WorldWideScience

Sample records for adolescent delinquent behavior

  1. Parents’ Monitoring Knowledge Attenuates the Link Between Antisocial Friends and Adolescent Delinquent Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Laird, Robert D.; Criss, Michael M.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Developmental trajectories of parents’ knowledge of their adolescents’ whereabouts and activities were tested as moderators of transactional associations between friends’ antisociality and adolescent delinquent behavior. 504 adolescents (50% female) provided annual reports (from ages 12 to 16) of their parents’ knowledge and (from ages 13 to 16) their own delinquent behavior and their friends’ antisociality. Parents also reported the adolescentsdelinquent behavior. Growth mixtur...

  2. Effects of Parenting, Father Absence, and Affiliation with Delinquent Peers on Delinquent Behavior among African-American Male Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschall, Mallie J.; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Flewelling, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    Study examined the effects of different aspects of parenting, father absence, and affiliation with delinquent peers on delinquent behavior in a cohort of Black male adolescents. Study suggests that Black male adolescents are less likely to engage in delinquent behavior if they are closely monitored and supervised by their parents. (Contains 38…

  3. Parents’ Monitoring-Relevant Knowledge and AdolescentsDelinquent Behavior: Evidence of Correlated Developmental Changes and Reciprocal Influences

    OpenAIRE

    LAIRD, ROBERT D.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.; DODGE, KENNETH A.

    2003-01-01

    Links between parental knowledge and adolescent delinquent behavior were tested for correlated rates of developmental change and reciprocal associations. For 4 years beginning at age 14, adolescents (N = 396) reported on their delinquent behavior and on their parents’ knowledge of their whereabouts and activities. Parents completed measures of their adolescentsdelinquent behavior. Knowledge was negatively correlated with delinquent behaviors at baseline, and increases over time in knowl...

  4. Parents' Monitoring Knowledge Attenuates the Link between Antisocial Friends and Adolescent Delinquent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert D.; Criss, Michael M.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Developmental trajectories of parents' knowledge of their adolescents' whereabouts and activities were tested as moderators of transactional associations between friends' antisociality and adolescent delinquent behavior. 504 adolescents (50% female) provided annual reports (from ages 12 to 16) of their parents' knowledge and (from ages 13 to 16)…

  5. Parental Support and Control as Predictors of Adolescent Drinking, Delinquency, and Related Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Grace M.; Farrell, Michael P.

    1992-01-01

    Sampled 699 adolescents and their families to examine effects of parenting practices on development of adolescent drinking, delinquency, and problem behaviors. Findings confirmed that parental support and monitoring were important predictors of adolescent outcomes even after taking into account critical demographic/family factors. Peer orientation…

  6. Predicting Adolescent and Adult Antisocial Behavior among Adjudicated Delinquent Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernkovich, Stephen A.; Lanctot, Nadine; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2008-01-01

    Studies identifying the mechanisms underlying the causes and consequences of antisocial behavior among female delinquents as they transit to adulthood are scarce and have important limitations: Most are based on official statistics, they typically are restricted to normative samples, and rarely do they gather prospective data from samples of…

  7. Fathers and youth's delinquent behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Cobb-clark, Deborah A.; Tekin, Erdal

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between having one or more father figures and the likelihood that young people engage in delinquent criminal behavior. We pay particular attention to distinguishing the roles of residential and non-residential, biological fathers as well as stepfathers. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we find that adolescent boys engage in more delinquent behavior if there is no father figure in their lives. However, adolescent girls' ...

  8. Thai Parenting Practices, Family Rituals and Risky Adolescent Behaviors: Alcohol Use, Cigarette Use and Delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    MILLER, BRENDA A.; Byrnes, Hilary F; CUPP, PAMELA K.; CHAMRATRITHIRONG, APHICHAT; RHUCHAROENPORNPANICH, ORRATAI; FONGKAEW, WARUNEE; Rosati, Michael J.; CHOOKHARE, WARUNEE; Zimmerman, Rick S

    2011-01-01

    Data were obtained from face-to-face interviews conducted with 420 randomly selected families (one parent, one 13-14 year old teen) in their homes from seven districts of Bangkok, Thailand. Adolescent risky behaviors that may be influenced by parenting practices and family rituals include alcohol use, cigarette use, and delinquency. Measures include: parental monitoring, parenting style, parental closeness, parental communication, and family rituals. Findings reveal increased alcohol use amon...

  9. Adverse life events and delinquent behavior among Kenyan adolescents: a cross-sectional study on the protective role of parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Past research provides strong evidence that adverse life events heighten the risk of delinquent behavior among adolescents. Urban informal (slum) settlements in sub-Saharan Africa are marked by extreme adversity. However, the prevalence and consequences of adverse life events as well as protective factors that can mitigate the effects of exposure to these events in slum settlements is largely understudied. We examine two research questions. First, are adverse life events experienced at the individual and household level associated with a higher likelihood of delinquent behavior among adolescents living in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya? Second, are parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem protective against delinquency in a context of high adversity? Methods We used cross-sectional data from 3,064 males and females aged 12–19 years who participated in the Transitions to Adulthood Study. We examined the extent to which a composite index of adverse life events was associated with delinquent behavior (measured using a composite index derived from nine items). We also examined the direct and moderating effects of three protective factors: parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem. Results Fifty-four percent of adolescents reported at least one adverse life event, while 18% reported three or more adverse events. For both males and females, adversity was positively and significantly associated with delinquency in bivariate and multivariate models. Negative associations were observed between the protective factors and delinquency. Significant adverse events?×?protective factor interaction terms were observed for parental monitoring (females and males), religiosity (males), and self-esteem (females). Conclusions Similar to research in high income countries, adverse life events are associated with an increased likelihood of delinquent behavior among adolescents living in urban slums in Kenya, a low-income country. However, parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem may moderate the effect of adversity on delinquent behavior and pinpoint possible avenues to develop interventions to reduce delinquency in resource-poor settings in low and middle income countries. PMID:25210535

  10. Adolescent addiction and delinquency in the family system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, L S

    2001-03-01

    Drug abuse and delinquent behavior in adolescents have been closely linked in the literature. It is possible that these links are not causal, but rather covariates of the common factor of family. This paper seeks to examine the behaviors of addiction and delinquency within the framework of family systems theory. PMID:11885219

  11. Grado de competencia social y comportamientos antisociales, delictivos y no delictivos en adolescent / Social Competence and Delinquent, Antisocial, and Non-Deviant Behavior in Adolescents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ramón, Arce; Francisca, Fariña; María José, Vázquez.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Los comportamientos antisociales, tanto delictivos como no delictivos, han sido tratados en la literatura como un conjunto. Estos comportamientos antisociales han sido relacionados con la carencia de competencia psicosocial. Es posible que la relación entre competencia psicosocial y comportamientos [...] antisociales delictivos y no delictivos siga un efecto de escalada. Para someter a prueba esta hipótesis se diseñó un estudio de campo con 450 adolescentes, de los que 150 estaban cumpliendo una condena penal (delincuentes), 150 poseían comportamientos antisociales no delictivos y 150 pertenecían a población escolarizada normal, quienes fueron evaluados en las variables fundamentales de la competencia psicosocial. Los resultados se analizaron a partir de un MANOVA (factor población: reforma, antisocial y normativa) y evidenciaron una relación entre incompetencia social y comportamientos antisociales y delictivos, así como un efecto de escalada, es decir, el grado de conducta desviada (delictiva, antisocial no delictiva y normal) va ligado al grado de (in)competencia social. Se discuten las implicaciones de estos hallazgos para el tratamiento de los menores con comportamientos antisociales, delictivos y no delictivos. Abstract in english In the literature, antisocial populations, both with antisocial behavior and delinquent behavior are viewed as mutually interacting. The lack of psychosocial competence has been related with antisocial and delinquent behavior. Nevertheless, it has been suggested that antisocial and delinquent behavi [...] or is a consequence of different degrees of lack of social competence. In order to test this hypothesis, in a field study, 450 adolescents -150 juvenile offenders, 150 with antisocial non deviant behavior, and 150 from the normal school population- were evaluated in fundamental variables of psychosocial competence. Performed a MANOVA with the population factor (offenders, antisocial, normative), the results revealed a relationship between social incompetence and antisocial and delinquent behavior as well as an exponential increase in both parameters. The findings are discussed in terms of prevention and treatment strategies for antisocial, delinquent and non-deviant behavior in adolescents.

  12. QUALITY OF LIFE (QOL) AMONG DELINQUENT ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    SEYED MORTEZA ESHAGHI; ASHOKA; ARSALAN KHANMOHAMMADI OTAGHSARA

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the quality of life (QOL) among delinquent adolescents. This study was a descriptive study with ex-post facto design. Using a random sampling technique 287 (consists of 144 normal and 143 delinquent) adolescents were selected for the purpose of this study. The Quality of life (QOL) questionnaire (WHO-QOL-BRIEF) developed by WHO (1996) and standardized in Iran by Usefy (2010) was used to collect the data. Result showed that comparing to normal adolesc...

  13. The Neuropsychological Status of Adolescent Delinquent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, P. H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The neuropsychological status and neuromotor performance of adolescent boys from lower-middle-class social environments who were detained as juvenile delinquents were compared to those of nondelinquent lower- and upper-middle-class controls. Principal aims were to investigate relationships between delinquency and learning disabilities,…

  14. Pals, problems, and personality: the moderating role of personality in the longitudinal association between adolescents' and best friends' delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim

    2013-10-01

    We examined the potential moderating role of Block's personality types (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, and resilients) on the longitudinal associations between adolescents' and their best friends' delinquency. Across three annual waves, 497 Dutch adolescents (283 boys, M(Age)?=?13 years at Wave 1) and their best friends reported on their delinquent behaviors. Adolescents' three personality types were obtained by latent class growth analysis on their annual reports on Big Five personality. A three-group cross-lagged panel analysis was performed on three waves of data. Delinquency of overcontrollers was predicted by their best friends' delinquency, whereas delinquency of undercontrollers and resilients was not. Delinquency of undercontrollers and resilients predicted their best friends' delinquency, but overcontrollers' delinquency did not. These findings suggest that personality may play an important role in adolescents' susceptibility to the influence of friends' delinquency, as well as in youths' ability to influence friends through their own delinquency. PMID:23301765

  15. Part II: differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers and delinquent youth: further group comparisons of developmental antecedents and behavioral challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, George S; Burton, David L; Howard, Alan

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper published in the Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers ( Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011 ). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to pornography) and behavioral difficulties (sexual aggression, arousal, pornography use, and nonsexual offenses). The present study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized adolescent sexual abusers with a group of nonsexually victimized delinquent youth. Findings included that delinquent youth had fewer behavioral and developmental problems than the comparison groups. In addition, sexually victimized sexual abusers had the highest mean scores on trauma and personality measures. Implications for research and treatment are offered. PMID:22574846

  16. Different Slopes for Different Folks: Genetic Influences on Growth in Delinquent Peer Association and Delinquency During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Eric J; Schwartz, Joseph A; Nedelec, Joseph L; Beaver, Kevin M; Barnes, J C

    2015-07-01

    An extensive line of research has identified delinquent peer association as a salient environmental risk factor for delinquency, especially during adolescence. While previous research has found moderate-to-strong associations between exposure to delinquent peers and a variety of delinquent behaviors, comparatively less scholarship has focused on the genetic architecture of this association over the course of adolescence. Using a subsample of kinship pairs (N = 2379; 52 % female) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child and Young Adult Supplement (CNLSY), the present study examined the extent to which correlated individual differences in starting levels and developmental growth in delinquent peer pressure and self-reported delinquency were explained by additive genetic and environmental influences. Results from a series of biometric growth models revealed that 37 % of the variance in correlated growth between delinquent peer pressure and self-reported delinquency was explained by additive genetic effects, while nonshared environmental effects accounted for the remaining 63 % of the variance. Implications of these findings for interpreting the nexus between peer effects and adolescent delinquency are discussed. PMID:25967897

  17. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  18. Predictors of Delinquency among Adolescents of Divorced Families

    OpenAIRE

    Nooshin Sabour Esmaeili; Siti Nor Yaacob; Rumaya Juhari

    2013-01-01

    Although delinquency is universal, few studies examined it from an Asian perspective, and even fewer considered adolescents of divorced families in Iran. The current study examined whether correlates of delinquency among western adolescents are similarly effective for predicting delinquency among adolescents from divorced families in the Mashhad city in Iran. Post-divorce parental conflict, maternal distress, economic hardship and parent-child relationship were regressed against delinquency. ...

  19. Family Environments of Adolescent Sex Offenders and Other Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, Gary P.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Compared the family environments of adolescent sex offenders and violent and nonviolent juvenile delinquents with a normative sample of adolescents. Differences between the delinquents and the normative sample arose on 6 of 10 subscales of the Family Environment Scale. No differences were found among the three categories of juvenile delinquents.…

  20. Predictors of Delinquency among Adolescents of Divorced Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Sabour Esmaeili

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Although delinquency is universal, few studies examined it from an Asian perspective, and even fewer considered adolescents of divorced families in Iran. The current study examined whether correlates of delinquency among western adolescents are similarly effective for predicting delinquency among adolescents from divorced families in the Mashhad city in Iran. Post-divorce parental conflict, maternal distress, economic hardship and parent-child relationship were regressed against delinquency. The parent-child relationship was the strongest significant predictor of self-reported delinquency.

  1. An 18-Year Model of Family and Peer Effects on Adolescent Drug Use and Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Helen E.; Stein, Judith A.

    2002-01-01

    Studied the interrelationship of family and peer experiences in predicting adolescent problem behaviors in an 18-year longitudinal sample of 198 adolescents from conventional and nonconventional families. The most powerful predictors of teen drug use and delinquent behaviors were similar behaviors by peers, but peer behaviors were in turn…

  2. Factors that Influence Trajectories of Delinquency Throughout Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sara Z; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L

    2014-10-01

    Given that one of the most powerful predictors of adult crime is the presence of behavior problems in childhood and adolescence, there is a need to further understand factors that determine behavior patterns during this developmental stage. This study focuses on stressful life experiences such as exposure to delinquent peers, racial discrimination, as well as family characteristics such as parenting style and family transitions. Data come from four waves of the Family and Community Health Survey, an African-American sample. The present study investigates 354 males from this dataset. We utilize a group-based trajectory model to estimate the number and type of trajectories of delinquency. We then estimate multinomial regression models to predict trajectory group membership. The results indicated that there were four distinct groups of offenders (negligible delinquents; early starter/declining; late starter; and early starter/chronic offenders). We predicted group membership using both early predictors and measures of change in these predictors across the study period. The results indicated that individuals who experience greater racial discrimination (both early in childhood and throughout adolescence) are more likely to be in trajectory groups that begin offending early and persist through adolescence. Additionally, those respondents who reported having friends with greater delinquent behavior were more likely to be in groups that began their offending early in life and persisted when compared to groups who started later or desisted as they entered adulthood. The results contribute to developmental research and provide information that may be helpful in preventing adolescents from persisting in antisocial behavior as they enter adulthood. PMID:25292150

  3. Incarcerated Adolescent Girls: Personality, Social Competence, and Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Laak, Jan; de Goede, Martijn; Aleva, Liesbeth; Brugman, Gerard; van Leuven, Miranda; Hussmann, Judith

    2003-01-01

    Study investigated personality traits and social competence as predictors of delinquency in adolescent girls. Agreeableness did not correlate with the overall delinquency score. The more crimes reported, the less conscientious, more neurotic, and more open the girls were. Correlation between delinquency and extroversion was not statistically…

  4. Post-Divorce Parental Conflict and AdolescentsDelinquency in Divorced Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Sabour Esmaeili

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews several empirical researches which highlight the effect of post-divorce parental conflict as one of the most important factors on adolescentsdelinquency in divorced families. Research consistently shows that parental conflict affects parental relationship and this poor parental quality may transfer into poor parent-child relationship that may negatively influence adolescent functions and behaviors. Research showed that adolescents who are exposed to post-divorce parental conflict are at increased risk for high level of delinquency. Positive associations between parental conflict and adolescent delinquency have been accounted for by parental rejection or withdrawal, parental hostility toward adolescents, lack of parental warmth, and corporal punishment and parent-adolescent conflict.

  5. COMUNICACIÓN FAMILIAR Y COMPORTAMIENTOS DELICTIVOS EN ADOLESCENTES ESPAÑOLES:: EL DOBLE ROL MEDIADOR DE LA AUTOESTIMA¹ / FAMILY COMMUNICATION AND DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR AMONG SPANISH ADOLESCENTS:: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF SELF-ESTEEM

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    TERESA I., JIMÉNEZ; SERGIO, MURGUI; ESTEFANÍA, ESTÉVEZ; GONZALO, MUSITO.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This research analyses the relationship among family communication (open communication versus communication problems), multidimensional self-esteem (family, academic, social and physical self-esteem) and behavioural problems in adolescence. Two independent samples were used in the study: Sample 1 wa [...] s composed of 414 adolescents ranging in age from 12 to 17 years old, and Sample 2 was composed of 625 adolescents aged from 11 to 20 years old. Results showed an indirect effect of family communication on delinquent behavior through the mediation of self-esteem. We found a protection effect of family and academic self-esteem and a risk effect of social and physical self-esteem on delinquent behavior.

  6. [The comparative study on parent-adolescent communication between the model student family and the delinquent adolescent family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y H; Shin, H S

    1990-12-31

    This research is based on the communication system theory which considers the family as a communication system or a communication network and which understand interpersonal relations among family members through a communication. This research is intended to define the difference of Parent-Adolescent Child communication between the model student family and the delinquent adolescent family, and also found the factors affecting parent-adolescent child communication. This aims to clarify wether a delinquent behavior is associated with family members' relations caused by dysfunctional communication between parents and their child, moreover explorate their problem to find the method of nursing intervention for prevention and treatment for delinquency. Subjects are 190 families (570 persons: father, mother, adolescent child) of model high school students and 87 families (261 persons) of delinquent adolescents. The employed tool is Olson et al's Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale (PAC, 20 items). The followings are the results derived through hypotheses verification. First, Comparison of two groups showed a significant difference in Parent-Adolescent Communication (t = 2.77, p less than 0.1). In the communication of delinquent group showed lower response than the model group. And also communication of the model group was more opened and positive (t = 2.41, p less than .05), and showed fewer problems (t = 2.06, p less than .05), the delinquent group had more problems. 2ndary, the delinquent group showed significantly more disagreement in response to variable of PAC than the model group. As analyzing of factors affects the Parents-Adolescent Communication, the best method to protect juvenile from delinquency are consistent open-hearted, congruent communication with mutual concern and warm mind between parents and child. And even though the all family don't hardly send together their time for their job, parents have to arrange many times to hold communication with children and to listen attentively to and respond to them, and so to increase their satisfaction for their parents. In conclusion, it seems that delinquent behavior is the outcome caused by dysfunctional communication between the parents and the child because of severe generation gap at adolescence period when the child needs communication with their parents. Therefore, it seems that the delinquent adolescent is the scape-goat of the family. Finally, it seems that more effective method to solve juvenile delinquents increasing day by day, is the family therapy that all family members participate than the individual therapy. PMID:2287168

  7. Intergenerational Transmission of Religious Beliefs and Practices and the Reduction of Adolescent Delinquency in Urban Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Miller, Brenda A.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K.; Rosati, Michael J.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Atwood, Katharine A.; Todd, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the intergenerational transmission of family religion as measured by parent's and adolescent's beliefs and practices in Buddhism, and its relation to delinquent behaviors among early adolescents in Thailand. The data set is from the Thai Family Matters Project 2007, a representative sample of 420 pairs of parents and teens in…

  8. Sports Participation and Juvenile Delinquency: The Role of the Peer Context among Adolescent Boys and Girls with Varied Histories of Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Margo; Roth, Jodie; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    In a study of 1,344 urban adolescents, the authors examined the relation between participation in organized sports and juvenile delinquency. They compared youth who participated in sports to those who only participated in nonathletic activities and to those who did not participate in any organized activities. They also examined the indirect…

  9. DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR ATTRIBUTIONS OF LOW-RISK AND HIGH-RISK JUVENILE DELINQUENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Ricijaš

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary approach in juvenile delinquency aims to identify risk factors that contributed to delinquent behavior and to focus interventions towards those risks.The aim of this paper is to explore how juvenile delinquents attribute their delinquent behavior and to explore differences in the structure of attribution regarding their risk level. High-risk delinquents are considered those who are place in an institutional treatment, who often do criminal acts, who are early-starters and whose delinquent behavior lasts longer. Research included 335 male juvenile delinquents in the Republic of Croatia within three types of sanctions: (1 probation, (2 open institution facility, (3 closed institution facility. 43,9% of juveniles were on probation (not in the institutional treatment and 56,1% of them were placed in the institutional treatment. Age range of participants was from 14 to 21 years of age (M=17,1; SD=1,858.Delinquent Behavior Attribution Scale for juvenile delinquents (Ricijaš, 2009 was used to identify the structure of attributions, and juveniles also answered some questions about their criminal behavior, contacts with police and court as well as some family circumstances questions.Results consistently show that high-risk juvenile delinquents attribute their delinquent behavior to a greater number of factors, which is in accordance with other criminological research that measured causes of delinquent behavior with other methods.

  10. Violence and Attribution Error in Adolescent Male and Female Delinquents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki L Waytowich

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of violence attribution errors among female adolescent delinquents in the United States. Also of interest was to compare female delinquents’ violence attribution error rate to that of their male counterparts who were participating in the same delinquency intervention programs. A third purpose was to identify predictors (i.e., attitudes toward violence, peer victimization, self-esteem, demographic variables of violence attribution errors. Participants were 181 juvenile delinquents (28.2% female who participated in two delinquency intervention programs located in Florida during the 2005-2006 year. Findings revealed no statistically significant difference in violence attribution error rate between male (52.7% and female (46.5% juvenile delinquents. A multiple regression analysis identified six variables that predicted the violence attribution error rate. The Implications of the findings are discussed.

  11. Use of prescription drugs and future delinquency among adolescent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazdowski, Tess K; Jäggi, Lena; Borre, Alicia; Kliewer, Wendy L

    2015-01-01

    Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) by adolescents is a significant public health concern. The present study investigated the profile of NMUPD in 1349 adolescent offenders from the Pathways to Desistance project, and whether NMUPD predicted future delinquency using longitudinal data. Results indicated that increased frequency and recency of NMUPD in adolescent offenders are related to some demographic factors, as well as increased risk for violence exposure, mental health diagnoses, other drug use, and previous delinquency, suggesting that severity of NMUPD is important to consider. However, ANCOVA analyses found that NMUPD was not a significant predictor of drug-related, non-aggressive, or aggressive delinquency 12 months later beyond other known correlates of delinquency. Age, sex, exposure to violence, lower socioeconomic status, more alcohol use, and having delinquency histories were more important than NMUPD in predicting future delinquency. These findings suggest that although NMUPD is an important risk factor relating to many correlates of delinquency, it does not predict future delinquency beyond other known risk factors. PMID:25135798

  12. Post-Divorce Parental Conflict and AdolescentsDelinquency in Divorced Families

    OpenAIRE

    Nooshin Sabour Esmaeili; Siti Nor Yaacob

    2011-01-01

    This study reviews several empirical researches which highlight the effect of post-divorce parental conflict as one of the most important factors on adolescentsdelinquency in divorced families. Research consistently shows that parental conflict affects parental relationship and this poor parental quality may transfer into poor parent-child relationship that may negatively influence adolescent functions and behaviors. Research showed that adolescents who are exposed to post-divorce parenta...

  13. Young Adult Substance Use and Depression as a Consequence of Delinquency Trajectories during Middle Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Margit; Windle, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study extended work from Wiesner and Windle (2004) by examining young adult outcomes (i.e., alcohol and illicit drug use, depression) of middle-adolescent trajectories of delinquent behavior for a community sample of 724 young women and men (at average ages 23.8 years). Each domain of young adult adjustment problems was assessed…

  14. Parental Divorce and Adolescent Delinquency: Ruling out the Impact of Common Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Barnes, Ashlee R.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Although the well-documented association between parental divorce and adolescent delinquency is generally assumed to be environmental (i.e., causal) in origin, genetic mediation is also possible. Namely, the behavior problems often found in children of divorce could derive from similar pathology in the parents, pathology that is both heritable and…

  15. Predicting the Problem Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Neslihan G.

    2013-01-01

    Problem statement: Problem behavior theory describes both protective factors and risk factors to explain adolescent problem behaviors, such as delinquency, alcohol use, and reckless driving. The theory holds that problem behaviors involving risky behavior are used by adolescents as a means to gain peer acceptance and respect. Problem behaviors

  16. Travel beyond the home neighborhood for delinquent behaviors: moderation of home neighborhood influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompsett, Carolyn J; Amrhein, Kelly E; Hassan, Sarah

    2014-06-01

    Neighborhood research indicates that adolescents are at higher risk for delinquency when they reside in neighborhoods low in collective efficacy, low in perceived prosocial norms and values, and high in availability of substances and firearms. However, as adolescents develop, they are more likely to independently travel during their day-to-day activities, and the effects of their home neighborhood may be weakened as they spend time in other communities. The current study surveyed 179 adolescents involved in the juvenile justice system in a small Midwestern city on their perceptions of their home neighborhood and self-reported delinquency. While perceptions of several home neighborhood characteristics significantly predicted severity of delinquency for all respondents, neighborhood effects were significantly weaker for those adolescents who tended to engage in illegal behaviors outside their home neighborhood. These findings suggest that future research and prevention efforts should include more attention to how adolescents may be influenced by multiple neighborhoods. PMID:24793379

  17. School climate and delinquency among Chinese adolescents: analyses of effortful control as a moderator and deviant peer affiliation as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhenzhou; Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    School climate is the quality and character of school life and reflects the norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and the organizational structure of a school. There is substantial literature documenting the negative association between positive school climate and adolescent delinquency, but little is known about the moderating and mediating mechanisms underlying this relationship. The aim of this study was to examine whether the direct and indirect pathways between school climate and adolescent delinquency would be moderated by effortful control. A sample of 2,758 Chinese adolescents (M age?=?13.53 years, SD?=?1.06) from 10 middle schools completed anonymous questionnaires regarding school climate, effortful control, deviant peer affiliation, and delinquency. After gender, age, geographical area, and socioeconomic status were included as covariates, the results revealed that school climate was significantly associated with adolescent delinquent behavior. This direct association was moderated by effortful control, such that the negative relationship between positive school climate and delinquency was only significant among adolescents low in effortful control. Moreover, the indirect association between school climate and delinquency via deviant peer affiliation was also moderated by effortful control. Specifically, the moderating effect of effortful control was not only manifested in the relationship between school climate and deviant peer affiliation, but also in the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and delinquency. These findings contribute to understanding the mechanisms through which positive school climate might reduce delinquent behavior and have important implications for prevention efforts aimed at diminishing adolescent delinquency. PMID:24962709

  18. Resilience and vulnerability in adolescents: genetic influences on differential response to risk for delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Jamie; Sullivan, Christopher J

    2014-07-01

    Prior research has identified a vast number of correlates for delinquent behavior during adolescence, yet a considerable number of errors in prediction remain. These errors suggest that behavioral development among a portion of youths is not well understood, with some exhibiting resilience and others a heightened vulnerability to risks. Examining cases that do not confirm prediction outcomes provides an opportunity to achieve a greater understanding of the relationships between risk factors and delinquency, which can be used to improve theoretical explanations of behavior. This study explores the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to differences in individual responses to cumulative risk for delinquency among a sample of adolescent twins (N = 784 pairs, 49 % female) in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The results indicate that additive genetic and unique environmental factors significantly contribute to variation in responses to cumulative risk across 14 risk factors spanning individual, familial, and environmental domains. When analyzed separately, the majority of the difference between vulnerable youths and the overall population was attributed to genetic influences, while differences between resilient youths and the population were primarily attributed to environmental influences. The findings illustrate the importance of examining both genetic and environmental influences in order to enhance explanations of adolescent offending. PMID:24585391

  19. Parental Attachment, Peer Attachment, and Delinquency among Adolescents in Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Jia Choon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the relationships between parental attachment, peer attachment and delinquency among adolescents. 480 adolescents aged 13-17 were randomly selected from four secondary schools in Malaysia. The revised version of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA (Armsden & Greenberg, 1987 and the Self-report Delinquency Scale (Mak, 1993 were used in this study. The results revealed significant negative relationship between father and mother attachment with adolescentsdelinquency and significant positive relationship between peer attachments with adolescentsdelinquency. Statistically significant differences were obtained for males and females adolescents where males are more delinquent than females. Multiple regression analysis showed that gender is the strongest predictors for adolescentsdelinquency, followed by peer attachment, mother attachment and father attachment. Practical recommendation and implementation are discussed where attachment could be included as a target for implementing intervention.

  20. Prosocial Moral Reasoning in Institutionalized Delinquent, Orphaned, and Noninstitutionalized Brazilian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Gustavo; Koller, Silvia; Eisenberg, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Examined prosocial moral reasoning in Brazilian institutionalized delinquent, orphaned, and noninstitutionalized adolescents. Found that compared to nondelinquent adolescents, delinquent adolescents were less likely to prefer higher level, internalized types of prosocial moral reasoning and more likely to prefer lower levels of prosocial moral…

  1. The moderating effects of religiosity on the relationship between stressful life events and delinquent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew C; Morris, Robert G

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has shown that many forms of strain are positively related to delinquency. Evidence also suggests that religiosity buffers the effects of strain on offending, but this issue requires further research. Using data from a national sample of adolescents, this study examined whether or not religiosity conditioned the relationship between strain and delinquency. This study also looked at the ability of social support, self-esteem, and depression to moderate the influence of strain on delinquent behavior. The findings here lend support to general strain theory in that strain had a direct positive effect on delinquency, yet there was little evidence that the relationship was moderated by religiosity or other conditioning variables. The roles of moderating variables on strain across genders were also considered. PMID:19122862

  2. Parental Divorce and Adolescent Delinquency: Ruling out the Impact of Common Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Barnes, Ashlee R.; Mcgue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Although the well-documented association between parental divorce and adolescent delinquency is generally assumed to be environmental (i.e., causal) in origin, genetic mediation is also possible. Namely, the behavior problems often found in children of divorce could derive from similar pathology in the parents, pathology that is both heritable and increases the risk that the parent will experience divorce. To test these alternative hypotheses, we made use of a novel design that incorporated t...

  3. Problem Behavior and Heart Rate Reactivity in Adopted Adolescents: Longitudinal and Concurrent Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimmel, Nicole; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie; De Geus, Eco J. C.

    2008-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examined resting heart rate and heart rate variability and reactivity to a stressful gambling task in adopted adolescents with aggressive, delinquent, or internalizing behavior problems and adopted adolescents without behavior problems (total N=151). Early-onset delinquent adolescents showed heart rate…

  4. Depressive symptoms, exposure to aggression and delinquency proneness in adolescence: Impact of two decades of war and political violence on adolescent mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejovi?-Milovan?evi? Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic experiences in Serbia in the last two decades have caused significant psychological consequences in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms, exposure to aggression and delinquency proneness among high school and elementary school students in Belgrade, Serbia. The participants were 899 students (51.8% were female with no prior treatment for psychological problems, with a mean age of 16.70±1.95. All used instruments were taken from the modified Social and Health Assessment (SAHA. Our findings show that delinquent behavior or exposure to delinquency was significantly related to depressive symptoms. The strongest predictors of depression were variables concerning legal consequences, affiliation with delinquent peers, victimization by community violence and peer victimization. This study confirmed a strong correlation between depression and exposure to violence. Identifying adolescents with depressive symptoms is important for prevention of serious mental health consequences.

  5. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset Among African American Adolescent Males

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, James Herbert; Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2009-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a...

  6. Delinquency, depression, and substance use disorder among child welfare-involved adolescent females

    OpenAIRE

    Lalayants, Marina; Prince, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    Although adolescents with delinquency are known to have higher-than-average rates of depression or substance use disorder (SUD), research on the topic is inconsistent. It remains unclear weather depression or SUD leads to delinquency, whether delinquency leads to depression or SUD, or whether there is bi-directionality. Utilizing the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (Wave I: 2008–2009; Wave II: 18 months later: N = 5872), we used logistic regression to predict depression f...

  7. The Development of Delinquency and Perceived Friendship Quality in Adolescent Best Friendship Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfhout, Maarten H. W.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines both the unique and the combined role of best friends' delinquency and perceived friendship quality in the development of adolescent delinquency. Questionnaire data were gathered from 435 Dutch adolescent best friends (mean age at first wave = 12.97) over a period of 5 years with annual assessments. Results showed that…

  8. Interscholastic Athletics and Delinquent Behavior: Appraisal or Applause?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Charles W.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews research relating to whether the socialization effects of interscholastic athletics retard delinquent behavior, particularly among high school students. Suggests that more testing and appraisal of high school athletics programs should be encouraged. (Author/DB)

  9. Linking Life Skills and Norms With Adolescent Substance Use and Delinquency in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Mary H.; Graham, John W.; Smith, Edward A.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Bradley, Stephanie A.; Vergnani, Tania; Mathews, Cathy; Wegner, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    We examined factors targeted in two popular prevention approaches with adolescent drug use and delinquency in South Africa. We hypothesized adolescent life skills to be inversely related, and perceived norms to be directly related to later drug use and delinquency. Multiple regression and a relative weights approach were conducted for each outcome using a sample of 714 South African adolescents ages 15 to 19 years (M = 15.8 years, 57% female). Perceived norms predicted gateway drug use. Confl...

  10. Parent-Adolescent Processes and Reduced Risk for Delinquency: The Effect of Gender for Mexican American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cota-Robles, Sonia; Gamble, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    Using a U.S. sample of 454 adolescents of Mexican descent from two-parent families, this study investigated the roles of parental monitoring and parent-adolescent attachment in reducing the risk for delinquency for Mexican American adolescents and found that these parent-adolescent processes, particularly with regard to the mother and the…

  11. A Cross-Lagged Longitudinal Study of Relations between Academic Achievement and Korean Adolescent Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies have shown that academic achievement has a significant effect on juvenile delinquency, with the reverse reported as well. This study, therefore, examined the reciprocal causal relationships between academic achievement and juvenile delinquency. Methods: The participants were 3449 Korean adolescents (mean age 13.2 years,…

  12. Growth in Adolescent Delinquency and Alcohol Use in Relation to Young Adult Crime, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Risky Sex: A Comparison of Youth from Low- versus Middle-Income Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W. Alex; Hitch, Julia E.; Kosterman, Rick; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Hawkins, J. David

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study examined adolescent delinquency and alcohol use in relation to young adult crime, alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and risky sex. Analyses further examined the influences of late childhood involvement in these problem behavior outcomes, with mediation through teen delinquency and alcohol use, and examined differences in the…

  13. Low self-control and co-occurrence of gambling with substance use and delinquency among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nicole W T

    2014-03-01

    Relatively little is known about gambling co-morbidity in Asian youth populations. The role of trait self-control in co-morbidity also remains under-explored in the gambling literature. This study examined the association between gambling, substance use and delinquency among Chinese adolescents, and the extent to which these forms of risk behavior are commonly predicted by low self-control. Data from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of a stratified, random sample of 4,734 high school students aged 12-23 years in Hong Kong were analyzed. The prevalence of gambling pathology, frequency and attitudes showed statistically significant, positive and consistent relationships with tobacco use, alcohol use, and delinquent acts at the p gambling, frequent gambling, strong permissiveness toward gambling, heavy use of tobacco and alcohol, and delinquent involvement, even after controlling for the potential shared correlates of socioeconomic characteristics, parental monitoring and peer delinquency. Hence, the concept that gambling problems and strong receptivity to gambling are likely to be part of a general problem behavior syndrome is evinced cross-culturally among young people in a Chinese context. It may also be cost-effective to increase intervention efforts to improve the self-control deficit in adolescents, as this should reduce their gambling and concurrent problem behavior. PMID:23224660

  14. Parental Attachment, Peer Attachment, and Delinquency among Adolescents in Selangor, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Lim Jia Choon; Muslihah Hasbullah; Sa’odah Ahmad; Wu Shin Ling

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships between parental attachment, peer attachment and delinquency among adolescents. 480 adolescents aged 13-17 were randomly selected from four secondary schools in Malaysia. The revised version of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) (Armsden & Greenberg, 1987) and the Self-report Delinquency Scale (Mak, 1993) were used in this study. The results revealed significant negative relationship between father and mother attachment wit...

  15. Early Child Maltreatment, Runaway Youths, and Risk of Delinquency and Victimization in Adolescence: A Mediational Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Jung; Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Huang, Bu

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether running away from home mediates the link between child maltreatment and later delinquency and victimization in adolescence. Specifically, the authors tested the hypothesis that childhood physical and psychological abuse increase the risk of a child's running away from home by the time of adolescence. Running away from home is, in turn, hypothesized to increase the risk of delinquency and victimization. Childhood sexual abuse, modeled independently of physical and...

  16. ADOLESCENT ROMANCE AND DELINQUENCY: A FURTHER EXPLORATION OF HIRSCHI’S “COLD AND BRITTLE” RELATIONSHIPS HYPOTHESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano, Peggy C.; Lonardo, Robert A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2010-01-01

    Hirschi argued that delinquent youth tend to form relatively “cold and brittle” relationships with peers, depicting these youths as deficient in their attachments to others. The current analysis explores connections between delinquency and the character of adolescent romantic ties, drawing primarily on the first wave of the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, and focusing on 957 teens with dating experience. We examine multiple relationship qualities/dynamics in order to explore both t...

  17. It's a Two-Way Street: The Bidirectional Relationship between Parenting and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault-Sherman, Martha

    2012-01-01

    As the primary socializing institution of youth, the family has long been recognized as important for predicting delinquency. Social control theory focuses on the effects of parental behavior on adolescent delinquency but fails to take into account the effect of adolescent delinquency on parental behaviors. This study addresses this problem by…

  18. The role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Chan, Wei Teng; Cheong, Siew Ann; Leaw, Jia Ning

    2015-06-01

    Given the robust positive association between gangs and crime, a better understanding of factors related to reported youth gang membership is critical and especially since youth in gangs are a universal concern. The present study investigated the role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership using a large sample of 1027 Singapore adolescents. Results from logistic regression showed that delinquency, proactive aggression, and behavioral school engagement were statistically significant risk factors for reported youth gang membership, and that psychopathy was not related to reported gang membership. Implications for prevention and intervention work with respect to youth gang membership were discussed. In particular, strengthening students' engagement with school and meaningful school-related activities and developing supportive teacher-student relationships are particularly important in working with young people with respect to prevention work. Additionally, the present study's theoretical and empirical contributions were also discussed. PMID:25880890

  19. Substance Use and Delinquency among Adolescents with Childhood ADHD: The Protective Role of Parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, Jeewon; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E; Wymbs, Brian T.; Belendiuk, Katharine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    Several domains of parenting have been identified as important for adolescent well-being. Whether these same domains are equally beneficial for adolescents with ADHD histories remains an empirical and clinically important question. This study examined whether parental knowledge of their teen’s activities and whereabouts, consistency, support, and parent-adolescent conflict are associated with substance use and delinquency similarly for adolescents with and without a diagnosis of ADHD in child...

  20. Self-Esteem and Delinquency in South Korean Adolescents: Latent Growth Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungeun; Lee, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the inter-related development of self-esteem and delinquency across three years. Participants were 3449 Korean high school adolescents (age M = 15.8, SD = 0.42, 1725 boys, 1724 girls) from Korea Youth Panel Study (KYPS), in 2005-2007, nationally representative of Korean adolescents. Latent growth modeling was employed for…

  1. Psychiatric Problems and Trauma Exposure in Nondetained Delinquent and Nondelinquent Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Zachary W.; McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Sawyer, Genelle K.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of and associations between specific psychiatric disorders, substance use problems, and trauma exposure in a sample of delinquent and nondelinquent adolescents. A nationally representative sample of adolescents ("n" = 3,614; "M" age = 14.5 years, "SD" = 1.7; 51% male; 71% White,…

  2. Are Teen Delinquency Abstainers Social Introverts?: A Test of Moffitt's Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojin; Adams, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Prior research has identified a small group of adolescents who completely refrain from delinquent behavior. Researchers have hypothesized that these adolescents may be excluded from normative peer activities and are thus insulated from delinquent peer role models. A central argument in Moffitt's account of delinquency abstention, for example, is…

  3. Religion and American Adolescent Delinquency, Risk Behaviors and Constructive Social Activities. A Research Report of the National Study of Youth and Religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christian; Faris, Robert

    This study used data from the Monitoring the Future Survey of high school seniors to examine the impact of religion on U.S. adolescents' participation in constructive youth activities. Overall, religion positively related to participation in constructive activities. Students who participated in religious activities tended to be less likely to…

  4. Part II: Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers and Delinquent Youth--Further Group Comparisons of Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, George S.; Burton, David L.; Howard, Alan

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper published in the "Journal of Child Sexual Abuse," we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers (Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to…

  5. Reputation Enhancement and School Delinquency: A Prospective Study Using the National Educational Longitudinal Survey [NELS:88

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Adcock, Sondra; Lee, Sang Min; Kerpelman, Jennifer; Majuta, Aaron; Young, Choi Bo

    2013-01-01

    High school delinquency, adolescent behaviors ranging from repeated school misconduct to being arrested, is a critical concern in the United States. Though widely believed that reputation is related to adolescent behavior, few studies have addressed the relationship between adolescent reputation and delinquency. Using the National Educational…

  6. Values and the Family: Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Helen E.; Stein, Judith A.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of different values on adolescent problem behaviors is explored in an 18-year study of 199 families. Drug use, delinquency, dropout, and sexual behavior are identified as risk factors for problem behavior. Maternal, traditional, and humanistic values as predictors of adolescent behaviors were studied. (Author/MMU)

  7. Parent-Adolescent Relations and Adolescent Functioning: Self-Esteem, Substance Abuse, and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jennifer S.; Benson, Mark J.

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined parental support and monitoring as they relate to adolescent outcomes. It was hypothesized that support and monitoring would be associated with higher self-esteem and less risky behavior during adolescence. The diverse sample included 16,749 adolescents assessed as part of the National Educational Longitudinal Study.…

  8. Empirically Supported Family-Based Treatments for Conduct Disorder and Delinquency in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henggeler, Scott W.; Sheidow, Ashli J.

    2012-01-01

    Several family-based treatments of conduct disorder and delinquency in adolescents have emerged as evidence-based and, in recent years, have been transported to more than 800 community practice settings. These models include multisystemic therapy, functional family therapy, multidimensional treatment foster care, and, to a lesser extent, brief…

  9. The Effects of Family Therapies for Adolescent Delinquency and Substance Abuse: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Scott A.; Christian, Sarah; Berkeljon, Arjan; Shadish, William R.

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarizes results from k = 24 studies comparing either Brief Strategic Family Therapy, Functional Family Therapy, Multidimensional Family Therapy, or Multisystemic Therapy to either treatment-as-usual, an alternative therapy, or a control group in the treatment of adolescent substance abuse and delinquency. Additionally, the…

  10. Unsafe at Any Age: Linking Childhood and Adolescent Maltreatment to Delinquency and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersky, Joshua P.; Topitzes, James; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study compares the effects of childhood maltreatment and adolescent maltreatment on delinquency and crime, including violent and nonviolent offending. Methods: Data were derived from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a prospective investigation of 1,539 underprivileged, minority subjects. Results: Results confirmed that rates of…

  11. Direct and Moderating Effects of Social Affordances on School Involvement and Delinquency among Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jeong Jin; Gamble, Wendy C.

    2010-01-01

    Using social control theory and attachment theory as guides, this study examined how qualities of young adolescents' social relationships (i.e., mother, sibling, and friend) and dynamic interactions among characteristics of those relationships are associated with school involvement and delinquency. The participants included older siblings (M age =…

  12. The mediating effects of self-esteem and delinquency on the relationship between family social capital and adolescents’ educational achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Omolola Abiola Adedokun; Balschweid, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Using a nationally representative data of rural adolescent boys and girls in 10th grade through 12th grade, this study explored the mediating effects of self-esteem and delinquency on the educational achievement of rural adolescents. Structural equation modeling analyses reveal that the combination of self-esteem and delinquency completely mediates the influence of family social capital on educational achievement. The findings of the models make a compelling case that the impact of family pro...

  13. Quit Now! A Psychoeducational Expressive Therapy Group Work Approach for At-Risk and Delinquent Adolescent Smokers in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit, Phey Ling; Teo, Lan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we review the risk and protective factors for adolescent smoking, as well as current research on evidence-based practices. The relevance of structured expressive therapy in meeting the maturational and emotional needs of at-risk and delinquent adolescents, and the multicultural context of adolescents in Singapore's Asian society…

  14. [An interaction effect between strain and delinquent peers on college students' deviant behavior in a classroom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuma, Yoshikazu

    2008-08-01

    This study tested Agnew's (1992) general strain theory (GST) of delinquency and crime. GST predicts that strain has an increasing effect on delinquency, and that the effect of strain is conditional upon several variables, including delinquent peers. I analyzed longitudinal data of 87 Japanese college students' deviant behavior in a classroom with a one-week interval, using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression and applying an Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm to estimate missing values. I found a significant main effect of strain and a significant interaction between strain and delinquent peers, after controlling for variables such as gender, school year, the number of previous delinquencies, and other variables based on social control and differential association theories. These results are consistent with GST. However, I also found that delinquent peers had a decreased effect for unstrained students, and an increasing one for strained students. The implications of the results are discussed. PMID:18939443

  15. Relations Between Neighborhood Factors, Parenting Behaviors, Peer Deviance, and Delinquency Among Serious Juvenile Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    CHUNG, HE LEN; Steinberg, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined relations among neighborhood structural and social characteristics, parenting practices, peer group affiliations, and delinquency among a group of serious adolescent offenders. The sample of 14–18-year-old boys (N = 488) was composed primarily of economically disadvantaged, ethnic-minority youth living in urban communities. The results indicate that weak neighborhood social organization is indirectly related to delinquency through its associations with parenting b...

  16. Social policy and the role of the behavior analyst in the prevention of delinquent behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Burchard, John D.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to encourage behavior analysts to expand their domain of interest and application to include the “social/political” contingencies that are developed and implemented by policymakers and lawmakers. Using the Vermont juvenile justice system as a prototype, examples are provided that focus on the tertiary, secondary, and primary prevention of delinquent behavior.

  17. Empirically Supported Family-Based Treatments for Conduct Disorder and Delinquency in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Henggeler, Scott W.; Sheidow, Ashli J.

    2011-01-01

    Several family-based treatments of conduct disorder and delinquency in adolescents have emerged as evidence-based and, in recent years, have been transported to more than 800 community practice settings. These models include multisystemic therapy, functional family therapy, multidimensional treatment foster care, and, to a lesser extent, brief strategic family therapy. In addition to summarizing the theoretical and clinical bases of these treatments, their results in efficacy and effectivenes...

  18. Parenting and Adolescent Problem Behaviors: A Comparative Study of Sons and Daughters in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    RHUCHAROENPORNPANICH, ORRATAI; CHAMRATRITHIRONG, APHICHAT; FONGKAEW, WARUNEE; Rosati, Michael J.; MILLER, BRENDA A.; CUPP, PAMELA K.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates parenting practices and the reported sexual and delinquent behaviors among Thai adolescents, by focusing on the difference between sons and daughters. Data were derived from 420 families whose adolescents aged 13–14 were randomly selected from seven districts in Bangkok using the probability proportional to size (PPS) method. Interviews were conducted with one parent and one adolescent. Female adolescents reported higher levels of parental monitoring, parental rules,...

  19. Self-Control and Early Adolescent Antisocial Behavior: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kemp, Raymond A. T.; Vermulst, Ad A.; Finkenauer, Catrin; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Overbeek, Geertjan; Rommes, Els W. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses a three-wave longitudinal study that investigates the relationship between self-control and aggressive and delinquent behavior of early adolescent boys and girls. The sample consists of 1,012 Dutch adolescents (mean age = 12.3) in their first year of secondary education. Structural equation modeling analyses reveal that high…

  20. The Impact of Family Violence, Family Functioning, and Parental Partner Dynamics on Korean Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sil; Kim, Hun-Soo

    2008-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the family factors related to juvenile delinquency and identifying the effect of family violence, family functioning, parental partner dynamics, and adolescents' personality on delinquent behavior among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-reporting…

  1. Social Orientation: Problem Behavior and Motivations Toward Interpersonal Problem Solving Among High Risk Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2001-01-01

    A model of problematic adolescent behavior that expands current theories of social skill deficits in delinquent behavior to consider both social skills and orientation toward the use of adaptive skills was examined in an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of 113 male and female adolescents. Adolescents were selected on the basis of moderate to serious risk for difficulties in social adaptation in order to focus on the population of youth most likely to be targeted by prevention e...

  2. The Longitudinal Relation Between Peer Violent Victimization and Delinquency: Results From a National Representative Sample of U.S. Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Corrie L.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2012-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of adolescents from the United States aged 12 to 17 years (Wave 1, n = 3,614; Wave 2, n = 2,511), this study examined (a) demographic and descriptive information about peer violent victimization (PVV); and (b) the longitudinal relation between a history of PVV and delinquency. Results indicated that 12.4% of adolescents reported lifetime exposure to PVV, and many of these adolescents with a previous history of PVV also reported exposure to other forms ...

  3. Bridging contexts : the interplay between family, child, and peers in explaining problem behavior in early adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Sentse, Miranda

    2010-01-01

    A substantial part of the youth develops problem behavior in adolescence. Problem behavior can be both externalizing (aggression, delinquency) and internalizing (depression, anxiety). Adolescents differ in their vulnerability to develop problem behavior. Research has shown that personal factors (genes, personality) as well as the social environment (parenting, friends’ behavior) play a role. Up till now, however, there is little knowledge on the interplay between child, family, and peer fac...

  4. The mediating effects of self-esteem and delinquency on the relationship between family social capital and adolescents’ educational achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolola Abiola Adedokun

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a nationally representative data of rural adolescent boys and girls in 10th grade through 12th grade, this study explored the mediating effects of self-esteem and delinquency on the educational achievement of rural adolescents. Structural equation modeling analyses reveal that the combination of self-esteem and delinquency completely mediates the influence of family social capital on educational achievement. The findings of the models make a compelling case that the impact of family processes on educational achievement is indirect rather than direct.

  5. Goal Setting and Self-Efficacy among Delinquent, At-Risk and Not At-Risk Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Annemaree; Gordon, Kellie; Haynes, Michele; Houghton, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Setting clear achievable goals that enhance self-efficacy and reputational status directs the energies of adolescents into socially conforming or non-conforming activities. This present study investigates the characteristics and relationships between goal setting and self-efficacy among a matched sample of 88 delinquent (18% female), 97 at-risk…

  6. Violent, Delinquent, and Aggressive Behaviors of Rural High School Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Deborah J.; Lantz, Christopher D.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between sports participation and self-reported violent, delinquent, and aggressive behaviors in rural high school populations. Three-hundred and thirty-eight athletes and non-athletes from four rural high schools completed the YRBSS and the Conflict Behavior Scale (CBS). The results…

  7. The influence of father criminality on juvenile recidivism: testing for delinquent behaviors as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Vivien S; Ang, Rebecca P; Lim, Helena Yen Nie

    2010-08-01

    This study investigates the relationships between father criminality, prior delinquency, and recidivism using data from 382 incarcerated juveniles assessed in Singapore's Juvenile Court in 2005. The juveniles are aged 13 to 16 years, with a mean of 14.55 years (SD = 0.93). Using Baron and Kenny's framework, this study tests the prediction that the prior delinquent behaviors of the juvenile mediate the relationship between father criminality and recidivism in a four-step process. When the juvenile's prior delinquent behaviors are included in the model, the previous significant relation between father criminality and recidivism disappears. Implications of findings in terms of applied and practical intervention and prevention work for youths in schools and those in incarceration are discussed. PMID:19423754

  8. Reinforcement Sensitivity, Coping, and Delinquent Behaviour in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasking, Penelope A.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1964, the relationship between personality and criminal behaviour has been extensively studied. However, studies, which have examined the Eysenckian dimensions of extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism have produced mixed results. Gray's [Gray, J. A. (1970). The psychophysiological basis of introversion-extroversion. "Behavior Research…

  9. Race/Ethnic Differences in Effects of Family Instability on Adolescents’ Risk Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fomby, Paula; Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie A.

    2010-01-01

    We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 7,686) to determine whether racial and ethnic differences in socioeconomic stress and social protection explained group differences in the association between family structure instability and three risk behaviors for White, Black, and Mexican American adolescents: delinquent behavior, age at first nonmarital sex, and age at first nonmarital birth. The positive association between mothers’ union transitions and each ...

  10. Social identity and youth aggressive and delinquent behaviors in a context of political violence

    OpenAIRE

    Merrilees, Christine E.; Cairns, Ed; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E Mark

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the moderating role of in-group social identity on relations between youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggressive behaviors. Participants included 770 mother-child dyads living in interfaced neighborhoods of Belfast. Youth answered questions about aggressive and delinquent behaviors as well as the extent to which they targeted their behaviors toward members of the other group. Structural equation modeling results ...

  11. Suicidal Behavior, Negative Affect, Gender, and Self-Reported Delinquency in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Arata, Catalina; Bowers, David; O'Brien, Natalie; Morgan, Allen

    2004-01-01

    The associations among suicidal behavior, negative affect, and delinquency were assessed via an anonymous self-report survey administered to male and female college students ( N = 383). Contrary to our hypothesized results, there were no gender differences in rates of suicidal ideation and attempts. Confirming our hypotheses about gender…

  12. Cocaine Use and Delinquent Behavior among High-Risk Youths: A Growth Model of Parallel Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Sullivan, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of a parallel-process, latent growth model analysis examining the relationships between cocaine use and delinquent behavior among youths. The study examined a sample of 278 justice-involved juveniles completing at least one of three follow-up interviews as part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded study. The results…

  13. Coping Styles and Sex Differences in Depressive Symptoms and Delinquent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Building on research that links gender to differences in well-being and differences in stress exposure and vulnerability, the current study examines how coping styles are gendered in ways that may contribute to sex differences in depressive symptoms and delinquent behavior. The study disaggregates stress measures to reflect gender differences in…

  14. Tattooing behavior in adolescence. A comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, J A; Schwartz, R H; Vanderleeuw, J

    1991-02-01

    We characterize associations with and motivations for tattooing in adolescents through data from a controlled, three-group comparison of adolescents from a substance abuse treatment program, detention center, and private pediatric practice. We surveyed 474 adolescents (12 to 18 years old) with tattoos (12%) and without tattoos (88%). The private pediatric practice was the control site. A 34-item questionnaire was used to profile the three groups and their primary associations with tattooing with respect to race, drug use, school attendance, school grades, parental marital status, family income, tattooing by family members, criminal activity, and involvement with satanic rituals. Tattooing was significantly (P less than .005) associated with all of these variables in the ways described, as was knowledge of its association with human immunodeficiency virus infection. No interventions were made. Tattooing is common in adolescents and is associated with low self-esteem, delinquency, drug abuse, family and peer modeling, and participation in satanic rituals. Addressing the behavior as a health problem is discussed. PMID:1994684

  15. Psychopathy and behavior problems: a comparison of incarcerated male and female juvenile delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechorro, Pedro Santos; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Poiares, Carlos Alberto; Vieira, Rui Xavier; Marôco, João; Neves, Saul; Nunes, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare incarcerated male and female juvenile offenders regarding psychopathic traits, behavior problems, psychopathy taxon, conduct disorder, self-reported delinquent behavior, and crime seriousness. Within a total forensic sample of 261 detainee participants, subdivided in a male group (n=217) and a female group (n=44), statistically significant differences were found. Female juvenile offenders show less callous-unemotional traits, more emotional symptoms, more prosocial behaviors, less self-reported delinquent behavior, and lower crime seriousness. Conduct disorder prevalence was very high, but no statistically significant gender differences were found. The predictive importance of psychopathic traits, behavior problems, psychopathy taxon, and conduct disorder for the prediction of group membership (female versus male) was established by binary logistic regression. PMID:23218749

  16. Anticipating early fatality: friends', schoolmates' and individual perceptions of fatality on adolescent risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Dana L; Soller, Brian; Williams, Kristi

    2014-02-01

    Past research indicates that anticipating adverse outcomes, such as early death (fatalism), is associated positively with adolescents' likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors. Health researchers and criminologists have argued that fatalism influences present risk taking in part by informing individuals' motivation for delaying gratification for the promise of future benefits. While past findings highlight the association between the anticipation of early death and a number of developmental outcomes, no known research has assessed the impact of location in a context characterized by high perceptions of fatality. Using data from Add Health and a sample of 9,584 adolescents (51% female and 71% white) nested in 113 schools, our study builds upon prior research by examining the association between friends', school mates', and individual perceptions of early fatality and adolescent risk behaviors. We test whether friends' anticipation of being killed prior to age 21 or location in a school where a high proportion of the student body subscribes to attitudes of high fatality, is associated with risky behaviors. Results indicate that friends' fatalism is positively associated with engaging in violent delinquency, non-violent delinquency, and drug use after controlling for individual covariates and prior individual risk-taking. Although friends' delinquency accounts for much of the effect of friends' fatalism on violence, none of the potential intervening variables fully explain the effect of friends' fatalism on youth involvement in non-violent delinquency and drug use. Our results underscore the importance of friendship contextual effects in shaping adolescent risk-taking behavior and the very serious consequences perceptions of fatality have for adolescents' involvement in delinquency and drug use. PMID:23828725

  17. Antecedents and Behavior-Problem Outcomes of Parental Monitoring and Psychological Control in Early Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Pettit, Gregory S.; LAIRD, ROBERT D.; DODGE, KENNETH A.; Bates, John E.; Criss, Michael M.

    2001-01-01

    The early childhood antecedents and behavior-problem correlates of monitoring and psychological control were examined in this prospective, longitudinal, multi-informant study. Parenting data were collected during home visit interviews with 440 mothers and their 13-year-old children. Behavior problems (anxiety/depression and delinquent behavior) were assessed via mother, teacher, and/or adolescent reports at ages 8 through 10 years and again at ages 13 through 14. Home-interview data collected...

  18. Stress, active coping, and problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Zimmerman, Marc A; Xue, Yange; Bauermeister, Jose A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Wang, Zhenhong; Hou, Yubo

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the stress and coping mechanisms on problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents, which might be quite different from their counterparts in Western cultures. We examined risk process of stress for internalizing outcomes (i.e., psychological distress, self-acceptance) and externalizing outcomes (i.e., substance use, delinquency, violent behavior) among Chinese adolescents. We also examined John Henryism Active Coping as a protective factor in a test of resilience from the negative effects of stress. A cross-sectional survey using self-reported questionnaires was conducted in 2 urban cities in China: Beijing and Xian. Participants included 1,356 students in Grades 7 to 12 (48% male, 52% female). Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test the conceptual model. The modifying (protective) effects of John Henryism were tested in multiple-group analysis. After controlling for demographics, we found that stress was associated with decreased self-acceptance and increased psychological distress among adolescents. Higher degree of psychological distress was then associated with increased delinquent behaviors and substance use. The results also indicated that individuals who scored higher in John Henryism reported more substance use as a result of psychological distress. Overall, our results support previous research with Western samples. Although John Henryism did not serve as a protective factor between stress and its negative outcomes, the findings underscore the relevance of addressing stress and possible coping strategies among Chinese adolescents. Further research that refines the active coping tailored for Chinese adolescents is necessary to more precisely test its protective effects. PMID:24999522

  19. Trajectories of School Engagement during Adolescence: Implications for Grades, Depression, Delinquency, and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yibing; Lerner, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development, the authors assessed 1,977 adolescents across Grades 5 to 8 to determine if there were distinctive developmental paths for behavioral and emotional school engagement; if these paths varied in relation to sex, race/ethnicity, and family socioeconomic status (SES); and whether…

  20. Trajectories and Risk Factors of Criminal Behavior among Females from Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M. Krupa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that social environmental and individual-level factors influence adolescent development and behavior over time. However, little attention has been devoted to examining how risk factors (i.e., parental support, peer delinquency, self-control affect trajectories of criminal behavior among female adolescents. Utilizing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 5138 females and latent class analysis, three offending trajectories among females from late adolescence to early adulthood were identified: late escalators, late de-escalators, and stable low/abstainers. Next, the influence of social environmental and individual-level factors during adolescence (Wave 1 on these trajectories was assessed. Results identified key differences in the risk factors related to group placement. The implications of the findings for prevention and treatment services targeting adolescent females, and directions for future research, are discussed.

  1. Joint Trajectories of Symptoms of Disruptive Behavior Problems and Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence and Adjustment Problems during Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Eddy, J. Mark; Dishion, Thomas J.; Reid, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The joint, longitudinal trajectories of symptoms of disruptive behavior problems and of depression were examined in a community sample drawn from neighborhoods with elevated rates of delinquency. Growth mixture modeling was applied to a 6 year transition period from childhood to adolescence, age 10 to 16 years, to identify latent classes of…

  2. Emotional Stability Of Delinquents And Non-delinquents: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sunanda Helkar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:In this paper, delinquent behavior is studied in terms of emotional stability. Emotional instability is one of the most significant causes that lead to delinquent behavior. Emotional Stability of delinquent and Non-delinquent is measured through Emotional Stability Test. Emotional Stability Test for Children by Dr. H.A. Sengupta & Dr. A.K. Singh (Hindi) was used. A total 100 subject sample was used. For this study two main groups' namely delinquent group (study group) and non-delinqu...

  3. Reciprocal Relations between Perceived Parental Knowledge and Adolescent Substance Use and Delinquency: The Moderating Role of Parent-Teen Relationship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Jackson, Kristina M.; Wood, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The current study prospectively examined hypothesized short- and long-term reciprocal relations between perceived parental knowledge and adolescent heavy episodic drinking, marijuana use, and delinquency. Using the contextual model of parenting style (Darling & Steinberg, 1993), we examined the extent to which the bidirectional nature of…

  4. Risky Sexual Behavior among Rural Female Adolescents in Malaysia: A Limited Role of Protective Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Ahmadian; Hanina H. Hamsan; Haslinda Abdullah; Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah; Amna Md Noor

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, a...

  5. Does mother know best? Adolescent and mother reports of impulsivity and subsequent delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Jordan; Cavanagh, Caitlin; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Although impulsivity is one of the strongest psychological predictors of crime, it is unclear how well impulsivity, measured at a specific moment in adolescence, predicts criminal behavior months or years into the future. The present study investigated how far into the future self-reports and parents' reports of a youth's impulsivity predicted whether he engaged in illegal behavior, whether one reporter's assessment was more predictive than the other's, and whether there is value in obtaining multiple reports. Data were obtained from a 6-year longitudinal study of adjudicated juvenile offenders (n = 701 mother-son dyads). Youth (m = 15.93 years old; sd = 1.14) and their mothers independently reported on adolescents' impulsivity at the initial assessment. We examined the prospective correlation of these measures with illegal behavior, assessed by official records of arrests and youths' self-reports of offending across the 72-month study period. Youths' and mothers' reports of the adolescents' impulsivity were weakly, but significantly, correlated with one another. Furthermore, mothers' ratings of their sons' impulsivity predicted arrest up to 6 years into the future, whereas youths' reports did not significantly predict arrest beyond 30 months. With respect to youths' self-reports of offending, mothers' ratings of impulsivity again predicted farther into the future (as late as 6 years later) than did youths' self-reports of impulsivity, which were not predictive beyond 4 years. However, across the first 4 years, youths' self-reports of impulsivity explained more variance in self-reported offending than did mothers' ratings. The results underscore the endurance of the predictive utility of an assessment of impulsivity and the importance (and accuracy) of parents' reports of developmental constructs, even when their children are adolescents. PMID:24337690

  6. Relationships Between Alcohol-Related informal Social Control, Parental Monitoring and Adolescent Problem Behaviors Among Racially Diverse Urban Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Pasch, Keryn E; Perry, Cheryl. L.; Komro, Kelli

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationships between alcohol-related informal social control and parental monitoring on alcohol use, behavior and intentions; violent behavior; and delinquent behavior in a racially diverse population of young urban adolescents. Baseline surveys were administered to 6th grade male and female students in 61 urban Chicago schools as part of Project Northland Chicago, a group randomized trial for the prevention/reduction of substance use. A...

  7. Moral orientation and relationships in school and adolescent pro- and antisocial behaviors: a multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissink, Inge B; Dekovi?, Maja; Stams, Geert-Jan; Asscher, Jessica J; Rutten, Esther; Zijlstra, Bonne J H

    2014-06-01

    This multilevel study examined the relationships between moral climate factors and prosocial as well as antisocial behaviors inside and outside the school (school misconduct, delinquent behavior, and vandalism). The moral climate factors were punishment- and victim-based moral orientation, relationships among students, and teacher-student relationships. The analyses of data from 670 students in 69 classes showed that the classroom-level variables only had a significant impact on misconduct at school of students aged 12 to 20. For the other outcome variables, the student-level variables (student and teacher-student relationships, but especially students' moral orientation) were significant. A novel finding was that a positive teacher-student relationship not only proved to be related to less misconduct inside the school but also to less delinquent behavior and vandalism outside the school. This indicates that the teacher is an important socializing agent for adolescent behavior in general. PMID:23873393

  8. Delinquent Behavior and Emerging Substance Use in the MTA at 36 Months: Prevalence, Course, and Treatment Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Brooke S. G.; Flory, Kate; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James M.; Hechtman, Lily; Jensen, Peter S.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hoza, Betsy; Pelham, William E.; Elliott, Glen R.; Wells, Karen C.; Abikoff, Howard B.; Gibbons, Robert D.; Marcus, Sue; Conners, C. Keith; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; March, John S.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Severe, Joanne B.; Wigal, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare delinquent behavior and early substance use between the children in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA; N = 487) and those in a local normative comparison group (n = 272) at 24 and 36 months postrandomization and to test whether these outcomes were predicted by the randomly assigned treatments and…

  9. Parenting Style Transitions and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D.; Mowen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show…

  10. Risky Behaviors and Depression in Conjunction with –or in the Absence of—Lifetime History of PTSD Among Sexually Abused Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Macdonald, Alexandra; Ananda B. Amstadter; Hanson, Rochelle; de Arellano, Michael A.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2010-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often considered the primary problematic outcome of child sexual abuse (CSA). However, a number of other, relatively understudied negative sequelae appear to be prevalent as well. Data from 269 adolescents with a CSA history from the National Survey of Adolescents-Replication study were therefore used to examine the prevalence of risky behaviors (i.e., problematic alcohol and drug use, delinquent behavior) and depression in this sample. The frequencies ...

  11. Participation in Leisure Activities and Involvement in Delinquency by Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zenong; Katims, David S.; Zapata, Jesse T.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 2,651 low-income Mexican-American middle- and senior-high school students in Texas found higher levels of delinquency associated with increased participation in unsupervised socialization with friends and less frequent participation in home activities and organized leisure and sport activities. Associations of leisure activities and…

  12. Joint Trajectories of Symptoms of Disruptive Behavior Problems and Depressive Symptoms During Early Adolescence and Adjustment Problems During Emerging Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Eddy, J Mark; Dishion, Thomas J.; Reid, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The joint, longitudinal trajectories of symptoms of disruptive behavior problems and of depression were examined in a community sample drawn from neighborhoods with elevated rates of delinquency. Growth mixture modeling was applied to a 6 year transition period from childhood to adolescence, age 10 to 16 years, to identify latent classes of trajectories for each symptom type. Several classes emerged for the two types of symptoms, namely a group of youth with high levels of disruptive behavior...

  13. Longitudinal study of delinquency, drug use, sexual activity, and pregnancy among children and youth in three cities.

    OpenAIRE

    Huizinga, D; Loeber, R.; Thornberry, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    Using data from a collaborative program of research, this paper examines the prevalence of delinquency, alcohol and drug use, sexual intercourse, and pregnancy among youth in three urban settings. The findings indicate that a substantial portion of adolescents are involved in these behaviors. There are indications that for many youth the initiation of delinquency and drug use is occurring before the teenage years. There are also indications that all of these behaviors are often co-occurring, ...

  14. Self Injurious Behavior in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Self injury is a kind of behavior which begins in early adolescence and difficult to determine because remains suppressed. Most often forms are to cut and hit own. To be exposed to sexual abuse and stressfully life events are known as risk factors for self injurious behavior. High anxiety, depression and hostility levels, decrease of self esteem, suicidal attempts and thoughts are usually together with self injurious behavior and it may be mediating to emotional regulation. To explain the functions of self injurious behavior automatic and social support theories and social learning theories have suggested. The relation between suicidality and self injurious behavior is complex for adolescents. There is no enough knowledge if self injurious behavior aggravates the risk of completed suicide. Although it’s a frequent behavior there are limited randomized controlled studies which examine specific treatment approaches. Dialectic behavior treatment is the type of treatment which shown as most effective for adults. To determine the needs to stop the behavior, to manage emotional senses and urges and to learn more healthy ways for needs to youth are necessary in treatment of self injurious behavior. Treatment also includes determining suicidal risk and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In self injurious behavior medical treatment is useful for comorbid psychiatric disorders. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 201-210

  15. "We are also normal humans, you know?" Views and attitudes of juvenile delinquents on antisocial behavior, neurobiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstkötter, Dorothee; Berghmans, Ron; de Ruiter, Corine; Krumeich, Anja; de Wert, Guido

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the views and attitudes of juvenile delinquents regarding the implications of genomics and neurobiology research findings for the prevention and treatment of antisocial behavior. Scientific developments in these disciplines are considered to be of increasing importance for understanding the causes and the course of antisocial behavior and related mental disorders. High expectations exist with regard to the development of more effective prevention and intervention. Whether this is a desirable development does not only depend on science, but also on the ethical and social implications of potential applications of current and future research findings. As this pilot study points out, juvenile delinquents themselves have rather mixed views on the goals and means of early identification, prevention and treatment. Some welcome the potential support and help that could arise from biologically informed preventive and therapeutic measures. Others, however, reject the very goals of prevention and treatment and express worries concerning the risk of labeling and stigmatization and the possibility of false positives. Furthermore, interventions could aim at equalizing people and taking away socially disapproved capacities they themselves value. Moreover, most juvenile delinquents are hardly convinced that their crime could have been caused by some features of their brain or that a mental disorder has played a role. Instead, they provide social explanations such as living in a deprived neighborhood or having antisocial friends. We suggest that the hopes and expectations as well as the concerns and worries of juvenile delinquents are relevant not only for genomics and neurobiology of antisocial behavior, but also for prevention and intervention measures informed by social scientific and psychological research. The range of patterns of thought of juvenile delinquents is of great heuristic value and may lead to subsequent research that could further enhance our understanding of these patterns. PMID:22560671

  16. Impulsivity moderates promotive environmental influences on adolescent delinquency: A comparison across family, school, and neighborhood contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Pan; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined moderating effects of impulsivity on the relationships between promotive factors from family (family warmth, parental knowledge), school (school connectedness), and neighborhood (neighborhood cohesion) contexts with delinquency using data collected from N = 2,978 sixth to eighth graders from 16 schools surrounding a major city in the Midwestern United States. More than half of the respondents were non-Caucasian (Mage = 12.48; 41.0% male). Multilevel modeling analyse...

  17. Examining the Moderating Role of Family Cohesion on the Relationship Between Witnessed Community Violence and Delinquency in a National Sample of Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, Simone C.; Hanson, Rochelle; Begle, Angela M.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Saunders, Benjamin; Resnick, Heidi; Amstadter, Ananda

    2011-01-01

    Witnessed community violence has been linked to a number of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents. Guided by Cicchetti and Lynch’s (1993) ecological-transactional model, this study aimed to examine the impact that family-level factors had on negative outcomes associated with witnessed community violence. Using a nationally representative sample, we explored the moderational role of family cohesion in the relationship between witnessing community violence and delinquent beh...

  18. Evaluation of behavioral measures of risk taking propensity with inner city adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklin, Will M; Lejuez, C W; Zvolensky, Michael J; Kahler, Chris W; Gwadz, Marya

    2005-02-01

    The current study examined the utility of behavioral measures of risk-taking propensity in the assessment of self-reported real-world risk-taking behaviors using a sample of 51 high-school-aged inner-city adolescents. Results indicated that performance on one behavioral measure, the balloon analogue risk task, accounted for unique variance in self-reported delinquency/safety risk behaviors as well as substance use risk behaviors, above and beyond that provided with demographics and self-report measures of risk-related constructs (i.e., impulsivity and sensation seeking). These results are discussed in relation to the potential utility of using a multimethod assessment approach for better understanding risk-taking vulnerability among adolescents. PMID:15629751

  19. Variáveis familiares preditoras do comportamento anti-social em adolescentes autores de atos infracionais / Family variables that predict antisocial behavior in adolescents who committed criminal transgressions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Janaína Thaís Barbosa, Pacheco; Claudio Simon, Hutz.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar variáveis individuais e familiares preditoras do comportamento anti-social. Os participantes foram 148 adolescentes, autores de atos infracionais, e 163 adolescentes não-infratores. Os adolescentes responderam individualmente a uma entrevista estruturada, que i [...] nvestigou estratégias educativas parentais, variáveis familiares e aspectos relacionados ao desenvolvimento do comportamento infrator. Uma análise de conteúdo das respostas permitiu a delimitação das principais práticas educativas relatadas pelos jovens. Uma análise de regressão indicou que o comportamento anti-social de familiares, o número de irmãos, o uso de drogas pelo adolescente, os conflitos na família e as práticas educativas parentais explicaram 53% da variância do comportamento infrator. Os resultados apontaram a importância da família no desenvolvimento da conduta infratora. Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to investigate individual and family variables that might predict delinquent behavior. The participants were 148 adolescents, institutionalized for committing criminal transgressions, and 163 adolescents who did not commit criminal transgressions. The participants we [...] re interviewed about parental practices, family variables, and other factors related to the development of the delinquent behavior. A content analysis of the answers allowed the delimitation of the main educational practices identified by the adolescents. Regression analysis showed that antisocial behavior of family members, number of siblings, drug use, conflicts within the family, and parental educational practices explained 53% of the variance of delinquent behavior. These results pointed to the importance of the family in the development of the delinquent behavior.

  20. Emotional and Behavioral Problems of Afghan Refugees and War-Zone Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Babapour-Kheiroddin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Wars' stress and violence can have tremendous effects on children's and adolescents' health and general well being; it may result in patterns of bio-psychosocial problems. The goal of this study was to compare emotional and behavioral problems in Afghan refugees and war-zone adolescents. "n Method: One hundred and eighty high school students (90 students in the refugee group and 90 in the war-zone group in Harat were included in this research. All participants completed the Youth Self-Report (YSR. War zone and refugee adolescents were compared based on their scores on different scales of behavioral and emotional problems. "n Results: War-zone adolescents scored significantly higher on Anxious/Depression, Withdrawn, Somatic Complaints, Attention Problems, and Internalizing Problems scales than refugee adolescents. In this study, no significant difference was found between the two groups on Social Problems, Thought Problems, Delinquent Behavior, Aggressive Behavior, and Externalizing scales. "nConclusion: Findings revealed that although asylum is not an ideal condition for children's and adolescents' psychological development and prosperity, it can have a protective role in comparison with war zone's circumstances. Further investigation is needed, however, to elucidate the lack of significant differences in externalizing scales among war zone and refugee adolescents

  1. Effects of Institutional Confinement for Delinquency on Levels of Depression and Anxiety among Male Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    White, Helene R.; Shi, Jing; Hirschfield, Paul; Mun, Eun-young; Loeber, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    Youth within the juvenile justice system report higher rates of mental illnesses than their peers. This study tested whether institutional confinement increases levels of depression and anxiety among male adolescents. We examined heterogeneous trajectories of depression and anxiety from ages 11 to 14 for 510 male adolescents. Youths who were first placed in custody at age 15 (treatment group) were matched with control boys (no official arrest or reported confinement during adolescence) within...

  2. Promoting Adolescents' Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidron, Yael; Fleischman, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Saying a kind word to a classmate, acknowledging other students' feelings, sharing books and advice, defending a victim of bullying--these are just a few of the prosocial behaviors that can enhance students' social and academic lives at school. Because children do not develop social values in a vacuum, educators, policymakers, and researchers are…

  3. Ordered Delinquency: The “Effects” of Birth Order On Delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Cundiff, Patrick R.

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born to rebel hypothesis I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I us...

  4. Parent-Adolescent Agreement Concerning Adolescents' Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus, Nicole M.; Mobilio, Andrea; King, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Information on history of suicidal thoughts and behaviors is critical in risk assessment, and multi-informant assessment has been recommended. Despite this, relatively little is known about parent-adolescent agreement regarding adolescent suicidality. To examine the extent and predictors of such agreement, 448 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents and their parents were administered structured interviews assessing suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts and completed measures of youth inter...

  5. Dopaminergic Polymorphisms, Academic Achievement, and Violent Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ilhong; Lee, Julak; Kim, Seung-Gon

    2014-10-16

    Recent research in the field of educational psychology points to the salience of self-control in accounting for the variance in students' report card grades. At the same time, a novel empirical study from molecular genetics drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data has revealed that polymorphisms in three dopaminergic genes (dopamine transporter [DAT1], dopamine D2 receptor [DRD2], and dopamine D4 receptor [DRD4]) are also linked to adolescents' grade point averages (GPAs). Juxtaposing these two lines of research, the current study reanalyzed the Add Health genetic subsample to assess the relative effects of these dopaminergic genes and self-control on GPAs. The results showed that the effects of the latter were far stronger than those of the former. The interaction effects between the dopaminergic genes and a set of environmental factors on academic performance were also examined, producing findings that are aligned with the "social push hypothesis" in behavioral genetics. Finally, based on the criminological literature on the link between academic performance and delinquency, we tested whether dopaminergic effects on violent delinquency were mediated by GPAs. The results demonstrated that academic performance fully mediated the linkage between these genes and violent delinquency. PMID:25326467

  6. The Relations among Narcissism, Self-Esteem, and Delinquency in a Sample of At-Risk Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Christopher T.; Grafeman, Sarah J.; Adler, Kristy K.; Pickard, Jessica D.

    2007-01-01

    The present study explores the relation between narcissism and delinquency among 372 at-risk 16-18-year-olds. The study also considered the relation between narcissism and self-esteem, as well as the potential interaction between narcissism and self-esteem for predicting delinquency in this age group. Narcissism and self-esteem were positively…

  7. Self-Control, Social Factors, and Delinquency: A Test of the General Theory of Crime among Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nicole W. T.; Cheung, Yuet W.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the predictive power of self-control theory for delinquency in a Chinese context, and to explore if social factors as predicted in social bonding theory, differential association theory, general strain theory, and labeling theory have effects on delinquency in the presence of self-control. Self-report data…

  8. Substance Abuse and Aggressive Behavior among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziah I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Social workers, psychologists and psychopharmacologists have devoted little attention to study the direct relationship between drugs and adolescents’ aggression. The main objective of this study was therefore to determine the extent of the level of aggressive behavior among adolescents who underwent rehabilitation of drug abuse. This study also sought to find out the relationship between type of drugs used with aggressive behavior among adolescents. Respondents were 200 adolescents from three juvenile Henry Gurney schools in Malaysia who took part in this exploratory cross-sectional survey research design. A set of questionnaire was constructed by the researcher based on the Aggression Questionnaires (AQ scale. Results showed that the majority of adolescents (95 percent indicated an aggressive behavior of moderate to high level. The result of the study also found that adolescents who have been using heroin (r = 0.016, p <0.05 and morphine drugs (r = 0.181, p <0.05 showed significant correlation with aggressive behavior. The findings provided evidence for the significant role of the goverment to enhance rehabilitation modules for adolescents involved in drug abuse. Education on how to effectively deal with aggressive behavior among adolescents at risk should be emphasized for building positive behavior among adolescents in order to produce potential young generation in the future.

  9. Chronic Pain in Adolescence: Parental Responses, Adolescent Coping, and their Impact on Adolescent's Pain Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, Laura E.; Claar, Robyn Lewis; Logan, Deirdre L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives?The aim of this study was to examine relations among parental responses, adolescent pain coping, and pain behaviors in adolescents with chronic pain.?Methods?This study included 217 adolescents (12–17 years) evaluated at a multidisciplinary pain clinic and their parents. Adolescents completed measures assessing their pain, pain coping responses, functional disability, and somatic symptoms. Parents reported on their responses to their adolescent's pain.?Results?Passive a...

  10. Group Work with Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews group work literature on juvenile delinquents. Presents overview of interventions, including positive peer culture, cognitive-behavioral treatment, psychoeducational treatment, treatment of learned behavior, action-oriented treatment, milieu therapy, parental involvement, assertiveness training, and music therapy. Discusses outcome…

  11. Cognitive behavioral therapy for adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antshel, Kevin M; Olszewski, Amy K

    2014-10-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often persists into adolescence and has the same functional impairments as were present during childhood. Medications lessen ADHD symptoms yet do not reliably affect functioning. Thus, there exists a great need for psychosocial treatments in adolescents with ADHD. Nonetheless, relative to the vast literature that has been reported on children with ADHD, much less data have been reported about psychosocial interventions for adolescents with ADHD. Cognitive behavioral therapy interventions that are being used with adolescents rely more on traditional behavioral principles than cognitive therapy tenets. PMID:25220089

  12. Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence versus Parental Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Stephen; Brown, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    One third of all children are born to unmarried mothers and over one half of children will spend some time in a single-parent family. In fact, single-father families are the fastest growing family form. Using data from the 1995 National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, the authors extend prior research that has investigated the effects of…

  13. Family structure and risk behaviors: the role of the family meal in assessing likelihood of adolescent risk behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldfarb S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Samantha Goldfarb, Will L Tarver, Bisakha Sen Department of Health Care Organization and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Background: Previous literature has asserted that family meals are a key protective factor for certain adolescent risk behaviors. It is suggested that the frequency of eating with the family is associated with better psychological well-being and a lower risk of substance use and delinquency. However, it is unclear whether there is evidence of causal links between family meals and adolescent health-risk behaviors. Purpose: The purpose of this article is to review the empirical literature on family meals and adolescent health behaviors and outcomes in the US. Data sources: A search was conducted in four academic databases: Social Sciences Full Text, Sociological Abstracts, PsycINFO®, and PubMed/MEDLINE. Study selection: We included studies that quantitatively estimated the relationship between family meals and health-risk behaviors. Data extraction: Data were extracted on study sample, study design, family meal measurement, outcomes, empirical methods, findings, and major issues. Data synthesis: Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria for the review that measured the relationship between frequent family meals and various risk-behavior outcomes. The outcomes considered by most studies were alcohol use (n=10, tobacco use (n=9, and marijuana use (n=6. Other outcomes included sexual activity (n=2; depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts (n=4; violence and delinquency (n=4; school-related issues (n=2; and well-being (n=5. The associations between family meals and the outcomes of interest were most likely to be statistically significant in unadjusted models or models controlling for basic family characteristics. Associations were less likely to be statistically significant when other measures of family connectedness were included. Relatively few analyses used sophisticated empirical techniques available to control for confounders in secondary data. Conclusion: More research is required to establish whether or not the relationship between family dinners and risky adolescent behaviors is an artifact of underlying confounders. We recommend that researchers make more frequent use of sophisticated methods to reduce the problem of confounders in secondary data, and that the scope of adolescent problem behaviors also be further widened. Keywords: family meals, adolescents, risk behaviors, review, study design, confounders

  14. Incarcerated Mothers Reports of Their Daughters' Antisocial Behavior, Maternal Supervision and Mother-Daughter Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence-Wills, Shonda

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the extent of delinquency and antisocial behavior among adolescent daughters of incarcerated mothers and the influence of the mother-daughter relationship and maternal supervision on daughters' participation in delinquency and antisocial behavior. One hundred and one incarcerated mothers completed survey questionnaires that…

  15. Ordered delinquency: the "effects" of birth order on delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Patrick R

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born-to-rebel hypothesis, I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief, the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:23719623

  16. Ordered Delinquency: The “Effects” of Birth Order On Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Patrick R.

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born to rebel hypothesis I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of both between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:23719623

  17. Clarifying the associations between age at menarche and adolescent emotional and behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Erikka B; Van Hulle, Carol A; Beasley, William H; Rodgers, Joseph L; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2015-04-01

    Better understanding risk factors for the development of adolescent emotional and behavioral problems can help with intervention and prevention efforts. Previous studies have found that an early menarcheal age predicts several adolescent problems, including depressive symptoms, delinquency, and early age at first intercourse. Few studies, nevertheless, have explicitly tested (a) whether the associations with menarcheal age vary across racial/ethnic groups or (b) whether the sources of the associations are within-families (i.e., consistent with a direct, causal link) or only between-families (i.e., due to selection or confounding factors). The current study analyzed data from a nationally representative US Sample of females (N = 5,637). We examined whether race/ethnicity moderated the associations between early menarche and several adolescent problems by using multiple-group analyses and we examined the degree to which genetic and environmental factors shared by family members account for the associations by comparing sisters and cousins with differing menarcheal ages. Menarcheal age predicted subsequent depressive symptoms, delinquency, and early age at first intercourse in the population. The magnitudes of the associations were similar across all racial/ethnic groups for all outcomes. The within-family associations (i.e., when comparing siblings and cousins with different menarcheal age) were large and statistically significant when predicting early intercourse, but not the other outcomes. The findings suggest that selection or confounding factors account for the associations between menarcheal age and subsequent depressive symptoms and delinquency, whereas the independent association between menarcheal age and early age at first intercourse is consistent with a direct, causal effect. PMID:25687264

  18. The Longitudinal Relationship between Peer Violence and Popularity and Delinquency in Adolescent Boys: Examining Effects by Family Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Henneberger, Angela K.; Durkee, Myles I.; Truong, Nancy; Atkins, Avis; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2012-01-01

    Mapping the relationship of peer influences and parental/family characteristics on delinquency can help expand the understanding of findings that show an interdependence between peer and family predictors. This study explored the longitudinal relationship between two characteristics of peer relationships (violence and perceived popularity) with subsequent individual delinquency and the moderating role of family characteristics (cohesion and parental monitoring) using data from the Chicago You...

  19. Understanding Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can lessen or prevent violent behavior: Prevention of child abuse (use of programs such as parent training, family support programs, etc.) Sex education and parenting programs for adolescents Early intervention ...

  20. Misrecognition of facial expressions in delinquents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuura Naomi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have suggested impairment in facial expression recognition in delinquents, but controversy remains with respect to how such recognition is impaired. To address this issue, we investigated facial expression recognition in delinquents in detail. Methods We tested 24 male adolescent/young adult delinquents incarcerated in correctional facilities. We compared their performances with those of 24 age- and gender-matched control participants. Using standard photographs of facial expressions illustrating six basic emotions, participants matched each emotional facial expression with an appropriate verbal label. Results Delinquents were less accurate in the recognition of facial expressions that conveyed disgust than were control participants. The delinquents misrecognized the facial expressions of disgust as anger more frequently than did controls. Conclusion These results suggest that one of the underpinnings of delinquency might be impaired recognition of emotional facial expressions, with a specific bias toward interpreting disgusted expressions as hostile angry expressions.

  1. The Longitudinal Consistency of Mother-Child Reporting Discrepancies of Parental Monitoring and Their Ability to Predict Child Delinquent Behaviors Two Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Goodman, Kimberly L.; Kliewer, Wendy; Reid-Quinones, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal consistency of mother-child reporting discrepancies of parental monitoring and whether these discrepancies predict children's delinquent behaviors 2 years later. Participants included 335 mother/female-caregiver and child (46% boys, greater than 90% African American; age range 9-16 years [M = 12.11, SD = 1.60])…

  2. Similarities and differences in adolescent siblings' alcohol-related attitudes, use, and delinquency: evidence for convergent and divergent influence processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D; Jensen, Alexander C; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2014-05-01

    A growing body of research indicates that siblings influence each other's risky and deviant behaviors during adolescence. Guided by research and theory on sibling similarities and differences, this study examined the operation and implications of three different influence processes--social learning, shared friends, and sibling differentiation--during adolescence. Participants included one parent and two adolescent siblings (earlier born age: M = 17.17 years, SD = 0.94; later born age: M = 14.52 years, SD = 1.27) from 326 families. Data were collected via telephone interviews. Using reports from both older and younger siblings, two-stage cluster analyses revealed three influence profiles: mutual modeling and shared friends, younger sibling admiration, and differentiation. Additional analyses revealed that mutual modeling and shared friends as well as younger sibling admiration were linked to similarities in brothers' and sisters' health-risk behaviors and attitudes, whereas differentiation processes were associated with divergence in siblings' characteristics. The discussion focuses on refining the study of sibling influence, with particular attention paid to the operation and implications of both convergent and divergent influence processes. PMID:23765197

  3. Behavioral Genetic Analyses of Prosocial Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alice M.; Light-Hausermann, Jade H.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Eley, Thalia C.

    2009-01-01

    Prosocial behavior is an important aspect of normal social and psychological development. Adult and child twin studies typically estimate the heritability of prosocial behavior to be between 30 and 50%, although relatively little is known about genetic and environmental influences upon prosocial behavior in adolescence. We therefore examined…

  4. Predicting Adolescent Deviant Behaviors through Data Mining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Chin; Hsu, Yung-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is the time during which people develop and form their crucial values, personality traits, and beliefs. Hence, as deviant behaviors occur during adolescence, it is important to guide adolescents away from such behaviors and back to normal behaviors. Moreover, although there are various kinds of deviant behavior, most of them would…

  5. Comparison between the Personality Dimensions of Delinquents and Non-Delinquents of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa (KPK, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehrish Khan

    2014-05-01

    were the students of different colleges of KPK. It was hypothesized that the delinquents will score higher on all the four dimensions of Eysenck personality scale as compared to non delinquents. Findings of the study confirmed the said hypothesis. It was proved that delinquents have higher scores of psychoticism, neuroticism, extraversion, and lie as compared to non-delinquents. The findings of this study can help the parents, teachers, and the law departments to focus on the construction of healthy personality so that the rate of crimes among adolescents can be minimized.

  6. Serious, Minor, and Non-Delinquents in Early Adolescence: The Impact of Cumulative Risk and Promotive Factors. The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, Andre M.; Veenstra, Rene; Bogaerts, Stefan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2010-01-01

    This study uses a social-ecological approach to the development of delinquency. The authors emphasize that a balance between eliminating risk and enhancing protection across domains is essential in reducing problems and promoting competence. The cumulative risk and promotive effects of temperament, family and school factors in preadolescence were…

  7. Delinquent Development in Dutch Childhood Arrestees: Developmental Trajectories, Risk Factors and Co-Morbidity with Adverse Outcomes during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Domburgh, L.; Vermeiren, R.; Blokland, A. A. J.; Doreleijers, Th. A. H.

    2009-01-01

    Heterogeneity of re-offending patterns was studied in a group of 287 male early onset offenders who were first arrested before age 12. By combining data on the frequency and severity of offending as registered by the police over a 5-year follow-up period, three delinquent trajectories were identified; low, escalating, and high level re-offenders.…

  8. Sport and delinquency: an examination of the deterrence hypothesis in a longitudinal study.

    OpenAIRE

    Begg, D. J.; Langley, J D; Moffitt, T; Marshall, S W

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether involvement in sporting activity in mid-adolescence would deter delinquent behaviour in late adolescence. METHODS: Members of a longitudinal cohort study were interviewed at ages 15 and 18 years and, among other topics, were asked questions relating to involvement in physical activity and delinquent behaviour. Logistic regression models were used to examine the relation between sports involvement and delinquency at age 15 years and delinquency at age 18. RESULT...

  9. Social Networks and the Diffusion of Adolescent Problem Behavior: Reliable Estimates of Selection and Influence from Sixth Through Ninth Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, D Wayne; Feinberg, Mark E; Ragan, Daniel T

    2015-08-01

    Seeking to reduce problematic peer influence is a prominent theme of programs to prevent adolescent problem behavior. To support the refinement of this aspect of prevention programming, we examined peer influence and selection processes for three problem behaviors (delinquency, alcohol use, and smoking). We assessed not only the overall strengths of these peer processes, but also their consistency versus variability across settings. We used dynamic stochastic actor-based models to analyze five waves of friendship network data across sixth through ninth grades for a large sample of U.S. adolescents. Our sample included two successive grade cohorts of youth in 26 school districts participating in the PROSPER study, yielding 51 longitudinal social networks based on respondents' friendship nominations. For all three self-reported antisocial behaviors, we found evidence of both peer influence and selection processes tied to antisocial behavior. There was little reliable variance in these processes across the networks, suggesting that the statistical imprecision of the peer influence and selection estimates in previous studies likely accounts for inconsistencies in results. Adolescent friendship networks play a strong role in shaping problem behavior, but problem behaviors also inform friendship choices. In addition to preferring friends with similar levels of problem behavior, adolescents tend to choose friends who engage in problem behaviors, thus creating broader diffusion. PMID:25943034

  10. Neighborhoods and adolescent health-risk behavior: an ecological network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Christopher R; Soller, Brian; Jackson, Aubrey L

    2015-01-01

    This study integrates insights from social network analysis, activity space perspectives, and theories of urban and spatial processes to present an novel approach to neighborhood effects on health-risk behavior among youth. We suggest spatial patterns of neighborhood residents' non-home routines may be conceptualized as ecological, or "eco"-networks, which are two-mode networks that indirectly link residents through socio-spatial overlap in routine activities. We further argue structural configurations of eco-networks are consequential for youth's behavioral health. In this study we focus on a key structural feature of eco-networks--the neighborhood-level extent to which household dyads share two or more activity locations, or eco-network reinforcement--and its association with two dimensions of health-risk behavior, substance use and delinquency/sexual activity. Using geographic data on non-home routine activity locations among respondents from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A.FANS), we constructed neighborhood-specific eco-networks by connecting sampled households to "activity clusters," which are sets of spatially-proximate activity locations. We then measured eco-network reinforcement and examined its association with dimensions of adolescent health risk behavior employing a sample of 830 youth ages 12-17 nested in 65 census tracts. We also examined whether neighborhood-level social processes (collective efficacy and intergenerational closure) mediate the association between eco-network reinforcement and the outcomes considered. Results indicated eco-network reinforcement exhibits robust negative associations with both substance use and delinquency/sexual activity scales. Eco-network reinforcement effects were not explained by potential mediating variables. In addition to introducing a novel theoretical and empirical approach to neighborhood effects on youth, our findings highlight the importance of intersecting conventional routines for adolescent behavioral health. PMID:25011958

  11. Longitudinal relations between adolescent and parental behaviors, parental knowledge, and internalizing behaviors among urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthe, Rachel C; Sullivan, Terri; Kliewer, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    High prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among adolescents underscore the importance of identifying parental and adolescent behaviors that may lessen the risk for these outcomes. Previous research has shown that parental acceptance, parental knowledge, and child disclosure are negatively associated with internalizing behaviors. It is also important to explore the impact of internalizing behaviors on these parental and child constructs. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between parental acceptance, parental knowledge, child disclosure, and internalizing symptoms across a one-year time period. Participants were 358 adolescents (54 % female) and their primary caregivers, who were primarily African American (92 %). Parents and adolescents provided data through face-to-face interviews. Results showed that parental knowledge and parental acceptance predicted child disclosure, and child disclosure predicted parental knowledge one year later. Higher levels of parental acceptance predicted lower levels of adolescent-reported depressive symptoms, while higher levels of parental report of adolescents' internalizing symptoms predicted lower levels of parental knowledge. No differences in the strength of these relationships were found across grade or gender. These findings highlight the role of the adolescent's perceived acceptance by parents in promoting children's disclosure, and the benefits of parental acceptance in decreasing depressive symptoms over time. Overall, these results show the impact that both adolescent and parental behaviors and internalizing behaviors have on each other across time. PMID:24609843

  12. Violence Breeds Violence: Childhood Exposure and Adolescent Conduct Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Chelsea M.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 88 primiparous adolescent mothers and their children. Regression analyses revealed that witnessing violence and victimization prior to age 10 predicted delinquency and violent behaviors, even after controlling for prenatal maternal and early childhood externalizing problems. Social competency and depression during middle childhood moderated the relationship between victimi...

  13. SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim AKTEPE

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Suicide is a complex phenomenon associated with pyschological, biological and social factors. Suicide has been reported as the second or third most common cause of death in children and adolescents worldwide. Suicidal behaviour in children and adolescents will be discussed in the frame of motivational definition. Method: Published research studies and reviews on children and adolescent suicides have been reviewed. Furthermore, classical papers have been searched to obtain knowledge about suicide behavior. Results: It is reported that firearms have been the most important effect in adolescent suicide. Both fatal and nonfatal suicidal behaviors have been linked consistently to negative parent-child relationships, depression, substance use, overall number of life stressors, gender and impulsive behaviors. Discussion: Future efforts to investigate suicidal behavior should use new research methodologies that may lead to identification of the interactions between environmental factors and constitutional and biological factors that are associated with risk for suicidal behavior. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(2.000: 88-97

  14. Self-Esteem and Delinquency Revisited (Again): A Test of Kaplan's Self-Derogation Theory of Delinquency Using Latent Growth Curve Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W. Alex

    2001-01-01

    Studied the relationship between self-esteem and delinquency using latent growth curve modeling. Analyses of panel data for 2,213 adolescent boys from the Youth in Transition Study supported Kaplan's self-derogation theory of delinquency (H. Kaplan, 1978) by showing that delinquency was positively associated with growth in self-esteem among…

  15. Irrational evaluations and antisocial behavior of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljevi?-Gvozden Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles of the Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy point out to the role of irrational beliefs in the occurrence of aggressive and antisocial behavior. The goal of this research is to determine whether there are links between irrational beliefs and self-assessment of antisocial behavior and whether there are differences with respect to irrational beliefs between the young who were sentenced by juvenile court judges compared to the control group. The research was conducted on two subsamples - the first consisted of male adolescents (N=116, aged 16 to 19, and the second comprised male adolescents 50 out of whom were sentenced by juvenile court judges, aged averagely 17 and a half, and 50 members of the control group. The modified version of the General Attitude and Belief Scale (GABS (Mari?, 2002, 2003 and Antisocial Behavior Scale (ABS (Opa?i?, 2010, in print were used. Multiple regression analysis showed that the best predictor of the score on antisocial behavior scale was “the demand for absolute correctness of others and their devaluation”, followed by the aspiration towards perfectionism and success which acts as the factor that reduces the probability of antisocial behavior. Almost identical results were obtained by group comparison. The obtained results provide guidelines for designing preventive programs (sketched in the discussion that would be able to reduce the frequency of aggressive and antisocial behavior at adolescent age.

  16. The Role of Family, Religiosity, and Behavior in Adolescent Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, David M.; Williams, Robert J.; Mossiere, Annik M.; Schopflocher, Donald P.; el-Guebaly, Nady; Hodgins, David C.; Smith, Garry J.; Wood, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Predictors of adolescent gambling behavior were examined in a sample of 436 males and females (ages 13-16). A biopsychosocial model was used to identify key variables that differentiate between non-gambling and gambling adolescents. Logistic regression found that, as compared to adolescent male non-gamblers, adolescent male gamblers were older,…

  17. Risk factors for suicidal behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, B D; Siefen, G R; Urkin, J; Merrick, J

    2006-10-01

    Adolescent suicide is today a public health problem among the leading cause of mortality among adolescents and young adults. There seems to be many reasons for this increase (which has different trends in different populations), but associations have been found with increased substance abuse, television and video violence, socio-economic status and easy access to firearms. Gender differences have also been observed with crime, suicide and substance abuse higher among males, while eating disorder, depression and suicidal behavior more prevalent among females. This paper will review prevalence and incidence of adolescent suicidal behavior, socio-demographic and psychological risk factors, associated cognitive factors and socio-economic factors. Risk factors include previous suicide attempts, a history of others in the family who have been suicidal, mental illness, alcohol and drug use, and other self-destructive behaviors as well as consideration being given to hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept and isolation. At the individual difference level, factors such as trait depression, anger and hostility, perfectionism and social sensitivity would seem critical variables, as would age, gender and intellectual functioning. Sociological and family-related factors may also be implicated including dysfunctional family organizations, a history of physical or psychological abuse (sexual abuse) and limited extent of social support networks. A frequently reported precipitating event of suicidal behavior is family adversity including rejection, separation and interpersonal conflict. At a socio-economic level it would seem essential to provide comprehensive document about the social and economic conditions from which the adolescent comes. PMID:17008855

  18. Adolescent Suicide and Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Goldstein, Tina R.; Brent, David A.

    2006-01-01

    This review examines the descriptive epidemiology, and risk and protective factors for youth suicide and suicidal behavior. A model of youth suicidal behavior is articulated, whereby suicidal behavior ensues as a result of an interaction of socio-cultural, developmental, psychiatric, psychological, and family-environmental factors. On the basis of…

  19. Genetic and environmental factors in the development of externalizing symptoms from childhood to adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Externalizing problems, such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, aggression, violation of legal or social norms, and delinquent behavior, tend to persist from childhood to adolescence. There are also high levels of comorbidity among supposedly different domains of externalizing problems. Previous research also suggests that persistence over time and comorbidity may be two of the strongest predictors of adult outcome, especially risk for antisocial behavior, delinquency and substa...

  20. Stability of antisocial behavior on the infancy-adolescence transition: a developmental perspective / Estabilidade do comportamento anti-social na transição da infância para a adolescência: uma perspectiva desenvolvimentista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Pacheco

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The term antisocial is widely used in the literature to describe non-specific behavior problems such as delinquent behavior, aggressiveness, and oppositionist behavior. The aim of the present study was to describe and to discuss the concept of antisocial behavior as an indicator of specific mental disorders such as Attention-deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder. Also, we discuss the factors that contribute to the stability of such behaviors in the transition from childhood to adolescence and the losses incurred throughout development. A recommendation is made to broaden conceptual discussions about mental disorders using wider categories such as antisocial behavior.

  1. Adolescents' information management: comparing ideas about why adolescents disclose to or keep secrets from their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton-Weaver, Lauree

    2014-05-01

    Recognizing that adolescents providing or withholding information about their activities is a strong predictor of parental knowledge, this article compares several ideas about what prompts adolescents to disclose information or keep secrets from their parents. Using a sample of 874 Northern European adolescents (aged 12-16 years; 49.8 % were girls), modified cross-lagged models examined parental monitoring (solicitation and monitoring rules), adolescent delinquency, and perceived parental support as predictors and consequences of adolescents disclosing to parents or keeping secrets, with adolescents' acceptance of parental authority as a moderator. Results suggest that, when adolescents view their parents as supportive, they subsequently disclose more and keep fewer secrets. Engaging in delinquent behavior was related reciprocally to keeping secrets. By comparison, the results generally did not support the idea that adolescents who are monitored provide information to parents, even when they accept parental authority. These results suggest that relationship dynamics and adolescents' delinquent behaviors play an important role in adolescents' information management. PMID:24002679

  2. The Covariation of Antisocial Behavior and Substance Use in Adolescence: A Behavioral Genetic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Tom; Rowe, Richard; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Maughan, Barbara; Eley, Thalia C.

    2012-01-01

    Multivariate genetic studies have revealed genetic correlations between antisocial behavior (ASB) and substance use (SU). However, ASB is heterogeneous, and it remains unclear whether all forms are similarly related to SU. The present study examines links between cannabis use, alcohol consumption, and aggressive and delinquent forms of ASB using a…

  3. DELINQUENT BEHAVIOUR OF CHILDREN FROM DYSFUNCTIONAL FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bateva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of my research in the paper are the children from dysfunctional families, primarily their delinquent behavior, education and moral, actually, who takes care of them and who undertakes the family roles and whether this care is sufficient for building these personalities.This research approaches towards the study of the delinquent behavior of children from dysfunctional families. It examines to what extent the educational level of parents, the material condition, the health condition, the leisure time, the average monthly income of the family, the available permanent goods, the educational resources, the social communications within the very family, all affect the delinquent behavior of children from dysfunctional families. 

  4. The Crisis among Contemporary American Adolescents: A Call for the Integration of Research, Policies, and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Points out the growing crisis among American adolescents, with approximately half of adolescents at moderate or greater risk for engaging in unsafe sexual behaviors, teenage pregnancy, and teenage child-bearing; drug and alcohol use and abuse; school underachievement, failure, and dropout; and delinquency and crime. Calls for increased research on…

  5. Best Friendships, Group Relationships, and Antisocial Behavior in Early Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Laird, Robert D.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.

    1999-01-01

    Correlations between adolescents' own antisocial behavior and adolescents' perceptions of the antisocial behavior of their best friends and friendship groups were examined in this study. The strength of those correlations was expected to vary as a function of the qualities of the dyadic friendships and group relationships. Perceptions of peers' antisocial behavior and dyadic friendship and group relationship qualities were collected through interviews with 431, 12- through 13-year-old adolesc...

  6. Environmental Correlates of Gambling Behavior in Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickwire, Emerson M.; Whelan, James P.; Meyers, Andrew W.; Murray, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study considered the relation between adolescent gambling behavior and the perceived environment, the component of Jessor and Jessor's (1977) Problem Behavior Theory that assesses the ways that adolescents perceive the attitudes and behaviors of parents and peers. The predominantly African-American sample included 188 sophomores from…

  7. The Relationship Between Behavioral Indices of Aggression and Hostile Content on the TAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matranga, James T.

    1976-01-01

    Adolescent male delinquents were administered the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) to examine the relationship between behavioral indices of aggression and hostility. The results of this investigation supported the hypothesis that an inverse relationship exists between hostility on the TAT and ratings of aggressive behavior in adolescent males.…

  8. Addiction and “Generation Me:” Narcissistic and Prosocial Behaviors of Adolescents with Substance Dependency Disorder in Comparison to Normative Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    CARTER, REBECCA R.; JOHNSON, SHANNON M.; EXLINE, JULIE J.; Post, Stephen G.; Pagano, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore narcissistic and prosocial behaviors as reported by adolescents with and without substance dependency disorder (SDD). This study employs a quasi-experimental design using SDD adolescents compared with two normative samples of adolescents. In comparison to normative adolescents, adolescents with SDD were strongly distinguished by overt narcissistic behaviors and less monetary giving. Levels of narcissistic and prosocial behaviors among adolescents with S...

  9. Factors of deviant behavior of adolescents living in orphanages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Mishenko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the problem of determination of adolescent deviance in orphanages. The article deals with the essence, psychological and pedagogical content deviant behavior, factors that contribute to its occurrence in adolescents living in orphanages. The role of psychosocial development features of children's home in the genesis of adolescent deviance.

  10. Adolescent Gambling: A Narrative Review of Behavior and Its Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2013-01-01

    This narrative review summarizes current knowledge on adolescent gambling for the period 1990-2010, assesses adolescent gambling behavior and person and environment predictors, and suggests directions for future research. The review includes 99 studies that identified their subjects as adolescents, children, youth, and students, and discusses…

  11. Physical Dating Aggression Growth during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2010-01-01

    The development of Physical Dating Aggression from the age of 16 to 18 years was investigated in relation to time-invariant predictors (gender, parental education, family composition, number of partners) and to time-varying effects of delinquent behavior and perception of victimization by the partner. The sample consisted of 181 adolescents with a…

  12. The stability of externalizing behavior in boys from preschool age to adolescence: A person-oriented analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Stemmler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuity of externalizing behaviors such as aggression, delinquency and hyperactivity has been noted by many researchers. There is also increasing knowledge on different developmental subtypes of problem behavior. In previous person-oriented analyses we found two types of externalizing problems in boys (Stemmler et al., 2005, 2008; Stemmler & Lösel, 2010. One pattern contained externalizing problems only, whereas the other type showed both externalizing and internalizing problems. The present study addressed these two groups in an extended prospective longitudinal design. It was investigated whether the groups remained stable over time and whether the two types of antisociality were related to offending in adolescence. The sample consisted of 295 boys from the Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study (Lösel et al., 2009. Social behavior was rated by mothers, kindergarten educators, and school teachers; offending was self-reported by the adolescents. The time lag between the first and last data assessment was more than eight years.Approximately nine percent of the boys revealed stable externalizing behavior problems over the entire assessment period. Criminal behavior correlated positively with externalizing problems and negatively with internalizing problems. In a person-oriented Prediction-Configural Frequency Analysis (P-CFA; von Eye, 2002 the ‘externalizing only’ pattern could be replicated and suggested high stability over time. Moreover, this pattern was clearly related to self-reported delinquent behavior. In contrast to our previous studies with shorter follow up periods, the ‘combined externalizing and internalizing’ pattern did not appear as a type. It was also not significantly related to juvenile offending. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed.

  13. HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth with Psychiatric Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of psychiatric disorders on human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risk behaviors in juvenile justice youths is examined. Prevalence, persistence and prediction are addressed among four mutually exclusive diagnostic groups and results show a high prevalence rate of many HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors that…

  14. The Influence of Culture-Specific Personality Traits on the Development of Delinquency in At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tat Seng; Ku, Lisbeth; Zaroff, Charles Mark

    2014-11-12

    The association between culture-specific personality variables and family factors, and juvenile delinquency, was assessed in a sample of 402 adolescents of Chinese ethnicity between 12 and 17 years of age (M age = 15.13, SD = 1.41; 135 girls), a subgroup of whom were considered at risk for juvenile delinquency owing to addictive behavior tendencies. Culture-specific personality variables were assessed using the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory-Adolescent version Interpersonal Relatedness factor. The General Function subscale of the Chinese version of the Family Assessment Device was utilized to assess the influence of perceived levels of family functioning. Both culture-specific personality variables and non-culture-specific familial factors were significantly and negatively associated with self-reported juvenile delinquency (p < .001). However, in a sample of at-risk adolescents, only a culture-specific variable measuring orientation toward the family was able to predict self-reported juvenile delinquency (p < .001). Implications of the current results are discussed. PMID:25395476

  15. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Depression in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rohde

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to briefly review and summarize the rationale and research support for cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT as a treatment for depressed adolescents. A primary focus of the paper is on our group CBT treatment for adolescent depression, entitled the Adolescent Coping With Depression Course. In addition, initial findings from a large, recently-completed study contrasting individual CBT to fluoxetine for depressed adolescents (Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study are presented. Although the research support for CBT as a treatment for depressed adolescents is generally encouraging, we need to better understand which depressed adolescents benefit from CBT, how and when to incorporate medication and family-based interventions into CBT treatment, how to treat depressed adolescents with comorbid psychiatric conditions, and how CBT interventions fare with non-European-American depressed adolescents.

  16. Risky Sexual Behavior among Rural Female Adolescents in Malaysia: A Limited Role of Protective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ahmadian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Results: Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. Conclusion: The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents’ risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia.

  17. Examining Associations between Narcissism, Behavior Problems, and Anxiety in Non-Referred Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.; Kunimatsu, Melissa M.; Fassnacht, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined associations between narcissism (total, adaptive, and maladaptive), self-esteem, and externalizing and internalizing problems in 157 non-referred adolescents (aged 14 to 18). Consistent with previous research, narcissism was positively associated with self-reported delinquency, overt aggression, and relational…

  18. Parent Behavior and Adolescents' Self-System Processes: Predictors of Behavior to Siblings and Friends Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repinski, Daniel J.; Shonk, Susan M.

    This study examined the degree to which adolescent self-system processes (self-efficacy, emotional reactivity) and reports of mothers' and fathers' behavior (warmth/support, hostility) predict adolescents' behavior toward siblings and their friends' problem behavior. Subjects were 76 seventh-grade adolescents who provided self-reports of parent…

  19. Trauma, Delinquency, and Substance Use: Co-occurring Problems for Adolescent Girls in the Juvenile Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dana K; Saldana, Lisa

    2013-07-01

    Girls in the juvenile justice system are known to have high rates of co-occurring childhood abuse, trauma, and substance abuse. Girls with this constellation of problems are at high risk for serious adverse outcomes, including problems with drug dependence and abuse. The relationship between childhood sexual abuse, childhood physical abuse, other types of childhood trauma, and rates of substance use during adolescence were examined for girls in the juvenile justice system. As expected, childhood sexual abuse was significantly related to girls' substance use during adolescence. In contrast to prior research, no link was found between physical abuse, lifetime trauma, and substance use. Limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:24039384

  20. Father's Incarceration and Youth Delinquency and Depression: Examining Differences by Race and Ethnicity

    OpenAIRE

    Swisher, Raymond R.; Roettger, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines associations between biological father's incarceration and internalizing and externalizing outcomes of depression and serious delinquency, across White, Black, and Hispanic subsamples of youth in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Among respondents whose father was first incarcerated during childhood or adolescence, father's incarceration is found to be associated with increased depression and delinquency. On the whole, results indicate that associations...

  1. A Model of Family Background, Family Process, Youth Self-Control, and Delinquent Behavior in Two-Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, So-Hee; Eamon, Mary Keegan

    2009-01-01

    Using data from a national sample of two-parent families with 11- and 12-year-old youths (N = 591), we tested a structural model of family background, family process (marital conflict and parenting), youth self-control, and delinquency four years later. Consistent with the conceptual model, marital conflict and youth self-control are directly…

  2. Individuation of Female Adolescents: Relations with Adolescents' Perceptions of Maternal Behavior and with Adolescent-Mother Discrepancies in Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher-Censor, Efrat; Oppenheim, David; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    The study examined how individuality and connectedness of female adolescents relate to their perceptions of maternal behavior and to adolescent-mother discrepancies in perceptions of maternal behavior. Seventy 16.5-year-old daughters and their mothers participated in the study. Individuality and connectedness of the daughters were assessed from…

  3. Concurrent attenuated reactivity of alpha-amylase and cortisol is related to disruptive behavior in male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries-Bouw, Marjan; Jansen, Lucres; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo; van de Ven, Peter; Popma, Arne

    2012-06-01

    Attenuated reactivity of salivary alpha-amylase has been proposed as a specific sympathetic marker of disruptive behavior in juveniles and may have additional value to studying other autonomic parameters and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Investigating the interrelationships between neurobiological parameters in relation to juvenile disruptive behavior may enhance insight into the complex mechanisms at play. We investigated salivary alpha-amylase, cortisol, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) in response to a standardized public speaking task, and examined interactions between these parameters in relation to disruptive behavior. Participants were 48 delinquent male adolescents (mean age 18.4 years, SD 0.9), with and without a disruptive behavior disorder (resp. DP+, DP-) and 16 matched normal controls (NC). A structured psychiatric interview as well as the Youth Self Report and Child Behavior Checklist were administered to assess disruptive behavior. Alpha-amylase and cortisol reactivity, but not HR or HRV, showed significant inverse associations with dimensional measures of disruptive behavior. Moreover, both cortisol and alpha-amylase reactivity were significantly lower in the DP+ group as compared to the NC group. The mentioned relationships remained present when nicotine use was entered as a covariate. Combining alpha-amylase and cortisol in one model explained a larger part of the variance of disruptive behavior than either single parameter. There were no interactions between alpha-amylase and cortisol or HRV in relation to disruptive behavior. Attenuated alpha-amylase responsivity to stress is a correlate of disruptive behavior in late-adolescent males. Although nicotine use explains a considerable part of the variance of disruptive behavior, both alpha-amylase and cortisol are related to disruptive behavior, over and above the effect of nicotine use. Combining alpha-amylase and cortisol improved insight into neurobiological mechanisms involved with disruptive behavior; concurrent low reactivity of both parameters was related to higher levels of disruptive behavior. PMID:22587939

  4. Trauma, Delinquency, and Substance Use: Co-occurring Problems for Adolescent Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

    OpenAIRE

    Dana K. Smith; Saldana, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Girls in the juvenile justice system are known to have high rates of co-occurring childhood abuse, trauma, and substance abuse. Girls with this constellation of problems are at high risk for serious adverse outcomes, including problems with drug dependence and abuse. The relationship between childhood sexual abuse, childhood physical abuse, other types of childhood trauma, and rates of substance use during adolescence were examined for girls in the juvenile justice system. As expected, childh...

  5. Unpacking the Effect of Parental Monitoring on Early Adolescent Problem Behavior: Mediation by Parental Knowledge and Moderation by Parent-Youth Warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa A; Greenberg, Mark T; Graham, John W; Feinberg, Mark E

    2014-11-01

    This study explores the monitoring process longitudinally among a sample of rural early adolescents and addresses two research questions (1) Does maternal knowledge mediate the relationship between three aspects of the parental monitoring process and adolescent problem behavior: active parent monitoring efforts, youth disclosure, and parental supervision? (2) Are these meditational pathways moderated by the affective quality of the parent-child relationship? Parent efforts to monitor youth and youth disclosure in the Fall of Grade 6 predicted substance use and delinquency in Grade 8. These relations were mediated by increases in maternal knowledge assessed in the Spring of Grade 6, suggesting that the protective effects of these constructs are partially indirect. Supervision was not significantly related to maternal knowledge or problem behavior. Parent efforts to monitor were more strongly related to maternal knowledge in families with high levels of positive affect than in families with low levels of positive affect. PMID:25382891

  6. Associations between family cohesion and adolescent siblings' externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Melissa K; Stocker, Clare M

    2006-12-01

    This study asked whether family cohesion, a measure of whole family functioning, was associated with adolescent siblings' externalizing problems, controlling for the quality of each sibling's relationship with his or her parents. The sample included 93 families (mothers, fathers, and 2 adolescent siblings). Family cohesion was measured from videotaped observations of parents and 2 of their adolescent children discussing family conflict and limit setting. Adolescents reported on hostility in their relationships with mothers and fathers, and parents rated adolescents' externalizing problems. Results from multilevel modeling showed that family cohesion was negatively associated with adolescents' externalizing problems, independent of variance explained by hostility in dyadic parent-child relationships. Results support family systems theory, suggesting that whole family functioning has implications for adolescents' behavioral problems beyond those accounted for by dyadic family relationships. PMID:17176202

  7. Perceived parental permissiveness toward gambling and risky behaviors in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Leeman, Robert F; PATOCK-PECKHAM, JULIE A.; Hoff, Rani A.; KRISHNAN-SARIN, SUCHITRA; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen J.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Perceived parental permissiveness toward gambling may relate to adolescents’ engagement in various risky behaviors. To examine this possibility, we analyzed data from a high-school based risk-behavior survey to assess relationships between perceived parental permissiveness toward gambling and adolescent gambling behavior, substance use and related problems. We also evaluated predictions that relationships between perceived parental permissiveness toward gambling and ris...

  8. Risky Business: Exploring Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan; Peterson, Fred L.

    2005-01-01

    Ongoing behavioral research has documented the growing prevalence of adolescent health risk behaviors, such as tobacco use, sexual activity, alcohol and other substance use, nutritional behavior, physical inactivity, and intentional injury. Newer youth risk behaviors, such as pathological gambling, are emerging as threats to public health. Risk,…

  9. Parenting practices and adolescent sexual behavior: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A; Hill, Douglas L; GRUBE, JOEL W.; Walker, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N=887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic regressions indicated that adolescents reporting greater parental disapproval and limits on viewing at Wave 1 were less likely to initiate oral sex betw...

  10. Adolescent Expectations of Early Death Predict Adult Risk Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Quynh C.; Villaveces, Andres; Marshall, Stephen W.; Hussey, Jon M.; Halpern, Carolyn T; Poole, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Only a handful of public health studies have investigated expectations of early death among adolescents. Associations have been found between these expectations and risk behaviors in adolescence. However, these beliefs may not only predict worse adolescent outcomes, but worse trajectories in health with ties to negative outcomes that endure into young adulthood. The objectives of this study were to investigate perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations, PSE) as a p...

  11. Attachment, autonomy, and multifinality in adolescent internalizing and risky behavioral symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, Penny; MCFARLAND, F. CHRISTY; Allen, Joseph P.; MCELHANEY, KATHLEEN BOYKIN; LAND, DEBORAH

    2003-01-01

    A diathesis-stress interaction model is used to describe multifinality in adolescent internalizing and risky behavioral outcomes. Problematic behavior associated with adolescent insecure preoccupation (a diathesis) was expected to interact with the level of maternal autonomous discourse (a stressor) to predict specific adolescent outcomes. Assessments of adolescent preoccupied attachment organization, observations of maternal displays of autonomy in mother–adolescent interactions, and adole...

  12. Risky behavior of adolescent college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Nancy R

    2009-04-01

    Nurses who provide care to adolescent college students are challenged to meet their diverse health care needs. Recent national survey data on American college students indicate that many participate in risky behaviors, which can have detrimental effects on their physical and psychosocial health. These data also reveal that college students rank health educators and health center medical staff as the most believable sources of health-related information. Thus, nurses are in key positions to screen for and educate about stress, coping styles, and mental health issues. In addition to decreasing barriers to access, nurses can inform students on the kinds of resources available and their locations. This article also describes interventions that may be effective on college campuses for the reduction of risks and the promotion of positive coping and health outcomes in this population. PMID:19437928

  13. Adolescents' Smoking Behavior and Attitudes: The Influence of Mothers' Smoking Communication, Behavior and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Diane F.; Schiaffino, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated adolescents' and parents' perceptions regarding smoking behavior, attitudes toward smoking, and smoking communication. Instruments were developed to measure multidimensional smoking communication messages and smoking attitudes in 140 mother-adolescent dyads. The prediction of relevant adolescent smoking variables is…

  14. Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence: Typology and Relation to Family Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotková, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Hrdlicka, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The study deals with the relationship between antisocial behavior in early adolescence and family environment. Sample consisted of 2,856 adolescents (53% girls, mean age 13.5 years, SD = 1.1) from urban areas in the Czech Republic. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a school survey, was used to measure sociodemographic characteristics of the…

  15. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent

  16. Factor Structure of the Adolescent Clinical Sexual Behavior Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, Jeffrey N.; Berres, Ashley K.; Sim, Leslie; Friedrich, William N.

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to determine if the Adolescent Clinical Sexual Behavior Inventory-Self-Report conformed to the five-factor scale format that was initially used with a clinical sample that included adolescents referred for sexual abuse evaluations. Participants were 141 teenagers, ages 12-19 (M = 15.11, SD = 1.4), and their…

  17. Directions of Effects between Adolescent Psychopathic Traits and Parental Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihovic, Selma; Kerr, Margaret; Ozdemir, Metin; Pakalniskiene, Vilmante

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the directions of effects between adolescent psychopathic traits and parental behaviors. The data are from a community-based cohort-sequential study. Data were collected annually over 4 years. Participants were 875 adolescents, aged 13-15 at Time 1, and we analyzed their reports of negative and positive parental…

  18. Acceptance-Enhanced Behavior Therapy for Trichotillomania in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Kathi M.; Walther, Michael R.; Joseph, Jessica M.; Robinson, Jordan; Ricketts, Emily J.; Bowe, William E.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the efficacy of Acceptance Enhanced Behavior Therapy (AEBT) for the treatment of trichotillomania (TTM) in adults, data are limited with respect to the treatment of adolescents. Our case series illustrates the use of AEBT for TTM in the treatment of two adolescents. The AEBT protocol (Woods & Twohig, 2008) is…

  19. Importance Ratings of Socially Supportive Behaviors by Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Malecki, Christine Kerres

    2003-01-01

    The frequency of students' social support has been investigated in the literature, but little research has examined the social validity or social importance of supportive behaviors for children and adolescents. In the present study, data were gathered from 1,688 students in Grades 3 through 12 via the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale…

  20. Developing Prosocial Behaviors in Early Adolescence with Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Annis L. C.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the alarming rise of early adolescence aggression in Hong Kong, it is the pioneer evidence-based outcome study on Anger Coping Training (ACT) program for early adolescence with reactive aggression to develop their prosocial behaviors. This research program involved experimental and control groups with pre- and post-comparison using a …

  1. Bidirectional Relations between Authoritative Parenting and Adolescents' Prosocial Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Carlo, Gustavo; Christensen, Katherine J.; Yorgason, Jeremy B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the bidirectional relations between authoritative parenting and adolescents' prosocial behavior over a 1-year time period. Data were taken from Time 2 and 3 of the Flourishing Families Project, and included reports from 319 two-parent families with an adolescent child (M age of child at Time 2 = 12.34, SD = 1.06, 52% girls).…

  2. Promoting adolescent behavioral adjustment in violent neighborhoods: supportive families can make a difference!

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Lorraine M; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A; Mesman, Glenn R; Pemberton, Joy R; Casey, Patrick H

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of family cohesion on the relationship between community violence and child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 18. The study sample consisted of 728 children and families who were part of the Infant Health and Development Program, an intervention study for low-birthweight, preterm infants. Six of eight sites in the Infant Health and Development Program were in large metropolitan areas; two served rural and urban areas. About half of the sample was African American. Research teams collected data from caregivers multiple times in the first 3 years of the target child's life, and at 4, 5, 6½, 8, and 18 years. Caregivers reported on community violence, neighborhood problems with (a) drug users/sellers; (b) delinquent gangs; and (c) crime, assaults, and burglaries reports when children were 4, 5, and 8 years of age. Family cohesion was assessed twice, at ages 6½ and 8 years, using caregiver reports on the Family Environment Scale. Adolescent self-report of Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems at age 18 were assessed using the Behavior Problems Index. In this study, the association between adolescent psychosocial outcomes and community violence were moderated by family cohesion and gender such that being in a highly cohesive family as a child protected male children from the negative effects of community violence. Findings demonstrate the long-term protective effects of family cohesion on child behavioral development for male children but suggest a need to examine additional supports for females exposed to community violence during childhood. PMID:24787626

  3. Mother–Adolescent Conflict as a Mediator Between Adolescent Problem Behaviors and Maternal Psychological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeger, Christine M.; Gondoli, Dawn M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined mother–adolescent conflict as a mediator of longitudinal reciprocal relations between adolescent aggression and depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control. Motivated by family systems theory and the transactions that occur between individual and dyadic levels of the family system, we examined the connections among these variables during a developmental period when children and parents experience significant psychosocial changes. Three years of self-report data were collected from 168 mother–adolescent dyads, beginning when the adolescents (55.4% girls) were in 6th grade. Models were tested using longitudinal path analysis. Results indicated that the connection between adolescent aggression (and depressive symptoms) and maternal psychological control was best characterized as adolescent-driven, indirect, and mediated by mother–adolescent conflict; there were no indications of parent-driven indirect effects. That is, prior adolescent aggression and depressive symptoms were associated with increased conflict. In turn, conflict was associated with increased psychological control. Within our mediation models, reciprocal direct effects between both problem behaviors and conflict and between conflict and psychological control were also found. Additionally, exploratory analyses regarding the role of adolescent gender as a moderator of variable relations were conducted. These analyses revealed no gender-related patterns of moderation, whether moderated mediation or specific path tests for moderation were considered. This study corroborates prior research finding support for child effects on parenting behaviors during early adolescence. PMID:22612432

  4. Adolescents' Sleep Behaviors and Perceptions of Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. Methods: General education classes were…

  5. Sucrose and delinquency: oral sucrose tolerance test and nutritional assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, D A; Harper, A E; Bachorowski, J A; Newman, J P; Shrago, E S; Taylor, S L

    1990-08-01

    Claims that juvenile delinquency may be associated with reactive hypoglycemia or nutritional deficiencies have received widespread attention but little objective evaluation. To assess the validity of these claims, nutritional and psychological indices of juvenile delinquents have been measured. Serum glucose and insulin profiles during an oral sucrose tolerance test were measured in 137 delinquent and 41 nondelinquent male adolescents aged 14 to 19. In addition, nutritional status of both populations was assessed by anthropometry (height, weight, arm circumference, triceps skin fold) and biochemical measures (hematocrit, red-blood cell thiamin, and serum copper, ferritin, and zinc). Delinquent subjects had slightly but significantly lower serum glucose values at four of six time points (fasting, 60 minutes, 120 minutes, 180 minutes) and higher serum insulin values at one time point (30 minutes) compared with nondelinquent subjects. Changes in glucose from fasting levels indicate that these subjects were regulating serum glucose adequately, but doing so at lower values; changes in insulin from fasting levels indicate that black delinquents initially secreted more insulin than either white subject group. There were no significant associations between excursions in serum glucose or insulin and any adrenergic signs or symptoms of low blood glucose levels. Nutritional status of incarcerated delinquents did not differ from that of nonincarcerated subjects on most measures. Although the significantly lower serum glucose levels and higher serum insulin levels are intriguing, no support is offered by results of this study for allegations that sucrose ingestion causes reactive hypoglycemia in juvenile delinquents or that delinquent male adolescents are at greater risk nutritionally than male adolescents of the same age who are not delinquent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2196523

  6. Antisocial behavior in adolescence: Typology and relation to family context.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobotková, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Hrdli?ka, M.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 33, ?. 8 (2013), s. 1091-1115. ISSN 0272-4316 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : family * antisocial behavior * typology * adolescence Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2013

  7. Systematic Review of Social Network Analysis in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Huang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social networks are important in adolescent smoking behavior. Previous research indicates that peer context is a major causal factor of adolescent smoking behavior. To date, however, little is known about the influence of peer group structure on adolescent smoking behavior. Methods: Studies that examined adolescent social networks with…

  8. Diet and behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Igaard, Rune H. X. F.; Verby, Nina X. D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Discussion about dietary factors in relation to behavioral problems in children and adolescents has been going on for a long time. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional relation between diet and self-reported behavioral problems at school in adolescents in the southern part of Norway. Design: In total, 475 ninth- and tenth-grade students (236 boys and 239 girls) out of 625 eligible students from four different secondary schools in three different ...

  9. Trajectories of Family Management Practices and Early Adolescent Behavioral Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Willett, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Stage– environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth in family management practices and adolescentsbehavioral outcomes and to detect predictors of interindividual differences in initial status a...

  10. Nicotine Dependence and Problem Behaviors Among Urban South African Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Pahl, Kerstin; BROOK, DAVID W.; Morojele, Neo K.; BROOK, JUDITH S.

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco use and its concomitant, nicotine dependence, are increasing in African countries and other parts of the developing world. However, little research has assessed nicotine dependence in South Africa or other parts of the African continent. Previous research has found that adolescent problem behaviors, including tobacco use, tend to cluster. This study examined the relationship between nicotine dependence and adolescent problem behaviors in an ethnically diverse sample of urban South Afr...

  11. Clustering of Adolescent Dating Violence, Peer Violence, and Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossarte, Robert M.; Simon, Thomas R.; Swahn, Monica H.

    2008-01-01

    To understand the co-occurrence of multiple types of violence, the authors developed a behavioral typology based on self-reports of suicidal behaviors, physical violence, and psychological abuse. Using a sample of dating adolescents from a high-risk school district, they identified five clusters of behaviors among the 1,653 students who reported…

  12. Cognitive behavioral therapy group intervention for HIV transmission risk behavior in perinatally infected adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth M. Senyonyi; Lee A. Underwood; Elisabeth Suarez; Seggane Musisi; Todd L. Grande

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study analyzed treatment effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group counseling intervention on HIV transmission risk behavior, depression, anxiety, and alcohol use in HIV perinatally infected adolescents attending an HIV clinical care center in Uganda, Africa. Method: A total of 186 adolescents were randomly assigned to an experimental or control arm and assigned into groups of 11 - 16 adolescents. The experimental groups received an 80-minute CBT based weekly intervent...

  13. Adolescent Suicidal Behavior and Substance Use: Developmental Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M. Dougherty

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent suicidal behaviors and substance use are disturbingly common. Research suggests overlap of some of the etiological mechanisms for both adolescent suicidal behavior and substance use, yet clear understanding of the complex relations between these behaviors and their causal underpinnings is lacking. A growing body of evidence and a diathesis model (Mann et al. 1999; Mann, 2003 highlight the importance of impulse control as a proximal risk factor for adolescent suicidal and substance use behaviors. This literature review extends current theory on the relationships between adolescent suicidal behavior and substance use by: (1 examining how, when, and to what extent adolescent development is affected by poor impulse control, stressful life events, substance use behavior, and biological factors; (2 presenting proposed causal mechanisms by which these risk factors interact to increase risk for suicidal behaviors and substance use; and (3 proposing specific new hypotheses to extend the diathesis model to adolescents at risk for suicide and substance use. More specifically, new hypotheses are presented that predict bidirectional relationships between stressful life events and genetic markers of 5-HT dysregulation; substance use behavior and impulsivity; and substance use behavior and suicide attempts. The importance of distinguishing between different developmental trajectories of suicidal and substance use behaviors, and the effects of specific risk and protective mechanisms are discussed. Use of new statistical approaches that provide for the comparison of latent growth curves and latent class models is recommended to identify differences in developmental trajectories of suicidal behavior and substance use. Knowledge gained from these prospective longitudinal methods should lead to greater understanding on the timing, duration, and extent to which specific risk and protective factors influence the outcomes of suicidal behavior and substance use. In turn, findings from these studies should inform researchers who conduct future treatment and prevention studies.

  14. Is tattooing a risk factor for adolescents' criminal behavior? Empirical evidence from an administrative data set of juvenile detainees in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pei-An; Chang, Hung-Hao; Su, Yi-Ju

    2014-12-01

    Juvenile crime affects not only the victims of the crime but also the delinquents' future. How to prevent adolescent criminal behavior has become an important public policy issue. This study contributes to this interesting issue by examining the relationship between tattooing and adolescents' criminal behavior. In particular, this study investigates whether or not having a tattoo/tattoos is connected to the incidence of various criminal activities, including: larceny, robbery, fraud, assault, drug use, and homicide. A unique sample of 973 juvenile detainees drawn from the administrative profiles in Taiwan and the coarsened exact matching method were utilized. Results show that compared to their nontattooed counterparts, tattooed juvenile detainees were significantly more likely to commit fraud, assault, drug abuse, and homicide by 3%, 13%, 9%, and 9%, respectively. In contrast, tattooing was not significantly associated with larceny or robbery. From a policy perspective, given the significant link between tattooing and criminal behavior, the presence of a tattoo in adolescents may serve as a valuable indicator regarding adolescents' high probability of committing crimes. PMID:25598482

  15. Social-cognitive correlates of risky adolescent cycling behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiter Robert AC

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bicycle use entails high safety and health risks especially for adolescents. Most safety education programs aimed at adolescents focus on accident statistics and risk perceptions. This paper proposes the investigation of the social-cognitive correlates of risky cycling behaviors of adolescents prior to developing safety education programs. Method Secondary school students aged 13 to 18 years (n = 1446 filled out questionnaires regarding bicycle behavior, risky intentions, accident experience, and social-cognitive determinants as suggested by the theory of planned behavior. Results Regression analysis revealed that the proximal variables (i.e., self-efficacy, attitudes towards drunk driving, personal norm regarding safekeeping of self and others, and compared risk were able to predict 17% of the variance of risky behavior and 23% of the variance of risky intentions. The full model explained respectively 29% and 37% of the variance in risky behavior and risky intentions. Adolescents with positive attitudes towards risky behavior and low sense of responsibility report risky behavior, even when having been (close to an accident. Conclusions Adolescents realize whether they are risk takers or not. This implies that the focus of education programs should not be on risk perceptions, but on decreasing positive attitudes towards alcohol in traffic and increasing sense of responsibility instead. Cognitions regarding near accidents should be studied, the role of safe cycling self-efficacy is unclear.

  16. Family dysfunction in adolescents with suicidal behavior and in adolescents with conduct disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanovi?-Kova?evi? Svetlana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The period of life known as adolescence generally refers to transition from childhood to adulthood. Adolescents' progress toward autonomy involves remaining connected with, as well as separated from parents. Young people and their parents usually have mixed feelings about adolescent autonomy and attachment. An estimated 50% of children born in the 80s have spent part of their developmental years in single-parent households. Divorce is almost always a stressful event in children's lives. Youthful suicide rate has increased dramatically and is the third leading cause of death among 15-19 year olds. Conduct disorder is one of the most frequently diagnosed conditions in adolescents. Suicidal adolescents and adolescents with conduct disorder are much more likely than their peers to have grown up in disrupted, disorganized homes with lack of attachment between parents and their children. Material and methods This prospective study was carried out during 2002, 2003, and 2004. The research included 60 adolescents treated at the Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Novi Sad, 30 with diagnosed conduct disorder and 30 with suicidal behavior. Results Along with other kinds of distress, suicidal adolescents have experienced an escalation of family problems a few months prior to attempted suicide. Discussion Divorce and life in single-parent households is almost always a stressful period in children's lives. Conduct disorder and suicidal behavior represent a desperate cry for help. Conclusion Most adolescents in both groups live in single-parent house­holds. These young people have frequently passed into adolescence with little reason to feel that they could rely on their parents for support, or on their home as a place of sanctuary. .

  17. Do Adolescents Engage in Delinquency to Attract the Social Attention of Peers? An Extension and Longitudinal Test of the Social Reinforcement Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebellon, Cesar J.

    2006-01-01

    Although social-learning theory remains among the dominant perspectives in micro-level research concerning the causes of delinquency, research has yet to provide an adequate test of its social-reinforcement component using the methods required by the logic of operant psychology. The present article discusses the limits of existing attempts to test…

  18. Social Class Indicators and the Relationship Between Learning Disabilities and Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Stanley L.; Wall, Sherrill A.

    Sixty-two adolescents, including 28 learning disabled (LD) and 34 nonLD Ss, participated in an examination of the relationship between social class indicators and delinquency. A review of the literature relating social class variables to school achievement, learning disabilities, and juvenile delinquency resulted in the selection of 14 social…

  19. Verbal Problem Solving in Families of Father-Absent and Father-Present Delinquent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borduin, Charles M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The relationship of juvenile delinquency and father absence to family problem-solving communication was investigated using an observational method. In the results, delinquency was associated with lower rates of maternal problem solving, and father absence was associated with higher rates of maternal and adolescent problem solving. (KH)

  20. Empathy and Drug Use Behaviors among African-American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2011-01-01

    The current study proposed that empathy may indirectly play a protective role for adolescents in drug use behaviors and that this relationship will be mediated by self-regulatory strategies found in drug refusal efficacy. We predict that empathy will be linked to prosocial behavior and aggression, though we do not believe that they will mediate…

  1. Adolescent Perceptions of Overall Family System Functioning and Parental Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Neal, Rachel A.; Huey, Erron L.

    2006-01-01

    We used a systems perspective to examine relationships between adolescents' perceptions of overall family system functioning and selected parental behaviors. Self-report questionnaire data from 160 ninth and tenth grade students were analyzed using MANCOVA and discriminant analysis. The results showed two parental behaviors, support and monitoring…

  2. Friends: The Role of Peer Influence across Adolescent Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined peer influence for 1,969 adolescents across 5 risk behaviors: smoking, alcohol consumption, marijuana use, tobacco chewing, and sexual debut. Results show that a random same-sex peer predicts a teen's risk behavior initiation through influence to initiate cigarette and marijuana use, and influence to initiate and stop alcohol and chewing…

  3. Exposure to Terrorism and Violent Behavior among Adolescents in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Chen, Merav Solomon; Itzhaky, Haya

    2007-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that exposure to terrorism may lead to violent behavior, but there is little empirical research on the relationship between these two variables. In the present paper, we examined the extent to which exposure to terrorism contributes to violent behavior among adolescents. In addition, we considered the role of environmental…

  4. Behavioral characteristics of the offspring of adolescent rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T., Zemunik; M., Peruzovic; V., Capkun; K., Milkovic.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, during adulthood, the offspring of adolescent rats differ in emotionality, learning and memory from the offspring of adult rats. The behavior of the offspring of adolescent (age, 50-55 days) and adult rats (age, 90-95 days) was tested in the ope [...] n field, activity cage, and passive and active avoidance apparatus. The latencies during training and testing in the passive avoidance apparatus of the offspring of adolescent parents were shorter than the latencies of control offspring (P

  5. SEXUAL HEALTH BEHAVIORS OF ADOLESCENTS IN POKHARA, NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Niranjan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adolescent (10–19 years is a transition of age during which hazardous sexual health behaviors may be adopted; increasing vulnerability to several kinds of behavioral disorders like drug use, unsafe sexual act leading to reproductive ill health. Objective of the study was to assess sexual health behaviors of adolescents in Pokhara, Nepal. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 15–19 years adolescents studying in grades 11 and 12. Probability sampling techniques were applied. A structured, pretested, envelope sealed self administered questionnaire was distributed among all (1584 adolescents of the 11 and 12 grades of selected institutions. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (16 versions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. RESULTS: About 19.37% adolescents had sexual contact and male participation was higher than females (P<0.05. Nearly one fifth of unmarried were found to be involved in sexual activities and most of them had first sex between 15-19 years age (median age 15.26 years. Of those who had sex, 6.91% had adopted all the three: vaginal, oral and anal sexes and majority had single followed by 2-5 sex partners in their sexual intercourse in the last one year and last month. About 13.93% adolescents were found to be indulged in group sex. Most of them had sex with regular partners and commercial sex workers. More than eight out of every ten who had sex had used contraceptive methods and condom was method of choice (94.77%. CONCLUSIONS: Premarital sexual involvement was prevalent among adolescents; sex with commercial sex workers and non commercial sex partners was perceived to be risk. Behavior change intervention strategies need to be formulated and implemented to promote adolescent reproductive and sexual health.

  6. Understanding HIV testing behaviors of minority adolescents: a health behavior model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Rebecca; Rojas, Marlene; Travers, Jasmine

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults are the fastest-growing age group of people living with HIV infection in the United States. Yet many adolescents and young adults with high-risk behaviors for HIV are unaware of their HIV status and have never had an HIV test. The purpose of our work was to understand minority adolescents' beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors related to HIV testing. We conducted focus group sessions with 41 minority adolescents to assess their perceptions about HIV testing. We triangulated the findings from our focus group data with data from a 125-question survey. Analysis of focus group data demonstrated that Perceived Susceptibility, Perceived Severity, Perceived Benefits, Perceived Barriers, and Cues to Action influenced adolescents' decisions to get tested for HIV. Findings support the need to design interventions that address adolescents' perceived barriers to HIV testing and increase access to and knowledge about HIV testing. PMID:25283353

  7. A Study of Firesetting and Animal Cruelty in Children: Family Influences and Adolescent Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kimberly D.; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Herrera, Veronica M.; McCloskey, Laura A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate relationships among family risk factors, childhood firesetting and animal cruelty, and adolescent delinquency. Method: In 1990, mothers and children participating in a 10-year prospective study provided information about family risk factors and childhood problem behavior. Subsequent interviews with 86% of the sample in…

  8. Adolescent School Experiences and Dropout, Adolescent Pregnancy, and Young Adult Deviant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Brook, Judith S.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined predictability of inappropriate behavior in a random sample of 452 adolescents. Behaviors examined included dropping out, teen pregnancy, criminal activities and conviction, antisocial personality disorder, and alcohol abuse. Found that academic achievement and aspirations, and learning-focused school settings related to…

  9. Adolescência e delinquência: variáveis significativas para a construção de um modelo explicativo / Adolescence and delinquency: significant variables for building an explanatory model

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alice Murteira, Morgado; Maria da Luz, Vale-Dias.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Na Psicologia do Desenvolvimento existe amplo consenso relativamente à complexidade dos comportamentos anti-sociais, sobretudo durante a adolescência, estádio em que se verificam múltiplas e importantes mudanças. Assim, foi concebido um projecto de investigação com o intuito de dar resposta a alguma [...] s questões sobre o fenómeno anti-social que ainda carecem de esclarecimento, especialmente no que concerne a potenciais variáveis explicativas, como aptidões sociais, auto-conceito, personalidade, ambiente familiar e nível socioeconómico. Foi aplicado um protocolo de avaliação composto por um questionário sociodemográfico e as versões portuguesas do YSR (Fonseca & Monteiro, 1999); SSQ-Student Form (Mota, Matos, & Lemos, 2011); FES (Matos & Fontaine, 1992); PHCSCS-2 (Veiga, 2006), EPQ-J (Fonseca, 1989), e SPM-56 (Raven, Court & Raven, 1998) em cinco Centros Educativos numa amostra de 121 rapazes entre os 14 e os 20 anos de idade (M= 16,54). Os resultados revelaram peculiaridades na amostra, nomeadamente uma prevalência considerável de nível socioeconómico baixo e manifestações comportamentais tanto de cariz agressivo como de desobediência, sendo roubos e agressões as formas mais frequentemente reportadas de comportamentos anti-sociais. Ficou também claro o papel preditivo de algumas variáveis de personalidade, auto-conceito, percepção de ambiente familiar e auto-controlo na escala "Antisocial" e "Problemas de Atenção/Hiperactividade" do YSR. Com o projecto de investigação apresentado ficam, portanto, evidenciadas as particularidades dos jovens delinquentes enquanto grupo específico no que diz respeito às suas percepções e características individuais, sociais, comportamentais e familiares. Acreditamos que, se estas forem consideradas para o design de novos programas de prevenção e intervenção, poderão contribuir para a sua eficácia. Abstract in english Within Developmental Psychology there is a wide consensus on the complexity of antisocial behaviours, particularly during adolescence, a stage when multiple and important changes take place. Hence, we created a research project aimed at answering some questions about the antisocial phenomenon that s [...] till lack enlightening, especially regarding potential explaining variables such as social skills, self-concept, personality, family environment and socioeconomic status. We used a protocol including a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Portuguese versions of YSR (Fonseca & Monteiro, 1999); SSQ-Student Form (Mota, Matos, & Lemos, 2011); FES (Matos & Fontaine, 1992); PHCSCS-2 (Veiga, 2006), EPQ-J (Fonseca, 1989), e SPM-56 (Raven, Court & Raven, 1998). This was applied in five Educational Centres, to a sample of 121 boys between 14 and 20 years old (M=16.54). Results revealed some peculiarities in the sample, namely a strong prevalence of low socioeconomic status and of both overt and covert behavioural manifestations, with a higher frequency of theft and aggression. The predictive role of some personality, self-concept, family environment and self-control variables for the “Antisocial” and “Attention Problems/Hyperactivity” YSR scales was also evident. This research project makes evident that there are peculiarities in young delinquents as a specific group, that is, in what concerns their perceptions and individual, social, behavioural and familial characteristics. Therefore, we believe that considering our results for the design of new prevention and intervention programs may contribute for their efficacy.

  10. The Two Faces Of Adolescents’ Success With Peers: Adolescent Popularity, Social Adaptation, and Deviant Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances R.; MCFARLAND, F. CHRISTY; Marsh, Penny; MCELHANEY, KATHLEEN BOYKIN

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the hypothesis that popularity in adolescence takes on a twofold role, both marking high levels of concurrent psychosocial adaptation, but also predicting increases over time in both positive and negative behaviors sanctioned by peer norms. This hypothesis was tested with multi-method, longitudinal data obtained on a diverse community sample of 185 adolescents. Sociometric popularity data were examined in relation to data from interview-based assessments of attachment secu...

  11. Current perspectives: the impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Charisse L

    2014-01-01

    Cyberbullying has become an international public health concern among adolescents, and as such, it deserves further study. This paper reviews the current literature related to the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health across multiple studies worldwide and provides directions for future research. A review of the evidence suggests that cyberbullying poses a threat to adolescents' health and well-being. A plethora of correlational studies have demonstrated a cogent relationship between adolescents' involvement in cyberbullying and negative health indices. Adolescents who are targeted via cyberbullying report increased depressive affect, anxiety, loneliness, suicidal behavior, and somatic symptoms. Perpetrators of cyberbullying are more likely to report increased substance use, aggression, and delinquent behaviors. Mediating/moderating processes have been found to influence the relationship between cyberbullying and adolescent health. More longitudinal work is needed to increase our understanding of the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health over time. Prevention and intervention efforts related to reducing cyberbullying and its associated harms are discussed. PMID:25177157

  12. Social Information Processing and Cardiac Predictors of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Crozier, Joseph C.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fontaine, Reid Griffith; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    The relations among social information processing (SIP), cardiac activity, and antisocial behavior were investigated in adolescents over a 3-year period (from ages 16 to 18) in a community sample of 585 (48% female, 17% African American) participants. Antisocial behavior was assessed in all 3 years. Cardiac and SIP measures were collected between the first and second behavioral assessments. Cardiac measures assessed resting heart rate (RHR) and heart rate reactivity (HRR) as participants imag...

  13. [Behavioral disorders and substance abuse in adolescents with mental retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk

    2014-01-01

    The percentage of people with mental retardation in the general population is estimated at about 2.3%, with adolescence (15-20 years) constituting the development period during which a peak in rates of mental retardation is observed. The increased prevalence of adolescence may be explained from the fact that the specified requirements of the school initially, and society later, inevitably lead to comparative evaluation of the teen with mental retardation in relation to peers, thus making mental retardation more apparent. Adolescents with mental retardation face a number of physical and psychological needs which are not often distinguishable and as a consequence undergo the deterioration of their already burdened quality of life. In particular, mental health problems occur 3 to 4 times more often in adolescents with mental retardation compared with adolescents of the general population. This review presents the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the correlation between behavioral disorders, substance use and the possible comorbidity in adolescents with intellectual disability, both at community level and residential care level. Epidemiological data indicate that behavioral disorders are among the most common types of psychopathology in mentally retarded adolescents with the severity and symptoms varying depending on the personal characteristics of each adolescent. Regarding substance use, the available data show that the rates of substance use (alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs) are lower in this specific population group but the differences over the last years tend to be eliminated. Finally, according to the few surveys that were examined referring to the comorbidity of behavioral disorders and substance use in adolescents with intellectual disability, the results were contradictory. Specifically, while behavioral disorders continued to be one of the most common types of psychopathology, the related substances disorders indicated lower rates compared to normal intelligence adolescents with behavioral disorders. Risk factors that increase the chances of developing either simple or more complicated types of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation have been found to be based on individual, family and social levels. On the other hand, the individual characteristics of adolescents (intellectual level, attention capacity, understandable linguistic expression, overall progress until adolescence), the existence of a supportive family environment and the presence of social support and awareness through the creation of special counseling, education and medical services, are the most important protective factors which contribute to the prevention of several forms of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation. For the writing of the literature review, the following electronic databases were used: PubMed, Scopus, Psycinfo, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google Scholar. The key words used were: Intellectual Disability, Behavioral disorders, Adolescents, Mental Retardation, Learning disabilities, Developmental Disabilities, Disruptive behaviour disorders, Conduct disorder, Substance Abuse, Substance Misuse, Oppositional defiant disorder, Alcohol and illicit drug use, Smoking Use, Young people, Teenagers, Youths. PMID:25035183

  14. Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Behaviors, Adolescent Self-Esteem, and Adolescent Depressed Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, Scott W.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Behnke, Andrew; Falcon, Pedro C., III

    2007-01-01

    Using symbolic interaction, we developed a research model that proposed adolescent perceptions of parental support and psychological control would be related to adolescent depressed mood directly and indirectly through self-esteem. We tested the model using self-report questionnaire data from 161 adolescents living with both of their biological…

  15. Social Activity Participation and the Drinking and Driving Behaviors of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David M.; Swisher, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Examined relationships between negative social behaviors and social activity participation to self-reported drinking and driving behaviors of adolescents. Results from 6,868 adolescents showed negative social behaviors and social activity participation were critical precursors to drinking and driving problem among adolescents. (Author/NB)

  16. Attributions of Fathering Behaviors Among Adolescents: The Role of Gender, Ethnicity, Family Structure, and Depressive Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Finlay, Andrea K.; Cookston, Jeffrey T.; Saenz, Delia S.; Baham, Melinda E.; Parke, Ross D.; Fabricius, William; Braver, Sanford

    2013-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to how early adolescents make attributions for their fathers’ behavior. Guided by symbolic interaction theory, we examined how adolescent gender, ethnicity, family structure, and depressive symptoms explained attributions for residential father behavior. 382 adolescents, grouped by ethnicity (European American, Mexican American) and family structure (intact, stepfamilies), reported attributions for their fathers’ positive and negative behaviors. Results indi...

  17. Family Functioning, Identity, and Problem Behavior in Hispanic Immigrant Early Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Seth J; PANTIN, HILDA; Prado, Guillermo; Sullivan, Summer; Szapocznik, José

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of identity in the relationship between family functioning and behavior problems in a sample of Hispanic immigrant early adolescents and their families. The sample consisted of 181 Hispanic immigrant adolescents (92 males, 89 females) and their participating caregivers (who were mostly mothers). Identity was measured using adolescent reports, whereas family functioning and early adolescent behavior problems were measured using both adolescent and parent...

  18. Relationships between adolescent drug use and parental drug behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G M; Shontz, F C; Locke, T P

    1984-01-01

    The present study examined some previously reported relationships between drug use by adolescents and perceived attitudes and behaviors of their parents. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to the student body of an inner-city secondary school for difficult students. Relationships between parental use of drugs and adolescent use of the same drugs were moderate and roughly equivalent across drugs. However, parental use of marijuana was strongly related to the adolescent's use of other, harder drugs such as opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and barbiturates. This finding is explained within the framework of Kandel's postulated stages of drug initiation. It points to a need for further study of parental influences, which may be increasingly problematic as more individuals who have grown up in our marijuana-accepting society become parents of adolescents. PMID:6331712

  19. [Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for adolescents with eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Uwe; Jacobi, Corinna

    2005-04-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED) are grouped together under the term eating disorders. Due to its typical onset in adolescence, AN in particular represents a frequent disorder with often an unfavourable course in this age range (Steinhausen 2002). The mental, social and physical consequences are serious. Research has shown that cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) has good effectiveness in adult patients with AN, BN and BED and that it is superior to other treatments. However, there have been few studies on children and adolescents. The effectiveness in adolescence can thus be judged only when the results in adulthood are taken into account. At present, there is limited evidence for the effectiveness of CBT in adolescence. PMID:15918541

  20. Behavioral characteristics of the offspring of adolescent rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemunik T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, during adulthood, the offspring of adolescent rats differ in emotionality, learning and memory from the offspring of adult rats. The behavior of the offspring of adolescent (age, 50-55 days and adult rats (age, 90-95 days was tested in the open field, activity cage, and passive and active avoidance apparatus. The latencies during training and testing in the passive avoidance apparatus of the offspring of adolescent parents were shorter than the latencies of control offspring (P<0.001 on both training and testing days. Offspring of adolescent parents showed shorter latency time in acquisition trials during active avoidance testing compared to control offspring (P<0.001. They also showed a higher number of active avoidance responses in the last four blocks of acquisition (P<0.001 and first two blocks of extinction trials (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively. The offspring of adolescent parents showed higher latency on the first day of testing in the open field (P<0.01 and a lower latency on the third day of testing (P<0.01. They also showed higher activity during all three days of testing (1st and 2nd day: P<0.01; 3rd day: P<0.05. The spontaneous activity of the offspring of adolescent parents in the activity cage was higher in the last three intervals of testing (P<0.001. In summary, the offspring of adolescent parents were less anxious and tended to be more active. The results of two learning and memory tests were opposite, but could be explained by a higher exploratory drive of the offspring of adolescent parents. This was probably due to chronic malnutrition stress and the disturbed mother-infant relationship in the litters of adolescent mothers.

  1. Diet and behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Høigaard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Discussion about dietary factors in relation to behavioral problems in children and adolescents has been going on for a long time. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional relation between diet and self-reported behavioral problems at school in adolescents in the southern part of Norway. Design: In total, 475 ninth- and tenth-grade students (236 boys and 239 girls out of 625 eligible students from four different secondary schools in three different communities in Vest-Agder County, Norway, participated, giving a participation rate of 77%. The students filled in a questionnaire with food frequency questions of selected healthy (e.g. fruits, vegetables, and fish and unhealthy (e.g. sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and crisps food items, questions of meal frequency, and four questions regarding behavioral problems at school. Results: Having breakfast regularly was significantly associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems (OR: 0.29 (0.15???0.55, p?0.001. A high intake of unhealthy foods, such as sugar-sweetened soft drinks (OR: 2.8 (1.06???7.42, p=0.03 and sweets (OR: 2.63 (1.39???4.98, p=0.003, was significantly associated with increased odds of behavioral problems. At the same time, a high intake of fruits was associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems in Norwegian adolescents (OR: 0.30 (0.10???0.87, p=0.03. All ORs are adjusted for sex and BMI. Conclusions: This study shows that having an optimal diet and not skipping meals are associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents. Hence, it is important to improve the dietary intake and meal pattern of Norwegian adolescents. The cross-sectional design of this study limits any causal interpretations of the results of the study.

  2. Emotional and behavioral problems among adolescent smokers and their help-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthupalaniappen, Leelavathi; Omar, Juslina; Omar, Khairani; Iryani, Tuti; Hamid, Siti Norain

    2012-09-01

    We carried out a cross sectional study to detect emotional and behavioral problems among adolescents who smoke and their help-seeking behavior. This study was conducted in Sarawak, East Malaysia, between July and September 2006. Emotional and behavioral problems were measured using the Youth Self-Report (YSR/11-18) questionnaire; help seeking behavior was assessed using a help-seeking questionnaire. Three hundred ninety-nine students participated in the study; the smoking prevalence was 32.8%. The mean scores for emotional and behavioral problems were higher among smokers than non-smokers in all domains (internalizing, p = 0.028; externalizing, p = 0.001; other behavior, p = 0.001). The majority of students who smoked (94.7%) did not seek help from a primary health care provider for their emotional or behavioral problems. Common barriers to help-seeking were: the perception their problems were trivial (60.3%) and the preference to solve problems on their own (45.8%). Our findings suggest adolescent smokers in Sarawak, East Malaysia were more likely to break rules, exhibit aggressive behavior and have somatic complaints than non-smoking adolescents. Adolescent smokers preferred to seek help for their problems from informal sources. Physicians treating adolescents should inquire about smoking habits, emotional and behavioral problems and offer counseling if required. PMID:23431837

  3. Sensation seeking predicting growth in adolescent problem behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byck, Gayle R; Swann, Gregory; Schalet, Benjamin; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-06-01

    There is limited literature on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent risk behaviors, particularly among African Americans. We tested the association between psychometrically-derived subscales of the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and the intercepts and slopes of individual growth curves of conduct problems, sexual risk taking, and substance use from ages 13 to 18 years by sex. Boys and girls had different associations between sensation seeking and baseline levels and growth of risk behaviors. The Pleasure Seeking scale was associated with baseline levels of conduct problems in boys and girls, baseline substance use in boys, and growth in sexual risk taking and substance use by girls. Girls had the same pattern of associations with the Danger/Novelty scale as the Pleasure Seeking scale. Knowledge about the relationships between adolescent risk taking and sensation seeking can help in the targeted design of prevention and intervention programs for the understudied population of very low-income, African American adolescents. PMID:25112599

  4. Ego Identity Status and Self-Monitoring Behavior in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumru, Asiye; Thompson, Ross A.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the association between identity status and self-monitoring behavior, including age and gender differences, among adolescents in Turkey. Found significant increases in identity achievement and moratorium with age, and no gender differences in identity status. Males were significantly higher than females in self-monitoring. (Author/SD)

  5. Adolescent Mental Health, Behavior Problems, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Jane D.; Uemura, Ryotaro; Rohrman, Shawna

    2012-01-01

    Prior research on the association of mental health and behavior problems with academic achievement is limited because it does not consider multiple problems simultaneously, take co-occurring problems into account, and control for academic aptitude. We addressed these limitations using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health…

  6. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  7. Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Binge Eating in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarborough, Bobbi Jo; DeBar, Lynn L.; Firemark, Alison; Leung, Sue; Clarke, Gregory N.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2013-01-01

    Whereas effective treatments exist for adults with recurrent binge eating, developmental factors specific to adolescents point to the need for a modified treatment approach for youth. We adapted an existing cognitive behavioral therapy treatment manual for adults with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder (Fairburn, 2008) for use with…

  8. Brief Report: Associations between Emotional Competence and Adolescent Risky Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessler, Danielle M.; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines associations between emotional competence (i.e., awareness, regulation, comfort with expression) and adolescent risky behavior. Children from a longitudinal study participated at age 9 and 16 (N = 88). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with children about their emotional experiences and coded for areas of…

  9. Heavy Metal Music and Reckless Behavior among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    Fifty-four male and 30 female adolescents who like heavy metal music were compared on various outcome variables to 56 male and 105 female peers who do not like it. Those who like heavy metal report a wider range of reckless behavior than those who do not like it. (SLD)

  10. The typological approach to the risky behavior of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrovi? D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main research problem is focused on the following question: Is it possible to identify specific patterns of interaction between precipitating and protective factors for the risky behavior among adolescents. The research was conducted on the sample of 204 adolescents of both genders (18 to 20 years old. Specific personality traits and socio-demographic characteristics are manifested as the most important precipitating and/or protective factors for the risky behavior. The frame of reference for personality assessment was the alternative five-factor model (Zuckerman, 2002, specified in the ZKPQ-50-CC questionnaire, and consisted of the five biologically determined personality traits: activity, aggressiveness/hostility, impulsive sensation seeking, neuroticism/anxiety and sociability. Latent dimensions of the risky behavior: risky activities and life - conditions, were extracted by applying the homogeneity analyses (HOMALS. The matrix of squared Euclidean distances (in the common space of factor scores on the principal components of ZKPQ questionnaire, scores on HOMALS dimensions and school grades was a subject of the Ward hierarchical cluster analysis method, extracting three clusters. According to the discriminant functions: risk proneness and pro-social activity, the clusters were identified: the group of pro-social oriented adolescents, the aloof group and the group of adolescents prone to risky behavior. The results have considerable implications for the prevention programs’ development and implementation.

  11. Paternal Psychopathology: Relationship to Adolescent Substance Abuse and Deviant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Research has documented the genetic contribution of paternal alcoholism and Antisocial Personality Disorder as risk factors for adolescent deviant behavior, including substance abuse. Teens (n=147) between the ages of 12 and 19 years and their parents participated in the study. The sample consisted of 74 substance abusing teens/families drawn from…

  12. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Markowitz, Sarah; Petronko, Michael R.; Taylor, Caitlin E.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Wilson, G. Terence

    2010-01-01

    The onset of appearance-related concerns associated with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) typically occurs in adolescence, and these concerns are often severe enough to interfere with normal development and psychosocial functioning. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for adults with BDD. However, no treatment studies…

  13. Father's and Mother's Psychological Violence and Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancon, Claudiane; Gagne, Marie-Helene

    2011-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological violence were examined as potential risk factors for internalized and externalized behavior problems displayed by adolescents. Childhood family violence (physical and psychological parental violence), current extrafamily violence (bullying and dating violence), and family structure were taken into account. A…

  14. Adolescent Health Behavior, Contentment in School, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P.; Helgason, Asgeir R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the association between health behavior indicators, school contentment, and academic achievement. Methods: Structural equation modeling with 5810 adolescents. Results: Our model explained 36% of the variance in academic achievement and 24% in school contentment. BMI and sedentary lifestyle were negatively related to school…

  15. Eating Behaviors among Female Adolescents in Kuantan District, Pahang, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Y.S. Chin; M.T. Mohd Nasir

    2009-01-01

    This study examined eating behaviors among female adolescents. A total of 407 female students aged between 13-19 years were randomly selected from two secondary schools in Kuantan district, Pahang, Malaysia. All participants were required to complete a self-administered Eating Behaviors Questionnaire and their weight and height were measured by the researchers. A majority of the participants were Malays (65.3%), followed by Chinese (28.3%) and Indians (6.4%). There were 5.9% underweight parti...

  16. Risk behaviors for sexual transmitted disease in male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Caroline Souza Pinto, Patrícia Neyva da Costa Pinheiro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe the risk behaviors and vulnerability adopted by adolescents regarding STD/AIDS. Methodology: this is an ethnographic study, carried out at a public school of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. The population was composed of twenty male adolescents, from 12 to 18 years and that study in the fundamental and secondary education. The data collection happened through a semi-structured interview and simple observation. The content analysis followed Bardin's orientation. The survey was adopted by the Ethics in Research of the UFC, under protocol number 119/07 and after the informed consent of parents. Results: the data showed that among the risk conducts mentioned by the adolescents, the main one is sexual intercourse without preservative, and that there is fear and regret after the unprotected intercourse, and that the partner's age do influence in a negative way for protection. Conclusion: we considered necessary an approach on safe sex among teenagers, demanding the production of creative strategies that make sense in several socio-cultural contexts in which the adolescents are inserted. Descriptors: adolescent; sexual behavior; sexually transmitted diseases.

  17. Violent Behavior in Adolescence: Individual and Familial Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Z?NNUR KILIÇ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, a group of violent male adolescents aged 12-15 years old, who were students of a primary school located in a district where families with low socioeconomic status (SES live was compared with a non-violent peer group in terms of self and family variables, in an aim to understand the risk factors related to adolescent violent behavior. Methods: Data were gathered about the family relations, presence of domestic violence, and other enviromental risk factors for a group of adolescents who show violent behavior at school (n: 22 and compared to their non-violent peers (n: 19 from the same school by getting information both from the adolescents themselves and their mothers. The Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents,Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale , Children’s Depression Inventory and the Connors’ Rating Scales were used to measure the relevant variables. Family characteristics were investigated by direct interviews with the mothers and by using the General Health Questionnaire and the Family Assessment Device for both mothers and fathers. Results: The results of this study showed that adolescents who were violent at school were similar to non-violent ones in terms of domestic violence and self-perception and self-esteem. The violent group perceived themselves as being worse in terms of academic performance and showed higher levels of attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms. Conclusion: The results suggest that the violent behaviour at school for some adolescents may be a way of proving themselves and being accepted by their peers. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2012; 49: 260-265

  18. Maternal drinking behavior and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in adolescents with criminal behavior in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakana Momino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazilian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS. These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well as tested for other environmental risk factors for antisocial behavior. A sample of 262 institutionalized male adolescents due to criminal behavior and 154 male students aged between 13 and 21 years comprised the study population. Maternal use of alcohol was admitted by 48.8% of the mothers of institutionalized adolescents and by 39.9% of the school students. In this sample of adolescents we could not identify -individual cases with a clear diagnosis of FAS, but signs suggestive of FASD were more common in the institutionalized adolescents. Social factors like domestic and family violence were frequent in the risk group, this also being associated to maternal drinking during pregnancy. The inference is that in our sample, criminal behavior is more related to complex interactions between environmental and social issues including prenatal alcohol exposure.

  19. Maternal drinking behavior and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in adolescents with criminal behavior in southern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wakana, Momino; Têmis Maria, Félix; Alberto Mantovani, Abeche; Denise Isabel, Zandoná; Gabriela Gayer, Scheibler; Christina, Chambers; Kenneth Lyons, Jones; Renato Zamora, Flores; Lavínia, Schüler-Faccini.

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazil [...] ian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well as tested for other environmental risk factors for antisocial behavior. A sample of 262 institutionalized male adolescents due to criminal behavior and 154 male students aged between 13 and 21 years comprised the study population. Maternal use of alcohol was admitted by 48.8% of the mothers of institutionalized adolescents and by 39.9% of the school students. In this sample of adolescents we could not identify -individual cases with a clear diagnosis of FAS, but signs suggestive of FASD were more common in the institutionalized adolescents. Social factors like domestic and family violence were frequent in the risk group, this also being associated to maternal drinking during pregnancy. The inference is that in our sample, criminal behavior is more related to complex interactions between environmental and social issues including prenatal alcohol exposure.

  20. Gender Differences in Patterns of Association Between Prosocial Behavior, Personality, and Externalizing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Pursell, Gwen R.; Laursen, Brett; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Booth-laforce, Cathryn; Rose-krasnor, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether prosocial behavior and personality have independent or overlapping associations with adolescent externalizing problems. A total of 128 female and 103 male early adolescents (M = 13.6 years old) completed personality inventories. Prosocial behavior was assessed by peer nominations (N = 663). Composite aggression and delinquency scores were derived from maternal and self-reports. Path analyses indicated gender differences in patterns of association. For girls, links ...

  1. General characteristics of adolescent sexual behavior: National survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankovi? Miodrag

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Investigation of adolescent sexual behavior carried out on a large sample is primarily motivated by health and social problems which can occur when young people practice sex without protection and necessary information. There is no data that the national study on adolescent sexual behavior has been conducted in the Serbian speaking area. Objective. Monitoring and follow-up of trends in adolescent sexual behavior. Methods. The investigation sample comprised 1101 adolescents (472 male and 629 female, aged 13-25 years. As an instrument of polling, the questionnaire 'Sexual Behavior' was used specifically designed for the purpose of this investigation. Results. Eighty-four percent of males and 65% of females reported having sexual experience. The age of the first sexual experience, total number of partners, number of sexual partners in the last year and the last month were investigated, and the number of loved and sexual partner compared. In addition, the length of foreplay, frequency of sexual activity, masturbation, sexual dreams and sexual daydreams and engagement into alternative sexual activities (oral sex, anal sex, group sex, exchange of partners were estimated, as well as the reasons for their practicing. Sexual desire and its correlation with personality dimensions, the frequency of sexual disorders (erectile and ejaculation problems, anorgasmia, abortion, rape and identification of the rapist, the use of condoms and other methods of contraception were assessed. Conclusion. It could be postulated that biological influence on sexual behavior is powerful and resistant to the influence of time and place, as well as socio-cultural religious influences. A high rate of premarital sexual activity with a number of sexual partners, a relatively low rate of condom use and the fact that 4% of the female adolescents in this sample had an induced abortion suggest that there are gaps in the education provided to adolescents about sexual and reproductive risks within the Serbian speaking territory. An alarming statistic is that 5% of the female adolescents in this sample reported that they had been raped, or forced to participate in non-consensual sex within an ongoing relationship with a regular partner. There is a need for systemic changes within the field of sexual education and protection from sexually risky behavior among young adults.

  2. Coping with loneliness: adolescent online and offline behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seepersad, Sean

    2004-02-01

    This study looked at the similarities between the way adolescents cope with loneliness both online and offline. There were 429 participants, ranging from 14 to 23 years old, who answered a questionnaire posted on the Internet. There was a strong relationship between avoidant coping strategies offline and Entertainment Internet use. In addition, adolescents who considered Communication as the most important use of the Internet also coped with loneliness through Emotion Expression and Social coping. Results suggest that online and offline coping behaviors are strongly related especially if they are avoidant. PMID:15006167

  3. Mania Symptoms and HIV-Risk Behavior among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Angela J.; Theodore-Oklota, Christina; Hadley, Wendy; Brown, Larry K.; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether adolescents with elevated symptoms of mania (ESM+) engage in more HIV risk behaviors than those with other psychiatric disorders and examined factors associated with HIV risk behavior among ESM+ adolescents. Eight hundred forty adolescents (56% female, 58% African American, "M" age = 14.9 years) who received mental…

  4. Parental Discipline and Control Attempts in Relation to Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brent C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed how reports of parental discipline and control were related to adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior. Adolescents' perceptions of parental strictness and rules show a curvilinear relationship to their sexual attitudes and behavior; sexual permissiveness and intercourse experience was highest among adolescents who viewed their parents…

  5. Planned versus Unplanned Risks: Neurocognitive Predictors of Subtypes of Adolescents' Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslowsky, Julie; Keating, Daniel P.; Monk, Christopher S.; Schulenberg, John

    2011-01-01

    Risk behavior contributes to substantial morbidity and mortality during adolescence. This study examined neurocognitive predictors of proposed subtypes of adolescent risk behavior: planned (premeditated) versus unplanned (spontaneous). Adolescents (N = 69, 49% male, M = 15.1 [1.0] years) completed neurocognitive tasks (Iowa Gambling Task [IGT],…

  6. Links between Adolescents' Expected Parental Reactions and Prosocial Behavioral Tendencies: The Mediating Role of Prosocial Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Sam A.; Carlo, Gustavo; Roesch, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine relations between adolescents' social cognitions regarding parenting practices and adolescents' prosocial behavioral tendencies. A mediation model was tested whereby the degree to which adolescents perceived their parents as responding appropriately to their prosocial and antisocial behaviors was…

  7. Violent and Prosocial Behavior by Adolescents toward Parents and Teachers in a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaureguizar, Joana; Ibabe, Izaskun; Straus, Murray A.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on violent and prosocial behaviors by adolescents toward parents and teachers, and the relation between such behaviors and adolescents' perceptions about the family and school environment. Gender differences in child-to-parent violence and student-to-teacher violence were also studied. The sample comprised 687 adolescents

  8. Behavioral problems and tobacco use among adolescents in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caris Luis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between behavioral problems and tobacco smoking among adolescent students in Chile. METHODS: Data were drawn from a study that included questionnaire surveys of 46 907 school-attending adolescents in all 13 of the administrative regions of Chile. Assessments were based on an adapted, Spanish-language version of the Drug Use Screening Inventory. The conditional form of the logistic regression model was used for analysis, with matching of students on individual schools, and with further statistical adjustments for sex, age, and selected risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco smoking among the adolescents was very high across all of Chile, with a level between 56% and 65% in each of the 13 regions. The estimated odds of tobacco use in youths at the highest level of behavioral problems was about twice that for youths at the lowest levels, both before and after controlling for sex, age, lack of participation in recreational activities, level of irritability, and levels of problems with school, family attention, and mental health. CONCLUSIONS: These findings help to complement and complete the evidence of prior studies on tobacco smoking among adolescents with behavior problems, including recent research on Central American youths. Although the magnitude of observed associations in Chile was not as great as that for the associations found in Central America, both the strength of these associations and their statistical significance were observed throughout Chile. This is the first study in Chile on potentially causal relationships such as these.

  9. Predicting adolescent's cyberbullying behavior: A longitudinal risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlett, Christopher P

    2015-06-01

    The current study used the risk factor approach to test the unique and combined influence of several possible risk factors for cyberbullying attitudes and behavior using a four-wave longitudinal design with an adolescent US sample. Participants (N = 96; average age = 15.50 years) completed measures of cyberbullying attitudes, perceptions of anonymity, cyberbullying behavior, and demographics four times throughout the academic school year. Several logistic regression equations were used to test the contribution of these possible risk factors. Results showed that (a) cyberbullying attitudes and previous cyberbullying behavior were important unique risk factors for later cyberbullying behavior, (b) anonymity and previous cyberbullying behavior were valid risk factors for later cyberbullying attitudes, and (c) the likelihood of engaging in later cyberbullying behavior increased with the addition of risk factors. Overall, results show the unique and combined influence of such risk factors for predicting later cyberbullying behavior. Results are discussed in terms of theory. PMID:25828551

  10. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  11. Eating Behavior and Social Interactions from Adolescence to Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corrado, Luisa; Distante, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the importance of social ties for eating behavior of US youth. We propose a novel approach that addresses identi…cation of social endogenous e¤ects. We overcome the problem of measuring the separate impact of endogenous and contextual e¤ects on individual Body Mass Index (BMI) in a dynamic linear- in-means model, where individual- and group-speci…c unobservable e¤ects are controlled for. We show that the main drivers of eating behavior are habituation and imitation e¤ects. Imitation e¤ects explain most of the variation in BMI of individuals who were normal-weight and overweight during adolescence. Obese adolescents, instead, become future obese adults through wrong habits enforced by imitative behavior.

  12. Health attitudes and behaviors of African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Moss, Rhonda K; Paschal, Angelia; Redmond, Michelle; Green, B Lee; Carmack, Chakema

    2008-10-01

    African Americans continue to die disproportionately from chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and heart disease. Eating fruits and vegetables have been shown to reduce those risks yet little is known about the health attitudes of African American adolescents and their eating habits and engagement in physical activity. A survey was administered to African American adolescents in a Midwestern city to determine the health attitudes and behaviors related to dietary intake and physical activity. The total sample consisted of 448 African American adolescents aged 12-17. Forty-seven percent were males and 53% were females. The findings show that African American adolescents did have poor fruit and vegetable intake and fairly low rates of exercise. The study also showed there were statistically significant differences between males and females regarding eating a balanced diet, reducing the amount of fat in diets and engaging in physical activity. African American females were more likely to eat a balanced diet and have reduced the fat in their diets than males but African American males were more likely to engage in physical activity in the past 7 days than females. Findings suggest more efforts are needed to curb the poor eating and exercising habits of African American adolescents if a reduction in chronic disease is to be met for this population. PMID:18473153

  13. Adolescent Dispositions for Antisocial Behavior in Context: The Roles of Neighborhood Dangerousness and Parental Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; HYDE, LUKE W.; SHAW, DANIEL S.; Cheong, Jeewon

    2009-01-01

    This study examined an ecological perspective on the development of antisocial behavior during adolescence, examining direct, additive, and interactive effects of child and both parenting and community factors in relation to youth problem behavior. To address this goal, early adolescent dispositional qualities were examined as predictors of boys' antisocial behavior within the context of parents' knowledge of adolescent activities and neighborhood dangerousness. Antisocial behavior was examin...

  14. Patterns of sedentary behavior and compliance with public health recommendations in Spanish adolescents: the AFINOS study.

    OpenAIRE

    David Martínez Gómez; Veiga, Oscar L; Belén Zapatera; Verónica Cabanas-Sánchez; Sonia Gomez-Martinez; David Martinez-Hernández; Ascensión Marcos

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the present study were: (i) describe patterns of sedentary behavior in Spanish adolescents; and (ii) determine the proportion of adolescents that do not meet the public health recommendations for sedentary behavior. This study comprised 1,724 Spanish adolescents (882 girls), aged 13 to 16 years. Patterns of sedentary behavior (TV viewing, use of computer games, console games and surfing the Internet) were assessed using the HELENA sedentary behavior questionnaire. The total propor...

  15. School attendance, health-risk behaviors, and self-esteem in adolescents applying for working papers.

    OpenAIRE

    Suss, A. L.; Tinkelman, B. K.; Freeman, K.; Friedman, S. B.

    1996-01-01

    Since health-risk behaviors are often encountered in clusters among adolescents, it was hypothesized that adolescents with poor school attendance would be associated with more health-risk behaviors (e.g., substance use, violence) than those who attend school regularly. This study assessed the relationship between poor school attendance and health-risk behaviors, and described health-risk behaviors and self-esteem among adolescents seeking employment. In this cross-sectional study, school atte...

  16. Obesity Risk in Urban Adolescent Girls: Nutritional Intentions and Health Behavior Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Groth, Susan W.; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is an expanding epidemic and minority adolescent girls are at high risk. One way to tailor interventions for obesity prevention is to target intention to engage in particular behaviors. Data collected from adolescent girls’ intentions and behaviors regarding nutrition, physical activity, and sleep patterns were used to examine nutritional intentions in relation to healthy behaviors. Adolescent girls reported behaviors that increased their risks for obesity. Nutritional intentions we...

  17. The Effects of Divorced Mothers' Dating Behaviors and Sexual Attitudes on the Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors of Their Adolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitbeck, Les B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation of effects of mothers' dating behaviors on adolescents' sexuality using reports from a sample of adolescents and their divorced mothers. Suggests mothers' dating behaviors directly influenced sexual behavior of males and indirectly influenced sexuality of females. Mothers' sexual permissiveness influenced daughters' sexual…

  18. Personality and Parenting Processes Associated with Problem Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents in Santiago, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Bares, Cristina B.; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-kaylor, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Considerable research in the U.S. has established that adolescent antisocial, aggressive, and attention problems have a negative influence on adolescents' ability to become productive members of society. However, although these behaviors appear in other cultures, little is known about the development of these problems among adolescents in countries other than the U.S.. This study contributes to our understanding of personality and parenting factors associated with adolescent problem behaviors...

  19. Mother-Adolescent Conflict: Stability, Change, and Relations with Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Hofer, Claire; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Morris, Amanda S.; Gershoff, Elizabeth; Valiente, Carlos; Kupfer, Anne; Eggum, Natalie D.

    2013-01-01

    Stability and change in mother-adolescent conflict reactions (CRs) and the prediction of CRs from adolescents' earlier behavior problems (and vice versa) were examined with 131 mothers and their adolescents (63 boys). Dyads engaged in a 6-minute conflict discussion twice, 2 years apart (M age was 13 at Time 1 (T1). Nonverbal expressive and verbal CRs during the conflict discussion were coded. Mothers, fathers, and teachers reported on adolescents' problem behaviors. There was inter-individual...

  20. PURCHASING BEHAVIOR OF ADOLESCENTS - IMPACT OF VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R DHANUJA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are users of goods and services for the production of their wants. They want to know where to buy, when to buy, how much to buy, how to pay, how to recognize and they also compare qualities of products. They are the keystone and play an important part of our economic structure. Production and marketing exist only for consumers. He is the focal point of all economic and social activities. In fact, he is the very basis who supports the society. His interests, therefore, should receive the first priority. As population grows, adolescent consumers become a very attractive market. They are better- off financially in the modern era. They have been the target of the marketers of cosmetics, health care products, fashionable clothing, etc. This young attractive target cannot be taken for granted and hence all efforts are tailored to meet their needs. Identifying this target's needs and directing all marketing efforts at delivering customers value is the motto of most of the companies. Inter-personal and mass media communication play a major role in purchasing. Children have important impact on household decision-making by attempting to influence their parent's acquisition, usage and disposition of products. Effective buying can find ways of reaching the objective regardless of the limitations of our resources. Therefore it is important that adolescents should be brought up in an environment which is stimulating and sufficiently challenging for them to explore their potentialities and build up a satisfying future.

  1. The Role of Traumatic Event History in Non-Medical Use of Prescription Drugs among a Nationally Representative Sample of US Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Jenna L.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Building on previous research with adolescents that examined demographic variables and other forms of substance abuse in relation to non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD), the current study examined potentially traumatic events, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other substance use, and delinquent behavior as…

  2. The role of the neighborhood, family and peers regarding Colombian adolescents' social context and aggressive behavior / Contexto social y comportamiento agresivo en adolescentes Colombianos: el rol del barrio, la familia y los amigos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Beatriz, Caicedo; Kelvyn, Jones.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Evaluar la asociación entre las condiciones del barrio, las pautas de crianza y las relaciones con amigos con el comportamiento agresivo. Además analiza diferentes mecanismos por los cuales las condiciones del barrio pueden influir directa e indirectamente (vía su impacto sobre las pautas d [...] e crianza y las relaciones con amigos) dos tipos de comportamiento: agresión y delincuencia. Método Datos sobre comportamiento agresivo son tomados de una encuesta aplicada a 1 686 adolescentes residentes de 103 barrios de Medellín-Colombia. Datos sobre el barrio son tomados de bases de datos gubernamentales y de dos encuestas poblacionales. Para el análisis se utilizaron modelos multinivel y de ecuaciones estructurales. Resultados En Medellín, la probabilidad de agresión de un adolescente es del 7,0 % y de delincuencia de 0,3 %. Dichas probabilidades varían significativamente entre los barrios. Aunque ninguna de las características del barrio mostró un efecto directo sobre el comportamiento agresivo, las condiciones estructurales afectan indirectamente los adolescentes influyendo las pautas de crianza y la calidad de los amigos con quienes se relacionan. Conclusiones La pobreza en el barrio afecta el comportamiento agresivo de los adolescentes impactando las pautas de crianza y la calidad de las relaciones dentro del barrio. Intervenciones para controlar y prevenir el comportamiento agresivo deben desarrollarse en barrios con alta probabilidad de comportamiento agresivo y enfocarse no solamente en el mejoramiento físico de los barrios, sino en el fortalecimiento de las pautas de crianza y la calidad de los amigos de los adolescentes. Abstract in english Objective Examining neighborhood conditions, parenting and peer affiliations' association with adolescents' aggressive behavior. Testing various mechanisms through which neighborhood conditions influence two adolescent outcomes, both directly and indirectly (via their impact on parenting and peer-af [...] filiation): aggression and delinquency. Method Data regarding adolescents was taken from a self-reporting survey of 1,686 Colombian adolescents living in 103 neighborhoods of Medellin. Neighborhood-related data was taken from official government datasets, as well as two separate community surveys. Both multilevel modeling and multilevel structural equation modeling were used in the analysis. Results The probability of an adolescent engaging in aggression in Medellin was 7.0 % and becoming involved in delinquency 0.3 %. There was also significant variation for both forms of aggressive behavior at neighborhood-level (7.0 % aggression and 14 % regarding the delinquency scale). No neighborhood condition had a direct association with adolescents' aggressive behavior; however; the neighborhood exerted an indirect influence on adolescent behavior which was mainly transmitted through families and the quality of friends within a particular community. Conclusions Residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods did have an adverse effect on adolescents' aggressive behavior, mainly because of a lack of effective parenting strategies thereby facilitating affiliations being made with deviant peers. More efficient intervention for reducing adolescents' aggressive behavior should thus target areas having high odds of aggressive behavior and focus on improving community resources and, more importantly, on controlling adolescent peer groups, the lack of parental monitoring and inconsistent discipline.

  3. The role of the neighborhood, family and peers regarding Colombian adolescents' social context and aggressive behavior / Contexto social y comportamiento agresivo en adolescentes Colombianos: el rol del barrio, la familia y los amigos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Beatriz, Caicedo; Kelvyn, Jones.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Evaluar la asociación entre las condiciones del barrio, las pautas de crianza y las relaciones con amigos con el comportamiento agresivo. Además analiza diferentes mecanismos por los cuales las condiciones del barrio pueden influir directa e indirectamente (vía su impacto sobre las pautas d [...] e crianza y las relaciones con amigos) dos tipos de comportamiento: agresión y delincuencia. Método Datos sobre comportamiento agresivo son tomados de una encuesta aplicada a 1 686 adolescentes residentes de 103 barrios de Medellín-Colombia. Datos sobre el barrio son tomados de bases de datos gubernamentales y de dos encuestas poblacionales. Para el análisis se utilizaron modelos multinivel y de ecuaciones estructurales. Resultados En Medellín, la probabilidad de agresión de un adolescente es del 7,0 % y de delincuencia de 0,3 %. Dichas probabilidades varían significativamente entre los barrios. Aunque ninguna de las características del barrio mostró un efecto directo sobre el comportamiento agresivo, las condiciones estructurales afectan indirectamente los adolescentes influyendo las pautas de crianza y la calidad de los amigos con quienes se relacionan. Conclusiones La pobreza en el barrio afecta el comportamiento agresivo de los adolescentes impactando las pautas de crianza y la calidad de las relaciones dentro del barrio. Intervenciones para controlar y prevenir el comportamiento agresivo deben desarrollarse en barrios con alta probabilidad de comportamiento agresivo y enfocarse no solamente en el mejoramiento físico de los barrios, sino en el fortalecimiento de las pautas de crianza y la calidad de los amigos de los adolescentes. Abstract in english Objective Examining neighborhood conditions, parenting and peer affiliations' association with adolescents' aggressive behavior. Testing various mechanisms through which neighborhood conditions influence two adolescent outcomes, both directly and indirectly (via their impact on parenting and peer-af [...] filiation): aggression and delinquency. Method Data regarding adolescents was taken from a self-reporting survey of 1,686 Colombian adolescents living in 103 neighborhoods of Medellin. Neighborhood-related data was taken from official government datasets, as well as two separate community surveys. Both multilevel modeling and multilevel structural equation modeling were used in the analysis. Results The probability of an adolescent engaging in aggression in Medellin was 7.0 % and becoming involved in delinquency 0.3 %. There was also significant variation for both forms of aggressive behavior at neighborhood-level (7.0 % aggression and 14 % regarding the delinquency scale). No neighborhood condition had a direct association with adolescents' aggressive behavior; however; the neighborhood exerted an indirect influence on adolescent behavior which was mainly transmitted through families and the quality of friends within a particular community. Conclusions Residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods did have an adverse effect on adolescents' aggressive behavior, mainly because of a lack of effective parenting strategies thereby facilitating affiliations being made with deviant peers. More efficient intervention for reducing adolescents' aggressive behavior should thus target areas having high odds of aggressive behavior and focus on improving community resources and, more importantly, on controlling adolescent peer groups, the lack of parental monitoring and inconsistent discipline.

  4. [Scale for assessment of aggressive behavior of adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Monica Cristina Batista de; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois; Alchieri, João Carlos; Figueiroa, José Natal

    2015-06-01

    This study consists of the validation of a scale for the analysis of violent behavior in adolescents. It is a cross-sectional observational study. A total of 437 adolescent students from public and private schools in the city of Recife in Pernambuco state participated in the study by responding to a questionnaire. Semantic and Content Validation was performed, followed by Dimensionality, Reliability, Discriminant, Trust and Convergent Analysis. The extraction method was Principal Component Analysis with Varimax rotation and Kaiser normalization. The analysis resulted in a scale for assessment of aggressive behavior of teenagers with 39 items. Seven factors were selected and Cronbach's total alpha was 0.830. Discriminant analysis revealed groups of items that distinguish subjects between high and low level of violent behavior and between groups of items revealed a positive correlation among 17 items and the reliability of the instrument was confirmed in the retest. The scale revealed evidence of validity as a tool for assessing violent behavior among adolescents. PMID:26060964

  5. Family - protective factor to prevent suicidal behavior in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana R. Rusu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of our research was to establish a possible correlation between suicide risk in adolescents and a series ofintra-familial protective factors such as family harmony, intact families, increased family involvement in child education, empathy, ability toexpress emotions. Materials and Methods The study comprised the 1143 pupils, aged between 14 and 16 years from Cluj and Maramures counties,that participated in the SEYLE baseline evaluation. Results: Adolescents who have no problems with parents (p<0.001, being understoodby them (p<0.001 and having the belief that family is very important to them (p<0.001, are protected from the risk of committing suicide. Atthe same time, parents’ ability to listen children opinion (p<0.001 and help them take important decisions (p<0.001, the time spent discussingwith teens the problems they’re going through (p<0.001, and the fact that parents know what they do in their spare time (p=0.003 showsprotective factors of suicidal behavior with a statistically significant value in this study.Conclusion: The family is a psychosocial system witha major impact on adolescents’ personality formation. The attitude towards children, the parents availability to important moments for teens,the ability to be both subjective and objective towards their children initiatives, are factors of protection against adolescents’ suicidal behavior.

  6. Delinquency and association with behavioral disorders and substance abuse / Delinquência e associação de transtornos comportamentais com abuso de substâncias

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Manoel Schier, Dória; Sérgio Antonio, Antoniuk; Francisco Baptista, Assumpção Junior; Daniele Nascimento, Fajardo; Maurício Nasser, Ehlke.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar a incidência e a associação entre transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH), transtorno de conduta (TC) e transtorno de abuso de substâncias (TAS) em adolescentes brasileiros em conflito com a lei. Métodos: a versão brasileira do Schedule for Affective Disorders [...] and Schizophrenia for School Aged-Children (K-SADS-PL) foi aplicada em 69 adolescentes do sexo masculino, encarcerados por 45 dias na cidade de Curitiba, Brasil. Resultados: a média de idade foi de 15,5 anos (variação 12 a 16,9 anos ) e a maioria dos adolescentes (87%) era procedente de classes sociais desfavorecidas e residia em bairros na periferia da cidade ou cidades da região metropolitana. Evasão escolar e baixo rendimento escolar foram comuns. Ao todo, 73,9% não frequentavam a escola e 43,4% não concluíram a 5ª série. A grande maioria vivia em famílias monoparentais e muitos tinham parentes de primeiro grau também com problemas com a lei. 81,1% dos adolescentes apresentaram problemas psiquiátricos, e os transtornos mais comuns foram TC (59,4%), TAS (53,6%) e TDAH (43,5%). Nos adolescentes, tanto com TDAH (p Abstract in english Objective: to determine the incidence and associations of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and substance abuse disorder (SAD) in adolescents in conflict with the law in a Brazilian cohort. Methods: the Brazilian version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders [...] and Schizophrenia for School Aged-Children (K-SADS-PL) was administered to 69 adolescent boys who were incarcerated for 45 days in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Results: mean age was 15.5 years (range, 12-16.9 years) and most adolescents originated from disadvantaged social classes (87%). They resided in neighborhoods on the outskirts of the city or towns in the greater metropolitan area. Truancy and low educational achievement were common, with 73.9% not currently attending school and 43.4% not having finished the 5th grade. The great majority lived in single-parent families and many had relatives who themselves had problems with the law. Psychiatric disorders were apparent in 81.1% of the subjects, with the most common disorders being CD (59.4%), SAD (53.6%), and ADHD (43.5%). Both ADHD (p

  7. Genetic Influences on Individual Differences in Exercise Behavior during Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Bartels

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the degree to which genetic and environmental influences affect variation in adolescent exercise behavior. Data on regular leisure time exercise activities were analyzed in 8,355 adolescent twins, from three-age cohorts (13-14, 15-16, and 17–19 years. Exercise behavior was assessed with survey items about type of regular leisure time exercise, frequency, and duration of the activities. Participants were classified as sedentary, regular exercisers, or vigorous exercisers. The prevalence of moderate exercise behavior declined from age 13 to 19 years with a parallel increase in prevalence of sedentary behavior, whereas the prevalence of vigorous exercise behavior remained constant across age cohorts. Variation in exercise behavior was analyzed with genetic structural equation modeling employing a liability threshold model. Variation was largely accounted for by genetic factors (72% to 85% of the variance was explained by genetic factors, whereas shared environmental factors only accounted for a substantial part of the variation in girls aged 13-14 years (46%. We hypothesize that genetic effects on exercise ability may explain the high heritability of exercise behavior in this phase of life.

  8. Reculer Pour Mieux Sauter: A Review of Attachment and Other Developmental Processes Inherent in Identified Risk Factors for Juvenile Delinquency and Juvenile Offending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianna T. Kenny

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper is to identify the causes of juvenile delinquency and juvenile offending. The French proverb chosen for its title (Step back in order to jump better reflects the inherent challenge in this task; that is, how far back must we step in order to gain a complete understanding of these causes? Do we commence with adolescence, childhood, birth, pregnancy, conception, or the young person’s parents and their life experiences? How wide a net do we cast? Should we focus primarily on intra-individual factors, or the social ecologies in which young delinquents are found? Every story must have a beginning. In this story about young people who fall off the prosocial developmental trajectory, all sign posts point to attachment and the quality of the child’s first attachment experiences. This review will examine, from attachment and other developmental perspectives, how many of the more proximal causes of delinquency and youth offending have their origins in the emotional deficits suffered in early life. We will argue that delinquent and offending behavior represent attempts to redress these deficits. Consequently, interventions that attempt to prevent offending and reduce recidivism that do not address attachment ruptures and other early deficits cannot expect satisfactory outcomes.

  9. Perceived Parent-Adolescent Relationship, Perceived Parental Online Behaviors and Pathological Internet Use among Adolescents: Gender-Specific Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qin-xue; Fang, Xiao-yi; Zhou, Zong-kui; Zhang, Jin-tao; Deng, Lin-yuan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescents’ perceived relationships with their parents, perceived parental online behaviors, and Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among adolescents. Additional testing was carried out to determine the effect of different genders (parent and adolescent). Cross-sectional data was collected from 4,559 students aged 12 to 21 years in the cities of Beijing and Jinan, People’s Republic of China. Participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire co...

  10. Empathic capacity of delinquent convicted minors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojevi? Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The psychological approach to juvenile delinquency introduced in recent years postulates “empathy impairment” as one of the origins of youth criminal behaviour. This means that in order to be cruel, people need to be unable to imagine the pain their victims experience. To test that hypothesis, we compare a group of convicted juvenile offenders (N=43 with a control group of adolescents (N=47 on self-report and ability measures of cognitive empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index and Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, respectively. Discriminant Analysis reveals a significant difference between the two groups, most notably in the dimensions of personal distress, RMET score, and perspective taking. However, after the control for age and education, only the differences in measures of cognitive empathy remain. Although delinquents perceive themselves as less capable of taking the vantage point of another person and, when tested, prove themselves to be inferior in perceiving emotions and facial expressions, there are no differences in self-report scores of the affective component of empathy. On the basis of these findings, we draw several practical implications concerning everyday work with delinquents. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018 i br. 47011

  11. [Identifying addictive behaviors among adolescents: a school-based survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chéron-Launay, M; Baha, M; Mautrait, C; Lagrue, G; Le Faou, A-L

    2011-07-01

    French epidemiological data show that adolescents today experiment with tobacco at an earlier age than in the 1990s. Half of them combine tobacco consumption with other psychoactive products such as alcohol or cannabis. Tobacco consumption usually begins in adolescence and early smoking initiation is related to stronger nicotine dependence and problems quitting in adulthood. Occasional tobacco consumption rapidly leads to nicotine dependence. The national smoking cessation questionnaire is a tool to assess addictive behaviors among adolescents. It includes validated scales such as the loss of autonomy over tobacco and psychological evaluation. The aim of this school-based study was to assess addictive behaviors among adolescents (specifically loss of autonomy over tobacco) and psychological profile. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted in a high school in the Paris metropolitan area (Nogent-sur-Marne) in 2007 by the smoking cessation team of the Albert-Chenevier Hospital. Three hundred adolescents filled in a questionnaire concerning tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis consumption as well as their psychological profile. Loss of autonomy over tobacco use was evaluated with the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC). Anxiety and depressive disorders were identified using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD). Self-administered questionnaires were anonymously completed in the classroom by 151 girls and 149 boys aged 15-16 years (mean, 15.4 years): 34% of the adolescents smoked and most of them smoked at least one cigarette a day; 38% had used cannabis at least once in their life and one-third of them smoked more than 10 cannabis joints per month. Adolescents who frequently smoked cannabis had started smoking tobacco earlier than the other smokers (mean, 11.7 years versus 13.2 years). Adolescents often used different tobacco products. Manufactured cigarettes were the most frequently used, followed by shisha (waterpipe) and hand-rolled cigarettes. Among those who only smoked shisha, 76% had declared being non-smokers. Alcohol was the first psychoactive drug experimented by these adolescents; 73% had used alcohol at least once in their life and 10% used alcohol several times a week. According to the HONC, 94% of the smokers had lost control of their tobacco consumption. Concerning anxiety and depressive disorders, anxiety and depression scores were higher among smokers than non-smokers. Less than 6% of never-smokers had a depression score greater than 8 compared to 26% of adolescents smoking cannabis more than 10 times a month. The rapidity of the loss of autonomy among young smokers emphasizes the need for early interventions for tobacco prevention and cessation among adolescents. Tobacco use was often associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms, suggesting a need for professional support. The national smoking cessation questionnaire may be helpful in pediatric wards and consultations. PMID:21652184

  12. Development and psychometric properties of the health-risk behavior inventory for Chinese adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Mengcheng; Yi Jinyao; Cai Lin; Hu Muli; Zhu Xiongzhao; Yao Shuqiao; Auerbach Randy P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a growing body of research investigating adolescent risk behaviors in China, however, a comprehensive measure that evaluates the full spectrum of relevant risk behaviors is lacking. In order to address this important gap, the current study sought to develop and validate a comprehensive tool: the Health-Risk Behavior Inventory for Chinese Adolescents (HBICA). Methods Adolescents, ages 14–19?years (n?=?6,633), were recruited from high schools across 10 citie...

  13. Intrapersonal factors, social context and health-related behavior in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Veselska, Zuzana,

    2010-01-01

    Patterns of health-compromising behaviors and their initiation and progression in adolescence are generally considered to be predictive of later involvement in such behaviors and exposure to their harmful consequences on health. Health-enhancing behaviors can be also traced back to childhood and adolescence. Empirical evidence supports the existence of several domains of determinants covering intrapersonal, interpersonal and socio-cultural areas of infl uence in adolescent healthrelated behav...

  14. Caretaking Behaviors by Adolescent Children of Mothers With and Without a History of Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Champion, Jennifer E.; Jaser, Sarah S.; Reeslund, Kristen L.; Simmons, Lauren; Potts, Jennifer E.; Shears, Angela R.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2009-01-01

    In a sample of 72 mothers with and without a history of depression and their adolescent children, maternal depression history, current maternal depressive symptoms, intrusive and withdrawn parental behavior, and adolescent caretaking behaviors were examined as predictors of adjustment in these youth. Two types of caretaking behaviors were examined: emotional (e.g., caring for a parent’s emotional distress) and instrumental (e.g., looking after younger siblings). Although adolescents of moth...

  15. Serious physical fighting and gambling-related attitudes and behaviors in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Slavin, Melissa; Pilver, Corey E.; Hoff, Rani A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; STEINBERG, MARVIN A.; RUGLE, LOREEN; Potenza, Marc N

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Physical fighting and gambling are common risk behaviors among adolescents. Prior studies have found associations among these behaviors in adolescents but have not examined systematically the health and gambling correlates of problem-gambling severity amongst youth stratified by fight involvement. Methods: Survey data were used from 2,276 Connecticut high school adolescents regarding their physical fight involvement, gambling behaviors and perceptions, and health and func...

  16. Planned Versus Unplanned Risks: Evidence for Subtypes of Risk Behavior in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Maslowsky, Julie; Keating, Daniel; Monk, Christopher; Schulenberg, John

    2011-01-01

    Risk behavior escalates during adolescence, contributing to substantial morbidity and mortality. This study examined whether individual differences in personality and neurocognitive function previously shown to be associated with overall frequency of risk behavior are differentially related to two proposed subtypes of adolescent risk behavior: planned and unplanned. Adolescents (N = 69, 49% male, M = 15.1 years, SD = 1.0), completed a battery of self-report measures and neurocognitive tasks. ...

  17. Adolescent social defeat alters neural, endocrine and behavioral responses to amphetamine in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.; Watt, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which governs components of reward and goal-directed behaviors, undergoes final maturation during adolescence. Adolescent social stress contributes to adult behavioral dysfunction, and is linked to adult psychiatric and addiction disorders. Here, behavioral, corticosterone, and limbic dopamine responses to amphetamine were examined in adult male rats previously exposed to repeated social defeat stress during mid-adolescence. Amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, ip) w...

  18. Exploring Filipino Adolescents' Perceptions of the Legitimacy of Parental Authority over Academic Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2010-01-01

    Filipino adolescents' perceptions regarding the legitimacy of parental control over academic behaviors was investigated. It was assumed that the adolescents would differentiate between the issues inherent in various types or domains of academic behaviors. The results revealed three domains of academic behaviors: learning processes, college major…

  19. Parental Behaviors during Family Interactions Predict Changes in Depression and Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Orli S.; Dudgeon, Paul; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective, longitudinal relations between parental behaviors observed during parent-adolescent interactions, and the development of depression and anxiety symptoms in a community-based sample of 194 adolescents. Positive and negative parental behaviors were examined, with negative behaviors operationalized to…

  20. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Behice ÖZTOP

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT becomes one of the leading approaches in the psychotherapy. However,use of CBT in childhood psychotherapy is considerably novel. After 1990s, it has been understood that it is an effectivemethod for children and adolescents. Anxiety disorders are one of the most common problems in the field of childhoodand adolescent psychiatry. In the studies conducted, the effectiveness of CBT was demonstrated in anxiety disorders ofthe children and adolescents. Moreover, it was suggested that this effectiveness is permanent in some studies. Prioritygoal of CBT is to change inappropriate learning and thinking patterns in the children and adolescents. By “now and here”fashion, it is attempted to reveal the origin of current problems. During the process, the factors are considered, whichcause to maintain the symptoms. It is attempted to decrease signs caused to stress by improving coping skills duringtherapy. To this end, methods including observation, relaxation training, systematic desensitization, social skills training,cognitive restructuring and exposure therapy are applied in sessions by taking child’s problems into consideration. Scalesspecific to anxiety disorders are used in the assessment and follow-up. Age and development level of the child should beparticularly taken into account while using assessment tools and therapeutic modality.

  1. Early Therapeutic Alliance and Treatment Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Stambaugh, Leyla Faw; Cecero, John J.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of early therapeutic alliance was examined in 100 clients receiving either individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or family therapy for adolescent substance abuse. Observational ratings of adolescent alliance in CBT and adolescent and parent alliance in family therapy were used to predict treatment retention (in CBT only) and…

  2. Parents as Role Models: Parental Behavior Affects Adolescents' Plans for Work Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Bettina S.; Freund, Alexandra M.

    2011-01-01

    This study (N = 520 high-school students) investigates the influence of parental work involvement on adolescents' own plans regarding their future work involvement. As expected, adolescents' perceptions of parental work behavior affected their plans for own work involvement. Same-sex parents served as main role models for the adolescents' own…

  3. Relationship between Eating Behavior, Breakfast Consumption, and Obesity among Finnish and Greek Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltsista, Alexandra; Laitinen, Jaana; Sovio, Ulla; Roma, Eleftheria; Jarvelin, Marjo-Ritta; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between eating-related behaviors, particularly breakfast consumption, and weight status in Finnish and Greek adolescents. Methods: A total of 6,468 16-year-old Finnish adolescents and 2,842 17- and 18-year-old Greek adolescents, based on the latest follow-up of 2 population-based cohorts, were studied.…

  4. Anxiety in Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome: Negative Thoughts, Behavioral Problems, and Life Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Sylvana; Hudson, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    This study examined anxiety symptoms in 29 adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS) aged 12 to 16 years, compared to 30 nonclinical (NC) adolescents and 34 adolescents with anxiety disorders (AD). Comorbidity between anxiety symptoms and negative thoughts, behavioral problems, and life interference was also examined. Self- and parental reports…

  5. A Test of Problem Behavior and Self-Medication Theories in Incarcerated Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Penn, Joseph V.; Stein, L. A. R.; Lacher-Katz, Molly; Spirito, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the problem behavior and self-medication models of alcohol abuse in incarcerated male adolescents. Male adolescents (N = 56) incarcerated in a juvenile correction facility were administered a battery of psychological measures. Approximately 84% of adolescents with clinically significant alcohol-related…

  6. Alcohol Outlet Density, Parental Monitoring, and Adolescent Deviance: A Multilevel Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Freisthler, Bridget; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Lower levels of parental monitoring are associated with youth problem behaviors, including substance use and delinquency. Recent studies employing routine activities theory have hypothesized that greater densities of alcohol outlets, particularly bars, may provide parents more opportunities to socialize outside the home. This, in turn, may decrease a parent's ability to effectively monitor the activities of his or her child, resulting in more deviant behaviors by the adolescent. Using hierarc...

  7. Adverse childhood experiences and suicidal behavior of adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isohookana, Reetta; Riala, Kaisa; Hakko, Helinä; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the association of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to suicidal behavior and mortality in 508 Finnish adolescents (aged 12-17 years) who required acute psychiatric hospitalization between April 2001 and March 2006. The Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL) and the European Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI) were used to obtain information about ACEs, adolescents' suicidal behavior and psychiatric diagnoses. The cases of death were obtained from Statistics Finland. The results of our study indicated that, among girls, exposure to sexual abuse statistically significantly increased the risk of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) (OR, 1.8; 95 % CI, 1.0-3.2) and suicide attempts (OR, 2.3; 95 % CI, 1.0-4.5). The cumulative number of ACEs was also associated with an increased risk of NSSI (OR, 1.2; 95 % CI, 1.0- 1.4) and suicide attempts (OR, 1.2; 95 % CI, 1.0-1.4) in girls. Among all deceased adolescents, ACEs were most notable among those who had died due to accidents and injuries. Gender differences in the types of ACEs were noted and discussed. PMID:22842795

  8. Cognitive behavioral therapy group intervention for HIV transmission risk behavior in perinatally infected adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M. Senyonyi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study analyzed treatment effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT group counseling intervention on HIV transmission risk behavior, depression, anxiety, and alcohol use in HIV perinatally infected adolescents attending an HIV clinical care center in Uganda, Africa. Method: A total of 186 adolescents were randomly assigned to an experimental or control arm and assigned into groups of 11 - 16 adolescents. The experimental groups received an 80-minute CBT based weekly intervention for 8 consecutive weeks, while the control groups received only standard group care. Data from self report assessments were analyzed at pre- and post-test using repeated measures of analysis of variance. The participants, analyzed by variable, included 115 for sexual behavior, 106 for depression, 88 for anxiety, and 115 for alcohol use. Results: The results from the study show a large significant difference (p = 0.006 between the experimental and control groups on the anxiety variable. There were no significant differences between the experimental and control groups on the variables of sexual behavior (p = 0.876, depression (p = 0.700, and alcohol use (p = 0.815. There was an indication of reduced levels of HIV sexual transmission risk behavior, depression, and alcohol use levels in the participants in both the experimental and control groups. Conclusions: Risky sexual behavior places HIV perinatally infected adolescents at risk of re-infection, sexually transmitted diseases, and transmitting HIV to their sexual partners. CBT group counseling intervention equipped the participating adolescents with appropriate life skills to deal with psychological distress and anxiety often seen in their lives and may be useful in routine medical care to reduce transmission risks and improve wellness and call for its incorporation into HIV preventive programs and counselor education.

  9. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Anxious Adolescents: Developmental Influences on Treatment Design and Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Sauter, Floor M.; Heyne, David; Michiel Westenberg, P.

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety disorders in adolescence are common and disruptive, pointing to a need for effective treatments for this age group. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is one of the most popular interventions for adolescent anxiety, and there is empirical support for its application. However, a significant proportion of adolescent clients continue to report anxiety symptoms post-treatment. This paper underscores the need to attend to the unique developmental characteristics of the adolescent period when...

  10. Nutrition knowledge in adolescents: perception of parents and peers behavior and stimulus

    OpenAIRE

    Ferro-lebres, Vera; Ribeiro, Jose? Carlos; Moreira, Pedro; Silva, Gustavo Gonc?alves Da; Aires, Lui?sa

    2010-01-01

    It is well known the influence that parents and peers have in children and adolescent choices and behaviors, including eating habits and physical activity practice. No work has been done yet about parents and peers influence in nutrition knowledge. This work aims to study the relation between adolescents’ perception of parents and peers food habits, physical activity practice, stimulus to the adolescent to follow a healthy diet and be physically active and adolescents N...

  11. Adolescent boys and girls with behavioral disorders in residential homes: A camera-glasses study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wettstein

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Children and adolescents with behavioral disorders are often referred to residential homes. These homes cater and treat socially disadvantaged adolescents with a history of deviant behavior. This study investigated the environment of eight adolescents in these residential homes and four non-aggressive adolescents living with their families. The daily activities were recorded by using camera-glasses attached to the subject. These activities took place in school, leisure time, family and residential homes. Other additional methods were used to investigate the perception and experience of these adolescents. The results of this study indicate that the adolescents in residential homes have a smaller living space in contrast to the non-aggressive adolescents. They also have less close relationships and fewer interactions with their peers. Moreover they have more conflicts and show more often aggressive behavior and they are more often victims of aggression.

  12. Testing a Risky Sex Behavior Intervention Pilot Website for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Randall; Helme, Don; Nodulman, Jessica A.; Bryan, Angela D.; Buller, David B.; Donohew, Robert Lewis; Woodall, W. Gill

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Each year, teenagers account for about one-fifth of all unintended pregnancies in the United States. As such, delivering sexual risk reduction educational materials to teens in a timely fashion is of critical importance. Web-based delivery of these materials shows promise for reaching and persuading teens away from risky sexual and substance abuse behaviors. The purpose of this study was to pilot test a web-based program aimed at reducing risky sexual behavior and related outcomes among adolescents in a high school setting. Methods A beta-test of the website was conducted in three public schools in New Mexico, USA with 173 students in 9th and 10th grades recruited from existing health education classes. Participants spent approximately three hours over a period of two days completing the online program in school computer labs. Results Pretest to posttest results indicated that self-efficacy for condom use and condom use intentions, two theoretical mediators of changes in condom use behavior, were significantly changed. Adolescents also reported high satisfaction with the website content. Conclusion BReady4it provided an innovative sex and substance abuse education to teenagers that revealed promising positive changes in cognitive constructs that are inversely related to risky sexual behavior among users.

  13. Gestational iron deficiency is associated with pica behaviors in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumish, Rachel A; Young, Sera L; Lee, Sunmin; Cooper, Elizabeth; Pressman, Eva; Guillet, Ronnie; O'Brien, Kimberly O

    2014-10-01

    A relation between pica (the craving and purposive consumption of nonfood items) during pregnancy and anemia is observed frequently. However, few studies related pica behaviors to biomarkers of iron status, and little is known about pica prevalence in U.S. pregnant adolescents. To address this, we undertook a longitudinal study examining iron status and pica behaviors among a group of 158 pregnant adolescents (aged ?18 y). Approximately two-thirds of the participants were African American and 25% were Hispanic. Maternal iron status indicators [hemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptor, serum ferritin (SF), total body iron (TBI), and serum hepcidin] were assessed during pregnancy (18.5-37.3 wk) and at delivery. Pica behavior was assessed up to 3 times across gestation. Among the 158 adolescents, 46% reported engaging in pica behavior. Substances ingested included ice (37%), starches (8%), powders (4%), and soap (3%). During pregnancy, mean SF [geometric mean: 13.6 ?g/L (95% CI: 11.0, 17.0 ?g/L)], TBI (mean ± SD: 2.5 ± 4.2 mg/kg), and hepcidin [geometric mean: 19.1 ?g/L (95% CI: 16.3, 22.2 ?g/L)] concentrations were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the pica group (n = 72) than values observed among the non-pica group [SF, geometric mean: 21.1 ?g/L (95% CI: 18.0, 25.0 ?g/L); TBI, mean ± SD: 4.3 ± 3.5 mg/kg; hepcidin, geometric mean: 27.1 ?g/L (95%: 23.1, 32.1 ?g/L); n = 86]. Although additional studies must address the etiology of these relations, this practice should be screened for, given its association with low iron status and because many of the substances ingested may be harmful. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01019902. PMID:25122650

  14. Risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents of parents with a chronic medical condition

    OpenAIRE

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Oort, Frans Jeroen; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    A wide array of risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents with chronically ill parents emerges from the literature. This study aims to identify those factors with the highest impact on internalizing problem behavior (anxious, depressed and withdrawn behavior, and somatic complaints) and externalizing problem behavior (aggressive and rule-breaking behavior) as measured by the Youth Self-Report (YSR). The YSR was filled in by 160 adolescents (mean age = 15.1 years) from 100 families (...

  15. Effects of an Intervention Within a Sport Context on the Prosocial Behavior and Antisocial Behavior of Adolescents with Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Alexis; Dattilo, John

    2001-01-01

    Assessed the effects of an intervention conducted within a sport context on the pro-social and antisocial behaviors of adolescent males with disruptive behavior disorders. Data from participant videotapes and interviews and therapist surveys indicated the intervention might have had a limited effect on adolescents' pro-social behavior, though it…

  16. Delinquency and Crime among Immigrant Youth—An Integrative Review of Theoretical Explanations

    OpenAIRE

    Xi Chen; Hua Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Although classical theorists tend to believe that immigrant youth are more delinquent than native-born adolescents, the existing empirical studies have shown the opposite. The current paper first gives a comprehensive overview of major theoretical explanations for the relatively lower level of delinquency among immigrant youth, including cultural perspectives, strain theories, social control theory, social learning theory, and social disorganization theory. The main argument is that immigrant...

  17. The Association of Early Adolescent Problem Behavior and Adult Psychopathology: A Multivariate Behavioral Genetic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mcgue, Matt; Iacono, William G; Krueger, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Research has documented a strong association between early adolescent problem behavior and adult disinhibitory psychopathology, leading some to suggest that the latter can be reduced by preventing or delaying the former. But the prevention implications of this association necessarily depend upon the causal mechanisms that produce it. The current study was designed to test implications of a model that posits that early problem behavior and disinhibitory psychopathology are associated because t...

  18. RACE, CODE OF THE STREET, AND VIOLENT DELINQUENCY: A MULTILEVEL INVESTIGATION OF NEIGHBORHOOD STREET CULTURE AND INDIVIDUAL NORMS OF VIOLENCE*

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Eric A.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2010-01-01

    The study outlined in this article drew on Elijah Anderson’s (1999) code of the street perspective to examine the impact of neighborhood street culture on violent delinquency. Using data from more than 700 African American adolescents, we examined 1) whether neighborhood street culture predicts adolescent violence above and beyond an adolescent’s own street code values and 2) whether neighborhood street culture moderates individual-level street code values on adolescent violence. Consiste...

  19. Detecting mortgage delinquencies

    OpenAIRE

    Askitas, Nikos; Zimmermann, Klaus F.

    2011-01-01

    Economic hardship is strongly reflected by the housing market. It is the concern of much research, but its analysis is often obstructed by insufficient lagged data. This paper evaluates search intensity for hardship letter from Google Insights to detect ensuing mortgage delinquencies. Such searches locate documents which assist to write a successful loan modification request. Other relevant searches for short sale, REO (as in Real Estate Owned) or FHA (as in Federal Housing Administration) ar...

  20. Is there an association between insomnia symptoms, aggressive behavior, and suicidality in adolescents?

    OpenAIRE

    Zschoche, Maria; Schlarb, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Sleep disturbances are a common problem during adolescence. Often there is a relationship with the mental health of the affected person. The existing literature concerning the link between sleep disturbances and aggressive behavior and sleep disturbances and suicidality during adolescence shows no clear results. The present study tested a mediation model to prove the relation between sleep problems, aggressive behavior, and suicidality during adolescence. To take the link between sui...

  1. Does Distance Matter? Access to Family Planning Clinics and Adolescent Sexual Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Remer, Lillian

    2011-01-01

    The study examines the relationship between adolescent geographic access (distance, travel time, density) to Family Planning Clinics and adolescent sexual behaviors, including sexual initiation, number of partners and condom use. This cross-sectional study, conducted in 2005 in 10 California counties, utilized data from NICHD-funded study on adolescent sexual behavior (n = 921), geospatial coordinates of publicly-funded FPCs, and neighborhood characteristics. A series of regression models wer...

  2. Parental influences on adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior: longitudinal findings from Project EAT-II

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer Katherine W; Nelson Melissa C; Boutelle Kerri N; Neumark-Sztainer Dianne

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The long-term role that parental encouragement and attitudes about fitness and exercise play in adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior habits remains unclear. This paper aims to longitudinally examine how parental encouragement to be physically active and parental concern about staying fit are associated with adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior habits five years later. Methods Project EAT-II adolescent and young adult participants (1130 mal...

  3. Does Problem Behavior Elicit Poor Parenting?: A Prospective Study of Adolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, David; Tristan, Jennifer; Wade, Emily; Stice, Eric

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that perceived parenting would show reciprocal relations with adolescents' problem behavior using longitudinal data from 496 adolescent girls. Results provided support for the assertion that female problem behavior has an adverse effect on parenting; elevated externalizing symptoms and substance abuse symptoms predicted future decreases in perceived parental support and control. There was less support for the assertion that parenting deficits foster adolescent...

  4. Predicting Aggression among Male Adolescents: an Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mari Ataee; Farzad Jalilian; Mehdi MirzaeiAlavijeh; Abbas Aghaei; Kambiz Karimzadeh Shirazi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aggressive behavior in adolescence can be expressed as a predictor for crime, substance abuse, depression and academic failure. The purpose of this study was to determine the prediction of aggression among Iranian adolescent based on theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a theoretical framework. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Yasuj County, south of Iran, during 2011, a total of 256 male adolescents, were randomly enrolled. Participants filled out a self-admi...

  5. Stability of executive function and predictions to adaptive behavior from middle childhood to pre-adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    MadelineHarms; VivianZayas; AndrewMeltzoff

    2014-01-01

    The shift from childhood to adolescence is characterized by rapid remodeling of the brain and increased risk-taking behaviors. Current theories hypothesize that developmental enhancements in sensitivity to affective environmental cues in adolescence may undermine executive function (EF) and increase the likelihood of problematic behaviors. In the current study, we examined the extent to which EF in childhood predicts EF in early adolescence. We also tested whether individual differences in ne...

  6. Do parent-adolescent discrepancies in family functioning increase the risk of Hispanic adolescent HIV risk behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Lally, Meghan; Estrada, Yannine; Prado, Guillermo

    2014-06-01

    In the family-based prevention science literature, family functioning, defined as positive parenting, parental involvement, family cohesion, family communication, parental monitoring of peers, and parent-adolescent communication, has been shown to ameliorate HIV risk behaviors in Hispanic youth. However, the majority of studies have relied solely on parent or adolescent reports and we know very little about parent-adolescent family functioning discrepancies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether and to what extent parent-adolescent discrepancies in family functioning increased the risk of HIV risk behaviors, including substance use and sexual risk behaviors, and whether these associations vary as a function of acculturation and youth gender. A total of 746 Hispanic 8th grade youth and their primary caregivers were included in the study. Structural equation modeling findings indicate that parent-adolescent family functioning discrepancies are associated with an increased risk of Hispanic adolescent HIV risk behaviors, including lifetime and past 90-day alcohol and illicit drug use, and early sex initiation. In addition, study findings indicate that results vary by acculturation and youth gender. Findings are discussed in the context of existing family-based research and practice in preventing and reducing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and their families. PMID:24617745

  7. Using the Integrative Model to Explain How Exposure to Sexual Media Content Influences Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Published research demonstrates an association between exposure to media sexual content and a variety of sex-related outcomes for adolescents. What is not known is the mechanism through which sexual content produces this "media effect" on adolescent beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this…

  8. Family Sex Communication and the Sexual Desire, Attitudes, and Behavior of Late Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, Brian D.; Silver, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Parental sex education might promote healthy sexual behavior among adolescents, but some parents assume that family communication about sex will lead to sexual activity. Family sex communication has been studied with a limited range of adolescent sexual behaviors but not sexual fantasy or desire. Two measures of family sex communication were…

  9. Parental Behavior and the Quality of Adolescent Friendships: A Social-Contextual Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ming; Conger, Rand D.; Bryant, Chalandra M.; Elder, Glen H., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that socioeconomic advantage in terms of income and parental education promotes supportive and inhibits hostile parental behaviors toward an adolescent child. These parental behaviors predicted similar actions by the child toward a close friend four years later. In turn adolescent supportiveness promoted close friendship…

  10. Adult-Onset Antisocial Behavior Trajectories: Associations with Adolescent Family Processes and Emerging Adulthood Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Andrea D.; van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Guided by conceptual and empirical work on emerging adulthood, this study investigated the role of closeness to mother and father and behavioral autonomy during adolescence on the development of adult-onset antisocial behavior. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we identified four aggressive…

  11. Physical Activity Behaviors and Emotional Self-Efficacy: Is There a Relationship for Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valois, Robert F.; Umstattd, M. Renee; Zullig, Keith J.; Paxton, Raheem J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study explored relationships between physical activity (PA) behaviors and emotional self-efficacy (ESE) in a statewide sample of public high school adolescents in South Carolina (n = 3836). Methods: The Center for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey PA items and an adolescent ESE scale were used. Logistic regression…

  12. The Development of Prosocial Behavior in Adolescents: A Mixed Methods Study from NOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Nate; Sibthorp, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Learning transfer and prosocial behavior (PSB) are critical components of many outdoor education programs for adolescents. This study examined the effects of a theoretically grounded treatment curriculum designed to foster the transfer of learning of general and contextual PSB (also called expedition behavior) among adolescents enrolled on 14-day…

  13. Gender and Grade-Level Comparisons in the Structure of Problem Behaviors among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Heejung; Mobley, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Based on Jessor's theory (1987) the comparability of a second-order problem behavior model (SPBM) was investigated across gender and grade-level among adolescents. In addition, gender and grade-level differences in problem behavior engagement were addressed examining latent mean differences. Using a sample of 6504 adolescents drawn from the…

  14. Adolescents with Childhood ADHD and Comorbid Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Aggression, Anger, and Hostility

    OpenAIRE

    Harty, Seth C.; Miller, Carlin J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the self-reported expression of overt aggressive behaviors and covert emotional and cognitive processes in adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) during childhood.

  15. Parent-adolescent sexual communication and its association with adolescent sexual behaviors: a nationally representative analysis in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Looze, Margaretha; Constantine, Norman A; Jerman, Petra; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; ter Bogt, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Sexual communication is a principal means of transmitting sexual values, beliefs, expectations, and knowledge from parents to children. Although this area has received considerable research attention, more studies with representative samples are needed to assure that findings are reflective of populations of interest. A nationally representative sample of parent-adolescent dyads (N = 2,965; mean adolescent age = 13.8 years) in the Netherlands was employed to examine the frequency of parent-adolescent sexual communication and its association with adolescent sexual behaviors (defined as sexual initiation, condom use, and contraceptive pill use). Nine communication topics in the areas of anatomy, relationships and rights, and protection and contraception were examined. In all, 75%of parents reported having discussed at least one topic multiple times with their adolescents. Romantic relationships were discussed most frequently. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses indicated that parent-adolescent sexual communication on protection and contraception was positively associated with adolescent sexual initiation and contraceptive pill use but not condom use. This may reflect that adolescents, when they become sexually active, are more likely to discuss sexuality with their parents. Findings are interpreted within the context of Dutch culture, which is generally accepting of adolescent sexuality and characterized by open sexual communication. PMID:24512029

  16. [The parenting style as protective or risk factor for substance use and other behavior problems among Spanish adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Isabel; Fuentes, María C; García, Fernando; Madrid, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the parental socialization styles as a protective or a risk factor for substance use in a sample of 673 Spanish adolescents (51.7% were women) aged 14-17 (M = 15.49, SD = 1.06). All participants completed the Parental Socialization Scale (ESPA29) and a scale of substance use. Additionally, they also completed a scale of delinquency and another one of school misconduct. A multivariate (4×2×2) analysis of variance (MANOVA) was applied for substance use, delinquency and school misconduct with parenting style, sex and age. Results from this study showed that indulgent parenting style was a protective factor for substance use whereas authoritarian style was identified as a risk factor. Moreover, results from protective and risk parenting styles on delinquency and school misconduct were consistent with those obtained on substance use. These findings have important implications for the development of family-based substance use prevention programs among Spanish adolescents and other similar cultures where indulgent parenting style is currently displaying a beneficial impact. PMID:23880836

  17. Eventos estressores no desenvolvimento de meninas adolescentes cumprindo medidas sócio-educativas / stressful events on the development of delinquent adolescent girls

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Débora Dalbosco, Dell' Aglio; Sílvia Pereira da Cruz, Benetti; Luciana, Deretti; Daniela Bergesch, D' Incao; Joana Severo, Leon.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou a ocorrência de eventos estressores no desenvolvimento de 50 adolescentes autoras de ato infracional, com idade entre 13 e 20 anos, que cumpriam medida sócio-educativa em órgão governamental. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas e de uma versão ada [...] ptada do Inventário de Eventos Estressores na Adolescência (IEEA). Foram identificados eventos estressores em diferentes domínios, como a ocorrência de maus-tratos, abuso sexual, uso de drogas, repetência escolar, desemprego e morte dos pais, que se constituem como fatores de risco no seu desenvolvimento. Estes aspectos revelam um ciclo de violência presente na trajetória destas adolescentes, no período anterior ao ato infracional. Abstract in english This study investigated stressful events present during the development of 50 adolescent girls who had problems with the law, aged 13 to 20 years old and who were in a governmental shelter. Data was collected using a semi-structured interview and an adapted version of the Adolescence Stressful Event [...] s Inventory (IEEA). Stressful events in different areas such as child maltreatment, sexual abuse, drugs, school failure, death and unemployed parents were identified, which are risk factors in their development. These aspects reveal the presence of a violence cycle during the adolescent's trajectory, before institutionalization.

  18. Eventos estressores no desenvolvimento de meninas adolescentes cumprindo medidas sócio-educativas stressful events on the development of delinquent adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Dalbosco Dell'Aglio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou a ocorrência de eventos estressores no desenvolvimento de 50 adolescentes autoras de ato infracional, com idade entre 13 e 20 anos, que cumpriam medida sócio-educativa em órgão governamental. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas e de uma versão adaptada do Inventário de Eventos Estressores na Adolescência (IEEA. Foram identificados eventos estressores em diferentes domínios, como a ocorrência de maus-tratos, abuso sexual, uso de drogas, repetência escolar, desemprego e morte dos pais, que se constituem como fatores de risco no seu desenvolvimento. Estes aspectos revelam um ciclo de violência presente na trajetória destas adolescentes, no período anterior ao ato infracional.This study investigated stressful events present during the development of 50 adolescent girls who had problems with the law, aged 13 to 20 years old and who were in a governmental shelter. Data was collected using a semi-structured interview and an adapted version of the Adolescence Stressful Events Inventory (IEEA. Stressful events in different areas such as child maltreatment, sexual abuse, drugs, school failure, death and unemployed parents were identified, which are risk factors in their development. These aspects reveal the presence of a violence cycle during the adolescent's trajectory, before institutionalization.

  19. Conducta suicida adolescencia y riesgo / Suicidal behavior, adolescent, and risk

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alba, Cortés Alfaro.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: en la actualidad el suicidio constituye la tercera causa de muerte a nivel mundial en los adolescentes entre 11 y 18 años y en Cuba ocupa la tercera causa de muerte en las edades de 10 a 19 años. Este evento ocurre con mayor frecuencia en los varones, sin distinción de color de la piel [...] ni clase social. Cuando un adolescente se suicida o intenta suicidarse, todo el mundo se ve afectado, familiares, amigos, compañeros, vecinos y a veces personas que ni siquiera conocían o conocen al adolescente. El adolescente que intenta suicidarse puede experimentar sentimientos de dolor, confusión y culpa. Objetivo: profundizar en la problemática de la conducta suicida en los adolescentes por ser una etapa de vulnerabilidad y riesgo. Método: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica donde se consultaron las bases de datos incluidas en los servicios LILACS, EBSCO e HINARI, y se alcanzó muy buena cobertura, tanto en Cuba, en Latinoamérica y el Caribe, como en el resto del mundo. Desarrollo: se exponen las características generales de los adolescentes sanos y factores de riesgo que los hacen vulnerables a tener una conducta suicida, lo cual permite una reflexión sobre el tema para contribuir a su prevención, especialmente desde el nivel primario de atención de salud. Conclusiones: la conducta suicida en los adolescentes constituye un serio problema de salud que debe ser afrontado por los diferentes elementos de la sociedad ya que intervienen factores individuales de la familia y de la comunidad. Abstract in english Introduction: nowadays suicide is the third leading cause of death worldwide among adolescents of 11 and 18 years of age. In Cuba, it occupies the third leading cause of death for ages 10 to 19. This event occurs most frequently in men, regardless of skin color or social class. When a teenager commi [...] ts suicide or attempts suicide, everyone is affected, relatives, friends, colleagues, neighbors, and sometimes even people who met or have met him or her. The teenager who attempts suicide may experience feelings of grief, confusion, and guilt. Objective: to deepen the problem of suicidal behavior in adolescents since it is a stage of vulnerability and risk. Method: a literature review was conducted in databases as LILACS, HINARI and EBSCO. Very good coverage was achieved, in Cuba, Latin America, the Caribbean, as in the rest of the world. Development: general characteristics of healthy adolescents and risk factors making them vulnerable of having suicidal behavior are discussed. These features allow reflection on the subject to contribute to prevention, especially from primary health care. Conclusions: suicidal behavior in adolescents is a serious health problem that must be addressed by the various elements of society, individual factors, involved family, and community.

  20. The Influence of Parental Communication and Perception of Peers on Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Carl D; Tan, Huey Peing; Meyer, Jacob C

    2015-08-01

    The authors used the theory of planned behavior to examine the influence of parents and peers on early adolescent sexual attitudes, self-efficacy to limit sexual behavior, and behavioral intentions to have vaginal intercourse. Adolescents (N = 212) provided self-reports of their perception of parent and peer attitudes regarding sexual behavior. The authors used bivariate and regression analyses to examine the relation between parent and peer attitudes with adolescent sexual attitudes, self-efficacy to limit sexual behavior, and behavioral intentions to have vaginal intercourse. Although there were gender differences, the analyses revealed the importance of both parents and peers on adolescent sexual attitudes, self-efficacy to limit sexual behavior, and intentions to have vaginal sex in the next year. PMID:25951343

  1. Dissolving Borders: Reframing Risk, Delinquent Peers, and Youth Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Lustig, Deborah Freedman; Sung, Kenzo K.

    2013-01-01

    Although “association with delinquent peers” is commonly identified as “a risk factor for youth violence,” this framework leads us to blame individuals and ignore the complex lives of youth who face state, symbolic, and interpersonal violence. This study is based on interviews with young adults about their adolescence in a low-income immigrant gateway neighborhood of Oakland, California. Most of the interviewees have peer networks that are racially/ethnically diverse and also include ...

  2. Optimizing perioperative care for children and adolescents with challenging behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakas, Karen; Gallaher, Carol S; Tilley, Carra

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric perioperative nurses care for a wide variety of children and adolescents, some of whom have special developmental or behavioral needs. Providing care for this vulnerable population can be challenging because they may not express their level of pain or anxiety through behaviors commonly observed in typically developing children. This quality improvement project was conducted to enhance perioperative care delivered to children with challenging behaviors and to their families. A screening tool to individualize the plan of care was developed to identify specific behaviors, triggers, and communication patterns of these children prior to hospitalization. Interventions were identified to address these behaviors that could be used by nurses, child life specialists, and occupational therapists. Partnering with parents and other members of the interprofessional healthcare team has resulted in best practice care planning for these children, ensuring a much more successful perioperative experience for patients and families. Findings from parent surveys demonstrate that by using the tool, nurses and other team members are able to minimize stressors and implement interventions specific to the child. As a result, the adaptive care planning tool has expanded beyond the perioperative area and is now being used by direct care nurses, support staff, nurse practitioners, and physicians across the organization. PMID:25594693

  3. Parsing protection and risk for problem behavior versus pro-social behavior among US and Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessor, Richard; Turbin, Mark S

    2014-07-01

    This study investigates the different roles played by protective factors and risk factors-and by particular protective and risk factors-when the concern is with accounting for adolescent problem behavior than when the concern is with accounting for adolescent pro-social behavior. The protective and risk factor literature on adolescent problem behavior reveals considerable conceptual and operational ambiguity; an aim of the present study was to advance understanding in this domain of inquiry by providing a systematic conceptualization of protection and risk and of their measurement. Within the systematic framework of Problem Behavior Theory, four protective and four risk factors are assessed in a cross-national study of both problem behavior and pro-social behavior involving large adolescent samples in China (N = 1,368) and the US (N = 1,087), in grades 9, 10, and 11; females 56 %, US; 50 %, China. The findings reveal quite different roles for protection and risk, and for particular protective and risk factors, when the outcome criterion is problem behavior than when it is pro-social behavior. The protective factor, Controls Protection, which engages rule and regulations and sanctions in the adolescent's ecology, emerges as most important in influencing problem behavior, but it plays a relatively minor role in relationship to pro-social behavior. By contrast, Models Protection, the presence of pro-social models in the adolescent's ecology, and Support Protection, the presence of interest and care in that same ecology, have no significant relationship to problem behavior variation, but they are both the major predictors of variation in pro-social behavior. The findings are robust across the samples from the two very diverse societies. These results suggest that greater attention be given to protection in problem behavior research and that a more nuanced perspective is needed about the roles that particular protective and risk factors play in reducing problem behavior and in promoting pro-social behavior. PMID:24797283

  4. Representações sociais de justiça em adolescentes infratores: discutindo novas possibilidades de pesquisa Social representations of justice for delinquent adolescents: new possibilities of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Suzana De Stefano Menin

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar algumas tendências atuais de pesquisa sobre concepções de justiça principalmente na França e que utilizam conceitos e metodologias relacionados à teoria sobre Representações Sociais. Também serão apresentados os principais resultados de uma pesquisa-piloto que realizamos com 20 adolescentes que foram notificados a comparecer na promotoria pública por terem cometido diferentes infrações. Esses jovens foram questionados de diversas formas: de associações livres a questões sobre atos criminosos mais freqüentemente cometidos em nossa sociedade. As primeiras análises dos resultados obtidos apontam sugestões para próximos trabalhos na área, principalmente no sentido de serem investigadas variáveis como classe social, escolaridade e mídia e suas influências nas representações de justiça.The objective of this paper was to present some current approaches of research on justice concepts, especially in France where concepts and methodologies related to social representations are used. Participants of the study were 20 adolescents charged with different transgressions who were called to testify at the District Attorney Office. The adolescents were asked to do free association with justice, law, and inequity, and questioned regarding considerations about law, definitions and examples of injustice, and accusations about things they thought were unfair. The data allowed the derivation of categories and led to suggestions for further research which should include variables such as social class, level of education, and the role of the media, and how they affect the representation of justice.

  5. Representações sociais de justiça em adolescentes infratores: discutindo novas possibilidades de pesquisa / Social representations of justice for delinquent adolescents: new possibilities of research

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Suzana De Stefano, Menin.

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar algumas tendências atuais de pesquisa sobre concepções de justiça principalmente na França e que utilizam conceitos e metodologias relacionados à teoria sobre Representações Sociais. Também serão apresentados os principais resultados de uma pesquisa-pi [...] loto que realizamos com 20 adolescentes que foram notificados a comparecer na promotoria pública por terem cometido diferentes infrações. Esses jovens foram questionados de diversas formas: de associações livres a questões sobre atos criminosos mais freqüentemente cometidos em nossa sociedade. As primeiras análises dos resultados obtidos apontam sugestões para próximos trabalhos na área, principalmente no sentido de serem investigadas variáveis como classe social, escolaridade e mídia e suas influências nas representações de justiça. Abstract in english The objective of this paper was to present some current approaches of research on justice concepts, especially in France where concepts and methodologies related to social representations are used. Participants of the study were 20 adolescents charged with different transgressions who were called to [...] testify at the District Attorney Office. The adolescents were asked to do free association with justice, law, and inequity, and questioned regarding considerations about law, definitions and examples of injustice, and accusations about things they thought were unfair. The data allowed the derivation of categories and led to suggestions for further research which should include variables such as social class, level of education, and the role of the media, and how they affect the representation of justice.

  6. The Trajectories of Adolescents’ Perceptions of School Climate, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Behavioral Problems During the Middle School Years

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined trajectories of change in adolescents’ perceptions of four dimensions of school climate (academic support, behavior management, teacher social support, peer social support) and the effects of such trajectories on adolescent problem behaviors. We also tested whether school climate moderated the associations between deviant peer affiliation and adolescent problem behaviors. The 1,030 participating adolescents from 8 schools were followed from 6th through 8th g...

  7. Review of Problems of Adolescent Sexual Behavior and the Role of Millennium Development Goals 4, 5 and 6 in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Prosper Adogu; Ifeoma Udigwe; Gerald Udigwe; Chika Ubajaka

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The problems of adolescents’ sexual behavior are grave and far-reaching. Methods: Review of exiting literature via Google scholar, AJOL, Pubmed, HINARI and other relevant data bases on the common problems of adolescents’ inappropriate sexual behavior. Result: Adolescent sexual behavior could result in adolescent pregnancy which prevalence varies widely throughout Nigeria perhaps due to differences in culture and development. Abortion, the willful termi...

  8. Is there an association between insomnia symptoms, aggressive behavior, and suicidality in adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zschoche M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Maria Zschoche, Angelika Anita Schlarb Faculty of Psychology and Sports Science, University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany Purpose: Sleep disturbances are a common problem during adolescence. Often there is a relationship with the mental health of the affected person. The existing literature concerning the link between sleep disturbances and aggressive behavior and sleep disturbances and suicidality during adolescence shows no clear results. The present study tested a mediation model to prove the relation between sleep problems, aggressive behavior, and suicidality during adolescence. To take the link between suicidality and depression into account, the amount of depressive symptoms was included into the mediation model. Methods: A sample of 93 adolescents aged 14–18 years (30% male was studied. A survey was conducted to interview the adolescents about their mental health, sleep-related behaviors, aggressive behavior, and suicidality. Results: Sleep problems and suicidality measures were significantly related to each other. Furthermore, aggressive behavior and suicidality showed a significant relationship. The expected link between sleep problems and aggressive behavior was not significant. For the mediation model, no significant influence of aggressive behavior on the relationship between the amount of sleep problems and suicidality was found. However, the impact of depressive symptoms on the relationship between sleep problems and suicidality was significant. Conclusion: Sleep problems and overall suicidality in adolescents are significantly connected, even after adjusting for several possible influencing factors. Aggressive behavior could not be confirmed as a mediator for the association between sleep problems and suicidality in adolescents. Further studies to examine the link between insomnia symptoms, aggressive behavior, and suicidality in adolescents are necessary. Keywords: adolescents, aggressive behavior, sleep problems, suicidality, depression

  9. Anabolic androgenic steroids differentially affect social behaviors in adolescent and adult male Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris Y; Montalto, Pamela R; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2008-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone used by over half a million adolescents in the United States for their tissue-building potency and performance-enhancing effects. AAS also affect behavior, including reports of heightened aggression and changes in sexual libido. The expression of sexual and aggressive behaviors is a function of complex interactions among hormones, social context, and the brain, which is extensively remodeled during adolescence. Thus, AAS may have different consequences on behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Using a rodent model, these studies directly compared the effects of AAS on the expression of male sexual and aggressive behaviors in adolescents and adults. Male Syrian hamsters were injected daily for 14 days with either vehicle or an AAS cocktail containing testosterone cypionate (2 mg/kg), nandrolone decanoate (2 mg/kg), and boldenone undecylenate (1 mg/kg), either during adolescence (27-41 days of age) or in adulthood (63-77 days of age). The day after the last injection, males were tested for either sexual behavior with a receptive female or agonistic behavior with a male intruder. Adolescent males treated with AAS showed significant increases in sexual and aggressive behaviors relative to vehicle-treated adolescents. In contrast, AAS-treated adults showed significantly lower levels of sexual behavior compared with vehicle-treated adults and did not show heightened aggression. Thus, adolescents, but not adults, displayed significantly higher behavioral responses to AAS, suggesting that the still-developing adolescent brain is more vulnerable than the adult brain to the adverse consequences of AAS on the nervous system and behavior. PMID:18201704

  10. The stability of externalizing behavior in boys from preschool age to adolescence: A person-oriented analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Stemmler; Friedrich Lösel

    2012-01-01

    The continuity of externalizing behaviors such as aggression, delinquency and hyperactivity has been noted by many researchers. There is also increasing knowledge on different developmental subtypes of problem behavior. In previous person-oriented analyses we found two types of externalizing problems in boys (Stemmler et al., 2005, 2008; Stemmler & Lösel, 2010). One pattern contained externalizing problems only, whereas the other type showed both externalizing and internalizing problems. The...

  11. Perceptions of Problem Behavior in Adolescents’ Families: Perceiver, Target, and Family Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Manders, Willeke A.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Cook, William L.; Oud, Johan H. L.; Bruyn, Eric E. J. de; Ron H. J. Scholte

    2008-01-01

    Considerable research has focused on the reliability and validity of informant reports of family behavior, especially maternal reports of adolescent problem behavior. None of these studies, however, has based their orientation on a theoretical model of interpersonal perception. In this study we used the social relations model (SRM) to examine family members’ reports of each others’ externalizing and internalizing problem behavior. Two parents and two adolescents in 69 families rated each ...

  12. Predictors of antisocial and prosocial behavior in an adolescent sports context.

    OpenAIRE

    Rutten, Esther Anne; Schuengel, Carlo; Dirks, Evelien; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Biesta, Gert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study examined antisocial and prosocial behavior of N = 439 adolescent athletes between 14 and 17 years of age (67 teams). Multilevel analyses showed that team membership explained 20% and 13% of the variance in antisocial and prosocial behavior in the sports context, respectively. The team effects suggest that aggregating antisocial or prosocial adolescents within teams may partially explain differences in antisocial and prosocial behavior among athletes in the sport...

  13. Specificity of Early Movie Effects on Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Alcohol Use

    OpenAIRE

    O’Hara, Ross E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Li, Zhigang; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents’ movie sex exposure (MSE) and movie alcohol exposure (MAE) have been shown to influence later sexual behavior and drinking, respectively. No study to date, however, has tested whether these effects generalize across behaviors. This study examined the concurrent influences of early (i.e., before age 16) MSE and MAE on subsequent risky sex and alcohol use among a national sample of 1,228 U.S. adolescents. Participants reported their health behaviors and movie viewing up to six tim...

  14. Inter-relationships between health risk behaviors in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Batista Martins Barbosa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The elevated proportion of adolescents with multiple risk factors for cardiovascular diseases suggests that there are strict relationships between several different types of health risk behavior that predispose towards the emergence of these factors. The objective of the present study was to analyze possible relationships between health risk behaviors in adolescent schoolchildren from the city of João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. The study sample comprised 2,768 adolescent secondary schoolchildren (1,222 boys and 1,546 girls, aged 14 to 18 years. The following factors were analyzed: i sociodemographic data: sex, age, economic class and parents’ educational level; ii health risk behaviors: physical inactivity ( ABSTRACT A elevada proporção de adolescentes com fatores de risco para as doenças cardiovasculares, de forma agregada, sugere uma relação estreita entre diversos comportamentos de risco à saúde que predispõem ao desencadeamento desses fatores. O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar as possíveis associações entre comportamentos de risco à saúde em adolescentes escolares da cidade de João Pessoa - PB. A amostra consistiu de 2.768 adolescentes escolares do ensino médio (1.222 rapazes e 1.546 moças, de 14 a 18 anos de idade. Foram analisados os seguintes aspectos: i sociodemográfi cos: sexo, idade, classe econômica e escolaridade dos pais; ii comportamentos de risco à saúde: inatividade física (<37kcal/kg/dia, baixa freqüência de consumo de frutas e verduras (<5dias/semana, fumo e bebidas alcoólicas (?1vez/semana. A inatividade física se associou positivamente com a baixa freqüência de consumo de frutas (RP=1,10; IC95%=1,01-1,19 e verduras (RP=1,16; IC95%=1,07-1,26. A probabilidade de apresentar baixa freqüência de consumo de frutas foi aproximadamente duas vezes mais elevada (RP=1,89; IC95%=1,70-2,10 nos adolescentes que referiam consumir verduras <5dias/semana. Consumir bebidas alcoólicas aumentava em 15 vezes (RP=15,0; IC95%= 6,7-33,7 a chance de um adolescente ser fumante. Os comportamentos de risco à saúde se mostraram estreitamente associados, o que reforça a necessidade dos programas de promoção da saúde intervirem sobre diversos comportamentos de risco de forma simultânea.

  15. Hope and Its Relation to Suicidal Risk Behaviors among Malaysian Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Choon Min Wai; Mansor Abu Talib; Siti Nor Yaacob; Tan Jo Pei; Hamidin Awang; Sallahuddin Hassan; Zanariah Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is an epidemic issue worldwide and Asian countries are of no exception. In Malaysia, adolescent suicide constituted 10% of the overall reported suicide cases. Aforementioned, the current study examines Snyder’s theory of hope to understand suicidal risk among Malaysian adolescents. A total of 1441 adolescents were recruited using a multistage cluster sampling. Results showed significant relationship between both agency and pathway thinking with risk of suicidal behavior. Specificall...

  16. Structuring the Future: Anticipated Life Events, Peer Networks, and Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Soller, Brian; Haynie, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    While prior research has established associations between individual expectations of future events and risk behavior among adolescents, the potential effects of peers’ future perceptions on risk-taking have been overlooked. We extend prior research by testing whether peers’ anticipation of college completion is associated with adolescent sexual risk-taking. We also examine whether adolescents’ perceptions of the negative consequences of pregnancy and idealized romantic relationship scri...

  17. A Test of Problem Behavior and Self-Medication Theories in Incarcerated Adolescent Males

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Penn, Joseph V.; Stein, L.A.R.; Lacher-Katz, Molly; Spirito, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the problem behavior and self-medication models of alcohol abuse in incarcerated male adolescents. Male adolescents (N = 56) incarcerated in a juvenile correction facility were administered a battery of psychological measures. Approximately 84% of adolescents with clinically significant alcohol-related problems prior to incarceration indicated use of alcohol for purposes of self-medication and 73% indicated that their alcohol use was associated with agg...

  18. The Stability of Political Attitudes and Behaviors across Adolescence and Early Adulthood: A Comparison of Survey Data on Adolescents and Young Adults in Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooghe, Marc; Wilkenfeld, Britt

    2008-01-01

    The persistence of adolescents' political attitudes and behaviors into adulthood is a perennial concern in research on developmental psychology. While some authors claim that adolescents' attitudinal patterns will remain relatively stable throughout the life cycle, others argue that the answers of adolescents in political surveys have but a…

  19. Adolescents misperceive and are influenced by high-status peers' health risk, deviant, and adaptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Sarah W; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-12-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high-status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of jocks', populars', burnouts', and brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and populars were rated as higher status than brains and burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high-status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between populars'/jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high-status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PMID:25365121

  20. Are parental attitudes related to adolescent juvenile offenders' readiness to change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Benjamin D H; Glaser, Brian A; Calhoun, Georgia B

    2015-05-01

    Contemporary research suggests that many factors contribute to adolescent problematic and delinquent behaviors; however, there is little discussion in the literature related to factors that contribute to an adolescent's willingness to change these maladaptive behaviors. The current study examines the role parental attitudes play in the adolescent juvenile offender's readiness to change. Ninety-five adjudicated adolescents and their parent or legal guardian completed the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) and the Juvenile Offender Parent Questionnaire (JOPQ), respectively. Participants fell into one of two URICA groups: Precontemplative or Contemplative. Parental attitudes (JOPQ) of Exasperation in Regard to the Child and Fear of the Child significantly predicted membership in two of the URICA stages of change groups (Precontemplative and Contemplative) when gender was included in the model. This study has important implications for practitioners developing effective treatments for adjudicated adolescents. PMID:24391125

  1. A Longitudinal Examination of the Bidirectional Associations among Perceived Parenting Behaviors, Adolescent Disclosure and Problem Behavior across the High School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Teena; Hamza, Chloe A.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the importance of parental monitoring to the deterrence of adolescent problem behavior by examining bidirectional associations among perceived parental monitoring, adolescent disclosure and problem behaviors across the high school years. Adolescents (N = 2,941; 50.3% female) were surveyed each year from grades…

  2. The Prevalence and Comorbidity between Delinquency, Drug Abuse, Suicide Attempts, Physical and Sexual Abuse, and Self-Mutilation among Delinquent Hispanic Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Jeanette; Curry, Theodore R.

    2007-01-01

    Representative data show that drug abuse, delinquency, and suicide attempts are major concerns among adolescent Hispanic females. Although comorbidity research indicates that such problems tend to be related to each other, this research largely neglects Hispanic females. Using data from presentence investigations on 141 Hispanic girls sentenced to…

  3. Personality traits, future time perspective and adaptive behavior in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Carvalho, Renato Gil; Novo, Rosa Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Several studies provide evidence of the importance of future time perspective (FTP) for individual success. However, little research addresses the relationship between FTP and personality traits, particularly if FTP can mediate their influence on behavior. In this study we analyze the mediating of FTP in the influence of personality traits on the way adolescents live their life at school. Sample consisted in 351 students, aged from 14 to 18 years-old, at different schooling levels. Instruments were the Portuguese version of the MMPI-A, particularly the PSY-5 dimensions (Aggressiveness, Psychoticism, Disconstraint, Neuroticism, Introversion), a FTP questionnaire, and a survey on school life, involving several indicators of achievement, social integration, and overall satisfaction. With the exception of Neuroticism, the results show significant mediation effects (p personality structural characteristics in students' school adaptation. PMID:25907852

  4. Family Sources of Sexual Health Information, Primary Messages, and Sexual Behavior of At-Risk, Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengard, Cynthia; Tannis, Candace; Dove, David C.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Lopez, Rosalie; Stein, L. A. R.; Morrow, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sources of sexual health information exert strong influence on adolescents' sexual behavior. Purpose: The current study was undertaken to understand how family serve as sexual information sources, the messages adolescents recall from family, and how family learning experiences affect sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Methods:…

  5. School Performance and Genetic and Environmental Variance in Antisocial Behavior at the Transition from Adolescence to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Antisocial behavior increases in adolescence, particularly among those who perform poorly in school. As adolescents move into adulthood, both educational attainment and the extent to which antisocial behavior continues have implications for adolescents' abilities to take on constructive social roles. The authors used a population-representative…

  6. Is Sexual Behavior Healthy for Adolescents? A Conceptual Framework for Research on Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Physical, Mental, and Social Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Welsh, Deborah P.

    2014-01-01

    Although research has increasingly emphasized how adolescent sexual behavior may be associated with aspects of health beyond unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, no current theoretical or conceptual model fully explains associations between sexual behavior and multiple facets of health. We provide a conceptual model that…

  7. Maternal and Adolescent Report of Mothers’ Weight-Related Concerns and Behaviors: Longitudinal Associations with Adolescent Body Dissatisfaction and Weight Control Practices

    OpenAIRE

    van den Berg, Patricia A.; Keery, Helene; Eisenberg, Marla; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2010-01-01

    Objective?This population-based study examined mothers’ weight-related concerns and behaviors (weight status, weight dissatisfaction, dieting, and encouraging child to diet) at baseline, as assessed by both mothers and adolescents, and associations with adolescents’ body dissatisfaction and weight control practices 5 years later.?Methods?Adolescents and their mothers (n = 443 pairs) were surveyed in 1998–1999; adolescents were resurveyed in 2003–2004.?Results?Baseline matern...

  8. Cyber Bullying and Physical Bullying in Adolescent Suicide: The Role of Violent Behavior and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Brett J.; Brausch, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of bullying in all forms on the mental health and safety of adolescents is of particular interest, especially in the wake of new methods of bullying that victimize youths through technology. The current study examined the relationship between victimization from both physical and cyber bullying and adolescent suicidal behavior. Violent…

  9. Race/Ethnic Differences in Effects of Family Instability on Adolescents' Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomby, Paula; Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie A.

    2010-01-01

    We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 7,686) to determine whether racial and ethnic differences in socioeconomic stress and social protection explained group differences in the association between family structure instability and three risk behaviors for White, Black, and Mexican American adolescents:…

  10. Social Information Processing as a Mediator between Cognitive Schemas and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation assessed whether cognitive schemas of justification of violence, mistrust, and narcissism predicted social information processing (SIP), and SIP in turn predicted aggressive behavior in adolescents. A total of 650 adolescents completed measures of cognitive schemas at Time 1, SIP in ambiguous social scenarios at…

  11. The Effects of Violent Video Game Habits on Adolescent Hostility, Aggressive Behaviors, and School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Douglas, A.; Lynch, Paul, J.; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Walsh, David, A.

    2004-01-01

    Video games have become one of the favorite activities of American children. A growing body of research is linking violent video game play to aggressive cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors. The first goal of this study was to document the video games habits of adolescents and the level of parental monitoring of adolescent video game use. The…

  12. Longitudinal Relations among Parenting, Best Friends, and Early Adolescent Problem Behavior: Testing Bidirectional Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Ellen; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2006-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, the bidirectional relations between parenting and friends' deviance, on one hand, and early adolescent externalizing and internalizing problem behavior, on the other hand, are examined. Of the 650 adolescents (13- to 14-year-olds) who filled out the Youth Self-Report and questionnaires about their parents at two times…

  13. Multivariate Model of Antisocial Behavior and Substance Use in Spanish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, M. Elena; Andreu, Jose M.; Grana, Jose L.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the causal paths that predict antisocial behavior and the consumption of legal and illegal substances (drugs) in adolescents. The sample comprised 1,629 adolescents, 786 males and 843 females, between 14 and 18 years old. All participants provided reports of family, school, personality, and peer-group factors…

  14. Parental Psychological Violence and Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment: The Role of Coping and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Marie-Helene; Melancon, Claudiane

    2013-01-01

    The role of coping strategies (approach and avoidance) as a mediating factor between parental psychological violence and adolescent behavior problems, both internalized and externalized, as well as the protective role of social support were examined separately for boys and girls. A group of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three…

  15. Participants' Experiences of an Early Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Adolescents with Symptoms of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bru, Lene; Solholm, Roar; Idsoe, Thormod

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been documented to be effective in treating depression in adolescence, but there is great variability in the clinical outcome of CBT trials. This may in part be due to variations in the content of, and emphasis on different CBT components. Moreover, little is known about adolescents' subjective experiences of…

  16. Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome Can Use a Mindfulness-Based Strategy to Control Their Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Angela D. A.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome occasionally exhibit aggressive behavior against peers and parents. In a multiple baseline design across subjects, three adolescents with Asperger syndrome were taught to use a mindfulness-based procedure called "Meditation on the Soles of the Feet" to control their physical aggression in the family…

  17. Serious Emotional and Behavioral Problems and Mental Health Contacts in American and British Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtabai, Ramin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare prevalence of serious emotional and behavioral problems and mental health contacts for these problems among American and British children and adolescents. Method: Data on children and adolescents ages 5 to 16 years were drawn from the 2004 U.S. National Health Interview Survey (response rate = 79.4%) and the 2004 survey of…

  18. Adolescents' Perceptions of Parental Influences on Their Smoking Behavior: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Stefania; Lovato, Chris Y.; Hill, Erin M.; Johnson, Joy L.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Shoveller, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe adolescents' perceptions of parental influences on their smoking behavior. Thirty-five adolescents, 14 to 18 years old, provided narrative accounts of their smoking histories in semistructured interviews. Most of the participants recognized that their parents played an important role in shaping their…

  19. Adolescent Civic and Political Engagement: Associations between Domain-Specific Judgments and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Aaron; Smetana, Judith G.

    2009-01-01

    Judgments and justifications for different forms of civic involvement and their associations with organized and civic behavior were examined in 312 middle-class primarily White adolescents (M = 17.01 years). Adolescents applied moral, conventional, and personal criteria to distinguish involvement in community service, standard political, social…

  20. Body Mass Index Self-Perception and Weight Management Behaviors during Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…

  1. Mediating Teacher Liking and Moderating Authoritative Teachering on Chinese Adolescents' Perceptions of Antisocial and Prosocial Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lei; Liu, Hongyun; Wen, Zhonglin; Fung, Kitty Y.; Wang, Yan; Xu, Yiyuan

    2004-01-01

    The authors present a model of adolescents' peer relations in the classroom that integrates 3 social processes involving the adolescent students, the classroom teacher, and peers. One of the hypotheses was that teacher liking of students mediated the relation between students' social behaviors (e.g.. antisocial disruption and prosocial leadership)…

  2. Parenting Styles or Practices? Parenting, Sympathy, and Prosocial Behaviors among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Gustavo; McGinley, Meredith; Hayes, Rachel; Batenhorst, Candice; Wilkinson, Jamie

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the authors examined the relations among parenting styles, parental practices, sympathy, and prosocial behaviors in adolescents. The participants were 233 adolescents (M age = 16.7 years; 69% girls; mostly White) from public high schools in the Midwestern region of the United States who completed measures of prosocial…

  3. HIV/Aids in South Africa: A Review of Sexual Behavior among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartell, Cycil George

    2005-01-01

    South Africa has a fast-growing HIV/AIDS rate, with the highest prevalence among young people (15 to 24 years), especially females. This paper is a comprehensive analytical review of available research concerning the sexual behavior of adolescents in South Africa. It offers insight into HIV infection among adolescents and provides an important…

  4. Career-Specific Parental Behaviors in Adolescents' Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Julia; Kracke, Barbel

    2009-01-01

    Parents are major partners in helping adolescents prepare for a career choice. Although several studies have examined links between general aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship and adolescents' career development, little research has addressed the mechanisms involved. This study aimed to validate a three-dimensional instrument for the…

  5. Influence of sexual competition and social context on homosexual behavior in adolescent female Japanese macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunst, Noëlle; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-05-01

    We explored the role that sexual and social partners play in the expression of female homosexual behavior among adolescent female Japanese macaques at Arashiyama, Japan. Our data fully or partially supported all the predictions related to four non-mutually exclusive hypotheses, namely the "adult male disinterest in adolescent females" hypothesis, the "numerous homosexual adult females" hypothesis, the "safer homosexual interactions" hypothesis and the "same-sex sexual interactions" hypothesis. Our results show that both sexual context (e.g., lack of adolescent female attractivity toward adult males, presence of motivated same-sex sexual partners), and social context (e.g., risk of aggression) help explain the high frequency and prevalence of homosexual behavior in adolescent females in the Arashiyama group of Japanese macaques. As with adult females, whose homosexual consortships do not reflect generalized patterns of social affiliation or kinship, we found that adolescent females' same-sex sexual partners were neither kin, nor were they non-kin individuals with whom adolescent females were closely affiliated outside of a consortship context. Our study furthers the growing database of female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques and provides additional evidence that homosexual behavior as expressed by adolescent female Japanese macaques is, like heterosexual behavior, sexual in nature. We discuss the relevance of our findings to a broader comparative approach that may shed light upon the development and evolution of human homosexuality. Am. J. Primatol. 77:502-515, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25597406

  6. Predicting adolescent perpetration in cyberbullying: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirman, Wannes; Walrave, Michel

    2012-11-01

    This study aims to contribute to the research field on cyberbullying by offering a comprehensive theoretical framework that helps to predict adolescents' perpetration of cyberbullying. One thousand forty-two pupils from 12 to 18 years old in 30 different Belgian secondary schools participated in two surveys within a three-month interval. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether the overall model of theory of planned behavior (TPB) helps to predict adolescents' self-reported perpetration in cyberbullying. Overall, the present study provides strong support for the theoretical utility of the TPB in cyberbullying research. The model accounted for 44.8% of the variance in adolescents' behavioral intention to cyberbully and 33.2% of the variance in self-reported cyberbullying perpetration. We found a strong positive relationship between adolescents' attitude towards cyberbullying and their behavioral intention to perpetrate it. Perceived behavioral control and subjective norm, the other two TPB-constructs, were also significant albeit relatively less important predictors of adolescents' intention to cyberbully. The finding that adolescents' attitude is the most important predictor of perpetration, entails that prevention and intervention strategies should aim at reducing the perceived acceptability of cyberbullying among adolescents by converting neutral or positive attitudes towards this anti-social behavior into negative evaluations. PMID:23079360

  7. Exploring associations between exposure to sexy online self-presentations and adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oosten, Johanna M F; Peter, Jochen; Boot, Inge

    2015-05-01

    Previous research suggests that adolescents' social network site use is related to their sexual development. However, the associations between adolescents' exposure to sexy self-presentations of others on social network sites and their sexual attitudes and experience have not yet been empirically supported. This study investigated reciprocal longitudinal relationships between adolescents' exposure to others' sexy self-presentations on social network sites and their sexual attitudes (i.e., sexual objectification of girls and instrumental attitudes towards sex) and sexual experience. We further tested whether these associations depended on adolescents' age and gender. Results from a representative two-wave panel study among 1,636 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17, 51.5 % female) showed that exposure to sexy online self-presentations of others predicted changes in adolescents' experience with oral sex and intercourse 6 months later, but did not influence their sexual attitudes. Adolescents' instrumental attitudes towards sex, in turn, did predict their exposure to others' sexy online self-presentations. Sexual objectification increased such exposure for younger adolescents, but decreased exposure for older adolescents. In addition, adolescents' experience with genital touching as well as oral sex (only for adolescents aged 13-15) predicted their exposure to sexy self-presentations of others. These findings tentatively suggest that the influence on adolescents' sexual attitudes previously found for sexual media content may not hold for sexy self-presentations on social network sites. However, exposure to sexy self-presentations on social network sites is motivated by adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior, especially among young adolescents. PMID:25287000

  8. Association between socio-economic status and sexual behavior of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukovi? Dejana S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Numerous studies have emphasized the importance of contextual factors as determinants of sexual behavior of adolescents. It has been found that lower socioeconomic status is associated with risky sexual behavior. Sexual behavior is individual but develops under strong influence of cultural and other influences. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of family’s socioeconomic status and risky sexual behavior of adolescents in Belgrade. Method. Self-administered questionnaire was used in secondary schools in Belgrade, and 1,782 adolescents attending first grade filled the questionnaire. For the analyses of predictors of risky sexual behavior, multiple logistic regression was used. Results. Parents’ occupations did not show significant association with any of analyzed behaviors. Adolescents who received weekly disposable money above average were 2.5 times more likely to ever have had sexual intercourse, and if sexually active were more likely to use contraception. Perceived family’s wealth was a significant predictor of ever having sex (OR=1.9; CI 1.2-2.8 and not using contraception (OR=4.3; CI 1.2-15.0. Conclusion. Socioeconomic status is associated with sexual behaviors of adolescents. Fifteen-year olds who perceive their families as wealthier are more likely to ever have had sex and not use any kind of contraception. Adolescents with higher weekly income are more likely to ever have had sex and use contraception than their counterpats with less weekly disposable money. .

  9. The younger sisters of childbearing adolescents: their attitudes, expectations, and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, P L

    1996-04-01

    To examine the precursors of the disproportionately high rates of early childbearing among the younger sisters of adolescent mothers, this study compared the attitudes, expectations, and behaviors of early adolescent girls (M age = 12.93) who had an adolescent childbearing sister (n = 75) to those of early adolescent girls who had only adolescent nonchildbearing sisters (n = 348). Results indicated that the younger sisters of childbearing adolescents were consistently different from the younger sisters of nonchildbearing adolescents on key characteristics known to be correlated with early sexual activity and adolescent childbearing: that is, they were more accepting of nonmarital adolescent childbearing, perceived younger ages for typical life-course transitions (best age to get married, have first child), had more pessimistic school and career expectations, and were more likely to have engaged in problem behaviors (smoke cigarettes, skip school). These younger sister characteristics were associated with a nonvirgin sexual status in the current sample and with high closeness and high rivalry with the childbearing sister but could not be accounted for by such within-family experiences as subjects' mothers' permissiveness or lack of mother-daughter communication. Findings suggest the mechanisms by which the younger sisters of childbearing teens themselves become vulnerable to early parenthood. PMID:8625714

  10. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors associated factors in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Giordani Vasques

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze factors associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviors in adolescents. The sample consisted of 1675 students (784 boys and 891 girls ranging in age from 11-17 years from Caxias do Sul, RS. A questionnaire was applied to identify physical activity level (PAL, 3-day recall andweekly hours of sedentary behavior. Low PAL was defined as energy expenditure less than 37 kcal/kg per day, and elevated sedentary behavior (ESB was defined as more than 14 h/week watching TV, playing video games or using a computer. Chi-square testresults indicated a higher prevalence of low PAL among girls (66.8%>43.2%, p84.0%, p=0.001. Using a Poisson hierarchical regression model, low PAL was associated with up to 4 persons living at home (PR=1.21, 95%CI: 1.00-1.46 and low maternal PAL (PR=1.23, 95%CI:1.00-1.53 among boys, and with age 15-17 years (PR=1.30, 95%CI: 1.18-1.44, up to 4 persons living at home (PR=1.17, 95%CI: 1.04-1.31, having a TV in the bedroom (PR=1.13, 95%CI: 1.02-1.25 and passive transport to school (PR=1.10, 95%CI: 1.00-1.22 among girls. In girls, ESB was associated with high parental educational level(PR=1.08, 95%CI: 1.01-1.16 and having a TV in the bedroom (PR=1.15, 95%CI: 1.08-1.22. The results suggest an association between socioeconomic measures and risk behaviors (low PAL and ESB. Knowledge about the factors associated with low PAL and ESB facilitates the implantation of more effective interventions in order to promote a more active lifestyle.

  11. DBT-Enhanced Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Trichotillomania: An Adolescent Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Stacy Shaw; Kim, Junny

    2012-01-01

    Results and a case study for a DBT-enhanced habit reversal treatment (HRT) for adult trichotillomania (TTM) (Keuthen & Sprich, 2012) is adapted for use with adolescents. Trichotillomania in adolescence is a very important but understudied problem. Onset often occurs in adolescence, and yet very little treatment research exists. DBT-enhanced habit…

  12. Epidemiological Evidence on the Link Between Drug Use and Suicidal Behaviors Among Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, Holly C.

    2004-01-01

    Depression, substance abuse, and aggressive behavior disorders have shown to be among the most influential risk factors for suicide in community and clinical studies of adolescents and adults. Increasing evidence suggests that adolescents who use and abuse alcohol and drugs are at increased risk for suicidal ideation, attempted suicide, and completed suicide, although conclusive evidence has not yet been presented suggesting that drug use causes suicidal thoughts and behaviors. This paper rev...

  13. Brain Structural Correlates of Risk-Taking Behavior and Effects of Peer Influence in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Myoung Soo; Vorobyev, Victor; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Ha?ma?la?inen, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents are characterized by impulsive risky behavior, particularly in the presence of peers. We discriminated high and low risk-taking male adolescents aged 18–19 years by assessing their propensity for risky behavior and vulnerability to peer influence with personality tests, and compared structural differences in gray and white matter of the brain with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), respectively. We also compared the brain structures according to th...

  14. Brief Strategic Family Therapy: Engaging Drug Using/Problem Behavior Adolescents and their Families into Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Szapocznik, José; Zarate, Monica; Duff, Johnathan; Muir, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Despite the efficacy of family-based interventions for improving outcomes for adolescent behavior problems such as substance use, engaging and retaining whole families in treatment is one of the greatest challenges therapists confront. This article illustrates how the Brief Strategic Family Therapy® (BSFT®) model, a family-based, empirically validated intervention designed to treat children and adolescents’ problem behaviors, can be used to increase engagement, improve retention, and bring ab...

  15. Household and School-Level Influences on Smoking Behavior among Korean Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Heo, Jongho; Oh, Juhwan; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Background: Trends in adolescent smoking rates in South Korea have not shown substantial progress due to a lack of effective anti-smoking interventions and policies in school settings. Methods and Findings: We examined individual- and school-level determinants of adolescent smoking behavior (ever smoking, current smoking, and daily smoking) using the nationally representative fifth Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey conducted in 2009. We found that students in coeducation schools or ...

  16. Small group behavioral training to improve the job interview skills repertoire of mildly retarded adolescents.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, J.A; Wildman, B G; Berler, E S

    1980-01-01

    Four retarded adolescents, enrolled in a short-term residential treatment program, received behavioral job interview skills training. Although potentially employable, each was unable to present himself effectively in standard employment interviews. Treatment consisted of a series of behavioral group sessions using instructions, modeling and rehearsal procedures to increase, in multiple baseline fashion, such skills as the adolescents' ability to disclose positive information about their exper...

  17. Developmental effects of aggressive behavior in male adolescents assessed with structural and functional brain imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Heinecke, Armin; LENROOT, RHOSHEL K.; Knutson, Kristine M.; van der Meer, Elke; Grafman, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is common during adolescence. Although aggression-related functional changes in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and frontopolar cortex (FPC) have been reported in adults, the neural correlates of aggressive behavior in adolescents, particularly in the context of structural neurodevelopment, are obscure. We used functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the blood oxygenation level-depended signal and cortical thickness. In a block-desi...

  18. Trajectories of desistance and continuity in antisocial behavior following court adjudication among serious adolescent offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Mulvey, Edward P.; Steinberg, Laurence; Piquero, Alex R.; Besana, Michelle; Fagan, Jeffrey; Schubert, Carol; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Because many serious adolescent offenders reduce their antisocial behavior after court involvement, understanding the patterns and mechanisms of the process of desistance from criminal activity is essential for developing effective interventions and legal policy. This study examined patterns of self-reported antisocial behavior over a 3-year period after court involvement in a sample of 1,119 serious male adolescent offenders. Using growth mixture models, and incorporating time at risk for of...

  19. The Impact of Multiple Types of Child Maltreatment on Subsequent Risk Behaviors among Women during the Transition from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Lee, Yoona; Ozonoff, Al; Van Wert, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how different types of child maltreatment, independently and collectively, impact a wide range of risk behaviors that fall into three domains: sexual risk behaviors, delinquency, and suicidality. Cumulative classification and Expanded Hierarchical Type (EHT) classification approaches were used to…

  20. Hope and Its Relation to Suicidal Risk Behaviors among Malaysian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Min Wai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is an epidemic issue worldwide and Asian countries are of no exception. In Malaysia, adolescent suicide constituted 10% of the overall reported suicide cases. Aforementioned, the current study examines Snyder’s theory of hope to understand suicidal risk among Malaysian adolescents. A total of 1441 adolescents were recruited using a multistage cluster sampling. Results showed significant relationship between both agency and pathway thinking with risk of suicidal behavior. Specifically, only agency thinking uniquely predicts adolescents’ suicidal risk in a regression model. Adolescents with higher motivation towards accomplishing a goal or plan have lower risk engaging in suicidal behaviors. Thus, suicide prevention focusing on increasing hope is significantly important. Limitations were discussed in the study.

  1. Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior: A Sociological Case Study in Ankara, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasapoglu, Aytul; Ozerkmen, Necmettin

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss important predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking behavior, such as their sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, socioeconomic status, mother's and father's educational level, and school type), health-promoting behavior (healthy nutrition, physical activities), risk behavior (cigarette smoking and alcohol…

  2. The Relation of Gender-Role Classifications to the Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior of Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hing Keung

    2005-01-01

    The author investigated the relation between gender-role classifications and prosocial and antisocial behavior for 505 Chinese adolescents in grades 7 to 12. The author found that (a) boys were more antisocial than girls were, (b) there was no significant gender difference in prosocial behavior, (c) prosocial behavior was associated positively…

  3. Using Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Healthy Eating among Danish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Chan, Kara; Tsang, Lennon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to apply the theory of planned behavior to predict Danish adolescents' behavioral intention for healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster sample survey of 410 students aged 11 to 16 years studying in Grade 6 to Grade 10 was conducted in Denmark. Findings: Perceived behavioral control followed by…

  4. Same-Sex versus Other-Sex Best Friendship in Early Adolescence: Longitudinal Predictors of Antisocial Behavior throughout Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndorfer, Cara Lee; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between having other-sex versus same-sex best friends and antisocial behavior throughout early adolescence. Participants (N = 955) were recruited in 6th grade and followed longitudinally through 7th, 8th, and 11th grades. Participants were 58% ethnically diverse youth and 48% girls. Results indicate that the…

  5. "I have a future" comprehensive adolescent health promotion: cultural considerations in program implementation and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, L W; Smith, M S; Peters, S R

    1995-01-01

    "I Have a Future" Adolescent Health Promotion Program is a life options program. The program uses the Nguzo Saba (seven principles) and African philosophy to systematically address violence and attitudes reinforcing the use of violence. The Nguzo Saba promotes self-respect, and commitment to and support for developing a positive community. Data was collected from four public housing developments--two served as match control sites. Adolescents residing in neighborhoods in which the program operated had greater acceptance of the Nguzo Saba than those in matched communities. Those who perceived themselves as having life options engaged in fewer delinquent/violent acts. There was a strong negative correlation between the acceptance of the Nguzo Saba and the number of reported delinquent/violent behaviors. There was a positive relationship between the acceptance of the Nguzo Saba and positive self-concept, psychosocial maturity, and clarity of goals. PMID:7795041

  6. Counterconformity: an attribution model of adolescents' uniqueness-seeking behaviors in dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, I-Ling

    2008-01-01

    This article explores how an attribution model will illustrate uniqueness-seeking behavior in dressing in the Taiwanese adolescent subculture. The study employed 443 senior high school students. Results show that the tendency of uniqueness-seeking behavior in dressing is moderate. However, using cluster analysis to segment the counterconformity behavior of the subjects, the study demonstrates that there are two conspicuous types of segmentation "markets": rubber stamp and self-determined. The attribution models investigate the susceptibilities to informational and normative influence which have different direction impacts and weights on the adolescents' counterconformity behavior. More interestingly, path analyses indicate that consumer self-confidence mediates the relationship between informational influence and counterconformity behavior only on the rubber stamp type. This study then discusses how the adolescent consumers' need for uniqueness could be used in better understanding consumer behavior and the role consumption plays in their expression of identity. PMID:19149151

  7. Diagnostics of suicidal behavior risks of children and adolescents in educational institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova T.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main techniques used in empirical studies abroad for diagnostics of risks of suicidal behavior in children and adolescents in population sampling: Beck Self-Rating Depression Inventory, The Hopelessness Scale for Children, Inventory of Suicide Orientation, Self-Destructive Thought Assessment Scale, The Life-Attitudes Schedule, A measure of adolescent potential for suicide (MAPS, Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale in adolescent samples, PATHOS, The Reasons for Living Inventory, Suicide Probability Scale (SPS, Validity of the Self-Harm Behavior Questionnaire

  8. The use of cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of resistant depression in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto-Hicks X

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Hamill-Skoch,1 Paul Hicks,2 Ximena Prieto-Hicks11Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Arizona, Tuscon, AZ, USAAbstract: Major depressive disorder often begins in adolescence, is chronic and recurrent, and heightens an individual's risk for major depressive disorder in adulthood. Treatment-resistant depression is a problem for a significant minority of adolescents. Few studies have examined treatments for treatment-resistant depression among adolescents, and even fewer have examined the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy as a monotherapy or in combination with pharmacological treatments. Mental health professionals have a strong interest in understanding what treatments are appropriate for adolescents who are treatment resistant. Preliminary evidence from current published trials indicates that the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy in combination with antidepressant medication yields the best outcome for treatment-resistant depression in adolescents. Secondary analyses also suggest that the utility of cognitive behavioral therapy can be increased by ensuring adolescents receive a therapeutic dose of treatment sessions (more than nine sessions and the inclusion of two treatment components: social skills and problem solving training. Guidelines for clinicians as well as areas for future research are discussed.Keywords: cognitive behavior therapy, treatment-resistant depression, adolescent depression

  9. Excellent gamer, excellent driver? The impact of adolescents' video game playing on driving behavior: a two-wave panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beullens, Kathleen; Roe, Keith; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the impact of adolescents' playing of racing and drive'em up games on their risky driving behavior. Participants were 354 adolescent boys and girls who took part in a longitudinal panel survey on video game playing and risk taking attitudes, intentions and behaviors. In line with cultivation theory and theory of planned behavior the results showed that (even after controlling for aggression and sensation seeking) video game playing during adolescence succeeded in predicting later risky driving behavior through adolescents' attitudes and intentions to exhibit this behavior in the future. The results suggest that this relationship may in part be explained by the game content. PMID:21094297

  10. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series: Risk and Protective Factors of Child Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has begun to issue a series of bulletins on child delinquency to provide the public and policy-makers with the latest research dealing with the prevention and reduction of this growing problem. As this first bulletin suggests in its introduction, "Preventing delinquency early in a child's life can pay significant dividends by reducing crime rates and decreasing crime-related expenditures of tax dollars." This particular 16-page bulletin, released in April 2003, deals with the risk and protective factors that are involved in developing effective early intervention and protection programs for juvenile offenders under the age of 13. The report begins with a brief discussion of previous research in the area, and continues on to identify some of the key risk factors that may lead to a young person's involvement with illegal and violent activities. As the report concludes, the authors note that there is no single risk factor that may indicate that a juvenile will develop a tendency towards these behaviors, but that early intervention programs have demonstrated some measure of success.

  11. Father's Incarceration and Youth Delinquency and Depression: Examining Differences by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, Raymond R.; Roettger, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines associations between biological father's incarceration and internalizing and externalizing outcomes of depression and serious delinquency, across White, Black, and Hispanic subsamples of youth in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Among respondents whose father was first incarcerated during childhood or…

  12. Risky Health Behavior Among Adolescents in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Klosky, James L.; Howell, Carrie R.; Li, Zhenghong; Foster, Rebecca H.; Mertens, Ann C.; Robison, Leslie L.; Ness, Kirsten K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective?To report the prevalence and comparison of cancer-linked health behaviors and identify risk factors associated with unhealthy behavior among adolescent siblings and cancer survivors.?Methods?The Child Health and Illness Profile—Adolescent Edition (CHIP—AE) was completed by 307 survivors and 97 sibling controls 14–20 years of age.?Results?Risky behavior ranged from 0.7% to 35.8% for survivors and 1.0% to 41.2% for siblings. Comparisons of sexual behavior, tobacco, alc...

  13. Juvenile Delinquency and Victimization: A Theoretical Typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Carlos A.; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather A.; Ormrod, Richard K.

    2007-01-01

    It is a widely voiced notion that juvenile delinquency and victimization co-occur extensively in the youth population, in particular because delinquent youth engage in risky activities. But theory from the bullying and traumatic stress literatures suggests that there may be additional pathways by which delinquency and victimization are connected.…

  14. Adolescent-specific patterns of behavior and neural activity during social reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rebecca M; Somerville, Leah H; Li, Jian; Ruberry, Erika J; Powers, Alisa; Mehta, Natasha; Dyke, Jonathan; Casey, B J

    2014-06-01

    Humans are sophisticated social beings. Social cues from others are exceptionally salient, particularly during adolescence. Understanding how adolescents interpret and learn from variable social signals can provide insight into the observed shift in social sensitivity during this period. The present study tested 120 participants between the ages of 8 and 25 years on a social reinforcement learning task where the probability of receiving positive social feedback was parametrically manipulated. Seventy-eight of these participants completed the task during fMRI scanning. Modeling trial-by-trial learning, children and adults showed higher positive learning rates than did adolescents, suggesting that adolescents demonstrated less differentiation in their reaction times for peers who provided more positive feedback. Forming expectations about receiving positive social reinforcement correlated with neural activity within the medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum across age. Adolescents, unlike children and adults, showed greater insular activity during positive prediction error learning and increased activity in the supplementary motor cortex and the putamen when receiving positive social feedback regardless of the expected outcome, suggesting that peer approval may motivate adolescents toward action. While different amounts of positive social reinforcement enhanced learning in children and adults, all positive social reinforcement equally motivated adolescents. Together, these findings indicate that sensitivity to peer approval during adolescence goes beyond simple reinforcement theory accounts and suggest possible explanations for how peers may motivate adolescent behavior. PMID:24550063

  15. The associations between adolescents' consumption of pornography and music videos and their sexting behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Ponnet, Koen; Walrave, Michel

    2014-12-01

    Several scholars have argued that adolescents' sexting behavior might be influenced by their media use. However, to date, empirical evidence of the link between media socialization and engagement in sexting behavior remains scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether music video and pornography consumption are able to predict a range of sexting behaviors among a sample of 329 adolescents with a mean age of 16.71 years (SD=0.74). The results demonstrate that sexting behaviors were significantly associated with the consumption of pornography, when controlling for age, gender, school track, and Internet use. Taking into account the gender of the adolescents, the significant relationship between engagement in the four types of sexting behavior and pornography use held true for both boys and girls. Music video consumption was only significantly associated with asking someone for a sexting message and having received a sexting message. Further analyses revealed that these significant relationships only held for boys. PMID:25415548

  16. Ontogeny of fear-, anxiety- and depression-related behavior across adolescence in C57BL/6J mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hefner, Kathryn; Holmes, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by behavioral traits such as emotional lability and impulsivity that are associated with increased vulnerability to affective illness and addictions. Research in rodents has found that adolescent rats and mice differ from adults on measures of anxiety-like behavior, novelty-seeking and stress-responsivity. The present study sought to extend these data by evaluating fear-, anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in male C57BL/6J mice aged four (early adolescent),...

  17. Preventing Multiple Risky Behaviors among Adolescents: Seven Strategies. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2011-24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzian, Mary A.; Andrews, Kristine M.; Moore, Kristin Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Taking risks is fairly common in adolescence. Risky behaviors can be associated with serious, long-term, and--in some cases--life-threatening consequences. This is especially the case when adolescents engage in more than one harmful behavior. The tendency for risky behaviors to co-occur has been well-studied. Yet prevention efforts traditionally…

  18. Parent and friend influences on the multiple health behavior of Pacific Islander adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karly S. Geller

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Youth obesity has increased dramatically in the United States, disproportionally affecting Hawaiian populations. The primary research objective was to describe the influence of parent and friends on the dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors of Pacific Islander high school students. Data were collected from classrooms within a private high school on the Hawaiian island Oahu. Participants were Pacific Islander adolescents attending a high school in Hawaii. Participating adolescents completed a questionnaire, followed by a corresponding focus group; specifically reporting the social-level influences on their dietary and activity behaviors. Adolescents then interviewed their parent/guardian, asking questions relative to their perceived health-related influence. Participating adolescents (N = 60 were 53% female with a mean age of 16.93 (SD = 0.63, and their parents/guardians (N = 47 were 75% female with a mean age of 46.72 (SD = 5.11. Outcomes revealed parents/ guardians as the dominant influence on adolescents’ dietary behaviors, and time spent with parents was almost exclusively sedentary. In comparison, adolescents were more active with friends, but shared less healthy dietary habits. Results provide groundwork for similar examinations and culturally tailored interventions among similar adolescent populations.

  19. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Janikian, Mari; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Tzavela, Eleni C; Olafsson, Kjartan; Wójcik, Szymon; Macarie, George Florian; Tzavara, Chara; Richardson, Clive

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N=13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8±0.7) of 14-17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addictive behavior (IAB) and related psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in the participating countries. In the study, we distinguish two problematic groups: adolescents with IAB, characterized by a loss of control over their Internet use, and adolescents "at risk for IAB," showing fewer or weaker symptoms of IAB. The two groups combined form a group of adolescents with dysfunctional Internet behavior (DIB). About 1% of adolescents exhibited IAB and an additional 12.7% were at risk for IAB; thus, in total, 13.9% displayed DIB. The prevalence of DIB was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.2% vs. 12.7%, pgaming) at least 6 days/week was associated with greater probability of displaying DIB. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that DIB was more frequent among adolescents with a lower educational level of the parents, earlier age at first use of the Internet, and greater use of social networking sites and gaming sites. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing (i.e., behavioral) and internalizing (i.e., emotional) problems were associated with the presence of DIB. PMID:24853789

  20. Social exclusion intensifies anxiety-like behavior in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunchan; Noh, Jihyun

    2015-05-01

    Social connection reduces the physiological reactivity to stressors, while social exclusion causes emotional distress. Stressful experiences in rats result in the facilitation of aversive memory and induction of anxiety. To determine the effect of social interaction, such as social connection, social exclusion and equality or inequality, on emotional change in adolescent distressed rats, the emotional alteration induced by restraint stress in individual rats following exposure to various social interaction circumstances was examined. Rats were assigned to one of the following groups: all freely moving rats, all rats restrained, rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats and freely moving rats with a restrained rat. No significant difference in fear-memory and sucrose consumption between all groups was found. Change in body weight significantly increased in freely moving rats with a restrained rat, suggesting that those rats seems to share the stressful experience of the restrained rat. Interestingly, examination of the anxiety-like behavior revealed only rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats to have a significant increase, suggesting that emotional distress intensifies in positions of social exclusion. These results demonstrate that unequally excluded social interaction circumstances could cause the amplification of distressed status and anxiety-related emotional alteration. PMID:25680679

  1. Current perspectives: the impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Charisse L Nixon Pennsylvania State University, the Behrend College, Erie, PA, USA Abstract: Cyberbullying has become an international public health concern among adolescents, and as such, it deserves further study. This paper reviews the current literature related to the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health across multiple studies worldwide and provides directions for future research. A review of the evidence suggests that cyberbullying poses a threat to adolescents' health and well-being. A plethora of correlational studies have demonstrated a cogent relationship between adolescents' involvement in cyberbullying and negative health indices. Adolescents who are targeted via cyberbullying report increased depressive affect, anxiety, loneliness, suicidal behavior, and somatic symptoms. Perpetrators of cyberbullying are more likely to report increased substance use, aggression, and delinquent behaviors. Mediating/moderating processes have been found to influence the relationship between cyberbullying and adolescent health. More longitudinal work is needed to increase our understanding of the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health over time. Prevention and intervention efforts related to reducing cyberbullying and its associated harms are discussed. Keywords: cyberbullying, adolescent health, prevention, intervention

  2. The Influence of Parents in Adolescents? Misbehavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibah Elias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive relationships within the family, parental support, a consistent and constructive parental discipline style and adult supervision tend to be related negatively to adolescents deviant behaviors and their associations with deviant peers. Poor family relationships were found to be associated with higher levels of delinquent behaviors, possibly due to the fact that parents in those families provided poor role models and engaged in ineffective discipline strategies. Problem statement: A considerable number of secondary school students were involved in delinquent behavior and they are not doing well in school. School authorities with the supervision of education departments and the Ministry of Education have done their best to guide and monitor students? discipline. Yet the problems related to misbehavior still occur in schools. A study was conducted on 113 at risk students to examine whether parental factors could contribute to their misbehavior problems. Approach: Interviews were conducted using open ended questions. Data were analyzed qualitatively using in vivo software to extract categories of parental influence. Results and Conclusion: Findings showed that the adolescents do have problems with their families including lack of parental attention, communication problems and poor relationship between parents. The implications of the findings were discussed.

  3. Adolescent Resilience in Northern Uganda: The Role of Social Support and Prosocial Behavior in Reducing Mental Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroz, Emily E.; Murray, Laura K.; Bolton, Paul; Betancourt, Theresa; Bass, Judith K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated relations between prosocial behavior, perceived social support, and improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms over 6 months among 102 Acholi adolescent (14-17 years, 58% female adolescents) survivors of war and displacement in Northern Uganda. Adolescents were assessed using a locally developed screener. Regression analyses…

  4. Adapting Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adolescents Exposed to Interpersonal Trauma: A Case Study with Two Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePrince, Anne P.; Shirk, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence indicates that interpersonal trauma increases risk for adolescent and adult depression. Findings from 4 clinical trials for adolescent depression show poorer response to standard cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) among depressed adolescents with a trauma history than youth without such a history. This paper reports…

  5. Depression and suicidal behavior in adolescents: a multi-informant and multi-methods approach to diagnostic classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AndrewJamesLewis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Informant discrepancies have been reported between parent and adolescent measures of depressive disorders and suicidality. We aimed to examine the concordance between adolescent and parent ratings of depressive disorder using both clinical interview and questionnaire measures and assess multi-informant and multi-method approaches to classification. Method: Within the context of assessment of eligibility for a randomized clinical trial, 50 parent–adolescent pairs (mean age of adolescents = 15.0 years were interviewed separately with a structured diagnostic interview for depression, the KID-SCID. Adolescent self-report and parent-report versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire were also administered. We examined the diagnostic concordance rates of the parent vs. adolescent structured interview methods and the prediction of adolescent diagnosis via questionnaire methods. Results: Parent proxy reporting of adolescent depression and suicidal thoughts and behavior is not strongly concordant with adolescent report. Adolescent self-reported symptoms on depression scales provide a more accurate report of diagnosable adolescent depression than parent proxy reports of adolescent depressive symptoms. Adolescent self-report measures can be combined to improve the accuracy of classification. Parents tend to over report their adolescent’s depressive symptoms while under reporting their suicidal thoughts and behavior. Conclusion: Parent proxy report is clearly less reliable than the adolescent’s own report of their symptoms and subjective experiences, and could be considered inaccurate for research purposes. While parent report would still be sought clinically where an adolescent refuses to provide information, our findings suggest that parent reporting of adolescent suicidality should be interpreted with caution.

  6. Depression and suicidal behavior in adolescents: a multi-informant and multi-methods approach to diagnostic classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew J.; Bertino, Melanie D.; Bailey, Catherine M.; Skewes, Joanna; Lubman, Dan I.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Informant discrepancies have been reported between parent and adolescent measures of depressive disorders and suicidality. We aimed to examine the concordance between adolescent and parent ratings of depressive disorder using both clinical interview and questionnaire measures and assess multi-informant and multi-method approaches to classification. Method: Within the context of assessment of eligibility for a randomized clinical trial, 50 parent–adolescent pairs (mean age of adolescents = 15.0 years) were interviewed separately with a structured diagnostic interview for depression, the KID-SCID. Adolescent self-report and parent-report versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire were also administered. We examined the diagnostic concordance rates of the parent vs. adolescent structured interview methods and the prediction of adolescent diagnosis via questionnaire methods. Results: Parent proxy reporting of adolescent depression and suicidal thoughts and behavior is not strongly concordant with adolescent report. Adolescent self-reported symptoms on depression scales provide a more accurate report of diagnosable adolescent depression than parent proxy reports of adolescent depressive symptoms. Adolescent self-report measures can be combined to improve the accuracy of classification. Parents tend to over report their adolescent’s depressive symptoms while under reporting their suicidal thoughts and behavior. Conclusion: Parent proxy report is clearly less reliable than the adolescent’s own report of their symptoms and subjective experiences, and could be considered inaccurate for research purposes. While parent report would still be sought clinically where an adolescent refuses to provide information, our findings suggest that parent reporting of adolescent suicidality should be interpreted with caution. PMID:25101031

  7. The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsitt, Lewis P., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    These 12 monthly newsletters from 1996 explore the many problems encountered by children and adolescents as they grow up. Regular departments in the newsletter issues include "Keep Your Eye On...," which briefly presents results of research into childhood and adolescent problems; "What's New in Research," summarizing research from recent…

  8. The Impact of Sleep on Learning and Behavior in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitru, Georgios; Millrood, Daniel L.; Mateika, Jason H.

    2002-01-01

    Many adolescents experience sleep deprivation due to such factors as academic workload and social and employment opportunities. The ability to effectively interact with peers while learning and processing new information may be diminished in sleep deprived adolescents. Some school districts are changing school start times to allow students more…

  9. Adolescents' expectations for the future predict health behaviors in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade, Thomas W; Chyu, Laura; Duncan, Greg J; Hoyt, Lindsay T; Doane, Leah D; Adam, Emma K

    2011-08-01

    Health-related behaviors in adolescence establish trajectories of risk for obesity and chronic degenerative diseases, and they represent an important pathway through which socio-economic environments shape patterns of morbidity and mortality. Most behaviors that promote health involve making choices that may not pay off until the future, but the factors that predict an individual's investment in future health are not known. In this paper we consider whether expectations for the future in two domains relevant to adolescents in the U.S.-perceived chances of living to middle age and perceived chances of attending college-are associated with an individual's engagement in behaviors that protect health in the long run. We focus on adolescence as an important life stage during which habits formed may shape trajectories of disease risk later in life. We use data from a large, nationally representative sample of American youth (the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) to predict levels of physical activity, fast food consumption, and cigarette smoking in young adulthood in relation to perceived life chances in adolescence, controlling for baseline health behaviors and a wide range of potentially confounding factors. We found that adolescents who rated their chances of attending college more highly exercised more frequently and smoked fewer cigarettes in young adulthood. Adolescents with higher expectations of living to age 35 smoked fewer cigarettes as young adults. Parental education was a significant predictor of perceived life chances, as well as health behaviors, but for each outcome the effects of perceived life chances were independent of, and often stronger than, parental education. Perceived life chances in adolescence may therefore play an important role in establishing individual trajectories of health, and in contributing to social gradients in population health. PMID:21764487

  10. The Cognitive Processes underlying Affective Decision-making Predicting Adolescent Smoking Behaviors in a Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LinXiao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th grade to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1, we tested these adolescents’ decision-making using the Iowa Gambling Task and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the one-year follow-up (Time 2. The Expectancy-Valence (EV Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains versus losses; (ii a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes versus past experiences; and (iii a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population.

  11. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401 and females (1507 aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use, physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p p p p Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

  12. Sharing and giving across adolescence: An experimental study examining the development of prosocial behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BernaGüro?lu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we use economic exchange games to examine the development of prosocial behavior in the form of sharing and giving in social interactions with peers across adolescence. Participants from four age groups (9-, 12-, 15-, and 18-year-olds, total N=119 played three types of distribution games and the Trust game with four different interaction partners: friends, antagonists, neutral classmates, and anonymous peers. Nine- and 12-year-olds showed similar levels of prosocial behavior to all interaction partners, whereas older adolescents showed increasing differentiation in prosocial behavior depending on the relation with peers, with most prosocial behavior towards friends. The age related increase in non-costly prosocial behavior towards friends was mediated by self-reported perspective-taking skills. Current findings extend existing evidence on the developmental patterns of fairness considerations from childhood into late adolescence. Together, we show that adolescents are increasingly better at incorporating social context into decision-making. Our findings further highlight the role of friendships as a significant social context for the development of prosocial behavior in early adolescence.

  13. Sharing and giving across adolescence: an experimental study examining the development of prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güro?lu, Berna; van den Bos, Wouter; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-01-01

    In this study we use economic exchange games to examine the development of prosocial behavior in the form of sharing and giving in social interactions with peers across adolescence. Participants from four age groups (9-, 12-, 15-, and 18-year-olds, total N = 119) played three types of distribution games and the Trust game with four different interaction partners: friends, antagonists, neutral classmates, and anonymous peers. Nine- and 12-year-olds showed similar levels of prosocial behavior to all interaction partners, whereas older adolescents showed increasing differentiation in prosocial behavior depending on the relation with peers, with most prosocial behavior toward friends. The age related increase in non-costly prosocial behavior toward friends was mediated by self-reported perspective-taking skills. Current findings extend existing evidence on the developmental patterns of fairness considerations from childhood into late adolescence. Together, we show that adolescents are increasingly better at incorporating social context into decision-making. Our findings further highlight the role of friendships as a significant social context for the development of prosocial behavior in early adolescence. PMID:24782796

  14. Predictors of Adolescents' Pornography : Level of Sexual Behavior and Family Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbobe Ghavidel Heidari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate on relationship among family environment, pornography and sexual behavior of adolescents. Pornography may start from early youth along with starting of sexual behavior. Therefore it is important that the role of family factors in pornography be studied.Materials and methods: The sample includes 362 students who were chosen by Proportional Cluster method from the first grade of High School (14 and 15 years old. The research instruments were Schaefer’s Family Environment Scales (FES, a researcher made Sexual Behaviors Scale (SBS, and Pornography Scale (PS.Results: The results indicate that there is a positive significant relationship between sexual Behaviors Scale (SBS and pornography and there is a positive significant relationship between levels of coldness in family relationship and adolescents’ Freedom. Also the result of stepwise regression shows, in the first step, level of sexual behavior is the strongest variable that predicts .42 of variance of adolescent's pornography. In the second step, Coldness in family relationship determines .05 of variances of pornography of adolescents. Gender differentiates shows that boys' pornography is more than for girls.Conclusion: Therefore coldness in family relationship is related with pornography and sexual behavior of adolescents.

  15. Assessing causality in the relationship between adolescents' risky sexual online behavior and their perceptions of this behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgartner, S.E.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the causal nature of the relationship between adolescents’ risky sexual behavior on the internet and their perceptions of this behavior. Engagement in the following online behaviors was assessed: searching online for someone to talk about sex, searching online for someone to have sex, sending intimate photos or videos to someone online, and sending one’s telephone number and address to someone exclusively known online. The relationship between the...

  16. Genetic influences on adolescent sexual behavior: Why genes matter for environmentally oriented researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, K Paige

    2014-03-01

    There are dramatic individual differences among adolescents in how and when they become sexually active adults, and early sexual activity is frequently cited as a cause of concern for scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Understanding the causes and developmental impact of adolescent sexual activity can be furthered by considering genes as a source of individual differences. Quantitative behavioral genetics (i.e., twin and family studies) and candidate gene association studies now provide clear evidence for the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in adolescent sexual behavior and related phenotypes. Genetic influences on sexual behavior may operate through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, including pubertal development, testosterone levels, and dopaminergic systems. Genetic differences may be systematically associated with exposure to environments that are commonly treated as causes of sexual behavior (gene-environment correlation). Possible gene-environment correlations pose a serious challenge for interpreting the results of much behavioral research. Multivariate, genetically informed research on adolescent sexual behavior compares twins and family members as a form of quasi experiment: How do twins who differ in their sexual experiences differ in their later development? The small but growing body of genetically informed research has already challenged dominant assumptions regarding the etiology and sequelae of adolescent sexual behavior, with some studies indicating possible positive effects of teenage sexuality. Studies of Gene × Environment interaction may further elucidate the mechanisms by which genes and environments combine to shape the development of sexual behavior and its psychosocial consequences. Overall, the existence of heritable variation in adolescent sexual behavior has profound implications for environmentally oriented theory and research. PMID:23855958

  17. Adapting Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adolescents Exposed to Interpersonal Trauma: A Case Study With Two Teens

    OpenAIRE

    DePrince, Anne P.; Shirk, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence indicates that interpersonal trauma increases risk for adolescent and adult depression. Findings from 4 clinical trials for adolescent depression show poorer response to standard cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) among depressed adolescents with a trauma history than youth without such a history. This paper reports on the development of a modified CBT (mCBT) protocol that has been adapted for treating depressed adolescents who have been exposed to traumatic int...

  18. Adolescents with Childhood ADHD and Comorbid Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Aggression, Anger, and Hostility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, Seth C.; Miller, Carlin J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the self-reported expression of overt aggressive behaviors and covert emotional and cognitive processes in adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) during childhood. Methods: Participants were a clinically referred sample of 85 individuals diagnosed with ADHD, initially recruited in the…

  19. Risk Taking in Late Adolescence: Relations between Sociomoral Reasoning, Risk Stance, and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Leigh A.; Amsel, Eric; Schillo, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    This study explored relations among late adolescents' sociomoral reasoning about risk taking, risk stance, and behavior. One-hundred and thirty-two participants (18-20-year-olds) were surveyed about their own risk stance (Avoidant, Opportunistic, Curious, Risk Seeking) and behavior in three realms (Alcohol Use, Drug Use, Reckless Driving), and…

  20. Developmental Changes in Dopamine Neurotransmission in Adolescence: Behavioral Implications and Issues in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, Dustin; Collins, Paul; White, Tonya; Luciana, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increased risk-taking, novelty-seeking, and locomotor activity, all of which suggest a heightened appetitive drive. The neurotransmitter dopamine is typically associated with behavioral activation and heightened forms of appetitive behavior in mammalian species, and this pattern of activation has been described in…

  1. Detachment from Parents, Problem Behaviors, and the Moderating Role of Parental Support among Italian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Ugo; Zappulla, Carla

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of emotional detachment from parents, parental support, and problem behaviors and focused on the unique and common contribution that detachment and parental support made to internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. A total of 461 young adolescents, 13 to 14 years old ("M" = 13.4;…

  2. Counterconformity: An Attribution Model of Adolescents' Uniqueness-Seeking Behaviors in Dressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, I-Ling

    2008-01-01

    This article explores how an attribution model will illustrate uniqueness-seeking behavior in dressing in the Taiwanese adolescent subculture. The study employed 443 senior high school students. Results show that the tendency of uniqueness-seeking behavior in dressing is moderate. However, using cluster analysis to segment the counterconformity…

  3. Randomized Trial of Anger Control Training for Adolescents with Tourette's Syndrome and Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhdolsky, Denis G.; Vitulano, Lawrence A.; Carroll, Deirdre H.; McGuire, Joseph; Leckman, James F.; Scahill, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    A randomized trial to examine the efficacy of anger control training for treating adolescents with Tourette's syndrome and disruptive behavior reveals that those administered with the anger control training showed a decrease in their Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale score by 52 percent as compared with a decrease of 11 percent in the treatment as…

  4. Parent Academic Involvement as Related to School Behavior, Achievement, and Aspirations: Demographic Variations Across Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nancy E.; Castellino, Domini R.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Nowlin, Patrick; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2004-01-01

    A longitudinal model of parent academic involvement, behavioral problems, achievement, and aspirations was examined for 463 adolescents, followed from 7th (approximately 12 years old) through 11th (approximately 16 years old) grades. Parent academic involvement in 7th grade was negatively related to 8th-grade behavioral problems and positively…

  5. Increased Risk for School Violence-Related Behaviors among Adolescents with Insufficient Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Aimee K.; Daly, Brian P.; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Brooks-Holliday, Stephanie; Kloss, Jacqueline D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: School violence is associated with significant acute and long-term negative health outcomes. Previous investigations have largely neglected the role of pertinent health behaviors in school violence, including sleep. Insufficient sleep is associated with adverse physical, behavioral, and psychosocial consequences among adolescents, many…

  6. Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors and School-Based Sexually Transmitted Infection/HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Christy M.; Meyers, Adena B.; Landau, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Many adolescents are susceptible to negative outcomes associated with sexual behavior. This is particularly true for those who initiate sexual intercourse at an early age, have many sex partners, or engage in unprotected sex because these behaviors put one at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. This article reviews the…

  7. Families, Neighborhood Socio-Demographic Factors, and Violent Behaviors among Latino, White, and Black Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Martinez, Lorena M.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy J.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Pedraza, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Youth violence is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among Blacks and Latinos. Violent behaviors within Latino subgroups and the reasons for subgroup differences are not well understood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 16,615), this study examined the risk for violent behaviors among an ethnically…

  8. Children's Attachment Representations: Longitudinal Relations to School Behavior and Academic Competence in Middle Childhood and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Teresa; Hofmann, Volker

    1997-01-01

    Examined relation of 7-year olds' attachment representations to later behavior and academic competency during middle childhood and adolescence. Controlled for social class, gender, IQ, perspective-taking ability, and prior competency. Found that attachment representations did not predict disruptive behavior or extroversion, but secure…

  9. Frogs Sell Beer: The Effects of Beer Advertisements on Adolescent Drinking Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.

    This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…

  10. Effects of Youth Assets on Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, Marijuana Use, and Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael S.; Kitts, Cathy; Lewis, Sandy; Goodrow, Bruce; Scherzer, Gary D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alcohol, tobacco, marijuana use, and sexual behaviors are consistently reported by high school students in the United States and can contribute to reduced quality of life. Empirical research finds that many assets may act as a protective factor for adolescent risk behaviors. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the…

  11. Development of an Attachment-Informed Measure of Sexual Behavior in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szielasko, Alicia L.; Symons, Douglas K.; Price, E. Lisa

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new…

  12. The Contribution of Organized Youth Sport to Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in Adolescent Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Esther A.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Biesta, Gert J. J.; Schuengel, Carlo; Dirks, Evelien; Hoeksma, Jan B.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the contribution of organized youth sport to antisocial and prosocial behavior in adolescent athletes. The sample consisted of N = 260 male and female soccer players and competitive swimmers, 12 to 18 years of age. Multilevel regression analysis revealed that 8% of the variance in antisocial behavior and 7% of the…

  13. Behavioral, Personality, and Communicative Predictors of Acceptance and Popularity in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the behavioral, personality, and communicative predictors of acceptance and popularity in 608 early adolescents. Data were collected with sociometric methods and ratings in 30 sixth-grade classrooms. Hierarchical regressions were run to predict acceptance and popularity from prosocial, antisocial, and withdrawn behavior,…

  14. A Latent Growth Curve Analysis of Prosocial Behavior among Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J.; Randall, Brandy A.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate stability and changes in prosocial behavior and the parent and peer correlates of prosocial behavior in rural adolescents. Participants were from a rural, low SES community in the Eastern United States. The participants were in 7th, 8th, and 9th grades at Time 1 and 10th, 11th, and 12th grades at Time…

  15. Adolescent Resource Control: Associations with Physical and Relational Aggression, Prosocial and Withdrawn Behaviors, and Peer Regard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findley, Danielle; Ojanen, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    This study examined adolescent coercive and prosocial resource control strategies in relation to various indices of peer-reported behaviors and peer regard ("N" = 384; 12-14 years). Coercive control was uniquely positively related to physical and relational aggression and peer disliking, and negatively to prosocial behaviors when…

  16. Predictors of Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in an Adolescent Sports Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Esther A.; Schuengel, Carlo; Dirks, Evelien; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Biesta, Gert J. J.; Hoeksma, Jan B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined antisocial and prosocial behavior of N = 439 adolescent athletes between 14 and 17 years of age (67 teams). Multi-level analyses showed that team membership explained 20 and 13 percent of the variance in antisocial and prosocial behavior in the sports context, respectively. The team effects suggest that aggregating antisocial…

  17. Self-Reported Weight Perceptions, Dieting Behavior, and Breakfast Eating among High School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullig, Keith; Ubbes, Valerie A.; Pyle, Jennifer; Valois, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among weight perceptions, dieting behavior, and breakfast eating in 4597 public high school adolescents using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were constructed separately for race and gender groups via SUDAAN (Survey Data…

  18. Bullying Behavior, Parents' Work Hours and Early Adolescents' Perceptions of Time Spent with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Keil, Jacqueline M.; Laske, Mary Therese; Stewart, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationships among bullying behavior, mother's and father's work hours, and early adolescents' perceptions of whether they spend sufficient time with their parents. In cross-sectional models, we find maternal work hours are modestly associated with increases in bullying behavior. However, in more rigorous change…

  19. Gender Differences in the Suicide-Related Behaviors of Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lewinsohn, Peter; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John; Monson, Candice M.; Meyer, Kathryn A.; Langford, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Examines sex differences in suicide-related behaviors in older adolescents and young adults. Males reported more risk-taking, more injury-producing, and more negative health-related behaviors than did females. Females reported more depression symptoms than did males. Hopelessness scores differed among male and female young adults. (MMU)

  20. A Prospective Study of Extreme Weight Change Behaviors among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined changes in extreme weight change attitudes and behaviors (exercise dependence, food supplements, drive for thinness, bulimia) among adolescent boys and girls over a 16 month period. It also investigated the impact of body mass index, puberty, body image, depression and positive affect on these attitudes and behaviors 16 months…

  1. Mother-Adolescent Conflict as a Mediator between Adolescent Problem Behaviors and Maternal Psychological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeger, Christine M.; Gondoli, Dawn M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined mother-adolescent conflict as a mediator of longitudinal reciprocal relations between adolescent aggression and depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control. Motivated by family systems theory and the transactions that occur between individual and dyadic levels of the family system, we examined the connections among…

  2. Reprint of: The myth of conformity: adolescents and abstention from unhealthy drinking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Carter; Wallace, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent peer groups with pro-drinking group norms are a well-established source of influence for alcohol initiation and use. However, classic experimental studies of social influence, namely 'minority influence', clearly indicate social situations in which an individual can resist conforming to the group norm. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health ("Add Health"), a nationally representative sample of adolescents, we find evidence that being a non-drinking adolescent does not unilaterally put youth at risk for drinking onset when faced with a friendship network where the majority of friends drink. Our results also show that a non-drinking adolescent with a majority of drinking friends is significantly less likely to initiate alcohol abuse if he or she has a minority of non-drinking friend(s). Furthermore, a drinking adolescent with a majority of friends who drink has a decreased probability of continuing to drink and has overall lower levels of consumption if he or she has a minority of friends who do not drink. Our findings recognize that adolescent in-group friendships are a mix of behavioral profiles and can perhaps help adolescents continue or begin to abstain alcohol use even when in a friendship group supportive of alcohol use. PMID:25442971

  3. Change in Parents’ Monitoring Knowledge: Links with Parenting, Relationship Quality, Adolescent Beliefs, and Antisocial Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    LAIRD, ROBERT D.; Pettit, Gregory S.; DODGE, KENNETH A.; Bates, John E.

    2003-01-01

    A longitudinal prospective design was used to examine antisocial behavior, two aspects of the parent–child relationship, inept parenting, and adolescents’ beliefs in the appropriateness of monitoring as predictors of parents’ monitoring and change in monitoring during the high school years. 426 adolescents provided reports of their parents’ monitoring knowledge during four yearly assessments beginning the summer before entering grade 9. Greater concurrent levels of monitoring knowledg...

  4. Dynamics of adolescent friendship networks and smoking behavior: social network analyses in six European countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Ta, Snijders Prof; Liesbeth Mercken; Christian Steglich; Hein de Vries

    2009-01-01

    The co-evolution of adolescents' friendship networks and their smoking behavior is examined in a large sample across six European countries. Selection and influence processes are disentangled using new methods of social network analysis that enable alternative selection mechanisms to be controlled for. The sample consisted of 7704 adolescents participating in the control group of the ESFA (European Smoking prevention Framework Approach) study. The design was longitudinal with four observation...

  5. Adolescents’ Text Message Communication and Growth in Antisocial Behavior across the First Year of High School

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; UNDERWOOD, MARION K.; Ackerman, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether adolescents communicate about antisocial topics and behaviors via text messaging and how adolescents’ antisocial text message communication relates to growth in rule-breaking and aggression as reported by youth, parents, and teachers. Participants (n = 172; 82 girls) received BlackBerry devices configured to capture all text messages sent and received. Four days of text messages during the 9th grade year were coded for discussion of antisocial act...

  6. The Role of Parental Monitoring in Metabolic Control: Effect on Adherence and Externalizing Behaviors During Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, Dwayne; Berg, Cynthia A.; Butner, Jonathan; Wiebe, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective?We examined the role of parental monitoring (general and diabetes specific) on metabolic control through better adherence and lower externalizing behaviors for adolescents with type 1 diabetes.?Methods?Adolescents aged 10–14 (n = 252) completed assessments of general and diabetes-specific mothers’ and fathers’ monitoring, adherence, and the Youth Self Report (YSR). Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) indexed diabetes control.?Results?Path analyses revealed that perceived...

  7. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M; Abahussain Nada A; Al-Sobayel Hana I; Qahwaji Dina M; Musaiger Abdulrahman O

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in...

  8. Mexican American Adolescents’ Cultural Orientation, Externalizing Behavior and Academic Engagement: The Role of Traditional Cultural Values

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Nancy A.; Germa?n, Miguelina; Kim, Su Yeong; George, Preethy; Fabrett, Fairlee C.; Millsap, Roger; Dumka, Larry E.

    2008-01-01

    This study of 598 7th grade students of Mexican origin examined the role of traditional cultural values as a mediator of the effects of immigrant status, Mexican cultural orientation and Anglo cultural orientation on adolescent externalizing behavior and academic engagement. Immigrant status of adolescents and their maternal caregivers uniquely predicted increased Mexican cultural orientation and decreased Anglo cultural orientation, and both Mexican and Anglo cultural orientation related pos...

  9. Language Brokering Contexts and Behavioral and Emotional Adjustment among Latino Parents and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Charles R.; Mcclure, Heather H.; Eddy, J. Mark

    2009-01-01

    This study examined behavioral and emotional adjustment in family contexts in which there was high versus low demand for adolescents to serve as language brokers in a sample of 73 recently immigrated Latino families with middle-school-aged adolescents. Language brokering was conceptualized as a family process rather than merely an individual phenomenon. Multiple agents were used to assess language brokering and parent and youth adjustment. Results indicated that high language brokering contex...

  10. Crash Injury Risk Behavior in Adolescent Latino Males: The Power of Friends and Relational Connections

    OpenAIRE

    Vaca, Federico E; Craig L. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    The adolescent Latino male mortality profile is an anomaly when compared to an otherwise more favorable overall U.S. Latino population mortality profile. Motor vehicle crash fatalities bear a considerable proportion of mortality burden in this vulnerable population. Friend influence and relational connection are two contextual domains that may mediate crash injury risk behavior in these adolescents. Our study goal was to assess the role of friend influence over time and relational connections...

  11. Sleep and Emotional and Behavioral Symptoms in Adolescents with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Teija Pirinen; Kaija-Leena Kolho; Merja Ashorn; Aronen, Eeva T.

    2014-01-01

    The current study assessed the associations between sleep and psychosocial symptoms in 157 Finnish adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Sleep trouble was self-rated in Sleep Self-Report (SSR) and in Youth Self-Report (YSR). Psychosocial symptoms of the adolescents were assessed by the YSR and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Patients reporting sleep trouble had significantly more psychosocial symptoms than their counterparts without sleep trouble. This was shown in the CBCL and ...

  12. Epidemiology of internet behaviors and addiction among adolescents in six Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lai, Ching-Man; Watanabe, Hiroko; Kim, Dong-Il; Bahar, Norharlina; Ramos, Milen; Young, Kimberly S; Ho, Roger C M; Aum, Na-Rae; Cheng, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    Internet addiction has become a serious behavioral health problem in Asia. However, there are no up-to-date country comparisons. The Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS) screens and compares the prevalence of Internet behaviors and addiction in adolescents in six Asian countries. A total of 5,366 adolescents aged 12-18 years were recruited from six Asian countries: China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Participants completed a structured questionnaire on their Internet use in the 2012-2013 school year. Internet addiction was assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R). The variations in Internet behaviors and addiction across countries were examined. The overall prevalence of smartphone ownership is 62%, ranging from 41% in China to 84% in South Korea. Moreover, participation in online gaming ranges from 11% in China to 39% in Japan. Hong Kong has the highest number of adolescents reporting daily or above Internet use (68%). Internet addiction is highest in the Philippines, according to both the IAT (5%) and the CIAS-R (21%). Internet addictive behavior is common among adolescents in Asian countries. Problematic Internet use is prevalent and characterized by risky cyberbehaviors. PMID:25405785

  13. The "immigrant paradox" phenomenon: assessing problem behaviors and risk factors among immigrant and native adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Heejung; Mobley, Michael

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the "immigrant paradox" phenomenon by examining differences in problem behavior engagement and exposure to risk factors across four adolescent groups: 1,157 first-generation, 1,498 second-generation, and 3,316 White and minority third or higher generations. Latent mean differences in problem behavior engagement (i.e., academic failure, aggression, and substance use) and risk factors (i.e., low socioeconomic status, poor family relationship, and low sense of school belonging) were associated with significant differences across adolescent groups. Results supported the generational status effect by demonstrating sequentially greater adolescent problem behavior engagement. However, the difference in exposure to risk factors across adolescent groups only partially supported the immigrant paradox. Further, the multiple group analysis of the relationships between risk factors and engagement in problem behaviors showed increased susceptibility among second generation immigrants for substance use, White natives for academic failure and substance use, and minority natives for physical aggression. Study findings have implications for understanding how the immigrant paradox leads to different adjustment patterns and problem behavior manifestations among immigrant and native adolescents. PMID:25037844

  14. International note: Teen users' problematic online behavior: using panel data from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Kim, Jinhee

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors of teen users' problematic online behaviors using data from the Korea Youth Panel Survey (KYPS) collected over a four-year period. Problematic online behaviors included unauthorized ID use, disguising one's age or gender while chatting online, and cursing/insulting someone in a chat room or on a bulletin board. Results from the panel data analyses showed that many adolescents explored and discontinued engaging in online delinquency as they got older. Respondents' offline behaviors and self-control were significantly associated with problematic online behaviors, supporting the importance of internal traits. Peer effects were consistently more important than parental effects on teen's online delinquency. Increases in time spent using a computer also contributed to the likelihood of problematic online behaviors. PMID:25621406

  15. Temperament of Juvenile Delinquents with History of Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Ling Chang

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiological factors and interrelations of juvenile delinquents, with psychiatricmorbidity and substance abuse have been continuously debated.Cloninger’s Tridimensional Theory of Temperament has been reported topredict patterns of substance abuse and comorbidity. In the current study, weaimed to examine the usability of the theory in predicting juvenile delinquencyand substance abuse.Methods: Sixty consecutive and newly incarcerated male delinquents with history ofsubstance abuse were recruited from a juvenile correctional facility in northwesternTaiwan from January 2002 through December 2003. All subjectswere assessed of their temperament, behavioral problems, and psychiatricdisorders on an individual base.Results: The juvenile delinquent subjects with childhood history of attention deficitand hyperactivity disorder (ADHD were significantly younger, consumedless betel nuts, and had more siblings with history of drug abuse.Conclusion: Consistent with the results of Cloninger’s studies, novelty seeking positivelycorrelated to the amount of substance abuse, while harm avoidance inverselycorrelated in juvenile delinquents. Endemic trend of choice of substanceabuse needs to be taken into consideration in future research projects.

  16. Friendship Quality, Peer Group Affiliation, and Peer Antisocial Behavior as Moderators of the Link Between Negative Parenting and Adolescent Externalizing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Criss, Michael M.; Pettit, Gregory S.; DODGE, KENNETH A.; Bates, John E.

    2003-01-01

    Quality of peer relationships and perceived peer antisocial behavior were examined as moderators of the link between negative parenting and externalizing behavior problems in school from middle childhood to early adolescence. Data on negative parenting (i.e., unilateral parental decision making, low supervision and awareness, and harsh discipline) were collected from 362 parents in the summer preceding the adolescents’ entry into Grade 6. Adolescent reports of positive peer relationships an...

  17. Identifying key topics for a description of sexual behavior among Danish adolescents: A qualitative study.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Marianne Johansson; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    Background: Surveying sexual behavior in the general population serves to identify critical points, monitor the effects, and interpret changes in the spread of sexually transmitted infection. Aim: The aim of this qualitative study was to identify points of particular importance to adolescents’ sexual behavior in order to initiate and design a behavior surveillance programme in Denmark. Methods: We conducted four semi-structured focus group interviews with a total of 19 sexually experienced adolescents aged 18 to 23. Boys and girls were interviewed separately. Each group contained pupils from one Danish Folk High School, but with different social and educational backgrounds. The interview guide was developed from literature reviews and hypotheses based on years of experience with sexually transmitted infections. Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative description. Results: Four major categories of risk behavior were identified: Alcohol consumption is associated with “no condom use”, Nights on the town and meetings in foreign counties or at festivals are associated with one night stands and often lead to unsafe sex, Low self-esteem increases the risk of pushing one’s personal boundaries, thus resulting in promiscuous sexual behavior and Increased sexual experience is associated with lack of condom use. Conclusion: Danish adolescents identified four key elements that could lead to unsafe sex. These results differed slightly from our expectations and will be included in a sexual behavior questionnaire to describe important elements influencing the sexual behavior of Adolescents.

  18. Gender and ethnic differences in health-promoting behaviors of rural adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rew, Lynn; Arheart, Kristopher L; Horner, Sharon D; Thompson, Sanna; Johnson, Karen E

    2015-06-01

    Although much is known about health-risk behaviors of adolescents, less is known about their health-promoting behaviors. The purpose of this analysis was to compare health-promoting behaviors in adolescents in Grades 9-12 by gender and ethnicity and explore how these behaviors changed over time. Data were collected from 878 rural adolescents (47.5% Hispanic; mean age at baseline 14.7 years). Males from all ethnic groups scored significantly higher than all females on physical activity; non-Hispanic Black males and females scored significantly higher than other ethnic groups on safety behaviors. Hispanic and non-Hispanic White females scored higher than males in these ethnic groups on stress management. Nutrition, physical activity, and safety behaviors decreased significantly for most participants from Grade 9 to 12 whereas stress management remained relatively stable. Findings are similar to those from nationally representative samples that analyzed cross-sectional data and have implications for school nursing interventions to improve health-promoting behaviors in rural adolescents. PMID:25037685

  19. Eating behavior: do adolescents with diabetes eat differently compared to healthy adolescent?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaufort, C d; Damsgaard, M T

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Comparison between eating habits of 11 and 15 years healthy adolescents and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in 18 countries worldwide. The Health Behaviour in School-age children (HBSC) study, a WHO collaborative cross-national study, (www.HBSC.org) has started to evaluate different aspects of health of adolescents world wide since 1983. As the diet is one of the corner stones of the treatment of diabetes, the Hvidoere study group has investigated whether eating habits in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) differ from their healthy peers, in using the same questions as developed by the HBSC study. Methodology: Questionnaires were obtained in 18 countries by both HBSC and HSG. Details on data collection for both groups have been reported previously (1, 2). Results are given in age standardized prevalences (percentages) by study and by sex as well as age adjusted odds ratios between the two populations. Results: In absolute numbers, 94387 healthy and 1483 adolescents with T1DM provided answers to the HBSC questions. Significant differences were observed between the countries as well between the healthy and the population with T1DM with respect to the frequency of breakfast, fruit intake, sweets and soft drinks. Vegetables intake was not significantly different between adolescents with and without diabetes, however between countries important differences were reported. Conclusion: Within countries, adolescents with T1DM report a healthier approach towards food intake compared with their non diabetic peers. Between countries very important

  20. Behavioral interventions for the control of tuberculosis among adolescents.

    OpenAIRE

    Morisky, D. E.; Malotte, C. K.; Ebin, V.; Davidson, P.; Cabrera, D.; Trout, P. T.; Coly, A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Activation of latent tuberculosis infection into tuberculosis disease (TB), the primary killer among infectious diseases worldwide, can be prevented with six months of anti-TB medication. A large percentage of adolescents started on medication, however, fail to complete their treatment. The authors developed and tested the effects of innovative educational strategies on infected adolescents at two health centers serving ethnically diverse populations. METHODS: The authors used a r...

  1. Bullying Behaviors in Children and Adolescents: “An Ongoing Story”

    OpenAIRE

    Tsitsika, Artemis Kimon; Barlou, Efi; Andrie, Elisabeth; Dimitropoulou, Christine; Tzavela, Eleni C.; Janikian, Mari; Tsolia, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Bullying in school-aged children is a universal problem, which continues to be a serious threat to physical and emotional health of children and adolescents. This article highlights the prevalence, the common characteristics of bullies and victims, as well as the short- and long-term impact of bullying involvement. Key areas highlighted include the efficacy of bullying prevention programs, which can help health care providers to assess and provide interventions to children and adolescents aff...

  2. Bullying behaviors in children and adolescents: "an ongoing story".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsika, Artemis Kimon; Barlou, Efi; Andrie, Elisabeth; Dimitropoulou, Christine; Tzavela, Eleni C; Janikian, Mari; Tsolia, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Bullying in school-aged children is a universal problem, which continues to be a serious threat to physical and emotional health of children and adolescents. This article highlights the prevalence, the common characteristics of bullies and victims, as well as the short- and long-term impact of bullying involvement. Key areas highlighted include the efficacy of bullying prevention programs, which can help health care providers to assess and provide interventions to children and adolescents affected by bullying. PMID:24575396

  3. Behavior and injury in urban and rural adolescents.

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, A. W.; Harris, S. K.; Ensminger, M. E.; Ryan, S; Alexander, C; Green, B.; STARFIELD, B.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the consistency of factors associated with adolescent injury in separate urban and rural samples. SAMPLES: Adolescents, 11-17 years old, in public schools in urban and rural Maryland (n = 2,712). METHODS: Separate bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted for each sample to determine individual and environmental factors associated with major and minor injuries experienced in the previous year. RESULTS: Multivariate analyses revealed that, fo...

  4. The Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Supplement: 7 Sessions of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Charles; Scudder, Meleney; Kaminer, Yifrah; Kaden, Ron

    This manual, a supplement to "Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users: 5 Sessions, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 1", presents a seven-session cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT7) approach designed especially for adolescent cannabis users. It addresses the implementation and…

  5. Pathways from Parental Knowledge and Warmth to Adolescent Marijuana Use: An Extension to the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lac, Andrew; ALVARO, EUSEBIO M.; Crano, William D.; SIEGEL, JASON T.

    2009-01-01

    Despite research indicating that effective parenting plays an important protective role in adolescent risk behaviors, few studies have applied theory to examine this link with marijuana use, especially with national data. In the current study (N=2,141), we hypothesized that parental knowledge (of adolescent activities and whereabouts) and parental warmth are antecedents of adolescents’ marijuana beliefs—attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control—as posited by the Theo...

  6. Peer Pressure Is the Prime Driver of Risky Sexual Behaviors among School Adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Amsale Cherie; Yemane Berhane

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding ecological factors that influence risky sexual behavior of adolescents is vital in designing and implementing sexual risk reduction interventions in specific contexts. Interventions undertaken without understanding the critical factors may not produce the desired results. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with adolescent risky sexual behavior among school adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: This cross-sectional s...

  7. The prevalence and correlates of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health among Southern Brazil adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa Filho Valter; de Campos Wagner; Bozza Rodrigo; Lopes Adair da

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The adoption of health-related behaviors is an important part of adolescence. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of the isolated and simultaneous presence of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health (BRFCH) among adolescents in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,628 adolescents (aged 11-17.9?years, 52.5% males) that were randomly selected from 44 public schools. Self-report instruments were used to asse...

  8. Sleep and emotional and behavioral symptoms in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirinen, Teija; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Ashorn, Merja; Aronen, Eeva T

    2014-01-01

    The current study assessed the associations between sleep and psychosocial symptoms in 157 Finnish adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Sleep trouble was self-rated in Sleep Self-Report (SSR) and in Youth Self-Report (YSR). Psychosocial symptoms of the adolescents were assessed by the YSR and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Patients reporting sleep trouble had significantly more psychosocial symptoms than their counterparts without sleep trouble. This was shown in the CBCL and YSR scales of total problems (P < 0.01), anxious/depressed mood (P < 0.05), and aggressive behavior (P < 0.01). Additionally, SSR sleep problem subscale scores indicating lower sleep quality (bedtime, sleep behavior) associated significantly with attention problems (P < 0.05). These results point out that sleep trouble should be recognized and treated in adolescents with IBD to possibly avoid the emerging of psychosocial symptoms. PMID:24876973

  9. Association Between Sports Participation and Sedentary Behavior During School Recess Among Brazilian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Silva Diego Augusto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the association between sports participation and sedentary behavior during school recess among Brazilian adolescents. This study included 2,243 adolescents aged 13-18 years (16.2 ± 1.1, 62.2% females and 37.8% males, enrolled in public high schools in Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. Sedentary behavior during school recess and sport participation was self-reported. Several factors were examined, including sex, age, skin color, socioeconomic status, maternal education and physical activity level. Sixty percent of adolescents had sedentary behavior during school recess and 57.7% of adolescents reported that they did not participate in any team sport. Additionally, adolescents who did not practice any team sport were 40% more likely (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.8 to be sedentary during school recess compared to those who participated in two or more team sports. It is recommended that schools encourage students to engage in sports activities and promote more physical activity during school recess to reduce the sedentary behavior and increase physical activity levels in youth.

  10. Screening diagnostics of antivital experiences and propensity toward impulsive, autoagressive behavior in adolescents (preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bannikov G.S.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of methods for revealing antivital experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior in educational institutions is one of the key steps in developing strategies for the primary prevention of suicidal behavior in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to develop an effective screening diagnostic package aimed at identifying antivital experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior. The survey methods we used were: Beck Hopelessness Scale, Russell Loneliness Scale, A.G. Shmelev Suicide Risk Questionnaire, PDQ-IV Borderline disorder and Narcissism scales. At the first stage we examined 750 minors aged 12-18 and identified risk group (85 people – 11.4%, which included adolescents with high levels of both individual scales, and their combination. At the second stage we examined 10 adolescents at risk. In 7 of them (70% were identified antivital, suicidal thoughts of passive or compulsive nature, signs of subjective and objective socio- psychological maladjustment. Our preliminary conclusion is that high levels of hopelessness and loneliness in adolescents are stable predictors of mental and emotional distress and psychosocial maladjustment in the period of psychological crises and decompensation of character accentuation of borderline and narcissistic types. These scales can be recommended for primary screening of antivital (depressive experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior in adolescents.

  11. The Trajectories of Adolescents' Perceptions of School Climate, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Behavioral Problems during the Middle School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined trajectories of change in adolescents' perceptions of four dimensions of school climate (academic support, behavior management, teacher social support, and peer social support) and the effects of such trajectories on adolescent problem behaviors. We also tested whether school climate moderated the associations…

  12. Parental Rearing Behavior Prospectively Predicts Adolescents' Risky Decision-Making and Feedback-Related Electrical Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Anja S.; Evans, Brittany E.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Huizink, Anja C.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the role of parental rearing behavior in adolescents' risky decision-making and the brain's feedback processing mechanisms. Healthy adolescent participants ("n" = 110) completed the EMBU-C, a self-report questionnaire on perceived parental rearing behaviors between 2006 and 2008 (T1). Subsequently, after an average of…

  13. Who Is Likely to Help and Hurt? Profiles of African American Adolescents with Prosocial and Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Johnson, Jessica L.; Hood, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Prosocial behavior and aggression among children and adolescents are important indicators of social and interpersonal competence. The goal of this study was to investigate whether there are different prototypes among African American adolescents that can help explain prosocial and aggressive (relational and overt) behaviors. Also of interest was…

  14. Attention biases to threat and behavioral inhibition in early childhood shape adolescent social withdrawal

    OpenAIRE

    Pe?rez-edgar, Koraly; Bar-haim, Yair; Mcdermott, Jennifer Martin; Chronis-tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized in young children by a heightened sensitivity to novelty, social withdrawal, and anxious behaviors. For many children, these social difficulties dissipate over time. For others, patterns of social withdrawal continue into adolescence. Over time, attention biases to threat may influence the stability of behavioral inhibition and its association with social withdrawal, ultimately modulating the risk for anxiety disorders in BI children. ...

  15. Adolescents' Neural Processing of Risky Decisions: Effects of Sex and Behavioral Disinhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Thomas J.; Dalwani, Manish S.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Young, Susan E.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Raymond, Kristen M.; McWilliams, Shannon K.; Roark, Melissa J.; Banich, Marie T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Accidental injury and homicide, relatively common among adolescents, often follow risky behaviors; those are done more by boys and by adolescents with greater behavioral disinhibition (BD). Hypothesis Neural processing during adolescents' risky decision-making will differ in youths with greater BD severity, and in males vs. females, both before cautious behaviors and before risky behaviors. Methodology/Principal Findings 81 adolescents (Patients with substance and conduct problems, and comparison youths (Comparisons)), assessed in a 2 x 2 design (Patients:Comparisons x Male:Female) repeatedly decided between doing a cautious behavior that earned 1 cent, or a risky one that either won 5 or lost 10 cents. Odds of winning after risky responses gradually decreased. Functional magnetic resonance imaging captured brain activity during 4-sec deliberation periods preceding responses. Most neural activation appeared in known decision-making structures. Patients, who had more severe BD scores and clinical problems than Comparisons, also had extensive neural hypoactivity. Comparisons' greater activation before cautious responses included frontal pole, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, and other regions; and before risky responses, insula, temporal, and parietal regions. Males made more risky and fewer cautious responses than females, but before cautious responses males activated numerous regions more than females. Before risky behaviors female-greater activation was more posterior, and male-greater more anterior. Conclusions/Significance Neural processing differences during risky-cautious decision-making may underlie group differences in adolescents' substance-related and antisocial risk-taking. Patients reported harmful real-life decisions and showed extensive neural hypoactivity during risky-or-cautious decision-making. Males made more risky responses than females; apparently biased toward risky decisions, males (compared with females) utilized many more neural resources to make and maintain cautious decisions, indicating an important risk-related brain sexual dimorphism. The results suggest new possibilities for prevention and management of excessive, dangerous adolescent risk-taking. PMID:26176860

  16. Development and psychometric properties of the health-risk behavior inventory for Chinese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Mengcheng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing body of research investigating adolescent risk behaviors in China, however, a comprehensive measure that evaluates the full spectrum of relevant risk behaviors is lacking. In order to address this important gap, the current study sought to develop and validate a comprehensive tool: the Health-Risk Behavior Inventory for Chinese Adolescents (HBICA. Methods Adolescents, ages 14–19?years (n?=?6,633, were recruited from high schools across 10 cities in mainland China. In addition, a clinical sample, which included 326 adolescents meeting DSM-IV criteria for Conduct Disorder, was used to evaluate predictive validity of the HBICA. Psychometric properties including internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and predictive validity were analyzed. Results Based upon item analysis and exploratory factor analysis, we retained 33 items, and 5 factors explained 51.75% of the total variance: Suicide and Self-Injurious Behaviors (SS, Aggression and Violence (AV, Rule Breaking (RB, Substance Use (SU, and Unprotected Sex (US. Cronbach’s alphas were good, from 0.77 (RB to 0.86 (US for boys, and from 0.74 (SD to 0.83(SS for girls. The 8?weeks test–retest reliabilities were moderate, ranged from 0.66 (AV to 0.76 (SD. External validities was strong, with Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 was 0.35 (p?p?p?d?=?0.79 – 2.96. Conclusions These results provide initial support for the reliability and validity of the Health-Risk Behavior Inventory for Chinese Adolescents (HBICA as a comprehensive and developmentally appropriate assessment instrument for risk behaviors in Chinese adolescents.

  17. “Group sex” parties and other risk patterns: A qualitative study about the perceptions of sexual behaviors and attitudes of adolescents in Soweto, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Janan; Khunwane, Mamakiri; Laher, Fatima; Bruyn, Guy; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Gray, Glenda

    2011-01-01

    This study explored perceptions about sexual behaviors and attitudes of adolescents living in Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa, from the perspective of parents, counselors and adolescents. A qualitative methodology was applied. Nine focus group discussions (FGDs) were held; three with parents of adolescents, two with counselors who work with adolescents, two with female adolescents aged 16-18 years and two with male adolescents aged 16-18 years. In total, 80 participants were recruited from...

  18. Psychosocial correlates of eating behavior in children and adolescents: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroch Amy L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the correlates of dietary intake is necessary in order to effectively promote healthy dietary behavior among children and adolescents. A literature review was conducted on the correlates of the following categories of dietary intake in children and adolescents: Fruit, Juice and Vegetable Consumption, Fat in Diet, Total Energy Intake, Sugar Snacking, Sweetened Beverage Consumption, Dietary Fiber, Other Healthy Dietary Consumption, and Other Less Healthy Dietary Consumption in children and adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional and prospective studies were identified from PubMed, PsycINFO and PsycArticles by using a combination of search terms. Quantitative research examining determinants of dietary intake among children and adolescents aged 3–18 years were included. The selection and review process yielded information on country, study design, population, instrument used for measuring intake, and quality of research study. Results Seventy-seven articles were included. Many potential correlates have been studied among children and adolescents. However, for many hypothesized correlates substantial evidence is lacking due to a dearth of research. The correlates best supported by the literature are: perceived modeling, dietary intentions, norms, liking and preferences. Perceived modeling and dietary intentions have the most consistent and positive associations with eating behavior. Norms, liking, and preferences were also consistently and positively related to eating behavior in children and adolescents. Availability, knowledge, outcome expectations, self-efficacy and social support did not show consistent relationships across dietary outcomes. Conclusion This review examined the correlates of various dietary intake; Fruit, Juice and Vegetable Consumption, Fat in Diet, Total Energy Intake, Sugar Snacking, Sweetened Beverage Consumption, Dietary Fiber, Other Healthy Dietary Consumption, and Other Less Healthy Dietary Consumption in cross-sectional and prospective studies for children and adolescents. The correlates most consistently supported by evidence were perceived modeling, dietary intentions, norms, liking and preferences. More prospective studies on the psychosocial determinants of eating behavior using broader theoretical perspectives should be examined in future research.

  19. 76 FR 2135 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Proposed Plan for Fiscal Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ...who have a stake in helping local youth become productive...developmental, cultural, and gender needs of the youth and...high-risk activities and behaviors of a small number of...factors for delinquent behavior and substance abuse...reduce girls' risk behavior and offending....

  20. The Relationship between Behavioral Activation/Inhibition Systems (BAS/BIS) and Bullying/ Victimization Behaviors among Male Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Sajjad Basharpoor; Usha Barahmand; Parviz Molavi; Seyed Amin Mousavi

    2013-01-01

    Objective:This research was conducted to investigate the relationship between behavioral activation-inhibition systems and bullyingvictimization behaviors among adolescents.Method:This was a correlational and cross-sectional study. Two hundred and thirty school boys were selected randomly by multistage cluster sampling method, and participated in this research. This sample responded to a demographic questionnaire, the Revised Olweus Bully/ Victim questionnaire and the child version of behavio...