Three attitudes toward delinquent activities are postulated: permissiveness toward violence, permissiveness toward acts that result in material damage, and a strictly nonpermissive attitude. It was anticipated that each attitude would be related to a different level of delinquent activity. Questionn...
Landsheer, J.A.; Hart, H. 't
PURPOSE: The present study examined delinquent behavior from adolescence into adulthood within the dual systems model of adolescent risk-taking, which identifies maturational patterns of socioemotional and cognitive control systems as predictors of risk-taking. The role of sleep was also investigated within the relationship. METHODS: Hierarchical regression and path analysis examined delinquency at three waves (1996, 2001, and 2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. RESULTS: Impulse control and sensation-seeking predicted concurrent delinquent behavior at all three waves, demonstrating the developmental shift as described within the dual systems model in which the relative contribution of sensation-seeking decreases from adolescence into adulthood, whereas the relative contribution of impulse control improves. Data also revealed that sleep duration and delayed bedtimes had both direct and indirect associations with delinquent behavior during adolescence; sleep duration did not directly predict such activity during later waves. CONCLUSION: The dual systems model of adolescent risk-taking appears to be predictive of delinquent behavior during adolescence and the transition into adulthood. Preliminary findings suggest the importance of considering both adolescent sleep and cognitive and socioemotional development during research and prevention efforts of delinquent behavior.
Peach HD; Gaultney JF
To address gaps in the literature regarding the role of family routine on school disengagement and delinquent behaviors, we tested whether family routine moderated relations between school disengagement and delinquent behaviors in an urban, low socioeconomic status (SES), African American sample of adolescents (N = 204, 48% male). Adolescents reported on school disengagement and delinquent behaviors. Family routine was assessed with mother report. Hierarchical regression analyses examined the independent and interactive effects of school disengagement and family routine on delinquent behaviors. After controlling for adolescent and mother age, marital status, and employment, school disengagement was independently associated with delinquent behaviors. Family routine was found to moderate school disengagement. Specifically, among adolescents exhibiting higher levels of school disengagement, lower levels of family routine were associated with higher levels of delinquent behaviors; however, higher levels of family routine were not associated with lower levels of delinquent behaviors. Findings suggest that lower levels of routine may be a particularly salient risk factor of delinquent behaviors among African American adolescents experiencing higher levels of school disengagement in low SES, urban communities.
Lanza HI; Taylor RD
Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los comportamientos antisociales, tanto delictivos como no delictivos, han sido tratados en la literatura como un conjunto. Estos comportamientos antisociales han sido relacionados con la carencia de competencia psicosocial. Es posible que la relación entre competencia psicosocial y comportamientos antisociales delictivos y no delictivos siga un efecto de escalada. Para someter a prueba esta hipótesis se diseñó un estudio de campo con 450 adolescentes, de los que 150 (more) estaban cumpliendo una condena penal (delincuentes), 150 poseían comportamientos antisociales no delictivos y 150 pertenecían a población escolarizada normal, quienes fueron evaluados en las variables fundamentales de la competencia psicosocial. Los resultados se analizaron a partir de un MANOVA (factor población: reforma, antisocial y normativa) y evidenciaron una relación entre incompetencia social y comportamientos antisociales y delictivos, así como un efecto de escalada, es decir, el grado de conducta desviada (delictiva, antisocial no delictiva y normal) va ligado al grado de (in)competencia social. Se discuten las implicaciones de estos hallazgos para el tratamiento de los menores con comportamientos antisociales, delictivos y no delictivos. Abstract in english In the literature, antisocial populations, both with antisocial behavior and delinquent behavior are viewed as mutually interacting. The lack of psychosocial competence has been related with antisocial and delinquent behavior. Nevertheless, it has been suggested that antisocial and delinquent behavior is a consequence of different degrees of lack of social competence. In order to test this hypothesis, in a field study, 450 adolescents -150 juvenile offenders, 150 with ant (more) isocial non deviant behavior, and 150 from the normal school population- were evaluated in fundamental variables of psychosocial competence. Performed a MANOVA with the population factor (offenders, antisocial, normative), the results revealed a relationship between social incompetence and antisocial and delinquent behavior as well as an exponential increase in both parameters. The findings are discussed in terms of prevention and treatment strategies for antisocial, delinquent and non-deviant behavior in adolescents.
Arce, Ramón; Fariña, Francisca; Vázquez, María José
Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the quality of life (QOL) among delinquent adolescents. This study was a descriptive study with ex-post facto design. Using a random sampling technique 287 (consists of 144 normal and 143 delinquent) adolescents were selected for the purpose of this study. The Quality of life (QOL) questionnaire (WHO-QOL-BRIEF) developed by WHO (1996) and standardized in Iran by Usefy (2010) was used to collect the data. Result showed that comparing to normal adolescents; delinquents had obtained fewer score on four domain of quality of life (QOL) including Physical health, Psychological status, Social relationships and, Environment (p< 0.001).
SEYED MORTEZA ESHAGHI; ASHOKA; ARSALAN KHANMOHAMMADI OTAGHSARA
We examined the potential moderating role of Block's personality types (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, and resilients) on the longitudinal associations between adolescents' and their best friends' delinquency. Across three annual waves, 497 Dutch adolescents (283 boys, MAge ?=?13 years at Wave 1) and their best friends reported on their delinquent behaviors. Adolescents' three personality types were obtained by latent class growth analysis on their annual reports on Big Five personality. A three-group cross-lagged panel analysis was performed on three waves of data. Delinquency of overcontrollers was predicted by their best friends' delinquency, whereas delinquency of undercontrollers and resilients was not. Delinquency of undercontrollers and resilients predicted their best friends' delinquency, but overcontrollers' delinquency did not. These findings suggest that personality may play an important role in adolescents' susceptibility to the influence of friends' delinquency, as well as in youths' ability to influence friends through their own delinquency. PMID:23301765
Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim
Part II: differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers and delinquent youth: further group comparisons of developmental antecedents and behavioral challenges.
In a recent paper published in the Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers ( Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011 ). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to pornography) and behavioral difficulties (sexual aggression, arousal, pornography use, and nonsexual offenses). The present study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized adolescent sexual abusers with a group of nonsexually victimized delinquent youth. Findings included that delinquent youth had fewer behavioral and developmental problems than the comparison groups. In addition, sexually victimized sexual abusers had the highest mean scores on trauma and personality measures. Implications for research and treatment are offered.
Leibowitz GS; Burton DL; Howard A
Part II: differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers and delinquent youth: further group comparisons of developmental antecedents and behavioral challenges.
In a recent paper published in the Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers ( Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011 ). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to pornography) and behavioral difficulties (sexual aggression, arousal, pornography use, and nonsexual offenses). The present study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized adolescent sexual abusers with a group of nonsexually victimized delinquent youth. Findings included that delinquent youth had fewer behavioral and developmental problems than the comparison groups. In addition, sexually victimized sexual abusers had the highest mean scores on trauma and personality measures. Implications for research and treatment are offered. PMID:22574846
Leibowitz, George S; Burton, David L; Howard, Alan
Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth on more than 6,500 adolescents, traditional multivariate models replicated previous findings that adolescent's work intensity was positively related to delinquency, substance use, and problem behaviors. However, these relationships disappeared when observed and unobserved heterogeneity were…
Paternoster, Raymond; Bushway, Shawn; Brame, Robert; Apel, Robert
This study examines the intergenerational transmission of family religion as measured by parent's and adolescent's beliefs and practices in Buddhism, and its relation to delinquent behaviors among early adolescents in Thailand. The data set is from the Thai Family Matters Project 2007, a representative sample of 420 pairs of parents and teens in Bangkok. A structural equation model is employed for the analysis. The intergenerational transmission and the direct and indirect association between parents' and adolescents' beliefs and practices in Buddhism and adolescents' minor and serious delinquent behaviors are revealed to be significant, controlling for secular parental monitoring. Spirituality within the family can play an important role in preventing delinquency among early adolescents. Policies in the areas related to family empowerment and delinquency prevention may need to consider integrating both secular and non-secular program inputs in their implementation design.
Chamratrithirong A; Miller BA; Byrnes HF; Rhucharoenpornpanich O; Cupp PK; Rosati MJ; Fongkaew W; Atwood KA; Todd M
Qualitative methodology was used to explore how incarcerated adolescent female delinquents (N=20) described their communication behaviors in multiple contexts. Four themes emerged: (1) participant communication, (2) feelings and emotions, (3) trust, and (4) maltreatment. Implications suggest that speech-language pathologists and educators need to…
Sanger, Dixie; Scheffler, Marilyn; Drake, Brian; Hilgert, Koree; Creswell, John W.; Hansen, David J.
Full Text Available Starting of the enormous influence of affectivity on the psychic life of person, author of the paper analyzed the impact some of its components in the personality structure of juvenile delinquent behavior. This impact is especially visible in adolescence, primarily due to specific psychological characteristics of juvenile with delinquent behavior, which is especially noticed in this paper. Author also analyzed the role of emotions as important components in the genesis of the juvenile delinquency.
Full Text Available This study reviews several empirical researches which highlight the effect of post-divorce parental conflict as one of the most important factors on adolescents’ delinquency in divorced families. Research consistently shows that parental conflict affects parental relationship and this poor parental quality may transfer into poor parent-child relationship that may negatively influence adolescent functions and behaviors. Research showed that adolescents who are exposed to post-divorce parental conflict are at increased risk for high level of delinquency. Positive associations between parental conflict and adolescent delinquency have been accounted for by parental rejection or withdrawal, parental hostility toward adolescents, lack of parental warmth, and corporal punishment and parent-adolescent conflict.
nooshin sabour; Siti Nor Yaacob
On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish Diaspora adolescents from the FSU in Israel. The participants (15.2 years old) completed 3 annual assessments. Latent growth curve models showed that ethnic German adolescents reported higher initial levels of delinquency than native German adolescents and lower levels than the Russian Jewish adolescents. Groups did not differ in the rate of change, indicating a decrease in delinquency over time. Peer-oriented leisure related positively and parental knowledge negatively with levels and change rates in delinquency in all groups, but could not fully account for the ethnic differences in delinquency levels. School bonding was associated negatively with delinquency only among native German adolescents. Acculturation-related hassles were an additional predictor for higher levels and also associated with change rates in the immigrant groups. Thus, general theories of delinquency apply to immigrants, but may be complemented by adding acculturation-specific challenges. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Titzmann PF; Silbereisen RK; Mesch G
|This study examines the intergenerational transmission of family religion as measured by parent's and adolescent's beliefs and practices in Buddhism, and its relation to delinquent behaviors among early adolescents in Thailand. The data set is from the Thai Family Matters Project 2007, a representative sample of 420 pairs of parents and teens in…
Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Miller, Brenda A.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K.; Rosati, Michael J.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Atwood, Katharine A.; Todd, Michael
This study examines the intergenerational transmission of family religion as measured by parent's and adolescent's beliefs and practices in Buddhism, and its relation to delinquent behaviors among early adolescents in Thailand. The data set is from the Thai Family Matters Project 2007, a representative sample of 420 pairs of parents and teens in…
Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Miller, Brenda A.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K.; Rosati, Michael J.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Atwood, Katharine A.; Todd, Michael
The exposure of children to their parents' conflicts are a factor of substantial risk for the development of behavior problems in children. This study examines the relationship between marital conflicts and children's aggressive and delinquent behavior. The sample consisted of a total of 332 children, aged 7 to 17 years, and their mothers. The children completed the Children's Perceptions of Interparental Conflict Scale, providing information on the dimensions of the marital conflicts: frequency, intensity, no resolution, and content. The mothers completed the O'Leary Porter Scale, providing information about the frequency of conflicts, and the Child Behavior Checklist, about the aggressive and delinquent behavior problems in their children. The results indicate that parental conflicts affect sons and daughters equally, and they affect adolescents more than younger children when they are perceived by the children. However, conflicts affect all groups when the mothers perceive them.
Justicia Galiano MJ; Cantón Duarte J
The exposure of children to their parents' conflicts are a factor of substantial risk for the development of behavior problems in children. This study examines the relationship between marital conflicts and children's aggressive and delinquent behavior. The sample consisted of a total of 332 children, aged 7 to 17 years, and their mothers. The children completed the Children's Perceptions of Interparental Conflict Scale, providing information on the dimensions of the marital conflicts: frequency, intensity, no resolution, and content. The mothers completed the O'Leary Porter Scale, providing information about the frequency of conflicts, and the Child Behavior Checklist, about the aggressive and delinquent behavior problems in their children. The results indicate that parental conflicts affect sons and daughters equally, and they affect adolescents more than younger children when they are perceived by the children. However, conflicts affect all groups when the mothers perceive them. PMID:21266137
Justicia Galiano, M José; Cantón Duarte, José
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) is associated with early adolescent delinquent behavior, after accounting for prenatal exposures to other psychoactive substances and relevant psychosocial factors. METHODS: Ninety-three early adolescents (12.5-14.5 years old) participating since birth in a longitudinal study of IUCE reported delinquent acts via an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Level of IUCE and exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana were determined by maternal report, maternal and infant urine assays, and infant meconium assays at birth. Participants reported their exposure to violence on the Violence Exposure Scale for Children-Revised at ages 8.5, 9.5, and 11 years and during early adolescence, and the strictness of supervision by their caregivers during early adolescence. RESULTS: Of the 93 participants, 24 (26%) reported ? 3 delinquent behaviors during early adolescence. In the final multivariate model (including level of IUCE and cigarette exposure, childhood exposure to violence, and caregiver strictness/supervision) ? 3 delinquent behaviors were not significantly associated with level of IUCE but were significantly associated with intrauterine exposure to half a pack or more of cigarettes per day and higher levels of childhood exposure to violence, effects substantially unchanged after control for early adolescent violence exposure. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, prospectively ascertained prenatal exposure to cigarettes and childhood exposure to violence are associated with self-reported delinquent behaviors during early adolescence. Contrary to initial popular predictions, intrauterine cocaine is not a strong predictor of adolescent delinquent behaviors in this cohort.
Gerteis J; Chartrand M; Martin B; Cabral HJ; Rose-Jacobs R; Crooks D; Frank DA
BACKGROUND: Peer influence on adolescent delinquency is well established, but little is known about moderators of peer influence. In this study, we examined adolescents' (targets) and their peers' psychopathic personality traits as moderators of peer influence on delinquency in peer networks. We used three separate dimensions of the psychopathic personality: grandiose-manipulative traits, callous-unemotional traits, and impulsive-irresponsible traits. METHODS: We used a peer network approach with five waves of longitudinal data from 847 adolescents in one community. Peer nominations were not limited to the school context, thus allowing us to capture all potentially important peers. In addition, peers reported on their own delinquency, thus allowing us to avoid problems of false consensus or projection that arise when individuals report on their peers' delinquency. We used simulation investigation for empirical network analyses (SIENA), which is the only program currently available that can be used to study peer influence effects in peer networks of multiple relationships while controlling for selection effects. RESULTS: Targets' and peers' callous-unemotional and grandiose-manipulative traits uniquely moderated peer influence on delinquency. Relative to those with low levels, targets who were high on these traits were less influenced by peers' delinquency, and peers who were high on these traits were more influential on targets' delinquency. Selection effects were found for impulsive-irresponsible traits, but these traits did not moderate peer influence on delinquency. CONCLUSIONS: As the first study to look at moderating effects of psychopathic traits on peer influence, this study advances knowledge about peer influence on delinquency and about psychopathic traits in adolescents. In addition, the study contributes to the literature by looking at unique effects of the three dimensions of psychopathy and taking a peer network approach, in which network effects, self-selection, and other selection effects are controlled when examining influence and moderators of influence.
Kerr M; Van Zalk M; Stattin H
Although the well-documented association between parental divorce and adolescent delinquency is generally assumed to be environmental (i.e., causal) in origin, genetic mediation is also possible. Namely, the behavior problems often found in children of divorce could derive from similar pathology in the parents, pathology that is both heritable and…
Burt, S. Alexandra; Barnes, Ashlee R.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.
Clinical evidence suggests that problem drinking among adolescent delinquents is more severe than among nondelinquents and is accompanied by greater social pathology. This investigation explored this question empirically by comparing samples of delinquent (n = 49) and nondelinquent (n = 100) adolescent male drinkers matched on age and race and controlling for community size and region of the country. Criteria for problem drinking and other measures duplicated those developed for a national probability survey of teenaged drinking practices conducted in the United States during 1974-1975. Results replicated the often-reported higher incidence of problem drinkers among delinquents than nondelinquents. More to the point, delinquent problem drinkers showed severer involvement with alcohol and drugs and more signs of social pathology than nondelinquent problem drinkers. Delinquent problem drinkers drank more, drank more frequently, reported more negative consequences from drinking in more areas, and perceived themselves as having a drinking problem more often than nondelinquent problem drinkers. These differences were not found between delinquent and nondelinquent subjects who showed no evidence of drinking problems. The results have implications for treatment and rehabilitation of juvenile offenders and for the construction of policy-relevant definitions of problem drinking in young people.
Objective: The objectives of this study were to identify the relationships between caregiver strain among parents of young adolescents with ADHD and child characteristics during a 1-year period. Method: Parents of 52 middle-school-aged youth with ADHD participated in this study and completed two evaluations 1 year apart. Results: Ratings of…
Evans, Steven W.; Sibley, Maggie; Serpell, Zewelanji N.
Most research examining gender differences in developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior does not consider subtypes of antisocial behavior and is difficult to generalize due to small non-representative samples. The current study investigated gender difference in developmental trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood while addressing those limitations. Analyses were limited to respondents ages 15 and 16 in wave 1 (16-17 in wave 2, and 21-22 in wave 3) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 6244, 49.5% males). Self-report nonviolent and violent delinquencies were simultaneously entered into latent class analysis. Four latent classes were identified: low, desister, decliner, and chronic (male-only). In addition to finding a male-specific chronic class, gender differences included differences in levels of nonviolent and violent delinquency between synonymous classes of males and females, and differences in prevalence of classes across genders. Neighborhood disadvantage and family support predicted trajectories.
Zheng Y; Cleveland HH
The purpose of this study was to examine the linkages between alexithymia and delinquency in male adolescents (age ranging from 14 to 18 years), and to investigate whether alexithymia was a good discriminatory factor for juvenile delinquency. Thirty-six offender adolescents and 46 non-offender control adolescents participated in the study and…
Full Text Available Traumatic experiences in Serbia in the last two decades have caused significant psychological consequences in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms, exposure to aggression and delinquency proneness among high school and elementary school students in Belgrade, Serbia. The participants were 899 students (51.8% were female) with no prior treatment for psychological problems, with a mean age of 16.70±1.95. All used instruments were taken from the modified Social and Health Assessment (SAHA). Our findings show that delinquent behavior or exposure to delinquency was significantly related to depressive symptoms. The strongest predictors of depression were variables concerning legal consequences, affiliation with delinquent peers, victimization by community violence and peer victimization. This study confirmed a strong correlation between depression and exposure to violence. Identifying adolescents with depressive symptoms is important for prevention of serious mental health consequences.
Pejovi?-Milovan?evi? Milica; Popovi?-Deuši? Smiljka; Peruni?i? Ivana; Radosavljev-Kir?anski Jelena; Le?i?-Toševski Dušica; Dragani?-Gaji? Saveta; Jovi?i? Milica; Mitkovi? Marija
The authors compared parent-related perceptions by hospitalized adolescents (i.e., who were admitted to a specialized psychiatric unit; n = 50) and delinquent adolescents (i.e., who were placed at a juvenile treatment institution; n = 51) with adolescents from the general population (n = 51). All adolescents completed a broad set of measures of attachment, perceived parenting, and separation-individuation. Contrary to initial expectations, hospitalized adolescents scored higher than controls on indices of excessive autonomy. Ambivalence regarding issues of interpersonal closeness and distance was found among delinquent adolescents. In addition, hospitalized and delinquent adolescents were found to be struggling, each in their specific way, with attachment-related experiences of trauma. Finally, delinquent adolescents also showed a stage-appropriate form of potentially adaptive narcissism. These findings add to the growing consensus in the literature that associations between adolescent psychopathology and parent-related perceptions are typically complex and somewhat counterintuitive. PMID:22708477
Delhaye, Marie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Burton, Julie; Linkowski, Paul; Stroobants, Rob; Goossens, Luc
The authors compared parent-related perceptions by hospitalized adolescents (i.e., who were admitted to a specialized psychiatric unit; n = 50) and delinquent adolescents (i.e., who were placed at a juvenile treatment institution; n = 51) with adolescents from the general population (n = 51). All adolescents completed a broad set of measures of attachment, perceived parenting, and separation-individuation. Contrary to initial expectations, hospitalized adolescents scored higher than controls on indices of excessive autonomy. Ambivalence regarding issues of interpersonal closeness and distance was found among delinquent adolescents. In addition, hospitalized and delinquent adolescents were found to be struggling, each in their specific way, with attachment-related experiences of trauma. Finally, delinquent adolescents also showed a stage-appropriate form of potentially adaptive narcissism. These findings add to the growing consensus in the literature that associations between adolescent psychopathology and parent-related perceptions are typically complex and somewhat counterintuitive.
Delhaye M; Kempenaers C; Burton J; Linkowski P; Stroobants R; Goossens L
Full Text Available Abstract Aim To assess how drinking patterns and delinquency are associated with self-reported experiences of alcohol-related violence in an adolescent population. Population and research design Cross-sectional data were acquired from the Scania drug use survey 2005, consisting of 3847 students in 9th grade. Abstainers were omitted and 1873 responses analyzed, with binary and multi-variable logistic regression modeling. Results All drinking pattern indicators were statistically significantly associated with alcohol-related violence, high usual volume of distilled spirits consumed (OR 2.2, CI 95 % 1.7–2.9) being the strongest. Delinquency had, when included in the analysis, a significant effect (OR 2.5, CI 95 % 1.8–3.6); however, the drinking pattern indicators also remained statistically significant. An analysis of the effect moderation between usual volume of distilled spirits consumed and delinquency showed that there was a synergetic effect between them (SI 1.6, CI 95 % 1.1–2.4). A separate analysis for non-delinquent students, those with little experience of delinquency, and those who engaged regularly in delinquent activities, showed that the effects of different drinking patterns, especially use of distilled spirits, were significant in both groups, however, differently distributed. Conclusion The results show that alcohol consumption pattern, with usual volume of distilled spirits being the most prominent one, had an effect on alcohol-related violence, and that this effect was amplified by delinquent behavior. The analyses also showed that there are similarities, regarding risk factors for alcohol-related violence, between delinquent and non-delinquent youth. This, indicating that consumption pattern cannot be discarded as a key factor in alcohol-related violence in adolescence. Policy implications The study shows that alcohol-related violence in adolescence is related to both alcohol consumption patterns, e.g. usual volume of distilled spirits consumed, and delinquency. In order to prevent the harm outcome, both phenomenons have to be targeted, either by alcohol or broader social policy initiatives.
AIM: To assess how drinking patterns and delinquency are associated with self-reported experiences of alcohol-related violence in an adolescent population. POPULATION AND RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-sectional data were acquired from the Scania drug use survey 2005, consisting of 3847 students in 9th grade. Abstainers were omitted and 1873 responses analyzed, with binary and multi-variable logistic regression modeling. RESULTS: All drinking pattern indicators were statistically significantly associated with alcohol-related violence, high usual volume of distilled spirits consumed (OR 2.2, CI 95 % 1.7-2.9) being the strongest. Delinquency had, when included in the analysis, a significant effect (OR 2.5, CI 95 % 1.8-3.6); however, the drinking pattern indicators also remained statistically significant. An analysis of the effect moderation between usual volume of distilled spirits consumed and delinquency showed that there was a synergetic effect between them (SI 1.6, CI 95 % 1.1-2.4). A separate analysis for non-delinquent students, those with little experience of delinquency, and those who engaged regularly in delinquent activities, showed that the effects of different drinking patterns, especially use of distilled spirits, were significant in both groups, however, differently distributed. CONCLUSION: The results show that alcohol consumption pattern, with usual volume of distilled spirits being the most prominent one, had an effect on alcohol-related violence, and that this effect was amplified by delinquent behavior. The analyses also showed that there are similarities, regarding risk factors for alcohol-related violence, between delinquent and non-delinquent youth. This, indicating that consumption pattern cannot be discarded as a key factor in alcohol-related violence in adolescence. POLICY IMPLICATIONS: The study shows that alcohol-related violence in adolescence is related to both alcohol consumption patterns, e.g. usual volume of distilled spirits consumed, and delinquency. In order to prevent the harm outcome, both phenomenons have to be targeted, either by alcohol or broader social policy initiatives.
Elucidating the conditions in which family strain takes effect in adolescent delinquency is one avenue along which to substantiate general strain theory. These conditions include family relationship and the type of delinquency. In the context of Chinese societies, the conditions also include the differences between socialist, collectivist Mainland…
Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Ngai, Ngan-Pun; Ngai, Steven Sek-Yum
The present study examined moderating effects of impulsivity on the relationships between promotive factors from family (family warmth, parental knowledge), school (school connectedness), and neighborhood (neighborhood cohesion) contexts with delinquency using data collected from N?=?2,978 sixth to eighth graders from 16 schools surrounding a major city in the Midwestern United States. More than half of the respondents were non-Caucasian (M age ?=?12.48; 41.0 % male). Multilevel modeling analyses were conducted to take into account the clustering of the participants within schools. Impulsivity was positively associated with adolescent delinquency. Additionally, family warmth, parental knowledge, and school connectedness, but not neighborhood cohesion, were independently and inversely related to adolescent delinquency. Finally, impulsivity moderated relationships between family warmth and parental knowledge with delinquency but not relationships between school attachment and neighborhood cohesion with delinquency. Specifically, the negative relationship between family warmth and delinquency was significant for adolescents with high levels of, but not for those with below-average levels of, impulsivity. In addition, parental knowledge had a stronger association with decreased levels of delinquency for adolescents reporting higher levels of impulsivity. The moderating effects of impulsivity did not differ for males and females or for minority and non-minority participants. Findings indicate that impulsivity may have greater impact on adolescents' susceptibility to positive family influences than on their susceptibility to promotive factors from school or neighborhood contexts. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
Chen P; Jacobson KC
The authors compared parent-related perceptions by hospitalized adolescents (i.e., who were admitted to a specialized psychiatric unit; n = 50) and delinquent adolescents (i.e., who were placed at a juvenile treatment institution; n = 51) with adolescents from the general population (n = 51). All adolescents completed a broad set of measures of…
Delhaye, Marie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Burton, Julie; Linkowski, Paul; Stroobants, Rob; Goossens, Luc
|Applied behavioral-systems family therapy model to lower socioeconomic status juvenile offenders. Compared 27 delinquents, court-referred to in-home time-unlimited family therapy, to 27 lower-risk delinquents who received only probation. Examined number and severity of offenses during 30 months following group assignment. Found delinquents in…
Gordon, Donald A.; And Others
Communities That Care (CTC) is a universal, science-based community prevention system designed to reduce risk, enhance protection, and prevent adolescent health and behavior problems community wide. CTC has been found to have sustained effects on cigarette use and delinquent and violent behaviors in grade 10 in a panel of 4,407 students followed from fifth grade in a community randomized trial. It is important to test variation in the effects of this prevention system designed to be universal to understand for whom it is most effective and whether it fails to produce change or leads to iatrogenic effects for certain categories of individuals. The present study examined variation in the sustained effects of CTC on tenth-grade cigarette use and delinquent and violent behaviors. Interaction analyses suggest that the effect of CTC did not differ between those who had high levels of community-targeted risk factors at baseline or had already engaged in substance use, delinquency, or violence at baseline versus those who had not. Although CTC reduced the prevalence of both girls' and boys' problem behaviors, the effect on delinquency was marginally (p?=?0.08) larger for boys than for girls.
Oesterle S; Hawkins JD; Fagan AA; Abbott RD; Catalano RF
We examined factors targeted in two popular prevention approaches with adolescent drug use and delinquency in South Africa. We hypothesized adolescent life skills to be inversely related, and perceived norms to be directly related to later drug use and delinquency. Multiple regression and a relative weights approach were conducted for each outcome using a sample of 714 South African adolescents ages 15 to 19 years (M = 15.8 years, 57% female). Perceived norms predicted gateway drug use. Conflict resolution skills (inversely) and perceived peer acceptability (directly) predicted harder drug use and delinquency. The "culture of violence" within some South African schools may make conflict resolution skills more salient for preventing harder drug use and delinquency.
Lai MH; Graham JW; Smith EA; Caldwell LL; Bradley SA; Vergnani T; Mathews C; Wegner L
This study was conducted to identify attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Korean juvenile delinquents. Intelligence tests (KEDI-WISC, K-WAIS), the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA), the Teacher Report Form (TRF), the Youth Self-Report (YSR), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were administered to 98 incarcerated Korean adolescents (the delinquent group) and 84 adolescent nondelinquents (the control group). The groups were compared, and significant differences were found for ADHD; 42.4% of the adolescents in the delinquent group were identified as having ADHD, in comparison to 11.9% of the adolescents in the control group. Delinquent adolescents and adolescents with ADHD were found to have lower IQ scores, poorer TOVA performance, more severe problem behaviors, and lower self-esteem than nondelinquent adolescents and adolescents without ADHD. Delinquent adolescents with ADHD consistently fared the worst on assessments of intelligence, TOVA performance, problem behaviors, and self-esteem.
Chae PK; Jung HO; Noh KS
This study examined the inter-related development of self-esteem and delinquency across three years. Participants were 3449 Korean high school adolescents (age M = 15.8, SD = 0.42, 1725 boys, 1724 girls) from Korea Youth Panel Study (KYPS), in 2005-2007, nationally representative of Korean adolescents. Latent growth modeling was employed for…
Lee, Kyungeun; Lee, Julie
This study examined the prevalence of and associations between specific psychiatric disorders, substance use problems, and trauma exposure in a sample of delinquent and nondelinquent adolescents. A nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 3,614; M age = 14.5 years, SD = 1.7; 51% male; 71% White, non-Hispanic, 13.3% African American, non-Hispanic, 10.7% Hispanic) was interviewed via telephone about engagement in delinquent acts and their experience of posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive episode, substance use, interpersonal violence, and other forms of trauma exposure. Delinquent adolescents were more likely than nondelinquent adolescents to experience trauma; they were also more likely to report past-year posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive episode, alcohol abuse, and nonexperimental drug use. After accounting for the effects of demographics and trauma exposure, delinquency was associated with increased likelihood of posttraumatic stress disorder and problematic substance use in both genders and increased likelihood of major depressive episode in girls. Findings highlight substantial overlap among delinquency, trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder, and major depressive episode in adolescents and the need for interventions that address these varied clinical problems. Future work should examine the factors underlying the development of these relations over time.
Adams ZW; McCart MR; Zajac K; Danielson CK; Sawyer GK; Saunders BE; Kilpatrick DG
Although the study of delinquency has previously focused on identifying individual, family, peer, and social risk and protective factors, little empirical research has studied cultural factors and their relations to delinquency. In a large community sample of 329 Chinese, Cambodian, Laotian/Mien, and Vietnamese youths, individualism was positively…
Le, Thao N.; Stockdale, Gary D.
Based on resilience and feminist criminological theories, several individual, family, and community characteristics were hypothesized to predict late-adolescent delinquency for girls varying in early-adolescent risk. Girls aged 12 and 13 were interviewed each year as part of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Predictors of…
Stevens, Tia; Morash, Merry; Park, Suyeon
Risk taking may be regarded as a normative behavior in adolescence. Risk-taking behaviors may include alcohol, smoking, drug use, delinquency, and acts of aggression. Many studies have explored the relationship between adolescents and risk-taking behavior; however, only a few studies have examined this link in adolescents with learning…
McNamara, John K.; Willoughby, Teena
|Several studies have indicated that an early onset of delinquent and problem behaviors is associated with a greater risk of subsequent behavioral and mental health problems. This study builds on that literature by examining histories of behavior problems in relation to indicators of thriving and precocious behavior during late adolescence. Using…
Campa, Mary I.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Eckenrode, John; Zielinski, David S.
The present study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fathers' and mothers' parenting styles and male and female delinquency using a sample of 330 Dutch families with a mid or late adolescent son or daughter (ages 14-22), followed across two measurement waves with a 5-year interval. Parenting styles of fathers and…
Hoeve, Machteld; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.; Smeenk, Wilma
|Using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), this cross-sectional study examined mediated and moderated associations between different types of discretionary time activities and depressive symptoms and delinquency among a sample of 246 (107 boys, 139 girls) fifth through eighth grade urban African American adolescents. More time spent in passive…
Bohnert, Amy M.; Richards, Maryse; Kohl, Krista; Randall, Edin
This study found that lack of involvement in prosocial institutions, affiliation with other troubled youth, and indifference regarding personal safety partially mediate the relationship between depression and delinquency among justice-involved female adolescents. The results suggest that depression may not be the primary conduit to delinquency.…
Mellin, Elizabeth A.; Fang, Hong-Ning
The present research explored the controversial link between global self-esteem and externalizing problems such as aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. In three studies, we found a robust relation between low self-esteem and externalizing problems. This relation held for measures of self-esteem and externalizing problems based on self-report, teachers' ratings, and parents' ratings, and for participants from different nationalities (United States and New Zealand) and age groups (adolescents and college students). Moreover, this relation held both cross-sectionally and longitudinally and after controlling for potential confounding variables such as supportive parenting, parent-child and peer relationships, achievement-test scores, socioeconomic status, and IQ. In addition, the effect of self-esteem on aggression was independent of narcissism, an important finding given recent claims that individuals who are narcissistic, not low in self-esteem, are aggressive. Discussion focuses on clarifying the relations among self-esteem, narcissism, and externalizing problems.
Donnellan MB; Trzesniewski KH; Robins RW; Moffitt TE; Caspi A
Using a nationally representative sample of adolescents from the United States aged 12 to 17 years (Wave 1, n = 3,614; Wave 2, n = 2,511), this study examined (a) demographic and descriptive information about peer violent victimization (PVV); and (b) the longitudinal relation between a history of PVV and delinquency. Results indicated that 12.4% of adolescents reported lifetime exposure to PVV, and many of these adolescents with a previous history of PVV also reported exposure to other forms of interpersonal violence, with witnessing community/school violence being the most commonly endorsed exposure category. Males, older adolescents, African American adolescents, and adolescents from low-income households were significantly more likely to endorse PVV. Regardless of the victim's gender, the majority of the perpetrators were male. After controlling for exposure to other forms of interpersonal violence and a history of delinquency, PVV was related to subsequent delinquency. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed.
Jackson CL; Hanson RF; Amstadter AB; Saunders BE; Kilpatrick DG
This study used data from 5,382 adolescents from the 1997 United States (US) National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) to investigate developmental pathways of alcohol use, marijuana use, sexual risk behaviors, and delinquency across ages 14 to 20; examine interrelationships among these risk behaviors across adolescence; and evaluate…
Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing
Full Text Available Using a nationally representative data of rural adolescent boys and girls in 10th grade through 12th grade, this study explored the mediating effects of self-esteem and delinquency on the educational achievement of rural adolescents. Structural equation modeling analyses reveal that the combination of self-esteem and delinquency completely mediates the influence of family social capital on educational achievement. The findings of the models make a compelling case that the impact of family processes on educational achievement is indirect rather than direct.
Omolola Abiola Adedokun; Mark A Balschweid
Eighty-one 13- to 14-year-old boys at risk for delinquency (target boys) engaged in brief dyadic conversations with their peer friends. The target boys' verbal behavior was coded into two mutually exclusive content categories, rule-break talk and normative talk. Positive social responses from peer b...
McDowell, J.J; Caron, Marcia L
Eighty-one 13- to 14-year-old boys at risk for delinquency (target boys) engaged in brief dyadic conversations with their peer friends. The target boys' verbal behavior was coded into two mutually exclusive content categories, rule-break talk and normative talk. Positive social responses from peer boys for each category of talk were also recorded,…
McDowell, J. J.; Caron, Marcia L.
Adolescent delinquency, drug use and aggression remain societal concerns. These problems are more common with adolescent boys than girls, and tend to increase with age. Although a lack of parental monitoring has been found to be related to problem behaviors, the mediating role of monitoring on the relationship of sex and grade to problem behaviors…
Richards, Maryse H.; Miller, Bobbi Viegas; O'Donnell, Philip C.; Wasserman, Michelle S.; Colder, Craig
Victims of child abuse and neglect are at an increased risk of involvement with the juvenile justice and adult correctional systems. Yet, little is known about the continuation and trajectories of offending beyond initial contact with law enforcement. Neglect likely plays a critical role in continued offending as parental monitoring, parental rejection and family relationships are instrumental in explaining juvenile conduct problems. This study sought to determine whether neglect is associated with recidivism for moderate and high risk juvenile offenders in Washington State. Statewide risk assessments and administrative records for child welfare, juvenile justice, and adult corrections were analyzed. The sample was diverse (24 % female, 13 % African American, 8 % Hispanic, 5 % Native American) and included all moderate and high risk juvenile offenders screened by juvenile probation between 2004 and 2007 (n = 19,833). Official records from child protection were used to identify juvenile offenders with a history of child neglect and to identify juvenile offenders with an ongoing case of neglect. Event history models were developed to estimate the risk of subsequent offending. Adolescents with an ongoing case neglect were significantly more likely to continue offending as compared with youth with no official history of neglect. These findings remain even after controlling for a wide range of family, peer, academic, mental health, and substance abuse covariates. Interrupting trajectories of offending is a primary focus of juvenile justice. The findings of the current study indicate that ongoing dependency issues play a critical role in explaining the outcomes achieved for adolescents in juvenile justice settings. The implications for improved collaboration between child welfare and juvenile justice are discussed.
Ryan JP; Williams AB; Courtney ME
The objective of the present study was to compare incarcerated male and female juvenile offenders regarding psychopathic traits, behavior problems, psychopathy taxon, conduct disorder, self-reported delinquent behavior, and crime seriousness. Within a total forensic sample of 261 detainee participants, subdivided in a male group (n=217) and a female group (n=44), statistically significant differences were found. Female juvenile offenders show less callous-unemotional traits, more emotional symptoms, more prosocial behaviors, less self-reported delinquent behavior, and lower crime seriousness. Conduct disorder prevalence was very high, but no statistically significant gender differences were found. The predictive importance of psychopathic traits, behavior problems, psychopathy taxon, and conduct disorder for the prediction of group membership (female versus male) was established by binary logistic regression.
Pechorro PS; Vieira DN; Poiares CA; Vieira RX; Marôco J; Neves S; Nunes C
Full Text Available Introduction Numerous studies have shown that sexual behavior increases among adolescents. Disharmony between biological and psychosocial maturity among young people may cause risky behavior, and endanger psychophysical and reproductive health of young persons. Material and methods A questionnaire on sexual behavior was completed by 169 adolescents, 1st and 4th year high school students. Results Every 6th first grade and every 2nd forth grade adolescent is sexually active. Male adolescents begin sexual activities significantly earlier (at the age of 15.6) than female adolescents (16.5). Also, young men have significantly more partners (3.6) than girls (1.3), and more parallel sexual relations than girls. Only 1/3 of sexually active adolescents always use some kind of contraception, more frequently boys (41.9%) than girls (26.7%). Discussion Early commencement of sexual activity results with longer active period before realization of the reproductive function, which increases risk for reproductive health disorders. Unprotected sexual intercourse and large number of partners also present significant risk factors. Conclusion Sexual life of adolescents begins at the age of 16, on average, and only every third always uses contraceptive protection, which points to a need for better education on reproductive health by using contemporary methods. It is also necessary to increase availability of contraceptives (condoms) at all places where adolescents spend time (in schools, bars, cinemas, disco clubs etc.) in order to achieve responsible sexual behavior and protection of reproductive health among youth.
Mijatovi?-Jovanovi? Vesna; Ukropina Snežana; Kvrgi? Svetlana T.; Šurkovi?-Ni?iforovi? Olja
OBJECTIVE: Evaluating self-perception regarding health status in adolescents released on parole and observing the attitudes of professionals, parents or guardians and the adolescents themselves. METHODS: This was quali-quantitative research lasting from February to July 2006 which included a cross-sectional and observational study using a sample of 51 adolescents in conflict with the law who had been released on parole and who were attending a Social Development Centre in Ceilândia (SDCC), Distrito Federal, Brazil. Adolescents aged 14 to 19 completed self-administered questionnaires covering sociodemographic and health status-related variables. Process observation was also conducted so as to obtain qualitative information concerned with the relationship between adolescents and the professionals in charge to provide socio-educational measures in the aforementioned Centre. RESULTS: It was found that 78.4 % of the interviewees mentioned good or very good health status; however, 76.6 % of the sample mentioned at least one health problem. Becoming easily irritated (anger) was the most referred to health problem, followed by sleeping problems (19.6 %), poor concentration (13.7 %) and allergy (13.7 %). Observation suggested that adolescents and parents had a poor relationship with the professionals in charge of caring for them. CONCLUSION: The results suggested a high prevalence for symptoms of depression. Easy irritability may have been related to delinquency in the sample; however, such association was not investigated and deserves future research to develop appropriate public policy in Brazil and other Latin-American countries as violence becomes a public health problem in the region.
de Souza EM; da Silva-Abrão FP; Oliveira-Almeida J
In this project, the authors examined the relationship trait anxiety has on incarcerated male adolescents' progression from childhood exposure to violence/victimization to violent behavior. Self-report survey data were analyzed to determine the youth's levels of trait anxiety, how the degree of childhood trauma was related to their level of anxiety, as well as whether their level of anxiety affected the relationship between trauma and subsequent frequency and severity of their delinquent acts using a moderation analysis. Anxiety significantly decreased the relationship between victimization and the commission of violence (F = 15.93, p < .001).
Jencks JW; Burton DL
Confined to discussion of heterosexual activities, this article examines adolescent sexual behavior in terms of promiscuity; the search for a sexual behavior code; the impact of the media; and the influence of peer groups, religious identification, and the adult double standard. (JC)
The following Kaplan/Damphouse hypothesis was tested and cross validated: The use of marijuana either predicts to or has a greater effect on increasing the degree of violent behavior for a group that is low on delinquent behavior, than it does for a group that scores high on these behaviors. For the conventional, non-delinquent sub-group, a higher degree of significant relationship between degree of marijuana use and degree of violent behavior was found, compared to the degree of this type of relationship than was found for either cocaine/crack use, amphetamine use, or tranquilizer/sedative use. For example, for the commission of the offense of Attempted Homicide/Reckless Endangerment: for the conventional, non-delinquent group there was a highly significant relationship to the degree of marijuana use; but there was a non-significant relationship between this type of offense and the degree of use of each of the other types of drugs. Thus, this special disinhibition effect was found only for marijuana, and not for other drugs, regardless of whether they were stimulant types of drugs, or were sedative drugs.
Friedman AS; Terras A; Glassman K
We characterize associations with and motivations for tattooing in adolescents through data from a controlled, three-group comparison of adolescents from a substance abuse treatment program, detention center, and private pediatric practice. We surveyed 474 adolescents (12 to 18 years old) with tattoos (12%) and without tattoos (88%). The private pediatric practice was the control site. A 34-item questionnaire was used to profile the three groups and their primary associations with tattooing with respect to race, drug use, school attendance, school grades, parental marital status, family income, tattooing by family members, criminal activity, and involvement with satanic rituals. Tattooing was significantly (P less than .005) associated with all of these variables in the ways described, as was knowledge of its association with human immunodeficiency virus infection. No interventions were made. Tattooing is common in adolescents and is associated with low self-esteem, delinquency, drug abuse, family and peer modeling, and participation in satanic rituals. Addressing the behavior as a health problem is discussed.
Farrow JA; Schwartz RH; Vanderleeuw J
We examined whether schools achieving better than expected educational outcomes for their students influence the risk of drug use and delinquency among urban, racial/ethnic minority youth. Adolescents (n?=?2,621), who were primarily African American and Hispanic and enrolled in Chicago public schools (n?=?61), completed surveys in 6th (aged 12) and 8th (aged 14) grades. Value-added education was derived from standardized residuals of regression equations predicting school-level academic achievement and attendance from students' sociodemographic profiles and defined as having higher academic achievement and attendance than that expected given the sociodemographic profile of the schools' student composition. Multilevel logistic regression estimated the effects of value-added education on students' drug use and delinquency. After considering initial risk behavior, value-added education was associated with lower incidence of alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use; stealing; and participating in a group-against-group fight. Significant beneficial effects of value-added education remained for cigarette and marijuana use, stealing and participating in a group-against-group fight after adjustment for individual- and school-level covariates. Alcohol use (past month and heavy episodic) showed marginally significant trends in the hypothesized direction after these adjustments. Inner-city schools may break the links between social disadvantage, drug use and delinquency. Identifying the processes related to value-added education in order to improve school environments is warranted given the high costs associated with individual-level interventions. PMID:21360062
Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A; Dabroski, Alexis; Aveyard, Paul; Markham, Wolfgang A
Full Text Available Knowledge about adolescent risk behavior has expanded in the past several decades. Risk behaviors, such as substance use, violent behavior and sexual risk behavior are behaviors that can directly or indirectly compromise well-being and health of young people. Studies showed that there are many risk factors leading to engage in risk behaviors. Studies also showed that risk behaviors can result in many negative outcomes or adverse consequences. However, there is great heterogeneity in the linkage between involvement in risk behaviors and the likelihood of adverse outcomes, and there is also great heterogeneity in the linkage between exposure to risk factors and the likelihood of involvement in risk behaviors as well. These facts lead the researchers to focus on the identification and assessment of protective factors and the concept of resilliency. Researches over the past decade also lead to changing of intervention programme strategies from risk reduction to healthy youth development. These strategies aim to provide all youth with the support, relationship, experiences, resources, and opportunities needed to become successful and competent adults. They are promising approaches for preventing or reducing a wide range of adolescent health-risk behaviors. In this article, we briefly review what we know about risk behaviors, their risk and protective factors and healthy youth development, and provide definitions of each of these concepts.
Müjgan Alika?ifo?lu; Oya Ercan
What is known about adolescent sexual behavior is reviewed. First, the onset of sexual behavior in the teenage years is considered as a function of cohort, gender, and ethnic differences. Omissions in the research on sexual behavior other than intercourse are highlighted. Possible biological, social, and social cognitive processes underlying teenage sexual behavior are then considered. Next, demographic trends in the use of contraceptives and antecedents of regular birth control use are reviewed. Finally, some of the successful program initiatives directed toward altering sexual and contraceptive practices are discussed, keeping in mind the importance and relative lack of well-designed and carefully evaluated programs.
Brooks-Gunn J; Furstenberg FF Jr
Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity trajectories were identified: "Chronically Obese," "Decreasing," "Increasing," and "Non-obese." Males were overrepresented in the Chronically Obese and Increasing groups; females were overrepresented in the Decreasing group. African-Americans were overrepresented in the Chronically Obese, Increasing, and Decreasing groups; in contrast, Whites were overrepresented in the Non-obese group. Obesity trajectories were not associated with greater trends in alcohol use, marijuana use, or delinquency, but Chronically Obese adolescents showed a greater increase in cigarette smoking over time compared to other trajectories. The Increasing trajectory, representing a transition into obesity status from childhood to adolescence, was associated with poorer psychosocial health compared to other trajectories.
Huang DY; Lanza HI; Wright-Volel K; Anglin MD
CONTEXT Economic difficulties at the individual level can lead to a number of behavioral problems, including substance abuse and delinquent behaviors. OBJECTIVE To examine the influence of a nationwide adverse economic environment during infancy, specifically, the high unemployment rates during and after the 1980 and 1981-1982 recessions, on rates of subsequent adolescent substance use and delinquent behaviors. DESIGN We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and estimated logit regressions to examine the effect of changes in unemployment rates during infancy on the incidence of adolescent behavioral problems, controlling for known youth, family, and environmental risk factors. SETTING Adolescents living in the United States in 1997. PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of 8984 adolescents born from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 1984. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Probability of engaging in substance use (marijuana, smoking, alcohol, and hard [ie, illegal] drugs) and delinquent behaviors (arrest, handgun use, gang affiliation, petty and major theft, property destruction, and assaultive behavior). RESULTS Exposure to a 1% deviation from mean regional unemployment rates at the age of 1 year was associated with an increase in the odds ratios of engaging in marijuana use (1.09 [95% CI, 1.04-1.14]), smoking (1.07 [1.03-1.11]), alcohol use (1.06 [1.02-1.10]), arrest (1.17 [1.09-1.25]), gang affiliation (1.09 [1.00-1.19]), and petty (1.06 [1.01-1.10]) and major theft (1.11 [1.05-1.18]). No significant associations were noted with use of hard drugs, property destruction, and assaultive behavior. CONCLUSIONS The macroeconomic environment during infancy can have serious long-term effects on substance use and delinquent behavior. These potential long-term effects can play an important role in policy making for adolescent mental health care.
Ramanathan S; Balasubramanian N; Krishnadas R
We tested whether parents can reduce affiliation with delinquent peers through 3 forms of peer management: soliciting information, monitoring rules, and communicating disapproval of peers. We examined whether peer management interrupted 2 peer processes: selection and influence of delinquent peers. Adolescents' feelings of being overcontrolled by parents were examined as an additional moderator of delinquent selection and influence. Using network data from a community sample (N = 1,730), we tested whether selection and influence processes varied across early, middle, and late adolescent cohorts. Selection and influence of delinquent peers were evident in all 3 cohorts and did not differ in strength. Parental monitoring rules reduced the selection of delinquent peers in the oldest cohort. A similar effect was found in the early adolescent cohort, but only for adolescents who did not feel overcontrolled by parents. Monitoring rules increased the likelihood of selecting a delinquent friend among those who felt overcontrolled. The effectiveness of communicating disapproval was also mixed: in the middle adolescent network, communicating disapproval increased the likelihood of an adolescent selecting a delinquent friend. Among late adolescents, high levels of communicating disapproval were effective, reducing the influence of delinquent peers for adolescents reporting higher rates of delinquency. For those who reported lower levels of delinquency, high levels of communicating disapproval increased the influence of delinquent peers. The results of this study suggest that the effectiveness of monitoring and peer management depend on the type of behavior, the timing of its use, and whether adolescents feel overcontrolled by parents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23421802
Tilton-Weaver, Lauree C; Burk, William J; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan
Studies show that identifying persistent delinquents on the basis of early antisocial conduct yields a significant error rate. However, evaluating childhood or adolescent psychopathic traits is likely to improve matters in this regard. This study seeks to verify the contribution of psychopathic traits in adolescence to antisocial conduct prediction in early adulthood. To this end, a French version of the Psychopathy Checklist -Screening Version (PCL-SV) adapted to adolescents is used to evaluate psychopathic traits in 27 youths aged 15 to 19 years recruited in youth centres and presenting behavioral problems reaching a clinical threshold. The PCL-SV scores contribute significantly above and beyond indices of delinquent behavior to predict self-reported antisocial conduct 2 years later and, specifically, to predict criminal versatility and violent recidivism. PMID:22871586
Basque, Catherine; Toupin, Jean; Côté, Gilles
We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 7,686) to determine whether racial and ethnic differences in socioeconomic stress and social protection explained group differences in the association between family structure instability and three risk behaviors for White, Black, and Mexican American adolescents: delinquent behavior, age at first nonmarital sex, and age at first nonmarital birth. The positive association between mothers' union transitions and each outcome for White adolescents was attenuated by social protection. The association of instability with age at first sex and first nonmarital birth was weaker for Black adolescents, but not for Mexican American adolescents. The weaker association was explained by Black adolescents' more frequent exposure to socioeconomic stress in the context of union instability. PMID:20697458
Fomby, Paula; Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie A
This multilevel study examined the relationships between moral climate factors and prosocial as well as antisocial behaviors inside and outside the school (school misconduct, delinquent behavior, and vandalism). The moral climate factors were punishment- and victim-based moral orientation, relationships among students, and teacher-student relationships. The analyses of data from 670 students in 69 classes showed that the classroom-level variables only had a significant impact on misconduct at school of students aged 12 to 20. For the other outcome variables, the student-level variables (student and teacher-student relationships, but especially students' moral orientation) were significant. A novel finding was that a positive teacher-student relationship not only proved to be related to less misconduct inside the school but also to less delinquent behavior and vandalism outside the school. This indicates that the teacher is an important socializing agent for adolescent behavior in general.
Wissink IB; Dekovic M; Stams GJ; Asscher JJ; Rutten E; Zijlstra BJ
Recognizing that adolescents providing or withholding information about their activities is a strong predictor of parental knowledge, this article compares several ideas about what prompts adolescents to disclose information or keep secrets from their parents. Using a sample of 874 Northern European adolescents (aged 12-16 years; 49.8 % were girls), modified cross-lagged models examined parental monitoring (solicitation and monitoring rules), adolescent delinquency, and perceived parental support as predictors and consequences of adolescents disclosing to parents or keeping secrets, with adolescents' acceptance of parental authority as a moderator. Results suggest that, when adolescents view their parents as supportive, they subsequently disclose more and keep fewer secrets. Engaging in delinquent behavior was related reciprocally to keeping secrets. By comparison, the results generally did not support the idea that adolescents who are monitored provide information to parents, even when they accept parental authority. These results suggest that relationship dynamics and adolescents' delinquent behaviors play an important role in adolescents' information management.
The present study examined the relationship between Berry's acculturation typology and HIV risk behaviors and whether family functioning mediated any such effects. A total of 235 high risk Hispanic adolescents were categorized into one of Berry's four acculturation typologies through the use of cut-off scores on measures of Hispanicism and Americanism. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors and the indirect effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors through family functioning. Acculturation typology was related to HIV risk behaviors. Family functioning partially mediated the effects of acculturation typology on the HIV risk behavior outcomes. These findings suggest that both Americanism and Hispanicism play an important role in the etiology of HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and that both, along with family functioning, are important to consider when designing preventive interventions for this population.
Farrelly C; Cordova D; Huang S; Estrada Y; Prado G
A large literature suggests associations between self-regulation and motivation and adolescent problem behavior; however, this research has mostly pitted these constructs against one another or tested them in isolation. Following recent neural-systems based theories (e.g., Ernst & Fudge, 2009 ), the present study investigated the interactions between self-regulation and approach and avoidance motivation prospectively predicting delinquency and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. The community sample included 387 adolescents aged 11 to 13 years old (55% female; 17% minority). Laboratory tasks were used to assess self-regulation and approach and avoidance motivation, and adolescent self-reports were used to measure depressive symptoms and delinquency. Analyses suggested that low levels of approach motivation were associated with high levels of depressive symptoms, but only at high levels of self-regulation (p = .01). High levels of approach were associated with high levels of rule breaking, but only at low levels of self-regulation (p < .05). These findings support contemporary neural-based systems theories that posit integration of motivational and self-regulatory individual differences via moderational models to understand adolescent problem behavior.
Rhodes JD; Colder CR; Trucco EM; Speidel C; Hawk LW Jr; Lengua LJ; Eiden RD; Wieczorek W
Variáveis familiares preditoras do comportamento anti-social em adolescentes autores de atos infracionais Family variables that predict antisocial behavior in adolescents who committed criminal transgressions
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar variáveis individuais e familiares preditoras do comportamento anti-social. Os participantes foram 148 adolescentes, autores de atos infracionais, e 163 adolescentes não-infratores. Os adolescentes responderam individualmente a uma entrevista estruturada, que investigou estratégias educativas parentais, variáveis familiares e aspectos relacionados ao desenvolvimento do comportamento infrator. Uma análise de conteúdo das respostas permitiu a delimitação das principais práticas educativas relatadas pelos jovens. Uma análise de regressão indicou que o comportamento anti-social de familiares, o número de irmãos, o uso de drogas pelo adolescente, os conflitos na família e as práticas educativas parentais explicaram 53% da variância do comportamento infrator. Os resultados apontaram a importância da família no desenvolvimento da conduta infratora.The aim of the present study was to investigate individual and family variables that might predict delinquent behavior. The participants were 148 adolescents, institutionalized for committing criminal transgressions, and 163 adolescents who did not commit criminal transgressions. The participants were interviewed about parental practices, family variables, and other factors related to the development of the delinquent behavior. A content analysis of the answers allowed the delimitation of the main educational practices identified by the adolescents. Regression analysis showed that antisocial behavior of family members, number of siblings, drug use, conflicts within the family, and parental educational practices explained 53% of the variance of delinquent behavior. These results pointed to the importance of the family in the development of the delinquent behavior.
Janaína Thaís Barbosa Pacheco; Claudio Simon Hutz
Full Text Available Self injury is a kind of behavior which begins in early adolescence and difficult to determine because remains suppressed. Most often forms are to cut and hit own. To be exposed to sexual abuse and stressfully life events are known as risk factors for self injurious behavior. High anxiety, depression and hostility levels, decrease of self esteem, suicidal attempts and thoughts are usually together with self injurious behavior and it may be mediating to emotional regulation. To explain the functions of self injurious behavior automatic and social support theories and social learning theories have suggested. The relation between suicidality and self injurious behavior is complex for adolescents. There is no enough knowledge if self injurious behavior aggravates the risk of completed suicide. Although it’s a frequent behavior there are limited randomized controlled studies which examine specific treatment approaches. Dialectic behavior treatment is the type of treatment which shown as most effective for adults. To determine the needs to stop the behavior, to manage emotional senses and urges and to learn more healthy ways for needs to youth are necessary in treatment of self injurious behavior. Treatment also includes determining suicidal risk and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In self injurious behavior medical treatment is useful for comorbid psychiatric disorders. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000): 201-210
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Suicide risk begins to increase during adolescence. Adolescents do not get enough sleep and are also at risk for many sleep disturbances. This study examined the association between sleep patterns and sleep problems and adolescent suicidal behavior. DESIGN AND SETTING: A questionnaire survey of adolescents attending school was conducted in one prefecture of Shandong Province, People's Republic of China. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1,362 adolescents attending school (mean age 14.6 years, 60% males) participated in the survey. MEASUREMENTS: Respondents completed a self-administered questionnaire that asked about sleep patterns, sleep problems, suicidal behavior, depressive symptoms, and demographic characteristics of the family and adolescent. RESULTS: Overall, 19.3% of the sample reported having suicidal ideation, 10.5% having suicide attempts in the past 6 months, 16.9% having insomnia symptoms, 2.3% having taken hypnotic medication, and 48.9% having experience of nightmares in the past month. Mean night sleep duration was 7.6 hours (SD = 0.8). Logistic regression analyses showed that sleeping less than 8 hours at night (OR = 2.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07-7.81) and frequent nightmares (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.76-3.35) were significantly associated with increased risk for suicide attempts after adjustment for age, sex, father's occupation, and depressive symptoms and that nightmares (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.20-2.38) were also significantly related to suicidal ideation. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate the association between short sleep duration and nightmares and suicidal behavior and highlight the potential role of sleep intervention in the prevention of adolescent suicide.
Most models exploring adolescent health behavior have focused on individual influences to understand behavior change. The goal of the current study was to assess the role of adolescent romantic partners on the expression of health behavior. Our sample utilized two waves of data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which included 80 romantic dyads (160 individuals). A longitudinal multilevel analysis was conducted. We assessed individual and romantic partner health-harming behaviors (i.e., delinquency, alcohol use, smoking, and marijuana use), health-protective behaviors (i.e., physical activity, physical inactivity, sleep patterns, seatbelt use, and contraception motivations), as well as the role of gender and age. Participants average age was 16 years at baseline. We found evidence for partner similarity and partner influence with the majority of health-harming behaviors. Specifically, partner influence was evident for smoking and alcohol use with partner influence approaching significance for marijuana use. We found limited evidence for partner similarity and partner influence for health-protective behaviors. The importance of assessing romantic dyads was evident in these data. Interventions focusing on health-harming behavior for adolescent populations are important public health goals. It is recommended that future intervention efforts with adolescent health-harming behaviors should target not only peers, but also consider the role of romantic partners.
Aalsma MC; Carpentier MY; Azzouz F; Fortenberry JD
This study examined relations between effortful control, parent-adolescent conflict, and teacher-student relationships and the concurrent and longitudinal impact of these factors on adolescent depression and misconduct. In particular, we examined whether the risks of low effortful control and parent-adolescent conflict could be buffered by positive teacher-student relationships characterized by warmth and trust. Data were collected on 1,400 urban youths (52% female, 51% Black, 44% White) who reported on their effortful control at age 13 years and on their depressive symptoms and misconduct from ages 13-18. Teacher-student relationship data were collected from teacher-report at age 13 and parent-adolescent conflict data from parent-report at age 13. As hypothesized, regardless of gender, both early poor effortful control and conflictive parent-adolescent relationship were general risks for adolescents' depression and misconduct. Positive teacher-student relationships protected adolescents against depression and misconduct throughout ages 13-18. In addition, positive teacher-student relationships moderated the negative influences of adolescents' early poor effortful control and conflictive parent-adolescent relationships on misconduct and helped such at-risk adolescents to attain less behaviorally delinquent developmental trajectories over time.
Wang MT; Brinkworth M; Eccles J
Full Text Available "nObjective: Wars' stress and violence can have tremendous effects on children's and adolescents' health and general well being; it may result in patterns of bio-psychosocial problems. The goal of this study was to compare emotional and behavioral problems in Afghan refugees and war-zone adolescents. "n Method: One hundred and eighty high school students (90 students in the refugee group and 90 in the war-zone group) in Harat were included in this research. All participants completed the Youth Self-Report (YSR). War zone and refugee adolescents were compared based on their scores on different scales of behavioral and emotional problems. "n Results: War-zone adolescents scored significantly higher on Anxious/Depression, Withdrawn, Somatic Complaints, Attention Problems, and Internalizing Problems scales than refugee adolescents. In this study, no significant difference was found between the two groups on Social Problems, Thought Problems, Delinquent Behavior, Aggressive Behavior, and Externalizing scales. "nConclusion: Findings revealed that although asylum is not an ideal condition for children's and adolescents' psychological development and prosperity, it can have a protective role in comparison with war zone's circumstances. Further investigation is needed, however, to elucidate the lack of significant differences in externalizing scales among war zone and refugee adolescents
Reza Rostami; Jalil Babapour-Kheiroddin; Behzad Shalchi; Farzaneh Badinloo; Fatemeh Hamzavi-Abedi
AIM: Adolescents with severe disruptive behaviour have an elevated risk for adult psychosis. We investigated whether the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) is a useful psychosis risk-screening tool for adolescents with disruptive behaviour. METHOD: Fifty-three adolescents residing in a reform school due to severe behavioural problems were interviewed with SIPS to ascertain clinical high-risk (CHR) state. CHR status was compared to self-reported psychiatric problems, and to registry data on hospital treatments for mental health disorders during a 5-year follow-up time. RESULTS: CHR was associated with self-reported internalizing problems and thought problems. It failed to predict psychoses but was associated with hospital treatment for mood and conduct disorders. CONCLUSION: The SIPS interview has limited power for predicting psychosis among adolescents with severe behavioural problems. However, SIPS appears to be useful for screening and predicting other psychiatric problems.
Manninen M; Lindgren M; Therman S; Huttunen M; Ebeling H; Moilanen I; Suvisaari J
This study examined the trajectories of sexual risk behaviors among adolescents from ages 15 to 23, and factors associated with those trajectories. The sample was 5,419 adolescents from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Using group-based trajectory modeling, five distinctive trajectory groups were identified. The High group had a high and increased risk trajectory over the observed ages. The Decreased group had a risk trajectory that accelerated before age 19, but decreased afterwards. The risk trajectories of the Increased-Early and Increased-Late groups were low at age 15, but increased significantly starting at ages 16 and 18 for the groups, respectively. Participants in the Low group remained at low risk over time. Sexual risk behaviors were also positively associated with alcohol use, marijuana use, and delinquency. Results highlight the need for intervention efforts to consider developmental timing of sexual risk behaviors and their associations with other problem behaviors.
Huang DY; Murphy DA; Hser YI
Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born-to-rebel hypothesis, I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief, the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed.
Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born-to-rebel hypothesis, I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief, the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:23719623
Cundiff, Patrick R
Previous studies of the association between multiple parental relationship transitions (i.e., when a parent begins or terminates an intimate relationship involving cohabitation) and offspring antisocial behavior have varied in their efforts to rule out confounding influences, such as parental antisocial behavior and low income. They also have been limited in the representativeness of their samples. Thus, it remains unclear to what degree parents' multiple relationship transitions have independent effects on children's antisocial behavior. Analyses were conducted using data on 8,652 6-9-year-old, 6,911 10-13-year-old, and 6,495 14-17-year-old offspring of a nationally representative sample of U.S. women. Cousin-comparisons were used in combination with statistical covariates to evaluate the associations between maternal relationship transitions and offspring antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence. Cousin-comparisons suggested that associations between maternal relationship transitions and antisocial behavior in childhood and early adolescence are largely explained by confounding factors. In contrast, the associations between maternal relationship transitions and offspring delinquency in late adolescence were robust to measured and unmeasured confounds. The present findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing exposure to parental relationship transitions or addressing the psychosocial consequences of exposure to parental relationship transitions could reduce risk for offspring delinquency in late adolescence.
Goodnight JA; D'Onofrio BM; Cherlin AJ; Emery RE; Van Hulle CA; Lahey BB
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since adulthood antisocial, aggressive and delinquent behaviors often have their onset early in life, investigating the association between biological factors and disruptive behaviors in children and adolescents are important and are emphasized on in the recent years. Baseline cortisol level seems to be a valuable biological marker of individuals with Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD). This study examined the effect of parent training on salivary cortisol levels of children with DBD.METHODS: Saliva samples were assayed to determine cortisol levels in nineteen clinic-referred children with DBD (aged 8 through 13 years) before and after an eight-session parent training program. Children’s disruptive behaviors were assessed by Child Behavior Check List before and after the intervention.RESULTS: Children’s salivary cortisol increased significantly after parent training sessions. Children with DBD who had lower basal cortisol levels had more severe disruptive behaviors and a better response to intervention by parent training as assessed by changes in cortisol levels and disruptive behaviour scores. However, post-interventional reduction of disruptive behaviors and increase in cortisol level was significant for all levels of baseline cortisol.CONCLUSIONS: Parent training is an effective method for behavioral modification in DBD. Salivary cortisol may be considered a predictive factor for severity of the child or adolescent's disruptive behaviors and also for response of those behaviors to parent training.KEY WORDS: Disruptive behavior, child, adolescent, parent training.
Masood Motamedi; Zahra Amini; Mansoor Siavash; Abbas Attari; Fereshteh Shakibaei; Mohammad Masood Azhar; Reza Jafarie Harandi; Akbar Hassanzadeh
Recent studies have shown that adolescents have initiated their sex lives earlier and earlier, without, however, receiving consistent sex education. The objectives of this study were to analyze the sexual behavior of adolescent high school students and identify the habits of sexual health in sexually active adolescent high school students. An exploratory study was conducted with 680 adolescents, whose age ranged between 15 and 19 years. Results showed that most participants had not initiated their sex life; boys are those who most report having had sexual relations; not all the interviewed adolescents used condoms during sex; most adolescents do not practice sexual health surveillance. It is important for sexually active adolescents to receive health care and counseling. Health institutions and their workers must be proactive in trying to approach adolescents.
Ferreira MM; Torgal MC
Use of meta-analytic strategies to test intervention effects is an important complement to traditional design-based analyses of intervention effects in randomized control trials. In the present paper, we suggest that meta-analyses within the context of matched-pair designs can provide useful insight into intervention effects. We illustrate the advantages to this analytic strategy by examining the effectiveness of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system on 8th-grade delinquent behavior in a randomized matched-pair trial. We estimate the intervention effect within each of the matched-pair communities, aggregate the effect sizes across matched pairs to derive an overall intervention effect, and test for heterogeneity in the effect of CTC on delinquency across matched pairs of communities. The meta-analysis finds that CTC reduces delinquent behavior and that the effect of CTC on delinquent behavior varies significantly across communities. The use of meta-analysis in randomized matched-pair studies can provide a useful accompaniment to other analytic approaches because it opens the possibility of identifying factors associated with differential effects across units or matched pairs in the context of a randomized control trial.
Monahan KC; Hawkins JD; Abbott RD
Problem statement: Delinquent adolescents with substance abuse disorders frequently engage in behaviors that elevate their risk of contracting HIV. Although effective risk reduction interventions are urgently needed, there is uncertainty about the nature of interve...
Jessy Devieux; Robert C. McMahon; Rhonda Rosenberg; Robert M. Malow
Full Text Available Social workers, psychologists and psychopharmacologists have devoted little attention to study the direct relationship between drugs and adolescents’ aggression. The main objective of this study was therefore to determine the extent of the level of aggressive behavior among adolescents who underwent rehabilitation of drug abuse. This study also sought to find out the relationship between type of drugs used with aggressive behavior among adolescents. Respondents were 200 adolescents from three juvenile Henry Gurney schools in Malaysia who took part in this exploratory cross-sectional survey research design. A set of questionnaire was constructed by the researcher based on the Aggression Questionnaires (AQ) scale. Results showed that the majority of adolescents (95 percent) indicated an aggressive behavior of moderate to high level. The result of the study also found that adolescents who have been using heroin (r = 0.016, p <0.05) and morphine drugs (r = 0.181, p <0.05) showed significant correlation with aggressive behavior. The findings provided evidence for the significant role of the goverment to enhance rehabilitation modules for adolescents involved in drug abuse. Education on how to effectively deal with aggressive behavior among adolescents at risk should be emphasized for building positive behavior among adolescents in order to produce potential young generation in the future.
Fauziah I.; Mohamad M. S.; Chong S. T.; Azmi Abd Manaf
The search for ways to prevent juvenile crime in the United States has become a matter of national urgency, as the incidence of serious offenses continues to rise. Most prevention initiatives focus on late childhood or adolescence. Such initiatives may be missing an important additional opportunity to intervene earlier in children's lives. This review of literature from criminology, psychology, and education shows that there exist key early childhood factors which are associated with later antisocial or delinquent behavior and that early childhood programs which seek to ameliorate the effects of those factors can prevent later antisocial or delinquent behavior. In particular, the review focuses on programs which have demonstrated long-term effects on antisocial behavior or delinquency. These programs have in common a combination of intensive family support and early education services, and effects on a broad range of child and family risk factors for delinquency. Moreover, there is promising evidence of their cost-effectiveness. As one element in a comprehensive plan to address poverty and other environmental causes of crime, programs combining family support with early education show promise in lessening the current devastating impact of delinquency on America's children and families.
This study uses a social-ecological approach to the development of delinquency. The authors emphasize that a balance between eliminating risk and enhancing protection across domains is essential in reducing problems and promoting competence. The cumulative risk and promotive effects of temperament, ...
Laan, A.M. van der; Veenstra, R.; Bogaerts, S.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.
Adolescents are faced with many developmental tasks related to sexuality, such as forming romantic relationships and developing their sexual identities. Many adolescents will engage in a variety of sexual behaviors, including perhaps oral and anal sex, during this time period. Almost half will engage in vaginal sexual intercourse by the end of high school. A number of biological, psychosocial, and sociocultural factors can influence adolescents' romantic relationships and sexual behaviors. Some of these factors (eg, exposure to violence in the home, early pubertal development) may increase an adolescent's risk of being in an unhealthy relationship or engaging in sex at an early age. Parents, healthcare providers, and communities can support adolescents through these developmental tasks by forming close, connected relationships with teens and devising age-appropriate messages about the development of healthy sexuality. PMID:16285632
Auslander, Beth A; Rosenthal, Susan L; Blythe, Margaret J
BACKGROUND: Suicidality among adolescents is a common focus of clinical attention. In spite of links to disruptive behaviors and other types of psychopathology, it is not clear whether other factors commonly associated with suicide, such as personality and parenting, predict suicidality over and above psychopathology. The purpose of the present study was to assess suicidal ideations and attempts and their relationship to psychopathology, violence exposure, personality traits and parental rearing in Russian male juvenile delinquents with conduct disorder (CD). METHOD: Suicidality and psychopathology were assessed using a semi-structured psychiatric interview in 271 incarcerated male juvenile delinquents diagnosed with CD. Violence exposure, personality characteristics and perceived parental rearing were assessed via self-reports. RESULTS: Thirty-four percent of those diagnosed with CD (92 subjects) reported a lifetime history of either suicidal thoughts or attempts. Suicidal ideators and attempters did not differ significantly on any variable of interest, but both reported significantly higher rates of psychopathology and violence exposure than the non-suicidal group, as well as higher levels of harm avoidance, lower self-directedness, and higher rates of perceived negative parental rearing. Finally, even when controlling for the relationship with psychopathology, personality and perceived parental rearing factors showed significant associations with suicidality. CONCLUSIONS: Juvenile delinquents with CD have high rates of suicidal ideations and attempts, related to a wide spectrum of psychopathology and specific personality traits. These findings suggest that a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors create vulnerability to stressors, which under the influence of situational factors (e.g., repeated traumatization) may lead to suicidal thoughts and acts. Factors potentially contributing to vulnerability for suicidality should be identified when planning prevention and rehabilitation efforts for troubled youth.
Ruchkin VV; Schwab-Stone M; Koposov RA; Vermeiren R; King RA
While parenting, attachment, individuation, and identity theories suggest relationships between parent-adolescent relationships, parenting behaviors, and adolescent self-evaluations, these theories differ in whether parent-adolescent relationship quality or parenting behaviors are more directly linked to adolescent self-evaluations. For this…
Masche, J. Gowert
|Background: A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidizing gene "monoamine oxidase A" ("MAOA") has been associated with behavioral sensitivity to adverse environmental conditions in multiple studies (e.g., Caspi et al. 2002; Kim-Cohen et al., 2006). The present study investigates the effects of genotype and early…
Edwards, Alexis C.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Latendresse, Shawn J.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Budde, John P.; Goate, Alison M.; Dick, Danielle M.
Full Text Available Objective: Suicide is a complex phenomenon associated with pyschological, biological and social factors. Suicide has been reported as the second or third most common cause of death in children and adolescents worldwide. Suicidal behaviour in children and adolescents will be discussed in the frame of motivational definition. Method: Published research studies and reviews on children and adolescent suicides have been reviewed. Furthermore, classical papers have been searched to obtain knowledge about suicide behavior. Results: It is reported that firearms have been the most important effect in adolescent suicide. Both fatal and nonfatal suicidal behaviors have been linked consistently to negative parent-child relationships, depression, substance use, overall number of life stressors, gender and impulsive behaviors. Discussion: Future efforts to investigate suicidal behavior should use new research methodologies that may lead to identification of the interactions between environmental factors and constitutional and biological factors that are associated with risk for suicidal behavior. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(2.000): 88-97
Evrim AKTEPE; Sema KANDIL; Murat TOPBAS
The relationship between emotional intelligence and prosocial behaviors and sex differences in 134 adolescents involved in a 6-wk. training camp run by the military was investigated. They were asked to evaluate themselves on emotional intelligence and randomly chosen peers evaluated them on prosocial behaviors, indicated by organizational citizenship behaviors, a measure used in work organizations. Ratings of emotional intelligence significantly correlated with scores on two of the five organizational citizenship behavior factors: Altruism (r = .25, p < .01) and Civic virtue (r = .24, p < .01). The girls scored somewhat, but not significantly, higher than the boys on Emotional Intelligence, Altruism, Conscientiousness, and Civic virtue, an observation which might be explored further. PMID:12061571
Charbonneau, Danielle; Nicol, Adelheid A M
The relationship between emotional intelligence and prosocial behaviors and sex differences in 134 adolescents involved in a 6-wk. training camp run by the military was investigated. They were asked to evaluate themselves on emotional intelligence and randomly chosen peers evaluated them on prosocial behaviors, indicated by organizational citizenship behaviors, a measure used in work organizations. Ratings of emotional intelligence significantly correlated with scores on two of the five organizational citizenship behavior factors: Altruism (r = .25, p < .01) and Civic virtue (r = .24, p < .01). The girls scored somewhat, but not significantly, higher than the boys on Emotional Intelligence, Altruism, Conscientiousness, and Civic virtue, an observation which might be explored further.
Charbonneau D; Nicol AA
Using a large contemporary data set (the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement), the authors examined the effects of parental work schedules on adolescent risky behaviors at age 13 or 14 and the mechanisms that might explain them. Structural equation modeling suggests mothers who worked more often at night spent significantly less…
Han, Wen-Jui; Miller, Daniel P.; Waldfogel, Jane
Abstract Suicide is both a public and mental health problem, and is a leading cause of deaths, especially among adolescents. Two factors that contribute to the decision of adolescents to commit suicide are having a primary mood disorder and/or substance use. In the Indian culture, the family unit has both a positive and negative impact on suicide. The family serves as a protective factor that provides a strong support for the individual, but alternately creates an inseparable individual when seeking mental health care, which often complicates the situation. Due to the stigma, Indians typically perceive having a mental illness as shameful. Religion is integral to the Indian culture so much so that individuals often use herbal remedies, seek help from religious leaders, and attend religious establishments prior to obtaining a mental health evaluation in those that are subsequently deemed as mentally ill. Despite the fact that suicides are underreported and misdiagnosed in India, it is known that the highest rates are among those <30 years old. The methods most commonly used to commit suicide in India include the ingestion of poison (often pesticides), hanging, burning, and drowning. When immigrating, Indians tend to switch the methods they use to commit suicide from ingestion of poison to hanging, which may reflect a lack of available poisonous substances or the influence of the host culture. Considering the high suicide rates in adolescents, the importance of providing psychoeducation, restricting access to lethal means, and promoting social integration in immigrants are various ways by which suicides in Indian adolescents can be avoided.
Samuel D; Sher L
Reviews the literature on delinquency that shows key early childhood factors which are associated with later antisocial or delinquent behavior. The review focuses on programs which have demonstrated long-term effects on antisocial behavior or delinquency, as well as their cost effectiveness. The article reveals that programs combining family…
Studies of adolescence in the family context suggest that rebellion is more the exception than the rule. The transition from childhood to adulthood includes the resolution of the tasks of sexual, educational, and work identity, as well as gradual emancipation from parental control. Serious behavioral problems of the teenager reflect failure in these tasks and/or breakdown of family values. Management includes respect, not necessarily acceptance, for the adolescent and his family's values, the democratic setting of limits, and encouragement of parental harmony.
BACKGROUND: Adolescents with chronic illness in the general population are at increased risk of mental health and behaviour problems. Depression is also associated with delinquency. Adolescents in foster care are more at risk for chronic illness and mental health issues. We investigated whether adolescents in long-term foster care with chronic illness have associated higher rates of internalizing and externalizing problems and delinquency. We also investigated if depression mediates the relationship between physical health and externalizing behaviours. METHODS: Data are from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being; adolescents age 11 and older residing in long-term foster care (n = 188). Children whose caregivers reported on the occurrence of a chronic illness were compared using anova on internalizing and externalizing subscale scores and total scores of the Youth Self Report (YSR) and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and modified Self-Report of Delinquency (MSRD) scores of delinquency and total number of delinquent acts. Bootstrapping analyses were used to test our hypothesis that depressive symptoms (Children's Depression Inventory) function as a mediator. RESULTS: Adolescents with a chronic illness reported greater internalizing (YSR: F = 7.069, P = 0.009; CBCL: F = 4.660, P = 0.032) and externalizing (YSR: F = 5.878, P = 0.016; CBCL: F = 3.546, P = 0.061) problems, a greater number of delinquent acts (6.66, F = 5.049, P = 0.026) and heightened overall delinquency (F = 5.049, P = 0.026). Depression significantly mediated the effects of overall health on delinquency (95% CI, 0.03-1.76). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to consider the complex interrelationships between physical health, mental health, and behaviour for adolescents in foster care. These findings support the need for comprehensive services for these youths, including specialized assessments and collaboration between protective services and healthcare systems.
Woods SB; Farineau HM; McWey LM
This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (Mage = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems, substance use, and sexual behavior at five timepoints. Mixture models yielded three trajectory classes apiece for adolescent and parent acculturation. Assimilated adolescents reported the poorest family functioning, but adolescent assimilation negatively predicted adolescent cigarette smoking, sexual activity, and unprotected sex indirectly through family functioning. Follow-up analyses indicated that discrepancies between adolescent and parent family functioning reports predicted these adolescent outcomes. Results are discussed regarding acculturation trajectories, adolescent risk behavior, and the mediating role of family functioning.
Schwartz SJ; Des Rosiers S; Huang S; Zamboanga BL; Unger JB; Knight GP; Pantin H; Szapocznik J
Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…
Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran
Stage-environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth in family management practices and adolescents' behavioral outcomes and to detect predictors of interindividual differences in initial status and rate of change. The sample comprised approximately 1,000 adolescents between ages 11 years and 15 years. The results indicated that adolescents' antisocial behaviors and substance use increased and their positive behavioral engagement decreased over time. As adolescent age increased, parental knowledge of their adolescent's activities decreased, as did parental rule making and support. The level and rate of change in family management and adolescent behavioral outcomes varied by family structure and by gender. Reciprocal longitudinal associations between parenting practices and adolescent problem behavior were found. Specifically, parenting practices predicted subsequent adolescent behavior, and adolescent behavior predicted subsequent parenting practices. In addition, parental warmth moderated the effects of parental knowledge and rule making on adolescent antisocial behavior and substance use over time.
Wang MT; Dishion TJ; Stormshak EA; Willett JB
In this article, adolescent sexual behavior is discussed within a biopsychosocial framework. Prevalence rates for both coital and noncoital behaviors are presented, and trends in coital behaviors are noted over time. Special attention is paid to the role culture plays in the development of sexual behaviors. The discussion includes prevalence rates and trends of pregnancies/births and sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents and the impact of these outcomes for both adolescents and their offspring. PMID:18453225
Auslander, Beth A; Rosenthal, Susan L; Blythe, Margaret J
Full Text Available The continuity of externalizing behaviors such as aggression, delinquency and hyperactivity has been noted by many researchers. There is also increasing knowledge on different developmental subtypes of problem behavior. In previous person-oriented analyses we found two types of externalizing problems in boys (Stemmler et al., 2005, 2008; Stemmler & Lösel, 2010). One pattern contained externalizing problems only, whereas the other type showed both externalizing and internalizing problems. The present study addressed these two groups in an extended prospective longitudinal design. It was investigated whether the groups remained stable over time and whether the two types of antisociality were related to offending in adolescence. The sample consisted of 295 boys from the Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study (Lösel et al., 2009). Social behavior was rated by mothers, kindergarten educators, and school teachers; offending was self-reported by the adolescents. The time lag between the first and last data assessment was more than eight years.Approximately nine percent of the boys revealed stable externalizing behavior problems over the entire assessment period. Criminal behavior correlated positively with externalizing problems and negatively with internalizing problems. In a person-oriented Prediction-Configural Frequency Analysis (P-CFA; von Eye, 2002) the ‘externalizing only’ pattern could be replicated and suggested high stability over time. Moreover, this pattern was clearly related to self-reported delinquent behavior. In contrast to our previous studies with shorter follow up periods, the ‘combined externalizing and internalizing’ pattern did not appear as a type. It was also not significantly related to juvenile offending. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed.
Mark Stemmler; Friedrich Lösel
Girls in the juvenile justice system are known to have high rates of co-occurring childhood abuse, trauma, and substance abuse. Girls with this constellation of problems are at high risk for serious adverse outcomes, including problems with drug dependence and abuse. The relationship between childhood sexual abuse, childhood physical abuse, other types of childhood trauma, and rates of substance use during adolescence were examined for girls in the juvenile justice system. As expected, childhood sexual abuse was significantly related to girls' substance use during adolescence. In contrast to prior research, no link was found between physical abuse, lifetime trauma, and substance use. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
Smith DK; Saldana L
This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of gambling behavior (GB) in adolescent substance abusers (N = 97) consecutively admitted to an outpatient treatment program. Thirty-four percent of the cohort had never gambled; 57% were classified as social/nonpathological gamblers; 8% were labeled as in transition gamblers; and only 1% met criteria for pathological gambling. A significant finding was that males are more likely to gamble and to have a higher severity score than do females. A younger age of GB onset is seen for girls than boys and is correlated with a history of suicide attempts, diagnosis of depression, number of symptoms of oppositional behavior, cluster B personality disorders, and a higher need for psychiatric treatment. None of the gambling youths was ever referred for GB counseling. Increased awareness for and additional studies of adolescent gambling are required.
Kaminer Y; Burleson JA; Jadamec A
This study examines delinquent behavior among schoolchildren in a nationally representative sample from the United States and seeks an understanding of the factors contributing to variances in delinquency across immigration generations. Data analysis indicates that the levels of self-reported substance use, property delinquency, and violent…
Bui, Hoan N.
Full Text Available The goal of this article is to briefly review and summarize the rationale and research support for cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as a treatment for depressed adolescents. A primary focus of the paper is on our group CBT treatment for adolescent depression, entitled the Adolescent Coping With Depression Course. In addition, initial findings from a large, recently-completed study contrasting individual CBT to fluoxetine for depressed adolescents (Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study) are presented. Although the research support for CBT as a treatment for depressed adolescents is generally encouraging, we need to better understand which depressed adolescents benefit from CBT, how and when to incorporate medication and family-based interventions into CBT treatment, how to treat depressed adolescents with comorbid psychiatric conditions, and how CBT interventions fare with non-European-American depressed adolescents.
Attenuated reactivity of salivary alpha-amylase has been proposed as a specific sympathetic marker of disruptive behavior in juveniles and may have additional value to studying other autonomic parameters and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Investigating the interrelationships between neurobiological parameters in relation to juvenile disruptive behavior may enhance insight into the complex mechanisms at play. We investigated salivary alpha-amylase, cortisol, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) in response to a standardized public speaking task, and examined interactions between these parameters in relation to disruptive behavior. Participants were 48 delinquent male adolescents (mean age 18.4 years, SD 0.9), with and without a disruptive behavior disorder (resp. DP+, DP-) and 16 matched normal controls (NC). A structured psychiatric interview as well as the Youth Self Report and Child Behavior Checklist were administered to assess disruptive behavior. Alpha-amylase and cortisol reactivity, but not HR or HRV, showed significant inverse associations with dimensional measures of disruptive behavior. Moreover, both cortisol and alpha-amylase reactivity were significantly lower in the DP+ group as compared to the NC group. The mentioned relationships remained present when nicotine use was entered as a covariate. Combining alpha-amylase and cortisol in one model explained a larger part of the variance of disruptive behavior than either single parameter. There were no interactions between alpha-amylase and cortisol or HRV in relation to disruptive behavior. Attenuated alpha-amylase responsivity to stress is a correlate of disruptive behavior in late-adolescent males. Although nicotine use explains a considerable part of the variance of disruptive behavior, both alpha-amylase and cortisol are related to disruptive behavior, over and above the effect of nicotine use. Combining alpha-amylase and cortisol improved insight into neurobiological mechanisms involved with disruptive behavior; concurrent low reactivity of both parameters was related to higher levels of disruptive behavior.
de Vries-Bouw M; Jansen L; Vermeiren R; Doreleijers T; van de Ven P; Popma A
Relatively little is known in terms of the relationship between religiosity profiles and adolescents' involvement in substance use, violence, and delinquency. Using a diverse sample of 17,705 (49 % female) adolescents from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, latent profile analysis and multinomial regression are employed to examine the relationships between latent religiosity classes and substance use, violence, and delinquency. Results revealed a five class solution. Classes were identified as religiously disengaged (10.76 %), religiously infrequent (23.59 %), privately religious (6.55 %), religious regulars (40.85 %), and religiously devoted (18.25 %). Membership in the religiously devoted class was associated with the decreased likelihood of participation in a variety of substance use behaviors as well as decreases in the likelihood of fighting and theft. To a lesser extent, membership in the religious regulars class was also associated with the decreased likelihood of substance use and fighting. However, membership in the religiously infrequent and privately religious classes was only associated with the decreased likelihood of marijuana use. Findings suggest that private religiosity alone does not serve to buffer youth effectively against involvement in problem behavior, but rather that it is the combination of intrinsic and extrinsic adolescent religiosity factors that is associated with participation in fewer problem behaviors.
Salas-Wright CP; Vaughn MG; Hodge DR; Perron BE
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between SMS/social media use and sexual behavior among Latino adolescents. METHODS: Four hundred twenty-eight 9(th)- and 10(th)-grade Latino adolescents were recruited to participate in a survey. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine associations between new media use and sexual behaviors. RESULTS: There is a significant association between frequency of SMS/social media use and sexual behavior after controlling for age, gender, survey language, and nativity. CONCLUSIONS: Latino adolescents using SMS and social media at higher frequencies are more likely to have ever had sex. Future research must continue to explore this relationship.
Landry M; Gonzales FA; Wood S; Vyas A
Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…
Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas
This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…
Sabia, Joseph J.
This study examined mother-adolescent conflict as a mediator of longitudinal reciprocal relations between adolescent aggression and depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control. Motivated by family systems theory and the transactions that occur between individual and dyadic levels of the family system, we examined the connections among these variables during a developmental period when children and parents experience significant psychosocial changes. Three years of self-report data were collected from 168 mother-adolescent dyads, beginning when the adolescents (55.4% girls) were in 6th grade. Models were tested using longitudinal path analysis. Results indicated that the connection between adolescent aggression (and depressive symptoms) and maternal psychological control was best characterized as adolescent-driven, indirect, and mediated by mother-adolescent conflict; there were no indications of parent-driven indirect effects. That is, prior adolescent aggression and depressive symptoms were associated with increased conflict. In turn, conflict was associated with increased psychological control. Within our mediation models, reciprocal direct effects between both problem behaviors and conflict and between conflict and psychological control were also found. Additionally, exploratory analyses regarding the role of adolescent gender as a moderator of variable relations were conducted. These analyses revealed no gender-related patterns of moderation, whether moderated mediation or specific path tests for moderation were considered. This study corroborates prior research finding support for child effects on parenting behaviors during early adolescence.
Steeger CM; Gondoli DM
OBJECTIVES: To study the associations of screen time (Internet / video games / television) with health-related behaviors and outcomes in adolescents. METHODS: Regression analyses were performed to assess the associations of screen time with several health-related behaviors and outcomes in 2425 Dutch adolescents. RESULTS: Screen time was associated with bullying, being bullied, less physical activity, skipping school, alcohol use and unhealthy eating habits. Compulsive and excessive screen times were associated respectively with several psychosocial problems and being overweight. CONCLUSIONS: Screen time was of significant importance to adolescent health. Behavioral interrelatedness caused significant confounding in the studied relations when behaviors were analyzed separately compared to a multi-behavioral approach, which speaks for more multi-behavioral analyses in future studies.
Busch V; Ananda Manders L; Rob Josephus de Leeuw J
To address the lack of studies examining the convergent and discriminant validity of cross-informant ratings, several statistical approaches were used in this study to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity for ratings of interparental conflict, adolescent behavioral problems, and adolescent competence. A total of 272…
Epstein, Monica K.; Renk, Kimberly; Duhig, Amy M.; Bosco, Georgetta L.; Phares, Vicky
Full Text Available Adolescent suicidal behaviors and substance use are disturbingly common. Research suggests overlap of some of the etiological mechanisms for both adolescent suicidal behavior and substance use, yet clear understanding of the complex relations between these behaviors and their causal underpinnings is lacking. A growing body of evidence and a diathesis model (Mann et al. 1999; Mann, 2003) highlight the importance of impulse control as a proximal risk factor for adolescent suicidal and substance use behaviors. This literature review extends current theory on the relationships between adolescent suicidal behavior and substance use by: (1) examining how, when, and to what extent adolescent development is affected by poor impulse control, stressful life events, substance use behavior, and biological factors; (2) presenting proposed causal mechanisms by which these risk factors interact to increase risk for suicidal behaviors and substance use; and (3) proposing specific new hypotheses to extend the diathesis model to adolescents at risk for suicide and substance use. More specifically, new hypotheses are presented that predict bidirectional relationships between stressful life events and genetic markers of 5-HT dysregulation; substance use behavior and impulsivity; and substance use behavior and suicide attempts. The importance of distinguishing between different developmental trajectories of suicidal and substance use behaviors, and the effects of specific risk and protective mechanisms are discussed. Use of new statistical approaches that provide for the comparison of latent growth curves and latent class models is recommended to identify differences in developmental trajectories of suicidal behavior and substance use. Knowledge gained from these prospective longitudinal methods should lead to greater understanding on the timing, duration, and extent to which specific risk and protective factors influence the outcomes of suicidal behavior and substance use. In turn, findings from these studies should inform researchers who conduct future treatment and prevention studies.
Michael A. Dawes; Charles W. Mathias; Dawn M. Richard; Nathalie Hill-Kapturczak; Donald M. Dougherty
Objective: To investigate relationships among family risk factors, childhood firesetting and animal cruelty, and adolescent delinquency. Method: In 1990, mothers and children participating in a 10-year prospective study provided information about family risk factors and childhood problem behavior. Subsequent interviews with 86% of the sample in…
Becker, Kimberly D.; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Herrera, Veronica M.; McCloskey, Laura A.
A central element in attaining the goals and objectives of Healthy People 2010 is promoting healthy behavior lifestyles. Health promotion continues to be sanctioned as the long term most cost effective approach to a reduction in preventable health problems. Adolescents are presently an age group in jeopardy of making the transition into adulthood with healthy lifestyles. This paper describes the use of the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP) (Walker, Sechrist, and Pender, 1987) as a measure of health promoting behaviors in a group of rural southern early adolescents (1036 seventh and eight graders; 81% were African American). The findings suggest that rural southern adolescents perceive themselves to be enganging in health promoting lifestyle behaviors. However, some HPLP subscales seemed to be especially difficult for adolescents.
Hendricks CS; Murdaugh C; Tavakoli A; Hendricks DL
Standardized testing has shown that juvenile delinquents have a high incidence of communication problems; however, discourse analyses have failed to confirm pragmatic deficits. This study's purpose was to explore, using qualitative procedures, the pragmatic awareness of female juvenile delinquents concerning conversational interactions. The 45 participants engaged in small-group conversations about communication during multiple class periods. On-line field notes served as the data and were used to determine emerging patterns of verbal and nonverbal communication behaviors. Identified themes included (a) active listening; (b) body position; (c) eye contact, facial expressions, and gestures; (d) utterance types; (e) topics of conversation; (f) politeness and honesty; and (g) conversational management. Results suggested that juvenile delinquents can state many conventions governing conversational interactions; however, some do not always display interactional behaviors consistent with their pragmatic awareness. Discrepancies about pragmatic awareness are discussed in terms of the underlying nature of communication challenges in delinquent populations.
Sanger DD; Hux K; Ritzman M
Standardized testing has shown that juvenile delinquents have a high incidence of communication problems; however, discourse analyses have failed to confirm pragmatic deficits. This study's purpose was to explore, using qualitative procedures, the pragmatic awareness of female juvenile delinquents concerning conversational interactions. The 45 participants engaged in small-group conversations about communication during multiple class periods. On-line field notes served as the data and were used to determine emerging patterns of verbal and nonverbal communication behaviors. Identified themes included (a) active listening; (b) body position; (c) eye contact, facial expressions, and gestures; (d) utterance types; (e) topics of conversation; (f) politeness and honesty; and (g) conversational management. Results suggested that juvenile delinquents can state many conventions governing conversational interactions; however, some do not always display interactional behaviors consistent with their pragmatic awareness. Discrepancies about pragmatic awareness are discussed in terms of the underlying nature of communication challenges in delinquent populations. PMID:10498010
Sanger, D D; Hux, K; Ritzman, M
To better understand the differences between pregnant adolescents and parenting adolescents, we examined substance use, contraceptive behavior, and parenting knowledge among 91 first-time pregnant and parenting adolescents enrolled in an adolescent parenting case management program. After one year of program participation, pre- and post-test comparisons indicated improvements in contraception use and parenting knowledge, and increases in reported use of cigarettes, alcohol and other drugs among both groups. Adolescents who entered the program while pregnant experienced greater benefit than adolescents who entered the program already parenting. We discuss several implications for practitioners at both the programmatic and direct practice level who work with young women during pregnancy and as they transition to early parenthood. PMID:16390833
Sangalang, Bernadette B; Rounds, Kathleen
To better understand the differences between pregnant adolescents and parenting adolescents, we examined substance use, contraceptive behavior, and parenting knowledge among 91 first-time pregnant and parenting adolescents enrolled in an adolescent parenting case management program. After one year of program participation, pre- and post-test comparisons indicated improvements in contraception use and parenting knowledge, and increases in reported use of cigarettes, alcohol and other drugs among both groups. Adolescents who entered the program while pregnant experienced greater benefit than adolescents who entered the program already parenting. We discuss several implications for practitioners at both the programmatic and direct practice level who work with young women during pregnancy and as they transition to early parenthood.
Sangalang BB; Rounds K
By adolescence, appraisal of one's past life experience becomes critical to the stage-salient issue of identity formation. This study examined adolescents' perceptions of their maltreatment experiences. It scrutinized the combined and unique contribution of five maltreatment types (i.e., physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological abuse, neglect, and exposure to family violence) to variance in adolescent adjustment. It was predicted that these maltreatment types would account for significant variance in adjustment when controlling for the context variables of age, sex, socioeconomic status, IQ, and stressful life events. Adolescents (N = 160, aged 11-17) were randomly selected from the open caseload of a child protection agency. Participants completed global severity ratings regarding their experiences of the five types of maltreatment, as well as a battery of measures assessing self- and caretaker-reported externalizing and internalizing symptomatology. The youths' maltreatment ratings significantly predicted self-reported adjustment, even when controlling for all context variables. Psychological maltreatment was the most predictively potent maltreatment type, and enhanced the predictive utility of other maltreatment types. Significant sex differences in the sequelae of perceived maltreatment were evident. Also, interactions between youths' ratings and those obtained from CPS files were detected. The findings were consistent with recent research in child maltreatment, and contribute to our understanding of developmental psychopathology among adolescents.
McGee RA; Wolfe DA; Wilson SK
By adolescence, appraisal of one's past life experience becomes critical to the stage-salient issue of identity formation. This study examined adolescents' perceptions of their maltreatment experiences. It scrutinized the combined and unique contribution of five maltreatment types (i.e., physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological abuse, neglect, and exposure to family violence) to variance in adolescent adjustment. It was predicted that these maltreatment types would account for significant variance in adjustment when controlling for the context variables of age, sex, socioeconomic status, IQ, and stressful life events. Adolescents (N = 160, aged 11-17) were randomly selected from the open caseload of a child protection agency. Participants completed global severity ratings regarding their experiences of the five types of maltreatment, as well as a battery of measures assessing self- and caretaker-reported externalizing and internalizing symptomatology. The youths' maltreatment ratings significantly predicted self-reported adjustment, even when controlling for all context variables. Psychological maltreatment was the most predictively potent maltreatment type, and enhanced the predictive utility of other maltreatment types. Significant sex differences in the sequelae of perceived maltreatment were evident. Also, interactions between youths' ratings and those obtained from CPS files were detected. The findings were consistent with recent research in child maltreatment, and contribute to our understanding of developmental psychopathology among adolescents. PMID:9089128
McGee, R A; Wolfe, D A; Wilson, S K
One purpose of this study was to determine whether parental involvement, measured in late adolescence, mediates the relationship between delinquency in mid-adolescence and crime in early adulthood. This study's second purpose was to ascertain whether this relationship is moderated by sex, such that late adolescent parental involvement mediates the delinquency-crime relationship in females but not in males. A secondary analysis of data provided by 579 (272 males, 307 females) members of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child (NLSYC) was conducted in an effort to evaluate the possibility of moderated mediation in the relationship between delinquency at age 16, parental involvement at age 18, and criminality at age 24. Moderated mediation analysis, path analysis, and causal mediation analysis revealed the presence of a conditional indirect relationship between delinquency, parental involvement, and adult crime moderated by sex. These results are consistent with views on cumulative disadvantage and gendered pathways to crime.
It is commonly assumed that exposure to terrorism may lead to violent behavior, but there is little empirical research on the relationship between these two variables. In the present paper, we examined the extent to which exposure to terrorism contributes to violent behavior among adolescents. In addition, we considered the role of environmental…
Even-Chen, Merav Solomon; Itzhaky, Haya
|The book contains 10 papers concerning programming for adolescents with behavioral disorders. Papers have the following titles and authors: "What You See Is Not Always What You Get" (Richard Neel); "Implications of the Relationship between Observational and Rating Scale Data for the Assessment of Behavioral Disorders" (Russell Skiba and Patrick…
Braaten, Sheldon, Ed.; And Others
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of educational interventions that incorporate parent participation to modify adolescent sexual behavior. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of 5 electronic databases for articles published between 2002 and 2009 that evaluated educational interventions involving parents. RESULTS: Nineteen articles evaluated 15 interventions that met all the criteria for inclusion. They found a significant increase in adolescents' intentions to postpone sexual intercourse and use contraceptives, a reduction in self-reported sexual relations and an increase in condom use. Positive results were also found for individual protective factors such as knowledge and attitude, and family factors such as parent-child communication, perception of rules, monitoring/supervision by parents and family support. CONCLUSION: Educational interventions that include parents support healthy sexual behavior among adolescents. Parental participation can be included in any intervention aimed at adolescents.
Atienzo EE; Campero L; Estrada F; Rouse C; Walker D
Full Text Available Introduction. The period of life known as adolescence generally refers to transition from childhood to adulthood. Adolescents' progress toward autonomy involves remaining connected with, as well as separated from parents. Young people and their parents usually have mixed feelings about adolescent autonomy and attachment. An estimated 50% of children born in the 80s have spent part of their developmental years in single-parent households. Divorce is almost always a stressful event in children's lives. Youthful suicide rate has increased dramatically and is the third leading cause of death among 15-19 year olds. Conduct disorder is one of the most frequently diagnosed conditions in adolescents. Suicidal adolescents and adolescents with conduct disorder are much more likely than their peers to have grown up in disrupted, disorganized homes with lack of attachment between parents and their children. Material and methods This prospective study was carried out during 2002, 2003, and 2004. The research included 60 adolescents treated at the Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Novi Sad, 30 with diagnosed conduct disorder and 30 with suicidal behavior. Results Along with other kinds of distress, suicidal adolescents have experienced an escalation of family problems a few months prior to attempted suicide. Discussion Divorce and life in single-parent households is almost always a stressful period in children's lives. Conduct disorder and suicidal behavior represent a desperate cry for help. Conclusion Most adolescents in both groups live in single-parent households. These young people have frequently passed into adolescence with little reason to feel that they could rely on their parents for support, or on their home as a place of sanctuary. .
Ivanovi?-Kova?evi? Svetlana; Dickov Aleksandra; Miši?-Pavkov Gordana
OBJECTIVE: Since adolescence obesity is becoming an international concern, our objective was to evaluate obesity-related behavior in Lebanese adolescents. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study in 19 Lebanese private schools, using a random multistage cluster sampling process. Dietary and physical activity behaviors were assessed in 1933 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years, stressing on differences between boys and girls and obesity categories. RESULTS: We found that boys were more obese than girls (72% versus 3.7% ; p < 0.001); they were less likely to adopt dietary behaviors that maintain or increase weight, such as eating lighter food (13.1% versus 20.9% ; p < 0.001). However, girls were less likely to perform physical activity (81% versus 71%; p < 0.001). Our results are similar to those of other researchers. CONCLUSION: In this sample of Lebanese adolescents, dietary and physical activity behaviors differed between boys and girls ; these differences could explain their obesity rates. Educational and participative scholar interventions are necessary to induce changes in adolescents' behavior, stressing on physical activity for girls and healthier eating for boys.
Salameh P; Barbour B; Issa C; Rachidi S
Adolescence is characterized by dynamic changes in structural brain maturation. At the same time, adolescence is a critical time for the development of affective and anxiety-related disorders. Individual differences in typically developing children and adolescents may prove more valuable for identifying which brain regions correspond with internalizing behavior problems (i.e., anxious/depressive, withdrawal and somatic symptoms) on a continuous scale compared to clinical studies. Participants were 179 (92 males, 87 females) typically developing children and adolescents between ages 8 and 17. Hippocampal and amygdala volumes were measured automatically with FreeSurfer. Internalizing behavior was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) completed by the parent, and associated with hippocampal and amygdala volumes. Hippocampal volume was inversely related with the total internalizing problems scale of the CBCL, irrespective of gender, age, or informant (mother or father). The effects were most prominent for the withdrawal and anxiety/depression subscales and the left hippocampus: more withdrawal and anxiety/depression was related to smaller left hippocampal volume. No associations were found between internalizing behavior and amygdala volume. This study shows that typically developing children and adolescents with high internalizing behavior share some of the neuroanatomical features of adult depression and anxiety-related disorders.
Koolschijn PC; van IJzendoorn MH; Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ; Crone EA
Adolescence and puberty are highly important periods for postnatal brain maturation. During adolescence, drastic changes of neuronal architecture and function occur that concomitantly lead to distinct behavioral alterations. Unsurprisingly in view of the multitude of ongoing neurodevelopmental processes in the adolescent brain, most adult neuropsychiatric disorders have their roots exactly during this time span. Adolescence and puberty are therefore crucial developmental periods in terms of understanding the causes and mechanisms of adult mental illness. Valid animal models for adolescent behavior and neurodevelopment might offer better insights into the underlying mechanisms and help to identify specific time windows with heightened susceptibility during development. In order to increase the translational value of such models, we urgently need to define the detailed timing of adolescence and puberty in laboratory rodents. The aim of the present review is to provide a more precise delineation of the time course of these developmental periods during postnatal life in rats and mice and to discuss the impact of adolescence and related neurodevelopmental processes on the heightened susceptibility for mental disorders. PMID:23430475
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adolescent (10–19 years) is a transition of age during which hazardous sexual health behaviors may be adopted; increasing vulnerability to several kinds of behavioral disorders like drug use, unsafe sexual act leading to reproductive ill health. Objective of the study was to assess sexual health behaviors of adolescents in Pokhara, Nepal. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 15–19 years adolescents studying in grades 11 and 12. Probability sampling techniques were applied. A structured, pretested, envelope sealed self administered questionnaire was distributed among all (1584) adolescents of the 11 and 12 grades of selected institutions. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (16 versions). Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. RESULTS: About 19.37% adolescents had sexual contact and male participation was higher than females (P<0.05). Nearly one fifth of unmarried were found to be involved in sexual activities and most of them had first sex between 15-19 years age (median age 15.26 years). Of those who had sex, 6.91% had adopted all the three: vaginal, oral and anal sexes and majority had single followed by 2-5 sex partners in their sexual intercourse in the last one year and last month. About 13.93% adolescents were found to be indulged in group sex. Most of them had sex with regular partners and commercial sex workers. More than eight out of every ten who had sex had used contraceptive methods and condom was method of choice (94.77%). CONCLUSIONS: Premarital sexual involvement was prevalent among adolescents; sex with commercial sex workers and non commercial sex partners was perceived to be risk. Behavior change intervention strategies need to be formulated and implemented to promote adolescent reproductive and sexual health.
Shrestha Niranjan; Prasad Paneru Damaru; Jnawali Kalpana
We examined associations between parenting behaviors and romantic relationship qualities in 102 adolescent girls 14-21 years of age who lived with their parent/parental figure and had current boyfriends. Adolescent girls' perceptions that parents were accepting/involved and provided appropriate strictness and supervision were significantly related to adolescent girls' perceptions of mutuality (i.e., bidirectional movement of thoughts, feelings, and activities between persons) within their own romantic relationships, which in turn was related to their romantic relationship satisfaction. No parenting variables were related to nonexclusivity. PMID:19541257
Auslander, Beth A; Short, Mary B; Succop, Paul A; Rosenthal, Susan L
The utility of a rational model of contraceptive use in adolescents was evaluated in a cohort of 325 sexually active adolescents aged 14 to 19 years. Adolescents were interviewed regarding their beliefs about the consequences of using each of four methods of contraception, evaluation of those consequences, perception of the wishes of others regarding use of each method, motivation to comply with those wishes, general attitude toward using the method, view of general social expectations regarding their use of the method, and their intention to use the method during the next year. They were reinterviewed 1 year later to determine actual use. The results support the utility of this model for understanding adolescent behavior. Significant associations were found between intentions to use contraceptive methods and their actual use. Intentions were significantly related to adolescents' attitudes toward using the methods and their perception of social expectations regarding use. General attitudes were significantly related to a summary score reflecting the adolescents' beliefs about specific consequences of use weighted by their evaluations of them. General social perceptions were significantly related to a summary score of perceived desires of specific individuals multiplied by the adolescent's desire to comply with those desires. These findings indicate that physicians can be more effective in clinical practice by querying adolescents about their beliefs and intentions and about their perceptions of significant individuals in their lives.
Adler NE; Kegeles SM; Irwin CE Jr; Wibbelsman C
The utility of a rational model of contraceptive use in adolescents was evaluated in a cohort of 325 sexually active adolescents aged 14 to 19 years. Adolescents were interviewed regarding their beliefs about the consequences of using each of four methods of contraception, evaluation of those consequences, perception of the wishes of others regarding use of each method, motivation to comply with those wishes, general attitude toward using the method, view of general social expectations regarding their use of the method, and their intention to use the method during the next year. They were reinterviewed 1 year later to determine actual use. The results support the utility of this model for understanding adolescent behavior. Significant associations were found between intentions to use contraceptive methods and their actual use. Intentions were significantly related to adolescents' attitudes toward using the methods and their perception of social expectations regarding use. General attitudes were significantly related to a summary score reflecting the adolescents' beliefs about specific consequences of use weighted by their evaluations of them. General social perceptions were significantly related to a summary score of perceived desires of specific individuals multiplied by the adolescent's desire to comply with those desires. These findings indicate that physicians can be more effective in clinical practice by querying adolescents about their beliefs and intentions and about their perceptions of significant individuals in their lives. PMID:2308042
Adler, N E; Kegeles, S M; Irwin, C E; Wibbelsman, C
... and child and adolescent psychiatry. Facts for Families© information sheets are developed, owned and distributed by AACAP. Hard copies of Facts sheets may be reproduced for personal or educational use without written permission, but cannot ...
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of emotional and behavioral disorders in adolescents with asthma and to compare it with that of adolescents without asthma. METHODS: A transversal study using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, administered to adolescents with or without asthma, ranging from 14 to 16 years of age and randomly selected from schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. RESULTS: The prevalence of emotional and behavioral disorders in adolescents with and without asthma was 20.4% (95% CI: 14.5-27.8%) and 9.0% (95% CI: 6.1-12.8%), respectively. Among adolescents with asthma, 56.6% (95% CI: 48.3-64.5%) presented normal scores, and 23.0% (95% CI 16.8-30.7%) presented borderline scores. Among adolescents without asthma, 75.0% (95% CI: 69.7-79.6%) presented normal scores, and 16.0% (95% CI: 12.2-20.7%) presented borderline scores. The median total score on the questionnaire was 14 and 12 among subjects with and without asthma, respectively (p < 0.01). In the final logistic regression model, adjusted for socioeconomic variables, the association between emotional/behavioral disorders and the following variables remained significant: being female (OR = 1.98; 95% CI: 1.10-3.56; p = 0.02) and having asthma (OR = 2.66; 95% CI: 1.52-4.64; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of emotional and behavioral disorders is higher in adolescents with asthma than in those without asthma, underscoring the need for a holistic, interdisciplinary approach.
Alvim CG; Ricas J; Camargos PA; Lasmar LM; Andrade CR; Ibiapina Cda C
This longitudinal study investigates whether rural adolescents who transition to a new school in sixth grade have higher levels of risky behavior than adolescents who transition in seventh grade. Our findings indicate that later school transitions had little effect on problem behavior between sixth and ninth grades. Cross-sectional analyses found a small number of temporary effects of transition timing on problem behavior: Spending an additional year in elementary school was associated with higher levels of deviant behavior in the Fall of Grade 6 and higher levels of antisocial peer associations in Grade 8. However, transition effects were not consistent across waves and latent growth curve models found no effects of transition timing on the trajectory of problem behavior. We discuss policy implications and compare our findings with other research on transition timing.
Lippold MA; Powers CJ; Syvertsen AK; Feinberg ME; Greenberg MT
PURPOSE: Despite a substantial amount of evidence on breastfeeding among non-adolescent mothers, research and strategies uniquely designed to target adolescent mothers are critical because their rates of breastfeeding are disproportionately low and their transition to parenthood is often unlike that of older mothers. Literature to date, however, offers limited evidence for designing effective interventions. Therefore, we aimed to fill this gap in the literature by examining breastfeeding behaviors among a cohort of female adolescents as they transition to parenthood. METHODS: Data were derived from a longitudinal cohort of pregnant adolescent females (ages 14-21 years) and their male partners, observed from pregnancy through 6 months postpartum. Means and frequencies were used to describe breastfeeding experiences, breastfeeding behaviors, and sociodemographic characteristics. We used multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models to identify factors independently associated with breastfeeding initiation, exclusive breastfeeding, and breastfeeding duration. RESULTS: Approximately 71% initiated breastfeeding. Intending to breastfeed, having had complications in labor and delivery, and lower social support were associated with greater odds of breastfeeding initiation. Of the adolescent mothers who initiated breastfeeding, 84% had stopped by 6 months postpartum; among those, average breastfeeding duration was 5 weeks. Participants who exclusively breastfed had longer breastfeeding duration, and participants who had experienced intimate partner violence had shorter breastfeeding duration. Obese women and women who had more difficulty breastfeeding had lower odds of exclusive breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced clinical support and the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding should be considered when designing interventions to improve breastfeeding rates among adolescent mothers.
Sipsma HL; Magriples U; Divney A; Gordon D; Gabzdyl E; Kershaw T
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between violent behavior in adolescents and parent-child cohabitation. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study with multiple-stage sampling was performed in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2002. A total of 960 adolescents were interviewed using a self-applied questionnaire. The dependent variables (use of weapons and involvement in fights in the previous year were reported by adolescents) and the independent variable (parent-child cohabitation) were analyzed with the chi-square test and prevalence ratios, adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic level and reporting of alcohol, tobacco or illicit drug use, both recently and throughout life. RESULTS: Involvement in fights in the previous year was reported by 23% of participants and use of weapons by 9.6%. Prevalence ratios of occurrence of such behaviors was 1.38 (95% CI: 0.71; 2.68, p=0.34) for involvement in fights and 1.68 (95% CI: 1.06; 2.67, p=0.03) for use of weapons, including "adolescents living with the father, mother or both" as reference. CONCLUSIONS: Parent-child cohabitation must be considered in policies aimed at preventing the use of weapons by children and adolescents, although it is recommended that care should be taken not to stigmatize children and adolescents who do not live with their fathers and mothers.
Horta RL; Horta BL; Pinheiro RT; Krindges M
Full Text Available Children and adolescents are one of the most vulnerable social groups in the community. Copenhagen declaration has emphasized the fact that particular efforts should be devoted to children and adolescent protection with an aim for extension of social protection and decrease of easy vulnerability of humans. Children and adolescent behaviour is like a mirror which depicts the processes going on in the society, as well as the existing social and economic controversies. At present one can witness negative tendencies in children and adolescent behaviour in Latvia: they drop school early, lead a vagrant life, get used to drugs, violence grows, especially that of severe crimes. In the Resolution of the European Parliament of June 21, 2007 “On Juvenile Delinquency?–?Role of Women, Family and Community” it is also written, that children enter the world of crime much earlier. Certain emotional and behavioural peculiarities of children and adolescents can be taken as a norm at a definite age, however, there exist also such behavioural peculiarities, which essentially differ from the accepted norms. Causative factors of delinquent behaviour, as well as its consequences, are at a level of multiple systems. But, the first and the most significant in any person’s life is the family, and, consequently, it is important to learn and analyze what are the factors in the family which determine the formation of delinquent behaviour.
Full Text Available Background: Discussion about dietary factors in relation to behavioral problems in children and adolescents has been going on for a long time. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional relation between diet and self-reported behavioral problems at school in adolescents in the southern part of Norway. Design: In total, 475 ninth- and tenth-grade students (236 boys and 239 girls) out of 625 eligible students from four different secondary schools in three different communities in Vest-Agder County, Norway, participated, giving a participation rate of 77%. The students filled in a questionnaire with food frequency questions of selected healthy (e.g. fruits, vegetables, and fish) and unhealthy (e.g. sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and crisps) food items, questions of meal frequency, and four questions regarding behavioral problems at school. Results: Having breakfast regularly was significantly associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems (OR: 0.29 (0.15???0.55), p?0.001). A high intake of unhealthy foods, such as sugar-sweetened soft drinks (OR: 2.8 (1.06???7.42), p=0.03) and sweets (OR: 2.63 (1.39???4.98), p=0.003), was significantly associated with increased odds of behavioral problems. At the same time, a high intake of fruits was associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems in Norwegian adolescents (OR: 0.30 (0.10???0.87), p=0.03). All ORs are adjusted for sex and BMI. Conclusions: This study shows that having an optimal diet and not skipping meals are associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents. Hence, it is important to improve the dietary intake and meal pattern of Norwegian adolescents. The cross-sectional design of this study limits any causal interpretations of the results of the study.
Nina Øverby; Rune Høigaard
BACKGROUND: Discussion about dietary factors in relation to behavioral problems in children and adolescents has been going on for a long time. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional relation between diet and self-reported behavioral problems at school in adolescents in the southern part of Norway. DESIGN: In total, 475 ninth- and tenth-grade students (236 boys and 239 girls) out of 625 eligible students from four different secondary schools in three different communities in Vest-Agder County, Norway, participated, giving a participation rate of 77%. The students filled in a questionnaire with food frequency questions of selected healthy (e.g. fruits, vegetables, and fish) and unhealthy (e.g. sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and crisps) food items, questions of meal frequency, and four questions regarding behavioral problems at school. RESULTS: HAVING BREAKFAST REGULARLY WAS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH DECREASED ODDS OF BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS (OR: 0.29 (0.15 - 0.55), p?0.001). A high intake of unhealthy foods, such as sugar-sweetened soft drinks (OR: 2.8 (1.06 - 7.42), p=0.03) and sweets (OR: 2.63 (1.39 - 4.98), p=0.003), was significantly associated with increased odds of behavioral problems. At the same time, a high intake of fruits was associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems in Norwegian adolescents (OR: 0.30 (0.10 - 0.87), p=0.03). All ORs are adjusted for sex and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that having an optimal diet and not skipping meals are associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents. Hence, it is important to improve the dietary intake and meal pattern of Norwegian adolescents. The cross-sectional design of this study limits any causal interpretations of the results of the study.
Overby N; Høigaard R
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, during adulthood, the offspring of adolescent rats differ in emotionality, learning and memory from the offspring of adult rats. The behavior of the offspring of adolescent (age, 50-55 days) and adult rats (age, 90-95 days) was tested in the open field, activity cage, and passive and active avoidance apparatus. The latencies during training and testing in the passive avoidance apparatus of the offspring of adolescent parents were shorter than the latencies of control offspring (P<0.001 on both training and testing days). Offspring of adolescent parents showed shorter latency time in acquisition trials during active avoidance testing compared to control offspring (P<0.001). They also showed a higher number of active avoidance responses in the last four blocks of acquisition (P<0.001) and first two blocks of extinction trials (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). The offspring of adolescent parents showed higher latency on the first day of testing in the open field (P<0.01) and a lower latency on the third day of testing (P<0.01). They also showed higher activity during all three days of testing (1st and 2nd day: P<0.01; 3rd day: P<0.05). The spontaneous activity of the offspring of adolescent parents in the activity cage was higher in the last three intervals of testing (P<0.001). In summary, the offspring of adolescent parents were less anxious and tended to be more active. The results of two learning and memory tests were opposite, but could be explained by a higher exploratory drive of the offspring of adolescent parents. This was probably due to chronic malnutrition stress and the disturbed mother-infant relationship in the litters of adolescent mothers.
Zemunik T.; Peruzovic M.; Capkun V.; Milkovic K.
This study examined the associations between adolescents’ perceived relationships with their parents, perceived parental online behaviors, and Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among adolescents. Additional testing was carried out to determine the effect of different genders (parent and adolescent). Cross-sectional data was collected from 4,559 students aged 12 to 21 years in the cities of Beijing and Jinan, People’s Republic of China. Participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire concerning their Internet use behavior, perceived parental Internet use behaviors, and perceived parent-adolescent relationship. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for adolescents’ age were conducted. Results showed different effects of parent and adolescent gender on perceived parent-adolescent relationship and parent Internet use behavior, as well as some other gender-specific associations. Perceived father-adolescent relationship was the most protective factor against adolescent PIU with perceived maternal Internet use positively predicting PIU for both male and female adolescents. However, perceived paternal Internet use behaviors positively predicted only female adolescent PIU. Results indicated a different effect pathway for fathers and mothers on boys and girls, leading to discussion of the implications for prevention and intervention.
Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Deng, Lin-Yuan
|Background: Building on previous research with adolescents that examined demographic variables and other forms of substance abuse in relation to non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD), the current study examined potentially traumatic events, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other substance use, and delinquent behavior as…
McCauley, Jenna L.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.
Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazilian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well as tested for other environmental risk factors for antisocial behavior. A sample of 262 institutionalized male adolescents due to criminal behavior and 154 male students aged between 13 and 21 years comprised the study population. Maternal use of alcohol was admitted by 48.8% of the mothers of institutionalized adolescents and by 39.9% of the school students. In this sample of adolescents we could not identify -individual cases with a clear diagnosis of FAS, but signs suggestive of FASD were more common in the institutionalized adolescents. Social factors like domestic and family violence were frequent in the risk group, this also being associated to maternal drinking during pregnancy. The inference is that in our sample, criminal behavior is more related to complex interactions between environmental and social issues including prenatal alcohol exposure.
Wakana Momino; Têmis Maria Félix; Alberto Mantovani Abeche; Denise Isabel Zandoná; Gabriela Gayer Scheibler; Christina Chambers; Kenneth Lyons Jones; Renato Zamora Flores; Lavínia Schüler-Faccini
Stage-environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth…
Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Willett, John B.
The onset of appearance-related concerns associated with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) typically occurs in adolescence, and these concerns are often severe enough to interfere with normal development and psychosocial functioning. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for adults with BDD. However, no treatment studies…
Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Markowitz, Sarah; Petronko, Michael R.; Taylor, Caitlin E.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Wilson, G. Terence
Studied the structure and psychometric properties of a self-report measure of adolescents' helping behavior within the family. Factor analyses yielded four internally consistent subscales for the Sibling Helping Scale and five for the Parent Helping Scale, all of which were conceptually related to inventories reflecting family support among…
Midlarsky, Elizabeth; And Others
|The present study explored the behavioral profile of individuals with fragile X syndrome during adolescence and adulthood. Individuals with both fragile X syndrome and autism (n = 30) were compared with (a) individuals diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (but not autism; n = 106) and (b) individuals diagnosed with autism (but not fragile X…
Smith, Leann E.; Barker, Erin T.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Abbeduto, Leonard; Greenberg, Jan S.
|The onset of appearance-related concerns associated with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) typically occurs in adolescence, and these concerns are often severe enough to interfere with normal development and psychosocial functioning. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for adults with BDD. However, no treatment studies…
Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Markowitz, Sarah; Petronko, Michael R.; Taylor, Caitlin E.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Wilson, G. Terence
The decline in physical activity (PA) across adolescence is well established but influence of biological maturity on the process has been largely overlooked. This paper reviews the limited number of studies which examine the relationship between timing of biological maturity and PA. Results are generally inconsistent among studies. Other health-related behaviors are also considered in an effort to highlight the complexity of relationships between biological maturation and behavior and to provide future research directions.
Sherar LB; Cumming SP; Eisenmann JC; Baxter-Jones AD; Malina RM
Prevention scientists use latent class analysis (LCA) with increasing frequency to characterize complex behavior patterns and profiles of risk. Often, the most important research questions in these studies involve establishing characteristics that predict membership in the latent classes, thus describing the composition of the subgroups and suggesting possible points of intervention. More recently, prevention scientists have begun to adopt modern methods for drawing causal inference from observational data because of the bias that can be introduced by confounders. This same issue of confounding exists in any analysis of observational data, including prediction of latent class membership. This study demonstrates a straightforward approach to causal inference in LCA that builds on propensity score methods. We demonstrate this approach by examining the causal effect of early sex on subsequent delinquency latent classes using data from 1,890 adolescents in 11th and 12th grade from wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Prior to the statistical adjustment for potential confounders, early sex was significantly associated with delinquency latent class membership for both genders (p?=?0.02). However, the propensity score adjusted analysis indicated no evidence for a causal effect of early sex on delinquency class membership (p?=?0.76) for either gender. Sample R and SAS code is included in an Appendix in the ESM so that prevention scientists may adopt this approach to causal inference in LCA in their own work.
Butera NM; Lanza ST; Coffman DL
Full Text Available Objective: to describe the risk behaviors and vulnerability adopted by adolescents regarding STD/AIDS. Methodology: this is an ethnographic study, carried out at a public school of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. The population was composed of twenty male adolescents, from 12 to 18 years and that study in the fundamental and secondary education. The data collection happened through a semi-structured interview and simple observation. The content analysis followed Bardin's orientation. The survey was adopted by the Ethics in Research of the UFC, under protocol number 119/07 and after the informed consent of parents. Results: the data showed that among the risk conducts mentioned by the adolescents, the main one is sexual intercourse without preservative, and that there is fear and regret after the unprotected intercourse, and that the partner's age do influence in a negative way for protection. Conclusion: we considered necessary an approach on safe sex among teenagers, demanding the production of creative strategies that make sense in several socio-cultural contexts in which the adolescents are inserted. Descriptors: adolescent; sexual behavior; sexually transmitted diseases.
Agnes Caroline Souza Pinto, Patrícia Neyva da Costa Pinheiro; Agnes Caroline Souza Pinto, Patrícia Neyva da Costa Pinheiro
The present study used data from the SAFT (Safety, Awareness, Facts and Tools) Singapore survey, a national survey of 1,124 youths aged 12-17, to explore the issue of risk on the Internet. We investigated factors that influence adolescents' engagement in risky Internet behavior, in particular, meeting face-to-face someone they first encountered online. The adolescents ranged from ages 12 to 17, with a mean of 14.32 (SD = 1.37); 49.6% of the adolescents were girls. The study utilized a 93-item survey that was part of the SAFT Project. Results indicated that 16% of adolescent Internet users in Singapore have had a face-to-face meeting with someone first encountered online. The following factors were found to be predictors of adolescents engagement in such face-to-face meetings: age, frequency of Internet use, frequency of chatting and gaming behavior, parental rules, type of personal information given out, amount of inappropriate messages received, whether inappropriate websites have been visited, and type of internet advice heard. Implications of the results are discussed. PMID:16332162
Liau, Albert Kienfie; Khoo, Angeline; Ang, Peng Hwa
A cross-sectional, convenient sample of adolescents (N = 2101) from 8 states were queried regarding interest in tattooing. Permanent markings and blood-borne diseases were reasons respondents refrain from tattooing, yet 55% (n = 1159) expressed an interest in tattooing. Tattooed adolescents in the sample (10%, n = 213) responded with their experiences. Tattooing was frequently done around the 9th grade and as early as 8 years of age; over half (56%, n = 120) report academic grades of As and Bs. Potential health risks and definite psychosocial findings of purchase and possession risks were evident, building on data from a similar 1994 study by Armstrong and McConnell. Health providers and educators should initiate applicable health education and become community adolescent advocates regarding this risk-taking behavior. Findings indicate that adolescents who want a tattoo will obtain one, regardless of money, regulations, or risks. Adolescents view the tattoos as objects of self-identity and body art, whereas adults perceive the markings as deviant behavior. Informed decision-making could be promoted in health education by incorporating information about the possibility of blood-borne diseases, permanent markings, and themselves as growing and changing people.
Armstrong ML; Murphy KP
Full Text Available Objective: In this study, a group of violent male adolescents aged 12-15 years old, who were students of a primary school located in a district where families with low socioeconomic status (SES) live was compared with a non-violent peer group in terms of self and family variables, in an aim to understand the risk factors related to adolescent violent behavior. Methods: Data were gathered about the family relations, presence of domestic violence, and other enviromental risk factors for a group of adolescents who show violent behavior at school (n: 22) and compared to their non-violent peers (n: 19) from the same school by getting information both from the adolescents themselves and their mothers. The Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents,Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale , Children’s Depression Inventory and the Connors’ Rating Scales were used to measure the relevant variables. Family characteristics were investigated by direct interviews with the mothers and by using the General Health Questionnaire and the Family Assessment Device for both mothers and fathers. Results: The results of this study showed that adolescents who were violent at school were similar to non-violent ones in terms of domestic violence and self-perception and self-esteem. The violent group perceived themselves as being worse in terms of academic performance and showed higher levels of attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms. Conclusion: The results suggest that the violent behaviour at school for some adolescents may be a way of proving themselves and being accepted by their peers. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2012; 49: 260-265)
Emine Z?NNUR KILIÇ
This study examined the structure and psychometric properties of a self-report measure of adolescents' helping behavior within the family--the Family Helping Inventory (FHI)--and of its two scales, the Sibling Helping Scale (SHS) and the Parent Helping Scale (PHS). The FHI was administered to 202 adolescents along with several existing measures of prosocial tendencies and with a measure of Machiavellianism. Factor analyses yielded four internally consistent subscales for the SHS and five for the PHS, all of which were conceptually related to inventories reflecting family support among adults. Both convergent and discriminant validity were demonstrated as well.
Midlarsky E; Hannah ME; Corley R
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between behavioral problems and tobacco smoking among adolescent students in Chile. METHODS: Data were drawn from a study that included questionnaire surveys of 46 907 school-attending adolescents in all 13 of the administrative regions of Chile. Assessments were based on an adapted, Spanish-language version of the Drug Use Screening Inventory. The conditional form of the logistic regression model was used for analysis, with matching of students on individual schools, and with further statistical adjustments for sex, age, and selected risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco smoking among the adolescents was very high across all of Chile, with a level between 56% and 65% in each of the 13 regions. The estimated odds of tobacco use in youths at the highest level of behavioral problems was about twice that for youths at the lowest levels, both before and after controlling for sex, age, lack of participation in recreational activities, level of irritability, and levels of problems with school, family attention, and mental health. CONCLUSIONS: These findings help to complement and complete the evidence of prior studies on tobacco smoking among adolescents with behavior problems, including recent research on Central American youths. Although the magnitude of observed associations in Chile was not as great as that for the associations found in Central America, both the strength of these associations and their statistical significance were observed throughout Chile. This is the first study in Chile on potentially causal relationships such as these.
Caris Luis; Varas Marianela; Anthony Christopher B.; Anthony James C.
This paper analyzes the importance of social ties for eating behavior of US youth. We propose a novel approach that addresses identi…cation of social endogenous e¤ects. We overcome the problem of measuring the separate impact of endogenous and contextual e¤ects on individual Body Mass Index (BMI) in a dynamic linear- in-means model, where individual- and group-speci…c unobservable e¤ects are controlled for. We show that the main drivers of eating behavior are habituation and imitation e¤ects. Imitation e¤ects explain most of the variation in BMI of individuals who were normal-weight and overweight during adolescence. Obese adolescents, instead, become future obese adults through wrong habits enforced by imitative behavior.
Corrado, Luisa; Distante, Roberta
CONTEXT: Little research links adolescent risk behaviors to reproductive health outcomes beyond adolescence, although young adults--men and women in their early 20s--bear a disproportionate burden of STDs and unintended childbearing. METHODS: To assess whether individuals who engaged in risk behaviors during adolescence had increased risk of negative reproductive health outcomes in young adulthood, data from Waves 1-4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health on 5,798 sexually active respondents were analyzed. Logistic and multinomial logistic regressions examined associations between risk behaviors (cumulatively and individually) and each of three outcomes. RESULTS: Four in 10 youth reported at least three risk factors during adolescence. Women who were exposed to an increasing number of risks had an elevated likelihood of having had multiple sex partners in the last year, rather than none (relative risk ratio, 1.3); having had an STD (odds ratio, 1.1); and having had an intended or unintended birth, as opposed to no birth (relative risk ratio, 1.1 for each). Inconsistent contraceptive use and having had multiple partners, a non-monogamous partner or a non-romantic partner were associated with reporting multiple partners in the last year; inconsistent use, sexual debut after age 16 and not discussing contraception with a partner were associated with having any birth. CONCLUSIONS: Teenagers' sexual behaviors have both short-term and long-term consequences, and interventions that focus on multiple domains of risk may be the most effective in helping to promote broad reproductive health among young adults.
Scott ME; Wildsmith E; Welti K; Ryan S; Schelar E; Steward-Streng NR
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between internet addiction and suicidal behaviors in adolescence and to explore whether the association could be partly or fully accounted by depression or/and behaviors related to the impulsivity. METHODS: A total of 3507 urban adolescent students in Hefei were administered to complete the questionnaire concerning interact addiction disorder (IAD), suicidal behaviors during the 12 months preceding the survey, behaviors related to the impulsivity, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and early childhood adversities, respectively. Hierarchical logistic regressions were used to evaluate the associations and possible roles of depression and behaviors related to the impulsivity between internet addition and suicidal behaviors after adjustment for confounding factors. RESULTS: Of the 3507 participants, 5.2% were diagnosed as IAD, 27.4% reported suicidal ideation during the 12 months preceding the survey, with another 9.5% had a plan and 2.6% had an attempt. Internet addition was associated with suicidal ideation (OR = 1.79, 95%CI: 1.32 - 2.44), plan (OR = 2.32, 95%CI: 1.57 - 3.42), and attempt (OR = 2.08, 95%CI: 1.03 - 4.22). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, the association between internet addition and attempt was insignificant. When depression and behaviors related to the impulsivity were entered into Hierarchical regression respectively, the associations between internet addition, suicidal ideation and plan were substantially reduced. While internet addition was enter into Hierarchical regression, the associations between depression, behaviors related to the impulsivity, suicidal ideation and plan were not reduced. CONCLUSION: Adolescent internet addition seems to be associated with suicidal ideation and plan, and the association is possibly mediated by depression and behaviors related to the impulsivity.
Yang LS; Zhang ZH; Hao JH; Sun YH
The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of suicidal behaviors and their relation to background characteristics, social integration, academic stress, psychological distress, and substance use in a stratified random sample of 9886 high school students in Korea. In a multiple logistic regression, we found that depression was the strongest predictor of suicidal behaviors. The other factors significantly associated with suicidal behaviors were gender, academic stress, hostility and substance use. These results indicate that early identification of risk factors for suicidal behaviors may have potential for reducing possible future suicides.
Juon HS; Nam JJ; Ensminger ME
The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of suicidal behaviors and their relation to background characteristics, social integration, academic stress, psychological distress, and substance use in a stratified random sample of 9886 high school students in Korea. In a multiple logistic regression, we found that depression was the strongest predictor of suicidal behaviors. The other factors significantly associated with suicidal behaviors were gender, academic stress, hostility and substance use. These results indicate that early identification of risk factors for suicidal behaviors may have potential for reducing possible future suicides. PMID:8040219
Juon, H S; Nam, J J; Ensminger, M E
OBJECTIVE: The results of studies concerning levels of internalizing and externalizing behaviors in adolescent children with a parent suffering from cancer as compared with control groups or normative data are contradictory so far. Longitudinal designs using control groups are rare. No study explicitly exploring a broad range of risk behaviors in adolescent children with a parent suffering from cancer exists to date. METHODS: Therefore, 74 adolescents who have a parent with cancer (index group) were compared with 75 adolescents with healthy parents (control group) concerning several juvenile risk behaviors and externalizing behaviors. Participants were examined three times over the course of 12?months. RESULTS: No significant main effects for group or interactional effects of group with time could be found for any of the measured variables. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that the somatic illness of the parent is not a developmental risk that is expressed in increased levels of juvenile risk behavior. Adolescents with a parent suffering from cancer adjusted generally quite well to the parental illness, although some individuals did show signs of severe strain. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Jantzer V; Groß J; Stute F; Parzer P; Brunner R; Willig K; Schuller-Roma B; Keller M; Herzog W; Romer G; Resch F
Full Text Available Consumers are users of goods and services for the production of their wants. They want to know where to buy, when to buy, how much to buy, how to pay, how to recognize and they also compare qualities of products. They are the keystone and play an important part of our economic structure. Production and marketing exist only for consumers. He is the focal point of all economic and social activities. In fact, he is the very basis who supports the society. His interests, therefore, should receive the first priority. As population grows, adolescent consumers become a very attractive market. They are better- off financially in the modern era. They have been the target of the marketers of cosmetics, health care products, fashionable clothing, etc. This young attractive target cannot be taken for granted and hence all efforts are tailored to meet their needs. Identifying this target's needs and directing all marketing efforts at delivering customers value is the motto of most of the companies. Inter-personal and mass media communication play a major role in purchasing. Children have important impact on household decision-making by attempting to influence their parent's acquisition, usage and disposition of products. Effective buying can find ways of reaching the objective regardless of the limitations of our resources. Therefore it is important that adolescents should be brought up in an environment which is stimulating and sufficiently challenging for them to explore their potentialities and build up a satisfying future.
Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct that has been linked with obesity. To explore profiles of impulsive behavior potentially associated with adolescent weight status, we measured multiple dimensions of impulsivity (delay discounting, sustained attention, and behavioral disinhibition) using laboratory behavioral tasks in a sample of adolescents (N=61). For comparison purposes, we also assessed self-reported impulsive behavior with the BIS-11-A. Participants differed in body mass index: obese (n=21), overweight (n=20), and healthy-weight (n=20). Obese and overweight adolescents were more impulsive on the measure of delay discounting than healthy-weight adolescents, but no difference was found between obese and overweight adolescents on this measure. Obese adolescents also were more impulsive on the measure of inattention compared to overweight and healthy-weight adolescents, who did not differ on this measure. Behavioral disinhibition had no association with weight status, nor did the self-report measure of impulsivity. The additive pattern of these findings for certain laboratory behavioral measures indicates that obese adolescents are more impulsive than their healthy-weight counterparts on two dimensions of behavior, whereas overweight adolescents are more impulsive on only one dimension. Consequently, adolescents who are impulsive on two dimensions of behavior (i.e., delay discounting and sustained attention) may be at greater risk of becoming obese rather than overweight compared to adolescents who are impulsive on only one dimension of behavior (i.e., delay discounting). PMID:23831015
Fields, S A; Sabet, M; Reynolds, B
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found that perceived parental interpersonal interaction behaviors, such as rejection, overcontrol, and negative attachment behaviors, increase adolescent generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms. However, most of these studies have been cross-sectional, as opposed to longitudinal, and have examined these perceived parental interaction behaviors individually. Hence, the goal of this longitudinal study is to examine these perceived parental behaviors and adolescent GAD symptoms together, in one model, to examine the unique effects each has on one another. METHODS: Participants were 923 adolescents from the general community. The adolescent population was comprised of both boys (50.7%) and girls (49.3%) with an average age of 12 at the first measurement. In a prospective, 5-year longitudinal design, the adolescents completed questionnaires of parental interaction behaviors and adolescent GAD symptoms on the first, third, and fifth years of the study. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling cross-lagged panel model analyses were conducted to examine the effects perceived parental interaction behaviors and adolescent GAD have on one another. It was found that adolescent GAD consistently predicted parental interpersonal interaction behaviors longitudinally. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that adolescent GAD influences the perception of parental interpersonal behaviors. And the influence adolescent GAD may have on these perceived parental interpersonal behaviors is to create an environment in which the parents are perceived to begin to disengage in their interactions with their adolescent.
Hale WW 3rd; Klimstra TA; Branje SJ; Wijsbroek SA; Meeus WH
Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct that has been linked with obesity. To explore profiles of impulsive behavior potentially associated with adolescent weight status, we measured multiple dimensions of impulsivity (delay discounting, sustained attention, and behavioral disinhibition) using laboratory behavioral tasks in a sample of adolescents (N=61). For comparison purposes, we also assessed self-reported impulsive behavior with the BIS-11-A. Participants differed in body mass index: obese (n=21), overweight (n=20), and healthy-weight (n=20). Obese and overweight adolescents were more impulsive on the measure of delay discounting than healthy-weight adolescents, but no difference was found between obese and overweight adolescents on this measure. Obese adolescents also were more impulsive on the measure of inattention compared to overweight and healthy-weight adolescents, who did not differ on this measure. Behavioral disinhibition had no association with weight status, nor did the self-report measure of impulsivity. The additive pattern of these findings for certain laboratory behavioral measures indicates that obese adolescents are more impulsive than their healthy-weight counterparts on two dimensions of behavior, whereas overweight adolescents are more impulsive on only one dimension. Consequently, adolescents who are impulsive on two dimensions of behavior (i.e., delay discounting and sustained attention) may be at greater risk of becoming obese rather than overweight compared to adolescents who are impulsive on only one dimension of behavior (i.e., delay discounting).
Fields SA; Sabet M; Reynolds B
Research has shown a positive relationship between substance use and delinquent-type behaviours among adolescents. The aim of this study is to explore the temporal relationships between these outcomes through secondary data analysis of a longitudinal study of high-school students' risk behaviours. Two regression models were compared and gender, socioeconomic status and repeating a grade were found to be consistent predictors of delinquent-type behaviour. Alcohol (OR: 1.26, CI: 1.02-1.55, p = 0.03) and drug use (OR: 1.10, CI: 1.03-1.16, p = 0.002) in the ordinal regression models were significantly associated with delinquent-type behaviours at Time 2 only. A transition model use was then used to measure delinquent-type behaviours as predicted by the previous time period, and results indicated that gender and delinquency were predictive of delinquency. Smoking also significantly interacted with delinquent-type behaviour to increase future risk of this behaviour. The findings point to the need for intervening early with adolescents who show delinquent-type behaviour. PMID:23453849
Carney, Tara; Myers, Bronwyn J; Louw, Johann; Lombard, Carl; Flisher, Alan J
Research has shown a positive relationship between substance use and delinquent-type behaviours among adolescents. The aim of this study is to explore the temporal relationships between these outcomes through secondary data analysis of a longitudinal study of high-school students' risk behaviours. Two regression models were compared and gender, socioeconomic status and repeating a grade were found to be consistent predictors of delinquent-type behaviour. Alcohol (OR: 1.26, CI: 1.02-1.55, p = 0.03) and drug use (OR: 1.10, CI: 1.03-1.16, p = 0.002) in the ordinal regression models were significantly associated with delinquent-type behaviours at Time 2 only. A transition model use was then used to measure delinquent-type behaviours as predicted by the previous time period, and results indicated that gender and delinquency were predictive of delinquency. Smoking also significantly interacted with delinquent-type behaviour to increase future risk of this behaviour. The findings point to the need for intervening early with adolescents who show delinquent-type behaviour.
Carney T; Myers BJ; Louw J; Lombard C; Flisher AJ
It has been suggested that prevailing theories do not fully incorporate the less rational, more emotional elements of adolescent health and risk behavior. To address this limitation, the perceived incentives construct from Tappe's Model of Personal Investment is split into intrinsic and extrinsic incentives, with the intrinsic incentives representing personal meanings of adolescent health and risk behaviors. Intrinsic incentives were operationalized using transcripts from focus group interviews for three behavioral domains: sleeping habits, eating habits at lunch and eating habits after school. The ensuing questionnaire was completed by 416 Dutch secondary school students with a mean age of 14 years. Intrinsic incentives, or the personal meaning with which behavior is imbued, predicted health and risk behaviors well in all three behavioral domains. The implications of these results for further research and for the development of health education programs are discussed.
It has been suggested that prevailing theories do not fully incorporate the less rational, more emotional elements of adolescent health and risk behavior. To address this limitation, the perceived incentives construct from Tappe's Model of Personal Investment is split into intrinsic and extrinsic incentives, with the intrinsic incentives representing personal meanings of adolescent health and risk behaviors. Intrinsic incentives were operationalized using transcripts from focus group interviews for three behavioral domains: sleeping habits, eating habits at lunch and eating habits after school. The ensuing questionnaire was completed by 416 Dutch secondary school students with a mean age of 14 years. Intrinsic incentives, or the personal meaning with which behavior is imbued, predicted health and risk behaviors well in all three behavioral domains. The implications of these results for further research and for the development of health education programs are discussed. PMID:10158028
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of our research was to establish a possible correlation between suicide risk in adolescents and a series ofintra-familial protective factors such as family harmony, intact families, increased family involvement in child education, empathy, ability toexpress emotions. Materials and Methods The study comprised the 1143 pupils, aged between 14 and 16 years from Cluj and Maramures counties,that participated in the SEYLE baseline evaluation. Results: Adolescents who have no problems with parents (p<0.001), being understoodby them (p<0.001) and having the belief that family is very important to them (p<0.001), are protected from the risk of committing suicide. Atthe same time, parents’ ability to listen children opinion (p<0.001) and help them take important decisions (p<0.001), the time spent discussingwith teens the problems they’re going through (p<0.001), and the fact that parents know what they do in their spare time (p=0.003) showsprotective factors of suicidal behavior with a statistically significant value in this study.Conclusion: The family is a psychosocial system witha major impact on adolescents’ personality formation. The attitude towards children, the parents availability to important moments for teens,the ability to be both subjective and objective towards their children initiatives, are factors of protection against adolescents’ suicidal behavior.
Ioana R. Rusu; Doina Cosman; Bogdan Neme?
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between maternal concern for healthful eating and maternal and adolescent dietary intake, eating behavior, and home food environment. DESIGN: Mothers of a subsample of adolescents who participated in a school-based survey (Project Eating Among Teens [EAT]) completed telephone interviews. PARTICIPANTS: Seven hundred fourteen mother-adolescent pairs. VARIABLES MEASURED: Mothers responded to a question regarding how much they are personally concerned with eating healthfully, and adolescents responded to a question regarding perceptions of their mothers' concern about eating healthfully. Dependent variables included adolescent and parent food intake and home food environment. ANALYSIS: Multinomial cumulative logistic regression models, adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and adolescent grade level. RESULTS: A positive association was found between maternal concern for healthful eating and maternal fruit and vegetable intake, maternal breakfast and lunch consumption, and serving fruits and vegetables in the home. Maternal concern for healthful eating (as reported by mothers) was not associated with adolescent behavior. Adolescent perception of maternal concern for healthful eating was positively associated with adolescent fruit and vegetable intake. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Mother's concern for healthful eating is associated with maternal eating behavior and the home food environment. Adolescent perceptions of maternal attitudes are a stronger predictor than actual maternal attitudes of adolescent behavior. Parents should be encouraged to share their beliefs regarding the importance of healthful eating with their adolescents.
Boutelle KN; Birkeland RW; Hannan PJ; Story M; Neumark-Sztainer D
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to (1) determine the prevalence of technology use and interest in technology-based interventions among adolescent emergency department patients and (2) examine the association between interest in an intervention and self-reported risky behaviors. METHODS: Adolescents (age, 13-17 years) presenting to an urban pediatric emergency department completed a survey regarding baseline technology use, risky behaviors, and interest in and preferred format for behavioral health interventions. Questions were drawn from validated measures when possible. Descriptive statistics and ?2 tests were calculated to identify whether self-reported risky behaviors were differentially associated with intervention preference. RESULTS: Two hundred thirty-four patients (81.8% of eligible) consented to participate. Almost all used technology, including computers (98.7%), social networking (84.9%), and text messaging (95.1%). Adolescents reported high prevalence of risky behaviors as follows: unintentional injury (93.2%), peer violence exposure (29.3%), dating violence victimization (23.0%), depression or anxiety (30.0%), alcohol use (22.8%), drug use (36.1%), cigarette use (16.4%), and risky sexual behaviors (15.1%). Most were interested in receiving behavioral interventions (ranging from 93.6% interest in unintentional injury prevention, to 73.1% in smoking cessation); 45% to 93% preferred technology-based (vs in person, telephone call, or paper) interventions for each topic. Proportion interested in a specific topic and proportion preferring a technology-based intervention did not significantly differ by self-reported risky behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Among this sample of adolescent emergency department patients, high rates of multiple risky behaviors are reported. Patients endorsed interest in receiving interventions for these behaviors, regardless of whether they reported the behavior. Most used multiple forms of technology, and approximately 50% preferred a technology-based intervention format.
Ranney ML; Choo EK; Spirito A; Mello MJ
AIM: To examine the relation between perceived exposure to parents, siblings, and peers' substance use and self-reported substance consumption among early adolescents in Primorsko-goranska county, Croatia, and between perceived exposure to substance use and risk-taking behaviors such as going out late at night, gathering at secluded places, skipping school, and gambling. METHOD: A self-reported cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2007 among 2219 eight-grade (14-year old) pupils in elementary schools in Primorsko-goranska county. Exposure to substance use in their immediate social environment, self-reported consumption of cigarettes, alcohol, inhalants, and marihuana, ways of spending free time, and family and peer relationships were assessed. RESULTS: There was a significant association between perceived exposure to substance use and self-reported consumption of cigarettes, alcohol, inhalants, and marihuana in both sexes (P < 0.001). Pupils whose parents, siblings, and peers used substances significantly more often developed the same behavioral patterns. Level of exposure to substance use in the immediate social environment had the strongest effect on experimenting with smoking among girls (from 26.6% in low exposure to 76.2% in high exposure group) and among boys (from 15.8% in low exposure to 69.4% in high exposure); on regular everyday smoking among girls (from 4.4% in low exposure to 45% in high exposure group) and among boys (from 2.7% in low exposure to 36.7% in high exposure group); on hard liquor consumption among girls (from 25.1% in low exposure to 79.5% in high exposure group) and among boys (from 28.1% in low exposure to 78.4% in high exposure group), as well as on binge drinking among girls (from 10.9% in low exposure to 56.6% in high exposure group) and among boys (from 15.5% in low exposure to 62.4% in high exposure group). Girls and boys exposed to substance use engaged more often in risk-taking and potentially delinquent behaviors (F(2, 1180) = 166 502; P < 0.001, two-way ANOVA). CONCLUSION: High exposure to substance use in immediate social environment and its great impact on substance use among early adolescents indicate that there is a need for the introduction of preventive programs that would reduce inappropriate behavior among adolescents' social models.
Bezinovi? P; Malatestini? D
BACKGROUND: The use of tattoos and piercings has increased, especially among adolescents in the last decades. AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of these behaviors in adolescents and their association with risk behaviors such as alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use and sexual promiscuity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An anonymous and confidential survey about tattooing and piercings was applied to randomly selected high school teenagers, attending municipal, private-subsidized and private schools, in four sectors of Santiago (north-east, south-east, north-west, south-west). RESULTS: The surveys were answered by 1329 participants with a mean age of 15 years (62% women) from 9 schools in Santiago. The prevalence of tattoos was 1.7% (confidence intervals (CI) 1.1% to 2.5%). The figure for piercings was 30.6% (CI 28.2 to 33.1%). A higher prevalence of tattooing and piercings was observed in groups with a history of psychiatric disorders, criminal records, alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug consumption and initiation of sexual activity (p < 0,001). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that tattoos and piercings are indicators of adolescent risk behaviors.
Cossio ML; Giesen LF; Araya G; Pérez-Cotapos ML
OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of healthful dietary practices in adolescents using the Theory of Planned Behavior and determine how gender and ethnicity influence the relationship among the theoretical constructs. DESIGN: Initial and 1-month follow-up questionnaires, designed to measure the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior and select demographic items, were administered to the participants in the spring of 1997 to gather data for this descriptive research. Settings/ PARTICIPANTS: A sample of 780 adolescents, aged 14 to 19 years, was recruited from randomly selected science classes at 4 public high schools in San Bernardino, California. Seven hundred and fifty participants (96%) completed the initial questionnaire and 672 (86%) completed the follow-up questionnaire. ANALYSIS: A 5-step hierarchical multiple regression procedure, general linear model analysis, and Tukey's honestly significant difference post hoc test were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Intention to eat a healthful diet was a predictor of healthful dietary behavior. Intention was influenced most by attitude and then by perceived behavioral control and subjective norm. Those with positive attitudes toward healthful eating believed that they would like the taste of healthful foods, feel good about themselves, tolerate giving up foods that they like to eat, and lose weight or maintain a healthful weight. Mother, siblings, and friends were identified as important predictors of subjective norm. Knowledge about how to eat a healthful diet, availability of healthful foods, motivation, and access to enough money were salient facilitating factors related to perceived behavioral control. Interesting contrasts among gender and ethnic groups also were noted. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The findings indicate that multiple attitudinal, normative, and control factors influence healthful dietary behavior in adolescents. The synergistic use of these factors in the development and implementation of nutrition education interventions may assist in the promotion of healthful eating among teens from culturally diverse communities.
Backman DR; Haddad EH; Lee JW; Johnston PK; Hodgkin GE
PURPOSE: To assess the safety of psychotropic medication use in children and adolescents, it is critical to be able to identify suicidal behaviors from medical claims data and distinguish them from other injuries. The purpose of this study was to develop an algorithm using administrative claims data to identify medically treated suicidal behavior in a cohort of children and adolescents. METHODS: The cohort included 80,183 youth (6-18?years) enrolled in Tennessee's Medicaid program from 1995-2006 who were prescribed antidepressants. Potential episodes of suicidal behavior were identified using external cause-of-injury codes (E-codes) and ICD-9-CM codes corresponding to the potential mechanisms of or injuries resulting from suicidal behavior. For each identified episode, medical records were reviewed to determine if the injury was self-inflicted and if intent to die was explicitly stated or could be inferred. RESULTS: Medical records were reviewed for 2676 episodes of potential self-harm identified through claims data. Among 1162 episodes that were classified as suicidal behavior, 1117 (96%) had a claim for suicide and self-inflicted injury, poisoning by drugs, or both. The positive predictive value of code groups to predict suicidal behavior ranged from 0-88% and improved when there was a concomitant hospitalization but with the limitation of excluding some episodes of confirmed suicidal behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly all episodes of confirmed suicidal behavior in this cohort of youth included an ICD-9-CM code for suicide or poisoning by drugs. An algorithm combining these ICD-9-CM codes and hospital stay greatly improved the positive predictive value for identifying medically treated suicidal behavior.
Callahan ST; Fuchs DC; Shelton RC; Balmer LS; Dudley JA; Gideon PS; Deranieri MM; Stratton SM; Williams CL; Ray WA; Cooper WO
Full Text Available Este estudo investigou a ocorrência de eventos estressores no desenvolvimento de 50 adolescentes autoras de ato infracional, com idade entre 13 e 20 anos, que cumpriam medida sócio-educativa em órgão governamental. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas e de uma versão adaptada do Inventário de Eventos Estressores na Adolescência (IEEA). Foram identificados eventos estressores em diferentes domínios, como a ocorrência de maus-tratos, abuso sexual, uso de drogas, repetência escolar, desemprego e morte dos pais, que se constituem como fatores de risco no seu desenvolvimento. Estes aspectos revelam um ciclo de violência presente na trajetória destas adolescentes, no período anterior ao ato infracional.This study investigated stressful events present during the development of 50 adolescent girls who had problems with the law, aged 13 to 20 years old and who were in a governmental shelter. Data was collected using a semi-structured interview and an adapted version of the Adolescence Stressful Events Inventory (IEEA). Stressful events in different areas such as child maltreatment, sexual abuse, drugs, school failure, death and unemployed parents were identified, which are risk factors in their development. These aspects reveal the presence of a violence cycle during the adolescent's trajectory, before institutionalization.
Débora Dalbosco Dell'Aglio; Sílvia Pereira da Cruz Benetti; Luciana Deretti; Daniela Bergesch D'Incao; Joana Severo Leon
OBJECTIVE: Relative suicidal behavioral risks (ideation, attempts) for overweight, obese, and extremely obese adolescents (vs. healthy weight) and who did/did not accurately perceive themselves as overweight were examined in this study. DESIGN AND METHODS: A new variable (weight status/accuracy) was computed that combined actual weight status (based on BMI) with weight perception accuracy. To evaluate the effect of weight status/accuracy on each suicidal risk behavior, logistic regression was performed to calculate odds-ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Potential model covariates included gender, age, race, survey year, and whether they had felt sad/hopeless. RESULTS: Weight perception accuracy increased as the degree of excess weight increased. Relative to healthy weight, being obese or extremely obese (but not overweight) was associated with significantly greater risk for adolescent engagement in suicidal ideation, but was unrelated to suicide attempts. Adolescents in all excess weight categories who were accurate in their weight perception were at significantly greater odds of suicidal ideation, whereas those who were inaccurate were of no greater odds of suicidal ideation than healthy weight youth who accurately perceived their weight. Findings regarding suicide attempts varied based on actual weight/weight perception accuracy and race/ethnicity. CONCLUSION: The present findings are both important and clinically relevant. While widely accepted that there are multiple pathways to suicide, our understanding of adolescent suicidal behavior risks and accordingly, prevention efforts, will be informed by comprehensive prospective studies that should also, from here forward, consider categorization of the entire weight spectrum (e.g., extreme obesity).
Zeller MH; Reiter-Purtill J; Jenkins TM; Ratcliff MB
|Adolescents with conduct disorder frequently engage in aggressive and disruptive behaviors. Often these behaviors are controlled or managed through behavioral or other psychosocial interventions. However, such interventions do not always ensure lasting changes in an adolescent's response repertoire so that he or she does not engage in aggression…
Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh Joy, Subhashni D.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Sabaawi, Mohamed; Wahler, Robert G.; Singh, Judy
Though much is known about the stable mood patterns that characterize depressive disorder, less attention has been directed to identifying and understanding the temporal dynamics of emotions. In the present study, we examined how depression affects the trajectory of dysphoric and angry adolescent emotional behavior during adolescent-parent interactions. Adolescents (72 depressed; 69 nondepressed) engaged in video recorded positive and negative interactions with their parents. Depressed adolescents showed a linear increase in dysphoric behaviors throughout the negative interactions, while the incidence of these behaviors remained relatively stable across the interactions among nondepressed adolescents. A similar linear increase was not found in angry behavior. These findings show that depression in adolescence is associated with greater escalation of dysphoria during conflictual interactions between adolescents and their parents. PMID:22023365
Sheeber, Lisa B; Kuppens, Peter; Shortt, Joann Wu; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Davis, Betsy; Allen, Nicholas B
Though much is known about the stable mood patterns that characterize depressive disorder, less attention has been directed to identifying and understanding the temporal dynamics of emotions. In the present study, we examined how depression affects the trajectory of dysphoric and angry adolescent emotional behavior during adolescent-parent interactions. Adolescents (72 depressed; 69 nondepressed) engaged in video recorded positive and negative interactions with their parents. Depressed adolescents showed a linear increase in dysphoric behaviors throughout the negative interactions, while the incidence of these behaviors remained relatively stable across the interactions among nondepressed adolescents. A similar linear increase was not found in angry behavior. These findings show that depression in adolescence is associated with greater escalation of dysphoria during conflictual interactions between adolescents and their parents.
Sheeber LB; Kuppens P; Shortt JW; Katz LF; Davis B; Allen NB
Full Text Available This study examined eating behaviors among female adolescents. A total of 407 female students aged between 13-19 years were randomly selected from two secondary schools in Kuantan district, Pahang, Malaysia. All participants were required to complete a self-administered Eating Behaviors Questionnaire and their weight and height were measured by the researchers. A majority of the participants were Malays (65.3%), followed by Chinese (28.3%) and Indians (6.4%). There were 5.9% underweight participants, 75.4% were normal-weight and 18.7% were overweight. About one third (35.9%) never skipped any of the daily three meals, but another half (52.6%) skipped at least one meal a day and the remaining (11.5%) had even skipped all three meals in a day. The most frequently missed meals were breakfast (47.4%). Half (51.4%) snacked between meals daily and three in four (76.9%) had their meals with family members. No differences were found between the socio-demographic variables (age, household members, parent’s total year of schooling, parental monthly income and living arrangement) and meal skipping behaviors. However, those who usually skipped meals were those who usually eat alone (Chi2 = 16.933, p 2 = 15.943, p 2 = 33.827, p < 0.05). In conclusion, meal skipping, snacking and practicing various weight loss behaviors were some of the unhealthy eating behaviors depicted among adolescent girls. Focusing on promotion of healthy eating that stresses on the importance of regular intakes of main meals during adolescence is crucial for their current and future health and well-being.
Y.S. Chin; M.T. Mohd Nasir
OBJECTIVES: We examined perceived frequency and intensity of racial/ethnic discrimination and associations with high-risk behaviors/conditions among adolescents. DESIGN: With surveys from 2490 racial/ethnic minority adolescents primarily with low socioeconomic status, we used regression analysis to examine associations between racial/ethnic discrimination and behavioral health outcomes (alcohol use, marijuana use, physical aggression, delinquency, victimization, depression, suicidal ideation, and sexual behaviors). RESULTS: Most adolescents (73%) experienced racial/ethnic discrimination and 42% of experiences were 'somewhat-' or 'very disturbing.' Adolescents reporting frequent and disturbing racial/ethnic discrimination were at increased risk of all measured behaviors, except alcohol and marijuana use. Adolescents who experienced any racial/ethnic discrimination were at increased risk for victimization and depression. Regardless of intensity, adolescents who experienced racial/ethnic discrimination at least occasionally were more likely to report greater physical aggression, delinquency, suicidal ideation, younger age at first oral sex, unprotected sex during last intercourse, and more lifetime sexual partners. CONCLUSION: Most adolescents had experienced racial/ethnic discrimination due to their race/ethnicity. Even occasional experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination likely contribute to maladaptive behavioral and mental health outcomes among adolescents. Prevention and coping strategies are important targets for intervention.
Tobler AL; Maldonado-Molina MM; Staras SA; O'Mara RJ; Livingston MD; Komro KA
Considering the significant negative consequences that are directly related to binge eat and drink behaviors, many studies have explored the reasons why adolescents engage in them. This study examined the differences in the development, maintenance, and co-occurrence of "binge" behaviors associated with adolescent's identity style and the level of commitment. One thousand four hundred Italian adolescents completed self-report measures assessing binge behaviors and identity styles. Overall, results show that diffused adolescents were more likely to be engaged in binge eating and binge drinking behaviors than others, validating the idea that the achievement of a consolidated ego identity is important for enhancing well-being.
Laghi F; Baiocco R; Liga F; Lonigro A; Baumgartner E
The present study examines the association of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to suicidal behavior and mortality in 508 Finnish adolescents (aged 12-17 years) who required acute psychiatric hospitalization between April 2001 and March 2006. The Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL) and the European Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI) were used to obtain information about ACEs, adolescents' suicidal behavior and psychiatric diagnoses. The cases of death were obtained from Statistics Finland. The results of our study indicated that, among girls, exposure to sexual abuse statistically significantly increased the risk of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) (OR, 1.8; 95 % CI, 1.0-3.2) and suicide attempts (OR, 2.3; 95 % CI, 1.0-4.5). The cumulative number of ACEs was also associated with an increased risk of NSSI (OR, 1.2; 95 % CI, 1.0- 1.4) and suicide attempts (OR, 1.2; 95 % CI, 1.0-1.4) in girls. Among all deceased adolescents, ACEs were most notable among those who had died due to accidents and injuries. Gender differences in the types of ACEs were noted and discussed. PMID:22842795
Isohookana, Reetta; Riala, Kaisa; Hakko, Helinä; Räsänen, Pirkko
The present study examines the association of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to suicidal behavior and mortality in 508 Finnish adolescents (aged 12-17 years) who required acute psychiatric hospitalization between April 2001 and March 2006. The Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL) and the European Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI) were used to obtain information about ACEs, adolescents' suicidal behavior and psychiatric diagnoses. The cases of death were obtained from Statistics Finland. The results of our study indicated that, among girls, exposure to sexual abuse statistically significantly increased the risk of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) (OR, 1.8; 95 % CI, 1.0-3.2) and suicide attempts (OR, 2.3; 95 % CI, 1.0-4.5). The cumulative number of ACEs was also associated with an increased risk of NSSI (OR, 1.2; 95 % CI, 1.0- 1.4) and suicide attempts (OR, 1.2; 95 % CI, 1.0-1.4) in girls. Among all deceased adolescents, ACEs were most notable among those who had died due to accidents and injuries. Gender differences in the types of ACEs were noted and discussed.
Isohookana R; Riala K; Hakko H; Räsänen P
Abstract This study examined the relationship between parent-child social networking, connection, and outcomes for adolescents. Participants (491 adolescents and their parents) completed a number of questionnaires on social networking use, feelings of connection, and behavioral outcomes. Social networking with parents was associated with increased connection between parents and adolescents. Feelings of connection then mediated the relationship between social networking with parents and behavioral outcomes, including higher prosocial behavior and lower relational aggression and internalizing behavior. Conversely, adolescent social networking use without parents was associated with negative outcomes, such as increased relational aggression, internalizing behaviors, delinquency, and decreased feelings of connection. These results indicate that although high levels of social networking use may be problematic for some individuals, social networking with parents may potentially strengthen parent-child relationships and then lead to positive outcomes for adolescents.
Coyne SM; Padilla-Walker LM; Day RD; Harper J; Stockdale L
The aim of this study was to analyze the parental socialization styles as a protective or a risk factor for substance use in a sample of 673 Spanish adolescents (51.7% were women) aged 14-17 (M = 15.49, SD = 1.06). All participants completed the Parental Socialization Scale (ESPA29) and a scale of substance use. Additionally, they also completed a scale of delinquency and another one of school misconduct. A multivariate (4×2×2) analysis of variance (MANOVA) was applied for substance use, delinquency and school misconduct with parenting style, sex and age. Results from this study showed that indulgent parenting style was a protective factor for substance use whereas authoritarian style was identified as a risk factor. Moreover, results from protective and risk parenting styles on delinquency and school misconduct were consistent with those obtained on substance use. These findings have important implications for the development of family-based substance use prevention programs among Spanish adolescents and other similar cultures where indulgent parenting style is currently displaying a beneficial impact.
Martínez I; Fuentes MC; García F; Madrid I
Substantial evidence suggests that rumination is an important vulnerability factor for adolescent depression. Despite this, few studies have examined environmental risk factors that might lead to rumination and, subsequently, depression in adolescence. This study examined the hypothesis that an adverse family environment is a risk factor for rumination, such that the tendency to ruminate mediates the longitudinal association between a negative family environment and adolescent depressive symptoms. It also investigated adolescent gender as a moderator of the relationship between family environment and adolescent rumination. Participants were 163 mother-adolescent dyads. Adolescents provided self-reports of depressive symptoms and rumination across three waves of data collection (approximately at ages 12, 15, and 17 years). Family environment was measured via observational assessment of the frequency of positive and aggressive parenting behaviors during laboratory-based interactions completed by mother-adolescent dyads, collected during the first wave. A bootstrap analysis revealed a significant indirect effect of low levels of positive maternal behavior on adolescent depressive symptoms via adolescent rumination, suggesting that rumination might mediate the relationship between low levels of positive maternal behavior and depressive symptoms for girls. This study highlights the importance of positive parenting behaviors as a possible protective factor against the development of adolescent rumination and, subsequently, depressive symptoms. One effective preventive approach to improving adolescent mental health may be providing parents with psychoeducation concerning the importance of pleasant and affirming interactions with their children.
Gaté MA; Watkins ER; Simmons JG; Byrne ML; Schwartz OS; Whittle S; Sheeber LB; Allen NB
Substantial evidence suggests that rumination is an important vulnerability factor for adolescent depression. Despite this, few studies have examined environmental risk factors that might lead to rumination and, subsequently, depression in adolescence. This study examined the hypothesis that an adverse family environment is a risk factor for rumination, such that the tendency to ruminate mediates the longitudinal association between a negative family environment and adolescent depressive symptoms. It also investigated adolescent gender as a moderator of the relationship between family environment and adolescent rumination. Participants were 163 mother-adolescent dyads. Adolescents provided self-reports of depressive symptoms and rumination across three waves of data collection (approximately at ages 12, 15, and 17 years). Family environment was measured via observational assessment of the frequency of positive and aggressive parenting behaviors during laboratory-based interactions completed by mother-adolescent dyads, collected during the first wave. A bootstrap analysis revealed a significant indirect effect of low levels of positive maternal behavior on adolescent depressive symptoms via adolescent rumination, suggesting that rumination might mediate the relationship between low levels of positive maternal behavior and depressive symptoms for girls. This study highlights the importance of positive parenting behaviors as a possible protective factor against the development of adolescent rumination and, subsequently, depressive symptoms. One effective preventive approach to improving adolescent mental health may be providing parents with psychoeducation concerning the importance of pleasant and affirming interactions with their children. PMID:23323840
Gaté, Michael A; Watkins, Edward R; Simmons, Julian G; Byrne, Michelle L; Schwartz, Orli S; Whittle, Sarah; Sheeber, Lisa B; Allen, Nicholas B
Only a handful of public health studies have investigated expectations of early death among adolescents. Associations have been found between these expectations and risk behaviors in adolescence. However, these beliefs may not only predict worse adolescent outcomes, but worse trajectories in health with ties to negative outcomes that endure into young adulthood. The objectives of this study were to investigate perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations, PSE) as a predictor of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and substance use in young adulthood. We examined the predictive capacity of PSE on future suicidal ideation/attempt after accounting for sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, and history of suicide among family and friends to more fully assess its unique contribution to suicide risk. We investigated the influence of PSE on legal and illegal substance use and varying levels of substance use. We utilized the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) initiated in 1994-95 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7-12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II), 2001-02 (Wave III) and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24-32). Compared to those who were almost certain of living to age 35, perceiving a 50-50 or less chance of living to age 35 at Waves I or III predicted suicide attempt and ideation as well as regular substance use (i.e., exceeding daily limits for moderate drinking; smoking ? a pack/day; and using illicit substances other than marijuana at least weekly) at Wave IV. Associations between PSE and detrimental adult outcomes were particularly strong for those reporting persistently low PSE at both Waves I and III. Low PSE at Wave I or Wave III was also related to a doubling and tripling, respectively, of death rates in young adulthood. Long-term and wide-ranging ties between PSE and detrimental outcomes suggest these expectations may contribute to identifying at-risk youth.
Nguyen QC; Villaveces A; Marshall SW; Hussey JM; Halpern CT; Poole C
Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar algumas tendências atuais de pesquisa sobre concepções de justiça principalmente na França e que utilizam conceitos e metodologias relacionados à teoria sobre Representações Sociais. Também serão apresentados os principais resultados de uma pesquisa-piloto que realizamos com 20 adolescentes que foram notificados a comparecer na promotoria pública por terem cometido diferentes infrações. Esses jovens foram questionados de diversas formas: de associações livres a questões sobre atos criminosos mais freqüentemente cometidos em nossa sociedade. As primeiras análises dos resultados obtidos apontam sugestões para próximos trabalhos na área, principalmente no sentido de serem investigadas variáveis como classe social, escolaridade e mídia e suas influências nas representações de justiça.The objective of this paper was to present some current approaches of research on justice concepts, especially in France where concepts and methodologies related to social representations are used. Participants of the study were 20 adolescents charged with different transgressions who were called to testify at the District Attorney Office. The adolescents were asked to do free association with justice, law, and inequity, and questioned regarding considerations about law, definitions and examples of injustice, and accusations about things they thought were unfair. The data allowed the derivation of categories and led to suggestions for further research which should include variables such as social class, level of education, and the role of the media, and how they affect the representation of justice.
Maria Suzana De Stefano Menin
Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar algumas tendências atuais de pesquisa sobre concepções de justiça principalmente na França e que utilizam conceitos e metodologias relacionados à teoria sobre Representações Sociais. Também serão apresentados os principais resultados de uma pesquisa-piloto que realizamos com 20 adolescentes que foram notificados a comparecer na promotoria pública por terem cometido diferentes infrações. Esses jovens foram questi (more) onados de diversas formas: de associações livres a questões sobre atos criminosos mais freqüentemente cometidos em nossa sociedade. As primeiras análises dos resultados obtidos apontam sugestões para próximos trabalhos na área, principalmente no sentido de serem investigadas variáveis como classe social, escolaridade e mídia e suas influências nas representações de justiça. Abstract in english The objective of this paper was to present some current approaches of research on justice concepts, especially in France where concepts and methodologies related to social representations are used. Participants of the study were 20 adolescents charged with different transgressions who were called to testify at the District Attorney Office. The adolescents were asked to do free association with justice, law, and inequity, and questioned regarding considerations about law, (more) definitions and examples of injustice, and accusations about things they thought were unfair. The data allowed the derivation of categories and led to suggestions for further research which should include variables such as social class, level of education, and the role of the media, and how they affect the representation of justice.
Menin, Maria Suzana De Stefano
High school students (approximately 14-18 years old; N=2,568) completed questionnaires in which they reported on their involvement in substance use and delinquency, and their perceptions of parental warmth, control, monitoring, and knowledge. Three alternative models were compared describing the nature of relations among these variables. Problem…
Fletcher, Anne C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay
Internalizing symptoms such as withdrawn and anxious-depressed behavior are common in adolescence. This prospective longitudinal study helps to gain insight into the development of internalizing behavior, focusing on the role of early parent-child interaction while ruling out genetic similarity as a confounder. More specifically, the central question addressed in this study was whether parental sensitivity and child inhibited temperament predict children's withdrawn and anxious-depressed behavior in middle childhood and adolescence. We followed 160 early-adopted children (53 % girls) from infancy to adolescence. Structural equation modeling was used to test relationships both prospectively and concurrently. The results revealed that more sensitive parenting in infancy and middle childhood predicted less inhibited behavior in adolescence, which in turn predicted fewer internalizing problems in adolescence. The findings suggest that maternal sensitivity lowers adolescents' inhibited behavior and decreases the risk for adolescents' internalizing problem behavior indirectly through lower levels of inhibition. Supporting sensitive parenting in the years before adolescence may protect children from developing inhibited behavior and internalizing behavior problems in adolescence.
van der Voort A; Linting M; Juffer F; Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ; Schoenmaker C; van Ijzendoorn MH
The influence of genetic factors on health and behavior is conditioned by social, cultural, institutional, and physical environments in which individuals live, work, and play. We encourage studies supporting multilevel integrative approaches to understanding these contributions to health, and describe the Add Health study as an exemplar. Add Health is a large sample of US adolescents in grades 7 to 12 in 1994-1995 followed into adulthood with 4 in-home interviews and biomarker collections, including DNA. In addition to sampling multiple environments and measuring diverse social and health behavior, Add Health features a fully articulated behavioral genetic sample (3000 pairs) and ongoing genotyping of 12?000 archived samples. We illustrate approaches to understanding health through investigation of the interplay among biological, psychosocial, and physical, contextual, or cultural experiences. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print August 8, 2013: e1-e8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.301181).
Harris KM; Halpern CT; Hussey J; Whitsel EA; Killeya-Jones L; Tabor J; Elder G; Hewitt J; Shanahan M; Williams R; Siegler I; Smolen A
The influence of genetic factors on health and behavior is conditioned by social, cultural, institutional, and physical environments in which individuals live, work, and play. We encourage studies supporting multilevel integrative approaches to understanding these contributions to health, and describe the Add Health study as an exemplar. Add Health is a large sample of US adolescents in grades 7 to 12 in 1994-1995 followed into adulthood with 4 in-home interviews and biomarker collections, including DNA. In addition to sampling multiple environments and measuring diverse social and health behavior, Add Health features a fully articulated behavioral genetic sample (3000 pairs) and ongoing genotyping of 12,000 archived samples. We illustrate approaches to understanding health through investigation of the interplay among biological, psychosocial, and physical, contextual, or cultural experiences.
Harris KM; Halpern CT; Hussey J; Whitsel EA; Killeya-Jones L; Tabor J; Elder G; Hewitt J; Shanahan M; Williams R; Siegler I; Smolen A
Full Text Available Objectives: Due to the important roles of social, familial, and economic factors in behavior patterns in individuals, this study aims to determine high risk behavior in adolescent students in the city of Tehran. Method: In this descriptive cross-sectional study 700 guidance school and high school students (326 girls and 374 boys) were examined using a demographic questionnaire containing questions about cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, mental health status and so on. Data were analyzed using c2 test.Results: Mean age of subjects was 14.8(±1.4) years. 629 subjects (88.7%) believed that cigarette smoking is detrimental to health. 84 subjects (12.0%) were cigarette smokers. 210 subjects (30.6%) had experienced smoking hookah. 70 (10.0%) and 14 (2%) of them had consumed alcohol and abused heroin respectively in the previous month.Conclusion: High risk behaviors such as using cigarettes, alcohol and other substances are prevalent among adolescent students and indicate the necessity for applying appropriate interventions aimed at decreasing their abuse.
Comorbidity between antisocial behavior and depression in adolescence is widely recognized. This paper examines whether links with depressed mood differ among three subtypes of antisocial behavior: oppositionality, physical aggression and delinquency. In addition we examine two possible contributors to these links: negative life events that are dependent upon the individual's actions and depressogenic attributional style. Data are drawn from the G1219 large-scale community twin and sibling sample, and include 2409 questionnaire responses from youths aged between 13 and 19 living in the United Kingdom. Depressed mood was independently associated with both oppositionality and delinquency, but not with physical aggression. Dependent negative life events were strongly implicated in the association between delinquency and depressed mood, whereas depressogenic attributional style was implicated in the associations of both oppositionality and delinquency with depressed mood. Oppositionality remained a significant predictor of depressed mood after accounting for attributional style and life events whereas delinquency did not. The pattern of associations was largely similar in boys and girls. We discuss these results in terms of developmental models of the links between antisocial behavior and depressed mood. PMID:16718539
Rowe, Richard; Maughan, Barbara; Eley, Thalia C
Background: Lifetime methamphetamine use among adolescents is estimated to be between 5% and 10%. Youth substance use in general is known to be associated with risky sexual behaviors, but the effect of methamphetamine use on recent risky sexual behaviors and adolescent pregnancy has received little attention. The purpose of this analysis was to…
Zapata, Lauren B.; Hillis, Susan D.; Marchbanks; Polly A.; Curtis, Kathryn M.; Lowry, Richard
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent onset bipolar disorder often presents with co-morbid disorders of which psychoactive substance use disorders are notable. Mania symptoms and co-morbid psychoactive substance use disorders prone adolescents with bipolar disorder to impulsivity, impaired judgment, and risk taking behavior which often includes sexual risk behavior. There are dearth of information on pattern of co-morbid disorders and sexual risk behavior in adolescent onset bipolar disorder in Nigeria. This study assessed the prevalence and pattern of co-morbid disorders and determined associated factors of sexual risk behavior among adolescents with bipolar disorder. Methods Socio-demographic information was obtained from the adolescents using socio-demographic questionnaire. Clinical interview, physical examination and laboratory investigations were employed to establish co-morbid disorders in these adolescents during the outpatient follow up visits over a one year period. Results A total of forty six (46) adolescents with bipolar disorder were followed up over a one year period. Twenty two (47.8%) of the adolescents had co-morbid disorders with cannabis use disorders, alcohol use disorders, conduct disorder with or without other psychoactive substance use accounting for 23.9%, 8.7%, 13.0% respectively and HIV infection, though a chance finding accounting for 2.2%. Twenty one (45.7%) of the adolescents had positive history of sexual risk behavior, which was significantly associated with presence of co-morbid disorders (p = 0.003), level of religion activities in the adolescents (p = 0.000), and marital status of the parents (p = 0.021). Conclusion When planning interventions for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder, special attention may need to be focused on group of adolescents with co-morbid disorders and propensity towards impulsivity and sexual risk behavior. This may help in improving long term outcome in this group of adolescents.
Bakare Muideen O; Agomoh Ahamefule O; Ebigbo Peter O; Onyeama Gabriel M; Eaton Julian; Onwukwe Jojo U; Okonkwo Kevin O
Gambling, and gambling related problems, are recognized as an emerging health issue among adolescents. Adolescent gambling is associated with numerous individual, social, and family characteristics. This paper provides a review of 21 empirical studies published between 1997 and 2008 that examine family influences on adolescent gambling behavior. Family influences on gambling behavior are conceptualized in the following five domains: (1) family sociodemographic factors, (2) general family climate, (3) family members' attitudes and behaviors, (4) parenting practices, and (5) family relationship characteristics. Based on the review of extant literature, there is empirical evidence that family characteristics are associated with adolescent gambling and further examination of family system influences on gambling behavior is needed. Gaps in the current literature and recommendations for future research are discussed to help inform the study of family influences on adolescent gambling behavior.
McComb JL; Sabiston CM
Objective The present study evaluated the efficacy of the Middle School Success intervention (MSS) for reducing substance use and delinquency among girls in foster care, using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design. The program was designed to fill a service gap during the summer prior to the middle school transition and to prevent delinquency, substance use, and related problems. Method One hundred girls in foster care and their caregivers were randomly assigned either to the intervention (n = 48) or to a regular foster care control (n = 52) condition. The girls completed a baseline (T1) assessment and follow-up assessments at 6 months (T2), 12 months (T3), 24 months (T4), and 36 months (T5) postbaseline. Caregivers participated in assessments from T1 through T4. This study is a follow up to Smith et al. (2011)’s study, which examined immediate outcomes at T2. Results Girls in the intervention condition showed significantly lower levels of substance use than did girls in the control condition at 36-months postbaseline. The group difference was only marginally significant for delinquency. Further analyses indicated significant indirect effects of the intervention through increased prosocial behaviors which led to decreased internalizing and externalizing symptoms and then to lower levels of substance use. The direct effect of the intervention on substance use remained significant in the presence of the indirect effects. For delinquency, the intervention had positive effects mainly through increased prosocial skills. Conclusions Findings highlight the importance of providing preventive intervention services for early adolescent girls in foster care.
Kim, Hyoun K.; Leve, Leslie D.
Aggression is a common symptom of many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, Tourette's disorder, mood disorders (including bipolar disorder), substance-related disorders, alcohol-related disorders, mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorders, intermittent explosive disorder and personality disorders (particularly antisocial personality disorder). Many forms of organic brain disorders may present with aggressive behavior. Aggression is common in some epileptic patients and some endocrinological diseases (e.g., diabetes and hyperthyroidism) may be associated with aggressive behavior. Physicians need to rule out many medical and psychiatric disorders before diagnosing aggressive behavior. A thorough diagnostic work up is the most important step in determining the nature of comorbid disorders associated with the behavioral problem. Structured interviews and rating scales completed by patients, parents, teachers and clinicians may aid the diagnosis and provide quantification for the change process related to treatment. The integration of medication, individual and family counseling, educational and psychosocial interventions including the school and community, may increase the effectiveness of interventions. Due to the common association of aggression and disruptive behaviors with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, psychostimulants including new generation long-acting medications and other nonstimulant medications are considered the drug of choice for managing aggressive behavior and disruptive behavior disorders. Severe aggressive behavior not responding to these medications may require the single or combined use of mood regulators including lithium and/or antispychotic medications. Drugs such as risperidone (Risperdal, Janssen-Cilag) have documented effectiveness and safety in children and adolescents, and can be used in treatment.
Full Text Available This work examines the co-occurrence of risk behaviors among Spanish adolescents. The analyzed behaviors were sexual activity, the use of alcohol and other drugs, violent conduct and behaviors related to driving mopeds or scooters. The sample consisted of 4,091 adolescents between the ages of 13 to 18, all of them enrolled in one of the four compulsory years of secondary education, the approximate equivalents of the 7th to 10th grades in the US educational system. Cluster analysis indicates that there are four risk profiles, one of which is the profile with the greatest risk and the highest co-occurrence of risk behaviors. This group represents 13% of the sample and is noteworthy for using illegal drugs, driving under the influence of drugs and other activities carried out under the influence of alcohol. Differences have been found among the various profiles according to sociodemographic characteristics such as sex, grade, perception of the family’s economic situation and ethnicity. The findings are discussed and some suggestions are given for prevention intervention.Este trabajo examina la concurrencia de comportamientos de riesgo en adolescentes españoles. Los comportamientos analizados fueron la actividad sexual, el consumo de alcohol y otras drogas, conductas violentas y comportamientos en la conducción de ciclomotores o motocicletas. La muestra incluye 4.091 adolescentes de 13 a 18 años, perteneciente a educación secundaria obligatoria. Los resultados obtenidos muestran cuatro perfiles de riesgo, siendo uno de ellos el perfil de más alto riesgo y concurrencia de comportamientos arriesgados. Este grupo supone el 13% en el que destacan las conductas de consumo de drogas lícitas, conducir bajo los efectos de droga y otras conductas realizadas bajo los efectos del alcohol. Se encuentran diferencias entre estos perfiles y las características sociodemográficas como el sexo, el curso, la percepción sobre la economía familiar y la etnicidad. Se discuten los resultados obtenidos y se ofrece algunas sugerencias para la prevención.
Meneses, Carmen; Rúa, Antonio; Romo, Nuria; Gil, Eugenia; Uroz, Jorge; Markez, Iñaki
IMPORTANCE Although many studies have explored the correlates of violence during first-episode psychosis (FEP), most have simply compared violent psychotic individuals with nonviolent psychotic individuals. Accumulating evidence suggests there may be subgroups within psychosis, differing in terms of developmental processes and proximal factors associated with violent behavior. OBJECTIVE To determine whether there are subgroups of psychotic individuals characterized by different developmental trajectories to violent behavior. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The National EDEN (Evaluating the Development and Impact of Early Intervention Services in the West Midlands) Study longitudinal cohort assessed premorbid delinquency (premorbid adjustment adaptation subscale across childhood and adolescence), age at illness onset, duration of untreated psychosis, past drug use, positive symptoms, and violent behavior. Group trajectories of premorbid delinquency were estimated using latent class growth analysis, and associations with violent behavior were quantified. This study included 6 early intervention services in 5 geographical locations across England, with violent behavior information available for 670 first-episode psychosis cases. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Violent behavior at 6 or 12 months following early intervention services entry. RESULTS Four groups of premorbid delinquency were identified: stable low, adolescent-onset high to moderate, stable moderate, and stable high. Logistic regression analysis, with stable low delinquency as the reference group, demonstrated that moderate (odds ratio, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.12-3.46) and high (odds ratio, 3.53; 95% CI, 1.85-6.73) premorbid delinquency trajectories increased the risk for violent behavior during FEP. After controlling for confounders, path analysis demonstrated that the increased risk for violence in the moderate delinquency group was indirect (ie, partially mediated by positive symptoms) (probit coefficient [?]?=?0.12; P?=?.002); while stable high delinquency directly increased the risk for violence (??=?0.38; P?=?.05). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE There appear to be diverse pathways to violent behavior during FEP. Stable high premorbid delinquency from childhood onwards appears to directly increase the risk for violent behavior, independent of psychosis-related risk factors. In addition to tackling illness-related risks, treatments should directly address antisocial traits as a potent risk for violence during FEP.
Winsper C; Singh SP; Marwaha S; Amos T; Lester H; Everard L; Jones P; Fowler D; Marshall M; Lewis S; Sharma V; Freemantle N; Birchwood M
Full Text Available Background: The etiological factors and interrelations of juvenile delinquents, with psychiatricmorbidity and substance abuse have been continuously debated.Cloninger’s Tridimensional Theory of Temperament has been reported topredict patterns of substance abuse and comorbidity. In the current study, weaimed to examine the usability of the theory in predicting juvenile delinquencyand substance abuse.Methods: Sixty consecutive and newly incarcerated male delinquents with history ofsubstance abuse were recruited from a juvenile correctional facility in northwesternTaiwan from January 2002 through December 2003. All subjectswere assessed of their temperament, behavioral problems, and psychiatricdisorders on an individual base.Results: The juvenile delinquent subjects with childhood history of attention deficitand hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were significantly younger, consumedless betel nuts, and had more siblings with history of drug abuse.Conclusion: Consistent with the results of Cloninger’s studies, novelty seeking positivelycorrelated to the amount of substance abuse, while harm avoidance inverselycorrelated in juvenile delinquents. Endemic trend of choice of substanceabuse needs to be taken into consideration in future research projects.
Hsueh-Ling Chang; Sue-Huei Chen; Chien Huang
Adolescence is a critical time for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and both the prevention and treatment of high-risk-for-HIV behaviors such as drug abuse and unprotected sex. Family therapy appears to be a promising, yet neglected, source of influence in the prevention of HIV. In this paper, the authors identify HIV risk factors among adolescents and provide a rationale for the use of family therapy to prevent high-risk-for-HIV behaviors among adolescents. Also included are the components of one promising family therapy model for addressing risk reduction in adolescents. An illustrative case example is provided. PMID:8481273
Piercy, F P; Trepper, T; Jurich, J
Adolescence is a critical time for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and both the prevention and treatment of high-risk-for-HIV behaviors such as drug abuse and unprotected sex. Family therapy appears to be a promising, yet neglected, source of influence in the prevention of HIV. In this paper, the authors identify HIV risk factors among adolescents and provide a rationale for the use of family therapy to prevent high-risk-for-HIV behaviors among adolescents. Also included are the components of one promising family therapy model for addressing risk reduction in adolescents. An illustrative case example is provided.
Piercy FP; Trepper T; Jurich J
Full Text Available The elevated proportion of adolescents with multiple risk factors for cardiovascular diseases suggests that there are strict relationships between several different types of health risk behavior that predispose towards the emergence of these factors. The objective of the present study was to analyze possible relationships between health risk behaviors in adolescent schoolchildren from the city of João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. The study sample comprised 2,768 adolescent secondary schoolchildren (1,222 boys and 1,546 girls), aged 14 to 18 years. The following factors were analyzed: i) sociodemographic data: sex, age, economic class and parents’ educational level; ii) health risk behaviors: physical inactivity ( ABSTRACT A elevada proporção de adolescentes com fatores de risco para as doenças cardiovasculares, de forma agregada, sugere uma relação estreita entre diversos comportamentos de risco à saúde que predispõem ao desencadeamento desses fatores. O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar as possíveis associações entre comportamentos de risco à saúde em adolescentes escolares da cidade de João Pessoa - PB. A amostra consistiu de 2.768 adolescentes escolares do ensino médio (1.222 rapazes e 1.546 moças), de 14 a 18 anos de idade. Foram analisados os seguintes aspectos: i) sociodemográfi cos: sexo, idade, classe econômica e escolaridade dos pais; ii) comportamentos de risco à saúde: inatividade física (<37kcal/kg/dia), baixa freqüência de consumo de frutas e verduras (<5dias/semana), fumo e bebidas alcoólicas (?1vez/semana). A inatividade física se associou positivamente com a baixa freqüência de consumo de frutas (RP=1,10; IC95%=1,01-1,19) e verduras (RP=1,16; IC95%=1,07-1,26). A probabilidade de apresentar baixa freqüência de consumo de frutas foi aproximadamente duas vezes mais elevada (RP=1,89; IC95%=1,70-2,10) nos adolescentes que referiam consumir verduras <5dias/semana. Consumir bebidas alcoólicas aumentava em 15 vezes (RP=15,0; IC95%= 6,7-33,7) a chance de um adolescente ser fumante. Os comportamentos de risco à saúde se mostraram estreitamente associados, o que reforça a necessidade dos programas de promoção da saúde intervirem sobre diversos comportamentos de risco de forma simultânea.
José Cazuza de Farias Júnior; Jonathan Karl Feitosa Mendes; Daniele Batista Martins Barbosa
The impact of bullying in all forms on the mental health and safety of adolescents is of particular interest, especially in the wake of new methods of bullying that victimize youths through technology. The current study examined the relationship between victimization from both physical and cyber bullying and adolescent suicidal behavior. Violent behavior, substance use, and unsafe sexual behavior were tested as mediators between two forms of bullying, cyber and physical, and suicidal behavior. Data were taken from a large risk-behavior screening study with a sample of 4,693 public high school students (mean age = 16.11, 47 % female). The study's findings showed that both physical bullying and cyber bullying associated with substance use, violent behavior, unsafe sexual behavior, and suicidal behavior. Substance use, violent behavior, and unsafe sexual behavior also all associated with suicidal behavior. Substance use and violent behavior partially mediated the relationship between both forms of bullying and suicidal behavior. The comparable amount of variance in suicidal behavior accounted for by both cyber bullying and physical bullying underscores the important of further cyber bullying research. The direct association of each risk behavior with suicidal behavior also underscores the importance of reducing risk behaviors. Moreover, the role of violence and substance use as mediating behaviors offers an explanation of how risk behaviors can increase an adolescent's likelihood of suicidal behavior through habituation to physical pain and psychological anxiety.
Litwiller BJ; Brausch AM
The impact of bullying in all forms on the mental health and safety of adolescents is of particular interest, especially in the wake of new methods of bullying that victimize youths through technology. The current study examined the relationship between victimization from both physical and cyber bullying and adolescent suicidal behavior. Violent behavior, substance use, and unsafe sexual behavior were tested as mediators between two forms of bullying, cyber and physical, and suicidal behavior. Data were taken from a large risk-behavior screening study with a sample of 4,693 public high school students (mean age = 16.11, 47 % female). The study's findings showed that both physical bullying and cyber bullying associated with substance use, violent behavior, unsafe sexual behavior, and suicidal behavior. Substance use, violent behavior, and unsafe sexual behavior also all associated with suicidal behavior. Substance use and violent behavior partially mediated the relationship between both forms of bullying and suicidal behavior. The comparable amount of variance in suicidal behavior accounted for by both cyber bullying and physical bullying underscores the important of further cyber bullying research. The direct association of each risk behavior with suicidal behavior also underscores the importance of reducing risk behaviors. Moreover, the role of violence and substance use as mediating behaviors offers an explanation of how risk behaviors can increase an adolescent's likelihood of suicidal behavior through habituation to physical pain and psychological anxiety. PMID:23381779
Litwiller, Brett J; Brausch, Amy M
Full Text Available Objective: According to the Theory of Planned Behavior, the single best predictor of a person’s behavior is their intention to perform that behavior, Predictive factors of intention include attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which behavioral intention predicted physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors linked to childhood obesity. Design: A convenience sample of 318 middle school students were administered a129-item valid and reliable instrument. Multiple regression was used to establish predictors for each behavior. Results: The mean BI scores for participating in less than two hours of screen time per day (M = 12.31, SD = 5.42) and at least 60 minutes of PA per day (M = 12.84, SD = 7.18) denoted a moderate intent to participate in the behavior. However, 25% and 33% of students indicated a weak intention to participate in the respective behaviors. Regression showed BI was predictive for screen time among overweight students, and for participation in PA among all students, (p < 0.05). Conclusion: BI was linked to PA and sedentary behaviors related to obesity prevention in adolescents. On average, students reported moderate intention for each of the behaviors; however, weak intentions existed in over 25% of students, and should be considered when evaluating overall likelihood of participating in the relevant behavior. Students who were overweight or obese had lower intentions to participate in less screen time or more PA, which is important to consider when framing behavior change messages for this population.
Melinda J. Ickes; Manoj Sharma
The present study investigated the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal self-injury (SSI) in a sample of 1,417 Flemish adolescents aged 12 to 18, as well as psychosocial differences between adolescents engaging in NSSI and adolescents engaging in SSI. Participants completed an anonymous online survey inquiring about NSSI and SSI functions, sociodemographic correlates, help seeking behaviors, and stressful life events. Lifetime prevalence of NSSI was 13.71% and SSI was 3.93%. No gender or age differences appeared between adolescents engaging in NSSI or SSI; however, differences in educational level were observed. Significant differences in functions of the behavior and number of stressful life events were noted between groups. Finally, the likelihood of receiving professional help differed between adolescents engaging in NSSI and adolescents engaging in SSI. Implications of the findings for assessment and treating NSSI and SSI are discussed. PMID:21294000
Baetens, Imke; Claes, Laurence; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick
The present study investigated the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal self-injury (SSI) in a sample of 1,417 Flemish adolescents aged 12 to 18, as well as psychosocial differences between adolescents engaging in NSSI and adolescents engaging in SSI. Participants completed an anonymous online survey inquiring about NSSI and SSI functions, sociodemographic correlates, help seeking behaviors, and stressful life events. Lifetime prevalence of NSSI was 13.71% and SSI was 3.93%. No gender or age differences appeared between adolescents engaging in NSSI or SSI; however, differences in educational level were observed. Significant differences in functions of the behavior and number of stressful life events were noted between groups. Finally, the likelihood of receiving professional help differed between adolescents engaging in NSSI and adolescents engaging in SSI. Implications of the findings for assessment and treating NSSI and SSI are discussed.
Baetens I; Claes L; Muehlenkamp J; Grietens H; Onghena P
BACKGROUND: Studies have reported an increased risk for suicide in adults with schizophrenia, but limited data on younger populations are available. AIMS: We hypothesize that first-episode psychosis is associated with an increased risk of suicidal behavior in adolescents. METHOD: A retrospective study was conducted with patients (n=102) diagnosed with psychosis not otherwised specified (NOS), schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder or schizophrenia within six months prior to admission. A control group consisting of ninety-eight patients with other (nonpsychosis) psychiatric diagnoses admitted to the same unit was matched by age, gender and ethnicity. All patients and controls were administered the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale-Children version to assess severity of psychiatric symptoms and suicidality, and medical records were used to assess suicidal behavior and possible risk factors. RESULTS: When compared to controls, patients with psychosis had over twice as many suicide attempts overall (p<0.01). The 32% incidence of suicide attempts reported in this cohort is nearly double what is reported in adults with psychosis. Depressive symptoms were significantly correlated with increased suicide attempts (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference between the number of pediatric psychosis inpatients versus nonpsychotic psychiatric inpatients who attempted suicide. There was, however, a significant difference between the total number of attempts between groups, illustrating that children and adolescents with psychosis are more likely than nonpsychotic psychiatric inpatients to have repeat, or multiple, suicide attempts. Longer duration of untreated psychosis, ADHD and depressive symptoms were found to be the strongest risk factors for patients with psychosis.
Falcone T; Mishra L; Carlton E; Lee C; Butler RS; Janigro D; Simon B; Franco K
"I Have a Future" Adolescent Health Promotion Program is a life options program. The program uses the Nguzo Saba (seven principles) and African philosophy to systematically address violence and attitudes reinforcing the use of violence. The Nguzo Saba promotes self-respect, and commitment to and support for developing a positive community. Data was collected from four public housing developments--two served as match control sites. Adolescents residing in neighborhoods in which the program operated had greater acceptance of the Nguzo Saba than those in matched communities. Those who perceived themselves as having life options engaged in fewer delinquent/violent acts. There was a strong negative correlation between the acceptance of the Nguzo Saba and the number of reported delinquent/violent behaviors. There was a positive relationship between the acceptance of the Nguzo Saba and positive self-concept, psychosocial maturity, and clarity of goals.
Greene LW; Smith MS; Peters SR
The purpose of this integrative review is to describe, compare, and synthesize traditional and computer-based family interventions that aim to change adolescents' risky sexual behaviors and substance abuse. Family interventions have been shown to generate protective effects for preventing adolescents from risky behaviors. It is not clear, however, whether there are significant differences or similarities in the designs and effects of traditional and computer-based family interventions. An integrative literature review was conducted to describe and compare the designs and effects of traditional and computer-based family interventions. Both interventions have generated significant effects on reducing risky behavior among adolescents. Interventions guided by theory, tailored to participants' culture/gender, and which included sufficient boosting dosages in their designs demonstrated significant short- or long-term effects in terms of reducing adolescents' risky behaviors. Regardless of delivery method, well-designed family interventions are noted to maximize familial protective effects and reduce risky behaviors.
Kao TS; Gibbs MB; Clemen-Stone S; Duffy S
This study examined whether adolescents communicate about antisocial topics and behaviors via text messaging and how adolescents' antisocial text message communication relates to growth in rule-breaking and aggression as reported by youth, parents, and teachers. Participants (n?=?172; 82 girls) received BlackBerry devices configured to capture all text messages sent and received. Four days of text messages during the 9th grade year were coded for discussion of antisocial activities. The majority of participants engaged in at least some antisocial text message communication. Text messaging about antisocial activities significantly predicted increases in parent, teacher, and self-reports of adolescents' rule-breaking behavior, as well as teacher and self-reports of adolescents' aggressive behavior. Text message communication may provide instrumental information about how to engage in antisocial behavior and reinforce these behaviors as normative within the peer group.
Ehrenreich SE; Underwood MK; Ackerman RA
Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors aimed to describe the pathways of risk within sexual risk taking, alcohol use, and delinquency, and then identify how the trajectory of sexual risk is linked to alcohol use and delinquency. Risk trajectories were measured with adolescents aged 15-24 years (N = 1,778). Using…
Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Henrich, Christopher C.
INTRODUCTION: Various studies have demonstrated that environmental smoking cues elicit smoking-related responses in smokers. However, cue reactivity studies among adolescent smokers are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of smoking portrayal in movies on immediate smoking behavior in adolescent smokers. METHOD: A total of 65 adolescent daily smokers (between the ages of 16 and 18 years) were exposed to a one-hour movie clip, with or without smoking characters, and were allowed to smoke while watching the movie. RESULTS: The exposure to smoking cues in movies had no effect on immediate smoking behavior. This association was not affected by several smoking- and movie-related variables. CONCLUSIONS: No influence of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior in adolescent daily smokers was found. More experimental research on the effects of environmental cues on adolescent smokers in different stages of addiction is needed.
Lochbuehler K; Kleinjan M; Engels RC
INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is a time of developmental change. The major task of adolescence is to become an independent individual capable of functioning as a contributing adult within culturally expected norms. It is often accompanied by frustration and difficulties with adjustments. One typical response of adolescents to these changes is engaging in high-risk behaviors. The purpose of this study was to compare self-reported high risk behaviors that may lead to unintentional and intentional injuries among adolescents living in the Dominican Republic and Dominican adolescents living in the United States. METHOD: This study used a cross-sectional, comparative design with data collection sites in Las Matas de Farfan, Dominican Republic, and Boston, MA, United States. Data were collected using the 99-item 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. RESULTS: Findings indicated that adolescents in both groups reported similar risk behaviors in all areas; however, there were few differences between the two groups that did exist. DISCUSSION: To educate youth regarding outcomes of high-risk behaviors, it is necessary for providers to engage in discussion with adolescents regarding specific risk behaviors that are commonly practiced in their homeland or in their cultural groups.
Babington LM; Kelley BR; Patsdaughter CA
PURPOSE: This study examined the associations between health risk behaviors (i.e., substance use behaviors, physical violence, or carried a weapon) and multiple adolescent pregnancies (i.e., experiencing or causing more than one pregnancy). METHODS: We analyzed 1999-2003 data (3 years: 1999, 2001, and 2003) from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative survey of high school students (N = 14,211 participants). Multinomial logistic regression was used to compare one and multiple pregnancies versus no pregnancies. Logistic regression was used to compare multiple pregnancies versus one pregnancy. RESULTS: A dose-response relationship was observed between multiple adolescent pregnancies and health risk behaviors; the more risk behaviors endorsed, the greater likelihood of experiencing or causing multiple adolescent pregnancies. Participants who engaged in a "high" degree of risk behaviors were significantly more likely to have experienced or caused multiple adolescent pregnancies than no pregnancies (or only one pregnancy) versus youth who endorsed no risk behaviors. Earlier sexual debut and more lifetime sexual partners were also associated with increased risk of endorsing multiple adolescent pregnancies. CONCLUSIONS: The health risk behaviors examined in our study can provide warning signs to influential persons who can potentially deliver important prevention messages to at-risk adolescents.
Cavazos-Rehg PA; Krauss MJ; Spitznagel EL; Schootman M; Cottler LB; Bierut LJ
OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify (a) the course of changes in smoking, alcohol and marijuana use, violence, and sexual behavior from early adolescence through young adulthood for males and females, (b) points of divergence and convergence for 5 health risk behaviors between males and females, and (c) whether the trajectories of change in health risk behaviors differed for males and females. METHOD: Data from four waves of the nationally representative National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) followed 18,911 youth from early adolescence through the transition to adulthood (ages 13 through 31 years) and were analyzed using zero-inflated negative binomial growth models and logistic growth models. RESULTS: Generally, health risk behaviors steadily increased through adolescence into the early 20s, subsequently leveling off or decreasing. Results indicated early adolescent females were more likely to smoke and have more sexual partners, and 14- and 18-year-old females had higher rates of increase for getting drunk. The majority of findings, however, indicated that adolescent and young adult males engaged in more risk behaviors and were increasingly likely to engage over time. Among youth engaged in health risk behaviors, males reported greater frequency and increases in rates over time for most risk behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: We identify several critical groups for health professionals to address: early adolescent females not previously identified as more engaged in health risks; adolescent females "catching up" to male health risks; early and mid-adolescent males shifting into adult patterns of heightened health risk behaviors; and the group of risk-taking males across age groups.
Mahalik JR; Levine Coley R; McPherran Lombardi C; Doyle Lynch A; Markowitz AJ; Jaffee SR
OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the effects of parent-adolescent acculturation gaps, perceived discrimination, and perceived negative context of reception on adolescent cigarette smoking, alcohol use, sexual activity, and sexual risk taking. We used an expanded, multidimensional model of acculturation. METHOD: A sample of 302 recently immigrated parent-adolescent dyads (152 from Miami and 150 from Los Angeles) completed measures of acculturation (Hispanic and American practices and identifications, and individualist and collectivist values) and parent-adolescent communication. Adolescents completed measures of recent cigarette smoking, alcohol use, sexual behavior, and sexual risk taking. RESULTS: Parent-adolescent gaps in American practices and ethnic identity, and perceptions of a negative context of reception, predicted compromised parent-adolescent communication. In Miami only, adolescent-reported communication negatively predicted odds of cigarette smoking, occasions of drunkenness, and number of sexual partners. Also in Miami only, parent-reported communication positively predicted these outcomes, as well as occasions of adolescent binge drinking, drunkenness, number of sexual partners, and odds of unprotected sex. The only significant findings in Los Angeles were protective effects of parent-reported communication on frequency of alcohol use and of binge drinking. Mediational effects emerged only in the Miami sample. CONCLUSIONS: Effects of parent-adolescent acculturation gaps vary across Hispanic groups and receiving contexts. The especially strong parental control in many Mexican families may account for these differences. However, other important differences between Hispanic subgroups and communities of reception could also account for these differences. Prevention efforts might encourage Hispanic youth both to retain their culture of origin and to acquire American culture.
Schwartz SJ; Unger JB; Des Rosiers SE; Huang S; Baezconde-Garbanati L; Lorenzo-Blanco EI; Villamar JA; Soto DW; Pattarroyo M; Szapocznik J
The persistence of adolescents' political attitudes and behaviors into adulthood is a perennial concern in research on developmental psychology. While some authors claim that adolescents' attitudinal patterns will remain relatively stable throughout the life cycle, others argue that the answers of adolescents in political surveys have but a…
Hooghe, Marc; Wilkenfeld, Britt
BACKGROUND: While behavioral factors such as early age of sexual debut, inconsistent use of condoms and multiple sexual partners have been studied in Africa, less is known about how characteristics such as impulsivity and externalizing behaviors relate to HIV-related sexual risk-taking in that region. The purpose of this study was to develop a culturally adapted behavioral disinhibition index in a sample of adolescents and young adults in Malawi. We then sought to examine the relationship between the index and sexual risk behavior as measured by multiple sexual partners and number of lifetime sexual partners. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were collected from 2342 participants in rural Malawi aged 15 to 29 years. We constructed a disinhibitory behavior score (DBS) using questions assessing disinhibitory behaviors. Bivariate analyses were conducted to assess the relationships among the individual DBS component behaviors. We utilized multivariable logistic regression to determine the association of the DBS with multiple sexual partners, and negative binomial regression to model the relationship between the DBS and number of lifetime sexual partners. FINDINGS: Nearly all the DBS component behaviors were significantly associated in the bivariate analyses. The DBS was associated with having multiple sexual partners (OR 1.97; 95% CI 1.57-2.48) in the multivariable logistic regression analysis. Further, negative binomial regression results demonstrated that the DBS was associated with an increased number of lifetime sexual partners (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.07-1.16). CONCLUSIONS: HIV preventive programs in Africa should take into consideration disinhibitory behaviors that may be associated with sexual risk-taking. The DBS can be used as a simple tool to identify those who may be more likely to engage in these behaviors and provide useful information regarding which groups of individuals particularly need to be targeted for behavior change interventions.
Muchimba M; Burton M; Yeatman S; Chilungo A; Haberstick BC; Young SE; Corley RP; McQueen MB
Background While behavioral factors such as early age of sexual debut, inconsistent use of condoms and multiple sexual partners have been studied in Africa, less is known about how characteristics such as impulsivity and externalizing behaviors relate to HIV-related sexual risk-taking in that region. The purpose of this study was to develop a culturally adapted behavioral disinhibition index in a sample of adolescents and young adults in Malawi. We then sought to examine the relationship between the index and sexual risk behavior as measured by multiple sexual partners and number of lifetime sexual partners. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from 2342 participants in rural Malawi aged 15 to 29 years. We constructed a disinhibitory behavior score (DBS) using questions assessing disinhibitory behaviors. Bivariate analyses were conducted to assess the relationships among the individual DBS component behaviors. We utilized multivariable logistic regression to determine the association of the DBS with multiple sexual partners, and negative binomial regression to model the relationship between the DBS and number of lifetime sexual partners. Findings Nearly all the DBS component behaviors were significantly associated in the bivariate analyses. The DBS was associated with having multiple sexual partners (OR 1.97; 95% CI 1.57–2.48) in the multivariable logistic regression analysis. Further, negative binomial regression results demonstrated that the DBS was associated with an increased number of lifetime sexual partners (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.07–1.16). Conclusions HIV preventive programs in Africa should take into consideration disinhibitory behaviors that may be associated with sexual risk-taking. The DBS can be used as a simple tool to identify those who may be more likely to engage in these behaviors and provide useful information regarding which groups of individuals particularly need to be targeted for behavior change interventions.
Muchimba, Maureen; Burton, Megan; Yeatman, Sara; Chilungo, Abdallah; Haberstick, Brett C.; Young, Susan E.; Corley, Robin P.; McQueen, Matthew B.
This study examined the trajectories of sexual risk behaviors among adolescents from ages 15 to 23 and factors associated with those trajectories. The sample was 5,419 adolescents from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Using group-based trajectory modeling, five distinctive trajectory groups were identified. The High group had a high…
Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing
The impact of bullying in all forms on the mental health and safety of adolescents is of particular interest, especially in the wake of new methods of bullying that victimize youths through technology. The current study examined the relationship between victimization from both physical and cyber bullying and adolescent suicidal behavior. Violent…
Litwiller, Brett J.; Brausch, Amy M.
This study assessed the similarity of adolescents and their friends and peer network associates in religiosity and the extent to which these relationships were associated with antisocial behavior. The sample included 1010 Indonesian (480 male, 530 female) 8th (13.37 years) and 10th grade (15.36 years) students. Adolescents were similar to their…
French, Doran C.; Purwono, Urip; Rodkin, Philip C.
Children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome occasionally exhibit aggressive behavior against peers and parents. In a multiple baseline design across subjects, three adolescents with Asperger syndrome were taught to use a mindfulness-based procedure called "Meditation on the Soles of the Feet" to control their physical aggression in the family…
Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Angela D. A.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy
|The impact of bullying in all forms on the mental health and safety of adolescents is of particular interest, especially in the wake of new methods of bullying that victimize youths through technology. The current study examined the relationship between victimization from both physical and cyber bullying and adolescent suicidal behavior. Violent…
Litwiller, Brett J.; Brausch, Amy M.
The coping strategies used by adolescents to deal with stress may have implications for the development of depression and suicidal ideation. This study examined coping categories and specific coping behaviors used by adolescents to assess the relation of coping to depression and suicidal ideation. In hierarchical regression models, the specific…
Horwitz, Adam G.; Hill, Ryan M.; King, Cheryl A.
This study explored three aspects of peer group membership in adolescence: peer group affiliation, the importance of group membership, and a sense of peer group belonging. Each is considered in relationship to adolescents' behavior problems as measured by the Achenbach Youth Self-Report. Participants included an ethnically and socioeconomically…
Newman, Barbara M.; Lohman, Brenda J.; Newman, Philip R.
Adolescents naturally experience an increased interest in sexual behavior, but they usually lack much experience. Thus, any prescription medication that holds the potential to ease or facilitate sexual matters holds a unique allure. Widespread cultural awareness of medications to treat erectile dysfunction (ED) has combined with a recent trend toward increased adolescent prescription drug abuse to create unique challenges for industry, clinicians, and researchers.
Apodaca TR; Moser NC
To explore the link between interparental hostility and adolescent problem behaviors, the current study examines four important maternal parenting dimensions as potential mediators: acceptance, harshness, inconsistency, and psychological intrusiveness. With a primary sample of 1,893 sixth-grade students, the measures included adolescent and…
Benson, Mark J.; Buehler, Cheryl; Gerard, Jean M.
|Objective: A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for adolescents with social phobia, simplified both in terms of time and labor intensity from a previously studied program (Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children and Adolescents) to be more appropriate for a community outpatient psychiatric…
Baer, Susan; Garland, E. Jane
Developing a sexual self-concept is an important developmental task of adolescence; however, little empirical evidence describes this development, nor how these changes are related to development in sexual behavior. Using longitudinal cohort data from adolescent women, we invoked latent growth curve analysis to: (1) examine reciprocal development…
Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.; Orr, Donald P.
OBJECTIVE: We examined the cross-sectional associations between reports of an early age of alcohol use initiation and suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and peer and dating violence victimization and perpetration among high-risk adolescents. METHOD: Data were obtained from the Youth Violence Survey conducted in 2004 and administered to all public school students enrolled in grades 7, 9, and 11/12 (N = 4131) in a high-risk school district in the United States. Our analyses were limited to seventh-grade students who either began drinking before the age of 13 or were nondrinkers, with complete information on all covariates (n = 856). Cross-sectional logistic and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the associations between early alcohol use and each of the 6 outcome behaviors (dating violence victimization and perpetration, peer violence victimization and perpetration, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts) while controlling for demographic characteristics and other potential confounders (ie, heavy episodic drinking, substance use, peer drinking, depression, impulsivity, peer delinquency, and parental monitoring). RESULTS: In our study, 35% of students reported alcohol use initiation before 13 years of age (preteen alcohol use initiators). Students who reported preteen alcohol use initiation reported involvement in significantly more types of violent behaviors (mean: 2.8 behaviors), compared with nondrinkers (mean: 1.8 behaviors). Preteen alcohol use initiation was associated significantly with suicide attempts, relative to nondrinkers, controlling for demographic characteristics and all other potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Early alcohol use is an important risk factor for involvement in violent behaviors and suicide attempts among youths. Increased efforts to delay and to reduce early alcohol use among youths are needed and may reduce both violence and suicide attempts.
Swahn MH; Bossarte RM; Sullivent EE 3rd
Transitions into and out of adolescence are critical developmental periods of reward-seeking and approach behaviors. Converging evidence suggests that intriguing reward-related behavioral shifts are mediated by developmental changes in frontostriatal circuitry. This chapter explores how the conceptual frameworks and empirical studies in the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience have contributed to understanding reward-related behavior across development. The chapter concludes with some implications for adaptive and maladaptive behaviors that arise from these behaviors as children transition from childhood to adolescence.
RATIONALE: Ethanol is commonly used and abused during adolescence. Although adolescents display differential behavioral responses to ethanol, the mechanisms by which this occurs are not known. The protein kinase C (PKC) pathway has been implicated in mediating many ethanol-related effects in adults, as well as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor regulation. OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to characterize cortical PKC isoform and GABAA receptor subunit expression during adolescence relative to adults as well as assess PKC involvement in ethanol action. RESULTS: Novel PKC isoforms were elevated, while PKC? was lower during mid-adolescence relative to adults. Whole-cell lysate and synaptosomal preparations correlated for all isoforms except PKC?. In parallel, synaptosomal GABAA receptor subunit expression was also developmentally regulated, with GABAAR ? and ?4 being lower while ?1 and ?2 were higher or similar, respectively, in adolescents compared to adults. Following acute ethanol exposure, synaptosomal novel and atypical PKC isoform expression was decreased only in adolescents. Behaviorally, inhibiting PKC with calphostin C, significantly increased ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR) in adolescents but not adults, whereas activating PKC with phorbol dibutyrate was ineffective in adolescents but decreased LORR duration in adults. Further investigation revealed that inhibiting the cytosolic phospholipase A2/arachidonic acid (cPLA2/AA) pathway increased LORR duration in adolescents, but was ineffective in adults. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that PKC isoforms are variably regulated during adolescence and may contribute to adolescent ethanol-related behavior. Furthermore, age-related differences in the cPLA2/AA pathway may contribute to ethanol's age-related effects on novel and atypical PKC isoform expression and behavior.
Santerre JL; Gigante ED; Landin JD; Werner DF
Alcohol use has been linked to risky sexual practices among adolescents. However, limited research on alcohol use and risky sexual behavior has been conducted among female adolescents. This study examined a high quantity of alcohol as a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among female adolescents. Three hundred ninety-three adolescent females aged 15-21 were assessed for alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors. Participants also provided 2 swab specimens that were assayed for STDs. Use of high alcohol quantity was defined as > or = 3 drinks in 1 sitting. Binary generalized estimating equation models were conducted assessing the impact of alcohol use at baseline on risky sexual behavior and STDs over a 12-month period. Age, intervention group and baseline outcome measures were entered as covariates. The results indicated that use of high alcohol quantity predicted inconsistent condom use, high sexual sensation seeking, multiple sexual partners, sex while high on alcohol or drugs, and having anal sex during 12-month follow-up period. These findings suggest that STD-related behavioral interventions for adolescents should discuss the link between alcohol and STD-risk behavior. Deeper understanding of alcohol as a predictor of risky sexual behavior among female adolescents is of paramount importance for development of efficient prevention programs at individual and community levels. The risk of acquiring an STD is higher among teenagers than among adults.
Lepusi? D; Radovi?-Radovci? S
Full Text Available Introduction: Numerous studies have emphasized the importance of contextual factors as determinants of sexual behavior of adolescents. It has been found that lower socioeconomic status is associated with risky sexual behavior. Sexual behavior is individual but develops under strong influence of cultural and other influences. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of family’s socioeconomic status and risky sexual behavior of adolescents in Belgrade. Method. Self-administered questionnaire was used in secondary schools in Belgrade, and 1,782 adolescents attending first grade filled the questionnaire. For the analyses of predictors of risky sexual behavior, multiple logistic regression was used. Results. Parents’ occupations did not show significant association with any of analyzed behaviors. Adolescents who received weekly disposable money above average were 2.5 times more likely to ever have had sexual intercourse, and if sexually active were more likely to use contraception. Perceived family’s wealth was a significant predictor of ever having sex (OR=1.9; CI 1.2-2.8) and not using contraception (OR=4.3; CI 1.2-15.0). Conclusion. Socioeconomic status is associated with sexual behaviors of adolescents. Fifteen-year olds who perceive their families as wealthier are more likely to ever have had sex and not use any kind of contraception. Adolescents with higher weekly income are more likely to ever have had sex and use contraception than their counterpats with less weekly disposable money. .
Vukovi? Dejana S.; Bjegovi?-Mikanovi? Vesna M.
A wide array of risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents with chronically ill parents emerges from the literature. This study aims to identify those factors with the highest impact on internalizing problem behavior (anxious, depressed and withdrawn behavior, and somatic complaints) and externalizing problem behavior (aggressive and rule-breaking behavior) as measured by the Youth Self-Report (YSR). The YSR was filled in by 160 adolescents (mean age = 15.1 years) from 100 families (102 chronically ill parents and 83 healthy spouses). Linear mixed model analyses were used, enabling separation of variance attributable to individual factors and variance attributable to family membership (i.e., family cluster effect). Predictors were child, parent, illness-related and family characteristics. The results showed that almost half of the variance in internalizing problem scores was explained by family membership, while externalizing problems were mainly explained by individual factors. Roughly 60 % of the variance in internalizing problems was predicted by illness duration, adolescents' feeling of isolation, daily hassles affecting personal life and alienation from the mother. Approximately a third of the variance in externalizing problems was predicted by adolescents' male gender, daily hassles concerning ill parents and alienation from both parents. In conclusion, the variance in adolescent problem behavior is largely accounted for by family membership, children's daily hassles and parent-child attachment. To prevent marginalization of adolescents with a chronically ill parent, it is important to be alert for signs of problem behavior and foster the peer and family support system. PMID:22543962
Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Oort, Frans Jeroen; Meijer, Anne Marie
A wide array of risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents with chronically ill parents emerges from the literature. This study aims to identify those factors with the highest impact on internalizing problem behavior (anxious, depressed and withdrawn behavior, and somatic complaints) and externalizing problem behavior (aggressive and rule-breaking behavior) as measured by the Youth Self-Report (YSR). The YSR was filled in by 160 adolescents (mean age = 15.1 years) from 100 families (102 chronically ill parents and 83 healthy spouses). Linear mixed model analyses were used, enabling separation of variance attributable to individual factors and variance attributable to family membership (i.e., family cluster effect). Predictors were child, parent, illness-related and family characteristics. The results showed that almost half of the variance in internalizing problem scores was explained by family membership, while externalizing problems were mainly explained by individual factors. Roughly 60 % of the variance in internalizing problems was predicted by illness duration, adolescents' feeling of isolation, daily hassles affecting personal life and alienation from the mother. Approximately a third of the variance in externalizing problems was predicted by adolescents' male gender, daily hassles concerning ill parents and alienation from both parents. In conclusion, the variance in adolescent problem behavior is largely accounted for by family membership, children's daily hassles and parent-child attachment. To prevent marginalization of adolescents with a chronically ill parent, it is important to be alert for signs of problem behavior and foster the peer and family support system.
Sieh DS; Visser-Meily JM; Oort FJ; Meijer AM
Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adolescents would engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior compared to their resilient and overcontrolling peers. Data were used from 407 mid-adolescents (M age = 14.5) followed across four measurement waves spanning 18 months. Results from latent class analyses (LCA) identified the three classical personality types: resilients, undercontrollers, and overcontrollers. Controlling for perceived pubertal timing and biological sex, latent growth curve analyses in Mplus showed that, at baseline, undercontrollers were more sexually experienced and engaged in more casual and risky sexual behavior than resilients and overcontrollers. Although initial levels of sexual behavior differed by personality types, over time increases in sexual behavior occurred at a similar rate across the types. Overall, the current study showed that undercontrolling adolescents are early sexual developers who engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior than other adolescents. The implications of these findings for longer-term differences in sexual behavior between personality types in later adolescence are discussed.
Baams L; Overbeek G; Semon Dubas J; van Aken MA
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between the body adiposity index (BAI), behavior pattern and stress of adolescents starting their courses at the Federal Technical School in Santa Catarina, Brazil. 170 subjects participated in the study, comprising 94 male subjects (mean age =14.9±1.0) and 76 female subjects (mean age =14.7±0.7). In addition to measuring body mass (BM) and stature (ST) in order to characterize the sample, adiposity index was calculated from triciptal and subscapular skinfolds and their sums. The data related to behavior patterns and stress were obtained using a Behavior Inventory and a Stress Symptom Inventory. It was observed, from analysis of the results, that BM and ST were within the percentage range of normality, according to the standard of Santo André, SP. When BAI for male and female subjects was compared, it was higher for female subjects. The sum of skinfolds for both male and female subjects was within the ideal range. BAI was also observed above the ideal level in 24.5% of the male subjects and in 44.7% of the female subjects. In relation to behavior pattern, most of the subjects (59.1% of males and 64.1% of females) exhibited Type “A”. Female subjects exhibited more vulnerability to stress (55.2%) when compared to male subjects (29.8%). The stress stage with the highest number of subjects was the resistance stage, with 53.9% and 29.8% for female and male subjects, respectively. The results failed to demonstrate an association between BAI and behavior pattern, between BAI and stress or between behavior pattern and stress. It can be concluded that behavior pattern and stress do not infl uence BAI in adolescents. RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a relação entre índice de adiposidade corporal (IAC), padrão de comportamento e estresse em adolescentes ingressantes na Escola Técnica Federal de Santa Catarina. Participaram da amostra 170 adolescentes, 94 do gênero masculino (média de idade =14,9±1,0) e 76 do gênero feminino (média de idade =14,7±0,7). Além da mensuração da massa corporal (MC) e estatura (EST), utilizados para caracterizar os adolescentes, obteve-se como (IAC), as medidas de dobras cutâneas das regiões triciptal (TR) e subescapular (SE), e o respectivo somatório (åDC). Os dados referentes aos padrões de comportamento e estresse foram obtidos através de um Inventário de Comportamento e um Inventário de Sintomas de Stress. Através da análise dos resultados observou-se que a MC e EST situaram-se dentro dos percentis de normalidade de acordo com o padrão de Santo André, SP. Os IAC quando comparados entre os gêneros, apresentaram resultados mais elevados no gênero feminino. As médias do åDC de ambos os gêneros, classifi caram-se na faixa ideal. Foi também constatado IAC acima do ideal, em 24,5% dos adolescentes do gênero masculino e em 44,7% do feminino. Quanto ao padrão de comportamento a maioria dos adolescentes, 59,1% no gênero masculino e 64,1% no feminino apresentaram o Tipo “A”. As adolescentes mostraram maior vulnerabilidade ao estresse (55,2%), quando comparadas aos adolescentes (29,8%). A fase do estresse com a maior concentração de adolescentes foi a de resistência, com 53,9% e 29,8% para os gêneros feminino e masculino, respectivamente. Os resultados mostraram a não existência de associação entre índice de adiposidade corporal, padrão de comportamento e estresse nos adolescentes pesquisados. Pode-se concluir que o padrão de comportamento e estresse não infl uenciam o IAC em adolescentes.
Edna Aparecida Goulart Pires; Mário Cesar Pires; Edio Luiz Petroski
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the degree of obesity predicts the efficacy of long-term behavioral treatment and to explore any interaction with age. DESIGN: A 3-year longitudinal observational study. Obese children were divided into 3 age groups (6-9, 10-13, and 14-16 years) and also into 2 groups (moderately obese, with a body mass index [BMI]-standard deviation [SD] score [or z score] of 1.6 to <3.5, and severely obese, with a BMI-SD score of ?3.5). SETTING: National Childhood Obesity Center, Stockholm, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Children 6 to 16 years of age who started treatment between 1998 and 2006. INTERVENTION: Behavioral treatment of obesity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Change in BMI-SD score during 3 years of treatment; a reduction in BMI-SD score of 0.5 units or more was defined as clinically significant. RESULTS: A total of 643 children (49% female children) met the inclusion criteria. Among the youngest moderately obese children, 44% had a clinically significant reduction in BMI-SD score (mean reduction, -0.4 [95% CI, -0.55 to -0.32]). Treatment was less effective for the older moderately obese children. Twenty percent of children who were 10 to 13 years of age and 8% of children who were 14 to 16 years of age had a reduction in BMI-SD score of 0.5 units or more; 58% of the severely obese young children showed a clinically significant reduction in BMI-SD score (mean reduction, -0.7 [95% CI, -0.80 to -0.54]). The severely obese adolescents showed no change in mean BMI-SD score after 3 years, and 2% experienced clinically significant weight loss. Age was found to be a predictor of a reduction in BMI-SD score (odds ratio, 0.68 units per year [95% CI, 0.60-0.77 units per year]). CONCLUSIONS: Behavioral treatment was successful for severely obese children but had almost no effect on severely obese adolescents.
Danielsson P; Kowalski J; Ekblom Ö; Marcus C
This article describes a group weight control project with severely obese adolescent girls in a medical setting. Behavior modification and nutritional principles were utilized with peer group interaction. Significant others were included through separate group meetings. This approach produced small amounts of net weight loss for the girls. The drop-outs continued to have a net gain. As a treatment method, this program was more effective for these girls than previous individual clinic contacts had been. When losing weight, the girls tended to use behavior modification techniques more often, and their diets became more adequate nutritionally. Development of group cohesion was tenuous and temporary. Girls who were functioning more independently appeared to do better in weight loss. Disinterested significant others were preferable to nonsupportive ones. A predictive factor was identified, the girls' perception of control. This was measured by the I-E test. Those with a more internalized perception of control were more likely to continue with the program and more likely to lose weight. Because the patient group was small, findings are tentative. However, this program helped to define particular areas that deserve further exploration.
Zakus G; Chin ML; Keown M; Hebert F; Held M
This article describes a group weight control project with severely obese adolescent girls in a medical setting. Behavior modification and nutritional principles were utilized with peer group interaction. Significant others were included through separate group meetings. This approach produced small amounts of net weight loss for the girls. The drop-outs continued to have a net gain. As a treatment method, this program was more effective for these girls than previous individual clinic contacts had been. When losing weight, the girls tended to use behavior modification techniques more often, and their diets became more adequate nutritionally. Development of group cohesion was tenuous and temporary. Girls who were functioning more independently appeared to do better in weight loss. Disinterested significant others were preferable to nonsupportive ones. A predictive factor was identified, the girls' perception of control. This was measured by the I-E test. Those with a more internalized perception of control were more likely to continue with the program and more likely to lose weight. Because the patient group was small, findings are tentative. However, this program helped to define particular areas that deserve further exploration. PMID:517220
Zakus, G; Chin, M L; Keown, M; Hebert, F; Held, M
PURPOSE: Prospective longitudinal research is needed to examine associations between bullying behaviors and trajectories of suicidal ideation and behavior and overall functional impairment. The specific aims of the present study are to: (1) characterize differences in baseline functioning between acutely suicidal adolescents who are classified into bullying perpetrator and non-bully groups and (2) examine the 1-year trajectories of these two groups of adolescents. METHOD: Participants were 433 psychiatrically hospitalized suicidal adolescents (72% female), ages 13 to 17 years. Participants reported suicidal ideation, depression, anxiety, substance use, adaptive functioning, and bullying behavior. Six items from the Youth Self-Report were used to classify adolescents into bullying perpetrator (n = 54) and non-bully (n = 379) groups. Follow-up assessments were conducted at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. RESULTS: At hospitalization, adolescents in the bully group reported significantly higher levels of suicidal ideation, substance use, and functional impairment. Suicidal ideation differences remitted at six weeks. The elevated functional impairment of the bullying perpetrator group persisted across the 12-month period. CONCLUSION: Adolescents who met bullying perpetrator group criteria were characterized by more severe suicidal ideation and higher levels of proximal risk factors for suicide. Bullying behavior was not stable over time but was associated with elevated suicide risk when present. These findings highlight the importance of specifically assessing for and targeting bullying behavior at multiple time points when treating suicidal adolescents.
King CA; Horwitz A; Berona J; Jiang Q
This study aims to contribute to the research field on cyberbullying by offering a comprehensive theoretical framework that helps to predict adolescents' perpetration of cyberbullying. One thousand forty-two pupils from 12 to 18 years old in 30 different Belgian secondary schools participated in two surveys within a three-month interval. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether the overall model of theory of planned behavior (TPB) helps to predict adolescents' self-reported perpetration in cyberbullying. Overall, the present study provides strong support for the theoretical utility of the TPB in cyberbullying research. The model accounted for 44.8% of the variance in adolescents' behavioral intention to cyberbully and 33.2% of the variance in self-reported cyberbullying perpetration. We found a strong positive relationship between adolescents' attitude towards cyberbullying and their behavioral intention to perpetrate it. Perceived behavioral control and subjective norm, the other two TPB-constructs, were also significant albeit relatively less important predictors of adolescents' intention to cyberbully. The finding that adolescents' attitude is the most important predictor of perpetration, entails that prevention and intervention strategies should aim at reducing the perceived acceptability of cyberbullying among adolescents by converting neutral or positive attitudes towards this anti-social behavior into negative evaluations.
Heirman W; Walrave M
This study aims to contribute to the research field on cyberbullying by offering a comprehensive theoretical framework that helps to predict adolescents' perpetration of cyberbullying. One thousand forty-two pupils from 12 to 18 years old in 30 different Belgian secondary schools participated in two surveys within a three-month interval. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether the overall model of theory of planned behavior (TPB) helps to predict adolescents' self-reported perpetration in cyberbullying. Overall, the present study provides strong support for the theoretical utility of the TPB in cyberbullying research. The model accounted for 44.8% of the variance in adolescents' behavioral intention to cyberbully and 33.2% of the variance in self-reported cyberbullying perpetration. We found a strong positive relationship between adolescents' attitude towards cyberbullying and their behavioral intention to perpetrate it. Perceived behavioral control and subjective norm, the other two TPB-constructs, were also significant albeit relatively less important predictors of adolescents' intention to cyberbully. The finding that adolescents' attitude is the most important predictor of perpetration, entails that prevention and intervention strategies should aim at reducing the perceived acceptability of cyberbullying among adolescents by converting neutral or positive attitudes towards this anti-social behavior into negative evaluations. PMID:23079360
Heirman, Wannes; Walrave, Michel
Secondary prevention programs are needed to help HIV-positive youth reduce risk behavior and improve adherence to HIV medications. This article provides an overview of Adolescent Impact, a secondary HIV prevention intervention, including its description, delivery, and receptivity among the two unique groups of participants. Adolescent Impact, a…
Chandwani, Sulachni; Abramowitz, Susan; Koenig, Linda J.; Barnes, William; D'Angelo, Lawrence
Full Text Available Although classical theorists tend to believe that immigrant youth are more delinquent than native-born adolescents, the existing empirical studies have shown the opposite. The current paper first gives a comprehensive overview of major theoretical explanations for the relatively lower level of delinquency among immigrant youth, including cultural perspectives, strain theories, social control theory, social learning theory, and social disorganization theory. The main argument is that immigrant youth who have not yet acculturated to the youth subculture of the host society are more law-abiding due to protections from their traditional traits (i.e., being more realistic, stronger ties with family/schools, less access to delinquent friends, and higher level of collective efficacy in homogeneous neighborhoods). All these theories are also applied to explain the generational differences in terms of delinquency: compared to earlier generations, later generations of immigrant youth are often more delinquent because they are more acculturated and the protective factors from their origins wear off over time. The continuing public and political bias toward immigrant youth has been explained by social constructionists. We further discuss the necessity of a synthesis of these theoretical approaches and the importance to examine both internal and international migration under similar theoretical frameworks in the modern era.
Xi Chen; Hua Zhong
Despite the efficacy of family-based interventions for improving outcomes for adolescent behavior problems such as substance use, engaging and retaining whole families in treatment is one of the greatest challenges therapists confront. This article illustrates how the Brief Strategic Family Therapy model, a family-based, empirically validated intervention designed to treat children and adolescents' problem behaviors, can be used to increase engagement, improve retention, and bring about positive outcomes for families. Research evidence for efficacy and effectiveness is also presented.
Szapocznik J; Zarate M; Duff J; Muir J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Social subjugation is a very significant and natural stressor in the animal kingdom. Adult animals defeated and subjugated during establishment of dominance hierarchies or territorial encounters can be highly submissive in future agonistic interactions. While much is know about the biological and behavioral consequences of winning and losing fights in adulthood, little is known about adolescence; a developmental period noted for impulsivity and heightened agonistic behavior. The present studies were undertaken to determine if the behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of social subjugation are comparable in adolescent versus adult Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Male siblings were studied from adolescence into adulthood following exposure to counterbalanced episodes of either a benign stressor, i.e., isolation in a novel cage, or the more severe stressor of social subjugation. Results As adults, hamsters with a history of social subjugation in adolescence show high levels of aggression toward intruders as compared to siblings subjugated in adulthood. Sibling controls subjugated in adulthood are highly submissive with little or no aggressive behavior. However, when subjugated in adulthood, hamsters with the earlier history of subjugation are no different than their sibling controls, i.e., adult subjugation promotes submissive behavior. Sexual motivation is high in adult hamsters with adolescent subjugation and testosterone levels remained stable over adulthood. In contrast, sibling controls subjugated in adulthood show lower levels of sexual motivation and reduced levels of testosterone. Release of cortisol during agonistic encounters is blunted in animals subjugated in adolescence but not adulthood. Measures of anxiety are reduced in hamsters with adolescent subjugation as compared to their sibling controls. Conclusion These data demonstrate a pronounced difference in behavior and neuroendocrinology between adolescent and adult hamsters in their response to social subjugation and suggest adolescence is a resilient period in development.
Ferris Craig F; Messenger Tara; Sullivan Ross
PURPOSE: Because impulsivity during adolescence predicts health-risk behaviors and associated harm, interventions that attenuate impulsivity may offer protection. We evaluated effects of the Youth Empowerment Seminar (YES!), a biopsychosocial workshop for adolescents that teaches skills of stress management, emotion regulation, conflict resolution, and attentional focus, on impulsive behavior. METHODS: High school students (14-18 years of age) in the United States participated in YES! during their physical education classes. Students in a control group attended their usual curriculum and were tested in parallel. We used items from the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (framed to reflect recent behavior) to assess students' behavior before and after they underwent the program. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, YES! participants reported less impulsive behavior after the program. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that YES! can promote mental health in adolescents, potentially protecting them from harmful coping behaviors.
Ghahremani DG; Oh EY; Dean AC; Mouzakis K; Wilson KD; London ED
The Eysenck Junior P.I. questionnaire was administered to groups of institutionalized and non-institutionalized delinquents and to non-delinquents. Items were analyzed to determine their effectiveness in predicting group membership. Comments by H.J. Eysenck are also presented. (Author/BP)
Forrest, Russell; Eysenck, H. J.
OBJECTIVE: Family processes are a risk factor for suicide but few studies target this domain. We evaluated the effectiveness of a family intervention, the Resourceful Adolescent Parent Program (RAP-P) in reducing adolescent suicidal behavior and associated psychiatric symptoms. METHOD: A preliminary randomized controlled trial compared RAP-P plus Routine Care (RC) to RC only, in an outpatient psychiatric clinic for N = 48 suicidal adolescents and their parents. Key outcome measures of adolescent suicidality, psychiatric disability, and family functioning were completed at pre-treatment, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: RAP-P was associated with high recruitment and retention, greater improvement in family functioning, and greater reductions in adolescents' suicidal behavior and psychiatric disability, compared to RC alone. Benefits were maintained at follow-up with a strong overall effect size. Changes in adolescent's suicidality were largely mediated by changes in family functioning. CONCLUSION: The study provides preliminary evidence for the use of family-focused treatments for adolescent suicidal behavior in outpatient settings. Clinical trial registration information-Family intervention for adolescents with suicidal behaviour: A randomized controlled trial and mediation analysis; http://anzctr.org/; ACTRN12613000668707.
Pineda J; Dadds MR
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to examine the association of overweight with suicide ideation, self-mutilative behavior (SMB) and suicide attempts among underage psychiatric inpatient adolescents. SAMPLING AND METHODS: Data were collected from 439 adolescents (age = 12-17 years) admitted to psychiatric hospitalization between April 2001 and March 2006. Information on adolescents' suicidal behavior and psychiatric DSM-IV diagnoses was obtained by using the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children. An adolescent was defined as overweight if his/her BMI exceeded the 85th percentile BMI in the age- and sex-matched Finnish population. RESULTS: Compared to adolescents without overweight, a 2.5-fold likelihood for SMB was found among overweight girls, but not among boys. CONCLUSIONS: Low self-esteem, depression or dysfunctional emotion regulation may be possible mediating factors between overweight and SMB.
Riala K; Juutinen J; Hakko H; Räsänen P
The aims of the present study were: (i) describe patterns of sedentary behavior in Spanish adolescents; and (ii) determine the proportion of adolescents that do not meet the public health recommendations for sedentary behavior. This study comprised 1,724 Spanish adolescents (882 girls), aged 13 to 16 years. Patterns of sedentary behavior (TV viewing, use of computer games, console games and surfing the Internet) were assessed using the HELENA sedentary behavior questionnaire. The total proportion of adolescents watching TV, using computer and console games, and surfing the internet for more than two hours daily was 24%, 9%, 7%, and 17%, respectively, on weekdays, and 50%, 22%, 16%, and 35%, respectively, on weekends. Over 63% of the adolescents from the study did not meet the recommendation for sedentary behavior (< 2 hours daily screen time) on weekdays and 87% did not comply with this recommendation on weekends. Since sedentary behavior plays a key role in adolescent health, public health interventions in Spain that take these factors into consideration are needed.
Martínez Gómez D; Veiga OL; Zapatera B; Cabanas-Sánchez V; Gomez-Martinez S; Martinez-Hernández D; Marcos A
PURPOSE: Family conflict is related to numerous risky behavioral outcomes during adolescence; however, few studies have examined how family conflict is associated with risky sexual behavior during adolescence. METHODS: Data from 1104 adolescents aged 15 to 21 who completed the 2008 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were analyzed. Information on family conflict (family fighting and family criticizing) and sexual behavior (number of sexual partners in past year and use of contraception at last intercourse) was self-reported. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: After adjustment, adolescents whose family members often fought had increased odds of not using contraception at last intercourse and having two or more sexual partners in the past year (OR, 1.40 [95% CI, 1.04-1.88] and OR, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.23-2.14], respectively). Adolescents whose family members often criticized each other also had increased odds of not using contraception at last intercourse and having two or more sexual partners in the past year (OR, 1.46 [95% CI, 1.12-1.90] and OR, 1.22 [95% CI, 0.96-1.55], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Family conflict was associated with risky sexual behaviors in this racially/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents. If confirmed in other studies, adolescents who experience family conflict may be an important population to target with information regarding safer sex practices.
Lyerly JE; Brunner Huber LR
Full Text Available Sarah Hamill-Skoch,1 Paul Hicks,2 Ximena Prieto-Hicks11Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Arizona, Tuscon, AZ, USAAbstract: Major depressive disorder often begins in adolescence, is chronic and recurrent, and heightens an individual's risk for major depressive disorder in adulthood. Treatment-resistant depression is a problem for a significant minority of adolescents. Few studies have examined treatments for treatment-resistant depression among adolescents, and even fewer have examined the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy as a monotherapy or in combination with pharmacological treatments. Mental health professionals have a strong interest in understanding what treatments are appropriate for adolescents who are treatment resistant. Preliminary evidence from current published trials indicates that the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy in combination with antidepressant medication yields the best outcome for treatment-resistant depression in adolescents. Secondary analyses also suggest that the utility of cognitive behavioral therapy can be increased by ensuring adolescents receive a therapeutic dose of treatment sessions (more than nine sessions) and the inclusion of two treatment components: social skills and problem solving training. Guidelines for clinicians as well as areas for future research are discussed.Keywords: cognitive behavior therapy, treatment-resistant depression, adolescent depression
Hamill-Skoch SK; Hicks P; Prieto-Hicks X
This study examines the relationship between having other-sex versus same-sex best friends and antisocial behavior throughout early adolescence. Participants (N = 955) were recruited in 6th grade and followed longitudinally through 7th, 8th, and 11th grades. Participants were 58% ethnically diverse youth and 48% girls. Results indicate that the…
Arndorfer, Cara Lee; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.
BACKGROUND: Building on previous research with adolescents that examined demographic variables and other forms of substance abuse in relation to non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD), the current study examined potentially traumatic events, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other substance use, and delinquent behavior as potential correlates of past-year non-medical use of prescription drugs. METHOD: A nationally representative sample of 3,614 non-institutionalized, civilian, English-speaking adolescents (aged 12-17 years) residing in households with a telephone was selected. Demographic characteristics, traumatic event history, mental health, and substance abuse variables were assessed. NMUPD was assessed by asking if, in the past year, participants had used a prescription drug in a non-medical manner. Multivariable logistic regressions were conducted for each theoretically derived predictor set. Significant predictors from each set were then entered into a final multivariable logistic regression to determine significant predictors of past-year NMUPD. RESULTS: NMUPD was endorsed by 6.7% of the sample (n = 242). The final multivariable model showed that lifetime history of delinquent behavior, other forms of substance use/abuse, history of witnessed violence, and lifetime history of PTSD were significantly associated with increased likelihood of NMUPD. CONCLUSIONS: Risk reduction efforts targeting NMUPD among adolescents who have witnessed significant violence, endorsed abuse of other substances and delinquent behavior, and/or endorsed PTSD are warranted. Interventions for adolescents with history of violence exposure or PTSD, or those adjudicated for delinquent behavior, should include treatment or prevention modules that specifically address NMUPD.
McCauley JL; Danielson CK; Amstadter AB; Ruggiero KJ; Resnick HS; Hanson RF; Smith DW; Saunders BE; Kilpatrick DG
In this article we describe the criminal sexual conducts and their incidence in crime, as well as the psychogenesis of the criminal sexual behaviour, the profile of the sexual delinquent and the most common sexual disturbances found. It shall be mentioned the paraphilic crime, the serial sexual delinquent and their legal consequences.
In this article we describe the criminal sexual conducts and their incidence in crime, as well as the psychogenesis of the criminal sexual behaviour, the profile of the sexual delinquent and the most common sexual disturbances found. It shall be mentioned the paraphilic crime, the serial sexual delinquent and their legal consequences. PMID:19434300
Romi, Juan C
Full Text Available Introduction. Adolescence is a period of intensive physical, psychological and emotional changes that might affect existing oral health related habits and result in developing risky behaviors. The aim of the present study was to investigate oral health attitudes and behavior and their relation to dental caries experience in the group of adolescents from Belgrade. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 404 high-school students grade one from Belgrade. Two trained and calibrated dentists conducted clinical examination in classrooms to determine oral health status of adolescents (DMFT index and visual signs of gingivitis). Modified Serbian version of Hiroshima University Dental Behavior Inventory (HU-DBI) questionnaire with three additional questions was used to collect data on oral health behavior and attitudes. Results. Mean HU-DBI score was 6.22±1.45 for males and 6.28±1.45 for females (p<0.05). Dental visits at least once in a year reported 67.3% adolescents, more often girls (p<0.05). Only emergency dental visits reported 47.1% of adolescents. Majority of respondents reported brushing teeth twice a day or more (86.2%), girls more often than boys (p<0.001). Only 13.4% reported regular flossing and 30.3% daily use of mouth rinses. Mean DMFT score was 5.84±0.20 with 45% of untreated decayed tooth. Unfavorable oral health related attitudes and behavior were related to poorer oral health status of adolescents. Conclusion. Poor oral health of adolescents is influenced by their inadequate attitudes and habits. Program of oral health promotion for adolescents that would target knowledge, attitudes and skills development should be implemented to enhance adolescents’ oral self-care regime and oral health outcome.
Lali? Maja; Krivokapi? Marina; Jankovi?-Bukva Biljana; Aleksi? Ema; Gaji? Mihajlo; Bankovi? Dušica
Full Text Available In this paper an attempt is made to study the Juvenile Delinquency in slum of Solapur city. Solapur city has got more than 12 lakhs of population within which 220 slums are there. In these slums 2.20 lakhs of people are living. Delinquency is the type of abnormality. The problem of Juvenile delinquency in Solapur city is very severe. These delinquents also include in sealing bulbs, shoes, cloths, water tabs and snatch gold ornaments of people crowded in the temple and at the time of jatra or in any crowded place. Some time, they do deliberately pick pocketing also. Poverty, absence of education, lack of parental care, love and affection are main causes of juvenile delinquency. For the purpose of this study, observation and detailed interview method is employed. The requested additional information is collected by informal discussion with slum community people and leaders.
BHAGYASHRI M. PATIL
Sex differences in physical activity (PA) through pubertal maturation and the growth spurt are often attributed to changing interests. The contribution of sex differences in biological maturation to the adolescent decline has received limited attention. This study examined the contribution of somatic maturation to sex differences in objective assessments of sedentary behavior and PA in Portuguese adolescents (N = 302, aged 13-16 years). Maturation was estimated from the percentage of predicted mature stature and physically active and inactive behaviors assessed with Actigraph GT1M accelerometers. The influence of age, sex and their interaction on body size, maturation and physical behaviors were examined using factorial ANOVA and, subsequently, ANCOVA (controlling for maturation) tested the effect of sex. Males spent more time in MVPA and less time in sedentary behavior than females. However, sex differences were attenuated when maturation was controlled; thus suggesting that maturity may play an important role in adolescent behaviors.
Machado Rodrigues AM; Coelho e Silva MJ; Mota J; Cumming SP; Sherar LB; Neville H; Malina RM
In spite of the established link between parenting and adolescent sexual risk behavior, less is known about the role of adolescent gender as a potential moderator of this association. This literature review integrates findings from 24 studies to examine gender as a moderator of the link between parenting and youth sexual risk behavior. Despite the wide variability in methodology across the reviewed studies, findings suggest that monitoring may be more protective against sexual risk behavior for boys than girls, whereas parental warmth and emotional connection may be an especially salient factor for girls. The results of this review support further research on gender as an important factor in better understanding the role of parenting in the development of adolescent sexual behavior. Furthermore, the findings highlight the potential role of gender-specific, tailored family-focused prevention programs targeting sexual behavior. PMID:22366393
Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J; Sterrett, Emma; McKee, Laura
In spite of the established link between parenting and adolescent sexual risk behavior, less is known about the role of adolescent gender as a potential moderator of this association. This literature review integrates findings from 24 studies to examine gender as a moderator of the link between parenting and youth sexual risk behavior. Despite the wide variability in methodology across the reviewed studies, findings suggest that monitoring may be more protective against sexual risk behavior for boys than girls, whereas parental warmth and emotional connection may be an especially salient factor for girls. The results of this review support further research on gender as an important factor in better understanding the role of parenting in the development of adolescent sexual behavior. Furthermore, the findings highlight the potential role of gender-specific, tailored family-focused prevention programs targeting sexual behavior.
Kincaid C; Jones DJ; Sterrett E; McKee L
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was originally developed for chronically suicidal adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and emotion dysregulation. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate DBT is associated with improvements in problem behaviors, including suicide ideation and behavior, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), attrition, and hospitalization. Positive outcomes with adults have prompted researchers to adapt DBT for adolescents. Given this interest in DBT for adolescents, it is important to review the theoretical rationale and the evidence base for this treatment and its adaptations. A solid theoretical foundation allows for adequate evaluation of content, structural, and developmental adaptations and provides a framework for understanding which symptoms or behaviors are expected to improve with treatment and why. We first summarize the adult DBT literature, including theory, treatment structure and content, and outcome research. Then, we review theoretical underpinnings, adaptations, and outcomes of DBT for adolescents. DBT has been adapted for adolescents with various psychiatric disorders (i.e., BPD, mood disorders, externalizing disorders, eating disorders, trichotillomania) and problem behaviors (i.e., suicide ideation and behavior, NSSI) across several settings (i.e., outpatient, day program, inpatient, residential, correctional facility). The rationale for using DBT with these adolescents rests in the common underlying dysfunction in emotion regulation among the aforementioned disorders and problem behaviors. Thus, the theoretical underpinnings of DBT suggest that this treatment is likely to be beneficial for adolescents with a broad array of emotion regulation difficulties, particularly underregulation of emotion resulting in behavioral excess. Results from open and quasi-experimental adolescent studies are promising; however, RCTs are sorely needed.
MacPherson HA; Cheavens JS; Fristad MA
Adolescents engage in a wide range of risky behaviors that their older peers shun, and at an enormous cost. Despite being older, stronger, and healthier than children, adolescents face twice the risk of mortality and morbidity faced by their younger peers. Are adolescents really risk-seekers or does some richer underlying preference drive their love of the uncertain? To answer that question, we used standard experimental economic methods to assess the attitudes of 65 individuals ranging in age from 12 to 50 toward risk and ambiguity. Perhaps surprisingly, we found that adolescents were, if anything, more averse to clearly stated risks than their older peers. What distinguished adolescents was their willingness to accept ambiguous conditions--situations in which the likelihood of winning and losing is unknown. Though adults find ambiguous monetary lotteries undesirable, adolescents find them tolerable. This finding suggests that the higher level of risk-taking observed among adolescents may reflect a higher tolerance for the unknown. Biologically, such a tolerance may make sense, because it would allow young organisms to take better advantage of learning opportunities; it also suggests that policies that seek to inform adolescents of the risks, costs, and benefits of unexperienced dangerous behaviors may be effective and, when appropriate, could be used to complement policies that limit their experiences.
Tymula A; Rosenberg Belmaker LA; Roy AK; Ruderman L; Manson K; Glimcher PW; Levy I
The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the associations between social determinants of health (mother’s education, socioeconomic status, levels of poverty, academic performance, and perceived racism), and reports of depressive symptoms, sexual risk, substance use, and suicide risk behaviors. Numerous studies have documented the increasing prevalence of mental health, sexual risk, and substance use behaviors in adolescents nationwide. These behaviors usually are established in adolescence, persist into adulthood, are inter-related, and preventable. In addition to causing adverse health effects, these behaviors contribute to many of the educational and social concerns within the United States, including failure to complete high school, unemployment, and poverty. The relationships among socioenvironmental factors (e.g., SES) were examined as determinants of individual risk behaviors (e.g., substance use) by utilizing an adaptation of the Conceptual Model of Race (LaVeist, 1994) and the Social Determinants of Health (LaVeist, 2005b) models, called the Social Determinants of Adolescent Risk Behaviors. Cross sectional data obtained from the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health (Add Health Study) Wave II Public Use Data were used for this secondary analysis. The sample consisted of high school students (n = 3,599) surveyed during the 1995-1996 academic year. Majority of the participants identified themselves as White (81.3%), were female (52.0%), and the average age was 16 years. The findings suggest significant differences among the racial groups across all socioenvironmental factors including grade point averages and perceived racism scores. Additionally, socioenvironmental predictors of risk behaviors also varied across racial groups. Poverty and income were indicators for pregnancy in White and Other high school female adolescents; but not African American females. Poverty and mother’s educational attainment were indicators for suicide attempts in Black adolescents. Grade point average was found to be a significant predictor of binge drinking, trying marijuana, and suicidal ideation for all high school adolescents in this study. Perceived racism was identified as a predictor of mild to moderate symptoms of depression among all racial groups. Additional studies are warranted to understand racial differences in risk behaviors to identify appropriate interventions to better support behavioral and emotional well being of adolescents.
Assessed the relationship of socioeconomic status (SES), family structure, and race/ethnicity to adolescent sexual behaviors that are key determinants of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Data from the 1992 Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that differences in adolescent sexual behavior by race and SES were not large enough to…
Santelli, John S.; Lowry, Richard; Brener, Nancy D.; Robin, Leah
Levantamento de problemas comportamentais/emocionais em um ambulatório para adolescentes/ Survey of behavioral/emotional problems in an adolescent outpatient service/ Estudio de problemas conductuales/emocionales en una clínica para adolescentes
Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar os principais problemas comportamentais e emocionais percebidos por adolescentes que frequentam um ambulatório de saúde. Participaram 320 adolescentes que não estavam em atendimento psicoterápico e que responderam, na sala de espera de um ambulatório, o Youth Self Report. O principal problema relatado foi Ansiedade/Depressão. Os meninos obtiveram escores mais altos em Problemas Sociais e mais baixos em Comportamento Delinqu (more) ente; as meninas apresentaram-se com menos problemas no agrupamento Problemas Somáticos e com mais problemas em Ansiedade/Depressão. Quanto à faixa etária, observou-se que Problemas Sociais esteve associado ao início da adolescência. Quanto à incidência, menos de um quarto dos adolescentes apresentaram-se com problemas, sugerindo que a adolescência não é um período de turbulência. Observou-se que alguns adolescentes necessitam de uma avaliação mais detalhada, pois relataram comportamentos indicativos de transtornos mentais. Conclui-se a necessidade de profissionais de saúde mental integrarem a equipe de saúde que atende adolescentes. Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue identificar los problemas comportamentales y emocionales notados en adolescentes que frecuentan una clínica de salud. Participaron 320 adolescentes, que no estaban en psicoterapia y que respondieron, en la sala de espera, de una clínica de salud, al Youth Self Report. El principal problema relatado fue Ansiedad/Depresión. Los niños obtuvieron calificaciones más altas en Problemas Sociales y más bajas en Comportamiento Delincuente; las ni? (more) ?as se presentaron con menos problemas en el grupo Problemas Somáticos y con más problemas en Ansiedad/Depresión. En lo referente al rango de edad, se observó que Problemas Sociales estuvieron asociados al inicio de la adolescencia. En lo referente a la incidencia, menos de un cuarto de los adolescentes se presentaron con problemas, sugiriendo que la adolescencia no es un periodo de turbulencia. Se observó que algunos adolescentes necesitan una evaluación más detallada, pues relataron comportamientos indicativos de trastornos mentales. Se concluye que existe la necesidad de que profesionales de salud mental integren el equipo de salud que atiende a adolescentes. Abstract in english This study's objective was to identify the main behavioral and emotional problems perceived by adolescents attending an outpatient service. A total of 320 adolescents were included in the study. The respondents were not undergoing psychotherapy and self-applied the Youth Self Report in the ambulatory's waiting room. The main problem reported was Anxious/Depressed. Male adolescents obtained higher scores for Social Problems and lower scores for Delinquent Behavior, while f (more) emales obtained lower scores for Somatic Complaints and higher scores for the Anxious/Depressed scale. Social Problems were associated with the initial phase of adolescence. In terms of incidence, less than one quarter of the adolescents presented problems, suggesting that adolescence is not a period of turbulence. Some adolescents require a more detailed evaluation because they reported behaviors indicative of mental disorders. We conclude that there is a need for mental health workers to integrate the health staff providing care to adolescents.
Valverde, Benedita Salete Costa Lima; Vitalle, Maria Sylvia de Souza; Sampaio, Isa de Pádua Cintra; Schoen, Teresa Helena
PURPOSE: To investigate whether teachers' assessments of children are predictive of subsequent self-reported mental problems in adolescence and how these problems are concurrently linked with adolescents' overall life satisfaction. METHOD: The study subjects originated from the prospective population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (N = 9,432). At age 8 years first-grade students' emotional and behavioral problems were assessed by their teachers with Rutter Children's Behavioural Questionnaires for teachers (RB2). At the age of 16 years, adolescents responded to the eight Youth Self-report (YSR) subscales and the one-item overall life satisfaction scale. Multivariate logistic regression was used to study the longitudinal relationship between RB2 and YSR. RESULTS: Children who had emotional problems according to their teachers (RB2) were more prone to withdrawal and social problems in adolescence (YSR). Behavioral problems in childhood (RB2) were predictive of attention problems, and delinquent and aggressive behavior (YSR), while hyperactivity (RB2) was only predictive of attention problems and delinquent behavior (YSR). Additionally, each YSR subscale was strongly and linearly associated with concurrent self-reported life satisfaction in adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: Teachers' assessments of children were predictive of self-reported mental problems in adolescence, which, in turn, were strongly associated with concurrent self-reported life satisfaction. In order to support favorable growth of children to well-adjusted adolescents and to intervene as early as possible in the event of adverse progression, both teachers' assessments of children and adolescent's self-rated overall life satisfaction should be acknowledged.
Honkanen M; Määttä H; Hurtig T; Ebeling H; Taanila A; Koivumaa-Honkanen H
Abstract While there is consensus that bipolar disorder exists in children and adolescents, its diagnostic criteria are debated. Excessive sexual behavior has been reported in youth who may have juvenile bipolar disorder (JBD), and has been termed "hypersexuality." Although there is no universal definition of this term, this observation has led to a hypothesis that increased sexual behavior characterizes the bipolar syndrome in children and adolescents, and differentiates it from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although this hypothesis is plausible, evidence for it is incomplete, because testing it definitively would require both establishing a standard definition of hypersexuality in children and adolescents, and also reaching consensus about the other nonsexual criteria for pediatric bipolar disorder. In addition, studies to test it would need to control factors other than JBD that are known to increase sexual behavior in children and adolescents. These include sexual abuse and related posttraumatic stress disorder, excessive exposure to sexual stimuli, psychiatric illness in general, and social variables such as family chaos and social stress. Some of these factors might increase sexual behavior in youth with bipolar disorder through psychodynamic mechanisms rather than as a result of the illness itself. Therefore, further research is needed to determine whether increased sexual behavior can serve as a diagnostically valuable criterion for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, and whether it differentiates the disorder from other conditions known to be associated with increased sexual behavior in youth. PMID:24001164
Adelson, Stewart; Bell, Robinette; Graff, Adam; Goldenberg, David; Haase, Elizabeth; Downey, Jennifer I; Friedman, Richard C
While there is consensus that bipolar disorder exists in children and adolescents, its diagnostic criteria are debated. Excessive sexual behavior has been reported in youth who may have juvenile bipolar disorder (JBD), and has been termed "hypersexuality." Although there is no universal definition of this term, this observation has led to a hypothesis that increased sexual behavior characterizes the bipolar syndrome in children and adolescents, and differentiates it from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although this hypothesis is plausible, evidence for it is incomplete, because testing it definitively would require both establishing a standard definition of hypersexuality in children and adolescents, and also reaching consensus about the other nonsexual criteria for pediatric bipolar disorder. In addition, studies to test it would need to control factors other than JBD that are known to increase sexual behavior in children and adolescents. These include sexual abuse and related posttraumatic stress disorder, excessive exposure to sexual stimuli, psychiatric illness in general, and social variables such as family chaos and social stress. Some of these factors might increase sexual behavior in youth with bipolar disorder through psychodynamic mechanisms rather than as a result of the illness itself. Therefore, further research is needed to determine whether increased sexual behavior can serve as a diagnostically valuable criterion for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, and whether it differentiates the disorder from other conditions known to be associated with increased sexual behavior in youth.
Adelson S; Bell R; Graff A; Goldenberg D; Haase E; Downey JI; Friedman RC
There are dramatic individual differences among adolescents in how and when they become sexually active adults, and early sexual activity is frequently cited as a cause of concern for scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Understanding the causes and developmental impact of adolescent sexual activity can be furthered by considering genes as a source of individual differences. Quantitative behavioral genetics (i.e., twin and family studies) and candidate gene association studies now provide clear evidence for the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in adolescent sexual behavior and related phenotypes. Genetic influences on sexual behavior may operate through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, including pubertal development, testosterone levels, and dopaminergic systems. Genetic differences may be systematically associated with exposure to environments that are commonly treated as causes of sexual behavior (gene-environment correlation). Possible gene-environment correlations pose a serious challenge for interpreting the results of much behavioral research. Multivariate, genetically informed research on adolescent sexual behavior compares twins and family members as a form of quasi experiment: How do twins who differ in their sexual experiences differ in their later development? The small but growing body of genetically informed research has already challenged dominant assumptions regarding the etiology and sequelae of adolescent sexual behavior, with some studies indicating possible positive effects of teenage sexuality. Studies of Gene × Environment interaction may further elucidate the mechanisms by which genes and environments combine to shape the development of sexual behavior and its psychosocial consequences. Overall, the existence of heritable variation in adolescent sexual behavior has profound implications for environmentally oriented theory and research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
The objective of the study was to examine the hypothesis that some forms of suicidal behavior among adolescents are related to helplessness and depression, whereas others are related to anger and impulsivity. Sixty-five adolescents were studied. Thirty-three had borderline personality disorder (BPD), of whom 17 had made a recent suicide attempt. Thirty-two had major depressive disorder (MDD), of whom 16 had made a recent suicide attempt. Assessments were made with the Child Suicide Potential Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the Multidimensional Anger Inventory, the Overt Aggression Scale, the Impulsiveness-Control Scale, and the Suicide Intent Scale. Adolescents with BPD had more anger, aggression, and impulsiveness than those with MDD, but similar levels of depression and hopelessness. Suicidal versus nonsuicidal adolescents were more depressed, hopeless, and aggressive, but not more angry or impulsive. There were no significant differences in impulsiveness for the MDD suicidal group versus the MDD nonsuicidal group, but the suicidal BPD adolescents were significantly more impulsive than the nonsuicidal BPD adolescents. In the subjects with BPD, impulsiveness and aggression correlated significantly and positively with suicidal behavior. In the subjects with MDD, no such correlations were seen. In both diagnostic groups, depression and hopelessness correlated positively and significantly with suicidal behavior. Anger did not correlate with suicidal behavior in either of the groups. The suicidal subjects with MDD had significantly higher suicidal intent scores than the suicidal adolescents with BPD. We conclude that the nature of suicidal behavior in adolescents with BPD differs from that seen in MDD with respect to the role of anger and aggression.
Horesh N; Orbach I; Gothelf D; Efrati M; Apter A
The objective of the study was to examine the hypothesis that some forms of suicidal behavior among adolescents are related to helplessness and depression, whereas others are related to anger and impulsivity. Sixty-five adolescents were studied. Thirty-three had borderline personality disorder (BPD), of whom 17 had made a recent suicide attempt. Thirty-two had major depressive disorder (MDD), of whom 16 had made a recent suicide attempt. Assessments were made with the Child Suicide Potential Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the Multidimensional Anger Inventory, the Overt Aggression Scale, the Impulsiveness-Control Scale, and the Suicide Intent Scale. Adolescents with BPD had more anger, aggression, and impulsiveness than those with MDD, but similar levels of depression and hopelessness. Suicidal versus nonsuicidal adolescents were more depressed, hopeless, and aggressive, but not more angry or impulsive. There were no significant differences in impulsiveness for the MDD suicidal group versus the MDD nonsuicidal group, but the suicidal BPD adolescents were significantly more impulsive than the nonsuicidal BPD adolescents. In the subjects with BPD, impulsiveness and aggression correlated significantly and positively with suicidal behavior. In the subjects with MDD, no such correlations were seen. In both diagnostic groups, depression and hopelessness correlated positively and significantly with suicidal behavior. Anger did not correlate with suicidal behavior in either of the groups. The suicidal subjects with MDD had significantly higher suicidal intent scores than the suicidal adolescents with BPD. We conclude that the nature of suicidal behavior in adolescents with BPD differs from that seen in MDD with respect to the role of anger and aggression. PMID:14504567
Horesh, Netta; Orbach, Israel; Gothelf, Doron; Efrati, Meir; Apter, Alan
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401) and females (1507) aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use), physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females) of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p p p p Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia.
Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M; Abahussain Nada A; Al-Sobayel Hana I; Qahwaji Dina M; Musaiger Abdulrahman O
Neuropsychiatric disorders often derive from environmental influences that occur at important stages of development and interact with genetics. This study examined the effects of stress during adolescence in rats selectively bred for different behavioral responses to stress. The effects of chronic adolescent stress were compared between rats selected for susceptibility to reduced activity following acute stress (Swim-test Susceptible rats) and rats resistant to activity reduction after acute stress (Swim-test Resistant rats). Consistent with lineage, exposure to chronic adolescent stress increased swim-test activity of the Swim-test Resistant rats while tending to reduce activity of the Swim-test Susceptible rats. Consistent with the increased activity demonstrated post-stress in the swim test, chronic adolescent stress increased total activity in the open field for Swim-test Resistant rats. Indicative of anhedonia, chronic adolescent stress exposure decreased sucrose consumption in both male and female Swim-test Resistant rats but only in female Swim-test Susceptible rats. Although chronic stress induced changes in behavior across both breeding lines, the precise manifestation of the behavioral change was dependent on both breeding line and sex. Collectively, these data indicate that selective breeding interacts with chronic stress exposure during adolescence to dictate behavioral outcomes.
Harrell CS; Hardy E; Boss-Williams K; Weiss JM; Neigh GN
This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1), we tested these adolescents' decision-making using the IGT and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT). Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the 1-year follow-up (Time 2). The Expectancy-Valence (EV) Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i) a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains vs. losses; (ii) a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes vs. past experiences; and (iii) a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population.
Xiao, Lin; Koritzky, Gilly; Johnson, C. Anderson; Bechara, Antoine
PURPOSE: Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse has been shown to lead to increased odds of sexual behaviors that lead to sexually transmitted infections and early pregnancy involvement. Research, meta-analyses, and interventions, however, have focused primarily on girls and young women who have experienced abuse, yet some adolescent boys are also sexually abused. We performed a meta-analysis of the existing studies to assess the magnitudes of the link between a history of sexual abuse and each of the three risky sexual behaviors among adolescent boys in North America. METHODS: The three outcomes were (a) unprotected sexual intercourse, (b) multiple sexual partners, and (c) pregnancy involvement. Weighted mean effect sizes were computed from ten independent samples, from nine studies published between 1990 and 2011. RESULTS: Sexually abused boys were significantly more likely than nonabused boys to report all three risky sexual behaviors. Weighted mean odds ratios were 1.91 for unprotected intercourse, 2.91 for multiple sexual partners, and 4.81 for pregnancy involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that childhood and adolescent sexual abuse can substantially influence sexual behavior in adolescence among male survivors. To improve sexual health for all adolescents, even young men, we should strengthen sexual abuse prevention initiatives, raise awareness about male sexual abuse survivors' existence and sexual health issues, improve sexual health promotion for abused young men, and screen all people, regardless of gender, for a history of sexual abuse.
Homma Y; Wang N; Saewyc E; Kishor N
Research has shown a positive relationship between substance use and delinquent-type behaviours among adolescents. The aim of this study is to explore the temporal relationships between these outcomes through secondary data analysis of a longitudinal study of high-school students' risk behaviours. Two regression models were compared and gender,…
Carney, Tara; Myers, Bronwyn J.; Louw, Johann; Lombard, Carl; Flisher, Alan J.
Based on the contextual model of parenting style, this study aimed to examine whether the associations between parenting behaviors and adolescents' dietary habits, physical activity, and weight status is moderated by parenting style. A total of 1,869 parent-adolescent dyads were recruited in southern China. The adolescents' body mass index,…
Wen, Xu; Hui, Stanley Sai-Chuen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of parents and peers on adolescents' health-promoting behaviors, framed by primary socialization theory. DESIGN AND METHOD: Longitudinal data collected annually from 1,081 rural youth (mean age = 17 ± 0.7; 43.5% males; 44% Hispanic) and once from their parents were analyzed using generalized linear models. RESULTS: Parental monitoring and adolescent's religious commitment significantly predicted all health-promoting behaviors (nutrition, physical activity, safety, health practices awareness, and stress management). Other statistically significant predictors were parent's responsiveness and health-promoting behaviors. Peer influence predicted safety and stress management. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Nurses may facilitate adolescents' development of health-promoting behaviors through family-focused interventions.
Rew L; Arheart KL; Thompson S; Johnson K
There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new measure uniquely predicted sexual approach styles and invasive sexual experiences. 190 18- and 19-year-old university students in late adolescence completed sexual behavior items that were provided ambivalent (anxious) and avoidant dimensions. These were systematically related to the romantic attachment dimensions of the Experiences in Close Relationships - Revised. However, even after romantic relationship style, gender, and social desirability were controlled, avoidance in sexual relationships predicted lifetime sexual partner number and negatively predicted positive sexual strategies, and ambivalence in sexual relationships predicted invasive and coercive sexual behaviors. A measure specific to sexual relationships informs the attachment and romantic context of sex in late adolescence.
Szielasko AL; Symons DK; Lisa Price E
Online harassment is a widespread phenomenon with consequential implications, especially for adolescents, who tend to engage in high-risk behavior online. Through the use of Protection Motivation Theory (PMT), we examine the predictors motivating the intention of youths to adopt protection behavior against online harassment. A survey was conducted…
Lwin, May O.; Li, Benjamin; Ang, Rebecca P.
This research investigates the relationships among bullying behavior, mother's and father's work hours, and early adolescents' perceptions of whether they spend sufficient time with their parents. In cross-sectional models, we find maternal work hours are modestly associated with increases in bullying behavior. However, in more rigorous change…
Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Keil, Jacqueline M.; Laske, Mary Therese; Stewart, Jennifer
The goals of the current study were to examine whether (a) negative events mediate the relationship between materialism and risky behavior engagement and (b) materialism moderates the relationship between stress and engagement in risky behaviors in Chinese youth. At Time 1, 406 adolescents (ages 14-19) from Yue Yang, China, completed measures…
Auerbach, Randy P.; McWhinnie, Chad M.; Goldfinger, Marc; Abela, John R. Z.; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Yao, Shuqiao
This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…
Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.
Background: Alcohol, tobacco, marijuana use, and sexual behaviors are consistently reported by high school students in the United States and can contribute to reduced quality of life. Empirical research finds that many assets may act as a protective factor for adolescent risk behaviors. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the…
Dunn, Michael S.; Kitts, Cathy; Lewis, Sandy; Goodrow, Bruce; Scherzer, Gary D.
Exposure to suicidal behavior of others was examined among 3,881 Irish adolescents in the Child and Adolescent Self-harm in Europe (CASE) study. One third of the sample had been exposed to suicidal behavior, and exposed adolescents were eight times more likely to also report own self-harm. Exposed adolescents shared many risk factors with those reporting own self-harm. Those reporting both exposure and own self-harm presented the most maladaptive profile on psychological, life event, and lifestyle domains, but neither anxiety nor depression distinguished this group. Exposed adolescents are burdened by a wide range of risk factors and in need of support.
McMahon EM; Corcoran P; Keeley H; Perry IJ; Arensman E
A household survey of male and female adolescents was conducted to establish whether orphanhood or other factors contribute to risky sexual behavior. Results show that orphanhood was not associated with risky sexual behavior. Sleeping in a different house from the household head and attending social activities at night were positively associated with sexual activity and transactional sex among boys and girls. Older adolescents were more likely to be sexually active while urban residents, and those who perceived their caregivers as able to provide for their basic needs, were less likely to have ever engaged in sex. Condom use at last sex was associated with older age and having talked with parents/caregivers about sexual risks. Interventions should address these predictors, promote risk reduction among all adolescents irrespective of orphan status, and strengthen parents'/guardians' capacity to discuss sexuality with adolescents and to provide for their basic needs.
Juma M; Alaii J; Bartholomew LK; Askew I; Van den Borne B
BACKGROUND: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is thought to be a precursor to substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence. To inform adolescent prevention efforts, information is needed to explicate the nature of the relationships between CSA and these health risks. The aim of this study was to summarize the current literature on the associations between a history of CSA and substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search and an integrative review. RESULTS: Current evidence implicates CSA as a robust precursor to the use of a wide variety of substances and multiple sexual risk behaviors during adolescence. CONCLUSION: Screening for CSA in adolescents at risk and incorporating strategies that enhance CSA recovery in adolescent prevention programs are warranted. Future research that includes longitudinal designs, uses multiple methods of assessment, and identifies pathways between CSA and adolescent health risks is recommended.
Draucker CB; Mazurczyk J
Previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of contingency management as a means of behavioral resocialization with delinquent boys on an individual basis. The present study was designed to examine and clarify systematically verbal and token reward and/or punishment. The principal findings of the study were: (1) Neurotic subjects performed at the highest level for punishment, at the lowest level for reward, and at an intermediate level for a combination of reward and punishment, regardless of verbal or token contingency modality. (2) Psychopathic subjects performed best for the joint verbal reward and punishment contingency, but they did not learn over trials for the joint token reward and punishment contingency. Their performance was undifferentiated at asymptote under the separate verbal and token reward or punishment contingencies. (3) Neurotic subjects performed at a significantly higher level than did psychopathic subjects for verbal and token punishment, while psychopathic subjects performed at a significantly higher level than neurotic subjects for verbal and token reward. PMID:521567
Moses, J A; Ratliff, R G; Ratliff, A R
Previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of contingency management as a means of behavioral resocialization with delinquent boys on an individual basis. The present study was designed to examine and clarify systematically verbal and token reward and/or punishment. The principal findings of the study were: (1) Neurotic subjects performed at the highest level for punishment, at the lowest level for reward, and at an intermediate level for a combination of reward and punishment, regardless of verbal or token contingency modality. (2) Psychopathic subjects performed best for the joint verbal reward and punishment contingency, but they did not learn over trials for the joint token reward and punishment contingency. Their performance was undifferentiated at asymptote under the separate verbal and token reward or punishment contingencies. (3) Neurotic subjects performed at a significantly higher level than did psychopathic subjects for verbal and token punishment, while psychopathic subjects performed at a significantly higher level than neurotic subjects for verbal and token reward.
Moses JA Jr; Ratliff RG; Ratliff AR
BACKGROUND: Understanding the nature of environmental factors that contribute to behavioral health is critical for successful prevention strategies in individuals at risk for psychiatric disorders. These factors are typically experiential in nature, such as stress and urbanicity, but nutrition-in particular dietary deficiency of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs)-has increasingly been implicated in the symptomatic onset of schizophrenia and mood disorders, which typically occurs during adolescence to early adulthood. Thus, adolescence might be the critical age range for the negative impact of diet as an environmental insult. METHODS: A rat model involving consecutive generations of n-3 PUFA deficiency was developed on the basis of the assumption that dietary trends toward decreased consumption of these fats began 4-5 decades ago when the parents of current adolescents were born. Behavioral performance in a wide range of tasks as well as markers of dopamine-related neurotransmission was compared in adolescents and adults fed n-3 PUFA adequate and deficient diets. RESULTS: In adolescents, dietary n-3 PUFA deficiency across consecutive generations produced a modality-selective and task-dependent impairment in cognitive and motivated behavior distinct from the deficits observed in adults. Although this dietary deficiency affected expression of dopamine-related proteins in both age groups in adolescents but not adults, there was an increase in tyrosine hydroxylase expression that was selective to the dorsal striatum. CONCLUSIONS: These data support a nutritional contribution to optimal cognitive and affective functioning in adolescents. Furthermore, they suggest that n-3 PUFA deficiency disrupts adolescent behaviors through enhanced dorsal striatal dopamine availability.
Bondi CO; Taha AY; Tock JL; Totah NK; Cheon Y; Torres GE; Rapoport SI; Moghaddam B
Obesity rates throughout the world have risen rapidly in recent decades, and are now a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Several studies indicate that behavioral and affective distress in childhood may be linked to elevated adult body mass index (BMI). The present study utilizes data from a 20-year longitudinal study to examine the relations between symptoms of conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and depression during late childhood and mid-adolescence and BMI during emerging adulthood. Data were analyzed using multiple regression. Results suggest that childhood and adolescent problems may influence adult BMI through direct impacts on adolescent overweight, a condition which then persists into adulthood. PMID:22450932
McClure, Heather H; Eddy, J Mark; Kjellstrand, Jean M; Snodgrass, J Josh; Martinez, Charles R
Obesity rates throughout the world have risen rapidly in recent decades, and are now a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Several studies indicate that behavioral and affective distress in childhood may be linked to elevated adult body mass index (BMI). The present study utilizes data from a 20-year longitudinal study to examine the relations between symptoms of conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and depression during late childhood and mid-adolescence and BMI during emerging adulthood. Data were analyzed using multiple regression. Results suggest that childhood and adolescent problems may influence adult BMI through direct impacts on adolescent overweight, a condition which then persists into adulthood.
McClure HH; Eddy JM; Kjellstrand JM; Snodgrass JJ; Martinez CR Jr
This manual, a supplement to Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users: 5 Sessions, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 1, presents a seven-session cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT7) appro...
C. Webb M. Scudder Y. Kaminer R. Kadden
Although longitudinal evidence has linked alcohol use with aggressive behavior during adolescence, most studies have failed to adequately control for the numerous between-individual differences that may underlie this association. In addition, few studies of adolescents have examined whether the nature of the within-individual association between alcohol use and aggression depends on individual and contextual factors. To address these limitations, this study examined the association between within-individual changes in alcohol use and aggressive behavior across adolescence and determined whether impulsive behavior, positive attitudes toward violence, violent peers, neighborhood crime, and race moderated this association. Data from 971 adolescent males assessed annually from ages 13 to 18 were analyzed using a within-individual regression panel model that eliminated all stable between-individual factors as potential confounds. Findings indicated that within-individual increases in alcohol use quantity from one's own typical levels of drinking were concurrently associated with within-individual increases in aggressive behavior, and vice versa. However, increases in alcohol were more strongly linked to increases in aggressive behavior among boys with attitudes favoring violence and those who lived in high-crime neighborhoods. The association between alcohol and aggressive behavior was similar for White and Black young men. Interventions designed to reduce aggressive behaviors should consider targeting not only alcohol use, but also individual and environmental risk factors that contribute to this link.
White HR; Fite P; Pardini D; Mun EY; Loeber R
BACKGROUND: Multiple features of parenting have been associated with development of suicide-related behaviors in adolescents. However, findings are inconsistent on which aspects of parenting are protective or harmful and why. This investigation sought to reconcile these discrepancies through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS), which argues that suicide ideation and the capability to attempt suicide are etiologically distinct. METHODS: Responses of 200 Midwestern public school students to the Profiles of Student Life: Attitudes and Behavior survey were analyzed using mediated moderation analysis. RESULTS: Participant sex significantly moderated the relationships between parenting variables and suicide attempts and these relationships were accounted for by IPTS variables. Specifically, the effect of parental support on suicide attempts was twice as strong for girls. Self-esteem mediated this interaction (b=-.011, SEboot=.008, p<.05, ?(2)=.07). Conversely, the effect of parental boundaries on suicide attempts was significant for boys, but not for girls, and was mediated by exposure to violence (b=.029, SEboot=.021, p<.05, ?(2)=.07). LIMITATIONS: This study involved retrospective report with proxy-measures of IPTS constructs. Future research should consider multiple informants and additional measures. CONCLUSION: Findings highlight potential mechanisms by which parenting behaviors could influence sex differences in adolescent suicide-relate behaviors, and that some parenting behavior is associated with reduced adolescent suicide attempts. Findings also suggest the IPTS is able to account for previously identified inconsistencies in the effects of parenting behaviors on adolescent suicide-related behaviors. Implications for theory and intervention are discussed.
Cero I; Sifers SK
Background: Surveying sexual behavior in the general population serves to identify critical points, monitor the effects, and interpret changes in the spread of sexually transmitted infection. Aim: The aim of this qualitative study was to identify points of particular importance to adolescents’ sexual behavior in order to initiate and design a behavior surveillance programme in Denmark. Methods: We conducted four semi-structured focus group interviews with a total of 19 sexually experienced adolescents aged 18 to 23. Boys and girls were interviewed separately. Each group contained pupils from one Danish Folk High School, but with different social and educational backgrounds. The interview guide was developed from literature reviews and hypotheses based on years of experience with sexually transmitted infections. Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative description. Results: Four major categories of risk behavior were identified: Alcohol consumption is associated with “no condom use”, Nights on the town and meetings in foreign counties or at festivals are associated with one night stands and often lead to unsafe sex, Low self-esteem increases the risk of pushing one’s personal boundaries, thus resulting in promiscuous sexual behavior and Increased sexual experience is associated with lack of condom use. Conclusion: Danish adolescents identified four key elements that could lead to unsafe sex. These results differed slightly from our expectations and will be included in a sexual behavior questionnaire to describe important elements influencing the sexual behavior of Adolescents.
JØrgensen, Marianne Johansson; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen
|This study examined mother-adolescent conflict as a mediator of longitudinal reciprocal relations between adolescent aggression and depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control. Motivated by family systems theory and the transactions that occur between individual and dyadic levels of the family system, we examined the connections among…
Steeger, Christine M.; Gondoli, Dawn M.
The current study examined the impact of disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) on substance use outcomes in an adolescent sample. Sixty-eight adolescents and their caregivers were randomized to one of two fourteen-week, outpatient treatments: Motivational Enhancement Therapy/Cognitive Behavior Therapy (MET/CBT)+Parent Management Training+Contingency Management (CM; experimental) and MET/CBT+Parent Drug Education (attention control). This study assessed abstinence, substance use, externalizing behavior, and parenting outcomes over five assessment periods for youth with DBD (DBD(+)) and without DBD (DBD(-)). Results showed DBD(+)/experimental adolescents reported fewer days of marijuana use than DBD(+)/control adolescents. Results also showed that parents of DBD(-) adolescents in the experimental condition reported significantly better parenting outcomes compared to DBD(-)/control. Substance abuse treatment for adolescents with DBD which includes a component such as contingency management and parent training has the potential to contribute to substance use outcomes. Such treatment strategies, however, should include additional support for parents.
Ryan SR; Stanger C; Thostenson J; Whitmore JJ; Budney AJ
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To examine the implications of an ontology of aggressive behavior which divides aggression into reactive, affective, defensive, impulsive (RADI) or "emotionally hot"; and planned, instrumental, predatory (PIP) or "emotionally cold." Recent epidemiological, criminological, clinical and neuroscience studies converge to support a connection between emotional and trauma related psychopathology and disturbances in the emotions, self-regulation and aggressive behavior which has important implications for diagnosis and treatment, especially for delinquent populations. Method Selective review of preclinical and clinical studies in normal, clinical and delinquent populations. Results In delinquent populations we observe an increase in psychopathology, and especially trauma related psychopathology which impacts emotions and self-regulation in a manner that hotly emotionally charged acts of aggression become more likely. The identification of these disturbances can be supported by findings in cognitive neuroscience. These hot aggressive acts can be delineated from planned or emotionally cold aggression. Conclusion Our findings support a typology of diagnostic labels for disruptive behaviors, such as conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder, as it appears that these acts of hot emotional aggression are a legitimate target for psychopharmacological and other trauma specific interventions. The identification of this subtype of disruptive behavior disorders leads to more specific clinical interventions which in turn promise to improve hitherto unimpressive treatment outcomes of delinquents and patients with disruptive behavior.
Steiner Hans; Silverman Melissa; Karnik Niranjan S; Huemer Julia; Plattner Belinda; Clark Christina E; Blair James R; Haapanen Rudy
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to quantify behavioral problems in clinically treated children and adolescents with asthma and to examine the association of these problems and quality of life with difficult-to-treat asthma. METHODS: Clinical patients with difficult-to-treat asthma (n = 31) and patients with asthma who were not classified as difficult-to-treat asthma (n = 52) completed the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire [PAQLQ(S)]. Their parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to assess behavioral problems. Behavioral problem scores were compared to norms of population reference groups and both behavioral problems and quality of life were compared between children and adolescents with and without difficult-to-treat asthma. RESULTS: Especially internalizing behavioral problems such as being withdrawn/depressed and somatic complaints were more severe in the asthmatic groups compared to the healthy reference groups. The behavioral problems 'somatic complaints' and 'thought problems' as well as a lower quality of life were more severe in children and adolescents with difficult-to-treat asthma than in asthma patients who did not fulfill the criteria of difficult-to-treat asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Behavioral problems and a lower quality of life are suggested to be more pronounced in clinically treated children and adolescents with difficult-to-treat asthma than in asthma patients who are not classified as difficult-to-treat asthma. With respect to practical implications, our data suggest that health-care professionals should - especially in children and adolescents with difficult-to-treat asthma - assess and, if necessary, treat behavioral problems.
Verkleij M; van de Griendt EJ; Kaptein AA; van Essen-Zandvliet L; Duiverman E; Geenen R
There is growing evidence of a positive association between asthma and suicidal ideation and behavior in the general community, although information on this potential association is scarce among older children and adolescents and Puerto Ricans, groups at risk for both conditions. Data came from wave 3 of the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of youth in the Bronx and San Juan conducted from 2000 to 2004. Logistic regressions for correlated data (Generalized Estimating Equation) were conducted, with asthma predicting suicidal ideation and behavior among participants 11 years or older. After adjustment for survey design; age; sex; poverty; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, mental disorders; cigarette smoking; and stressful life events, asthma was positively associated with suicidal ideation and behavior among the Puerto Rican older children and adolescents. Public health interventions targeting Puerto Rican older children and adolescents with asthma and future studies investigating potential biological and psychological mechanisms of association are warranted.
Bandiera FC; Ramirez R; Arheart KL; Canino G; Goodwin RD
Full Text Available In this study the relationship of parental self-esteem, parental rearing and adolescent adult attachment was investigated. A total 448 senior high school students completed EMBU?Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, or ?Own memories of parental rearing?, Perris et al., 1980), the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR; Brennan, Clark, &Shaver, 1998), and their parents completed The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES; Rosenberg, 1965). The results suggested that parental global self-esteem has no effect on the adolescent attachment to parents. Parental positive rearing behaviors have been significantly associated with avoidance to parents. Furthermore, the negative rearing behaviors, such as paternal denying and rejecting, maternal punitiveness, maternal overinvolved and overprotective behavior, can predict the adolescent avoidance and anxiety to parents.
Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have higher rates of smoking than adolescents without ADHD. Since methylphenidate is the primary drug used to treat ADHD, it is likely that many adolescents are exposed to both methylphenidate and nicotine. Recent studies have established that adolescent nicotine induces long-term changes in several neurobehavioral variables. Limited data also suggest that adolescent methylphenidate may affect neural development. Nicotine tolerance is a well-established behavioral phenomenon in rodents, yet the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Recent theories suggest that changes in ventral striatal dopamine indices may relate to nicotine tolerance. As an initial determination of whether nicotine and methylphenidate have additive effects on neurobehavioral development, the present study investigated the combined effects of adolescent nicotine [2mg/kg/d] alone or in conjunction with methylphenidate [1.5mg/kg, 2× daily] following a one-month drug free period on adult behavioral tolerance to nicotine [0.5mg/kg s.c.] and its relation to dopamine receptor mRNA expression in the ventral striatum. Animals with chronic combined (nicotine+methylphenidate) adolescent exposure displayed stronger tolerance as adults to the nicotine-induced locomotor effects in comparison to animals with adolescent exposure to nicotine alone, methylphenidate alone, or controls. Combined chronic adolescent exposure significantly elevated adult D3nf mRNA expression levels in the nucleus accumbens, however a single nicotine injection in adults increased D3nf mRNA levels in naïve animals and decreased D3nf mRNA levels in those that had been previously exposed to combined stimulants during adolescence. Conversely, a single adult nicotine injection increased D1 mRNA levels in the adult nucleus accumbens, particularly in the shell, but only in rats previously exposed to nicotine or methylphenidate as adolescents. To our knowledge this is the first study that has shown long-term behavioral and neurochemical changes stemming from low chronic exposure of these two commonly co-consumed stimulants during adolescence.
Wheeler TL; Smith LN; Bachus SE; McDonald CG; Fryxell KJ; Smith RF
Our aim was to investigate the association between alcohol dependence and suicidal behavior among adolescent girls and boys suffering from conduct disorder (CD). The original study sample consisted of 387 adolescents (age 12-17) admitted to psychiatric inpatient care between April 2001 and May 2005. DSM-IV-based psychiatric diagnoses and variables measuring suicidal behavior were obtained from the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children--Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL). Of the total study population, 59 adolescent girls and 82 boys had CD according to DSM-IV criteria. Of all adolescents with CD, 24 (40.7%) girls and 24 (29.3%) boys were suffering from alcohol dependence. Among girls with CD, alcohol dependence increased the risk for suicide attempts up to 3.8-fold (95% CI 1.1-13.4). Among boys with CD, alcohol dependence increased the risk for life-threatening suicide attempt over nine-fold (95% CI 1.2-80.1). In addition, the risk for self-mutilative behavior was as high as 3.9-fold (95% CI 1.1-13.8) among girls and 5.3-fold (95% CI 1.1-26.5) among boys. The results indicate that, among adolescents suffering from CD, the risk of suicidal behavior is considerably increased by co-morbid alcohol dependence, which should therefore be carefully taken into account in clinical work.
Ilomäki E; Räsänen P; Viilo K; Hakko H
Adolescent girls are involved in physical dating violence as both perpetrators and victims, and there are negative consequences associated with each of these behaviors. This article used a prospective design with 519 girls dating in grade 9 to predict profiles of dating violence in grade 11 based on relationships with families of origin (child maltreatment experiences, harsh parenting), and peers (harassment, delinquency, relational aggression). In addition, dating violence profiles were compared on numerous indices of adjustment (school connectedness, grades, self-efficacy and community connectedness) and maladjustment (suicide attempts, distress, delinquency, sexual behavior) for descriptive purposes. The most common profile was no dating violence (n?=?367) followed by mutual violence (n?=?81). Smaller numbers of girls reported victimization or perpetration only (ns?=?39 and 32, respectively). Predicting grade 11 dating violence profile membership from grade 9 relationships was limited, although delinquency, parental rejection, and sexual harassment perpetration predicted membership to the mutually violent group, and delinquency predicted the perpetrator-only group. Compared to the non-violent group, the mutually violent girls in grade 11 had lower grades, poorer self-efficacy, and lower school connectedness and community involvement. Furthermore, they had higher rates of peer aggression and delinquency, were less likely to use condoms and were much more likely to have considered suicide. There were fewer differences among the profiles for girls involved with dating violence. In addition, the victims-only group reported higher rates of sexual intercourse, comparable to the mutually violent group and those involved in nonviolent relationships. Implications for prevention and intervention are highlighted.
Chiodo D; Crooks CV; Wolfe DA; McIsaac C; Hughes R; Jaffe PG
Objective: Comparison between eating habits of 11 and 15 years healthy adolescents and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in 18 countries worldwide. The Health Behaviour in School-age children (HBSC) study, a WHO collaborative cross-national study, (www.HBSC.org) has started to evaluate different aspects of health of adolescents world wide since 1983. As the diet is one of the corner stones of the treatment of diabetes, the Hvidoere study group has investigated whether eating habits in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) differ from their healthy peers, in using the same questions as developed by the HBSC study. Methodology: Questionnaires were obtained in 18 countries by both HBSC and HSG. Details on data collection for both groups have been reported previously (1, 2). Results are given in age standardized prevalences (percentages) by study and by sex as well as age adjusted odds ratios between the two populations. Results: In absolute numbers, 94387 healthy and 1483 adolescents with T1DM provided answers to the HBSC questions. Significant differences were observed between the countries as well between the healthy and the population with T1DM with respect to the frequency of breakfast, fruit intake, sweets and soft drinks. Vegetables intake was not significantly different between adolescents with and without diabetes, however between countries important differences were reported. Conclusion: Within countries, adolescents with T1DM report a healthier approach towards food intake compared with their non diabetic peers. Between countries very important
Beaufort, C d; Damsgaard, M T
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing body of research investigating adolescent risk behaviors in China, however, a comprehensive measure that evaluates the full spectrum of relevant risk behaviors is lacking. In order to address this important gap, the current study sought to develop and validate a comprehensive tool: the Health-Risk Behavior Inventory for Chinese Adolescents (HBICA). Methods Adolescents, ages 14–19?years (n?=?6,633), were recruited from high schools across 10 cities in mainland China. In addition, a clinical sample, which included 326 adolescents meeting DSM-IV criteria for Conduct Disorder, was used to evaluate predictive validity of the HBICA. Psychometric properties including internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha), test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and predictive validity were analyzed. Results Based upon item analysis and exploratory factor analysis, we retained 33 items, and 5 factors explained 51.75% of the total variance: Suicide and Self-Injurious Behaviors (SS), Aggression and Violence (AV), Rule Breaking (RB), Substance Use (SU), and Unprotected Sex (US). Cronbach’s alphas were good, from 0.77 (RB) to 0.86 (US) for boys, and from 0.74 (SD) to 0.83(SS) for girls. The 8?weeks test–retest reliabilities were moderate, ranged from 0.66 (AV) to 0.76 (SD). External validities was strong, with Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 was 0.35 (p?p?p?d?=?0.79 – 2.96). Conclusions These results provide initial support for the reliability and validity of the Health-Risk Behavior Inventory for Chinese Adolescents (HBICA) as a comprehensive and developmentally appropriate assessment instrument for risk behaviors in Chinese adolescents.
Wang Mengcheng; Yi Jinyao; Cai Lin; Hu Muli; Zhu Xiongzhao; Yao Shuqiao; Auerbach Randy P
OBJECTIVE: To investigate adolescents who abuse drugs and to describe aspects of risk behavior among alcohol abusers. METHOD: study was conducted on 598 adolescents, aged 12-17 years, with equal distribution in rural and urban areas. Study was based on self-reported questionnaire Q 2000. Study designed as prospective, epidemiological, analitical. Results have been compared within groups, between cantons and among groups. Evaluation of data was done using EPI-info software, with standard statistic methods. RESULTS: Out of the total number of 598 adolescents 15.55% had abused alcohol (urban 62.4%, rural 37.6%); 6.69% tobacco (urban 67.5%, rural 32.5%); 3.34% cannabis (urban 70.0%, rural 30.0%). Results show various aspects of risk behavior among adolescents who consume alcohol such as: truancy 44.1%; low success at school 14.0%; suicidal thoughts 36.6%; unprotected sex 17.7%; drunken driving 10.0%; non use of seat belts 24.7%; deliquency (stealing) 22.2%; destructive behavior 18.9%. Adolescents who abuse drugs have planned to continue with similar behavior in the future: to abuse drugs 31.6%; to smoke 52.2%, to drink alcohol 44.4%, to fight 27.8%; to drive without seat belt 36.8%; to have unprotected sex 16.7%. Risk behavior related to cannabis abuse and tobacco smoking is also described. CONCLUSION: Data suggests that major aspects of adolescents' risk behavior is related to alcohol abuse, what should be considered while designing prevention activities and programmes.
Licanin I; Redzi? A
Objective?This population-based study examined mothers’ weight-related concerns and behaviors (weight status, weight dissatisfaction, dieting, and encouraging child to diet) at baseline, as assessed by both mothers and adolescents, and associations with adolescents’ body dissatisfaction and weight c...
van den Berg, Patricia A.; Keery, Helene; Eisenberg, Marla; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face specific challenges in parenting, but concrete parenting behavior has never been properly investigated in these families. This exploratory questionnaire study compared parenting behaviors among mothers of children and adolescents with ASD (n = 552) and without ASD (n = 437) and examined associations between child behavior problems and parenting behavior. Results showed that mothers of children with ASD reported significantly lower scores on Rules and Discipline and higher scores on Positive Parenting, Stimulating the Development, and Adapting the Environment. Age was differently related to parenting behavior in the ASD versus control group. Furthermore, distinctive correlation patterns between parenting behavior and externalizing or internalizing behavior problems were found for both groups.
Maljaars J; Boonen H; Lambrechts G; Van Leeuwen K; Noens I
Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the correlates of dietary intake is necessary in order to effectively promote healthy dietary behavior among children and adolescents. A literature review was conducted on the correlates of the following categories of dietary intake in children and adolescents: Fruit, Juice and Vegetable Consumption, Fat in Diet, Total Energy Intake, Sugar Snacking, Sweetened Beverage Consumption, Dietary Fiber, Other Healthy Dietary Consumption, and Other Less Healthy Dietary Consumption in children and adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional and prospective studies were identified from PubMed, PsycINFO and PsycArticles by using a combination of search terms. Quantitative research examining determinants of dietary intake among children and adolescents aged 3–18 years were included. The selection and review process yielded information on country, study design, population, instrument used for measuring intake, and quality of research study. Results Seventy-seven articles were included. Many potential correlates have been studied among children and adolescents. However, for many hypothesized correlates substantial evidence is lacking due to a dearth of research. The correlates best supported by the literature are: perceived modeling, dietary intentions, norms, liking and preferences. Perceived modeling and dietary intentions have the most consistent and positive associations with eating behavior. Norms, liking, and preferences were also consistently and positively related to eating behavior in children and adolescents. Availability, knowledge, outcome expectations, self-efficacy and social support did not show consistent relationships across dietary outcomes. Conclusion This review examined the correlates of various dietary intake; Fruit, Juice and Vegetable Consumption, Fat in Diet, Total Energy Intake, Sugar Snacking, Sweetened Beverage Consumption, Dietary Fiber, Other Healthy Dietary Consumption, and Other Less Healthy Dietary Consumption in cross-sectional and prospective studies for children and adolescents. The correlates most consistently supported by evidence were perceived modeling, dietary intentions, norms, liking and preferences. More prospective studies on the psychosocial determinants of eating behavior using broader theoretical perspectives should be examined in future research.
McClain Arianna D; Chappuis Courtney; Nguyen-Rodriguez Selena T; Yaroch Amy L; Spruijt-Metz Donna
Two experiments are reported, employing repertory grid technique and designed to test predictions derived from Matza & Sykes' (1961) account of the relationship between delinquent and conventional values. These predictions were confirmed. In addition, following the demonstration of equivalence in the structure and content of value systems in delinquents and non-delinquents, certain differences between the groups were observed, which were eventually attributed to delinquency rather than socio-economic status. On the basis of the results, a two-component structural hypothesis of delinquent values is advanced. Implications for theories of delinquency are discussed and directions for further research suggested.
Despite the efficacy of family-based interventions for improving outcomes for adolescent behavior problems such as substance use, engaging and retaining whole families in treatment is one of the greatest challenges therapists confront. This article illustrates how the Brief Strategic Family Therapy model, a family-based, empirically validated intervention designed to treat children and adolescents' problem behaviors, can be used to increase engagement, improve retention, and bring about positive outcomes for families. Research evidence for efficacy and effectiveness is also presented. PMID:23731415
Szapocznik, José; Zarate, Monica; Duff, Johnathan; Muir, Joan
PURPOSE: To assess whether adolescents purchasing food at a restaurant marketed as "healthy" (Subway) purchase fewer calories than at a competing chain (McDonald's). METHODS: We studied 97 adolescents who purchased a meal at both restaurants on different days, using each participant as his or her control. We compared the difference in calories purchased by adolescents at McDonald's and Subway in a diverse area of Los Angeles, CA. RESULTS: Adolescents purchased an average of 1,038 calories (standard error of the mean [SEM]: 41) at McDonald's and 955 calories (SEM 39) at Subway. The difference of 83 calories (95% confidence interval [CI]: -20 to 186) was not statistically significant (p = .11). At McDonald's, participants purchased significantly more calories from drinks (151 vs. 61, p < .01) and from side dishes (i.e., French fries or potato chips; 201 at McDonald's vs. 35 at Subway, p < .01). In contrast, they purchased fewer cups of vegetables at McDonald's (.15 vs. .57 cups, p < .01). CONCLUSIONS: We found that, despite being marketed as "healthy," adolescents purchasing a meal at Subway order just as many calories as at McDonald's. Although Subway meals had more vegetables, meals from both restaurants are likely to contribute to overeating.
Lesser LI; Kayekjian K; Velasquez P; Tseng CH; Brook RH; Cohen DA
This study examines the relationship between having other-sex versus same-sex best friends and antisocial behavior throughout early adolescence. Participants (N = 955) were recruited in 6th grade and followed longitudinally through 7th, 8th, and 11th grades. Participants were 58% ethnically diverse youth and 48% girls. Results indicate that the frequency of other-sex best friendship remained stable from 6th to 7th grade but significantly increased from 8th to 11th grade. Higher rates of concurrent antisocial behavior were related to having other-sex best friends in 6th grade but not in 7th grade. In 8th grade, there was an interaction between friendship and the sex of friends. Boys with only same-sex best friends and girls with other-sex best friends endorsed higher rates of antisocial behavior. Having other-sex best friends predicted antisocial behavior from 6th to 7th grade and 8th to 11th grade, especially for girls. Implications for the development of early adolescent friendship and antisocial behavior are discussed.
Arndorfer CL; Stormshak EA
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine whether mentalization serves as a protective factor against aggressive behavior in adolescence in the context of early traumatization. We present data from a non-clinical sample of adolescents from Germany (n=97) and calculate a mediation model to test the link between early traumatic experiences and aggressive behavior with mentalizing skills as a mediator. Mentalization was assessed with the Reflective Functioning Scale on the Adult-Attachment-Interview and aggressive behavior was measured with the Reactive-Proactive-Aggression-Questionnaire. Traumatic experience was operationalized as physical and/or sexual abuse as reported in the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Results show a complete mediation for Reflective Functioning on the relationship between early abuse and aggressive behavior. Thus, the findings of the study support an understanding of mentalizing as a protective factor for the relationship between early abusive experience and the development of aggressive behavior. Clinical implications are discussed.
Taubner Svenja; Curth Christian
Disruptive behavior disorders, including conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and disruptive behavior disorder not otherwise specified, are serious conditions in children and adolescents that include a behavior pattern of violating the basic rights of others and age-appropriate rules or standards and may include aggressive behavior. Although no pharmacotherapy is currently approved for use in this population, evidence suggests that atypical antipsychotic treatment may be useful in patients with these conditions who present with problematic aggression. Currently, research on risperidone shows it to be effective in treating aggressive behavior in this patient population. Limited research is also available on olanzapine, quetiapine, and aripiprazole, but more research is needed on these and other agents. As with any pharmacotherapy, adverse events (including weight gain, headache, and somnolence) should be carefully considered with these medications, especially in children and adolescents, and it is important to properly dose and monitor patients during medication therapy.
CONTEXT: Adolescent sexual behavior is typically studied as a dichotomy: Adolescents have had sex or they have not. Broadening this view would lead to a greater understanding of teenagers' sexual behavior. METHODS: Interview data from 907 high school students in Alabama, New York and Puerto Rico were used to examine the relationships between sexual experience and a variety of social, psychological and behavioral variables. Four groups of teenagers are compared: those who did not anticipate initiating sex in the next year (delayers), those who anticipated initiating sex in the next year (anticipators), those who had had one sexual partner (singles) and those who had had two or more partners (multiples). RESULTS: Compared with delayers, anticipators reported more alcohol use and marijuana use; poorer psychological health; riskier peer behaviors; and looser ties to family school and church. Similarly, multiples reported more alcohol and marijuana use, riskier peer behaviors and looser ties to family and school than singles. Risk behaviors, peer behaviors, family variables, and school and church involvement showed a linear trend across the four categories of sexual behavior. CONCLUSIONS: The traditional sex-no sex dichotomy obscures differences among sexually inexperienced teenagers and among adolescents who have had sex. Prevention efforts must be tailored to the specific needs of teenagers with differing sexual experiences and expectations, and must address the social and psychological context in which sexual experiences occur.
Whitaker DJ; Miller KS; Clark LF
Cultural and biological influences on psychological health were examined in 256 schoolchildren, aged 13 to 17 years, in Novosibirsk, Russia. Children's competence and problems were assessed using the Youth Self-Report (YSR), the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Teacher's Report Form (TRF). Compared with Americans, Siberian children scored lower on competencies and higher on somatic complaints. Height predicted mothers' ratings for children's Total Competence and Delinquent Behaviour and was negatively related to boys' Anxious/Depressed problems. Triceps skinfold thickness predicted children's self-ratings for somatic complaints. In girls, self-ratings for Delinquent Behaviour were related to heart period variability and subscapular skinfold thickness and self-ratings for Attention Problems were related to triceps skinfold thickness. Systolic blood pressure was negatively associated with behavioural problems, thought problems and somatic complaints. Overall, the findings suggest culture-bound and demographic influences on competence and problems in Siberian adolescents and variation related to physical development and autonomic nervous system activity.
Slobodskaya HR; Roifman MD; Krivoschekov SG
The study examines the effects of recent, older, and chronic strains and of perceived injustice of strain on delinquency, sampling 777 Korean youth. Seven key strains most likely leading to delinquency, some of which were often overlooked in previous research, were included, and these are family conflict, parental punishment, teachers' punishment,…
Moon, Byongook; Blurton, David; McCluskey, John D.
BACKGROUND: Individual differences in specific components of attention contribute to behavioral reactivity and regulation. Children with the temperament of behavioral inhibition (BI) provide a good context for considering the manner in which certain components of attention shape behavior. Infants and children characterized as behaviorally inhibited manifest signs of heightened orienting to novelty. The current study considers whether this attention profile moderates risk for clinical anxiety disorders among adolescents with a history of BI. METHODS: Participants were assessed at multiple time points for BI, beginning in early childhood. At adolescence, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a three-stimulus auditory novelty oddball task, which employed frequent standard and infrequent deviant tones as well as a set of complex, novel sounds. Clinical diagnosis was carried out using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). P3 and mismatch negativity (MMN) components were examined at midline frontal, central, and parietal electrode sites. RESULTS: Individuals who displayed high levels of BI during childhood and increased P3 amplitude to novelty in adolescence were more likely to have a history of anxiety disorders compared to behaviorally inhibited adolescents with lower P3 amplitudes. Groups did not differ on measures of MMN. CONCLUSIONS: Increased neural responses to novelty moderate risk for anxiety disorders amongst individuals with a history of BI.
Reeb-Sutherland BC; Vanderwert RE; Degnan KA; Marshall PJ; Pérez-Edgar K; Chronis-Tuscano A; Pine DS; Fox NA
Adolescence is a transitional period in development that is marked by a distinct, typical behavioral profile of high rates of exploration, novelty-seeking, and emotional lability. While these behaviors generally assist the adolescent transition to independence, they can also confer vulnerability for excessive risk-taking and psychopathology, particularly in the context of specific environmental or genetic influences. As prevention research depends on the identification of targets of vulnerability, the following review will discuss the interplay among motivational systems including reward-related, avoidance-related, and regulatory processes in typical and atypical adolescent development. Each set of processes will be discussed in relation to their underlying neural correlates and distinct developmental trajectories. Evidence suggests that typical adolescent behavior and the risk for atypical development are mediated by heightened adolescent responsiveness of reward-related and avoidance-related systems under specific conditions, concurrent with poor modulation by immature regulatory processes. Finally, we will propose strategies to exploit heightened reward processing to reinforce inhibitory control, which is an essential component of regulatory processes in prevention interventions.
Eldreth D; Hardin MG; Pavletic N; Ernst M
BACKGROUND: The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES) III using the circumplex model has been widely used in investigating family function. However, the criticism of the curvilinear hypothesis of the circumplex model has always been from an empirical point of view. This study examined the relationship between adolescent adaptability, cohesion, and adolescent problem behaviors, and especially testing the consistency of the curvilinear hypotheses with FACES III. METHODS: We used the data from 398 adolescent participants who were in middle school. A self-reported questionnaire was used to evaluate the FACES III and Youth Self Report. RESULTS: According to the level of family adaptability, significant differences were evident in internalizing problems (P = 0.014). But, in externalizing problems, the results were not significant (P = 0.305). Also, according to the level of family cohesion, significant differences were in internalizing problems (P = 0.002) and externalizing problems (P = 0.004). CONCLUSION: The relationship between the dimensions of adaptability, cohesion and adolescent problem behaviors was not curvilinear. In other words, adolescents with high adaptability and high cohesion showed low problem behaviors.
Joh JY; Kim S; Park JL; Kim YP
Full Text Available Objective: Cognitive behavioral psychotherapy is one of the effective methods in the treatment of various psychiatric problems seen in adolescence. This paper is aimed to report on the cognitive behavioral oriented group therapy program which was conducted in Bak?rköy Prof. Dr. Mazhar Osman Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatric and Neurological Diseases, Adolescence and Young Adult Psychiatry Second Step Clinic. Method: This group therapy program was adopted from a cognitive behavioral group therapy course, which was developed by Clarke, Lewinsohn and their friends in order to treat adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder. The treatment processes and outcomes of 100 adolescents with different diagnoses and who had participated in 10 group therapy programs, each consisted of 12 sessions, were evaluated. Results: Twenty-four percent of the participants did not complete the group therapy program. Gender and psychiatric diagnoses were found to have no effect on the completion of the treatment. It was seen especially that the students have not completed the program during the school term. Conclusion: Practically, this therapy program for adolescents is an easily applicaple program. The percentage of treatment completion could be increased by implementing it on holiday periods.
Ahmet Türkcan; Do?an Y?lmaz; Ne?e Hatibo?lu
Research findings demonstrate that the majority of young adults consume alcohol and that males drink more and more often than females. A significant number of high school seniors and college students have consumed five or more drinks in a row during a 2-week period. High-risk reasons for consumption include: to become intoxicated, to cope with a problem, because of anger and frustration. Social and behavioral consequences of alcohol use affect a number of young adults. Medium to heavy drinkers expect to experience more aggressiveness after drinking. Common risk factors for serious chronic delinquents and frequent users of drugs include psychological and personality factors as well as family conflict, peer factors and school failure. Although research has not determined that alcohol/drugs cause crime or produce the motivation to commit crimes, a relationship between alcohol/drug use and aggressive behavior is apparent. Alcohol plays a significant role in adolescent deaths due to accidents, homicides and suicides, acts of sexual aggression, and criminality. Implications of the research findings are that programs need to be designed with a clear philosophy and realistic goals and they need to target at-risk adolescents. Implementation of promising prevention strategies should take place in the home, school and community, incorporating the influence of parents and peers.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The long-term role that parental encouragement and attitudes about fitness and exercise play in adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior habits remains unclear. This paper aims to longitudinally examine how parental encouragement to be physically active and parental concern about staying fit are associated with adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior habits five years later. Methods Project EAT-II adolescent and young adult participants (1130 male, 1386 female) completed surveys while in middle school or high school (1998–1999), and again 5 years later. Participants were asked whether their mother and father encourage them to be physically active and care about staying fit and exercising. Adolescent moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and TV/video watching (hours/week) were assessed. Linear regression models adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics and baseline behavior were used to examine the association of Time 1 parental factors with behavioral outcomes among adolescents and young adults five years later (Time 2). Results After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics and baseline MVPA, adolescent-reported maternal and paternal encouragement to be active, and paternal care for fitness, were positively associated with weekly hours of MVPA after five years in young adult males (p for trend ? .01). The positive relationship between maternal encouragement and MVPA approached significance among high-school aged females (p for trend = .06), and paternal encouragement was positively related to MVPA among high-school aged males (p for trend = .02). While maternal encouragement to be active was associated with decreased TV/video time among younger females (p for trend = .02), other parental factors were not associated with lower TV/video time among the other groups. Conclusion Parental encouragement to be active was associated with increased physical activity among males and younger females 5 years later. Younger adolescents appear to be especially influenced by their same-sex parent. These findings suggest that encouragement may be more influential than parental concern for fitness on adolescents' physical activity habits. Further research is needed to determine how parents can help adolescents decrease sedentary behavior time.
Bauer Katherine W; Nelson Melissa C; Boutelle Kerri N; Neumark-Sztainer Dianne
This study investigated the relationship between music listening preferences and preadmission, dysfunctional psychosocial behaviors (PDPB) of 60 adolescents who were hospitalized on an in-patient psychiatric unit. Findings were that hospitalized adolescents who primarily listened to music with negative lyrics/themes had a history of more PDPB than hospitalized adolescents who primarily listened to music that did not contain negative lyrics/themes; and hospitalized adolescents who primarily listened to heavy metal music had a history of more PDPB than hospitalized adolescents who primarily listened to other types of music.
Weidinger CK; Demi AS
Full Text Available Background: Young people engage in risky behaviors unintentionally and these behaviors might be reduced or inhibited by preventative behaviors. Although adolescents' risky behaviors are known as unplanned or unintentional, preventative behaviors are intentional. The aim of the present study was to assess studentsâ€™ behavior intentions to avoid drug abuse.Methods: This study was a cross sectional design that male high school students (n= 176) in Tehran, Iran completed a questionnaire assessing behavior intentions to avoid drug abuse, self-control, selfefficacy, perceived susceptibility, and negative attitudes toward drug abuse, peer resistance skills and substance abuse related behaviors. Results: Peer resistance skills, negative attitude toward drugs, perceived self- efficacy, and high selfcontrol were four predictors on intention against drug abuse. Moreover, studentsâ€™ educational status, interested in school and truancy and spending with friends were other predictors for intention against drug abuse.Conclusion: Healthy behaviors are intentional. As a result improving behavior intentions to avoid drug abuse would act as a protective factor for preventing drug abuse among adolescents as well as preventing high-risk behaviors.
H Allahverdipour; A Farhadinasab; A Galeeiha; E Mirzaee
PURPOSE: Little research has examined the extent to which adolescents directly attempt to influence friends' smoking. This study examines adolescents' reported actions to promote or deter friends' smoking, and whether actions vary by adolescents' smoking experience. METHODS: Data were collected between 2001 and 2004 at four time points across the 9th and 10th grades from an ethnically diverse school-based sample (N = 395; 53% female). RESULTS: Deterrence of smoking was reported by a greater percentage of adolescents than was promotion of smoking, both among those who had ever smoked and never smoked. By the end of the study, over 45% of ever smokers and less than 5% of never smokers had promoted smoking among friends. In contrast, over 70% of ever smokers and roughly 40% of never smokers had deterred smoking. Among adolescents who had ever smoked, positive consequences of smoking by fall of 10th grade predicted attempts to promote smoking by the end of 10th grade (OR = 4.37, p < .05). To a lesser extent, negative consequences of smoking predicted attempts to deter smoking (OR = 2.60, p < .08). These effects were independent of the opposite type of smoking consequences, level of personal smoking experience, having close friends who smoked, prior attempts to influence friends' behavior, and smoker's gender. CONCLUSIONS: Models of peer influence should account for both positive and negative influence of adolescents on friends' health behavior. Adolescents who have engaged in risk-taking and experienced negative consequences may be a resource in designing and delivering interventions; future research should evaluate their ability to change friends' behavior.
Brady SS; Morrell HE; Song AV; Halpern-Felsher BL
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. A better insight in the clustering of those behaviors, could help to identify groups who are at risk in developing chronic diseases. This study examines the prevalence and clustering of physical activity, sedentary and dietary patterns among European adolescents and investigates if the identified clusters could be characterized by socio-demographic factors. Methods The study comprised a total of 2084 adolescents (45.6% male), from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured using self-reported questionnaires and diet quality was assessed based on dietary recall. Based on the results of those three indices, cluster analyses were performed. To identify gender differences and associations with socio-demographic variables, chi-square tests were executed. Results Five stable and meaningful clusters were found. Only 18% of the adolescents showed healthy and 21% unhealthy scores on all three included indices. Males were highly presented in the cluster with high levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and low quality diets. The clusters with low levels of MVPA and high quality diets comprised more female adolescents. Adolescents with low educated parents had diets of lower quality and spent more time in sedentary activities. In addition, the clusters with high levels of MVPA comprised more adolescents of the younger age category. Conclusion In order to develop effective primary prevention strategies, it would be important to consider multiple health indices when identifying high risk groups.
Ottevaere Charlene; Huybrechts Inge; Benser Jasmin; De Bourdeaudhuij Ilse; Cuenca-Garcia Magdalena; Dallongeville Jean; Zaccaria Maria; Gottrand Frederic; Kersting Mathilde; Rey-López Juan P; Manios Yannis; Molnár Dénes; Moreno Luis A; Smpokos Emmanouel; Widhalm Kurt; De Henauw Stefaan
The presence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in male war veterans has been linked with family dysfunction and psychopathology in their children [1, 2]. This study aimed to evaluate self-reported emotional and behavioral symptoms, parent-adolescent bonding and family functioning in clinically referred adolescent offspring of Croatian PTSD war veterans and determine the degree that parent-child bonding and family functioning contributed to adolescent behavior problems. Internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, parent-child bonding and family functioning were assessed in a sample of clinically referred Croatian PTSD veterans adolescent offspring (N = 122) and non-PTSD veteran adolescent offspring (N = 122) matched for age, sex, educational level, family income, parental employment status, ethnicity, and residential area. Youth Self-Report, Parental Bonding Instrument, Family Assessment Device were used. Adolescent offspring of PTSD veterans reported having significantly more internalizing and externalizing problems than non-PTSD veteran offspring, and also more difficulties in their family functioning, lower levels of maternal and paternal care, and more impaired mother-child and father-child bonding than control subjects. Internalizing symptoms were associated with family dysfunction, while externalizing symptoms were associated with paternal overcontrol/overprotection, and low maternal and paternal care. In conclusion, the increase in internalizing and externalizing symptoms as well as family and parental dysfunction among clinically referred adolescent offspring of PTSD veterans compared to their non-PTSD veteran counterparts indicates a need for early detection and interventions targeting both adolescent psychopathology and family relationships.
Bori?evi? Maršani? V; Aukst Margeti? B; Juki? V; Matko V; Grgi? V
Since health-risk behaviors are often encountered in clusters among adolescents, it was hypothesized that adolescents with poor school attendance would be associated with more health-risk behaviors (e.g., substance use, violence) than those who attend school regularly. This study assessed the relationship between poor school attendance and health-risk behaviors, and described health-risk behaviors and self-esteem among adolescents seeking employment. In this cross-sectional study, school attendance (poor vs. regular attendance) was related to health-risk behaviors by asking 122 subjects seen at a New York City Working Papers Clinic to complete both a 72-item questionnaire about their health-risk behaviors and the 58-item Coopersmith Self-Esteem School Form Inventory. Chi-square and Fisher's Exact Tests were performed. The poor and regular attenders of school differed significantly in only 5 out of 44 items pertaining to health-risk behaviors. Self-esteem measures for the two groups did not differ from one another or from national norms. In this sample, depression "in general" (global) and "at home," but not "at school," were associated significantly with suicidal thoughts/attempts and serious past life events (e.g. family conflict, sexual abuse). There were no significant associations between depression or self-esteem and illicit substance or alcohol use. We found few associations between poor school attendance and health-risk behaviors in this sample of employment-seeking adolescents. The poor and regular attenders of school were similar in most aspects of their health-risk behaviors and self-esteem. PMID:8982520
Suss, A L; Tinkelman, B K; Freeman, K; Friedman, S B
PURPOSE: To assess whether adolescents purchasing food at a restaurant marketed as "healthy" (Subway) purchase fewer calories than at a competing chain (McDonald's). METHODS: We studied 97 adolescents who purchased a meal at both restaurants on different days, using each participant as his or her control. We compared the difference in calories purchased by adolescents at McDonald's and Subway in a diverse area of Los Angeles, CA. RESULTS: Adolescents purchased an average of 1,038 calories (standard error of the mean [SEM]: 41) at McDonald's and 955 calories (SEM 39) at Subway. The difference of 83 calories (95% confidence interval [CI]: -20 to 186) was not statistically significant (p = .11). At McDonald's, participants purchased significantly more calories from drinks (151 vs. 61, p McDonald's vs. 35 at Subway, p McDonald's (.15 vs. .57 cups, p McDonald's. Although Subway meals had more vegetables, meals from both restaurants are likely to contribute to overeating. PMID:23660412
Lesser, Lenard I; Kayekjian, Karen; Velasquez, Paz; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Brook, Robert H; Cohen, Deborah A
The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of adolescent sexual activity, including age of first date, family composition, clarity of long term goals, and maternal and paternal views about premarital sex. There were 672 males and females, three races/ethnicities, both urban and suburban settings, and socioeconomic diversity. Sexual…
Anagurthi, Claudia; Johnson, Ashley Cahill; Somers, Cheryl L.
OBJECTIVES: Activation of latent tuberculosis infection into tuberculosis disease (TB), the primary killer among infectious diseases worldwide, can be prevented with six months of anti-TB medication. A large percentage of adolescents started on medication, however, fail to complete their treatment. ...
Morisky, D. E.; Malotte, C. K.; Ebin, V.; Davidson, P.; Cabrera, D.; Trout, P. T.; Coly, A.
In this paper, we investigated the sexual activity levels of several subtypes of middle adolescents (age 14-15 years). The subtype profiles were based on dominance-popularity status and a range of behaviors associated with dominance and popularity. In addition, gender differences in behavioral profiles were examined among dominant-popular, sexually active young adolescents. Results showed that socially dominant and popular young adolescent boys who exhibited a highly aggressive profile were more sexually active than their low-status and non-aggressive male peers; dominant-popular girls who were very attractive and gossips were more sexually active than their female peers. The results are discussed from an evolutionary psychological framework.
de Bruyn EH; Cillessen AH; Weisfeld GE
In this paper, we investigated the sexual activity levels of several subtypes of middle adolescents (age 14-15 years). The subtype profiles were based on dominance-popularity status and a range of behaviors associated with dominance and popularity. In addition, gender differences in behavioral profiles were examined among dominant-popular, sexually active young adolescents. Results showed that socially dominant and popular young adolescent boys who exhibited a highly aggressive profile were more sexually active than their low-status and non-aggressive male peers; dominant-popular girls who were very attractive and gossips were more sexually active than their female peers. The results are discussed from an evolutionary psychological framework. PMID:22947640
de Bruyn, Eddy H; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Weisfeld, Glenn E
This experimental study aimed to examine whether adolescents act in a riskier manner in the presence of peers and whether peer presence alone influences risk behavior or if a direct influence process is necessary. Utilizing a behavioral task assessing risk-taking, 183 older adolescents (18-20 year olds) came to the laboratory alone once and then were randomized to one of three conditions as follows: alone, peers present, and peers encouraging. An interaction was found such that at baseline, there were no significant differences between the three conditions, but at the experimental session, there was a significant increase in risk task scores particularly for the encouraging condition. These findings challenge proposed models of the interaction between peer influence and risk taking by providing evidence that adolescents take more risks when being encouraged by peers, but that the presence of peers on its own does not lead to more risks than when completing the task alone.
Reynolds EK; Macpherson L; Schwartz S; Fox NA; Lejuez CW
Natural mentors may play an important role in the lives of adolescents. We interviewed 770 adolescents from a large Midwestern city. Fifty-two percent reported having a natural mentor. Those with natural mentors were less likely to smoke marijuana or be involved in nonviolent delinquency, and had more positive attitudes toward school. Natural mentors had no apparent effect on anxiety or depression. Using the resiliency theory framework, natural mentors were found to have compensatory but not protective effects on problem behaviors, and both compensatory and protective effects on school attitudes. Direct and indirect (mediated) effects of natural mentors are explored for problem behaviors and school attitudes. The potential importance of natural mentors is supported, and implications for future research are considered.
Zimmerman MA; Bingenheimer JB; Notaro PC
Future expectations have been important predictors of adolescent development and behavior. Its measurement, however, has largely focused on single dimensions and misses potentially important components. This analysis investigates whether an empirically-driven, multidimensional approach to conceptualizing future expectations can substantively contribute to our understanding of adolescent risk behavior. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to derive subpopulations of adolescents based on their future expectations with latent class analysis. Multinomial regression then determines which covariates from Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory are associated with class membership. After modeling these covariates, we examine whether future expectations is associated with delinquency, substance use, and sexual experience. Our analysis suggests the emergence of four distinct classes labeled the Student Expectations, Student/Drinking Expectations, Victim Expectations, and Drinking/Arrest Expectations classes according to their indicator profiles. These classes differ with respect to covariates associated with membership; furthermore, they are all statistically and differentially associated with at least one adolescent risk behavior. This analysis demonstrates the additional benefit derived from using this multidimensional approach for studying future expectations. Further research is needed to investigate its stability and role in predicting adolescent risk behavior over time.
Sipsma HL; Ickovics JR; Lin H; Kershaw TS
Full Text Available Objective:This research was conducted to investigate the relationship between behavioral activation-inhibition systems and bullyingvictimization behaviors among adolescents.Method:This was a correlational and cross-sectional study. Two hundred and thirty school boys were selected randomly by multistage cluster sampling method, and participated in this research. This sample responded to a demographic questionnaire, the Revised Olweus Bully/ Victim questionnaire and the child version of behavioral inhibition/activation systems Scale in their classrooms and in the presence of the researcher. The collected data were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation and multiple regressions. Result:The results showed that bullying and victimization were correlated with both behavioral activation and behavioral inhibition systems (p<0.01). The results also showed that 18% of the variance in victimization and 31 % of the variance in bullying were explained by behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation systems respectively .Conclusion:The results of this study implied that BAS and BIS may play a role in the manifestation of bullying in adolescents.
Sajjad Basharpoor; Usha Barahmand; Parviz Molavi; Seyed Amin Mousavi
PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that sex-related differences in exercise behavior during adolescence are confounded by biological age. METHODS: Biological age and leisure-time exercise activity were assessed in 103 male and 83 female British Year 9 students (mean = 14.04 years, SD = 0.31). To assess exercise behavior, participants completed the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ). Percentage of predicted adult height attained at measurement was used as an estimate of biological maturity status. Males reported more frequent engagement in strenuous forms of exercise and total exercise activity than females. RESULTS: Sex differences in exercise behavior were attenuated and nonsignificant when biological maturity was controlled for. CONCLUSIONS: Sex-related differences in biological maturity contribute to sex-related differences in exercise behavior during adolescence.
Cumming SP; Standage M; Gillison F; Malina RM
The behavioral phenotype of 47,XXY (Klinefelter syndrome) includes increased risks for developmental delays, language-based learning disabilities, executive dysfunction/ADHD, and socialemotional difficulties. However there is significant variability between individuals with 47,XXY, and many children and adolescents have minimal or no behavioral features while others have quite significant involvement. This paper describes behavioral features in a cohort of 57 children and adolescents with 47,XXY, including results on standardized measures of behavior (BASC-2), attention (Conner's Rating Scales), and social skills (Social Responsiveness Scale). A subset was directly assessed for autism spectrum disorders using the ADOS and ADIR. We discuss our results within the context of previous literature, including implications for genetic counseling, recommendations for care, and areas for future research.
Tartaglia N; Cordeiro L; Howell S; Wilson R; Janusz J
The behavioral phenotype of 47,XXY (Klinefelter syndrome) includes increased risks for developmental delays, language-based learning disabilities, executive dysfunction/ADHD, and socialemotional difficulties. However there is significant variability between individuals with 47,XXY, and many children and adolescents have minimal or no behavioral features while others have quite significant involvement. This paper describes behavioral features in a cohort of 57 children and adolescents with 47,XXY, including results on standardized measures of behavior (BASC-2), attention (Conner's Rating Scales), and social skills (Social Responsiveness Scale). A subset was directly assessed for autism spectrum disorders using the ADOS and ADIR. We discuss our results within the context of previous literature, including implications for genetic counseling, recommendations for care, and areas for future research. PMID:21217607
Tartaglia, Nicole; Cordeiro, Lisa; Howell, Susan; Wilson, Rebecca; Janusz, Jennifer
OBJECTIVE: To investigate gender differences in tooth loss among Chilean adolescents and its association with selected socio-economic indicators and oral-health-related behaviors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data on 9,163 Chilean adolescents obtained using multistage random cluster procedures. Clinical recordings included information on missing teeth and the participants provided information on socio-demographic factors and oral-related behaviors. Two eruption-time-adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between gender, tooth loss and socio-economic position/oral-health-related behaviors. RESULTS: The association between gender and tooth loss remained after adjusting for age, eruption times in both the socio-economic position regression model and the oral-health-related behaviors model. Tooth loss followed social gradients for the variables paternal income and achieved parental education, with students reporting a paternal income
López, Rodrigo; Baelum, Vibeke
Recent work provides evidence that sleep deprivation is positively related to delinquency. In this study, we draw on Baumeister and colleagues' strength model of self-control to propose an explanation for this association. Specifically, we argue that low self-control is the construct that bridges the relationship between sleep deprivation and delinquency. To test the proposed model, we examine survey data drawn from a longitudinal multi-city cohort study of adolescents who were followed from birth through age 15 (N = 825; 50 % female; 82 % non-Hispanic white, 59 % two-parent nuclear family). The results from regression models using latent factors indicate: sleep deprivation is positively related to low self-control; low self-control is positively related to delinquency; and the relationship between sleep deprivation and delinquency is indirect and operates through low self-control. Impressively, these relationships emerged when accounting for potential background sources of spuriousness, including neighborhood context, depressive symptoms, parenting practices, unstructured socializing with peers, and prior delinquency. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Meldrum RC; Barnes JC; Hay C
Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to examine attachment style as a predictor of risky sexual behavior in a younger, more vulnerable sample than previously investigated in the literature: High school aged adolescents. The hypothesized associations among the variables were partially supported. Contrary to our predictions, there was no significant association between avoidance and risky sexual behavior. However, higher anxiety was positively associated with risky sexual behavior. Finally, the prediction that the highest levels of risky sexual behavior would be found for those individuals with higher levels of anxiety and higher levels of avoidance (i.e., insecure attachment style) was supported.
Amber Paulk; Ryan Zayac
|Little is known about social cognition regarding conflict in romantic relationships during late adolescence. The current study examined beliefs, social goals, and behavioral strategies for conflict in romantic relationships and their associations with relationship quality among a sample of 494 college students. Two dimensions of conflict beliefs,…
Simon, Valerie A.; Kobielski, Sarah J.; Martin, Sarah