral diseases are a problem among adolescents, linked to poor health outcomes and poor school performance. Little is known about adolescent oral health behavior. This systematic review describes factors that influence oral health behavior in adolescents. Inclusion criteria for the literature search were American…
Calderon, Susana J.; Mallory, Caroline
Risk behavior contributes to substantial morbidity and mortality during adolescence. This study examined neurocognitive predictors of proposed subtypes of adolescent risk behavior: planned (premeditated) versus unplanned (spontaneous). Adolescents (N = 69, 49% male, M = 15.1 [1.0] years) completed neurocognitive tasks (Iowa Gambling Task [IGT],…
Maslowsky, Julie; Keating, Daniel P.; Monk, Christopher S.; Schulenberg, John
This paper analyzes the importance of social ties for eating behavior of US youth. We propose a novel approach that addresses identi…cation of social endogenous e¤ects. We overcome the problem of measuring the separate impact of endogenous and contextual e¤ects on individual Body Mass Index (BMI) in a dynamic linear- in-means model, where individual- and group-speci…c unobservable e¤ects are controlled for. We show that the main drivers of eating behavior are habituation and imitation e¤ects. Imitation e¤ects explain most of the variation in BMI of individuals who were normal-weight and overweight during adolescence. Obese adolescents, instead, become future obese adults through wrong habits enforced by imitative behavior.
Corrado, Luisa; Distante, Roberta
Full Text Available Adolescents with intellectual disabilities, due to deficits in their intellectual functioning, are exposed to even greater risk of developing various forms of behavioral disorders.Goal: to determine the risk of emergence of behavioral disorders in adolescents with mild intellectual disability.Respondents: adolescents (211 with mild intellectual disability, educational staff in special secondary schools (39 and members of the expert team (5.Methods: descriptive method, method of comparative analysisProcedures: survey and semi-structured interviews with the educational staff and expert team.Statistical data processing: Windows Tool R x C for contingency tables analysis and Fisher Exact Test, and as significant were considered the differences with significance level of p<0.05.Results: with the statistical data processing we came to the conclusion that the school achievements affect the emergence of undesired behavior (p<0.001. Conclusion: we came to the conclusion that different forms of behavioral disorders appear in students and they haven’t been sufficiently informed about the possible consequences and they rarely voluntarily initiate conversation in respect of the problem. The behavioral disorders in this category of students are conditioned by multiple factors by the type of housing, the duration of the period in a student home, the school achievements, the age and the sex.
This study examined the gender differences in outcomes related to school performance, suicidal involvement, disordered eating behaviors, sexual risk taking, substance use, and delinquent behaviors of male (n = 370) and female teenagers (n = 2,681) who self-reported a history of sexual abuse. It was found that female adolescents, by and large, engaged in internalizing behaviors and males in externalizing behaviors. Male adolescents were found to be at higher risk than females in poor school performance, delinquent activities, and sexual risk taking. Female adolescents, on the other hand, showed higher risk for suicidal ideation and behavior as well as disordered eating. Females showed more frequent use of alcohol. However, male adolescents exhibited more extreme use of alcohol and more frequent and extreme use of marijuana. Among index female adolescents, protective factors against adverse correlates included a higher emotional attachment to family, being religious or spiritual, presence of both parents at home, and a perception of overall health. Factors that augmented adverse correlates for them included a stressful school environment due to perceived high levels of substance use in and around school, worry of sexual abuse, maternal alcohol consumption, and physical abuse. For male adolescents, maternal education and parental concern appeared to be protective factors. PMID:8985612
Chandy, J M; Blum, R W; Resnick, M D
Existing research on aggression tends to narrowly focus on peers; less is known about sibling aggression, most likely due to its historical acceptance. Aggression is characterized by its forms (i.e., physical vs. social or relational aggression) and its functions (i.e., the motivations behind the aggressive act and categorized as proactive vs. reactive aggression). We use data from a two-wave study of middle (n = 197; M age = 12.63 years at Wave 1) and older (n = 159; M age = 16.50 years at Wave 1) adolescents to assess the extent to which proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggression make unique or conditional contributions to adolescent adjustment (i.e., depression, delinquency, and substance use). We find that proactive sibling aggression increases risk for problem substance use and delinquent behavior, reactive sibling aggression increases risk for depressed mood and delinquent behavior, and such results are observed even with statistical adjustments for sociodemographic and family variables, stressful life events, and prior adjustment. Few conditional effects of proactive or reactive sibling aggression by sex or grade are observed; yet, for all three outcomes, the harmful effects of reactive sibling aggression are strongest among adolescents who report low levels of proactive sibling aggression. The results speak to the importance of understanding the proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggressive behaviors for adolescent adjustment. PMID:25006024
Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen T; Wiesen-Martin, Desireé; Hiley Sharp, Erin; Rebellon, Cesar J; Stracuzzi, Nena F
Full Text Available Amy E Bodde,1 Timothy J Beebe,1 Laura P Chen,2 Sarah Jenkins,3 Kelly Perez-Vergara,4 Lila J Finney Rutten,5 Jeanette Y Ziegenfuss6 1Division of Health Care Policy and Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Seattle Children’s Hospital, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 4Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 5Division of Epidemiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN USA; 6HealthPartners Institute for Education and Research, Minneapolis, MN, USA Objective: Accurate perceptions of weight status are important motivational triggers for weight loss among overweight or obese individuals, yet weight misperception is prevalent. To identify and characterize individuals holding misperceptions around their weight status, it may be informative for clinicians to assess self-reported body mass index (BMI classification (ie, underweight, normal, overweight, obese in addition to clinical weight measurement. Methods: Self-reported weight classification data from the 2007 Current Visit Information – Child and Adolescent Survey collected at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, were compared with measured clinical height and weight for 2,993 adolescents. Results: While, overall, 74.2% of adolescents accurately reported their weight status, females, younger adolescents, and proxy (vs self reporters were more accurate. Controlling for demographic and behavioral characteristics, the higher an individual's BMI percentile, the less likely there was agreement between self-report and measured BMI percentile. Those with high BMI who misperceive their weight status were less likely than accurate perceivers to attempt weight loss. Conclusion: Adolescents’ and proxies’ misperception of weight status increases with BMI percentile. Obtaining an adolescent's self-perceived weight status in addition to measured height and weight offers clinicians valuable baseline information to discuss motivation for weight loss. Keywords: BMI, obesity, weight perception, adolescents, primary care
Full Text Available Consumers are users of goods and services for the production of their wants. They want to know where to buy, when to buy, how much to buy, how to pay, how to recognize and they also compare qualities of products. They are the keystone and play an important part of our economic structure. Production and marketing exist only for consumers. He is the focal point of all economic and social activities. In fact, he is the very basis who supports the society. His interests, therefore, should receive the first priority. As population grows, adolescent consumers become a very attractive market. They are better- off financially in the modern era. They have been the target of the marketers of cosmetics, health care products, fashionable clothing, etc. This young attractive target cannot be taken for granted and hence all efforts are tailored to meet their needs. Identifying this target's needs and directing all marketing efforts at delivering customers value is the motto of most of the companies. Inter-personal and mass media communication play a major role in purchasing. Children have important impact on household decision-making by attempting to influence their parent's acquisition, usage and disposition of products. Effective buying can find ways of reaching the objective regardless of the limitations of our resources. Therefore it is important that adolescents should be brought up in an environment which is stimulating and sufficiently challenging for them to explore their potentialities and build up a satisfying future.
Summary.-The primary objective of the present research is to characterize the frequencies of self-injurious behaviors among Turkish adolescents and whether these vary by sex. The sample comprised 371 female and 309 male college students, randomly selected and studying in different colleges in Trabzon (Turkey). The Personal Information Form and the Inventory of Statements About Self-injury were administered. The most pervasive types of self-injurious behaviors reported were "preventing the healing of wounds (peeling the scabs)," "hitting oneself on a tough surface or self-hitting," and "scratching letters, texts, shapes on skin." Sex differences in self-injurious behaviors were observed. PMID:25350208
In human beings, susceptibility to anxiety disorders can be relatively high during adolescence. Understanding the ontogeny of anxiety-like behavior in laboratory rodents has implications for developing anxiolytic drugs that are suitable for this age group. Given the dearth of information about adolescent rodents, this study examined the response of both male and female adolescent, late adolescent, young adult, and older adult rats to three tests of anxiety-like behavior: the emergence test (E...
Lynn, Debra A.; Brown, Gillian R.
The principles of the Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy point out to the role of irrational beliefs in the occurrence of aggressive and antisocial behavior. The goal of this research is to determine whether there are links between irrational beliefs and self-assessment of antisocial behavior and whether there are differences with respect to irrational beliefs between the young who were sentenced by juvenile court judges compared to the control group. The research was conducted on two su...
Vukosavljevi?-Gvozden Tatjana; Opa?i? Goran; Mari? Zorica
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of our research was to establish a possible correlation between suicide risk in adolescents and a series ofintra-familial protective factors such as family harmony, intact families, increased family involvement in child education, empathy, ability toexpress emotions. Materials and Methods The study comprised the 1143 pupils, aged between 14 and 16 years from Cluj and Maramures counties,that participated in the SEYLE baseline evaluation. Results: Adolescents who have no problems with parents (p<0.001, being understoodby them (p<0.001 and having the belief that family is very important to them (p<0.001, are protected from the risk of committing suicide. Atthe same time, parents’ ability to listen children opinion (p<0.001 and help them take important decisions (p<0.001, the time spent discussingwith teens the problems they’re going through (p<0.001, and the fact that parents know what they do in their spare time (p=0.003 showsprotective factors of suicidal behavior with a statistically significant value in this study.Conclusion: The family is a psychosocial system witha major impact on adolescents’ personality formation. The attitude towards children, the parents availability to important moments for teens,the ability to be both subjective and objective towards their children initiatives, are factors of protection against adolescents’ suicidal behavior.
Ioana R. Rusu
The role of the neighborhood, family and peers regarding Colombian adolescents' social context and aggressive behavior / Contexto social y comportamiento agresivo en adolescentes Colombianos: el rol del barrio, la familia y los amigos
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo Evaluar la asociación entre las condiciones del barrio, las pautas de crianza y las relaciones con amigos con el comportamiento agresivo. Además analiza diferentes mecanismos por los cuales las condiciones del barrio pueden influir directa e indirectamente (vía su impacto sobre las pautas d [...] e crianza y las relaciones con amigos) dos tipos de comportamiento: agresión y delincuencia. Método Datos sobre comportamiento agresivo son tomados de una encuesta aplicada a 1 686 adolescentes residentes de 103 barrios de Medellín-Colombia. Datos sobre el barrio son tomados de bases de datos gubernamentales y de dos encuestas poblacionales. Para el análisis se utilizaron modelos multinivel y de ecuaciones estructurales. Resultados En Medellín, la probabilidad de agresión de un adolescente es del 7,0 % y de delincuencia de 0,3 %. Dichas probabilidades varían significativamente entre los barrios. Aunque ninguna de las características del barrio mostró un efecto directo sobre el comportamiento agresivo, las condiciones estructurales afectan indirectamente los adolescentes influyendo las pautas de crianza y la calidad de los amigos con quienes se relacionan. Conclusiones La pobreza en el barrio afecta el comportamiento agresivo de los adolescentes impactando las pautas de crianza y la calidad de las relaciones dentro del barrio. Intervenciones para controlar y prevenir el comportamiento agresivo deben desarrollarse en barrios con alta probabilidad de comportamiento agresivo y enfocarse no solamente en el mejoramiento físico de los barrios, sino en el fortalecimiento de las pautas de crianza y la calidad de los amigos de los adolescentes. Abstract in english Objective Examining neighborhood conditions, parenting and peer affiliations' association with adolescents' aggressive behavior. Testing various mechanisms through which neighborhood conditions influence two adolescent outcomes, both directly and indirectly (via their impact on parenting and peer-af [...] filiation): aggression and delinquency. Method Data regarding adolescents was taken from a self-reporting survey of 1,686 Colombian adolescents living in 103 neighborhoods of Medellin. Neighborhood-related data was taken from official government datasets, as well as two separate community surveys. Both multilevel modeling and multilevel structural equation modeling were used in the analysis. Results The probability of an adolescent engaging in aggression in Medellin was 7.0 % and becoming involved in delinquency 0.3 %. There was also significant variation for both forms of aggressive behavior at neighborhood-level (7.0 % aggression and 14 % regarding the delinquency scale). No neighborhood condition had a direct association with adolescents' aggressive behavior; however; the neighborhood exerted an indirect influence on adolescent behavior which was mainly transmitted through families and the quality of friends within a particular community. Conclusions Residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods did have an adverse effect on adolescents' aggressive behavior, mainly because of a lack of effective parenting strategies thereby facilitating affiliations being made with deviant peers. More efficient intervention for reducing adolescents' aggressive behavior should thus target areas having high odds of aggressive behavior and focus on improving community resources and, more importantly, on controlling adolescent peer groups, the lack of parental monitoring and inconsistent discipline.
Beatriz, Caicedo; Kelvyn, Jones.
The role of the neighborhood, family and peers regarding Colombian adolescents' social context and aggressive behavior / Contexto social y comportamiento agresivo en adolescentes Colombianos: el rol del barrio, la familia y los amigos
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo Evaluar la asociación entre las condiciones del barrio, las pautas de crianza y las relaciones con amigos con el comportamiento agresivo. Además analiza diferentes mecanismos por los cuales las condiciones del barrio pueden influir directa e indirectamente (vía su impacto sobre las pautas d [...] e crianza y las relaciones con amigos) dos tipos de comportamiento: agresión y delincuencia. Método Datos sobre comportamiento agresivo son tomados de una encuesta aplicada a 1 686 adolescentes residentes de 103 barrios de Medellín-Colombia. Datos sobre el barrio son tomados de bases de datos gubernamentales y de dos encuestas poblacionales. Para el análisis se utilizaron modelos multinivel y de ecuaciones estructurales. Resultados En Medellín, la probabilidad de agresión de un adolescente es del 7,0 % y de delincuencia de 0,3 %. Dichas probabilidades varían significativamente entre los barrios. Aunque ninguna de las características del barrio mostró un efecto directo sobre el comportamiento agresivo, las condiciones estructurales afectan indirectamente los adolescentes influyendo las pautas de crianza y la calidad de los amigos con quienes se relacionan. Conclusiones La pobreza en el barrio afecta el comportamiento agresivo de los adolescentes impactando las pautas de crianza y la calidad de las relaciones dentro del barrio. Intervenciones para controlar y prevenir el comportamiento agresivo deben desarrollarse en barrios con alta probabilidad de comportamiento agresivo y enfocarse no solamente en el mejoramiento físico de los barrios, sino en el fortalecimiento de las pautas de crianza y la calidad de los amigos de los adolescentes. Abstract in english Objective Examining neighborhood conditions, parenting and peer affiliations' association with adolescents' aggressive behavior. Testing various mechanisms through which neighborhood conditions influence two adolescent outcomes, both directly and indirectly (via their impact on parenting and peer-af [...] filiation): aggression and delinquency. Method Data regarding adolescents was taken from a self-reporting survey of 1,686 Colombian adolescents living in 103 neighborhoods of Medellin. Neighborhood-related data was taken from official government datasets, as well as two separate community surveys. Both multilevel modeling and multilevel structural equation modeling were used in the analysis. Results The probability of an adolescent engaging in aggression in Medellin was 7.0 % and becoming involved in delinquency 0.3 %. There was also significant variation for both forms of aggressive behavior at neighborhood-level (7.0 % aggression and 14 % regarding the delinquency scale). No neighborhood condition had a direct association with adolescents' aggressive behavior; however; the neighborhood exerted an indirect influence on adolescent behavior which was mainly transmitted through families and the quality of friends within a particular community. Conclusions Residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods did have an adverse effect on adolescents' aggressive behavior, mainly because of a lack of effective parenting strategies thereby facilitating affiliations being made with deviant peers. More efficient intervention for reducing adolescents' aggressive behavior should thus target areas having high odds of aggressive behavior and focus on improving community resources and, more importantly, on controlling adolescent peer groups, the lack of parental monitoring and inconsistent discipline.
Beatriz, Caicedo; Kelvyn, Jones.
Full Text Available We propose three current models, formulated over the last decade and not yet published in Russian, focused on teenage suicide: the development model of suicidal behavior in adolescents (J.A. Bridge, T.R. Goldstein, D.A. Brent; interpersonal model of (T.E. Joiner; some recent developments in the cognitive theory (A. Spirito, J.D. Matthews, A. Wenzel, A.T. Beck. Four groups of psychological aid targets for adolescents with suicidal tendencies are revealed: 1 targets of the current emotional state of a teenager (feelings of abandonment, self-perception as a burden to the loved ones, anxiety, hopelessness, heartache; 2 targets affecting personal predispositions (primitive defense mechanisms, impulsivity, aggression; 3 targets associated with cognitive functioning (cognitive rigidity, black-and-white thinking, thinking errors; and 4 targets reflecting a need to work with behavioral manifestations (narrow range of coping strategies used.
In the family-based prevention science literature, family functioning, defined as positive parenting, parental involvement, family cohesion, family communication, parental monitoring of peers, and parent–adolescent communication, has been shown to ameliorate HIV risk behaviors in Hispanic youth. However, the majority of studies have relied solely on parent or adolescent reports and we know very little about parent–adolescent family functioning discrepancies. Therefore, the purpose of this...
Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Lally, Meghan; Estrada, Yannine; Prado, Guillermo
To understand the co-occurrence of multiple types of violence, the authors developed a behavioral typology based on self-reports of suicidal behaviors, physical violence, and psychological abuse. Using a sample of dating adolescents from a high-risk school district, they identified five clusters of behaviors among the 1,653 students who reported being abusive or violent in the past year. Victimization and perpetration with same-sex peers and dating partners clustered together among the students who reported the highest levels of abusive (n = 357) or violent behavior (n = 146). These students also reported high levels of suicidal behavior. There were few significant demographic differences across clusters. The implications of the results for the need to design and evaluate efforts to prevent multiple types of violence are discussed. PMID:18252941
Bossarte, Robert M; Simon, Thomas R; Swahn, Monica H
A study examined therapeutic techniques and staff characteristics in outdoor behavioral healthcare (OBH) programs for delinquent adolescents. Surveys of 32 OBH programs indicated that most counseling was done by non-clinical field staff. Therapeutic techniques most used were verbal, written, active, metaphoric transfer, generalization and…
Post, Dawn Marie
This article describes preschool social understanding and difficult behaviors (hot temper, disobedience, bossiness and bullying) as predictors of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and aggressive conduct disorder (ACD) in a Dutch population sample of (pre)adolescents (N = 1943), measured at age 10–12 and at age 13–15. ODD and ACD were assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist and the Youth Self-Report, preschool behavior was evaluated by the parental questionnaire ‹How was your child ...
Emond, Alice; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene?; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.
French epidemiological data show that adolescents today experiment with tobacco at an earlier age than in the 1990s. Half of them combine tobacco consumption with other psychoactive products such as alcohol or cannabis. Tobacco consumption usually begins in adolescence and early smoking initiation is related to stronger nicotine dependence and problems quitting in adulthood. Occasional tobacco consumption rapidly leads to nicotine dependence. The national smoking cessation questionnaire is a tool to assess addictive behaviors among adolescents. It includes validated scales such as the loss of autonomy over tobacco and psychological evaluation. The aim of this school-based study was to assess addictive behaviors among adolescents (specifically loss of autonomy over tobacco) and psychological profile. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted in a high school in the Paris metropolitan area (Nogent-sur-Marne) in 2007 by the smoking cessation team of the Albert-Chenevier Hospital. Three hundred adolescents filled in a questionnaire concerning tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis consumption as well as their psychological profile. Loss of autonomy over tobacco use was evaluated with the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC). Anxiety and depressive disorders were identified using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD). Self-administered questionnaires were anonymously completed in the classroom by 151 girls and 149 boys aged 15-16 years (mean, 15.4 years): 34% of the adolescents smoked and most of them smoked at least one cigarette a day; 38% had used cannabis at least once in their life and one-third of them smoked more than 10 cannabis joints per month. Adolescents who frequently smoked cannabis had started smoking tobacco earlier than the other smokers (mean, 11.7 years versus 13.2 years). Adolescents often used different tobacco products. Manufactured cigarettes were the most frequently used, followed by shisha (waterpipe) and hand-rolled cigarettes. Among those who only smoked shisha, 76% had declared being non-smokers. Alcohol was the first psychoactive drug experimented by these adolescents; 73% had used alcohol at least once in their life and 10% used alcohol several times a week. According to the HONC, 94% of the smokers had lost control of their tobacco consumption. Concerning anxiety and depressive disorders, anxiety and depression scores were higher among smokers than non-smokers. Less than 6% of never-smokers had a depression score greater than 8 compared to 26% of adolescents smoking cannabis more than 10 times a month. The rapidity of the loss of autonomy among young smokers emphasizes the need for early interventions for tobacco prevention and cessation among adolescents. Tobacco use was often associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms, suggesting a need for professional support. The national smoking cessation questionnaire may be helpful in pediatric wards and consultations. PMID:21652184
Chéron-Launay, M; Baha, M; Mautrait, C; Lagrue, G; Le Faou, A-L
Background: This study examines the relationship between sexual behavior, alcohol use, and indicators of psychosocial distress (mental health) of adolescents in 6 sub-Saharan African countries using the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS). Methods: The sample consisted of 22,949 adolescents from Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, Uganda,…
Page, Randy M.; Hall, Cougar P.
Full Text Available Currently, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT becomes one of the leading approaches in the psychotherapy. However,use of CBT in childhood psychotherapy is considerably novel. After 1990s, it has been understood that it is an effectivemethod for children and adolescents. Anxiety disorders are one of the most common problems in the field of childhoodand adolescent psychiatry. In the studies conducted, the effectiveness of CBT was demonstrated in anxiety disorders ofthe children and adolescents. Moreover, it was suggested that this effectiveness is permanent in some studies. Prioritygoal of CBT is to change inappropriate learning and thinking patterns in the children and adolescents. By “now and here”fashion, it is attempted to reveal the origin of current problems. During the process, the factors are considered, whichcause to maintain the symptoms. It is attempted to decrease signs caused to stress by improving coping skills duringtherapy. To this end, methods including observation, relaxation training, systematic desensitization, social skills training,cognitive restructuring and exposure therapy are applied in sessions by taking child’s problems into consideration. Scalesspecific to anxiety disorders are used in the assessment and follow-up. Age and development level of the child should beparticularly taken into account while using assessment tools and therapeutic modality.
Didem Behice ÖZTOP
The impact of maternal HIV and family variables on sexual behaviors of early and middle adolescents was investigated. Data were collected from 118 pairs of HIV-positive mothers and their uninfected early/middle adolescents across four time-points. Descriptive analyses show the prevalence of sexual behaviors in this sample was significantly lower than rates in a comparable sample of adolescents who participated in the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Multivariate longitudinal analysis ...
Murphy, Debra A.; Herbeck, Diane M.; Marelich, William D.; Schuster, Mark A.
Risk behavior escalates during adolescence, contributing to substantial morbidity and mortality. This study examined whether individual differences in personality and neurocognitive function previously shown to be associated with overall frequency of risk behavior are differentially related to two proposed subtypes of adolescent risk behavior: planned and unplanned. Adolescents (N = 69, 49% male, M = 15.1 years, SD = 1.0), completed a battery of self-report measures and neurocognitive tasks. ...
Maslowsky, Julie; Keating, Daniel; Monk, Christopher; Schulenberg, John
Patterns of health-compromising behaviors and their initiation and progression in adolescence are generally considered to be predictive of later involvement in such behaviors and exposure to their harmful consequences on health. Health-enhancing behaviors can be also traced back to childhood and adolescence. Empirical evidence supports the existence of several domains of determinants covering intrapersonal, interpersonal and socio-cultural areas of infl uence in adolescent healthrelated behav...
Background and aims: Physical fighting and gambling are common risk behaviors among adolescents. Prior studies have found associations among these behaviors in adolescents but have not examined systematically the health and gambling correlates of problem-gambling severity amongst youth stratified by fight involvement. Methods: Survey data were used from 2,276 Connecticut high school adolescents regarding their physical fight involvement, gambling behaviors and perceptions, and health and func...
Slavin, Melissa; Pilver, Corey E.; Hoff, Rani A.; Krishnan-sarin, Suchitra; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N.
Filipino adolescents' perceptions regarding the legitimacy of parental control over academic behaviors was investigated. It was assumed that the adolescents would differentiate between the issues inherent in various types or domains of academic behaviors. The results revealed three domains of academic behaviors: learning processes, college major…
Bernardo, Allan B. I.
This study analyzes the age and gender related risk-taking behaviors of Turkish adolescents in an urban sample. A self-report risk taking scale was administered to 280 adolescents between the ages of 12-21. Results revealed that both the type and the frequency of risk-taking behaviors were changed according to age and gender. All risky behaviors…
Bayar, Nalan; Sayil, Melike
This study investigated the prospective, longitudinal relations between parental behaviors observed during parent-adolescent interactions, and the development of depression and anxiety symptoms in a community-based sample of 194 adolescents. Positive and negative parental behaviors were examined, with negative behaviors operationalized to…
Schwartz, Orli S.; Dudgeon, Paul; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.
Objective: To investigate the relationship between eating-related behaviors, particularly breakfast consumption, and weight status in Finnish and Greek adolescents. Methods: A total of 6,468 16-year-old Finnish adolescents and 2,842 17- and 18-year-old Greek adolescents, based on the latest follow-up of 2 population-based cohorts, were studied.…
Veltsista, Alexandra; Laitinen, Jaana; Sovio, Ulla; Roma, Eleftheria; Jarvelin, Marjo-Ritta; Bakoula, Chryssa
This study examined anxiety symptoms in 29 adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS) aged 12 to 16 years, compared to 30 nonclinical (NC) adolescents and 34 adolescents with anxiety disorders (AD). Comorbidity between anxiety symptoms and negative thoughts, behavioral problems, and life interference was also examined. Self- and parental reports…
Farrugia, Sylvana; Hudson, Jennifer
This study examined change in binge eating symptoms reported by moderately overweight adolescents following participation in a behavioral weight control intervention. A total of 194 adolescents across two randomized controlled trials participated. Adolescents in both study samples endorsed a mild level of binge eating symptoms at baseline. Results…
Mehlenbeck, Robyn S.; Jelalian, Elissa; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Hart, Chantelle N.
Objective: To identify sociodemographic and behavioral factors associated with abdominal obesity (AO) and high body fat percentage (high BF%) in adolescents from the city of Curitiba-PR. Methods: The sample consisted of 1,732 adolescents, aged 11 to 19 years, of both genders. The triceps and calf skinfolds were measured for the calculation of BF%, as well as the waist circumference. A questionnaire was completed by adolescents with the following type of residence, socioeconomic status, time spent watching TV on weekdays and weekends, and daily energy expenditure. Logistic regression was used to measure the association of sociodemographic and behavioral variables with abdominal obesity and high BF%. Results: Female were more likely to have high BF% (OR: 2.73; 95% CI: 2.32-3.33), but were less likely to have abdominal obesity (OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.44-0.78). Older individuals (1619 have high BF% (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.02-1.83). The older age groups (13-15 years and 16-19 years) had an inverse association with abdominal obesity. Regarding daily energy expenditure, the less active individuals were more likely to present high BF% (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.07-1.71) and obesity (OR: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.09-1.80). Conclusions: Interventions to increase physical activity levels in young people should be designed in order to combat excess body fat should designed to combat excess adiposity. PMID:25479856
Bozza, Rodrigo; de Campos, Wagner; Bacil, Eliane Denise Araújo; Barbosa, Valter Cordeiro; Hardt, Jennifer Morozini; da Silva, Priscila Marques
Arab-American Muslim adolescents in immigrant families face a number of challenges that put them at risk for behavior problems. This study of Arab-American Muslim Adolescents and their relatively recent immigrant mothers tested a longitudinal family-level model of adolescent behavior problems. Mother-adolescent dyads (N = 530) completed measures of maternal and adolescent stressors, active and avoidance coping, and social support; maternal distress; quality of mother-child relationship; and adolescent behavior problems at Time 1 and approximately 18 months later. The youth were between the ages of 11 and 15 years at Time 1 and 48.7% were girls. Longitudinal analyses were conducted using latent change modeling with change scores from Time 1 and Time 2 data. Social support facilitated active coping for both mothers and adolescents. Although maternal avoidance coping mediated maternal stressors and its effect on maternal distress, maternal stressors and maternal distress were not related to adolescent behavior problems. The only factor mitigating the effects of adolescent stressors on adolescent behavior problems was the quality of the mother-child relationship. These findings suggest that adolescents are insulated from maternal stress and distress as long as there is a good mother-child relationship. PMID:21161350
Aroian, Karen J; Templin, Thomas N; Hough, Edythe Ellison; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Katz, Anne
Previous research has documented associations of addiction with delinquency and psychological problems. However, few studies have evaluated their influence on adolescent's drug use trajectories. The current study aims to examine the influence of these factors on the recovery trajectories of 199 youths aged 15.6 years on average admitted to inpatient and outpatient addiction treatment centers, followed up three and six months later. Results indicate that youth who show higher severity of drug abuse exhibit greater improvement than youth with a lower severity of drug abuse at the onset of treatment. Although psychological problems were associated with baseline drug use, they did not influence drug use trajectory over time. Only delinquency influenced the recovery trajectories of these youth. Results suggest that a high level of delinquency can have a significant effect on the drug recovery process of adolescents and that interventions should attempt to reduce both drug use and delinquency. PMID:23849665
Brunelle, Natacha; Bertrand, Karine; Beaudoin, Isabelle; Ledoux, Cinthia; Gendron, Annie; Arseneault, Catherine
A total of 36 male adolescent delinquents and 19 age-matched students from a male secondary school were administered several different performance-based tests. Although estimates of intelligence did not differ significantly between the groups, the incarcerated delinquents displayed more impulsivity, lower conceptual level, less conceptual flexibility, and poorer critical thinking than the reference group. The linear combination of only three variables, critical thinking, conceptual level, and numbers of errors during a conditioned spatial association task, correctly classified 89% of the 55 subjects. The results were considered consistent with the hypothesis that delayed or different development of complex functions associated with the left and (particularly) the right prefrontal cortices and their limbic inputs may be responsible for antisocial behavior. This variation will always be present due to the statistical variations in ontogeny and less than optimal parental structure within a consistent but small proportion of any generational cohort. PMID:11272761
Chretien, R D; Persinger, M A
Anxiety disorders in adolescence are common and disruptive, pointing to a need for effective treatments for this age group. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is one of the most popular interventions for adolescent anxiety, and there is empirical support for its application. However, a significant proportion of adolescent clients continue to report anxiety symptoms post-treatment. This paper underscores the need to attend to the unique developmental characteristics of the adolescent period when...
Sauter, Floor M.; Heyne, David; Michiel Westenberg, P.
Full Text Available Children and adolescents with behavioral disorders are often referred to residential homes. These homes cater and treat socially disadvantaged adolescents with a history of deviant behavior. This study investigated the environment of eight adolescents in these residential homes and four non-aggressive adolescents living with their families. The daily activities were recorded by using camera-glasses attached to the subject. These activities took place in school, leisure time, family and residential homes. Other additional methods were used to investigate the perception and experience of these adolescents. The results of this study indicate that the adolescents in residential homes have a smaller living space in contrast to the non-aggressive adolescents. They also have less close relationships and fewer interactions with their peers. Moreover they have more conflicts and show more often aggressive behavior and they are more often victims of aggression.
This study evaluated the efficacy of a brief integrative multiple behavior intervention and assessed risk factors as mediators of behavioral outcomes among older adolescents. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with participants randomly assigned to either a brief intervention or standard care control with 3-month follow-up. A total of 479 students attending two public high schools participated. Participants receiving the intervention showed a significant reduction in quantity x frequency of alcohol use, and increases in fruit and vegetable consumption and frequency of relaxation activities, compared to those receiving the control, p’s =.01. No effects were found on cigarette and marijuana use, exercise and sleep. Effect sizes were small with alcohol use cessation effects reaching medium size. Intervention effects were mediated by changes in peer influenceability for alcohol use, and self-efficacy and self-image for health promoting behaviors. Findings suggest that the brief intervention resulted in health risk and promoting behavior improvements for adolescents, with outcomes mediated by several risk factors. PMID:20661637
(Chad) Werch, Chudley E.; Bian, Hui; Carlson, Joan; Moore, Michele J.; DiClemente, Carlo C.; Huang, I-Chan; Ames, Steven C.; Thombs, Dennis; Weiler, Robert M.; Pokorny, Steven B.
Full Text Available Purpose: This study analyzed treatment effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT group counseling intervention on HIV transmission risk behavior, depression, anxiety, and alcohol use in HIV perinatally infected adolescents attending an HIV clinical care center in Uganda, Africa. Method: A total of 186 adolescents were randomly assigned to an experimental or control arm and assigned into groups of 11 - 16 adolescents. The experimental groups received an 80-minute CBT based weekly intervention for 8 consecutive weeks, while the control groups received only standard group care. Data from self report assessments were analyzed at pre- and post-test using repeated measures of analysis of variance. The participants, analyzed by variable, included 115 for sexual behavior, 106 for depression, 88 for anxiety, and 115 for alcohol use. Results: The results from the study show a large significant difference (p = 0.006 between the experimental and control groups on the anxiety variable. There were no significant differences between the experimental and control groups on the variables of sexual behavior (p = 0.876, depression (p = 0.700, and alcohol use (p = 0.815. There was an indication of reduced levels of HIV sexual transmission risk behavior, depression, and alcohol use levels in the participants in both the experimental and control groups. Conclusions: Risky sexual behavior places HIV perinatally infected adolescents at risk of re-infection, sexually transmitted diseases, and transmitting HIV to their sexual partners. CBT group counseling intervention equipped the participating adolescents with appropriate life skills to deal with psychological distress and anxiety often seen in their lives and may be useful in routine medical care to reduce transmission risks and improve wellness and call for its incorporation into HIV preventive programs and counselor education.
Ruth M. Senyonyi
A relation between pica (the craving and purposive consumption of nonfood items) during pregnancy and anemia is observed frequently. However, few studies related pica behaviors to biomarkers of iron status, and little is known about pica prevalence in U.S. pregnant adolescents. To address this, we undertook a longitudinal study examining iron status and pica behaviors among a group of 158 pregnant adolescents (aged ?18 y). Approximately two-thirds of the participants were African American and 25% were Hispanic. Maternal iron status indicators [hemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptor, serum ferritin (SF), total body iron (TBI), and serum hepcidin] were assessed during pregnancy (18.5-37.3 wk) and at delivery. Pica behavior was assessed up to 3 times across gestation. Among the 158 adolescents, 46% reported engaging in pica behavior. Substances ingested included ice (37%), starches (8%), powders (4%), and soap (3%). During pregnancy, mean SF [geometric mean: 13.6 ?g/L (95% CI: 11.0, 17.0 ?g/L)], TBI (mean ± SD: 2.5 ± 4.2 mg/kg), and hepcidin [geometric mean: 19.1 ?g/L (95% CI: 16.3, 22.2 ?g/L)] concentrations were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the pica group (n = 72) than values observed among the non-pica group [SF, geometric mean: 21.1 ?g/L (95% CI: 18.0, 25.0 ?g/L); TBI, mean ± SD: 4.3 ± 3.5 mg/kg; hepcidin, geometric mean: 27.1 ?g/L (95%: 23.1, 32.1 ?g/L); n = 86]. Although additional studies must address the etiology of these relations, this practice should be screened for, given its association with low iron status and because many of the substances ingested may be harmful. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01019902. PMID:25122650
Lumish, Rachel A; Young, Sera L; Lee, Sunmin; Cooper, Elizabeth; Pressman, Eva; Guillet, Ronnie; O'Brien, Kimberly O
This article describes preschool social understanding and difficult behaviors (hot temper, disobedience, bossiness and bullying) as predictors of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and aggressive conduct disorder (ACD) in a Dutch population sample of (pre)adolescents (N = 1943), measured at age 10-12 and at age 13-15. ODD and ACD were assessed by…
Emond, Alice; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.
EditorialThe Sex Crime Situation: Deterioration more Apparent than Real? - Donald WestSocial Policy and Sexual Offenders: Contrasting United States' and European Policies - Roxanne LiebThe Pornographic Context of Sexual Delinquency: Reflections on the Contemporary Sexual Mentality - Hans BoutellierThe Emergence of a New Taboo: The Desexualisation of Youth in Western Society since 1800 - Martin Killias Policies and Developments relating...
The shift from childhood to adolescence is characterized by rapid remodeling of the brain and increased risk-taking behaviors. Current theories hypothesize that developmental enhancements in sensitivity to affective environmental cues in adolescence may undermine executive function (EF) and increase the likelihood of problematic behaviors. In the current study, we examined the extent to which EF in childhood predicts EF in early adolescence. We also tested whether individual differences in ne...
MadelineHarms; VivianZayas; AndrewMeltzoff
Social stress in adolescence is correlated with emergence of psychopathologies during early adulthood. In this study, we investigated the impact of social defeat stress during mid-adolescence on adult male brain and behavior. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to repeated social defeat for five days while controls were placed into a novel empty cage. When exposed to defeat-associated cues as adults, previously defeated rats showed increased risk assessment and behavioral inhibit...
Watt, Michael J.; Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.
Adolescents who abuse substances are more likely to engage in health-risking sexual behavior (HRSB) and are at particularly high risk for HIV/AIDS. Thus, substance abuse treatment presents a prime opportunity to target HIV-risk behaviors. The present study evaluated a one-session HIV-risk intervention embedded in a controlled clinical trial for drug-abusing adolescents. The trial was conducted in New Mexico and Oregon with Hispanic and Anglo adolescents. Youths were randomly assigned to indiv...
Hops, Hyman; Ozechowski, Timothy J.; Waldron, Holly B.; Davis, Betsy; Turner, Charles W.; Brody, Janet L.; Barrera, Manuel
There is considerable suggestive evidence that parents can protect their adolescents from developing problem behaviors if they implement recommended best parenting practices. These include providing appropriate limits on adolescent free time, maintaining a close personal relationship with the adolescent, and negotiating and providing incentives for positive behavior patterns. However, retention of the study samples has limited conclusions that can be drawn from published studies. This randomi...
Pierce, John P.; James, Lisa E.; Messer, Karen; Myers, Mark G.; Williams, Rebecca E.; Trinidad, Dennis R.
Objective?Maltreated female adolescents are at risk for engaging in sexual behaviors consistent with HIV infection and teen pregnancy. The current study applied a model positing the key role of psychological dysregulation in the development of adolescent females’ sexual behavior.?Methods?The sample consisted of adolescent females aged 14–17 years who had experienced substantiated childhood maltreatment (n?=?275) and a demographically matched, non-maltreated comparison group (n?...
Noll, Jennie G.; Haralson, Katherine J.; Butler, Erica M.; Shenk, Chad E.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent onset bipolar disorder often presents with co-morbid disorders of which psychoactive substance use disorders are notable. Mania symptoms and co-morbid psychoactive substance use disorders prone adolescents with bipolar disorder to impulsivity, impaired judgment, and risk taking behavior which often includes sexual risk behavior. There are dearth of information on pattern of co-morbid disorders and sexual risk behavior in adolescent onset bipolar disorder in Nigeria. This study assessed the prevalence and pattern of co-morbid disorders and determined associated factors of sexual risk behavior among adolescents with bipolar disorder. Methods Socio-demographic information was obtained from the adolescents using socio-demographic questionnaire. Clinical interview, physical examination and laboratory investigations were employed to establish co-morbid disorders in these adolescents during the outpatient follow up visits over a one year period. Results A total of forty six (46 adolescents with bipolar disorder were followed up over a one year period. Twenty two (47.8% of the adolescents had co-morbid disorders with cannabis use disorders, alcohol use disorders, conduct disorder with or without other psychoactive substance use accounting for 23.9%, 8.7%, 13.0% respectively and HIV infection, though a chance finding accounting for 2.2%. Twenty one (45.7% of the adolescents had positive history of sexual risk behavior, which was significantly associated with presence of co-morbid disorders (p = 0.003, level of religion activities in the adolescents (p = 0.000, and marital status of the parents (p = 0.021. Conclusion When planning interventions for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder, special attention may need to be focused on group of adolescents with co-morbid disorders and propensity towards impulsivity and sexual risk behavior. This may help in improving long term outcome in this group of adolescents.
Bakare Muideen O
Research consistently demonstrates that youths who experience maltreatment are at greater risk for committing delinquent behavior. Yet little is known about how to disrupt this maltreatment-delinquency relationship. Life course theory suggests that youths who bond with prosocial individuals and traditional institutions subscribe to prosocial norms…
This study describes the profile of and relationships between adaptive skills and the maladaptive behaviors exhibited by adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) attending special schools in Singapore. Parents of 20 adolescents with ASD attending special schools completed the Development Behavior Checklist (DBC; Einfeld & Tonge, 1995;…
Poon, Kenneth K.
Background: In approaches to health promotion in adolescents, unhealthy behaviors are no longer regarded as independent processes, but as interrelated. This article presents a systematic literature review of school-based interventions targeting multiple adolescent behaviors simultaneously. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed…
Busch, Vincent; de Leeuw, Johannes Rob Josephus; de Harder, Alinda; Schrijvers, Augustinus Jacobus Petrus
Substance use is an important risk factor for suicidal behavior in adolescence. In this study, rates of substance use in a sample of adolescents who had attempted suicide were examined as were the relationships of mood state and behavior problems to substance use. Results suggest that alcohol use among suicide attempters is more strongly related…
Spirito, Anthony; Mehlenbeck, Robyn; Barnett, Nancy; Lewander, William; Voss, Alexis
This study examined the impact of treatment adherence and therapist competence on treatment outcome in a controlled trial of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for adolescent substance use and related behavior problems. Participants included 136 adolescents (62 CBT, 74 MDFT) assessed at intake,…
Hogue, Aaron; Henderson, Craig E.; Dauber, Sarah; Barajas, Priscilla C.; Fried, Adam; Liddle, Howard A.
This study examined predictive relations between 9 therapist behaviors and client involvement in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Analyses included 42 adolescents who met criteria for a depressive disorder (major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or adjustment disorder with depressed mood) and who were…
Jungbluth, Nathaniel J.; Shirk, Stephen R.
A revision of a work published in 1929, the book updates data on delinquency in Chicago. Findings revealed that rates of delinquents and commitments vary consistently, low rates reflect the existence of a stable institutional structure, a high incidence of deliquency indicates a breakdown of machinery through which population needs are met, high…
Shaw, Clifford R.; McKay, Henry D.
Full Text Available This work examines the co-occurrence of risk behaviors among Spanish adolescents. The analyzed behaviors were sexual activity, the use of alcohol and other drugs, violent conduct and behaviors related to driving mopeds or scooters. The sample consisted of 4,091 adolescents between the ages of 13 to 18, all of them enrolled in one of the four compulsory years of secondary education, the approximate equivalents of the 7th to 10th grades in the US educational system. Cluster analysis indicates that there are four risk profiles, one of which is the profile with the greatest risk and the highest co-occurrence of risk behaviors. This group represents 13% of the sample and is noteworthy for using illegal drugs, driving under the influence of drugs and other activities carried out under the influence of alcohol. Differences have been found among the various profiles according to sociodemographic characteristics such as sex, grade, perception of the family’s economic situation and ethnicity. The findings are discussed and some suggestions are given for prevention intervention.
Este trabajo examina la concurrencia de comportamientos de riesgo en adolescentes españoles. Los comportamientos analizados fueron la actividad sexual, el consumo de alcohol y otras drogas, conductas violentas y comportamientos en la conducción de ciclomotores o motocicletas. La muestra incluye 4.091 adolescentes de 13 a 18 años, perteneciente a educación secundaria obligatoria. Los resultados obtenidos muestran cuatro perfiles de riesgo, siendo uno de ellos el perfil de más alto riesgo y concurrencia de comportamientos arriesgados. Este grupo supone el 13% en el que destacan las conductas de consumo de drogas lícitas, conducir bajo los efectos de droga y otras conductas realizadas bajo los efectos del alcohol. Se encuentran diferencias entre estos perfiles y las características sociodemográficas como el sexo, el curso, la percepción sobre la economía familiar y la etnicidad. Se discuten los resultados obtenidos y se ofrece algunas sugerencias para la prevención.
In this Monograph, we report the follow-up of 570 adolescents who had been studied as preschoolers in one of two separate investigations of television use. The primary goal of the study was to determine the long-term relations between preschool television viewing and adolescent achievement, behavior, and attitudes. Using a telephone interview and high school transcripts, we assessed adolescent media use; grades in English, science, and math; leisure reading; creativity; aggression; participation in extracurricular activities; use of alcohol and cigarettes; and self-image. In each domain, we tested theories emphasizing the causal role of television content (e.g., social learning, information processing) as contrasted with those theories positing effects of television as a medium, irrespective of content (e.g., time displacement, pacing, interference with language). The results provided much stronger support for content-based hypotheses than for theories emphasizing television as a medium; moreover, the patterns differed for boys and girls. Viewing educational programs as preschoolers was associated with higher grades, reading more books, placing more value on achievement, greater creativity, and less aggression. These associations were more consistent for boys than for girls. By contrast, the girls who were more frequent preschool viewers of violent programs had lower grades than those who were infrequent viewers. These associations held true after taking into account family background, other categories of preschool viewing, and adolescent media use. One hypothesis accounting for the sex differences is that early experiences, such as television viewing, have greater effects when they counteract normative developmental trends and predominant sex-typed socialization influences than when they reinforce them. Adolescents in the study used both television and print media to support ongoing interests. Television content (e.g., entertainment, sports, or world events) predicted extracurricular activities, role models, and body image. The only evidence for possible effects of television as a medium was the positive relation of total viewing to obesity for girls. The medium of television is not homogeneous or monolithic, and content viewed is more important than raw amount. The medium is not the message: The message is. PMID:11326591
Anderson, D R; Huston, A C; Schmitt, K L; Linebarger, D L; Wright, J C
We tested whether parents can reduce affiliation with delinquent peers through 3 forms of peer management: soliciting information, monitoring rules, and communicating disapproval of peers. We examined whether peer management interrupted 2 peer processes: selection and influence of delinquent peers. Adolescents' feelings of being…
Tilton-Weaver, Lauree C.; Burk, William J.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan
The therapy program of the social therapeutical ward (STW) at the Pfalzinstitut for child and adolescent psychiatry was specially developed for adolescents with severe conduct disorders. Each adolescent receives a treatment program (e.g. role playing, group therapy, behavioral contracts) according to his individual problem behaviors. Essential part of the therapy program is the therapeutic milieu on the ward. Since the opening in 1990, 71 adolescents were treated more than 8 weeks at the STW. Each adolescent completed after admission and before discharge a personality questionnaire (HSPQ). The aggressive behavior during the first weeks after admission and the last 4 weeks before discharge respectively was rated by staff members on the overt aggression scale (OAS). 1 year posttreatment the behavior of these adolescents at home and at school/at work was assessed. 1 year follow-up data indicate that about 2/3 of the former patients showed no severe behavior problems at home and at school/at work respectively. Positive outcome was associated with changes from dissocial to prosocial attitudes, as measured by the HSPQ. Decrease in aggressive behavior during therapy, according to the OAS, was--contrary to expectations--associated with an increase in behavior problems after discharge. Obviously it is more promising to change the attitudes of conduct disordered adolescents in the prosocial direction than to change their overt aggressive behavior. PMID:10409873
This longitudinal study examined trajectories of change in adolescents’ perceptions of four dimensions of school climate (academic support, behavior management, teacher social support, peer social support) and the effects of such trajectories on adolescent problem behaviors. We also tested whether school climate moderated the associations between deviant peer affiliation and adolescent problem behaviors. The 1,030 participating adolescents from 8 schools were followed from 6th through 8th g...
Wang, Ming-te; Dishion, Thomas J.
A longitudinal, prospective design was used to examine the roles of peer rejection in middle childhood and antisocial peer involvement in early adolescence in the development of adolescent externalizing behavior problems. Both early starter and late starter pathways were considered. Classroom sociometric interviews from ages 6 through 9 years, adolescent reports of peers' behavior at age 13 years, and parent, teacher, and adolescent self-reports of externalizing behavior problems from age 5 t...
Laird, Robert D.; Jordan, Kristi Y.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies, particularly in developing countries, have explored the relationship between adolescents and parental values with adolescent problem behaviors. The objectives of the study are to (1 describe adolescents' personal values, their problem behaviors, and the relationships thereof according to gender and (2 examine the relationship between parental values, adolescent values, and adolescents' problem behaviors among sixth-grade students and one of their parents. Methods The data used in these analyses were from the baseline assessment of a school-based HIV risk reduction intervention being conducted and evaluated among sixth grade students and one of their parents across 9 elementary schools in The Bahamas. Personal values were measured by the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ. Seven reported problem behaviors were queried from the students, which included physical fight with a friend, drank alcohol, beer, or wine, smoked a cigarette, pushed or carried any drugs, carried a gun, knife, screwdriver or cutlass to use as a weapon, had sex and used marijuana or other illicit drugs over the past 6 months. Multilevel modeling for binary data was performed to estimate the associations between adolescent and parental values and adolescent problem behaviors. Results Among 785 students, 47% of the students reported at least one problem behavior. More boys (54% reported having one or more problem behaviors than girls (41%, p Conclusion In designing interventions for reducing adolescents' problem behaviors, it may be important to understand the values associated with specific problem behaviors. Further exploration regarding lack of association between adolescent and parental values and problem behaviors is needed.
The emotional impact of serious illness or injury bears just as much potential for being disabling to an adolescent as does the condition itself. It is also these concerns and the possibilities for difficult behavior on the part of teenagers on the ward which frequently cause staff members to feel at a loss when caring for this reputedly difficult age group. But if one carefully examines the specific developmental stresses of illness and the various coping mechanisms by which the youth may counter them, a logical management approach emerges. To a large degree this approach depends on compensation, intellectualization, displacement and constructive denial but also recognizes that destructive denial, regression and projection do normally and naturally occur at various points in the course of illness and hospitalization and that panic and acting out may also readily occur, but less frequently. The deterence of the more deleterious responses and promotion of the more felicitious dependes on a ward setting which provides for the adolescent's growing need for independence and self-determination; for continued reassurance about body image integrity, for resumption of mastery and control; and for the maintenance or restoration of his sense of self-worth. These goals are achieved by encouraging the youth to be an active partner in his own care; to share in decisions made about his condition; to pursue just as much independent self-management as he can; to actively engage in establishing a peer group with other adolescents in the ward; to continue with his education, socialization, personal interests and outside peer contacts as much as possible; and to feel that the staff respects his dignity and privacy, likes him as a person and appreciates the courage and effort with which he is facing a difficult time. PMID:1065191
Hofmann, A D
This article aimed to determine sexual behaviors among female and male adolescents in northern Italy. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire evaluating sexual attitudes was distributed in middle and high schools in northern Italy. Adolescents between 13 and 19 years of age were asked to participate at the survey. The study group included 664 participants. Overall, 164 (25%) adolescents had had at least one sexual intercourse. Among adolescents who have had sexual intercourse, 90 (55%) use condoms, 25 (15%) use hormonal contraception, and 49 (30%) do not use any contraception method. A total of 559 adolescents (84%) participated in school-based sexual education programs. This group had better knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases and contraception methods in comparison with adolescents who have never participated in such educational programs (p School-based sexual education programs improve knowledge of sexual transmitted diseases and contraception methods. However, this knowledge does not correlate to high-risk sexual behaviors reduction. PMID:25189401
Bogani, Giorgio; Cromi, Antonella; Serati, Maurizio; Monti, Zelia; Apolloni, Chiara; Nardelli, Federica; Di Naro, Edoardo; Ghezzi, Fabio
Because of high levels of risk behavior, adjudicated adolescents are at high risk for negative health outcomes such as nicotine and drug addiction and sexually transmitted diseases. The goal of this article is to examine relationships between future orientation and impulsive-sensation-seeking personality constructs to risk behaviors among 300 adjudicated adolescents. Significant relationships between impulsive sensation seeking and future orientation were found for several risk behaviors. Ind...
Robbins, Reuben N.; Bryan, Angela
Introduction: New paradigms based on the multifactorial etiology of chronic diseases and behavioral outcomes suggest that a combination of health behaviors may have more impact on the outcome of interest than any single factor. Objective: To examine the independent and combined influence of four health behaviors on school performance in Spanish adolescents. Methods: A total of 1825 Spanish adolescents reported their grades in Language and Literature (LL) and Math. Body mass index, family stru...
Marti?nez Go?mez, D.; Veiga, Oscar; Go?mez Marti?nez, Sonia; Zapatera, Bele?n; Marti?nez-herna?ndez, D.; Calle, M. E.; Marcos, Ascensio?n
Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse has been associated with subsequent (adult) sexual risk behavior, but the effects of force and type of sexual abuse on sexual behavior outcomes have been less well-studied. The present study investigated the associations between sexual abuse characteristics and later sexual risk behavior, and explored whether gender of the child/adolescent moderated these relations. Patients attending an STD clinic completed a computerized survey that assessed history of ...
Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite
Background:? Impaired verbal abilities are one of the most consistent risk factors for serious antisocial and delinquent behavior. However, individuals with psychopathic traits often show serious antisocial behavior, despite showing no impairment in their verbal abilities. Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine whether psychopathy moderates the relationship between verbal abilities and delinquent behavior in a sample of detained youth. Methods:? The sample included 100 deta...
Centifanti, L. C.; Frick, P. J.; Kimonis, E. R.; Aucoin, K. J.
This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th grade to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1), we tested these adolescents’ decision-making using the Iowa Gambling Task and working memory capacity using the Self-order...
LinXiao; Andersonjohnson, C.
?Adolescent gambling has raised concern among the public as it entails an array of significant adverse consequences. With the dramatic expansion of gambling opportunity and the wide acceptance of gambling as a harmless and entertaining activity, the number of adolescents involved with gambling activities has increased. As such, there is growing interest among researchers in studying factors that are associated with adolescents’ gambling behavior. Nevertheless, this important research area...
Wong, Sau-kuen; ???.
This study examined change in binge eating symptoms reported by moderately overweight adolescents following participation in a behavioral weight control intervention. A total of 194 adolescents across two randomized controlled trials participated. Adolescents in both study samples endorsed a mild level of binge eating symptoms at baseline. Results from both Study 1 and Study 2 indicate a significant reduction in binge eating symptoms following participation in a 16-week weight control interve...
Mehlenbeck, Robyn S.; Jelalian, Elissa; Lloyd-richardson, Elizabeth E.; Hart, Chantelle N.
Risk-taking propensity is a pivotal facet of motor vehicle crash involvement and subsequent traumatic injury in adolescents. Clinical encounters are important opportunities to identify teens with high risk-taking propensity who may later experience serious injury. Our objective was to compare self-reports of health risk behavior with performance on the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART), a validated metric of risk-taking propensity, in adolescents during a clinical encounter. 100 adolescent pati...
Vaca, Federico E.; Walthall, Jessica M.; Ryan, Sheryl; Moriarty-daley, Alison; Riera, Antonio; Crowley, Michael J.; Mayes, Linda C.
Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high-status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of jocks', populars', burnouts', and brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and populars were rated as higher status than brains and burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high-status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between populars'/jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high-status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PMID:25365121
Helms, Sarah W; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J
Children's empathy and prosocial behavior play an important role in their social competence. Of the influential factors, research has demonstrated that parental behaviors and the quality of the parent-child relationship are important correlates of children's development of empathy and prosocial behavior. The current study examined the associations between different types of parental behaviors (i.e., parental knowledge, parental solicitation, and parental psychological control), "balanced connectedness" in the parent-child relationship, which allows for both closeness and autonomy, and empathy and prosocial behavior in adolescents. The participants were 335 married couples (more than 80 % European American) and their adolescent child (49.0 % female; 10-13 years). Data were collected at three time points for parental behaviors, balanced parent-child connectedness, and adolescents' empathy and prosocial behavior, respectively. The results of structural equation modeling suggested that adolescents' perceptions of parental solicitation and parental psychological control may be associated with their empathy and prosocial behavior through their perceived balanced connectedness with parents. These findings suggest that enhancing balanced connectedness in the parent-child relationship may contribute to promoting empathy and prosocial behavior in adolescents over time. Further, this study suggests that parental solicitation may play a role in adolescents' empathic and prosocial development, possibly depending on the quality of the parent-child relationship. PMID:23283695
Yoo, Hana; Feng, Xin; Day, Randal D
Dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus is believed to underlie the development of much psychopathology. However, to date only limited longitudinal data relate early behavior with neural structure later in life. Our objective was to examine the relationship of early life externalizing behavior with adolescent brain structure. We report here the first longitudinal study linking externalizing behavior during preschool to brain structure during adolescence. We examined the relationship of preschool externalizing behavior with amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex volumes at age 15 years in a community sample of 76 adolescents followed longitudinally since their mothers' pregnancy. A significant gender by externalizing behavior interaction revealed that males-but not females-with greater early childhood externalizing behavior had smaller amygdala volumes at adolescence (t = 2.33, p = .023). No significant results were found for the hippocampus or the prefrontal cortex. Greater early externalizing behavior also related to smaller volume of a cluster including the angular gyrus and tempoparietal junction across genders. Results were not attributable to the impact of preschool anxiety, preschool maternal stress, school-age internalizing or externalizing behaviors, or adolescent substance use. These findings demonstrate a novel, gender-specific relationship between early-childhood externalizing behavior and adolescent amygdala volume, as well as a cross-gender result for the angular gyrus and tempoparietal junction. PMID:25658357
Caldwell, Jessica Z K; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Hanson, Jamie L; Sutterer, Matthew J; Stodola, Diane E; Koenigs, Michael; Kalin, Ned H; Essex, Marilyn J; Davidson, Richard J
Historically, girls have been less delinquent than boys. However, increased justice system involvement among girls and current portrayals of girls in the popular media and press suggest that girls’ delinquency, particularly their violence and drug use, is becoming more similar to that of boys. Are girls really becoming more delinquent? To date, this question remains unresolved. Girls’ increased system involvement might reflect actual changes in their behavior or changes in justice system ...
Goodkind, Sara; Wallace, John M.; Shook, Jeffrey J.; Bachman, Jerald; O’malley, Patrick
Relationship violence is a common problem faced by adolescents in the United States. In general, adolescents are at higher risk for relationship victimization than adults (Silverman, Raj, Mucci, & Hathaway, 2001), and females between the ages of 16 and 24 years are at the highest risk of relationship victimization (Rennison, 2001). This study uses data from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance (YRBSS) System (or referred to as Youth Risk Behavior Survey [YRBS]; N = 11,781) of adolescents between the ages of 14 and 17 years to estimate two logistic regression models on the association between relationship violence and suicidal behaviors controlling for variables such as sexual assault and drug use. The findings indicated that victimized adolescents are at higher risk for planning and/or attempting suicide compared to nonvictimized adolescents. Implications for research and practice are explored. PMID:22978076
Belshaw, Scott H; Siddique, Julie Ahmad; Tanner, Jennifer; Osho, G Solomon
Background: Sources of sexual health information exert strong influence on adolescents' sexual behavior. Purpose: The current study was undertaken to understand how family serve as sexual information sources, the messages adolescents recall from family, and how family learning experiences affect sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Methods:…
Rosengard, Cynthia; Tannis, Candace; Dove, David C.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Lopez, Rosalie; Stein, L. A. R.; Morrow, Kathleen M.
Peer status is an important aspect of adolescents' social lives and is pursued actively by them. Although extensive research has examined how social behaviors are related to peer status (e.g., social preference, popularity), little attention has been given to adolescents' social goals to obtain a desired peer status. Thus, this study examined two types of social status goals, popularity goal and social preference goal, and their relationships to social status insecurity and social behaviors among 405 ethnically diverse early adolescents (267 girls; M age = 12.92 years; age range = 11-15 years). After accounting for adolescents' attained peer statuses (popularity and social preference), both social status goals were related distinctly to aggressive and prosocial behaviors as measured by self reports and peer nominations. Specifically, higher endorsement of the popularity goal was related to more self-reported relational aggression, but less peer-nominated prosocial behavior. In contrast, higher endorsement of the social preference goal was linked to less self-reported overt and relational aggression, but more self-reported and peer-nominated prosocial behavior. In addition, this study reveals that adolescents' social status insecurity was related positively to both social status goals and had an indirect effect on adolescents' social behaviors through the mediation of popularity goal endorsement. There were variations in goal endorsement as shown by groups of adolescents endorsing different levels of each goal. The group comparison results on social behaviors were largely consistent with the correlational findings. This study provides new insights into adolescents' social cognitive processes about peer status and the implications of the two social status goals on adolescents' behavioral development. PMID:23526208
Li, Yan; Wright, Michelle F
Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…
Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen
Temperament traits may increase risk for developmental psychopathology like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviors during childhood, as well as predisposing to substance abuse during adolescence. In the current study, a cascade model of trait pathways to adolescent substance abuse was examined. Component…
Martel, Michelle M.; Pierce, Laura; Nigg, Joel T.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth; Puttler, Leon I.; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A.
In the present study, the authors examined the relations among parenting styles, parental practices, sympathy, and prosocial behaviors in adolescents. The participants were 233 adolescents (M age = 16.7 years; 69% girls; mostly White) from public high schools in the Midwestern region of the United States who completed measures of prosocial…
Carlo, Gustavo; McGinley, Meredith; Hayes, Rachel; Batenhorst, Candice; Wilkinson, Jamie
Background: An asymmetrical oral disease burden is endured by certain population subgroups, particularly children and adolescents. Reducing oral health disparities requires understanding multiple oral health perspectives, including those of adolescents. This qualitative study explores oral health perceptions and dental care behaviors among rural…
Dodd, Virginia J.; Logan, Henrietta; Brown, Cameron D.; Calderon, Angela; Catalanotto, Frank
The present study investigated the role of identity in the relationship between family functioning and behavior problems in a sample of Hispanic immigrant early adolescents and their families. The sample consisted of 181 Hispanic immigrant adolescents (92 males, 89 females) and their participating caregivers (who were mostly mothers). Identity was…
Schwartz, Seth J.; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo; Sullivan, Summer; Szapocznik, Jose
Prior studies have indicated that the relationship between parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior is at least partially shared environmental in origin. However, all available research on this topic (to our knowledge) relies exclusively on parent and/or adolescent informant-reports, both of which are subject to various forms of…
Klahr, Ashlea M.; Rueter, Martha A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.; Burt, S. Alexandra
Children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome occasionally exhibit aggressive behavior against peers and parents. In a multiple baseline design across subjects, three adolescents with Asperger syndrome were taught to use a mindfulness-based procedure called "Meditation on the Soles of the Feet" to control their physical aggression in the family…
Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Angela D. A.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy
The coping strategies used by adolescents to deal with stress may have implications for the development of depression and suicidal ideation. This study examined coping categories and specific coping behaviors used by adolescents to assess the relation of coping to depression and suicidal ideation. In hierarchical regression models, the specific…
Horwitz, Adam G.; Hill, Ryan M.; King, Cheryl A.
This study examined the trajectories of sexual risk behaviors among adolescents from ages 15 to 23 and factors associated with those trajectories. The sample was 5,419 adolescents from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Using group-based trajectory modeling, five distinctive trajectory groups were identified. The High group had a high…
Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing
This study examined the effects of cumulative risk and promotive factors on violent behavior across the high school years of adolescence in a sample of predominately African American urban adolescents (N = 750). Cumulative risk and promotive factor indices represented individual characteristics, and peer, parental, and familial influences. Using…
Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.
Purpose: To explore adolescent health seeking behavior during pregnancy and early motherhood in order to contribute to health policy formulation and improved access to health care. This will in long-term have an impact on the reduction of morbidity and mortality among adolescent mothers and their newborns. Methods: This was a qualitative study…
Atuyambe, Lynn; Mirembe, Florence; Annika, Johansson; Kirumira, Edward K.; Faxelid, Elisabeth
Objective: To research the correlation between physical and sexual abuse by family members and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy and behavior among urban and rural adolescents in Zambia. Sample: The sample comprises 3,360 adolescents, aged 10-19, from urban and rural Zambia; 2,160 of them attended school, while 1,200 of them did…
Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Mukuka, Lawrence
Objective: To compare prevalence of serious emotional and behavioral problems and mental health contacts for these problems among American and British children and adolescents. Method: Data on children and adolescents ages 5 to 16 years were drawn from the 2004 U.S. National Health Interview Survey (response rate = 79.4%) and the 2004 survey of…
Most published research on community risk and protective factors for adolescent problem behaviors has been carried out in developed nations. This article examines community risk and protective factors in a sample of more than 2,500 adolescents in Trinidad and Tobago, a developing Caribbean nation. The authors examine the construct and concurrent…
Maguire, Edward R.; Wells, William; Katz, Charles M.
Adolescence is a developmental time period marked by rapid changes in behavior and brain structure. Stress during adolescence has been shown to cause long-lasting behavioral changes, including increased anxiety- and depression-like behavior, in both rats and humans. These findings have led to the hypothesis that adolescence may be a particularly vulnerable or sensitive period for stress exposure. To investigate this hypothesis, we directly compared the effects of a 3-day stress exposure during either an adolescent (post natal day (PND) 27-29) or adult (PND 72-74) time window on exploratory behavior in male rats, measured 6 weeks post-stress (PND 72 or PND 117). Exploratory behavior was tested in both 'anxiogenic' and 'anxiolytic' environments, using the open field and novel object tests, respectively. We hypothesized that rats stressed as adolescents would show greater behavioral changes than rats stressed as adults. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found a decrease in exploratory behavior in the open-field test in both age groups. Furthermore, the magnitude of difference between stress and age-matched control animals was similar between age groups. In contrast, stress had no effect at either age in the novel object test, a more anxiolytic environment. Older adults showed decreased exploration in the novel object test compared to the younger adults, regardless of stress experience. These results suggest that adolescence is not a sensitive period for the effects of repeated variable stress on exploratory behavior in an anxiogenic environment. PMID:22281462
Saul, Michele L; Tylee, Daniel; Becoats, Kyeesha T; Guerrero, Beatriz G; Sweeney, Patrick; Helmreich, Dana L; Fudge, Julie L
... Use of Selected Nonmedication Mental Health Services by Adolescent Boys and Girls With Serious Emotional or Behavioral ... children, National Health Interview Survey Approximately 4% of adolescents aged 12–17 have a serious emotional or ...
Previous research suggests that adolescents' social network site use is related to their sexual development. However, the associations between adolescents' exposure to sexy self-presentations of others on social network sites and their sexual attitudes and experience have not yet been empirically supported. This study investigated reciprocal longitudinal relationships between adolescents' exposure to others' sexy self-presentations on social network sites and their sexual attitudes (i.e., sexual objectification of girls and instrumental attitudes towards sex) and sexual experience. We further tested whether these associations depended on adolescents' age and gender. Results from a representative two-wave panel study among 1,636 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17, 51.5 % female) showed that exposure to sexy online self-presentations of others predicted changes in adolescents' experience with oral sex and intercourse 6 months later, but did not influence their sexual attitudes. Adolescents' instrumental attitudes towards sex, in turn, did predict their exposure to others' sexy online self-presentations. Sexual objectification increased such exposure for younger adolescents, but decreased exposure for older adolescents. In addition, adolescents' experience with genital touching as well as oral sex (only for adolescents aged 13-15) predicted their exposure to sexy self-presentations of others. These findings tentatively suggest that the influence on adolescents' sexual attitudes previously found for sexual media content may not hold for sexy self-presentations on social network sites. However, exposure to sexy self-presentations on social network sites is motivated by adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior, especially among young adolescents. PMID:25287000
van Oosten, Johanna M F; Peter, Jochen; Boot, Inge
Bullying can create a climate of fear and discomfort in schools and communities. This study examined the longitudinal associations between children's bullying, special education placements in elementary school, and serious delinquent behavior during secondary school. Using data from the youngest sample of the Pittsburgh Youth Study, the authors…
White, Norman A.; Loeber, Rolf
Tobacco use is very common among Vietnamese adolescents and youth. Despite the fact that tobacco is very harmful for health, the prevalence of current smokers among Vietnamese adolescents/youth is still high, especially in male adolescents and youth. In this thesis, I want to draw a brief over view about the current smoking behavior among adolescents/youth at CHILILAB - a research laboratory of Hanoi School of Public Health -and identify the risk/protective factors for smoking behavior. The s...
Dao, H. B.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Social subjugation is a very significant and natural stressor in the animal kingdom. Adult animals defeated and subjugated during establishment of dominance hierarchies or territorial encounters can be highly submissive in future agonistic interactions. While much is know about the biological and behavioral consequences of winning and losing fights in adulthood, little is known about adolescence; a developmental period noted for impulsivity and heightened agonistic behavior. The present studies were undertaken to determine if the behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of social subjugation are comparable in adolescent versus adult Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. Male siblings were studied from adolescence into adulthood following exposure to counterbalanced episodes of either a benign stressor, i.e., isolation in a novel cage, or the more severe stressor of social subjugation. Results As adults, hamsters with a history of social subjugation in adolescence show high levels of aggression toward intruders as compared to siblings subjugated in adulthood. Sibling controls subjugated in adulthood are highly submissive with little or no aggressive behavior. However, when subjugated in adulthood, hamsters with the earlier history of subjugation are no different than their sibling controls, i.e., adult subjugation promotes submissive behavior. Sexual motivation is high in adult hamsters with adolescent subjugation and testosterone levels remained stable over adulthood. In contrast, sibling controls subjugated in adulthood show lower levels of sexual motivation and reduced levels of testosterone. Release of cortisol during agonistic encounters is blunted in animals subjugated in adolescence but not adulthood. Measures of anxiety are reduced in hamsters with adolescent subjugation as compared to their sibling controls. Conclusion These data demonstrate a pronounced difference in behavior and neuroendocrinology between adolescent and adult hamsters in their response to social subjugation and suggest adolescence is a resilient period in development.
Aggressive behavior is common during adolescence. Although aggression-related functional changes in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and frontopolar cortex (FPC) have been reported in adults, the neural correlates of aggressive behavior in adolescents, particularly in the context of structural neurodevelopment, are obscure. We used functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the blood oxygenation level-depended signal and cortical thickness. In a block-desi...
Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Heinecke, Armin; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Knutson, Kristine M.; Meer, Elke; Grafman, Jordan
Activity-based anorexia is a paradigm that induces increased physical activity, reduced food intake, and heightened activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in adult rats. To investigate whether experience with activity-based anorexia produced enduring effects on brain and behavior, female adolescent rats experienced activity-based anorexia during adolescence and were tested in adulthood for anxiety-like behavior on an elevated plus maze and in an open field. Analysis of elevated p...
Kinzig, Kimberly P.; Hargrave, Sara L.
Objective: Cognitive behavioral psychotherapy is one of the effective methods in the treatment of various psychiatric problems seen in adolescence. This paper is aimed to report on the cognitive behavioral oriented group therapy program which was conducted in Bak?rköy Prof. Dr. Mazhar Osman Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatric and Neurological Diseases, Adolescence and Young Adult Psychiatry Second Step Clinic. Method: This group therapy program was adopted from a cognitive behavi...
Ne?e Hatibo?lu; Do?an Y?lmaz; Ahmet Türkcan
Background: Trends in adolescent smoking rates in South Korea have not shown substantial progress due to a lack of effective anti-smoking interventions and policies in school settings. Methods and Findings: We examined individual- and school-level determinants of adolescent smoking behavior (ever smoking, current smoking, and daily smoking) using the nationally representative fifth Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey conducted in 2009. We found that students in coeducation schools or ...
Heo, Jongho; Oh, Juhwan; Subramanian, S. V.; Kawachi, Ichiro
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone used by over half a million adolescents in the United States for their tissue-building potency and performance-enhancing effects. AAS also affect behavior, including reports of heightened aggression and changes in sexual libido. The expression of sexual and aggressive behaviors is a function of complex interactions among hormones, social context, and the brain, which is extensively remodeled during adolescence. Thus,...
Salas-ramirez, Kaliris Y.; Montalto, Pamela R.; Sisk, Cheryl L.
Adolescents’ trajectories of impulsive and hostile behaviors provide a dynamic index of risk for the emergence of Cluster B (Anti-social and Borderline) personality disorders in early adulthood. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that Preoccupied states of mind in the Adult Attachment Interview would increase both the level and rate of growth in adolescents’ trajectories of aggressive and sexual risk-taking behaviors measured at ages 13, 15, and 17. Overall, Preoccupied states...
Kobak, Roger; Zajac, Kristyn; Smith, Clare
This paper aims to discuss important predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking behavior, such as their sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, socioeconomic status, mother's and father's educational level, and school type), health-promoting behavior (healthy nutrition, physical activities), risk behavior (cigarette smoking and alcohol…
Kasapoglu, Aytul; Ozerkmen, Necmettin
Secondary prevention programs are needed to help HIV-positive youth reduce risk behavior and improve adherence to HIV medications. This article provides an overview of Adolescent Impact, a secondary HIV prevention intervention, including its description, delivery, and receptivity among the two unique groups of participants. Adolescent Impact, a…
Chandwani, Sulachni; Abramowitz, Susan; Koenig, Linda J.; Barnes, William; D'Angelo, Lawrence
Abstract Background Multiple health risk behaviors (HRBs) among adolescents pose a threat to their health, including HIV/AIDS. Health risk behaviors such as alcohol use, smoking, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors among youth have been shown to co-occur with each others. The objectives of this study was to estimate the prevalence of single and concurrent health risk behaviors and to explore how health risk behavior is associated with socio-demographic factors and peers'...
Thomsen Sarah; Sychareun Vanphanom; Faxelid Elisabeth
Full Text Available Introduction. Adolescence is a period of intensive physical, psychological and emotional changes that might affect existing oral health related habits and result in developing risky behaviors. The aim of the present study was to investigate oral health attitudes and behavior and their relation to dental caries experience in the group of adolescents from Belgrade. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 404 high-school students grade one from Belgrade. Two trained and calibrated dentists conducted clinical examination in classrooms to determine oral health status of adolescents (DMFT index and visual signs of gingivitis. Modified Serbian version of Hiroshima University Dental Behavior Inventory (HU-DBI questionnaire with three additional questions was used to collect data on oral health behavior and attitudes. Results. Mean HU-DBI score was 6.22±1.45 for males and 6.28±1.45 for females (p<0.05. Dental visits at least once in a year reported 67.3% adolescents, more often girls (p<0.05. Only emergency dental visits reported 47.1% of adolescents. Majority of respondents reported brushing teeth twice a day or more (86.2%, girls more often than boys (p<0.001. Only 13.4% reported regular flossing and 30.3% daily use of mouth rinses. Mean DMFT score was 5.84±0.20 with 45% of untreated decayed tooth. Unfavorable oral health related attitudes and behavior were related to poorer oral health status of adolescents. Conclusion. Poor oral health of adolescents is influenced by their inadequate attitudes and habits. Program of oral health promotion for adolescents that would target knowledge, attitudes and skills development should be implemented to enhance adolescents’ oral self-care regime and oral health outcome.
Research consistently correlates early pubertal timing with problem behaviors. Social and biological processes, which differ among ethnic groups, may also explain the relationship between pubertal timing and delinquency. Interviews with 5,000 boys ages 11 to 17 showed that early pubertal timing predicts nonviolent and violent delinquency for Anglo…
Cota-Robles, Sonia; Neiss, Michelle; Rowe, David C.
Using multiple regression analysis, the associations of delinquency with IQ and achievement scores, general school success, school attachment, preschool intervention and gender were explored for a group of high-risk Black students. Findings are discussed in terms of Hirschi's social bonding theories and early schooling effects on adolescent life…
Farnworth, Margaret; And Others
This study investigated the relationships among oppositional defiant attitudes, moral reasoning, moral value evaluation and self-reported delinquent behaviour in adolescents ("N" = 351, "M"[subscript AGE] = 13.8 years, "SD"[subscript AGE] = 1.1). Of particular interest were the moderating effects of age, educational…
Beerthuizen, Marinus G. C. J.; Brugman, Daniel; Basinger, Karen S.
Full Text Available The prevalence of conflict among adolescents is very common. At times adolescents use violence to handle conflicts. As such, this problem needs to be addressed. This quasi-experimental study investigated the effectiveness of Peer Conflict Resolution Focused Counseling (PCRC in promoting peaceful behavior (nonviolence and hostility, conflict resolution strategies, and peaceful friendship among adolescents. Participants were 80 senior high school students in Mataram, Indonesia. Instruments used were Aggression Questionnaire (AQ for nonviolence and hostility, Conflict Dynamic Profile (CDP for conflict resolution strategy, and Human Relation Skill Questionnaire Scale for measuring peaceful friendship. Results showed that the experimental group had significantly higher scores than the control group on peaceful behavior. This implies that counseling, particularly PCRC was effective in promoting peaceful behavior among adolescents.
The goal of this study was to examine whether moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases independently predicted adolescents' prosocial and aggressive behavior in adolescence. A total of 148 adolescents completed self-report measures of prosocial and aggressive behavior, moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases. Although in general all 3 factors (emotional, moral, and social cognitive) were correlated with adolescent social behavior, the most consistent independent predictors of adolescent social behavior were moral affect and cognition. These findings have important implications for intervention and suggest that programs that promote adolescent perspective taking, moral reasoning, and moral affect are needed to reduce aggressive behavior and promote prosocial behavior. PMID:25175531
Laible, Deborah J; Murphy, Tia Panfile; Augustine, Mairin
Abstract Several scholars have argued that adolescents' sexting behavior might be influenced by their media use. However, to date, empirical evidence of the link between media socialization and engagement in sexting behavior remains scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether music video and pornography consumption are able to predict a range of sexting behaviors among a sample of 329 adolescents with a mean age of 16.71 years (SD=0.74). The results demonstrate that sexting behaviors were significantly associated with the consumption of pornography, when controlling for age, gender, school track, and Internet use. Taking into account the gender of the adolescents, the significant relationship between engagement in the four types of sexting behavior and pornography use held true for both boys and girls. Music video consumption was only significantly associated with asking someone for a sexting message and having received a sexting message. Further analyses revealed that these significant relationships only held for boys. PMID:25415548
Van Ouytsel, Joris; Ponnet, Koen; Walrave, Michel
Adolescence is characterized by behavioral traits such as emotional lability and impulsivity that are associated with increased vulnerability to affective illness and addictions. Research in rodents has found that adolescent rats and mice differ from adults on measures of anxiety-like behavior, novelty-seeking and stress-responsivity. The present study sought to extend these data by evaluating fear-, anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in male C57BL/6J mice aged four (early adolescent),...
Hefner, Kathryn; Holmes, Andrew
Full Text Available Charisse L Nixon Pennsylvania State University, the Behrend College, Erie, PA, USA Abstract: Cyberbullying has become an international public health concern among adolescents, and as such, it deserves further study. This paper reviews the current literature related to the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health across multiple studies worldwide and provides directions for future research. A review of the evidence suggests that cyberbullying poses a threat to adolescents' health and well-being. A plethora of correlational studies have demonstrated a cogent relationship between adolescents' involvement in cyberbullying and negative health indices. Adolescents who are targeted via cyberbullying report increased depressive affect, anxiety, loneliness, suicidal behavior, and somatic symptoms. Perpetrators of cyberbullying are more likely to report increased substance use, aggression, and delinquent behaviors. Mediating/moderating processes have been found to influence the relationship between cyberbullying and adolescent health. More longitudinal work is needed to increase our understanding of the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health over time. Prevention and intervention efforts related to reducing cyberbullying and its associated harms are discussed. Keywords: cyberbullying, adolescent health, prevention, intervention
We investigated relations between prosocial behavior, perceived social support, and improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms over 6 months among 102 Acholi adolescent (14-17 years, 58% female adolescents) survivors of war and displacement in Northern Uganda. Adolescents were assessed using a locally developed screener. Regression analyses…
Haroz, Emily E.; Murray, Laura K.; Bolton, Paul; Betancourt, Theresa; Bass, Judith K.
This study examined the relationships of adolescent acculturation orientations to adolescent and parent reports of family functioning and behavior problems in a sample of 338 Hispanic families. Acculturation orientations are derived from the model proposed by Berry. Results indicate that integrated adolescents, who both maintain heritage culture…
Sullivan, Summer; Schwartz, Seth J.; Prado, Guillermo; Shi Huang,; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose
A substantial body of evidence indicates that interpersonal trauma increases risk for adolescent and adult depression. Findings from 4 clinical trials for adolescent depression show poorer response to standard cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) among depressed adolescents with a trauma history than youth without such a history. This paper reports…
DePrince, Anne P.; Shirk, Stephen R.
Full Text Available Positive relationships within the family, parental support, a consistent and constructive parental discipline style and adult supervision tend to be related negatively to adolescents deviant behaviors and their associations with deviant peers. Poor family relationships were found to be associated with higher levels of delinquent behaviors, possibly due to the fact that parents in those families provided poor role models and engaged in ineffective discipline strategies. Problem statement: A considerable number of secondary school students were involved in delinquent behavior and they are not doing well in school. School authorities with the supervision of education departments and the Ministry of Education have done their best to guide and monitor students? discipline. Yet the problems related to misbehavior still occur in schools. A study was conducted on 113 at risk students to examine whether parental factors could contribute to their misbehavior problems. Approach: Interviews were conducted using open ended questions. Data were analyzed qualitatively using in vivo software to extract categories of parental influence. Results and Conclusion: Findings showed that the adolescents do have problems with their families including lack of parental attention, communication problems and poor relationship between parents. The implications of the findings were discussed.
We examined parent emotion dysregulation as part of a model of family emotion-related processes and adolescent psychopathology. Participants were 80 parent-adolescent dyads (mean age = 13.6; 79 % African-American and 17 % Caucasian) with diverse family composition and socioeconomic status. Parent and adolescent dyads self-reported on their emotion regulation difficulties and adolescents reported on their perceptions of parent invalidation (i.e., punishment and neglect) of emotions and their own internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Results showed that parents who reported higher levels of emotion dysregulation tended to invalidate their adolescent's emotional expressions more often, which in turn related to higher levels of adolescent emotion dysregulation. Additionally, adolescent-reported emotion dysregulation mediated the relation between parent invalidation of emotions and adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Potential applied implications are discussed. PMID:24855329
Buckholdt, Kelly E; Parra, Gilbert R; Jobe-Shields, Lisa
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401 and females (1507 aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use, physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p p p p Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia.
Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M
This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1), we tested these adolescents' decision-making using the IGT and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT). Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the 1-year follow-up (Time 2). The Expectancy-Valence (EV) Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i) a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains vs. losses; (ii) a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes vs. past experiences; and (iii) a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population. PMID:24101911
Xiao, Lin; Koritzky, Gilly; Johnson, C Anderson; Bechara, Antoine
Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th grade to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1, we tested these adolescents’ decision-making using the Iowa Gambling Task and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the one-year follow-up (Time 2. The Expectancy-Valence (EV Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains versus losses; (ii a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes versus past experiences; and (iii a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population.
In this study we use economic exchange games to examine the development of prosocial behavior in the form of sharing and giving in social interactions with peers across adolescence. Participants from four age groups (9-, 12-, 15-, and 18-year-olds, total N = 119) played three types of distribution games and the Trust game with four different interaction partners: friends, antagonists, neutral classmates, and anonymous peers. Nine- and 12-year-olds showed similar levels of prosocial behavior to all interaction partners, whereas older adolescents showed increasing differentiation in prosocial behavior depending on the relation with peers, with most prosocial behavior toward friends. The age related increase in non-costly prosocial behavior toward friends was mediated by self-reported perspective-taking skills. Current findings extend existing evidence on the developmental patterns of fairness considerations from childhood into late adolescence. Together, we show that adolescents are increasingly better at incorporating social context into decision-making. Our findings further highlight the role of friendships as a significant social context for the development of prosocial behavior in early adolescence. PMID:24782796
Güro?lu, Berna; van den Bos, Wouter; Crone, Eveline A
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate on relationship among family environment, pornography and sexual behavior of adolescents. Pornography may start from early youth along with starting of sexual behavior. Therefore it is important that the role of family factors in pornography be studied.Materials and methods: The sample includes 362 students who were chosen by Proportional Cluster method from the first grade of High School (14 and 15 years old. The research instruments were Schaefer’s Family Environment Scales (FES, a researcher made Sexual Behaviors Scale (SBS, and Pornography Scale (PS.Results: The results indicate that there is a positive significant relationship between sexual Behaviors Scale (SBS and pornography and there is a positive significant relationship between levels of coldness in family relationship and adolescents’ Freedom. Also the result of stepwise regression shows, in the first step, level of sexual behavior is the strongest variable that predicts .42 of variance of adolescent's pornography. In the second step, Coldness in family relationship determines .05 of variances of pornography of adolescents. Gender differentiates shows that boys' pornography is more than for girls.Conclusion: Therefore coldness in family relationship is related with pornography and sexual behavior of adolescents.
Mahbobe Ghavidel Heidari
Full Text Available In this study we use economic exchange games to examine the development of prosocial behavior in the form of sharing and giving in social interactions with peers across adolescence. Participants from four age groups (9-, 12-, 15-, and 18-year-olds, total N=119 played three types of distribution games and the Trust game with four different interaction partners: friends, antagonists, neutral classmates, and anonymous peers. Nine- and 12-year-olds showed similar levels of prosocial behavior to all interaction partners, whereas older adolescents showed increasing differentiation in prosocial behavior depending on the relation with peers, with most prosocial behavior towards friends. The age related increase in non-costly prosocial behavior towards friends was mediated by self-reported perspective-taking skills. Current findings extend existing evidence on the developmental patterns of fairness considerations from childhood into late adolescence. Together, we show that adolescents are increasingly better at incorporating social context into decision-making. Our findings further highlight the role of friendships as a significant social context for the development of prosocial behavior in early adolescence.
The main aim of this study was to investigate the causal nature of the relationship between adolescents’ risky sexual behavior on the internet and their perceptions of this behavior. Engagement in the following online behaviors was assessed: searching online for someone to talk about sex, searching online for someone to have sex, sending intimate photos or videos to someone online, and sending one’s telephone number and address to someone exclusively known online. The relationship between...
Baumgartner, S. E.; Valkenburg, P. M.; Peter, J.
Full Text Available We investigated adolescent brain processing of decisions under conditions of varying risk, reward and uncertainty. Adolescents (n = 31 preformed a Decision-Reward Uncertainty task that separates decision uncertainty into behavioral and reward risk, while they were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Behavioral risk trials involved uncertainty about which action to perform to earn a fixed monetary reward. In contrast, during reward risk the decision that might lead to a reward was known, but the likelihood of earning a reward was probabilistically determined. Behavioral risk trials evoked greater activation than the reward risk and no risk conditions in the anterior cingulate, medial frontal gyrus, bilateral frontal poles, bilateral inferior parietal lobe, precuneus, bilateral superior-middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and insula. Our results were similar to those of young adults using the same task (Huettel, 2006 except that adolescents did not show significant activation in the posterior supramarginal gyrus during behavioral risk. During the behavioral risk condition regardless of reward outcome, overall mean frontal pole activity showed a positive correlation with age during the behavioral and reward risk conditions suggesting a developmental difference of this region of interest. Additionally, reward response to the Decision-Reward Uncertainty task in adolescents was similar to that seen in young adults (Huettel, 2006. Our data did not show a correlation between age and mean ventral striatum activity during the three conditions. While our results came from a healthy high functioning non-maltreated sample of adolescents, this method can be used to address types of risks and reward processing in children and adolescents with predisposing vulnerabilities and add to the paucity of imaging studies of risk and reward processing during adolescence.
In this study, we investigated the contribution of organized youth sport to antisocial and prosocial behavior in adolescent athletes. The sample consisted of N = 260 male and female soccer players and competitive swimmers, 12 to 18 years of age. Multilevel regression analysis revealed that 8% of the variance in antisocial behavior and 7% of the…
Rutten, Esther A.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Biesta, Gert J. J.; Schuengel, Carlo; Dirks, Evelien; Hoeksma, Jan B.
There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new…
Szielasko, Alicia L.; Symons, Douglas K.; Price, E. Lisa
The present study was designed to investigate stability and changes in prosocial behavior and the parent and peer correlates of prosocial behavior in rural adolescents. Participants were from a rural, low SES community in the Eastern United States. The participants were in 7th, 8th, and 9th grades at Time 1 and 10th, 11th, and 12th grades at Time…
Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J.; Randall, Brandy A.; Roesch, Scott C.
This study examined antisocial and prosocial behavior of N = 439 adolescent athletes between 14 and 17 years of age (67 teams). Multi-level analyses showed that team membership explained 20 and 13 percent of the variance in antisocial and prosocial behavior in the sports context, respectively. The team effects suggest that aggregating antisocial…
Rutten, Esther A.; Schuengel, Carlo; Dirks, Evelien; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Biesta, Gert J. J.; Hoeksma, Jan B.
This study examined adolescent coercive and prosocial resource control strategies in relation to various indices of peer-reported behaviors and peer regard ("N" = 384; 12-14 years). Coercive control was uniquely positively related to physical and relational aggression and peer disliking, and negatively to prosocial behaviors when…
Findley, Danielle; Ojanen, Tiina
Many adolescents are susceptible to negative outcomes associated with sexual behavior. This is particularly true for those who initiate sexual intercourse at an early age, have many sex partners, or engage in unprotected sex because these behaviors put one at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. This article reviews the…
Walcott, Christy M.; Meyers, Adena B.; Landau, Steven
Adolescent sexual acting out behaviors frequently occur in the context of comorbid issues, such as depression, trauma, behavioral disorders, and developmental deficits, thus rendering any single treatment modality less effective. Augmenting traditional treatment with an existential-humanistic (E-H) perspective enables counselors to more…
Parrish, Mark S.; Stanard, Rebecca P.; Cobia, Debra C.
Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study tests whether the relationship between academic achievement and problem behaviors is the same across racial and ethnic groups. Some have suggested that academic achievement may be a weaker predictor of problem behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American (API)…
The association between childhood and adolescent abuse and suicidal behavior, and the possible contribution of abuse to sex differences in non lethal suicidal behavior, was investigated. Data were extracted from the Israel-based component of the WHO World Mental Health Survey (Kessler & Utsun, 2008a). Increased risk for ideation, plan, and…
Gal, Gilad; Levav, Itzhak; Gross, Raz
Online harassment is a widespread phenomenon with consequential implications, especially for adolescents, who tend to engage in high-risk behavior online. Through the use of Protection Motivation Theory (PMT), we examine the predictors motivating the intention of youths to adopt protection behavior against online harassment. A survey was conducted…
Lwin, May O.; Li, Benjamin; Ang, Rebecca P.
This article explores how an attribution model will illustrate uniqueness-seeking behavior in dressing in the Taiwanese adolescent subculture. The study employed 443 senior high school students. Results show that the tendency of uniqueness-seeking behavior in dressing is moderate. However, using cluster analysis to segment the counterconformity…
This study examined the behavioral, personality, and communicative predictors of acceptance and popularity in 608 early adolescents. Data were collected with sociometric methods and ratings in 30 sixth-grade classrooms. Hierarchical regressions were run to predict acceptance and popularity from prosocial, antisocial, and withdrawn behavior,…
Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo
Background: Alcohol, tobacco, marijuana use, and sexual behaviors are consistently reported by high school students in the United States and can contribute to reduced quality of life. Empirical research finds that many assets may act as a protective factor for adolescent risk behaviors. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the…
Dunn, Michael S.; Kitts, Cathy; Lewis, Sandy; Goodrow, Bruce; Scherzer, Gary D.
Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducte...
Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M; Abahussain Nada A; Al-Sobayel Hana I; Qahwaji Dina M; Musaiger Abdulrahman O
The idea of a sexual double standard emphasizes that men have more sexual freedom, while women are subject to social sanctions for the same behaviors. The current research uses a sample of adolescent women to examine the social consequences of reporting a greater number of sex partners. We explore the broader social costs and low self-worth associated with a high number of sex partners, and also focus on characteristics of the adolescents’ close friends. The analyses of quantitative data (n...
Lyons, Heidi; Giordano, Peggy; Manning, Wendy; Longmore, Monica
Objectives. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between behavioral problems and tobacco use among adolescent students in six countries of Central America and in the Dominican Republic. Methods. Data were drawn from a multinational collaborative study that included questionnaire surveys of between 451 and 1 170 school-attending adolescents in each of the seven countries studied. Assessments were based on an adapted, Spanish-language version of the Drug Use Screening Invent...
Vittetoe Kenneth; Lopez Marsha F.; Delva Jorge; Wagner Fernando; Anthony James C.
This study is part of a broader research, conducted within the European project Promoting the Resilience of Delinquent Youth, financed by the European Commission and which has as target group delinquent children that are males, whom are residents in a reeducation center in Romania, being criminally sentenced by the court, with this educational measure. During the hospitalization in the reeducation center, these behaviors very often generate a series of conflicts, both between children and bet...
Moffitt, Caspi, Harrington, and Milne (2002) found in a follow-up study that many of the supposedly adolescence-limited offenders had committed offenses past adolescence. This finding raises the question of whether adulthood starts later or whether there are two distinct delinquency types, adolescence limited and adolescence onset, each with its…
Buck, Nicole; Verhulst, Frank; van Marle, Hjalmar; van der Ende, Jan
This study examined the rate of suicide attempts and relevant variables and identified risk factors for suicide attempts among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire. A total of 2,100 Korean adolescents, including 1,321 student adolescents and 779 delinquent adolescents, were…
Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hyun Sil
Adolescence is one of the most important periods of brain development in mammals. There is increasing evidence that some medicines during this period can affect brain and behavioral functions in adulthood. Silymarin (SM), a mixture of flavonolignans extracted from the milk thistle Silybum marianum, is known as a hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective drug. Although researchers have extensively studied the effects of SM during adulthood, to date there is no information on the effects of this drug during the stages of brain development on behavioral functions in adulthood. In the current study, we investigated the effects of adolescent SM treatment on body weight and anxiety-like behaviors in adult male and female mice. Adolescent NMRI mice (postnatal day 30-50) were treated orally with water or SM (50 and 100 mg/kg). Animals were weighed during drug treatment and were then subjected to open field, elevated plus maze, and light-dark box tests from postnatal day 70. The results indicated that adolescent SM treatment increased anxiety-like behaviors in open field, elevated plus maze, and light-dark box in adult mice, while not altering body weight. Collectively, these findings suggest that adolescent SM treatment may have profound effects on the development of brain and behavior in adulthood. PMID:24978280
Kosari-Nasab, Morteza; Rabiei, Afshin; Doosti, Mohammad-Hossein; Salari, Ali-Akbar
Research suggests that family efficacy-defined as a family's beliefs in its capability to manage different situations in order to achieve a desired outcome-is linked to a decreased likelihood of adolescents to engage in risky health behaviors. It is not clear, however, if this is true for immigrant families when they are encountering with increased challenges in their host countries. To provide holistic nursing care to immigrant families, it is important to know the sources of family efficacy particularly for immigrant adolescents when they are developing health behavior. This integrative review examined existing literature to learn about the sources of family efficacy among immigrant adolescents and how different domain of family efficacy is related to risky behaviors. We examined 22 studies on the topics of immigration, adaptation, risky adolescent behavior, and family function. Findings showed that multidimensional sources of family efficacies (specifically those in the relational, pragmatic, and value-laden domains) exert significant positive effects on immigrant adolescents' health behaviors. PMID:24420926
Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Lupiya, Chikwekwe Musonda; Clemen-Stone, Susan
We investigated the "immigrant paradox" phenomenon by examining differences in problem behavior engagement and exposure to risk factors across four adolescent groups: 1,157 first-generation, 1,498 second-generation, and 3,316 White and minority third or higher generations. Latent mean differences in problem behavior engagement (i.e., academic failure, aggression, and substance use) and risk factors (i.e., low socioeconomic status, poor family relationship, and low sense of school belonging) were associated with significant differences across adolescent groups. Results supported the generational status effect by demonstrating sequentially greater adolescent problem behavior engagement. However, the difference in exposure to risk factors across adolescent groups only partially supported the immigrant paradox. Further, the multiple group analysis of the relationships between risk factors and engagement in problem behaviors showed increased susceptibility among second generation immigrants for substance use, White natives for academic failure and substance use, and minority natives for physical aggression. Study findings have implications for understanding how the immigrant paradox leads to different adjustment patterns and problem behavior manifestations among immigrant and native adolescents. PMID:25037844
Chun, Heejung; Mobley, Michael
Family obligation is an important aspect of family relationships among families from Mexican backgrounds and can have significant implications for adolescents' well-being. Prior research and theory regarding youths' obligations offer conflicting hypotheses about whether it is detrimental or beneficial for adolescents' well-being. In the current longitudinal study, we used a daily diary method among 428 Mexican American adolescents and their parents to closely examine the impact of adolescents' family obligation values and family assistance behaviors on internalizing symptoms over time. The authors closely examined the role of the family context in these associations. Results suggest that family obligation values relate to declines in adolescents' internalizing symptoms, whereas family assistance behaviors are both a protective and risk factor, depending on the family context. Only when youths provide family assistance in response to acute changes in parental physical and psychological distress do family assistance behaviors relate to increases in adolescents' internalizing symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25546596
Telzer, Eva H; Tsai, Kim M; Gonzales, Nancy; Fuligni, Andrew J
A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N=13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8±0.7) of 14-17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addictive behavior (IAB) and related psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in the participating countries. In the study, we distinguish two problematic groups: adolescents with IAB, characterized by a loss of control over their Internet use, and adolescents "at risk for IAB," showing fewer or weaker symptoms of IAB. The two groups combined form a group of adolescents with dysfunctional Internet behavior (DIB). About 1% of adolescents exhibited IAB and an additional 12.7% were at risk for IAB; thus, in total, 13.9% displayed DIB. The prevalence of DIB was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.2% vs. 12.7%, pInternet, and greater use of social networking sites and gaming sites. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing (i.e., behavioral) and internalizing (i.e., emotional) problems were associated with the presence of DIB. PMID:24853789
Tsitsika, Artemis; Janikian, Mari; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Tzavela, Eleni C; Olafsson, Kjartan; Wójcik, Szymon; Macarie, George Florian; Tzavara, Chara; Richardson, Clive
Full Text Available Background: The etiological factors and interrelations of juvenile delinquents, with psychiatricmorbidity and substance abuse have been continuously debated.Cloninger’s Tridimensional Theory of Temperament has been reported topredict patterns of substance abuse and comorbidity. In the current study, weaimed to examine the usability of the theory in predicting juvenile delinquencyand substance abuse.Methods: Sixty consecutive and newly incarcerated male delinquents with history ofsubstance abuse were recruited from a juvenile correctional facility in northwesternTaiwan from January 2002 through December 2003. All subjectswere assessed of their temperament, behavioral problems, and psychiatricdisorders on an individual base.Results: The juvenile delinquent subjects with childhood history of attention deficitand hyperactivity disorder (ADHD were significantly younger, consumedless betel nuts, and had more siblings with history of drug abuse.Conclusion: Consistent with the results of Cloninger’s studies, novelty seeking positivelycorrelated to the amount of substance abuse, while harm avoidance inverselycorrelated in juvenile delinquents. Endemic trend of choice of substanceabuse needs to be taken into consideration in future research projects.
Background: Surveying sexual behavior in the general population serves to identify critical points, monitor the effects, and interpret changes in the spread of sexually transmitted infection. Aim: The aim of this qualitative study was to identify points of particular importance to adolescents’ sexual behavior in order to initiate and design a behavior surveillance programme in Denmark. Methods: We conducted four semi-structured focus group interviews with a total of 19 sexually experienced adolescents aged 18 to 23. Boys and girls were interviewed separately. Each group contained pupils from one Danish Folk High School, but with different social and educational backgrounds. The interview guide was developed from literature reviews and hypotheses based on years of experience with sexually transmitted infections. Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative description. Results: Four major categories of risk behavior were identified: Alcohol consumption is associated with “no condom use”, Nights on the town and meetings in foreign counties or at festivals are associated with one night stands and often lead to unsafe sex, Low self-esteem increases the risk of pushing one’s personal boundaries, thus resulting in promiscuous sexual behavior and Increased sexual experience is associated with lack of condom use. Conclusion: Danish adolescents identified four key elements that could lead to unsafe sex. These results differed slightly from our expectations and will be included in a sexual behavior questionnaire to describe important elements influencing the sexual behavior of Adolescents.
JØrgensen, Marianne Johansson; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen
Adolescents are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), particularly African American adolescents. The association between psychosocial factors and risky sexual behavior has been well established. However, only a small number of studies have examined the relationship between depressive symptomatology among African American female adolescents, specifically over time. The present study examined depressive symptoms as a predictor of risky sexual behavior, sexual communication, a...
Seth, Puja; Patel, Shilpa N.; Sales, Jessica M.; Diclemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Rose, Eve S.
Full Text Available In this study the relationship of parental self-esteem, parental rearing and adolescent adult attachment was investigated. A total 448 senior high school students completed EMBU?Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, or ?Own memories of parental rearing?, Perris et al., 1980, the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR; Brennan, Clark, &Shaver, 1998, and their parents completed The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES; Rosenberg, 1965. The results suggested that parental global self-esteem has no effect on the adolescent attachment to parents. Parental positive rearing behaviors have been significantly associated with avoidance to parents. Furthermore, the negative rearing behaviors, such as paternal denying and rejecting, maternal punitiveness, maternal overinvolved and overprotective behavior, can predict the adolescent avoidance and anxiety to parents.
When a sexting message spreads to an unintended audience, it can adversely affect the victim's reputation. Sexting incidents constitute a potential school safety risk. Just as with other types of adolescent risk behavior, school nurses might have to initiate the first response when a sexting episode arises, but a school nurse's role goes beyond intervention. They can also play an important role in the prevention of sexting and its related risks. This article reviews the links between adolescent sexting, other types of risk behavior, and its emotional and psychosocial conditions. Seven databases were examined and nine studies remained for further review. The review of the literature shows that adolescent sexting is cross sectionally associated with a range of health-risk behaviors. Youth who engage in sexting are also found to experience peer pressure and a range of emotional difficulties. The results can guide school nurse education and practice. PMID:25027261
Van Ouytsel, Joris; Walrave, Michel; Ponnet, Koen; Heirman, Wannes
There is growing evidence of a positive association between asthma and suicidal ideation and behavior in the general community, although information on this potential association is scarce among older children and adolescents and Puerto Ricans, groups at risk for both conditions. Data came from wave 3 of the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of youth in the Bronx and San Juan conducted from 2000 to 2004. Logistic regressions for correlated data (Generalized Estimating Equation) were conducted, with asthma predicting suicidal ideation and behavior among participants 11 years or older. After adjustment for survey design; age; sex; poverty; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, mental disorders; cigarette smoking; and stressful life events, asthma was positively associated with suicidal ideation and behavior among the Puerto Rican older children and adolescents. Public health interventions targeting Puerto Rican older children and adolescents with asthma and future studies investigating potential biological and psychological mechanisms of association are warranted. PMID:23817156
Bandiera, Frank C; Ramirez, Rafael; Arheart, Kristopher L; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D
Diet, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior are important, yet modifiable, determinants of obesity. Recent research into the clustering of these behaviors suggests that children and adolescents have multiple obesogenic risk factors. This paper reviews studies using empirical, data-driven methodologies, such as cluster analysis (CA) and latent class analysis (LCA), to identify clustering patterns of diet, PA and sedentary behavior among children or adolescents and their associations with socio-demographic indicators, and overweight and obesity. A literature search of electronic databases was undertaken to identify studies which have used data-driven methodologies to investigate the clustering of diet, PA and sedentary behavior among children and adolescents aged 5-18 years old. Eighteen studies (62% of potential studies) were identified that met the inclusion criteria, of which eight examined the clustering of PA and sedentary behavior and eight examined diet, PA and sedentary behavior. Studies were mostly cross-sectional and conducted in older children and adolescents (? 9 years). Findings from the review suggest that obesogenic cluster patterns are complex with a mixed PA/sedentary behavior cluster observed most frequently, but healthy and unhealthy patterning of all three behaviors was also reported. Cluster membership was found to differ according to age, gender and socio-economic status (SES). The tendency for older children/adolescents, particularly females, to comprise clusters defined by low PA was the most robust finding. Findings to support an association between obesogenic cluster patterns and overweight and obesity were inconclusive, with longitudinal research in this area limited. Diet, PA and sedentary behavior cluster together in complex ways that are not well understood. Further research, particularly in younger children, is needed to understand how cluster membership differs according to socio-demographic profile. Longitudinal research is also essential to establish how different cluster patterns track over time and their influence on the development of overweight and obesity. PMID:24450617
Leech, Rebecca M; McNaughton, Sarah A; Timperio, Anna
Depression and anxiety during adolescence are complex disorders due to persistent effects on physiology and behavior. Selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are currently the most widely used pharmacological intervention for depression. Corticotropin-releasing factor one (CRF1) receptor antagonists represent a novel class of compounds that may have efficacy for depressive and anxiety disorders. This study used an animal model of chronic adolescent stress to determine the efficacy of the SSRI fluoxetine, and a novel CRF1 receptor antagonist, GSK876008, on prevention of the behavioral effects of chronic adolescent stress. Male rats were exposed to chronic social defeat stress, fluoxetine, and/or GSK876008 from postnatal day 28-50. Chronic stress-induced depressive-like behaviors were partially attenuated by either concurrent fluoxetine or GSK876008. Fluoxetine blunted body mass gain in the adolescents exposed to chronic stress. The collective data demonstrate similar efficacy between a SSRI and a CRF1 receptor antagonist in the attenuation of stress-induced anhedonia but fewer side effects were observed in those rats treated with the CRF1 receptor antagonist. These data suggest that CRF1 receptor antagonists may be a viable alternative for treatment of depressive behaviors in adolescents. PMID:24867331
Bourke, Chase H; Glasper, Erica R; Neigh, Gretchen N
Full Text Available Development of methods for revealing antivital experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior in educational institutions is one of the key steps in developing strategies for the primary prevention of suicidal behavior in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to develop an effective screening diagnostic package aimed at identifying antivital experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior. The survey methods we used were: Beck Hopelessness Scale, Russell Loneliness Scale, A.G. Shmelev Suicide Risk Questionnaire, PDQ-IV Borderline disorder and Narcissism scales. At the first stage we examined 750 minors aged 12-18 and identified risk group (85 people – 11.4%, which included adolescents with high levels of both individual scales, and their combination. At the second stage we examined 10 adolescents at risk. In 7 of them (70% were identified antivital, suicidal thoughts of passive or compulsive nature, signs of subjective and objective socio- psychological maladjustment. Our preliminary conclusion is that high levels of hopelessness and loneliness in adolescents are stable predictors of mental and emotional distress and psychosocial maladjustment in the period of psychological crises and decompensation of character accentuation of borderline and narcissistic types. These scales can be recommended for primary screening of antivital (depressive experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior in adolescents.
Background The number of internet users is increasing rapidly and internet addiction among adolescents has become a serious public health problem in Korea. In the light of behavioral addiction, this study was aimed to identify the associations between the risk of internet addiction and other problem behaviors which can lead to addiction, such as cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, drug abuse, and sexual intercourse among a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents. Methods Data from the 2010 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (respondents, 73,238) were analyzed. Risk of internet addiction was assessed by the 'Korean Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth-Short Form: Self Report' which was developed by the Korean National Information Society Agency in 2008. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratios of problem behaviors among adolescents at high risk for internet addiction and adolescents at low risk for internet addiction. Results The odds of smoking experience, drug abuse experience, and sexual intercourse experience were significantly higher among boys at high risk for internet addiction compared to boys at low risk for internet addiction. Among girls at high risk of internet addiction, the odds of smoking experience, drinking experience, and drug abuse experience were significantly higher compared with girls at low risk of internet addiction. Conclusion The risk of internet addiction was associated with cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, drug abuse, and sexual intercourse experience among Korean adolescents. PMID:23560210
Sung, Jisun; Noh, Hye-Mi; Park, Yong Soon; Ahn, Eun Ju
The aim of the present study was to examine whether adolescents of Moroccan and Dutch origin differ concerning sibling relationship quality and to examine whether the associations between quality of the sibling relationship and level and change in externalizing and internalizing problem behavior are comparable for Moroccan and Dutch adolescents. Five annual waves of questionnaire data on sibling support and conflict as well as externalizing problems, anxiety and depression were collected from 159 ethnic Moroccan adolescents (Mage = 13.3 years) and from 159 ethnic Dutch adolescents (Mage = 13.0 years). Our findings demonstrated significant mean level differences between the Moroccan and Dutch sample in sibling relationship quality, externalizing problems, and depression, with Moroccan adolescents reporting higher sibling relationship quality and less problem behavior. However, effects of sibling relationship quality on externalizing problems, anxiety, and depression were similar for the Moroccan and Dutch samples. Sibling support was not related to level of externalizing problems, nor to changes in externalizing problems, anxiety, and depression. Additionally, more sibling conflict was related to a higher starting level of and faster decreases in problem behaviors. Our results support the ethnic equivalence model, which holds that the influence of family relationships is similar for different ethnic groups. Moreover, sibling support and conflict affect both the level and the fluctuations in problem behavior over time in specific ethnic groups similarly. Implications for future studies and interventions are subsequently discussed. PMID:23978197
Buist, Kirsten L; Paalman, Carmen H; Branje, Susan J T; Dekovi?, Maja; Reitz, Ellen; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Meeus, Wim H J; Koot, Hans M; Hale, William W
Prosocial behavior and aggression among children and adolescents are important indicators of social and interpersonal competence. The goal of this study was to investigate whether there are different prototypes among African American adolescents that can help explain prosocial and aggressive (relational and overt) behaviors. Also of interest was…
Belgrave, Faye Z.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Johnson, Jessica L.; Hood, Kristina
This longitudinal study examined trajectories of change in adolescents' perceptions of four dimensions of school climate (academic support, behavior management, teacher social support, and peer social support) and the effects of such trajectories on adolescent problem behaviors. We also tested whether school climate moderated the associations…
Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.
This study explored perceptions about sexual behaviors and attitudes of adolescents living in Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa, from the perspective of parents, counselors and adolescents. A qualitative methodology was applied. Nine focus group discussions (FGDs) were held; three with parents of adolescents, two with counselors who work with adolescents, two with female adolescents aged 16-18 years and two with male adolescents aged 16-18 years. In total, 80 participants were recruited from...
Dietrich, Janan; Khunwane, Mamakiri; Laher, Fatima; Bruyn, Guy; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Gray, Glenda
Social problem-solving skills and a self-evaluation procedure were taught to institutionalized delinquent adolescents as part of a cognitive-behavioral therapy program. A multiple-baseline design across subjects and an alternating-treatments design were used. Five youths participated in the program in which hypothetical social dilemmas were presented in individual sessions. In addition, the effects of intervention on the youths' self-recorded personal problem-solving was assessed. Training involved the acquisition of a problem-solving strategy for the hypothetical dilemmas. Self-evaluation was later introduced through a checklist procedure. All youths showed improvement during the training of problem-solving on the hypothetical dilemmas. The self-evaluation procedure had little effect on performance. Some youths generalized their use of the problem-solving strategy to the untrained problems during the alternating-treatments condition. Follow-up data suggested that maintenance of treatment gains occurred for all youths. The generalization of improved skills to personal problem-solving also occurred for some youths. General improvements in youths' social behavior outside of therapy sessions were suggested by anecdotal information that showed improved rates of progress through the institution's behavioral level system. PMID:3437083
Hains, A A; Hains, A H
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine whether mentalization serves as a protective factor against aggressive behavior in adolescence in the context of early traumatization. We present data from a non-clinical sample of adolescents from Germany (n=97 and calculate a mediation model to test the link between early traumatic experiences and aggressive behavior with mentalizing skills as a mediator. Mentalization was assessed with the Reflective Functioning Scale on the Adult-Attachment-Interview and aggressive behavior was measured with the Reactive-Proactive-Aggression-Questionnaire. Traumatic experience was operationalized as physical and/or sexual abuse as reported in the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Results show a complete mediation for Reflective Functioning on the relationship between early abuse and aggressive behavior. Thus, the findings of the study support an understanding of mentalizing as a protective factor for the relationship between early abusive experience and the development of aggressive behavior. Clinical implications are discussed.
The threat of unpredictable seizures makes epilepsy unique among childhood chronic illnesses. One consequence is that people who have childhood-onset epilepsy often have poor social adjustment and competence in adulthood. Better emotional and social functioning could improve long-term outcomes. Thirty-four adolescents with epilepsy participated in a group cognitive behavioral therapy program designed to enhance their level of psychosocial functioning. Baseline Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire scores suggested that many participants had difficulties with emotions, concentration, and social functioning, with parent-reported Impact scores significantly worse than adolescent-reported scores (p=0.005). Four months after the intervention, adolescent-reported Prosocial Behavior scores significantly improved (p=0.03). Parent-reported scores improved significantly at follow-up, compared with baseline, in Peer Problems (p=0.04), Impact (p=0.001), and Prosocial Behavior (p=0.004) scores. Adolescents with lower socioeconomic status reported the greatest improvements (p=0.01). A brief CBT intervention was effective and resulted in improved mental health indices and social functioning for adolescents with epilepsy. PMID:25240125
Carbone, Loretta; Plegue, Melissa; Barnes, Ashley; Shellhaas, Renée
In this longitudinal study, we tested whether adolescent maltreatment and out-of-home placement as a response to maltreatment altered developmental patterns of sexual risk behaviors in a nationally representative sample of youth involved in the child welfare system. Participants included adolescents aged 13 to 17 (M = 15.5, SD = 1.49) at baseline (n = 714), followed over 18 months. Computer-assisted interviews were used to collect self-reported sexual practices and experiences of physical and psychological abuse at both time points. Latent transition analyses were used to identify three patterns of sexual risk behaviors: abstainers, safe sex with multiple partners, and unsafe sex with multiple partners. Most adolescents transitioned to safer sexual behavior patterns over time. Adolescents exhibiting the riskiest sexual practices at baseline were most likely to report subsequent abuse and less likely to be placed into out-of-home care. Findings provide a more nuanced understanding of sexual risk among child welfare-involved adolescents and inform practices to promote positive transitions within the system. PMID:25155702
Fowler, Patrick J; Motley, Darnell; Zhang, Jinjin; Rolls-Reutz, Jennifer; Landsverk, John
Full Text Available Objective: Cognitive behavioral psychotherapy is one of the effective methods in the treatment of various psychiatric problems seen in adolescence. This paper is aimed to report on the cognitive behavioral oriented group therapy program which was conducted in Bak?rköy Prof. Dr. Mazhar Osman Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatric and Neurological Diseases, Adolescence and Young Adult Psychiatry Second Step Clinic. Method: This group therapy program was adopted from a cognitive behavioral group therapy course, which was developed by Clarke, Lewinsohn and their friends in order to treat adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder. The treatment processes and outcomes of 100 adolescents with different diagnoses and who had participated in 10 group therapy programs, each consisted of 12 sessions, were evaluated. Results: Twenty-four percent of the participants did not complete the group therapy program. Gender and psychiatric diagnoses were found to have no effect on the completion of the treatment. It was seen especially that the students have not completed the program during the school term. Conclusion: Practically, this therapy program for adolescents is an easily applicaple program. The percentage of treatment completion could be increased by implementing it on holiday periods.
The current study examined bidirectional relations between adolescents' moral personality (prosocial values, self-regulation, and sympathy) and low- and high-cost prosocial behavior toward strangers. Participants included 682 adolescents (M age of child = 14.31, SD = 1.07, 50% female) who participated at two time points, approximately one year apart. Cross-lag analyses suggested that adolescents' values were associated with both low- and high-cost prosocial behavior one year later, self-regulation was associated with high-cost prosocial behavior, and sympathy was associated with low-cost prosocial behavior. Findings also suggested that low-cost prosocial behavior was associated with sympathy one year later, and high-cost prosocial behavior was associated with values. Discussion focuses on reciprocal relations between moral personality and prosocial behavior, and the need to consider a more multidimensional approach to prosocial development during adolescence. PMID:25118040
Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Fraser, Ashley M
In this short-term longitudinal study, we systematically examined the distinctiveness of guilt- and shame-proneness in early adolescents (N = 395, mean age = 11.8 years) in terms of differential relations with peer reported prosocial behavior, withdrawal, and aggression. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that guilt-proneness concurrently predicted more aggressive and less prosocial behavior as well as subsequent increases in prosocial behavior. Shame-proneness predicted subsequent decreases in prosocial behavior. Although girls reported a greater proneness to experience guilt and shame than boys, the associations between the two dispositional emotions and social behaviors were found to be similar across time and gender. PMID:23895166
Roos, Sanna; Hodges, Ernest V E; Salmivalli, Christina
Neurofeedback has been proposed as a potentially effective intervention for reducing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, it remains unclear whether neurofeedback is of additional value to treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents with clinical ADHD symptoms. Using a multicenter parallel-randomized controlled trial design, adolescents with ADHD symptoms were randomized to receive either a combination of TAU and neurofeedback (NFB + TAU, n = 45) or TAU-only (n = 26). Randomization was computer generated and stratified for age group (ages 12 through 16, 16 through 20, 20 through 24). Neurofeedback treatment consisted of approximately 37 sessions of theta/sensorimotor rhythm (SMR)-training on the vertex (Cz). Primary behavioral outcome measures included the ADHD-rating scale, Youth Self Report, and Child Behavior Checklist all assessed pre- and post-intervention. Behavioral problems decreased equally for both groups with medium to large effect sizes, range of partial ?2 = 0.08-0.31, p measures. In addition, reported adverse effects were similar for both groups. On behavioral outcome measures, the combination of neurofeedback and TAU was as effective as TAU-only for adolescents with ADHD symptoms. Considering the absence of additional behavioral effects in the current study, in combination with the limited knowledge of specific treatment effects, it is questionable whether theta/SMR neurofeedback for adolescents with ADHD and comorbid disorders in clinical practice should be used. Further research is warranted to investigate possible working mechanisms and (long-term) specific treatment effects of neurofeedback. PMID:25477074
Bink, Marleen; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs; Popma, Arne; Bongers, Ilja L; van Boxtel, Geert J M
A longitudinal study using a random sample of adolescents, aged 13-16 years, was conducted in western New York to determine if athletic participation was associated with a reduced rate of sexual behavior and pregnancy. 699 families were interviewed and surveyed, and bivariate correlations were used to examine the relationships among athletic participation, demographic and control variables, and measures of sexual behavior and pregnancy rates. Findings showed that high rates of pregnancy involvement for both sexes were associated with low income and high sexual activity. Higher levels of family cohesion reduced rates of sexual activity for both sexes. Girls' athletic participation was directly proportional to reduced frequency of sexual behavior and, indirectly, to pregnancy risk. However, lower rates of sexual behavior and pregnancy involvement among adolescent male athletes were not discovered. Female adolescents who participated in sports were less likely than their nonathletic peers to engage in sexual activity and/or report a pregnancy. Among male adolescents, athletic participation was unrelated to sexual behavior and pregnancy involvement. PMID:10475497
Sabo, D F; Miller, K E; Farrell, M P; Melnick, M J; Barnes, G M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. A better insight in the clustering of those behaviors, could help to identify groups who are at risk in developing chronic diseases. This study examines the prevalence and clustering of physical activity, sedentary and dietary patterns among European adolescents and investigates if the identified clusters could be characterized by socio-demographic factors. Methods The study comprised a total of 2084 adolescents (45.6% male, from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured using self-reported questionnaires and diet quality was assessed based on dietary recall. Based on the results of those three indices, cluster analyses were performed. To identify gender differences and associations with socio-demographic variables, chi-square tests were executed. Results Five stable and meaningful clusters were found. Only 18% of the adolescents showed healthy and 21% unhealthy scores on all three included indices. Males were highly presented in the cluster with high levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA and low quality diets. The clusters with low levels of MVPA and high quality diets comprised more female adolescents. Adolescents with low educated parents had diets of lower quality and spent more time in sedentary activities. In addition, the clusters with high levels of MVPA comprised more adolescents of the younger age category. Conclusion In order to develop effective primary prevention strategies, it would be important to consider multiple health indices when identifying high risk groups.
In this paper an attempt is made to study the Juvenile Delinquency in slum of Solapur city. Solapur city has got more than 12 lakhs of population within which 220 slums are there. In these slums 2.20 lakhs of people are living. Delinquency is the type of abnormality. The problem of Juvenile delinquency in Solapur city is very severe. These delinquents also include in sealing bulbs, shoes, cloths, water tabs and snatch gold ornaments of people crowded in the temple and at the time of jatra or...
Patil, Bhagyashri M.
The goal of this study was to identify heterogenic longitudinal patterns of change in prosocial behavior from adolescence to early adulthood and their association with change in Big Five Factor (BFF) personality traits from adolescence until early adulthood. Participants were 573 Italian adolescents aged approximately 13 at the first assessment and 21 at the last assessment. Using growth mixture modeling, low increasing (LI; 18%), medium quadratic (MQ; 26%), and high quadratic (HQ; 54%) trajectories of prosocial behavior were distinguished. Generally, the LI trajectory group predicted an increase in Conscientiousness over time, whereas the HQ trajectory group predicted greater change in Agreeableness and Openness. In addition, positive changes in Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness between ages 13 and 21 predicted a higher probability of belonging to the HQ prosocial group. Findings support a malleable perspective on personality and identify longterm positive pathways for youths' prosocial development. PMID:24746895
Luengo Kanacri, Bernadette P; Pastorelli, Concetta; Eisenberg, Nancy; Zuffianò, Antonio; Castellani, Valeria; Caprara, Gian Vittorio
High EEG frontal alpha power (FAP) is thought to represent a state of low arousal in the brain, which has been related in past research to antisocial behavior (ASB). We investigated a longitudinal sample of 900 twins in two assessments in late childhood and mid-adolescence to verify whether relationships exist between FAP and both aggressive and nonaggressive ASB. ASB was measured by the Child Behavioral Checklist, and FAP was calculated using connectivity analysis methods that used principal components analysis to derive power of the most dominant frontal activation. Significant positive predictive relationships emerged in males between childhood FAP and adolescent aggressive ASB using multilevel mixed modeling. No concurrent relationships were found. Using bivariate biometric twin modeling analysis, the relationship between childhood FAP and adolescent aggressive ASB in males was found to be entirely due to genetic factors, which were correlated r=0.22. PMID:25456277
Niv, Sharon; Ashrafulla, Syed; Tuvblad, Catherine; Joshi, Anand; Raine, Adrian; Leahy, Richard; Baker, Laura A
Adolescent Latinas continue to report higher levels of suicide attempts than their African-American and White peers. The phenomenon is still not understood and is theorized to be the result of the confluence of many cultural, familial, and individual level factors. In Latino cultures, belief in the importance of the family, the value known as…
Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Pena, Juan B.; Zayas, Luis H.
Based on the conceptualization of successful development as the joint maximization of desirable outcomes and minimization of undesirable outcomes (Baltes, 1997), the present study examined connections between adolescent non-involvement in multiple risk behaviors and positive developmental status. Results from a survey of 7290 high school students…
Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Busseri, Michael A.; Bosacki, Sandra; Dupont, Diane; Marini, Zopito; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Sadava, Stan; Ward, Anthony; Woloshyn, Vera
This study investigated to what extent team membership predicts on- and off-field antisocial and prosocial behavior in (pre)adolescent athletes. Effects of team-membership were related to characteristics of the team environment, such as relational support from the coach towards team members, fair play attitude and sociomoral reasoning within the…
Rutten, Esther A.; Dekovic, Maja; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Schuengel, Carlo; Hoeksma, Jan B.; Biesta, Gert J. J.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a pilot school-based intervention called CEPIDEA, designed to promote prosocial behavior in early adolescence. The study took place in a middle school located in a small city near Rome. The intervention group included 151 students (52.3% males; M[subscript age] = 12.4), and the control group…
Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Kanacri, Bernadette Paula Luengo; Gerbino, Maria; Zuffianò, Antonio; Alessandri, Guido; Vecchio, Giovanni; Caprara, Eva; Pastorelli, Concetta; Bridglall, Beatrice
This study was designed to examine the roles of emotional reactivity, self-regulation, and pubertal timing in prosocial behaviors during adolescence. Participants were 850 sixth graders (50 percent female, mean age = 11.03, standard deviation = 0.17) who were followed up at the age of 15. In hierarchical regression models, measures of emotional…
Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J.; Wolff, Jennifer M.; Beal, Sarah J.
The present study was designed to examine the links between economic strain, parental depression, parent-child connectedness, and adolescents' prosocial behaviors. The sample consisted of 478 participants (M age at Time 1=11.29 years, 51% male) recruited from the community who were mostly of European American descent (69%) and from mostly middle…
Carlo, Gustavo; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Day, Randal D.
Little is known about whether ego identity statuses have the same developmental concomitants in different cultural contexts. Thus, 159 German and 158 Cameroonian Nso adolescents aged 15-18 were recruited to test if associations between identity and generativity (i.e. the desire to create a positive legacy) and prosocial behavior (i.e. helpful and…
Busch, Holger; Hofer, Jan
The nature of executive dysfunction in youth with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) remains unclear, despite extensive research in samples of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To determine the relationship between DBD, ADHD, and executive function deficits in aggressive teens, adolescents with DBD and comorbid ADHD…
Hummer, Tom A.; Kronenberger, William G.; Wang, Yang; Dunn, David W.; Mosier, Kristine M.; Kalnin, Andrew J.; Mathews, Vincent P.
This research examined the potential relationship between adolescent problem behaviors and amount of time spent with violent electronic games. Survey data were collected from 1,254 7th and 8th grade students in two states. A "dose" of exposure to Mature-rated games was calculated using Entertainment Software Rating Board ratings of titles children…
Olson, Cheryl K.; Kutner, Lawrence A.; Baer, Lee; Beresin, Eugene V.; Warner, Dorothy E.; Nicholi, Armand M., II
This study focused on support and conflict in parent-child relationships and dyadic friendships as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence (n = 182; M age = 12.9 years, 51% female, 45% African American, 74% two-parent homes). Support and conflict in one relationship context were hypothesized to moderate the effects of experiences in…
Sentse, Miranda; Laird, Robert D.
The aim of this study was to explain the effects of anti-smoking parenting practices on adolescent smoking cognitions and behavior by showing the mediating effects of cognitions. Data were gathered among Dutch high school students in the control condition of the European Smoking prevention Framework Approach (ESFA). Anti-smoking parenting…
Huver, Rose M. E.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; de Vries, Hein
Given the weak intrinsic reading motivation of many adolescents on the one hand and the importance of this type of motivation for reading competence on the other hand, the aim of the present study is to identify the related role of teacher behavior. To pursue this aim, a secondary analysis was carried out on PISA 2009 data. More particularly, data…
De Naeghel, Jessie; Valcke, Martin; De Meyer, Inge; Warlop, Nele; van Braak, Johan; Van Keer, Hilde
Sixty-three adolescent boys with behavioral disorders (BD), 31 of whom had comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), participated in a self-regulated strategy development intervention called Think Before Reading, Think While Reading, Think After Reading, With Written Summarization (TWA-WS). TWA-WS adapted Linda Mason's TWA…
Rogevich, Mary E.; Perin, Dolores
This study sought to contribute to the identification of effective interventions in the area of male adolescent aggressive behavior. Existing research includes both group- and single-case studies implementing treatments which typically include an anger-management component and its attendant relaxation and stress-reduction techniques. The design of…
Gaines, Trudi; Barry, Leasha M.
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate eating disorders risk behaviors and unhealthy weight control practices among adolescents who consider themselves as vegetarians and those who are omnivorous.Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 technical schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample included 1167 adolescents (51% female, aged 14 to 19 (mean age, 16. Adolescents stated whether they were currently vegetarian, and the sample was dichotomized as vegetarian and non-vegetarian. The two groups were compared as regards weight status, eating disorder risk behavior, unhealthy weight control methods and the perception of healthy eating.Results: About 4% of the sample was currently vegetarian, most of them female (70.8%, and females were 2.89 times more likely to be vegetarian than males. No relationship was found between the vegetarian status and unhealthy weight control behavior; however the vegetarian group considered their diet to be healthier than the non-vegetarian group (P=.04.Conclusions: The frequency of vegetarianism, as well the frequency of eating disorder risk behaviors had no association in this adolescent sample from São Paulo, Brazil.
Camilla CP Estima
The article describes "Teaching, Learning, and Caring" (TLC), a program designed for partially mainstreamed behavior disordered adolescents (ages 14-18). Eight TLC skill areas are the focus of interpersonal skills training: communication mode, empathy, goal identification, cue sensitivity, alternative thinking, skills implementation, consequential…
Objective: To assess the smoking behaviors, beliefs about the risks of smoking, and exposure to ETS among adolescents in Juarez, Mexico. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with sixth-grade students (N=506), aged 11-13 years old, attending 6 randomly selected schools. Schools were classified by school setting and SES. Results:…
Bird, Yelena; Moraros, John; Olsen, Larry K.; Coronado, Gloria D.; Thompson, Beti
The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of "behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome (BIISS)" which is a newly defined hypersomnia, among adolescents. BIISS is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, short habitual sleep duration and sleeping considerably longer than usual during weekend/vacations. The study…
Pallesen, Stale; Saxvig, Ingvild West; Molde, Helge; Sorensen, Eli; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Bjorvatn, Bjorn
This study compares problem behaviors across a range of adolescent Asian Pacific Islander (API) subgroups using the Add Health data, and controlling for parental education or immigrant status. The study finds that Filipino, "other" API, and multiethnic API American youth are at higher risk for poorer outcomes than Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese…
Exposure to stress is associated with a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents, including aggressive behavior. Extant research examining mechanisms underlying the associations between stress and youth aggression has consistently identified social information processing pathways that are disrupted by exposure to…
Herts, Kate L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of clozapine on aggressive behavior for treatment-refractory adolescents (age range 8.5-18) with schizophrenia (295.X) at Bronx Children's Psychiatric Center. Method: Clozapine treatment was administered in an open-label fashion using a flexible titration schedule. The frequency of administration of…
Kranzler, Harvey; Roofeh, David; Gerbino-Rosen, Ginny; Dombrowski, Carolyn; McMeniman, Marjorie; DeThomas, Courtney; Frederickson, Anne; Nusser, Laurie; Bienstock, Mark D.; Fisch, Gene S.; Kumra, Sanjiv
Little is known about social cognition regarding conflict in romantic relationships during late adolescence. The current study examined beliefs, social goals, and behavioral strategies for conflict in romantic relationships and their associations with relationship quality among a sample of 494 college students. Two dimensions of conflict beliefs,…
Simon, Valerie A.; Kobielski, Sarah J.; Martin, Sarah
This study examines the extent and type of sexually harassing behavior or intimidations unmarried adolescent girls experienced on their way to school, college or social visits and type of perpetrators in victims' view in rural Bangladesh using data of the 2004 National Nutrition Programme baseline survey. The survey collected self-reported data on…
Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan K.; Ahmed, Tahmeed
Utilizing the concept of race-based traumatic stress, this study tested whether posttraumatic stress symptoms explain the process by which perceived discrimination is related to health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents. One hundred ten participants were recruited from a large health maintenance organization in Northern California.…
Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.
Indoor tanning continues to grow in popularity even though empirical investigations denounce the behavior. Various reports have illustrated the detrimental health effects of ultraviolet (UV) exposure including increased risk for skin cancer. According to some physicians, the risk may be especially high for adolescents whose skin cells are dividing…
Stellefson, Michael; Chaney, J. Don
Surveyed adolescent girls regarding body dissatisfaction, dieting, and internalization of sociocultural values, media-influenced knowledge, acceptance of varied body shapes, and media exposure. Girls understood media influence on self-image and behavior and accepted varied body shapes. Significant numbers reported dissatisfaction with weight and…
Sherwood, Nancy E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Peer and parent influences on alcohol use and related risky behaviors were examined in a sample of late-adolescent (M = 17.3 years; SD = 1.11 years) urban youths. Participants (N = 400) completed an online measure assessing peer influences of alcohol use and alcohol offers and also parental influences of rules against alcohol use and perceived…
Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.
There is considerable suggestive evidence that parents can protect their adolescents from developing problem behaviors if they implement recommended best parenting practices. These include providing appropriate limits on adolescent free time, maintaining a close personal relationship with the adolescent, and negotiating and providing incentives for positive behavior patterns. However, retention of the study samples has limited conclusions that can be drawn from published studies. This randomized controlled trial recruited and randomized a national population sample of 1036 families to an intensive parenting intervention using telephone counseling or to a no-contact control group. At enrollment, eligible families had an eldest child between the ages of 10-13 years. The intervention included an initial training program using a self-help manual with telephone counselor support. Implementation of best parenting practices was encouraged using quarterly telephone contacts and a family management check-up questionnaire. A computer-assisted structured counseling protocol was used to aid parents who needed additional assistance to implement best practices. This, along with a centralized service, enabled implementation of quality control procedures. Assessment of problem behavior is undertaken with repeated telephone interviews of the target adolescents. The study is powered to test whether the intervention encouraging parents to maintain best parenting practices is associated with a reduction of 25% in the incidence of problem behaviors prior to age 18 years and will be tested through a maximum likelihood framework. PMID:17964223
Pierce, John P; James, Lisa E; Messer, Karen; Myers, Mark G; Williams, Rebecca E; Trinidad, Dennis R
This study examined the bidirectional development of aggressive response evaluation and decision (RED) and antisocial behavior across five time points in adolescence. Participants (n = 522) were asked to imagine themselves behaving aggressively while viewing videotaped ambiguous provocations and answered a set of RED questions following each…
Fontaine, Reid Griffith; Yang, Chongming; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.
The present study concerns the feasibility of the Families in Transition (FIT) program, a family-focused intervention for the prevention of problem behavior in early adolescents. To date, family-focused intervention has been under-used and insufficiently studied in Europe. The aims of the study are threefold-first, to test the feasibility of…
Engels, Tim C. E.; Andries, Caroline
The purpose of the present study was to examine psychometric properties of the Staff Behavior toward Clients questionnaire (SBC), a self-report measure for care staff working with children and adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities in residential care. Ninety-nine care staff completed the SBC and the Strengths and…
Huitink, C.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Veerman, J. W.; Verhoeven, L.
Young people tend to disclose relationship violence experiences to their peers, if they disclose at all, yet little is known about the nature and frequency of adolescent help-seeking and help-giving behaviors. Conducted within a sample of 1,312 young people from four New York City high schools, this is the first paper to ask adolescent help-givers about the various forms of help they provide and among the first to examine how ethnicity and nativity impact help-seeking behaviors. Relationship violence victims who had ever disclosed (61%) were more likely to choose their friends for informal support. Ethnicity was predictive of adolescent disclosure outlets, whereas gender and nativity were not. Latinos were significantly less likely than non-Latinos to ever disclose to only friends, as compared to disclosing to at least one adult. The likelihood of a young person giving help to their friend in a violent relationship is associated with gender, ethnicity, and nativity, with males being significantly less likely than females to give all forms of help to their friends (talking to their friends about the violence, suggesting options, and taking action). Foreign-born adolescents are less likely to talk or suggest options to friends in violent relationships. This study also found that Latinos were significantly more likely than non-Latinos to report taking action with or on behalf of a friend in a violent relationship. This research shows that adolescents often rely on each other to address relationship violence, underlining the importance of adolescents' receipt of training and education on how to support their friends, including when to seek help from more formal services. To further understand the valuable role played by adolescent peers of victims, future research should explore both which forms of help are perceived by the victim to be most helpful and which are associated with more positive outcomes. PMID:24030328
Fry, Deborah A; Messinger, Adam M; Rickert, Vaughn I; O'Connor, Meghan K; Palmetto, Niki; Lessel, Harriet; Davidson, Leslie L
AbstractBackgroundTransformational leadership is conceptualized as a set of behaviors designed to inspire, energize and motivate others to achieve higher levels of functioning, and is associated with salient health-related outcomes in organizational settings. Given (a) the similarities that exist between leadership within organizational settings and parenting within families, and (b) the importance of the family environment in the promotion of adolescent health-enhancing behaviors, the purpos...
Morton, Katie L.; Wilson, Alexandra H.; Perlmutter, Lisa S.; Beauchamp, Mark R.
This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810) at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to assess students’ home and school neighb...
Irwin, Jennifer D.; Paul Hess; Kristian Larsen; Jason Gilliland; Patricia Tucker; Meizi He
Using a web-based survey of adolescents 14–16 years of age, a hierarchical index of heterosexual behavior was developed with excellent psychometric properties. The easiest sexual behavior to perform was “deep kissing” and the most difficult was “receiving anal sex” for females and “giving anal sex” for males. The index was validated with data that show increased sexual activity with being older and of minority status, with social traits such as physical development, having a rom...
Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy
A longitudinal model of parent academic involvement, behavioral problems, achievement, and aspirations was examined for 463 adolescents, followed from 7th (approximately 12 years old) through 11th (approximately 16 years old) grades. Parent academic involvement in 7th grade was negatively related to 8th-grade behavioral problems and positively related to 11th-grade aspirations. There were variations across parental education levels and ethnicity: Among the higher parental education group, par...
Hill, Nancy E.; Castellino, Domini R.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Nowlin, Patrick; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.
OBJECTIVE: To identify anthropometric and behavioral characteristics associated with weight maintenance after an obesity treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Adolescents (n = 72) enrolled in a 9-month obesity treatment were observed 1 and 2 years after discharge. Two groups, "successful" versus "limited or no success," were created on the basis of the differences in body mass index (BMI) z-score between inclusion and end of follow-up. Anthropometric and behavioral characteristics were compared between gr...
Pe?neau, Sandrine; Thibault, He?le?ne; Meless, David; Soulie?, Daniele; Carbonel, Pierre; Roinsol, Daniele; Longueville, Emmanuel; Se?rog, Patrick; Deheeger, Miche?le; Bellisle, France; Maurice-tison, Sylvie; Rolland-cachera, Marie-franc?oise
The middle school years are a period of increased risk for youths' engagement in antisocial behaviors, substance use, and affiliation with deviant peers (Dishion & Patterson, 2006). This study examined the specific role of parental monitoring and of family relationships (mother, father, and sibling) that are all critical to the deterrence of problem behavior in early adolescence. The study sample comprised 179 ethnically diverse 6th grade (46% female) students who were followed through 8th gr...
Fosco, Gregory M.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Winter, Charlotte
This study examined the bidirectional development of aggressive response evaluation and decision (RED) and antisocial behavior across five time points in adolescence. Participants (n = 522) were asked to imagine themselves behaving aggressively while viewing videotaped ambiguous provocations and answered a set of RED questions following each aggressive retaliation (administered at Grades 8 and 11 [13 and 16 years, respectively]). Self- and mother reports of antisocial behavior were collected ...
Fontaine, Reid Griffith; Yang, Chongming; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.
Objective: To investigate on relationship among family environment, pornography and sexual behavior of adolescents. Pornography may start from early youth along with starting of sexual behavior. Therefore it is important that the role of family factors in pornography be studied.Materials and methods: The sample includes 362 students who were chosen by Proportional Cluster method from the first grade of High School (14 and 15 years old). The research instruments were Schaefer’s Family Enviro...
Mahbobe Ghavidel Heidari; Yahya Kazemi; Zahra Nikmanesh
Full Text Available Background: Understanding ecological factors that influence risky sexual behavior of adolescents is vital in designing and implementing sexual risk reduction interventions in specific contexts. Interventions undertaken without understanding the critical factors may not produce the desired results. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with adolescent risky sexual behavior among school adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done among randomly selected school adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Data were collected by an anonymous self administered questionnaire. Risky sexual behavior was assessed by asking question about sexual activity, consistent condom use and faithfulness to a single partner. Logistic regression analysis was done to identify factors related to sexual behavior using the ecological framework. Result: Overall 377(10.6% of the 723 sexually active students were involved in risky sexual practices. Risky sexual behavior was significantly and very strongly associated with perception of peers' involvement in sexual intercourse [AOR = 11.68 (95% CI: 8.76 - 15.58]. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that peer pressure is the most important factor associated with risky sexual behavior among school adolescents in Addis Ababa. Interventions aimed at reducing sexual behavior among school adolescents should target adolescents as a group rather than individually.
Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to examine attachment style as a predictor of risky sexual behavior in a younger, more vulnerable sample than previously investigated in the literature: High school aged adolescents. The hypothesized associations among the variables were partially supported. Contrary to our predictions, there was no significant association between avoidance and risky sexual behavior. However, higher anxiety was positively associated with risky sexual behavior. Finally, the prediction that the highest levels of risky sexual behavior would be found for those individuals with higher levels of anxiety and higher levels of avoidance (i.e., insecure attachment style was supported.
Repeated exposure to stressors has been found to increase anxiety-like behavior in laboratory rodents, with the social anxiety induced by repeated restraint being extremely sensitive to anxiolytic effects of ethanol in both adolescent and adult rats. No studies, however, have compared social anxiogenic effects of acute stress or the capacity of ethanol to reverse this anxiety in adolescent and adult animals. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether adolescent [postnata...
Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.
Among adolescent girls, the health effects of frequent self-weighing are unclear. This study examines cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between frequency of self-weighing and body mass index (BMI), body satisfaction, weight control behaviors, and binge eating among a diverse population of adolescent girls. The study was conducted in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area from 2007–2009. The study population included 356 adolescent girls (mean age =15.7 years); 46.2% of the g...
Friend, Sarah; Bauer, Katherine W.; Madden, Tracy C.; Neumark-sztainer, Dianne
Research has shown a positive relationship between substance use and delinquent-type behaviours among adolescents. The aim of this study is to explore the temporal relationships between these outcomes through secondary data analysis of a longitudinal study of high-school students' risk behaviours. Two regression models were compared and gender,…
Carney, Tara; Myers, Bronwyn J.; Louw, Johann; Lombard, Carl; Flisher, Alan J.
OBJECTIVES To describe and assess gender differences in current cigarette smokers' according to certain variables including prevalence, access to tobacco, knowledge and attitude, environmental tobacco smoke, cessation of smoking, tobacco related advertisements, and education on tobacco in school among adolescents in grades 7-12 in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. METHODS A random sample of schools in Tabuk city was obtained using a 2-stage clu...
Abdalla, Abdelshakour M.; Al-kaabba, Abdulaziz F.; Saeed, Abdalla A.; Abdulrahman, Badreldin M.; Hein Raat
Links between sleep and psychopathology are complex and likely bidirectional. Sleep problems and alteration of normal sleep patterns have been identified in major forms of child psychopathology including anxiety, depression and attention disorders as well as symptoms of difficulties in the full range. This review summarizes some key findings with regard to the links between sleep and associated difficulties in childhood and adolescence. It then proposes a selection of possible mechanisms unde...
Gregory, Alice M.; Sadeh, Avi
Meta-analyses suggest that the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) short (S) allele, relative to the long (L) allele, is associated with risk for alcohol dependence, particularly among individuals with early onset antisocial alcoholism. Youth in substance use treatment tend to show antisocial or externalizing behaviors, such as conduct problems, which predict worse treatment outcome. This study examined a pathway in which 5-HTTLPR genotype is associated with externalizing behavior, and the intermediate phenotype of externalizing behavior serves as a link between 5-HTTLPR genotype and substance use treatment outcome in youth. Adolescents (n?=?142) who were recruited from addictions treatment were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms (S and LG carriers vs. LALA), assessed for externalizing and internalizing behaviors shortly after starting treatment, and followed over 6-months. 5-HTTLPR genotype was not associated with internalizing behaviors, and was not directly associated with 6-month substance use outcomes. However, 5-HTTLPR genotype was associated with externalizing behaviors (S and LG?>?LALA), and externalizing behaviors predicted alcohol and marijuana problem severity at 6-month follow-up. Results indicated an indirect (p?0.05) and non-specific (i.e., both alcohol and marijuana severity) effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype on youth substance use treatment outcomes, with externalizing behaviors as an important linking factor. Adolescents in substance use treatment with low expressing (S and LG) 5-HTTLPR alleles and externalizing behavior might benefit from intervention that addresses serotonergic functioning, externalizing behaviors, and substance use to improve outcomes. PMID:25072039
Chung, Tammy; Cornelius, Jack R.; Martin, Christopher S.; Ferrell, Robert; Maisto, Stephen A.; Clark, Duncan B.
The relation between partying and antisocial behavior was investigated using a sample of Dutch early adolescents (T2: N = 1,076; M age = 13.52). Antisocial behavior was divided into rule-breaking and aggressive behavior. Using a goal-framing approach, it was argued that the relation of partying to antisocial behavior depends on the way the need to…
Veenstra, Rene; Huitsing, Gijs; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Lindenberg, Siegwart
Full Text Available Objective:This research was conducted to investigate the relationship between behavioral activation-inhibition systems and bullyingvictimization behaviors among adolescents.Method:This was a correlational and cross-sectional study. Two hundred and thirty school boys were selected randomly by multistage cluster sampling method, and participated in this research. This sample responded to a demographic questionnaire, the Revised Olweus Bully/ Victim questionnaire and the child version of behavioral inhibition/activation systems Scale in their classrooms and in the presence of the researcher. The collected data were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation and multiple regressions. Result:The results showed that bullying and victimization were correlated with both behavioral activation and behavioral inhibition systems (p<0.01. The results also showed that 18% of the variance in victimization and 31 % of the variance in bullying were explained by behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation systems respectively .Conclusion:The results of this study implied that BAS and BIS may play a role in the manifestation of bullying in adolescents.
The influence of religiosity on behavioral health outcomes among adolescents living in disaster-prone areas has been understudied. This study utilized data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2005-2010) to examine the relationship between religion, depression, marijuana use, and binge drinking. The sample included 12,500 adolescents residing in the Gulf Coast region of the USA. Results show that religious salience was directly related to depression, marijuana, and binge drinking. It was also indirectly related to both substance use outcomes through depression. Religious service attendance was unrelated to any of the outcomes. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24477461
Rose, Theda; Shields, Joseph; Tueller, Stephen; Larson, Sharon
Adolescents and young adults disproportionately abuse 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'Ecstasy'); however, since most MDMA research has concentrated on adults, the effects of MDMA on the developing brain remain obscure. Therefore, we evaluated place conditioning to MDMA (or saline) during late adolescence and assessed anxiety-like behavior and monoamine levels during abstinence. Rats were conditioned to associate 5 or 10mg/kg MDMA or saline with contextual cues over 4 twice-daily sessions. Five days after conditioning, anxiety-like behavior was examined with the open field test and brain tissue was collected to assess serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the dorsal raphe, amygdala, and hippocampus by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). In a separate group of rats, anxiety-like and avoidant behaviors were measured using the light-dark box test under similar experimental conditions. MDMA conditioning caused a place aversion at 10, but not at 5, mg/kg, as well as increased anxiety-like behavior in the open field and avoidant behavior in light-dark box test at the same dose. Additionally, 10mg/kg MDMA decreased 5-HT in the dorsal raphe, increased 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the amygdala, and did not alter levels in the hippocampus. Overall, we show that repeated high (10mg/kg), but not low (5mg/kg), dose MDMA during late adolescence in rats increases anxiety-like and avoidant behaviors, accompanied by region-specific alterations in 5-HT levels during abstinence. These results suggest that MDMA causes a region-specific dysregulation of the serotonin system during adolescence that may contribute to maladaptive behavior. PMID:24121061
Cox, Brittney M; Shah, Mrudang M; Cichon, Teri; Tancer, Manuel E; Galloway, Matthew P; Thomas, David M; Perrine, Shane A
It is noted that many currently prominent sociological theories of delinquency implicitely or explicitely use I.Q. as a crucial theoretical element. It is shown that I.Q. has an effect on delinquency independent of class and age and that this effect is mediated through a host of school variables. (Author/AM)
Hirschi, Travis; Hindelang, Michael J.
Examines whether physical punishment and consistency of discipline interact in their effect on delinquency. Distinguishes between "intermittent discipline" and "inconsistent demands." Finds that if parental demands are consistent, physical punishment may reduce delinquency but cautions that these findings do not constitute a recommendation for the…
Background Today, due to developing communicative technologies, computer games and other audio-visual media as social phenomena, are very attractive and have a great effect on children and adolescents. The increasing popularity of these games among children and adolescents results in the public uncertainties about plausible harmful effects of these games. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between computer games and behavioral problems on male guidance school students. Methods This was a descriptive-correlative study on 384 randomly chosen male guidance school students. They were asked to answer the researcher's questionnaire about computer games and Achenbach’s Youth Self-Report (YSR). Findings The Results of this study indicated that there was about 95% direct significant correlation between the amount of playing games among adolescents and anxiety/depression, withdrawn/depression, rule-breaking behaviors, aggression, and social problems. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between the amount of computer game usage and physical complaints, thinking problems, and attention problems. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the students’ place of living and their parents’ job, and using computer games. Conclusion Computer games lead to anxiety, depression, withdrawal, rule-breaking behavior, aggression, and social problems in adolescents. PMID:24494157
Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Solmaz; Khezri-Moghadam, Noshiravan; Javanmard, Zeinab; Sarmadi-Ansar, Hassan; Aminaee, Mehran; Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Majid; Zivari-Rahman, Mahmoud
In a large sample of early adolescents (T2: N = 1023; M age = 13.51; 55.5% girls), the impact of parental protection and unsupervised wandering on adolescents' antisocial behavior 2.5 years later was tested in this TRAILS study; gender and parental knowledge were controlled for. In addition, the level of biological maturation and having antisocial…
Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene
Disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, and obesity have been associated cross sectionally with suicidal behavior in adolescents. To determine the extent to which these variables predicted suicidal ideation and attempts, the authors examined these relationships in a longitudinal design. The study population included 2,516 older adolescents and…
Crow, Scott; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
The present study investigated how maternal HIV and mediating family processes are associated with adolescent distress, substance use, and risky sexual behavior. Mother-adolescent (ages 12-21) dyads (N = 264) were recruited from neighborhoods where the HIV-affected families resided (161 had mothers with HIV). Mediating family processes were youth…
Lester, Patricia; Stein, Judith A.; Bursch, Brenda; Rice, Eric; Green, Sara; Penniman, Typhanye; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane
This study examined the relationship between substance use, mental health problems, and HIV sexual risk behaviors among a sample of foster care adolescents. Data were collected through structured baseline interviews with 320 adolescents (ages 15 to 18 years) who resided in foster care placements and participated in a larger evaluation study of an…
Thompson, Ronald G., Jr.; Auslander, Wendy F.
The current study expands upon body image research to examine how gender, self-esteem, social support, teasing, and family, friend, and media pressures relate to body image and eating-related attitudes and behaviors among male and female adolescents (N = 177). Results indicated that adolescents were dissatisfied with their current bodies: males…
Ata, Rheanna N.; Ludden, Alison Bryant; Lally, Megan M.
The role of hostile attributional style (HAS) in antisocial development has been well-documented. We analyzed longitudinal data on 585 youths (48% female; 19% ethnic minority) to test the hypothesis that response evaluation and decision (RED) mediates the relation between HAS and antisocial behavior in adolescence. In Grades 10 and 12, adolescent…
Fontaine, Reid Griffith; Tanha, Marieh; Yang, Chongming; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.
This article explores how exposure to environment-related media content, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control play a role in Hong Kong adolescents' environmental intention. The author conducted a survey with a sample of 1,012 (465 male, 547 female) adolescents in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling confirms that exposure to…
Objective: The current study was designed to explore the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) and its association with health risk behaviors (i.e., smoking, alcohol use, binge drinking, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt) among rural children and adolescents in China. Methods: A sample of 683 rural children and adolescents (8 to 18 years of…
Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Fan, Xinghua; Fang, Xiaoyi
Nandrolone decanoate, an anabolic androgen steroid (AAS) illicitly used by adult and adolescent athletes to enhance physical performance and body image, induces psychiatric side effects, such as aggression, depression as well as a spectrum of adverse physiological impairments. Since adolescence represents a neurodevelopmental window that is extremely sensitive to the detrimental effects of drug abuse, we investigated the long-term behavioral and neurophysiological consequences of nandrolone abuse during adolescence. Adolescent rats received daily injections of nandrolone decanoate (15 mg/kg, i.m.) for 14 days (PND 40-53). At early adulthood (PND 68), forced swim, sucrose preference, open field and elevated plus maze tests were performed to assess behavioral changes. In vivo electrophysiological recordings were carried out to monitor changes in electrical activity of serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC). Our results show that after early exposure to nandrolone, rats display depression-related behavior, characterized by increased immobility in the forced swim test and reduced sucrose intake in the sucrose preference test. In addition, adult rats presented anxiety-like behavior characterized by decreased time and number of entries in the central zone of the open field and decreased time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. Nandrolone decreased the firing rate of spontaneously active serotonergic neurons in the DRN while increasing the firing rate of noradrenergic neurons in the LC. These results provide evidence that nandrolone decanoate exposure during adolescence alters the emotional profile of animals in adulthood and significantly modifies both serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission. PMID:24721625
Rainer, Quentin; Speziali, Simona; Rubino, Tiziana; Dominguez-Lopez, Sergio; Bambico, Francis Rodriguez; Gobbi, Gabriella; Parolaro, Daniela
This study examines the psychological and behavioral effects of exposure to community violence of 47 Latino mothers and their young adolescent children. Using data gathered from multiple sources, this study tests the associations between lifetime exposure to community violence, maternal depression, and child behavior problems. More than 80% of the…
Aisenberg, Eugene; Trickett, Penelope K.; Mennen, Ferol E.; Saltzman, William; Zayas, Luis H.
We aimed to prospectively examine the association between the combined effects of obesogenic behaviors on quality of life (QOL) in adolescents. Of 2353 Sydney schoolchildren surveyed (median age 12.7 years), 1,213 were re-examined 5 years later at age 17-18. Children completed activity and food-frequency questionnaires. An unhealthy behavior score was calculated, allocating 1 point for the following: PedsQL). The prevalence of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 lifestyle risk factors was 4.2%, 17.1%, 30.7%, 30.5%, 13.9% and 3.6%, respectively. After multivariable- adjustment, children engaging in 5 versus 0 unhealthy behaviors had 9.2-units lower PedsQL physical summary score (ptrend=0.001), five years later. Boys reporting 4 or 5 lifestyle risk factors compared to their peers reporting none or one at baseline, had lower total and physical summary scores at follow-up, ptrend=0.02 and 0.01, respectively. Girls engaging in 4 or 5 versus 0 or 1 unhealthy behaviors, had 4.6-units lower physical summary score (ptrend=0.04), five years later. The number of obesogenic lifestyle risk factors was independently associated with subsequent poorer QOL, particularly physical health, during adolescence. These findings underscore the importance of targeting lifestyle behaviors to promote general well-being and physical functioning in adolescents. PMID:24561980
Gopinath, Bamini; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Flood, Victoria M; Burlutsky, George; Hardy, Louise L; Baur, Louise A; Mitchell, Paul
There are few published randomized controlled trials examining treatment for symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN) in adolescents. Additionally, many adolescents presenting for treatment for BN symptoms endorse co-occurring mood disturbances, suicidality, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), and may not meet full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for BN. In addition to the limited number of randomized controlled trials, published treatment studies of BN symptoms in adolescence do not specifically address the multiple comorbid symptoms that these adolescents often report. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of an outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for adolescents with symptoms of BN, suicide attempts, and NSSI. Ten eligible participants enrolled in the study; 3 dropped within 4 weeks of initiating treatment. In addition to binge eating and suicidal behavior, participants also endorsed a number of other comorbid mood disorders and substance abuse. Seven participants completed 6 months of treatment and 6-month follow-up assessments. Treatment included access to a crisis management system, individual therapy, skills training, and a therapist consultation team. At posttreatment, participants had significantly reduced self-harm; (Cohen's d = 1.35), frequency of objective binge episodes (Cohen's d = .46), frequency of purging (Cohen's d = .66), and Global Eating Disorder Examination scores (Cohen's d = .64). At follow-up, 6 participants were abstinent of NSSI; 3 participants were abstinent from binge eating. At follow-up, treatment gains were maintained and enhanced. Results indicate that it is feasible to address multiple forms of psychopathology during the treatment of BN symptoms in this age-group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24773094
Fischer, Sarah; Peterson, Claire
In this 18 year old female patient with adolescent crisis, psychic regression and cyclic abdominal pain, the diagnosis of an acute intermittent porphyria was made by positive urine finding of porphobilinogen, by low serum measurement of the enzyme urosynthase and the positive genetic mutation of this enzyme. The article gives a brief report of the pathogenesis, clinical findings, diagnostic tests and the current therapies being undertaken. Further, a list of medications which are indicated or contraindicated relating to the patient with acute intermittent porphyria is noted. PMID:11068504
Breidenstein, E; Steigmeier, L; Minder, E; Hess, C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple health risk behaviors (HRBs among adolescents pose a threat to their health, including HIV/AIDS. Health risk behaviors such as alcohol use, smoking, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors among youth have been shown to co-occur with each others. The objectives of this study was to estimate the prevalence of single and concurrent health risk behaviors and to explore how health risk behavior is associated with socio-demographic factors and peers' behaviors. Methods A cross sectional design was used to examine health risk behaviors of adolescents between the age 14 and 19 years living in the Luangnamtha province, Lao PDR. The study was conducted between June and August, 2008. An ordinal logistic regression model that simultaneously explored demographic factors and the influence of the behavior of peers on three categories of multiple HRBs (no risk, one risk, and two or more health risk behaviors was performed. Results A total of 1360 respondents, 669 (49.1% boys with mean age 16.7 ± 1.6 and 699 (50.9% girls aged 16.1 ± 1.5 were recruited into the study. The majority reported two or fewer risk behaviors. However, multiple risk behaviors increased with age for both sexes. About 46.8% (n = 637 reported no risk, 39.3 percent (n = 535 reported one risk, 8.1 percent (n = 110 reported two risks, and 5.8 percent reported more than two health risk behaviors. The protective factors among boys were school attendance (OR = .53, CI = .33-.86, being Hmong and Yao ethnicity (OR = .48, CI-.26-.90, while being above the age of 15 (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.33-3.60, Akha ethnicity (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.04-4.61, peer's smoking (OR = 3.11, 95% CI = 2.1-4.6, and peer's drinking alcohol (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.1-3.21 were significantly associated with the presence of multiple risk behaviors among boys. Having some education (OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.06-0.45, and being of Hmong and Yao ethnicity (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.18-0.80 were factors that protected girls from multiple risk behaviors; while peer's drinking alcohol (OR = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.59-4.09 and peer's being sexually active (OR = 2.82, 95% CI = 1.65-4.8 were significantly associated with the presence of multiple risk behaviors among girls. Conclusion There are sex, age and ethnic differences in the concurrent health risk behaviors. The influencing factors are adolescent's education and peer influence. Interventions should focus to encourage adolescents to complete the compulsory primary education as well as help them to establish friendships and follow peers with good behavior. Risk reduction messages need to take account of diverse multiple HRBs within the specific socio-cultural and gender specific context and target vulnerable adolescents such as ethnic minorities and less educated adolescents.
BackgroundMany parents do not live with, or have shared custody of, their adolescent children (i.e., nonresident parents). The degree of their influence on their children, as compared to parents who do live with their children the majority of the time (i.e. resident parents) has not been well-studied. The current study aimed to examine whether and how resident and nonresident parents¿ weight and weight-related behaviors are correlated with adolescents¿ weight and weight-related behaviors. Results will inform who may be important to include in adolescent obesity prevention interventions.MethodsData from two linked population-based studies, EAT 2010 and F-EAT, were used for cross-sectional analyses. Resident parents (n¿=¿200; 80% females; mean age =41.8), nonresident parents (n =200; 70% male; mean age =43.1), and adolescents (n =200; 60% girls; mean age =14.2 years) were socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse. Multiple regression models were fit to investigate the association between resident and nonresident parents¿ weight and weight-related behaviors and adolescents¿ weight and weight-related behaviors.ResultsBoth resident and nonresident parents¿ BMI were significantly associated with adolescents¿ BMI percentile. Additionally, resident parents¿ sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and fruit and vegetable intake were significantly associated with adolescents¿ sugar-sweetened beverage intake and fruit and vegetable intake (p¿fast food consumption, breakfast frequency, or sedentary behaviors were significantly associated with adolescents¿ same behaviors.ConclusionsThese preliminary findings suggest that resident and nonresident parents may have slightly different influences on their adolescent children¿s weight-related behaviors. Longitudinal follow-up is needed to determine temporality of associations. Additionally, more information is needed on relationships between nonresident parents and their children. PMID:25339189
Berge, Jerica M; Meyer, Craig; MacLehose, Richard F; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Full Text Available The aim of this work is an attempt to determine the relationship between experiences of violence in childhood and health and life risk behaviors among Polish youth. The studied group consisted of patients 14 - 18 years old from a dozen or so Polish centers treating young people with risk behaviors, mental disorders and dependence disorders. Early Trauma Inventory (ETI and our Scale of Healthy Behaviors (SHB were used in the study. Results: Young people after suicidal attempts and with substance abuse the most often had physical violence experiences in childhood. Adolescents with eating disorders had experienced emotional and sexual violence.
The shift from childhood to adolescence is characterized by rapid remodeling of the brain and increased risk-taking behaviors. Current theories hypothesize that developmental enhancements in sensitivity to affective environmental cues in adolescence may undermine executive function (EF) and increase the likelihood of problematic behaviors. In the current study, we examined the extent to which EF in childhood predicts EF in early adolescence. We also tested whether individual differences in neural responses to affective cues (rewards/punishments) in childhood serve as a biological marker for EF, sensation-seeking, academic performance, and social skills in early adolescence. At age 8, 84 children completed a gambling task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. We examined the extent to which selections resulting in rewards or losses in this task elicited (i) the P300, a post-stimulus waveform reflecting the allocation of attentional resources toward a stimulus, and (ii) the SPN, a pre-stimulus anticipatory waveform reflecting a neural representation of a "hunch" about an outcome that originates in insula and ventromedial PFC. Children also completed a Dimensional Change Card-Sort (DCCS) and Flanker task to measure EF. At age 12, 78 children repeated the DCCS and Flanker and completed a battery of questionnaires. Flanker and DCCS accuracy at age 8 predicted Flanker and DCCS performance at age 12, respectively. Individual differences in the magnitude of P300 (to losses vs. rewards) and SPN (preceding outcomes with a high probability of punishment) at age 8 predicted self-reported sensation seeking (lower) and teacher-rated academic performance (higher) at age 12. We suggest there is stability in EF from age 8 to 12, and that childhood neural sensitivity to reward and punishment predicts individual differences in sensation seeking and adaptive behaviors in children entering adolescence. PMID:24795680
Harms, Madeline B; Zayas, Vivian; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Carlson, Stephanie M
Full Text Available The shift from childhood to adolescence is characterized by rapid remodeling of the brain and increased risk-taking behaviors. Current theories hypothesize that developmental enhancements in sensitivity to affective environmental cues in adolescence may undermine executive function (EF and increase the likelihood of problematic behaviors. In the current study, we examined the extent to which EF in childhood predicts EF in early adolescence. We also tested whether individual differences in neural responses to affective cues (rewards/punishments in childhood serve as a biological marker for EF, sensation-seeking, academic performance, and social skills in early adolescence. At age 8, 84 children completed a gambling task while event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded. We examined the extent to which selections resulting in rewards or losses in this task elicited (i the P300, a post-stimulus waveform reflecting the allocation of attentional resources toward a stimulus, and (ii the SPN, a pre-stimulus anticipatory waveform reflecting a neural representation of a “hunch” about an outcome that originates in insula and ventromedial PFC. Children also completed a Dimensional Change Card-Sort (DCCS and Flanker task to measure EF. At age 12, 78 children repeated the DCCS and Flanker and completed a battery of questionnaires. Flanker and DCCS accuracy at age 8 predicted Flanker and DCCS performance at age 12, respectively. Individual differences in the magnitude of P300 (to losses vs. rewards and SPN (preceding outcomes with a high probability of punishment at age 8 predicted self-reported sensation seeking (lower and teacher-rated academic performance (higher at age 12. We suggest there is stability in EF from age 8 to 12, and that childhood neural sensitivity to reward and punishment predicts individual differences in sensation seeking and adaptive behaviors in children entering adolescence.
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The global prevalence of obesity has reached alarming proportions. In Cuba, the rise in numbers of children who are overweight or obese, especially preschoolers and adolescents, is similar to that observed in developed countries. Beyond the physical risk factors, there is evidence that [...] obesity has negative psychological, social, academic and economic effects. OBJECTIVE: Describe the psychological, behavioral and familial factors present in a group of obese children and adolescents in Cuba. METHODS: This is a qualitative cross-sectional study of 202 obese children and adolescents aged 3-18 years, with an average age of 9.9 years, seen at the Medical-Surgical Research Center (Havana) psychology service from January 2009 through December 2012. Techniques included interviews of patients and parents, projective drawings and the Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank. RESULTS: Unhealthy eating habits were reported in 96% of obese children and adolescents, and sedentary lifestyles in 88.1%. Emotional state was affected in 80.2%, and in 72.3% there were family attitudes with potential to produce psychological disturbances in children. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological, behavioral, and familial factors known to foster development and perpetuation of obesity were observed in the majority of cases. This is a first diagnostic stage that will aid in design and implementation of a psychological intervention program for obese and overweight children and their families.
Lourdes M., Pérez; Keytel, García; Raúl, Herrera.
This systematic review analyzed the prevalence of physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors and unhealthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents. Searches were conducted in five databases (Lilacs, SciELO, Medline, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) and in the references cited in the articles retrieved. The literature search yielded 5,872 potentially relevant titles and a total of 69 studies met all the inclusion criteria. The risk behavior most often evaluated was physical inactivity (48/69; 69.6%), and its prevalence rate ranged from 2.3% to 93.5%. Twenty-eight studies estimated the prevalence of physical inactivity at over 50%. Most studies observed the prevalence of greater physical inactivity among girls. The prevalence of sedentary behaviors (lengthy screen time or TV use) was also frequently over 50%. Several variables were used to identify unhealthy eating habits, and some criteria/studies have indicated unhealthy eating habit estimates at close to 100% among adolescents. In conclusion, the estimates of these risk behaviors among Brazilians adolescents were very close to or even greater than those found in developed countries in several studies analyzed in this review. PMID:24473615
Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; de Campos, Wagner; Lopes, Adair da Silva
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Adolescence is the most critical period of life as regards commencing drug abuse. The social cost and damage caused by drug abuse in adolescence are enormous, necessitating interventional programs to prevent this behavior. The theory of planned behavior (TPB is perhaps the most influential theory for the prediction of social and health behaviors such as drug abuse.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, samples were collected from male students in four high schools in different regions of Hamedan. The survey was carried out via random cluster sampling of 650 students. Data were collected using the standard self-report questionnaires and were analyzed using SPSS16, chi-squared test, correlation coefficient, and logistic regression analysis.Results: Among the adolescents participating in this study, 11.1% had the experience of cigarette smoking, 3.4% had the experience of drug abuse, and 12% had the experience of intention to abuse drugs. There was a significant relationship between drug abuse and the following variables: smoking experience (p value =0.001, OR=27.238; having drug user parents (p value =0.001, OR=8.630; having friends who had experienced drug abuse (p value =0.001, OR=11.060; having best friends who had experienced drug abuse (p value = 0.001, OR=11.931; family with drug abuse (p value = 0.001, OR=4.311; and having a sibling who abused drugs (p value=0.001, OR=15.815. According to the logistic regression analysis, attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavior control were the most influential predictors of intention to abuse drugs.Conclusion: The use of TPB is beneficial in the predicting and planning for high-risk behaviors. TPB can be used for planning and implementing drug abuse prevention programs in adolescents.
Using measures of behaviors shown to predict low-fat intake in previous research, this study examined whether the behaviors would predict low-fat intake among urban, African American adolescents. Recruited through youth services agencies in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, participants were 399 African American adolescents (67% female) with a mean age of 13.09 years (range, 10–15 years). Fat-related dietary behaviors were measured using items that were adapted from the Food Habits Questionnaire. Fat intake was measured using the Block Fat Screener. Spearman correlations examined the relationships between fat-related dietary behaviors and fat intake. Seven behaviors were significantly associated with low-fat intake: had chicken that was baked or broiled instead of fried; ordered pasta or pizza served without meat sauce or meat toppings; had a vegetarian dinner; used low-calorie instead of regular salad dressing; ate at least two vegetables (not green salad) at dinner; ate bread, rolls, or muffins without butter or margarine; and avoided foods that were fried in oil, shortening, or lard. Using multiple regression, fat intake was regressed on the linear combination of demographic variables and these fat-related dietary behaviors. The regression equation accounted for 17% of the variance in fat intake, adjusted R2 = 0.13. Fat avoidance (ate bread, rolls, or muffins without butter or margarine) and replacement (ordered pasta or pizza served without meat sauce or meat toppings) behaviors were significant predictors of low-fat intake. Dietary interventions to lower fat intake among urban, African American adolescents should promote the adoption of these behaviors. PMID:19083432
Noia, Jennifer Di; Contento, Isobel R.; Schinke, Steven P.
The aim of this study was to explore possible effects of emotional symptoms (depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms) and life stress on eating behaviors (restrained, emotional and external eating behaviors) among junior and high school students in China. A total of 5473 students in Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province were sampled to participate in this survey based on a clustering sampling approach. The survey collected sociodemographic data, emotional symptoms, life stress and eating behaviors of adolescents. Spearman correlation coefficients were measured and tested to examine the relationship between eating behaviors and emotional symptoms as well as life stress. In addition, we analyzed the data using Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression models. The results showed positive correlation between emotional symptoms, life stress, and eating behaviors. Furthermore, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms and life stress were significantly associated with unhealthy eating behaviors, after adjusting for gender, age, BMI, parental education level and self-assessed family economic status. This study suggests that a comprehensive intervention focusing on emotion and stress management would be helpful for the prevention of unhealthy eating behaviors among Chinese adolescents. PMID:23603765
Hou, Fangli; Xu, Shaojun; Zhao, Yuqiu; Lu, Qingyun; Zhang, Shichen; Zu, Ping; Sun, Ying; Su, Puyu; Tao, Fangbiao
Little is known about the role of chronic stress in youth suicidal behaviors. This study examined the relations between specific domains of chronic stress and suicidal behaviors among 131 inpatient youth (M age = 15.02 years) who completed measures of stress, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and suicide intent. After controlling for…
Pettit, Jeremy W.; Green, Kelly L.; Grover, Kelly E.; Schatte, Dawnelle J.; Morgan, Sharon T.
Combining substance use and sex compounds the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. However, the association between substance use and sexual behaviors may vary by substance and sexual behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between alcohol and marijuana use frequency and specific sexual…
Floyd, Leah J.; Latimer, William
Reviews several key variables associated with problem behavior in general and drug abuse in particular. Proposes a theoretical approach both to the development of problem behavior and to ways of preventing it. Provides a conceptual rationale for the importance of peer-oriented prevention programs. (CMG)
Norem-Hebeisen, Ardyth; Hedin, Diane P.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Amount of sleep is an important indicator of health and well-being in children and adolescents. Adequate sleep (AS: adequate sleep is defined as 6–8 hours per night regularly is a critical factor in adolescent health and health-related behaviors. The present study was based on a health promotion project previously conducted on adolescents in Tao-Yuan County, Taiwan. The aim was to examine the relationship between AS during schooldays and excessive body weight, frequency of visiting doctors and health-related behaviors among Taiwanese adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study design, categorical and multivariate data analyses were used. The hypotheses investigated were: high frequency of AS is positively associated with lack of obesity and less frequent visits to doctors; and high frequency AS is positively associated with health-related behavior. Results A total of 656 boys (53.2% and girls (46.8%, ranging in age from 13–18 years were studied between January and June 2004. Three hundred and fifty seven subjects (54% reported that they slept less than the suggested 6–8 hours on schooldays. A significant negative association was found between low sleep and of the following health-related behaviors: (1 life appreciation; (2 taking responsibility for health; (3 adopting healthy diet; (4 effective stress management; (5 regular exercise; and (6 total AHP score. High frequency AS was associated with low frequencies of obesity after potential confounding factors were controlled. Junior high school adolescents reported significantly higher frequencies of AS than high school participants. Gender, family structure, home location and frequency of television watching or computer use were not significantly associated with AS. Conclusion These findings support the proposition that AS is associated with good health status and high-frequency adoption of health-related behavior. Furthermore, these findings suggest that inadequate sleep may be a screening indicator for an unhealthy lifestyle and poor health status. The results might be useful for future research into the development of intervention strategies to assist adolescents who are not receiving enough hours of sleep.
Behavioral disinhibition has been characterized as a generalized vulnerability to externalizing disorders. Despite increasing evidence for its validity and heritability, the structural stability of behavioral disinhibition across adolescence and the strength and etiology of its relation to executive functions have not been studied. In this multivariate twin study, the authors assessed behavioral disinhibition using measures tapping substance use, conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactiv...
Young, Susan E.; Friedman, Naomi P.; Miyake, Akira; Willcutt, Erik G.; Corley, Robin P.; Haberstick, Brett C.; Hewitt, John K.
This paper aims to describe the prevalence of parent-adolescent conversations about eating, physical activity and weight across sociodemographic characteristics and to examine associations with adolescent body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Data from two linked epidemiological studies were used for cross-sectional analysis. Parents (n = 3,424; 62 % females) and adolescents (n = 2,182; 53.2 % girls) were socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse. Fathers reported more parent-adolescent conversations about healthful eating and physical activity with their sons and mothers reported more weight-focused conversations with their daughters. Parents of Hispanic/Latino and Asian/Hmong youth and parents from lower socioeconomic status categories engaged in more conversations about weight and size. Adolescents whose mothers or fathers had weight-focused conversations with them had higher BMI percentiles. Adolescents who had two parents engaging in weight-related conversations had higher BMI percentiles. Healthcare providers may want to talk about the types of weight-related conversations parents are having with their adolescents and emphasize avoiding conversations about weight specifically. PMID:24997555
Berge, Jerica M; MacLehose, Richard F; Loth, Katie A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Extensive research has investigated links between individual differences in youths' autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning and psychological outcomes related to emotion regulation, yet little of this research has examined developmental change. The study tested whether individual differences in youths' tonic and stress-induced ANS functioning, assessed at age 14, and changes in ANS functioning from age 14 to 16 predicted corresponding changes in youths' behavioral warmth, as displayed during videotaped mother-child conflict interactions conducted at age 14 and 16. Increased behavioral warmth was predicted by increased baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), increased SCL stress reactivity, decreased RSA stress reactivity (i.e., greater vagal suppression), and decreased baseline SCL. There was also an interaction between RSA stress reactivity at age 14 and changes in maternal warmth from age 14 to 16, such that increased maternal warmth was only associated with increased adolescent warmth for adolescents with lower RSA stress reactivity at age 14. PMID:22940642
Diamond, Lisa M; Cribbet, Matthew R
Using the Integrated Model of Behavioral Prediction, this study examines the effects of exposure to sexual content on television by genre, specifically looking at comedy, drama, cartoon, and reality programs, on adolescents' sex-related cognitions and behaviors. Additionally, we compared the amount and explicitness of sexual content as well as the frequency of risk and responsibility messages in these four genres. Findings show that overall exposure to sexual content on television was not related to teens' engagement in sexual intercourse the following year. When examined by genre, exposure to sexual content in comedies was positively associated while exposure to sexual content in dramas was negatively associated with attitudes regarding sex, perceived normative pressure, intentions, and engaging in sex one year later. Implications of adolescent exposure to various types of content and for using genre categories to examine exposure and effects are discussed. PMID:24187395
Gottfried, Jeffrey A; Vaala, Sarah E; Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Jordan, Amy
While the author considers adolescence to be a positive and creative period of developing sexuality and self-awakening, he is nonetheless troubled by a trend toward increasing premarital sexual activity, with a correspondingly elevated teen pregnancy rate in Japan. The social climate encourages adolescent pregnancy, posing medical, gynecological, and social problems. Teenage abortions have increased from 12, 123 to 29, 675 over the period 1975-1989; the proportion of teen abortions rising from 1.8% to 6.35% of all abortions. Those youths opting to bear children to term often only make for irresponsible parents. This increased preponderance of adolescence sexual activity may be attributed to a host of factors including a trend toward delayed marriage and increased years of schooling, increased acceptance and prevalence of single parent and dual income families, a burgeoning Japanese sex industry widely conveyed through mass media, wide dissemination of contraceptive methods and effective medical treatment of most sexually transmitted diseases, and inadequate, inappropriate sex education. Family and school environments, the nature of growing older, and the difference between male and female adolescent psychological development are also cited as accelerators of sex behavior. Adults are urged to foster happy family and school environments for youth, encourage extracurricular activities, and regard masturbation as positive release of sexual morality, but support the adoption and continuation of birth limiting methods such as oral contraceptives at the expense of the condom. Demographic data and survey findings on adolescent attitudes toward sex and actual adolescent sexual practice are included to support the author's argument. PMID:12284679
Abstract Background Social subjugation is a very significant and natural stressor in the animal kingdom. Adult animals defeated and subjugated during establishment of dominance hierarchies or territorial encounters can be highly submissive in future agonistic interactions. While much is know about the biological and behavioral consequences of winning and losing fights in adulthood, little is known about adolescence; a developmental period noted for impulsivity and heightened ...
Sullivan Ross; Messenger Tara; Ferris Craig F
The present study uses observational assessment of 66 two-parent families working and playing together when their eldest child is in kindergarten and again in 9th grade to identify distinct patterns of family functioning derived from structural family systems theory. Whereas concurrent assessment of the relationship between family type and adolescents' school behavior were not significant, significant prospective longitudinal relationships between family type assessed in early childhood and 9...
Johnson, Vanessa K.
From several theoretical perspectives as well as in psychotherapeutic practice it is assumed that family characteristics have a causal influence on the course of emotional and / or behavioral problems of children and adolescents (e.g., Boszonneny-Nagy & Sparke, 1973; Dadds, 1995; Hetherington & Mat1in, 1986; Jacob & Tennenbaum, 1988; Minuchin, 1974; Patterson, 1982). However, although there is an enollatous amount of evidence for the presence of an association between family fu...
Mathijssen, J. J. P.
During the past few decades, studies using multiple research designs have examined whether sleep during childhood and adolescence is related to cognition, behavior, and other aspects of daytime functioning. This paper summarizes recent correlational, case-control, quasi-experimental, and experimental studies, highlighting how the strengths and limitations of each research design are complementary, thereby allowing one to more confidently draw conclusions when viewing the research literature a...
Beebe, Dean W.
Underlying the responses of 34 44-month-old children of adolescent mothers to five attachment narratives were two factors--departure and reunion. The departure factor included disorganized and insecure responses to parents' departure as well as disorganized responses to narratives about children's misbehavior and fear. Scores predicted children's externalizing behavior problems 10 months later and discriminated children in the clinical from those in the normal range for externalizing problems. Maternal depression explained significant additional variance in children's externalizing problems. PMID:8827265
Hubbs-Tait, L; Hughes, K P; Culp, A M; Osofsky, J D; Hann, D M; Eberhart-Wright, A; Ware, L M
The current manual is purported to provide an empirical guide in facilitating a group intervention that will address career indecision among adolescents. It utilized Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy as the major framework of the treatment protocol. Prior to the group facilitation, prospective members will be screened through an interview and Career Decision Profile. It consists of six sessions (one and a half hour every session) which will be executed on a weekly basis. With the intention of modi...
Datu, Jesus Alfonso
Adverse outcomes of teenage sexual activity are common in the United Kingdom. The authors used a computer-assisted interview to ask young adolescents aged 11 to 12 years (N = 6,856) and 12 to 13 years (N = 6,801) who were part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children about romantic and intimate behaviors. A total of 24% of 11- to…
Waylen, Andrea E.; Ness, Andrew; McGovern, Phil; Wolke, Dieter; Low, Nicola
We performed this study to examine lifestyle patterns and dietary behavior based on the level of Internet addiction of Korean adolescents. Data were collected from 853 Korean junior high school students. The level of Internet addiction was determined based on the Korean Internet addiction self-scale short form for youth, and students were classified as high-risk Internet users, potential-risk Internet users, and no risk Internet users. The associations between the students' levels of Internet...
Kim, Yeonsoo; Park, Jin Young; Kim, Sung Byuk; Jung, In-kyung; Lim, Yun Sook; Kim, Jung-hyun
The purpose of this study was to pilot a cognitive behavioral treatment protocol for adolescents with co-occurring alcohol use disorder and suicidality, examine its association with symptomatic improvement, and determine its feasibility and acceptability. Treatment consisted of a 6 month acute treatment phase, 3 month maintenance phase, and a 3 month booster phase, as well as case management services. Participants were also permitted to receive concurrent pharmacotherapy. Five of six families...
Esposito-smythers, Christianne; Spirito, Anthony; Uth, Rebecca; Lachance, Heather
This study investigated whether hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in African American adolescents and looked at whether religious participation and religious coping protected these students from suicidality. Participants were 212 African American high school students (133 females, 79 males). The results of multiple and logistic regression analyses found that hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts. Religi...
Molock, Sherry Davis; Puri, Rupa; Matlin, Samantha; Barksdale, Crystal
Background A compulsivity spectrum has been hypothesized to exist across Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD), Eating Disorders (ED), substance abuse (SA) and binge-drinking (BD). The objective was to examine the validity of this compulsivity spectrum, and differentiate it from an externalizing behaviors dimension, but also to look at hypothesized personality and neural correlates. Method A community-sample of adolescents (N=1938; mean age 14.5 years), and their parents were recruited via high-schools in 8 European study sites. Data on adolescents’ psychiatric symptoms, DSM diagnoses (DAWBA) and substance use behaviors (AUDIT and ESPAD) were collected through adolescent- and parent-reported questionnaires and interviews. The phenotypic structure of compulsive behaviors was then tested using structural equation modeling. The model was validated using personality variables (NEO-FFI and TCI), and Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) analysis. Results Compulsivity symptoms best fit a higher-order two factor model, with ED and OCD loading onto a compulsivity factor, and BD and SA loading onto an externalizing factor, composed also of ADHD and conduct disorder symptoms. The compulsivity construct correlated with neuroticism (r=0.638; p?0.001), conscientiousness (r=0.171; p?0.001), and brain gray matter volume in left and right orbitofrontal cortex, right ventral striatum and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The externalizing factor correlated with extraversion (r=0.201; p?0.001), novelty-seeking (r=0.451; p?0.001), and negatively with gray matter volume in the left inferior and middle frontal gyri. Conclusions Results suggest that a compulsivity spectrum exists in an adolescent, preclinical sample and accounts for variance in both OCD and ED, but not substance-related behaviors, and can be differentiated from an externalizing spectrum. PMID:24244633
Montigny, Chantale; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Whelan, Robert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J.; Büchel, Christian; Gallinat, Jürgen; Flor, Herta; Mann, Karl; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Nees, Frauke; Lathrop, Mark; Loth, Eva; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael N.; Struve, Maren; Robbins, Trevor W.; Garavan, Hugh; Conrod, Patricia J.
Background Although knowledge on single health-related behaviors and their association with health parameters is available, research on multiple health-related behaviors is needed to understand the interactions among these behaviors. The aims of the study were (a) to identify typical health-related behavior patterns in German adolescents focusing on physical activity, media use and dietary behavior; (b) to describe the socio-demographic correlates of the identified clusters and...
Spengler Sarah; Mess Filip; Mewes Nadine; Bm, Mensink Gert; Woll Alexander
The objectives of this study were: to describe perceived dental health status and oral health-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in Chinese urban adolescents; to assess the associations of oral health variables with socio-economic status and school performance; and to analyse the relative effect of socio-behavioral risk factors on perceived dental health, perceived need for dental care, and experience of dental symptoms. A cross-sectional survey of 2662 adolescents was conducted in eight capital cities in China; the response rate was 92%. The study population was chosen by multistage cluster sampling and covered three age groups: 11, 13, and 15 years. Data on dental and general health were collected by self-administered questionnaires. Self-assessment of dental health of Chinese adolescents was generally good, only 12% of the students answered that their teeth were "poor" or "very poor", and 9% claimed having "poor" or "very poor" gums. Eleven percent of participants said that other students made fun of their teeth; 24% of the respondents were dissatisfied with the appearance of their teeth, and 41% claimed that they had experienced toothache or symptoms during the previous 12 months. Positive attitudes towards dental care were found in all age groups; 67% of adolescents brushed their teeth at least twice a day and 48% of the students used fluoridated toothpaste. Only 26% of the students visited a dentist during the previous 12 months. In all, 6% of the adolescents had tried cigarette smoking at least once, while 41% reported having tasted alcohol drinks. Multivariate regression analyses showed that perceived dental health status and needs were associated with gender, age, unhealthy lifestyles, poor school performance, and socio-economic status. The establishment of school-based health promotion programs in China is urgently needed, and promotion of oral health lifestyles should be integrated with other general health actions.
Jiang, Han; Petersen, Poul Erik
Background: Exercise is positively associated with physical health and psychological well-being. These benefits have been well documented among adults, but fewer studies analyzed the benefits of exercise to younger people (Sallis, Prochaska, & Taylor, 2000). So, it becomes interesting to know the relation between exercise frequency and some health routines, like eating behaviors. This study analyzed the relation between the frequency of exercise and the tendency to eating disorder behaviors. ...
Sima?es, C.; Gomes, Anto?nio Rui; Gonc?alves, S.; Dutra, J.
The idea of a sexual double standard emphasizes that men have more sexual freedom, whereas women are subject to social sanctions for the same behaviors. This research uses a sample of adolescent women to examine the social consequences of reporting a greater number of sex partners. The research explores whether there are broader social costs and feelings of low self-worth associated with a high number of sex partners, and also focuses on characteristics of the adolescents' close friends. The analyses of quantitative data (n = 600) provide support for the emphasis on the adolescents' immediate network of friends: Friends' attitudes and behaviors were significant predictors of respondents' own sexual experiences, while those reporting a higher number of sex partners did not report a lack of popularity, desire for more friends, or lower self-esteem. In-depth relationship history narratives collected from a subset of respondents (n = 46) provide additional context. Women often recognized the existence of a double standard on a societal or school level, but support or acceptance provided by the more immediate network of similarly situated friends serves as a buffer against such negative attributions. The findings suggest that programs targeting sexual behaviors should focus on how peer norms influence girls' sexual choices. PMID:20818574
Lyons, Heidi; Giordano, Peggy C; Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A
Full Text Available The problem of social-psychological adaptation of adolescents with deviant behavioral today is of particular relevance in relation to the current process of restructuring of educational institutions - the merging of general and specialized schools for adolescents with behavioral problems in a unified educational complexes. In these circumstances it is necessary to find an efficient tool that will simultaneously accelerate the process of adaptation and have a positive preventive effect. In this article, the author shows that such a tool can become the emotional intelligence as a construct that includes various abilities of the emotional sphere. The main hypothesis of the study was that the socio-psychological adaptation of adolescents with deviant behavior has its own characteristics, different from the norm group, and is interconnected with the components of emotional intelligence. The study was conducted on the basis of general education school ? 2077 formed by the merger of five educational institutions: the former school ? 738, ? 703, ? 702, ? 7 and ? 77. The study involved 222 teenagers from 14 to 16 years (111 girls and 111 boys.
Full Text Available Drug dependence is a major health problem in adults and has been recognized as a significant problem in adolescents. We previously demonstrated that repeated treatment with a behaviorally sensitizing dose of ethanol in adult mice induced tolerance or no sensitization in adolescents and that repeated ethanol-treated adolescents expressed lower Fos and Egr-1 expression than adult mice in the prefrontal cortex. In the present work, we investigated the effects of acute and repeated ethanol administration on cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB DNA-binding activity using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA and the phosphorylated CREB (pCREB/CREB ratio using immunoblotting in both the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in adolescent and adult mice. Adult mice exhibited typical locomotor sensitization after 15 days of daily treatment with 2.0 g/kg ethanol, whereas adolescent mice did not exhibit sensitization. Overall, adolescent mice displayed lower CREB binding activity in the prefrontal cortex compared with adult mice, whereas opposite effects were observed in the hippocampus. The present results indicate that ethanol exposure induces significant and differential neuroadaptive changes in CREB DNA-binding activity in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in adolescent mice compared with adult mice. These differential molecular changes may contribute to the blunted ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization observed in adolescent mice.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo visou analisar a prevalência de comportamentos de risco à saúde, tais como: sedentarismo, má alimentação, etilismo, adição em drogas, envolvimento em brigas e relações sexuais sem proteção, em adolescentes no município de Uruguaiana (RS), Brasil. A coleta de dados foi realizada a partir [...] de um questionário sobre comportamento de risco e estilo de vida, composto de 13 questões com variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas e comportamentais. Os comportamentos de risco prevalentes foram nunca/raramente uso de preservativos nas relações sexuais, o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas e o envolvimento em brigas. Cerca de 30% dos adolescentes apresentaram pelo menos um comportamento de risco, e 20% apresentaram dois ou mais desses. Dada a frequência de exposição, torna-se necessário a implementação de medidas de saúde no contexto escolar visando a diminuição da exposição a esses fatores de risco, promovendo a saúde desses adolescentes. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of health risk behaviors such as inactivity, poor nutrition, alcoholism, drug addition, involvement in physical fights and the lack of use of condoms during sex, in adolescents of Uruguaiana (RS), Brazil. The data were collected using a questionnai [...] re on risk behavior and lifestyle, consisting of 13 questions with demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral variables. We have founded that the risk behaviors more prevalent were never\\ rarely use of condoms during sexual intercourse, consumption of alcohol and engaging in fights. About 30% of adolescents presented, at least, one risk behavior and 20% presented two or more risk behaviors. Given this frequency of exposure to its risks, it is necessary to implement health measures in the school context, aimed to reduce exposure to these risk factors, promoting the health of adolescents.
Renato Xavier, Coutinho; Wendel Mombaque dos, Santos; Vanderlei, Folmer; Robson Luiz, Puntel.