One of the ways in which the artificial languages of mathematics are ‘‘generous'', that is, in which they assist the advance of thought, is through their establishment of advanced operatory structures that permit an even further advance of intuition. However, this generosity may be delusive...
One of the ways in which the artificial languages of mathematics are ‘‘generous'', that is, in which they assist the advance of thought, is through their establishment of advanced operatory structures that permit an even further advance of intuition. However, this generosity may be delusive, sugg...... products, one perilous case-Cantor's introduction of transfinite numbers from 1895-and (in modern terms) a failed attempt to extend the semi-group of algebraic powers into a complete group, also from c. 1340...
Paul J Zak
Full Text Available How do human beings decide when to be selfish or selfless? In this study, we gave testosterone to 25 men to establish its impact on prosocial behaviors in a double-blind within-subjects design. We also confirmed participants' testosterone levels before and after treatment through blood draws. Using the Ultimatum Game from behavioral economics, we find that men with artificially raised T, compared to themselves on placebo, were 27% less generous towards strangers with money they controlled (95% CI placebo: (1.70, 2.72; 95% CI T: (.98, 2.30. This effect scales with a man's level of total-, free-, and dihydro-testosterone (DHT. Men in the lowest decile of DHT were 560% more generous than men in the highest decile of DHT. We also found that men with elevated testosterone were more likely to use their own money punish those who were ungenerous toward them. Our results continue to hold after controlling for altruism. We conclude that elevated testosterone causes men to behave antisocially.
Zak, Paul J; Kurzban, Robert; Ahmadi, Sheila; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Park, Jang; Efremidze, Levan; Redwine, Karen; Morgan, Karla; Matzner, William
How do human beings decide when to be selfish or selfless? In this study, we gave testosterone to 25 men to establish its impact on prosocial behaviors in a double-blind within-subjects design. We also confirmed participants' testosterone levels before and after treatment through blood draws. Using the Ultimatum Game from behavioral economics, we find that men with artificially raised T, compared to themselves on placebo, were 27% less generous towards strangers with money they controlled (95% CI placebo: (1.70, 2.72); 95% CI T: (.98, 2.30)). This effect scales with a man's level of total-, free-, and dihydro-testosterone (DHT). Men in the lowest decile of DHT were 560% more generous than men in the highest decile of DHT. We also found that men with elevated testosterone were more likely to use their own money punish those who were ungenerous toward them. Our results continue to hold after controlling for altruism. We conclude that elevated testosterone causes men to behave antisocially. PMID:20016825
Hernandez, Juan Avila
Years before she became editor for the "Tribal College Journal" (TCJ), Marjane Ambler had already demonstrated her dedication and generosity to the Tribal College Movement. Ambler arranged for some of the royalty payments from the sale of her first book, "Breaking the Iron Bonds: Indian Control of Energy Development" (University of Kansas, 1990)…
Full Text Available Why do people help strangers when there is a low probability that help will be directly reciprocated or socially rewarded? A possible explanation is that these acts are contagious: those who receive or observe help from a stranger become more likely to help others. We test two mechanisms for the social contagion of generosity among strangers: generalized reciprocity (a recipient of generosity is more likely to pay it forward and third-party influence (an observer of generous behavior is more likely to emulate it. We use an online experiment with randomized trials to test the two hypothesized mechanisms and their interaction by manipulating the extent to which participants receive and observe help. Results show that receiving help can increase the willingness to be generous towards others, but observing help can have the opposite effect, especially among those who have not received help. These results suggest that observing widespread generosity may attenuate the belief that one's own efforts are needed.
Paul J. Zak; Angela A. Stanton; Ahmadi, Sheila
Human beings routinely help strangers at costs to themselves. Sometimes the help offered is generous offering more than the other expects. The proximate mechanisms supporting generosity are not well-understood, but several lines of research suggest a role for empathy. In this study, participants were infused with 40 IU oxytocin (OT) or placebo and engaged in a blinded, one-shot decision on how to split a sum of money with a stranger that could be rejected. Those on OT were 80% more generous t...
McFadden, Lisa M.; Stout, Kristen A.; Vieira-Brock, Paula L.; Allen, Scott C.; Nielsen, Shannon M.; Wilkins, Diana G.; Hanson, Glen R.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.
Numerous pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that non-contingent methamphetamine (METH) administration rapidly decreases both dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine-2 transporter (VMAT-2) function. Because of the importance of transporter function to the abuse and neurotoxic liabilities of METH, and previous research indicating that the effects of non-contingent METH treatment do not necessarily predict effects of contingent exposure, the present study examined the acute i...
Baker, Laurence C; Bundorf, M Kate; Kessler, Daniel P
We test whether the generosity of employer-sponsored health insurance facilitates the exercise of market power by hospitals. We construct indices of health plan generosity and the price and volume of hospital services using data from Truven MarketScan for 601 counties from 2001 to 2007. We use variation in the industry and union status of covered workers within a county over time to identify the causal effects of generosity. Although OLS estimates fail to reject the hypothesis that generosity facilitates the exercise of hospital market power, IV estimates show a statistically significant and economically important positive effect of plan generosity on hospital prices in uncompetitive markets, but not in competitive markets. Our results suggest that most of the aggregate effect of hospital market structure on prices found in previous work may be coming from areas with generous plans. PMID:26402570
Xiaofei Sophia Pan
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cooperation is indispensable in human societies, and much progress has been made towards understanding human pro-social decisions. Formal incentives, such as punishment, are suggested as potential effective approaches despite the fact that punishment can crowd out intrinsic motives for cooperation and detrimentally impact efficiency. At the same time, evolutionary biologists have long recognized that cooperation, especially food sharing, is typically efficiently organized in groups living on wild foods, even absent formal economic incentives. Despite its evident importance, the source of this voluntary compliance remains largely uninformed. Drawing on costly signaling theory, and in light of the widely established competitive nature of males, we hypothesize that unique and displayable rewards (trophies out of competition may trigger male generosity in competitive social environments. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we use a controlled laboratory experiment to show that cooperation is sustained in a generosity competition with trophy rewards, but breaks down in the same environment with equally valuable but non-unique and non-displayable rewards. Further, we find that males' competition for trophies is the driving force behind treatment differences. In contrast, it appears that female competitiveness is not modulated by trophy rewards. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest new approaches to promoting cooperation in human groups that, unlike punishment mechanisms, do not sacrifice efficiency. This could have important implications in any domain where voluntary compliance matters--including relations between spouses, employers and employees, market transactions, and conformity to legal standards.
Smith, Daniel L.; Wenger, Jeffrey B.
This paper employs panel estimators with data on the 50 American states for the years 1963 to 2006 to test the relationship between Unemployment Insurance (UI) trust fund solvency and UI benefit generosity. We find that both average and maximum weekly UI benefit amounts, as ratios to the average weekly wage, are higher in states and in years with…
Pallage, Stéphane; Scruggs, Lyle; Zimmermann, Christian
The goal of this paper is to establish if unemployment insurance policies are more generous in Europe than in the United States, and by how much. We take the examples of France and one particular American state, Ohio, and use the methodology of Pallage, Scruggs and Zimmermann (2008) to find a unique parameter value for each region that fully characterizes the generosity of the system. These two values can then be used in structural models that compare the regions, for example to explain the d...
Caine, S B; Koob, G F; Parsons, L H; Everitt, B J; Schwartz, J C; Sokoloff, P
The three dopamine agonists with highest reported D3 receptor selectivity in vitro, pramipexole, quinelorane and PD128,907, decreased self-administration of a high dose of cocaine in rats as a result of a leftward shift in the cocaine dose-effect function. In contrast the D3 preferring antagonist nafadotride increased cocaine self-administration. Moreover the relative potencies of these and other D2-like dopamine agonists (lisuride, 7-OH-DPAT, quinpirole, apomorphine, bromocriptine) to modulate cocaine self-administration were highly correlated with their relative potencies for increasing mitogenesis in vitro in cell lines expressing D3 but not D2 receptors. These results support the hypothesis that the D3 receptor may be an important target for pharmacotherapies for cocaine abuse and dependence. PMID:9243643
Thomsen, Morgane; Hall, F. Scott; Uhl, George R.; Caine, S. Barak
There has been much interest in the relative importance of dopamine and serotonin transporters in the abuse-related-effects of cocaine. We tested the hypotheses that mice lacking the dopamine transporter (DAT−/−), the serotonin transporter (SERT−/−), or both (DAT−/−SERT−/−) exhibit decreased reinforcing effects of cocaine. We also assessed whether observed effects on self-administration are specific to cocaine or if operant behavior maintained by food or a direct dopamine agonist are similarl...
Moriyama, Kumi; Ohashi, Yuki; Motoyasu, Akira; Ando, Tadao; Moriyama, Kiyoshi; Yorozu, Tomoko
Purpose Chronic pain after cesarean section (CS) is a serious concern, as it can result in functional disability. We evaluated the prevalence of chronic pain after CS prospectively at a single institution in Japan. We also analyzed perioperative risk factors associated with chronic pain using logistic regression analyses with a backward-stepwise procedure. Materials and Methods Patients who underwent elective or emergency CS between May 2012 and May 2014 were recruited. Maternal demographics as well as details of surgery and anesthesia were recorded. An anesthesiologist visited the patients on postoperative day (POD) 1 and 2, and assessed their pain with the Prince Henry Pain Scale. To evaluate the prevalence of chronic pain, we contacted patients by sending a questionnaire 3 months post-CS. Results Among 225 patients who questionnaires, 69 (30.7%) of patients complained of persistent pain, although no patient required pain medication. Multivariate analyses identified lighter weight (p = 0.011) and non-intrathecal administration of morphine (p = 0.023) as determinant factors associated with persistent pain at 3 months. The adjusted odds ratio of intrathecal administration of morphine to reduce persistent pain was 0.424, suggesting that intrathecal administration of morphine could decrease chronic pain by 50%. In addition, 51.6% of patients had abnormal wound sensation, suggesting the development of neuropathic pain. Also, 6% of patients with abnormal wound sensation required medication, yet no patients with persistent pain required medication. Conclusion Although no effect on acute pain was observed, intrathecal administration of morphine significantly decreased chronic pain after CS. PMID:27163790
Shen, Yu-Chu; Zuckerman, Stephen
Objective: This study examines the effects of Medicaid payment generosity on access and care for adult and child Medicaid beneficiaries. Data Source: Three years of the National Surveys of America's Families (1997, 1999, 2002) are linked to the Urban Institute Medicaid capitation rate surveys, the Area Resource File, and the American Hospital Association survey files. Study Design: In order to identify the effect of payment generosity apart from unmeasured differences across areas, ...
Ehmke, Mariah D.; Morgan, Kari; Schroeter, Christiane; Larson-Meyer, Enette; Ballenger, Nicole
This research uses experimental economics to measure the effect of parental generosity and child response on childhood overweight and obesity. The 'Carrot-Stick' experiment, an adaptation of the standard dictator game in which the respondent (the child) can punish or reward the dictator (the parent) based on the dictator's generosity, served as basis of our examination. Two treatments are conducted, in which the child spends his or her earnings on non-food and food items. Our empirical analys...
Zhao, Kun; Ferguson, Eamonn; Smillie, Luke D
Recent research has highlighted the role of prosocial personality traits-agreeableness and honesty-humility-in egalitarian distributions of wealth in the dictator game. Expanding on these findings, we ran two studies to examine individual differences in two other forms of prosociality-generosity and reciprocity-with respect to two major models of personality, the Big Five and the HEXACO. Participants (combined N = 560) completed a series of economic games in which allocations in the dictator game were compared with those in the generosity game, a non-constant-sum wealth distribution task where proposers with fixed payoffs selected the size of their partner's payoff ("generosity"). We further examined positive and negative reciprocity by manipulating a partner's previous move ("reciprocity"). Results showed clear evidence of both generosity and positive reciprocity in social preferences, with allocations to a partner greater in the generosity game than in the dictator game, and greater still when a player had been previously assisted by their partner. There was also a consistent interaction with gender, whereby men were more generous when this was costless and women were more egalitarian overall. Furthermore, these distinct forms of prosociality were differentially predicted by personality traits, in line with the core features of these traits and the theoretical distinctions between them. HEXACO honesty-humility predicted dictator, but not generosity allocations, while traits capturing tendencies toward irritability and anger predicted lower generosity, but not dictator allocations. In contrast, the politeness-but not compassion-aspect of Big Five agreeableness was uniquely and broadly associated with prosociality across all games. These findings support the discriminant validity between related prosocial constructs, and have important implications for understanding the motives and mechanisms taking place within economic games. PMID:27555824
Kato, Karin; Nagao, Miki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Takakura, Shunji; Fukuda, Kazuhiko; Ichiyama, Satoshi
Voriconazole is used for treating or preventing invasive aspergillosis and other invasive fungal infections. To minimize adverse reactions and to maximize treatment effects, therapeutic drug monitoring should be performed. However, it is challenging to optimize daily voriconazole dosing because limited data have been published so far on pediatric patients. We retrospectively analyzed voriconazole concentrations in patients aged 0-18 years. In addition, a literature review was conducted. In our study cohort, younger age and oral administration were significantly associated with lower plasma voriconazole concentrations (P voriconazole (P = 0.01). Reports of voriconazole administration in pediatric patients show that higher doses are required in younger children and in patients receiving oral administration. Hence, the current data suggest that we should escalate both initial and maintenance doses of voriconazole in pediatric patients, particularly in patients of younger age receiving an oral administration of voriconazole. PMID:26538245
Zhao, Kun; Ferguson, Eamonn; Smillie, Luke D.
Recent research has highlighted the role of prosocial personality traits—agreeableness and honesty-humility—in egalitarian distributions of wealth in the dictator game. Expanding on these findings, we ran two studies to examine individual differences in two other forms of prosociality—generosity and reciprocity—with respect to two major models of personality, the Big Five and the HEXACO. Participants (combined N = 560) completed a series of economic games in which allocations in the dictator game were compared with those in the generosity game, a non-constant-sum wealth distribution task where proposers with fixed payoffs selected the size of their partner’s payoff (“generosity”). We further examined positive and negative reciprocity by manipulating a partner’s previous move (“reciprocity”). Results showed clear evidence of both generosity and positive reciprocity in social preferences, with allocations to a partner greater in the generosity game than in the dictator game, and greater still when a player had been previously assisted by their partner. There was also a consistent interaction with gender, whereby men were more generous when this was costless and women were more egalitarian overall. Furthermore, these distinct forms of prosociality were differentially predicted by personality traits, in line with the core features of these traits and the theoretical distinctions between them. HEXACO honesty-humility predicted dictator, but not generosity allocations, while traits capturing tendencies toward irritability and anger predicted lower generosity, but not dictator allocations. In contrast, the politeness—but not compassion—aspect of Big Five agreeableness was uniquely and broadly associated with prosociality across all games. These findings support the discriminant validity between related prosocial constructs, and have important implications for understanding the motives and mechanisms taking place within economic games. PMID:27555824
Kabuto, Hideaki; Yokoi, Isao; Endo, Atsushi; Takei, Mineo; Kurimoto, Tadashi; Mori, Akitane
Serotonin (5-HT) is thought to play an important role in the seizures of El mice because the seizure threshold of El mice correlates with the 5-HT concentration in the central nervous system. In this study, the anticonvulsant effect of a 5-HT reuptake blocker, citalopram, was evaluated behaviorally and biochemically. El mouse convulsions were inhibited by chronic administration of citalopram (80 mg/kg/day, p.o. for 2 weeks), but were not inhibited by acute administration of citalopram (80 mg/...
Weiner, H L; Lemere, C A; Maron, R;
-Abeta antibodies of the IgG1 and IgG2b classes, and mononuclear cells in the brain expressing the anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-4, interleukin-10, and tumor growth factor-beta. Our results demonstrate that chronic nasal administration of Abeta peptide can induce an immune response to Abeta that decreases...
Carmeli, Abraham; McKay, Alexander S.; Kaufman, James C.
This study examines whether and why emotional intelligence may result in enhanced creativity in the workplace. Using a time-lagged data set collected from employees in three firms, we examined a mediation model where emotional intelligence is indirectly related to creativity serially, through generosity and vigor. The results of structural…
Brust, P; Christensen, Thomas; Diemer, Nils Henrik
the composition of the extracellular fluid. The concentrations of 16 amino acids were measured by HPLC in the perfusate samples. The level of taurine declined 20% in the right hippocampus during perfusion with vasopressin, whereas o-phosphoethanolamine decreased in both sides, the left 20% and the...
Siamak Zarei Ghanavati
Full Text Available Intravitreal injection is the common method for treatment of the posterior segment eye diseases. The advantage of intravitreal injection is achieving the desired concentration of drug inside the eye and reduction of drug side effects. Unfortunately, repeated intravitreal injections can cause several ocular complications including; vitreous hemorrhage, endophthalmitis, retinal detachment and cataract. For this reason, it seems the usage of sustained release drug delivery systems is helpful. Bevacizumab (Avastin®, antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF monoclonal antibody, is used for the treatment of different ocular diseases such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration, neovascular glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusions, etc. For reduction of drug side effects and improvement of drug half-life after intravitreal administration, we suggest preparation of liposomal bevacizumab as novel drug delivery system and comparison of this new formulation with conventional formulation in the market.
Lou, H C; Lassen, N A; Fris-Hansen, B
In the course of our studies on cerebral blood flow in newborn infants, we have observed a striking depressing effect of sodium bicarbonate infusion on cerebral blood flow which in some cases may severely aggravate cerebral ischemia. We measured cerebral blood flow before and after the treatment...... with 1 to 8 meqs of sodium bicarbonate in seven distressed newborn infants. The 133 Xe clearance technique was used. The results showed in six of the seven cases a decrease in cerebral blood flow, which in most cases was reduced to 14 to 22 ml/100 g/min, which is about half the value prior to the...
The effect of the inducing agent trans-stilbene oxide (TSO) on the metabolism and biliary excretion of [14C]morphine was studied in the isolated in situ perfused rat liver. After administration of morphine by intraportal injection or by the segmented retrograde intrabiliary injection technique, the TSO-treated group showed a marked decrease in the biliary recovery of morphine as its glucuronide conjugate [morphine-3-glucuronide (MG)]. However, recovery of MG in the venous outflow of the single pass perfusate was greatly increased. These findings suggested that TSO treatment enhanced the formation of MG from morphine and changed the primary route of hepatic elimination of MG. TSO treatment also decreased the excretion of morphine (as MG) in the bile of anesthetized renal-ligated rats. This decreased biliary function required several days to develop and appeared closely associated with the inductive effect of TSO. After i.v. administration of [14C]MG itself, biliary recovery was also markedly decreased in TSO-treated rats. It is postulated that the effect of the TSO treatment led to either a decrease in canalicular transport of MG into bile or an increase in the efficiency of transfer of MG to the blood at the sinusoidal side of the hepatocyte. Regardless of the mechanism, the results indicate the need to study compartmentalization of drug transport and metabolism functions
Fuhrman-Lane, C.; Fujimoto, J.M.
The effect of the inducing agent trans-stilbene oxide (TSO) on the metabolism and biliary excretion of (/sup 14/C)morphine was studied in the isolated in situ perfused rat liver. After administration of morphine by intraportal injection or by the segmented retrograde intrabiliary injection technique, the TSO-treated group showed a marked decrease in the biliary recovery of morphine as its glucuronide conjugate (morphine-3-glucuronide (MG)). However, recovery of MG in the venous outflow of the single pass perfusate was greatly increased. These findings suggested that TSO treatment enhanced the formation of MG from morphine and changed the primary route of hepatic elimination of MG. TSO treatment also decreased the excretion of morphine (as MG) in the bile of anesthetized renal-ligated rats. This decreased biliary function required several days to develop and appeared closely associated with the inductive effect of TSO. After i.v. administration of (/sup 14/C)MG itself, biliary recovery was also markedly decreased in TSO-treated rats. It is postulated that the effect of the TSO treatment led to either a decrease in canalicular transport of MG into bile or an increase in the efficiency of transfer of MG to the blood at the sinusoidal side of the hepatocyte. Regardless of the mechanism, the results indicate the need to study compartmentalization of drug transport and metabolism functions.
Kasarello, Kaja; Kwiatkowska-Patzer, Barbara; Lipkowski, Andrzej W.; Bardowski, Jacek K.; Szczepankowska, Agnieszka K.
Background Multiple sclerosis is a human autoimmunological disease that causes neurodegeneration. One of the potential ways to stop its development is induction of oral tolerance, whose effect lies in decreasing immune response to the fed antigen. It was shown in animal models that administration of specific epitopes of the three main myelin proteins – myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), myelin basic protein (MBP), and proteolipid protein (PLP) – results in induction of oral tolerance ...
Hoshino, Daisuke; TAMURA, Yuki; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Yutaka; Hatta, Hideo
Recent studies suggested that lactate accumulation can be a signal for mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. We investigated whether reductions in lactate concentrations in response to dichloroacetate (DCA), an activator of pyruvate dehydrogenase, attenuate mitochondrial adaptations after exercise training in mice. We first confirmed that DCA administration (200 mg/kg BW by i.p. injection) 10 min before exercise decreased muscle and blood lactate concentrations after high-intensity int...
Nathaniel A. Fernandez
Full Text Available Previous research demonstrates an association between religiousness, spirituality, and generosity in adolescents, but few studies have tested the mechanisms by which religion might facilitate the development of generosity in real-world contexts. In this paper, a theoretical model is presented describing the potential mechanisms by which engagement in transformational contexts (i.e., participating in charity marathon training may lead to the development of generosity in adolescents. Participation in charity sporting events is theorized to increase generosity through both higher-order mechanisms, such as sanctification and the development of transcendent identity, and lower-order mechanisms, such as increased entitativity, positive emotions, and dissonance reduction. An empirical strategy for testing the model is presented; suggested methods for inquiry are longitudinal mixed method designs incorporating observations, questionnaires, and qualitative interviewing. Additionally, a case study of ongoing research on adolescents running with Team World Vision is described as an application of the model to an actual research context.
Michelle S Mazei-Robison
Full Text Available Our previous observations show that chronic opiate administration, including self-administration, decrease the soma size of dopamine (DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA of rodents and humans, a morphological change correlated with increased firing rate and reward tolerance. Given that a general hallmark of drugs of abuse is to increase activity of the mesolimbic DA circuit, we sought to determine whether additional drug classes produced a similar morphological change. Sections containing VTA were obtained from rats that self-administered cocaine or ethanol and from mice that consumed nicotine. In contrast to opiates, we found no change in VTA DA soma size induced by any of these other drugs. These data suggest that VTA morphological changes are induced in a drug-specific manner and reinforce recent findings that some changes in mesolimbic signaling and neuroplasticity are drug-class dependent.
Friedman, Bernard; Sood, Neeraj; Engstrom, Kelly; McKenzie, Diane
This study provides (a) new estimates of U.S. hospital profitability by payer group, controlling for hospital characteristics, and (b) evidence about the intensity of care for particular diseases associated with the generosity of the patient's payer and other payers at the same hospital. The conceptual framework is a variant of the well-known model of a local monopolist selling in a segmented market. Effects of two kinds of regulation are considered. The data are taken from hospital accounting reports in four states in FY2000, and detailed discharge summaries from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The profitability of inpatient care for privately insured patients was found to be about 4% less than for Medicare, but 14% higher than for Medicaid and only 9% higher than for self-pay patients. We found significant direct associations but not external effects of payer generosity on the intensity of care. PMID:15277780
Rosana Akemi Kawashima
Full Text Available Preschool Education can provide conditions for the construction of moral values in children. This study’s objective was to investigate the judgment of teachers and students in Primary Education regarding the virtue of generosity and whether, in this judgment, it is valued more than obedience to authority. Interviews were held with 26 teachers and 90 children from four municipal schools, using a stimulus-story about an activity using modeling clay. The results indicated that, for the majority of participants, the attitude of the teacher in the stimulus-story, in not helping the child and demanding obedience in first place, is wrong. In relation to the reasons, for the majority of the teachers, the lack of help is justified because the activity with the modeling clay should be free, prioritizing the child’s wishes. For the majority of the children, however, the teachers’ lack of help is felt as failure to attribute postive value. Furthermore, it was observed that the strength of the virtue of generosity among the participants in this study is weak.
Cowell, Jason M; Decety, Jean
Despite cultural and individual variation, humans are a judgmental bunch. There is accumulating evidence for early social and moral evaluation as shown by research with infants and children documenting the notion that some behaviors are perceived as right and others are perceived as wrong. Moreover, social interactions are governed by a concern for fairness and others' well-being. However, although generosity increases between infancy and late childhood, it is less clear what mechanisms guide this change. Early predispositions toward prosociality are thought to arise in concert with the social and cultural environment, developing into adult morality, a complex incorporation of emotional, motivational, and cognitive processes. Using EEG combined with eye tracking and behavioral sharing, we investigated, for the first time, the temporal neurodynamics of implicit moral evaluation in 3- to 5-year-old children. Results show distinct early automatic attentional (EPN) and later cognitively controlled (N2, LPP) patterns of neural response while viewing characters engaging in helping and harming behaviors. Importantly, later (LPP), but not early (EPN), waveforms predicted actual generosity. These results shed light on theories of moral development by documenting the respective contribution of automatic and cognitive neural processes underpinning social evaluation and directly link these neural computations to prosocial behavior in children. PMID:25532892
Llidó, Anna; Bartolomé, Iris; Darbra, Sònia; Pallarès, Marc
Endogenous levels of the neurosteroid (NS) allopregnanolone (AlloP) during neonatal stages are crucial for the correct development of the central nervous system (CNS). In a recent work we reported that the neonatal administration of AlloP or finasteride (Finas), an inhibitor of the enzyme 5α-reductase needed for AlloP synthesis, altered the voluntary consumption of ethanol and the ventrostriatal dopamine (DA) levels in adulthood, suggesting that neonatal NS manipulations can increase alcohol abuse vulnerability in adulthood. Moreover, other authors have associated neonatal NS alterations with diverse dopaminergic (DAergic) alterations. Thus, the aim of the present work is to analyse if manipulations of neonatal AlloP alter the DAergic response in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) during alcohol intake in rats. We administered AlloP or Finas from postnatal day (PND) 5 to PND9. At PND98, we measured alcohol consumption using a two-bottle free-choice model (ethanol 10% (v/v)+glucose 3% (w/v), and glucose 3% (w/v)) for 12 days. On the last day of consumption, we measured the DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) release in NAcc in response to ethanol intake. The samples were obtained by means of in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats, and DA and DOPAC levels were determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography analysis (HPLC). The results revealed that neonatal Finas increased ethanol consumption in some days of the consumption phase, and decreased the DA release in the NAcc in response to solutions (ethanol+glucose) and food presentation. Taken together, these results suggest that neonatal NS alterations can affect alcohol rewarding properties. PMID:27139934
Bogen handler om den praksis, vi kalder administration. Vi er i den offentlige sektor i Danmark hos kontorfolkene med deres sagsmapper, computere, telefoner,, lovsamlinger,, retningslinier og regneark. I bogen udfoldes en mangfoldighed af konkrete historier om det administrative arbejde fra...... forskellige områder i den offentlige sektor. Hensigten er at forstå den praksis og faglighed der knytter sig til det administrative arbejde...
Full Text Available The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ- induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of a lethal dose of PTZ to eight respective groups of Balb-c mice. Control group received only one i.p. PTZ injection. Motor and behavioral activity of the animals after EOs administration, development of tonic-clonic seizures, seizure latency and severity, and percentage of survival after PTZ administration were determined for each group. All groups of mice treated with the EOs showed reduced activity and stability after the administration of the oil, except for those treated with O. vulgare (100% mortality after the administration of the oil. After PTZ administration, mice from the different groups showed increased latency and reduced severity of seizures (ranging from simple twitches to complete seizures. Mice who had received M. piperita demonstrated no seizures and 100% survival. The different drastic component and its concentration could account for the diversity of anticonvulsant effects.
Koutroumanidou, Eleni; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Kortsaris, Alexandros; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Polissiou, Moschos; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos; Pagonopoulou, Olga
The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs) from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ-) induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a lethal dose of PTZ to eight respective groups of Balb-c mice. Control group received only one i.p. PTZ injection. Motor and behavioral activity of the animals after EOs administration, development of tonic-clonic seizures, seizure latency and severity, and percentage of survival after PTZ administration were determined for each group. All groups of mice treated with the EOs showed reduced activity and stability after the administration of the oil, except for those treated with O. vulgare (100% mortality after the administration of the oil). After PTZ administration, mice from the different groups showed increased latency and reduced severity of seizures (ranging from simple twitches to complete seizures). Mice who had received M. piperita demonstrated no seizures and 100% survival. The different drastic component and its concentration could account for the diversity of anticonvulsant effects. PMID:23819045
Makau, Christopher M; Towett, Philemon K; Abelson, Klas S P;
BACKGROUND: The role of noradrenergic system in the control of nociception is documented in some vertebrate animals. However, there are no data showing the role of this system on nociception in the marsh terrapins. METHODOLOGY: In this study, the antinociceptive action of intrathecal administration...... of the α 2-adrenoreceptor agonist clonidine and α 2-adrenoreceptor antagonist yohimbine was evaluated in the African marsh terrapin using the formalin test. The interaction of clonidine and yohimbine was also evaluated. RESULTS: Intrathecal administration of clonidine (37.5 or 65 μg/kg) caused...... a significant reduction in the mean time spent in pain-related behavior. Yohimbine, at a dose of 25 μg/kg, significantly blocked the effect of clonidine (65 μg/kg). However, administration of yohimbine (40 or 53 μg/kg) caused a significant reduction in the mean time spent in pain-related behavior. Intrathecal...
Muammer Doğan; Sevtap Hamdemir; Fatma Nur Aksakal; Esma Sarıkaya; Özlem Gün Eryılmaz; Leyla Mollamahmutoğlu
Objective: The gonadotropin-releasing hormone-agonist (GnRH-a) treatment during in vitro fertilization (IVF) sometimes causes a functional ovarian cyst during the administration period before gonadotropin stimulation, as an undesired event. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of these cysts on the IVF outcomes.Materials and Methods: Out of 981 IVF cycles, 78 with ovarian cysts were retrospectively analyzed with respect to the demographic characteristics, hormonal outcomes, and fer...
Anni A Winckelmann
Full Text Available Toll-like receptor (TLR agonists can reactivate HIV from latently infected cells in vitro. We aimed to investigate the TLR-9 agonist, CPG 7909's in vivo effect on the proviral HIV reservoir and HIV-specific immunity. This was a post-hoc analysis of a double-blind randomized controlled vaccine trial. HIV-infected adults were randomized 1:1 to receive pneumococcal vaccines with or without 1 mg CPG 7909 as adjuvant at 0, 3 and 9 months. In patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy we quantified proviral DNA at 0, 3, 4, 9, and 10 months (31 subjects in the CPG group and 37 in the placebo-adjuvant group. Furthermore, we measured HIV-specific antibodies, characterized T cell phenotypes and HIV-specific T cell immunity. We observed a mean reduction in proviral DNA in the CPG group of 12.6% (95% CI: -23.6-0.0 following each immunization whereas proviral DNA in the placebo-adjuvant group remained largely unchanged (6.7% increase; 95% CI: -4.2-19.0 after each immunization, p = 0.02. Among participants with additional cryo-preserved PBMCs, HIV-specific CD8+ T cell immunity as indicated by increased expression of degranulation marker CD107a and macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP1β tended to be up-regulated following immunization with CPG 7909 compared with placebo as adjuvant. Further, increasing proportion of HIV-specific CD107a and MIP1β-expressing CD8+ T cells were strongly correlated with decreasing proviral load. No changes were observed in T cell phenotype distribution, HIV-specific CD4+ T cell immunity, or HIV-specific antibodies. TLR9-adjuvanted pneumococcal vaccination decreased proviral load. Reductions in proviral load correlated with increasing levels of HIV specific CD8+ T cells. Further investigation into the potential effect of TLR9 agonists on HIV latency is warranted.
Winckelmann, Anni A; Munk-Petersen, Lærke V; Rasmussen, Thomas A; Melchjorsen, Jesper; Hjelholt, Thomas J; Montefiori, David; Østergaard, Lars; Søgaard, Ole S; Tolstrup, Martin
Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists can reactivate HIV from latently infected cells in vitro. We aimed to investigate the TLR-9 agonist, CPG 7909's in vivo effect on the proviral HIV reservoir and HIV-specific immunity. This was a post-hoc analysis of a double-blind randomized controlled vaccine trial. HIV-infected adults were randomized 1:1 to receive pneumococcal vaccines with or without 1 mg CPG 7909 as adjuvant at 0, 3 and 9 months. In patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy we quantified proviral DNA at 0, 3, 4, 9, and 10 months (31 subjects in the CPG group and 37 in the placebo-adjuvant group). Furthermore, we measured HIV-specific antibodies, characterized T cell phenotypes and HIV-specific T cell immunity. We observed a mean reduction in proviral DNA in the CPG group of 12.6% (95% CI: -23.6-0.0) following each immunization whereas proviral DNA in the placebo-adjuvant group remained largely unchanged (6.7% increase; 95% CI: -4.2-19.0 after each immunization, p = 0.02). Among participants with additional cryo-preserved PBMCs, HIV-specific CD8+ T cell immunity as indicated by increased expression of degranulation marker CD107a and macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP1β) tended to be up-regulated following immunization with CPG 7909 compared with placebo as adjuvant. Further, increasing proportion of HIV-specific CD107a and MIP1β-expressing CD8+ T cells were strongly correlated with decreasing proviral load. No changes were observed in T cell phenotype distribution, HIV-specific CD4+ T cell immunity, or HIV-specific antibodies. TLR9-adjuvanted pneumococcal vaccination decreased proviral load. Reductions in proviral load correlated with increasing levels of HIV specific CD8+ T cells. Further investigation into the potential effect of TLR9 agonists on HIV latency is warranted. PMID:23637967
O. B. Akimova
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the growing tendency for young people’s harden- ing. According to the authors that phenomenon is caused by such current trends as the language degradation, the militaristic and alienation vocabulary predominance re- sulting in disdainful attitude towards the surrounding people. As a pedagogic counter- action to such trends, the authors consider the revival of the forgotten domestic moral values in educational sphere. Their objective is to contemplate the necessity of enrich- ing the educational institutions by means of the national moral and cultural potential.The research methodology basis is defined as the axiology principle substantiat- ing the humanistic importance of the specifics of teachers’ vocabulary. To demonstrate the advantages of the humanistic vocabulary educational potential the authors com- pare the specifics of such notions as generosity and tolerance. They prove that the teacher’s tolerant attitude to students deforms both the pedagogic theory and educa- tional practice. In contrast, the generous attitude favors the student’s, as well as teacher’s moral development. The process of the youth refinement can be facilitated by the large-scale revival of half-forgotten national humanistic values and the vocabulary reflecting such values.
Hernández-Montiel, H L; Vásquez López, C M; González-Loyola, J G; Vega-Anaya, G C; Villagrán-Herrera, M E; Gallegos-Corona, M A; Saldaña, C; Ramos Gómez, M; García Horshman, P; García Solís, P; Solís-S, J C; Robles-Osorio, M L; Ávila Morales, J; Varela-Echavarría, A; Paredes Guerrero, R
Aging is a multifactorial universal process and constitutes the most important risk factor for chronic-degenerative diseases. Although it is a natural process, pathological aging arises when these changes occur quickly and the body is not able to adapt. This is often associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammation, and a decrease in the endogenous antioxidant systems, constituting a physiopathological state commonly found in chronic-degenerative diseases. At the testicular level, aging is associated with tissue atrophy, decreased steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, and sexual behavior disorders. This situation, in addition to the elevated generation of ROS in the testicular steroidogenesis, provides a critical cellular environment causing oxidative damage at diverse cellular levels. To assess the effects of a reduction in the levels of ROS, thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) was chronically administered in senile Wistar rats. TPP causes an activation of intermediate metabolism routes, enhancing cellular respiration and decreasing the generation of ROS. Our results show an overall decrease of atrophic histological changes linked to aging, with higher levels of serum testosterone, sexual activity, and an increase in the levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes in TPP-treated animals. These results suggest that TPP chronic administration decreases the progression of age-related atrophic changes by improving the intermediate metabolism, and by increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:24371036
Feeding behavior is complex processes controlled by the neruroendocrine system.5-HT play an important role in regulation of energy balance by suppressing food intake. Depletion of brain serotonin increase feeding behavior and develop obesity. Many serotoninergic compounds are available in market for the management of body weight. 02-Lean is an anti-obesity herbal formulation prepared by combination of different herbs. Oral administration of aqueous suspension of 02-Lean caused a significant decrease in body weight, food intake, and increase in whole brain 5-HT 5HIAA, tryptophan and plasma tryptophan in over weight rats treated with 0.096g/2ml 02-Lean in comparison to control group. (author)
Takagishi, Haruto; Fujii, Takayuki; Koizumi, Michiko; Schug, Joanna; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Kameshima, Shinya
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of peer monitoring on generosity in boys and girls aged 6–12 years. A total of 120 elementary school students played a one-shot dictator game (DG) with and without peer monitoring by classmates. Children decided how to divide 10 chocolates between themselves and a classmate either in a condition in which their allocations were visible to their peers, or in private. While the effect of peer monitoring on the allocation amount in the DG was cl...
Full Text Available Background and Aims: To assess the impact of 1 year administration of omega-3 fatty acids supplements on oxidative stress parameters and atherosclerosis progression. Material and Methods: A total of 284 patients with metabolic syndrome, aged 61±6.7 years, without clinical evidence of atherosclerosis were allocated to 2 groups, matched by sex and age: group A (140 patients - diet according to ESC/EASD recommendations; group B (144 patients - the same diet + capsules of fish oil (1g eicosapentanoic acid, 1g docosahexanoic acid, 0,1g a-tocopherol acetate. Body fat (BF was measured by bioimpedance analysis. For oxidative stress evaluation we used the FormOx systems monitor on a blood drop and for progression of atherosclerosis the intima-media thickness (IMT at common carotid artery. Patients were evaluated at baseline, after 6 months and 1 year. Results: IMT significantly decreased in group B vs group A at 1 year (p<0.0001 and was correlated with %BF (p<0.001, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR (p=0.002, leptin (p< 0.001, adiponectin (p<0.05, leptin/adiponectin ratio (p< 0.001 and oxidative stress (p<0.001. Conclusions: One year administrations of omega-3 PUFA enriched diet reduces cardiovascular risk of metabolic syndrome patients, resulting in a significant decrease of oxidative stress and atherosclerosis progression.
Zheng, Xinyan; Hasegawa, Hiroshi
We examined the effects of an adenosine receptor agonist on caffeine-induced changes in thermoregulation, neurotransmitter release in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus, and endurance exercise performance in rats. One hour before the start of exercise, rats were intraperitoneally injected with either saline alone (SAL), 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine and saline (CAF), a non-selective adenosine receptor agonist (5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine [NECA]: 0.5 mg kg(-1)) and saline (NECA), or the combination of caffeine and NECA (CAF+NECA). Rats ran until fatigue on the treadmill with a 5% grade at a speed of 18 m min(-1) at 23 °C. Compared to the SAL group, the run time to fatigue (RTTF) was significantly increased by 52% following caffeine administration and significantly decreased by 65% following NECA injection (SAL: 91 ± 14.1 min; CAF: 137 ± 25.8 min; NECA: 31 ± 13.7 min; CAF+NECA: 85 ± 11.8 min; p<0.05). NECA decreased the core body temperature (Tcore), oxygen consumption, which is an index of heat production, tail skin temperature, which is an index of heat loss, and extracellular dopamine (DA) release at rest and during exercise. Furthermore, caffeine injection inhibited the NECA-induced decreases in the RTTF, Tcore, heat production, heat loss, and extracellular DA release. Neither caffeine nor NECA affected extracellular noradrenaline or serotonin release. These results support the findings of previous studies showing improved endurance performance and overrides in body limitations after caffeine administration, and imply that the ergogenic effects of caffeine may be associated with the adenosine receptor blockade-induced increases in brain DA release. PMID:26604076
Graves, Steven M.; Clark, Mary J.; Traynor, John R.; Hu, Xiu-Ti; Napier, T. Celeste
Methamphetamine profoundly increases brain monoamines and is a widely abused psychostimulant. The effects of methamphetamine self-administration on neuron function are not known for the nucleus accumbens, a brain region involved in addictive behaviors, including drug-seeking. One therapeutic target showing preclinical promise at attenuating psychostimulant-seeking is 5-HT2C receptors; however, the effects of 5-HT2C receptor ligands on neuronal physiology are unclear. 5-HT2C receptor agonism decreases psychostimulant-mediated behaviors, and the putative 5-HT2C receptor inverse agonist, SB 206553, attenuates methamphetamine-seeking in rats. To ascertain the effects of methamphetamine, and 5-HT2C receptor inverse agonism and agonism, on neuronal function in the nucleus accumbens, we evaluated methamphetamine, SB 206553, and the 5-HT2C receptor agonist and Ro 60-0175, on neuronal excitability within the accumbens shell subregion using whole-cell current-clamp recordings in forebrain slices ex vivo. We reveal that methamphetamine self-administration decreased generation of evoked action potentials. In contrast, SB 206553 and Ro 60-0175 increased evoked spiking, effects that were prevented by the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, SB 242084. We also assessed signaling mechanisms engaged by 5-HT2C receptors, and determined that accumbal 5-HT2C receptors stimulated Gq, but not Gi/o. These findings demonstrate that methamphetamine-induced decreases in excitability of neurons within the nucleus accumbens shell were abrogated by both 5-HT2C inverse agonism and agonism, and this effect likely involved activation of Gq–mediated signaling pathways. PMID:25229719
Saito, Marie; Tanaka, Miyuki; Misawa, Eriko; Yao, Ruiquing; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Yamauchi, Kouji; Abe, Fumiaki; Yamamoto, Yuki; Furukawa, Fukumi
This study reports the effects of oral Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP) containing Aloe sterols on skin elasticity and the extracellular matrix in ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated hairless mice. Ten-week-old hairless mice were fed diets containing 0.3% AVGP for 8 weeks and irradiated UVB for 6 weeks. Mice treated with AVGP showed significant prevention of the UVB-induced decrease in skin elasticity. To investigate the mechanism underlying this suppression of skin elasticity loss, we measured the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -9, and -13. AVGP prevented both the UVB-induced increases in MMPs expressions. Moreover, we investigated hyaluronic acid (HA) content of mice dorsal skin and gene expression of HA synthase-2 (Has2). In the results, AVGP oral administration prevented UVB-induced decreasing in skin HA content and Has2 expression and attenuates the UVB-induced decrease in serum adiponectin, which promotes Has2 expression. These results suggested that AVGP has the ability to prevent the skin photoaging. PMID:27045316
Dewi Wiryanthini IA
Full Text Available Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS causing accumulation of oxidative damage caused by exceeding anti oxidant capacity in the body. Psychological stress as psychosocial stress can induce oxidative stress which subsequently cause increase blood malondialdehyde (MDA and decrease blood nitrate and nitrite (NOx concentration as intermediate product of nitric oxide (NO. Cacao beans extracts contained anti oxidant flavanols consist of catechin, epicatechin and procyanidin. The aims of this study is to investigate the effect of cacao beans (Theobroma cacao L. extracts for decreasing MDA and increasing NOx concentration in white rat (Ra$us norvegicus blood in stress oxidative state induced by psychosocial stress. It is an experimental study with Pretest-Postest Control Group Design. This study revealed decrease MDA concentration in group P1 (11.47 vs 8.04, P2 (11.92 vs 5.44 and P3 (11.69 vs 2.87 with P = 0.000 and increase NOx concentration in oxidative stress white rat induced by psychosocial stress a[er administration of cacao beans extract in group P1 (1909.83 vs 2085.16, P2 (1912.5 vs 2231.83 and P3 (1871.5 vs 2339.83 with P = 0.005. This study showed that cacao beans extract can inhibit oxidative stress caused by psychosocial stress.
Takagishi, Haruto; Fujii, Takayuki; Koizumi, Michiko; Schug, Joanna; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Kameshima, Shinya
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of peer monitoring on generosity in boys and girls aged 6–12 years. A total of 120 elementary school students played a one-shot dictator game (DG) with and without peer monitoring by classmates. Children decided how to divide 10 chocolates between themselves and a classmate either in a condition in which their allocations were visible to their peers, or in private. While the effect of peer monitoring on the allocation amount in the DG was clearly present in boys, it was not observed in girls. Furthermore, the effect of peer monitoring in boys appeared at the age of 9 years. These results suggest that the motivation to draw peers’ attention plays a stronger role for older boys than for girls or younger boys. The potential roles of higher-order theory of mind, social roles, and emergence of secondary sex characteristics on the influence of peer monitoring on generosity shown by boys are discussed. PMID:26175707
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of peer monitoring on generosity in boys and girls aged 6 - 12 years. A total of 120 elementary school students played a one-shot dictator game (DG with and without peer monitoring by classmates. Children decided how to divide 10 chocolates between themselves and a classmate either in a condition in which their allocations were visible to their peers, or in private. While the effect of peer monitoring on the allocation amount in the DG was clearly present in boys, it was not observed in girls. Furthermore, the effect of peer monitoring in boys appeared at the age of 9 years. These results suggest that the motivation to draw peers’ attention plays a stronger role for older boys than for girls or younger boys. The potential roles of higher-order theory of mind, social roles, and emergence of secondary sex characteristics on the influence of peer monitoring on generosity shown by boys are discussed.
Masuda, Yuki; Inoue, Hiroko; Ohta, Hiroya; Miyake, Ayumi; Konishi, Morichika; Nanba, Hiroaki
Maitake D (MD)-Fraction is a highly purified soluble β-glucan derived from Grifola frondosa (an oriental edible mushroom). Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of MD-Fraction has been reported to inhibit tumor growth via enhancement of the host immune system. In this study, we demonstrated that oral administration of MD-Fraction as well as i.p. injection significantly inhibited tumor growth in murine tumor models. After oral administration, MD-Fraction was not transferred to the blood in its free form but was captured by antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) present in the Peyer's patch. The captured MD-Fraction was then transported to the spleen, thereby inducing the systemic immune response. Our study showed that MD-Fraction directly induced DC maturation via a C-type lectin receptor dectin-1 pathway. The therapeutic response of orally administered MD-Fraction was associated with (i) induced systemic tumor-antigen specific T cell response via dectin-1-dependent activation of DCs, (ii) increased infiltration of the activated T cells into the tumor and (iii) decreased number of tumor-caused immunosuppressive cells such as regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Our preclinical study suggests that MD-Fraction is a useful oral therapeutic agent in the management of patients with cancer. PMID:23280601
Hu, Xiu-Ti; Ford, Kerstin; White, Francis J
Our previous studies have demonstrated that repeated cocaine (COC) administration reduces voltage-sensitive sodium and calcium currents (I(Na) or VSSCs and I(Ca) or VSCCs, respectively) in medium spiny nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons of rats. The present findings further indicate that chronic COC-induced I(Na) reduction in NAc neurons is regulated by decreased dephosphorylation and enhanced phosphorylation of Na(+) channels. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings revealed that dephosphorylation of Na(+) channels by calcineurin (CaN) enhanced I(Na), while inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) by phosphorylated dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (M(r)=32 kDa) (DARPP-32) at the site of threonine 34 (p-Thr.34-DARPP-32) suppressed I(Na), in freshly dissociated NAc neurons of saline-pretreated rats. However, the effects of CaN on enhancing I(Na) were significantly attenuated, and the action of p-Thr.34-DARPP-32 to decrease I(Na) was mimicked, although not potentiated, by repeated COC pretreatment. Dephosphorylation of Na(+) channels by PP1 also enhanced I(Na), but this effect of PP1 on I(Na) was not apparently affected by repeated COC administration. Western blot analysis indicates that the protein levels of CaN and DARPP-32 were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, while the PP1 levels were unchanged, in the COC-withdrawn NAc as compared to saline-pretreated controls. Combined with previous findings, our results indicate that both CaN and PP1 modulate the increase in I(Na) via enhancing dephosphorylation, while p-Thr.34-DARPP-32 reduces I(Na) by inhibiting PP1-induced dephosphorylation, thereby stabilizing the phosphorylation state, of Na(+) channels in NAc neurons. They also suggest that chronic COC-induced I(Na) reduction may be attributed to a reduction in Ca(2+) signaling, which disrupts the physiological balance of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of Na(+) channels. PMID:15726118
Temporal profile of magnetic resonance angiography and decreased ratio of regulatory T cells after immunological adjuvant administration to mice lacking RNF213, a susceptibility gene for moyamoya disease.
Kanoke, Atsushi; Fujimura, Miki; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Fujimura, Taku; Kakizaki, Aya; Ito, Akira; Sakata, Hiroyuki; Sato-Maeda, Mika; Kure, Shigeo; Tominaga, Teiji
Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a chronic, occlusive cerebrovascular disease with an unknown etiology and is characterized by an abnormal vascular network at the base of the brain. Recent studies identified the RNF213 gene (RNF213) as an important susceptibility gene for MMD; however, the mechanisms underlying the RNF213 abnormality related to MMD have not yet been elucidated. We previously reported that Rnf213-deficient mice and Rnf213 p. R4828K knock-in mice did not spontaneously develop MMD, indicating the importance of secondary insults in addition to genetic factors in the pathogenesis of MMD. The most influential secondary insult is considered to be an immunological reaction because RNF213 is predominantly expressed in immunological tissues. Therefore, we herein attempted to evaluate the role of an immunological stimulation as a supplementary insult to the target disruption of RNF213 in the pathophysiology of MMD. Rnf213-deficient mice were treated with strong immunological adjuvants including muramyl dipeptide (MDP)-Lys (L18), and then underwent time-sequential magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) up to 40 weeks of age. The results obtained did not reveal any characteristic finding of MMD, and no significant difference was observed in MRA findings or the anatomy of the circle of Willis between Rnf213-deficient mice and wild-type mice after the administration of MDP-Lys (L18). The ratio of regulatory T cells after the administration of MDP-Lys (L18) was significantly decreased in Rnf213-deficient mice (p<0.01), suggesting the potential role of the RNF213 abnormality in the differentiation of regulatory T cells. Although the mechanisms underlying the development of MMD currently remain unclear, the RNF213 abnormality may compromise immunological self-tolerance, thereby contributing to the development of MMD. PMID:26972532
ÃƒÂurea Regina Telles Pupulin; Silvana Marques Araujo; MÃƒÂ´nica LÃƒÂºcia Gomes; Camila Fernanda Brustolin; Caroline Felicio Braga; Erika Cristina Ferreira; Denise Lessa Aleixo
Introduction: The study of the effect of different ways of treatment using highly diluted substances is rare in the literature. Some authors consider the dose irrelevant, justifying that the action of the medication highly diluted is qualitative [1-3]. Others emphasize the importance of quantity and frequency of administration of the highly diluted substance for a successful treatment [4,5]. The model of murine infection by T. cruzi is widely studied and it is an excellent tool to study the e...
Walf, AA; Koonce, CJ; Frye, CA
Studies in people and animal models suggest that depression is influenced by natural, fluctuations in the levels of 17β-oestradiol (E2), as well as administration of E2-based therapies, such as selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). Elucidating the effects and mechanisms of E2 is important to improve future E2-based therapeutics. An important question is whether effects of E2 or SERMs for mood regulation act at the α or β isoform of the oestrogen receptor (ER) because some of the un...
Foditsch, Carla; Pereira, Richard Van Vleck; Ganda, Erika Korzune; Gomez, Marilia Souza; Marques, Eduardo Carvalho; Santin, Thiago; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho
Probiotics are a promising alternative to improve food animal productivity and health. However, scientific evidence that specific microbes can be used to benefit animal health and performance is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of administering a live culture of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii to newborn dairy calves on subsequent growth, health, and fecal microbiome. Initially, a safety trial was conducted using 30 newborn bull calves to assess potential adverse effects of the oral and rectal administration of F. prausnitzii to neonatal calves. No adverse reactions, such as increased body temperature or heart and respiratory rates, were observed after the administration of the treatments. All calves survived the experimental period, and there was no difference in fecal consistency score, attitude, appetite or dehydration between the treatment groups. The rectal route was not an efficient practice while the oral route ensures that the full dose is administered to the treated calves. Subsequently, a randomized field trial was completed in a commercial farm with preweaned calves. A total of 554 Holstein heifers were assigned to one of two treatment groups: treated calves (FPTRT) and non-treated calves (control). Treated calves received two oral doses of F. prausnitzii, one at treatment assignment (1st week) and another one week later. The FPTRT group presented significantly lower incidence of severe diarrhea (3.1%) compared with the control group (6.8%). Treated calves also had lower mortality rate associated with severe diarrhea (1.5%) compared to control calves (4.4%). Furthermore, FPTRT calves gained significantly more weight, 4.4 kg over the preweaning period, than controls calves. The relative abundance of F. prausnitzii in the fecal microbiota was significantly higher in the 3rd and 5th weeks of life of FPTRT calves than of the control calves, as revealed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our findings showed that oral
ÃƒÂurea Regina Telles Pupulin
Full Text Available Introduction: The study of the effect of different ways of treatment using highly diluted substances is rare in the literature. Some authors consider the dose irrelevant, justifying that the action of the medication highly diluted is qualitative [1-3]. Others emphasize the importance of quantity and frequency of administration of the highly diluted substance for a successful treatment [4,5]. The model of murine infection by T. cruzi is widely studied and it is an excellent tool to study the effect of highly diluted substances. Aim: To evaluate, in vivo, the effect of different amounts and frequency of administration of the biotherapic 17 dH T. cruzi in the evolution of the parasitemia curve and survival of mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Materials and methods: A blind randomised controlled trial was performed, using 30 swiss male mice, aged 28 days, divided into groups according to treatment: CONTROL - mice treated with 7% water-alcohol solution diluted in water given ad libitum in an amber bottle; GAVAGE Ã¢â‚¬â€œ mice treated with medication highly diluted 17 DH T. cruzi from 4 th to 9 th day of infection by gavage; WATER - mice treated with highly diluted medication 17 DH T. cruzi in water ad libitum offered in an amber bottle until the end of the study period. The groups were infected with the Y strain of T. cruzi, intraperitoneal, 1400 blood trypomastigotes. The medicines was handled according to the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia  with microbiological test according to RDC nÃ‚Â°. 67 and in vivo biological risk. Parasitemic curve was determined by daily counting of the parasites , the total parasitemia, peak parasites and survival. Data were compared using the BioEstat 5.0, ANOVA, with significance of 5%. The experiment was approved under the protocol nÃ‚Â° 030/2008 - Ethics in Animal Experimentation of the Universidade Estadual de MaringÃƒÂ¡. Results: Animals treated with the medication
Quality improvements in decreasing medication administration errors made by nursing staff in an academic medical center hospital: a trend analysis during the journey to Joint Commission International accreditation and in the post-accreditation era
Full Text Available Hua-fen Wang,1 Jing-fen Jin,1 Xiu-qin Feng,1 Xin Huang,1 Ling-ling Zhu,2 Xiao-ying Zhao,3 Quan Zhou4 1Division of Nursing, 2Geriatric VIP Ward, Division of Nursing, 3Office of Quality Administration, 4Department of Pharmacy, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China Background: Medication errors may occur during prescribing, transcribing, prescription auditing, preparing, dispensing, administration, and monitoring. Medication administration errors (MAEs are those that actually reach patients and remain a threat to patient safety. The Joint Commission International (JCI advocates medication error prevention, but experience in reducing MAEs during the period of before and after JCI accreditation has not been reported. Methods: An intervention study, aimed at reducing MAEs in hospitalized patients, was performed in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China, during the journey to JCI accreditation and in the post-JCI accreditation era (first half-year of 2011 to first half-year of 2014. Comprehensive interventions included organizational, information technology, educational, and process optimization-based measures. Data mining was performed on MAEs derived from a compulsory electronic reporting system. Results: The number of MAEs continuously decreased from 143 (first half-year of 2012 to 64 (first half-year of 2014, with a decrease in occurrence rate by 60.9% (0.338% versus 0.132%, P<0.05. The number of MAEs related to high-alert medications decreased from 32 (the second half-year of 2011 to 16 (the first half-year of 2014, with a decrease in occurrence rate by 57.9% (0.0787% versus 0.0331%, P<0.05. Omission was the top type of MAE during the first half-year of 2011 to the first half-year of 2014, with a decrease by 50% (40 cases versus 20 cases. Intravenous administration error was the
Following the devastating Typhoon Haiyan that hit the Philippines last Autumn, a collection of funds to help the victims was organised at CERN. Today, we are happy to announce that an amount of 16 950 CHF was contributed. These funds were forwarded to Caritas Switzerland. Following the unprecedented storms and floods that have ravaged Serbia, Bosnia and Croatia last Spring, a collection of funds was organised at CERN to help the victims. Today, we are happy to announce that an amount of 6 630 CHF was contributed. These funds were forwarded to the Swiss Red Cross. On behalf of the victims in both catastrophes, we warmly thank all contributors.
Yves de La Taille
Full Text Available In the present research, we analyse the role of generosity in the moral universe of childhood. We begin by defining generosity as a moral virtue, comparing it with justice. Then, we present a literature review of generosity-related psychological elements (ethics of care, pro-social attitudes, sympathy and establish the hypothesis that this virtue is better understood than justice by subjects who are six and nine years of age. To test this hypothesis, we present the results of two empirical studies with 6 and 9 year old children, in which we asked that they attribute feelings to people acting unjustly and ungenerously. While we confirm previous studies showing that six year olds have the tendency to attribute positive feelings to unjust people, the results show that negative feelings are attributed to ungenerous people. The discussion of this data defends the hypothesis according to which generosity, being less dependent of adult rules and impositions, has deeper roots than justice in the child's moral conscience.
To what extent have relaxed eligibility requirements and increased generosity of disability benefits acted as disincentives for employment? A systematic review of evidence from countries with well-developed welfare systems
Barr, Ben; Clayton, Stephen; Whitehead, Margaret;
Reductions in the eligibility requirements and generosity of disability benefits have been introduced in several Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries in recent years, on the assumption that this will increase work incentives for people with chronic illness and...... disabilities. This paper systematically reviews the evidence for this assumption in the context of well-developed welfare systems....
Objective: To investigate the effects of intrathecal administration of ketamine, a non-competitive N-methy-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, combined with morphine on the activation of astrocytes and releases of IL-1β and IL-6 from spinal cord in the rats of morphine tolerance. Methods: Twenty-seven Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into sham-operated, morphine tolerance, and morphine plus ketamine group. The subarachnoid catheterization of all the rats was prepared by the method of Jianping Yang.Morphine 20 μg in 10 μl was administrated intrathecally to induce spinal morphine tolerance once daily for 5 consecutive days. Morphine and ketamine 250 μg in 10 μl total volume was given in morphine plus ketamine group. Three groups all received intrathecal morphine 5 μg in 10 μl for morphine challenge test at 24 h after last administration of the morphine. After morphine challenge test, lumbar spinal tissues were taken for measurement of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) of astrocyte in lumbar spinal horn cord by immunohistochemistry and IL-1βand IL-6 of spinal cord by ELISA. Results: The decrease of ％MPE induced by chronic intrathecal morphine was inhibited by ketamine and hyperalgesia and allodynia induced by morphine-withdrawl were alleviated. The average areas, the average absorbency (-A), the integral absorbency (A) of GFAP immuno-reactive cells in the dorsal horn, and IL-1β and IL-6 of spinal cord were significantly larger in morphine tolerance group than in morphine plus ketamine group. Conclusion: Co-administration of ketamine and morphine enhance antinociceptive effect of morphine and prevent the development of morphine tolerance. Ketamine might attenuate the activation of astrocytes and inhibit the release of IL-1β and IL-6 from spinal cord in repeated intrathecal morphine rats.
Systemic administration of kainic acid induces selective time dependent decrease in [125I]insulin-like growth factor I, [125I]insulin-like growth factor II and [125I]insulin receptor binding sites in adult rat hippocampal formation
Administration of kainic acid evokes acute seizure in hippocampal pathways that results in a complex sequence of functional and structural alterations resembling human temporal lobe epilepsy. The structural alterations induced by kainic acid include selective loss of neurones in CA1-CA3 subfields and the hilar region of the dentate gyrus followed by sprouting and permanent reorganization of the synaptic connections of the mossy fibre pathways. Although the neuronal degeneration and process of reactive synaptogenesis have been extensively studied, at present little is known about means to prevent pathological conditions leading to kainate-induced cell death. In the present study, to address the role of insulin-like growth factors I and II, and insulin in neuronal survival as well as synaptic reorganization following kainate-induced seizure, the time course alterations of the corresponding receptors were evaluated. Additionally, using histological preparations, the temporal profile of neuronal degeneration and hypertrophy of resident astroglial cells were also studied. [125I]Insulin-like growth factor I binding was found to be decreased transiently in almost all regions of the hippocampal formation at 12 h following treatment with kainic acid. The dentate hilar region however, exhibited protracted decreases in [125I]insulin-like growth factor I receptor sites throughout (i.e. 30 days) the study. [125I]Insulin-like growth factor II receptor binding sites in the hippocampal formation were found to be differentially altered following systemic administration of kainic acid. A significant decrease in [125I]insulin-like growth factor II receptor sites was observed in CA1 subfield and the pyramidal cell layer of the Ammon's horn at all time points studied whereas the hilar region and the stratum radiatum did not exhibit alteration at any time. A kainate-induced decrease in [125I]insulin receptor binding was noted at all time points in the molecular layer of the dentate
Intra-coronary administration of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products attenuates cardiac remodeling with decreased myocardial transforming growth factor-β1 expression and fibrosis in minipigs with ischemia-reperfusion injury
LU Lin; SHEN Wei-feng; ZHANG Qi; XU Yan; ZHU Zheng-bin; GENG Liang; WANG Ling-jie; JIN Cao; CHEN Qiu-jing; Ann Marie Schmidt
Background The cardioprotective effects of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) have not been evaluated in large animals and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of intra-coronary administration of sRAGE on left ventricular function and myocardial remodeling in a porcine model of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods Ten male minipigs with I/R injury were randomly allocated to receive intra-coronary administration of sRAGE (sRAGE group, n=5) or saline (control group, n=5). Echocardiography was performed before and 2 months after infarction. Myocardial expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1was determined by immunohistochemistry and fibrosis was evaluated by Sirius red staining. Results As compared with the baseline values in the control animals, left ventricular end-diastolic volume (from (19.5 5.1) to (32.3 5.6) ml, P <0.05) and end-systolic volume (from (8.3 3.2) to (15.2 4.1) ml, P <0.05) were significantly increased, whereas ejection fraction was decreased (from (61.6 13.3)% to (50.2 11.9)%, P<0.05). No obvious change in these parameters was observed in the sRAGE group. Myocardial expression of TGF-β1 was significantly elevated in the infarct and non-infarct regions in the control group, as compared with sRAGE group (both P<0.01). Fibrotic lesions were consistently more prominent in the infarct region of the myocardium in the control animals (P<0.05). Conclusion Intra-coronary sRAGE administration attenuates RAGE-mediated myocardial fibrosis and I/R injury through a TGF-β1-dependent mechanism, suggesting a clinical potential in treating RAGE/ligand-associated cardiovascular diseases.
Mitchell, Ian J; Gillespie, Steven M; Abu-Akel, Ahmad
Oxytocin (OT) plays a critical role in the formation of long lasting social attachments across a range of mammalian species. Raising intracerebral OT levels by intranasal administration of the neuropeptide (inOT) can also have pronounced effects on human sociocognitive functioning. inOT has been associated with increasing altruism, generosity, empathy and trust while decreasing fear, anxiety and stress reactions via neural mechanisms which are yet to be fully elucidated. The observation of the prosocial effects of OT has led to speculation about the role the peptide might play in some psychiatric conditions and debate as to its potential therapeutic uses. Here we note the great similarity in the sociocognitive effects that can be induced by inOT and the effects of acute consumption of modest does of alcohol. We further reflect on how both compounds may act on limbic and prefrontal cortical structures to increase GABAergic transmission, thereby facilitating the release of prepotent responses, that is, more automatic responses which are associated with earlier developmental stages. PMID:25956250
We investigate how undergraduates' financial aid packages affect their subsequent donative behavior as alumni. The empirical work is based upon micro data on alumni giving at an anonymous research university. We focus on three types of financial aid, scholarships, loans, and campus jobs. A novel aspect of our modeling strategy is that, consistent with the view of some professional fundraisers, we allow the receipt of a given form of aid per se to affect alumni giving. At the same time, our mo...
Quality improvements in decreasing medication administration errors made by nursing staff in an academic medical center hospital: a trend analysis during the journey to Joint Commission International accreditation and in the post-accreditation era
Hua-fen Wang,1 Jing-fen Jin,1 Xiu-qin Feng,1 Xin Huang,1 Ling-ling Zhu,2 Xiao-ying Zhao,3 Quan Zhou4 1Division of Nursing, 2Geriatric VIP Ward, Division of Nursing, 3Office of Quality Administration, 4Department of Pharmacy, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China Background: Medication errors may occur during prescribing, transcribing, prescription auditing, preparing, ...
Quality improvements in decreasing medication administration errors made by nursing staff in an academic medical center hospital: a trend analysis during the journey to Joint Commission International accreditation and in the post-accreditation era
Wang HF; Jin JF; Feng XQ; Huang X.; Zhu LL; Zhao XY; Zhou Q
Hua-fen Wang,1 Jing-fen Jin,1 Xiu-qin Feng,1 Xin Huang,1 Ling-ling Zhu,2 Xiao-ying Zhao,3 Quan Zhou4 1Division of Nursing, 2Geriatric VIP Ward, Division of Nursing, 3Office of Quality Administration, 4Department of Pharmacy, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China Background: Medication errors may occur during prescribing, transcribing, prescription auditing, preparing, disp...
Jin, Xinchun; Semenova, Svetlana; Yang, Li; Ardecky, Robert; Sheffler, Douglas J.; Dahl, Russell; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Cosford, Nicholas DP; Markou, Athina
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 (mGluR2/3) agonists were shown previously to nonselectively decrease both cocaine- and food-maintained responding in rats. mGluR2 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) may represent improved therapeutic compounds because of their modulatory properties and higher selectivity for mGluR2. We analyzed the effects of the selective, brain penetrant, and systemically active mGluR2 PAM potassium 3′-([(2-cyclopentyl-6-7-dimethyl-1-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)oxy]m...
Valdemiro Amaro da Silva Junior
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the application of fluoxetine a highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI in rats during the suckling period induces changes in testicular development. Groups of newborn male rats were randomly assigned with different doses of fluoxetine 24 hours after birth. Each litter stayed with its respective mother during 21 days. Body weight (BW was measured daily from the 1st -21st day to calculate daily doses of fluoxetine. 5 mg (T1, 10 mg (T2 20 mg (T3 or deionized water, were injected intraperitoneally. On the 21st day, animals were heparinized, anesthetized and blood was collected by cardiac puncture to determine by radioimmunoassay the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH levels. Testis were removed, weighed, and processed for morphometric analysis. Fluoxetine groups presented decreased body and testicular weight when compared with the control group on the 21st day. Our findings show that the manipulation of the serotoninergic system with fluoxetine during the critical period of testicular development alters the Sertoli cell population and all testicular parameters related to this cell.La propósito del presente estudio fue probar la hipótesis que el uso de fluoxetina - un inhibidor altamente selectivo de la serotonina (SSRI - induce cambios en el desarrollo testicular de ratas durante el período de amamantamiento. Los grupos de ratas macho recién nacidas fueron asignados aleatoriamente con diversas dosis del fluoxetina, 24 horas después del nacimiento. Cada cría permanecía con su madre respectiva durante 21 días. El peso corporal (BW fue medido diariamente desde el 21día 1 al 21, para calcular la dosis diarias del fluoxetina. 5 mg (T1, 10 mg (T2 y 20 (T3 o agua desionizada fueron inyectados intraperitonealmente. En el día 21, los animales fueron tratados con heparina, anestesiados y la sangre fue recogida por punción cardiaca para determinar por radioinmunoan
such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are...... both risk vulnerable and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...
Runge, Marx; Møller, Christian H; Steinbrüchel, Daniel A
Three to 5 percent of the patients undergoing cardiac surgery are reoperated because of bleeding. When a surgical cause can be excluded, heparin/protamine mismatch may be considered. Insufficient reversal of heparin and overdosing of protamine may cause postoperative bleeding. The purpose of the...... ACT values were obtained in both groups. Using the Hemochron RxDx, we observed a significant reduction in postoperative blood loss, as well as the amount of heparin and initial doses of protamine used during CPB. Individual patient managed anticoagulation during cardiac surgery using dose...
We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine....... Decreasing relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on...
A fast-paced, example-based guide to learning how to administrate, monitor, and optimize Apache Solr.""Administrating Solr"" is for developers and Solr administrators who have a basic knowledge of Solr and who are looking for ways to keep their Solr server healthy and well maintained. A basic working knowledge of Apache Lucene is recommended, but this is not mandatory.
Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.
One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…
After two decades of research on money laundering, it seems time to look at what we know and what progress has been made in research. One simple question is whether we know if money laundering has increased, stayed constant, or decreased over these years. This article shows that over the last two decades, money laundering could hardly have decreased. This is largely because the concept of money laundering has broadened. However, there are also some hints that traditional areas of laundering s...
Département des Ressources humaines
Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 2) - May 2004 Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff members This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 3) - May 2004 Staff members contracts This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 4) - May 2004 Procedure governing the career evolution of staff members This circular has also been revised. It Administrative Circulars Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 3) - December 2001 and brings up to date the French version (Rev. 4) published on the HR Department Web site in January 2004. Operational Circular N° 7 - May 2004 Work from home This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 8 - May 2004 Dealing with alcohol-related problems...
Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting, in this...
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave
The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter
The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...
McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda
This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…
Klimešová, Dana; Ocelíková, E.; Zolotová, I.
Košice: TU Košice, 2008 - (Vokorokos,, L.), s. 49-53 ISBN 978-80-553-0066-5. [International Conference on Applied Electrical Engineering and Informatics 2008. Athens (GR), 08.09.2008-11.09.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : decision * feature space * dimension reduction * Karhunen - Loeve transformation * principal component method Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/ZOI/klimesova-dimension decreasing of featurespace.pdf
This paper seeks to develop an understanding of the issues that public administrators should strive to provide in ethical practices and governance thus allowing distinctive administrative and social traditions that each country possess to flourish. Significant changes and continuities in the realm of government in contemporary China and Malaysia will be drawn upon. Recent developments have brought a sense of urgency in contrast to complacency with the status quo. This paper reviews pertinent ...
Nielsen, Elof Nellemann; Rehr, Preben René
En undervisningsbog der henvender sig til administrationsbacheloruddannelsen. Kapitlerne er inddelt efter modulerne på uddannelsen og indeholder derfor elementer af administration, forvaltning, økonomistyring, innovation, samfundsvidenskabelige metoder og politisk styrede organisationer.......En undervisningsbog der henvender sig til administrationsbacheloruddannelsen. Kapitlerne er inddelt efter modulerne på uddannelsen og indeholder derfor elementer af administration, forvaltning, økonomistyring, innovation, samfundsvidenskabelige metoder og politisk styrede organisationer....
SAT Administrator is the Information System for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training Program Design. It supports the design of training programs in the following phases: job analysis; task analysis; competency analysis; task competency association; definition of learning objectives to competencies; training program design; definition of test items. The general structure of the database and management software supports application of the SAT Administrator in any nuclear power installation
BRUCE, ROBERT L.; CARTER, G.L., JR.
IN THE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, STYLES OF LEADERSHIP PROFOUNDLY AFFECT THE QUALITY OF THE SERVICE RENDERED. ACCORDINGLY, MAJOR INFLUENCES ON ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE AND EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY ARE EXAMINED IN ESSAYS ON (1) SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION, (2) MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES BASED ON JOB-RELATED SATISFACTIONS AND NEEDS,…
The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…
This article reviews relevant administrative decisions that have been taken in various countries during the last semester of 1999 and the first one of 2000. In Argentina, an inter-ministerial commission has been settled to examine the prospects of completing the construction of the Atucha-2 unit. In Sweden, an agreement has been signed between Sydkraft, Vattenfall and the Swedish government on a compensation plan for the early shutdown of the Barsebaeck unit 1. In Switzerland, the government of the canton of Bern has rejected a constitutional initiative requesting the shutdown of the Muehleberg nuclear power plant. (A.C.)
Xiaofei Pan; Daniel Houser
Background Cooperation is indispensable in human societies, and much progress has been made towards understanding human pro-social decisions. Formal incentives, such as punishment, are suggested as potential effective approaches despite the fact that punishment can crowd out intrinsic motives for cooperation and detrimentally impact efficiency. At the same time, evolutionary biologists have long recognized that cooperation, especially food sharing, is typically efficiently organized in groups...
Xu, Bin; Lien, Jaimie W; Zheng, Jie; Wang, Zhijian
Promoting cooperation is an intellectual challenge in the social sciences, for which the iterated Prisoners' Dilemma (IPD) is a fundamental framework. The traditional view that there exists no simple ultimatum strategy whereby one player can unilaterally control the share of the surplus has been challenged by a new class of "zero-determinant" (ZD) strategies raised by Press and Dyson. In particular, the extortionate strategies can subdue the opponent and obtain higher scores. However, no empirical evidence has yet been found to support this theoretical finding. In a long-run laboratory experiment of the iterated Prisoners' Dilemma pairing each human subject with a computer co-player, we demonstrate that the extortionate strategy indeed outperforms the generous strategy against human subjects. Our results show that the extortionate strategy achieves higher scores than the generous strategy, the extortionate strategy promotes the cooperation rate to a similar level as the generous strategy does, and the human s...
The task of my master´s thesis was to work up a project and a check of a bearing steel construction the multi-storey office building with a garage in Brno. The building is composed of five storey office section and two storey of garage. Ground dimension of administrative part is 38,8m x 35m with distance of pillars 7m,6m and 6,4m. The structural height of floor is 3,5m.Garage is designed with dimensions 36m x 24,8m with structural height of floor 3,5m. Distance of pillars is 5,6m, 6,4m and 7,...
Division des ressources humaines
N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff membersN° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000Staff members contractsN° 16 (Rev. 2) - January 2000TrainingN° 30 (Rev. 1) - January 2000Indemnities and reimbursements upon taking up appointment and termination of contractN° 32 - February 2000Principles and procedures governing complaints of harassmentThese circular have been amended (No 2, N° 9, N° 16 and N° 30) or drawn up (N° 32).Copies are available in the Divisional Secretariats.Note:\tAdministrative and operational circulars, as well as the lists of those in force, are available for consultation in the server SRV4_Home in the Appletalk zone NOVELL (as GUEST or using your Novell username and password), volume PE Division Data Disk.The Word files are available in the folder COM, folder Public, folder ADM.CIRC.docHuman Resources DivisionTel. 74128
UDAYSINH R. MANEPATIL
Hospital administration is the management of the hospital as a business. The administration is made up of medical and health services managers (sometimes called health care executives and health care administrators) and assistant administrators. Administrations range in size and the duties of the administrator depends on the size of the administration.
Conradsen, Inger Marie; Gøtze, Michael
Administrative Appeals, review, administrative tribunals, ombudsman, alternative dispute resolution......Administrative Appeals, review, administrative tribunals, ombudsman, alternative dispute resolution...
Posner, Gary J.
Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)
Cardon, David A.
In this paper we study the effect of linear differential operators coming from the Laguerre-Polya class that act on functions in the extended Laguerre-Polya class with zeros in a horizontal strip in the complex plane. These operator decrease the size of the strip containing the zeros.
Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G;
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p < .001), the incidence rate of community-acquired bacteremia decreased by 25.6% from 119.0 to 93.8 (3.7% annually, p < .001) and the...... incidence rate of nosocomial bacteremia decreased by 28.9% from 82.2 to 56.0 (4.2% annually, p < .001). The incidence rate of healthcare-associated bacteremia remained stable. The most common microorganisms were Escherichia coli (28.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (12.3%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (10...
Department of Veterans Affairs — The Administrative Data Repository (ADR) was established to provide support for the administrative data elements relative to multiple categories of a person entity...
Riiser, Amund; Hovland, Vegard; Mowinckel, Petter; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Carlsen, Karin Lødrup
Limited knowledge exists about development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) through adolescence. We aimed to assess changes in and risk factors for BHR in adolescence. From a Norwegian birth cohort 517 subjects underwent clinical examinations, structured interviews and methacholine challenges at age 10 and 16. BHR was divided into four categories: no BHR (cumulative methacholine dose required to reduce FEV(1) by 20% (PD(20)) >16 μmol), borderline BHR (PD(20) ≤16 and >8 μmol), mild to moderate BHR (PD(20) ≤8 and >1 μmol), and severe BHR (PD(20) ≤ 1 μmol). Logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors and possible confounders. The number of children with PD(20) ≤ 8 decreased from 172 (33%) to 79 (15%) from age 10-16 (p 25% change) of gender, active rhinitis, active asthma, height, FEV(1)/FVC, or allergic sensitization. BHR decreased overall in severity through adolescence, was stable for the majority of children and only a minority (8%) had increased BHR from age 10 to 16. Mild to moderate and severe BHR at age 10 were major risk factors for PD(20) ≤ 8 at 16 years and not modified by asthma or body size. PMID:22015380
Use of forest chips was studied in 1999 in the national Puuenergia (Wood Energy) research program. Wood combusting heating plants were questioned about are the main reasons restricting the increment of the use of forest chips. Heating plants, which did not use forest chips at all or which used less than 250 m3 (625 bulk- m3) in 1999 were excluded. The main restrictions for additional use of forest chips were: too high price of forest chips; lack of suppliers and/or uncertainty of deliveries; technical problems of reception and processing of forest chips; insufficiency of boiler output especially in winter; and unsatisfactory quality of chips. The price of forest chips becomes relatively high because wood biomass used for production of forest chips has to be collected from wide area. Heavy equipment has to be used even though small fragments of wood are processed, which increases the price of chips. It is essential for forest chips that the costs can be pressed down because competition with fossil fuels, peat and industrial wood residues is hard. Low market price leads to the situation in which forest owner gets no price of the raw material, the entrepreneurs operate at the limit of profitability and renovation of machinery is difficult, and forest chips suppliers have to sell the chips at prime costs. Price of forest chips has decreased significantly during the past decade. Nominal price of forest chips is now lower than two decades ago. The real price of chips has decreased even more than the nominal price, 35% during the past decade and 20% during the last five years. Chips, made of small diameter wood, are expensive because the price includes the felling costs and harvesting is carried out at thinning lots. Price is especially high if chips are made of delimbed small diameter wood due to increased the work and reduced amount of chips. The price of logging residue chips is most profitable because cutting does not cause additional costs. Recovery of chips is
... Service 7 CFR Part 920 Kiwifruit Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural... assessment rate established for the Kiwifruit Administrative Committee (Committee) for the 2013-14 and... in California. Assessments upon kiwifruit handlers are used by the Committee to fund reasonable...
Chaffee, Ellen Earle
Patterns that emerged from reviewing 26 syllabi for courses on organization and administration in higher education are discussed, and six sample syllabi are presented. The syllabi focused more on organization than administration. Of the 26 syllabi, 19 dealt with organization and administration generally; 5 with administration in a specific…
Full Text Available Neetu Tyagi*, Thomas P Vacek*, John T Fleming, Jonathan C Vacek, Suresh C TyagiDepartment of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA *These authors have equal authorshipAbstract: Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy, known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, are associated with osteoporosis. A decrease in bone blood flow is a potential cause of compromised bone mechanical properties. Therefore, we hypothesized that HHcy decreases bone blood flow and biomechanical properties. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague–Dawley rats were treated with Hcy (0.67 g/L in drinking water for 8 weeks. Age-matched rats served as controls. At the end of the treatment period, the rats were anesthetized. Blood samples were collected from experimental or control rats. Biochemical turnover markers (body weight, Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate were measured. Systolic blood pressure was measured from the right carotid artery. Tibia blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flow probe. The results indicated that Hcy levels were significantly higher in the Hcy-treated group than in control rats, whereas vitamin B12 levels were lower in the Hcy-treated group compared with control rats. There was no significant difference in folate concentration and blood pressure in Hcy-treated versus control rats. The tibial blood flow index of the control group was significantly higher (0.78 ± 0.09 flow unit compared with the Hcy-treated group (0.51 ± 0.09. The tibial mass was 1.1 ± 0.1 g in the control group and 0.9 ± 0.1 in the Hcy-treated group. The tibia bone density was unchanged in Hcy-treated rats. These results suggest that Hcy causes a reduction in bone blood flow, which contributes to compromised bone biomechanical properties.Keywords: homocysteine, tibia, bone density
In the thesis titled Organization of Public Administration I concentrated in the review of national and foreign literature. My decision for this topic is based on the personal interest and relevance of the topic in this particular period of time. The purpose of my work was to present the public administration in general, with focus in public administration of Slovenia. At first, the theoretical background of public administration is presented, with following topics addressed: public administr...
The activity of administrative bodies includes big numbers of various acts and actions, through which the will of public administration is formed. The will of public administration bodies, expressed in administrative individual and normative acts, in administrative contracts and real acts, finds its reflection in the Constitution, laws and other provisions of legal character. All this activity is not inerrant and therefore, it is not uncontrollable. The supervision of executive activity is su...
To understand the constant increase in administration, we need a new approach to the administration. For many years, the administration has intensified as a closed science, associated only with economics, law and political science. However, this approach did not bring anything good, because almost nothing in the administration has improved. Therefore, it is necessary to connect the administration with the natural sciences which give the best description of the world around us. Because of this...
Full Text Available The activity of administrative bodies includes big numbers of various acts and actions, through which the will of public administration is formed. The will of public administration bodies, expressed in administrative individual and normative acts, in administrative contracts and real acts, finds its reflection in the Constitution, laws and other provisions of legal character. All this activity is not inerrant and therefore, it is not uncontrollable. The supervision of executive activity is subject to political control of administrative acts through authorities designated for this purpose, as well as internal control and the judicial control. The institution of judicial control of administrative acts and actions appears as very important and widely treated in the legal doctrine. The protection of constitutional and legal rights of private persons is accomplished by subjecting administrative activity both to internal administrative control, as well as to the judicial control in accordance with legal provisions. The judicial control of administrative acts represents a constitutional guarantee for citizens to protect their rights through public and fair trial by an independent and impartial court. In this way, the Constitution empowers the common administrative court that invalidates an action or administrative act, but not all administrative acts may be subject to administrative dispute, with the exception of cases against which the administrative conflict cannot be carried out (negative enumeration.
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P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy; Rajabifard, Abbas
This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of ...
Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, S.
Flexibility of management is an important requisite for access control systems as it allows users to adapt the access control system in accordance with practical requirements. This paper builds on earlier work where we defined administrative policies for a general class of RBAC models. We present a formal definition of administrative refinnement and we show that there is an ordering for administrative privileges which yields administrative refinements of policies. We argue (by giving an examp...
Bachelor's Thesis deals with a development of administrative justice. The first part of the paper defines the term of administrative justice in general and then describes various types. The second part is focused on the history of administrative justice in our country. The third part describes the current legislation in the Czech Republic. The fourth section is entirely devoted to the Supreme Administrative Court. Define the function and organization at first and then there are analyzed speci...
The objective of the promotion work, based on the result analysis of the specific economical literature and tax administration praxis worldwide and in Latvia, is to elaborate proposals for the development of tax administration in Latvia. The work consists of three chapters. In the first chapter of the work viewpoints on the essence and functions of tax administration encountered in the scientific literature have been researched and factors affecting tax administration have been analyzed. T...
An easy-to-follow Apache Hadoop administrator's guide filled with practical screenshots and explanations for each step and configuration. This book is great for administrators interested in setting up and managing a large Hadoop cluster. If you are an administrator, or want to be an administrator, and you are ready to build and maintain a production-level cluster running CDH5, then this book is for you.
Administration is the art of getting tasks done by utilizing the resources and coordinating the people. Administrators give trigger to the administration by coordinating, and directing all parts of an organization by managing the tangible and intangible resources of the organization. The qualities of leadership are therefore a critical determinant of organizational success. The theories of leadership (Trait to Transformational leadership theory) have strived to look into the aspects that make...
Iversen, Marie Beck; Jensen, Simon Kok; Hansen, Anne Louise;
that received local pre-treatment with αGalCer prior to intra-vaginal HSV-2 infection had a lower mean disease score, mortality and viral load in the vagina following infection, compared to mice that did not receive αGalCer pre-treatment. Further, we found increased numbers of CD45 and NK1.1 positive cells...
Popelová, Andrea; Maletínská, Lenka; Pražienková, Veronika; Zemenová, Jana; Holubová, Martina; Mikulášková, Barbora; Železná, Blanka; Kuneš, Jaroslav
Praha: Ústav organické chemie a biochemie AV ČR, 2016 - (Kuda, O.). s. 19 ISBN 978-80-86241-54-8. [Česká lipidomická konference /5./. 21.04.2016-22.04.2016, Praha] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : prolactin-releasing peptide * lipidization * food intake Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition
Parsons, Robert W.
Research has indicated that there is a positive relationship between students who enroll in arts education courses and students who excel academically (Stuht & Gates, 2007). Not only has participation in arts education classes and programs assisted students in academic achievement, but also participation in the arts has helped students develop…
Runge, Marx; Møller, Christian H; Steinbrüchel, Daniel A
Three to 5 percent of the patients undergoing cardiac surgery are reoperated because of bleeding. When a surgical cause can be excluded, heparin/protamine mismatch may be considered. Insufficient reversal of heparin and overdosing of protamine may cause postoperative bleeding. The purpose of the ...
The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.
Day, J. P.
This guide aims to instruct the CDS database administrator in: o The CDS file system. o The CDS index files. o The procedure for assimilating a new CDS tape into the database. It is assumed that the administrator has read SUN/79.
The article presents an attempt of description of Lean Administration concept. The pre- requisites and principles of Lean Administration system is given. Next, the functions and perspectives of “lean” activities are discussed together with methodological framework. The steps and auxiliary methods are also defined.
Written in a cookbook format with practical recipes this book helps you to perform various administrative tasks using Webmin and enables you to perform common jobs more efficiently.This book is perfect for System administrators who want to learn more advanced concepts of Webmin and how it can help to set up a server for development, testing or deployment.
P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy;
This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems. Readers may recall the first part of the paper in October issue of Coordinates. Here is the concluding part that focuses on the changing...
Discussion of the trends towards more uses of postmodern analysis within the discipline of public administration, particularly in the USA......Discussion of the trends towards more uses of postmodern analysis within the discipline of public administration, particularly in the USA...
If you are a Linux administrator who is looking to gain knowledge that differentiates yourself from the crowd, then this is the book for you. Beginners who have a keen interest to learn more about Linux administration will also progress quickly with this resourceful learning guide.
Bergen, J. J., Ed.
This collection of papers focuses on school administration and its relation to students. It is contended that toay's student matures earlier; has higher expectations; is more affluent; is more isolated from adults; is more critical and outspoken; and, therefore, must be heard by teachers and administrators. A related document is EA 001578.…
Oral treatment with cytotoxic agents is to be preferred as this administration route is convenient to patients, reduces administration costs and facilitates the use of more chronic treatment regimens. For the taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel, however, low oral bioavailability has limited development
Becker, Kirk A.; Bergstrom, Betty A.
The need for increased exam security, improved test formats, more flexible scheduling, better measurement, and more efficient administrative processes has caused testing agencies to consider converting the administration of their exams from paper-and-pencil to computer-based testing (CBT). Many decisions must be made in order to provide an optimal…
ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR NO. 23 (REV. 2) – SPECIAL WORKING HOURS Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 2) entitled "Special working hours", approved following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 9 December 2008, will be available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department as from 19 December 2008: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 1) entitled "Stand-by duty" of April 1988. A "Frequently Asked Questions" information document on special working hours will also be available on this site. Paper copies of this circular will shortly be available in departmental secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003
ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR NO. 23 (REV. 2) – SPECIAL WORKING HOURS Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 2) entitled "Special working hours", approved following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee on 9 December 2008, will be available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department as from 19 December 2008: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 1) entitled "Stand-by duty" of April 1988. A "Frequently Asked Questions" information document on special working hours will also be available on this site. Paper copies of this circular will shortly be available in Departmental Secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003
We can all be Linux experts, provided we invest the time in learning the craft of Linux administration. Pro Linux System Administration makes it easy for small to medium--sized businesses to enter the world of zero--cost software running on Linux and covers all the distros you might want to use, including Red Hat, Ubuntu, Debian, and CentOS. Authors, and systems infrastructure experts James Turnbull, Peter Lieverdink, and Dennis Matotek take a layered, component--based approach to open source business systems, while training system administrators as the builders of business infrastructure. If
argued that the changes in administrative practices during the last decade constitute a transformation, but also a reproduction of relations between knowledge and governing that goes back to the big expansion of the welfare state. Second, it is argued that these relations between knowledge and governing...... are not restricted to the administrative practices, but are part of education and its humanistic legacy as well. As such, the administrative demand of documentation becomes possible and recognisable through its reproductive elements. Elements that are constituted in a transformative conjunction in...
... 04/30/2016) New CDC Autism Data Highlights Importance of Long-term Services and Supports, Cultural Competency ( ... STAY CONNECTED Facebook Twitter YouTube E-mail Updates Administration for Community Living • Washington, DC 20201 Last Modified: ...
P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy;
This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...... in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...... part focuses on the changing role of ownership and the role of land markets, and a land management vision will be published in November issue of Coordinates. Udgivelsesdato: Oktober...
Social Security Administration — The purpose of this agreement is for SSA to verify SSNs and other identifying information for the Department of Veterans Affairs, VHA. DVA will use the information...
Article denouncing the supposed impartiality of signatories of a report released by the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), which accused the Bush administration of systemically suborning objective science to a political agenda (1 page).
Institute of Museum and Library Services — This dataset of administrative records contains discretionary grant recipients who were awarded funds by the Institute of Museum and Library Services from fiscal...
This article discusses education of system administration. Theoretical foundations cover psychology, learning theory, instruction theory, and instructional design, leading to an ideal progression for education, and related tools. The main part describes an existing class on system administration as given at the University of Applied Sciences (Fachhochschule, FH) Regensburg, Germany. It is analyzed for its history and target audience, the current curriculum, course layout, and for the didac...
A step-by-step guide to learn how to set up security on Linux servers by taking SELinux policies into your own hands.Linux administrators will enjoy the various SELinux features that this book covers and the approach used to guide the admin into understanding how SELinux works. The book assumes that you have basic knowledge in Linux administration, especially Linux permission and user management.
This dissertation deals with the topic of the corruption in a public administration. It is aimed at an identification of key corruption threats which are typical for a public administration, further at an analysis of the corruption causes and its forms, an identification of its developmental stages, including the analysis of current anti-corruption measures and drafts to an optimal answer within the Czech Republic. The theoretical part of this dissertation in its indroduction contents the ...
This book is a practical, hands-on guide, taking the reader from the basics of using Cassandra though to the installation and the running.Learning Cassandra for Administrators is for administrators who manage a large deployment of Cassandra clusters, and support engineers who would like to install the monitoring tools and who are also in charge of making sure the cluster stays the same, ensuring that the service is always up and running.
M .R. Sindhu; Viraj M. Jamle; Pramod M. Shelke; Shrikant G. Baheti
The basic and universal corner stone of good governance are quality of service, quick response mechanisms and above all accountable and transparent process mechanism. The active city administration initiatives resulted in computerization of the legacy systems in government with limited ability to internalize the advances in information and communication technologies.By using active city administration services we able to know real time, quantitative and basic approach of the government servic...
G. E. Gale
Full Text Available All scientific work must be carried out against a background of adequate administrative support if it is to become effective and produce useful results. Administration is not a job for which we, as scientists, are particularly trained; and it is a thing of which we tend to fight shy, partly because, author suppose, most Of peoples are associate the administrator with highly unpleasant matters such as income tax, delays in getting our pay cheques, and so on - For that reason we do not feel, always pay sufficient attention to administrative affairs ; rather like the ostrich, we try to escape from them by merely ignoring them. But that is a wrong and unfruitful attitude to adopt. All live so much under the activities of the trained administrator that should, if, it give a great deal of thought to our own administrative problems deliberate and conscious thought to them-and make an honest and heart-searching self analysis regarding our own possible failings.
Schlemmer, A; Ravn, Pernille; Hassager, C;
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of intranasal salmon calcitonin (sCT) administration (200 IE), given either in the morning (8:00) or evening (21:00), on the known circadian variation in biochemical markers of bone turnover. An open, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover......). Serum osteocalcin (sOC) was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The first 24 h study was performed without intervention. Prior to this control study the participants were randomized to either morning (8:00) or evening (21:00) sCT (200 IE). sCT administrations were given 4-5 days prior to and during the...... in late afternoon. Both morning and evening administration of sCT significantly decreased the urinary excretion of CrossLaps/Cr approximately 3-6 h after administration with a subsequent rebound effect. sOC did not exhibit a significant circadian variation and was not affected by the calcitonin. The...
Gasiorowska, Agata; Chaplin, Lan Nguyen; Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz; Wygrab, Sandra; Vohs, Kathleen D
People can get most of their needs broadly satisfied in two ways: by close communal ties and by dealings with people in the marketplace. These modes of relating-termed communal and market-often necessitate qualitatively different motives, behaviors, and mind-sets. We reasoned that activating market mode would produce behaviors consistent with it and impair behaviors consistent with communal mode. In a series of experiments, money-the market-mode cue-was presented to Polish children ages 3 to 6. We measured communal behavior by prosocial helpfulness and generosity and measured market behavior by performance and effort. Results showed that handling money (compared with other objects) increased laborious effort and reduced helpfulness and generosity. The effects of money primes were not due to the children's mood, liking for money, or task engagement. This work is the first to demonstrate that young children tacitly understand market mode and also understand that money is a cue to shift into it. PMID:26786823
Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States) SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (United States)); Fowler, J.S.; Ferrieri, R.; Schlyer, D.J.; Alexoff, D.; Warner, D.; Wolf, A.P.; Pappas, N.; King, P.; Wong, C. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Hitzemann, R.J. (SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (United States)); Lieberman, J. (Hillside Hospital, Glen Oaks, NY (United States))
To assess the effects of methylphenidate (MP) on cerebral blood flow (CBF), 5 healthy males were studied using [sup 15]O-water and positron emission tomography before and after MP (0.5mg/kg iv). MP significantly decreased whole brain CBF at 5-10 minutes (25[+-]11%) and at 30 minutes (20[+-]10%) after its administration. Decrements in CBF were homogeneous throughout the brain (regional decrements 23-30%) and probably reflect the vasoactive properties of MP. The vasoactive properties of MP should be considered when prescribing this drug chronically and/or when giving it to subjects with cerebrovascular compromise.
...'s Regulatory Capital. 108.585 Section 108.585 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Managing the Operations of a NMVC Company Voluntary Decrease in Regulatory Capital § 108.585 Voluntary decrease in NMVC Company's Regulatory Capital. You...
... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 915 Avocados Grown in South Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY... decreases the assessment rate established for the Avocado Administrative Committee (Committee) for the 2012... avocados handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order which regulates the handling...
Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan; Jilke, Sebastian; Olsen, Asmus Leth; Tummers, Lars
We propose behavioral public administration as a designated subfield in public administration which explicitly deals with the integration of theories and methods from psychology into the study of public administration. We discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw on both methodological and theoretical innovations in psychology and point to research questions in public administration which could benefit from further integration. Behavioral public administration cannot, and s...
other words: Good governance and sustainable development is not attainable without sound land administration or - more broadly – sound land management. The paper presents a land management vision that incorporates the benefits of ICT enabled land administration functions. The idea is that spatial......Good governance is a qualitative term or an ideal which may be difficult to achieve. Different people, organisations, and government authorities will define “good governance” according to their own experience and interests. In any case, almost all kind of government includes a spatial component. In...... enabling of land administration systems managing tenure, valuation, planning, and development will allow the information generated by these activities to be much more useful. Also, the services available to private and public sectors and to community organisations should commensurably improve. Knowledge...
If you're an experienced system administrator looking to acquire Linux skills, or a seasoned Linux user facing a new challenge, Linux System Administration offers practical knowledge for managing a complete range of Linux systems and servers. The book summarizes the steps you need to build everything from standalone SOHO hubs, web servers, and LAN servers to load-balanced clusters and servers consolidated through virtualization. Along the way, you'll learn about all of the tools you need to set up and maintain these working environments. Linux is now a standard corporate platform with user
Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.
Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.
As time goes on, system administrators are presented with increasingly complicated challenges. In the early days, a team of engineers might have had to look after one or two systems. These days, one engineer can administer hundreds or thousands of systems. System administrators are gradually replacing their tools with more advanced and flexible ones. One of the choices is Python. Structurally, Python is a modern, high-level language with a very clean syntax. Python comes with many built-in libraries that can make automation tasks easier. It also has extensive set of third-party libraries and a
If you're familiar with JIRA for issue tracking, bug tracking, and other uses, you know it can sometimes be tricky to set up and manage. In this concise book, software toolsmith Matt Doar clarifies some of the more confusing aspects by answering difficult and frequently asked questions about JIRA administration. Practical JIRA Administration shows you how JIRA is intended to be used, making it an ideal supplement to the extensive documentation already available. The book's chapters are loosely connected, so you can go straight to the information that best serves your needs. Understand the di
... Reduction: Getting the Most From the U.S. Fire Administration’s Daily National Operations Brief PDF 127 KB There ... staff. Follow us: Twitter Facebook YouTube U.S. Fire Administration 16825 S. Seton Ave. , Emmitsburg , MD 21727 USA 800‑ ...
the Head of MSc programmes, the MSc coordinator as well as the administrative secretary. A student panel meets with the department twice in the first year: Early in February to sum up experience from the first semester and in early in June to sum up experience from the second semester. At semester...
The art of being persuasive involves use of selected persuasive techniques appropriate to the individual and situation. Persuasive techniques are powerful tools of communication and productivity. Effective use of persuasive techniques can provide motivation to others and can mobilize them toward action that you, as an administrator, desire. PMID:11962076
IT departments everywhere will be integrating Macs and Mac OS X into their IT infrastructure and this book will tell them how to do it. It will serve as an authoritative, useful and frequently referenced book on Mac OS X administration.
The relativity of coagulant dosage, residual turbidity, temperature, pH etc. with residual aluminum concentration were investigated, and several important conclusions were achieved. Firstly, dosage of alum-coagulant or PAC1 influences residual aluminum concentration greatly. There is an optimal-dosage-to-aluminum, a bit less than the optimal-dosage-to-turbidity. Secondly, it proposes that decreasing residual aluminum concentration can be theoretically divided into two methods, either decreasing (even removing) the concentration of particulate aluminum component, or decreasing dissolved aluminum. In these tests there is an optimal value of residual turbidity of postprecipitation at 7.0 NTU. Thirdly, residual aluminum level will increase while water temperature goes higher. At the last, optimal pH value corresponds a minimum dissolved aluminum at a given turbidity. Data shows the optimal pH value decreases with water temperature's increasing.
Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan; Jilke, Sebastian; Olsen, Asmus Leth;
We propose behavioral public administration as a designated subfield in public administration which explicitly deals with the integration of theories and methods from psychology into the study of public administration. We discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw on both...... methodological and theoretical innovations in psychology and point to research questions in public administration which could benefit from further integration. Behavioral public administration cannot, and should not, replace ‘conventional’ public administration, but it is complementary to it. Importantly......, behavioral public administration represents a two-way street in which public administration scholars use theories and methods from psychology, and psychologists, in turn, learn from our setting of political-administrative contexts to refine their theories and methods. Finally, we propose four principals to...
Wang, Zhijian; Zhou, Yanran; Lien, Jaimie W; Zheng, Jie; Xu, Bin
Zero-determinant (ZD) strategies, as discovered by Press and Dyson, can enforce a linear relationship between a pair of players' scores in the iterated prisoner's dilemma. Particularly, the extortionate ZD strategies can enforce and exploit cooperation, providing a player with a score advantage, and consequently higher scores than those from either mutual cooperation or generous ZD strategies. In laboratory experiments in which human subjects were paired with computer co-players, we demonstrate that both the generous and the extortionate ZD strategies indeed enforce a unilateral control of the reward. When the experimental setting is sufficiently long and the computerized nature of the opponent is known to human subjects, the extortionate strategy outperforms the generous strategy. Human subjects' cooperation rates when playing against extortionate and generous ZD strategies are similar after learning has occurred. More than half of extortionate strategists finally obtain an average score higher than that from mutual cooperation. PMID:27067513
Wang, Zhijian; Zhou, Yanran; Lien, Jaimie W.; Zheng, Jie; Xu, Bin
Zero-determinant (ZD) strategies, as discovered by Press and Dyson, can enforce a linear relationship between a pair of players' scores in the iterated prisoner's dilemma. Particularly, the extortionate ZD strategies can enforce and exploit cooperation, providing a player with a score advantage, and consequently higher scores than those from either mutual cooperation or generous ZD strategies. In laboratory experiments in which human subjects were paired with computer co-players, we demonstrate that both the generous and the extortionate ZD strategies indeed enforce a unilateral control of the reward. When the experimental setting is sufficiently long and the computerized nature of the opponent is known to human subjects, the extortionate strategy outperforms the generous strategy. Human subjects' cooperation rates when playing against extortionate and generous ZD strategies are similar after learning has occurred. More than half of extortionate strategists finally obtain an average score higher than that from mutual cooperation. PMID:27067513
On October 8th of this year, the northern part of Pakistan was hit by a massive earthquake which resulted in one of the worst natural disasters in a century, leaving more than 75,000 dead, at least as many injured and at least 3 million people homeless, in a mountainous region where the winter season is very cold. It would have been unthinkable for the CERN Community to remain indifferent to those events, firstly for general humanitarian reasons of course, and more specifically because it concerned some of our collaborators in the LHC project. Today, we can be proud of our response to the dramatic needs in Pakistan. Even if it seems rather small on the global scale of those needs, our contribution is significant, especially given the short period over which it was collected. We have been able to raise 56,032.50 CHF (as the UBS account is still open, some money was transferred after the official end of the campaign), which is not only well beyond our initial goal of 30,000 CHF but even beyond our redefined ...
This article examines the argument whereby the more specific the human capital of the workforce is, the less such individuals can expect to receive in benefits if and when they experience unemployment. We present a theoretical model for understanding how the composition of human capital determines the level of unemployment benefits. This model shows that, depending on the scenario chosen for the management of the insurance fund, the proportion of individuals with specific human capital can le...
Krátký, Jan; McGraw, John J.; Xygalatas, Dimitris;
do not always act as deliberative, rational actors. Various studies have investigated the effects of both material cues and complex environmental settings on behavioral choices. One particularly common and salient aspect of the environment involves cues related to intentional agents, whether they be......Decisions made in everyday situations are carried out in complex environments rich in socially salient cues that influence the individual's decisions. A wide range of experimental work coming from social psychology and behavioral economics shows that, contrary to the standard economic model, people...... our conspecifics, non-human species or supernatural beings. A number of studies have found that exposing participants to cues of agency increase prosocial or cooperative behavior. In two separate studies, we investigated the role dimensionality plays in priming inferences of agency. In contrast to...
Land administration systems are the operational tool for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) in land. Each of the rights, restrictions and responsibilities encompasses a human rights dimension that relates to the overall national land policies and should be unfolded as...... more than just rhetoric. This paper attempts to analyse the aspects of human rights in relation to land administration systems with a special focus on developing countries struggling to build adequate systems for governing the rights, restrictions and responsibilities in land. Human rights are the...... of being alive. Of special interest in relation to land and property is the right to own things and the right of food and adequate housing for all. More generally, human rights should be seen as an ethical responsibility of government to ensure that people enjoy some basic rights as human beings...
Lee, Christopher Jon; The ATLAS collaboration; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Ballestrero, Sergio; Contescu, Alexandru Cristian; Dubrov, Sergei; Fazio, Daniel; Korol, Aleksandr; Scannicchio, Diana; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Voronkov, Artem
The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system is responsible for the online processing of live data, streaming from the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The online farm is composed of ̃3000 servers, processing the data readout from ̃100 million detector channels through multiple trigger levels. During the two years of the first Long Shutdown (LS1) there has been a tremendous amount of work done by the ATLAS TDAQ System Administrators, implementing numerous new software applications, upgrading the OS and the hardware, changing some design philosophies and exploiting the High Level Trigger farm with different purposes. During the data taking only critical security updates are applied and broken hardware is replaced to ensure a stable operational environment. The LS1 provided an excellent opportunity to look into new technologies and applications that would help to improve and streamline the daily tasks of not only the System Administrators, but also of the scientists who wil...
@@ The long-anticipated anti-monopoly law needs to better address the crucial distinction between administrative and economic monopolies The first five months of 2oo6 saw a surge in the profits achieved by key State enterprises, especially in the eight sectors including petroleum, telecommunication and electricity, which achieved 285 billion yuan (US$36 billion) in profits, accounting for about 86 percent of the total, according to a July report. From the Stateowned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State (SASAC). This news was both heartening and disquieting, for the most profitable sectors happen to be monopolistic enterprises, mostly upstream the production chain, who achieve their profitability at the expense of those companies further downstream. For years these sectors have been at the centre of the "bust-the-trust" storm.
Murphy, Niall Richard
This essential guide explains what works, what doesn't, and most of all, what's practical about IPv6--the next-generation Internet standard. A must-have for network administrators everywhere looking to fix their network's scalability and management problems. Also covers other IPv6 benefits, such as routing, integrated auto-configuration, quality-of-services (QoS), enhanced mobility, and end-to-end security.
Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....
If you are an experienced system administrator and know how to manage servers and set up web environments but now want to explore Moodle, this book is perfect for you. You'll get to grips with the basics and learn to manage Moodle quickly, focusing on essential tasks. Having prior knowledge of virtual learning environments would be beneficial, but is not mandatory to make the most of this book.
Myskin, Y. I.
The history of formation and development of tax administration is studied. The stages of genesis of tax administration are identified and described. The historically caused major trends in tax administration which are based on knowledge of the nature of causality are formulated. Досліджено історію становлення та розвитку управління оподаткуванням. Визначено та охарактеризовано етапи генезису управління оподаткуванням. На основі пізнання природи причинно-наслідкових зв’язків сфо...
This chapter analyses recent developments in tax administration and best practice. The chapter begins by contextualizing tax administration through a discussion on the necessary separation between the operational tasks performed in tax administration and the more generic, but nevertheless crucial, issues of organization, strategy and internal management required in tax administration. The chapter then describes the recent genesis and the current context of tax administration - especially in E...
Fadil ZENDELI; Memet MEMETI; Agron RUSTEMI
Judicial control of administration and installation of courts as specialized institutions for resolving administrative disputes (conflicts) strengthened legitimacy, efficiency and accountability of the administrative bodies and this contributed to strengthening the protection of human rights against administrative bodies. The paper attempts to address the administrative disputes (conflict) in general hence giving specific data for some European countries and USA. Access to thesis topic is ana...
Aso P??rez, Ester; Maldonado, Rafael; Murtra, Patricia; Balerio, Graciela N.; Berrendero D??az, Fernando, 1971-
The possible interactions between Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and nicotine remain unclear in spite of the current association of cannabis and tobacco in humans. The aim of the present study was to explore the interactions between these two drugs of abuse by evaluating the consequences of THC administration on the somatic manifestations and the aversive motivational state associated to nicotine withdrawal in mice. Acute THC administration significantly decreased the incidence of several ...
Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas
Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…
Glover, Elbert D.
Determines whether subliminal perception can be used as a means for altering cigarette smoking behavior. Smoking behavior was not altered through subliminal perception as carried out in this study. There was evidence that smoking behavior was altered, but it was an unpredicted change. Some subjects decreased smoking patterns. (Author)
The AS-DB and AS-SU groups within the Administrative Support division now offer a central entry point to the computer based Information Services under their responsibilities: the AIS Web site at http://ais.cern.ch.It features comprehensive search and navigation facilities as well as an activity based business map to guide AIS users to the information they want. Users will be able to launch any AIS WEB application from its desktop.Enjoy a visit of the site, we value your feedback at email@example.com!AS-DB/AS-SU
The article elaborates weather UML, primarily used in software engineering, can be a useful tool in business modeling and administration. By analyzing the advantages the modeling language has to offer we find that UML is visual and object oriented and that it is useful in expressing structure, interaction and behavior as well. With its help managers and business people can build models and diagrams to help put things into perspective. “Case Study 1” shows UML can be used as an analysis tool i...
Edge, Charles; Hunter, Beau
Charles Edge, Zack Smith, and Beau Hunter provide detailed explanations of the technology required for large-scale Mac OS X deployments and show you how to integrate it with other operating systems and applications. Enterprise Mac Administrator's Guide addresses the growing size and spread of Mac OS X deployments in corporations and institutions worldwide. In some cases, this is due to the growth of traditional Mac environments, but for the most part it has to do with "switcher" campaigns, where Windows and/or Linux environments are migrating to Mac OS X. However, there is a steep cu
Sarachi, S.; Moghim, S.; Famiglietti, J. S.
In these days the increasing demand for water has created problems for availability of its resources. Some recent issues like population growth, global warming and inefficient methods of water consumption, generated the need to find sources of water other than surface water such as ground water. Excess using of groundwater in most parts of the world causes depletion of ground water in those areas. Scientists are trying to find efficient means to quantify these trends. GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) including two satellites launched in March 2002, is making measurements of the Earth's gravity field which is used to display the change of storage of the water on the Earth. GRACE makes it possible to find the trend of the change of storage all over the world.It can show specific areas in the world that have dramatic decreasing trend of water storage. One of these regions that have been considered in this study is Turkey in western Asia, as one of the countries deeply affected by global warming. Turkey is identified as one of the first places where desertification will start in Europe, according to estimates by the UN Environment Program (UNEP). Turkey has 25 underground water tables and they had a decrease in level of 27 meters in the past 25 years (Turkey water report 2009). In this paper the change of the ground water is evaluated by applying the GRACE storage anomalies and the mass conservation equation that concludes the reduction trend in groundwater. The results clarify that decreasing trend of groundwater is more noticeable during recent years, particularly since 2006. Our results show that in recent years the average decrease in ground water level is 2.5 cm per year and the maximum decrease occurred in May 2007 with the value of about 7.9 cm. KEY WORDS: water resources; Ground water; Turkey; GRACE
Matsui, Takashi; Soya, Shingo; Okamoto, Masahiro; Ichitani, Yukio; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Soya, Hideaki
Abstract Brain glycogen could be a critical energy source for brain activity when the glucose supply from the blood is inadequate (hypoglycaemia). Although untested, it is hypothesized that during prolonged exhaustive exercise that induces hypoglycaemia and muscular glycogen depletion, the resultant hypoglycaemia may cause a decrease in brain glycogen. Here, we tested this hypothesis and also investigated the possible involvement of brain monoamines with the reduced levels of brain glycogen. For this purpose, we exercised male Wistar rats on a treadmill for different durations (30–120 min) at moderate intensity (20 m min−1) and measured their brain glycogen levels using high-power microwave irradiation (10 kW). At the end of 30 and 60 min of running, the brain glycogen levels remained unchanged from resting levels, but liver and muscle glycogen decreased. After 120 min of running, the glycogen levels decreased significantly by ∼37–60% in five discrete brain loci (the cerebellum 60%, cortex 48%, hippocampus 43%, brainstem 37% and hypothalamus 34%) compared to those of the sedentary control. The brain glycogen levels in all five regions after running were positively correlated with the respective blood and brain glucose levels. Further, in the cortex, the levels of methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), potential involved in degradation of the brain glycogen, increased during prolonged exercise and negatively correlated with the glycogen levels. These results support the hypothesis that brain glycogen could decrease with prolonged exhaustive exercise. Increased monoamines together with hypoglycaemia should be associated with the development of decreased brain glycogen, suggesting a new clue towards the understanding of central fatigue during prolonged exercise. PMID:21521757
222Rn is a naturally occurring gas created from the decay of 226Ra. The long-term health risk of breathing radon is lung cancer. One particular place where indoor radon concentrations can exceed national guidelines is in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) where treatment processes may contribute to ambient airborne concentrations. The aim of this paper was to study the radon concentration decrease after the application of corrective measures in a Spanish WWTP. According to first measures, air radon concentration exceeded International Commission Radiological Protection (ICRP) normative (recommends intervention between 400 and 1000 Bq m-3). Therefore, the WWTP improved mechanical forced ventilation to lower occupational exposure. This measure allowed to increase the administrative controls, since the limitation of workers access to the plant changed from 2hd-1 (considering a maximum permissible dose of 20 mSv y-1 averaged over 5 y) to 7 h d-1 (authors)
Wheelbarger, J. J.
From "achievement motivation" and "administration" to "Theory Z" and "viscidity and hedonic tone," this glossary defines 87 terms as they are used in educational administration. The terms include philosophical, psychological, organizational, and social concepts, but they all are employed in the theory and practice of administration. A short…
Renton, K W; Gray, J D; Hall, R. I.
The elimination of theophylline is decreased after vaccination against influenza. In three patients receiving 200 mg of oxtriphylline (equivalent to 128 mg of theophylline) every 6 hours by mouth the serum theophylline levels rose after vaccination, and in four healthy volunteers given the same dose of oxtriphylline 24 hours after vaccination the half-life of theophylline increased by an average of 122%. Two of the three patients showed signs of a toxic reaction to the drug. These results sug...
XIANGPEI HU; HUIMIN WANG; YUNZENG WANG
Costs of many items drop systematically throughout their life-cycles, due to advances in technology and competition. Motivated by the management of service parts for some high-tech products, this paper studies inventory decisions for such items. In a periodic review setting with stochastic demand, we model the purchasing costs of successive periods as a stochastic and decreasing sequence. Unit selling price of the item is determined as some mark-up of the purchasing cost and, hence, will chan...
Full Text Available Background and Design: Abnormal differentiation and hyperproliferation of keratinocytes are the hallmarks of psoriasis vulgaris. Although psoriasis vulgaris is generally accepted as a disease of decreased keratinocyte apoptosis, the results are contradictory. The aim of the current study is to investigate whether decreased keratinocyte apoptosis contributes to the formation of a thickened epidermis as increased keratinocyte proliferation. Material and Method: Forty-three untreated psoriasis vulgaris patients and 20 healthy control subjects were included into the study. Biopsy specimens taken from the enrollee were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67 expressions to show the proliferation of keratinocytes and by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL method to show the apoptotic keratinocytes. Results: Apoptotic index (percentage of the TUNEL positive cells was significantly lower in psoriatic epidermis (0.33±0.64 than in normal epidermis (0.75±0.85; whereas Ki-67 index (percentage of positively staining cells for Ki-67 was significantly higher in psoriatic epidermis (30.86±10.49 than in normal epidermis (11.65±2.98, (p=0.021 and p=0.00; respectively. Conclusion: Decreased keratinocyte apoptosis also contribute to increased epidermal thickness in psoriasis as well as increased keratinocyte proliferation.
Full Text Available Judicial control of administration and installation of courts as specialized institutions for resolving administrative disputes (conflicts strengthened legitimacy, efficiency and accountability of the administrative bodies and this contributed to strengthening the protection of human rights against administrative bodies. The paper attempts to address the administrative disputes (conflict in general hence giving specific data for some European countries and USA. Access to thesis topic is analytical and contributes to the recognition of administrative disputes as legal and functional mechanism in building the rule of law. The paper will result with appropriate conclusions that reflect the work of institutions and administrative disputes (conflict itself as a legal instrument and will help the concerned parties, officials, judges, researchers for theoretical and practical importance of administrative disputes (conflict.
Abbott, Max G.; Eidell, Terry L.
The director of the Center for the Advanced Study of Educational Administration at the University of Oregon and one of his associates discuss the new role of administration in an individual-oriented educational system. (AA)
Evan, William M.
Considered are some trends in American administrative law, some trends in organization theory, a model of the administrative process, and several potentially useful research strategies. The analysis has implications for comparative research on legal systems. (Author/LBH)
The theoretical basis and essence of some common and specific functions of land administration system as an integral mechanism of effective land use and land administration levels (case-study for forest and other land available for afforestation) are analysed.
Social Security Administration — CCMA is the server that provides a browser-based tool for contact center administrators and supervisors. It is used to manage and configure contact center resources...
Anderson, Joyce S.
Argues that theories of management and administration should be put into practice in the same academic institutions in which they were born, as they have the same applicability for college administrators as corporate managers. (DMM)
The subject of the thesis is the legal definition of the proceedings for minor offence which falls within the area of administrative punishment on the issue of pardon of the oral proceedings on the part of the accused and the tutoring of the administrative authorities. Proceedings for minor offences is governed by the administrative regulations and the law the on misdemeanors. The administrative authorities must follow the basic principles of its activities which does not stem only from these...
Bird, Richard M.
The best tax policy in the world is worth little if it cannot be implemented effectively. Tax policy design in developing countries must therefore take the administrative dimension of taxation carefully into account. What can be done may to a considerable extent determine what is done in any country. This paper discusses the relationship between tax policy and tax administration. When can policy lead administration? When must policy initiatives wait on administrative reform? How exactly can b...
This paper attempts to identify the standards to which EU candidate countries are expected to conform in order to align their public administrations with those of EU Member States. Originating from SIGMA’s work on public administration reform in central and eastern European countries, in particular civil service development and administrative control, the paper describes an important part of the basis of the SIGMA methodology for assessing candidate countries’ public administration capacities...
Full Text Available The article analyzes the principles of interpretation for administrative contracts, in French law and in Romanian law. In the article are highlighted derogations from the rules of contract interpretation in common law. Are examined the exceptions to the principle of good faith, the principle of common intention (willingness of the parties, the principle of good administration, the principle of extensive interpretation of the administrative contract. The article highlights the importance and role of the interpretation in administrative contracts.
Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.
Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…
Ng, Adeline H; Baht, Gurpreet S; Alman, Benjamin A; Grynpas, Marc D
Age-related bone loss may be a result of declining levels of stem cells in the bone marrow. Using the Col2.3Δtk (DTK) transgenic mouse, osteoblast depletion was used as a source of marrow stress in order to investigate the effects of aging on osteogenic progenitors which reside in the marrow space. Five-month-old DTK mice were treated with one or two cycles of ganciclovir to conditionally ablate differentiated osteoblasts, whereas controls were saline-treated. Treatment cycles were two weeks in length followed by four weeks of recovery. All animals were sacrificed at 8 months of age; bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were harvested for cell culture and whole bones were excised for bone quality assessment. Colony-forming unit (CFU) assays were conducted to investigate the osteogenic potential of BMSC in vitro, and RNA was extracted to assess the expression of osteoblastic genes. Bone quality assessments included bone histomorphometry, TRAP staining, microcomputed tomography, and biomechanical testing. Osteoblast depletion decreased CFU-F (fibroblast), CFU-ALP (alkaline phosphatase), and CFU-VK (von Kossa) counts and BMSC osteogenic capacity in cell culture. Ex vivo, there were no differences in bone mineral density of vertebrae or femurs between treatment groups. Histology showed a decrease in bone volume and bone connectivity with repeated osteoblast depletion; however, this was accompanied by an increase in bone formation rate. There were no notable differences in osteoclast parameters or observed bone marrow adiposity. We have developed a model that uses bone marrow stress to mimic age-related decrease in osteogenic progenitors. Our data suggest that the number of healthy BMSCs and their osteogenic potential decline with repeated osteoblast depletion. However, activity of the remaining osteoblasts increases to compensate for this loss in progenitor osteogenic potential. PMID:26220824
Crosignani, B; Conti, C
The analysis of the dynamical behavior of a system consisting of two isolated cavities, filled with a gas and separated by a moving adiabatic wall, reveals that the entropy of such an isolated system can undergo a significant decrease. This notable result is extremely sensitive to the system dimensions, any appreciable deviation from a mesoscopic scale of the order of one micron rendering our conclusions invalid, so that no implications can be drawn from our results on the validity of the second law of thermodynamics at a macroscopic level.
DÄ browska-Kubik, Katarzyna
In this paper a model of web application`s source code, based on the OSD ontology (Ontology for Software Development), is proposed. This model is applied to implementation and maintenance phase of software development process through the DevOntoCreator tool . The aim of this solution is decreasing software complexity of that source code, using many different maintenance techniques, like creation of documentation, elimination dead code, cloned code or bugs, which were known before . Due to this approach saving on software maintenance costs of web applications will be possible.
Slavíček, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E.; Medová, Eva; Konečná, Jana; Žižka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimír
The morbidity and mortality of the cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1,349 volunteers, 320 men, 1,029 woman, mean age 51±14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999–2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet...
Navratil, G.; Frank, A. U.
Since the use of volunteered geographic information (VGI) or crowd sourced data (Goodchild, 2007) became more common, several people proposed the use of such methods of data collection for various fields. Success stories were Wikipedia encyclopaedia and OpenStreetMap (OSM), but also using VGI in land administration has been proposed. Robin McLaren proposed crowd sourcing as a way to get a new citizen collaboration model in land administration to enhance transparency and decrease costs (McLaren, 2011). Keenja et al. discussed the perception of VGI within the Dutch cadastre (Keenja, De Vries, Bennet, & Laarakker, 2012). Basiouka and Potsiou even discuss how crowd sourcing can be used to identify errors in the Hellenic cadastre (Basiouka & Potsiou, 2012). One problem of VGI is the quality control (compare Goodchild & Li, 2012). The problem with most data in a land administration system is that there is only a small group of people that can verify the correctness of information. The correct location of a boundary, for example, can only be assessed by the owners of the pieces of land touching at the boundary (and surveyors after investigation and measurement). How shall VGI then provide reliable data? Boundaries between areas of different use may be visible but land administration is often interested in ownership boundaries. In the paper we discuss the types of data used in land administration as discussed by Dale and McLaughlin (1999). These categories are then analyzed to identify the areas where VGI can actually provide reliable input. What we hope to learn from such an analysis is how to use the methodology of crowd sourcing for land administration, even if the data collection authoritatively.
Jiang, Nancy; Kearney, Ann; Damrose, Edward J
The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that the length of the tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis changes over time and to determine whether the prosthesis length over time increased, decreased, or showed no predictable change in size. A retrospective chart review was performed at a tertiary care referral center. Patients who underwent either primary or secondary tracheoesophageal puncture between January 2006 and August 2014 were evaluated. Patients were excluded if the tracheoesophageal prosthesis size was not consistently recorded or if they required re-puncturing for an extruded prosthesis. Data analyzed included patient demographics and the length of the tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis at each change. A total of 37 patients were identified. The mean age was 64 years. Seventy-six percent were male. 24 % underwent primary tracheoesophageal puncture and 76 % underwent secondary tracheoesophageal puncture. The length of the prosthesis decreased over time (median Kendall correlation coefficient = -0.60; mean = -0.44) and this correlation between length and time was significant (p = 0.00085). Therefore, in conclusion, tracheoesophageal prosthesis length is not constant over time. The tracheoesophageal wall thins, necessitating placement of shorter prostheses over time. Patients with a tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis will require long-term follow-up and repeat sizing of their prosthesis. Successful tracheoesophageal voicing will require periodic reevaluation of these devices, and insurers must, therefore, understand that long-term professional care will be required to manage these patients and their prostheses. PMID:26951219
Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir
The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (placto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282
Kawaai, Hiroyoshi; Yoshida, Kenji; Tanaka, Eri; Togami, Kohei; Tada, Hitoshi; Ganzberg, Steven; Yamazaki, Shinya
There is an abundance of blood vessels in the oral cavity, and intraoperative bleeding can disrupt operations. There have been some interesting reports about constriction of vessels in the oral cavity, one of which reported that gingival blood flow in cats is controlled by sympathetic α-adrenergic fibres that are involved with vasoconstriction. Dexmedetomidine is a sedative and analgesic agent that acts through the α-2 adrenoceptor, and is expected to have a vasoconstrictive action in the oral cavity. We have focused on the relation between the effects of α-adrenoceptors by dexmedetomidine and vasoconstriction in oral tissues, and assessed the oral mucosal blood flow during sedation with dexmedetomidine. The subjects comprised 13 healthy male volunteers, sedated with dexmedetomidine in a loading dose of 6 μg/kg/h for 10 min and a continuous infusion of 0.7 μg/kg/h for 32 min. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and palatal mucosal blood flow (PMBF) were measured at 0, 5, 10, 12, 22, and 32 min after the start of the infusion. The HR, CO, and PBMF decreased significantly during the infusion even though there were no differences in the SV. The SVR increased significantly but the PMBF decreased significantly. In conclusion, PMBF was reduced by the mediating effect of dexmedetomidine on α-2 adrenoceptors. PMID:23958351
Heather L. Bloom
Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrate that statins decrease ventricular arrhythmias in internal cardioverter defibrillator (ICD patients. The mechanism is unknown, but evidence links increased inflammatory and oxidative states with increased arrhythmias. We hypothesized that statin use decreases oxidation. Methods. 304 subjects with ICDs were surveyed for ventricular arrhythmia. Blood was analyzed for derivatives of reactive oxygen species (DROMs and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Results. Subjects included 252 (83% men, 58% on statins, 20% had ventricular arrhythmias. Average age was 63 years and ejection fraction (EF 20%. ICD implant duration was 29 ± 27 months. Use of statins correlated with lower ICD events (r=0.12, P=.02. Subjects on statins had lower hsCRP (5.2 versus 6.3; P=.05 and DROM levels (373 versus 397; P=.03. Other factors, including IL-6 and EF did not differ between statin and nonstatin use, nor did beta-blocker or antiarrhythmic use. Multivariate cross-correlation analysis demonstrated that DROMs, statins, IL-6 and EF were strongly associated with ICD events. Multivariate regression shows DROMs to be the dominant predictor. Conclusion. ICD event rate correlates with DROMs, a measure of lipid peroxides. Use of statins is associated with reduced DROMs and fewer ICD events, suggesting that statins exert their effect through reducing oxidation.
Full Text Available The article elaborates weather UML, primarily used in software engineering, can be a useful tool in business modeling and administration. By analyzing the advantages the modeling language has to offer we find that UML is visual and object oriented and that it is useful in expressing structure, interaction and behavior as well. With its help managers and business people can build models and diagrams to help put things into perspective. “Case Study 1” shows UML can be used as an analysis tool in business modeling to help increase the complexity and depth of the event or project that is being developed. “Case Study 2” attempts to prove that UML can also be efficiently used in finding solutions to newly appeared problems in a business environment. Despite the practicality of the Unified Modeling Language there is still some criticism brought to it. Some programmers consider it to be hard to learn and some developers claim that it is too abstract. The article concludes that despite the minor drawbacks; due to its adaptability and complex visual models, it is a very useful tool that adds value to the modeling of business structures and processes.
A study has been made of energetic particle data, obtained from IMP 8, in conjunction with solar wind field and plasma data at the times of reported magnetic clouds. It is shown that magnetic clouds can cause a depression of the cosmic ray flux but high fields are required. A depression of 3% in a neutron monitor requires a field of about 25 nT. Such high fields are found only in a subset of coronal ejecta. The principal cause for Forbush decreases associated with energetic shocks is probably turbulence in the postshock region, although some shocks will be followed by an ejecta with a high field. Each event is different. The lower-energy particles can help in identifying the dominant processes in individual events. 19 refs., 5 figs
León-Espinosa, Gonzalo; García, Esther; Gómez-Pinedo, Ulises; Hernández, Félix; DeFelipe, Javier; Ávila, Jesús
Generation of new neurons from adult neural stem cells occurs in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and the lateral walls of the lateral ventricles. In this article, we study the neurogenesis that takes place during the hibernation of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Using a variety of standard neurogenesis markers and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, we describe a preferential decrease in the proliferation of newborn neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the hibernating hamsters (torpor) rather than in the hippocampus. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the proliferative capacity is recovered after 3-4days of torpor when arousal is triggered under natural conditions (i.e., not artificially provoked). In addition, we show that tau3R, a tau isoform with three microtubule-binding domains, is a suitable marker to study neurogenesis both in the SVZ and subgranular zone (SGZ) of the Syrian hamster brain. PMID:27436535
Durlik, Caroline; Tsakiris, Manos
The need for social affiliation is one of the most important and fundamental human needs. Unsurprisingly, humans display strong negative reactions to social exclusion. In the present study, we investigated the effect of social exclusion on interoceptive accuracy - accuracy in detecting signals arising inside the body - measured with a heartbeat perception task. We manipulated exclusion using Cyberball, a widely used paradigm of a virtual ball-tossing game, with half of the participants being included during the game and the other half of participants being ostracized during the game. Our results indicated that heartbeat perception accuracy decreased in the excluded, but not in the included, participants. We discuss these results in the context of social and physical pain overlap, as well as in relation to internally versus externally oriented attention. PMID:25701592
Zhou, Di; Scala, Antonio; Stanley, H Eugene
The protection of critical infrastructures is one of the highest priorities in our technological society. It was recently recognized that interdependencies among different networks can play a crucial role in triggering cascading failures and hence system-wide disasters. A recent model shows how pairs of interdependent networks can exhibit an abrupt percolation transition as failures accumulate. We report on the effects of topology on failure propagation for a model system consisting of two interdependent networks. We find that the internal node correlations in each of the two interdependent networks significantly changes the critical density of failures that triggers the total disruption of the two-network system. We find, in particular, that the assortativity within a single network decreases the robustness of the entire system. The results of this study on the influence of assortativity may provide insights into ways of improving the robustness of network architecture, and thus enhance the level of protecti...
The status of the concept of ''safety culture'' is reviewed. It has not sufficiently taken root. One cause for this is the abstract nature of the concept. Organizations must become aware of the necessity of improving safety and have sufficient power to promote this. The culture of safety must be instilled in each employee, so that each of them will feel responsible for identifying weak points in plant safety. The authors devised a tool for a self-assessment of the safety culture. The tool will bring to light information divides, communication gaps, etc. Recognizing the vulnerabilities of the organization by themselves and discussing these weak points among them is the first step to decrease the ambiguity of the safety culture. The next step is to make these gaps known along with agreed-upon countermeasures. The concept of safety culture will be greatly clarified in this way and lead to safer nuclear power plants
In machine learning and computer vision, input images are often filtered to increase data discriminability. In some situations, however, one may wish to purposely decrease discriminability of one classification task (a "distractor" task), while simultaneously preserving information relevant to another (the task-of-interest): For example, it may be important to mask the identity of persons contained in face images before submitting them to a crowdsourcing site (e.g., Mechanical Turk) when labeling them for certain facial attributes. Another example is inter-dataset generalization: when training on a dataset with a particular covariance structure among multiple attributes, it may be useful to suppress one attribute while preserving another so that a trained classifier does not learn spurious correlations between attributes. In this paper we present an algorithm that finds optimal filters to give high discriminability to one task while simultaneously giving low discriminability to a distractor task. We present r...
Full Text Available The Romanian legislation, meaning by this Law no. 554/2004, creates in article no. 5 a special regime for some administrative acts which will be considered as exceptions from the “common administrative procedure”. These acts are not subject to the review of the courts, the exception being a total one or a partial one as it will be described in this study. The existence of the administrative procedure does not mean an absolute control on the administration. This is in fact the main reason why this article was included in Law no. 554/2004 and all implications will be described in this study.
Marta – Claudia CLIZA
Full Text Available The Romanian legislation, meaning by this Law no. 554/2004, creates in article no. 5 a special regime for some administrative acts which will be considered as exceptions from the „common administrative procedure”. These acts are not subject to the review of the courts, the exception being a total one or a partial one as it will be described in this study. The existence of the administrative procedure does not mean an absolute control on the administration. This is in fact the main reason why this article was included in Law no. 554/2004 and all implications will be described in this study.
The Romanian legislation, meaning by this Law no. 554/2004, creates in article no. 5 a special regime for some administrative acts which will be considered as exceptions from the „common administrative procedure”. These acts are not subject to the review of the courts, the exception being a total one or a partial one as it will be described in this study. The existence of the administrative procedure does not mean an absolute control on the administration. This is in fact the main reason why ...
Bradley, David P; Kulstad, Roger; Racine, Natalie; Shenker, Yoram; Meredith, Melissa; Schoeller, Dale A
Exenatide is a medication similar in structure and effect to native glucagon-like peptide-1, an incretin hormone with glucose-lowering properties. The aim of the study was to measure the change in total energy expenditure (TEE) and body composition during exenatide administration and by deduction the relative contributions of energy expenditure and energy intake to exenatide-induced weight loss. Forty-five obese (body mass index, 30-40 kg·m⁻²) subjects were identified. After exclusion criteria application, 28 subjects entered into the study and 18 subjects (12 female, 6 male) completed the study, which consisted of 6 visits over 14 weeks and injection of exenatide for an average of 84 ± 5 days. Respiratory gas analysis and doubly labeled water measurements were performed before initiation of exenatide and after approximately 3 months of exenatide administration. The average weight loss from the beginning of injection period to the end of the study in completed subjects was 2.0 ± 2.8 kg (p = 0.01). Fat mass declined by 1.3 ± 1.8 kg (p = 0.01) while the fat-free mass trended downward but was not significant (0.8 ± 2.2 kg, p = 0.14). There was no change in weight-adjusted TEE (p = 0.20), resting metabolic rate (p = 0.51), or physical activity energy expenditure (p = 0.38) and no change in the unadjusted thermic effect of a meal (p = 0.37). The significant weight loss because of exenatide administration was thus the result of decreasing energy intake. In obese nondiabetic subjects, exenatide administration did not increase TEE and by deduction the significant weight loss and loss of fat mass was due to decreased energy intake. PMID:22735035
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder desensitization has been investigated as an alternative treatment for refractory detrusor overactivity. Most open and controlled clinical trials conducted with intravesical RTX showed that desensitization delays the appearance of involuntary detrusor contractions during bladder filling and decreases the number of episodes of urgency incontinence. Urgency is being recognised as the fundamental symptom of overactive bladder (OAB, a symptomatic complex which recent epidemiological studies have shown to affect more than 10% of the Western population. As anti-muscarinic drugs, the first line treatment for OAB, are far from being able to fully control urgency, the opportunity to test other therapeutic approaches is created. The present work was, therefore, designed as an exploratory investigation to evaluate the effect of bladder desensitization on urinary urgency. Methods Twenty-three OAB patients with refractory urgency entered, after given informed consent, a 30 days run-in period in which medications influencing the bladder function were interrupted. At the end of this period patients filled a seven-day voiding chart where they scored, using a 0–4 scale, the bladder sensations felt before each voiding. Then, patients were instilled with 100 ml of 10% ethanol in saline (vehicle solution and 30 days later a second seven-day voiding chart was collected. Finally, patients were instilled with 100 ml of 50 nM RTX in 10% ethanol in saline. At 1 and 3 months additional voiding charts were collected. At the end of the vehicle and 3 months period patients were asked to give their subjective impression about the outcome of the treatment and about the willingness to repeat the previous instillation. Results At the end of the run-in period the mean number of episodes of urgency per week was 71 ± 12 (mean ± SEM. After vehicle instillation, the mean number of episodes of urgency was 56 ± 11, but only 4 patients (17% considered
My final thesis is dedicated to information systems in public administration, focused on one of the key information systems for the area of authority punishment within the competence of Customs Administration of the Czech Republic. On this information system there can be clearly qualitatively described essential elements affecting not just the creation and development but mainly the future growth and importance of it self within other systems of customs administration. This thesis is also d...
This study serves as an introduction to how virtual reality systems could be applied in public administration and what research tasks would be necessary to accomplish a project. E-government solutions began to emerge in public administration approximately a decade ago all over the developed world. Administration service facilities via the Internet did not attract many customers, because of the digital divide. E-government solutions were extended to mobile devices as well, but the expected bre...
Adam J Woods
Full Text Available Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water, a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1 and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2 were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.
Vanholder, Raymond C; Eloot, Sunny; Glorieux, Griet L R L
In this article, we review approaches for decreasing uremic solute concentrations in chronic kidney disease and in particular, in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The rationale to do so is the straightforward relation between concentration and biological (toxic) effect for most toxins. The first section is devoted to extracorporeal strategies (kidney replacement therapy). In the context of high-flux hemodialysis and hemodiafiltration, we discuss increasing dialyzer blood and dialysate flows, frequent and/or extended dialysis, adsorption, bioartificial kidney, and changing physical conditions within the dialyzer (especially for protein-bound toxins). The next section focuses on the intestinal generation of uremic toxins, which in return is stimulated by uremic conditions. Therapeutic options are probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and intestinal sorbents. Current data are conflicting, and these issues need further study before useful therapeutic concepts are developed. The following section is devoted to preservation of (residual) kidney function. Although many therapeutic options may overlap with therapies provided before ESRD, we focus on specific aspects of ESRD treatment, such as the risks of too-strict blood pressure and glycemic regulation and hemodynamic changes during dialysis. Finally, some recommendations are given on how research might be organized with regard to uremic toxins and their effects, removal, and impact on outcomes of uremic patients. PMID:26500179
Van der Stoep, N; Van der Stigchel, S; Nijboer, T C W
Multisensory integration (MSI) and spatial attention are both mechanisms through which the processing of sensory information can be facilitated. Studies on the interaction between spatial attention and MSI have mainly focused on the interaction between endogenous spatial attention and MSI. Most of these studies have shown that endogenously attending a multisensory target enhances MSI. It is currently unclear, however, whether and how exogenous spatial attention and MSI interact. In the current study, we investigated the interaction between these two important bottom-up processes in two experiments. In Experiment 1 the target location was task-relevant, and in Experiment 2 the target location was task-irrelevant. Valid or invalid exogenous auditory cues were presented before the onset of unimodal auditory, unimodal visual, and audiovisual targets. We observed reliable cueing effects and multisensory response enhancement in both experiments. To examine whether audiovisual integration was influenced by exogenous spatial attention, the amount of race model violation was compared between exogenously attended and unattended targets. In both Experiment 1 and Experiment 2, a decrease in MSI was observed when audiovisual targets were exogenously attended, compared to when they were not. The interaction between exogenous attention and MSI was less pronounced in Experiment 2. Therefore, our results indicate that exogenous attention diminishes MSI when spatial orienting is relevant. The results are discussed in terms of models of multisensory integration and attention. PMID:25341648
Kang, Jeongsoo; Oh, Suyeon; Yi, Yu; Kim, Yongkyun
The neutron monitor (NM) is a ground-based detector designed to estimate the cosmic ray intensity by measuring secondary particles. In October 2011, an NM64-type NM with a vertical cutoff rigidity of 11.2 GV was installed at Daejeon in Korea. It has produced reliable cosmic ray data after detector stabilization. In order to examine the reliability of cosmic ray data collected by the Daejeon NM, we select Forbush decreases (FDs) that occurred during the three years of 2012-2014. We also analyze the FDs at the Oulu NM in Finland in order to identify and compare them. We identify 37 FDs at both Daejeon and Oulu NMs. Student t-test analysis reveals that FDs at Daejeon have smaller intensity variation of main phase and shorter duration of main phase than those at the Oulu NM. Of the 37 FDs, 17 are simultaneous and 20 are non-simultaneous. The intensity variation of simultaneous FDs is larger than that of non-simultaneous FDs at both NMs with high confidence levels in the Student t-test. Most of the non-simultaneous FDs that have an onset time in the dayside hold typical properties of non-simultaneous FDs. Our study results demonstrate that the Daejeon NM can provide cosmic ray data of reliability comparable to that of the Oulu NM. As one of only a few NMs worldwide with a high vertical cutoff rigidity exceeding 10.0 GV, the Daejeon NM will continue to provide important information on higher-energy cosmic ray spectra.
Dr. L. Kannan
Full Text Available Back ground Even experienced teaching faculty and administrators can be challenged by learners who have not able to perform up to expected need in their annual performance of their students these students are called as slow learnersStruggle learners. There should be a designed study to foster discussion about diagnosing particular problems that contribute with meeting objectives of slow learners. Methodology The study was performed on the entire current first year of Medical students were all the three internal assessments of 250 students performance is taken in to consideration for the study. This study is of cross section type.After obtaining the list of all students marks in internal examination from medical education unit supporting mentors are contacted to meet the students and confidentiality is maintained throughout the study. After obtaining informed consent a questionnaire was administered to the students by the investigator. The questionnaire contains the following sections. Section I will be on the background characteristics of the student name age sex type of family. Section II will be on the details of their learning capabilities. Section III will focus on the awareness of the slow learners in which the precipitating factors contributing to them. Results The prevalence of slow learners as low achievers were contributed to be 32.4 percentages.The performance of the students is based on combination of all three internal assessment marks including theory and practical performance. In this the students age ranges from 17 to 21 years the mean age of student was contributed to be 17.81 and majority of the students were in the age group of 18 years which contributed to be 16867.2.In the present study majority were males 13252.8 compared to females 11847.2.but when study is compared to percentage of attendance majority of the individual 15177 scored more than 50 percentage of marks have more than 80 percentage of attendance but when
Demaris, Michalyn C.; Kritsonis, William Allan
Postmodernism has many inferences that can be applied to the theory and practice of higher educational administration. Today, in higher education administrators are continuously focused on strategies that will ensure the future of minority educational institutions. As a result postmodernism is an important factor in the future of higher…
Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.
Recognizing the importance of efficient and effective program administration for the success of Utah's Child Nutrition Programs, the State Office of Education developed a manual to assist local program administrators in using the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) programs. This document contains Part 1 of the manual's four interrelated…
Dunbar, Roger L. M.
A study of 65 articles from the 1981 volumes of "Administrative Science Quarterly" and "Harvard Business Review," using smallest space analysis, found that the few studies adopting subjective (instead of objective) approaches to analyzing organizational change were most likely to provide a basis for an applied administrative science. (Author/RW)
Writers attempting to describe administration have approached the subject from a number of perspectives. Researchers such as Gulick (1937) identified planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting as functional elements of administration. Hemphill, Griffiths, and Fredericksen (1962), using simulated job settings,…
Covel, Janice; Ortiz, Flora Ida
From 1870 to 1975, three types of school administrators were identified: the plateau administrators who remained at initial entry level assignments; vertical aspirants who actively sought advancement; and place-holders who began as vertical aspirants but for one reason or another were placed in non-decision-making positions. (Author/GDC)
Full Text Available This study serves as an introduction to how virtual reality systems could be applied in public administration and what research tasks would be necessary to accomplish a project. E-government solutions began to emerge in public administration approximately a decade ago all over the developed world. Administration service facilities via the Internet did not attract many customers, because of the digital divide. E-government solutions were extended to mobile devices as well, but the expected breakthrough of usage has not ensued. The virtual reality form of public administration services recommended in this study has the most attractive outlay and the simplest navigation tools if compared to ‘traditional’ Internet based e-government. Thus, in accordance with the worldwide amazingly quick spread of the virtual reality systems of Second Life and 3 D types of entertainment, virtual reality applications in public administration could rely on a wide range of acceptance as well.
Full Text Available One of the variables that affects success in business life is emotional intelligence of working people. The purpose of this research is to identify whether the school administrators’ emotional intelligence scores differ meaningfully according to their gender, marital status, branch, being a principal or assistant principal, being elementary school administrator or high school administrator, having manegerial education course or not, educational background, period of occupational service, age, length of administration service, number of children. 180 administrators working as a principals and vise principals who worked in 2005 in Düzce elementary schools and high schools were surveyed in line with this aim. Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal Wallis test and ANOVA were used in order to find out groups that differ from others. It has been found that school administrators’ emotional intelligence scores differ meaningfully in terms of administrators’ branch and being elementary school administrator or high school.
Hurley, M M; Resch, J M; Maunze, B; Frenkel, M M; Baker, D A; Choi, S
Binge-eating behavior involves rapid consumption of highly palatable foods leading to increased weight gain. Feeding in binge disorders resembles other compulsive behaviors, many of which are responsive to N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which is a cysteine prodrug often used to promote non-vesicular glutamate release by a cystine-glutamate antiporter. To examine the potential for NAC to alter a form of compulsive eating, we examined the impact of NAC on binge eating in a rodent model. Specifically, we monitored consumption of standard chow and a high-fat, high carbohydrate western diet (WD) in a rodent limited-access binge paradigm. Before each session, rats received either a systemic or intraventricular injection of NAC. Both systemic and central administration of NAC resulted in significant reductions of binge eating the WD without decreasing standard chow consumption. The reduction in WD was not attributable to general malaise as NAC did not produce condition taste aversion. These results are consistent with the clinical evidence of NAC to reduce or reverse compulsive behaviors, such as, drug addiction, skin picking and hair pulling. PMID:26975440
Mansour Haghighatian; Somayeh Karimizadeh; Javad Nazari
Introduction Administrative corruption is a complicated and multi-faceted phenomenon that has many causes and ramifications, which manifest themselves in different forms in various countries and appear to be endemic of all social systems where authority is delegated. Although there might be different definitions of and approaches towards administrative corruption, the definition that has been put forward by the World Bank and Transparency International appears to be more general and compreh...
Winckelmann, Anni A.; Lærke V Munk-Petersen; Thomas A. Rasmussen; Jesper Melchjorsen; Thomas J Hjelholt; David Montefiori; Lars Østergaard; Søgaard, Ole S.; Martin Tolstrup
Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists can reactivate HIV from latently infected cells in vitro. We aimed to investigate the TLR-9 agonist, CPG 7909's in vivo effect on the proviral HIV reservoir and HIV-specific immunity. This was a post-hoc analysis of a double-blind randomized controlled vaccine trial. HIV-infected adults were randomized 1:1 to receive pneumococcal vaccines with or without 1 mg CPG 7909 as adjuvant at 0, 3 and 9 months. In patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy we quant...
Eleni Koutroumanidou; Athanasios Kimbaris; Alexandros Kortsaris; Eugenia Bezirtzoglou; Moschos Polissiou; Konstantinos Charalabopoulos; Olga Pagonopoulou
The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs) from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ-) induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p.) inject...
Paulo Queiroz Sousa
Full Text Available Forest conservation efforts through regulatory enforcement routinely failed to prevent large scale deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. However, a turning point occurred in 2005, when a combination of unfavorable economic conditions and an unprecedented coordinated effort between governmental institutions resulted in a gradual slowdown in deforestation. The continuation of this deforestation slowdown in an environment of economic recovery and expansion after 2009 suggests that regulatory enforcement achieved a measure of success not experienced before. In this study, the impact of fines, embargoes on rural private properties, and confiscation of means of production and produce on deforestation in the Southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso was considered through regression and GIS-based analyses. It was found that while all three sanctions were negatively correlated with deforestation, there were important differences in their level of enforcement. Embargoes were effectively implemented and showed high deforestation deterrence effectiveness, but the actual collection of the values of fines issued was extremely low, which casts doubts on their actual effectiveness as a deforestation deterrence mechanism. The results suggest that while sanctions for illegal deforestation have played an important role in the slowdown in deforestation, measures to increase the collection of fines issued are urgently needed.
Paulo Queiroz Sousa
Forest conservation efforts through regulatory enforcement routinely failed to prevent large scale deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. However, a turning point occurred in 2005, when a combination of unfavorable economic conditions and an unprecedented coordinated effort between governmental institutions resulted in a gradual slowdown in deforestation. The continuation of this deforestation slowdown in an environment of economic recovery and expansion after 2009 suggests that regulatory en...
McFadden, Lisa M.; Hanson, Glen R.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.
Preclinical models suggest that repeated high-dose methamphetamine (METH) exposures, administered in a “binge-like” pattern, acutely decrease norepinephrine (NE), and acutely and persistently decrease serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT) content in the frontal cortex. However, the impact of METH self-administration on this region is unknown. Because of the importance of the monoaminergic neurons in the frontal cortex to a variety of cognitive and addictive processes, effects of METH self-admi...
Hansen, H. S.; Skov-Petersen, H.
Rapporten indeholder dels en beskrivelse af de vigtigste nationale databaser med stedfæstet information og dels en vejledning i sammenstilling imellem digitale kort og administrative registre. Rapportens første del beskriver de enkelte databaser med hensyn til bl.a. adgangsforhold, indhold og...... nøgler, hvoraf sidstnævnte spiller en afgørende rolle i forbindelse med sammenstilling af digitale kort og administrative registre. Rapportens anden del fokuserer på praktiske forsøg med sammenstilling af digitale kort og administrative register. Der gives anvisninger på sammenstilling af Bygnings- og...
Andrews, M M
Population demographics are reshaping the healthcare work force with respect to race, ethnicity, gender, national origin, sexual orientation, age, handicap, disability, and related factors as national sensitivity to various forms of diversity grows. Given the demographic trends, it is inevitable that nurse administrators will need skill in transcultural administration as they manage diversity and identify the cultural origins of conflict in the multicultural workplace. Culture influences the manner in which administrators, staff and patients perceive, identify, define and solve problems. In this article, the complex and interrelated factors that influence workplace diversity are examined. PMID:9824983
Durable (up to 64 days) application of complexones (Ca and Zn DTPA) in the case of intramuscular administration of 239Pu large amounts in rats is studied. The results of studying the biological effect proving considerable decrease of the average lifespan of rats are given
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) reportedly lowers atrial pressure and increases hematocrit, suggesting venodilation and/or decreased blood volume (BV). To examine these possibilities, rat ANP (99-126) was administered to Inactinanesthetized rats (313 +/- 9 g, +/- SE) at 0.5 μg/kg/min for 30 minutes. Urine flow increased by 0.05 ml/min (p 51Cr-RBC) decreased by 3.4 ml/kg (p < 0.001). Mean circulatory filling pressure, measured by inflating an intracardiac balloon to briefly stop the circulation, did not change. Distribution of BV between the thoracic and spanchnic organs (whole-animal freezing in liquid nitrogen) was not measurably altered. The results suggest that the decrease in CVP was related more to decreased BV than to venodilation. To investigate possible mechanisms for the decreased BV, the same dose of ANP was administered to anephric rats. MAP decreased by 8 mmHg (p < 0.001); hematocrit increased by 2.4 units (p < 0.001) and BV decreased by 1.7 ml/kg (p < 0.05). The results indicate that short-term administration of ANP decreases blood volume by causing intravascular fluid to shift into the interstitium as well as by inducing diuresis
Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Fire Administration collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United...