Sample records for adolescent delinquent behavior

  1. Delinquent Behavior of Dutch Rural Adolescents


    Weenink, D.


    This article compares Dutch rural and non-rural adolescentsdelinquent behavior and examines two social correlates of rural delinquency: communal social control and traditional rural culture. The analyses are based on cross-sectional data, containing 3,797 participants aged 13–18 (48.7% females). The analyses show that rural adolescents are only slightly less likely to engage in delinquent behavior. Furthermore, while rural adolescents are exposed more often to communal social control, this ...

  2. Female Adolescent Friendship and Delinquent Behavior. (United States)

    Pleydon, Anne P.; Schner, Joseph G.


    Young female offenders (n=29) and female high school students (n=47) were compared in terms of delinquent behavior and relationships with their best female friend and peer group. Results indicated friendships of delinquent and nondelinquent female adolescents are essentially similar despite higher levels of peer pressure among delinquents. (BF)

  3. Brief report: Violent false memories and engagement in aggressive and delinquent behavior: an investigation in adolescents. (United States)

    Vannucci, Manila; Nocentini, Annalaura; Chiorri, Carlo; Menesini, Ersilia


    The present study investigates the relationship between violent false memories and delinquent and aggressive behavior in a sample of adolescents. Two hundred eleven participants completed measures of aggressive and delinquent behavior and performed a modified version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, a false memory task for lists of associated words. Participants were presented with a list of ambiguously violent words and three lists of neutral words. For each list a free recall task was performed. Violent false memories were significantly associated with delinquent behaviors in both genders, whereas a significant correlation with aggressive behaviors was found only in males. A multilevel multiple regression showed that the prediction of delinquent behaviors was improved by entering violent false memories into the model as a further predictor, whereas no effect was found for aggressive behaviors. These findings indicate a significant association of violent false memories with delinquent behavior in adolescents. PMID:25310267

  4. Developmental trajectories of boys' delinquent group membership and facilitation of violent behaviors during adolescence. (United States)

    Lacourse, Eric; Nagin, Daniel; Tremblay, Richard E; Vitaro, Frank; Claes, Michel


    Being part of a delinquent group has been shown to facilitate the expression of an individual's own delinquent propensities. However, this facilitation effect has not been investigated from a developmental perspective within a population heterogeneity model. Using a semiparametric mixture model with data from the Montreal Longitudinal Experimental Study, this article addresses important issues in the developmental trends of membership to delinquent groups. We explore how the rate of violent behaviors follows delinquent peer group trajectories and investigate a differential facilitation effect of delinquent peers on violence across multiple developmental pathways. Results suggest that 25% of males followed a childhood or an adolescence delinquent group affiliation trajectory. These two groups account far most of the violent acts assessed during adolescence. In addition, the rate of violent behaviors follows these developmental trajectories. Controlling for these delinquent group trajectories, we also found that being involved in a delinquent group at any specific time during adolescence is associated with an increased rate of violent behaviors, and that leaving these groups results in a decrease in violent behaviors. This facilitation effect appears homogeneous over time and across developmental trajectories. Results are discussed from a social interactional perspective. PMID:12848441

  5. Brief Report: The Salience of the Family in Antisocial and Delinquent Behaviors among Spanish Adolescents (United States)

    Torrente, Ginesa; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.


    The authors examined the relations between self-report measures of parental support, communication, and psychological control and measures of antisocial and delinquent behavior in a sample of 641 Spanish adolescents (M age = 14.35 years, SD = 1.53 years). Findings revealed similarities in the relations between parenting processes and both measures…

  6. Thai Parenting Practices, Family Rituals and Risky Adolescent Behaviors: Alcohol Use, Cigarette Use and Delinquency




    Data were obtained from face-to-face interviews conducted with 420 randomly selected families (one parent, one 13-14 year old teen) in their homes from seven districts of Bangkok, Thailand. Adolescent risky behaviors that may be influenced by parenting practices and family rituals include alcohol use, cigarette use, and delinquency. Measures include: parental monitoring, parenting style, parental closeness, parental communication, and family rituals. Findings reveal increased alcohol use amon...

  7. Delinquency as a Mediator of the Relation between Negative Affectivity and Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorder


    Shoal, Gavin D.; Gudonis, Lauren C.; Giancola, Peter R.; Tarter, Ralph E


    This investigation examined mediators of the longitudinal relation between negative affectivity and the development of problematic drinking behavior in adolescent boys and girls. In the present study, 499 early adolescents completed inventories of negative affectivity, attitudes toward delinquency, personal delinquency, and affiliation with delinquent peers. Positive attitudes toward delinquency emerged as the most consistent mediator and strongly predicted drinking frequency in various situa...

  8. Attachment bonding of delinquent adolescents

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    ?a?i? Sandra


    Full Text Available Main objective of this research is to define adolescence bonding as well as to identify their typical bonding type. The bonding was observed in two ways. The analysis was based on seven attachment dimensions that were defined by N. Hanak, as well as on the basis of Bartholomew’s four-style attachment model. The research was conducted at multiple sites: two secondary schools in Sombor, the Juvenile Correctional Institution in Kruševac and the Juvenile Correctional Facility in Niš. It included 524 persons, 421 adolescents and 103 delinquents. Adolescents are the second and the third grade students of the Secondary Technical School and the Second­ary School of Economics, while delinquents were testable juveniles. All of them are under correctional measures in the above mentioned institutions. All results are in accordance with the theoretical expectations. Delinquents attach in insecure way more frequently: 68, 9% delinquents from our sample showed insecure attachment. The fearful type of attachment appears to be typical of delinquents. Delinquents are facing difficulties in obtaining support of close persons, as well as in using significant persons they are related to as safe harbours in stressful situations. In addition, they would see themselves as not worthy of attention and love. There is a high level of painful feelings related to childhood and family, as well as ambivalent and nega­tive current family relations.

  9. Reciprocal Longitudinal Relations between Nonresident Father Involvement and Adolescent Delinquency (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Medeiros, Bethany L.


    Using a representative sample of low-income, primarily minority adolescents (N=647, aged 10-14 years at Wave 1), this study examined bidirectional longitudinal relations between nonresident father involvement, defined as contact and responsibility for children's care and behavior, and adolescent engagement in delinquent activities. Autoregressive…

  10. Familial Religiosity, Family Processes, and Juvenile Delinquency in a National Sample of Early Adolescents (United States)

    Li, Spencer D.


    Personal religiosity has been identified as a protective factor against juvenile delinquency. However, the influence of familial religiosity on delinquent behavior is less known. This study addresses this gap by investigating how family participation in organizational religious activities is related to delinquent involvement in early adolescence.…

  11. Part II: differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers and delinquent youth: further group comparisons of developmental antecedents and behavioral challenges. (United States)

    Leibowitz, George S; Burton, David L; Howard, Alan


    In a recent paper published in the Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers ( Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011 ). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to pornography) and behavioral difficulties (sexual aggression, arousal, pornography use, and nonsexual offenses). The present study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized adolescent sexual abusers with a group of nonsexually victimized delinquent youth. Findings included that delinquent youth had fewer behavioral and developmental problems than the comparison groups. In addition, sexually victimized sexual abusers had the highest mean scores on trauma and personality measures. Implications for research and treatment are offered. PMID:22574846

  12. Different Slopes for Different Folks: Genetic Influences on Growth in Delinquent Peer Association and Delinquency During Adolescence. (United States)

    Connolly, Eric J; Schwartz, Joseph A; Nedelec, Joseph L; Beaver, Kevin M; Barnes, J C


    An extensive line of research has identified delinquent peer association as a salient environmental risk factor for delinquency, especially during adolescence. While previous research has found moderate-to-strong associations between exposure to delinquent peers and a variety of delinquent behaviors, comparatively less scholarship has focused on the genetic architecture of this association over the course of adolescence. Using a subsample of kinship pairs (N = 2379; 52% female) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child and Young Adult Supplement (CNLSY), the present study examined the extent to which correlated individual differences in starting levels and developmental growth in delinquent peer pressure and self-reported delinquency were explained by additive genetic and environmental influences. Results from a series of biometric growth models revealed that 37% of the variance in correlated growth between delinquent peer pressure and self-reported delinquency was explained by additive genetic effects, while nonshared environmental effects accounted for the remaining 63% of the variance. Implications of these findings for interpreting the nexus between peer effects and adolescent delinquency are discussed. PMID:25967897

  13. The Effect of Teenage Employment on Delinquency and Problem Behaviors. (United States)

    Paternoster, Raymond; Bushway, Shawn; Brame, Robert; Apel, Robert


    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth on more than 6,500 adolescents, traditional multivariate models replicated previous findings that adolescent's work intensity was positively related to delinquency, substance use, and problem behaviors. However, these relationships disappeared when observed and unobserved heterogeneity were…

  14. Child-Rearing Practices and Delinquency in Children and Adolescents (United States)

    Kiriakidis, Stavros P.


    The present paper is an overview of studies examining the way family influences the development of delinquency in adolescents. The review focused on published papers dealing with the association of adolescent delinquency and their families. The association between family practices and juvenile delinquency, with potent predictive value is…

  15. Attachment organization as a moderator of the link between friendship quality and adolescent delinquency




    This study examined attachment organization as a moderator of the link between the quality of the adolescents’ current friendships and delinquent behavior. Data were gathered from a moderately at-risk sample of 71 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse adolescents. Results revealed a moderating effect of attachment organization (as assessed by the AAI) such that strong and supportive friendships were linked to lower levels of delinquency, but only when adolescents’ attachment organization r...

  16. Preventive Effects of Treatment of Disruptive Behavior Disorder in Middle Childhood on Substance Use and Delinquent Behavior (United States)

    Zonnevylle-Bender, Marjo J. S.; Matthys, Walter; van de Wiel, Nicolle M. H.; Lochman, John E.


    Objective: Disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) is a well-known risk factor for substance abuse and delinquent behavior in adolescence. Therefore, the long-term preventive effects of treatment of DBD in middle childhood on beginning substance use and delinquency in early adolescence were investigated. Method: Children with DBD (8-13 years old) had…

  17. Factors that Influence Trajectories of Delinquency Throughout Adolescence. (United States)

    Evans, Sara Z; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L


    Given that one of the most powerful predictors of adult crime is the presence of behavior problems in childhood and adolescence, there is a need to further understand factors that determine behavior patterns during this developmental stage. This study focuses on stressful life experiences such as exposure to delinquent peers, racial discrimination, as well as family characteristics such as parenting style and family transitions. Data come from four waves of the Family and Community Health Survey, an African-American sample. The present study investigates 354 males from this dataset. We utilize a group-based trajectory model to estimate the number and type of trajectories of delinquency. We then estimate multinomial regression models to predict trajectory group membership. The results indicated that there were four distinct groups of offenders (negligible delinquents; early starter/declining; late starter; and early starter/chronic offenders). We predicted group membership using both early predictors and measures of change in these predictors across the study period. The results indicated that individuals who experience greater racial discrimination (both early in childhood and throughout adolescence) are more likely to be in trajectory groups that begin offending early and persist through adolescence. Additionally, those respondents who reported having friends with greater delinquent behavior were more likely to be in groups that began their offending early in life and persisted when compared to groups who started later or desisted as they entered adulthood. The results contribute to developmental research and provide information that may be helpful in preventing adolescents from persisting in antisocial behavior as they enter adulthood. PMID:25292150

  18. Romantic Relationships and Delinquent Behaviour in Adolescence: The Moderating Role of Delinquency Propensity (United States)

    Eklund, Jenny M.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Hakan


    There is some evidence that adolescent romantic involvement is associated with delinquent behaviour. One aim of this longitudinal study was to determine whether this holds for romantic relationships deemed important by the participants. A second aim was to test whether this association was stronger for adolescents with pre-existing delinquent

  19. Early language impairment and young adult delinquent and aggressive behavior. (United States)

    Brownlie, E B; Beitchman, Joseph H; Escobar, Michael; Young, Arlene; Atkinson, Leslie; Johnson, Carla; Wilson, Beth; Douglas, Lori


    Clinic and forensic studies have reported high rates of language impairments in conduct disordered and incarcerated youth. In community samples followed to early adolescence, speech and language impairments have been linked to attention deficits and internalizing problems, rather than conduct problems, delinquency, or aggression. This study examines the young adult antisocial outcomes of speech or language impaired children. Language impaired boys had higher levels of parent-rated delinquency symptoms by age 19 than boys without language impairment, controlled for verbal IQ and for demographic and family variables. Language impaired boys did not differ from controls in self-reported delinquency or aggression symptoms on a standardized checklist; however, language impaired boys reported higher rates of arrests and convictions than controls. Language impairment was not related to aggression or delinquency in girls. We examine alternate models of the interrelationships between language, academics, and behavior, at ages 5, 12, and 19. PMID:15305549

  20. Sibling Influences on Adolescent Delinquent Behaviour: An Australian Longitudinal Study. (United States)

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Najman, Jake M.


    Examines sibling influences on adolescent delinquency. Based on maternal and self reports, a moderately strong association between siblings' delinquency is found. Relationship remains significant controlling for childhood aggression and family environment factors measured during childhood (age 5) and adolescence (age 14). Effect varies according…

  1. The Moderating Effect of Marijuana Use on the Relationship between Delinquent Behavior and HIV Risk among Adolescents in Foster Care


    Auslander, Wendy F.; THOMPSON, RONALD G.; Gerke, Donald R.


    Adolescents in foster care experience mental health and substance use problems that place them at risk for HIV, yet the exact nature of the relationship remains unclear. This study examined the co-occurring influences of mental health problems and substance use on HIV risk and determined whether substance use moderated the effect of mental health problems on HIV risk behaviors among adolescents in foster care. Regression analyses of cross-sectional data collected through structured interviews...

  2. Intergenerational Transmission of Religious Beliefs and Practices and the Reduction of Adolescent Delinquency in Urban Thailand (United States)

    Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Miller, Brenda A.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K.; Rosati, Michael J.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Atwood, Katharine A.; Todd, Michael


    This study examines the intergenerational transmission of family religion as measured by parent's and adolescent's beliefs and practices in Buddhism, and its relation to delinquent behaviors among early adolescents in Thailand. The data set is from the Thai Family Matters Project 2007, a representative sample of 420 pairs of parents and teens in…

  3. Sports Participation and Juvenile Delinquency: The Role of the Peer Context among Adolescent Boys and Girls with Varied Histories of Problem Behavior (United States)

    Gardner, Margo; Roth, Jodie; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne


    In a study of 1,344 urban adolescents, the authors examined the relation between participation in organized sports and juvenile delinquency. They compared youth who participated in sports to those who only participated in nonathletic activities and to those who did not participate in any organized activities. They also examined the indirect…


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    Neven Ricijaš


    Full Text Available Contemporary approach in juvenile delinquency aims to identify risk factors that contributed to delinquent behavior and to focus interventions towards those risks.The aim of this paper is to explore how juvenile delinquents attribute their delinquent behavior and to explore differences in the structure of attribution regarding their risk level. High-risk delinquents are considered those who are place in an institutional treatment, who often do criminal acts, who are early-starters and whose delinquent behavior lasts longer. Research included 335 male juvenile delinquents in the Republic of Croatia within three types of sanctions: (1 probation, (2 open institution facility, (3 closed institution facility. 43,9% of juveniles were on probation (not in the institutional treatment and 56,1% of them were placed in the institutional treatment. Age range of participants was from 14 to 21 years of age (M=17,1; SD=1,858.Delinquent Behavior Attribution Scale for juvenile delinquents (Ricijaš, 2009 was used to identify the structure of attributions, and juveniles also answered some questions about their criminal behavior, contacts with police and court as well as some family circumstances questions.Results consistently show that high-risk juvenile delinquents attribute their delinquent behavior to a greater number of factors, which is in accordance with other criminological research that measured causes of delinquent behavior with other methods.

  5. Use of prescription drugs and future delinquency among adolescent offenders. (United States)

    Drazdowski, Tess K; Jäggi, Lena; Borre, Alicia; Kliewer, Wendy L


    Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) by adolescents is a significant public health concern. The present study investigated the profile of NMUPD in 1349 adolescent offenders from the Pathways to Desistance project, and whether NMUPD predicted future delinquency using longitudinal data. Results indicated that increased frequency and recency of NMUPD in adolescent offenders are related to some demographic factors, as well as increased risk for violence exposure, mental health diagnoses, other drug use, and previous delinquency, suggesting that severity of NMUPD is important to consider. However, ANCOVA analyses found that NMUPD was not a significant predictor of drug-related, non-aggressive, or aggressive delinquency 12 months later beyond other known correlates of delinquency. Age, sex, exposure to violence, lower socioeconomic status, more alcohol use, and having delinquency histories were more important than NMUPD in predicting future delinquency. These findings suggest that although NMUPD is an important risk factor relating to many correlates of delinquency, it does not predict future delinquency beyond other known risk factors. PMID:25135798

  6. Family environments of adolescent sex offenders and other juvenile delinquents. (United States)

    Bischof, G P; Stith, S M; Whitney, M L


    This study compared the family environments of adolescent sex offenders and violent and nonviolent juvenile delinquents with a normative sample of adolescents. Differences between the juvenile delinquents and the normative sample were found on six of the ten subscales of the Family Environment Scale (i.e., cohesion, expressiveness, independence, intellectual-cultural orientation, active-recreational orientation, and control). No differences were found on four variables (i.e., conflict, achievement orientation, moral-religious emphasis, and organization). No differences were found among the three categories of juvenile delinquents. Implications of the findings for clinical intervention and further research are offered. PMID:7625251

  7. Post-Divorce Parental Conflict and AdolescentsDelinquency in Divorced Families


    Nooshin Sabour Esmaeili; Siti Nor Yaacob


    This study reviews several empirical researches which highlight the effect of post-divorce parental conflict as one of the most important factors on adolescentsdelinquency in divorced families. Research consistently shows that parental conflict affects parental relationship and this poor parental quality may transfer into poor parent-child relationship that may negatively influence adolescent functions and behaviors. Research showed that adolescents who are exposed to post-divorce parental ...

  8. Parental Divorce and Adolescent Delinquency: Ruling out the Impact of Common Genes (United States)

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Barnes, Ashlee R.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.


    Although the well-documented association between parental divorce and adolescent delinquency is generally assumed to be environmental (i.e., causal) in origin, genetic mediation is also possible. Namely, the behavior problems often found in children of divorce could derive from similar pathology in the parents, pathology that is both heritable and…

  9. Health profiles of early adolescent delinquents.


    Palfrey, J S; Karniski, W; Clarke, S.; Tomaselli, M.; Meltzer, L J; Levine, M.D.


    Comparison of the health status of 53 delinquent and 51 nondelinquent boys revealed that 57 percent of the delinquents, as compared with 20 percent of the nondelinquents, had experienced two or more serious adverse health events (such as hospitalization, loss of consciousness, or an automobile accident). Physical examinations revealed many more conditions requiring intervention in the delinquent than in the nondelinquent boys. Major differences in the two groups' use of health care were appar...

  10. Comorbid Adolescent Difficulties: Social Work Prevention of Delinquency and Serious Youthful Offending. (United States)

    Mallett, Christopher A


    A majority of adolescents who are formally involved with the juvenile courts and detained or incarcerated are dealing with past or present maltreatment victimization, learning disabilities, and/or mental health/substance abuse difficulties. Addressing these problems and traumas is an integral part of preventing delinquency and breaking a youthful offender's recidivist cycle, a pattern that often predicts adult offending and incarceration. Fortunately, there are effective programs across the social work profession that decrease or may even eliminate delinquent behaviors, both for low-level and more serious youthful offenders. Unfortunately, the use of these social work preventative programs is not consistent or extensive within the juvenile justice system. PMID:25844994

  11. Cultural Differences in Adolescents' Explanations of Juvenile Delinquency. (United States)

    Tyson, G. A.; Hubert, Carol J.


    Examined lay explanations for juvenile delinquency given by Australian adolescents from either collectivist (Asian) or individualist (Australian) cultural backgrounds. Student surveys indicated that, after controlling for socioeconomic and demographic variables, there were small differences between the groups, with individualistic teens tending to…

  12. Parental attachment and Chinese adolescents' delinquency: The mediating role of moral disengagement. (United States)

    Bao, Zhenzhou; Zhang, Wei; Lai, Xuefen; Sun, Wenqiang; Wang, Yanhui


    There is substantial literature documenting the negative association between secure parental attachment and lower adolescent delinquency, but little is known about the mediating mechanisms (i.e., how does parental attachment relate to delinquency?) underlying this relation. The present study examined whether secure parental attachment would be indirectly related to lower adolescent delinquency through lower adolescent moral disengagement. A total of 1766 adolescents (44% male; mean age = 14.25 years, SD = 1.54) living in an urban area of southern China completed anonymous questionnaires regarding parental attachment, moral disengagement and delinquency. After controlling for gender, age, socioeconomic status, and school variable, it was found that secure parental attachment was negatively associated with adolescent delinquency and this negative association was fully mediated by the extent of adolescent moral disengagement. These findings contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of adolescent delinquency and have important implications for intervention. PMID:26208079

  13. Parental divorce and adolescent delinquency: ruling out the impact of common genes. (United States)

    Burt, S Alexandra; Barnes, Ashlee R; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G


    Although the well-documented association between parental divorce and adolescent delinquency is generally assumed to be environmental (i.e., causal) in origin, genetic mediation is also possible. Namely, the behavior problems often found in children of divorce could derive from similar pathology in the parents, pathology that is both heritable and increases the risk that the parent will experience divorce. To test these alternative hypotheses, the authors made use of a novel design that incorporated timing of divorce in a sample of 610 adoptive and biological families. They reasoned that if genes common to parent and child mediate this association, nonadopted youth should manifest increased delinquency in the presence of parental divorce even if the divorce preceded their birth (i.e., was from a prior parental relationship). However, should the association be environmental in origin, the authors reasoned that adolescents should manifest increased delinquency only in response to divorce exposure, and this association should not vary by adoption status. Results firmly supported the latter, suggesting that it is the experience of parental divorce, and not common genes, that drives the association between divorce and adolescent delinquency. PMID:18999329

  14. Mother's versus Father's Role in Causing Delinquency. (United States)

    Johnson, Richard E.


    Examined parent-child relationships and self-reported delinquent behavior in over 700 adolescents. Indicated that males were more delinquent than females; adolescent gender was not related to strength of parental attachment; both males and females were closer to mother than to father; and closeness to father was the better predictor of delinquent

  15. Delinquency in Male Adolescents: The Role of Alexithymia and Family Structure (United States)

    Zimmermann, Gregoire


    The purpose of this study was to examine the linkages between alexithymia and delinquency in male adolescents (age ranging from 14 to 18 years), and to investigate whether alexithymia was a good discriminatory factor for juvenile delinquency. Thirty-six offender adolescents and 46 non-offender control adolescents participated in the study and…

  16. Parental Divorce and Adolescent Delinquency: Ruling out the Impact of Common Genes


    BURT, S. ALEXANDRA; Barnes, Ashlee R.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G


    Although the well-documented association between parental divorce and adolescent delinquency is generally assumed to be environmental (i.e., causal) in origin, genetic mediation is also possible. Namely, the behavior problems often found in children of divorce could derive from similar pathology in the parents, pathology that is both heritable and increases the risk that the parent will experience divorce. To test these alternative hypotheses, we made use of a novel design that incorporated t...

  17. Developmental Trajectories of Boys’ and Girls’ Delinquency: Sex Differences and Links to Later Adolescent Outcomes


    Miller, Shari; Patrick S. Malone; Dodge, Kenneth. A.


    This study examined gender differences in trajectories of delinquent behaviors over a 6-year period in adolescence and differential outcomes of these diverse developmental pathways. Participants were 754 children who were part of a longitudinal study of the development of early starting conduct problems. Four trajectory patterns were identified across grades 7–12: increasing, desisting, chronic, and nonproblem groups. Although the proportion of boys and girls varied across the pathways, both ...


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    Marina Ajdukovi?


    Full Text Available This paper describes construction and psychometric characteristics of the Youth self-reported delinquency and risk behaviors questionnaire (SRDP-2007. Participants were 1422 adolescents from Osijek and Zagreb (866 females and 556 males. The respondents had a mean age of 16.07 years (SD = 1.49 years, range 13 to 19 years. The final form of the questionnaire comprises 42 items which are saturated by seven theoretically predictable factors: (1 Misdemeanor and minor delinquent behaviors, (2 Undesirable normative behaviors, (3 Risky sexual behaviors, (4 Drug abuse, (5 Violence in close relationships, (6 Serous delinquency - theft, burglary and robbery, and (7 Suicidal and self-aggressive behaviors. These factors have low to moderate positive intercorrelations, and satisfactory internal consistencies. In order to examine the validity of the obtained measures of delinquent and risk behaviors, correlations with the police and/or juvenile judge contacts and school success at the end of the previous school year were calculated. As expected, youth who reported having had contact with either the police or juvenile judge and ones who repeated a grade in school had the highest self-reported delinquency and risk behavior.

  19. Depressive symptoms, exposure to aggression and delinquency proneness in adolescence: Impact of two decades of war and political violence on adolescent mental health

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    Pejovi?-Milovan?evi? Milica


    Full Text Available Traumatic experiences in Serbia in the last two decades have caused significant psychological consequences in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms, exposure to aggression and delinquency proneness among high school and elementary school students in Belgrade, Serbia. The participants were 899 students (51.8% were female with no prior treatment for psychological problems, with a mean age of 16.70±1.95. All used instruments were taken from the modified Social and Health Assessment (SAHA. Our findings show that delinquent behavior or exposure to delinquency was significantly related to depressive symptoms. The strongest predictors of depression were variables concerning legal consequences, affiliation with delinquent peers, victimization by community violence and peer victimization. This study confirmed a strong correlation between depression and exposure to violence. Identifying adolescents with depressive symptoms is important for prevention of serious mental health consequences.

  20. Problem Behavior and Heart Rate Reactivity in Adopted Adolescents: Longitudinal and Concurrent Relations (United States)

    Bimmel, Nicole; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie; De Geus, Eco J. C.


    The present longitudinal study examined resting heart rate and heart rate variability and reactivity to a stressful gambling task in adopted adolescents with aggressive, delinquent, or internalizing behavior problems and adopted adolescents without behavior problems (total N=151). Early-onset delinquent adolescents showed heart rate…

  1. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset Among African American Adolescent Males


    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.


    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a...

  2. Delinquency, depression, and substance use disorder among child welfare-involved adolescent females


    Lalayants, Marina; Prince, Jonathan D.


    Although adolescents with delinquency are known to have higher-than-average rates of depression or substance use disorder (SUD), research on the topic is inconsistent. It remains unclear weather depression or SUD leads to delinquency, whether delinquency leads to depression or SUD, or whether there is bi-directionality. Utilizing the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (Wave I: 2008–2009; Wave II: 18 months later: N = 5872), we used logistic regression to predict depression fro...

  3. Linking Life Skills and Norms with Adolescent Substance Use and Delinquency in South Africa (United States)

    Lai, Mary H.; Graham, John W.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Smith, Edward A.; Bradley, Stephanie A.; Vergnani, Tania; Mathews, Cathy; Wegner, Lisa


    We examined factors targeted in two popular prevention approaches with adolescent drug use and delinquency in South Africa. We hypothesized adolescent life skills to be inversely related and perceived norms to be directly related to later drug use and delinquency. Multiple regression and a relative weights approach were conducted for each outcome…

  4. The Development of Delinquency and Perceived Friendship Quality in Adolescent Best Friendship Dyads (United States)

    Selfhout, Maarten H. W.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.


    The present study examines both the unique and the combined role of best friends' delinquency and perceived friendship quality in the development of adolescent delinquency. Questionnaire data were gathered from 435 Dutch adolescent best friends (mean age at first wave = 12.97) over a period of 5 years with annual assessments. Results showed that…

  5. Internalizing Symptoms Linking Youths' Maltreatment and Delinquent Behavior (United States)

    Bender, Kimberly; Postlewait, Ariana W.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Springer, David W.


    This study examines internalizing mental health symptoms (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder) as potential intervening factors in the relationship between maltreatment and delinquency using data from the National Survey for Child and Adolescent Well-Being (N = 1,179). Significant mediating effects indicated that youth at greater risk of…

  6. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L


    On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage in Hong Kong (N = 199) responded to instruments measuring perceived parental parenthood qualities (indexed by perceived parenting styles, support and help from parents, and conflict and relationship with the parents) and psychosocial adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency). Results showed that parental parenthood variables were concurrently associated with different measures of adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. While paternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in existential well-being and delinquency in adolescent boys, but not in adolescent girls, at Time 2, maternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in the mental health and problem behavior in adolescent girls, but not in adolescent boys, at Time 2. There is no strong support for the thesis that adolescent adjustment influences perceived parental parenthood qualities over time. The present study suggests that the influences of fathers and mothers on the adjustment of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage vary with the gender of adolescent children. PMID:15515041

  7. Variation in the Sustained Effects of the Communities That Care Prevention System on Adolescent Smoking, Delinquency, and Violence


    OESTERLE, SABRINA; Hawkins, J. David; Fagan, Abigail A; Abbott, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F


    Communities That Care (CTC) is a universal, science-based community prevention system designed to reduce risk, enhance protection, and prevent adolescent health and behavior problems community wide. CTC has been found to have sustained effects on cigarette use and delinquent and violent behaviors in grade 10 in a panel of 4,407 students followed from fifth grade in a community randomized trial. It is important to test variation in the effects of this prevention system designed to be universal...

  8. A Cross-Lagged Longitudinal Study of Relations between Academic Achievement and Korean Adolescent Delinquency (United States)

    Lee, Julie


    Objective: Previous studies have shown that academic achievement has a significant effect on juvenile delinquency, with the reverse reported as well. This study, therefore, examined the reciprocal causal relationships between academic achievement and juvenile delinquency. Methods: The participants were 3449 Korean adolescents (mean age 13.2 years,…

  9. Growth in Adolescent Delinquency and Alcohol Use in Relation to Young Adult Crime, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Risky Sex: A Comparison of Youth from Low- versus Middle-Income Backgrounds (United States)

    Mason, W. Alex; Hitch, Julia E.; Kosterman, Rick; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Hawkins, J. David


    Background: This study examined adolescent delinquency and alcohol use in relation to young adult crime, alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and risky sex. Analyses further examined the influences of late childhood involvement in these problem behavior outcomes, with mediation through teen delinquency and alcohol use, and examined differences in the…

  10. Long Term Consequences of Membership in Trajectory Groups of Delinquent Behavior in an Urban Sample: Violence, Drug Use, Interpersonal and Neighborhood Attributes


    BROOK, JUDITH S.; LEE, JUNG YEON; Finch, Stephen J; Brown, Elaine N.; BROOK, DAVID. W.


    Research on stability and change in delinquent behavior over time has important implications for both the individual and the criminal justice system. The present research looks at this issue by examining the associations between the trajectories of delinquent behavior in adolescence and adult functioning. Data for the present study are from a four-wave longitudinal study of African American and Hispanic participants. Participants provided information at mean ages 14, 19, 24, and 29. We used g...

  11. Parental Attachment, Peer Attachment, and Delinquency among Adolescents in Selangor, Malaysia


    Lim Jia Choon; Muslihah Hasbullah; Sa’odah Ahmad; Wu Shin Ling


    This study aimed to investigate the relationships between parental attachment, peer attachment and delinquency among adolescents. 480 adolescents aged 13-17 were randomly selected from four secondary schools in Malaysia. The revised version of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) (Armsden & Greenberg, 1987) and the Self-report Delinquency Scale (Mak, 1993) were used in this study. The results revealed significant negative relationship between father and mother attachment wit...

  12. Early Child Maltreatment, Runaway Youths, and Risk of Delinquency and Victimization in Adolescence: A Mediational Model


    Kim, Min Jung; Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Huang, Bu


    This article examines whether running away from home mediates the link between child maltreatment and later delinquency and victimization in adolescence. Specifically, the authors tested the hypothesis that childhood physical and psychological abuse increase the risk of a child's running away from home by the time of adolescence. Running away from home is, in turn, hypothesized to increase the risk of delinquency and victimization. Childhood sexual abuse, modeled independently of physical and...

  13. Parents, Friends, and Romantic Partners: Enmeshment in Deviant Networks and Adolescent Delinquency Involvement


    Lonardo, Robert A.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.


    Adolescent networks include parents, friends, and romantic partners, but research on the social learning mechanisms related to delinquency has not typically examined the characteristics of all three domains simultaneously. Employing data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 957), we assess the relationship of romantic partners’ delinquency with respondents’ self-reported involvement after taking parents’ and peers’ deviance into account. Next, we explore the associations betwee...



    Giordano, Peggy C.; Lonardo, Robert A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.


    Hirschi argued that delinquent youth tend to form relatively “cold and brittle” relationships with peers, depicting these youths as deficient in their attachments to others. The current analysis explores connections between delinquency and the character of adolescent romantic ties, drawing primarily on the first wave of the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, and focusing on 957 teens with dating experience. We examine multiple relationship qualities/dynamics in order to explore both the “...

  15. Examining the Moderating Role of Family Cohesion on the Relationship Between Witnessed Community Violence and Delinquency in a National Sample of Adolescents (United States)

    Barr, Simone C.; Hanson, Rochelle; Begle, Angela M.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Saunders, Benjamin; Resnick, Heidi; Amstadter, Ananda


    Witnessed community violence has been linked to a number of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents. Guided by Cicchetti and Lynch’s (1993) ecological-transactional model, this study aimed to examine the impact that family-level factors had on negative outcomes associated with witnessed community violence. Using a nationally representative sample, we explored the moderational role of family cohesion in the relationship between witnessing community violence and delinquent behavior while taking demographic variables into account. Results from the investigation suggested that low levels of family cohesion were predictive of delinquency after controlling for race, gender, past delinquency, and direct trauma. In addition, the findings suggested that family cohesion moderated the impact of witnessed community violence on future delinquent behavior. Future directions for research and implications for practice were also discussed. PMID:21920873

  16. The development of leisure boredom in early adolescence: Predictors and longitudinal associations with delinquency and depression. (United States)

    Spaeth, Michael; Weichold, Karina; Silbereisen, Rainer K


    The literature proposes that leisure boredom may systematically increase during adolescence. Moreover, some authors assume that this hypothesized developmental trend is associated with increases in youthful delinquency and depression. Individual dispositions (e.g., temperamental disinhibition) are believed to exacerbate the relationship between boredom and delinquency. This study investigated whether (1) leisure boredom really is an increasing phenomenon during early adolescence; (2) gender, temperamental disinhibition, shyness, family relationship quality, peer rejection, a deprived school context, and rural/urban living explain developmental variations in boredom; (3) boredom is longitudinally and reciprocally related to delinquency and depression; and (4) bored disinhibited adolescents are particularly likely to become delinquent and to use delinquent acts to mitigate boredom. Analyses were based on a German sample of school students (N = 722) who provided annual self-reports on study variables from age 10 to 14 years. Bivariate growth curve models captured correlations between developmental trajectories of boredom and delinquency/depression. Cross-lagged models examined reciprocal short-term associations. Analyses revealed a modest increase in leisure boredom during early adolescence. Disinhibition and qualities of proximal social contexts (family, peers, school) were related to boredom with peer rejection showing the most consistent longitudinal association. Boredom was developmentally associated with depression whereas longitudinal associations with delinquency were weaker and more short-term. Temperamentally disinhibited adolescents appeared to buffer leisure boredom by means of delinquency. Results support person-context models of leisure boredom with regard to its etiology and consequences. Findings further demonstrate that leisure boredom plays a prominent role in the developmental adaptation of adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26214227

  17. Codevelopment of Delinquent and Depressive Symptoms across Adolescence: Time-Invariant and Time-Varying Effects of School and Social Failure (United States)

    Nocentini, Annalaura; Calamai, Giulia; Menesini, Ersilia


    The codevelopment of delinquent behaviors and depressive symptoms from Grade 9 to 11 was investigated on an Italian sample of 518 adolescents (399 male) after the transition to high school, evaluating the time-invariant effects of past school failure and social failure and the time-varying effects of school achievement and social problems.…

  18. Self-Esteem and Delinquency in South Korean Adolescents: Latent Growth Modeling (United States)

    Lee, Kyungeun; Lee, Julie


    This study examined the inter-related development of self-esteem and delinquency across three years. Participants were 3449 Korean high school adolescents (age M = 15.8, SD = 0.42, 1725 boys, 1724 girls) from Korea Youth Panel Study (KYPS), in 2005-2007, nationally representative of Korean adolescents. Latent growth modeling was employed for…

  19. Early Child Maltreatment, Runaway Youths, and Risk of Delinquency and Victimization in Adolescence: A Mediational Model (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Huang, Bu


    This article examines whether running away from home mediates the link between child maltreatment and later delinquency and victimization in adolescence. Specifically, the authors tested the hypothesis that childhood physical and psychological abuse increase the risk of a child's running away from home by the time of adolescence. Running away from…

  20. Parenting Behavior, Quality of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship, and Adolescent Functioning in Four Ethnic Groups (United States)

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie


    The cross-ethnic similarity in the pattern of associations among parenting behavior (support and authoritative and restrictive control), the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship (disclosure and positive and negative quality), and several developmental outcomes (aggressive behavior, delinquent behavior, and global self-esteem) was tested.…

  1. Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles: Unique and Combined Links to Adolescent and Early Adult Delinquency (United States)

    Hoeve, Machteld; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.; Smeenk, Wilma


    The present study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fathers' and mothers' parenting styles and male and female delinquency using a sample of 330 Dutch families with a mid or late adolescent son or daughter (ages 14-22), followed across two measurement waves with a 5-year interval. Parenting styles of fathers and…

  2. Unsafe at Any Age: Linking Childhood and Adolescent Maltreatment to Delinquency and Crime (United States)

    Mersky, Joshua P.; Topitzes, James; Reynolds, Arthur J.


    Objectives: This study compares the effects of childhood maltreatment and adolescent maltreatment on delinquency and crime, including violent and nonviolent offending. Methods: Data were derived from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a prospective investigation of 1,539 underprivileged, minority subjects. Results: Results confirmed that rates of…

  3. Exploration of the Pathways to Delinquency for Female Adolescents with Depression: Implications for Cross-Systems Collaboration and Counseling (United States)

    Mellin, Elizabeth A.; Fang, Hong-Ning


    This study found that lack of involvement in prosocial institutions, affiliation with other troubled youth, and indifference regarding personal safety partially mediate the relationship between depression and delinquency among justice-involved female adolescents. The results suggest that depression may not be the primary conduit to delinquency.…

  4. Relations Between Neighborhood Factors, Parenting Behaviors, Peer Deviance, and Delinquency Among Serious Juvenile Offenders


    CHUNG, HE LEN; Steinberg, Laurence


    The present study examined relations among neighborhood structural and social characteristics, parenting practices, peer group affiliations, and delinquency among a group of serious adolescent offenders. The sample of 14–18-year-old boys (N = 488) was composed primarily of economically disadvantaged, ethnic-minority youth living in urban communities. The results indicate that weak neighborhood social organization is indirectly related to delinquency through its associations with parenting beh...

  5. The Role of Life Satisfaction and Parenting Styles in Predicting Delinquent Behaviors among High School Students (United States)

    Onder, Fulya Cenkseven; Yilmaz, Yasin


    The purpose of this study is to determine whether the parenting styles and life satisfaction predict delinquent behaviors frequently or not. Firstly the data were collected from 471 girls and 410 boys, a total of 881 high school students. Then the research was carried out with 502 students showing low (n = 262, 52.2%) and high level of delinquent

  6. Witnessed Community and Parental Violence in Relation to Substance Use and Delinquency in a National Sample of Adolescents


    Zinzow, Heidi M.; RUGGIERO, KENNETH J.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G


    This study examined whether witnessed community and parental violence represented risk factors for substance use and delinquency among adolescents, beyond the contribution of direct violence and other risk factors. We also examined the role of violence characteristics. Participants were a national sample of 3,614 adolescents. Structured telephone interviews assessed demographics, trauma history, witnessed violence, delinquency, and substance use. While accounting for trauma history and other ...

  7. Quit Now! A Psychoeducational Expressive Therapy Group Work Approach for At-Risk and Delinquent Adolescent Smokers in Singapore (United States)

    Kit, Phey Ling; Teo, Lan


    In this article, we review the risk and protective factors for adolescent smoking, as well as current research on evidence-based practices. The relevance of structured expressive therapy in meeting the maturational and emotional needs of at-risk and delinquent adolescents, and the multicultural context of adolescents in Singapore's Asian society…

  8. Low self-control and co-occurrence of gambling with substance use and delinquency among Chinese adolescents. (United States)

    Cheung, Nicole W T


    Relatively little is known about gambling co-morbidity in Asian youth populations. The role of trait self-control in co-morbidity also remains under-explored in the gambling literature. This study examined the association between gambling, substance use and delinquency among Chinese adolescents, and the extent to which these forms of risk behavior are commonly predicted by low self-control. Data from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of a stratified, random sample of 4,734 high school students aged 12-23 years in Hong Kong were analyzed. The prevalence of gambling pathology, frequency and attitudes showed statistically significant, positive and consistent relationships with tobacco use, alcohol use, and delinquent acts at the p low self-control significantly (p culturally among young people in a Chinese context. It may also be cost-effective to increase intervention efforts to improve the self-control deficit in adolescents, as this should reduce their gambling and concurrent problem behavior. PMID:23224660

  9. Travel Beyond the Home Neighborhood for Delinquent Behaviors: Moderation of Home Neighborhood Influences


    Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Amrhein, Kelly E.; Hassan, Sarah


    Neighborhood research indicates that adolescents are at higher risk for delinquency when they reside in neighborhoods low in collective efficacy, low in perceived prosocial norms and values, and high in availability of substances and firearms. However, as adolescents develop, they are more likely to independently travel during their day-to-day activities, and the effects of their home neighborhood may be weakened as they spend time in other communities. The current study surveyed 179 adolesce...

  10. Bad Behavior: Delinquency, Arrest and Early School Leaving


    Ward, Shannon; WILLIAMS, JENNY; Ours, Jan C. van


    In this paper we investigate the effects of delinquency and arrest on school leaving using information on males from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. We use a multivariate mixed proportional hazard framework in order to account for common unobserved confounders and reverse causality. Our key finding is that delinquency as well as arrest leads to early school leaving. Further investigation reveals that the effect of delinquency is largely driven by income generating crimes, and ...

  11. Parenting and Adolescent Problem Behaviors: A Comparative Study of Sons and Daughters in Thailand




    This study investigates parenting practices and the reported sexual and delinquent behaviors among Thai adolescents, by focusing on the difference between sons and daughters. Data were derived from 420 families whose adolescents aged 13–14 were randomly selected from seven districts in Bangkok using the probability proportional to size (PPS) method. Interviews were conducted with one parent and one adolescent. Female adolescents reported higher levels of parental monitoring, parental rules, c...

  12. The Impact of Family Violence, Family Functioning, and Parental Partner Dynamics on Korean Juvenile Delinquency (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sil; Kim, Hun-Soo


    The present study was aimed at determining the family factors related to juvenile delinquency and identifying the effect of family violence, family functioning, parental partner dynamics, and adolescents' personality on delinquent behavior among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-reporting…

  13. Linking family economic pressure and supportive parenting to adolescent health behaviors: two developmental pathways leading to health promoting and health risk behaviors. (United States)

    Kwon, Josephine A; Wickrama, K A S


    Adolescent health behaviors, especially health risk behaviors, have previously been linked to distal (i.e., family economic pressure) and proximal (i.e., parental support) contributors. However, few studies have examined both types of contributors along with considering health promoting and health risk behaviors separately. The present study investigated the influences of family economic hardship, supportive parenting as conceptualized by self-determination theory, and individual psychosocial and behavioral characteristics (i.e., mastery and delinquency, respectively) on adolescents' health promoting and health risk behaviors. We used structural equation modeling to analyze longitudinal data from a sample of Caucasian adolescent children and their mothers and fathers (N = 407, 54 % female) to examine direct and indirect effects, as well as gender symmetry and asymmetry. Findings suggest that family economic pressure contributed to adolescent mastery and delinquency through supportive parenting. Further, supportive parenting indirectly affected adolescent health risk behaviors only through delinquency, whereas supportive parenting indirectly influenced health promoting behaviors only through mastery, suggesting different developmental pathways for adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors. Testing for gender symmetry of the full model showed that maternal and paternal parenting contributed to females' health risk behaviors directly, while maternal and paternal parenting contributed to males' health risk behaviors through delinquency. Gender symmetry was largely unsupported. The study highlights key direct and indirect pathways to adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors within a family stress model and self-determination theory framework, and also highlights important gender differences in these developmental pathways. PMID:24254978

  14. Bridging contexts : the interplay between family, child, and peers in explaining problem behavior in early adolescence


    Sentse, Miranda


    A substantial part of the youth develops problem behavior in adolescence. Problem behavior can be both externalizing (aggression, delinquency) and internalizing (depression, anxiety). Adolescents differ in their vulnerability to develop problem behavior. Research has shown that personal factors (genes, personality) as well as the social environment (parenting, friends’ behavior) play a role. Up till now, however, there is little knowledge on the interplay between child, family, and peer facto...

  15. Emergence of Mixed-Sex Friendship Groups during Adolescence: Developmental Associations with Substance Use & Delinquency


    Molloy, Lauren E.; Gest, Scott D.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Osgood, D. Wayne


    Prospective longitudinal data from over 14,000 youth residing in 28 communities in the rural U.S. were analyzed to examine the emergence of mixed-sex friendship groups in early adolescence. Youth were surveyed on five occasions between fall of 6th grade and spring of 9th grade. At each assessment, youth reported the names of up to seven same-grade friends and described patterns of alcohol use, cigarette use and delinquency. Approximately 800 – 900 friendship groups (Mean = 10.5 members) were ...

  16. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset among African American Adolescent Males (United States)

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.


    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…

  17. Parental Monitoring Mediates the Effects of Age and Sex on Problem Behaviors among African American Urban Young Adolescents (United States)

    Richards, Maryse H.; Miller, Bobbi Viegas; O'Donnell, Philip C.; Wasserman, Michelle S.; Colder, Craig


    Adolescent delinquency, drug use and aggression remain societal concerns. These problems are more common with adolescent boys than girls, and tend to increase with age. Although a lack of parental monitoring has been found to be related to problem behaviors, the mediating role of monitoring on the relationship of sex and grade to problem behaviors

  18. Goal Setting among Adolescents: A Comparison of Delinquent, At-Risk and Not-at-Risk Youth. (United States)

    Carroll, Annemaree; Durkin, Kevin; Hattie, John; Houghton, Stephen


    An Importance of Goals Scale was developed from item responses of 230 Australian high school students and validated through administration to 80 delinquent, 90 at-risk, and 90 non-at-risk adolescents. Findings identified differences among the three groups, which are discussed in terms of implications for academic achievement, peer relations, and…

  19. A Test of Three Alternative Hypotheses regarding the Effects of Early Delinquency on Adolescent Psychosocial Functioning and Substance Involvement (United States)

    Mason, W. Alex; Hitchings, Julia E.; McMahon, Robert J.; Spoth, Richard L.


    This study compared alternative hypotheses (from general deviance, life course, and developmental psychopathology perspectives) regarding the effects of early adolescent delinquency on psychosocial functioning in family, school, and peer contexts, and on alcohol use. Analyses also examined parent-child negative affective quality, prosocial school…

  20. Do adolescent drug users fare the worst? Onset type, juvenile delinquency, and criminal careers. (United States)

    DeLisi, Matt; Angton, Alexia; Behnken, Monic P; Kusow, Abdi M


    Although substance abuse often accompanies delinquency and other forms of antisocial behavior, there is less scholarly agreement about the timing of substance use vis-à-vis an individual's antisocial trajectory. Similarly, although there is extraordinary evidence that onset is inversely related to the severity of the criminal career, there is surprisingly little research on the offense type of onset or the type of antisocial behavior that was displayed when an individual initiated his or her offending career. Drawing on data from a sample of serious adult criminal offenders (N = 500), the current study examined 12 forms of juvenile delinquency (murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, auto theft, arson, weapons, sexual offense, drug sales, and drug use) in addition to age at arrest onset, age, sex, race to explore their association with chronicity (total arrests), extreme chronicity (1 SD above the mean which was equivalent to 90 career arrests), and lambda (offending per year). The only onset offense type that was significantly associated with all criminal career outcomes was juvenile drug use. Additional research on the offense type of delinquent onset is needed to understand launching points of serious antisocial careers. PMID:24071557

  1. Social identity and youth aggressive and delinquent behaviors in a context of political violence


    Merrilees, Christine E.; Cairns, Ed; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; CUMMINGS, E. MARK


    The goal of the current study was to examine the moderating role of in-group social identity on relations between youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggressive behaviors. Participants included 770 mother-child dyads living in interfaced neighborhoods of Belfast. Youth answered questions about aggressive and delinquent behaviors as well as the extent to which they targeted their behaviors toward members of the other group. Structural equation modeling results ...

  2. Reinforcement Sensitivity, Coping, and Delinquent Behaviour in Adolescents (United States)

    Hasking, Penelope A.


    Since 1964, the relationship between personality and criminal behaviour has been extensively studied. However, studies, which have examined the Eysenckian dimensions of extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism have produced mixed results. Gray's [Gray, J. A. (1970). The psychophysiological basis of introversion-extroversion. "Behavior Research…

  3. Cocaine Use and Delinquent Behavior among High-Risk Youths: A Growth Model of Parallel Processes (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Sullivan, Christopher


    We report the results of a parallel-process, latent growth model analysis examining the relationships between cocaine use and delinquent behavior among youths. The study examined a sample of 278 justice-involved juveniles completing at least one of three follow-up interviews as part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded study. The results…

  4. Community and School Practices to Reduce Delinquent Behavior: Intervening on the School-to-Prison Pipeline (United States)

    Shippen, Margaret E.; Patterson, DaShaunda; Green, Kemeche L.; Smitherman, Tracy


    Youth at risk for school failure need community and school supports to reduce the likelihood of developing delinquent behavior. This article provides an overview of community and school approaches aimed at intervening on the school-to-prison pipeline. Community and school efforts are emerging that take into account empirical evidence demonstrating…

  5. Antisocial and Delinquent Behaviors in Youths with Mild or Borderline Disabilities (United States)

    Douma, Jolanda C. H.; Dekker, Marielle C.; de Ruiter, Karen P.; Tick, Nouchka T.; Koot, Hans M.


    Six types of antisocial and delinquent behaviors (e.g., property destruction and authority avoidance) were assessed in 526 youths (11 to 24 years of age) with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities and 1,030 11- to 18-year-olds without intellectual disabilities. Overall, 10% to 20% of youths with intellectual disabilities exhibited some type…

  6. Coping Styles and Sex Differences in Depressive Symptoms and Delinquent Behavior (United States)

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A.


    Building on research that links gender to differences in well-being and differences in stress exposure and vulnerability, the current study examines how coping styles are gendered in ways that may contribute to sex differences in depressive symptoms and delinquent behavior. The study disaggregates stress measures to reflect gender differences in…

  7. Race/Ethnic Differences in Effects of Family Instability on Adolescents’ Risk Behavior


    Fomby, Paula; MOLLBORN, STEFANIE; Sennott, Christie A.


    We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 7,686) to determine whether racial and ethnic differences in socioeconomic stress and social protection explained group differences in the association between family structure instability and three risk behaviors for White, Black, and Mexican American adolescents: delinquent behavior, age at first nonmarital sex, and age at first nonmarital birth. The positive association between mothers’ union transitions and each ou...

  8. Tattooing behavior in adolescence. A comparison study. (United States)

    Farrow, J A; Schwartz, R H; Vanderleeuw, J


    We characterize associations with and motivations for tattooing in adolescents through data from a controlled, three-group comparison of adolescents from a substance abuse treatment program, detention center, and private pediatric practice. We surveyed 474 adolescents (12 to 18 years old) with tattoos (12%) and without tattoos (88%). The private pediatric practice was the control site. A 34-item questionnaire was used to profile the three groups and their primary associations with tattooing with respect to race, drug use, school attendance, school grades, parental marital status, family income, tattooing by family members, criminal activity, and involvement with satanic rituals. Tattooing was significantly (P less than .005) associated with all of these variables in the ways described, as was knowledge of its association with human immunodeficiency virus infection. No interventions were made. Tattooing is common in adolescents and is associated with low self-esteem, delinquency, drug abuse, family and peer modeling, and participation in satanic rituals. Addressing the behavior as a health problem is discussed. PMID:1994684

  9. Risky behaviors in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müjgan Alika?ifo?lu


    Full Text Available Knowledge about adolescent risk behavior has expanded in the past several decades. Risk behaviors, such as substance use, violent behavior and sexual risk behavior are behaviors that can directly or indirectly compromise well-being and health of young people. Studies showed that there are many risk factors leading to engage in risk behaviors. Studies also showed that risk behaviors can result in many negative outcomes or adverse consequences. However, there is great heterogeneity in the linkage between involvement in risk behaviors and the likelihood of adverse outcomes, and there is also great heterogeneity in the linkage between exposure to risk factors and the likelihood of involvement in risk behaviors as well. These facts lead the researchers to focus on the identification and assessment of protective factors and the concept of resilliency. Researches over the past decade also lead to changing of intervention programme strategies from risk reduction to healthy youth development. These strategies aim to provide all youth with the support, relationship, experiences, resources, and opportunities needed to become successful and competent adults. They are promising approaches for preventing or reducing a wide range of adolescent health-risk behaviors. In this article, we briefly review what we know about risk behaviors, their risk and protective factors and healthy youth development, and provide definitions of each of these concepts.

  10. Age-Sensitive Effect of Adolescent Dating Experience on Delinquency and Substance Use (United States)

    Kim, Ryang Hui


    This study uses a developmental perspective and focuses on examining whether the impact of adolescent dating is age-sensitive. Dating at earlier ages is hypothesized to have a stronger effect on adolescent criminal behavior or substance use, but the effect would be weaker as one ages. The data obtained from the National Longitudinal Survey of…

  11. Differential genetic and environmental influences on developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior from adolescence to young adulthood. (United States)

    Zheng, Yao; Cleveland, H Harrington


    Little research has investigated differential genetic and environmental influences on different developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on liabilities of being in life-course-persistent (LCP) and adolescent-limited (AL) type delinquent groups from adolescence to young adulthood while considering nonviolent and violent delinquency subtypes and gender differences. A genetically informative sample (n = 356, 15-16 years) from the first three waves of In-Home Interview of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health was used, with 94 monozygotic and 84 dizygotic pairs of same-sex twins (50% male). Biometric liability threshold models were fit and found that the male-specific LCP type class, chronic, showed more genetic influences, while the AL type classes, decliner and desister, showed more environmental influences. Genetic liability and shared environment both influence the persistence of antisocial behavior. The development of female antisocial behavior appears to be influenced more by shared environment. PMID:26510191

  12. The Effects of Single-Mother Families and Nonresident Fathers on Delinquency and Substance Abuse in Black and White Adolescents. (United States)

    Thomas, George; And Others


    Surveyed over 600 adolescents and their parents to examine adolescent problem behaviors in single-mother families. Results indicate that nonresident father involvement buffers the negative effects of single-mother families for white adolescent males. However, black male adolescents reported fewer problem behaviors when nonresident fathers are…

  13. Social Bond and Self-Reported Nonviolent and Violent Delinquency: A Study of Traditional Low Risk, At-Risk, and Adjudicated Male Chinese Adolescents (United States)

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Chui, Wing Hong


    Background: Little is known about the level of social bond elements and their effects on delinquency among nonadjudicated (traditional low and at-risk school-aged) and adjudicated Chinese male adolescents. Objective: Using a large adolescent sample (N = 1,177) from Hong Kong and Macau, this study aims to distinguish the level of social bond…

  14. Antecedents and Behavior-Problem Outcomes of Parental Monitoring and Psychological Control in Early Adolescence


    PETTIT, GREGORY S.; LAIRD, ROBERT D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Criss, Michael M.


    The early childhood antecedents and behavior-problem correlates of monitoring and psychological control were examined in this prospective, longitudinal, multi-informant study. Parenting data were collected during home visit interviews with 440 mothers and their 13-year-old children. Behavior problems (anxiety/depression and delinquent behavior) were assessed via mother, teacher, and/or adolescent reports at ages 8 through 10 years and again at ages 13 through 14. Home-interview data collected...

  15. Prenatal substance exposure: What predicts behavioral resilience by early adolescence? (United States)

    Liebschutz, Jane M; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P; Heymann, Orlaith D; Lange, Allison V; Frank, Deborah A


    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (ages 12.4-15.9 years) at risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. Intrauterine substance exposures included in this analysis were cocaine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower intrauterine cocaine exposure level predicted resilience compared with higher cocaine exposure, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.90, 19.00], p = .002), lower violence exposure (AOR = 4.07, 95% CI [1.77, 9.38], p behavioral resilience. In conclusion, caregiver supervision in early adolescence, lower violence exposure in childhood, and lack of intrauterine tobacco exposure predicted behavioral resilience among a cohort of early adolescents with significant social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26076097

  16. Macroeconomic environment during infancy as a possible risk factor for adolescent behavioral problems. (United States)

    Ramanathan, Seethalakshmi; Balasubramanian, Natarajan; Krishnadas, Rajeev


    CONTEXT Economic difficulties at the individual level can lead to a number of behavioral problems, including substance abuse and delinquent behaviors. OBJECTIVE To examine the influence of a nationwide adverse economic environment during infancy, specifically, the high unemployment rates during and after the 1980 and 1981-1982 recessions, on rates of subsequent adolescent substance use and delinquent behaviors. DESIGN We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and estimated logit regressions to examine the effect of changes in unemployment rates during infancy on the incidence of adolescent behavioral problems, controlling for known youth, family, and environmental risk factors. SETTING Adolescents living in the United States in 1997. PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of 8984 adolescents born from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 1984. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Probability of engaging in substance use (marijuana, smoking, alcohol, and hard [ie, illegal] drugs) and delinquent behaviors (arrest, handgun use, gang affiliation, petty and major theft, property destruction, and assaultive behavior). RESULTS Exposure to a 1% deviation from mean regional unemployment rates at the age of 1 year was associated with an increase in the odds ratios of engaging in marijuana use (1.09 [95% CI, 1.04-1.14]), smoking (1.07 [1.03-1.11]), alcohol use (1.06 [1.02-1.10]), arrest (1.17 [1.09-1.25]), gang affiliation (1.09 [1.00-1.19]), and petty (1.06 [1.01-1.10]) and major theft (1.11 [1.05-1.18]). No significant associations were noted with use of hard drugs, property destruction, and assaultive behavior. CONCLUSIONS The macroeconomic environment during infancy can have serious long-term effects on substance use and delinquent behavior. These potential long-term effects can play an important role in policy making for adolescent mental health care. PMID:23277351

  17. Identifying Gender-Specific Developmental Trajectories of Nonviolent and Violent Delinquency from Adolescence to Young Adulthood (United States)

    Zheng, Yao; Cleveland, H. Harrington


    Most research examining gender differences in developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior does not consider subtypes of antisocial behavior and is difficult to generalize due to small non-representative samples. The current study investigated gender difference in developmental trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood while addressing…

  18. Testing the universality of the effects of the communities that care prevention system for preventing adolescent drug use and delinquency. (United States)

    Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J David; Fagan, Abigail A; Abbott, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F


    Universal community-oriented interventions are an important component in the prevention of youth health and behavior problems. Testing the universality of the effects of an intervention that was designed to be universal is important because it provides information about how the program operates and for whom and under what conditions it is most effective. The present study examined whether the previously established significant effects of the universal, community-based Communities That Care (CTC) prevention program on the prevalence of substance use and the variety of delinquent behaviors held equally for boys and girls and in risk-related subgroups defined by early substance use, early delinquency, and high levels of community-targeted risk at baseline. Interaction analyses of data from a panel of 4,407 students followed from Grade 5 to Grade 8 in the first randomized trial of CTC in 12 matched community pairs suggests that CTC reduced students' substance use and delinquency equally across risk-related subgroups and gender, with two exceptions: The effect of CTC on reducing substance use in 8th grade was stronger for boys than girls and the impact of CTC on reducing 8th-grade delinquency was stronger for students who were nondelinquent at baseline. PMID:20422289

  19. Adolescents' Time Use: Effects on Substance Use, Delinquency and Sexual Activity (United States)

    Barnes, Grace M.; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Welte, John W.; Farrell, Michael P.; Dintcheff, Barbara A.


    Using an integration of social control theory and the routine activity perspective, adolescent time use was examined for effects on problem behaviors. We examined a wide variety of time use categories, including homework, extracurricular activities, sports time, alone time, paid work, housework, television watching, as well as indices of family…

  20. Identifying Gender-Specific Developmental Trajectories of Nonviolent and Violent Delinquency from Adolescence to Young Adulthood


    Zheng, Yao; Cleveland, H. Harrington.


    Most research examining gender differences in developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior does not consider subtypes of antisocial behavior and is difficult to generalize due to small nonrepresentative samples. The current study investigated gender difference in developmental trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood while addressing those limitations. Analyses were limited to respondents ages 15 and 16 in wave 1 (16–17 in wave 2, and 21–22 in wave 3) of the National Longitudinal...

  1. A Cohort-Sequential Multivariate Latent Growth Curve Analysis of Normative CBCL Aggressive and Delinquent Problem Behavior: Associations with Harsh Discipline and Gender (United States)

    Prinzie, P.; Onghena, P.; Hellinckx, W.


    The aim of this study was to examine the normative developmental trajectories of aggressive and delinquent behavior in young children. Cohort-sequential univariate latent growth modeling (LGM) analyses were employed to conceptualize and analyze intraindividual changes in children's aggressive and delinquent behavior and interindividual differences…

  2. Behavioral Differences between African American Male Adolescents with Biological Fathers and Those without Biological Fathers in the Home. (United States)

    Rodney, H. Elaine; Mupier, Robert


    Investigated differences between father absence and father presence among 433 male African-American adolescents in a Midwestern city. Results for the 74.1% who were "father absent" support the importance of the father's presence, although the mother's involvement was a buffer for some delinquent behaviors. (SLD)

  3. Joint Trajectories of Symptoms of Disruptive Behavior Problems and Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence and Adjustment Problems during Emerging Adulthood (United States)

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Eddy, J. Mark; Dishion, Thomas J.; Reid, John B.


    The joint, longitudinal trajectories of symptoms of disruptive behavior problems and of depression were examined in a community sample drawn from neighborhoods with elevated rates of delinquency. Growth mixture modeling was applied to a 6 year transition period from childhood to adolescence, age 10 to 16 years, to identify latent classes of…

  4. Economic Stress, Emotional Quality of Life, and Problem Behavior in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.


    The relationships between perceived economic stress (current economic hardship and future economic worry) and emotional quality of life (existential well-being, life satisfaction, self-esteem, sense of mastery, psychological morbidity) as well as problem behavior (substance abuse and delinquency) were examined in 1519 Chinese adolescents with and…

  5. Reciprocal Relations between Perceived Parental Knowledge and Adolescent Substance Use and Delinquency: The Moderating Role of Parent-Teen Relationship Quality (United States)

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Jackson, Kristina M.; Wood, Mark


    The current study prospectively examined hypothesized short- and long-term reciprocal relations between perceived parental knowledge and adolescent heavy episodic drinking, marijuana use, and delinquency. Using the contextual model of parenting style (Darling & Steinberg, 1993), we examined the extent to which the bidirectional nature of…




  7. Risky Sexual Behavior among Rural Female Adolescents in Malaysia: A Limited Role of Protective Factors


    Maryam Ahmadian; Hanina H. Hamsan; Haslinda Abdullah; Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah; Amna Md Noor


    Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, a...

  8. Wilderness Therapy Programs for Juvenile Delinquents: A Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Bedard, Rachel M.; Rosen, Lee A.; Vacha-Haase, Tami


    A study examining the effectiveness of wilderness therapy programs for rehabilitating delinquent adolescents analyzed 23 programs using meta-analysis. Moderate effect sizes in favor of wilderness therapy programs were found with respect to enhancing self-esteem/self-concept, improving interpersonal skills, and promoting behavior changes. A small…

  9. Family Transitions and Later Delinquency and Drug Use (United States)

    Krohn, Marvin D.; Hall, Gina Penly; Lizotte, Alan J.


    Changes in the family structure can be very disruptive to adolescents who live in those families. This article examines the impact of the number of family transitions on delinquent and drug-using behavior. Specifically, the effect of family transitions is hypothesized to be mediated by problems within the family, school, and peer settings. A…

  10. Delinquent Behavior and Emerging Substance Use in the MTA at 36 Months: Prevalence, Course, and Treatment Effects (United States)

    Molina, Brooke S. G.; Flory, Kate; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James M.; Hechtman, Lily; Jensen, Peter S.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hoza, Betsy; Pelham, William E.; Elliott, Glen R.; Wells, Karen C.; Abikoff, Howard B.; Gibbons, Robert D.; Marcus, Sue; Conners, C. Keith; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; March, John S.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Severe, Joanne B.; Wigal, Timothy


    Objective: To compare delinquent behavior and early substance use between the children in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA; N = 487) and those in a local normative comparison group (n = 272) at 24 and 36 months postrandomization and to test whether these outcomes were predicted by the randomly assigned treatments and…

  11. A Model of Sexual Abuse's Effects on Suicidal Behavior and Delinquency: The Role of Emotions as Mediating Factors (United States)

    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik


    Drawing on Agnew's general strain theory, we examined whether depressed mood and anger mediated the effects of sexual abuse on suicidal behavior and delinquency. Participants included 9,113 students attending high schools in Iceland. Structural equation modeling showed that, while controlling for family structure and parental education, being…

  12. Positive Youth Development, Life Satisfaction, and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents in Intact and Non-Intact Families in Hong Kong


    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Leung, Hildie


    This study investigated whether Chinese adolescents living in intact and non-intact families differed in their positive development, life satisfaction, and risk behavior. A total of 3,328 Secondary 1 students responded to measures of positive youth development (such as resilience and psychosocial competencies), life satisfaction, and risk behavior (substance abuse, delinquency, Internet addiction, consumption of pornographic materials, self-harm, and behavioral intention to engage in problem ...

  13. Testing Moffitt's Account of Delinquency Abstention (United States)

    Piquero, Alex R.; Brezina, Timothy; Turner, Michael G.


    An established finding in criminology is that most adolescents engage in delinquency. Still, studies continue to identify a small group of individuals who refrain from delinquency even when it is normative for their same-age peers. Moffitt's developmental taxonomy provides some reasons for delinquency abstention, but research has been slow to…

  14. Parenting Style Transitions and Delinquency (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D.; Mowen, Thomas J.


    Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show…

  15. Suicidal Behavior among Early Adolescents. (United States)

    Gover, F. Jill

    There is a great deal of concern about teenage suicide. This study obtained a prevalence rate of suicidal behaviors among non-psychiatric early adolescents (ages 11-16) and investigated personal and family variables that may characterize the young teenagers who report varying degrees of suicidal behavior. A self-report questionnaire was…

  16. Risky Behaviors and Depression in Conjunction with –or in the Absence of—Lifetime History of PTSD Among Sexually Abused Adolescents


    DANIELSON, CARLA KMETT; Macdonald, Alexandra; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Hanson, Rochelle; de Arellano, Michael A.; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G


    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often considered the primary problematic outcome of child sexual abuse (CSA). However, a number of other, relatively understudied negative sequelae appear to be prevalent as well. Data from 269 adolescents with a CSA history from the National Survey of Adolescents-Replication study were therefore used to examine the prevalence of risky behaviors (i.e., problematic alcohol and drug use, delinquent behavior) and depression in this sample. The frequencies ...

  17. Development pathways from abusive parenting to delinquency: the mediating role of depression and aggression. (United States)

    You, Sukkyung; Lim, Sun Ah


    This study investigated the long-term relationship between abusive parenting and adolescent mental health, and the path to delinquent behavior. Longitudinal data from 5th through 7th graders from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS) were analyzed to examine if abusive parenting was a predictor of early adolescent delinquency behavior, via aggression and depression as mediating factors. The results were as follows. First, parental abuse (both emotional and physical) was found to have significant effects on children's psychosocial factors (aggression and depression), while parental neglect (both emotional and physical) had significant effects on depression alone and not on aggression. Second, aggression exerted significant effects on both violent and non-violent delinquent behaviors, while depression had a significant effect on only non-violent delinquent behaviors. Third, children's psychosocial factors (aggression and depression) played significant mediating roles between earlier abusive parenting and delinquent behaviors. Fourth, for children living in a family with their grandparents, paths from abusive parenting, psychosocial adaptation, and later delinquent behaviors were not significant, implying that living with grandparents played a protective factor in these relationships. PMID:26038191

  18. Longitudinal study of delinquency, drug use, sexual activity, and pregnancy among children and youth in three cities.


    Huizinga, D.; Loeber, R.; Thornberry, T P


    Using data from a collaborative program of research, this paper examines the prevalence of delinquency, alcohol and drug use, sexual intercourse, and pregnancy among youth in three urban settings. The findings indicate that a substantial portion of adolescents are involved in these behaviors. There are indications that for many youth the initiation of delinquency and drug use is occurring before the teenage years. There are also indications that all of these behaviors are often co-occurring, ...

  19. Social inequalities as causes of the causes of juvenile delinquency: heterogeneities in the context of situational action theory


    Schepers, Debbie


    This Working Paper focusses on the relationship of crime and social inequalities by applying Situational Action Theory (Wikström 2006, 2009, Wikström et al. 2012) for the explanation of delinquent behavior of adolescents. Situational Action Theory combines individual and contextual constructs into an integrative explanatory framework. In its basic assumptions, Situational Action Theory states that deviant and delinquent behavior is controlled by moral values. The probability of a criminal act...

  20. The Role of Depressed Mood and Anger in the Relationship between Family Conflict and Delinquent Behavior (United States)

    Sigfusdottir, Inga-Dora; Farkas, George; Silver, Eric


    Drawing on R. Agnew's (Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency. Criminology 30: 47-87, 1992) general strain theory, this paper examines whether depressed mood and anger mediate the effects of family conflict on delinquency. We examine data on 7,758 students, 14-16 years old, attending the compulsory 9th and 10th grades of…

  1. Relations with parents and school and Chinese adolescents' self-concept, delinquency, and academic performance. (United States)

    Lau, S; Leung, K


    Current research and theory have suggested that the relational domains of family and school experiences are important to children's development. The present study thus examined how relations with parents and school were related to Chinese students' psychosocial and cognitive development in self-concept, delinquency, and academic performance. A total of 1668 secondary school students were studied, and results showed that better relation with parents was associated with higher general, academic, appearance, social, and physical ability self-concepts. Better relation with school was associated with higher academic performance, as shown in higher class rank, higher grand total exam scores, and higher scores in Chinese, English, mathematics, physical education, and music. Both poorer relations with parents and school were found to associate with more self-reported delinquency as well as more school records of misconduct. PMID:1637685

  2. The Conscience as a Regulatory Function: Empathy, Shame, Pride, Guilt, and Moral Orientation in Delinquent Adolescents. (United States)

    Schalkwijk, Frans; Stams, Geert Jan; Stegge, Hedy; Dekker, Jack; Peen, Jaap


    This study examines an emotion-based theory of the conscience, which provides forensic practitioners tools for assessing the state of the conscience. It is operationalized as an emotion-regulating function, making use of empathy, self-conscious emotions, such as shame, pride or guilt, and moral judgment. This was put to test in a questionnaire survey with 59 delinquent and 275 non-delinquent juveniles. As was hypothesized, the functioning of the conscience of these groups differed, with offenders having lower levels of some aspects of empathic capacity, being less prone to experiencing shame and guilt, being more prone to experiencing pride, and being more punishment oriented than victim oriented. The research confirmed that operationalization of the conscience in terms of empathy, self-conscious emotions, and moral orientation is feasible. PMID:25488941

  3. Self Injurious Behavior in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe


    Full Text Available Self injury is a kind of behavior which begins in early adolescence and difficult to determine because remains suppressed. Most often forms are to cut and hit own. To be exposed to sexual abuse and stressfully life events are known as risk factors for self injurious behavior. High anxiety, depression and hostility levels, decrease of self esteem, suicidal attempts and thoughts are usually together with self injurious behavior and it may be mediating to emotional regulation. To explain the functions of self injurious behavior automatic and social support theories and social learning theories have suggested. The relation between suicidality and self injurious behavior is complex for adolescents. There is no enough knowledge if self injurious behavior aggravates the risk of completed suicide. Although it’s a frequent behavior there are limited randomized controlled studies which examine specific treatment approaches. Dialectic behavior treatment is the type of treatment which shown as most effective for adults. To determine the needs to stop the behavior, to manage emotional senses and urges and to learn more healthy ways for needs to youth are necessary in treatment of self injurious behavior. Treatment also includes determining suicidal risk and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In self injurious behavior medical treatment is useful for comorbid psychiatric disorders. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 201-210

  4. The Role of Acculturation and Family Functioning in Predicting HIV Risk Behaviors Among Hispanic Delinquent Youth


    Farrelly, Colleen; CORDOVA, DAVID; Huang, Shi; Estrada, Yannine; Prado, Guillermo


    The present study examined the relationship between Berry’s acculturation typology and HIV risk behaviors and whether family functioning mediated any such effects. A total of 235 high risk Hispanic adolescents were categorized into one of Berry’s four acculturation typologies through the use of cut-off scores on measures of Hispanicism and Americanism. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors and the indirect effects of accul...

  5. Variáveis familiares preditoras do comportamento anti-social em adolescentes autores de atos infracionais / Family variables that predict antisocial behavior in adolescents who committed criminal transgressions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Janaína Thaís Barbosa, Pacheco; Claudio Simon, Hutz.


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar variáveis individuais e familiares preditoras do comportamento anti-social. Os participantes foram 148 adolescentes, autores de atos infracionais, e 163 adolescentes não-infratores. Os adolescentes responderam individualmente a uma entrevista estruturada, que i [...] nvestigou estratégias educativas parentais, variáveis familiares e aspectos relacionados ao desenvolvimento do comportamento infrator. Uma análise de conteúdo das respostas permitiu a delimitação das principais práticas educativas relatadas pelos jovens. Uma análise de regressão indicou que o comportamento anti-social de familiares, o número de irmãos, o uso de drogas pelo adolescente, os conflitos na família e as práticas educativas parentais explicaram 53% da variância do comportamento infrator. Os resultados apontaram a importância da família no desenvolvimento da conduta infratora. Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to investigate individual and family variables that might predict delinquent behavior. The participants were 148 adolescents, institutionalized for committing criminal transgressions, and 163 adolescents who did not commit criminal transgressions. The participants we [...] re interviewed about parental practices, family variables, and other factors related to the development of the delinquent behavior. A content analysis of the answers allowed the delimitation of the main educational practices identified by the adolescents. Regression analysis showed that antisocial behavior of family members, number of siblings, drug use, conflicts within the family, and parental educational practices explained 53% of the variance of delinquent behavior. These results pointed to the importance of the family in the development of the delinquent behavior.

  6. Risk Behavior and Personal Resiliency in Adolescents (United States)

    Prince-Embury, Sandra


    This study explores the relationship between self-reported risk behaviors and personal resiliency in adolescents; specifically whether youth with higher personal resiliency report less frequent risk behaviors than those with lower personal resiliency. Self-reported risk behavior is surveyed by the "Adolescent Risk Behavior Inventory"…

  7. Emotional and Behavioral Problems of Afghan Refugees and War-Zone Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Babapour-Kheiroddin


    Full Text Available "nObjective: Wars' stress and violence can have tremendous effects on children's and adolescents' health and general well being; it may result in patterns of bio-psychosocial problems. The goal of this study was to compare emotional and behavioral problems in Afghan refugees and war-zone adolescents. "n Method: One hundred and eighty high school students (90 students in the refugee group and 90 in the war-zone group in Harat were included in this research. All participants completed the Youth Self-Report (YSR. War zone and refugee adolescents were compared based on their scores on different scales of behavioral and emotional problems. "n Results: War-zone adolescents scored significantly higher on Anxious/Depression, Withdrawn, Somatic Complaints, Attention Problems, and Internalizing Problems scales than refugee adolescents. In this study, no significant difference was found between the two groups on Social Problems, Thought Problems, Delinquent Behavior, Aggressive Behavior, and Externalizing scales. "nConclusion: Findings revealed that although asylum is not an ideal condition for children's and adolescents' psychological development and prosperity, it can have a protective role in comparison with war zone's circumstances. Further investigation is needed, however, to elucidate the lack of significant differences in externalizing scales among war zone and refugee adolescents

  8. Substance Abuse and Aggressive Behavior among Adolescents


    Fauziah I.; Mohamad M. S.; Chong S. T.; Azmi Abd Manaf


    Social workers, psychologists and psychopharmacologists have devoted little attention to study the direct relationship between drugs and adolescents’ aggression. The main objective of this study was therefore to determine the extent of the level of aggressive behavior among adolescents who underwent rehabilitation of drug abuse. This study also sought to find out the relationship between type of drugs used with aggressive behavior among adolescents. Respondents were 200 adolescents from three...

  9. Effects of Institutional Confinement for Delinquency on Levels of Depression and Anxiety among Male Adolescents


    White, Helene R.; SHI, JING; Hirschfield, Paul; Mun, Eun-Young; LOEBER, ROLF


    Youth within the juvenile justice system report higher rates of mental illnesses than their peers. This study tested whether institutional confinement increases levels of depression and anxiety among male adolescents. We examined heterogeneous trajectories of depression and anxiety from ages 11 to 14 for 510 male adolescents. Youths who were first placed in custody at age 15 (treatment group) were matched with control boys (no official arrest or reported confinement during adolescence) within...

  10. Internet use and video gaming predict problem behavior in early adolescence. (United States)

    Holtz, Peter; Appel, Markus


    In early adolescence, the time spent using the Internet and video games is higher than in any other present-day age group. Due to age-inappropriate web and gaming content, the impact of new media use on teenagers is a matter of public and scientific concern. Based on current theories on inappropriate media use, a study was conducted that comprised 205 adolescents aged 10-14 years (Md = 13). Individuals were identified who showed clinically relevant problem behavior according to the problem scales of the Youth Self Report (YSR). Online gaming, communicational Internet use, and playing first-person shooters were predictive of externalizing behavior problems (aggression, delinquency). Playing online role-playing games was predictive of internalizing problem behavior (including withdrawal and anxiety). Parent-child communication about Internet activities was negatively related to problem behavior. PMID:20303580

  11. Ordered Delinquency: The “Effects” of Birth Order On Delinquency


    Cundiff, Patrick R.


    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born to rebel hypothesis I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I us...

  12. Dopaminergic Polymorphisms, Academic Achievement, and Violent Delinquency. (United States)

    Yun, Ilhong; Lee, Julak; Kim, Seung-Gon


    Recent research in the field of educational psychology points to the salience of self-control in accounting for the variance in students' report card grades. At the same time, a novel empirical study from molecular genetics drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data has revealed that polymorphisms in three dopaminergic genes (dopamine transporter [DAT1], dopamine D2 receptor [DRD2], and dopamine D4 receptor [DRD4]) are also linked to adolescents' grade point averages (GPAs). Juxtaposing these two lines of research, the current study reanalyzed the Add Health genetic subsample to assess the relative effects of these dopaminergic genes and self-control on GPAs. The results showed that the effects of the latter were far stronger than those of the former. The interaction effects between the dopaminergic genes and a set of environmental factors on academic performance were also examined, producing findings that are aligned with the "social push hypothesis" in behavioral genetics. Finally, based on the criminological literature on the link between academic performance and delinquency, we tested whether dopaminergic effects on violent delinquency were mediated by GPAs. The results demonstrated that academic performance fully mediated the linkage between these genes and violent delinquency. PMID:25326467

  13. Group Work with Juvenile Delinquents. (United States)

    Zimpfer, David G.


    Reviews group work literature on juvenile delinquents. Presents overview of interventions, including positive peer culture, cognitive-behavioral treatment, psychoeducational treatment, treatment of learned behavior, action-oriented treatment, milieu therapy, parental involvement, assertiveness training, and music therapy. Discusses outcome…

  14. Self-Control, Social Factors, and Delinquency: A Test of the General Theory of Crime among Adolescents in Hong Kong (United States)

    Cheung, Nicole W. T.; Cheung, Yuet W.


    The objectives of this study were to test the predictive power of self-control theory for delinquency in a Chinese context, and to explore if social factors as predicted in social bonding theory, differential association theory, general strain theory, and labeling theory have effects on delinquency in the presence of self-control. Self-report data…

  15. Trajectories of Delinquency and Parenting Styles


    Hoeve, Machteld; BLOKLAND, Arjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; LOEBER, ROLF; Gerris, Jan R. M.; Van der Laan, Peter H.


    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering ages 10–19, we identified five distinct delinquency trajectories differing in both level and change in seriousness over time: a nondelinquent, minor persisting, moderate desisting, serious persist...

  16. Early Adolescent Risk Behavior Outcomes of Childhood Externalizing Behavioral Trajectories (United States)

    Thompson, Richard; Tabone, Jiyoung Kim; Litrownik, Alan J.; Briggs, Ernestine C.; Hussey, Jon M.; English, Diana J.; Dubowitz, Howard


    Little is known about the early childhood indicators of adolescent risk. The link between trajectories of externalizing behavioral problems and early adolescent risk behavior was examined in a longitudinal sample of 875 child participants in the LONGSCAN studies. Five trajectory groups of children defined by externalizing behavior problems were…

  17. Bad Boys or Poor Parents: Relations to Female Juvenile Delinquency


    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Farruggia, Susan P.; Goldweber, Asha


    This study examined the interrelations between parental relationships, romantic relationships, and antisocial behavior among female and male juvenile delinquents. Participants from a diverse sample of 1,354 adolescents (14–17 years) adjudicated of a serious (i.e. felony) offense were matched based on age, race, and committing offense, yielding a sample of 184 girls matched with 170 boys. Results indicate that while female offenders are more likely to date boys 2 years their senior, age differ...

  18. Adolescent Work Experiences and Family Formation Behavior


    STAFF, JEREMY; VanEseltine, Matthew; Woolnough, April; Silver, Eric; Burrington, Lori


    A long-standing critique of adolescent employment is that it engenders a precocious maturity of more adult-like roles and behaviors, including school disengagement, substance use, sexual activity, inadequate sleep and exercise, and work-related stress. Though negative effects of high-intensity work on adolescent adjustment have been found, little research has addressed whether such work experiences are associated with precocious family formation behaviors in adolescence, such as sexual interc...

  19. Delinquency, androgens, and the family: a test of evolutionary neuroandrogenic theory. (United States)

    Ellis, Lee; Das, Shyamal


    There is little doubt that family factors can influence involvement in delinquency, although the full nature and extent of their influences remain unclear. In recent decades, testosterone has been increasingly implicated as a contributor to adolescent offending. The present study sought to determine whether two important types of familial factors--parental socioeconomic status and amicable parent-child relationships--are interacting with testosterone (and possibly other androgens) to affect delinquency. A large sample of North American college students self-reported their involvement in eight categories of delinquency along with self-ratings of various androgen-promoted traits (e.g., muscularity and low-deep voice), parental social status, and the quality of the relationships they had with parents. In both sexes, parent-child relationships and androgens were significantly associated with delinquency but parental social status was not. Factor analysis revealed that the authors' measures of all four categories of variables exhibited strong loadings onto their respective factors. Androgens and amicable parent-child relationships were associated with delinquency but parental social status was not. About one third of the influence of parent-child relationships on delinquency appeared to be attributable to androgens. Findings are discussed from the perspective of the evolutionary neuroandrogenic theory of delinquent and criminal behavior. PMID:22514238

  20. Understanding Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents (United States)

    ... can lessen or prevent violent behavior: Prevention of child abuse (use of programs such as parent training, family support programs, etc.) Sex education and parenting programs for adolescents Early intervention programs for violent youngsters ... Violent Behavior In Children and Adolescents Tobacco And Kids The ...

  1. The Impact of Multiple Types of Child Maltreatment on Subsequent Risk Behaviors Among Women During the Transition from Adolescence to Young Adulthood


    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Lee, Yoona; Ozonoff, AL; Van Wert, Michael J


    The purpose of this study was to investigate how different types of child maltreatment, independently and collectively, impact a wide range of risk behaviors that fall into three domains: sexual risk behaviors, delinquency, and suicidality. Cumulative classification and Expanded Hierarchical Type (EHT) classification approaches were used to categorize various types of maltreatment. Data were derived from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Our sample...

  2. Trajectories of Delinquency and Parenting Styles (United States)

    Hoeve, Machteld; Blokland, Arjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Loeber, Rolf; Gerris, Jan R. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.


    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering ages 10-19, we identified five distinct…

  3. Socioeconomic Status, Subcultural Definitions, and Violent Delinquency. (United States)

    Heimer, Karen


    Analysis of national longitudinal survey data on 918 adolescent males and their parents shows that violent delinquency is a product of learning definitions favorable to violence; such learning is determined by association with aggressive peers, socioeconomic status, parenting practices, and prior violent delinquency. Emphasizes joint contributions…

  4. Emergence of Mixed-Sex Friendship Groups during Adolescence: Developmental Associations with Substance Use and Delinquency (United States)

    Molloy, Lauren E.; Gest, Scott D.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Osgood, D. Wayne


    Prospective longitudinal data from over 14,000 youth residing in 28 communities in the rural United States were analyzed to examine the emergence of mixed-sex friendship groups in early adolescence. Youth were surveyed on 5 occasions between fall of 6th grade and spring of 9th grade. At each assessment, youth reported the names of up to 7…

  5. Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence versus Parental Gender (United States)

    Demuth, Stephen; Brown, Susan L.


    One third of all children are born to unmarried mothers and over one half of children will spend some time in a single-parent family. In fact, single-father families are the fastest growing family form. Using data from the 1995 National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, the authors extend prior research that has investigated the effects of…

  6. Family structure and risk behaviors: the role of the family meal in assessing likelihood of adolescent risk behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldfarb S


    Full Text Available Samantha Goldfarb, Will L Tarver, Bisakha Sen Department of Health Care Organization and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Background: Previous literature has asserted that family meals are a key protective factor for certain adolescent risk behaviors. It is suggested that the frequency of eating with the family is associated with better psychological well-being and a lower risk of substance use and delinquency. However, it is unclear whether there is evidence of causal links between family meals and adolescent health-risk behaviors. Purpose: The purpose of this article is to review the empirical literature on family meals and adolescent health behaviors and outcomes in the US. Data sources: A search was conducted in four academic databases: Social Sciences Full Text, Sociological Abstracts, PsycINFO®, and PubMed/MEDLINE. Study selection: We included studies that quantitatively estimated the relationship between family meals and health-risk behaviors. Data extraction: Data were extracted on study sample, study design, family meal measurement, outcomes, empirical methods, findings, and major issues. Data synthesis: Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria for the review that measured the relationship between frequent family meals and various risk-behavior outcomes. The outcomes considered by most studies were alcohol use (n=10, tobacco use (n=9, and marijuana use (n=6. Other outcomes included sexual activity (n=2; depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts (n=4; violence and delinquency (n=4; school-related issues (n=2; and well-being (n=5. The associations between family meals and the outcomes of interest were most likely to be statistically significant in unadjusted models or models controlling for basic family characteristics. Associations were less likely to be statistically significant when other measures of family connectedness were included. Relatively few analyses used sophisticated empirical techniques available to control for confounders in secondary data. Conclusion: More research is required to establish whether or not the relationship between family dinners and risky adolescent behaviors is an artifact of underlying confounders. We recommend that researchers make more frequent use of sophisticated methods to reduce the problem of confounders in secondary data, and that the scope of adolescent problem behaviors also be further widened. Keywords: family meals, adolescents, risk behaviors, review, study design, confounders

  7. Adolescent Work Experiences and Family Formation Behavior (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; VanEseltine, Matthew; Woolnough, April; Silver, Eric; Burrington, Lori


    A long-standing critique of adolescent employment is that it engenders a precocious maturity of more adult-like roles and behaviors, including school disengagement, substance use, sexual activity, inadequate sleep and exercise, and work-related stress. Though negative effects of high-intensity work on adolescent adjustment have been found, little…

  8. Social Networks and Crime Decisions: The Role of Social Structure in Facilitating Delinquent Behavior


    Calvó-Armengol, Antoni; Zenou, Yves


    We develop a model in which delinquents compete with each other in criminal activities but may benefit from being friends with other criminals by learning and acquiring proper know-how on the crime business. By taking the social network connecting agents as given, we study the subgame perfect Nash equilibrium of this game in which individuals decide first to work or to become a criminal and then the crime effort provided if criminals. We show that this game always has a pure strategy subgame ...

  9. Drug and Alcohol Use, Delinquency, and Vandalism among Upper Middle Class Pre- and Post-Adolescents. (United States)

    Levine, Edward M.; Kozak, Conrad


    Survey findings indicated the use of alcohol and drugs among prepubertal and teenage students, and the involvement of both groups in theft and valdalism. The view advanced was by the study that deficient socialization and inadequate parenting, as well as peer group pressures and psychogenic factors, influenced these behavioral problems. (Author/RD)

  10. Testing the Oregon delinquency model with 9-year follow-up of the Oregon Divorce Study. (United States)

    Forgatch, Marion S; Patterson, Gerald R; Degarmo, David S; Beldavs, Zintars G


    This paper presents experimental tests of the Oregon delinquency model applied within a randomized design of an at-risk sample of single mothers and their elementary school-aged sons. In the theoretical model, ineffective parenting practices and deviant peer association serve as the primary mechanisms for growth in adolescent delinquent behavior and early arrests. Multiple-method assessments of 238 mothers and sons include delinquency as measured by teacher reports and official arrest records, parenting skills measured by observations of parent-child interactions, and deviant peer association as reported by focal boys. Analyses of the 9-year follow-up data indicate that the Oregon model of parent management training significantly reduced teacher-reported delinquency and police arrests for focal boys. As hypothesized, the experiments demonstrated that improving parenting practices and reducing contacts with deviant peers served as mediating mechanisms for reducing rates of adolescent delinquency. As predicted, there was also a significant delay in the timing of police arrests for youth in the experimental as compared to the control group. PMID:19338702

  11. Risk factors for persistent delinquent behavior among juveniles: A meta-analytic review. (United States)

    Assink, Mark; van der Put, Claudia E; Hoeve, Machteld; de Vries, Sanne L A; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Oort, Frans J


    Multiple risk domains have been identified for life-course persistent (LCP) offending, but a quantitative review of the effect of different risk domains was not yet available. Therefore, we performed a series of multilevel meta-analyses to examine the effect of several risk domains for LCP offending relative to adolescence-limited (AL) offending. We included 55 studies reporting on 1014 effects of risk factors, and classified each factor into one of 14 risk domains. The results revealed a significant effect for 11 domains ranging from d=0.200 to d=0.758. Relatively large effects were found for the criminal history, aggressive behavior, and alcohol/drug abuse domains, whereas relatively small effects were found for the family, neurocognitive, and attitude domains. The physical health, background, and neighborhood domains yielded no effect. Moderator analyses showed that effects of sibling-related risk factors were larger than effects of mother-related risk factors, and that the effect of the relationship domain was largest during childhood. We conclude that most risk domains contribute to the development of LCP offending and that differences between AL and LCP offenders may be quantitative rather than qualitative. Implications of the present results for risk assessment and the prevention/treatment of LCP offending are discussed. PMID:26301752

  12. Sport and delinquency: an examination of the deterrence hypothesis in a longitudinal study.


    Begg, D. J.; Langley, J D; Moffitt, T; Marshall, S. W.


    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether involvement in sporting activity in mid-adolescence would deter delinquent behaviour in late adolescence. METHODS: Members of a longitudinal cohort study were interviewed at ages 15 and 18 years and, among other topics, were asked questions relating to involvement in physical activity and delinquent behaviour. Logistic regression models were used to examine the relation between sports involvement and delinquency at age 15 years and delinquency at age 18. RESULT...

  13. Predicting Adolescent Deviant Behaviors through Data Mining Techniques (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Chin; Hsu, Yung-Chieh


    Adolescence is the time during which people develop and form their crucial values, personality traits, and beliefs. Hence, as deviant behaviors occur during adolescence, it is important to guide adolescents away from such behaviors and back to normal behaviors. Moreover, although there are various kinds of deviant behavior, most of them would…

  14. The Effects of the Children Having Incarcerated Parents Succeeding Group on Delinquent Behavior, Academic Achievement, Self-Esteem, Attendance and Aggressive Behavior with Seventh and Eighth Grade Students Who Have Incarcerated Parents or Guardians (United States)

    King-White, Dakota L.


    A sample of middle school students was investigated to determine whether an intervention group called Children Having Incarcerated Parents (C.H.I.P.S.; King-White & Lipford-Sanders, 2007) was an effective intervention for delinquent behavior, academic achievement, self-esteem, attendance, and aggressive behavior in children of incarcerated…

  15. Reactive Behavior Patterns in Gifted Adolescents. (United States)

    Cioffi, Diane H.; Kysilka, Marcella L.


    When teachers identified the reactive behavior patterns of 100 gifted adolescents, they classed 74% as aggressive dependent, influenced by compulsive and hysteric traits; 89.8% of the girls were thus labeled. Results raise the question of whether gifted programs seem to target only students who meet certain behavior standards. (SK)



    Booth, Alan; Scott, Mindy E.; KING, VALARIE


    This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine combinations of father residence and closeness which have received minimal examination but involve significant numbers of children. Our findings lead to a number of conclusions. First, adolescents who are close to their nonresident fathers report higher self-esteem, less delinquency, and fewer depressive symptoms than adolescents who live with a father with whom they are not close. Second, adolescents li...

  17. Understanding Desisting and Persisting Forms of Delinquency: The Unique Contributions of Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Interpersonal Callousness (United States)

    Byrd, Amy L.; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A.


    Background: While associations between conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and interpersonal callousness (IC) symptoms and delinquency onset are well established, less is known about whether these characteristics differentiate desisting and persisting delinquency. The current…

  18. Psychosocial predictors of sexual initiation and high-risk sexual behaviors in early adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwab-Stone Mary


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This longitudinal study examined psychosocial factors associated with risky sexual behavior in early adolescence. Methods Data were collected through a self-report survey, the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA, which was administered in three waves between 2001 and 2003 to a cohort of incoming sixth grade students in the public school system (149 classes at 17 middle and high schools, N = 1,175 of a small northeastern city in the United States. We first examined whether internalizing and externalizing problems in sixth grade, and the rate of change in these factors during middle school, were predictive of sexual initiation two years later, when most of the sample was in eighth grade. We then assessed whether internalizing and externalizing problems in sixth grade, and the rate of change in these factors during middle school, were predictive of engaging in high risk sexual behavior over the subsequent two years. Results Externalizing factors are more predictive of sexual risk in early adolescence than are internalizing factors. Specifically, substance use and violent delinquency over the course of middle school were associated with higher, while anxiety with lower, sexual initiation rates during middle school. Additionally, increased substance use over the course of middle school was associated with greater likelihood of engaging in high risk sexual behavior. Conclusion By identifying particular psychosocial risk factors among young adolescents, the findings of this study have implications for designing multi-dimensional programs aimed at preventing health-compromising sexual behavior among young teens.

  19. [Depression and risk behavior in adolescence]. (United States)

    Heger, Johanna Pia; Brunner, Romuald; Parzer, Peter; Fischer, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael


    Adolescence is a vulnerable period which is associated with a heightened risk for the development of depressive disorders. Risk-behaviors like alcohol or illicit drug abuse, excessive use of media, school absenteeism and lack of sleep are also frequently occurring during this period; it is often suggested that such behaviors may be associated with mental health problems. This article includes a selective overview of literature to investigate the relation between depression and risk-behavior in adolescence; these results are compared with the results from a representative sample of German pupils who were examined in the context of the European school study SEYLE. Data from a school-based sample of 1,434 pupils with a mean age of 14.7 years (SD = 0.8) was used. Most risk-behaviors tend to be associated with increased likelihood for the development of depression and are correlated with the severity of depressive symptomatology. In this sample, alcohol abuse, smoking, media use, lack of physical activity, risky sexual behavior, school absenteeism, and sleeping problems showed an impact on the level of depression which was consistent with previous research. Illicit drug abuse showed no significant impact on depressive symptoms of young people. Further longitudinal studies are necessary to elucidate the directional relationship between depression and risk behavior in adolescence. The potential value of adolescent risk-behavior as a possible warning sign for early detection of depressive symptoms also warrants further investigation. PMID:24707767

  20. Institutional Treatment for Juvenile Delinquents: 2000 Offenders after Three Years. (United States)

    Weiss, Karin; And Others


    A common belief is that residential treatment of juvenile delinquents reinforces rather than inhibits their patterns of delinquent behavior. Findings of this study clearly indicate that, at least in Israel, incarceration in a residential treatment facility did not increase the level of delinquency among the inmates in the period following…

  1. Parent–Child Acculturation Discrepancy, Perceived Parental Knowledge, Peer Deviance, and Adolescent Delinquency in Chinese Immigrant Families


    Wang, Yijie; Kim, Su Yeong; Anderson, Edward R.; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Yan, Ni


    Parent–child acculturation discrepancy has been considered a risk factor for child maladjustment. The current study examined parent–child acculturation discrepancy as an ongoing risk factor for delinquency, through the mediating pathway of parental knowledge of the child’s daily experiences relating to contact with deviant peers. Participants were drawn from a longitudinal project with 4 years between data collection waves: 201 Chinese immigrant families participated at Wave 1 (123 girls and ...

  2. Adolescents Engaging in Risky Sexual Behavior: Sexual Activity and Associated Behavioral Risk Factors in Bolivian Adolescents (United States)

    Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; De La Cruz, Natalie; Hill, Susan; Torres, Scott B.


    This study describes the prevalence of risky sexual activities among Bolivian adolescents within the context of other behavioral factors that contribute to compromised health outcomes, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Data was collected from 576 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, from six schools in La…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim AKTEPE


    Full Text Available Objective: Suicide is a complex phenomenon associated with pyschological, biological and social factors. Suicide has been reported as the second or third most common cause of death in children and adolescents worldwide. Suicidal behaviour in children and adolescents will be discussed in the frame of motivational definition. Method: Published research studies and reviews on children and adolescent suicides have been reviewed. Furthermore, classical papers have been searched to obtain knowledge about suicide behavior. Results: It is reported that firearms have been the most important effect in adolescent suicide. Both fatal and nonfatal suicidal behaviors have been linked consistently to negative parent-child relationships, depression, substance use, overall number of life stressors, gender and impulsive behaviors. Discussion: Future efforts to investigate suicidal behavior should use new research methodologies that may lead to identification of the interactions between environmental factors and constitutional and biological factors that are associated with risk for suicidal behavior. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(2.000: 88-97

  4. Irrational evaluations and antisocial behavior of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljevi?-Gvozden Tatjana


    Full Text Available The principles of the Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy point out to the role of irrational beliefs in the occurrence of aggressive and antisocial behavior. The goal of this research is to determine whether there are links between irrational beliefs and self-assessment of antisocial behavior and whether there are differences with respect to irrational beliefs between the young who were sentenced by juvenile court judges compared to the control group. The research was conducted on two subsamples - the first consisted of male adolescents (N=116, aged 16 to 19, and the second comprised male adolescents 50 out of whom were sentenced by juvenile court judges, aged averagely 17 and a half, and 50 members of the control group. The modified version of the General Attitude and Belief Scale (GABS (Mari?, 2002, 2003 and Antisocial Behavior Scale (ABS (Opa?i?, 2010, in print were used. Multiple regression analysis showed that the best predictor of the score on antisocial behavior scale was “the demand for absolute correctness of others and their devaluation”, followed by the aspiration towards perfectionism and success which acts as the factor that reduces the probability of antisocial behavior. Almost identical results were obtained by group comparison. The obtained results provide guidelines for designing preventive programs (sketched in the discussion that would be able to reduce the frequency of aggressive and antisocial behavior at adolescent age.

  5. Sociability, School Experience, and Delinquency. (United States)

    Lotz, Roy; Lee, Leona


    Compares the effects of active sociability and negative school experiences on high school seniors' hedonistic behavior, noting the effects of variables from labeling and control theory. Survey data indicate that active sociability is a strong predictor of delinquent behavior for African American and white teenagers. Negative school experience…

  6. Adolescents' Sedentary Behaviors in Two European Cities (United States)

    Aibar Solana, Alberto; Bois, Julien E.; Zaragoza, Javier; Bru, Noëlle; Paillard, Thierry; Generelo, Eduardo


    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the correlates of objective sedentary behavior (SB) and nonschool self-reported SB in adolescents from 2 midsized cities, 1 in France (Tarbes) and 1 in Spain (Huesca). Stability of objective SB and nonschool self-reported SB were also assessed at different time points during 1 academic…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bateva


    Full Text Available The subject of my research in the paper are the children from dysfunctional families, primarily their delinquent behavior, education and moral, actually, who takes care of them and who undertakes the family roles and whether this care is sufficient for building these personalities.This research approaches towards the study of the delinquent behavior of children from dysfunctional families. It examines to what extent the educational level of parents, the material condition, the health condition, the leisure time, the average monthly income of the family, the available permanent goods, the educational resources, the social communications within the very family, all affect the delinquent behavior of children from dysfunctional families. 

  8. Profiles of problematic behaviors across adolescence: covariations with indicators of positive youth development. (United States)

    Arbeit, Miriam R; Johnson, Sara K; Champine, Robey B; Greenman, Kathleen N; Lerner, Jacqueline V; Lerner, Richard M


    Previous analyses of data from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development (PYD) have examined concurrent trajectories of positive development and risk/problem behaviors among adolescents, finding complex and not necessarily inverse relationships among them. In this article, we expand on prior research by employing a person-centered approach to modeling risk behaviors, assessing development from approximately 6th grade through 12th grade among 4,391 adolescents (59.9% female). Latent profiles involving the problematic behaviors of delinquency, depressive symptoms, substance use, sexual activity, disordered eating behaviors, and bullying were then assessed for concurrent relationships with the Five Cs of PYD: Competence, Confidence, Character, Caring, and Connection. We found six latent profiles, based primarily on mental health, aggression, and alcohol use, with significant differences in Confidence levels among many of the profiles, as well as some differences in the four other Cs. We discuss directions for future research and implications for application to youth policies and programs. PMID:24562425

  9. Prefrontal and amygdala volumes are related to adolescents' affective behaviors during parent–adolescent interactions


    Whittle, Sarah; Yap, Marie B. H.; Yücel, Murat; Fornito, Alex; Simmons, Julian G.; Barrett, Anna; Sheeber, Lisa; ALLEN, NICHOLAS B.


    Adolescence is a key period for the development of brain circuits underlying affective and behavioral regulation. It remains unclear, however, whether and how adolescent brain structure influences day-to-day affective behavior. Because of significant changes in the nature of family relations that also typically occur during adolescence, parent–child interactions provide a meaningful context where affective behavior and its regulation may be assessed. In a sample of 137 early adolescents, we i...

  10. Stability of antisocial behavior on the infancy-adolescence transition: a developmental perspective / Estabilidade do comportamento anti-social na transição da infância para a adolescência: uma perspectiva desenvolvimentista

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    Janaína Pacheco


    Full Text Available The term antisocial is widely used in the literature to describe non-specific behavior problems such as delinquent behavior, aggressiveness, and oppositionist behavior. The aim of the present study was to describe and to discuss the concept of antisocial behavior as an indicator of specific mental disorders such as Attention-deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder. Also, we discuss the factors that contribute to the stability of such behaviors in the transition from childhood to adolescence and the losses incurred throughout development. A recommendation is made to broaden conceptual discussions about mental disorders using wider categories such as antisocial behavior.

  11. South African Adolescents: Pathways to Risky Sexual Behavior (United States)

    Brook, David W.; Morojele, Neo K.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S.


    This study tested a developmental model of pathways to risky sexual behavior among South African adolescents. Participants comprised 633 adolescents, 12-17 years old, recruited from households in Durban, South Africa. Data were collected using in-person interviews. Topics included adolescents' sexual behaviors, household poverty levels, vulnerable…

  12. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Korean Juvenile Delinquents. (United States)

    Chae, Paul Kyuman; Jung, Hyun-Oak; Noh, Kyung-Sun


    Identifies attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in Korean juvenile delinquents. Intelligence tests, Test of Variables of Attention, Teacher Report form, Youth Self-Report, and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale were administered to 98 incarcerated youth and 84 nondelinquent youth. In the delinquent youth, 42.2% of the adolescents were…

  13. HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth with Psychiatric Disorders: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.


    The effect of psychiatric disorders on human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risk behaviors in juvenile justice youths is examined. Prevalence, persistence and prediction are addressed among four mutually exclusive diagnostic groups and results show a high prevalence rate of many HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors that…

  14. Adolescent sexual behavior and childbearing. (United States)

    Zabin, L S


    Low self esteem does not explain problems of adolescence, particularly unwanted pregnancy and early childbearing. This intimates that their root causes are personal rather than structural and socioeconomic, thereby allowing us to blame the victim. Contrary to popular opinion, few teens (10%) want to conceive and most teens want something other than pregnancy, indicating a need for effective intervention. Teens who were ambivalent about childbearing 2 years earlier are just as likely to have given birth as those who wanted to conceive. Teens self-concept is based on the reality of their environment, which, for most teens who have given birth, involves chronic unemployment, a culture of single parenthood in which men play no supportive role in the home, and the knowledge that teens who choose to continue to attend school despite having given birth fare the same as those who drop out of school. Structural changes (jobs and career goals), long term intervention, and continuous social support are needed to improve a teen's capacity to make choices, especially those concerning contraception. In other words, motivation must be so strong that conceptions are avoided. No family wants to go on welfare and no woman wants to have a baby while a teenager, but when teens become pregnant, they tend not to choose abortion. If welfare reform creates true opportunity for jobs, it will create the motivation to avoid pregnancy but not reduce the childbearing rate among teens that conceive. Very early maturation is correlated with very early onset of sexual activity. The very best sex education and services are unlikely to be offered at a young enough age in schools. US society is obsessed with and unwilling to talk about sex. The notion of choice is not part of poor America. Interactive interventions providing continuing support are needed to make a difference in adolescent pregnancy. PMID:8086816

  15. Moving in and out of Poverty: The Within-Individual Association between Socioeconomic Status and Juvenile Delinquency (United States)

    Rekker, Roderik; Pardini, Dustin; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Loeber, Rolf; Meeus, Wim


    A family’s SES can be changeable over time. This study was the first to investigate if such within-individual changes in family SES are associated with parallel fluctuations in boys’ delinquent behavior from childhood to adolescence. Participants were a community sample of boys and their caregivers (N = 503) who were assessed annually for ten consecutive years spanning ages 7–18. Fixed effects models revealed that changes in familial SES were related to changes in delinquency: Youths were more likely to offend during years in which their parents’ SES was lower than during years in which their parents’ SES was higher. Contrary to expectations, we found no evidence that this association was accounted for by families moving to different neighborhoods or by changes in parenting. Since within-individual models provide a stricter test of causality than between-individual models, these findings support claims that impacting familial SES may have a direct effect on youths’ delinquency. PMID:26575271

  16. Factors Associated with Physician Discussion of Health Behaviors with Adolescents (United States)

    Choi, Won S.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Kaur, Harsohena; Nazir, Niaman; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.


    Behaviors developed in adolescence influence health later in life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of health care provider's discussion of health behaviors with overweight and non-overweight adolescents and identify demographic and health behaviors related to exercise, hours of television viewing, and weight issues…

  17. Heart Rate Responses to Parental Behavior in Depressed Adolescents


    ALLEN, NICHOLAS B.; Kuppens, Peter; Sheeber, Lisa


    In order to more fully understand the abnormalities in emotional responding associated with adolescent depression we examined clinically depressed and non-depressed adolescents’ physiological responses to their parents’ negative emotional behavior, as indexed by their heart rate responses to parental angry and dysphoric behavior during laboratory-based interactions. Maternal angry and dysphoric behavior predicted heart rate deceleration amongst non-depressed adolescents, a response that was n...

  18. Adolescent Suicidal Behavior and Substance Use: Developmental Mechanisms


    Donald M. Dougherty; Nathalie Hill-Kapturczak; Richard, Dawn M.; Charles W. Mathias; Dawes, Michael A.


    Adolescent suicidal behaviors and substance use are disturbingly common. Research suggests overlap of some of the etiological mechanisms for both adolescent suicidal behavior and substance use, yet clear understanding of the complex relations between these behaviors and their causal underpinnings is lacking. A growing body of evidence and a diathesis model (Mann et al. 1999; Mann, 2003) highlight the importance of impulse control as a proximal risk factor for adolescent suicidal and substance...

  19. The stability of externalizing behavior in boys from preschool age to adolescence: A person-oriented analysis

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    Mark Stemmler


    Full Text Available The continuity of externalizing behaviors such as aggression, delinquency and hyperactivity has been noted by many researchers. There is also increasing knowledge on different developmental subtypes of problem behavior. In previous person-oriented analyses we found two types of externalizing problems in boys (Stemmler et al., 2005, 2008; Stemmler & Lösel, 2010. One pattern contained externalizing problems only, whereas the other type showed both externalizing and internalizing problems. The present study addressed these two groups in an extended prospective longitudinal design. It was investigated whether the groups remained stable over time and whether the two types of antisociality were related to offending in adolescence. The sample consisted of 295 boys from the Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study (Lösel et al., 2009. Social behavior was rated by mothers, kindergarten educators, and school teachers; offending was self-reported by the adolescents. The time lag between the first and last data assessment was more than eight years.Approximately nine percent of the boys revealed stable externalizing behavior problems over the entire assessment period. Criminal behavior correlated positively with externalizing problems and negatively with internalizing problems. In a person-oriented Prediction-Configural Frequency Analysis (P-CFA; von Eye, 2002 the ‘externalizing only’ pattern could be replicated and suggested high stability over time. Moreover, this pattern was clearly related to self-reported delinquent behavior. In contrast to our previous studies with shorter follow up periods, the ‘combined externalizing and internalizing’ pattern did not appear as a type. It was also not significantly related to juvenile offending. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed.

  20. Juvenile Delinquency: An Introduction (United States)

    Smith, Carolyn A.


    Juvenile Delinquency is a term which is often inaccurately used. This article clarifies definitions, looks at prevalence, and explores the relationship between juvenile delinquency and mental health. Throughout, differences between males and females are explored. (Contains 1 table.)

  1. Peer Contagion in Child and Adolescent Social and Emotional Development


    DISHION, THOMAS J.; Tipsord, Jessica M.


    In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early to late adolescence. Deviancy training is one mechanism that accounts for peer contagion ...

  2. Preschool Pretend Play Behaviors and Early Adolescent Creativity (United States)

    Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Dilalla, Lisabeth F.


    Individual differences in creativity across the lifespan have been identified, but little research has focused on the development of creativity during early adolescence. This project examined individual differences on two measures of creativity in early adolescence as well as the predictability of adolescent creativity from pretend play behaviors

  3. Parental Power and Behaviors as Antecedents of Adolescent Conformity. (United States)

    Henry, Carolyn S.; And Others

    Several authorities have observed that a moderate degree of conformity by the young may be necessary for a society to function effectively. In order to examine the relationship between adolescents' perceptions of parental power and behavior and adolescent conformity, adolescents (N=368) in 184 families completed questionnaires concerning aspects…



    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.


    Building upon the literature in developmental and life-course criminology, the present study assesses the possible association of age onset of delinquency with the trajectory of alcohol-impaired driving using data collected from the three waves of the Buffalo Longitudinal Survey of Young Men (BLSYM). It is argued that as a unique form of delinquency, alcohol-impaired driving among adolescents may be better understood in a broad context of adolescent delinquency involvement. The study adopts t...

  5. The Influence of Dating Relationships on Friendship Networks, Identity Development, and Delinquency


    Seffrin, Patrick M.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.


    Prior research has documented general associations between dating and delinquency, but little is known about the specific ways in which heterosexual experiences influence levels of delinquency involvement and substance use. In the current study, we hypothesize that an adolescent’s level of effort and involvement in heterosexual relationships play a significant role in forming the types of friendship networks and views of self that influence the likelihood of delinquency involvement and substa...

  6. Addiction and “Generation Me:” Narcissistic and Prosocial Behaviors of Adolescents with Substance Dependency Disorder in Comparison to Normative Adolescents


    Carter, Rebecca R; JOHNSON, SHANNON M.; EXLINE, JULIE J.; Post, Stephen G; Pagano, Maria E


    The purpose of this study is to explore narcissistic and prosocial behaviors as reported by adolescents with and without substance dependency disorder (SDD). This study employs a quasi-experimental design using SDD adolescents compared with two normative samples of adolescents. In comparison to normative adolescents, adolescents with SDD were strongly distinguished by overt narcissistic behaviors and less monetary giving. Levels of narcissistic and prosocial behaviors among adolescents with S...

  7. Beyond Screen Time: Assessing Recreational Sedentary Behavior among Adolescent Girls


    Bauer, Katherine W.; Sarah Friend; Graham, Daniel J.; Dianne Neumark-Sztainer


    Most studies of sedentary behavior have focused on television use or screen time. This study aims to examine adolescent girls' participation in a variety of recreational sedentary behaviors (e.g., talking on the phone and hanging around), and their association with physical activity (PA), dietary behaviors, and body mass index. Data were from a sample of 283 adolescent girls. Recreational sedentary behavior, PA, and dietary behaviors were self-reported, and girls' height and weight were measu...

  8. Father's Incarceration and Youth Delinquency and Depression: Examining Differences by Race and Ethnicity


    Swisher, Raymond R.; Roettger, Michael E.


    This paper examines associations between biological father's incarceration and internalizing and externalizing outcomes of depression and serious delinquency, across White, Black, and Hispanic subsamples of youth in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Among respondents whose father was first incarcerated during childhood or adolescence, father's incarceration is found to be associated with increased depression and delinquency. On the whole, results indicate that associations...

  9. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations with Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose


    This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems,…

  10. Rethinking Timing of First Sex and Delinquency (United States)

    Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane; Hill, Jennifer E.; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.


    The relation between timing of first sex and later delinquency was examined using a genetically informed sample of 534 same-sex twin pairs from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, who were assessed at three time points over a 7-year interval. Genetic and environmental differences between families were found to account for the…

  11. The Role of a Parent's Incarceration in the Emotional Health and Problem Behaviors of At-Risk Adolescents (United States)

    Midgley, Erin Kathleen; Lo, Celia C.


    The impact of a parent's incarceration and adolescents' emotional health on their substance abuse and delinquency is described for a group of at-risk 10- to 14-year-old adolescents. Data were drawn from a two-wave longitudinal study from the federally funded Children at Risk program, ongoing in five states from 1993 to 1997. Results point to a…

  12. Emotional and Behavioral Effects of Romantic Relationships in Chinese Adolescents (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyan; Guo, Fei; Yang, Xiaodong; Li, Xinying; Duan, Qing; Zhang, Jie; Ge, Xiaojia


    Adolescents' romantic relationships have been associated with higher levels of depression, although their links with externalizing behavioral problems remain unclear. The present study examined the impact of adolescent romantic relationships on depression and externalizing behaviors in a large sample of 10,509 Chinese secondary school students…

  13. Positive and Negative Reinforcement Underlying Risk Behavior in Early Adolescents


    MacPherson, Laura; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; Daughters, Stacey B.; Wang, Frances; Cassidy, Jude; Mayes, Linda C.; Lejuez, C. W.


    The goal of the current study was to examine the combined influence of positive reinforcement processes using a behavioral task measuring risk taking propensity (RTP) and negative reinforcement processes using a behavioral task measuring deficits in distress tolerance (DT) on a range of risk taking behaviors among early adolescents. Participants included a community sample of 230 early adolescents (aged 9–13) who completed two behavioral tasks assessing reinforcement processes as well as repo...

  14. Parenting Practices as Predictors of Substance Use, Delinquency, and Aggression Among Urban Minority Youth: Moderating Effects of Family Structure and Gender


    Griffin, Kenneth W; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Lawrence M. Scheier; Diaz, Tracy; Miller, Nicole L.


    This study examined how parenting factors were associated with adolescent problem behaviors among urban minority youth and to what extent these relationships were moderated by family structure and gender. Sixth-grade students (N = 228) reported how often they use alcohol, smoke cigarettes, or engage in aggressive or delinquent behaviors; a parent or guardian reported their monitoring and other parenting practices. Findings indicated that boys and those from single-parent families engaged in t...

  15. Trauma, Delinquency, and Substance Use: Co-occurring Problems for Adolescent Girls in the Juvenile Justice System


    Smith, Dana K.; Saldana, Lisa


    Girls in the juvenile justice system are known to have high rates of co-occurring childhood abuse, trauma, and substance abuse. Girls with this constellation of problems are at high risk for serious adverse outcomes, including problems with drug dependence and abuse. The relationship between childhood sexual abuse, childhood physical abuse, other types of childhood trauma, and rates of substance use during adolescence were examined for girls in the juvenile justice system. As expected, childh...

  16. Psychosocial adversity, delinquent pathway and internalizing psychopathology in juvenile male offenders. (United States)

    Lemos, Ida; Faísca, Luis


    The main aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of a set of risk factors relating to childhood life events and other psychosocial factors that may be associated with criminal indicators and with the prevalence of internalizing psychopathology in a sample of adolescent offenders. Fifty male adolescents in the custody of the Portuguese Juvenile Justice System participated in the study (M=15.8years of age). The Adolescent Psychopathology Scale - Short Form (APS-SF) was administered in a structured interview format, and the sociodemographic, family and criminal data questionnaire was filled in by the justice professional after consulting the adolescent's file. Forty-six percent of all subjects had previous delinquent behavior. About 32% of the boys had committed violent offenses and 88% acted with peers. Also, the persistence of the delinquent behavior (50% of the offenders), coupled with the increase in the severity of the crimes committed (38% of the sample), suggests that these adolescents were at risk for serious and chronic delinquency at the time of the intervention. About 32% of the participants reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, 20% had suicide ideation, and a lower percentage reported other internalizing problems. Institutionalization, maltreatment and conduct problems in childhood, and family risk factors (parental conflict, absence of a father figure, lack of parental control and family substance addiction) were related with the report of internalizing problems. Moreover, the increase in the severity of criminal offenses and living in a correctional facility were associated with higher levels of posttraumatic stress, interpersonal problems, anxiety and depression. This study draws attention to the importance of assessing indicators of psychopathology and of psychosocial risk in intervention programs with young offenders, but also to the need of family focused interventions in order to help prevent recidivism. PMID:26299601

  17. Implementation of the Good Behavior Game in Classrooms for Children with Delinquent Behavior / Implementación del Juego del Buen Comportamiento en Aulas para Niños con Conducta Delictiva

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P. Raymond, Joslyn; Timothy R., Vollmer; Varsovia, Hernández.

    Full Text Available El Juego del Buen Comportamiento (JBC) es un procedimiento de contingencias grupales interdependientes diseñado para reducir conducta disruptiva en el salón de clases. En el JBC se divide al salón en grupos, se instauran reglas simples y se establecen contingencias sobre la conducta de seguimiento d [...] e reglas de los estudiantes. Este procedimiento ha probado ser efectivo con estudiantes de diferentes edades y su simplicidad y efectos a largo plazo han contribuido a su popularidad en ambientes escolares. Aunque ha sido evaluado sistemáticamente a través de un amplio rango de edades, hace falta investigación del JBC en el área de evaluación de poblaciones y en situaciones específicas. En este trabajo, se implementó el JBC en tres aulas (estudiantes de 7 a 12 años de edad) de una escuela para niños con problemas severos de conducta; en particular, estos estudiantes habían mostrado previamente conducta que podría describirse como "delincuente o "pre-delincuente". La conducta disruptiva disminuyó sustancialmente en los tres salones como resultado de la intervención. Esta aplicación extiende la literatura actual al replicar sistemáticamente los resultados del JBC en una población diferente. Se discute la implementación del JBC, los obstáculos específicos de la población, los resultados y las futuras direcciones. Abstract in english The good behavior game (GBG) is an interdependent group contingency procedure designed to reduce disruptive behavior in classroom settings. In the GBG, a class is divided into groups, simple rules are made, and contingencies are placed on the students' rule-following behavior. This procedure has bee [...] n proven effective across various student ages, and its simplicity and long-term effects have contributed to its popularity in school settings. Although it has been systematically evaluated across a wide range of student ages, research on the GBG is lacking in the area of population- and setting-specific assessments. In this evaluation, the GBG was implemented in three classrooms (student ages 7-12) at a school for children with severe problem behavior; in particular, these students had already displayed behavior that might be described as "delinquent" or "predelinquent." Disruptive behavior substantially decreased across all three classrooms as a result of the intervention. This application extends the current literature by systematically replicating the results of the GBG with a different population. Implementation of the GBG, population-specific obstacles, results, and future directions are discussed.

  18. Healthy Behavior Trajectories between Adolescence and Young Adulthood


    Frech, Adrianne


    Healthy behaviors including adequate exercise and sleep, eating breakfast, maintaining a healthy weight, and not smoking or binge drinking inhibit chronic disease. However, little is known about how these behaviors change across life course stages, or the social factors that shape healthy behaviors over time. I use multilevel growth models and waves I-III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N=10,775) to evaluate relationships between adolescents’ psychosocial resources, s...

  19. Adolescents' health behaviors and obesity: Does race affect this epidemic?


    Dodor, Bernice A.; Shelley, Mack C.; Hausafus, Cheryl O.


    This study explores the influence of health behaviors and individual attributes on adolescent overweight and obesity using data from Wave II (Add Health). Structural equation model/path analysis using maximum likelihood estimation was utilized to analyze the relationships of health behaviors and attributes with obesity. Results of the model reveal that the causal paths (adolescents' attributes and health behaviors) for overweight and obesity were different for African American and Caucasian a...

  20. Young Adolescents' Perceptions of Parental Management of Peer Relationships. (United States)

    Mounts, Nina S.


    Examined the relation of direct parental management of peer relationships with young adolescents' and their best friends' antisocial behavior and academic achievement. Found that subjects reporting higher levels of parental monitoring reported lower levels of drug use and delinquency. As hypothesized, patterns of results for perceptions of…

  1. Parenting practices and adolescent sexual behavior: A longitudinal study


    Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha


    The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N=887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic regressions indicated that adolescents reporting greater parental disapproval and limits on viewing at Wave 1 were less likely to initiate oral sex betw...

  2. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorder


    Didem Behice ÖZTOP; Emel KARAKAYA


    Currently, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) becomes one of the leading approaches in the psychotherapy. However,use of CBT in childhood psychotherapy is considerably novel. After 1990s, it has been understood that it is an effectivemethod for children and adolescents. Anxiety disorders are one of the most common problems in the field of childhoodand adolescent psychiatry. In the studies conducted, the effectiveness of CBT was demonstrated in anxiety disorders ofthe children and adolescents....

  3. Associations between Parenting Behaviors and Adolescent Romantic Relationships


    Auslander, Beth A.; Short, Mary B.; Succop, Paul A.; Rosenthal, Susan L.


    We examined associations between parenting behaviors and romantic relationship qualities in 102 adolescent girls (14–21 years) who lived with their parent/parental figure and had current boyfriends. Adolescent girls’ perceptions that parents were accepting/involved and provided appropriate strictness and supervision were significantly related to adolescent girls’ perceptions of mutuality (i.e., bidirectional movement of thoughts, feelings, and activities between persons) [1] within their own ...

  4. Adolescents' Smoking Behavior and Attitudes: The Influence of Mothers' Smoking Communication, Behavior and Attitudes (United States)

    Herbert, Diane F.; Schiaffino, Kathleen M.


    This study investigated adolescents' and parents' perceptions regarding smoking behavior, attitudes toward smoking, and smoking communication. Instruments were developed to measure multidimensional smoking communication messages and smoking attitudes in 140 mother-adolescent dyads. The prediction of relevant adolescent smoking variables is…

  5. Parent-Child Conflicts, School Troubles, and Differences in Delinquency across Immigration Generations (United States)

    Bui, Hoan N.


    This study examines delinquent behavior among schoolchildren in a nationally representative sample from the United States and seeks an understanding of the factors contributing to variances in delinquency across immigration generations. Data analysis indicates that the levels of self-reported substance use, property delinquency, and violent…

  6. Promoting adolescent behavioral adjustment in violent neighborhoods: supportive families can make a difference! (United States)

    McKelvey, Lorraine M; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A; Mesman, Glenn R; Pemberton, Joy R; Casey, Patrick H


    This study examined the moderating effects of family cohesion on the relationship between community violence and child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 18. The study sample consisted of 728 children and families who were part of the Infant Health and Development Program, an intervention study for low-birthweight, preterm infants. Six of eight sites in the Infant Health and Development Program were in large metropolitan areas; two served rural and urban areas. About half of the sample was African American. Research teams collected data from caregivers multiple times in the first 3 years of the target child's life, and at 4, 5, 6½, 8, and 18 years. Caregivers reported on community violence, neighborhood problems with (a) drug users/sellers; (b) delinquent gangs; and (c) crime, assaults, and burglaries reports when children were 4, 5, and 8 years of age. Family cohesion was assessed twice, at ages 6½ and 8 years, using caregiver reports on the Family Environment Scale. Adolescent self-report of Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems at age 18 were assessed using the Behavior Problems Index. In this study, the association between adolescent psychosocial outcomes and community violence were moderated by family cohesion and gender such that being in a highly cohesive family as a child protected male children from the negative effects of community violence. Findings demonstrate the long-term protective effects of family cohesion on child behavioral development for male children but suggest a need to examine additional supports for females exposed to community violence during childhood. PMID:24787626

  7. Which Forms of Child/Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors Account for Late Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior and Substance Use? (United States)

    Timmermans, Maartje; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.


    Background: Health risk behaviors like substance use (alcohol, tobacco, soft/hard drugs) and risky sexual behavior become more prevalent in adolescence. Children with behavior problems are thought to be prone to engage in health risk behaviors later in life. It is, however, unclear which problems within the externalizing spectrum account for these…

  8. Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence: Typology and Relation to Family Context (United States)

    Sobotková, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Hrdlicka, Michal


    The study deals with the relationship between antisocial behavior in early adolescence and family environment. Sample consisted of 2,856 adolescents (53% girls, mean age 13.5 years, SD = 1.1) from urban areas in the Czech Republic. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a school survey, was used to measure sociodemographic characteristics of the…

  9. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health? (United States)

    Sabia, Joseph J.


    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent

  10. Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Obesity and Risk Behaviors in Adolescence (United States)

    Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas


    Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…

  11. Juvenile Delinquency and Recidivism: The Impact of Academic Achievement (United States)

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph B.; Zhang, Dalun; Spann, Anastasia


    For well over a century, behavioral researchers have attempted to understand the relation between juvenile delinquency and academic achievement. The authors review current literature pertaining to academic achievement and its effect on delinquency. While researchers have not yet been able to establish a direct causal relation between these two…

  12. Moral Orientation and Relationships in School and Adolescent Pro- and Antisocial Behaviors: A Multilevel Study (United States)

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Stams, Geert-Jan; Asscher, Jessica J.; Rutten, Esther; Zijlstra, Bonne J. H.


    This multilevel study examined the relationships between moral climate factors and prosocial as well as antisocial behaviors inside and outside the school (school misconduct, delinquent behavior, and vandalism). The moral climate factors were punishment-and victim-based moral orientation, relationships among students, and teacher-student…

  13. Adolescents' Sleep Behaviors and Perceptions of Sleep (United States)

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K.


    Background: Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. Methods: General education classes were…

  14. Antisocial behavior in adolescence: Typology and relation to family context.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobotková, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Hrdli?ka, M.


    Ro?. 33, ?. 8 (2013), s. 1091-1115. ISSN 0272-4316 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : family * antisocial behavior * typology * adolescence Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2013

  15. Juvenile Delinquency in Ghana: A Qualitative Study of the Lived Experiences of Young Offenders in Accra


    Boakye, Augustine Osei


    In this study, I explored the perceived circumstances which make adolescents become involved in juvenile delinquency. The meanings which they make out of their delinquent behaviours were also of great interest. Using a semi-structured interview guide, the lived experiences of six (6) young offenders were collected. Following a Narrative Analysis of the young offenders lived experiences, six (6) main themes emerged as the circumstances which made them become involved in delinquency: religiosit...

  16. Diet and behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents


    Rune Høigaard; Nina Øverby


    Background: Discussion about dietary factors in relation to behavioral problems in children and adolescents has been going on for a long time. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional relation between diet and self-reported behavioral problems at school in adolescents in the southern part of Norway. Design: In total, 475 ninth- and tenth-grade students (236 boys and 239 girls) out of 625 eligible students from four different secondary schools in three different ...

  17. A Prospective Study of Adolescent Suicidal Behavior Following Hospitalization. (United States)

    King, Cheryl A.; And Others


    Identifies specific predictors of suicidal behavior in 100 adolescents during a 6-month follow-up period after psychiatric hospitalization. Eighteen percent reported suicidal behavior during the follow-up period, and this behavior was associated with suicidal thoughts, family dysfunction, and dysthymia. It was not associated with initial…

  18. Adaptive Behavior of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Metsiou, Katerina; Agaliotis, Ioannis


    The present study explored the total adaptive behavior of children and adolescents with visual impairments, as well as their adaptive behavior in each of the domains of Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization. Moreover, the predictors of the performance and developmental delay in adaptive behavior were investigated. Instrumentation…

  19. Systematic Review of Social Network Analysis in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Huang, Yan


    Background: Social networks are important in adolescent smoking behavior. Previous research indicates that peer context is a major causal factor of adolescent smoking behavior. To date, however, little is known about the influence of peer group structure on adolescent smoking behavior. Methods: Studies that examined adolescent social networks with…

  20. Testing the Universality of the Effects of the Communities That Care Prevention System for Preventing Adolescent Drug Use and Delinquency


    Oesterle, Sabrina; HAWKINS, J. DAVID; FAGAN, ABIGAIL A.; Abbott, Robert D.; CATALANO, RICHARD F.


    Universal community-oriented interventions are an important component in the prevention of youth health and behavior problems. Testing the universality of the effects of an intervention that was designed to be universal is important because it provides information about how the program operates and for whom and under what conditions it is most effective. The present study examined whether the previously established significant effects of the universal, community-based Communities That Care (C...

  1. Cognitive behavioral therapy group intervention for HIV transmission risk behavior in perinatally infected adolescents


    Ruth M. Senyonyi; Lee A. Underwood; Elisabeth Suarez; Seggane Musisi; Todd L. Grande


    Purpose: This study analyzed treatment effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group counseling intervention on HIV transmission risk behavior, depression, anxiety, and alcohol use in HIV perinatally infected adolescents attending an HIV clinical care center in Uganda, Africa. Method: A total of 186 adolescents were randomly assigned to an experimental or control arm and assigned into groups of 11 - 16 adolescents. The experimental groups received an 80-minute CBT based weekly intervent...

  2. Parent perceptions of adolescent pain expression: The adolescent pain behavior questionnaire


    Lynch-Jordan, Anne M; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Goldschneider, Kenneth R.


    Pain behaviors provide meaningful information about adolescents in chronic pain, enhancing their verbal report of pain intensity with information about the global pain experience. Caregivers likely consider these expressions when making judgments about their adolescents’ medical or emotional needs. Current validated measures of pain behavior target acute or procedural pain and young or non-verbal children, while observation systems may be too cumbersome for clinical practice. The objective of...

  3. Do Adolescents Engage in Delinquency to Attract the Social Attention of Peers? An Extension and Longitudinal Test of the Social Reinforcement Hypothesis (United States)

    Rebellon, Cesar J.


    Although social-learning theory remains among the dominant perspectives in micro-level research concerning the causes of delinquency, research has yet to provide an adequate test of its social-reinforcement component using the methods required by the logic of operant psychology. The present article discusses the limits of existing attempts to test…

  4. Social-cognitive correlates of risky adolescent cycling behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiter Robert AC


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bicycle use entails high safety and health risks especially for adolescents. Most safety education programs aimed at adolescents focus on accident statistics and risk perceptions. This paper proposes the investigation of the social-cognitive correlates of risky cycling behaviors of adolescents prior to developing safety education programs. Method Secondary school students aged 13 to 18 years (n = 1446 filled out questionnaires regarding bicycle behavior, risky intentions, accident experience, and social-cognitive determinants as suggested by the theory of planned behavior. Results Regression analysis revealed that the proximal variables (i.e., self-efficacy, attitudes towards drunk driving, personal norm regarding safekeeping of self and others, and compared risk were able to predict 17% of the variance of risky behavior and 23% of the variance of risky intentions. The full model explained respectively 29% and 37% of the variance in risky behavior and risky intentions. Adolescents with positive attitudes towards risky behavior and low sense of responsibility report risky behavior, even when having been (close to an accident. Conclusions Adolescents realize whether they are risk takers or not. This implies that the focus of education programs should not be on risk perceptions, but on decreasing positive attitudes towards alcohol in traffic and increasing sense of responsibility instead. Cognitions regarding near accidents should be studied, the role of safe cycling self-efficacy is unclear.

  5. Family Influences on Self-Reported Delinquency among High School Students. (United States)

    Peiser, Nadine C.; Heaven, Patrick C. L.


    Analyzes the effect of certain family processes on adolescents' self-reported delinquency and investigates whether self-esteem and locus of control mediate these effects. Results indicate that parental discipline style predicts self-reported delinquency. Also, a link between positive family relations and high self-esteem among males emerged. (RJM)

  6. Delay Discounting Mediates Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Risky Sexual Behavior for Low Self-Control Adolescents. (United States)

    Kahn, Rachel E; Holmes, Christopher; Farley, Julee P; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen


    Parent-adolescent relationship quality and delay discounting may play important roles in adolescents' sexual decision making processes, and levels of self-control during adolescence could act as a buffer within these factors. This longitudinal study included 219 adolescent (55 % male; mean age = 12.66 years at Wave 1; mean age = 15.10 years at Wave 2) and primary caregiver dyads. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to determine whether delay discounting mediated the association between parent-adolescent relationship quality and adolescents' risky sexual behavior and how this mediated association may differ between those with high versus low self-control. The results revealed parent-adolescent relationship quality plays a role in the development of risky sexual behavior indirectly through levels of delay discounting, but only for adolescents with low self-control. These findings could inform sex education policies and health prevention programs that address adolescent risky sexual behavior. PMID:26202153

  7. Preference Formation, School Dissatisfaction
    and Risky Behavior of Adolescents


    Lévy-Garboua, Louis; Loheac, Youenn; Fayolle, Bertrand


    School dissatisfaction is an important component of the subjective well-being of adolescents associated with "risky behavior" like drug use, unprotected sex, norm violations and illegal behavior. We extend the standard human capital model to joint human investment (education) and disinvestment (risky behavior). Based on this model, we develop a general dynamic framework to analyze the preference formation of children and behavioral change at school. Once an educational norm is set by adults, ...

  8. Family dysfunction in adolescents with suicidal behavior and in adolescents with conduct disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanovi?-Kova?evi? Svetlana


    Full Text Available Introduction. The period of life known as adolescence generally refers to transition from childhood to adulthood. Adolescents' progress toward autonomy involves remaining connected with, as well as separated from parents. Young people and their parents usually have mixed feelings about adolescent autonomy and attachment. An estimated 50% of children born in the 80s have spent part of their developmental years in single-parent households. Divorce is almost always a stressful event in children's lives. Youthful suicide rate has increased dramatically and is the third leading cause of death among 15-19 year olds. Conduct disorder is one of the most frequently diagnosed conditions in adolescents. Suicidal adolescents and adolescents with conduct disorder are much more likely than their peers to have grown up in disrupted, disorganized homes with lack of attachment between parents and their children. Material and methods This prospective study was carried out during 2002, 2003, and 2004. The research included 60 adolescents treated at the Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Novi Sad, 30 with diagnosed conduct disorder and 30 with suicidal behavior. Results Along with other kinds of distress, suicidal adolescents have experienced an escalation of family problems a few months prior to attempted suicide. Discussion Divorce and life in single-parent households is almost always a stressful period in children's lives. Conduct disorder and suicidal behavior represent a desperate cry for help. Conclusion Most adolescents in both groups live in single-parent house­holds. These young people have frequently passed into adolescence with little reason to feel that they could rely on their parents for support, or on their home as a place of sanctuary. .

  9. Paternal and Maternal Influences on Problem Behaviors Among Homeless and Runaway Youth


    Stein, Judith A.; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Zane, Jazmin I.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary-Jane


    Using an Attachment Theory conceptual framework, associations were investigated among positive paternal and maternal relationships, and recent problem behaviors among 501 currently homeless and runaway adolescents (253 males, 248 females). Homeless and runaway youth commonly exhibit problem behaviors such as substance use, various forms of delinquency and risky sex behaviors, and report more emotional distress than typical adolescents. Furthermore, attachments to their families are often stra...

  10. Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy, Child Behavior Problems, and Adolescent Smoking. (United States)

    Griesler, Pamela C.; Kandel, Denise B.; Davies, Mark


    Used longitudinal sample of 187 mother-child dyads to examine the role of child behavior problems in explaining the effect of maternal prenatal smoking on adolescent daughters' smoking. Found that maternal prenatal smoking retained a unique effect on girls' current smoking with controls for current maternal smoking, child behavior problems, and…

  11. Empathy and Drug Use Behaviors among African-American Adolescents (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.


    The current study proposed that empathy may indirectly play a protective role for adolescents in drug use behaviors and that this relationship will be mediated by self-regulatory strategies found in drug refusal efficacy. We predict that empathy will be linked to prosocial behavior and aggression, though we do not believe that they will mediate…

  12. Friends: The Role of Peer Influence across Adolescent Risk Behaviors. (United States)

    Maxwell, Kimberly A.


    Examined peer influence for 1,969 adolescents across 5 risk behaviors: smoking, alcohol consumption, marijuana use, tobacco chewing, and sexual debut. Results show that a random same-sex peer predicts a teen's risk behavior initiation through influence to initiate cigarette and marijuana use, and influence to initiate and stop alcohol and chewing…

  13. Adolescent Perceptions of Overall Family System Functioning and Parental Behaviors (United States)

    Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Neal, Rachel A.; Huey, Erron L.


    We used a systems perspective to examine relationships between adolescents' perceptions of overall family system functioning and selected parental behaviors. Self-report questionnaire data from 160 ninth and tenth grade students were analyzed using MANCOVA and discriminant analysis. The results showed two parental behaviors, support and monitoring…

  14. Exposure to Terrorism and Violent Behavior among Adolescents in Israel (United States)

    Even-Chen, Merav Solomon; Itzhaky, Haya


    It is commonly assumed that exposure to terrorism may lead to violent behavior, but there is little empirical research on the relationship between these two variables. In the present paper, we examined the extent to which exposure to terrorism contributes to violent behavior among adolescents. In addition, we considered the role of environmental…

  15. Adolescência e delinquência: variáveis significativas para a construção de um modelo explicativo / Adolescence and delinquency: significant variables for building an explanatory model

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alice Murteira, Morgado; Maria da Luz, Vale-Dias.


    Full Text Available Na Psicologia do Desenvolvimento existe amplo consenso relativamente à complexidade dos comportamentos anti-sociais, sobretudo durante a adolescência, estádio em que se verificam múltiplas e importantes mudanças. Assim, foi concebido um projecto de investigação com o intuito de dar resposta a alguma [...] s questões sobre o fenómeno anti-social que ainda carecem de esclarecimento, especialmente no que concerne a potenciais variáveis explicativas, como aptidões sociais, auto-conceito, personalidade, ambiente familiar e nível socioeconómico. Foi aplicado um protocolo de avaliação composto por um questionário sociodemográfico e as versões portuguesas do YSR (Fonseca & Monteiro, 1999); SSQ-Student Form (Mota, Matos, & Lemos, 2011); FES (Matos & Fontaine, 1992); PHCSCS-2 (Veiga, 2006), EPQ-J (Fonseca, 1989), e SPM-56 (Raven, Court & Raven, 1998) em cinco Centros Educativos numa amostra de 121 rapazes entre os 14 e os 20 anos de idade (M= 16,54). Os resultados revelaram peculiaridades na amostra, nomeadamente uma prevalência considerável de nível socioeconómico baixo e manifestações comportamentais tanto de cariz agressivo como de desobediência, sendo roubos e agressões as formas mais frequentemente reportadas de comportamentos anti-sociais. Ficou também claro o papel preditivo de algumas variáveis de personalidade, auto-conceito, percepção de ambiente familiar e auto-controlo na escala "Antisocial" e "Problemas de Atenção/Hiperactividade" do YSR. Com o projecto de investigação apresentado ficam, portanto, evidenciadas as particularidades dos jovens delinquentes enquanto grupo específico no que diz respeito às suas percepções e características individuais, sociais, comportamentais e familiares. Acreditamos que, se estas forem consideradas para o design de novos programas de prevenção e intervenção, poderão contribuir para a sua eficácia. Abstract in english Within Developmental Psychology there is a wide consensus on the complexity of antisocial behaviours, particularly during adolescence, a stage when multiple and important changes take place. Hence, we created a research project aimed at answering some questions about the antisocial phenomenon that s [...] till lack enlightening, especially regarding potential explaining variables such as social skills, self-concept, personality, family environment and socioeconomic status. We used a protocol including a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Portuguese versions of YSR (Fonseca & Monteiro, 1999); SSQ-Student Form (Mota, Matos, & Lemos, 2011); FES (Matos & Fontaine, 1992); PHCSCS-2 (Veiga, 2006), EPQ-J (Fonseca, 1989), e SPM-56 (Raven, Court & Raven, 1998). This was applied in five Educational Centres, to a sample of 121 boys between 14 and 20 years old (M=16.54). Results revealed some peculiarities in the sample, namely a strong prevalence of low socioeconomic status and of both overt and covert behavioural manifestations, with a higher frequency of theft and aggression. The predictive role of some personality, self-concept, family environment and self-control variables for the “Antisocial” and “Attention Problems/Hyperactivity” YSR scales was also evident. This research project makes evident that there are peculiarities in young delinquents as a specific group, that is, in what concerns their perceptions and individual, social, behavioural and familial characteristics. Therefore, we believe that considering our results for the design of new prevention and intervention programs may contribute for their efficacy.

  16. The Structure of Problem Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Youths (United States)

    Culhane, Sara E.; Taussig, Heather N.


    Studies of adolescent community samples suggest that substance use, risky sexual behavior, delinquency, and other problem behaviors can be explained in part by a single, underlying factor or syndrome. Of current interest is the generalizability of these findings to subgroups or special populations of youths who may be at high risk for problem…

  17. Links between Antisocial Behavior and Depressed Mood: The Role of Life Events and Attributional Style (United States)

    Rowe, Richard; Maughan, Barbara; Eley, Thalia C.


    Comorbidity between antisocial behavior and depression in adolescence is widely recognized. This paper examines whether links with depressed mood differ among three subtypes of antisocial behavior: oppositionality, physical aggression and delinquency. In addition we examine two possible contributors to these links: negative life events that are…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Niranjan


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adolescent (10–19 years is a transition of age during which hazardous sexual health behaviors may be adopted; increasing vulnerability to several kinds of behavioral disorders like drug use, unsafe sexual act leading to reproductive ill health. Objective of the study was to assess sexual health behaviors of adolescents in Pokhara, Nepal. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 15–19 years adolescents studying in grades 11 and 12. Probability sampling techniques were applied. A structured, pretested, envelope sealed self administered questionnaire was distributed among all (1584 adolescents of the 11 and 12 grades of selected institutions. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (16 versions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. RESULTS: About 19.37% adolescents had sexual contact and male participation was higher than females (P<0.05. Nearly one fifth of unmarried were found to be involved in sexual activities and most of them had first sex between 15-19 years age (median age 15.26 years. Of those who had sex, 6.91% had adopted all the three: vaginal, oral and anal sexes and majority had single followed by 2-5 sex partners in their sexual intercourse in the last one year and last month. About 13.93% adolescents were found to be indulged in group sex. Most of them had sex with regular partners and commercial sex workers. More than eight out of every ten who had sex had used contraceptive methods and condom was method of choice (94.77%. CONCLUSIONS: Premarital sexual involvement was prevalent among adolescents; sex with commercial sex workers and non commercial sex partners was perceived to be risk. Behavior change intervention strategies need to be formulated and implemented to promote adolescent reproductive and sexual health.

  19. Brief Report: Associations between Emotional Competence and Adolescent Risky Behavior


    Hessler, Danielle; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber


    The current study examines associations between emotional competence (i.e., awareness, regulation, comfort with expression) and adolescent risky behavior. Children from a longitudinal study participated at age 9 and 16 (N=88). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with children about their emotional experiences and coded for areas of emotional competence. Associations were examined for the emotions of sadness and anger concurrently during adolescence, and longitudinally from middle childh...

  20. Vividness of the future self predicts delinquency. (United States)

    van Gelder, Jean-Louis; Hershfield, Hal E; Nordgren, Loran F


    The tendency to live in the here and now, and the failure to think through the delayed consequences of behavior, is one of the strongest individual-level correlates of delinquency. We tested the hypothesis that this correlation results from a limited ability to imagine one's self in the future, which leads to opting for immediate gratification. Strengthening the vividness of the future self should therefore reduce involvement in delinquency. We tested and found support for this hypothesis in two studies. In Study 1, compared with participants in a control condition, those who wrote a letter to their future self were less inclined to make delinquent choices. In Study 2, participants who interacted with a realistic digital version of their future, age-progressed self in a virtual environment were less likely than control participants to cheat on a subsequent task. PMID:23592649

  1. Understanding Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents (United States)

    ... such as parent training, family support programs, etc.) Sex education and parenting programs for adolescents Early intervention programs for violent youngsters Monitoring child's viewing of violence on TV/videos/movies See also: Your Child (1998 Harper Collins) / Your ...

  2. Callous-unemotional traits and adolescents' role in group crime. (United States)

    Thornton, Laura C; Frick, Paul J; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Ray, James V; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth


    The current study examined the association of callous-unemotional (CU) traits with group offending (i.e., committing a crime with others; gang involvement) and with the role that the offender may play in a group offense (e.g., being the leader). This analysis was conducted in an ethnically and racially diverse sample (N = 1,216) of justice-involved adolescents (ages 13 to 17) from 3 different sites. CU traits were associated with a greater likelihood of the adolescent offending in groups and being in a gang. Importantly, both associations remained significant after controlling for the adolescent's age, level of intelligence, race and ethnicity, and level of impulse control. The association of CU traits with gang membership also remained significant after controlling for the adolescent's history of delinquent behavior. Further, CU traits were associated with several measures of taking a leadership role in group crimes. CU traits were also associated with greater levels of planning in the group offense for which the adolescent was arrested, although this was moderated by the adolescent's race and was not found in Black youth. These results highlight the importance of CU traits for understanding the group process involved in delinquent acts committed by adolescents. They also underscore the importance of enhancing the effectiveness of treatments for these traits in order to reduce juvenile delinquency. PMID:25689410

  3. Regulation of adolescent sleep: implications for behavior. (United States)

    Carskadon, Mary A; Acebo, Christine; Jenni, Oskar G


    Adolescent development is accompanied by profound changes in the timing and amounts of sleep and wakefulness. Many aspects of these changes result from altered psychosocial and life-style circumstances that accompany adolescence. The maturation of biological processes regulating sleep/wake systems, however, may be strongly related to the sleep timing and amount during adolescence-either as "compelling" or "permissive" factors. The two-process model of sleep regulation posits a fundamental sleep-wake homeostatic process (process S) working in concert with the circadian biological timing system (process C) as the primary intrinsic regulatory factors. How do these systems change during adolescence? We present data from adolescent participants examining EEG markers of sleep homeostasis to evaluate whether process S shows maturational changes permissive of altered sleep patterns across puberty. Our data indicate that certain aspects of the homeostatic system are unchanged from late childhood to young adulthood, while other features change in a manner that is permissive of later bedtimes in older adolescents. We also show alterations of the circadian timing system indicating a possible circadian substrate for later adolescent sleep timing. The circadian parameters we have assessed include phase, period, melatonin secretory pattern, light sensitivity, and phase relationships, all of which show evidence of changes during pubertal development with potential to alter sleep patterns substantially. However the changes are mediated-whether through process S, process C, or by a combination-many adolescents have too little sleep at the wrong circadian phase. This pattern is associated with increased risks for excessive sleepiness, difficulty with mood regulation, impaired academic performance, learning difficulties, school tardiness and absenteeism, and accidents and injuries. PMID:15251897

  4. Peer influence on snacking behavior in adolescence. (United States)

    Wouters, Eveline J; Larsen, Junilla K; Kremers, Stef P; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Geenen, Rinie


    To examine the association of adolescents' snack and soft drink consumption with friendship group snack and soft drink consumption, availability of snacks and soft drinks at school, and personal characteristics, snack and soft drink consumption was assessed in 749 adolescents (398 girls, 351 boys, age 12.4-17.6 years), and their friends, and snack and soft drink availability at schools was measured. In regression analysis, consumption by friends, snack and soft drink availability within school, and personal characteristics (age, gender, education level, body mass index) were examined as determinants of snack and drink consumption. Snack and soft drink consumption was higher in boys, soft drink consumption was higher in lower educated adolescents, and snack consumption was higher in adolescents with a lower body weight. Peer group snack and soft drink consumption were associated with individual intake, particularly when availability in the canteen and vending machines was high. The association between individual and peer snack consumption was strong in boys, adolescents with a lower education level, and adolescents with lower body weights. Our study shows that individual snack and soft drink consumption is associated with specific combinations of consumption by peers, availability at school, and personal characteristics. PMID:20211671

  5. Dimensions of impulsive behavior and treatment outcomes for adolescent smokers. (United States)

    Harris, Millie; Penfold, Robert B; Hawkins, Ariane; Maccombs, Jared; Wallace, Bryan; Reynolds, Brady


    Adolescent cigarette smoking rates remain a significant public health concern, and as a result there is a continued need to understand factors that contribute to an adolescent's ability to reduce or quit smoking. Previous research suggests that impulsive behavior may be associated with treatment outcomes for smoking. The current research (N = 81) explored 3 dimensions of impulsive behavior as predictors of treatment response from a social-cognitive type program for adolescent smokers (i.e., Not On Tobacco; N-O-T). Measures included laboratory assessments of delay discounting, sustained attention, and behavioral disinhibition. A self-report measure of impulsivity was also included. Adolescent smokers who had better sustained attention were more likely to reduce or quit smoking by the end of treatment. No other measures of impulsivity were significantly associated with treatment response. From these findings, an adolescent smoker's ability to sustain attention appears to be an important behavioral attribute to consider when implementing smoking cessation programs such as N-O-T. PMID:24417209

  6. Juvenile delinquency and conformism


    PATACCHINI, Eleonora; Zenou, Yves


    This paper studies whether conformism behavior affects individual outcomes in crime. We present a social network model of peer effects with ex-ante heterogeneous agents and show how conformism and deterrence affect criminal activities. We then bring the model to the data by using a very detailed dataset of adolescent friendship networks. A novel social network-based empirical strategy allows us to identify peer effects for different types of crimes. We find that conformity plays an important ...

  7. Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Behaviors, Adolescent Self-Esteem, and Adolescent Depressed Mood (United States)

    Plunkett, Scott W.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Behnke, Andrew; Falcon, Pedro C., III


    Using symbolic interaction, we developed a research model that proposed adolescent perceptions of parental support and psychological control would be related to adolescent depressed mood directly and indirectly through self-esteem. We tested the model using self-report questionnaire data from 161 adolescents living with both of their biological…

  8. Maternal drinking behavior and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in adolescents with criminal behavior in southern Brazil


    Wakana Momino; Têmis Maria Félix; Alberto Mantovani Abeche; Denise Isabel Zandoná; Gabriela Gayer Scheibler; Christina Chambers; Kenneth Lyons Jones; Renato Zamora Flores; Lavínia Schüler-Faccini


    Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazilian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well a...

  9. Parental Socialization and Adolescents' Alcohol Use Behaviors: Predictive Disparities in Parents' versus Adolescents' Perceptions of the Parenting Environment (United States)

    Latendresse, Shawn J.; Rose, Richard J.; Viken, Richard J.; Pulkkinen, Lea; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M.


    Among adolescents, many parenting practices have been associated with the initiation and development of drinking behaviors. However, recent studies suggest discrepancies in parents' and adolescents' perceptions of parenting and their links with adolescent use. In this study, we derive two independent sets of underlying parenting profiles (based on…

  10. Diet and behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Høigaard


    Full Text Available Background: Discussion about dietary factors in relation to behavioral problems in children and adolescents has been going on for a long time. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional relation between diet and self-reported behavioral problems at school in adolescents in the southern part of Norway. Design: In total, 475 ninth- and tenth-grade students (236 boys and 239 girls out of 625 eligible students from four different secondary schools in three different communities in Vest-Agder County, Norway, participated, giving a participation rate of 77%. The students filled in a questionnaire with food frequency questions of selected healthy (e.g. fruits, vegetables, and fish and unhealthy (e.g. sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and crisps food items, questions of meal frequency, and four questions regarding behavioral problems at school. Results: Having breakfast regularly was significantly associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems (OR: 0.29 (0.15???0.55, p?0.001. A high intake of unhealthy foods, such as sugar-sweetened soft drinks (OR: 2.8 (1.06???7.42, p=0.03 and sweets (OR: 2.63 (1.39???4.98, p=0.003, was significantly associated with increased odds of behavioral problems. At the same time, a high intake of fruits was associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems in Norwegian adolescents (OR: 0.30 (0.10???0.87, p=0.03. All ORs are adjusted for sex and BMI. Conclusions: This study shows that having an optimal diet and not skipping meals are associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents. Hence, it is important to improve the dietary intake and meal pattern of Norwegian adolescents. The cross-sectional design of this study limits any causal interpretations of the results of the study.

  11. Perceived parent-adolescent relationship, perceived parental online behaviors and pathological internet use among adolescents: gender-specific differences. (United States)

    Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Deng, Lin-Yuan


    This study examined the associations between adolescents' perceived relationships with their parents, perceived parental online behaviors, and Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among adolescents. Additional testing was carried out to determine the effect of different genders (parent and adolescent). Cross-sectional data was collected from 4,559 students aged 12 to 21 years in the cities of Beijing and Jinan, People's Republic of China. Participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire concerning their Internet use behavior, perceived parental Internet use behaviors, and perceived parent-adolescent relationship. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for adolescents' age were conducted. Results showed different effects of parent and adolescent gender on perceived parent-adolescent relationship and parent Internet use behavior, as well as some other gender-specific associations. Perceived father-adolescent relationship was the most protective factor against adolescent PIU with perceived maternal Internet use positively predicting PIU for both male and female adolescents. However, perceived paternal Internet use behaviors positively predicted only female adolescent PIU. Results indicated a different effect pathway for fathers and mothers on boys and girls, leading to discussion of the implications for prevention and intervention. PMID:24098710

  12. Social contagion and adolescent sexual behavior: a developmental EMOSA model. (United States)

    Rodgers, J L; Rowe, D C


    Epidemic Models of the Onset of Social Activities (EMOSA models) describe the spread of adolescent transition behaviors (e.g., sexuality, smoking, and drinking) through an interacting adolescent network. A theory of social contagion is defined to explain how social influence affects sexual development. Contacts within a network can, with some transition rate or probability, result in an increase in level of sexual experience. Five stages of sexual development are posited. One submodel proposes a systematic progression through these stages; a competing submodel treats each as an independent process. These models are represented in sets of dynamically interacting recursive equations, which are fit to empirical prevalence data to estimate parameters. Model adjustments are substantively interpretable and can be used to test for and better understand social interaction processes that affect adolescent sexual behavior. PMID:8356187

  13. A reconsideration of parental and peer influences on adolescent deviance. (United States)

    Aseltine, R H


    The role of peers in fostering deviant behavior in adolescence is well-documented in the sociological literature, while support for parental influence or "control" theories of deviance is more equivocal. This paper examines the relative influences of parents and peers on adolescent delinquency and marijuana use, using data from a three-wave panel study of youths who were paired with a best friend (N = 435). Covariance structure models based upon polychoric correlations among study variables reveal that friends are indeed the primary source of influence on youths' behavior, but that estimates of influence are grossly overstated in analyses relying upon respondents' perceptions of their friends' behavior. Parental supervision and attachment are weakly related to subsequent delinquency and marijuana use, lending little support to control theories of deviance. Findings reveal that different processes account for the similarities among members of delinquent and drug-using peer groups. Although youths are socialized into delinquent behavior by peers, both selection and socialization influences play important roles in the formation of drug-using peer groups. PMID:9113137

  14. A Conceptual Framework for the Analysis of Risk and Problem Behaviors: The Case of Adolescent Sexual Behavior (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos; Vincent; Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Bouris, Alida


    A framework for the analysis of adolescent problem behaviors was explicated that draws on five major theories of human behavior. The framework emphasizes intentions to perform behaviors and factors that influence intentions as well as moderate the impact of intentions on behavior. The framework was applied to the analysis of adolescent sexual risk…

  15. Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Binge Eating in Adolescent Girls (United States)

    Yarborough, Bobbi Jo; DeBar, Lynn L.; Firemark, Alison; Leung, Sue; Clarke, Gregory N.; Wilson, G. Terence


    Whereas effective treatments exist for adults with recurrent binge eating, developmental factors specific to adolescents point to the need for a modified treatment approach for youth. We adapted an existing cognitive behavioral therapy treatment manual for adults with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder (Fairburn, 2008) for use with…

  16. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Body Dysmorphic Disorder (United States)

    Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Markowitz, Sarah; Petronko, Michael R.; Taylor, Caitlin E.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Wilson, G. Terence


    The onset of appearance-related concerns associated with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) typically occurs in adolescence, and these concerns are often severe enough to interfere with normal development and psychosocial functioning. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for adults with BDD. However, no treatment studies…

  17. Child and Adolescent Therapy: Cognitive-Behavioral Procedures. Fourth Edition (United States)

    Kendall, Philip C., Ed.


    Widely regarded as the definitive clinical reference and text in the field, this authoritative volume presents effective cognitive-behavioral approaches for treating frequently encountered child and adolescent disorders. The editor and contributors are leading experts who provide hands-on, how-to-do-it descriptions illustrated with clinical…

  18. Civic Participation and the Development of Adolescent Behavior Problems (United States)

    Vieno, Alessio; Nation, Maury; Perkins, Douglas D.; Santinello, Massimo


    This study assessed the links between civic participation and adolescent behavior problems (bullying, physical fighting, and alcohol and tobacco use), and whether civic engagement could be a moderator of the negative effects of parent/family detachment. Participants were 7,097 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds (48.6% girls) in a region of Northern Italy.…

  19. Maternal Predictors of Rejecting Parenting and Early Adolescent Antisocial Behavior (United States)

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.


    The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years. The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy.…

  20. Adolescent Health Behavior, Contentment in School, and Academic Achievement (United States)

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P.; Helgason, Asgeir R.


    Objectives: To examine the association between health behavior indicators, school contentment, and academic achievement. Methods: Structural equation modeling with 5810 adolescents. Results: Our model explained 36% of the variance in academic achievement and 24% in school contentment. BMI and sedentary lifestyle were negatively related to school…

  1. Counseling Children and Adolescents: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Humanism. (United States)

    Vernon, Ann


    Describes specific parallels between rational emotive behavior therapy and humanism. Places specific emphasis on the application of these principles with children and adolescents. Concepts are illustrated with case studies and a description of the similarities between rational emotive and humanistic, or affective, education. Highlights emotional…

  2. Moral Cognitive Processes Explaining Antisocial Behavior in Young Adolescents (United States)

    van der Velden, Floor; Brugman, Daniel; Boom, Jan; Koops, Willem


    This study addresses the longitudinal relationships between three kinds of moral cognitions--self-serving cognitive distortions, moral judgment, perception of community--and antisocial behavior in young adolescents. Aims were to gain insight in direct and indirect relationships, stability, and causality. The sample included 724 students (M age =…

  3. Assessing the Eating Behaviors of Low-Income, Urban Adolescents (United States)

    Fahlman, Mariane; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Garn, Alex C.; Shen, Bo


    Background: There is a need for instruments that can accurately determine the effectiveness of nutrition interventions targeting low-income, inner-city adolescents. Purpose: To examine the development of a valid and reliable eating behavior scale (EBS) for use in school-based nutrition interventions in urban, inner-city communities dominated by…

  4. Executive Functions in Adolescence: Inferences from Brain and Behavior (United States)

    Crone, Eveline A.


    Despite the advances in understanding cognitive improvements in executive function in adolescence, much less is known about the influence of affective and social modulators on executive function and the biological underpinnings of these functions and sensitivities. Here, recent behavioral and neuroscientific studies are summarized that have used…

  5. Heavy Metal Music and Reckless Behavior among Adolescents. (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey


    Fifty-four male and 30 female adolescents who like heavy metal music were compared on various outcome variables to 56 male and 105 female peers who do not like it. Those who like heavy metal report a wider range of reckless behavior than those who do not like it. (SLD)

  6. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents (United States)

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.


    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  7. Trajectories of Family Management Practices and Early Adolescent Behavioral Outcomes (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Willett, John B.


    Stage-environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth…

  8. Behavioral Phenotype of Fragile X Syndrome in Adolescence and Adulthood (United States)

    Smith, Leann E.; Barker, Erin T.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Abbeduto, Leonard; Greenberg, Jan S.


    The present study explored the behavioral profile of individuals with fragile X syndrome during adolescence and adulthood. Individuals with both fragile X syndrome and autism (n = 30) were compared with (a) individuals diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (but not autism; n = 106) and (b) individuals diagnosed with autism (but not fragile X syndrome;…

  9. Paternal Psychopathology: Relationship to Adolescent Substance Abuse and Deviant Behavior. (United States)

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Research has documented the genetic contribution of paternal alcoholism and Antisocial Personality Disorder as risk factors for adolescent deviant behavior, including substance abuse. Teens (n=147) between the ages of 12 and 19 years and their parents participated in the study. The sample consisted of 74 substance abusing teens/families drawn from…

  10. The typological approach to the risky behavior of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrovi? D.


    Full Text Available The main research problem is focused on the following question: Is it possible to identify specific patterns of interaction between precipitating and protective factors for the risky behavior among adolescents. The research was conducted on the sample of 204 adolescents of both genders (18 to 20 years old. Specific personality traits and socio-demographic characteristics are manifested as the most important precipitating and/or protective factors for the risky behavior. The frame of reference for personality assessment was the alternative five-factor model (Zuckerman, 2002, specified in the ZKPQ-50-CC questionnaire, and consisted of the five biologically determined personality traits: activity, aggressiveness/hostility, impulsive sensation seeking, neuroticism/anxiety and sociability. Latent dimensions of the risky behavior: risky activities and life - conditions, were extracted by applying the homogeneity analyses (HOMALS. The matrix of squared Euclidean distances (in the common space of factor scores on the principal components of ZKPQ questionnaire, scores on HOMALS dimensions and school grades was a subject of the Ward hierarchical cluster analysis method, extracting three clusters. According to the discriminant functions: risk proneness and pro-social activity, the clusters were identified: the group of pro-social oriented adolescents, the aloof group and the group of adolescents prone to risky behavior. The results have considerable implications for the prevention programs’ development and implementation.

  11. Social Capital, Safety Concerns, Parenting, and Early Adolescents' Antisocial Behavior (United States)

    Vieno, Alessio; Nation, Maury; Perkins, Douglas D.; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo


    This study explores the relations between neighborhood social capital (neighbor support and social climate), safety concerns (fear of crime and concern for one's child), parenting (solicitation and support), and adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 952 parents (742 mothers) and 588 boys and 559 girls from five middle schools (sixth…

  12. Brief Report: Associations between Emotional Competence and Adolescent Risky Behavior (United States)

    Hessler, Danielle M.; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber


    The current study examines associations between emotional competence (i.e., awareness, regulation, comfort with expression) and adolescent risky behavior. Children from a longitudinal study participated at age 9 and 16 (N = 88). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with children about their emotional experiences and coded for areas of…

  13. Relationships Among Involvement, Attachment, and Behavioral Problems in Adolescence: Examining Father's Influence (United States)

    Williams, Susan K.; Kelly, F. Donald


    This study explores the nature of the parent-child relationship during early adolescence. Differences between the mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships and possible behavioral correlates of parental involvement and attachment are examined. A multimodal data collection procedure was used to gather information from adolescents (N =…

  14. Mothers’ and Fathers’ Attributions for Adolescent Behavior: An Examination in Families of Depressed, Subdiagnostic, and Non-depressed Youth


    Sheeber, Lisa B.; Johnston, Charlotte; Chen, Mandy; Leve, Craig; Hops, Hyman; Davis, Betsy


    This study examined whether parents of adolescents experiencing depressive symptoms or disorder make more negative and fewer positive attributions for their adolescentsbehavior than do parents of non-depressed adolescents, and whether parental attributions for adolescentsbehavior contribute to parenting behavior, above and beyond the adolescentsbehavior. Parents and adolescents (76 girls and 48 boys) participated in videotaped problem-solving interactions (PSIs). Each parent subsequentl...

  15. Maternal drinking behavior and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in adolescents with criminal behavior in southern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wakana, Momino; Têmis Maria, Félix; Alberto Mantovani, Abeche; Denise Isabel, Zandoná; Gabriela Gayer, Scheibler; Christina, Chambers; Kenneth Lyons, Jones; Renato Zamora, Flores; Lavínia, Schüler-Faccini.

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazil [...] ian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well as tested for other environmental risk factors for antisocial behavior. A sample of 262 institutionalized male adolescents due to criminal behavior and 154 male students aged between 13 and 21 years comprised the study population. Maternal use of alcohol was admitted by 48.8% of the mothers of institutionalized adolescents and by 39.9% of the school students. In this sample of adolescents we could not identify -individual cases with a clear diagnosis of FAS, but signs suggestive of FASD were more common in the institutionalized adolescents. Social factors like domestic and family violence were frequent in the risk group, this also being associated to maternal drinking during pregnancy. The inference is that in our sample, criminal behavior is more related to complex interactions between environmental and social issues including prenatal alcohol exposure.

  16. Maternal drinking behavior and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in adolescents with criminal behavior in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakana Momino


    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazilian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS. These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well as tested for other environmental risk factors for antisocial behavior. A sample of 262 institutionalized male adolescents due to criminal behavior and 154 male students aged between 13 and 21 years comprised the study population. Maternal use of alcohol was admitted by 48.8% of the mothers of institutionalized adolescents and by 39.9% of the school students. In this sample of adolescents we could not identify -individual cases with a clear diagnosis of FAS, but signs suggestive of FASD were more common in the institutionalized adolescents. Social factors like domestic and family violence were frequent in the risk group, this also being associated to maternal drinking during pregnancy. The inference is that in our sample, criminal behavior is more related to complex interactions between environmental and social issues including prenatal alcohol exposure.

  17. Population Dynamics of Children and Adolescents without Problematic Behavior


    pankovic, Vladan; Vunduk, Nikola; Predojevic, Milan


    In this work we suggest a simple mathematical model for the dynamics of the population of children and adolescents without problematic behavior (criminal activities etc.). This model represents a typical population growth equation but with time dependent (linearly decreasing) population growth coefficient. Given equation admits definition of the half-life time of the non-problematic children behavior as well as a criterion for estimation of the social regulation of the child...

  18. Health, Risk-Taking Behavior and Sexuality in Swedish Adolescents


    Holmberg, Lars I


    The overall aims of this research were to develop methods of identifying adolescents with unhealthy and/or risk-taking behavior with special reference to sexuality, and to evaluate support measures for young people in need of such interventions. A further aim was to assess strategies for preventing unhealthy and/or risk-taking behavior. Data were obtained by questionnaires (studies I, III, IV and V) and interviews (study II). The results showed that young men involved in unintended pregnancie...

  19. Eating Behaviors among Female Adolescents in Kuantan District, Pahang, Malaysia


    Chin, Y. S.; M.T. Mohd Nasir


    This study examined eating behaviors among female adolescents. A total of 407 female students aged between 13-19 years were randomly selected from two secondary schools in Kuantan district, Pahang, Malaysia. All participants were required to complete a self-administered Eating Behaviors Questionnaire and their weight and height were measured by the researchers. A majority of the participants were Malays (65.3%), followed by Chinese (28.3%) and Indians (6.4%). There were 5.9% underweight parti...

  20. Behavioral Phenotype of Fragile X Syndrome in Adolescence and Adulthood


    Smith, Leann E.; Barker, Erin T.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Greenberg, Jan S


    The present study explored the behavioral profile of individuals with fragile X syndrome during adolescence and adulthood. Individuals with both fragile X syndrome and autism (n = 30) were compared with (a) individuals diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (but not autism; n = 106) and (b) individuals diagnosed with autism (but not fragile X syndrome; n = 135) on measures of autism symptoms, adaptive functioning, behavior problems, and psychological symptoms. Results indicated that individuals du...

  1. Risk behaviors for sexual transmitted disease in male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Caroline Souza Pinto, Patrícia Neyva da Costa Pinheiro


    Full Text Available Objective: to describe the risk behaviors and vulnerability adopted by adolescents regarding STD/AIDS. Methodology: this is an ethnographic study, carried out at a public school of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. The population was composed of twenty male adolescents, from 12 to 18 years and that study in the fundamental and secondary education. The data collection happened through a semi-structured interview and simple observation. The content analysis followed Bardin's orientation. The survey was adopted by the Ethics in Research of the UFC, under protocol number 119/07 and after the informed consent of parents. Results: the data showed that among the risk conducts mentioned by the adolescents, the main one is sexual intercourse without preservative, and that there is fear and regret after the unprotected intercourse, and that the partner's age do influence in a negative way for protection. Conclusion: we considered necessary an approach on safe sex among teenagers, demanding the production of creative strategies that make sense in several socio-cultural contexts in which the adolescents are inserted. Descriptors: adolescent; sexual behavior; sexually transmitted diseases.

  2. Factors influencing adolescents engagement in risky Internet behavior. (United States)

    Liau, Albert Kienfie; Khoo, Angeline; Ang, Peng Hwa


    The present study used data from the SAFT (Safety, Awareness, Facts and Tools) Singapore survey, a national survey of 1,124 youths aged 12-17, to explore the issue of risk on the Internet. We investigated factors that influence adolescents' engagement in risky Internet behavior, in particular, meeting face-to-face someone they first encountered online. The adolescents ranged from ages 12 to 17, with a mean of 14.32 (SD = 1.37); 49.6% of the adolescents were girls. The study utilized a 93-item survey that was part of the SAFT Project. Results indicated that 16% of adolescent Internet users in Singapore have had a face-to-face meeting with someone first encountered online. The following factors were found to be predictors of adolescents engagement in such face-to-face meetings: age, frequency of Internet use, frequency of chatting and gaming behavior, parental rules, type of personal information given out, amount of inappropriate messages received, whether inappropriate websites have been visited, and type of internet advice heard. Implications of the results are discussed. PMID:16332162

  3. Violent Behavior in Adolescence: Individual and Familial Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Z?NNUR KILIÇ


    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, a group of violent male adolescents aged 12-15 years old, who were students of a primary school located in a district where families with low socioeconomic status (SES live was compared with a non-violent peer group in terms of self and family variables, in an aim to understand the risk factors related to adolescent violent behavior. Methods: Data were gathered about the family relations, presence of domestic violence, and other enviromental risk factors for a group of adolescents who show violent behavior at school (n: 22 and compared to their non-violent peers (n: 19 from the same school by getting information both from the adolescents themselves and their mothers. The Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents,Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale , Children’s Depression Inventory and the Connors’ Rating Scales were used to measure the relevant variables. Family characteristics were investigated by direct interviews with the mothers and by using the General Health Questionnaire and the Family Assessment Device for both mothers and fathers. Results: The results of this study showed that adolescents who were violent at school were similar to non-violent ones in terms of domestic violence and self-perception and self-esteem. The violent group perceived themselves as being worse in terms of academic performance and showed higher levels of attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms. Conclusion: The results suggest that the violent behaviour at school for some adolescents may be a way of proving themselves and being accepted by their peers. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2012; 49: 260-265

  4. Relationship between Adolescents' Health Beliefs and Health Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Shabaraya


    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to determine the relationship between Health Behavior and Health Locus of Control among 1270 adolescents (Boys N = 635 and Girls = 635 who were drawn from Bangalore rural and urban district government high schools (mean age 13.76 years. Methodology: The Global School based Health survey (WHO, 2004 and Multidimensional Health Locus of Control by Wallston and Wallston, questionnaires were used to assess health locus of control and health behavior respectively. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using Pearson’s product moment correlation methods to examine the relationship between these variables. Results and Interpretation: Findings revealed that total health behavior score of adolescents is significantly correlated with ‘internal’ and ‘powerful others’ dimensions of health locus of control. Further, the ‘chance factor’ of health locus of control did not show any significant relationship with the total health behavior score. From this it can be inferred that adolescents with high inclinations towards ‘internal health locus of control’ and ‘powerful others’ have healthier dimensions of positive behaviors. Findings have also revealed that health behavior is not significantly correlated with the beliefs that ‘health is a function of chance/luck’.

  5. Parenting and antisocial behavior: a model of the relationship between adolescent self-disclosure, parental closeness, parental control, and adolescent antisocial behavior. (United States)

    Vieno, Alessio; Nation, Maury; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo


    This study used data collected from a sample of 840 Italian adolescents (418 boys; M age = 12.58) and their parents (657 mothers; M age = 43.78) to explore the relations between parenting, adolescent self-disclosure, and antisocial behavior. In the hypothesized model, parenting practices (e.g., parental monitoring and control) have direct effects on parental knowledge and antisocial behavior. Parenting style (e.g., parent-child closeness), on the other hand, is directly related to adolescent self-disclosure, which in turn is positively related to parental knowledge and negatively related to adolescents' antisocial behavior. A structural equation model, which incorporated data from parents and adolescents, largely supported the hypothesized model. Gender-specific models also found some gender differences among adolescents and parents, as the hypothesized model adequately fit the subsample of mothers but not fathers. Mothers' closeness to girls predicted their knowledge of their daughters' behavior; mothers' control predicted boys' antisocial behavior. PMID:19899910

  6. Delinquency and association with behavioral disorders and substance abuse / Delinquência e associação de transtornos comportamentais com abuso de substâncias

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Manoel Schier, Dória; Sérgio Antonio, Antoniuk; Francisco Baptista, Assumpção Junior; Daniele Nascimento, Fajardo; Maurício Nasser, Ehlke.


    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar a incidência e a associação entre transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH), transtorno de conduta (TC) e transtorno de abuso de substâncias (TAS) em adolescentes brasileiros em conflito com a lei. Métodos: a versão brasileira do Schedule for Affective Disorders [...] and Schizophrenia for School Aged-Children (K-SADS-PL) foi aplicada em 69 adolescentes do sexo masculino, encarcerados por 45 dias na cidade de Curitiba, Brasil. Resultados: a média de idade foi de 15,5 anos (variação 12 a 16,9 anos ) e a maioria dos adolescentes (87%) era procedente de classes sociais desfavorecidas e residia em bairros na periferia da cidade ou cidades da região metropolitana. Evasão escolar e baixo rendimento escolar foram comuns. Ao todo, 73,9% não frequentavam a escola e 43,4% não concluíram a 5ª série. A grande maioria vivia em famílias monoparentais e muitos tinham parentes de primeiro grau também com problemas com a lei. 81,1% dos adolescentes apresentaram problemas psiquiátricos, e os transtornos mais comuns foram TC (59,4%), TAS (53,6%) e TDAH (43,5%). Nos adolescentes, tanto com TDAH (p Abstract in english Objective: to determine the incidence and associations of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and substance abuse disorder (SAD) in adolescents in conflict with the law in a Brazilian cohort. Methods: the Brazilian version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders [...] and Schizophrenia for School Aged-Children (K-SADS-PL) was administered to 69 adolescent boys who were incarcerated for 45 days in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Results: mean age was 15.5 years (range, 12-16.9 years) and most adolescents originated from disadvantaged social classes (87%). They resided in neighborhoods on the outskirts of the city or towns in the greater metropolitan area. Truancy and low educational achievement were common, with 73.9% not currently attending school and 43.4% not having finished the 5th grade. The great majority lived in single-parent families and many had relatives who themselves had problems with the law. Psychiatric disorders were apparent in 81.1% of the subjects, with the most common disorders being CD (59.4%), SAD (53.6%), and ADHD (43.5%). Both ADHD (p

  7. General characteristics of adolescent sexual behavior: National survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankovi? Miodrag


    Full Text Available Introduction. Investigation of adolescent sexual behavior carried out on a large sample is primarily motivated by health and social problems which can occur when young people practice sex without protection and necessary information. There is no data that the national study on adolescent sexual behavior has been conducted in the Serbian speaking area. Objective. Monitoring and follow-up of trends in adolescent sexual behavior. Methods. The investigation sample comprised 1101 adolescents (472 male and 629 female, aged 13-25 years. As an instrument of polling, the questionnaire 'Sexual Behavior' was used specifically designed for the purpose of this investigation. Results. Eighty-four percent of males and 65% of females reported having sexual experience. The age of the first sexual experience, total number of partners, number of sexual partners in the last year and the last month were investigated, and the number of loved and sexual partner compared. In addition, the length of foreplay, frequency of sexual activity, masturbation, sexual dreams and sexual daydreams and engagement into alternative sexual activities (oral sex, anal sex, group sex, exchange of partners were estimated, as well as the reasons for their practicing. Sexual desire and its correlation with personality dimensions, the frequency of sexual disorders (erectile and ejaculation problems, anorgasmia, abortion, rape and identification of the rapist, the use of condoms and other methods of contraception were assessed. Conclusion. It could be postulated that biological influence on sexual behavior is powerful and resistant to the influence of time and place, as well as socio-cultural religious influences. A high rate of premarital sexual activity with a number of sexual partners, a relatively low rate of condom use and the fact that 4% of the female adolescents in this sample had an induced abortion suggest that there are gaps in the education provided to adolescents about sexual and reproductive risks within the Serbian speaking territory. An alarming statistic is that 5% of the female adolescents in this sample reported that they had been raped, or forced to participate in non-consensual sex within an ongoing relationship with a regular partner. There is a need for systemic changes within the field of sexual education and protection from sexually risky behavior among young adults.

  8. The Cracow Instrument and Moffit's Developmental Theory of Juvenile Delinquency


    Sorell, Therese


    Over the decade extending from the mid-1 980s to mid-1 990s, official crime statistics indicated a sharp upward trend in violent crime arrests of youth. A number of factors in the individual, family, and environmental domains have been shown to be associated with the etiology of juvenile violent crime and delinquency. Recently, a developmental perspective has gained influence in the understanding of delinquency, in which two distinct trajectories of antisocial behavior have been identified, h...

  9. Adolescent Adjustment and Patterns of Parents' Behaviors in Early and Middle Adolescence (United States)

    Simpkins, Sandra D.; Bouffard, Suzanne M.; Dearing, Eric; Kreider, Holly; Wimer, Chris; Caronongan, Pia; Weiss, Heather B.


    In this study, we identified unique clusters of parenting behaviors based on parents' school involvement, community involvement, rule-setting, and cognitive stimulation with data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics-Child Development Supplement. In early (n = 668) and middle adolescence (n = 634), parents who provided high cognitive stimulation…

  10. Risk taking behavior of adolescents in Indonesia (country report). (United States)

    Narendra, M; Basuki, P S; Soeharjono, L B; Ghozali, E W


    Adolescent problems in Indonesia are becoming more and more relevant due to the increasing reports recently. Although data gathered are very limited a certain consideration should be well planned to get all resources in terms of motivation in paying more attention to the future of Indonesia youth problems such as narcotics/drug abuse, sexual activities including sexual transmitted diseases etc. A good communication with the other Asian countries in controlling those risk taking behaviors in adolescent will be very promising to gain the improvement of people's life quality by the year 2,000. PMID:2077464

  11. Delinquent Youth and Employment: The Mandate for Specialized Academic and Vocational Training. (United States)

    Just, David A.


    The relationships between delinquent behavior and labor market experiences of teenagers are examined in this study. Variables include incidence of self-reported delinquent behavior, gender, race, age, suspension from school, and current residence. Findings and the implications for educational policy are examined. (CT)

  12. Impact of a Universal School-Based Violence Prevention Program on Violent Delinquency: Distinctive Benefits for Youth with Maltreatment Histories (United States)

    Crooks, Claire V.; Scott, Katreena; Ellis, Wendy; Wolfe, David A.


    Objective: Child maltreatment constitutes a strong risk factor for violent delinquency in adolescence, with cumulative experiences of maltreatment creating increasingly greater risk. Our previous work demonstrated that a universal school-based violence prevention program could provide a protective impact for youth at risk for violent delinquency

  13. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa


    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  14. Behavioral problems and tobacco use among adolescents in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caris Luis


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between behavioral problems and tobacco smoking among adolescent students in Chile. METHODS: Data were drawn from a study that included questionnaire surveys of 46 907 school-attending adolescents in all 13 of the administrative regions of Chile. Assessments were based on an adapted, Spanish-language version of the Drug Use Screening Inventory. The conditional form of the logistic regression model was used for analysis, with matching of students on individual schools, and with further statistical adjustments for sex, age, and selected risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco smoking among the adolescents was very high across all of Chile, with a level between 56% and 65% in each of the 13 regions. The estimated odds of tobacco use in youths at the highest level of behavioral problems was about twice that for youths at the lowest levels, both before and after controlling for sex, age, lack of participation in recreational activities, level of irritability, and levels of problems with school, family attention, and mental health. CONCLUSIONS: These findings help to complement and complete the evidence of prior studies on tobacco smoking among adolescents with behavior problems, including recent research on Central American youths. Although the magnitude of observed associations in Chile was not as great as that for the associations found in Central America, both the strength of these associations and their statistical significance were observed throughout Chile. This is the first study in Chile on potentially causal relationships such as these.

  15. Predicting adolescent's cyberbullying behavior: A longitudinal risk analysis. (United States)

    Barlett, Christopher P


    The current study used the risk factor approach to test the unique and combined influence of several possible risk factors for cyberbullying attitudes and behavior using a four-wave longitudinal design with an adolescent US sample. Participants (N = 96; average age = 15.50 years) completed measures of cyberbullying attitudes, perceptions of anonymity, cyberbullying behavior, and demographics four times throughout the academic school year. Several logistic regression equations were used to test the contribution of these possible risk factors. Results showed that (a) cyberbullying attitudes and previous cyberbullying behavior were important unique risk factors for later cyberbullying behavior, (b) anonymity and previous cyberbullying behavior were valid risk factors for later cyberbullying attitudes, and (c) the likelihood of engaging in later cyberbullying behavior increased with the addition of risk factors. Overall, results show the unique and combined influence of such risk factors for predicting later cyberbullying behavior. Results are discussed in terms of theory. PMID:25828551

  16. Adolescents' Emotion Expectancies regarding Aggressive and Nonaggressive Events: Connections with Behavior Problems (United States)

    Arsenio, William F.; Gold, Jason; Adams, Erin


    A total of 50 behaviorally disruptive (conduct-disordered or oppositional defiant-disordered) adolescents and 50 comparison adolescents assessed how they expected to feel following both aggressive and nonaggressive situations. Compared with their peers, behaviorally disruptive adolescents expected fewer normative emotions and exhibited somewhat…

  17. Violent and Prosocial Behavior by Adolescents toward Parents and Teachers in a Community Sample (United States)

    Jaureguizar, Joana; Ibabe, Izaskun; Straus, Murray A.


    This study focused on violent and prosocial behaviors by adolescents toward parents and teachers, and the relation between such behaviors and adolescents' perceptions about the family and school environment. Gender differences in child-to-parent violence and student-to-teacher violence were also studied. The sample comprised 687 adolescents

  18. Neurobiology of Adolescent Substance Use and Addictive Behaviors: Prevention and Treatment Implications


    Hammond, Christopher J.; Mayes, Linda C.; Marc N Potenza


    Psychoactive substance and nonsubstance/behavioral addictions are major public health concerns associated with significant societal cost. Adolescence is a period of dynamic biologic, psychological, and behavioral changes. Adolescence is also associated with an increased risk for substance use and addictive disorders. During adolescence, developmental changes in neural circuitry of reward processing, motivation, cognitive control, and stress may contribute to vulnerability for increased levels...

  19. The Effects of a Program of Behavior Modification and Reality Therapy on the Behavior of Emotionally Disturbed Institutionalized Adolescents. (United States)

    Dolly, John P.; Page, D. Patricia


    Institutional staff used behavior modification and reality therapy to bring about positive behavioral changes in 20 severely retarded, emotionally disturbed adolescents as measured on two adaptive behavior scales. (Author)

  20. Multiple risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior among Israeli and Palestinian adolescents. (United States)

    Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Abdeen, Ziad; Walsh, Sophie D; Radwan, Qasrowi; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya


    Based conceptually on Problem Behavior Theory, Normalization Theory and theories of adolescent ethnic identity formation this study explores relationships between individual and cumulative multiple risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior among mid-adolescents in three different populations in the Middle East. Data from the 2004 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children in the Middle-East (HBSC-ME) study included 8345 10th-grade pupils in three populations: Jewish Israelis (1770), Arab Israelis (2185), and Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank (4390). We considered risk behaviors and factors including tobacco use, bullying, medically-attended injuries, excessive time with friends, parental disconnectedness, negative school experience, truancy and poor academic performance. Substantial population differences for suicidal tendency and risk behaviors were observed, with notably high levels of suicidal ideation and behavior among Arab-Israeli youth and higher levels of risk behaviors among the Jewish and Arab-Israeli youth. For all populations suicidal tendency was at least 4 times higher among adolescents reporting 4+ risk behaviors, suggesting that similar psychosocial determinants affect patterns of risk behaviors and suicidal tendency. Results highlight the importance of understanding cultural contexts of risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior. PMID:22497848

  1. Proactive and reactive sibling aggression and adjustment in adolescence. (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen T; Wiesen-Martin, Desireé; Hiley Sharp, Erin; Rebellon, Cesar J; Stracuzzi, Nena F


    Existing research on aggression tends to narrowly focus on peers; less is known about sibling aggression, most likely due to its historical acceptance. Aggression is characterized by its forms (i.e., physical vs. social or relational aggression) and its functions (i.e., the motivations behind the aggressive act and categorized as proactive vs. reactive aggression). We use data from a two-wave study of middle (n = 197; M age = 12.63 years at Wave 1) and older (n = 159; M age = 16.50 years at Wave 1) adolescents to assess the extent to which proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggression make unique or conditional contributions to adolescent adjustment (i.e., depression, delinquency, and substance use). We find that proactive sibling aggression increases risk for problem substance use and delinquent behavior, reactive sibling aggression increases risk for depressed mood and delinquent behavior, and such results are observed even with statistical adjustments for sociodemographic and family variables, stressful life events, and prior adjustment. Few conditional effects of proactive or reactive sibling aggression by sex or grade are observed; yet, for all three outcomes, the harmful effects of reactive sibling aggression are strongest among adolescents who report low levels of proactive sibling aggression. The results speak to the importance of understanding the proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggressive behaviors for adolescent adjustment. PMID:25006024

  2. Eating Behavior and Social Interactions from Adolescence to Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corrado, Luisa; Distante, Roberta


    This paper analyzes the importance of social ties for eating behavior of US youth. We propose a novel approach that addresses identi…cation of social endogenous e¤ects. We overcome the problem of measuring the separate impact of endogenous and contextual e¤ects on individual Body Mass Index (BMI) in a dynamic linear- in-means model, where individual- and group-speci…c unobservable e¤ects are controlled for. We show that the main drivers of eating behavior are habituation and imitation e¤ects. Imitation e¤ects explain most of the variation in BMI of individuals who were normal-weight and overweight during adolescence. Obese adolescents, instead, become future obese adults through wrong habits enforced by imitative behavior.

  3. Substance use and risky sexual behavior in female adolescents. (United States)

    Castillo Mezzich, A; Tarter, R E; Giancola, P R; Lu, S; Kirisci, L; Parks, S


    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the etiological pathways towards substance use and risky sexual behavior in female adolescent substance abusers. The study had three aims: (1) to determine the relations between behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity, and childhood victimization with substance use and risky sexual behavior, (2) to determine whether these relations are mediated by internalizing symptomatology, antisocial behavior, and affiliating with an adult boyfriend; and (3) to determine whether age of menarche moderates the relation between the mediating variables and substance use and risky sexual behavior. Multiple behavioral, psychiatric interview, and self-report measures were used to index behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity, childhood victimization, internalizing symptomatology, antisocial behavior, affiliation with adult boyfriends, substance use, and risky sexual behavior in 125 substance abusing female adolescents and 78 controls between the ages of 14-18 years. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the etiological pathways. Results indicated that behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity, and childhood victimization were related to substance use and risky sexual behavior. Age of menarche was significantly correlated with affiliation with an older boyfriend and risky sexual behavior. Antisocial behavior mediated the associations between behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity and childhood victimization with substance use and risky sexual behavior. Affiliation with an adult boyfriend was directly associated with substance use involvement and accounted for the relationship between chronological age and risky sexual behavior. Finally, late menarche enhanced the association between internalizing symptomatology and substance use involvement. The results highlight the importance of behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity, and childhood victimization in predicting substance use and risky sexual behavior, as well as the finding that antisocial behavior and affiliation with an adult boyfriend may be etiologically important in predicting these outcomes. Therefore, from a prevention and treatment standpoint, behavioral and affective dysregulation, childhood victimization as well as antisocial behavior may serve as clinical 'gateways' for altering the developmental trajectory toward substance use and risky sexual behavior in high risk and substance abusing youth. For example, reducing dysregulation through behavior modification procedures that have been developed for conduct disordered children would appear to be a heuristic avenue of investigation emanating from the results obtained in this study. PMID:9088788

  4. Reculer Pour Mieux Sauter: A Review of Attachment and Other Developmental Processes Inherent in Identified Risk Factors for Juvenile Delinquency and Juvenile Offending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianna T. Kenny


    Full Text Available The task of this paper is to identify the causes of juvenile delinquency and juvenile offending. The French proverb chosen for its title (Step back in order to jump better reflects the inherent challenge in this task; that is, how far back must we step in order to gain a complete understanding of these causes? Do we commence with adolescence, childhood, birth, pregnancy, conception, or the young person’s parents and their life experiences? How wide a net do we cast? Should we focus primarily on intra-individual factors, or the social ecologies in which young delinquents are found? Every story must have a beginning. In this story about young people who fall off the prosocial developmental trajectory, all sign posts point to attachment and the quality of the child’s first attachment experiences. This review will examine, from attachment and other developmental perspectives, how many of the more proximal causes of delinquency and youth offending have their origins in the emotional deficits suffered in early life. We will argue that delinquent and offending behavior represent attempts to redress these deficits. Consequently, interventions that attempt to prevent offending and reduce recidivism that do not address attachment ruptures and other early deficits cannot expect satisfactory outcomes.

  5. Perceptions of Social Mobility: Development of a New Psychosocial Indicator Associated with Adolescent Risk Behaviors


    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C H; Adler, Nancy; Bertozzi, Stefano; Syme, S. Leonard


    Social class gradients have been explored in adults and children, but not extensively during adolescence. The first objective of this study was to examine the association between adolescent risk behaviors and a new indicator of adolescent relative social position, adolescent “perceived social mobility.” Second, it investigated potential underlying demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial determinants of this indicator. Data were taken from the 2004 urban adolescent module of Oportunidades...

  6. The role of the neighborhood, family and peers regarding Colombian adolescents' social context and aggressive behavior / Contexto social y comportamiento agresivo en adolescentes Colombianos: el rol del barrio, la familia y los amigos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Beatriz, Caicedo; Kelvyn, Jones.


    Full Text Available Objetivo Evaluar la asociación entre las condiciones del barrio, las pautas de crianza y las relaciones con amigos con el comportamiento agresivo. Además analiza diferentes mecanismos por los cuales las condiciones del barrio pueden influir directa e indirectamente (vía su impacto sobre las pautas d [...] e crianza y las relaciones con amigos) dos tipos de comportamiento: agresión y delincuencia. Método Datos sobre comportamiento agresivo son tomados de una encuesta aplicada a 1 686 adolescentes residentes de 103 barrios de Medellín-Colombia. Datos sobre el barrio son tomados de bases de datos gubernamentales y de dos encuestas poblacionales. Para el análisis se utilizaron modelos multinivel y de ecuaciones estructurales. Resultados En Medellín, la probabilidad de agresión de un adolescente es del 7,0 % y de delincuencia de 0,3 %. Dichas probabilidades varían significativamente entre los barrios. Aunque ninguna de las características del barrio mostró un efecto directo sobre el comportamiento agresivo, las condiciones estructurales afectan indirectamente los adolescentes influyendo las pautas de crianza y la calidad de los amigos con quienes se relacionan. Conclusiones La pobreza en el barrio afecta el comportamiento agresivo de los adolescentes impactando las pautas de crianza y la calidad de las relaciones dentro del barrio. Intervenciones para controlar y prevenir el comportamiento agresivo deben desarrollarse en barrios con alta probabilidad de comportamiento agresivo y enfocarse no solamente en el mejoramiento físico de los barrios, sino en el fortalecimiento de las pautas de crianza y la calidad de los amigos de los adolescentes. Abstract in english Objective Examining neighborhood conditions, parenting and peer affiliations' association with adolescents' aggressive behavior. Testing various mechanisms through which neighborhood conditions influence two adolescent outcomes, both directly and indirectly (via their impact on parenting and peer-af [...] filiation): aggression and delinquency. Method Data regarding adolescents was taken from a self-reporting survey of 1,686 Colombian adolescents living in 103 neighborhoods of Medellin. Neighborhood-related data was taken from official government datasets, as well as two separate community surveys. Both multilevel modeling and multilevel structural equation modeling were used in the analysis. Results The probability of an adolescent engaging in aggression in Medellin was 7.0 % and becoming involved in delinquency 0.3 %. There was also significant variation for both forms of aggressive behavior at neighborhood-level (7.0 % aggression and 14 % regarding the delinquency scale). No neighborhood condition had a direct association with adolescents' aggressive behavior; however; the neighborhood exerted an indirect influence on adolescent behavior which was mainly transmitted through families and the quality of friends within a particular community. Conclusions Residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods did have an adverse effect on adolescents' aggressive behavior, mainly because of a lack of effective parenting strategies thereby facilitating affiliations being made with deviant peers. More efficient intervention for reducing adolescents' aggressive behavior should thus target areas having high odds of aggressive behavior and focus on improving community resources and, more importantly, on controlling adolescent peer groups, the lack of parental monitoring and inconsistent discipline.

  7. The role of the neighborhood, family and peers regarding Colombian adolescents' social context and aggressive behavior / Contexto social y comportamiento agresivo en adolescentes Colombianos: el rol del barrio, la familia y los amigos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Beatriz, Caicedo; Kelvyn, Jones.


    Full Text Available Objetivo Evaluar la asociación entre las condiciones del barrio, las pautas de crianza y las relaciones con amigos con el comportamiento agresivo. Además analiza diferentes mecanismos por los cuales las condiciones del barrio pueden influir directa e indirectamente (vía su impacto sobre las pautas d [...] e crianza y las relaciones con amigos) dos tipos de comportamiento: agresión y delincuencia. Método Datos sobre comportamiento agresivo son tomados de una encuesta aplicada a 1 686 adolescentes residentes de 103 barrios de Medellín-Colombia. Datos sobre el barrio son tomados de bases de datos gubernamentales y de dos encuestas poblacionales. Para el análisis se utilizaron modelos multinivel y de ecuaciones estructurales. Resultados En Medellín, la probabilidad de agresión de un adolescente es del 7,0 % y de delincuencia de 0,3 %. Dichas probabilidades varían significativamente entre los barrios. Aunque ninguna de las características del barrio mostró un efecto directo sobre el comportamiento agresivo, las condiciones estructurales afectan indirectamente los adolescentes influyendo las pautas de crianza y la calidad de los amigos con quienes se relacionan. Conclusiones La pobreza en el barrio afecta el comportamiento agresivo de los adolescentes impactando las pautas de crianza y la calidad de las relaciones dentro del barrio. Intervenciones para controlar y prevenir el comportamiento agresivo deben desarrollarse en barrios con alta probabilidad de comportamiento agresivo y enfocarse no solamente en el mejoramiento físico de los barrios, sino en el fortalecimiento de las pautas de crianza y la calidad de los amigos de los adolescentes. Abstract in english Objective Examining neighborhood conditions, parenting and peer affiliations' association with adolescents' aggressive behavior. Testing various mechanisms through which neighborhood conditions influence two adolescent outcomes, both directly and indirectly (via their impact on parenting and peer-af [...] filiation): aggression and delinquency. Method Data regarding adolescents was taken from a self-reporting survey of 1,686 Colombian adolescents living in 103 neighborhoods of Medellin. Neighborhood-related data was taken from official government datasets, as well as two separate community surveys. Both multilevel modeling and multilevel structural equation modeling were used in the analysis. Results The probability of an adolescent engaging in aggression in Medellin was 7.0 % and becoming involved in delinquency 0.3 %. There was also significant variation for both forms of aggressive behavior at neighborhood-level (7.0 % aggression and 14 % regarding the delinquency scale). No neighborhood condition had a direct association with adolescents' aggressive behavior; however; the neighborhood exerted an indirect influence on adolescent behavior which was mainly transmitted through families and the quality of friends within a particular community. Conclusions Residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods did have an adverse effect on adolescents' aggressive behavior, mainly because of a lack of effective parenting strategies thereby facilitating affiliations being made with deviant peers. More efficient intervention for reducing adolescents' aggressive behavior should thus target areas having high odds of aggressive behavior and focus on improving community resources and, more importantly, on controlling adolescent peer groups, the lack of parental monitoring and inconsistent discipline.

  8. Empathic capacity of delinquent convicted minors

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    Milojevi? Sonja


    Full Text Available The psychological approach to juvenile delinquency introduced in recent years postulates “empathy impairment” as one of the origins of youth criminal behaviour. This means that in order to be cruel, people need to be unable to imagine the pain their victims experience. To test that hypothesis, we compare a group of convicted juvenile offenders (N=43 with a control group of adolescents (N=47 on self-report and ability measures of cognitive empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index and Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, respectively. Discriminant Analysis reveals a significant difference between the two groups, most notably in the dimensions of personal distress, RMET score, and perspective taking. However, after the control for age and education, only the differences in measures of cognitive empathy remain. Although delinquents perceive themselves as less capable of taking the vantage point of another person and, when tested, prove themselves to be inferior in perceiving emotions and facial expressions, there are no differences in self-report scores of the affective component of empathy. On the basis of these findings, we draw several practical implications concerning everyday work with delinquents. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018 i br. 47011


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    Full Text Available Consumers are users of goods and services for the production of their wants. They want to know where to buy, when to buy, how much to buy, how to pay, how to recognize and they also compare qualities of products. They are the keystone and play an important part of our economic structure. Production and marketing exist only for consumers. He is the focal point of all economic and social activities. In fact, he is the very basis who supports the society. His interests, therefore, should receive the first priority. As population grows, adolescent consumers become a very attractive market. They are better- off financially in the modern era. They have been the target of the marketers of cosmetics, health care products, fashionable clothing, etc. This young attractive target cannot be taken for granted and hence all efforts are tailored to meet their needs. Identifying this target's needs and directing all marketing efforts at delivering customers value is the motto of most of the companies. Inter-personal and mass media communication play a major role in purchasing. Children have important impact on household decision-making by attempting to influence their parent's acquisition, usage and disposition of products. Effective buying can find ways of reaching the objective regardless of the limitations of our resources. Therefore it is important that adolescents should be brought up in an environment which is stimulating and sufficiently challenging for them to explore their potentialities and build up a satisfying future.

  10. School attendance, health-risk behaviors, and self-esteem in adolescents applying for working papers.


    Suss, A. L.; Tinkelman, B. K.; Freeman, K.; Friedman, S. B.


    Since health-risk behaviors are often encountered in clusters among adolescents, it was hypothesized that adolescents with poor school attendance would be associated with more health-risk behaviors (e.g., substance use, violence) than those who attend school regularly. This study assessed the relationship between poor school attendance and health-risk behaviors, and described health-risk behaviors and self-esteem among adolescents seeking employment. In this cross-sectional study, school atte...

  11. Obesity Risk in Urban Adolescent Girls: Nutritional Intentions and Health Behavior Correlates


    Groth, Susan W; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne


    Obesity is an expanding epidemic and minority adolescent girls are at high risk. One way to tailor interventions for obesity prevention is to target intention to engage in particular behaviors. Data collected from adolescent girls’ intentions and behaviors regarding nutrition, physical activity, and sleep patterns were used to examine nutritional intentions in relation to healthy behaviors. Adolescent girls reported behaviors that increased their risks for obesity. Nutritional intentions were...

  12. Patterns of sedentary behavior and compliance with public health recommendations in Spanish adolescents: the AFINOS study.


    David Martínez Gómez; Veiga, Oscar L.; Belén Zapatera; Verónica Cabanas-Sánchez; Sonia Gomez-Martinez; David Martinez-Hernández; Ascensión Marcos


    The aims of the present study were: (i) describe patterns of sedentary behavior in Spanish adolescents; and (ii) determine the proportion of adolescents that do not meet the public health recommendations for sedentary behavior. This study comprised 1,724 Spanish adolescents (882 girls), aged 13 to 16 years. Patterns of sedentary behavior (TV viewing, use of computer games, console games and surfing the Internet) were assessed using the HELENA sedentary behavior questionnaire. The total propor...

  13. Mother-Adolescent Conflict: Stability, Change, and Relations with Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems


    Hofer, Claire; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Morris, Amanda S.; Gershoff, Elizabeth; VALIENTE, CARLOS; Kupfer, Anne; EGGUM, NATALIE D.


    Stability and change in mother-adolescent conflict reactions (CRs) and the prediction of CRs from adolescents' earlier behavior problems (and vice versa) were examined with 131 mothers and their adolescents (63 boys). Dyads engaged in a 6-minute conflict discussion twice, 2 years apart (M age was 13 at Time 1 (T1). Nonverbal expressive and verbal CRs during the conflict discussion were coded. Mothers, fathers, and teachers reported on adolescents' problem behaviors. There was inter-individual...

  14. Personality and Parenting Processes Associated with Problem Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents in Santiago, Chile


    Bares, Cristina B; Andrade, Fernando; DELVA, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew


    Considerable research in the U.S. has established that adolescent antisocial, aggressive, and attention problems have a negative influence on adolescents' ability to become productive members of society. However, although these behaviors appear in other cultures, little is known about the development of these problems among adolescents in countries other than the U.S.. This study contributes to our understanding of personality and parenting factors associated with adolescent problem behaviors...

  15. Family - protective factor to prevent suicidal behavior in adolescents

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    Ioana R. Rusu


    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of our research was to establish a possible correlation between suicide risk in adolescents and a series ofintra-familial protective factors such as family harmony, intact families, increased family involvement in child education, empathy, ability toexpress emotions. Materials and Methods The study comprised the 1143 pupils, aged between 14 and 16 years from Cluj and Maramures counties,that participated in the SEYLE baseline evaluation. Results: Adolescents who have no problems with parents (p<0.001, being understoodby them (p<0.001 and having the belief that family is very important to them (p<0.001, are protected from the risk of committing suicide. Atthe same time, parents’ ability to listen children opinion (p<0.001 and help them take important decisions (p<0.001, the time spent discussingwith teens the problems they’re going through (p<0.001, and the fact that parents know what they do in their spare time (p=0.003 showsprotective factors of suicidal behavior with a statistically significant value in this study.Conclusion: The family is a psychosocial system witha major impact on adolescents’ personality formation. The attitude towards children, the parents availability to important moments for teens,the ability to be both subjective and objective towards their children initiatives, are factors of protection against adolescents’ suicidal behavior.

  16. Associations between child disciplinary practices and bullying behavior in adolescents

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    Graziela A.H. Zottis


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate associations between different types of child disciplinary practices and children and adolescents' bullying behavior in a Brazilian sample. METHODS: cross-sectional study, with a school-based sample of 10-to 15-year-old children and adolescents. Child disciplinary practices were assessed using two main subtypes: power-assertive and punitive (psychological aggression, corporal punishment, deprivation of privileges, and penalty tasks and inductive (explaining, rewarding, and monitoring. A modified version of the Olweus Bully Victim Questionnaire was used to measure the frequency of bullying. RESULTS: 247 children and adolescents were evaluated and 98 (39.7% were classified as bullies. Power-assertive and punitive discipline by either mother or father was associated with bullying perpetration by their children. Mothers who mostly used this type of discipline were 4.36 (95% CI: 1.87-10.16; p < 0.001 times more likely of having a bully child. Psychological aggression and mild forms of corporal punishment presented the highest odds ratios. Overall inductive discipline was not associated with bullying. CONCLUSIONS: bullying was associated to parents' assertive and punitive discipline. Finding different ways of disciplining children and adolescents might decrease bullying behavior.

  17. Genetic Influences on Individual Differences in Exercise Behavior during Adolescence

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    Meike Bartels


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the degree to which genetic and environmental influences affect variation in adolescent exercise behavior. Data on regular leisure time exercise activities were analyzed in 8,355 adolescent twins, from three-age cohorts (13-14, 15-16, and 17–19 years. Exercise behavior was assessed with survey items about type of regular leisure time exercise, frequency, and duration of the activities. Participants were classified as sedentary, regular exercisers, or vigorous exercisers. The prevalence of moderate exercise behavior declined from age 13 to 19 years with a parallel increase in prevalence of sedentary behavior, whereas the prevalence of vigorous exercise behavior remained constant across age cohorts. Variation in exercise behavior was analyzed with genetic structural equation modeling employing a liability threshold model. Variation was largely accounted for by genetic factors (72% to 85% of the variance was explained by genetic factors, whereas shared environmental factors only accounted for a substantial part of the variation in girls aged 13-14 years (46%. We hypothesize that genetic effects on exercise ability may explain the high heritability of exercise behavior in this phase of life.

  18. Determinants of juvenile delinquent behaviour in the family

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    Razgale I.


    Full Text Available Children and adolescents are one of the most vulnerable social groups in the community. Copenhagen declaration has emphasized the fact that particular efforts should be devoted to children and adolescent protection with an aim for extension of social protection and decrease of easy vulnerability of humans. Children and adolescent behaviour is like a mirror which depicts the processes going on in the society, as well as the existing social and economic controversies. At present one can witness negative tendencies in children and adolescent behaviour in Latvia: they drop school early, lead a vagrant life, get used to drugs, violence grows, especially that of severe crimes. In the Resolution of the European Parliament of June 21, 2007 “On Juvenile Delinquency?–?Role of Women, Family and Community” it is also written, that children enter the world of crime much earlier. Certain emotional and behavioural peculiarities of children and adolescents can be taken as a norm at a definite age, however, there exist also such behavioural peculiarities, which essentially differ from the accepted norms. Causative factors of delinquent behaviour, as well as its consequences, are at a level of multiple systems. But, the first and the most significant in any person’s life is the family, and, consequently, it is important to learn and analyze what are the factors in the family which determine the formation of delinquent behaviour.

  19. Modern theories of suicidal behavior in adolescents and young people

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    T.S. Pavlova


    Full Text Available We propose three current models, formulated over the last decade and not yet published in Russian, focused on teenage suicide: the development model of suicidal behavior in adolescents (J.A. Bridge, T.R. Goldstein, D.A. Brent; interpersonal model of (T.E. Joiner; some recent developments in the cognitive theory (A. Spirito, J.D. Matthews, A. Wenzel, A.T. Beck. Four groups of psychological aid targets for adolescents with suicidal tendencies are revealed: 1 targets of the current emotional state of a teenager (feelings of abandonment, self-perception as a burden to the loved ones, anxiety, hopelessness, heartache; 2 targets affecting personal predispositions (primitive defense mechanisms, impulsivity, aggression; 3 targets associated with cognitive functioning (cognitive rigidity, black-and-white thinking, thinking errors; and 4 targets reflecting a need to work with behavioral manifestations (narrow range of coping strategies used.

  20. Distress and academic achievement among adolescents of affluence: A study of externalizing and internalizing problem behaviors and school performance


    Ansary, Nadia S.; Luthar, Suniya S


    The main objectives of this study were to prospectively examine the relationship between externalizing (substance use and delinquency) and internalizing (depression and anxiety) dimensions and academic achievement (grades and classroom adjustment), as well as continuity over time in these domains, within a sample of wealthy adolescents followed from 10th to 12th grades (n = 256). In both parts of the study, cluster analyses were used to group participants at 10th grade and then group differen...

  1. Maternal Predictors of Rejecting Parenting and Early Adolescent Antisocial Behavior


    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.


    The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years. The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy. Each of the maternal resources predicted rejecting parenting during early childhood in structural equation models that controlled for toddler difficu...

  2. Neural correlates of social decision-making in severely antisocial adolescents. (United States)

    van den Bos, Wouter; Vahl, Pauline; Güro?lu, Berna; van Nunspeet, Félice; Colins, Olivier; Markus, Monica; Rombouts, Serge A R B; van der Wee, Nic; Vermeiren, Robert; Crone, Eveline A


    Neurobiological and behavioral findings suggest that the development of delinquent behavior is associated with atypical social-affective processing. However, to date, no study has examined neural processes associated with social interactions in severely antisocial adolescents. In this study we investigated the behavioral and neural processes underlying social interactions of juvenile delinquents and a matched control group. Participants played the mini-Ultimatum Game as a responder while in the MRI scanner. Participants rejected unfair offers significantly less when the other player had 'no alternative' compared with a 'fair' alternative, suggesting that they took the intentions of the other player into account. However, this effect was reduced in the juvenile delinquents. The neuroimaging results revealed that juvenile delinquents showed less activation in the temporal parietal junction (TPJ) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). However, the groups showed similar activation levels in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the right anterior insula (AI) when norms were violated. These results indicate that juvenile delinquents with severe antisocial behavior process norm violations adequately, but may have difficulties with attending spontaneously to relevant features of the social context during interactions. PMID:24493845

  3. Evaluating an Adolescent Behavioral Program: Leadership, Education, Achievement, and Development for Adolescent Female Offenders in Corrections. (United States)

    Panosky, Denise M; Shelton, Deborah


    This article reports the findings of a pilot study designed to: test the feasibility of implementation, assess implementation barriers, and determine the effectiveness of a modified evidence-based program designed for adolescent female offenders in a women's correctional facility in the United States. A therapeutic expressive arts behavioral program, Leadership, Education, Achievement and Development (LEAD), has been used in community settings as a health promotion program. This behavioral program was adapted to LEAD-Corrections (LEAD-C) and serves incarcerated adolescent female offenders. Results of this pilot study show that it is feasible to offer LEAD-C in a correctional setting. Positive effects were noted on session satisfaction surveys as well as formative and summative evaluations. Implementation of LEAD-C, using therapeutic expressive arts interventions, included coping strategies to help adolescents become confident and self-assured and review better choices. Adolescents were taught to utilize these learned coping strategies in their life, which may help to overcome adversity, enhance resilience, and support youth transition at the time of reentry to the community. PMID:26186153

  4. Overweight status, self-perception, and suicidal behaviors among adolescents. (United States)

    Dave, Dhaval; Rashad, Inas


    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among adolescents in the USA. The suicide rate for individuals 15-19 years of age, while having declined since the early 1990s, has recently shown signs of an increasing trend. The prevalence of being overweight has also steadily risen among adolescents, and has tripled since 1960. This study utilizes data from the Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance System (1999-2007) to explore the relationship between the perception of being overweight and suicidal behaviors. Studies have shown a high degree of correlation between overweight status, depressive disorders, and suicidal behaviors. This study analyzes these indicators in conjunction with individuals' perception of their weight. The empirical methodology is based on simultaneous-equations models and stratified samples to gauge whether the link between overweight indicators and suicide is causal or whether it is driven by other factors. Results indicate that body dissatisfaction, as measured by the perception of being overweight, has a strong impact on all suicidal behaviors for girls. It raises the risk of suicide ideation by 6.1 percentage points, suicide attempt by 3.6 percentage points, and a serious suicide attempt by 0.5 percentage points. Results are generally insignificant for males. Conditional on overweight perception, actual weight does not generally have an independent effect on suicidal behaviors. Policies aimed at reducing the prevalence of overweight among adolescents may further reduce suicidal behaviors by limiting overweight perception, especially among girls. However, the independent role of perception also highlights the importance of educating youths and fostering healthy attitudes regarding body image. PMID:19297063

  5. Perceived Parental Monitoring on Adolescence Premarital Sexual Behavior in Pontianak City, Indonesia

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    Linda Suwarni


    Full Text Available Inadaquate parental monitoring is widely recognized as a risk factor for the development of child and adolescent conduct problems, including early premarital sexual behavior. Previous studies examining parental monitoring have largely effect to adolescents premarital sexual behavior. Parental monitoring is the most important and effective factor to prevent early adolescents sexual activity. This paper examines the role of perceived parental monitoring in adolescent’s premarital sexual behavior (study on Adolescent’s Junior High School in Pontianak. A cross-sectional study and proportionated random sampling was conducted among 402 adolescents of junior high school at six subdistricts in Pontianak. SEM analyses was conducted using SMART-PLS. Result of path analysis revealed that parental knowledge (r = 0.389 and parental-adolescence relationship (r = 0.334 had a strong influence on parental monitoring. Then, parental monitoring had a significant indirect relationship with adolescent premarital sexual behavior through attitudes about premarital sexual (path coefficient = 0.063, and attitudes about premarital sexual and intention to sexual behaviour (path coefficient = 0.03. Parental monitoring can act as protective factor in early adolescent premarital sexual behavior. Therefore, risk reduction interventions with adolescents should include their parents to learn about monitoring skill and develop skill that will allow them to buffer negative influences.

  6. Perceived Parent-Adolescent Relationship, Perceived Parental Online Behaviors and Pathological Internet Use among Adolescents: Gender-Specific Differences


    Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Deng, Lin-Yuan


    This study examined the associations between adolescents’ perceived relationships with their parents, perceived parental online behaviors, and Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among adolescents. Additional testing was carried out to determine the effect of different genders (parent and adolescent). Cross-sectional data was collected from 4,559 students aged 12 to 21 years in the cities of Beijing and Jinan, People’s Republic of China. Participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire concer...

  7. Patterns of adolescent sexual behavior predicting young adult sexually transmitted infections: a latent class analysis approach. (United States)

    Vasilenko, Sara A; Kugler, Kari C; Butera, Nicole M; Lanza, Stephanie T


    Adolescent sexual behavior is multidimensional, yet most studies of the topic use variable-oriented methods that reduce behaviors to a single dimension. In this study, we used a person-oriented approach to model adolescent sexual behavior comprehensively, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We identified five latent classes of adolescent sexual behavior: Abstinent (39%), Oral Sex (10%), Low-Risk (25%), Multi-Partner Normative (12%), and Multi-Partner Early (13%). Membership in riskier classes of sexual behavior was predicted by substance use and depressive symptoms. Class membership was also associated with young adult STI outcomes although these associations differed by gender. Male adolescents' STI rates increased with membership in classes with more risky behaviors whereas females' rates were consistent among all sexually active classes. These findings demonstrate the advantages of examining adolescent sexuality in a way that emphasizes its complexity. PMID:24449152

  8. Defiance and Despair: Subcultural and Structural Linkages between Delinquency and Despair in the Life Course. (United States)

    Hagan, John


    A 19-year multiwave panel study (1976-95) in suburban Toronto (Ontario), tracking adolescents into their mid-30s, found a "sleeper effect" of adolescent rebellion. Delinquent youth dropped out of school; showed no significant signs of distress in early adulthood; but were frequently unemployed by midlife, with accompanying feelings of hopelessness…

  9. The Juvenile Counseling and Assessment Model and Program: A Conceptualization and Intervention for Juvenile Delinquency. (United States)

    Calhoun, Georgia B.; Glaser, Brian A.; Bartolomucci, Christi L.


    Presents a model of conceptualization and intervention for juvenile delinquency. Model includes the characteristics of the adolescent, ecological context in which the adolescent lives, and the interaction among these variables. Describes a specific integrated service, training, and research project based on the model. The project utilizes a…

  10. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorder

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    Didem Behice ÖZTOP


    Full Text Available Currently, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT becomes one of the leading approaches in the psychotherapy. However,use of CBT in childhood psychotherapy is considerably novel. After 1990s, it has been understood that it is an effectivemethod for children and adolescents. Anxiety disorders are one of the most common problems in the field of childhoodand adolescent psychiatry. In the studies conducted, the effectiveness of CBT was demonstrated in anxiety disorders ofthe children and adolescents. Moreover, it was suggested that this effectiveness is permanent in some studies. Prioritygoal of CBT is to change inappropriate learning and thinking patterns in the children and adolescents. By “now and here”fashion, it is attempted to reveal the origin of current problems. During the process, the factors are considered, whichcause to maintain the symptoms. It is attempted to decrease signs caused to stress by improving coping skills duringtherapy. To this end, methods including observation, relaxation training, systematic desensitization, social skills training,cognitive restructuring and exposure therapy are applied in sessions by taking child’s problems into consideration. Scalesspecific to anxiety disorders are used in the assessment and follow-up. Age and development level of the child should beparticularly taken into account while using assessment tools and therapeutic modality.

  11. Latino Adolescents Perception of Parenting Behaviors and Self-Esteem: Examining the Role of Neighborhood Risk (United States)

    Bamaca, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Shin, Nana; Alfaro, Edna C.


    We examined the relations among parenting behaviors, adolescents' self-esteem, and neighborhood risk with a Midwestern sample of 324 Latino adolescents. The findings suggest that boys' self-esteem is influenced by both mothers' and fathers' parenting behaviors, whereas girls' self-esteem is influenced by mothers' behaviors only. In addition, the…

  12. Exploring Filipino Adolescents' Perceptions of the Legitimacy of Parental Authority over Academic Behaviors (United States)

    Bernardo, Allan B. I.


    Filipino adolescents' perceptions regarding the legitimacy of parental control over academic behaviors was investigated. It was assumed that the adolescents would differentiate between the issues inherent in various types or domains of academic behaviors. The results revealed three domains of academic behaviors: learning processes, college major…

  13. Parental Behaviors during Family Interactions Predict Changes in Depression and Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence (United States)

    Schwartz, Orli S.; Dudgeon, Paul; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.


    This study investigated the prospective, longitudinal relations between parental behaviors observed during parent-adolescent interactions, and the development of depression and anxiety symptoms in a community-based sample of 194 adolescents. Positive and negative parental behaviors were examined, with negative behaviors operationalized to…

  14. Intrapersonal factors, social context and health-related behavior in adolescence


    Veselska, Zuzana,


    Patterns of health-compromising behaviors and their initiation and progression in adolescence are generally considered to be predictive of later involvement in such behaviors and exposure to their harmful consequences on health. Health-enhancing behaviors can be also traced back to childhood and adolescence. Empirical evidence supports the existence of several domains of determinants covering intrapersonal, interpersonal and socio-cultural areas of infl uence in adolescent healthrelated behav...

  15. Adolescent social defeat alters neural, endocrine and behavioral responses to amphetamine in adult male rats


    Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J; Forster, Gina L.; Watt, Michael J.


    The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which governs components of reward and goal-directed behaviors, undergoes final maturation during adolescence. Adolescent social stress contributes to adult behavioral dysfunction, and is linked to adult psychiatric and addiction disorders. Here, behavioral, corticosterone, and limbic dopamine responses to amphetamine were examined in adult male rats previously exposed to repeated social defeat stress during mid-adolescence. Amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, ip) w...

  16. Co-morbid disorders and sexual risk behavior in Nigerian adolescents with bipolar disorder


    Bakare Muideen O; Agomoh Ahamefule O; Ebigbo Peter O; Onyeama Gabriel M; Eaton Julian; Onwukwe Jojo U; Okonkwo Kevin O


    Abstract Background Adolescent onset bipolar disorder often presents with co-morbid disorders of which psychoactive substance use disorders are notable. Mania symptoms and co-morbid psychoactive substance use disorders prone adolescents with bipolar disorder to impulsivity, impaired judgment, and risk taking behavior which often includes sexual risk behavior. There are dearth of information on pattern of co-morbid disorders and sexual risk behavior in adolescent onset bipolar disorder in Nige...

  17. Caretaking Behaviors by Adolescent Children of Mothers With and Without a History of Depression


    Champion, Jennifer E.; Jaser, Sarah S.; Reeslund, Kristen L.; Simmons, Lauren; Potts, Jennifer E.; Shears, Angela R.; COMPAS, BRUCE E.


    In a sample of 72 mothers with and without a history of depression and their adolescent children, maternal depression history, current maternal depressive symptoms, intrusive and withdrawn parental behavior, and adolescent caretaking behaviors were examined as predictors of adjustment in these youth. Two types of caretaking behaviors were examined: emotional (e.g., caring for a parent’s emotional distress) and instrumental (e.g., looking after younger siblings). Although adolescents of mother...

  18. Treatment of delinquents.


    Sheldrick, C


    The medical role in the treatment of delinquency is a limited one. There is conflicting evidence as to whether treatment aims should be directed towards the individual, to the family, the institution, or the therapist. Nevertheless there seems to be a consensus of opinion that short term, focused therapies aimed at improving educational, vocational and social skills, possibly from a preschool age, are the most effective. Any treatment gains achieved while in residential care appear to be shor...

  19. Emotional Intelligence: An Untapped Resource for Alcohol and Other Drug Related Prevention among Adolescents and Adults


    Ken Russell Coelho


    Alcohol and Other Drug abuse in adolescents and adults continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. Care in intervention programs aimed at high risk populations identified occurs after the maladaptive behavioral delinquency has occurred, and only then is an individual afforded the opportunity to join an intervention program. The focus of this paper is to illustrate and highlight the value of prevention programs which emphasize altering maladaptive behavior before the be...

  20. HIV Prevention Intervention Outcome among Minority Adolescents in Court Mandated Drug Treatment


    Jessy Devieux; McMahon, Robert C.; Rhonda Rosenberg; Malow, Robert M


    Problem statement: Delinquent adolescents with substance abuse disorders frequently engage in behaviors that elevate their risk of contracting HIV. Although effective risk reduction interventions are urgently needed, there is uncertainty about the nature of interventions required to produce change. Approach:This study evaluated whether Modified version of Becoming A Responsible Teen (M-BART) produced greater reductions in drug use and sexual risk behaviors than an Anger Mana...

  1. Psychosocial Distress and Alcohol Use as Factors in Adolescent Sexual Behavior among Sub-Saharan African Adolescents (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Hall, Cougar P.


    Background: This study examines the relationship between sexual behavior, alcohol use, and indicators of psychosocial distress (mental health) of adolescents in 6 sub-Saharan African countries using the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS). Methods: The sample consisted of 22,949 adolescents from Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, Uganda,…

  2. A Meta-Analysis of the Predictors of Delinquency among Girls. (United States)

    Hubbard, Dana Jones; Pratt, Travis C.


    Presents the results of a meta-analysis of the predictors of female delinquency. Finds that most of the strong predictors of female delinquency are the same as those for males, including history of antisocial behavior, antisocial attitudes, antisocial peers, and antisocial personality. School and family relationships and a history of…

  3. The Mediating Effect of School Engagement in the Relationship between Youth Maltreatment and Juvenile Delinquency (United States)

    Bender, Kimberly


    Research consistently demonstrates that youths who experience maltreatment are at greater risk for committing delinquent behavior. Yet little is known about how to disrupt this maltreatment-delinquency relationship. Life course theory suggests that youths who bond with prosocial individuals and traditional institutions subscribe to prosocial norms…

  4. Special Education Disabilities and Juvenile Delinquency: A Unique Challenge for School Social Work (United States)

    Mallett, Christopher A.; Stoddard-Dare, Patricia; Workman-Crewnshaw, Lisa


    In pursuit of their mission to augment the educational process, school social workers provide service to special education students and to youths at risk for juvenile delinquency. This paper builds on previous literature that has looked at the relationship between special education disabilities and youths offending behaviors and delinquency. In…



    Frisco, Michelle L.


    High school students today have high ambitions but do not always make choices that maximize their likelihood of educational success. This is the motivation for investigating relationships between high school sexual behavior and two important academic attainment milestones: earning a high school diploma and enrollment in distinct postsecondary programs. Analysis of data from 7,915 National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988–1994 participants indicates that timing of sexual initiation, contra...

  6. A Test of Problem Behavior and Self-Medication Theories in Incarcerated Adolescent Males (United States)

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Penn, Joseph V.; Stein, L. A. R.; Lacher-Katz, Molly; Spirito, Anthony


    The purpose of this study is to examine the problem behavior and self-medication models of alcohol abuse in incarcerated male adolescents. Male adolescents (N = 56) incarcerated in a juvenile correction facility were administered a battery of psychological measures. Approximately 84% of adolescents with clinically significant alcohol-related…

  7. Predictors of Sexually Coercive Behavior in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescent Males (United States)

    Casey, Erin A.; Beadnell, Blair; Lindhorst, Taryn P.


    Data from male participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health are used to examine childhood predictors of late adolescent and early adulthood sexually coercive behavior and adolescent mediators of these relationships. A path analysis shows that experiencing sexual abuse as a child has a direct effect on perpetrating…

  8. Effects of Behavioral Weight Control Intervention on Binge Eating Symptoms among Overweight Adolescents (United States)

    Mehlenbeck, Robyn S.; Jelalian, Elissa; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Hart, Chantelle N.


    This study examined change in binge eating symptoms reported by moderately overweight adolescents following participation in a behavioral weight control intervention. A total of 194 adolescents across two randomized controlled trials participated. Adolescents in both study samples endorsed a mild level of binge eating symptoms at baseline. Results…

  9. Relationship between Eating Behavior, Breakfast Consumption, and Obesity among Finnish and Greek Adolescents (United States)

    Veltsista, Alexandra; Laitinen, Jaana; Sovio, Ulla; Roma, Eleftheria; Jarvelin, Marjo-Ritta; Bakoula, Chryssa


    Objective: To investigate the relationship between eating-related behaviors, particularly breakfast consumption, and weight status in Finnish and Greek adolescents. Methods: A total of 6,468 16-year-old Finnish adolescents and 2,842 17- and 18-year-old Greek adolescents, based on the latest follow-up of 2 population-based cohorts, were studied.…

  10. Adolescent Sexual Behavior, Pregnancy, and Parenting: Research through the 1980s. (United States)

    Miller, Brent C.; Moore, Kristin A.


    Summarizes research from the 1980s on topics of adolescent sexual activity, contraception, abortion, marriage, adoption, and childrearing. Emphasizes research about antecedents of adolescent sexual and contraceptive behavior because they are key risk factors in adolescent pregnancy. Notes advances in data and methods and highlights research gaps.…

  11. Parents as Role Models: Parental Behavior Affects Adolescents' Plans for Work Involvement (United States)

    Wiese, Bettina S.; Freund, Alexandra M.


    This study (N = 520 high-school students) investigates the influence of parental work involvement on adolescents' own plans regarding their future work involvement. As expected, adolescents' perceptions of parental work behavior affected their plans for own work involvement. Same-sex parents served as main role models for the adolescents' own…

  12. Sociocultural Influences on Weight-Related Behaviors in African American Adolescents. (United States)

    Tate, Nutrena H; Davis, Jean E; Yarandi, Hossein N


    The purpose of this study was to examine the sociocultural factors related to weight behaviors in African American adolescents utilizing a social ecological approach. A descriptive correlational design included a sample of 145 African American adolescents. Perceived familial socialization, ethnic identity, physical activity, and eating behavior patterns were measured. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlations, and multiple regression equations. Perceived maternal socialization was significantly related to adolescent eating behaviors and physical activity whereas perceived paternal socialization was significantly related only to their physical activity. The adolescents' ethnic identity was not significantly related to their eating behaviors or physical activity. Health care providers who work with adolescents and their families can use the initial findings from this study to encourage healthy weight-related behaviors while reducing the obesity epidemic within the African American adolescent population in a developmentally appropriate and culturally sensitive manner. PMID:24895047

  13. Eating disorder behaviors and attitudes in Japanese adolescent girls and boys in high schools. (United States)

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Noma, Shun'ichi; Nin, Kazuko; Teramukai, Satoshi; Wonderlich, Stephen A


    To investigate eating disorder behaviors and attitudes in adolescents, we administered the eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q) to Japanese adolescent girls and boys. The EDE-Q global scores in Japanese girls and boys, respectively, were significantly lower than those in girls and boys in previous studies. Objective binge eating episodes and extreme dietary restriction were the common behaviors, whereas self-induced vomiting and the misuse of laxatives were uncommon. Differences in the EDE-Q data between Japanese adolescents and adolescents in previous studies from Western countries suggest that there may be certain cultural differences in eating disorder psychopathology in adolescents. PMID:26455761

  14. Early Adolescence as a Critical Window During Which Social Stress Distinctly Alters Behavior and Brain Norepinephrine Activity


    Bingham, Brian; McFadden, Kile; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Bhatnagar, Seema; Beck, Sheryl; Valentino, Rita


    Many neural programs that shape behavior become established during adolescence. Adverse events at this age can have enduring consequences for both adolescent and adult mental health. Here we show that repeated social stress at different stages of adolescent development differentially affects rat behavior and neuronal activity. Early-adolescent (PND 28, EA), mid-adolescent (PND 42, MA), and adult (PND 63) rats were subjected to resident-intruder social stress (7 days) and behavior was examined...

  15. A Case Control Study of Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior and Its Relationship to Personality Dimensions, Conduct Disorder, and Substance Use. (United States)

    Bryan, Angela; Stallings, Michael C.


    Examined linkages between novelty seeking, as defined by C. Cloninger (1986), harm avoidance, and reward dependence dimensions and risky sexual behavior among 200 boys in treatment for substance abuse and delinquency compared to 200 boys recruited from the community. Analyses indicate that differences in personality failed to account for observed…

  16. Three-ear Iatrogenic Effects Associated with Aggregating High-Risk Adolescents in Cognitive-Behavioral Preventive Interventions. (United States)

    Poulin, Francois; Dishion, Thomas J.; Burraston, Bert


    This article focuses on three-year outcomes associated with a preventive intervention trial in which high-risk youth were aggregated into cognitive-behavioral groups. Analyses of covariance and latent growth modeling revealed that the intervention contributed to three-year escalations in self-reported smoking and teacher-reported delinquency.…

  17. Adolescent boys and girls with behavioral disorders in residential homes: A camera-glasses study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wettstein


    Full Text Available Children and adolescents with behavioral disorders are often referred to residential homes. These homes cater and treat socially disadvantaged adolescents with a history of deviant behavior. This study investigated the environment of eight adolescents in these residential homes and four non-aggressive adolescents living with their families. The daily activities were recorded by using camera-glasses attached to the subject. These activities took place in school, leisure time, family and residential homes. Other additional methods were used to investigate the perception and experience of these adolescents. The results of this study indicate that the adolescents in residential homes have a smaller living space in contrast to the non-aggressive adolescents. They also have less close relationships and fewer interactions with their peers. Moreover they have more conflicts and show more often aggressive behavior and they are more often victims of aggression.

  18. Risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents of parents with a chronic medical condition


    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Oort, Frans Jeroen; Meijer, Anne Marie


    A wide array of risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents with chronically ill parents emerges from the literature. This study aims to identify those factors with the highest impact on internalizing problem behavior (anxious, depressed and withdrawn behavior, and somatic complaints) and externalizing problem behavior (aggressive and rule-breaking behavior) as measured by the Youth Self-Report (YSR). The YSR was filled in by 160 adolescents (mean age = 15.1 years) from 100 families (102...

  19. Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas. (United States)

    Shaw, Clifford R.; McKay, Henry D.

    A revision of a work published in 1929, the book updates data on delinquency in Chicago. Findings revealed that rates of delinquents and commitments vary consistently, low rates reflect the existence of a stable institutional structure, a high incidence of deliquency indicates a breakdown of machinery through which population needs are met, high…

  20. Family Material Hardship and Chinese Adolescents’ Problem Behaviors: A Moderated Mediation Analysis


    Sun, Wenqiang; Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Bao, Zhenzhou; WANG, YANHUI


    In the current study, we examined a moderated mediation model using the risk and resilience framework. Specifically, the impact of family material hardship on adolescent problem behaviors was examined in a Chinese sample; we used the family stress model framework to investigate parental depression and negative parenting as potential mediators of the relation between family material hardship and adolescents’ problem behaviors. In addition, based on resilience theory, we investigated adolescent...

  1. Does Distance Matter? Access to Family Planning Clinics and Adolescent Sexual Behaviors


    Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Remer, Lillian


    The study examines the relationship between adolescent geographic access (distance, travel time, density) to Family Planning Clinics and adolescent sexual behaviors, including sexual initiation, number of partners and condom use. This cross-sectional study, conducted in 2005 in 10 California counties, utilized data from NICHD-funded study on adolescent sexual behavior (n = 921), geospatial coordinates of publicly-funded FPCs, and neighborhood characteristics. A series of regression models wer...

  2. Childhood Maltreatment, Psychological Dysregulation, and Risky Sexual Behaviors in Female Adolescents


    Noll, Jennie G.; Haralson, Katherine J.; Butler, Erica M.; Shenk, Chad E.


    Objective?Maltreated female adolescents are at risk for engaging in sexual behaviors consistent with HIV infection and teen pregnancy. The current study applied a model positing the key role of psychological dysregulation in the development of adolescent females’ sexual behavior.?Methods?The sample consisted of adolescent females aged 14–17 years who had experienced substantiated childhood maltreatment (n?=?275) and a demographically matched, non-maltreated comparison group (n?=?210).?Results...

  3. On Early Starters and Late Bloomers: The Development of Sexual Behavior in Adolescence Across Personality Types


    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, GeertJan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Aken, Marcel A. G.


    Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adolescents would engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior compared to their resilient and overcontrolling peers. Data were used from 407 mid-adolescents (Mage = 14.5) followed across f...

  4. Predicting Aggression among Male Adolescents: an Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior


    Mari Ataee; Farzad Jalilian; Mehdi MirzaeiAlavijeh; Abbas Aghaei; Kambiz Karimzadeh Shirazi


    Background: Aggressive behavior in adolescence can be expressed as a predictor for crime, substance abuse, depression and academic failure. The purpose of this study was to determine the prediction of aggression among Iranian adolescent based on theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a theoretical framework. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Yasuj County, south of Iran, during 2011, a total of 256 male adolescents, were randomly enrolled. Participants filled out a self-admi...

  5. Does Problem Behavior Elicit Poor Parenting?: A Prospective Study of Adolescent Girls


    Huh, David; Tristan, Jennifer; Wade, Emily; Stice, Eric


    This study tested the hypothesis that perceived parenting would show reciprocal relations with adolescents' problem behavior using longitudinal data from 496 adolescent girls. Results provided support for the assertion that female problem behavior has an adverse effect on parenting; elevated externalizing symptoms and substance abuse symptoms predicted future decreases in perceived parental support and control. There was less support for the assertion that parenting deficits foster adolescent...

  6. Adolescent male rats exposed to social defeat exhibit altered anxiety behavior and limbic monoamines as adults


    Watt, Michael J; Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.


    Social stress in adolescence is correlated with emergence of psychopathologies during early adulthood. In this study, we investigated the impact of social defeat stress during mid-adolescence on adult male brain and behavior. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to repeated social defeat for five days while controls were placed into a novel empty cage. When exposed to defeat-associated cues as adults, previously defeated rats showed increased risk assessment and behavioral inhibit...

  7. Stability of executive function and predictions to adaptive behavior from middle childhood to pre-adolescence


    MadelineHarms; VivianZayas; AndrewMeltzoff


    The shift from childhood to adolescence is characterized by rapid remodeling of the brain and increased risk-taking behaviors. Current theories hypothesize that developmental enhancements in sensitivity to affective environmental cues in adolescence may undermine executive function (EF) and increase the likelihood of problematic behaviors. In the current study, we examined the extent to which EF in childhood predicts EF in early adolescence. We also tested whether individual differences in ne...

  8. Adolescent Health-Risk Sexual Behaviors: Effects of a Drug Abuse Intervention


    Hops, Hyman; Ozechowski, Timothy J.; Waldron, Holly B.; Davis, Betsy; Turner, Charles W.; Brody, Janet L.; Barrera, Manuel


    Adolescents who abuse substances are more likely to engage in health-risking sexual behavior (HRSB) and are at particularly high risk for HIV/AIDS. Thus, substance abuse treatment presents a prime opportunity to target HIV-risk behaviors. The present study evaluated a one-session HIV-risk intervention embedded in a controlled clinical trial for drug-abusing adolescents. The trial was conducted in New Mexico and Oregon with Hispanic and Anglo adolescents. Youths were randomly assigned to indiv...

  9. Eventos estressores no desenvolvimento de meninas adolescentes cumprindo medidas sócio-educativas / stressful events on the development of delinquent adolescent girls

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Débora Dalbosco, Dell' Aglio; Sílvia Pereira da Cruz, Benetti; Luciana, Deretti; Daniela Bergesch, D' Incao; Joana Severo, Leon.


    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou a ocorrência de eventos estressores no desenvolvimento de 50 adolescentes autoras de ato infracional, com idade entre 13 e 20 anos, que cumpriam medida sócio-educativa em órgão governamental. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas e de uma versão ada [...] ptada do Inventário de Eventos Estressores na Adolescência (IEEA). Foram identificados eventos estressores em diferentes domínios, como a ocorrência de maus-tratos, abuso sexual, uso de drogas, repetência escolar, desemprego e morte dos pais, que se constituem como fatores de risco no seu desenvolvimento. Estes aspectos revelam um ciclo de violência presente na trajetória destas adolescentes, no período anterior ao ato infracional. Abstract in english This study investigated stressful events present during the development of 50 adolescent girls who had problems with the law, aged 13 to 20 years old and who were in a governmental shelter. Data was collected using a semi-structured interview and an adapted version of the Adolescence Stressful Event [...] s Inventory (IEEA). Stressful events in different areas such as child maltreatment, sexual abuse, drugs, school failure, death and unemployed parents were identified, which are risk factors in their development. These aspects reveal the presence of a violence cycle during the adolescent's trajectory, before institutionalization.

  10. Intervention in juvenile delinquency : Danger of iatrogenic effects?


    Mathys, Cécile; Born, Michel


    The present article reviews the literature on juvenile delinquency intervention programs with a special focus on the iatrogenic effects of such programs. Indeed, the greater the number of adolescents with the same type of problems who are grouped in the same place, the higher the likelihood that their undesirable behavioural patterns will be reinforced. We also provide evidence for a number of factors that can prevent this deviant peer contagion effect and therefore optimise the p...

  11. Stress, Cortisol, and Externalizing Behavior in Adolescent Males: An Examination in the Context of Multisystemic Therapy (United States)

    Schechter, Julia C.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth


    Stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age = 15) receiving…

  12. The Utility of Emergency Room Data for Record Linkage in the Study of Adolescent Suicidal Behavior. (United States)

    Deykin, Eva Y.


    Employed record linkage using emergency room logs to study adolescent suicidal behavior. Compared suicidal patients to age- and sex-matched adolescents being treated for reasons unrelated to suicidal behavior. Found suicidal subjects had higher risk of contact with state Department of Social Services, organization which devotes 90 percent of…

  13. Methamphetamine Use Is Independently Associated with Recent Risky Sexual Behaviors and Adolescent Pregnancy (United States)

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Hillis, Susan D.; Marchbanks; Polly A.; Curtis, Kathryn M.; Lowry, Richard


    Background: Lifetime methamphetamine use among adolescents is estimated to be between 5% and 10%. Youth substance use in general is known to be associated with risky sexual behaviors, but the effect of methamphetamine use on recent risky sexual behaviors and adolescent pregnancy has received little attention. The purpose of this analysis was to…

  14. Using the Integrative Model to Explain How Exposure to Sexual Media Content Influences Adolescent Sexual Behavior (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy


    Published research demonstrates an association between exposure to media sexual content and a variety of sex-related outcomes for adolescents. What is not known is the mechanism through which sexual content produces this "media effect" on adolescent beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this…

  15. Parents' Behavioral Norms as Predictors of Adolescent Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use. (United States)

    Baker, Sharon A.; And Others


    Used clustered sample household survey of 329 males and females aged 14 to 17, and 470 of their parents to examine influence of parental factors on adolescent sexual behavior and contraceptive use. Found parents' reported behavioral norms accounted for 5% of variance in whether adolescents had had intercourse, and for 33% of variance in…

  16. Perceived Parental Behavior and Peer Affiliations among Urban African American Adolescents (United States)

    Nebbitt, Von E.; Lombe. Margaret; Lindsey, Michael A.


    This article examines the role of parenting behavior in adolescents' peer group formation using a sample of 238 African American adolescents living in urban public housing projects. The study also assesses the moderating effect of age and gender on the relationship between parenting behavior and peer affiliations. Girls reported significantly…

  17. Treatment Adherence, Competence, and Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems (United States)

    Hogue, Aaron; Henderson, Craig E.; Dauber, Sarah; Barajas, Priscilla C.; Fried, Adam; Liddle, Howard A.


    This study examined the impact of treatment adherence and therapist competence on treatment outcome in a controlled trial of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for adolescent substance use and related behavior problems. Participants included 136 adolescents (62 CBT, 74 MDFT) assessed at intake,…

  18. Cognitive and Parenting Pathways in the Transmission of Antisocial Behavior from Parents to Adolescents (United States)

    Dogan, Shannon J.; Conger, Rand D.; Kim, Kee Jeong; Masyn, Katherine E.


    This study examined the role of adolescent perceptions of parental behavior and disrupted parenting in the continuity of antisocial behavior across generations. Participants included 430 adolescents and their biological parents assessed during the period from the 9th to 12th grades (9th grade age in years: M=15.09, SD=0.43). Structural equation…

  19. Assessing School Effects on Dental Hygiene and Nutrition Behaviors of Canadian Adolescents (United States)

    Ma, Xin


    This study examines what school experiences influence dental hygiene and nutrition behaviors of Canadian adolescents from the 1998 Cross-national Survey on Health Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC). Multilevel analyses highlight the rare use of dental floss among adolescents. Females are more likely to brush and floss teeth than males.…

  20. Family Sex Communication and the Sexual Desire, Attitudes, and Behavior of Late Adolescents (United States)

    Zamboni, Brian D.; Silver, Rachel


    Parental sex education might promote healthy sexual behavior among adolescents, but some parents assume that family communication about sex will lead to sexual activity. Family sex communication has been studied with a limited range of adolescent sexual behaviors but not sexual fantasy or desire. Two measures of family sex communication were…

  1. Changing Multiple Adolescent Health Behaviors through School-Based Interventions: A Review of the Literature (United States)

    Busch, Vincent; de Leeuw, Johannes Rob Josephus; de Harder, Alinda; Schrijvers, Augustinus Jacobus Petrus


    Background: In approaches to health promotion in adolescents, unhealthy behaviors are no longer regarded as independent processes, but as interrelated. This article presents a systematic literature review of school-based interventions targeting multiple adolescent behaviors simultaneously. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed…

  2. Therapist Strategies for Building Involvement in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression (United States)

    Jungbluth, Nathaniel J.; Shirk, Stephen R.


    This study examined predictive relations between 9 therapist behaviors and client involvement in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Analyses included 42 adolescents who met criteria for a depressive disorder (major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or adjustment disorder with depressed mood) and who were…

  3. Rates of Self-Reported Delinquency among Western Australian Male and Female High School Students: The Male-Female Gender Gap (United States)

    Houghton, Stephen; Tan, Carol; Khan, Umneea; Carroll, Annemaree


    The Adapted Self-Report Delinquency Scale (ASDS) was administered to 328 adolescents (174 males and 154 females) from eight high schools in Perth, Western Australia. The ages of the sample ranged from 13 to 17 years. Males reported a greater percentage level of involvement than females in 36 of 40 individual delinquent behaviours comprising the…

  4. Relationships of Pubertal Development among Early Adolescents to Sexual and Nonsexual Risk Behaviors and Caregivers' Parenting Behaviors (United States)

    Koo, Helen P.; Rose, Allison; Bhaskar, Brinda; Walker, Leslie R.


    Using a school-based sample of fifth graders (mean age = 10.38, SD = 0.66) and their parents (N = 408) from Washington, D.C., the authors examine associations of pubertal development with early adolescents' sexual and nonsexual risk behaviors and their caregivers' parenting behaviors and of these risk behaviors with parenting behaviors. Results…

  5. Parent-adolescent sexual communication and its association with adolescent sexual behaviors: a nationally representative analysis in the Netherlands. (United States)

    de Looze, Margaretha; Constantine, Norman A; Jerman, Petra; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; ter Bogt, Tom


    Sexual communication is a principal means of transmitting sexual values, beliefs, expectations, and knowledge from parents to children. Although this area has received considerable research attention, more studies with representative samples are needed to assure that findings are reflective of populations of interest. A nationally representative sample of parent-adolescent dyads (N = 2,965; mean adolescent age = 13.8 years) in the Netherlands was employed to examine the frequency of parent-adolescent sexual communication and its association with adolescent sexual behaviors (defined as sexual initiation, condom use, and contraceptive pill use). Nine communication topics in the areas of anatomy, relationships and rights, and protection and contraception were examined. In all, 75%of parents reported having discussed at least one topic multiple times with their adolescents. Romantic relationships were discussed most frequently. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses indicated that parent-adolescent sexual communication on protection and contraception was positively associated with adolescent sexual initiation and contraceptive pill use but not condom use. This may reflect that adolescents, when they become sexually active, are more likely to discuss sexuality with their parents. Findings are interpreted within the context of Dutch culture, which is generally accepting of adolescent sexuality and characterized by open sexual communication. PMID:24512029

  6. Parent-Adolescent Conflict as Sequences of Reciprocal Negative Emotion: Links with Conflict Resolution and Adolescents' Behavior Problems. (United States)

    Moed, Anat; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Eisenberg, Nancy; Hofer, Claire; Losoya, Sandra; Spinrad, Tracy L; Liew, Jeffrey


    Although conflict is a normative part of parent-adolescent relationships, conflicts that are long or highly negative are likely to be detrimental to these relationships and to youths' development. In the present article, sequential analyses of data from 138 parent-adolescent dyads (adolescents' mean age was 13.44, SD = 1.16; 52 % girls, 79 % non-Hispanic White) were used to define conflicts as reciprocal exchanges of negative emotion observed while parents and adolescents were discussing "hot," conflictual issues. Dynamic components of these exchanges, including who started the conflicts, who ended them, and how long they lasted, were identified. Mediation analyses revealed that a high proportion of conflicts ended by adolescents was associated with longer conflicts, which in turn predicted perceptions of the "hot" issue as unresolved and adolescent behavior problems. The findings illustrate advantages of using sequential analysis to identify patterns of interactions and, with some certainty, obtain an estimate of the contingent relationship between a pattern of behavior and child and parental outcomes. These interaction patterns are discussed in terms of the roles that parents and children play when in conflict with each other, and the processes through which these roles affect conflict resolution and adolescents' behavior problems. PMID:25358960

  7. Conducta suicida adolescencia y riesgo / Suicidal behavior, adolescent, and risk

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alba, Cortés Alfaro.


    Full Text Available Introducción: en la actualidad el suicidio constituye la tercera causa de muerte a nivel mundial en los adolescentes entre 11 y 18 años y en Cuba ocupa la tercera causa de muerte en las edades de 10 a 19 años. Este evento ocurre con mayor frecuencia en los varones, sin distinción de color de la piel [...] ni clase social. Cuando un adolescente se suicida o intenta suicidarse, todo el mundo se ve afectado, familiares, amigos, compañeros, vecinos y a veces personas que ni siquiera conocían o conocen al adolescente. El adolescente que intenta suicidarse puede experimentar sentimientos de dolor, confusión y culpa. Objetivo: profundizar en la problemática de la conducta suicida en los adolescentes por ser una etapa de vulnerabilidad y riesgo. Método: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica donde se consultaron las bases de datos incluidas en los servicios LILACS, EBSCO e HINARI, y se alcanzó muy buena cobertura, tanto en Cuba, en Latinoamérica y el Caribe, como en el resto del mundo. Desarrollo: se exponen las características generales de los adolescentes sanos y factores de riesgo que los hacen vulnerables a tener una conducta suicida, lo cual permite una reflexión sobre el tema para contribuir a su prevención, especialmente desde el nivel primario de atención de salud. Conclusiones: la conducta suicida en los adolescentes constituye un serio problema de salud que debe ser afrontado por los diferentes elementos de la sociedad ya que intervienen factores individuales de la familia y de la comunidad. Abstract in english Introduction: nowadays suicide is the third leading cause of death worldwide among adolescents of 11 and 18 years of age. In Cuba, it occupies the third leading cause of death for ages 10 to 19. This event occurs most frequently in men, regardless of skin color or social class. When a teenager commi [...] ts suicide or attempts suicide, everyone is affected, relatives, friends, colleagues, neighbors, and sometimes even people who met or have met him or her. The teenager who attempts suicide may experience feelings of grief, confusion, and guilt. Objective: to deepen the problem of suicidal behavior in adolescents since it is a stage of vulnerability and risk. Method: a literature review was conducted in databases as LILACS, HINARI and EBSCO. Very good coverage was achieved, in Cuba, Latin America, the Caribbean, as in the rest of the world. Development: general characteristics of healthy adolescents and risk factors making them vulnerable of having suicidal behavior are discussed. These features allow reflection on the subject to contribute to prevention, especially from primary health care. Conclusions: suicidal behavior in adolescents is a serious health problem that must be addressed by the various elements of society, individual factors, involved family, and community.


    Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Guptarak, Marisa; Wichajarn, Monjun; Yungyuankul, Sawang; Khampan, Ratchaneekorn; Grimes, Deanna E; Grimes, Richard M


    Early initiation of sexual intercourse has been associated with negative consequences, such as higher rates of unwanted pregnancy and HIV infection. This study examined the attitudes and behavior of rural Thai adolescent students aged 16 to 20 years from northern Thailand regarding sexual intercourse. Differences between participants who previously had sexual intercourse and those who had not were explored. Those who had not previously had sexual intercourse were asked about the reasons why they had not had sex, their future plans for having sex and their dating experiences. More than 70% of participants stated they had not previously had sexual intercourse but one third of this group reported engaging in other sexual behavior. There were significant differences by gender, religion, ethnicity, and household income between those who had previously had sex and those who had not. Among those who had not previously had sexual intercourse, concern for their parents' feelings was the most common reason for delaying intercourse. About two-thirds of this group had plans not to have sexual intercourse until after marriage; nearly half of them reported currently having a boyfriend/girlfriend. Interventions aimed at delaying sexual intercourse should involve adolescents in their design and include their attitudes for delaying intercourse. Because of many gender differences seen in our study, interventions should be designed differently for males and females in rural northern Thailand. PMID:26466430

  9. The Influence of Parental Communication and Perception of Peers on Adolescent Sexual Behavior. (United States)

    Sneed, Carl D; Tan, Huey Peing; Meyer, Jacob C


    The authors used the theory of planned behavior to examine the influence of parents and peers on early adolescent sexual attitudes, self-efficacy to limit sexual behavior, and behavioral intentions to have vaginal intercourse. Adolescents (N = 212) provided self-reports of their perception of parent and peer attitudes regarding sexual behavior. The authors used bivariate and regression analyses to examine the relation between parent and peer attitudes with adolescent sexual attitudes, self-efficacy to limit sexual behavior, and behavioral intentions to have vaginal intercourse. Although there were gender differences, the analyses revealed the importance of both parents and peers on adolescent sexual attitudes, self-efficacy to limit sexual behavior, and intentions to have vaginal sex in the next year. PMID:25951343

  10. Co-occurrence of risk behaviors among Spanish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meneses, Carmen


    Full Text Available This work examines the co-occurrence of risk behaviors among Spanish adolescents. The analyzed behaviors were sexual activity, the use of alcohol and other drugs, violent conduct and behaviors related to driving mopeds or scooters. The sample consisted of 4,091 adolescents between the ages of 13 to 18, all of them enrolled in one of the four compulsory years of secondary education, the approximate equivalents of the 7th to 10th grades in the US educational system. Cluster analysis indicates that there are four risk profiles, one of which is the profile with the greatest risk and the highest co-occurrence of risk behaviors. This group represents 13% of the sample and is noteworthy for using illegal drugs, driving under the influence of drugs and other activities carried out under the influence of alcohol. Differences have been found among the various profiles according to sociodemographic characteristics such as sex, grade, perception of the family’s economic situation and ethnicity. The findings are discussed and some suggestions are given for prevention intervention.

    Este trabajo examina la concurrencia de comportamientos de riesgo en adolescentes españoles. Los comportamientos analizados fueron la actividad sexual, el consumo de alcohol y otras drogas, conductas violentas y comportamientos en la conducción de ciclomotores o motocicletas. La muestra incluye 4.091 adolescentes de 13 a 18 años, perteneciente a educación secundaria obligatoria. Los resultados obtenidos muestran cuatro perfiles de riesgo, siendo uno de ellos el perfil de más alto riesgo y concurrencia de comportamientos arriesgados. Este grupo supone el 13% en el que destacan las conductas de consumo de drogas lícitas, conducir bajo los efectos de droga y otras conductas realizadas bajo los efectos del alcohol. Se encuentran diferencias entre estos perfiles y las características sociodemográficas como el sexo, el curso, la percepción sobre la economía familiar y la etnicidad. Se discuten los resultados obtenidos y se ofrece algunas sugerencias para la prevención.

  11. Aggression and disruptive behavior disorders in children and adolescents. (United States)

    Turgay, Atilla


    Aggression is a common symptom of many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, Tourette's disorder, mood disorders (including bipolar disorder), substance-related disorders, alcohol-related disorders, mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorders, intermittent explosive disorder and personality disorders (particularly antisocial personality disorder). Many forms of organic brain disorders may present with aggressive behavior. Aggression is common in some epileptic patients and some endocrinological diseases (e.g., diabetes and hyperthyroidism) may be associated with aggressive behavior. Physicians need to rule out many medical and psychiatric disorders before diagnosing aggressive behavior. A thorough diagnostic work up is the most important step in determining the nature of comorbid disorders associated with the behavioral problem. Structured interviews and rating scales completed by patients, parents, teachers and clinicians may aid the diagnosis and provide quantification for the change process related to treatment. The integration of medication, individual and family counseling, educational and psychosocial interventions including the school and community, may increase the effectiveness of interventions. Due to the common association of aggression and disruptive behaviors with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, psychostimulants including new generation long-acting medications and other nonstimulant medications are considered the drug of choice for managing aggressive behavior and disruptive behavior disorders. Severe aggressive behavior not responding to these medications may require the single or combined use of mood regulators including lithium and/or antispychotic medications. Drugs such as risperidone (Risperdal, Janssen-Cilag) have documented effectiveness and safety in children and adolescents, and can be used in treatment. PMID:15853581

  12. The stability of externalizing behavior in boys from preschool age to adolescence: A person-oriented analysis


    Mark Stemmler; Friedrich Lösel


    The continuity of externalizing behaviors such as aggression, delinquency and hyperactivity has been noted by many researchers. There is also increasing knowledge on different developmental subtypes of problem behavior. In previous person-oriented analyses we found two types of externalizing problems in boys (Stemmler et al., 2005, 2008; Stemmler & Lösel, 2010). One pattern contained externalizing problems only, whereas the other type showed both externalizing and internalizing problems. The ...

  13. Chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency: A longitudinal examination. (United States)

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Semanchin Jones, Annette


    Neglect is the most common form of maltreatment in the United States, yet its impact on development remains understudied, especially for chronic neglect. Chronic neglect is also one of the most costly burdens on child welfare systems. This study examines the effects of chronic neglect, including two subtypes (Failure to Provide and Lack of Supervision) on adolescent aggression and delinquency using a diverse longitudinal sample of youth. Chronic neglect and chronic failure to provide (ages 0-12) predicted aggression/delinquency (age 14) even after controlling for the effects of other maltreatment (ages 0-12). Chronic lack of supervision, however, did not. Gender significantly moderated these effects, suggesting that males are more likely to respond to neglect by becoming aggressive/delinquent. Finally, social problems (age 12) partially mediated for boys, and fully mediated for girls, the connections between chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency, bolstering theorizing that neglect impairs social functioning broadly. Implications include the need for further research on chronic neglect, especially in providing guidance for child welfare systems. Interventions for chronically neglected youth should include social skill development. PMID:25910418

  14. Peer rejection in childhood, involvement with antisocial peers in early adolescence, and the development of externalizing behavior problems


    LAIRD, ROBERT D.; Jordan, Kristi Y.; Dodge, Kenneth. A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.


    A longitudinal, prospective design was used to examine the roles of peer rejection in middle childhood and antisocial peer involvement in early adolescence in the development of adolescent externalizing behavior problems. Both early starter and late starter pathways were considered. Classroom sociometric interviews from ages 6 through 9 years, adolescent reports of peers' behavior at age 13 years, and parent, teacher, and adolescent self-reports of externalizing behavior problems from age 5 t...

  15. Review of Problems of Adolescent Sexual Behavior and the Role of Millennium Development Goals 4, 5 and 6 in Nigeria


    Prosper Adogu; Ifeoma Udigwe; Gerald Udigwe; Chika Ubajaka


    Introduction: The problems of adolescents’ sexual behavior are grave and far-reaching. Methods: Review of exiting literature via Google scholar, AJOL, Pubmed, HINARI and other relevant data bases on the common problems of adolescents’ inappropriate sexual behavior. Result: Adolescent sexual behavior could result in adolescent pregnancy which prevalence varies widely throughout Nigeria perhaps due to differences in culture and development. Abortion, the willful terminati...

  16. Delinquency, Child Abuse, and Suggestions to Stomp Out Violence. (United States)

    Neely, Margery A.

    Studies have traced a possible link between patterns of family interaction, faulty socialization, child abuse, and delinquent behavior. Counselors can respond to the needs of society to reduce violence by their access to the research on human development and in their work with families and children. Some types of discipline and parental attitudes…

  17. Inter-relationships between health risk behaviors in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Batista Martins Barbosa


    Full Text Available The elevated proportion of adolescents with multiple risk factors for cardiovascular diseases suggests that there are strict relationships between several different types of health risk behavior that predispose towards the emergence of these factors. The objective of the present study was to analyze possible relationships between health risk behaviors in adolescent schoolchildren from the city of João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. The study sample comprised 2,768 adolescent secondary schoolchildren (1,222 boys and 1,546 girls, aged 14 to 18 years. The following factors were analyzed: i sociodemographic data: sex, age, economic class and parents’ educational level; ii health risk behaviors: physical inactivity ( ABSTRACT A elevada proporção de adolescentes com fatores de risco para as doenças cardiovasculares, de forma agregada, sugere uma relação estreita entre diversos comportamentos de risco à saúde que predispõem ao desencadeamento desses fatores. O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar as possíveis associações entre comportamentos de risco à saúde em adolescentes escolares da cidade de João Pessoa - PB. A amostra consistiu de 2.768 adolescentes escolares do ensino médio (1.222 rapazes e 1.546 moças, de 14 a 18 anos de idade. Foram analisados os seguintes aspectos: i sociodemográfi cos: sexo, idade, classe econômica e escolaridade dos pais; ii comportamentos de risco à saúde: inatividade física (<37kcal/kg/dia, baixa freqüência de consumo de frutas e verduras (<5dias/semana, fumo e bebidas alcoólicas (?1vez/semana. A inatividade física se associou positivamente com a baixa freqüência de consumo de frutas (RP=1,10; IC95%=1,01-1,19 e verduras (RP=1,16; IC95%=1,07-1,26. A probabilidade de apresentar baixa freqüência de consumo de frutas foi aproximadamente duas vezes mais elevada (RP=1,89; IC95%=1,70-2,10 nos adolescentes que referiam consumir verduras <5dias/semana. Consumir bebidas alcoólicas aumentava em 15 vezes (RP=15,0; IC95%= 6,7-33,7 a chance de um adolescente ser fumante. Os comportamentos de risco à saúde se mostraram estreitamente associados, o que reforça a necessidade dos programas de promoção da saúde intervirem sobre diversos comportamentos de risco de forma simultânea.

  18. A review of parenting and adolescent sexual behavior: The moderating role of gender


    Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J.; Sterrett, Emma; McKee, Laura


    In spite of the established link between parenting and adolescent sexual risk behavior, less is known about the role of adolescent gender as a potential moderator of this association. This literature review integrates findings from 24 studies to examine gender as a moderator of the link between parenting and youth sexual risk behavior. Despite the wide variability in methodology across the reviewed studies, findings suggest that monitoring may be more protective against sexual risk behavior f...

  19. Characteristics of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Adolescence Influence Sexual Risk Behavior in Adulthood


    Senn, Theresa E; CAREY, MICHAEL P.; VANABLE, PETER A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite


    Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse has been associated with subsequent (adult) sexual risk behavior, but the effects of force and type of sexual abuse on sexual behavior outcomes have been less well-studied. The present study investigated the associations between sexual abuse characteristics and later sexual risk behavior, and explored whether gender of the child/adolescent moderated these relations. Patients attending an STD clinic completed a computerized survey that assessed history of ...

  20. Perceptions of Problem Behavior in Adolescents’ Families: Perceiver, Target, and Family Effects


    Manders, Willeke A.; Jan M. A. M. Janssens; Cook, William L.; Oud, Johan H. L.; Bruyn, Eric E. J. de; Scholte, Ron H. J.


    Considerable research has focused on the reliability and validity of informant reports of family behavior, especially maternal reports of adolescent problem behavior. None of these studies, however, has based their orientation on a theoretical model of interpersonal perception. In this study we used the social relations model (SRM) to examine family members’ reports of each others’ externalizing and internalizing problem behavior. Two parents and two adolescents in 69 families rated each othe...

  1. Preschool Externalizing Behavior Predicts Gender-Specific Variation in Adolescent Neural Structure


    Caldwell, Jessica Z. K.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Hanson, Jamie L.; Sutterer, Matthew J.; Stodola, Diane E.; Koenigs, Michael; Kalin, Ned H.; Marilyn J. Essex; Davidson, Richard J


    Dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus is believed to underlie the development of much psychopathology. However, to date only limited longitudinal data relate early behavior with neural structure later in life. Our objective was to examine the relationship of early life externalizing behavior with adolescent brain structure. We report here the first longitudinal study linking externalizing behavior during preschool to brain structure during adolescence. We examined th...

  2. Specificity of Early Movie Effects on Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Alcohol Use


    O’Hara, Ross E.; Gibbons, Frederick X; Li, Zhigang; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D


    Adolescents’ movie sex exposure (MSE) and movie alcohol exposure (MAE) have been shown to influence later sexual behavior and drinking, respectively. No study to date, however, has tested whether these effects generalize across behaviors. This study examined the concurrent influences of early (i.e., before age 16) MSE and MAE on subsequent risky sex and alcohol use among a national sample of 1,228 U.S. adolescents. Participants reported their health behaviors and movie viewing up to six times...

  3. Relationships Between Future Orientation, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and Risk Behavior Among Adjudicated Adolescents


    Robbins, Reuben N.; Bryan, Angela


    Because of high levels of risk behavior, adjudicated adolescents are at high risk for negative health outcomes such as nicotine and drug addiction and sexually transmitted diseases. The goal of this article is to examine relationships between future orientation and impulsive-sensation-seeking personality constructs to risk behaviors among 300 adjudicated adolescents. Significant relationships between impulsive sensation seeking and future orientation were found for several risk behaviors. Ind...

  4. Impact of school-based educational programs on sexual behaviors among adolescents in northern Italy. (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Cromi, Antonella; Serati, Maurizio; Monti, Zelia; Apolloni, Chiara; Nardelli, Federica; Di Naro, Edoardo; Ghezzi, Fabio


    This article aimed to determine sexual behaviors among female and male adolescents in northern Italy. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire evaluating sexual attitudes was distributed in middle and high schools in northern Italy. Adolescents between 13 and 19 years of age were asked to participate at the survey. The study group included 664 participants. Overall, 164 (25%) adolescents had had at least one sexual intercourse. Among adolescents who have had sexual intercourse, 90 (55%) use condoms, 25 (15%) use hormonal contraception, and 49 (30%) do not use any contraception method. A total of 559 adolescents (84%) participated in school-based sexual education programs. This group had better knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases and contraception methods in comparison with adolescents who have never participated in such educational programs (p contraception methods. However, this knowledge does not correlate to high-risk sexual behaviors reduction. PMID:25189401

  5. Behavior and Adaptive Functioning in Adolescents with Down Syndrome: Specifying Targets for Intervention (United States)

    Jacola, Lisa M.; Hickey, Francis; Howe, Steven R.; Esbensen, Anna; Shear, Paula K.


    Adolescents with Down syndrome can demonstrate increased behavior problems as compared with typical peers. Few studies have explored whether behavior impacts adaptive functioning. Caregiver report from the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004) and the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL;…

  6. Assessing Causality in the Relationship between Adolescents' Risky Sexual Online Behavior and Their Perceptions of This Behavior (United States)

    Baumgartner, Susanne E.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen


    The main aim of this study was to investigate the causal nature of the relationship between adolescents' risky sexual behavior on the internet and their perceptions of this behavior. Engagement in the following online behaviors was assessed: searching online for someone to talk about sex, searching online for someone to have sex, sending intimate…

  7. Adolescents misperceive and are influenced by high-status peers' health risk, deviant, and adaptive behavior. (United States)

    Helms, Sarah W; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J


    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high-status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of jocks', populars', burnouts', and brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and populars were rated as higher status than brains and burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high-status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between populars'/jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high-status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PMID:25365121

  8. Adolescents Are More Vulnerable to Cocaine Addiction: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence


    Wong, Wai Chong; Ford, Kerstin A.; Pagels, Nicole E.; McCutcheon, James E.; Marinelli, Michela


    In humans, adolescence is a period of heightened propensity to develop cocaine addiction. It is unknown whether this is attributable to greater access and exposure to cocaine at this age, or whether the adolescent brain is particularly vulnerable to the addictive properties of cocaine. Here, we subjected male adolescent (P42) and adult (~P88) rats to a wide range of cocaine self-administration procedures. In addition, to determine whether behavioral differences are associated with development...

  9. Effects of Behavioral Weight Control Intervention on Binge Eating Symptoms Among Overweight Adolescents


    Mehlenbeck, Robyn S.; Jelalian, Elissa; LLOYD-RICHARDSON, ELIZABETH E.; Hart, Chantelle N.


    This study examined change in binge eating symptoms reported by moderately overweight adolescents following participation in a behavioral weight control intervention. A total of 194 adolescents across two randomized controlled trials participated. Adolescents in both study samples endorsed a mild level of binge eating symptoms at baseline. Results from both Study 1 and Study 2 indicate a significant reduction in binge eating symptoms following participation in a 16-week weight control interve...

  10. Risky Decision Making in Substance Dependent Adolescents with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder


    Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.; van Bokhoven, Irene; Vanderschuren, Louk J.M.J.; Lochman, John E.; Matthys, Walter


    Of all psychiatric disorders, the disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) are the most likely to predispose to substance dependence (SD). One possible underlying mechanism for this increased vulnerability is risky decision making. The aim of this study was to examine decision making in DBD adolescents with and without SD. Twenty-five DBD adolescents (19 males) with SD (DBD+SD), 28 DBD adolescents (23 males) without SD (DBD-SD) and 99 healthy controls (72 males) were included in the study. DBD ad...

  11. Hope and Its Relation to Suicidal Risk Behaviors among Malaysian Adolescents


    Choon Min Wai; Mansor Abu Talib; Siti Nor Yaacob; Tan Jo Pei; Hamidin Awang; Sallahuddin Hassan; Zanariah Ismail


    Suicide is an epidemic issue worldwide and Asian countries are of no exception. In Malaysia, adolescent suicide constituted 10% of the overall reported suicide cases. Aforementioned, the current study examines Snyder’s theory of hope to understand suicidal risk among Malaysian adolescents. A total of 1441 adolescents were recruited using a multistage cluster sampling. Results showed significant relationship between both agency and pathway thinking with risk of suicidal behavior. Specifically,...

  12. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training on Behavioral Problems and Attentional Functioning in Adolescents with ADHD


    Weijer-Bergsma, E. van de; Formsma, A.R.; Bruin, E.I. de; Bögels, S.M.


    The effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness training for adolescents aged 11–15 years with ADHD and parallel Mindful Parenting training for their parents was evaluated, using questionnaires as well as computerized attention tests. Adolescents (N = 10), their parents (N = 19) and tutors (N = 7) completed measurements before, immediately after, 8 weeks after and 16 weeks after training. Adolescents reported on their attention and behavioral problems and mindful awareness, and were administered t...

  13. Helping Depressed Adolescents: A Menu of Cognitive-Behavioral Procedures for Primary Care


    Clabby, John F.


    Depression among adolescents has received recognition as a significant psychiatric problem that requires prompt intervention. This article will help primary care providers to understand the significance of adolescent depression, recognize its prevalence in primary care, cite the evidence supporting cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as a treatment for depressed adolescents, recognize the challenges of using CBT in primary care, and use 7 different CBT approaches with their patients. Psychiatr...

  14. Family Structure and Adolescent Physical Health, Behavior, and Emotional Well-Being


    Langton, Callie E.; Berger, Lawrence M.


    This study uses data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine family structure's associations with adolescent physical health, behavior, and emotional well-being. Findings suggest that adolescents in most other family types tend to have poorer outcomes than those in two-biological-parent families. Adolescents living with their biological father but not their mother have similar outcomes to those living with their single, biological mother. Althoug...

  15. Tightly Linked Systems: Reciprocal Relations Between Maternal Depressive Symptoms And Maternal Reports of Adolescent Externalizing Behavior


    Allen, Joseph P; Manning, Nell; Meyer, Jess


    The frequently observed link between maternal depressive symptoms and heightened maternal reporting of adolescent externalizing behavior was examined from an integrative, systems perspective using a community sample of 180 adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and close peers, assessed twice over a three-year period. Consistent with this perspective, the maternal depression-adolescent externalizing link was found to reflect not simply maternal reporting biases, but heightened maternal sensitiv...

  16. Structuring the Future: Anticipated Life Events, Peer Networks, and Adolescent Sexual Behavior


    Soller, Brian; Haynie, Dana L.


    While prior research has established associations between individual expectations of future events and risk behavior among adolescents, the potential effects of peers’ future perceptions on risk-taking have been overlooked. We extend prior research by testing whether peers’ anticipation of college completion is associated with adolescent sexual risk-taking. We also examine whether adolescents’ perceptions of the negative consequences of pregnancy and idealized romantic relationship scripts me...

  17. Adequate sleep among adolescents is positively associated with health status and health-related behaviors


    Jeng Yi-Jong; Wang Edward K; Chen Mei-Yen


    Abstract Background Amount of sleep is an important indicator of health and well-being in children and adolescents. Adequate sleep (AS: adequate sleep is defined as 6–8 hours per night regularly) is a critical factor in adolescent health and health-related behaviors. The present study was based on a health promotion project previously conducted on adolescents in Tao-Yuan County, Taiwan. The aim was to examine the relationship between AS during schooldays and excessive body weight, frequency o...

  18. The cognitive processes underlying affective decision-making predicting adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study


    Xiao, Lin; Koritzky, Gilly; Johnson, C. Anderson; Bechara, Antoine


    This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1), we tested these adolescents' decision-making using the IGT and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT)...

  19. The Consequences of adolescent chronic unpredictable stress exposure on brain and behavior


    Hollis, Fiona; Isgor, Ceylan; Kabbaj, Mohamed


    There is increasing evidence for adolescence as a time period vulnerable to environmental perturbations such as stress. What is unclear is the persistent nature of the effects of stress and how specific these effects are to the type of stressor. In this review, we describe the effects of chronic, unpredictable stress (CUS) exposure during adolescence on adult behavior and brain morphology and function in animal models. We provide evidence for adolescence as a critical window for the effects o...

  20. Adolescent Balloon Analog Risk Task and Behaviors that Influence Risk of Motor Vehicle Crash Injury


    Federico E. Vaca; Walthall, Jessica M.; Ryan, Sheryl; Moriarty-Daley, Alison; Riera, Antonio; Crowley, Michael J.; Mayes, Linda C.


    Risk-taking propensity is a pivotal facet of motor vehicle crash involvement and subsequent traumatic injury in adolescents. Clinical encounters are important opportunities to identify teens with high risk-taking propensity who may later experience serious injury. Our objective was to compare self-reports of health risk behavior with performance on the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART), a validated metric of risk-taking propensity, in adolescents during a clinical encounter. 100 adolescent pati...

  1. Are parental attitudes related to adolescent juvenile offenders' readiness to change? (United States)

    Snyder, Benjamin D H; Glaser, Brian A; Calhoun, Georgia B


    Contemporary research suggests that many factors contribute to adolescent problematic and delinquent behaviors; however, there is little discussion in the literature related to factors that contribute to an adolescent's willingness to change these maladaptive behaviors. The current study examines the role parental attitudes play in the adolescent juvenile offender's readiness to change. Ninety-five adjudicated adolescents and their parent or legal guardian completed the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) and the Juvenile Offender Parent Questionnaire (JOPQ), respectively. Participants fell into one of two URICA groups: Precontemplative or Contemplative. Parental attitudes (JOPQ) of Exasperation in Regard to the Child and Fear of the Child significantly predicted membership in two of the URICA stages of change groups (Precontemplative and Contemplative) when gender was included in the model. This study has important implications for practitioners developing effective treatments for adjudicated adolescents. PMID:24391125

  2. Using classification trees to profile adolescent smoking behaviors. (United States)

    Kitsantas, Panagiota; Moore, Trent W; Sly, David F


    The purpose of this study was to explore the interactive nature of various predictor variables in profiling adolescent smoking behaviors characterized by intention to smoke, current, situational, and established smoking using classification trees. The data (n = 3610) were obtained from cross-sectional telephone surveys of the Florida Anti-Tobacco Media Evaluation Program. Three classification trees were constructed, namely, intention versus no intention to smoke among non-smokers, current smokers versus non-smokers, and established versus situational smokers. The tree model for the intention model revealed that social and health risks are important in the context of peer smoking. Certain variables such as peer smoking and alcohol consumption retained their relative importance across the tree classifiers demonstrating that smoking intention may be predictable using some of the same variables as in current or more dependent smoking. PMID:16677775

  3. Personality traits, future time perspective and adaptive behavior in adolescence. (United States)

    Gomes Carvalho, Renato Gil; Novo, Rosa Ferreira


    Several studies provide evidence of the importance of future time perspective (FTP) for individual success. However, little research addresses the relationship between FTP and personality traits, particularly if FTP can mediate their influence on behavior. In this study we analyze the mediating of FTP in the influence of personality traits on the way adolescents live their life at school. Sample consisted in 351 students, aged from 14 to 18 years-old, at different schooling levels. Instruments were the Portuguese version of the MMPI-A, particularly the PSY-5 dimensions (Aggressiveness, Psychoticism, Disconstraint, Neuroticism, Introversion), a FTP questionnaire, and a survey on school life, involving several indicators of achievement, social integration, and overall satisfaction. With the exception of Neuroticism, the results show significant mediation effects (p school life variables. Concerning Disconstraint, FTP mediated its influence on overall satisfaction (? = -.125) and school achievement (? = -.106). In the case of Introversion, significant mediation effects occurred for interpersonal difficulties (? = .099) and participation in extracurricular activities (? = -.085). FTP was also a mediator of Psychoticism influence in overall satisfaction (? = -.094), interpersonal difficulties (? = .057), and behavior problems (? = .037). Finally, FTP mediated the influence of Aggressiveness on overall satisfaction (? = -.061), interpersonal difficulties (? = .040), achievement (? = -.052), and behavior problems (? = .023). Results are discussed considering the importance of FTP in the impact of some personality structural characteristics in students' school adaptation. PMID:25907852

  4. A Longitudinal Examination of Risky Sexual Behaviors among Canadian and Italian Adolescents: Considering Individual, Parental, and Friend Characteristics (United States)

    Boislard P., Marie-Aude; Poulin, Francois; Kiesner, Jeff; Dishion, Thomas J.


    In this study, two longitudinal models of early adolescent risky sexual behaviors (RSB) were compared using a pooled sample of 267 Canadian and Italian adolescents (55% females; 53% Canadians) assessed yearly from grade 8 to 10. We focused on parenting practices (monitoring, control, limit setting), adolescent problem behaviors (antisocial…

  5. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Adolescents with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Szigethy, Eva; Whitton, Sarah W.; Levy-Warren, Anna; DeMaso, David Ray; Weisz, John; Beardslee, William R.


    Objective: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression in physically ill adolescents. Method: In an open trial, 11 adolescents (12-17 years) with inflammatory bowel disease and either major or minor depression underwent 12 sessions of a manual-based CBT enhanced by social skills, physical illness…

  6. School-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression: A Benchmarking Study (United States)

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Kaplinski, Heather; Gudmundsen, Gretchen


    The current study evaluated cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adolescent depression delivered in health clinics and counseling centers in four high schools. Outcomes were benchmarked to results from prior efficacy trials. Fifty adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorders were treated by eight doctoral-level psychologists who followed a…

  7. The Effects of Violent Video Game Habits on Adolescent Hostility, Aggressive Behaviors, and School Performance (United States)

    Gentile, Douglas, A.; Lynch, Paul, J.; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Walsh, David, A.


    Video games have become one of the favorite activities of American children. A growing body of research is linking violent video game play to aggressive cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors. The first goal of this study was to document the video games habits of adolescents and the level of parental monitoring of adolescent video game use. The…

  8. Adolescents' Perceptions of Parental Influences on Their Smoking Behavior: A Content Analysis (United States)

    Maggi, Stefania; Lovato, Chris Y.; Hill, Erin M.; Johnson, Joy L.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Shoveller, Jean A.


    The purpose of this study was to describe adolescents' perceptions of parental influences on their smoking behavior. Thirty-five adolescents, 14 to 18 years old, provided narrative accounts of their smoking histories in semistructured interviews. Most of the participants recognized that their parents played an important role in shaping their…

  9. Family material hardship and chinese adolescents' problem behaviors: a moderated mediation analysis. (United States)

    Sun, Wenqiang; Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Bao, Zhenzhou; Wang, Yanhui


    In the current study, we examined a moderated mediation model using the risk and resilience framework. Specifically, the impact of family material hardship on adolescent problem behaviors was examined in a Chinese sample; we used the family stress model framework to investigate parental depression and negative parenting as potential mediators of the relation between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors. In addition, based on resilience theory, we investigated adolescents' resilience as a potential protective factor in the development of their internalizing and externalizing problems. Participants included 1,419 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.38 years, SD = 1.79) and their primary caregivers. After controlling for covariates (age, gender, location of family residence, and primary caregiver), we found that parental depression and negative parenting mediated the association between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors. Furthermore, the adolescent resilience moderated the relationship between negative parenting and internalizing problems in a protective-stabilizing pattern; in addition, a protective-reactive pattern also emerged when adolescent resilience was examined as a moderator of the relationship between negative parenting and externalizing problems. These findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of risk and resilience in youth development. Moreover, the findings have important implications for the prevention of adolescent problem behaviors. PMID:26010256

  10. The Relationship between Parent-Child Conflict and Adolescent Antisocial Behavior: Confirming Shared Environmental Mediation (United States)

    Klahr, Ashlea M.; Rueter, Martha A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.; Burt, S. Alexandra


    Prior studies have indicated that the relationship between parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior is at least partially shared environmental in origin. However, all available research on this topic (to our knowledge) relies exclusively on parent and/or adolescent informant-reports, both of which are subject to various forms of…

  11. Body Mass Index Self-Perception and Weight Management Behaviors during Late Adolescence (United States)

    Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen


    Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…

  12. Pilot Study of Community-Based Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents with Social Phobia. (United States)

    Baer, Susan; Garland, E. Jane


    Objective: A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for adolescents with social phobia, simplified both in terms of time and labor intensity from a previously studied program (Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children and Adolescents) to be more appropriate for a community outpatient psychiatric…

  13. Participants' Experiences of an Early Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Adolescents with Symptoms of Depression (United States)

    Bru, Lene; Solholm, Roar; Idsoe, Thormod


    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been documented to be effective in treating depression in adolescence, but there is great variability in the clinical outcome of CBT trials. This may in part be due to variations in the content of, and emphasis on different CBT components. Moreover, little is known about adolescents' subjective experiences of…

  14. Multivariate Model of Antisocial Behavior and Substance Use in Spanish Adolescents (United States)

    Pena, M. Elena; Andreu, Jose M.; Grana, Jose L.


    This study was designed to examine the causal paths that predict antisocial behavior and the consumption of legal and illegal substances (drugs) in adolescents. The sample comprised 1,629 adolescents, 786 males and 843 females, between 14 and 18 years old. All participants provided reports of family, school, personality, and peer-group factors…

  15. Perceptions of Oral Health, Preventive Care, and Care-Seeking Behaviors among Rural Adolescents (United States)

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Logan, Henrietta; Brown, Cameron D.; Calderon, Angela; Catalanotto, Frank


    Background: An asymmetrical oral disease burden is endured by certain population subgroups, particularly children and adolescents. Reducing oral health disparities requires understanding multiple oral health perspectives, including those of adolescents. This qualitative study explores oral health perceptions and dental care behaviors among rural…

  16. Temperament Pathways to Childhood Disruptive Behavior and Adolescent Substance Abuse: Testing a Cascade Model (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M.; Pierce, Laura; Nigg, Joel T.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth; Puttler, Leon I.; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A.


    Temperament traits may increase risk for developmental psychopathology like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviors during childhood, as well as predisposing to substance abuse during adolescence. In the current study, a cascade model of trait pathways to adolescent substance abuse was examined. Component…

  17. From Early to Late Adolescence: American Indian Youths' Behavioral Trajectories and Their Major Influences (United States)

    Stiffman, Arlene Rubin; Alexander-Eitzman, Benjamin; Silmere, Hiie; Osborne, Victoria; Brown, Eddie


    Objective: This article identifies behavioral trajectories of American Indian adolescents and examines their predictors. Method: A total of 401 urban and reservation American Indian adolescents were interviewed yearly from 2001 to 2004 (with 341 youths, or 85%, retained to 2004, and 385 completing at least two interviews). The Youth Self-Report…

  18. Suicidal Behavior in Adolescent Ex-Inpatients: A Follow-Up Study. (United States)

    Ahmadi, Kate S.; And Others

    In a 1991 Gallup poll, 6 percent of American adolescents admitted to suicide attempts. This follow-up study focused on the suicidal behavior before and after admission to a private psychiatric hospital of adolescent inpatients (N=25) who were part of an original sample of 150 inpatients. Compared to the non-respondent group, the respondent group…

  19. Specific Coping Behaviors in Relation to Adolescent Depression and Suicidal Ideation (United States)

    Horwitz, Adam G.; Hill, Ryan M.; King, Cheryl A.


    The coping strategies used by adolescents to deal with stress may have implications for the development of depression and suicidal ideation. This study examined coping categories and specific coping behaviors used by adolescents to assess the relation of coping to depression and suicidal ideation. In hierarchical regression models, the specific…

  20. Some Correlates of Risky Sexual Behavior among Secondary School Adolescents in Ogun State, Nigeria (United States)

    Adeyemo, D. A.; Williams, T. M.


    The purpose of the study is to examine factors associated with risky sexual behaviors among secondary school adolescents in Ogun State, Nigeria. Two hundred and fifty adolescents randomly selected from three schools participated in the study. The ages of the participants ranged from 13 to 18 years. Both the independent and dependent variables were…

  1. Contextual and Intrapersonal Predictors of Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior and Outcomes (United States)

    Shneyderman, Yuliya; Schwartz, Seth J.


    The present study was designed to test a model of contextual and intrapersonal predictors of adolescent risky sexual behaviors and of sexually transmitted infection diagnoses. Using Waves I and II from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimated a structural model in which intrapersonal factors such as…

  2. Effects of Overweight on Risky Sexual Behavior of Adolescent Girls. NBER Working Paper No. 16172 (United States)

    Averett, Susan; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy


    We use data from The National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health to estimate effects of adolescent girls' overweight on their propensity to engage in risky sexual behavior. We estimate single equation, two-stage, and sibling fixed-effects models and find that overweight or obese teenage girls are more likely than their recommended-weight…

  3. Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome Can Use a Mindfulness-Based Strategy to Control Their Aggressive Behavior (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Angela D. A.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy


    Children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome occasionally exhibit aggressive behavior against peers and parents. In a multiple baseline design across subjects, three adolescents with Asperger syndrome were taught to use a mindfulness-based procedure called "Meditation on the Soles of the Feet" to control their physical aggression in the family…

  4. The Effects of Race/Ethnicity, Income, and Family Structure on Adolescent Risk Behaviors. (United States)

    Blum, Robert W.; Beuhring, Trisha; Shew, Marcia L.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Sieving, Renee E.; Resnick, Michael D.


    Examined the unique and combined contributions of race/ethnicity, income, and family structure to adolescent smoking, alcohol use, violence, suicide, and sexual intercourse. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health indicated that though some behaviors appeared to relate to the factors, when taken together, these factors…

  5. War Traumas and Community Violence: Psychological, Behavioral, and Academic Outcomes among Khmer Refugee Adolescents. (United States)

    Berthold, S. Megan


    Interviews with 144 Khmer refugee adolescents found high levels of lifetime exposure to violence, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among one third of adolescents, and symptoms of depression among two thirds. Higher exposure to violence was related to PTSD symptoms, risk behaviors, and lower grade point average. Perceived social…

  6. Associations among Text Messaging, Academic Performance, and Sexual Behaviors of Adolescents (United States)

    Perry, Raymond C. W.; Braun, Rebecca A.; Cantu, Michelle; Dudovitz, Rebecca N.; Sheoran, Bhupendra; Chung, Paul J.


    Background: Text messaging is an increasingly common mode of communication, especially among adolescents, and frequency of texting may be a measure of one's sociability. This study examined how text messaging ("texting") frequency and academic performance are associated with adolescent sexual behaviors. Methods: A cross-sectional…

  7. Cyber Bullying and Physical Bullying in Adolescent Suicide: The Role of Violent Behavior and Substance Use (United States)

    Litwiller, Brett J.; Brausch, Amy M.


    The impact of bullying in all forms on the mental health and safety of adolescents is of particular interest, especially in the wake of new methods of bullying that victimize youths through technology. The current study examined the relationship between victimization from both physical and cyber bullying and adolescent suicidal behavior. Violent…

  8. An Examination of the Reciprocal Relationships between Adolescents' Aggressive Behaviors and Their Perceptions of Parental Nurturance (United States)

    Arim, Rubab G.; Dahinten, V. Susan; Marshall, Sheila K.; Shapka, Jennifer D.


    This study examined reciprocal relationships between adolescents' perceptions of parental nurturance and two types of adolescent aggressive behaviors (indirect and direct aggression) using a transactional model. Three waves of longitudinal data were drawn from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. The sample included…

  9. Parental Psychological Violence and Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment: The Role of Coping and Social Support (United States)

    Gagne, Marie-Helene; Melancon, Claudiane


    The role of coping strategies (approach and avoidance) as a mediating factor between parental psychological violence and adolescent behavior problems, both internalized and externalized, as well as the protective role of social support were examined separately for boys and girls. A group of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three…

  10. Influential Factors on Adolescent Males' Non-Relational Sexual Attitudes and Behavior (United States)

    Drew, Cathy L.


    Adolescent males are influenced by various social and cultural factors. This qualitative study sought to further understanding about adolescent males' thoughts and behaviors regarding sexual decision-making. Specific exploration encompassed the influences of the identified factors of parents, peers, media, first romantic relationship breakups, and…

  11. Integrating Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Pharmacotherapy in the Treatment of Adolescent Depression (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Albano, Anne Marie; Findling, Robert L.; Kratochvil, Christopher; Walkup, John


    Recent evidence from the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) suggests that combining cognitive behavioral and pharmacological treatments holds the most promise for ameliorating depression among adolescents. This article describes lessons learned during the TADS trial about how to integrate these two treatments in the care of…

  12. Alliance and Outcome in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression (United States)

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Kaplinski, Heather Crisp; McMakin, Dana L.


    This study examined predictive relations between therapeutic alliance and treatment outcomes in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Fifty-four adolescents met criteria for a depressive disorder and were treated in school-based clinics. Alliance was measured after the third session from both therapist and…

  13. Early Identification of Delinquency Prone Youth. The Eau Claire County Youth Study, Phase IV, 1969-1972. (United States)

    Feldhusen, John F.; And Others

    Procedures for early identification of delinquency-prone youth in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin, are described in this report of a 1961-1972 study designed to delineate the problems of aggressive and disruptive classroom behavior as related to delinquency. Data collection began in 1961, when each 3rd-, 6th-, and 9th-grade teacher in Eau Claire…

  14. The Role of Puberty in Violent and Nonviolent Delinquency among Anglo American, Mexican American, and African American Boys. (United States)

    Cota-Robles, Sonia; Neiss, Michelle; Rowe, David C.


    Research consistently correlates early pubertal timing with problem behaviors. Social and biological processes, which differ among ethnic groups, may also explain the relationship between pubertal timing and delinquency. Interviews with 5,000 boys ages 11 to 17 showed that early pubertal timing predicts nonviolent and violent delinquency for Anglo…

  15. Maternal and Adolescent Report of Mothers’ Weight-Related Concerns and Behaviors: Longitudinal Associations with Adolescent Body Dissatisfaction and Weight Control Practices


    van den Berg, Patricia A.; Keery, Helene; Eisenberg, Marla; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne


    Objective?This population-based study examined mothers’ weight-related concerns and behaviors (weight status, weight dissatisfaction, dieting, and encouraging child to diet) at baseline, as assessed by both mothers and adolescents, and associations with adolescents’ body dissatisfaction and weight control practices 5 years later.?Methods?Adolescents and their mothers (n = 443 pairs) were surveyed in 1998–1999; adolescents were resurveyed in 2003–2004.?Results?Baseline maternal report of highe...

  16. Striatal functional alteration in adolescents characterized by early childhood behavioral inhibition. (United States)

    Guyer, Amanda E; Nelson, Eric E; Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Hardin, Michael G; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Monk, Christopher S; Bjork, James M; Henderson, Heather A; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A; Ernst, Monique


    The temperamental style of behavioral inhibition has been characterized by exaggerated behavioral and neural responses to cues signaling threat. Virtually no work, however, has addressed whether behavioral inhibition may also confer heightened brain activation in response to positively valenced incentives. We used event-related functional MRI (fMRI) and a monetary incentive delay task to examine whether the neural response to incentives is also greater in adolescents characterized as behaviorally inhibited early in life compared with those characterized as non-inhibited. Whereas task performance did not differ between groups, fMRI revealed greater striatal activation to incentives in behaviorally inhibited adolescents than in non-inhibited adolescents. This was regardless of whether the incentive was an anticipated gain or loss. Alteration in neural systems underlying behavior modulated by both negative and positive contingencies may represent a correlate of behavioral inhibition that also underlies vulnerability to various forms of developmental psychopathology. PMID:16775126

  17. Juvenile Delinquency and Victimization: A Theoretical Typology (United States)

    Cuevas, Carlos A.; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather A.; Ormrod, Richard K.


    It is a widely voiced notion that juvenile delinquency and victimization co-occur extensively in the youth population, in particular because delinquent youth engage in risky activities. But theory from the bullying and traumatic stress literatures suggests that there may be additional pathways by which delinquency and victimization are connected.…

  18. Behavioral and neural correlates of loss aversion and risk avoidance in adolescents and adults. (United States)

    Barkley-Levenson, Emily E; Van Leijenhorst, Linda; Galván, Adriana


    Individuals are frequently faced with risky decisions involving the potential for both gain and loss. Exploring the role of both potential gains and potential losses in predicting risk taking is critical to understanding how adolescents and adults make the choice to engage in or avoid a real-life risk. This study aimed to examine the impact of potential losses as well as gains on adolescent decisions during risky choice in a laboratory task. Adolescent (n=18) and adult (n=16) participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a mixed gambles task, and completed questionnaires measuring real-world risk-taking behaviors. While potential loss had a significantly greater effect on choice than potential gain in both adolescents and adults and there were no behavioral group differences on the task, adolescents recruited significantly more frontostriatal circuitry than adults when choosing to reject a gamble. During risk-seeking behavior, adolescent activation in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was negatively correlated with self-reported likelihood of risk taking. During risk-avoidant behavior, mPFC activation of in adults was negatively correlated with self-reported benefits of risk-taking. Taken together, these findings reflect different neural patterns during risk-taking and risk-avoidant behaviors in adolescents and adults. PMID:23245222

  19. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors associated factors in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Giordani Vasques


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze factors associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviors in adolescents. The sample consisted of 1675 students (784 boys and 891 girls ranging in age from 11-17 years from Caxias do Sul, RS. A questionnaire was applied to identify physical activity level (PAL, 3-day recall andweekly hours of sedentary behavior. Low PAL was defined as energy expenditure less than 37 kcal/kg per day, and elevated sedentary behavior (ESB was defined as more than 14 h/week watching TV, playing video games or using a computer. Chi-square testresults indicated a higher prevalence of low PAL among girls (66.8%>43.2%, p84.0%, p=0.001. Using a Poisson hierarchical regression model, low PAL was associated with up to 4 persons living at home (PR=1.21, 95%CI: 1.00-1.46 and low maternal PAL (PR=1.23, 95%CI:1.00-1.53 among boys, and with age 15-17 years (PR=1.30, 95%CI: 1.18-1.44, up to 4 persons living at home (PR=1.17, 95%CI: 1.04-1.31, having a TV in the bedroom (PR=1.13, 95%CI: 1.02-1.25 and passive transport to school (PR=1.10, 95%CI: 1.00-1.22 among girls. In girls, ESB was associated with high parental educational level(PR=1.08, 95%CI: 1.01-1.16 and having a TV in the bedroom (PR=1.15, 95%CI: 1.08-1.22. The results suggest an association between socioeconomic measures and risk behaviors (low PAL and ESB. Knowledge about the factors associated with low PAL and ESB facilitates the implantation of more effective interventions in order to promote a more active lifestyle.

  20. Adolescent activity-based anorexia increases anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. (United States)

    Kinzig, Kimberly P; Hargrave, Sara L


    Activity-based anorexia is a paradigm that induces increased physical activity, reduced food intake, and heightened activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in adult rats. To investigate whether experience with activity-based anorexia produced enduring effects on brain and behavior, female adolescent rats experienced activity-based anorexia during adolescence and were tested in adulthood for anxiety-like behavior on an elevated plus maze and in an open field. Analysis of elevated plus maze and open field behavior in adulthood revealed that rats that experienced activity-based anorexia during adolescence, but not rats that were simply food restricted, displayed increased anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. Plasma corticosterone and expression levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and in the central nucleus of the amygdala were significantly elevated in adult rats that had undergone activity-based anorexia in adolescence in response to the open field exposure, as compared to control rats. These data demonstrate enduring effects of adolescent activity-based anorexia on anxiety-like behavior and neuroendocrine factors critical in stress responsivity in adulthood. Furthermore, we demonstrate that activity-based anorexia during adolescence serves as a model whereby prolonged anxiety is induced, allowing for evaluation of the behavioral and neural correlates of mediating anxiety-like behaviors in adulthood. PMID:20566408

  1. Risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents of parents with a chronic medical condition. (United States)

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Oort, Frans Jeroen; Meijer, Anne Marie


    A wide array of risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents with chronically ill parents emerges from the literature. This study aims to identify those factors with the highest impact on internalizing problem behavior (anxious, depressed and withdrawn behavior, and somatic complaints) and externalizing problem behavior (aggressive and rule-breaking behavior) as measured by the Youth Self-Report (YSR). The YSR was filled in by 160 adolescents (mean age = 15.1 years) from 100 families (102 chronically ill parents and 83 healthy spouses). Linear mixed model analyses were used, enabling separation of variance attributable to individual factors and variance attributable to family membership (i.e., family cluster effect). Predictors were child, parent, illness-related and family characteristics. The results showed that almost half of the variance in internalizing problem scores was explained by family membership, while externalizing problems were mainly explained by individual factors. Roughly 60 % of the variance in internalizing problems was predicted by illness duration, adolescents' feeling of isolation, daily hassles affecting personal life and alienation from the mother. Approximately a third of the variance in externalizing problems was predicted by adolescents' male gender, daily hassles concerning ill parents and alienation from both parents. In conclusion, the variance in adolescent problem behavior is largely accounted for by family membership, children's daily hassles and parent-child attachment. To prevent marginalization of adolescents with a chronically ill parent, it is important to be alert for signs of problem behavior and foster the peer and family support system. PMID:22543962

  2. Association between socio-economic status and sexual behavior of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukovi? Dejana S.


    Full Text Available Introduction: Numerous studies have emphasized the importance of contextual factors as determinants of sexual behavior of adolescents. It has been found that lower socioeconomic status is associated with risky sexual behavior. Sexual behavior is individual but develops under strong influence of cultural and other influences. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of family’s socioeconomic status and risky sexual behavior of adolescents in Belgrade. Method. Self-administered questionnaire was used in secondary schools in Belgrade, and 1,782 adolescents attending first grade filled the questionnaire. For the analyses of predictors of risky sexual behavior, multiple logistic regression was used. Results. Parents’ occupations did not show significant association with any of analyzed behaviors. Adolescents who received weekly disposable money above average were 2.5 times more likely to ever have had sexual intercourse, and if sexually active were more likely to use contraception. Perceived family’s wealth was a significant predictor of ever having sex (OR=1.9; CI 1.2-2.8 and not using contraception (OR=4.3; CI 1.2-15.0. Conclusion. Socioeconomic status is associated with sexual behaviors of adolescents. Fifteen-year olds who perceive their families as wealthier are more likely to ever have had sex and not use any kind of contraception. Adolescents with higher weekly income are more likely to ever have had sex and use contraception than their counterpats with less weekly disposable money. .

  3. A longitudinal examination of risky sexual behaviors among Canadian and Italian adolescents: Considering individual, parental, and friend characteristics


    Boislard P., Marie-Aude; Poulin, François; Kiesner, Jeff; DISHION, THOMAS J.


    In this study, two longitudinal models of early adolescent risky sexual behaviors (RSB) were compared using a pooled sample of 267 Canadian and Italian adolescents (55% females; 53% Canadians) assessed yearly from grade 8 to 10. We focused on parenting practices (monitoring, control, limit setting), adolescent problem behaviors (antisocial behaviors, substance use) and their friends’ deviance (antisocial behaviors, substance use) as predictors of condom use frequency and lifetime number of se...

  4. Exploring associations between exposure to sexy online self-presentations and adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior. (United States)

    van Oosten, Johanna M F; Peter, Jochen; Boot, Inge


    Previous research suggests that adolescents' social network site use is related to their sexual development. However, the associations between adolescents' exposure to sexy self-presentations of others on social network sites and their sexual attitudes and experience have not yet been empirically supported. This study investigated reciprocal longitudinal relationships between adolescents' exposure to others' sexy self-presentations on social network sites and their sexual attitudes (i.e., sexual objectification of girls and instrumental attitudes towards sex) and sexual experience. We further tested whether these associations depended on adolescents' age and gender. Results from a representative two-wave panel study among 1,636 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17, 51.5 % female) showed that exposure to sexy online self-presentations of others predicted changes in adolescents' experience with oral sex and intercourse 6 months later, but did not influence their sexual attitudes. Adolescents' instrumental attitudes towards sex, in turn, did predict their exposure to others' sexy online self-presentations. Sexual objectification increased such exposure for younger adolescents, but decreased exposure for older adolescents. In addition, adolescents' experience with genital touching as well as oral sex (only for adolescents aged 13-15) predicted their exposure to sexy self-presentations of others. These findings tentatively suggest that the influence on adolescents' sexual attitudes previously found for sexual media content may not hold for sexy self-presentations on social network sites. However, exposure to sexy self-presentations on social network sites is motivated by adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior, especially among young adolescents. PMID:25287000

  5. Predicting Aggression among Male Adolescents: an Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior


    ZinatMotlagh, Fazel; Ataee, Mari; Jalilian, Farzad; MirzaeiAlavijeh, Mehdi; Aghaei, Abbas; Karimzadeh Shirazi, Kambiz


    Background: Aggressive behaviorin adolescencecan be expressed asa predictorfor crime, substanceabuse, depression and academic failure. The purpose of this study was to determine the prediction of aggression among Iranian adolescent based on theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a theoretical framework.

  6. Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics of Adolescent Mentally Retarded: Implications for Programming and Instruction. (United States)

    Schloss, Patrick J.; Miller, Sidney R.


    Translates for the secondary teacher current learning theory research into educational program implications for the mentally retarded adolescent. Discusses adaptive behavior, effectance motivation, limited range of reinforcing events, external locus of control, and deficiencies in social discrimination. (Author/DC)

  7. Oppositional Defiance, Moral Reasoning and Moral Value Evaluation as Predictors of Self-Reported Juvenile Delinquency (United States)

    Beerthuizen, Marinus G. C. J.; Brugman, Daniel; Basinger, Karen S.


    This study investigated the relationships among oppositional defiant attitudes, moral reasoning, moral value evaluation and self-reported delinquent behaviour in adolescents ("N" = 351, "M"[subscript AGE] = 13.8 years, "SD"[subscript AGE] = 1.1). Of particular interest were the moderating effects of age, educational…

  8. Using State Child Labor Laws to Identify the Causal Effect of Youth Employment on Deviant Behavior and Academic Achievement


    Apel, Robert; Bushway, Shawn D.; Paternoster, Raymond; Brame, Robert; Sweeten, Gary


    On the basis of prior research findings that employed youth, and especially intensively employed youth, have higher rates of delinquent behavior and lower academic achievement, scholars have called for limits on the maximum number of hours per week that teenagers are allowed to work. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to assess the claim that employment and work hours are causally related to adolescent problem behavior. We utilize a change model with age-graded child labor ...

  9. Stress, Cortisol, and Externalizing Behavior in Adolescent Males: An Examination in the Context of Multisystemic Therapy


    Schechter, Julia C.; Brennan, Patricia A; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth


    Stress and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age=15) receiving Multisystemic Therapy (MST). To examine the differential relationship of cortisol with various types of stressors, self-report measures assessed lifetim...

  10. Household and School-Level Influences on Smoking Behavior among Korean Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis


    Heo, Jongho; Oh, Juhwan; Subramanian, S.V; Kawachi, Ichiro


    Background: Trends in adolescent smoking rates in South Korea have not shown substantial progress due to a lack of effective anti-smoking interventions and policies in school settings. Methods and Findings: We examined individual- and school-level determinants of adolescent smoking behavior (ever smoking, current smoking, and daily smoking) using the nationally representative fifth Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey conducted in 2009. We found that students in coeducation schools or ...

  11. Weight, Dietary Behavior, and Physical Activity in Childhood and Adolescence: Implications for Adult Cancer Risk


    Fuemmeler, Bernard F.; Pendzich, Margaret K.; TERCYAK, KENNETH P.


    Lifestyle factors related to energy balance, including weight, dietary behavior and physical activity, are as-sociated with cancer risk. The period of childhood and growth into adolescence and early adulthood may re-present a ‘cumulative risk’ for later adult-onset cancers. We review a number of epidemiologic studies that have examined associations among childhood and adolescent body size, diet, and physical activity with adult cancer risk. These studies suggest that unhealthy behaviors that ...

  12. Brain Structural Correlates of Risk-Taking Behavior and Effects of Peer Influence in Adolescents


    Kwon, Myoung Soo; Vorobyev, Victor; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Heikki


    Adolescents are characterized by impulsive risky behavior, particularly in the presence of peers. We discriminated high and low risk-taking male adolescents aged 18–19 years by assessing their propensity for risky behavior and vulnerability to peer influence with personality tests, and compared structural differences in gray and white matter of the brain with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), respectively. We also compared the brain structures according to the ...

  13. Treatment Adherence, Competence, and Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems


    HOGUE, AARON; Henderson, Craig E.; Dauber, Sarah; Barajas, Priscilla C.; Fried, Adam; LIDDLE, HOWARD A.


    This study examined the impact of treatment adherence and therapist competence on treatment outcome in a controlled trial of individual cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for adolescent substance use and related behavior problems. Participants included 136 adolescents (62 CBT, 74 MDFT) assessed at intake, discharge, and 6-month follow-up. Observational ratings of adherence and competence were collected on early and later phases of treatment (192 CBT ...

  14. Gender differences in tooth loss among Chilean adolescents: socio-economic and behavioral correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, Rodrigo; Baelum, Vibeke


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate gender differences in tooth loss among Chilean adolescents and its association with selected socio-economic indicators and oral-health-related behaviors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data on 9,163 Chilean adolescents obtained using multistage random cluster procedures. Clinical recordings included information on missing teeth and the participants provided information on socio-demographic factors and oral-related behaviors. Two eruption-time-adjusted logistic regression analyse...

  15. Exploring the Link between Caregiver Affect and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Does Neighborhood Disadvantage Matter?


    Gardner, Margo; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne


    In a sample of urban youth (N = 1,070), we examined the links between primary caregiver affect (i.e., warmth and hostility) and two measures of sexual behavior in adolescence – early sexual initiation and sex with multiple partners. We also examined the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage moderated associations between caregiver affect and adolescent sexual behavior. We found that caregiver hostility was positively associated with early sex and sex with multiple partners in neighborhood...

  16. Developmental effects of aggressive behavior in male adolescents assessed with structural and functional brain imaging


    Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Heinecke, Armin; LENROOT, RHOSHEL K.; Knutson, Kristine M.; van der Meer, Elke; Grafman, Jordan


    Aggressive behavior is common during adolescence. Although aggression-related functional changes in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and frontopolar cortex (FPC) have been reported in adults, the neural correlates of aggressive behavior in adolescents, particularly in the context of structural neurodevelopment, are obscure. We used functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the blood oxygenation level-depended signal and cortical thickness. In a block-desi...

  17. Influence of oral health related behavior on oral health of adolescents in Belgrade


    Lali? Maja; Krivokapi? Marina; Jankovi?-Bukva Biljana; Aleksi? Ema; Gaji? Mihajlo; Bankovi? Dušica


    Introduction. Adolescence is a period of intensive physical, psychological and emotional changes that might affect existing oral health related habits and result in developing risky behaviors. The aim of the present study was to investigate oral health attitudes and behavior and their relation to dental caries experience in the group of adolescents from Belgrade. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 404 high-school students grade one from Belgrade. Two trained and c...

  18. Association Between Sports Participation and Sedentary Behavior During School Recess Among Brazilian Adolescents


    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; dos Santos Silva, Roberto Jerônimo


    The aim of this study was to examine the association between sports participation and sedentary behavior during school recess among Brazilian adolescents. This study included 2,243 adolescents aged 13–18 years (16.2 ± 1.1), 62.2% females and 37.8% males, enrolled in public high schools in Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. Sedentary behavior during school recess and sport participation was self-reported. Several factors were examined, including sex, age, skin color, socioeconomic status, maternal ...

  19. Behavioral Risk Elicits Selective Activation of the Executive System in Adolescents: Clinical Implications


    MichaelDDe Bellis; ElizabethE.Van Voorhees; StephenR.Hooper; ScottA.Huettel


    We investigated adolescent brain processing of decisions under conditions of varying risk, reward and uncertainty. Adolescents (n = 31) preformed a Decision-Reward Uncertainty task that separates decision uncertainty into behavioral and reward risk, while they were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behavioral risk trials involved uncertainty about which action to perform to earn a fixed monetary reward. In contrast, during reward risk the decision that might lead to ...

  20. Epidemiological Evidence on the Link Between Drug Use and Suicidal Behaviors Among Adolescents


    Holly C. Wilcox


    Depression, substance abuse, and aggressive behavior disorders have shown to be among the most influential risk factors for suicide in community and clinical studies of adolescents and adults. Increasing evidence suggests that adolescents who use and abuse alcohol and drugs are at increased risk for suicidal ideation, attempted suicide, and completed suicide, although conclusive evidence has not yet been presented suggesting that drug use causes suicidal thoughts and behaviors. This paper rev...

  1. Adolescent Activity-Based Anorexia Increases Anxiety-Like Behavior in Adulthood


    Kinzig, Kimberly P.; Hargrave, Sara L.


    Activity-based anorexia is a paradigm that induces increased physical activity, reduced food intake, and heightened activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in adult rats. To investigate whether experience with activity-based anorexia produced enduring effects on brain and behavior, female adolescent rats experienced activity-based anorexia during adolescence and were tested in adulthood for anxiety-like behavior on an elevated plus maze and in an open field. Analysis of elevated p...

  2. Small group behavioral training to improve the job interview skills repertoire of mildly retarded adolescents.


    Kelly, J. A.; Wildman, B G; Berler, E S


    Four retarded adolescents, enrolled in a short-term residential treatment program, received behavioral job interview skills training. Although potentially employable, each was unable to present himself effectively in standard employment interviews. Treatment consisted of a series of behavioral group sessions using instructions, modeling and rehearsal procedures to increase, in multiple baseline fashion, such skills as the adolescents' ability to disclose positive information about their exper...

  3. Using Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Healthy Eating among Danish Adolescents (United States)

    Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Chan, Kara; Tsang, Lennon


    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to apply the theory of planned behavior to predict Danish adolescents' behavioral intention for healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster sample survey of 410 students aged 11 to 16 years studying in Grade 6 to Grade 10 was conducted in Denmark. Findings: Perceived behavioral control followed by…

  4. Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior: A Sociological Case Study in Ankara, Turkey (United States)

    Kasapoglu, Aytul; Ozerkmen, Necmettin


    This paper aims to discuss important predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking behavior, such as their sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, socioeconomic status, mother's and father's educational level, and school type), health-promoting behavior (healthy nutrition, physical activities), risk behavior (cigarette smoking and alcohol…

  5. A Four-Year Analysis of Adolescent Self-Destructive Behavior and Psychiatric Hospitalization. (United States)

    Ward, Alan J.

    Data were gathered on a statewide basis in 102 Illinois counties on both the incidence and prevalence of adolescent public psychiatric hospitalizations and the identified self-destructive behaviors: (1) completed suicides; (2) assaultive behaviors; (3) runaway behavior; (4) substance abuse; and (5) teenage births, from fiscal year 1985 through…

  6. Fat Chance in a Slim World or a Behavioral Weight Program for Trainable Adolescents. (United States)

    Rotatori, Anthony F.

    The study involving 18 moderately retarded adolescents attending a public high school program assessed the usefulness of a behavioral weight reduction program. The behavior treatment involved exposure of Ss to external and self-reinforcement, stimulus control, simplified self monitoring and exercise over a 14-week active training period. Behavior

  7. The Influence of Race in the Association between Weight Status and Risk Behaviors among Adolescents (United States)

    Sanderson, Jennifer M.; Desai, Mayur M.; White, Marney A.


    Background: Overweight adolescents engage in risk behaviors at different rates than healthy-weight peers. Most extant research has focused on white or regional samples. Purpose: This article examined associations between weight and risk behaviors and determined whether associations differ by race/ethnicity. Methods: Youth Risk Behavior Survey data…

  8. Stress and knowledge of suicidal others as factors in suicidal behavior of high school adolescents. (United States)

    Conrad, N


    The purpose of this study was to explore adolescent beliefs concerning the causes of adolescent suicide and to examine the influence that suicidal others have on adolescents' behavior. The researcher asked the following questions: Do students reporting suicidal behavior and those reporting no suicidal behavior give different causes for suicide? Do males and females give different causes for suicide? Does knowing someone who attempted or committed suicide affect an adolescent's suicidal behavior? The population sample was 473 eleventh- and twelfth-grade students from a suburban public school district near a large metropolitan area in the northeastern United States who completed self-report measures including an open-ended question measuring suicidal causality and a background questionnaire. Data were analyzed using cross-tabulations to compare suicidal and nonsuicidal adolescents. Specific tests included the Fisher's Exact Test (two-tailed) and chi-square. The findings showed that, of the high school students studied, 23% reported self-hurt behavior and 6.7% reported suicide attempts. A theme of "too much pressure" was reported by 40% of the adolescents as a cause of suicide. Males and females reported statistically significant divergent views regarding the causes of adolescent suicide. Other findings showed highly significant differences between the suicidal and nonsuicidal adolescents when they knew someone who attempted or committed suicide. This information suggests that approximately one in three adolescents who report self-hurt behavior may attempt suicide and that counseling needs to address the findings that males and females perceive the causes of suicide differently and therefore may respond to treatment programs differently. The importance of peer identification with others who attempt or commit suicidal acts cannot be underestimated. PMID:1577596

  9. Behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of social subjugation across adolescence and adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan Ross


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social subjugation is a very significant and natural stressor in the animal kingdom. Adult animals defeated and subjugated during establishment of dominance hierarchies or territorial encounters can be highly submissive in future agonistic interactions. While much is know about the biological and behavioral consequences of winning and losing fights in adulthood, little is known about adolescence; a developmental period noted for impulsivity and heightened agonistic behavior. The present studies were undertaken to determine if the behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of social subjugation are comparable in adolescent versus adult Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. Male siblings were studied from adolescence into adulthood following exposure to counterbalanced episodes of either a benign stressor, i.e., isolation in a novel cage, or the more severe stressor of social subjugation. Results As adults, hamsters with a history of social subjugation in adolescence show high levels of aggression toward intruders as compared to siblings subjugated in adulthood. Sibling controls subjugated in adulthood are highly submissive with little or no aggressive behavior. However, when subjugated in adulthood, hamsters with the earlier history of subjugation are no different than their sibling controls, i.e., adult subjugation promotes submissive behavior. Sexual motivation is high in adult hamsters with adolescent subjugation and testosterone levels remained stable over adulthood. In contrast, sibling controls subjugated in adulthood show lower levels of sexual motivation and reduced levels of testosterone. Release of cortisol during agonistic encounters is blunted in animals subjugated in adolescence but not adulthood. Measures of anxiety are reduced in hamsters with adolescent subjugation as compared to their sibling controls. Conclusion These data demonstrate a pronounced difference in behavior and neuroendocrinology between adolescent and adult hamsters in their response to social subjugation and suggest adolescence is a resilient period in development.

  10. The Relations Between Sleep, Personality, Behavioral Problems, and School Performance in Adolescents. (United States)

    Schmidt, Ralph E; Van der Linden, Martial


    According to recent meta-analyses, adolescents across different countries and cultures do not get the recommended amount of sleep. Extracurricular activities, part-time jobs, and use of electronic devices in the evening delay bedtime in adolescents. Early school start times also shorten the time for sleep. Insufficient sleep in adolescents has been associated with weakened emotional-behavioral regulation and poor academic achievement. Multicomponent intervention programs have been developed on the basis of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia to improve sleep in youth. PMID:26055859

  11. Diagnostics of suicidal behavior risks of children and adolescents in educational institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova T.S.


    Full Text Available The article describes the main techniques used in empirical studies abroad for diagnostics of risks of suicidal behavior in children and adolescents in population sampling: Beck Self-Rating Depression Inventory, The Hopelessness Scale for Children, Inventory of Suicide Orientation, Self-Destructive Thought Assessment Scale, The Life-Attitudes Schedule, A measure of adolescent potential for suicide (MAPS, Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale in adolescent samples, PATHOS, The Reasons for Living Inventory, Suicide Probability Scale (SPS, Validity of the Self-Harm Behavior Questionnaire

  12. School context, gender, and delinquency. (United States)

    Fiqueira-McDonough, J


    This study compares two high schools serving the same community and compares student bodies with similar background characteristics. The purpose is to examine how control/strain variables predict delinquency in two distinct school contexts. It was found that minor delinquency occurred more often in the environment dominated by competitive academic achievement, routine handling of discipline, and unpredictable supervision. Examination of the model paths suggest that this environment is also conservative and unlikely to offer legitimate opportunities to girls with gender-egalitarian orientation. The school context characterized by a broader definition of success, more specialized discipline, and predictable supervision promotes stronger bonds with its students and lower levels of delinquency for both genders. PMID:24301529

  13. The use of cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of resistant depression in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto-Hicks X


    Full Text Available Sarah Hamill-Skoch,1 Paul Hicks,2 Ximena Prieto-Hicks11Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Arizona, Tuscon, AZ, USAAbstract: Major depressive disorder often begins in adolescence, is chronic and recurrent, and heightens an individual's risk for major depressive disorder in adulthood. Treatment-resistant depression is a problem for a significant minority of adolescents. Few studies have examined treatments for treatment-resistant depression among adolescents, and even fewer have examined the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy as a monotherapy or in combination with pharmacological treatments. Mental health professionals have a strong interest in understanding what treatments are appropriate for adolescents who are treatment resistant. Preliminary evidence from current published trials indicates that the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy in combination with antidepressant medication yields the best outcome for treatment-resistant depression in adolescents. Secondary analyses also suggest that the utility of cognitive behavioral therapy can be increased by ensuring adolescents receive a therapeutic dose of treatment sessions (more than nine sessions and the inclusion of two treatment components: social skills and problem solving training. Guidelines for clinicians as well as areas for future research are discussed.Keywords: cognitive behavior therapy, treatment-resistant depression, adolescent depression

  14. Excellent gamer, excellent driver? The impact of adolescents' video game playing on driving behavior: a two-wave panel study. (United States)

    Beullens, Kathleen; Roe, Keith; Van den Bulck, Jan


    This study explored the impact of adolescents' playing of racing and drive'em up games on their risky driving behavior. Participants were 354 adolescent boys and girls who took part in a longitudinal panel survey on video game playing and risk taking attitudes, intentions and behaviors. In line with cultivation theory and theory of planned behavior the results showed that (even after controlling for aggression and sensation seeking) video game playing during adolescence succeeded in predicting later risky driving behavior through adolescents' attitudes and intentions to exhibit this behavior in the future. The results suggest that this relationship may in part be explained by the game content. PMID:21094297

  15. Preliminary data on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Brazilian male and female juvenile delinquents


    Andrade R.C.; Silva V.A.; Assumpção Jr. F.B.


    The aim of the present investigation was to study the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a sample of delinquent adolescents of both genders and to compare the prevalence between genders. A total of 116 adolescents (99 males and 17 females) aged 12 to 19 on parole in the State of Rio de Janeiro were interviewed using the screening interview based on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children - Present and Lifetime (KSADS-PL). Data were collected between ...

  16. Maternal Parenting Behavior and Child Behavior Problems in Families of Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (United States)

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Boonen, Hannah; Lambrechts, Greet; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Noens, Ilse


    Parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face specific challenges in parenting, but concrete parenting behavior has never been properly investigated in these families. This exploratory questionnaire study compared parenting behaviors among mothers of children and adolescents with ASD (n = 552) and without ASD (n = 437) and examined…

  17. [Smoking and sexual behavior of junior college students (report II). Relation to alcohol consumption and problematic behavior during adolescence]. (United States)

    Maruyama, K; Nishi, Y; Yamashita, N


    A survey was performed on 581 junior college women regarding smoking, sexual behavior, alcohol use and problem behavior during adolescence to assess possible mutual relationships. The results are as follows: 1) Of these women, 37% experienced smoking; 9% were habitual smokers; 39% experienced kissing; 18% experienced sexual intercourse; 86% experienced alcohol drinking. 2) Many of the women had cross-experience in the combination of smoking, sexual behavior and alcohol drinking. A mutual relationship among these behaviors is suggested. 3) Many of the women who experienced smoking or sexual behavior had either experienced or considered problem behaviors during adolescence including attempted suicide, running away from home, bullying, etc. Poor adaptation to their home or school appears to be a factor associated with tendency toward smoking and sexual behavior. PMID:1958876

  18. Adolescent sexual health behavior in Thailand: implications for prevention of cervical cancer. (United States)

    Saranrittichai, Kesinee; Sritanyarat, Wanapa; Ayuwat, Dusadee


    Since adolescents are now engaging in sexual activity in their early years, sexual behavior needs to be explored to prevent contact with HPVs and other sexually transmitted diseases (STD), including cervical cancer. This qualitative study aimed to explore this question from adolescents' view points in their natural context. The participants were 19 individuals aged 13-19 years living in rural families in Khon Kaen province, Thailand. The preliminary findings indicated that factors contributing to low sexual risk behavior were helping family to do housework, an emphasis on learning, listening to parents, and following their advice. Adolescent behavior leading to high sexual risk included being very close to friends, having a wide social circle, going out for enjoyment at night time, returning home late at night, drinking alcohol, smoking, paying less attention to learning, not listening to parents, and not following their advice. Adolescent sexual behavior was found to comprise: 1) sexual activities themselves; 2) non-disclosure of having sex; and 3) protective behavior. Sexual activities were ranked from low risk to high risk of sexual health. Low risk included having a steady boy/girlfriend, hugging, and kissing. High risk sexual behavior featured unprotected sex, abuse or rape, and abortion. Important influences were: eagerness to learn and try to have sex, mens' sexual desire, peer group value of having sex, and material value. The adolescents demonstrated no willingness to disclose having a boy/girl friend, having sex and negative consequences like becoming pregnant. Sexual protective behavior was up to males, whether they were willing to use a condom, with females having little power to negotiate. The study suggests that inappropriate adolescent risk behavior and social values need to be a focus of attention for education. In particular, families need to take action by early detection of adolescent sexual risk behavior. PMID:17250438

  19. Serious Delinquency and Gang Participation: Combining and Specializing in Drug Selling, Theft and Violence


    Gordon, Rachel A.; Rowe, Hillary L.; Pardini, Dustin; LOEBER, ROLF; White, Helene Raskin; Farrington, David P.


    Using Pittsburgh Youth Study data, we examined the extent to which over 600 gang members and non-gang involved young men specialized in drug selling, serious theft, or serious violence or engaged simultaneously in these serious delinquent behaviors, throughout the 1990s. We found that the increase in delinquency associated with gang membership was concentrated in two combinations: serious violence and drug selling; serious violence, drug selling, and serious theft. Several covariates were sim...

  20. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Suicidal Latina Adolescents: Supplemental Dialectical Corollaries and Treatment Targets. (United States)

    Germán, Miguelina; Smith, Heather L; Rivera-Morales, Camila; González, Garnetta; Haliczer, Lauren A; Haaz, Chloe; Miller, Alec L


    The primary aim of this paper is to describe extreme behavioral patterns that the authors have observed in treating Latina adolescents who are suicidal and their parents within the framework of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). These extreme patterns, called dialectical corollaries, serve to supplement the adolescent/family dialectical dilemmas described by Rathus and Miller (2002) as part of dialectical behavior therapy for suicidal adolescents with borderline personality features. The dialectical corollaries proposed are "old school versus new school" and "overprotecting" versus "underprotecting," and they are described in-depth. We also identify specific treatment targets for each corollary and discuss therapeutic techniques aimed at achieving a synthesis between the polarities that characterize each corollary. Lastly, we suggest clinical strategies to use when therapists reach a therapeutic impasse with the parent-adolescent dyad (i.e., dialectical failures). PMID:26160622