Walczak, Mateusz; Regts, Joke; van Oosterhout, Antoon J. M.; Boon, Louis; Wilschut, Jan; Nijman, Hans W.; Daemen, Toos
2011-01-01
Background: Regulatory T-cells (Treg) hamper immune responses elicited by cancer vaccines. Therefore, depletion of Treg is being used to improve the outcome of vaccinations. Methods: We studied whether an alphavirus vector-based immunotherapeutic vaccine changes the number and/or activity of Treg an
Kenneth Lundstrom
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Alphavirus vectors have demonstrated high levels of transient heterologous gene expression both in vitro and in vivo and, therefore, possess attractive features for vaccine development. The most commonly used delivery vectors are based on three single-stranded encapsulated alphaviruses, namely Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Alphavirus vectors have been applied as replication-deficient recombinant viral particles and, more recently, as replication-proficient particles. Moreover, in vitro transcribed RNA, as well as layered DNA vectors have been applied for immunization. A large number of highly immunogenic viral structural proteins expressed from alphavirus vectors have elicited strong neutralizing antibody responses in multispecies animal models. Furthermore, immunization studies have demonstrated robust protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus in rodents and primates. Similarly, vaccination with alphavirus vectors expressing tumor antigens resulted in prophylactic protection against challenges with tumor-inducing cancerous cells. As certain alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus, have been associated with epidemics in animals and humans, attention has also been paid to the development of vaccines against alphaviruses themselves. Recent progress in alphavirus vector development and vaccine technology has allowed conducting clinical trials in humans.
Lundstrom, Kenneth
2016-01-01
Alphavirus vectors based on Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus have been widely applied for vaccine development. Naked RNA replicons, recombinant viral particles, and layered DNA vectors have been subjected to immunization in preclinical animal models with antigens for viral targets and tumor antigens. Moreover, a limited number of clinical trials have been conducted in humans. Vaccination with alphavirus vectors has demonstrated efficient immune responses and has showed protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus and tumor cells, respectively. Moreover, vaccines have been developed against alphaviruses causing epidemics such as Chikungunya virus. PMID:27076308
Gullberg, Maria; Lohse, Louise; Bøtner, Anette; McInerney, Gerald M.; Burman, Alison; Jackson, Terry; Polacek, Charlotta
2016-01-01
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains one of the most economically important infectious diseases of production animals globally. Vaccination can successfully control this disease, however, current vaccines are imperfect. They are made using chemically inactivated FMD virus (FMDV) that is produced in large-scale mammalian cell culture under high containment conditions. Here, we have expressed the FMDV capsid protein precursor (P1-2A) of strain O1 Manisa alone or with the FMDV 3C protease (3Cpro) using a “single cycle” packaged alphavirus self-replicating RNA based on Semliki Forest virus (SFV). When the FMDV P1-2A was expressed with 3Cpro then processing of the FMDV capsid precursor protein is observed within cells and the proteins assemble into empty capsid particles. The products interact with anti-FMDV antibodies in an ELISA and bind to the integrin αvβ6 (a cellular receptor for FMDV). In cattle vaccinated with these rSFV-FMDV vectors alone, anti-FMDV antibodies were elicited but the immune response was insufficient to give protection against FMDV challenge. However, the prior vaccination with these vectors resulted in a much stronger immune response against FMDV post-challenge and the viremia observed was decreased in level and duration. In subsequent experiments, cattle were sequentially vaccinated with a rSFV-FMDV followed by recombinant FMDV empty capsid particles, or vice versa, prior to challenge. Animals given a primary vaccination with the rSFV-FMDV vector and then boosted with FMDV empty capsids showed a strong anti-FMDV antibody response prior to challenge, they were protected against disease and no FMDV RNA was detected in their sera post-challenge. Initial inoculation with empty capsids followed by the rSFV-FMDV was much less effective at combating the FMDV challenge and a large post-challenge boost to the level of anti-FMDV antibodies was observed. This prime-boost system, using reagents that can be generated outside of high
Gullberg, Maria; Lohse, Louise; Bøtner, Anette; McInerney, Gerald M; Burman, Alison; Jackson, Terry; Polacek, Charlotta; Belsham, Graham J
2016-01-01
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains one of the most economically important infectious diseases of production animals globally. Vaccination can successfully control this disease, however, current vaccines are imperfect. They are made using chemically inactivated FMD virus (FMDV) that is produced in large-scale mammalian cell culture under high containment conditions. Here, we have expressed the FMDV capsid protein precursor (P1-2A) of strain O1 Manisa alone or with the FMDV 3C protease (3Cpro) using a "single cycle" packaged alphavirus self-replicating RNA based on Semliki Forest virus (SFV). When the FMDV P1-2A was expressed with 3Cpro then processing of the FMDV capsid precursor protein is observed within cells and the proteins assemble into empty capsid particles. The products interact with anti-FMDV antibodies in an ELISA and bind to the integrin αvβ6 (a cellular receptor for FMDV). In cattle vaccinated with these rSFV-FMDV vectors alone, anti-FMDV antibodies were elicited but the immune response was insufficient to give protection against FMDV challenge. However, the prior vaccination with these vectors resulted in a much stronger immune response against FMDV post-challenge and the viremia observed was decreased in level and duration. In subsequent experiments, cattle were sequentially vaccinated with a rSFV-FMDV followed by recombinant FMDV empty capsid particles, or vice versa, prior to challenge. Animals given a primary vaccination with the rSFV-FMDV vector and then boosted with FMDV empty capsids showed a strong anti-FMDV antibody response prior to challenge, they were protected against disease and no FMDV RNA was detected in their sera post-challenge. Initial inoculation with empty capsids followed by the rSFV-FMDV was much less effective at combating the FMDV challenge and a large post-challenge boost to the level of anti-FMDV antibodies was observed. This prime-boost system, using reagents that can be generated outside of high-containment facilities
Global emergence of Alphaviruses that cause arthritis in humans
Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Obanda, Vincent; Bucht, Göran; Mosomtai, Gladys; Otieno, Viola; Ahlm, Clas; Evander, Magnus
2015-01-01
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) may cause severe emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, which pose a significant threat to human and animal health in the world today. These infectious diseases range from mild febrile illnesses, arthritis, and encephalitis to haemorrhagic fevers. It is postulated that certain environmental factors, vector competence, and host susceptibility have a major impact on the ecology of arboviral diseases. Presently, there is a great interest in the emergence of Alphaviruses because these viruses, including Chikungunya virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, Sindbis virus, Ross River virus, and Mayaro virus, have caused outbreaks in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and America. Some of these viruses are more common in the tropics, whereas others are also found in temperate regions, but the actual factors driving Alphavirus emergence and re-emergence remain unresolved. Furthermore, little is known about the transmission dynamics, pathophysiology, genetic diversity, and evolution of circulating viral strains. In addition, the clinical presentation of Alphaviruses may be similar to other diseases such as dengue, malaria, and typhoid, hence leading to misdiagnosis. However, the typical presence of arthritis may distinguish between Alphaviruses and other differential diagnoses. The absence of validated diagnostic kits for Alphaviruses makes even routine surveillance less feasible. For that purpose, this review describes the occurrence, genetic diversity, clinical characteristics, and the mechanisms involving Alphaviruses causing arthritis in humans. This information may serve as a basis for better awareness and detection of Alphavirus-caused diseases during outbreaks and in establishing appropriate prevention and control measures. PMID:26689654
Alphavirus RNA synthesis and non-structural protein functions.
Rupp, Jonathan C; Sokoloski, Kevin J; Gebhart, Natasha N; Hardy, Richard W
2015-09-01
The members of the genus Alphavirus are positive-sense RNA viruses, which are predominantly transmitted to vertebrates by a mosquito vector. Alphavirus disease in humans can be severely debilitating, and depending on the particular viral species, infection may result in encephalitis and possibly death. In recent years, alphaviruses have received significant attention from public health authorities as a consequence of the dramatic emergence of chikungunya virus in the Indian Ocean islands and the Caribbean. Currently, no safe, approved or effective vaccine or antiviral intervention exists for human alphavirus infection. The molecular biology of alphavirus RNA synthesis has been well studied in a few species of the genus and represents a general target for antiviral drug development. This review describes what is currently understood about the regulation of alphavirus RNA synthesis, the roles of the viral non-structural proteins in this process and the functions of cis-acting RNA elements in replication, and points to open questions within the field. PMID:26219641
Gullberg, Maria; Lohse, Louise; Bøtner, Anette;
2016-01-01
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains one of the most economically important infectious diseases of production animals globally. Vaccination can successfully control this disease, however, current vaccines are imperfect. They are made using chemically inactivated FMD virus (FMDV) that is produced...... in large-scale mammalian cell culture under high containment conditions. Here, we have expressed the FMDV capsid protein precursor (P1-2A) of strain O1 Manisa alone or with the FMDV 3C protease (3Cpro) using a "single cycle" packaged alphavirus self-replicating RNA based on Semliki Forest virus (SFV). When...... the FMDV P1-2A was expressed with 3Cpro then processing of the FMDV capsid precursor protein is observed within cells and the proteins assemble into empty capsid particles. The products interact with anti-FMDV antibodies in an ELISA and bind to the integrin αvβ6 (a cellular receptor for FMDV). In cattle...
Riezebos-Brilman, Annelies; Regts, Joke; Chen, Margaret; Wilschut, Jan; Daemen, Toos
2009-01-01
To enhance the efficacy of a therapeutic immunisition strategy against human papillomavirus-induced cervical cancer we evaluated the adjuvant effect of interleukin-12 (IL12) expressed by a Semliki Forest virus vector (SFV) in mice. Depending on the dose and schedule. SFV-IL12 Stimulated antigen-spec
Juana M Sánchez-Puig
Full Text Available Poxviruses and Alphaviruses constitute two promising viral vectors that have been used extensively as expression systems, or as vehicles for vaccine purposes. Poxviruses, like vaccinia virus (VV are well-established vaccine vectors having large insertion capacity, excellent stability, and ease of administration. In turn, replicons derived from Alphaviruses like Semliki Forest virus (SFV are potent protein expression and immunization vectors but stocks are difficult to produce and maintain. In an attempt to demonstrate the use of a Poxvirus as a means for the delivery of small vaccine vectors, we have constructed and characterized VV/SFV hybrid vectors. A SFV replicon cDNA was inserted in the VV genome and placed under the control of a VV early promoter. The replicon, transcribed from the VV genome as an early transcript, was functional, and thus capable of initiating its own replication and transcription. Further, we constructed a VV recombinant additionally expressing the SFV structural proteins under the control of a vaccinia synthetic early/late promoter. Infection with this recombinant produced concurrent transcription of the replicon and expression of SFV structural proteins, and led to the generation of replicon-containing SFV particles that were released to the medium and were able to infect additional cells. This combined VV/SFV system in a single virus allows the use of VV as a SFV delivery vehicle in vivo. The combination of two vectors, and the possibility of generating in vivo single-cycle, replicon containing alphavirus particles, may open new strategies in vaccine development or in the design of oncolytic viruses.
BST2/Tetherin Inhibition of Alphavirus Exit
Yaw Shin Ooi
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Alphaviruses such as chikungunya virus (CHIKV and Semliki Forest virus (SFV are small enveloped RNA viruses that bud from the plasma membrane. Tetherin/BST2 is an interferon-induced host membrane protein that inhibits the release of many enveloped viruses via direct tethering of budded particles to the cell surface. Alphaviruses have highly organized structures and exclude host membrane proteins from the site of budding, suggesting that their release might be insensitive to tetherin inhibition. Here, we demonstrated that exogenously-expressed tetherin efficiently inhibited the release of SFV and CHIKV particles from host cells without affecting virus entry and infection. Alphavirus release was also inhibited by the endogenous levels of tetherin in HeLa cells. While rubella virus (RuV and dengue virus (DENV have structural similarities to alphaviruses, tetherin inhibited the release of RuV but not DENV. We found that two recently identified tetherin isoforms differing in length at the N-terminus exhibited distinct capabilities in restricting alphavirus release. SFV exit was efficiently inhibited by the long isoform but not the short isoform of tetherin, while both isoforms inhibited vesicular stomatitis virus exit. Thus, in spite of the organized structure of the virus particle, tetherin specifically blocks alphavirus release and shows an interesting isoform requirement.
Alphavirus Restriction by IFITM Proteins.
Weston, Stuart; Czieso, Stephanie; White, Ian J; Smith, Sarah E; Wash, Rachael S; Diaz-Soria, Carmen; Kellam, Paul; Marsh, Mark
2016-09-01
Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) are broad-spectrum antiviral factors. In cell culture the entry of many enveloped viruses, including orthomyxo-, flavi-, and filoviruses, is inhibited by IFITMs, though the mechanism(s) involved remain unclear and may vary between viruses. We demonstrate that Sindbis and Semliki Forest virus (SFV), which both use endocytosis and acid-induced membrane fusion in early endosomes to infect cells, are restricted by the early endosomal IFITM3. The late endosomal IFITM2 is less restrictive and the plasma membrane IFITM1 does not inhibit normal infection by either virus. IFITM3 inhibits release of the SFV capsid into the cytosol, without inhibiting binding, internalization, trafficking to endosomes or low pH-induced conformational changes in the envelope glycoprotein. Infection by SFV fusion at the cell surface was inhibited by IFITM1, but was equally inhibited by IFITM3. Furthermore, an IFITM3 mutant (Y20A) that is localized to the plasma membrane inhibited infection by cell surface fusion more potently than IFITM1. Together, these results indicate that IFITMs, in particular IFITM3, can restrict alphavirus infection by inhibiting viral fusion with cellular membranes. That IFITM3 can restrict SFV infection by fusion at the cell surface equivalently to IFITM1 suggests that IFITM3 has greater antiviral potency against SFV. PMID:27219333
Maria L Knudsen
Full Text Available Ligands of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs including Toll-like receptors (TLRs stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses and are considered as potent adjuvants. Combinations of ligands might act in synergy to induce stronger and broader immune responses compared to stand-alone ligands. Alphaviruses stimulate endosomal TLRs 3, 7 and 8 as well as the cytoplasmic PRR MDA-5, resulting in induction of a strong type I interferon (IFN response. Bacterial flagellin stimulates TLR5 and when delivered intracellularly the cytosolic PRR NLRC4, leading to secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Both alphaviruses and flagellin have independently been shown to act as adjuvants for antigen-specific antibody responses. Here, we hypothesized that alphavirus and flagellin would act in synergy when combined. We therefore cloned the Salmonella Typhimurium flagellin (FliC gene into an alphavirus replicon and assessed its adjuvant activity on the antibody response against co-administered antigen. In mice immunized with recombinant alphavirus, antibody responses were greatly enhanced compared to soluble FliC or control alphavirus. Both IgG1 and IgG2a/c responses were increased, indicating an enhancement of both Th1 and Th2 type responses. The adjuvant activity of FliC-expressing alphavirus was diminished but not abolished in the absence of TLR5 or type I IFN signaling, suggesting the contribution of several signaling pathways and some synergistic and redundant activity of its components. Thus, we have created a recombinant adjuvant that stimulates multiple signaling pathways of innate immunity resulting in a strong and broad antibody response.
Next-generation salmonid alphavirus vaccine development
Hikke, M.C.
2016-01-01
ABSTRACT Aquaculture is essential to meet the current and future demands for seafood to feed the world population. Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout are two of the most cultured aquaculture species. A pathogen that threatens these species is salmonid alphavirus (SAV). A current inactivated virus vac
Replication of Alphaviruses: A Review on the Entry Process of Alphaviruses into Cells
Jason Yat-Sing Leung
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Alphaviruses are small, enveloped viruses, ~70 nm in diameter, containing a single-stranded, positive-sense, RNA genome. Viruses belonging to this genus are predominantly arthropod-borne viruses, known to cause disease in humans. Their potential threat to human health was most recently exemplified by the 2005 Chikungunya virus outbreak in La Reunion, highlighting the necessity to understand events in the life-cycle of these medically important human pathogens. The replication and propagation of viruses is dependent on entry into permissive cells. Viral entry is initiated by attachment of virions to cells, leading to internalization, and uncoating to release genetic material for replication and propagation. Studies on alphaviruses have revealed entry via a receptor-mediated, endocytic pathway. In this paper, the different stages of alphavirus entry are examined, with examples from Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus, Chikungunya virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus described.
Hikke, Mia C; Geertsema, Corinne; Wu, Vincen; Metz, Stefan W; van Lent, Jan W; Vlak, Just M; Pijlman, Gorben P
2016-02-01
The mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes arthritic diseases in humans, whereas the aquatic salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is associated with high mortality in aquaculture of salmon and trout. Using modern biotechnological approaches, promising vaccine candidates based upon highly immunogenic, enveloped virus-like particles (eVLPs) have been developed. However, the eVLP structure (core, lipid membrane, surface glycoproteins) is more complex than that of non-enveloped, protein-only VLPs, which are structurally and morphologically 'simple'. In order to develop an alternative to alphavirus eVLPs, in this paper we engineered recombinant baculovirus vectors to produce high levels of alphavirus core-like particles (CLPs) in insect cells by expression of the CHIKV and SAV capsid proteins. The CLPs localize in dense nuclear bodies within the infected cell nucleus and are purified through a rapid and scalable protocol involving cell lysis, sonication and low-speed centrifugation steps. Furthermore, an immunogenic epitope from the alphavirus E2 glycoprotein can be successfully fused to the N-terminus of the capsid protein without disrupting the CLP self-assembling properties. We propose that immunogenic epitope-tagged alphavirus CLPs produced in insect cells present a simple and perhaps more stable alternative to alphavirus eVLPs. PMID:26287127
Discovery of frameshifting in Alphavirus 6K resolves a 20-year enigma
Fleeton Marina N
2008-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Alphavirus includes several potentially lethal human viruses. Additionally, species such as Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus are important vectors for gene therapy, vaccination and cancer research, and important models for virion assembly and structural analyses. The genome encodes nine known proteins, including the small '6K' protein. 6K appears to be involved in envelope protein processing, membrane permeabilization, virion assembly and virus budding. In protein gels, 6K migrates as a doublet – a result that, to date, has been attributed to differing degrees of acylation. Nonetheless, despite many years of research, its role is still relatively poorly understood. Results We report that ribosomal -1 frameshifting, with an estimated efficiency of ~10–18%, occurs at a conserved UUUUUUA motif within the sequence encoding 6K, resulting in the synthesis of an additional protein, termed TF (TransFrame protein; ~8 kDa, in which the C-terminal amino acids are encoded by the -1 frame. The presence of TF in the Semliki Forest virion was confirmed by mass spectrometry. The expression patterns of TF and 6K were studied by pulse-chase labelling, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence, using both wild-type virus and a TF knockout mutant. We show that it is predominantly TF that is incorporated into the virion, not 6K as previously believed. Investigation of the 3' stimulatory signals responsible for efficient frameshifting at the UUUUUUA motif revealed a remarkable diversity of signals between different alphavirus species. Conclusion Our results provide a surprising new explanation for the 6K doublet, demand a fundamental reinterpretation of existing data on the alphavirus 6K protein, and open the way for future progress in the further characterization of the 6K and TF proteins. The results have implications for alphavirus biology, virion structure, viroporins, ribosomal frameshifting, and bioinformatic
Nathan Christopher Nieto
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Human populations throughout much of the world are experiencing unprecedented changes in their relationship to the environment and their interactions with the animals with which so many humans are intimately dependent upon. These changes result not only from human induced changes in the climate, but also from population demographic changes due to wars, social unrest, behavioral changes resulting from cultural mixing, and large changes in land-use practices. Each of these social shifts can affect the maintenance and emergence of arthropod vectors disease or the pathogenic organisms themselves. A good example is the country of Pakistan, with a large rural population and developing urban economy, it also maintains a wide diversity of entomological disease vectors, including biting flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. Pathogens endemic to the region include the agents of piroplasmosis, rickettsiosis, spirocheteosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers and encephalitis. The northwestern region of the country, including the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK, formerly the North-West Frontier Provence (NWFP, and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA are mountainous regions with a high degree of habitat diversity that has recently undergone a massive increase in human population density due to an immigrating refugee population from neighboring war-torn Afghanistan. Vector-borne diseases in people and livestock are common in KPK and FATA regions due to the limited use of vector control measures and access to livestock vaccines. The vast majority of people in this region live in abject poverty with >70% of the population living directly from production gained in animal husbandry. In many instances whole families live directly alongside their animal counterparts. In addition, there is little to no awareness of the threat posed by ticks and transmission of either zoonotic or veterinary pathogens. Recent emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in rural
Nieto, Nathan C; Khan, Khalid; Uhllah, Ghufran; Teglas, Mike B
2012-01-01
Human populations throughout much of the world are experiencing unprecedented changes in their relationship to the environment and their interactions with the animals with which so many humans are intimately dependent upon. These changes result not only from human induced changes in the climate, but also from population demographic changes due to wars, social unrest, behavioral changes resulting from cultural mixing, and large changes in land-use practices. Each of these social shifts can affect the maintenance and emergence of arthropod vectors disease or the pathogenic organisms themselves. A good example is the country of Pakistan, with a large rural population and developing urban economy, it also maintains a wide diversity of entomological disease vectors, including biting flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. Pathogens endemic to the region include the agents of piroplasmosis, rickettsiosis, spirochetosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers and encephalitis. The northwestern region of the country, including the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK), formerly the North-West Frontier Provence (NWFP), and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are mountainous regions with a high degree of habitat diversity that has recently undergone a massive increase in human population density due to an immigrating refugee population from neighboring war-torn Afghanistan. Vector-borne diseases in people and livestock are common in KPK and FATA regions due to the limited use of vector control measures and access to livestock vaccines. The vast majority of people in this region live in abject poverty with >70% of the population living directly from production gained in animal husbandry. In many instances whole families live directly alongside their animal counterparts. In addition, there is little to no awareness of the threat posed by ticks and transmission of either zoonotic or veterinary pathogens. Recent emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in rural populations
[Exotic viral arthritis: role of alphavirus].
Jeandel, P; Josse, R; Durand, J P
2004-01-01
Only six of the many alphavirus known to affect humans can cause articular manifestations. They are the Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses from the South Pacific, the Chikungunya, O'Nyong Nyong and Sindbis viruses from tropical Africa, and the Mayaro virus from South America. In most cases, articular manifestations involve arthralgia or transient arthritis and are usually minor. However in some cases especially involving Ross River virus acute polyarthritis may be the most prominent clinical feature and even develop before fever. Although these joint symptoms may be severe and persist for weeks or months in a subacute mode with slightly inflammatory episodes that can be relieved using analgesics, they never cause permanent damage. Differential diagnosis of alphavirsus-related polyarthritis is simple to diagnosis especially in epidemic outbreaks as is frequently the case for Ross River virus epidemics in Australia. Imported cases should be suspected in patients presenting acute or subacute polyarthritis after a recent stay of any length of time in a tropical country and can be confirmed by ordering serology from a specialized reference laboratory. PMID:15224565
Qiu, Xiangguo; Wong, Gary; Fernando, Lisa; Audet, Jonathan; Bello, Alexander; Strong, Jim; Alimonti, Judie B; Kobinger, Gary P
2013-10-16
ZMAb is a promising treatment against Ebola virus (EBOV) disease that has been shown to protect 50% (two of four) of nonhuman primates (NHPs) when administered 2 days post-infection (dpi). To extend the treatment window and improve protection, we combined ZMAb with adenovirus-vectored interferon-α (Ad-IFN) and evaluated efficacy in EBOV-infected NHPs. Seventy-five percent (three of four) and 100% (four of four) of cynomolgus and rhesus macaques survived, respectively, when treatment was initiated after detection of viremia at 3 dpi. Fifty percent (two of four) of the cynomolgus macaques survived when Ad-IFN was given at 1 dpi, followed by ZMAb starting at 4 dpi, after positive diagnosis. The treatment was able to suppress viremia reaching ~10(5) TCID50 (median tissue culture infectious dose) per milliliter, leading to survival and robust specific immune responses. This study describes conditions capable of saving 100% of EBOV-infected NHPs when initiated after the presence of detectable viremia along with symptoms. PMID:24132638
Virus-specific thermostability and heat inactivation profiles of alphaviruses.
Park, So Lee; Huang, Yan-Jang S; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Hettenbach, Susan M; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L
2016-08-01
Serological diagnosis is a critical component for disease surveillance and is important to address the increase in incidence and disease burden of alphaviruses, such as the chikungunya (CHIKV) and Ross River (RRV) viruses. The gold standard for serological diagnosis is the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), which demonstrates the neutralizing capacity of serum samples after the removal of complement activity and adventitious viruses. This procedure is normally performed following inactivation of the virus at 56°C for 30min. Although this protocol has been widely accepted for the inactivation of envelope RNA viruses, recent studies have demonstrated that prolonged heat inactivation is required to completely inactivate two alphaviruses, Western equine encephalitis virus and CHIKV. Incomplete inactivation of viruses poses a laboratory biosafety risk and can also lead to spurious test results. Despite its importance in ensuring the safety of laboratory personnel as well as test integrity, systematic investigation on the thermostability of alphaviruses has not been performed. In this study, the temperature tolerance and heat inactivation profiles of RRV, Barmah Forest, and o'nyong-nyong viruses were determined. Variations in thermostability were observed within the Semliki forest serocomplex. Therefore, evidence-based heat inactivation procedures for alphaviruses are recommended. PMID:27079828
Emerging alphaviruses in the Americas: Chikungunya and Mayaro
Mario Luis Garcia de Figueiredo
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV and Mayaro virus (MAYV are emergent arthropod-borne viruses that produce outbreaks of acute febrile illness with arthropathy. Despite their different continental origins, CHIKV and MAYV are closely related and are components of the Semliki Forest Complex of the Alphavirus (Togaviridae. MAYV and, more recently, CHIKV, which are both transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, have resulted in severe public health problems in the Americas, including Brazil. In this review, we present aspects of the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and treatment of febrile illnesses produced by CHIKV and MAYV. We also discuss the epidemiological aspects and effects related to the prophylaxis of infections by both viruses.
Structural changes of envelope proteins during alphavirus fusion
Li, Long; Jose, Joyce; Xiang, Ye; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G. (Purdue)
2010-12-08
Alphaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses that have a diameter of about 700 {angstrom} and can be lethal human pathogens. Entry of virus into host cells by endocytosis is controlled by two envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2. The E2-E1 heterodimers form 80 trimeric spikes on the icosahedral virus surface, 60 with quasi-three-fold symmetry and 20 coincident with the icosahedral three-fold axes arranged with T = 4 quasi-symmetry. The E1 glycoprotein has a hydrophobic fusion loop at one end and is responsible for membrane fusion. The E2 protein is responsible for receptor binding and protects the fusion loop at neutral pH. The lower pH in the endosome induces the virions to undergo an irreversible conformational change in which E2 and E1 dissociate and E1 forms homotrimers, triggering fusion of the viral membrane with the endosomal membrane and then releasing the viral genome into the cytoplasm. Here we report the structure of an alphavirus spike, crystallized at low pH, representing an intermediate in the fusion process and clarifying the maturation process. The trimer of E2-E1 in the crystal structure is similar to the spikes in the neutral pH virus except that the E2 middle region is disordered, exposing the fusion loop. The amino- and carboxy-terminal domains of E2 each form immunoglobulin-like folds, consistent with the receptor attachment properties of E2.
Genome-wide RNAi screen identifies novel host proteins required for alphavirus entry.
Yaw Shin Ooi
Full Text Available The enveloped alphaviruses include important and emerging human pathogens such as Chikungunya virus and Eastern equine encephalitis virus. Alphaviruses enter cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and exit by budding from the plasma membrane. While there has been considerable progress in defining the structure and function of the viral proteins, relatively little is known about the host factors involved in alphavirus infection. We used a genome-wide siRNA screen to identify host factors that promote or inhibit alphavirus infection in human cells. Fuzzy homologue (FUZ, a protein with reported roles in planar cell polarity and cilia biogenesis, was required for the clathrin-dependent internalization of both alphaviruses and the classical endocytic ligand transferrin. The tetraspanin membrane protein TSPAN9 was critical for the efficient fusion of low pH-triggered virus with the endosome membrane. FUZ and TSPAN9 were broadly required for infection by the alphaviruses Sindbis virus, Semliki Forest virus, and Chikungunya virus, but were not required by the structurally-related flavivirus Dengue virus. Our results highlight the unanticipated functions of FUZ and TSPAN9 in distinct steps of alphavirus entry and suggest novel host proteins that may serve as targets for antiviral therapy.
Zoppe, Justin O; Ruottinen, Ville; Ruotsalainen, Janne; Rönkkö, Seppo; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Hinkkanen, Ari; Järvinen, Kristiina; Seppälä, Jukka
2014-04-14
We present two facile approaches for introducing multivalent displays of tyrosine sulfate mimetic ligands on the surface of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) for application as viral inhibitors. We tested the efficacy of cellulose nanocrystals, prepared either from cotton fibers or Whatman filter paper, to inhibit alphavirus infectivity in Vero (B) cells. Cellulose nanocrystals were produced by sulfuric acid hydrolysis leading to nanocrystal surfaces decorated with anionic sulfate groups. When the fluorescent marker expressing Semliki Forest virus vector, VA7-EGFP, was incubated with CNCs, strong inhibition of virus infectivity was achieved, up to 100 and 88% for cotton and Whatman CNCs, respectively. When surface sulfate groups of CNCs were exchanged for tyrosine sulfate mimetic groups (i.e. phenyl sulfonates), improved viral inhibition was attained. Our observations suggest that the conjugation of target-specific functionalities to CNC surfaces provides a means to control their antiviral activity. Multivalent CNCs did not cause observable in vitro cytotoxicity to Vero (B) cells or human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) cells, even within the 100% virus-inhibitory concentrations. Based on the similar chemistry of known polyanionic inhibitors, our results suggest the potential application of CNCs as inhibitors of other viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex viruses. PMID:24628489
A Phylogenomic Study of the Genus Alphavirus Employing Whole Genome Comparison
James J. Campanella
2006-04-01
Full Text Available The phylogenetics of the genus Alphavirus have historically been characterized using partial gene, single gene or partial proteomic data. We have mined cDNA and amino acid sequences from GenBank for all fully sequenced and some partially sequenced alphaviruses and generated phylogenomic analyses of the genus Alphavirus genus, employing capsid encoding structural regions, non-structural coding regions and complete viral genomes. Our studies support the presence of the previously reported recombination event that produced the Western Equine Encephalitis clade, and confirm many of the patterns of geographic radiation and divergence of the multiple species. Our data suggest that the Salmon Pancreatic Disease Virus and Sleeping Disease Virus are sufficiently divergent to form a separate clade from the other alphaviruses. Also, unlike previously reported studies employing limited sequence data for correlation of phylogeny, our results indicate that the Barmah Forest Virus and Middelburg Virus appear to be members of the Semliki Forest clade. Additionally, our analysis indicates that the Southern Elephant Seal Virus is part of the Semliki Forest clade, although still phylogenetically distant from all known members of the genus Alphavirus. Finally, we demonstrate that the whole Rubella viral genome provides an ideal outgroup for phylogenomic studies of the genus Alphavirus.
Virus-host interactions essential for alphavirus pathogenesis are poorly understood. To address this shortcoming, we coupled retrovirus insertional mutagenesis and a cell survival selection strategy to generate clonal cell lines broadly resistant to Sindbis virus (SINV) and other alphaviruses. Resistant cells had significantly impaired SINV production relative to wild-type (WT) cells, although virus binding and fusion events were similar in both sets of cells. Analysis of the retroviral integration sites identified the neurofibromin 1 (NF1) gene as disrupted in alphavirus-resistant cell lines. Subsequent analysis indicated that expression of NF1 was significantly reduced in alphavirus-resistant cells. Importantly, independent down-regulation of NF1 expression in WT HEK 293 cells decreased virus production and increased cell viability during SINV infection, relative to infected WT cells. Additionally, we observed hyperactive RAS signalling in the resistant HEK 293 cells, which was anticipated because NF1 is a negative regulator of RAS. Expression of constitutively active RAS (HRAS-G12V) in a WT HEK 293 cell line resulted in a marked delay in virus production, compared with infected cells transfected with parental plasmid or dominant-negative RAS (HRAS-S17N). This work highlights novel host cell determinants required for alphavirus pathogenesis and suggests that RAS signalling may play an important role in neuronal susceptibility to SINV infection
Alphavirus Infection: Host Cell Shut-Off and Inhibition of Antiviral Responses.
Fros, Jelke J; Pijlman, Gorben P
2016-01-01
Alphaviruses cause debilitating disease in humans and animals and are transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods, typically mosquitoes. With a traditional focus on two models, Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus, alphavirus research has significantly intensified in the last decade partly due to the re-emergence and dramatic expansion of chikungunya virus in Asia, Europe, and the Americas. As a consequence, alphavirus-host interactions are now understood in much more molecular detail, and important novel mechanisms have been elucidated. It has become clear that alphaviruses not only cause a general host shut-off in infected vertebrate cells, but also specifically suppress different host antiviral pathways using their viral nonstructural proteins, nsP2 and nsP3. Here we review the current state of the art of alphavirus host cell shut-off of viral transcription and translation, and describe recent insights in viral subversion of interferon induction and signaling, the unfolded protein response, and stress granule assembly. PMID:27294951
Hunting in the rainforest and mayaro virus infection: An emerging alphavirus in Ecuador
Ricardo O Izurieta
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this report were to document the potential presence of Mayaro virus infection in Ecuador and to examine potential risk factors for Mayaro virus infection among the personnel of a military garrison in the Amazonian rainforest. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of the personnel of a garrison located in the Ecuadorian Amazonian rainforest. The cross-sectional study employed interviews and seroepidemiological methods. Humoral immune response to Mayaro virus infection was assessed by evaluating IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies using ELISA. Results: Of 338 subjects studied, 174 were from the Coastal zone of Ecuador, 73 from Andean zone, and 91 were native to the Amazonian rainforest. Seroprevalence of Mayaro virus infection was more than 20 times higher among Amazonian natives (46% than among subjects born in other areas (2%. Conclusions: Age and hunting in the rainforest were significant predictors of Mayaro virus infection overall and among Amazonian natives. The results provide the first demonstration of the potential presence of Mayaro virus infection in Ecuador and a systematic evaluation of risk factors for the transmission of this alphavirus. The large difference in prevalence rates between Amazonian natives and other groups and between older and younger natives suggest that Mayaro virus is endemic and enzootic in the rainforest, with sporadic outbreaks that determine differences in risk between birth cohorts of natives. Deep forest hunting may selectively expose native men, descendants of the Shuar and Huaronai ethnic groups, to the arthropod vectors of Mayaro virus in areas close to primate reservoirs.
Geiss Brian J
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses can persistently infect and cause limited damage to mosquito vectors. RNA interference (RNAi is a mosquito antiviral response important in restricting RNA virus replication and has been shown to be active against some arboviruses. The goal of this study was to use a recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae; genus Alphavirus that expresses B2 protein of Flock House virus (FHV; family Nodaviridae; genus Alphanodavirus, a protein that inhibits RNAi, to determine the effects of linking arbovirus infection with RNAi inhibition. Results B2 protein expression from SINV (TE/3'2J inhibited the accumulation of non-specific small RNAs in Aedes aegypti mosquito cell culture and virus-specific small RNAs both in infected cell culture and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. More viral genomic and subgenomic RNA accumulated in cells and mosquitoes infected with TE/3'2J virus expressing B2 (TE/3'2J/B2 compared to TE/3'2J and TE/3'2J virus expressing GFP. TE/3'2J/B2 exhibited increased infection rates, dissemination rates, and infectious virus titers in mosquitoes following oral bloodmeal. Following infectious oral bloodmeal, significantly more mosquitoes died when TE/3'2J/B2 was ingested. The virus was 100% lethal following intrathoracic inoculation of multiple mosquito species and lethality was dose-dependent in Ae. aegypti. Conclusion We show that RNAi is active in Ae. aegypti cell culture and that B2 protein inhibits RNAi in mosquito cells when expressed by a recombinant SINV. Also, SINV more efficiently replicates in mosquito cells when RNAi is inhibited. Finally, TE/3'2J/B2 kills mosquitoes in a dose-dependent manner independent of infection route and mosquito species.
Emma-Jo Hayton
Full Text Available TRIAL DESIGN: HIV-1 vaccine development has advanced slowly due to viral antigenic diversity, poor immunogenicity and recently, safety concerns associated with human adenovirus serotype-5 vectors. To tackle HIV-1 variation, we designed a unique T-cell immunogen HIVconsv from functionally conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome, which were presented to the immune system using a heterologous prime-boost combination of plasmid DNA, a non-replicating simian (chimpanzee adenovirus ChAdV-63 and a non-replicating poxvirus, modified vaccinia virus Ankara. A block-randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled phase I trial HIV-CORE 002 administered for the first time candidate HIV-1- vaccines or placebo to 32 healthy HIV-1/2-uninfected adults in Oxford, UK and elicited high frequencies of HIV-1-specific T cells capable of inhibiting HIV-1 replication in vitro. Here, detail safety and tolerability of these vaccines are reported. METHODS: Local and systemic reactogenicity data were collected using structured interviews and study-specific diary cards. Data on all other adverse events were collected using open questions. Serum neutralizing antibody titres to ChAdV-63 were determined before and after vaccination. RESULTS: Two volunteers withdrew for vaccine-unrelated reasons. No vaccine-related serious adverse events or reactions occurred during 190 person-months of follow-up. Local and systemic events after vaccination occurred in 27/32 individuals and most were mild (severity grade 1 and predominantly transient (<48 hours. Myalgia and flu-like symptoms were more strongly associated with MVA than ChAdV63 or DNA vectors and more common in vaccine recipients than in placebo. There were no intercurrent HIV-1 infections during follow-up. 2/24 volunteers had low ChAdV-63-neutralizing titres at baseline and 7 increased their titres to over 200 with a median (range of 633 (231-1533 post-vaccination, which is of no safety concern. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate
Michael R Wiley
Full Text Available Double subgenomic Sindbis virus (dsSINV vectors are widely used for the expression of proteins, peptides, and RNA sequences. These recombinant RNA viruses permit high level expression of a heterologous sequence in a wide range of animals, tissues, and cells. However, the alphavirus genome structure and replication strategy is not readily amenable to the expression of more than one heterologous sequence. The Rhopalosiphum padi virus (RhPV genome contains two internal ribosome entry site (IRES elements that mediate cap-independent translation of the virus nonstructural and structural proteins. Most IRES elements that have been characterized function only in mammalian cells but previous work has shown that the IRES element present in the 5' untranslated region (UTR of the RhPV genome functions efficiently in mammalian, insect, and plant systems. To determine if the 5' RhPV IRES element could be used to express more than one heterologous sequence from a dsSINV vector, RhPV 5' IRES sequences were placed between genes for two different fluorescent marker proteins in the dsSINV, TE/3'2J/mcs. While mammalian and insect cells infected with recombinant viruses containing the RhPV sequences expressed both fluorescent marker proteins, only single marker proteins were routinely observed in cells infected with dsSINV vectors in which the RhPV IRES had been replaced by a luciferase fragment, an antisense RhPV IRES, or no intergenic sequence. Thus, we report development of a versatile tool for the expression of multiple sequences in diverse cell types.
Ip, Peng
2014-01-01
Peng Peng Ip beschrijft in dit proefschrift haar onderzoek naar de ontwikkeling van een immuuntherapie gericht tegen hepatitis C virus infecties. Wereldwijd zijn ongeveer 150 miljoen mensen chronisch besmet met hepatitis C virus (HCV) en jaarlijks sterven 350.000 mensen aan een HCV-gerelateerde leverziekte zoals cirrose of leverkanker. In Nederland zijn ongeveer 60.000 mensen besmet met HCV, vaak nog zonder het te weten. Het doel van het promotie onderzoek was om een vaccin tegen HCV infectie...
Chikungunya Virus–Vector Interactions
Lark L. Coffey
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. Since 2004, CHIKV has emerged in Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, causing millions of human infections. Central to understanding CHIKV emergence is knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and vector infection dynamics. This review presents current understanding of CHIKV infection dynamics in mosquito vectors and its relationship to human disease emergence. The following topics are reviewed: CHIKV infection and vector life history traits including transmission cycles, genetic origins, distribution, emergence and spread, dispersal, vector competence, vector immunity and microbial interactions, and co-infection by CHIKV and other arboviruses. The genetics of vector susceptibility and host range changes, population heterogeneity and selection for the fittest viral genomes, dual host cycling and its impact on CHIKV adaptation, viral bottlenecks and intrahost diversity, and adaptive constraints on CHIKV evolution are also discussed. The potential for CHIKV re-emergence and expansion into new areas and prospects for prevention via vector control are also briefly reviewed.
Broadly Neutralizing Alphavirus Antibodies Bind an Epitope on E2 and Inhibit Entry and Egress.
Fox, Julie M; Long, Feng; Edeling, Melissa A; Lin, Hueylie; van Duijl-Richter, Mareike K S; Fong, Rachel H; Kahle, Kristen M; Smit, Jolanda M; Jin, Jing; Simmons, Graham; Doranz, Benjamin J; Crowe, James E; Fremont, Daved H; Rossmann, Michael G; Diamond, Michael S
2015-11-19
We screened a panel of mouse and human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against chikungunya virus and identified several with inhibitory activity against multiple alphaviruses. Passive transfer of broadly neutralizing MAbs protected mice against infection by chikungunya, Mayaro, and O'nyong'nyong alphaviruses. Using alanine-scanning mutagenesis, loss-of-function recombinant proteins and viruses, and multiple functional assays, we determined that broadly neutralizing MAbs block multiple steps in the viral lifecycle, including entry and egress, and bind to a conserved epitope on the B domain of the E2 glycoprotein. A 16 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of a Fab fragment bound to CHIKV E2 B domain provided an explanation for its neutralizing activity. Binding to the B domain was associated with repositioning of the A domain of E2 that enabled cross-linking of neighboring spikes. Our results suggest that B domain antigenic determinants could be targeted for vaccine or antibody therapeutic development against multiple alphaviruses of global concern. PMID:26553503
Kading, Rebekah C; Borland, Erin M; Cranfield, Mike; Powers, Ann M
2013-07-01
Vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens have comprised a significant proportion of the emerging infectious diseases in humans in recent decades. The role of many wildlife species as reservoirs for arthropod-borne viral pathogens is poorly understood. We investigated the exposure history of various African wildlife species from the Congo basin to mosquito-borne flaviviruses and alphaviruses by testing archived serum samples. Sera from 24 African forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), 34 African elephants (Loxodonta africana), 40 duikers (Cephalophus and Philantomba spp.), 25 mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), 32 mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), five Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla beringei graueri), two L'Hoest's monkeys (Cercopithecus lhoesti), two golden monkeys (Cercopithecus kandti), and three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) sampled between 1991 and 2009 were tested for antibodies against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), o'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV), West Nile virus (WNV), dengue 2 virus (DENV-2), and yellow fever virus (YFV) by plaque reduction neutralization test. Specific neutralizing antibodies against ONNV were found in African forest buffalo in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Gabon, duikers in the DRC, and mandrills in Gabon, providing novel evidence of enzootic circulation of ONNV in these countries. African forest buffalo in the DRC and Gabon also demonstrated evidence of exposure to CHIKV, WNV, and DENV-2, while mandrills in Gabon were antibody positive for CHIKV, DENV-2, WNV, and YFV. All of the elephants tested had a strong neutralizing antibody response to WNV. We also document results from a survey of gorillas for arboviruses, of which 4/32 (13%) had antibody to an alphavirus or flavivirus. Overall, our results demonstrate a high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against multiple arboviruses in wildlife in equatorial Africa. PMID:23778608
Voss, Kelsey; Amaya, Moushimi [National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, 10650 Pyramid Place, Manassas, VA (United States); Mueller, Claudius [Center for Applied Proteomics and Personalized Medicine, George Mason University, 10900 University Boulevard, Manassas, VA (United States); Roberts, Brian [Leidos Health Life Sciences, 5202 Presidents Court, Suite 110, Frederick, MD (United States); Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Bailey, Charles [National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, 10650 Pyramid Place, Manassas, VA (United States); Petricoin, Emanuel [Center for Applied Proteomics and Personalized Medicine, George Mason University, 10900 University Boulevard, Manassas, VA (United States); Narayanan, Aarthi, E-mail: anaraya1@gmu.edu [National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, 10650 Pyramid Place, Manassas, VA (United States)
2014-11-15
New World alphaviruses belonging to the family Togaviridae are classified as emerging infectious agents and Category B select agents. Our study is focused on the role of the host extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the infectious process of New World alphaviruses. Infection of human cells by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) results in the activation of the ERK-signaling cascade. Inhibition of ERK1/2 by the small molecule inhibitor Ag-126 results in inhibition of viral multiplication. Ag-126-mediated inhibition of VEEV was due to potential effects on early and late stages of the infectious process. While expression of viral proteins was down-regulated in Ag-126 treated cells, we did not observe any influence of Ag-126 on the nuclear distribution of capsid. Finally, Ag-126 exerted a broad-spectrum inhibitory effect on New World alphavirus multiplication, thus indicating that the host kinase, ERK, is a broad-spectrum candidate for development of novel therapeutics against New World alphaviruses. - Highlights: • VEEV infection activated multiple components of the ERK signaling cascade. • Inhibition of ERK activation using Ag-126 inhibited VEEV multiplication. • Activation of ERK by Ceramide C6 increased infectious titers of TC-83. • Ag-126 inhibited virulent strains of all New World alphaviruses. • Ag-126 treatment increased percent survival of infected cells.
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for township administered roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current...
Reynaud, Josephine M; Kim, Dal Young; Atasheva, Svetlana; Rasalouskaya, Aliaksandra; White, James P; Diamond, Michael S; Weaver, Scott C; Frolova, Elena I; Frolov, Ilya
2015-04-01
Alphaviruses are a group of widely distributed human and animal pathogens. It is well established that their replication is sensitive to type I IFN treatment, but the mechanism of IFN inhibitory function remains poorly understood. Using a new experimental system, we demonstrate that in the presence of IFN-β, activation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) does not interfere with either attachment of alphavirus virions to the cells, or their entry and nucleocapsid disassembly. However, it strongly affects translation of the virion-delivered virus-specific RNAs. One of the ISG products, IFIT1 protein, plays a major role in this translation block, although an IFIT1-independent mechanism is also involved. The 5'UTRs of the alphavirus genomes were found to differ significantly in their ability to drive translation in the presence of increased concentration of IFIT1. Prior studies have shown that adaptation of naturally circulating alphaviruses to replication in tissue culture results in accumulation of mutations in the 5'UTR, which increase the efficiency of the promoter located in the 5'end of the genome. Here, we show that these mutations also decrease resistance of viral RNA to IFIT1-induced translation inhibition. In the presence of higher levels of IFIT1, alphaviruses with wt 5'UTRs became potent inducers of type I IFN, suggesting a new mechanism of type I IFN induction. We applied this knowledge of IFIT1 interaction with alphaviruses to develop new attenuated variants of Venezuelan equine encephalitis and chikungunya viruses that are more sensitive to the antiviral effects of IFIT1, and thus could serve as novel vaccine candidates. PMID:25927359
Xu Cheng
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Salmonid alphavirus subtype-3 (SAV-3 infection in Atlantic salmon is exclusively found in Norway. The salmonid alphaviruses have been well characterized at the genome level but there is limited information about the host-pathogen interaction phenomena. This study was undertaken to characterize the replication and spread of SAV-3 in internal organs of experimentally infected Atlantic salmon and the subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. In addition, suitability of a cohabitation challenge model for this virus was also examined. Groups of fish were infected by intramuscular injection (IM, cohabited (CO or kept uninfected in a separate tank. Samples of pancreas, kidney, spleen, heart and skeletal muscles were collected at 2, 4 and 8 weeks post infection (wpi. Pathological changes were assessed by histology concurrently with viral loads and mRNA expression of immune genes by real time RT-PCR. Pathological changes were only observed in the pancreas and heart (target organs of both IM and CO groups, with changes appearing first in the pancreas (2 wpi in the former. Lesions with increasing severity over time coincided with high viral loads despite significant induction of IFN-α, Mx and ISG15. IFN-γ and MHC-I were expressed in all tissues examined and their induction appeared in parallel with that of IL-10. Inflammatory genes TNF-α, IL-12 and IL-8 were only induced in the heart during pathology while T cell-related genes CD3ε, CD4, CD8, TCR-α and MHC-II were expressed in target organs at 8 wpi. These findings suggest that the onset of innate responses came too late to limit virus replication. Furthermore, SAV-3 infections in Atlantic salmon induce Th1/cytotoxic responses in common with other alphaviruses infecting higher vertebrates. Our findings demonstrate that SAV-3 can be transmitted via the water making it suitable for a cohabitation challenge model.
Varghese, Finny S; Kaukinen, Pasi; Gläsker, Sabine; Bespalov, Maxim; Hanski, Leena; Wennerberg, Krister; Kümmerer, Beate M; Ahola, Tero
2016-02-01
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic arbovirus of the Alphavirus genus, which has infected millions of people after its re-emergence in the last decade. In this study, a BHK cell line containing a stable CHIKV replicon with a luciferase reporter was used in a high-throughput platform to screen approximately 3000 compounds. Following initial validation, 25 compounds were chosen as primary hits for secondary validation with wild type and reporter CHIKV infection, which identified three promising compounds. Abamectin (EC50 = 1.5 μM) and ivermectin (EC50 = 0.6 μM) are fermentation products generated by a soil dwelling actinomycete, Streptomyces avermitilis, whereas berberine (EC50 = 1.8 μM) is a plant-derived isoquinoline alkaloid. They inhibited CHIKV replication in a dose-dependent manner and had broad antiviral activity against other alphaviruses--Semliki Forest virus and Sindbis virus. Abamectin and ivermectin were also active against yellow fever virus, a flavivirus. These compounds caused reduced synthesis of CHIKV genomic and antigenomic viral RNA as well as downregulation of viral protein expression. Time of addition experiments also suggested that they act on the replication phase of the viral infectious cycle. PMID:26752081
An alphavirus temperature-sensitive capsid mutant reveals stages of nucleocapsid assembly
Zheng, Yan, E-mail: yzheng15@students.kgi.edu; Kielian, Margaret, E-mail: margaret.kielian@einstein.yu.edu
2015-10-15
Alphaviruses have a nucleocapsid core composed of the RNA genome surrounded by an icosahedral lattice of capsid protein. An insertion after position 186 in the capsid protein produced a strongly temperature-sensitive growth phenotype. Even when the structural proteins were synthesized at the permissive temperature (28 °C), subsequent incubation of the cells at the non-permissive temperature (37 °C) dramatically decreased mutant capsid protein stability and particle assembly. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of cytoplasmic nucleocapsids in mutant-infected cells cultured at the permissive temperature, but these nucleocapsids were not stable to sucrose gradient separation. In contrast, nucleocapsids isolated from mutant virus particles had similar stability to that of wildtype virus. Our data support a model in which cytoplasmic nucleocapsids go through a maturation step during packaging into virus particles. The insertion site lies in the interface between capsid proteins in the assembled nucleocapsid, suggesting the region where such a stabilizing transition occurs. - Highlights: • We characterize an alphavirus capsid insertion mutation. • These capsid mutants are highly temperature sensitive for growth. • The insertion affects nucleocapsid stability. • Results suggest that the nucleocapsid is stabilized during virus budding.
Tina M Sali
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Pharmacologic stimulation of innate immune processes represents an attractive strategy to achieve multiple therapeutic outcomes including inhibition of virus replication, boosting antitumor immunity, and enhancing vaccine immunogenicity. In light of this we sought to identify small molecules capable of activating the type I interferon (IFN response by way of the transcription factor IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3. A high throughput in vitro screen yielded 4-(2-chloro-6-fluorobenzyl-N-(furan-2-ylmethyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[b][1,4]thiazine-6-carboxamide (referred to herein as G10, which was found to trigger IRF3/IFN-associated transcription in human fibroblasts. Further examination of the cellular response to this molecule revealed expression of multiple IRF3-dependent antiviral effector genes as well as type I and III IFN subtypes. This led to the establishment of a cellular state that prevented replication of emerging Alphavirus species including Chikungunya virus, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus, and Sindbis virus. To define cellular proteins essential to elicitation of the antiviral activity by the compound we employed a reverse genetics approach that utilized genome editing via CRISPR/Cas9 technology. This allowed the identification of IRF3, the IRF3-activating adaptor molecule STING, and the IFN-associated transcription factor STAT1 as required for observed gene induction and antiviral effects. Biochemical analysis indicates that G10 does not bind to STING directly, however. Thus the compound may represent the first synthetic small molecule characterized as an indirect activator of human STING-dependent phenotypes. In vivo stimulation of STING-dependent activity by an unrelated small molecule in a mouse model of Chikungunya virus infection blocked viremia demonstrating that pharmacologic activation of this signaling pathway may represent a feasible strategy for combating emerging Alphaviruses.
Kathryn Rozen-Gagnon
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Arboviruses cycle through both vertebrates and invertebrates, which requires them to adapt to disparate hosts while maintaining genetic integrity during genome replication. To study the genetic mechanisms and determinants of these processes, we use chikungunya virus (CHIKV, a re-emerging human pathogen transmitted by the Aedes mosquito. We previously isolated a high fidelity (or antimutator polymerase variant, C483Y, which had decreased fitness in both mammalian and mosquito hosts, suggesting this residue may be a key molecular determinant. To further investigate effects of position 483 on RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp fidelity, we substituted every amino acid at this position. We isolated novel mutators with decreased replication fidelity and higher mutation frequencies, allowing us to examine the fitness of error-prone arbovirus variants. Although CHIKV mutators displayed no major replication defects in mammalian cell culture, they had reduced specific infectivity and were attenuated in vivo. Unexpectedly, mutator phenotypes were suppressed in mosquito cells and the variants exhibited significant defects in RNA synthesis. Consequently, these replication defects resulted in strong selection for reversion during infection of mosquitoes. Since residue 483 is conserved among alphaviruses, we examined the analogous mutations in Sindbis virus (SINV, which also reduced polymerase fidelity and generated replication defects in mosquito cells. However, replication defects were mosquito cell-specific and were not observed in Drosophila S2 cells, allowing us to evaluate the potential attenuation of mutators in insect models where pressure for reversion was absent. Indeed, the SINV mutator variant was attenuated in fruit flies. These findings confirm that residue 483 is a determinant regulating alphavirus polymerase fidelity and demonstrate proof of principle that arboviruses can be attenuated in mammalian and insect hosts by reducing fidelity.
Sali, Tina M; Pryke, Kara M; Abraham, Jinu; Liu, Andrew; Archer, Iris; Broeckel, Rebecca; Staverosky, Julia A; Smith, Jessica L; Al-Shammari, Ahmed; Amsler, Lisi; Sheridan, Kayla; Nilsen, Aaron; Streblow, Daniel N; DeFilippis, Victor R
2015-12-01
Pharmacologic stimulation of innate immune processes represents an attractive strategy to achieve multiple therapeutic outcomes including inhibition of virus replication, boosting antitumor immunity, and enhancing vaccine immunogenicity. In light of this we sought to identify small molecules capable of activating the type I interferon (IFN) response by way of the transcription factor IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). A high throughput in vitro screen yielded 4-(2-chloro-6-fluorobenzyl)-N-(furan-2-ylmethyl)-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[b][1,4]thiazine-6-carboxamide (referred to herein as G10), which was found to trigger IRF3/IFN-associated transcription in human fibroblasts. Further examination of the cellular response to this molecule revealed expression of multiple IRF3-dependent antiviral effector genes as well as type I and III IFN subtypes. This led to the establishment of a cellular state that prevented replication of emerging Alphavirus species including Chikungunya virus, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus, and Sindbis virus. To define cellular proteins essential to elicitation of the antiviral activity by the compound we employed a reverse genetics approach that utilized genome editing via CRISPR/Cas9 technology. This allowed the identification of IRF3, the IRF3-activating adaptor molecule STING, and the IFN-associated transcription factor STAT1 as required for observed gene induction and antiviral effects. Biochemical analysis indicates that G10 does not bind to STING directly, however. Thus the compound may represent the first synthetic small molecule characterized as an indirect activator of human STING-dependent phenotypes. In vivo stimulation of STING-dependent activity by an unrelated small molecule in a mouse model of Chikungunya virus infection blocked viremia demonstrating that pharmacologic activation of this signaling pathway may represent a feasible strategy for combating emerging Alphaviruses. PMID:26646986
Brault, Aaron C; Armijos, M. Veronica; Wheeler, Sarah; Wright, Stan; Fang, Ying; Langevin, Stanley; Reisen, William K.
2009-01-01
Multiple isolates of an alphaviruses within the western equine encephalomyelitis-serocomplex that were related closely to Ft. Morgan and its variant Buggy Creek virus were made from swallow bugs, Oeciacus vicarius Horvath (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), collected from cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) nests at the Stone Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Sacramento County, CA, during the summers of 2005 and 2006. This virus (hereafter Stone Lakes virus, family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, STLV)...
Lin, Yuan; Zhang, Haipeng; Liang, Jiankai; Kai LI; Zhu, Wenbo; FU, LIWU; Wang, Fang; Zheng, Xiaoke; Shi, Huijuan; Wu, Sihan; Xiao, Xiao; Chen, Lijun; TANG, LIPENG; Yan, Min; Yang, Xiaoxiao
2014-01-01
Although oncolytic virotherapy is showing great promise in clinical trials, not all patients are benefiting. Identifying predictors of therapeutic effectiveness for each oncolytic virus would provide a good chance to increase response rate. Here, we describe an alphavirus (M1) that possesses selective and potent antitumor activity through intravenous infusion, whereas its replication is controlled by the zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP) gene. A survey of cancer tissue banks reveals that ZA...
Zaitseva, Elena; Mittal, Aditya; Griffin, Diane E.; Chernomordik, Leonid V.
2005-01-01
Viral fusion proteins of classes I and II differ radically in their initial structures but refold toward similar conformations upon activation. Do fusion pathways mediated by alphavirus E1 and influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) that exemplify classes II and I differ to reflect the difference in their initial conformations, or concur to reflect the similarity in the final conformations? Here, we dissected the pathway of low pH–triggered E1-mediated cell–cell fusion by reducing the numbers of a...
We examined the characteristics of interferon alpha/beta (IFN-α/β) induction after alphavirus or control Sendai virus (SeV) infection of murine fibroblasts (MEFs). As expected, SeV infection of wild-type (wt) MEFs resulted in strong dimerization of IRF3 and the production of high levels of IFN-α/β. In contrast, infection of MEFs with multiple alphaviruses failed to elicit detectable IFN-α/β. In more detailed studies, Sindbis virus (SINV) infection caused dimerization and nuclear migration of IRF3, but minimal IFN-β promoter activity, although surprisingly, the infected cells were competent for IFN production by other stimuli early after infection. A SINV mutant defective in host macromolecular synthesis shutoff induced IFN-α/β in the MEF cultures dependent upon the activities of the TBK1 IRF3 activating kinase and host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) PKR and MDA5 but not RIG-I. These results suggest that wild-type alphaviruses antagonize IFN induction after IRF3 activation but also may avoid detection by host PRRs early after infection.
Pathogenesis of experimental salmonid alphavirus infection in vivo: an ultrastructural insight.
Herath, Tharangani K; Ferguson, Hugh W; Weidmann, Manfred W; Bron, James E; Thompson, Kimberly D; Adams, Alexandra; Muir, Katherine F; Richards, Randolph H
2016-01-01
Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is an enveloped, single-stranded, positive sense RNA virus belonging to the family Togaviridae. It causes economically devastating disease in cultured salmonids. The characteristic features of SAV infection include severe histopathological changes in the heart, pancreas and skeletal muscles of diseased fish. Although the presence of virus has been reported in a wider range of tissues, the mechanisms responsible for viral tissue tropism and for lesion development during the disease are not clearly described or understood. Previously, we have described membrane-dependent morphogenesis of SAV and associated apoptosis-mediated cell death in vitro. The aims of the present study were to explore ultrastructural changes associated with SAV infection in vivo. Cytolytic changes were observed in heart, but not in gill and head-kidney of virus-infected fish, although they still exhibited signs of SAV morphogenesis. Ultrastructural changes associated with virus replication were also noted in leukocytes in the head kidney of virus-infected fish. These results further describe the presence of degenerative lesions in the heart as expected, but not in the gills and in the kidney. PMID:26743442
In- silico exploration of thirty alphavirus genomes for analysis of the simple sequence repeats
Chaudhary Mashhood Alam
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The compilation of simple sequence repeats (SSRs in viruses and its analysis with reference to incidence, distribution and variation would be instrumental in understanding the functional and evolutionary aspects of repeat sequences. Present study encompasses the analysis of SSRs across 30 species of alphaviruses. The full length genome sequences, assessed from NCBI were used for extraction and analysis of repeat sequences using IMEx software. The repeats of different motif sizes (mono- to penta-nucleotide observed therein exhibited variable incidence across the species. Expectedly, mononucleotide A/T was the most prevalent followed by dinucleotide AG/GA and trinucleotide AAG/GAA in these genomes. The conversion of SSRs to imperfect microsatellite or compound microsatellite (cSSR is low. cSSR, primarily constituted by variant motifs accounted for up to 12.5% of the SSRs. Interestingly, seven species lacked cSSR in their genomes. However, the SSR and cSSR are predominantly localized to the coding region ORFs for non structural protein and structural proteins. The relative frequencies of different classes of simple and compound microsatellites within and across genomes have been highlighted.
Sophiya Karki
Full Text Available The zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP is a host factor that mediates inhibition of viruses in the Filoviridae, Retroviridae and Togaviridae families. We previously demonstrated that ZAP blocks replication of Sindbis virus (SINV, the prototype Alphavirus in the Togaviridae family at an early step prior to translation of the incoming genome and that synergy between ZAP and one or more interferon stimulated genes (ISGs resulted in maximal inhibitory activity. The present study aimed to identify those ISGs that synergize with ZAP to mediate Alphavirus inhibition. Using a library of lentiviruses individually expressing more than 350 ISGs, we screened for inhibitory activity in interferon defective cells with or without ZAP overexpression. Confirmatory tests of the 23 ISGs demonstrating the largest infection reduction in combination with ZAP revealed that 16 were synergistic. Confirmatory tests of all potentially synergistic ISGs revealed 15 additional ISGs with a statistically significant synergistic effect in combination with ZAP. These 31 ISGs are candidates for further mechanistic studies. The number and diversity of the identified ZAP-synergistic ISGs lead us to speculate that ZAP may play an important role in priming the cell for optimal ISG function.
Newell, Homer E
2006-01-01
When employed with skill and understanding, vector analysis can be a practical and powerful tool. This text develops the algebra and calculus of vectors in a manner useful to physicists and engineers. Numerous exercises (with answers) not only provide practice in manipulation but also help establish students' physical and geometric intuition in regard to vectors and vector concepts.Part I, the basic portion of the text, consists of a thorough treatment of vector algebra and the vector calculus. Part II presents the illustrative matter, demonstrating applications to kinematics, mechanics, and e
Hoffmann, Banesh
1975-01-01
From his unusual beginning in ""Defining a vector"" to his final comments on ""What then is a vector?"" author Banesh Hoffmann has written a book that is provocative and unconventional. In his emphasis on the unresolved issue of defining a vector, Hoffmann mixes pure and applied mathematics without using calculus. The result is a treatment that can serve as a supplement and corrective to textbooks, as well as collateral reading in all courses that deal with vectors. Major topics include vectors and the parallelogram law; algebraic notation and basic ideas; vector algebra; scalars and scalar p
Wolstenholme, E Œ
1978-01-01
Elementary Vectors, Third Edition serves as an introductory course in vector analysis and is intended to present the theoretical and application aspects of vectors. The book covers topics that rigorously explain and provide definitions, principles, equations, and methods in vector analysis. Applications of vector methods to simple kinematical and dynamical problems; central forces and orbits; and solutions to geometrical problems are discussed as well. This edition of the text also provides an appendix, intended for students, which the author hopes to bridge the gap between theory and appl
Leena Pohjala
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV, an alphavirus, has recently caused epidemic outbreaks and is therefore considered a re-emerging pathogen for which no effective treatment is available. In this study, a CHIKV replicon containing the virus replicase proteins together with puromycin acetyltransferase, EGFP and Renilla luciferase marker genes was constructed. The replicon was transfected into BHK cells to yield a stable cell line. A non-cytopathic phenotype was achieved by a Pro718 to Gly substitution and a five amino acid insertion within non-structural protein 2 (nsP2, obtained through selection for stable growth. Characterization of the replicon cell line by Northern blotting analysis revealed reduced levels of viral RNA synthesis. The CHIKV replicon cell line was validated for antiviral screening in 96-well format and used for a focused screen of 356 compounds (natural compounds and clinically approved drugs. The 5,7-dihydroxyflavones apigenin, chrysin, naringenin and silybin were found to suppress activities of EGFP and Rluc marker genes expressed by the CHIKV replicon. In a concomitant screen against Semliki Forest virus (SFV, their anti-alphaviral activity was confirmed and several additional inhibitors of SFV with IC₅₀ values between 0.4 and 24 µM were identified. Chlorpromazine and five other compounds with a 10H-phenothiazinyl structure were shown to inhibit SFV entry using a novel entry assay based on a temperature-sensitive SFV mutant. These compounds also reduced SFV and Sindbis virus-induced cytopathic effect and inhibited SFV virion production in virus yield experiments. Finally, antiviral effects of selected compounds were confirmed using infectious CHIKV. In summary, the presented approach for discovering alphaviral inhibitors enabled us to identify potential lead structures for the development of alphavirus entry and replication phase inhibitors as well as demonstrated the usefulness of CHIKV replicon and SFV as biosafe surrogate
Brand, Louis
2006-01-01
The use of vectors not only simplifies treatments of differential geometry, mechanics, hydrodynamics, and electrodynamics, but also makes mathematical and physical concepts more tangible and easy to grasp. This text for undergraduates was designed as a short introductory course to give students the tools of vector algebra and calculus, as well as a brief glimpse into these subjects' manifold applications. The applications are developed to the extent that the uses of the potential function, both scalar and vector, are fully illustrated. Moreover, the basic postulates of vector analysis are brou
Tumour targeting with systemically administered bacteria.
Morrissey, David
2012-01-31
Challenges for oncology practitioners and researchers include specific treatment and detection of tumours. The ideal anti-cancer therapy would selectively eradicate tumour cells, whilst minimising side effects to normal tissue. Bacteria have emerged as biological gene vectors with natural tumour specificity, capable of homing to tumours and replicating locally to high levels when systemically administered. This property enables targeting of both the primary tumour and secondary metastases. In the case of invasive pathogenic species, this targeting strategy can be used to deliver genes intracellularly for tumour cell expression, while non-invasive species transformed with plasmids suitable for bacterial expression of heterologous genes can secrete therapeutic proteins locally within the tumour environment (cell therapy approach). Many bacterial genera have been demonstrated to localise to and replicate to high levels within tumour tissue when intravenously (IV) administered in rodent models and reporter gene tagging of bacteria has permitted real-time visualisation of this phenomenon. Live imaging of tumour colonising bacteria also presents diagnostic potential for this approach. The nature of tumour selective bacterial colonisation appears to be tumour origin- and bacterial species- independent. While originally a correlation was drawn between anaerobic bacterial colonisation and the hypoxic nature of solid tumours, it is recently becoming apparent that other elements of the unique microenvironment within solid tumours, including aberrant neovasculature and local immune suppression, may be responsible. Here, we consider the pre-clinical data supporting the use of bacteria as a tumour-targeting tool, recent advances in the area, and future work required to develop it into a beneficial clinical tool.
Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Smith, Lloyd M.
1994-01-01
A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site.
Levine, Robert
2004-01-01
The cross-product is a mathematical operation that is performed between two 3-dimensional vectors. The result is a vector that is orthogonal or perpendicular to both of them. Learning about this for the first time while taking Calculus-III, the class was taught that if AxB = AxC, it does not necessarily follow that B = C. This seemed baffling. The…
Azila Abdullah
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Vaccination is an important strategy for the control and prevention of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar in the post-smolt stage in sea-water. In this study, a heterologous gene expression system, based on a replicon construct of salmonid alphavirus (SAV, was used for in vitro and in vivo expression of IPN virus proteins. The large open reading frame of segment A, encoding the polyprotein NH2-pVP2-VP4-VP3-COOH, as well as pVP2, were cloned and expressed by the SAV replicon in Chinook salmon embryo cells (CHSE-214 and epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC cells. The replicon constructs pSAV/polyprotein (pSAV/PP and pSAV/pVP2 were used to immunize Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar by a single intramuscular injection and tested in a subsequent IPN virus (IPNV challenge trial. A low to moderate protection against IPN was observed in fish immunized with the replicon vaccine that encoded the pSAV/PP, while the pSAV/pVP2 construct was not found to induce protection.
Madhun, Abdullah Sami; Isachsen, Cecilie Helen; Omdal, Linn Maren; Bårdsgjære Einen, Ann Cathrine; Bjørn, Pål Arne; Nilsen, Rune; Karlsbakk, Egil
2016-07-01
Viral diseases represent a serious problem in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) farming in Norway. Pancreas disease (PD) caused by salmonid alphavirus (SAV) and heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) caused by piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) are among the most frequently diagnosed viral diseases in recent years. The possible spread of viruses from salmon farms to wild fish is a major public concern. Sea trout S. trutta collected from the major farming areas along the Norwegian coast are likely to have been exposed to SAV and PRV from farms with disease outbreaks. We examined 843 sea trout from 4 counties in Norway for SAV and PRV infections. We did not detect SAV in any of the tested fish, although significant numbers of the trout were caught in areas with frequent PD outbreaks. Low levels of PRV were detected in 1.3% of the sea trout. PRV-infected sea trout were caught in both salmon farming and non-farming areas, so the occurrence of infections was not associated with farming intensity or HSMI cases. Our results suggest that SAV and PRV infections are uncommon in wild sea trout. Hence, we found no evidence that sea trout are at risk from SAV or PRV released from salmon farms. PMID:27409234
Robinson, Gilbert de B
2011-01-01
This brief undergraduate-level text by a prominent Cambridge-educated mathematician explores the relationship between algebra and geometry. An elementary course in plane geometry is the sole requirement for Gilbert de B. Robinson's text, which is the result of several years of teaching and learning the most effective methods from discussions with students. Topics include lines and planes, determinants and linear equations, matrices, groups and linear transformations, and vectors and vector spaces. Additional subjects range from conics and quadrics to homogeneous coordinates and projective geom
Split-intron retroviral vectors: enhanced expression with improved safety.
Ismail, S I; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J; Uden, M
2000-03-01
The inclusion of retrovirus-derived introns within retrovirus-based expression vectors leads to a fraction of the resulting transcripts being spliced. Such splicing has been shown to markedly improve expression (W. J. Krall et al., Gene Ther. 3:37-48, 1996). One way to improve upon this still further might involve the use of more efficient introns instead of those from the provirus. Currently, however, incorporation of such introns remains self-defeating since they are removed in the nucleus of the producer cell. In the past, elaborate ways to overcome this problem have included the use of alphaviruses to make the vector transcripts within the cytoplasm, thus avoiding the nuclear splicing machinery during vector production (K. J. Li and H. Garoff, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:3650-3654, 1998). We now present a novel design for the inclusion of introns within a retroviral vector. In essence, this is achieved by exploiting the retroviral replication process to copy not only the U3 promoter but also a synthetic splice donor to the 5'-long-terminal-repeat position during reverse transcription. Once copied, synthesized transcripts then contain a splice donor at their 5' end capable of interacting with a consensus splice acceptor engineered downstream of the packaging signal. Upon transduction, we demonstrate these vectors to produce enhanced expression from near fully spliced (and thus packaging signal minus) transcripts. The unique design of these high titer and high-expression retroviral vectors may be of use in a number of gene therapy applications. PMID:10666267
Ong, Hooi Tin; Trejo, Theodore R; Pham, Linh D.; Oberg, Ann L.; Russell, Stephen J.; Peng, Kah-Whye
2009-01-01
Systemically administered vectors must cross the endothelial lining of tumor blood vessels to access cancer cells. Vectors that interact with markers on the lumenal surface of these endothelial cells might have enhanced tumor localization. Here, we generated oncolytic measles viruses (MVs) displaying αvβ3 integrin-binding peptides, cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) or echistatin, on the measles hemagglutinin protein. Both viruses had expanded tropisms, and efficiently entered target cel...
Wang, Joseph Che-Yen; Chen, Chao; Rayaprolu, Vamseedhar; Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana; Zlotnick, Adam
2015-09-22
Weak association energy can lead to uniform nanostructures: defects can anneal due to subunit lability. What happens when strong association energy leads to particles where defects are trapped? Alphaviruses are enveloped viruses whose icosahedral nucleocapsid core can assemble independently. We used a simplest case system to study Ross River virus (RRV) core-like particle (CLP) self-assembly using purified capsid protein and a short DNA oligomer. We find that capsid protein binds the oligomer with high affinity to form an assembly competent unit (U). Subsequently, U assembles with concentration dependence into CLPs. We determined that U-U pairwise interactions are very strong (ca. -6 kcal/mol) compared to other virus assembly systems. Assembled RRV CLPs appeared morphologically uniform and cryo-EM image reconstruction with imposed icosahedral symmetry yielded a T = 4 structure. However, 2D class averages of the CLPs show that virtually every class had disordered regions. These results suggested that irregular cores may be present in RRV virions. To test this hypothesis, we determined 2D class averages of RRV virions using authentic virions or only the core from intact virions isolated by computational masking. Virion-based class averages were symmetrical, geometric, and corresponded well to projections of image reconstructions. In core-based class averages, cores and envelope proteins in many classes were disordered. These results suggest that partly disordered components are common even in ostensibly well-ordered viruses, a biological realization of a patchy particle. Biological advantages of partly disordered complexes may arise from their ease of dissociation and asymmetry. PMID:26275088
2012-01-01
generation of a reference beam, a detector system comprising a first detector arrangement arranged in such a way that the signal beam and the reference beam are incident upon the first detector arrangement with the reference beam propagating at an angle relative to a signal beam, and wherein the first......The present invention relates to a compact, reliable and low-cost vector velocimeter for example for determining velocities of particles suspended in a gas or fluid flow, or for determining velocity, displacement, rotation, or vibration of a solid surface, the vector velocimeter comprising a laser...... assembly for emission of a measurement beam for illumination of an object in a measurement volume with coherent light whereby a signal beam emanating from the object in the measurement volume is formed in response to illumination of the object by the measurement beam, a reference beam generator for...
Students' difficulties with unit vectors and scalar multiplication of a vector
Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro
2012-02-01
In this article we report an investigation on students' understanding of: 1) unit vectors and, 2) scalar multiplication of a vector. We administered two different tests to a total of 850 students after taking their first introductory physics course on mechanics at a large private Mexican university. The first test about unit vectors was taken by 270 students and the second test about scalar multiplication of a vector by 580 students. In the first part of this article, we analyze students' difficulties sketching the unit vector in the direction of a vector in the Cartesian coordinate plane. In the second part, we analyze students' responses in two types of problems: positive and negative scalar multiplication of a vector. In both parts of this article we describe frequent errors that have not been reported in the literature.
Multistage vector (MSV) therapeutics.
Wolfram, Joy; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro
2015-12-10
One of the greatest challenges in the field of medicine is obtaining controlled distribution of systemically administered therapeutic agents within the body. Indeed, biological barriers such as physical compartmentalization, pressure gradients, and excretion pathways adversely affect localized delivery of drugs to pathological tissue. The diverse nature of these barriers requires the use of multifunctional drug delivery vehicles that can overcome a wide range of sequential obstacles. In this review, we explore the role of multifunctionality in nanomedicine by primarily focusing on multistage vectors (MSVs). The MSV is an example of a promising therapeutic platform that incorporates several components, including a microparticle, nanoparticles, and small molecules. In particular, these components are activated in a sequential manner in order to successively address transport barriers. PMID:26264836
Thim, Hanna L; Villoing, Stéphane; McLoughlin, Marian; Christie, Karen Elina; Grove, Søren; Frost, Petter; Jørgensen, Jorunn B
2014-01-01
Most commercial vaccines offered to the aquaculture industry include inactivated antigens (Ag) formulated in oil adjuvants. Safety concerns are related to the use of oil adjuvants in multivalent vaccines for fish, since adverse side effects (e.g., adhesions) can appear. Therefore, there is a request for vaccine formulations for which protection will be maintained or improved, while the risk of side effects is reduced. Here, by using an inactivated salmonid alphavirus (SAV) as the test Ag, the combined use of two Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand adjuvants, CpG oligonucleotides (ODNs) and poly I:C, as well as a genetic adjuvant consisting of a DNA plasmid vector expressing the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) glycoprotein (G) was explored. VHSV-G DNA vaccine was intramuscularly injected in combination with intraperitoneal injection of either SAV Ag alone or combined with the oil adjuvant, Montanide ISA763, or the CpG/polyI:C combo. Adjuvant formulations were evaluated for their ability to boost immune responses and induce protection against SAV in Atlantic salmon, following cohabitation challenge. It was observed that CpG/polyI:C-based formulations generated the highest neutralizing antibody titres (nAbs) before challenge, which endured post challenge. nAb responses for VHSV G-DNA- and oil-adjuvanted formulations were marginal compared to the CpG/poly I:C treatment. Interestingly, heat-inactivated sera showed reduced nAb titres compared to their non-heated counterparts, which suggests a role of complement-mediated neutralization against SAV. Consistently elevated levels of innate antiviral immune genes in the CpG/polyI:C injected groups suggested a role of IFN-mediated responses. Co-delivery of the VHSV-G DNA construct with either CpG/polyI:C or oil-adjuvanted SAV vaccine generated higher CD4 responses in head kidney at 48 h compared to injection of this vector or SAV Ag alone. The results demonstrate that a combination of pattern recognizing receptor (PRR
Hanna L. Thim
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Most commercial vaccines offered to the aquaculture industry include inactivated antigens (Ag formulated in oil adjuvants. Safety concerns are related to the use of oil adjuvants in multivalent vaccines for fish, since adverse side effects (e.g., adhesions can appear. Therefore, there is a request for vaccine formulations for which protection will be maintained or improved, while the risk of side effects is reduced. Here, by using an inactivated salmonid alphavirus (SAV as the test Ag, the combined use of two Toll-like receptor (TLR ligand adjuvants, CpG oligonucleotides (ODNs and poly I:C, as well as a genetic adjuvant consisting of a DNA plasmid vector expressing the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV glycoprotein (G was explored. VHSV-G DNA vaccine was intramuscularly injected in combination with intraperitoneal injection of either SAV Ag alone or combined with the oil adjuvant, Montanide ISA763, or the CpG/polyI:C combo. Adjuvant formulations were evaluated for their ability to boost immune responses and induce protection against SAV in Atlantic salmon, following cohabitation challenge. It was observed that CpG/polyI:C-based formulations generated the highest neutralizing antibody titres (nAbs before challenge, which endured post challenge. nAb responses for VHSV G-DNA- and oil-adjuvanted formulations were marginal compared to the CpG/poly I:C treatment. Interestingly, heat-inactivated sera showed reduced nAb titres compared to their non-heated counterparts, which suggests a role of complement-mediated neutralization against SAV. Consistently elevated levels of innate antiviral immune genes in the CpG/polyI:C injected groups suggested a role of IFN-mediated responses. Co-delivery of the VHSV-G DNA construct with either CpG/polyI:C or oil-adjuvanted SAV vaccine generated higher CD4 responses in head kidney at 48 h compared to injection of this vector or SAV Ag alone. The results demonstrate that a combination of pattern recognizing
Nurse-administered propofol sedation for endoscopy
Jensen, J T; Vilmann, P; Horsted, T;
2011-01-01
The aim of the present study was to perform a risk analysis during the implementation phase of nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) and to validate our structured training program.......The aim of the present study was to perform a risk analysis during the implementation phase of nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) and to validate our structured training program....
22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.
2010-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION THOMAS R. PICKERING FOREIGN AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of...
Gullberg, Maria; Lohse, Louise; Bøtner, Anette; McInerney, Gerald M.; Burman, Alison; Jackson, Terry; Polacek, Charlotta; Belsham, Graham
2016-01-01
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains one of the most economically important infectious diseases of production animals globally. Vaccination can successfully control this disease, however, current vaccines are imperfect. They are made using chemically inactivated FMD virus (FMDV) that is produced in large-scale mammalian cell culture under high containment conditions. Here, we have expressed the FMDV capsid protein precursor (P1-2A) of strain O1 Manisa alone or with the FMDV 3C protease (3Cpro...
Daemen, T; Regts, J; Holtrop, M; Wilschut, J
2002-01-01
We are developing immunization strategies against cervical carcinoma and premalignant disease, based on the use of recombinant Semliki Forest virus (SFV) encoding the onco-proteins E6 and E7 from high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPV). Thus far, protein-based, as well as genetic immunization studie
Brault, Aaron C; Armijos, M Veronica; Wheeler, Sarah; Wright, Stan; Fang, Ying; Langevin, Stanley; Reisen, William K
2009-09-01
Multiple isolates of an alphaviruses within the western equine encephalomyelitis-serocomplex that were related closely to Ft. Morgan and its variant Buggy Creek virus were made from swallow bugs, Oeciacus vicarius Horvath (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), collected from cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) nests at the Stone Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Sacramento County, CA, during the summers of 2005 and 2006. This virus (hereafter Stone Lakes virus, family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, STLV) was the first record of this viral group west of the Continental Divide. STLV replicated well in Vero and other vertebrate cell cultures but failed to replicate in C6/36 cells or infect Culex tarsalis Coquillett mosquitoes. STLV failed to produce elevated viremias in adult chickens or house sparrows and was weakly immunogenic. In addition, STLV was not isolated from cliff swallow nestlings nor was antibody detected in adults collected at mist nets. We suggest that STL and related swallow bug viruses may be primarily infections of cimicids that are maintained and amplified either by vertical or nonviremic transmission and that cliff swallows may primarily be important as a bloodmeal source for the bugs rather than as an amplification host for the viruses. PMID:19769055
Best Practices for Administering Concept Inventories
Madsen, Adrian; Sayre, Eleanor C
2014-01-01
There are a plethora of concept inventories in physics available for faculty to use, but it is not always clear exactly why you would use these tests, or how you should administer them and interpret the results. These multiple-choice research-based tests about physics concepts are valuable because they allow for standardized comparisons among institutions, instructors, or over time. In order for these comparisons to be meaningful, you should use best practices for administering the tests. Here we discuss best practices for administering concept inventories including background on these types of tests and specifics of how to give them online or in-class. We also discuss advantages and disadvantages of different incentives you could give your students, interpretation of scores and common concerns you may have about using concept inventories.
Nurse-administered propofol sedation for endoscopy
Jensen, J T; Vilmann, P; Horsted, T;
2011-01-01
endoscopists and for endoscopy nurses who were administering propofol sedation. The nurses' program comprised a 6-week course including theoretical and practical training in airway management, and the endoscopists' program consisted of 2.5 h of theory and a short course in practical airway management. In the......BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The aim of the present study was to perform a risk analysis during the implementation phase of nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) and to validate our structured training program. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A structured training program was developed both for...
Administering the Labor Agreement. Manager Development Series.
Department of the Army, Washington, DC.
Prepared under the direction of Headquarters, Department of the Army with the aid of subject matter specialists and technicians, this guide was designed to facilitate the preparation for and presentation of a course in administering local labor agreements. The five sessions, intended for first-line supervisors involved in day-to-day administration…
Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector
Pina, E.
2011-01-01
The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears…
We give a constructive and exhaustive definition of Kochen-Specker (KS) vectors in a Hilbert space of any dimension as well as of all the remaining vectors of the space. KS vectors are elements of any set of orthonormal states, i.e., vectors in an n-dimensional Hilbert space, Hn, n≥3, to which it is impossible to assign 1s and 0s in such a way that no two mutually orthogonal vectors from the set are both assigned 1 and that not all mutually orthogonal vectors are assigned 0. Our constructive definition of such KS vectors is based on algorithms that generate MMP diagrams corresponding to blocks of orthogonal vectors in Rn, on algorithms that single out those diagrams on which algebraic (0)-(1) states cannot be defined, and on algorithms that solve nonlinear equations describing the orthogonalities of the vectors by means of statistically polynomially complex interval analysis and self-teaching programs. The algorithms are limited neither by the number of dimensions nor by the number of vectors. To demonstrate the power of the algorithms, all four-dimensional KS vector systems containing up to 24 vectors were generated and described, all three-dimensional vector systems containing up to 30 vectors were scanned, and several general properties of KS vectors were found
Bioavailability of rectally administered carbamazepine mixture.
Neuvonen, P J; Tokola, O.
1987-01-01
The relative bioavailability of carbamazepine mixture was studied after oral and rectal administration to healthy subjects. The absorption was significantly slower after the rectal than after the oral route but the total bioavailability was similar provided the mixture was not defaecated within 2 h of administration. We conclude that carbamazepine can be administered rectally, e.g. to postoperative patients in doses corresponding with oral doses.
Eliezer, C J; Maxwell, E A; Sneddon, I N
1963-01-01
Concise Vector Analysis is a five-chapter introductory account of the methods and techniques of vector analysis. These methods are indispensable tools in mathematics, physics, and engineering. The book is based on lectures given by the author in the University of Ceylon.The first two chapters deal with vector algebra. These chapters particularly present the addition, representation, and resolution of vectors. The next two chapters examine the various aspects and specificities of vector calculus. The last chapter looks into some standard applications of vector algebra and calculus.This book wil
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — VectorBase is a Bioinformatics Resource Center for invertebrate vectors. It is one of four Bioinformatics Resource Centers funded by NIAID to provide web-based...
Vuillemenot, Brian R; Korte, Sven; Wright, Teresa L; Adams, Eric L; Boyd, Robert B; Butt, Mark T
2016-07-01
Many central nervous system (CNS) diseases are inadequately treated by systemically administered therapies due to the blood brain barrier (BBB), which prevents achieving adequate drug concentrations at sites of action. Due to the increasing prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases and the inability of most systemically administered therapies to cross the BBB, direct CNS delivery will likely play an increasing role in treatment. Administration of large molecules, cells, viral vectors, oligonucleotides, and other novel therapies directly to the CNS via the subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or parenchyma overcomes this obstacle. Clinical experience with direct CNS administration of small molecule therapies suggests that this approach may be efficacious for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders using biological therapies. Risks of administration into the brain tissue or cerebrospinal fluid include local damage from implantation of the delivery system and/or administration of the therapeutic and reactions affecting the CNS. Preclinical safety studies on CNS administered compounds must differentiate between the effects of the test article, the delivery device, and/or the vehicle, and assess exacerbations of reactions due to combinations of effects. Animal models characterized for safety assessment of CNS administered therapeutics have enabled human trials, but interpretation can be challenging. This manuscript outlines the challenges of preclinical intrathecal/intracerebroventricular/intraparenchymal studies, evaluation of results, considerations for special endpoints, and translation of preclinical findings to enable first-in-human trials. Recommendations will be made based on the authors' collective experience with conducting these studies to enable clinical development of CNS-administered biologics. PMID:27354708
Insulated Foamy Viral Vectors.
Browning, Diana L; Collins, Casey P; Hocum, Jonah D; Leap, David J; Rae, Dustin T; Trobridge, Grant D
2016-03-01
Retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is promising, but genotoxicity has limited its use in the clinic. Genotoxicity is highly dependent on the retroviral vector used, and foamy viral (FV) vectors appear relatively safe. However, internal promoters may still potentially activate nearby genes. We developed insulated FV vectors, using four previously described insulators: a version of the well-studied chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator (650cHS4), two synthetic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-based insulators, and an insulator based on the CCAAT box-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor I (7xCTF/NF1). We directly compared these insulators for enhancer-blocking activity, effect on FV vector titer, and fidelity of transfer to both proviral long terminal repeats. The synthetic CTCF-based insulators had the strongest insulating activity, but reduced titers significantly. The 7xCTF/NF1 insulator did not reduce titers but had weak insulating activity. The 650cHS4-insulated FV vector was identified as the overall most promising vector. Uninsulated and 650cHS4-insulated FV vectors were both significantly less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors. Integration sites were evaluated in cord blood CD34(+) cells and the 650cHS4-insulated FV vector had fewer hotspots compared with an uninsulated FV vector. These data suggest that insulated FV vectors are promising for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. PMID:26715244
Becciolini, Diego; Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Foadi, Roshan;
2015-01-01
We analyze the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) phenomenology of heavy vector resonances with a $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R$ spectral global symmetry. This symmetry partially protects the electroweak S-parameter from large contributions of the vector resonances. The resulting custodial vector model spectrum...
Rosenberg, Ronald; Ben Beard, C.
2011-01-01
Infections with vector-borne pathogens are a major source of emerging diseases. The ability of vectors to bridge spatial and ecologic gaps between animals and humans increases opportunities for emergence. Small adaptations of a pathogen to a vector can have profound effects on the rate of transmission to humans.
Aminu, Abdulhadi
2010-01-01
By rhotrix we understand an object that lies in some way between (n x n)-dimensional matrices and (2n - 1) x (2n - 1)-dimensional matrices. Representation of vectors in rhotrices is different from the representation of vectors in matrices. A number of vector spaces in matrices and their properties are known. On the other hand, little seems to be…
Taksdal, T; Jensen, B Bang; Böckerman, I; McLoughlin, M F; Hjortaas, M J; Ramstad, A; Sindre, H
2015-12-01
Pancreas disease (PD) caused by salmonid alphavirus (SAV) has a significant negative economic impact in the salmonid fish farming industry in northern Europe. Until recently, only SAV subtype 3 was present in Norwegian fish farms. However, in 2011, a marine SAV 2 subtype was detected in a fish farm outside the PD-endemic zone. This subtype has spread rapidly among fish farms in mid-Norway. The PD mortality in several farms has been lower than expected, although high mortality has also been reported. In this situation, the industry and the authorities needed scientific-based information about the virulence of the marine SAV 2 strain in Norway to decide how to handle this new situation. Atlantic salmon post-smolts were experimentally infected with SAV 2 and SAV 3 strains from six different PD cases in Norway. SAV 3-infected fish showed higher mortality than SAV 2-infected fish. Among the SAV 3 isolates, two isolates gave higher mortality than the third one. At the end of the experiment, fish in all SAV-infected groups had significantly lower weight than the uninfected control fish. This is the first published paper on PD to document that waterborne infection produced significantly higher mortality than intraperitoneal injection. PMID:25322679
The radiation dosimetry of intrathecally administered radionuclides
Stabin, M.G. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Evans, J.F. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)
1999-01-01
The radiation dose to the spine, spinal cord, marrow, and other organs of the body from intrathecal administration of several radiopharmaceuticals was studied. Anatomic models were developed for the spine, spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), spinal cord, spinal skeleton, cranial skeleton, and cranial CSF. A kinetic model for the transport of CSF was used to determine residence times in the CSF; material leaving the CSF was thereafter assumed to enter the bloodstream and follow the kinetics of the radiopharmaceutical as if intravenously administered. The radiation transport codes MCNP and ALGAMP were used to model the electron and photon transport and energy deposition. The dosimetry of Tc-99m DTPA and HSA, In-111 DTPA, I-131 HSA, and Yb-169 DTPA was studied. Radiation dose profiles for the spinal cord and marrow in the spine were developed and average doses to all other organs were estimated, including dose distributions within the bone and marrow.
Covariantised Vector Galileons
Hull, Matthew; Tasinato, Gianmassimo
2015-01-01
Vector galileons are ghost-free systems containing higher derivative interactions of vector fields. They break the vector gauge symmetry, and the dynamics of the longitudinal vector polarizations acquire a Galileon symmetry in an appropriate decoupling limit in Minkowski space. Using an ADM approach, we carefully reconsider the coupling with gravity of vector galileons, with the aim of studying the necessary conditions to avoid the propagation of ghosts. We develop arguments that put on a more solid footing the results previously obtained in the literature. Moreover, working in analogy with the scalar counterpart, we find indications for the existence of a `beyond Horndeski' theory involving vector degrees of freedom, that avoids the propagation of ghosts thanks to secondary constraints. In addition, we analyse a Higgs mechanism for generating vector galileons through spontaneous symmetry breaking, and we present its consistent covariantisation.
Keasler, J A
2012-03-27
Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid index sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid index sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.
Konderak, Jerzy J.
1992-01-01
A tangent bundle to a Riemannian manifold carries various metrics induced by a Riemannian tensor. We consider harmonic vector fields with respect to some of these metrics . We give a simple proof that a vector field on a compact manifold is harmonic with respect to the Sasaki metric on TM if and only if it is parallel. We also consider the metrics II and I + II on a tangent bundle (cf. [YI]) and harmonic vector fields generated by them.
Jean-François Degbomont
2010-10-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the symbolic representation of non-convex real polyhedra, i.e., sets of real vectors satisfying arbitrary Boolean combinations of linear constraints. We develop an original data structure for representing such sets, based on an implicit and concise encoding of a known structure, the Real Vector Automaton. The resulting formalism provides a canonical representation of polyhedra, is closed under Boolean operators, and admits an efficient decision procedure for testing the membership of a vector.
Selectively Balancing Unit Vectors
Blokhuis, Aart; Chen, Hao
2016-01-01
A set $U$ of unit vectors is selectively balancing if one can find two disjoint subsets $U^+$ and $U^-$, not both empty, such that the Euclidean distance between the sum of $U^+$ and the sum of $U^-$ is smaller than $1$. We prove that, to guarantee a selectively balancing set, $n \\log n$ unit vectors suffice for sufficiently large $n$, but $\\tfrac{1}{23} n \\log n$ unit vectors won't be enough for infinitely many $n$.
Symbolic computer vector analysis
Stoutemyer, D. R.
1977-01-01
A MACSYMA program is described which performs symbolic vector algebra and vector calculus. The program can combine and simplify symbolic expressions including dot products and cross products, together with the gradient, divergence, curl, and Laplacian operators. The distribution of these operators over sums or products is under user control, as are various other expansions, including expansion into components in any specific orthogonal coordinate system. There is also a capability for deriving the scalar or vector potential of a vector field. Examples include derivation of the partial differential equations describing fluid flow and magnetohydrodynamics, for 12 different classic orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems.
Monopole vector spherical harmonics
Eigenfunctions of total angular momentum for a charged vector field interacting with a magnetic monopole are constructed and their properties studied. In general, these eigenfunctions can be obtained by applying vector operators to the monopole spherical harmonics in a manner similar to that often used for the construction of the ordinary vector spherical harmonics. This construction fails for the harmonics with the minimum allowed angular momentum. These latter form a set of vector fields with vanishing covariant curl and covariant divergence, whose number can be determined by an index theorem
Monopole vector spherical harmonics
Weinberg, Erick J
1994-01-01
Eigenfunctions of total angular momentum for a charged vector field interacting with a magnetic monopole are constructed and their properties studied. In general, these eigenfunctions can be obtained by applying vector operators to the monopole spherical harmonics in a manner similar to that often used for the construction of the ordinary vector spherical harmonics. This construction fails for the harmonics with the minimum allowed angular momentum. These latter form a set of vector fields with vanishing covariant curl and covariant divergence, whose number can be determined by an index theorem.
Vectors and their applications
Pettofrezzo, Anthony J
2005-01-01
Geared toward undergraduate students, this text illustrates the use of vectors as a mathematical tool in plane synthetic geometry, plane and spherical trigonometry, and analytic geometry of two- and three-dimensional space. Its rigorous development includes a complete treatment of the algebra of vectors in the first two chapters.Among the text's outstanding features are numbered definitions and theorems in the development of vector algebra, which appear in italics for easy reference. Most of the theorems include proofs, and coordinate position vectors receive an in-depth treatment. Key concept
Who should administer awards, and how?
This paper examines the problems related to the administration of compensation awards following a nuclear accident, and suggests ways in which these problems could be addressed. The author first describes the existing legislation in Switzerland governing nuclear third party liability and its financial guarantee, namely the 1983 Act on Nuclear Third Party Liability and its Implementing Ordinance. He then provides an outline of the principles underlying the administration of compensation in Switzerland, describing in particular issues related to the information of the public, the organisation of a first estimate of damage three months after the incident, and the procedure applicable to accidents of catastrophic proportions, including the drafting of special legislation to govern the indemnization regime. The author further notes that in the context of the international third party liability regime, the Paris Convention does not regulate the administration of claims in detail, but rather refers to the national legislation of the accident state to determine such measures (Article 11). It does provide, however, that the distribution of compensation should be equitable in nature. The Vienna Convention contains similar provisions, although its Amending Protocol provides in certain cases for a priority system in favour of victims who have lost their lives or suffered personal injury. He points out that although Switzerland is not a Party to either of these Conventions, it has concluded a reciprocal agreement with Germany in this field, in light of the similarities in their national legislation. The author concludes by expressing his agreement with the approach taken by the Swiss legislator in avoiding the adoption of detailed regulations governing the administration of awards in advance. He notes that a case-by-case approach in response to the particular circumstances of a nuclear accident provides those responsible with the flexibility necessary to administer compensation
Who Should Administer Energy-Efficiency Programs?
Blumstein, Carl; Goldman, Charles; Barbose, Galen L.
2003-05-01
The restructuring of the electric utility industry in the US created a crisis in the administration of ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency programs. Before restructuring, nearly all energy-efficiency programs in the US were administered by utilities and funded from utility rates. Restructuring called these arrangements into question in two ways. First, the separation of generation from transmission and distribution undermined a key rationale for utility administration. This was the Integrated Resource Planning approach in which the vertically integrated utility was given incentives to provide energy services at least cost. Second, questions were raised as to whether funding through utility rates could be sustained in a competitive environment and most states that restructured their electricity industry adopted a system benefits charge. The crisis in administration of energy-efficiency programs produced a variety of responses in the eight years since restructuring in the US began in earn est. These responses have included new rationales for energy-efficiency programs, new mechanisms for funding programs, and new mechanisms for program administration and governance. This paper focuses on issues related to program administration. It describes the administrative functions and some of the options for accomplishing them. Then it discusses criteria for choosing among the options. Examples are given that highlight some of the states that have made successful transitions to new governance and/or administration structures. Attention is also given to California where large-scale energy-efficiency programs have continued to operate, despite the fact that many of the key governance/administration issues remain unresolved. The conclusion attempts to summarize lessons learned.
Cosmology with vector distortion
Jimenez, Jose Beltran
2016-01-01
We consider an extension of Weyl geometry with the most general connection linearly determined by a vector field. We discuss some of the geometrical properties within this framework and then we construct gravitational theories leading to an interesting class of vector-tensor theories with cosmological applications.
Complex Polynomial Vector Fields
Dias, Kealey
The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions or...... meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...
Complex Polynomial Vector Fields
Dias, Kealey
The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions or...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... of parameter spaces into structurally stable domains, and a description of the bifurcations. For this reason, the talk will focus on these questions for complex polynomial vector fields....
Balabanian, Norman
This programed booklet is designed for the engineering student who understands and can use vector and unit vector notation, components of a vector, parallel law of vector addition, and the dot product of two vectors. Content begins with work done by a force in moving a body a certain distance along some path. For each of the examples and problem…
Noninvasive Imaging of Administered Progenitor Cells
Steven R Bergmann, M.D., Ph.D.
2012-12-03
-99% pure population of leukocytes. Viability was assessed using Trypan blue histological analysis. We successfully isolated and labeled ~25-30 x 10{sup 7} CD34+ lymphocytes in cytokine mobilized progenitor cell apharesis harvests. Cells were also subjected to a stat gram stain to look for bacterial contamination, stat endotoxin LAL to look for endotoxin contamination, flow cytometry for evaluation of the purity of the cells and 14-day sterility culture. Colony forming assays confirm the capacity of these cells to proliferate and function ex-vivo with CFU-GM values of 26 colonies/ 1 x 10{sup 4} cells plated and 97% viability in cytokine augmented methylcellulose at 10-14 days in CO{sub 2} incubation. We developed a closed-processing system for the product labeling prior to infusion to maintain autologous cell integrity and sterility. Release criteria for the labeled product were documented for viability, cell count and differential, and measured radiolabel. We were successful in labeling the cells with up to 500 uCi/10{sup 8} cells, with viability of >98%. However, due to delays in getting the protocol approved by the FDA, the cells were not infused in humans in this location (although we did successfully use CD34+ cells in humans in a study in Australia). The approach developed should permit labeling of progenitor cells that can be administered to human subjects for tracking. The labeling approach should be useful for all progenitor cell types, although this would need to be verified since different cell lines may have differential radiosensitivity.
Lentiviral Vectors and Cystic Fibrosis Gene Therapy
Massimo Conese
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is a chronic autosomic recessive syndrome, caused by mutations in the CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR gene, a chloride channel expressed on the apical side of the airway epithelial cells. The lack of CFTR activity brings a dysregulated exchange of ions and water through the airway epithelium, one of the main aspects of CF lung disease pathophysiology. Lentiviral (LV vectors, of the Retroviridae family, show interesting properties for CF gene therapy, since they integrate into the host genome and allow long-lasting gene expression. Proof-of-principle that LV vectors can transduce the airway epithelium and correct the basic electrophysiological defect in CF mice has been given. Initial data also demonstrate that LV vectors can be repeatedly administered to the lung and do not give rise to a gross inflammatory process, although they can elicit a T cell-mediated response to the transgene. Future studies will clarify the efficacy and safety profile of LV vectors in new complex animal models with CF, such as ferrets and pigs.
Paulo Mira Batista
2012-04-01
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: From February-September 2010, seroepidemiological surveys were conducted on non-human primates and transmitter vector capture was used to investigate the possible circulation of arboviruses in the municipalities of Bonito, Campo Grande, and Jardim, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: A total of 65 primates from the wild and captivity were used, and potential vectors were captured using Castro and dip nets. Serum samples were tested at the Instituto Evandro Chagas, State of Pará, using the hemagglutination inhibition test to detect total antibodies against 19 different arboviruses. Virus isolation was attempted from serum samples and arthropod suspensions using newborn mice and the C6/36 cell line clone. In addition, identification of the vector species was conducted. RESULTS: From the 19 serum samples from Campo Grande, 1 sample had a 1:20 titer for Flavivirus. From the 35 samples collected in Bonito, 17 samples had antibodies to arboviruses, 4 (11.4% were positive for Alphavirus, and 5 (14.2% were positive for Flavivirus. Monotypic reactions were observed for the Mayaro (n = 10 and Oropouche (n = 5 viruses, and 6 (17.1% samples had titers for >1 virus. We captured 120 Culicidae individuals that were potential arbovirus transmitters in Jardim; however, all the samples were negative for the viruses. CONCLUSIONS: Mato Grosso do Sul has a variety of vertebrate hosts and transmission vectors, thereby providing ideal conditions for the emergence or reemergence of arboviruses, including some pathogenic to human beings.
ON VECTOR NETWORK EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEMS
Guangya CHEN
2005-01-01
In this paper we define a concept of weak equilibrium for vector network equilibrium problems.We obtain sufficient conditions of weak equilibrium points and establish relation with vector network equilibrium problems and vector variational inequalities.
Andersen Linda
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background For more than three decades, diseases caused by salmonid alphaviruses (SAV have become a major problem of increasing economic importance in the European fish-farming industry. However, experimental infection trials with SAV result in low or no mortality i.e very different from most field outbreaks of pancreas disease (PD. This probably reflects the difficulties in reproducing complex biotic and abiotic field conditions in the laboratory. In this study we looked at the relationship between SAV-infection in salmon and sub-lethal environmental hypoxia as a result of reduced flow-through in tank systems. Results The experiment demonstrated that constant reduced oxygen levels (60-65% oxygen saturation: 6.5-7.0 mg/L did not significantly increase the severity or the progress of pancreas disease (PD. These conclusions are based upon assessments of a semi-quantitative histopathological lesion score system, morbidities/mortalities, and levels of SAV RNA in tissues and water (measured by 1 MDS electropositive virus filters and downstream real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the fish population shed detectable levels of the virus into the surrounding water during viraemia; 4-13 days after i.p. infection, and prior to appearance of severe lesions in heart (21-35 dpi. After this period, viral RNA from SAV could not be detected in water samples although still present in tissues (gills and hearts at lasting low levels. Lesions could be seen in exocrine pancreas at 7-21 days post infection, but no muscle lesions were seen. Conclusions In our study, experimentally induced hypoxia failed to explain the discrepancy between the severities reported from field outbreaks of SAV-disease and experimental infections. Reduction of oxygen levels to constant suboptimal levels had no effect on the severity of lesions caused by SAV-infection or the progress of the disease. Furthermore, we present a modified VIRADEL method which can be used to
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs...
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Tagged Vector Contour (TVC) dataset consists of digitized contours from the 7.5 minute topographic quadrangle maps. Coverage for the state is incomplete....
Curjel, C. R.
1990-01-01
Presented are activities that help students understand the idea of a vector field. Included are definitions, flow lines, tangential and normal components along curves, flux and work, field conservation, and differential equations. (KR)
Krejčí, Pavel
1991-01-01
Roč. 2, - (1991), s. 281-292. ISSN 0956-7925 Keywords : vector hysteresis operator * hysteresis potential * differential inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.math.cas.cz/~krejci/b15p.pdf
Vector Lattice Vortex Solitons
WANG Jian-Dong; YE Fang-Wei; DONG Liang-Wei; LI Yong-Ping
2005-01-01
@@ Two-dimensional vector vortex solitons in harmonic optical lattices are investigated. The stability properties of such solitons are closely connected to the lattice depth Vo. For small Vo, vector vortex solitons with the total zero-angular momentum are more stable than those with the total nonzero-angular momentum, while for large Vo, this case is inversed. If Vo is large enough, both the types of such solitons are stable.
Support vector machines applications
Guo, Guodong
2014-01-01
Support vector machines (SVM) have both a solid mathematical background and good performance in practical applications. This book focuses on the recent advances and applications of the SVM in different areas, such as image processing, medical practice, computer vision, pattern recognition, machine learning, applied statistics, business intelligence, and artificial intelligence. The aim of this book is to create a comprehensive source on support vector machine applications, especially some recent advances.
Jean-François Degbomont; Julien Brusten; Bernard Boigelot
2010-01-01
This paper addresses the symbolic representation of non-convex real polyhedra, i.e., sets of real vectors satisfying arbitrary Boolean combinations of linear constraints. We develop an original data structure for representing such sets, based on an implicit and concise encoding of a known structure, the Real Vector Automaton. The resulting formalism provides a canonical representation of polyhedra, is closed under Boolean operators, and admits an efficient decision procedure for testing the ...
Yan, Zhenya, E-mail: zyyan@mmrc.iss.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Mathematics Mechanization, Institute of Systems Science, AMSS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2011-11-21
The coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model presented recently by Ivancevic is investigated, which generates a leverage effect, i.e., stock volatility is (negatively) correlated to stock returns, and can be regarded as a coupled nonlinear wave alternative of the Black–Scholes option pricing model. In this Letter, we analytically propose vector financial rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model without an embedded w-learning. Moreover, we exhibit their dynamical behaviors for chosen different parameters. The vector financial rogue wave (rogon) solutions may be used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for the rogue wave phenomena and to further excite the possibility of relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves in the financial markets and other related fields. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model. ► We analytically present vector financial rogue waves. ► The vector financial rogue waves may be used to describe the extreme events in financial markets. ► This results may excite the relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves.
The coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model presented recently by Ivancevic is investigated, which generates a leverage effect, i.e., stock volatility is (negatively) correlated to stock returns, and can be regarded as a coupled nonlinear wave alternative of the Black–Scholes option pricing model. In this Letter, we analytically propose vector financial rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model without an embedded w-learning. Moreover, we exhibit their dynamical behaviors for chosen different parameters. The vector financial rogue wave (rogon) solutions may be used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for the rogue wave phenomena and to further excite the possibility of relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves in the financial markets and other related fields. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model. ► We analytically present vector financial rogue waves. ► The vector financial rogue waves may be used to describe the extreme events in financial markets. ► This results may excite the relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves.
Navarro, Andres A
2013-01-01
We analyze a massive vector field with a non-canonical kinetic term in the action, minimally coupled to gravity, where the mass and kinetic function of the vector field vary as functions of time during inflation. The vector field is introduced following the same idea of a scalar curvaton, which must not affect the inflationary dynamics since its energy density during inflation is negligible compared to the total energy density in the Universe. Using this hypothesis, the vector curvaton will be solely responsible for generating the primordial curvature perturbation \\zeta. We have found that the spectra of the vector field perturbations are scale-invariant in superhorizon scales due to the suitable choice of the time dependence of the kinetic function and the effective mass during inflation. The preferred direction, generated by the vector field, makes the spectrum of \\zeta depend on the wavevector, i.e. there exists statistical anisotropy in \\zeta. This is discussed principally in the case where the mass of th...
40 CFR 147.3000 - EPA-administered program.
2010-07-01
... administered by EPA. (The term “Indian lands” is defined at 40 CFR 144.3.) The Navajo Indian lands are in the... Utah. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program....
Methods of administering oral formulations and child acceptability
van Riet-Nales, Diana A; Ferreira, José A; Schobben, Alfred F A M; de Neef, Barbara J; Egberts, Toine C G; Rademaker, Carin M A
2015-01-01
INTRODUCTION: Children may be unable or unwilling to swallow medicines. In order to avoid or accommodate any such problems, parents may decide to administer medicines other than intended. The aim of this study was to investigate how parents administered four oral placebo formulations to infants and
Methods of administering oral formulations and child acceptability
Van Riet-Nales, Diana A.; Ferreira, José A.; Schobben, Alfred F A M; De Neef, Barbara J.; Egberts, Toine C G; Rademaker, Carin M A
2015-01-01
Abstract Introduction Children may be unable or unwilling to swallow medicines. In order to avoid or accommodate any such problems, parents may decide to administer medicines other than intended. The aim of this study was to investigate how parents administered four oral placebo formulations to infa
Vector-Mediated In Vivo Antibody Expression.
Schnepp, Bruce C; Johnson, Philip R
2014-08-01
This article focuses on a novel vaccine strategy known as vector-mediated antibody gene transfer, with a particular focus on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This strategy provides a solution to the problem of current vaccines that fail to generate neutralizing antibodies to prevent HIV-1 infection and AIDS. Antibody gene transfer allows for predetermination of antibody affinity and specificity prior to "immunization" and avoids the need for an active humoral immune response against the HIV envelope protein. This approach uses recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors, which have been shown to transduce muscle with high efficiency and direct the long-term expression of a variety of transgenes, to deliver the gene encoding a broadly neutralizing antibody into the muscle. Following rAAV vector gene delivery, the broadly neutralizing antibodies are endogenously synthesized in myofibers and passively distributed to the circulatory system. This is an improvement over classical passive immunization strategies that administer antibody proteins to the host to provide protection from infection. Vector-mediated gene transfer studies in mice and monkeys with anti-HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-neutralizing antibodies demonstrated long-lasting neutralizing activity in serum with complete protection against intravenous challenge with virulent HIV and SIV. These results indicate that existing potent anti-HIV antibodies can be rapidly moved into the clinic. However, this methodology need not be confined to HIV. The general strategy of vector-mediated antibody gene transfer can be applied to other difficult vaccine targets such as hepatitis C virus, malaria, respiratory syncytial virus, and tuberculosis. PMID:26104192
Abe, Tomohiro; Matsumoto, Shigeki; Seto, Osamu
2012-01-01
Weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) is well known to be a good candidate for dark matter, and it is also predicted by many new physics models beyond the standard model at the TeV scale. We found that, if the WIMP is a vector particle (spin one particle) which is associated with some gauge symmetry broken at the TeV scale, the higgs mass is often predicted to be 120--125 GeV, which is very consistent with the result of higgs searches recently reported by ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the Large Hadron Collider experiment. In this letter, we consider the vector WIMP using a non-linear sigma model in order to confirm this result as general as possible in a bottom-up approach. Near-future prospects to detect the vector WIMP at both direct and indirect detection experiments of dark matter are also discussed.
Yan, Zhenya
2011-11-01
The coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model presented recently by Ivancevic is investigated, which generates a leverage effect, i.e., stock volatility is (negatively) correlated to stock returns, and can be regarded as a coupled nonlinear wave alternative of the Black-Scholes option pricing model. In this Letter, we analytically propose vector financial rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model without an embedded w-learning. Moreover, we exhibit their dynamical behaviors for chosen different parameters. The vector financial rogue wave (rogon) solutions may be used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for the rogue wave phenomena and to further excite the possibility of relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves in the financial markets and other related fields.
Abe, Tomohiro; Kakizaki, Mitsuru; Matsumoto, Shigeki; Seto, Osamu
2012-07-01
Weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) is well known to be a good candidate for dark matter, and it is also predicted by many new physics models beyond the standard model at the TeV scale. We found that, if the WIMP is a vector particle (spin-one particle) which is associated with some gauge symmetry broken at the TeV scale, the Higgs mass is often predicted to be 120-125 GeV, which is very consistent with the result of Higgs searches recently reported by ATLAS and CMS Collaborations at the Large Hadron Collider experiment. In this Letter, we consider the vector WIMP using a non-linear sigma model in order to confirm this result as general as possible in a bottom-up approach. Near-future prospects to detect the vector WIMP at both direct and indirect detection experiments of dark matter are also discussed.
Boosting Support Vector Machines
Elkin Eduardo García Díaz
2006-11-01
Full Text Available En este artículo, se presenta un algoritmo de clasificación binaria basado en Support Vector Machines (Máquinas de Vectores de Soporte que combinado apropiadamente con técnicas de Boosting consigue un mejor desempeño en cuanto a tiempo de entrenamiento y conserva características similares de generalización con un modelo de igual complejidad pero de representación más compacta./ In this paper we present an algorithm of binary classification based on Support Vector Machines. It is combined with a modified Boosting algorithm. It run faster than the original SVM algorithm with a similar generalization error and equal complexity model but it has more compact representation.
Weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) is well known to be a good candidate for dark matter, and it is also predicted by many new physics models beyond the standard model at the TeV scale. We found that, if the WIMP is a vector particle (spin-one particle) which is associated with some gauge symmetry broken at the TeV scale, the Higgs mass is often predicted to be 120-125 GeV, which is very consistent with the result of Higgs searches recently reported by ATLAS and CMS Collaborations at the Large Hadron Collider experiment. In this Letter, we consider the vector WIMP using a non-linear sigma model in order to confirm this result as general as possible in a bottom-up approach. Near-future prospects to detect the vector WIMP at both direct and indirect detection experiments of dark matter are also discussed.
The bioavailability of an orally administered medroxyprogesterone acetate suspension.
Antal, E J; Gillespie, W R; Albert, K S
1983-05-01
The relative bioavailability of an orally administered aqueous suspension of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) intended for intramuscular injection (Depo-Provera) was determined in relation to orally administered tablets. Serum levels of MPA were determined by radioimmunoassay following the administration of 400-mg doses to 19 adult male volunteers in a crossover design after an overnight fast. The two treatments were judged bioequivalent based upon a comparison of the resultant MPA serum levels and the derived bioavailability parameters. Hence, the intramuscular suspension administered orally offers an alternative means of achieving optimal serum levels of MPA in patients requiring high dose therapy. PMID:6222996
Harvey, A; Surowitz, E J; Harvey, Alex; Schucking, Engelbert L.; Surowitz, Eugene J.
2005-01-01
Courses in introductory special and general relativity have increasingly become part of the curriculum for upper-level undergraduate physics majors and master's degree candidates. One of the topics rarely discussed is symmetry, particularly in the theory of general relativity. The principal tool for its study is the Killing vector. We provide an elementary introduction to the concept of a Killing vector field, its properties, and as an example of its utility apply these ideas to the rigorous determination of gravitational and cosmological redshifts.
Rejon-Barrera, Fernando; Robbins, Daniel
2016-01-01
We work out all of the details required for implementation of the conformal bootstrap program applied to the four-point function of two scalars and two vectors in an abstract conformal field theory in arbitrary dimension. This includes a review of which tensor structures make appearances, a construction of the projectors onto the required mixed symmetry representations, and a computation of the conformal blocks for all possible operators which can be exchanged. These blocks are presented as differential operators acting upon the previously known scalar conformal blocks. Finally, we set up the bootstrap equations which implement crossing symmetry. Special attention is given to the case of conserved vectors, where several simplifications occur.
Eisenman, Richard L
2005-01-01
This outstanding text and reference applies matrix ideas to vector methods, using physical ideas to illustrate and motivate mathematical concepts but employing a mathematical continuity of development rather than a physical approach. The author, who taught at the U.S. Air Force Academy, dispenses with the artificial barrier between vectors and matrices--and more generally, between pure and applied mathematics.Motivated examples introduce each idea, with interpretations of physical, algebraic, and geometric contexts, in addition to generalizations to theorems that reflect the essential structur
Akcoglu, Mustafa A; Ha, Dzung Minh
2011-01-01
A rigorous introduction to calculus in vector spaces The concepts and theorems of advanced calculus combined with related computational methods are essential to understanding nearly all areas of quantitative science. Analysis in Vector Spaces presents the central results of this classic subject through rigorous arguments, discussions, and examples. The book aims to cultivate not only knowledge of the major theoretical results, but also the geometric intuition needed for both mathematical problem-solving and modeling in the formal sciences. The authors begin with an outline of key concepts, ter
Yurinsky, Vadim Vladimirovich
1995-01-01
Surveys the methods currently applied to study sums of infinite-dimensional independent random vectors in situations where their distributions resemble Gaussian laws. Covers probabilities of large deviations, Chebyshev-type inequalities for seminorms of sums, a method of constructing Edgeworth-type expansions, estimates of characteristic functions for random vectors obtained by smooth mappings of infinite-dimensional sums to Euclidean spaces. A self-contained exposition of the modern research apparatus around CLT, the book is accessible to new graduate students, and can be a useful reference for researchers and teachers of the subject.
Findings from Survey Administered to Weatherization Training Centers
Conlon, Brian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2015-03-01
This report summarizes results of a survey administered to directors of weatherization training centers that receive funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The survey presents results related to questions on training offered and future plans.
Prophylactic Effect of Gossypin Against Percutaneously Administered Sulfur Mustard
ANSHOO GAUTAM; R.VIJAYARAGHAVAN
2007-01-01
Objective To evaluate the protective efficacy of gossypin(3,3',4',5,7,8-hexahydroxyflavone 8-glucoside)by administering it intraperitoneally,for dose,time,and vehicle dependent effects against sulphur mustard(SM),administered through percutaneous route in mice.Methods SM(diluted in PEG-300)was administered percutaneously.The protective efficacy of gossypin was evaluated by administering it intraperitoneally(50,100,200,and 400 mg/kg),in various vehicles (water,PEG-300 and DMSO),and time intervals(30 min prior,simultaneous and 2 h post).The time dependent protection of gossypin(200 mg/kg in PEG-300;i.p.)was also evaluated using selected biochemical variables(GSH,GSSG,MDA,total antioxidant status,Hb,WBC count,RBC count,glutathione peroxidase,glutathione reductase,and superoxide dismutase)and liver histology.The protection of gossypin by oral route was also evaluated against percutaneously administered SM.Results The protection against systemic toxicity of SM(LD50 8.1 mg/kg)was beRer when gossypin was given with PEG-300 (8.0 folds)than DMSO(5.7 folds).No protection was observed when gossypin was administered with water.Good protection (8.0 folds)was observed when gossypin was administered(200 mg/kg in PEG-300;i.p.)at 30 min prior or simultaneous to SM exposure,but no protection was observed when gossypin was administered 2 h post to SM exposure.A significant weight loss was observed 7 days after SM administration(2 LD50),with a significant increase in RBC and Hb.A significant decrease in total antioxidant status of plasma,liver GSH and GSSG levels,and in the activities of glutathione peroxidase,glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase was also observed 7 days after SM administration.SM treated mouse liver also showed necrosis.A significant protection was observed when gossypin(200 mg/kg in PEG-300;i.p.)was administered either as a pretreatment(30 min before)or simultaneous treatment,and not as a post treatment(2 h).The protective efficacy of gossypin was better
2011-04-18
This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods. Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 4/27/2011.
Treiman, Jay S
2014-01-01
Calculus with Vectors grew out of a strong need for a beginning calculus textbook for undergraduates who intend to pursue careers in STEM. fields. The approach introduces vector-valued functions from the start, emphasizing the connections between one-variable and multi-variable calculus. The text includes early vectors and early transcendentals and includes a rigorous but informal approach to vectors. Examples and focused applications are well presented along with an abundance of motivating exercises. All three-dimensional graphs have rotatable versions included as extra source materials and may be freely downloaded and manipulated with Maple Player; a free Maple Player App is available for the iPad on iTunes. The approaches taken to topics such as the derivation of the derivatives of sine and cosine, the approach to limits, and the use of "tables" of integration have been modified from the standards seen in other textbooks in order to maximize the ease with which students may comprehend the material. Additio...
Noncausal Bayesian Vector Autoregression
Lanne, Markku; Luoto, Jani
We propose a Bayesian inferential procedure for the noncausal vector autoregressive (VAR) model that is capable of capturing nonlinearities and incorporating effects of missing variables. In particular, we devise a fast and reliable posterior simulator that yields the predictive distribution as a...
Rao, M M
2011-01-01
The book is devoted to the structural analysis of vector and random (or both) valued countably additive measures, and used for integral representations of random fields. The spaces can be Banach or Frechet types. Several stationary aspects and related processes are analyzed whilst numerous new results are included and many research avenues are opened up.
Gubler, D J
2009-08-01
Vector-borne diseases have been the scourge of man and animals since the beginning of time. Historically, these are the diseases that caused the great plagues such as the 'Black Death' in Europe in the 14th Century and the epidemics of yellow fever that plagued the development of the New World. Others, such as Nagana, contributed to the lack of development in Africa for many years. At the turn of the 20th Century, vector-borne diseases were among the most serious public and animal health problems in the world. For the most part, these diseases were controlled by the middle of the 20th Century through the application of knowledge about their natural history along with the judicious use of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and other residual insecticides to interrupt the transmission cycle between arthropod and vertebrate host. However, this success initiated a period of complacency in the 1960s and 1970s, which resulted in the redirection of resources away from prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. The 1970s was also a time in which there were major changes to public health policy. Global trends, combined with changes in animal husbandry, urbanisation, modern transportation and globalisation, have resulted in a global re-emergence of epidemic vector-borne diseases affecting both humans and animals over the past 30 years. PMID:20128467
Singular Vectors' Subtle Secrets
James, David; Lachance, Michael; Remski, Joan
2011-01-01
Social scientists use adjacency tables to discover influence networks within and among groups. Building on work by Moler and Morrison, we use ordered pairs from the components of the first and second singular vectors of adjacency matrices as tools to distinguish these groups and to identify particularly strong or weak individuals.
T.B. Dzikiti
2007-06-01
Full Text Available The quality of induction of general anesthesia produced by ketamine and propofol, 2 of the most commonly used anaesthetic agents in cats, was assessed. Eighteen cats admitted for elective procedures were randomly assigned to 3 groups and then premedicated with xylazine 0.75 mg/kg intramuscularly before anaesthesia was induced with ketamine 15 mg/kg intramuscularly (KetIM group, ketamine 10 mg/kg intravenously (KetIV group or propofol 4 mg/kg intravenously (PropIV group. Quality of induction of general anaesthesia was determined by scoring ease of intubation, degree of struggling, and vocalisation during the induction period. The quality of induction of anaesthesia of intramuscularly administered ketamine was inferior to that of intravenously administered ketamine, while intravenously administered propofol showed little difference in quality of induction from ketamine administered by both the intramuscular and intravenous routes. There were no significant differences between groups in the ease of intubation scores, while vocalisation and struggling were more common in cats that received ketamine intramuscularly than in those that received intravenously administered ketamine or propofol for induction of anaesthesia. Laryngospasms occurred in 2 cats that received propofol. The heart rates and respiratory rates decreased after xylazine premedication and either remained the same or decreased further after induction for all 3 groups, but remained within normal acceptable limits. This study indicates that the 3 regimens are associated with acceptable induction characteristics, but administration of ketamine intravenously is superior to its administration intramuscularly and laryngeal desensitisation is recommended to avoid laryngospasms.
Dzikiti, T B; Chanaiwa, S; Mponda, P; Sigauke, C; Dzikiti, L N
2007-12-01
The quality of induction of general anesthesia produced by ketamine and propofol, 2 of the most commonly used anaesthetic agents in cats, was assessed. Eighteen cats admitted for elective procedures were randomly assigned to 3 groups and then premedicated with xylazine 0.75 mg/kg intramuscularly before anaesthesia was induced with ketamine 15 mg/kg intramuscularly (KetIM group), ketamine 10 mg/kg intravenously (KetIV group) or propofol 4 mg/kg intravenously (PropIV group). Quality of induction of general anaesthesia was determined by scoring ease of intubation, degree of struggling, and vocalisation during the induction period. The quality of induction of anaesthesia of intramuscularly administered ketamine was inferior to that of intravenously administered ketamine, while intravenously administered propofol showed little difference in quality of induction from ketamine administered by both the intramuscular and intravenous routes. There were no significant differences between groups in the ease of intubation scores, while vocalisation and struggling were more common in cats that received ketamine intramuscularly than in those that received intravenously administered ketamine or propofol for induction of anaesthesia. Laryngospasms occurred in 2 cats that received propofol. The heart rates and respiratory rates decreased after xylazine premedication and either remained the same or decreased further after induction for all 3 groups, but remained within normal acceptable limits. This study indicates that the 3 regimens are associated with acceptable induction characteristics, but administration of ketamine intravenously is superior to its administration intramuscularly and laryngeal desensitisation is recommended to avoid laryngospasms. PMID:18507218
Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases – Incidence through Vectors
Savić, Sara; Vidić, Branka; Grgić, Zivoslav; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Spasojevic, Ljubica
2014-01-01
Vector-borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowadays, in intercontinental countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases, which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector-borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens, and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same pla...
VECTOR BUNDLE, KILLING VECTOR FIELD AND PONTRYAGIN NUMBERS
周建伟
1991-01-01
Let E be a vector bundle over a compact Riemannian manifold M. We construct a natural metric on the bundle space E and discuss the relationship between the killing vector fields of E and M. Then we give a proof of the Bott-Baum-Cheeger Theorem for vector bundle E.
On Generalized Vector Equilibrium Problems
An-hua Wan; Jun-yi Fu; Wei-hua Mao
2006-01-01
A new generalized vector equilibrium problem involving set-valued mappings and the proper quasi-concavity of set-valued mappings in topological vector spaces are introduced; its existence theorems and the convexity of the solution sets are established.
Gy Wolf
2006-04-01
One consequence of the chiral restoration is the mixing of parity partners. We look for a possible signature of the mixing of vector and axial vector mesons in heavy-ion collisions. We suggest an experimental method for its observation. The dynamical evolution of the heavy-ion collision is described by a transport equation of QMD-type evolving nucleons, * and resonances, ’s and $\\sum$ baryons, and furthermore, ’s, ’s ’s ’s ’s and kaons with their isospin degrees of freedom. The input cross-sections and resonance parameters of the model are fitted to the available nucleon–nucleon and pion–nucleon cross-sections.
Davydov, Evgeny
2011-01-01
Vector fields can arise in the cosmological context in different ways, and we discuss both abelian and nonabelian sector. In the abelian sector vector fields of the geometrical origin (from dimensional reduction and Einstein-Eddington modification of gravity) can provide a very non-trivial dynamics, which can be expressed in terms of the effective dilaton-scalar gravity with the specific potential. In the non-abelian sector we investigate the Yang-Mills SU(2) theory which admits isotropic and homogeneous configuration. Provided the non-linear dependence of the lagrangian on the invariant F*F(dual), one can obtain the inflationary regime with the exponential growth of the scale factor. The effective amplitudes of the 'electric' and 'magnetic' components behave like slowly varying scalars at this regime, what allows the consideration of some realistic models with non-linear terms in the Yang-Mills lagrangian.
Highlights: ► Joint growth for two or more living beings is addressed in a universality context. ► A vector extension of the growth universalities formalism is fully developed. ► Two useful theorems and the analysis of their implications are presented. ► Insights on the mutual influence between organisms/populations are obtained. - Abstract: A formalism to describe the interactive growth of two or more organisms in a given environment is presented. This is a vector generalization of the scheme developed by Castorina et al. to classify and interpret non-linear ontogenetic growth formulas, which can be applied to such complex self-organizing systems as solid tumors. A theorem that leads to the explicit solutions of the resulting equations is proven. These solutions can describe synergetic, antagonistic, and cooperative growth, and can be applied to both biological and ecological problems.
Nie, Jiutao; Cheng, Buqi; Li, Shisheng; Wang, Ligang; Li, Xiao-Feng
2010-01-01
Java is one of the most popular programming languages in today's software development, but the adoption of Java in some areas like high performance computing, gaming, and media processing is not as universal as in general-purpose computing. A major drawback preventing it from being extensively adopted in those areas is its lower performance than the traditional or domain-specific languages. This paper describes two approaches to improve Java's usability in those areas by introducing vector pr...
Engineering influenza viral vectors
Li, Junwei; Arévalo, Maria T; Zeng, Mingtao
2013-01-01
The influenza virus is a respiratory pathogen with a negative-sense, segmented RNA genome. Construction of recombinant influenza viruses in the laboratory was reported starting in the 1980s. Within a short period of time, pioneer researchers had devised methods that made it possible to construct influenza viral vectors from cDNA plasmid systems. Herein, we discuss the evolution of influenza virus reverse genetics, from helper virus-dependent systems, to helper virus-independent 17-plasmid sys...
Rudakov, A N
1990-01-01
This volume is devoted to the use of helices as a method for studying exceptional vector bundles, an important and natural concept in algebraic geometry. The work arises out of a series of seminars organised in Moscow by A. N. Rudakov. The first article sets up the general machinery, and later ones explore its use in various contexts. As to be expected, the approach is concrete; the theory is considered for quadrics, ruled surfaces, K3 surfaces and P3(C).
Wada, Yoshito
1995-01-01
On the ecological basis of vector mosquitoes of Japanese encephalitis, measures of their control were examined from viewpoint of their practicability. It was concluded that chemical control is not of practical value, biological control is of limited effectiveness, and environmental control by source reduction is impossible. Instead, it was recommended to improve human living style so as to reduce the frequency of man/mosquito contact.
Interpolation of Vector Measures
Ricardo del CAMPO; Antonio FERN(A)NDEZ; Fernando MAYORAL; Francisco NARANJO; Enrique A. S(A)NCHEZ-P(E)REZ
2011-01-01
Let (Ω, ∑) be a measurable space and m0: ∑→ X0 and m1: ∑ -→ X1 be positive vector measures with values in the Banach K(o)the function spaces X0 and X1. If 0 < α < 1, we define a X10-αXα1 and we analyze the space of integrable functions with respect to measure [m0, m1]α in order to prove suitable extensions of the classical Stein-Weiss formulas that hold for the complex interpolation of Lp-spaces.Since each p-convex order continuous K(o)the function space with weak order unit can be represented as a space of p-integrable functions with respect to a vector measure, we provide in this way a technique to obtain representations of the corresponding complex interpolation spaces. As applications, we provide a Riesz-Thorin theorem for spaces of p-integrable functions with respect to vector measures and a formula for representing the interpolation of the injective tensor product of such spaces.
Leishmaniasis vector behaviour in Kenya
Leishmaniasis in Kenya exists in two forms: cutaneous and visceral. The vectors of visceral leishmaniasis have been the subject of investigation by various researchers since World War II, when the outbreak of the disease was first noticed. The vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis were first worked on only a decade ago after the discovery of the disease focus in Mt. Elgon. The vector behaviour of these diseases, namely Phlebotomus pedifer, the vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and Phlebotomus martini, the vector of visceral leishmaniasis, are discussed in detail. P. pedifer has been found to breed and bite inside caves, whereas P. martini mainly bites inside houses. (author)
Simian virus 40 vectors for pulmonary gene therapy
Oppenheim Ariella
2007-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sepsis remains the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. One of the primary organs affected by sepsis is the lung, presenting as the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS. Organ damage in sepsis involves an alteration in gene expression, making gene transfer a potential therapeutic modality. This work examines the feasibility of applying simian virus 40 (SV40 vectors for pulmonary gene therapy. Methods Sepsis-induced ARDS was established by cecal ligation double puncture (2CLP. SV40 vectors carrying the luciferase reporter gene (SV/luc were administered intratracheally immediately after sepsis induction. Sham operated (SO as well as 2CLP rats given intratracheal PBS or adenovirus expressing luciferase served as controls. Luc transduction was evaluated by in vivo light detection, immunoassay and luciferase mRNA detection by RT-PCR in tissue harvested from septic rats. Vector abundance and distribution into alveolar cells was evaluated using immunostaining for the SV40 VP1 capsid protein as well as by double staining for VP1 and for the surfactant protein C (proSP-C. Immunostaining for T-lymphocytes was used to evaluate the cellular immune response induced by the vector. Results Luc expression measured by in vivo light detection correlated with immunoassay from lung tissue harvested from the same rats. Moreover, our results showed vector presence in type II alveolar cells. The vector did not induce significant cellular immune response. Conclusion In the present study we have demonstrated efficient uptake and expression of an SV40 vector in the lungs of animals with sepsis-induced ARDS. These vectors appear to be capable of in vivo transduction of alveolar type II cells and may thus become a future therapeutic tool.
Scalar - vector soliton fiber lasers
Wu, Zhichao; Li, Lei; Luo, Yiyang; Tang, Dingyuan; Shen, Deyuan; Tang, Ming; Fu, Songnian; Zhao, Luming
2016-01-01
Rapid progress in passively mode-locked fiber lasers is currently driven by the recent discovery of vector feature of mode-locking pulses, namely, the group velocity-locked vector solitons, the phase locked vector solitons, and the high-order vector solitons. Those vector solitons are fundamentally different from the previously known scalar solitons. Here, we report a fiber laser where the mode-locked pulse evolves as a vector soliton in the strong birefringent segment and is transformed into a regular scalar soliton after the polarizer within the laser cavity. The existence of solutions in a polarization-dependent cavity comprising a periodic combination of two distinct nonlinear waves is novel and likely to be applicable to various other nonlinear systems. For very large local birefringence, our laser approaches the working regime of vector soliton lasers, while it approaches scalar soliton fiber lasers under the conditions of very small birefringence.
Bingham, Andrea M; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R
2016-03-01
Field studies of the ecology of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus) in the southeastern United States have demonstrated that Culex erraticus (Dyar and Knab) is the most common mosquito at many enzootic sites and is often infected with the virus. However, the competence of Cx. erraticus for EEEV has not been explored in detail. Culex erraticus females were collected from the field and fed upon EEEV-infected chicks. The infected mosquitoes were provided honey for nutrition and to monitor for time to infectiveness. Of the mosquitoes that survived the 14-d postfeeding period, 89% were infected and 84% had evidence of a disseminated infection, though titers were generally low. EEEV was first detected in honey 6 d postinfection and was detected in samples collected from 94% of the mosquitoes with a disseminated infection overall. These data and others were then employed to estimate the relative vectorial capacity of Cx. erraticus at an EEEV enzootic site in Alabama. The vectorial capacity of Cx. erraticus at this site was 44% of Culiseta melanura (Coquillett), the accepted enzootic vector, suggesting Cx. erraticus may play a role in transmitting EEEV in areas where it is abundant and Cs. melanura rare. PMID:26659606
Acevedo Frías, Bernardo; Ospina Arteaga, Omar Evelio
1992-01-01
El texto Números, Vectores y Funciones que han elaborado los profesores Asociados Omar Evelio Ospina y Bernardo Acevedo, responden a esta necesidad con sobresalientes cualidades pedagógicas, entre las cuales se destacan el desarrollo detallado de los temas y la proliferación de ejercicios resueltos, lo cual genera un diálogo directo con el lector que puede así aprovechar totalmente su lectura. El material presentado es el fruto de un cuidadoso análisis de los autores, sobre las experiencias d...
Relativistic Rotating Vector Model
Lyutikov, Maxim
2016-01-01
The direction of polarization produced by a moving source rotates with the respect to the rest frame. We show that this effect, induced by pulsar rotation, leads to an important correction to polarization swings within the framework of rotating vector model (RVM); this effect has been missed by previous works. We construct relativistic RVM taking into account finite heights of the emission region that lead to aberration, time-of-travel effects and relativistic rotation of polarization. Polarizations swings at different frequencies can be used, within the assumption of the radius-to-frequency mapping, to infer emission radii and geometry of pulsars.
40 CFR 282.92 - Tennessee State-Administered Program.
2010-07-01
..., and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Tennessee obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant to... Storage Tanks, 4th Floor, L&C Tower, 401 Church Street, Nashville, Tennessee 37243-1541. (1) State... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tennessee State-Administered...
Distribution of intratracheally administered plutonium-239 within the skeleton bones
The data are presented on distribution of the intratracheally administered plutonium-239 within the skeleton bones. Plutonium was found to be distributed non-uniformly within the skeleton: it was concentrated mainly in the bones where the trabecular fraction of the bone tissue was most manifest. The results obtained were supported by the correlation analysis
PHARMACOKINETIC AND PHARMACODYNAMIC STUDIES ON VAGINALLY ADMINISTERED LEVONORGESTREL
HEChang-Hai; XUJian-Qiu; ZHUYue-Hua; SHIYong-En
1989-01-01
Comparative studies on pharmacokinetics of vaginally and orally administered levonorgestrel (LNG) tablet (Postinor) in one single dose containing 0,75mg LNG were performed. The pharmacokinetics of LNG and its effects on ovarian functions werealso studied after repeated vaginal administration.
On Killing vectors and harmonic vectors at quantization of gravitation
Attention is paid to two shortcomings occuring at quantization in the curved spacetime: mathematical shortcoming consisting in the killing vector absence in arbitrary Riemann space and physical one consisting in absence of energy-momentum tensor of the gravitational field. It is shown, that both shortcomings may be removed, if the killing vectors are replaced by harmonic vectors corresponding to shift generators of the Poincare group existing in arbitrary Riemann space
Extended vector-tensor theories
Kimura, Rampei; Yoshida, Daisuke
2016-01-01
Recently, several extensions of massive vector theory in curved space-time have been proposed in many literatures. In this paper, we consider the most general vector-tensor theories that contain up to two derivatives with respect to metric and vector field. By imposing a degeneracy condition of the Lagrangian in the context of ADM decomposition of space-time to eliminate an unwanted mode, we construct a new class of massive vector theories where five degrees of freedom can propagate, corresponding to three for massive vector modes and two for massless tensor modes. We find that the generalized Proca and the beyond generalized Proca theories up to the quartic Lagrangian, which should be included in this formulation, are degenerate theories even in curved space-time. Finally, introducing new metric and vector field transformations, we investigate the properties of thus obtained theories under such transformations.
Semitopological Vector Spaces and Hyperseminorms
Mark Burgin
2013-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce and study semitopological vector spaces. The goal is to provide an efficient base for developing the theory of extrafunction spaces in an abstract setting of algebraic systems and topological spaces. Semitopological vector spaces are more general than conventional topological vector spaces, which proved to be very useful for solving many problems in functional analysis. To study semitopological vector spaces, hypermetrics and hyperpseudometrics are introduced and it is demonstrated that hyperseminorms, studied in previous works of the author, induce hyperpseudometrics, while hypernorms induce hypermetrics. Sufficient and necessary conditions for a hyperpseudometric (hypermetric to be induced by a hyperseminorm (hypernorm are found. We also show that semitopological vector spaces are closely related to systems of hyperseminorms. Then defining boundedness and continuity relative to associated systems of hyperseminorms, we study relations between relative boundedness and relative continuity for mappings of vector spaces with systems of hyperseminorms and systems of hypernorms.
Optimality Conditions in Vector Optimization
Jiménez, Manuel Arana; Lizana, Antonio Rufián
2011-01-01
Vector optimization is continuously needed in several science fields, particularly in economy, business, engineering, physics and mathematics. The evolution of these fields depends, in part, on the improvements in vector optimization in mathematical programming. The aim of this Ebook is to present the latest developments in vector optimization. The contributions have been written by some of the most eminent researchers in this field of mathematical programming. The Ebook is considered essential for researchers and students in this field.
Integrating vector control across diseases
Golding, N.; Wilson, AL; Moyes, CL; Cano, J.; Pigott, DM; Velayudhan, R; Brooker, SJ; Smith, DL; Hay, SI; Lindsay, SW
2015-01-01
Background Vector-borne diseases cause a significant proportion of the overall burden of disease across the globe, accounting for over 10 % of the burden of infectious diseases. Despite the availability of effective interventions for many of these diseases, a lack of resources prevents their effective control. Many existing vector control interventions are known to be effective against multiple diseases, so combining vector control programmes to simultaneously tackle several diseases could of...
Non-Replicating Adenovirus-Vectored Anthrax Vaccine
As bioterrorism is emerging as a national threat, it is urgent to develop a new generation of anthrax vaccines that can be rapidly produced and mass administered in an emergency setting. We have demonstrated that protective immunity against anthrax spores could be elicited in mice by intranasal administration of a non-replicating human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-derived vector encoding Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) in a single-dose regimen. The potency of an Ad5 vector encoding PA was remarkably enhanced by codon optimization of the PA gene to match the tRNA pool found in human cells. This nasal vaccine can be mass-administered by non-medical personnel during a bioterrorist attack. In addition, replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free Ad5-vectored anthrax vaccines can be mass produced in PER.C6 cells in serum-free wave bioreactors and purified by column chromatography to meet a surge in demand. The non-replicating nature of this new generation of anthrax vaccine ensures an excellent safety profile for vaccines and the environment.(author)
Multiscale hierarchical support vector clustering
Hansen, Michael Saas; Holm, David Alberg; Sjöstrand, Karl; Ley, Carsten Dan; Rowland, Ian John; Larsen, Rasmus
2008-03-01
Clustering is the preferred choice of method in many applications, and support vector clustering (SVC) has proven efficient for clustering noisy and high-dimensional data sets. A method for multiscale support vector clustering is demonstrated, using the recently emerged method for fast calculation of the entire regularization path of the support vector domain description. The method is illustrated on artificially generated examples, and applied for detecting blood vessels from high resolution time series of magnetic resonance imaging data. The obtained results are robust while the need for parameter estimation is reduced, compared to support vector clustering.
Localization and vector spherical harmonics
von Brecht, James H.
2016-01-01
This paper establishes the following localization property for vector spherical harmonics: a wide class of non-local, vector-valued operators reduce to local, multiplication-type operations when applied to a vector spherical harmonic. As localization occurs in a very precise, quantifiable and explicitly computable fashion, the localization property provides a set of useful formulae for analyzing vector-valued fractional diffusion and non-local differential equations defined on S d - 1. As such analyses require a detailed understanding of operators for which localization occurs, we provide several applications of the result in the context of non-local differential equations.
Kolpakov, Stanislav A; Loika, Yuri; Tarasov, Nikita; Kalashnikov, Vladimir; Agrawal, Govind P
2015-01-01
A mode locked fibre laser as a source of ultra-stable pulse train has revolutionised a wide range of fundamental and applied research areas by offering high peak powers, high repetition rates, femtosecond range pulse widths and a narrow linewidth. However, further progress in linewidth narrowing seems to be limited by the complexity of the carrier-envelope phase control. Here for the first time we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically a new mechanism of resonance vector self-mode locking where tuning in-cavity birefringence leads to excitation of the longitudinal modes sidebands accompanied by the resonance phase locking of sidebands with the adjacent longitudinal modes. An additional resonance with acoustic phonons provides the repetition rate tunability and linewidth narrowing down to Hz range that drastically reduces the complexity of the carrier-envelope phase control and so will open the way to advance lasers in the context of applications in metrology, spectroscopy, microwave photonics, astronomy...
2000-01-01
Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...... estimator automatically compensates for the axial velocity, when determining the transverse velocity by using fourth order moments rather than second order moments. The estimation is optimized by using a lag different from one in the estimation process, and noise artifacts are reduced by using averaging of...... RF samples. Further, compensation for the axial velocity can be introduced, and the velocity estimation is done at a fixed depth in tissue to reduce spatial velocity dispersion....
Hagyard, M. J.; Cumings, N. P.; West, E. A.; Smith, J. E.
1982-09-01
The NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center's solar vector magnetograph system is described; this system allows measurements of all components of the Sun's photospheric magnetic field over a 5 × 5 or 2.0 × 2.0 arc min square field-of-view with an optimum time resolution of ˜ 100 s and an optimum signal-to-noise of ˜1600. The basic system components are described, including the optics, detector, digital system and associated electronics. Automatic sequencing and control functions are outlined as well as manual selections of system parameters which afford unique system flexibility. Results of system calibration and performance are presented, including linearity, dynamic range, uniformity, spatial and spectral resolutions, signal-to-noise, electro-optical retardation and polarization calibration. Scientific investigations which utilize the unique characteristics of the instrument are described and typical results are presented.
Efficacy and safety of intravenous fentanyl administered by ambulance personnel
Friesgaard, Kristian Dahl; Nikolajsen, Lone; Giebner, Matthias;
2016-01-01
BACKGROUND: Management of pain in the pre-hospital setting is often inadequate. In 2011, ambulance personnel were authorized to administer intravenous fentanyl in the Central Denmark Region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous fentanyl administered by...... ambulance personnel. METHODS: Pre-hospital medical charts from 2348 adults treated with intravenous fentanyl by ambulance personnel during a 6-month period were reviewed. The primary outcome was the change in pain intensity on a numeric rating scale (NRS) from before fentanyl treatment to hospital arrival....... Secondary outcomes included the number of patients with reduction in pain intensity during transport (NRS ≥ 2), the number of patients with NRS > 3 at hospital arrival, and potential fentanyl-related side effects. RESULTS: Fentanyl reduced pain from before treatment (8, IQR 7-9) to hospital arrival (4, IQR...
Pharmacokinetics of cefmetazole administered intramuscularly and intravenously to healthy adults.
Rodriguez-Barbero, J; Mariño, E L; Dominguez-Gil, A
1985-01-01
The pharmacokinetics of cefmetazole, a new parenteral cephalosporin, administered intravenously and intramuscularly at a dose of 30 mg/kg to two groups of seven healthy volunteers were studied. Concentrations in serum were monitored over 8 h by a high-pressure liquid chromatography technique. The plasma concentration-time data were statistically fitted to a biexponential equation for both administration routes, and the data were analyzed by a two- and one-compartment kinetic model, respective...
Computer Administering of the Psychological Investigations: Set-relational Representation
Yordzhev, Krasimir; Peneva, Ivelina
2012-01-01
Computer administering of a psychological investigation is the computer representation of the entire procedure of psychological assessments - test construction, test implementation, results evaluation, storage and maintenance of the developed database, its statistical processing, analysis and interpretation. A mathematical description of psychological assessment with the aid of personality tests is discussed in this article. The set theory and the relational algebra are used in this descripti...
Use of professionally administered topical fluorides in Asia
Tenuta, LMA; Fox, CH; Lo, ECM
2012-01-01
Professionally applied topical fluoride varnish, gel, and solution have been shown to be effective in preventing and in arresting dental caries. Their use in different countries in Asia varies greatly and may not correlate with the dental caries situation of the populations in the countries. In the higher-income countries, use of fluoride varnish and gel is common among dental professionals. In contrast, the use of professionally administered topical fluorides is not common in the lower-incom...
The group administered interactive questionnaire: An alternative to individual interviews
Yerushalmi, Edit; Henderson, Charles R.; Mamudi, William; Singh, Chandralekha; Lin, Shih-Yin
2016-01-01
Individual interviews are often considered to be the gold standard for researchers to understand how people think about phenomena. However, conducting and analyzing interviews is very time consuming. This paper presents the Group Administered Interactive Questionnaire (GAIQ) as an alternative to individual interviews and discusses the pros and cons of each data collection method. Use of GAIQ will be discussed in the context of a study that seeks to understand teaching assistants' reasons for ...
The group administered interactive questionnaire: An alternative to individual interviews
Yerushalmi, Edit; Mamudi, William; Singh, Chandralekha; Lin, Shih-Yin
2016-01-01
Individual interviews are often considered to be the gold standard for researchers to understand how people think about phenomena. However, conducting and analyzing interviews is very time consuming. This paper presents the Group Administered Interactive Questionnaire (GAIQ) as an alternative to individual interviews and discusses the pros and cons of each data collection method. Use of GAIQ will be discussed in the context of a study that seeks to understand teaching assistants' reasons for the design of problem solutions for introductory physics.
Vector-Tensor and Vector-Vector Decay Amplitude Analysis of B0->phi K*0
Aubert, B; Abrams, G S; Adye, T; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Albert, J; Aleksan, R; Allen, M T; Allison, J; Altenburg, D D; Andreotti, M; Angelini, C; Anulli, F; Arnaud, N; Asgeirsson, D J; Aston, D; Azzolini, V; Baak, M A; Back, J J; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Band, H R; Banerjee, Sw; Bard, D J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Barrett, M; Bartoldus, R; Batignani, G; Battaglia, M; Bauer, J M; Bechtle, P; Beck, T W; Behera, P K; Bellini, F; Benayoun, M; Benelli, G; Berger, N; Bernard, D; Berryhill, J W; Best, D S; Bettarini, S; Bettoni, D; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bhuyan, B; Bianchi, F; Biasini, M; Biesiada, J; Blanc, F; Blaylock, G; Blinov, V E; Bloom, P C; Blount, N L; Bomben, M; Bondioli, M; Bonneaud, G R; Bosisio, L; Boutigny, D; Bowerman, D A; Boyd, J T; Bozzi, C; Brandenburg, G; Brandt, T; Brau, J E; Briand, H; Brown, C M; Brown, D N; Bruinsma, M; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Buchanan, C; Bugg, W; Bukin, A D; Bula, R; Burchat, P R; Burke, J P; Button-Shafer, J; Buzzo, A; Bóna, M; Cahn, R N; Calabrese, R; Calcaterra, A; Calderini, G; Campagnari, C; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Cavoto, G; Cenci, R; Chai, X; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Chao, M; Charles, E; Charles, M J; Chauveau, J; Chavez, C A; Chen, A; Chen, C; Chen, E; Chen, J C; Chen, S; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Cheng, B; Cheng, C H; Chia, Y M; Cibinetto, G; Clark, P J; Clarke, C K; Claus, R; Cochran, J; Coleman, J P; Contri, R; Convery, M R; Corwin, L A; Cossutti, F; Cottingham, W N; Couderc, F; Covarelli, R; Cowan, G; Cowan, R; Crawley, H B; Cremaldi, L; Cunha, A; Curry, S; Côté, D; D'Orazio, A; Dahmes, B; Dallapiccola, C; Danielson, N; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Dauncey, P D; David, P; Davier, M; Davis, C L; De Nardo, Gallieno; De Sangro, R; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Del Buono, L; Del Re, D; Della Ricca, G; Denig, A G; Di Lodovico, F; Di Marco, E; Dingfelder, J C; Dittongo, S; Dong, L; Dorfan, J; Druzhinin, V P; Dubitzky, R S; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Dvoretskii, A; Ebert, M; Eckhart, E A; Eckmann, R; Edgar, C L; Edwards, A J; Egede, U; Eigen, G; Eisner, A M; Elmer, P; Emery, S; Ernst, J A; Eschenburg, V; Eschrich, I; Eyges, V; Fabozzi, F; Faccini, R; Fang, F; Feltresi, E; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Field, R C; Finocchiaro, G; Flacco, C J; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Flood, K T; Ford, K E; Ford, W T; Forster, I J; Forti, F; Fortin, D; Foulkes, S D; Franek, B; Frey, R; Fritsch, M; Fry, J R; Fulsom, B G; Gabathuler, E; Gaidot, A; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Gamet, R; Gan, K K; Ganzhur, S F; Gao, Y; Gary, J W; Gaspero, M; Gatto, C; Gaz, A; George, K A; Gill, M S; Giorgi, M A; Gladney, L; Glanzman, T; Godang, R; Golubev, V B; Gowdy, S J; Gradl, W; Graham, M T; Graugès-Pous, E; Grenier, P; Gritsan, A V; Grosdidier, G; Groysman, Y; Guo, Z J; Hadavand, H K; Haire, M; Halyo, V; Hamano, K; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Hamon, O; Harrison, P F; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hartfiel, B L; Hast, C; Hauke, A; Hawkes, C M; Hearty, C; Held, T; Hertzbach, S S; Heusch, C A; Hill, E J; Hirschauer, J F; Hitlin, D G; Hollar, J J; Hong, T M; Honscheid, K; Hopkins, D A; Hrynóva, T; Hufnagel, D; Hulsbergen, W D; Hutchcroft, D E; Höcker, A; Igonkina, O; Innes, W R; Izen, J M; Jackson, P D; Jackson, P S; Jacobsen, R G; Jain, V; Jasper, H; Jawahery, A; Jessop, C P; Judd, D; Kadyk, J A; Kagan, H; Karyotakis, Yu; Kass, R; Kelsey, M H; Kerth, L T; Khan, A; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kirkby, D; Klose, V; Knecht, N S; Koch, H; Kolb, J A; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kovalskyi, D; Kowalewski, R V; Kozanecki, Witold; Kreisel, A; Krishnamurthy, M; Kroeger, R; Kroseberg, J; Kukartsev, G; Kutter, P E; Kyberd, P; La Vaissière, C de; Lacker, H M; Lae, C K; Lafferty, G D; Lanceri, L; Lange, D J; Lankford, A J; Latham, T E; Latour, E; Lau, Y P; Lazzaro, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lee, C L; Lees, J P; Legendre, M; Leith, D W G S; Lepeltier, V; Leruste, P; Lewandowski, B; Li Gioi, L; Li, S; Li, X; Lista, L; Liu, H; Lo Vetere, M; LoSecco, J M; Lockman, W S; Lombardo, V; Long, O; Lopes-Pegna, D; Lopez-March, N; Lou, X C; Lu, M; Luitz, S; Lund, P; Luppi, E; Lusiani, A; Lutz, A M; Lynch, G; Lynch, H L; Lü, C; Lüth, V; MacFarlane, D B; Macri, M M; Mader, W F; Majewski, S A; Malcles, J; Mallik, U; Mancinelli, G; Mandelkern, M A; Marchiori, G; Margoni, M; Marks, J; Marsiske, H; Martínez-Vidal, F; Mattison, T S; Mazur, M A; Mazzoni, M A; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T R; Mclachlin, S E; Meadows, B T; Mellado, B; Menges, W; Merkel, J; Messner, R; Meyer, N T; Meyer, W T; Mihályi, A; Mir, L M; Mishra, K; Mohanty, G B; Monge, M R; Monorchio, D; Moore, T B; Morandin, M; Morganti, M; Morganti, S; Morii, M; Muheim, F; Müller, D R; Nagel, M; Naisbit, M T; Narsky, I; Nash, J A; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H; Negrini, M; Neri, N; Nesom, G; Nicholson, H; Nikolich, M B; Nogowski, R; Nugent, I M; O'Grady, C P; Ocariz, J; Ofte, I; Olaiya, E O; Olivas, A; Olsen, J; Onuchin, A P; Orimoto, T J; Oyanguren, A; Ozcan, V E; Paar, H P; Pacetti, S; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Pan, B; Pan, Y; Panduro, W; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Pappagallo, M; Park, W; Passaggio, S; Patel, P M; Patrignani, C; Patteri, P; Payne, D J; Pelizaeus, M; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Peruzzi, I M; Peters, K; Petersen, B A; Petrella, A; Petzold, A; Piatenko, T; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Playfer, S; Poireau, V; Polci, F; Pompili, A; Porter, F C; Posocco, M; Potter, C T; Prell, S; Prencipe, E; Prepost, R; Pripstein, M; Pruvot, S; Pulliam, T; Purohit, M V; Qi, N D; Rahatlou, S; Rahimi, A M; Rahmat, R; Rama, M; Ratcliff, B N; Raven, G; Regensburger, J J; Ricciardi, S; Richman, J D; Ritchie, J L; Rizzo, G; Roberts, D A; Robertson, A I; Robertson, S H; Robutti, E; Rodier, S; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Roney, J M; Rong, G; Roodman, A; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rotondo, M; Roudeau, P; Rubin, A E; Ruddick, W O; Röthel, W; Sacco, R; Saeed, M A; Safai-Tehrani, F; Saleem, M; Salnikov, A A; Salvatore, F; Sanders, D A; Santroni, A; Saremi, S; Satpathy, A; Schalk, T; Schenk, S; Schilling, C J; Schindler, R H; Schofield, K C; Schott, G; Schröder, T; Schröder, H; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schumm, B A; Schune, M H; Schwiening, J; 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2007-01-01
We perform an amplitude analysis of the decays B0->phi K^*_2(1430)0, phi K^*(892)0, and phi(K pi)^0_S-wave with a sample of about 384 million BBbar pairs recorded with the BABAR detector. The fractions of longitudinal polarization f_L of the vector-tensor and vector-vector decay modes are measured to be 0.853 +0.061-0.069 +-0.036 and 0.506 +-0.040 +-0.015, respectively. Overall, twelve parameters are measured for the vector-vector decay and seven parameters for the vector-tensor decay, including the branching fractions and parameters sensitive to CP-violation.
Paradata: a new data source from web-administered measures.
Sowan, Azizeh K; Jenkins, Louise S
2010-01-01
Web administration of measures offers numerous advantages as well as some drawbacks; the efficiency of collecting data in this way is dramatic. An important by-product of Web administration of measures is the option of creating paradata that offer information about how respondents access a measure (server-side paradata) and navigate within the online environment (client-side paradata) to complete the measure. Paradata can play a critical role in developing and piloting measures as well as refining the measurement process. Uses of paradata in Web-administered measures include (1) informing the choice of response formats, (2) examining the extent of changing response options, (3) examining the extent of following a prescribed sequence in completing a measure, (4) tracking the response process, (5) aiding in designing a Web-administered measure and its layout, and (6) assisting in determining the most appropriate log-in procedure. Because of the potential value of this new type of useful data to researchers in nursing and health, this article focuses on paradata within the context of Web-administered measures. More specifically, the article focuses on the definition, generation, and uses of paradata, as well as the ethical issues and other concerns in obtaining and using paradata. Uses of paradata to test the usability of information systems used in nursing and health practices are also included. PMID:20978403
Recombination-ready Sindbis replicon expression vectors for transgene expression
Olson Ken E
2007-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sindbis viruses have been widely used as tools to study gene function in cells. Despite the utility of these systems, the construction and production of alphavirus replicons is time consuming and inefficient due to potential additional restriction sites within the insert region and lack of directionality for insert ligation. In this report, we present a system useful for producing recombinant Sindbis replicons that uses lambda phage recombination technology to rapidly and specifically construct replicon expression plasmids that contain insert regions in the desired orientation. Results Recombination of the gene of interest with the replicon plasmid resulted in nearly 100% recombinants, each of which contained a correctly orientated insert. Replicons were easily produced in cell culture and packaged into pseudo-infectious viral particles. Insect and mammalian cells infected with pseudo-infectious viral particles expressed various transgenes at high levels. Finally, inserts from persistently replicating replicon RNA were easily isolated and recombined back into entry plasmids for sequencing and subsequent analysis. Conclusion Replication-ready replicon expression plasmids make the use of alphavirus replicons fast and easy as compared to traditional replicon production methods. This system represents a significant step forward in the utility and ease of use of alphavirus replicons in the study of gene function.
Estimation of Motion Vector Fields
Larsen, Rasmus
1993-01-01
This paper presents an approach to the estimation of 2-D motion vector fields from time varying image sequences. We use a piecewise smooth model based on coupled vector/binary Markov random fields. We find the maximum a posteriori solution by simulated annealing. The algorithm generate sample...
The vector resultant phase shifter
A new type of voltage controlled phase shifter developed by HIRFL laboratory is better than mechanical phase shifter in all respects of performance, price, and reliability. It's principle is based on vector composition, so this new phase shifter is called vector resultant voltage controlled phase shifter. This new phase shifter has been applied in HIRFL phase stabilization system and satisfactory result has been obtained
Vectors on the Basketball Court
Bergman, Daniel
2010-01-01
An Idea Bank published in the April/May 2009 issue of "The Science Teacher" describes an experiential physics lesson on vectors and vector addition (Brown 2009). Like its football predecessor, the basketball-based investigation presented in this Idea Bank addresses National Science Education Standards Content B, Physical Science, 9-12 (NRC 1996)…
Rice Reoviruses in Insect Vectors.
Wei, Taiyun; Li, Yi
2016-08-01
Rice reoviruses, transmitted by leafhopper or planthopper vectors in a persistent propagative manner, seriously threaten the stability of rice production in Asia. Understanding the mechanisms that enable viral transmission by insect vectors is a key to controlling these viral diseases. This review describes current understanding of replication cycles of rice reoviruses in vector cell lines, transmission barriers, and molecular determinants of vector competence and persistent infection. Despite recent breakthroughs, such as the discoveries of actin-based tubule motility exploited by viruses to overcome transmission barriers and mutually beneficial relationships between viruses and bacterial symbionts, there are still many gaps in our knowledge of transmission mechanisms. Advances in genome sequencing, reverse genetics systems, and molecular technologies will help to address these problems. Investigating the multiple interaction systems among the virus, insect vector, insect symbiont, and plant during natural infection in the field is a central topic for future research on rice reoviruses. PMID:27296147
Transcriptional Silencing of Retroviral Vectors
Lund, Anders Henrik; Duch, M.; Pedersen, F.S.
1996-01-01
Although retroviral vector systems have been found to efficiently transduce a variety of cell types in vitro, the use of vectors based on murine leukemia virus in preclinical models of somatic gene therapy has led to the identification of transcriptional silencing in vivo as an important problem....... Extinction of long-term vector expression has been observed after implantation of transduced hematopoietic cells as well as fibroblasts, myoblasts and hepatocytes. Here we review the influence of vector structure, integration site and cell type on transcriptional silencing. While down-regulation of proviral...... transcription is known from a number of cellular and animal models, major insight has been gained from studies in the germ line and embryonal cells of the mouse. Key elements for the transfer and expression of retroviral vectors, such as the viral transcriptional enhancer and the binding site for the t...
Vector superconductivity in cosmic strings
We argue that in most realistic cases, the usual Witten-type bosonic superconductivity of the cosmic string is automatically (independent of the existence of superconducting currents) accompanied by the condensation of charged gauge vector bosons in the core giving rise to a new vector type superconductivity. The value of the charged vector condensate is related with the charged scalar expectation value, and vanishes only if the latter goes to zero. The mechanism for the proposed vector superconductivity, differing fundamentally from those in the literature, is delineated using the simplest realistic example of the two Higgs doublet standard model interacting with the extra cosmic string. It is shown that for a wide range of parameters, for which the string becomes scalarly superconducting, W boson condensates (the sources of vector superconductivity) are necessarily excited. (author). 14 refs
Emerging vector borne diseases – incidence through vectors
Sara eSavic
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Vector borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowdays, in intercontinetal countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same place. Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in vector borne infectious diseases and disease outbreaks. It could affect the range and popultion of pathogens, host and vectors, transmission season, etc. Reliable surveilance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required. Canine vector borne diseases represent a complex group of diseases including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, erlichiosis, leishmaniosis. Some of these diseases cause serious clinical symptoms in dogs and some of them have a zoonotic potential with an effect to public health. It is expected from veterinarians in coordination with medical doctors to play a fudamental role at primeraly prevention and then treatment of vector borne diseases in dogs. The One Health concept has to be integrated into the struggle against emerging diseases.During a four year period, from 2009-2013, a total number of 551 dog samples were analysed for vector borne diseases (borreliosis, babesiosis, erlichiosis, anaplasmosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis in routine laboratory work. The analysis were done by serological tests – ELISA for borreliosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis, modified Knott test for dirofilariosis and blood smear for babesiosis, erlichiosis and anaplasmosis. This number of samples represented 75% of total number of samples that were sent for analysis for different diseases in dogs. Annually, on avarege more then half of the samples
Patient biodistribution of intraperitoneally administered yttrium-90-labeled antibody.
Hnatowich, D J; Chinol, M; Siebecker, D A; Gionet, M; Griffin, T; Doherty, P W; Hunter, R; Kase, K R
1988-08-01
Although 90Y is one of the best radionuclides for radioimmunotherapeutic applications, the lack of gamma rays in its decay complicates the estimation of radiation dose since its biodistribution cannot be accurately determined by external imaging. A limited clinical trial has been conducted with tracer doses (1 mCi) of 90Y in five patients who then received second-look surgery such that tissue samples were obtained for accurate radioactivity quantitation by in vitro counting. The anti-ovarian antibody OC-125 as the F(ab')2 fragment was coupled with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, radiolabeled with 90Y and administered intraperitoneally to patients with suspected or documented ovarian cancer. Size exclusion and ion exchange high performance liquid chromatography analysis of patient ascitic fluid and serum samples showed no evidence of radiolabel instability although a high molecular weight species (presumably immune complex) was observed in three patients. Total urinary excretion of radioactivity prior to surgery averaged 7% of the administered radioactivity while at surgery the mean organ accumulation was 8% of the administered radioactivity in serum, 10% in liver, 7% in bone marrow, and 19% in bone with large patient to patient variation. The mean tumor/normal tissue radioactivity ratio varied between 3 and 25. On the assumption that the above radioactivity levels were achieved immediately following administration, that the radioactivity remained in situ until decayed and that the dimensions of tumor were sufficient to completely attenuate the emissions of 90Y, the dose to tumor for a 1-mCi administration would be approximately 50 rad with normal tissues receiving approximately 8 rad. PMID:3404257
A parent-administered program to reduce children's television viewing
Wolfe, David A.; Mendes, Maria G.; Factor, David
1984-01-01
A parent-administered program to reduce television viewing of primary school-aged children was tested on two boys and three girls from three different families who were heavy viewers of television. Children were given 20 unearned tokens each week by their parents, which they could exchange for up to 10 hours of viewing time. The child earned a gold token for viewing in accordance with the rules for 4 consecutive weeks, which was exchanged for a reward. Parents were given instructions to follo...
Chiral structure of vector and axial-vector tetraquark currents
We investigate the chiral structure of local vector and axial-vector tetraquark currents, and study their chiral transformation properties. We consider the charge-conjugation parity and classify all the isovector vector and axial-vector local tetraquark currents of quantum numbers IG JPC =1-1-+, IG JPC =1+1--, IG JPC = 1-1++ and IG JPC = 1+1+-. We find that there is a one to one correspondence among them. Using these currents, we perform QCD sum rule analyses. Our results suggest that there is a missing b1 state having IG JPC =1+1+- and a mass around 1.47-1.66 GeV. (orig.)
Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha
2015-01-01
We administered written free-response and multiple-choice questions and conducted individual interviews to investigate the difficulties that upper-level undergraduate and graduate students have with quantum states while translating state vectors in Dirac notation to wave functions in position and momentum representations. We find that students share common difficulties with translating a state vector written in Dirac notation to the wave function in position or momentum representation.
Davis, Christopher James; Kedlaya, Kiran
2014-01-01
We study the kernel and cokernel of the Frobenius map on the p-typical Witt vectors of a commutative ring, not necessarily of characteristic p. We give many equivalent conditions to surjectivity of the Frobenius map on both finite and infinite length Witt vectors. In particular, surjectivity on...... finite Witt vectors turns out to be stable under certain integral extensions; this provides a clean formulation of a strong generalization of Faltings’s almost purity theorem from p-adic Hodge theory, incorporating recent improvements by Kedlaya–Liu and by Scholze....
Vector control of induction machines
Robyns, Benoit
2012-01-01
After a brief introduction to the main law of physics and fundamental concepts inherent in electromechanical conversion, ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" introduces the standard mathematical models for induction machines - whichever rotor technology is used - as well as several squirrel-cage induction machine vector-control strategies. The use of causal ordering graphs allows systematization of the design stage, as well as standardization of the structure of control devices. ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" suggests a unique approach aimed at reducing parameter sensitivity for
Prototype of a glass to administer liquid to newborns
Suzana Lopes de Melo
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the evaluation of health professionals about a prototype glass to administer liquids to newborns. It was a descriptive, exploratory study, which was carried out at the maternity of a university hospital, in Uberaba, MG, Brazil. Semi-structured questionnaires were applied to 75 health professionals, after administering a glass of milk to newborns, in the months of July and August, 2011. Quantitative data were analyzed descriptively and subjected to qualitative content analysis, three categories emerged: positive aspects, with 269 of the register units; negative aspects, with 11 units and suggestions to improve the glass, with six. Statistical analysis showed that the concepts ‘good’ and ‘excellent’, related to the prototype glass, presented rates over 90%. The perception of the participants demonstrated a positive evaluation of the prototype glass, which proved to be a practical tool, the design and safe material for the execution of the ‘technique of the little glass’.
Boukraa, Slimane; de La Grandiere, Maria A; Bawin, Thomas; Raharimalala, Fara N; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Haubruge, Eric; Thiry, Etienne; Francis, Frédéric
2016-02-01
Emergence of West Nile Virus was recently recorded in several European countries, which can lead to severe health problems in horse populations. Europe is also at risk of introduction of mosquito-borne equine alphavirus from Americas. Prevention of these arboviruses requires a clear understanding of transmission cycles, especially their vectors. To characterize mosquito fauna, their ecology and identify potential vectors of equine arboviruses in Belgium, entomological surveys of six equestrian farms located in the Wolloon Region were conducted during 2011-2012. The harvest of mosquitoes was based on larval sampling (272 samples from 111 breeding sites) and monthly adults trapping (CO2-baited traps, Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus). Among 51,493 larvae and 319 adult mosquitoes collected, morphological identification showed the presence of 11 species: Anopheles claviger (Meigen), An. maculipennis s.l. (Meigen), An. plumbeus (Stephens), Culex hortensis (Ficalbi), Cx. territans (Walker), Cx. pipiens s.l. L., Cx. torrentium (Martini), Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi), Culiseta annulata (Schrank), Aedes cantans (Meigen), Ae. geniculatus (Olivier). Molecular identification of Cx. pipiens species complex allowed the detection of three molecular forms, Pipiens (92.3%), Molestus (4.6%) and Hybrid (3.1%). Larvae of Cx. pipiens sl and Cx. torrentium were omnipresent and the most abundant species. Water troughs, ponds and slurry (liquid manure) were the most favorable breeding sites of mosquito larvae. Based upon behavior and ecology of the identified mosquito species, Studied Belgian equestrian farms seem to provide a suitable environment and breeding sites for the proliferation of potential vectors of arboviruses and those being a real nuisance problem for horses and neighboring inhabitants. PMID:26775817
All optical vector magnetometer Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I research project will investigate a novel method of operating an atomic magnetometer to simultaneously measure total magnetic fields and vector...
Acoustic vector sensor signal processing
SUN Guiqing; LI Qihu; ZHANG Bin
2006-01-01
Acoustic vector sensor simultaneously, colocately and directly measures orthogonal components of particle velocity as well as pressure at single point in acoustic field so that is possible to improve performance of traditional underwater acoustic measurement devices or detection systems and extends new ideas for solving practical underwater acoustic engineering problems. Although acoustic vector sensor history of appearing in underwater acoustic area is no long, but with huge and potential military demands, acoustic vector sensor has strong development trend in last decade, it is evolving into a one of important underwater acoustic technology. Under this background, we try to review recent progress in study on acoustic vector sensor signal processing, such as signal detection, DOA estimation, beamforming, and so on.
Introduction to matrices and vectors
Schwartz, Jacob T
2012-01-01
In this concise undergraduate text, the first three chapters present the basics of matrices - in later chapters the author shows how to use vectors and matrices to solve systems of linear equations. 1961 edition.
Vectoring of parallel synthetic jets
Berk, Tim; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram; Gomit, Guillaume
2015-11-01
A pair of parallel synthetic jets can be vectored by applying a phase difference between the two driving signals. The resulting jet can be merged or bifurcated and either vectored towards the actuator leading in phase or the actuator lagging in phase. In the present study, the influence of phase difference and Strouhal number on the vectoring behaviour is examined experimentally. Phase-locked vorticity fields, measured using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), are used to track vortex pairs. The physical mechanisms that explain the diversity in vectoring behaviour are observed based on the vortex trajectories. For a fixed phase difference, the vectoring behaviour is shown to be primarily influenced by pinch-off time of vortex rings generated by the synthetic jets. Beyond a certain formation number, the pinch-off timescale becomes invariant. In this region, the vectoring behaviour is determined by the distance between subsequent vortex rings. We acknowledge the financial support from the European Research Council (ERC grant agreement no. 277472).
Axisymmetric Coanda-assisted vectoring
Allen, Dustin; Smith, Barton L. [Utah State University, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Logan, UT (United States)
2009-01-15
An experimental demonstration of a jet vectoring technique used in our novel spray method called Coanda-assisted Spray Manipulation (CSM) is presented. CSM makes use of the Coanda effect on axisymmetric geometries through the interaction of two jets: a primary jet and a control jet. The primary jet has larger volume flow rate but generally a smaller momentum flux than the control jet. The primary jet flows through the center of a rounded collar. The control jet is parallel to the primary and is adjacent to the convex collar. The Reynolds number range for the primary jet at the exit plane was between 20,000 and 80,000. The flow was in the incompressible Mach number range (Mach<0.3). The control jet attaches to the convex wall and vectors according to known Coanda effect principles, entraining and vectoring the primary jet, resulting in controllable r-{theta} directional spraying. Several annular control slots and collar radii were tested over a range of momentum flux ratios to determine the effects of these variables on the vectored jet angle and spreading. Two and Three-component Particle Image Velocimetry systems were used to determine the vectoring angle and the profile of the combined jet in each experiment. The experiments show that the control slot and expansion radius, along with the momentum ratios of the two jets predominantly affected the vectoring angle and profile of the combined jets. (orig.)
Giacosa, Francesco; Janowski, Stanislaus
2016-01-01
We calculate two- and three-body decays of the (lightest) vector glueball into (pseudo)scalar, (axial-)vector, as well as pseudovector and excited vector mesons. By setting the mass of this yet hypothetical vector glueball to 3.8 GeV as predicted by Lattice QCD, many branching ratios can be computed and represent a parameter-free prediction of our approach. We find that the decay mode $\\omega\\pi\\pi$ should be one of the largest (both through the decay chain $\\mathcal{O}\\rightarrow b_{1}\\pi\\rightarrow$ $\\omega\\pi\\pi$ and through the direct coupling $\\mathcal{O}\\rightarrow\\omega\\pi\\pi$)$.$ Similarly, the (direct and indirect) decay into $\\pi KK^{\\ast}(892)$ is sizable. Moreover, the decays into $\\rho\\pi$ and $K^{\\ast}(892)K$ are, although subleading, possible and could play a role in explaining the $\\rho\\pi$ puzzle of the charmonium state $\\psi(2S)$ thank to a (small) mixing with the vector glueball. The vector glueball can be directly formed at the ongoing BESIII experiment as well as at the future PANDA exper...
Dalmia, Neha; Klimstra, William B; Mason, Carol; Ramsay, Alistair J
2015-01-01
There is an urgent need for effective prophylactic measures against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, particularly given the highly variable efficacy of Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB). Most studies indicate that cell-mediated immune responses involving both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are necessary for effective immunity against Mtb. Genetic vaccination induces humoral and cellular immune responses, including CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses, against a variety of bacterial, viral, parasitic and tumor antigens, and this strategy may therefore hold promise for the development of more effective TB vaccines. Novel formulations and delivery strategies to improve the immunogenicity of DNA-based vaccines have recently been evaluated, and have shown varying degrees of success. In the present study, we evaluated DNA-launched Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicons (Vrep) encoding a novel fusion of the mycobacterial antigens α-crystallin (Acr) and antigen 85B (Ag85B), termed Vrep-Acr/Ag85B, for their immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a murine model of pulmonary TB. Vrep-Acr/Ag85B generated antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses that persisted for at least 10 wk post-immunization. Interestingly, parenterally administered Vrep-Acr/Ag85B also induced T cell responses in the lung tissues, the primary site of infection, and inhibited bacterial growth in both the lungs and spleens following aerosol challenge with Mtb. DNA-launched Vrep may, therefore, represent an effective approach to the development of gene-based vaccines against TB, particularly as components of heterologous prime-boost strategies or as BCG boosters. PMID:26317509
Neha Dalmia
Full Text Available There is an urgent need for effective prophylactic measures against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection, particularly given the highly variable efficacy of Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG, the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB. Most studies indicate that cell-mediated immune responses involving both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are necessary for effective immunity against Mtb. Genetic vaccination induces humoral and cellular immune responses, including CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses, against a variety of bacterial, viral, parasitic and tumor antigens, and this strategy may therefore hold promise for the development of more effective TB vaccines. Novel formulations and delivery strategies to improve the immunogenicity of DNA-based vaccines have recently been evaluated, and have shown varying degrees of success. In the present study, we evaluated DNA-launched Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicons (Vrep encoding a novel fusion of the mycobacterial antigens α-crystallin (Acr and antigen 85B (Ag85B, termed Vrep-Acr/Ag85B, for their immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a murine model of pulmonary TB. Vrep-Acr/Ag85B generated antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses that persisted for at least 10 wk post-immunization. Interestingly, parenterally administered Vrep-Acr/Ag85B also induced T cell responses in the lung tissues, the primary site of infection, and inhibited bacterial growth in both the lungs and spleens following aerosol challenge with Mtb. DNA-launched Vrep may, therefore, represent an effective approach to the development of gene-based vaccines against TB, particularly as components of heterologous prime-boost strategies or as BCG boosters.
Thim, Hanna L; Iliev, Dimitar B; Christie, Karen E; Villoing, Stéphane; McLoughlin, Marian F; Strandskog, Guro; Jørgensen, Jorunn B
2012-07-01
CpG oligonucleotides and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) are toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists that mimic the immunostimulatory properties of bacterial DNA and double-stranded viral RNA respectively, and which have exhibited potential to serve as vaccine adjuvants in previous experiments. Here, a combination of CpGs and poly I:C together with water- or oil-formulated Salmonid Alphavirus (SAV) antigen preparations has been used for a vaccine in Atlantic salmon and tested for protection in SAV challenge trial. The results demonstrate that vaccination with a high dose of the SAV antigen induced protection against challenge with SAV which correlated with production of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). As the high antigen dose alone induced full protection, no beneficial effect from the addition of CpG and poly I:C could be observed. Nevertheless, these TLR ligands significantly enhanced the levels of NAbs in serum of vaccinated fish. Interestingly, gene expression analysis demonstrated that while addition of oil suppressed the CpG/poly I:C-induced expression of IFN-γ, the upregulation of IFNa1 was substantially enhanced. A low dose of the SAV antigen combined with oil did not induce any detectable levels of NAbs either with or without TLR ligands present, however the addition of CpG and poly I:C to the low SAV antigen dose formulation significantly enhanced the protection against SAV suggesting that CpG/poly I:C may have enhanced a cytotoxic response - a process which is dependent on the up-regulation of type I IFN. These results highlight the immunostimulatory properties of the tested TLR ligands and will serve as a ground for further, more detailed studies aimed to investigate their capacity to serve as adjuvants in vaccine formulations for Atlantic salmon. PMID:22634299
Administering truncated receive functions in a parallel messaging interface
Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E
2014-12-09
Administering truncated receive functions in a parallel messaging interface (`PMI`) of a parallel computer comprising a plurality of compute nodes coupled for data communications through the PMI and through a data communications network, including: sending, through the PMI on a source compute node, a quantity of data from the source compute node to a destination compute node; specifying, by an application on the destination compute node, a portion of the quantity of data to be received by the application on the destination compute node and a portion of the quantity of data to be discarded; receiving, by the PMI on the destination compute node, all of the quantity of data; providing, by the PMI on the destination compute node to the application on the destination compute node, only the portion of the quantity of data to be received by the application; and discarding, by the PMI on the destination compute node, the portion of the quantity of data to be discarded.
[Spontaneous reporting system data analysis of parenterally administered Shenmai].
Wang, Lian-Xin; Xiang, Yong-Yang; Xie, Yan-Ming; Shen, Hao; Ai, Qing-Hua
2013-09-01
Spontaneous reporting system (SRS) datais currently an important source of monitoring and finding ADRs signals throughout the world. This method can promptly and effectively discover ADR signals, thus preventing and avoiding ADRs effectively. Parenterally administered Shenmai has the functions of benefiting vital energy, nourishing Yin and generating body fluids, and activating the pulse. Clinically it is used in various diseases including shock, coronary heart disease, viral myocarditis, chronic pulmonary heart disease, and granulocytopenia. The large, national SRS database of ADRs needs effective evaluation methods. We report on the use of Bayesian confidence propagation neural network method (BCPNN) and proportional reporting ration (PRR) with propensity score to control for confounding variables. Early warning signs of an ADR are, a feeling of suffocation (difficulty exhaling), anaphylactoid reactions and flushing. Furthermore, relevant relationships between the different factors is analysed by association rules (AR). It is found that there is a close relationship between past history of ADRs, a family history of ADRs and itching. PMID:24471317
Interactions of conjugate vaccines and co-administered vaccines.
Findlow, H; Borrow, R
2016-01-01
Conjugate vaccines play an important role in the prevention of infectious diseases such as those caused by the bacteria Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) type b (Hib), Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Vaccines developed against these 3 pathogens utilize 3 main carrier proteins, non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin (CRM197), diphtheria toxoid (DT) and tetanus toxoid (TT). Current pediatric immunisation schedules include the administration of several vaccines simultaneously, therefore increasing the potential for immune interference (both positively and negatively) to the antigens administered. Knowledge of vaccine interactions is principally derived from clinical trials, these are reviewed here to explore immune interference which may result of from carrier-specific T-cell helper interactions, bystander interference and carrier induced epitopic suppression. PMID:26619353
Registered nurse-administered sedation for gastrointestinalendoscopic procedure
2015-01-01
The rising use of nonanesthesiologist-administeredsedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy has clinicalsignificances. Most endoscopic patients require someforms of sedation and/or anesthesia. The goals ofthis sedation are to guard the patient＇s safety, minimizephysical discomfort, to control behavior and todiminish psychological responses. Generally, moderatesedation for these procedures has been offered by thenon-anesthesiologist by using benzodiazepines and/oropioids. Anesthesiologists and non-anesthesiologistpersonnel will need to work together for these challengesand for safety of the patients. The sedationtraining courses including clinical skills and knowledgeare necessary for the registered nurses to facilitate thepatient safety and the successful procedure. However,appropriate patient selection and preparation, adequatemonitoring and regular training will ensure that the useof nurse-administered sedation is a feasible and safetechnique for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures.
Moderate and deep nurse-administered propofol sedation is safe
Jensen, Jeppe Thue; Møller, Ann; Hornslet, Pernille; Konge, Lars; Vilmann, Peter
2015-01-01
INTRODUCTION: Non-anaesthesiologist-administered propofol sedation (NAPS/NAAP) is increasingly used in many countries. Most regimens aim for light or moderate sedation. Little evidence on safety of deep NAPS sedation is available. The aim of this study was to explore the safety of intermittent deep...... propofol dose was 331.6 mg (standard deviation = 179.4 mg). The overall rate of hypoxia was 3.2%, and the rate ofhypotension was 3.1%. Assisted ventilation was needed in 0.5%. Age (p < 0.001), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class 3 (p = 0.017) and total propofol dose (p = 0.001) were...... associated with a higher rate of adverse events. CONCLUSION: Safety during intermittent deep sedation with NAPS was good. Age, ASA class 3 and total propofol dose were correlated with a higher rate of adverse events. Patients aged 60 years or more needed more handling during adverse events. FUNDING: Arvid...
Moderate and deep nurse-administered propofol sedation is safe
Jensen, Jeppe Thue; Møller, Ann; Hornslet, Pernille; Konge, Lars; Vilmann, Peter
2015-01-01
INTRODUCTION: Non-anaesthesiologist-administered propofol sedation (NAPS/NAAP) is increasingly used in many countries. Most regimens aim for light or moderate sedation. Little evidence on safety of deep NAPS sedation is available. The aim of this study was to explore the safety of intermittent deep...... propofol dose was 331.6 mg (standard deviation = 179.4 mg). The overall rate of hypoxia was 3.2%, and the rate of hypotension was 3.1%. Assisted ventilation was needed in 0.5%. Age (p < 0.001), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class 3 (p = 0.017) and total propofol dose (p = 0.001) were...... associated with a higher rate of adverse events. CONCLUSION: Safety during intermittent deep sedation with NAPS was good. Age, ASA class 3 and total propofol dose were correlated with a higher rate of adverse events. Patients aged 60 years or more needed more handling during adverse events. FUNDING: Arvid...
Orally administered nicotine induces urothelial hyperplasia in rats and mice
Highlights: • Rats and mice orally administered with nicotine tartrate for total of 4 weeks. • No treatment-related death or whole body toxicity observed in any of the groups. • Urothelium showed simple hyperplasia in treated rats and mice. • No significant change in BrdU labeling index or SEM classification of urothelium. - Abstract: Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for multiple human cancers including urinary bladder carcinoma. Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture containing chemicals that are known carcinogens in humans and/or animals. Aromatic amines a major class of DNA-reactive carcinogens in cigarette smoke, are not present at sufficiently high levels to fully explain the incidence of bladder cancer in cigarette smokers. Other agents in tobacco smoke could be excreted in urine and enhance the carcinogenic process by increasing urothelial cell proliferation. Nicotine is one such major component, as it has been shown to induce cell proliferation in multiple cell types in vitro. However, in vivo evidence specifically for the urothelium is lacking. We previously showed that cigarette smoke induces increased urothelial cell proliferation in mice. In the present study, urothelial proliferative and cytotoxic effects were examined after nicotine treatment in mice and rats. Nicotine hydrogen tartrate was administered in drinking water to rats (52 ppm nicotine) and mice (514 ppm nicotine) for 4 weeks and urothelial changes were evaluated. Histopathologically, 7/10 rats and 4/10 mice showed simple hyperplasia following nicotine treatment compared to none in the controls. Rats had an increased mean BrdU labeling index compared to controls, although it was not statistically significantly elevated in either species. Scanning electron microscopic visualization of the urothelium did not reveal significant cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that oral nicotine administration induced urothelial hyperplasia (increased cell proliferation), possibly due to a
Balanced propofol sedation administered by nonanesthesiologists: The first Italian experience
Alessandro Repici; Eva Vitetta; Daniel de Paula Pessoa Ferreira; Silvio Danese; Massimo Arosio; Alberto Malesci; Nico Pagano; Cesare Hassan; Alessandra Carlino; Giacomo Rando; Giuseppe Strangio; Fabio Romeo; Angelo Zullo; Elisa Ferrara
2011-01-01
AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of a balanced approach using midazolam in combination with propofol, administered by non-anesthesiologists, in a large series of diagnostic colonoscopies.METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic colonoscopy were sedated with a single dose of midazolam (0.05 mg/kg) and low-dose propofol (starter bolus of 0.5 mg/kg and repeated boluses of 10 to 20 mg). Induction time and deepest level of sedation, adverse and serious adverse events, as well as recovery times, were prospectively assessed. Cecal intubation and adenoma detection rates were also collected.RESULTS: Overall, 1593 eligible patients were included. The median dose of propofol administered was 70 mg (range: 40-120 mg), and the median dose of midazolam was 2.3 mg (range: 2-4 mg). Median induction time of sedation was 3 min (range: 1-4 min), and median recovery time was 23 min (range: 10-40 min). A moderate level of sedation was achieved in 1561 (98%) patients, whilst a deep sedation occurred in 32 (2%) cases. Transient oxygen desaturation requiring further oxygen supplementation occurred in 8 (0.46%; 95% CI: 0.2%-0.8%) patients. No serious adverse event was observed. Cecal intubation and adenoma detection rates were 93.5% and 23.4% (27.8% for male and 18.5% for female, subjects), respectively.CONCLUSION: A balanced sedation protocol provided a minimalization of the dose of propofol needed to target a moderate sedation for colonoscopy, resulting in a high safety profile for non-anesthesiologist propofol sedation.
Currently there are no licensed antiviral treatments for the Alphaviruses Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), Everglades virus and Mucambo virus. We previously developed a humanised version of the mouse monoclonal antibody 1A3B-7 (Hu1A3B-7) which exhibited a wide range of reactivity in vitro and was able to protect mice from infection with VEEV. Continued work with the humanised antibody has now demonstrated that it has the potential to be a new human therapeutic. Hu1A3B-7 successfully protected mice from infection with multiple Alphaviruses. The effectiveness of the humanisation process was determined by assessing proliferation responses in human T-cells to peptides derived from the murine and humanised versions of the VH and VL domains. This analysis showed that the number of human T-cell epitopes within the humanised antibody had been substantially reduced, indicating that Hu1A3B-7 may have reduced immunogenicity in vivo.
The Duality on Vector Optimization Problems
HUANG Long-guang
2012-01-01
Duality framework on vector optimization problems in a locally convex topological vector space are established by using scalarization with a cone-strongly increasing function.The dualities for the scalar convex composed optimization problems and for general vector optimization problems are studied.A general approach for studying duality in vector optimization problems is presented.
A NOTE ON VECTOR CASCADE ALGORITHM
Qiu-hui Chen; Jin-zhao Liu; Wen-sheng Zhang
2002-01-01
The focus of this paper is on the relationship between accuracy of multivariate refinable vector and vector cascade algorithm. We show that, if the vector cascade algorithm (1.5) with isotropic dilation converges to a vector-valued function with regularity, then the initial function must satisfy the Strang-Fix conditions.
Vector meson-vector meson interaction and dynamically generated resonances
We report upon 11 composite meson states, dynamically generated from the vector meson–vector meson interaction using the local hidden gauge formalism within a unitary approach. Six of these states are associated to the f0(1370), f0(1710), f2(1270), f'2(1525), a2(1320) and K*2(1430) resonances. At the same time we predict five other states with the quantum numbers of h1, a0, b1, K*0, and K1 which could be tested by future experiments.
A generalized nonlocal vector calculus
Alali, Bacim; Liu, Kuo; Gunzburger, Max
2015-10-01
A nonlocal vector calculus was introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) that has proved useful for the analysis of the peridynamics model of nonlocal mechanics and nonlocal diffusion models. A formulation is developed that provides a more general setting for the nonlocal vector calculus that is independent of particular nonlocal models. It is shown that general nonlocal calculus operators are integral operators with specific integral kernels. General nonlocal calculus properties are developed, including nonlocal integration by parts formula and Green's identities. The nonlocal vector calculus introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) is shown to be recoverable from the general formulation as a special example. This special nonlocal vector calculus is used to reformulate the peridynamics equation of motion in terms of the nonlocal gradient operator and its adjoint. A new example of nonlocal vector calculus operators is introduced, which shows the potential use of the general formulation for general nonlocal models.
Axisymmetric Coanda-assisted vectoring
Allen, Dustin; Smith, Barton L.
2009-01-01
An experimental demonstration of a jet vectoring technique used in our novel spray method called Coanda-assisted Spray Manipulation (CSM) is presented. CSM makes use of the Coanda effect on axisymmetric geometries through the interaction of two jets: a primary jet and a control jet. The primary jet has larger volume flow rate but generally a smaller momentum flux than the control jet. The primary jet flows through the center of a rounded collar. The control jet is parallel to the primary and is adjacent to the convex collar. The Reynolds number range for the primary jet at the exit plane was between 20,000 and 80,000. The flow was in the incompressible Mach number range (Mach Coanda effect principles, entraining and vectoring the primary jet, resulting in controllable r - θ directional spraying. Several annular control slots and collar radii were tested over a range of momentum flux ratios to determine the effects of these variables on the vectored jet angle and spreading. Two and Three-component Particle Image Velocimetry systems were used to determine the vectoring angle and the profile of the combined jet in each experiment. The experiments show that the control slot and expansion radius, along with the momentum ratios of the two jets predominantly affected the vectoring angle and profile of the combined jets.
Human metabolism of orally administered radioactive cobalt chloride
This study investigated the human gastrointestinal uptake (f1) and subsequent whole-body retention of orally administered inorganic radioactive cobalt. Of eight adult volunteers aged between 24 and 68 years, seven were given solutions of 57Co (T1/2 = 272 d) containing a stable cobalt carrier, and six were given carrier-free 58Co (T1/2 = 71 d). The administered activities ranged between 25 and 103 kBq. The observed mean f1, based on 6 days accumulated urinary excretion sampling and whole-body counting, was 0.028 ± 0.0048 for carrier-free 58Co, and 0.016 ± 0.0021 for carrier-associated 57Co. These values were in reasonable agreement with values reported from previous studies involving a single intake of inorganic cobalt. The time pattern of the total retention (including residual cobalt in the GI tract) included a short-term component with a biological half-time of 0.71 ± 0.03 d (average ± 1 standard error of the mean for the two nuclides), an intermediate component with a mean half-time of 32 ± 8.5 d, and a long-term component (observed in two volunteers) with half-times ranging from 80 to 720 d for the two isotopes. From the present data we conclude that for the short-lived 57Co and 58Co, more than 95% of the internal absorbed dose was delivered within 7 days following oral intake, with a high individual variation influenced by the transit time of the unabsorbed cobalt through the gastro-intestinal tract. - Highlights: • Gastrointestinal (GI) uptake, f1, of inorganic radioactive cobalt varies between 0.007 and 0.043 among humans. • Mean f1 among human volunteers was found to be 0.022 ± 0.003. • More than 95% of the estimated internal absorbed dose occurs within 7 d for the short-lived radionuclides 57Co and 58Co. • More than 60% of the time integrated absorbed dose from ingestion of 60Co occurs within 7 d. • Residence time of cobalt in the human GI-tract strongly influences the time integrated internal absorbed dose
Comparison of lentiviral vector titration methods
Debyser Zeger; Baekelandt Veerle; Willems Sofie; Geraerts Martine; Gijsbers Rik
2006-01-01
Abstract Background Lentiviral vectors are efficient vehicles for stable gene transfer in dividing and non-dividing cells. Several improvements in vector design to increase biosafety and transgene expression, have led to the approval of these vectors for use in clinical studies. Methods are required to analyze the quality of lentiviral vector production, the efficiency of gene transfer and the extent of therapeutic gene expression. Results We compared lentiviral vector titration methods that ...
Fiber propagation of vector modes
Ndagano, Bienvenu; McLaren, Melanie; Duparre, Michael; Forbes, Andrew
2015-01-01
Here we employ both dynamic and geometric phase control of light to produce radially modulated vector-vortex modes, the natural modes of optical fibers. We then measure these modes using a vector modal decomposition set-up as well as a tomography measurement, the latter providing a degree of the non-separability of the vector states, akin to an entanglement measure for quantum states. We demonstrate the versatility of the approach by creating the natural modes of a step-index fiber, which are known to exhibit strong mode coupling, and measure the modal cross-talk and non-separability decay during propagation. Our approach will be useful in mode division multiplexing schemes for transport of classical and quantum states.
Gauge Theories of Vector Particles
Glashow, S. L.; Gell-Mann, M.
1961-04-24
The possibility of generalizing the Yang-Mills trick is examined. Thus we seek theories of vector bosons invariant under continuous groups of coordinate-dependent linear transformations. All such theories may be expressed as superpositions of certain "simple" theories; we show that each "simple theory is associated with a simple Lie algebra. We may introduce mass terms for the vector bosons at the price of destroying the gauge-invariance for coordinate-dependent gauge functions. The theories corresponding to three particular simple Lie algebras - those which admit precisely two commuting quantum numbers - are examined in some detail as examples. One of them might play a role in the physics of the strong interactions if there is an underlying super-symmetry, transcending charge independence, that is badly broken. The intermediate vector boson theory of weak interactions is discussed also. The so-called "schizon" model cannot be made to conform to the requirements of partial gauge-invariance.
Introduction to vector velocity imaging
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Udesen, Jesper; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov;
virtually impossible to compensate for the factor and obtain correct velocity estimates for either CFM or spectral velocity estimation. This talk will describe methods for finding the correct velocity by estimating both the axial and lateral component of the velocity vector. The transverse oscillation...... method introduces an ultrasound field that oscillation not only along the ultrasound beam both also transverse to it to estimate both the lateral and axial velocity for the full velocity vector. The correct velocity magnitude can be found from this as well as the instantaneous angle. This can be obtained...... over the full region of interest and a real time image at a frame rate of 20 Hz can be displayed. Real time videos have been obtained from both our research systems and from commercial BK Medical scanners. The vector velocity images reveal the full complexity of the human blood flow. It is easy to see...
Pihl, Michael Johannes
The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for 3D vector flow imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of velocity estimation in ultrasound, which plays an important role in the clinic. The velocity of blood has components in all three spatial dimensions, yet...... conventional methods can estimate only the axial component. Several approaches for 3D vector velocity estimation have been suggested, but none of these methods have so far produced convincing in vivo results nor have they been adopted by commercial manufacturers. The basis for this project is the Transverse...... on the TO fields are suggested. They can be used to optimize the TO method. In the third part, a TO method for 3D vector velocity estimation is proposed. It employs a 2D phased array transducer and decouples the velocity estimation into three velocity components, which are estimated simultaneously based on 5...
Toward lattice fractional vector calculus
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2014-09-01
An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity.
Administering and Detecting Protein Marks on Arthropods for Dispersal Research.
Hagler, James R; Machtley, Scott A
2016-01-01
Monitoring arthropod movement is often required to better understand associated population dynamics, dispersal patterns, host plant preferences, and other ecological interactions. Arthropods are usually tracked in nature by tagging them with a unique mark and then re-collecting them over time and space to determine their dispersal capabilities. In addition to actual physical tags, such as colored dust or paint, various types of proteins have proven very effective for marking arthropods for ecological research. Proteins can be administered internally and/or externally. The proteins can then be detected on recaptured arthropods with a protein-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Here we describe protocols for externally and internally tagging arthropods with protein. Two simple experimental examples are demonstrated: (1) an internal protein mark introduced to an insect by providing a protein-enriched diet and (2) an external protein mark topically applied to an insect using a medical nebulizer. We then relate a step-by-step guide of the sandwich and indirect ELISA methods used to detect protein marks on the insects. In this demonstration, various aspects of the acquisition and detection of protein markers on arthropods for mark-release-recapture, mark-capture, and self-mark-capture types of research are discussed, along with the various ways that the immunomarking procedure has been adapted to suit a wide variety of research objectives. PMID:26863574
[What lipid emulsion should be administered to ICU patients?].
Kreymann, G
2014-01-01
The review deals with a question what lipid emulsion should be administered to ICU patients according to recently published official parenteral and enteral nutrition guidelines. Classic lipid emulsions based on omega-6 fatty acids are immunosuppressive and should not be used with ICU patients. The olive/soy emulsion is immunoneutral and can be used for most patients. Many ICU patients are in an inflammatory state (e.g. sepsis, ARDS, pancreatitis). A common belief is that this "hyperinflammed patient population" would profit from an anti-inflammatory lipid component of their parenteral nutrition solution, such as fish oil. On the other hand, every anti-inflammatory therapy has the disadvantage of also being immunosuppressive. Inflammation is a necessary part of the host defense against infection and any correct anti-inflammatory medication presupposes the exact immunologic knowledge that there is too much inflammation for a given situation. This "too much" is certainly not fulfilled in every patient with sepsis, ARDS or pancreatitis. At the bedside it is nearly impossible to determine the degree of "hyper" inflammation. In reality, a number of these patients may be adequately inflamed or, in fact, even hypoinflammed. Specific emulsions which can be used in hyper- or hypoinflammation should be developed in the future. As long as these difficulties in the immunologic diagnosis prevail, the clinician might be best advised to use an immunoneutral lipid emulsion when choosing a lipid preparation for the ICU patients. PMID:25306684
Recovery of cholinesterase activity in mallard ducklings administered organophosphorus pesticides
Fleming, W.J.; Bradbury, S.P.
1981-01-01
Oral doses of the organophosphorus pesticides acephate, dicrotophos, fensulfothion, fonofos, malathion, and parathion were administered to mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos), and brain and plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activities were determined for up to 77 d after dosing. In vivo recovery of brain ChE activity to within 2 standard deviations of the mean activity of undosed birds occurred within 8 d, after being depressed an average of 25-58% at 24 h after dosing. In vivo recovery of plasma ChE appeared as fast as or faster than that of brain, but the pattern of recovery was more erratic and therefore statistical comparison with brain ChE recovery was not attempted. In vitro tests indicated that the potential for dephosphorylation to contribute to in vivo recovery of inhibited brain ChE differed among chemical treatments. Some ducklings died as a result of organophosphate dosing. In an experiment in which ducklings within each treatment group received the same dose (mg/kg), the brain ChE activity in birds that died was less than that in birds that survived. Brain ChE activities in ducklings that died were significantly different among pesticide treatments: fensulfothion > parathion> acephate > malathion (p < 0.05).
34 CFR 461.1 - What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic Grant Program?
2010-07-01
... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ADULT EDUCATION STATE-ADMINISTERED BASIC GRANT PROGRAM General § 461.1 What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic...
Bred vectors, singular vectors, and Lyapunov vectors in simple and complex models
Norwood, Adrienne
We compute and compare three types of vectors frequently used to explore the instability properties of dynamical models, Lyapunov vectors (LVs), singular vectors (SVs), and bred vectors (BVs). The first model is the Lorenz (1963) three-variable model. We find BVs align with the locally fastest growing LV, which is often the second fastest growing global LV. The growth rates of the three types of vectors reveal all predict regime changes and durations of new regimes, as shown for BVs by Evans et al. (2004). The second model is the toy 'atmosphere-ocean model' developed by Pena and Kalnay (2004) coupling three Lorenz (1963) models with different time scales to test the effects of fast and slow modes of growth on the dynamical vectors. A fast 'extratropical atmosphere' is weakly coupled to a fast 'tropical atmosphere' which is strongly coupled to a slow 'ocean' system, the latter coupling imitating the tropical El Nino--Southern Oscillation. BVs separate the fast and slow modes of growth through appropriate selection of the breeding parameters. LVs successfully separate the fast 'extratropics' but cannot completely decouple the 'tropics' from the 'ocean,' leading to 'coupled' LVs that are affected by both systems but mainly dominated by one. SVs identify the fast modes but cannot capture the slow modes until the fast 'extratropics' are replaced with faster 'convection.' The dissimilar behavior of the three types of vectors degrades the similarities of the subspaces they inhabit (Norwood et al. 2013). The third model is a quasi-geostrophic channel model (Rotunno and Bao 1996) that is a simplification of extratropical synoptic-scale motions with baroclinic instabilities only. We were unable to successfully compute LVs for it. However, randomly initialized BVs quickly converge to a single vector that is the leading LV. The last model is the SPEEDY model created by Molteni (2003). It is a simplified general atmospheric circulation model with several types of instabilities
Adam, C.; C. Naya; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.
2012-01-01
We analyze the vector meson formulation of the BPS Skyrme model in (3+1) dimensions, where the term of sixth power in first derivatives characteristic for the original, integrable BPS Skyrme model (the topological or baryon current squared) is replaced by a coupling between the vector meson $\\omega_\\mu$ and the baryon current. We find that the model remains integrable in the sense of generalized integrability and almost solvable (reducible to a set of two first order ODEs) for any value of th...
Evaluation of integrated vector management.
van den Berg, Henk; Takken, Willem
2009-02-01
Initiatives on integrated vector management (IVM) approaches are increasingly undertaken as alternatives to existing vector control. An impact model of IVM is presented with performance and impact indicators at six causal steps from coverage of the intervention to impact on disease. Impacts in fields other than health are also discussed because of the emphasis in IVM on capacity building, partnerships and sustainability. A conceptual framework for evaluation of IVM is designed, based on considerations of the selection of indicators, level of inference, cluster size and method of evaluation. The framework, which is tested in three case studies, is intended as guidance for public health workers and policy-makers. PMID:19110470
Fan, Zhong-Ying
2016-01-01
In this paper, we consider Einstein gravity coupled to a vector field, either minimally or non-minimally, together with a vector potential of the type $V=2\\Lambda_0+\\ft 12 m^2 A^2+\\gamma_4 A^4$. For a simpler non-minimally coupled theory with $\\Lambda_0=m=\\gamma_4=0$, we obtain both extremal and non-extremal black hole solutions that are asymptotic to Minkowski space-times. We study the global properties of the solutions and derive the first law of thermodynamics using Wald formalism. We find...
Budinich, Marco
2014-01-01
We investigate the relations between spinors and null vectors in Clifford algebra with particular emphasis on the conditions that a spinor must satisfy to be simple (also: pure). In particular we prove: i) a new property for null vectors: each of them bisects spinor space into two parts of equal size; ii) that simple spinors form one-dimensional subspaces of spinor space; iii) a necessary and sufficient condition for a spinor to be simple that generalizes a theorem of Cartan and Chevalley that appears now as a corollary of this result. We also show how to write down easily the most general spinor with a given associated totally null plane.
Topological vector spaces and distributions
Horvath, John
2012-01-01
""The most readable introduction to the theory of vector spaces available in English and possibly any other language.""-J. L. B. Cooper, MathSciNet ReviewMathematically rigorous but user-friendly, this classic treatise discusses major modern contributions to the field of topological vector spaces. The self-contained treatment includes complete proofs for all necessary results from algebra and topology. Suitable for undergraduate mathematics majors with a background in advanced calculus, this volume will also assist professional mathematicians, physicists, and engineers.The precise exposition o
Learning with Support Vector Machines
Campbell, Colin
2010-01-01
Support Vectors Machines have become a well established tool within machine learning. They work well in practice and have now been used across a wide range of applications from recognizing hand-written digits, to face identification, text categorisation, bioinformatics, and database marketing. In this book we give an introductory overview of this subject. We start with a simple Support Vector Machine for performing binary classification before considering multi-class classification and learning in the presence of noise. We show that this framework can be extended to many other scenarios such a
Axisymmetric Coanda-Assisted Vectoring
Allen, Dustin S
2008-01-01
An examination of parameters affecting the control of a jet vectoring technique used in the Coanda-assisted Spray Manipulation (CSM) is presented. The CSM makes use of an enhanced Coanda effect on axisymmetric geometries through the interaction of a high volume primary jet flowing through the center of a collar and a secondary high-momentum jet parallel to the first and adjacent to the convex collar. The control jet attaches to the convex wall and vectors according to known Coanda effect prin...
Vector Space Over Division Ring
Kleyn, Aleks
2005-01-01
A system of linear equations over a skew field has properties similar to properties of a system of linear equations over a field. Even noncommutativity of a product creates a new picture the properties of system of linear equations and of vector space over skew-field have a close relationship.
Some properties of vector gluinonium
Strong radiation transitions between the levels of the gluonic bound states are considered. The decay probability for vector gluinonium into Z-bozon and has calculated, and the possibility to observe this state in the Z-bozon and gluon jet
Vector-meson dominance revisited
Terschlüsen Carla
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The interaction of mesons with electromagnetism is often well described by the concept of vector-meson dominance (VMD. However, there are also examples where VMD fails. A simple chiral Lagrangian for pions, rho and omega mesons is presented which can account for the respective agreement and disagreement between VMD and phenomenology in the sector of light mesons.
Scalar Calibration of Vector Magnetometers
Merayo, José M.G.; Brauer, Peter; Primdahl, Fritz;
2000-01-01
The calibration parameters of a vector magnetometer are estimated only by the use of a scalar reference magnetometer. The method presented in this paper differs from those previously reported in its linearized parametrization. This allows the determination of three offsets or signals in the absence...
On Weighted Support Vector Regression
Han, Xixuan; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder
2014-01-01
We propose a new type of weighted support vector regression (SVR), motivated by modeling local dependencies in time and space in prediction of house prices. The classic weights of the weighted SVR are added to the slack variables in the objective function (OF‐weights). This procedure directly...
Reference vectors in economic choice
Teycir Abdelghani GOUCHA
2013-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper the introduction of notion of reference vector paves the way for a combination of classical and social approaches in the framework of referential preferences given by matrix groups. It is shown that individual demand issue from rational decision does not depend on that reference.
Portfolio Analysis for Vector Calculus
Kaplan, Samuel R.
2015-01-01
Classic stock portfolio analysis provides an applied context for Lagrange multipliers that undergraduate students appreciate. Although modern methods of portfolio analysis are beyond the scope of vector calculus, classic methods reinforce the utility of this material. This paper discusses how to introduce classic stock portfolio analysis in a…
Vector description of nonlinear magnetization
The definition of the nonlinear magnetization, which is usually applied in investigating superconductors is discussed in this paper. The nonlinear magnetization of the superconductor, as the response to the alternating magnetic field, is a periodic time function and is determined by the sequence of complex numbers χn=χn'+iχn'', n=1,2,3,.... The sequence χn is named harmonic susceptibility. Finding some limits in this definition we propose a new description, substituting the complex sequence χn with the sequence of real covariant vectors. Such a definition of the nonlinear magnetization, allows to determine function M(t) of an investigated system for an arbitrary initial phase θo of the inducing magnetic field Hac=hac sin(ωt+θo). Vector description, in our opinion, is superior to the complex one in respect of explicitness, simplicity, and universality. Circular diagrams are used to illustrate the new vector description. We also show how the vectors of the harmonic susceptibility can be derived from both numeric calculations and experimental data
Parallel Sparse Matrix - Vector Product
Alexandersen, Joe; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Dammann, Bernd
This technical report contains a case study of a sparse matrix-vector product routine, implemented for parallel execution on a compute cluster with both pure MPI and hybrid MPI-OpenMP solutions. C++ classes for sparse data types were developed and the report shows how these class can be used...
Sum rule analysis of vector and axial-vector spectral functions with excited states in vacuum
Hohler, Paul M.; Rapp, Ralf
2012-01-01
We simultaneously analyze vector and axial-vector spectral functions in vacuum using hadronic models constrained by experimental data and the requirement that Weinberg-type sum rules are satisfied. Upon explicit inclusion of an excited vector state, viz. rho', and the requirement that the perturbative continua are degenerate in vector and axial-vector channels, we deduce the existence of an excited axial-vector resonance state, a1', in order that the Weinberg sum rules are satisfied. The resu...
Beam quality measure for vector beams.
Ndagano, Bienvenu; Sroor, Hend; McLaren, Melanie; Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Forbes, Andrew
2016-08-01
Vector beams have found a myriad of applications, from laser materials processing to microscopy, and are now easily produced in the laboratory. They are usually differentiated from scalar beams by qualitative measures, for example, visual inspection of beam profiles after a rotating polarizer. Here we introduce a quantitative beam quality measure for vector beams and demonstrate it on cylindrical vector vortex beams. We show how a single measure can be defined for the vector quality, from 0 (purely scalar) to 1 (purely vector). Our measure is derived from a quantum toolkit, which we show applies to classical vector beams. PMID:27472580
Chad E Mire
Full Text Available The filoviruses, Marburg virus and Ebola virus, cause severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality in humans and nonhuman primates. Among the most promising filovirus vaccines under development is a system based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV that expresses an individual filovirus glycoprotein (GP in place of the VSV glycoprotein (G. The main concern with all replication-competent vaccines, including the rVSV filovirus GP vectors, is their safety. To address this concern, we performed a neurovirulence study using 21 cynomolgus macaques where the vaccines were administered intrathalamically. Seven animals received a rVSV vector expressing the Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV GP; seven animals received a rVSV vector expressing the Lake Victoria marburgvirus (MARV GP; three animals received rVSV-wild type (wt vector, and four animals received vehicle control. Two of three animals given rVSV-wt showed severe neurological symptoms whereas animals receiving vehicle control, rVSV-ZEBOV-GP, or rVSV-MARV-GP did not develop these symptoms. Histological analysis revealed major lesions in neural tissues of all three rVSV-wt animals; however, no significant lesions were observed in any animals from the filovirus vaccine or vehicle control groups. These data strongly suggest that rVSV filovirus GP vaccine vectors lack the neurovirulence properties associated with the rVSV-wt parent vector and support their further development as a vaccine platform for human use.
Transversals of Complex Polynomial Vector Fields
Dias, Kealey
Vector fields in the complex plane are defined by assigning the vector determined by the value P(z) to each point z in the complex plane, where P is a polynomial of one complex variable. We consider special families of so-called rotated vector fields that are determined by a polynomial multiplied...... by rotational constants. Transversals are a certain class of curves for such a family of vector fields that represent the bifurcation states for this family of vector fields. More specifically, transversals are curves that coincide with a homoclinic separatrix for some rotation of the vector field....... Given a concrete polynomial, it seems to take quite a bit of work to prove that it is generic, i.e. structurally stable. This has been done for a special class of degree d polynomial vector fields having simple equilibrium points at the d roots of unity, d odd. In proving that such vector fields are...
SYSTEM OF GENERALIZED VECTOR VARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES
Fang Yaping; Huang Nanjing
2005-01-01
In this paper, the authors introduce and study system of generalized vector variational inequalities. Under suitable conditions, the existence of solutions for system of generalized vector variational inequalities is presented by Kakutani-Fan-Glicksberg fixed point theorem.
Class Vectors: Embedding representation of Document Classes
Sachan, Devendra Singh; Kumar, Shailesh
2015-01-01
Distributed representations of words and paragraphs as semantic embeddings in high dimensional data are used across a number of Natural Language Understanding tasks such as retrieval, translation, and classification. In this work, we propose "Class Vectors" - a framework for learning a vector per class in the same embedding space as the word and paragraph embeddings. Similarity between these class vectors and word vectors are used as features to classify a document to a class. In experiment o...
Fast Support Vector Machines for Continuous Data
Kramer, Kurt A.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Remsen, Andrew; Luo, Tong
2009-01-01
Support vector machines can be trained to be very accurate classifiers and have been used in many applications. However, the training and to a lesser extent prediction time of support vector machines on very large data sets can be very long. This paper presents a fast compression method to scale up support vector machines to large data sets. A simple bit reduction method is applied to reduce the cardinality of the data by weighting representative examples. We then develop support vector machi...
Problems of vector Lagrangians in field theories
A vector Lagrange approach to the Dirac spinor field and the relationship between the vector Lagrangians for the spinor and electromagnetic fields are considered. A vector Lagrange approach for the system of interacting electromagnetic B=(Bμυ)=(E-bar,H-bar) and spinor Ψ fields is constructed. New Lagrangians (scalar and vector) for electromagnetic field in terms of field strengths are found. The foundations of two new QED models are formulated
VEST: abstract vector calculus simplification in Mathematica
Squire, Jonathan; Burby, Joshua; Qin, Hong
2013-01-01
We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce three-dimensional scalar and vector expressions of a very general type to a well defined standard form. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by reduction, subsequently applying these to simplify l...
NEVILLE-TYPE VECTOR VALUED RATIONAL INTERPOLANTS
陈之兵; 顾传青; 徐晨
2004-01-01
A new kind of vector valued rational interpolants is established by means of Samelson inverse, with scalar numerator and vector valued denominator. It is essen tially different from that of Graves-Morris(1983), where the interpolants are constructed by Thiele-type continued fractions with vector valued numerator and scalar denominator. The new approach is more suitable to calculate the value of a vector valued function for a given point. And an error formula is also given and proven.
Vector Fields in Holographic Cosmology
Hartle, James B; Hertog, Thomas
2013-01-01
We extend the holographic formulation of the semiclassical no-boundary wave function (NBWF) to models with Maxwell vector fields. It is shown that the familiar saddle points of the NBWF have a representation in which a regular, Euclidean asymptotic AdS geometry smoothly joins onto a Lorentzian asymptotically de Sitter universe through a complex transition region. The tree level probabilities of Lorentzian histories are fully specified by the action of the AdS region of the saddle points. The scalar and vector matter profiles in this region are complex from an AdS viewpoint, with universal asymptotic phases. The dual description of the semiclassical NBWF thus involves complex deformations of Euclidean CFTs.
Vector fields in holographic cosmology
B. Hartle, James; Hawking, S. W.; Hertog, Thomas
2013-11-01
We extend the holographic formulation of the semiclassical no-boundary wave function (NBWF) to models with Maxwell vector fields. It is shown that the familiar saddle points of the NBWF have a representation in which a regular, Euclidean asymptotic AdS geometry smoothly joins onto a Lorentzian asymptotically de Sitter universe through a complex transition region. The tree level probabilities of Lorentzian histories are fully specified by the action of the AdS region of the saddle points. The scalar and vector matter profiles in this region are complex from an AdS viewpoint, with universal asymptotic phases. The dual description of the semiclassical NBWF thus involves complex deformations of Euclidean CFTs.
Harmonic projection and multipole Vectors
Lachièze-Rey, M
2004-01-01
We show that the multipole vector decomposition, recently introduced by Copi et al., is a consequence of Sylvester s theorem, and corresponds to the Maxwell representation. Analyzing it in terms of harmonic polynomials, we show that this decomposition, as well as its extension proposed by Katz and Weeks, result in fact from the application of the harmonic projection operator and its inverse. We derive the coefficients of the usual harmonic decomposition from the multipole vectors. We answer to '' an open question '' asked by Katz and Weeks, by showing that the decomposition resulting from their corollary is unstable. We propose however a new decomposition which is stable. We generalize these results to complex functions and polynomials.
Budinich, Marco
2014-03-01
We investigate the relations between spinors and null vectors in Clifford algebra of any dimension with particular emphasis on the conditions that a spinor must satisfy to be simple (also: pure). In particular, we prove: (i) a new property for null vectors: each of them bisects spinor space into two subspaces of equal size; (ii) that simple spinors form one-dimensional subspaces of spinor space; (iii) a necessary and sufficient condition for a spinor to be simple that generalizes a theorem of Cartan and Chevalley which becomes a corollary of this result. We also show how to write down easily the most general spinor with a given associated totally null plane. This paper is dedicated to the memory of my father Paolo Budinich who passed away in November 2013 not before transferring to me his enthusiasm for simple spinors.
Vector fields in holographic cosmology
Hartle, James B.; Hawking, S. W.; Hertog, Thomas
2013-01-01
We extend the holographic formulation of the semiclassical no-boundary wave function (NBWF) to models with Maxwell vector fields. It is shown that the familiar saddle points of the NBWF have a representation in which a regular, Euclidean asymptotic AdS geometry smoothly joins onto a Lorentzian asymptotically de Sitter universe through a complex transition region. The tree level probabilities of Lorentzian histories are fully specified by the action of the AdS region of the saddle points. The ...
Transcriptomics and disease vector control
Ranson Hilary
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Next-generation sequencing can be used to compare transcriptomes under different conditions. A study in BMC Genomics applies this approach to investigating the effects of exposure to a range of xenobiotics on changes in gene expression in the larvae of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue fever. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/216
Vector Analysis in GIS Systems
Životský, Tomáš
2009-01-01
This master's thesis deals with the geographic information systems with an emphasis on so-called vector analysis. The aim of the thesisis to create a library that implements the internal representation of geographic data and performs analytical operation over them. The thesis describes the logical structure of the application andthe hierarchy of abstract classes. In the form of pseudo-code isshown a set of individual computing operations. Work is stronglybased on geographic sys...
Vector and tensor analysis with applications
Borisenko, A I; Silverman, Richard A
1979-01-01
Concise and readable, this text ranges from definition of vectors and discussion of algebraic operations on vectors to the concept of tensor and algebraic operations on tensors. It also includes a systematic study of the differential and integral calculus of vector and tensor functions of space and time. Worked-out problems and solutions. 1968 edition.
Problems with the Method of Correlated Vectors
Ashton, M.C.; Lee, K.
2005-01-01
The method of correlated vectors has been used widely to identify variables that are associated with general intelligence (g). Briefly, this method involves finding the correlation between the vector of intelligence subtests' g-loadings and the vector of those subtests' correlations with the variable in question. We describe two major problems…
Toward lattice fractional vector calculus
An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity. (papers)
Bacteria as vectors for gene therapy of cancer.
Baban, Chwanrow K
2012-01-31
Anti-cancer therapy faces major challenges, particularly in terms of specificity of treatment. The ideal therapy would eradicate tumor cells selectively with minimum side effects on normal tissue. Gene or cell therapies have emerged as realistic prospects for the treatment of cancer, and involve the delivery of genetic information to a tumor to facilitate the production of therapeutic proteins. However, there is still much to be done before an efficient and safe gene medicine is achieved, primarily developing the means of targeting genes to tumors safely and efficiently. An emerging family of vectors involves bacteria of various genera. It has been shown that bacteria are naturally capable of homing to tumors when systemically administered resulting in high levels of replication locally. Furthermore, invasive species can deliver heterologous genes intra-cellularly for tumor cell expression. Here, we review the use of bacteria as vehicles for gene therapy of cancer, detailing the mechanisms of action and successes at preclinical and clinical levels.
On the Distribution of Norm of Vector Projection and Rejection of Two Complex Normal Random Vectors
Mehdi Maleki
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Vector projection and vector rejection are highly common and useful operations in mathematics, information theory, and signal processing. In this paper, we find the distribution of the norm of projection and rejection vectors when the original vectors are standard complex normally distributed.
Gaussian statistics for palaeomagnetic vectors
Love, J.J.; Constable, C.G.
2003-01-01
With the aim of treating the statistics of palaeomagnetic directions and intensities jointly and consistently, we represent the mean and the variance of palaeomagnetic vectors, at a particular site and of a particular polarity, by a probability density function in a Cartesian three-space of orthogonal magnetic-field components consisting of a single (unimoda) non-zero mean, spherically-symmetrical (isotropic) Gaussian function. For palaeomagnetic data of mixed polarities, we consider a bimodal distribution consisting of a pair of such symmetrical Gaussian functions, with equal, but opposite, means and equal variances. For both the Gaussian and bi-Gaussian distributions, and in the spherical three-space of intensity, inclination, and declination, we obtain analytical expressions for the marginal density functions, the cumulative distributions, and the expected values and variances for each spherical coordinate (including the angle with respect to the axis of symmetry of the distributions). The mathematical expressions for the intensity and off-axis angle are closed-form and especially manageable, with the intensity distribution being Rayleigh-Rician. In the limit of small relative vectorial dispersion, the Gaussian (bi-Gaussian) directional distribution approaches a Fisher (Bingham) distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a normal distribution. In the opposite limit of large relative vectorial dispersion, the directional distributions approach a spherically-uniform distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a Maxwell distribution. We quantify biases in estimating the properties of the vector field resulting from the use of simple arithmetic averages, such as estimates of the intensity or the inclination of the mean vector, or the variances of these quantities. With the statistical framework developed here and using the maximum-likelihood method, which gives unbiased estimates in the limit of large data numbers, we demonstrate how to
Problems and worked solutions in vector analysis
Shorter, LR
2014-01-01
""A handy book like this,"" noted The Mathematical Gazette, ""will fill a great want."" Devoted to fully worked out examples, this unique text constitutes a self-contained introductory course in vector analysis for undergraduate and graduate students of applied mathematics.Opening chapters define vector addition and subtraction, show how to resolve and determine the direction of two or more vectors, and explain systems of coordinates, vector equations of a plane and straight line, relative velocity and acceleration, and infinitely small vectors. The following chapters deal with scalar and vect
Students' Consistency of Graphical Vector Addition Method on 2-D Vector Addition Tasks
Hawkins, Jeffrey M; Wittmann, Michael
2010-01-01
In a series of ten two-dimensional graphical vector addition questions with varying visual representations, most students stuck to a single solution method, be it correct or incorrect. Changes to the visual representation include placing vectors on a grid, making the vectors arrangements symmetric, varying the separation between vectors, and reversing the direction of either vector. We discuss the questions asked of students and their responses, emphasizing the results of one student who did change solution methods during an interview.
Multiscale vector fields for image pattern recognition
Low, Kah-Chan; Coggins, James M.
1990-01-01
A uniform processing framework for low-level vision computing in which a bank of spatial filters maps the image intensity structure at each pixel into an abstract feature space is proposed. Some properties of the filters and the feature space are described. Local orientation is measured by a vector sum in the feature space as follows: each filter's preferred orientation along with the strength of the filter's output determine the orientation and the length of a vector in the feature space; the vectors for all filters are summed to yield a resultant vector for a particular pixel and scale. The orientation of the resultant vector indicates the local orientation, and the magnitude of the vector indicates the strength of the local orientation preference. Limitations of the vector sum method are discussed. Investigations show that the processing framework provides a useful, redundant representation of image structure across orientation and scale.
Vaccine Design: Replication-Defective Adenovirus Vectors.
Zhou, Xiangyang; Xiang, Zhiquan; Ertl, Hildegund C J
2016-01-01
Replication-defective adenovirus (Ad) vectors were initially developed for gene transfer for correction of genetic diseases. Although Ad vectors achieved high levels of transgene product expression in a variety of target cells, expression of therapeutic proteins was found to be transient as vigorous T cell responses directed to components of the vector as well as the transgene product rapidly eliminate Ad vector-transduced cells. This opened the use of Ad vectors as vaccine carriers and by now a multitude of preclinical as well as clinical studies has shown that Ad vectors induce very potent and sustained transgene product-specific T and B cell responses. This chapter provides guidance on developing E1-deleted Ad vectors based on available viral molecular clones. Specifically, it describes methods for cloning, viral rescue and purification as well as quality control studies. PMID:27076309
The vector algebra war: A historical perspective
Chappell, James M; Hartnett, John G; Abbott, Derek
2015-01-01
There are a wide variety of different vector formalisms currently utilized in science. For example, Gibbs three-vectors, spacetime four-vectors, complex spinors for quantum mechanics, quaternions used for rigid body rotations and Clifford multivectors. With such a range of vector formalisms in use, it thus appears that there is as yet no general agreement on a vector formalism suitable for the whole of science. This surprising situation exists today, despite the fact that one of the main goals of nineteenth century science was to correctly describe vectors and the algebra of three-dimensional space. This situation has also had the unfortunate consequence of fragmenting knowledge across many disciplines and requiring a very significant amount of time and effort in learning the different formalisms. We thus review historically the development of our various vector systems and conclude that the Clifford algebra multivector fulfills the goal of correctly describing vectorial quantities in three dimensions.
DBSC-Based Grayscale Line Image Vectorization
Konstantin Melikhov; Feng Tian; Jie Qiu; Quan Chen; Hock Soon Seah
2006-01-01
Vector graphics plays an important role in computer animation and imaging technologies. However present techniques and tools cannot fully replace traditional pencil and paper. Additionally, vector representation of an image is not always available. There is not yet a good solution for vectorizing a picture drawn on a paper. This work attempts to solve the problem of vectorizing grayscale line drawings. The solution proposed uses Disk B-Spline curves to represent strokes of an image in vector form. The algorithm builds a vector representation from a grayscale raster image, which can be a scanned picture for instance. The proposed method uses a Gaussian sliding window to calculate skeleton and perceptive width of a stroke. As a result of vectorization, the given image is represented by a set of Disk B-Spline curves.
Vector meson electroproduction in QCD
Based on the generalized QCD vector meson dominance model, we study the electroproduction of a vector meson off a proton in the QCD inspired eikonalized model. Numerical calculations for the total cross section σtot and differential cross section dσ/dt are performed for ρ, ω and φ meson electroproduction in this paper. Since gluons interact among themselves (self-interaction), two gluons can form a glueball with quantum numbers IG, JPC = 0+, 2++, decay width Γt ≈ 100 MeV, and mass of mG=2.23 GeV. The three gluons can form a three-gluon colorless bound state with charge conjugation quantum number C = -1, called the Odderon. The mediators of interactions between projectiles (the quark and antiquark pair fluctuated from the virtual photon) and the proton target (a three-quark system) are the tensor glueball and the Odderon. Our calculated results in the tensor glueball and Odderon exchange model fit to the existing data successfully, which evidently shows that our present QCD mechanism is a good description of meson electroproduction off a proton. It should be emphasized that our mechanism is different from the theoretical framework of Block et al. We also believe that the present study and its success are important for the investigation of other vector meson electro- and photoproduction at high energies, as well as for searching for new particles such as tensor glueballs and Odderons, which have been predicted by QCD and the color glass condensate model (CGC). Therefore, in return, it can test the validity of QCD and the CGC model. (authors)
Vector meson electroproduction in QCD
LU Juan; CAI Xian-Hao; ZHOU Li-Juan
2012-01-01
Based on the generalized QCD vector meson dominance model,we study the electroproduction of a vector meson off a proton in the QCD inspired eikonalized model.Numerical calculations for the total cross section σtot and differential cross section dσ/dt are performed for p,ω and φ meson electroproduction in this paper.Since gluons interact among themselves (self-interaction),two gluons can form a glueball with quantum numbers IG,JPC =0+,2++,decay width Γt ≈ 100 MeV,and mass of mG=2.23 GeV.The three gluons can form a three-gluon colorless bound state with charge conjugation quantum number C =-1,called the Odderon.The mediators of interactions between projectiles (the quark and antiquark pair fluctuated from the virtual photon) and the proton target (a three-quark system) are the tensor glueball and the Odderon.Our calculated results in the tensor glueball and Odderon exchange model fit to the existing data successfully,which evidently shows that our present QCD mechanism is a good description of meson electroproduction off a proton.It should be emphasized that our mechanism is different from the theoretical framework of Block et al.We also believe that the present study and its success are important for the investigation of other vector meson electro- and photoproduction at high energies,as well as for searching for new particles such as tensor glueballs and Odderons,which have been predicted by QCD and the color glass condensate model (CGC).Therefore,in return,it can test the validity of QCD and the CGC model.
Natural gas: new energy vector?
Energy history has been characterized by a cyclic irruption of energetic paradigms. This situation induces transformations with great economical and social impacts. A new energetic paradigm comes to scene as a result of several simultaneous acting and feedback factors: primary energy availability, technology innovation in energy conversion systems and environmental, economical and social policies even more restrictive. This paper examines the natural gas as a new energy vector in a world context and justifies the natural gas a fundamental component in the world energy matrix for the next decades
The strange axial-vector mesons K1 (1270) and K1 (1400) are reanalyzed in the light of the updated experimental information and compared with the recent result on the Kππ production in τ decay. The mixing angle between the strange mesons of 3P1 and 1P1 is determined by the partial decay rates, and, independently, by the masses. They lead to θK∼33 degree or 57 degree. The observed K1 (1400) production dominance in the τ decay favors θK∼33 degree. Flavor-SU(3) breaking of 20% or so in the production amplitudes can explain quantitatively the observed production ratio
The Vector Valued Quartile Operator
Lacey, Michael T; Parissis, Ioannis
2012-01-01
Certain vector-valued inequalities are shown to hold for a Walsh analog of the bilinear Hilbert transform. These extensions are phrased in terms of a recent notion of quartile type of a UMD (Unconditional Martingale Differences) Banach space X. Every known UMD Banach space has finite quartile type, and it was recently shown that the Walsh analog of Carleson's Theorem holds under a closely related assumption of finite tile type. For a Walsh model of the bilinear Hilbert transform however, the quartile type should be sufficiently close to that of a Hilbert space for our results to hold. A full set of inequalities is quantified in terms of quartile type.
Jet vectoring through nozzle asymmetry
Roh, Chris; Rosakis, Alexandros; Gharib, Morteza
2015-11-01
Previously, we explored the functionality of a tri-leaflet anal valve of a dragonfly larva. We saw that the dragonfly larva is capable of controlling the three leaflets independently to asymmetrically open the nozzle. Such control resulted in vectoring of the jet in various directions. To further understand the effect of asymmetric nozzle orifice, we tested jet flow through circular asymmetric nozzles. We report the relationship between nozzle asymmetry and redirecting of the jet at various Reynolds numbers. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET-1511414; additional support by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144469.
Vector quantization for volume rendering
Ning, Paul; Hesselink, Lambertus
1992-01-01
Volume rendering techniques typically process volumetric data in raw, uncompressed form. As algorithmic and architectural advances improve rendering speeds, however, larger data sets will be evaluated requiring consideration of data storage and transmission issues. In this paper, we analyze the data compression requirements for volume rendering applications and present a solution based on vector quantization. The proposed system compresses volumetric data and then renders images directly from the new data format. Tests on a fluid flow data set demonstrate that good image quality may be achieved at a compression ratio of 17:1 with only a 5 percent cost in additional rendering time.
Development of Teacher-Administered Tests for the SWRL Reading Programs.
Niedermeyer, Fred C.; Sullivan, Howard J.
To investigate the type of classroom testing format most appropriate for the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) Mod 2 Reading Program, three types of teacher-administered tests for the SWRL Second-Year Communication Skills Program were developed and tried out during the 1970-71 school year. The tests were administered by the classroom teacher as…
Nurse administered propofol sedation for pulmonary endoscopies requires a specific protocol
Jensen, Jeppe Thue; Banning, Anne-Marie; Clementsen, Paul; Hammering, Anne; Hornslet, Pernille; Horsted, Tina; Vilmann, Peter
2012-01-01
This study provides an evaluation and risk analysis of propofol sedation for endoscopic pulmonary procedures according to our unit's "gastroenterologic nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) guideline".......This study provides an evaluation and risk analysis of propofol sedation for endoscopic pulmonary procedures according to our unit's "gastroenterologic nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) guideline"....
Current progress of polymeric gene vectors
ZENG Xuan; SUN YunXia; ZHUO RenXi; ZHANG XianZheng
2011-01-01
After over 40 years ot progress,gene therapy provides great opportunities for treating diseases from various genetic disorders,infections and cancers.The success of gene therapy largely depends on the availability of suitable gene vectors.As an attractive alternative to virus-based gene therapy,non-viral gene delivery system has been developed and investigated due to their merits including low immunogenecity,convenient operability,and large-scale manufacturability [1].Because polycations can condense with DNA as a result of electrostatic interactions,form nanosize polyplexes,and protect DNA from degradation by DNase,cationic polymer becomes a major type of non-viral gene delivery vectors (Figure 1) [2].A wide range of polymeric vectors have been developed and investigated in the past decade,such as polyethylenimine (PEI)-based vectors,poly(L-lysine) (PLL)-based vectors,dendrimer-based vectors,polypeptide-based vectors,and chitosan-based vectors [3].However,unlike viral vectors that have the ability to infect host cells and overcome cellular barriers through the course of evolution,nonviral gene vectors exhibit Significantly reduced transfection efficiency as they are obstructed by various extra- and intracellular barriers,including serum proteins in blood stream,cell membrane,endosomal compartment and nuclear membrane [4].
Chtarto, Abdelwahed; Humbert-Claude, Marie; Bockstael, Olivier; Das, Atze T; Boutry, Sébastien; Breger, Ludivine S; Klaver, Bep; Melas, Catherine; Barroso-Chinea, Pedro; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Tomas; Muller, Robert N; DeWitte, Olivier; Levivier, Marc; Lundberg, Cecilia; Berkhout, Ben; Tenenbaum, Liliane
2016-01-01
Preclinical and clinical data stress the importance of pharmacologically-controlling glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) intracerebral administration to treat PD. The main challenge is finding a combination of a genetic switch and a drug which, when administered at a clinically-approved dose, reaches the brain in sufficient amounts to induce a therapeutic effect. We describe a highly-sensitive doxycycline-inducible adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector. This vector allowed for the first time a longitudinal analysis of inducible transgene expression in the brain using bioluminescence imaging. To evaluate the dose range of GDNF biological activity, the inducible AAV vector (8.0 × 109 viral genomes) was injected in the rat striatum at four delivery sites and increasing doxycycline doses administered orally. ERK/Akt signaling activation as well as tyrosine hydroxylase downregulation, a consequence of long-term GDNF treatment, were induced at plasmatic doxycycline concentrations of 140 and 320 ng/ml respectively, which are known not to increase antibiotic-resistant microorganisms in patients. In these conditions, GDNF covered the majority of the striatum. No behavioral abnormalities or weight loss were observed. Motor asymmetry resulting from unilateral GDNF treatment only appeared with a 2.5-fold higher vector and a 13-fold higher inducer doses. Our data suggest that using the herein-described inducible AAV vector, biological effects of GDNF can be obtained in response to sub-antimicrobial doxycycline doses. PMID:27069954
Adam, C; Sanchez-Guillen, J; Wereszczynski, A
2012-01-01
We analyze the vector meson formulation of the BPS Skyrme model in (3+1) dimensions, where the term of sixth power in first derivatives characteristic for the original, integrable BPS Skyrme model (the topological or baryon current squared) is replaced by a coupling between the vector meson $\\omega_\\mu$ and the baryon current. We find that the model remains integrable in the sense of generalized integrability and almost solvable (reducible to a set of two first order ODEs) for any value of the baryon charge. Further, we analyze the appearance of topological solitons for two one-parameter families of one vacuum potentials: the old Skyrme potentials and the so-called BPS potentials. Depending on the value of the parameters we find several qualitatively different possibilities. In the massless case we have a parameter region with no skyrmions, a unique compact skyrmion with a discontinuous first derivative at the boundary (equivalently, with a source term located at the boundary, which screens the topological ch...
Song, Y F; Zhang, H; Zhao, L M; Shen, D Y; Tang, D Y
2016-01-25
We report on the experimental observation of vector and bound vector solitons in a fiber laser passively mode locked by graphene. Localized interactions between vector solitons, vector soliton with bound vector solitons, and vector soliton with a bunch of vector solitons are experimentally investigated. We show that depending on the soliton interactions, various stable and dynamic multiple vector soliton states could be formed. PMID:26832559
Overview of vector sensors for undersea applications
McEachern, James F.
2003-10-01
An overview of vector sensors for sonar applications is presented. The most prolific use of vector or pressure gradient sensors has been in directional sonobuoys to accomplish effective directional measurements with a sensor that is much smaller than the signal wavelength. Common characteristics, implementation issues, and self noise sources of directional hydrophones are reviewed. Arrays of vector sensors began to emerge in the 1980s and have the attractive property of being able to provide substantially higher directivity for a smaller equivalent aperture than that required for a scalar (omnidirectional) sensor array. Dyadic sensors bring additional directivity but development is required to realize them in a compact configuration. Future applications of vector sensors are discussed. The limited amount of information relative to the ocean acoustic vector fields is noted as a corollary technological requirement for the widespread adoption of vector sensors in sonar systems.
A Modified Moist Ageostrophic Q Vector
YUE Caijun; SHOU Shaowen
2008-01-01
The quasi-geostrophic Q vector is an important diagnostic tool for studying development of surface rainfall associated with large-scale weather systems and is calculated using data at single vertical level. When ageostrophic Q vector was introduced, it required data at two vertical levels. In this study, moist ageostrophic Q vector is modified so that it can be calculated using data at a single vertical level. The comparison study between the original and modified moist ageostrophic Q vectors is conducted using the data from 5 to 6 July 1991 during the torrential rainfall event associated with the Changjiang-Huaihe mei-yu front in China. The results reveal that divergences of original and modified moist ageostrophic Q vectors have similar horizontal distributions and their centers are almost located in the precipitation centers. This indicates that modified moist ageostrophic Q vector can be used to diagnose convective development with reasonable accuracy.
The safety and efficacy of an experimental, replication-deficient, human adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype A24 Cruzeiro capsid-based subunit vaccine (AdtA24) was examined in eight independent cattle studies. AdtA24 non-adjuvanted vaccine was administered intramuscularl...
Viral vectors for vascular gene therapy
Fischer, Lukas; Preis, Meir; Weisz, Anat; Koren, Belly; Lewis, Basil S; Flugelman, Moshe Y
2002-01-01
Vascular gene therapy is the focus of multiple experimental and clinical research efforts. While several genes with therapeutic potential have been identified, the best method of gene delivery is unknown. Viral vectors have the capacity to transfer genes at high efficiency rates. Several viral-based vectors have been used in experimental vascular gene therapy for in vivo and ex vivo gene transfer. Adenoviral-based vectors are being used for the induction of angiogenesis in phase 1 and 2 clini...
Transforming Vectors Measured By Noncoaligned Instruments
Ritter, James R.; Dahlstrom, Eric L.
1993-01-01
Method for computing relationships between coordinate axes of two vector-measuring instruments not aligned with each other, one need only measure two nonparallel vectors u and v simultaneously in both coordinate systems. These measurements provide all data needed to compute transformation of any vector from one coordinate system to other. Particularly useful in computing alignments and transformations between accelerometers, gyroscopes, and instruments mounted on platforms subjected to vibrations, thermal strains, and other distortions causing alignments to vary unpredictably with time.
Possible applications for replicating HIV 1 vectors
Das, Atze T.; Jeeninga, Rienk E.; Berkhout, Ben
2010-01-01
Since its discovery some 25 years ago, much has been learned about HIV type 1 and the molecular details of its replication cycle. This insight has been used to develop lentiviral vector systems that have advantages over conventional retroviral vector systems. For safety reasons, the lentiviral vector systems are replication incompetent and the risk of generating a replication competent virus has been minimized. Nevertheless, there may be certain applications for replication competent HIV base...
An Algorithm for Interpolating Ship Motion Vectors
Qinyou Hu; F. Cai; Chun Yang; Chaojian Shi
2014-01-01
Interpolation of ship motion vectors is able to be used for estimating the lost ship AIS dynamic information, which is important for replaying marine accidents and for analysing marine traffic data. The previous methods can only interpolate ship's position, while not including ship's course and speed. In this paper, vector function is used to express the relationship between the ship's time and space coordinates, and the tangent of the vector function and its change rate are able to express p...
Conformal vector fields on Finsler manifolds
Szilasi, József; Tóth, Anna
2011-01-01
Applying concepts and tools from classical tangent bundle geometry and using the apparatus of the calculus along the tangent bundle projection ('pull-back formalism'), first we enrich the known lists of the characterizations of affine vector fields on a spray manifold and conformal vector fields on a Finsler manifold. Second, we deduce consequences on vector fields on the underlying manifold of a Finsler structure having one or two of the mentioned geometric properties.
Mould Calculus for Hamiltonian Vector Fields
Cresson, Jacky; Morin, Guillaume
2008-01-01
We present the general framework of \\'Ecalle's moulds in the case of linearization of a formal vector field without and within resonances. We enlighten the power of moulds by their universality, and calculability. We modify then \\'Ecalle's technique to fit in the seek of a formal normal form of a Hamiltonian vector field in cartesian coordinates. We prove that mould calculus can also produce successive canonical transformations to bring a Hamiltonian vector field into a normal form. We then p...
Integrated epidemiology for vector-borne zoonoses
Wardrop, Nicola
2015-01-01
The development and application of interventions for the control of vector-borne zoonoses requires broad understanding of epidemiological linkages between vector, animal infection and human infection. However, there are significant gaps in our understanding of these linkages and a lack of appropriate data poses a considerable barrier to addressing this issue. A move towards strengthened surveillance of vectors and disease in both animal and human hosts, in combination with linked human-animal...
Discrete least squares approximation with polynomial vectors
Van Barel, Marc; Bultheel, Adhemar
1993-01-01
We give a solution of a discrete least squares approximation problem in terms of orthogonal polynomial vectors. The degrees of the polynomial elements of these vectors can be different. An algorithm is constructed computing the coefficients of recurrence relations for the orthogonal polynomial vectors. In case the function values are prescribed in points on the real line or on the unit circle variants of the original algorithm can be designed which are an order of magnitude more efficient. Al...
Genetic manipulation of endosymbionts to control vector and vector borne diseases
Jay Prakash Gupta
Full Text Available Vector borne diseases (VBD are on the rise because of failure of the existing methods of control of vector and vector borne diseases and the climate change. A steep rise of VBDs are due to several factors like selection of insecticide resistant vector population, drug resistant parasite population and lack of effective vaccines against the VBDs. Environmental pollution, public health hazard and insecticide resistant vector population indicate that the insecticides are no longer a sustainable control method of vector and vector-borne diseases. Amongst the various alternative control strategies, symbiont based approach utilizing endosymbionts of arthropod vectors could be explored to control the vector and vector borne diseases. The endosymbiont population of arthropod vectors could be exploited in different ways viz., as a chemotherapeutic target, vaccine target for the control of vectors. Expression of molecules with antiparasitic activity by genetically transformed symbiotic bacteria of disease-transmitting arthropods may serve as a powerful approach to control certain arthropod-borne diseases. Genetic transformation of symbiotic bacteria of the arthropod vector to alter the vector’s ability to transmit pathogen is an alternative means of blocking the transmission of VBDs. In Indian scenario, where dengue, chikungunya, malaria and filariosis are prevalent, paratransgenic based approach can be used effectively. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 571-576
Pro jective vector fields on Finsler manifolds
TIAN Huang-jia
2014-01-01
In this paper, we give the equation that characterizes projective vector fields on a Finsler manifold by the local coordinate. Moreover, we obtain a feature of the projective fields on the compact Finsler manifold with non-positive flag curvature and the non-existence of projective vector fields on the compact Finsler manifold with negative flag curvature. Furthermore, we deduce some expectable, but non-trivial relationships between geometric vector fields such as projective, affine, conformal, homothetic and Killing vector fields on a Finsler manifold.
Vector (two-dimensional) magnetic phenomena
In this paper, some interesting phenomena were described from the viewpoint of two-dimensional magnetic property, which is reworded with the vector magnetic property. It shows imperfection of conventional magnetic property and some interested phenomena were discovered, too. We found magnetic materials had the strong nonlinearity both magnitude and spatial phase due to the relationship between the magnetic field strength H-vector and the magnetic flux density B-vector. Therefore, magnetic properties should be defined as the vector relationship. Furthermore, the new Barukhausen signal was observed under rotating flux. (Author)
Hermite normal forms and $\\delta$-vector
Hibi, Takayuki; Higashitani, Akihiro; Li, Nan
2010-01-01
Let $\\delta(\\Pc) = (\\delta_0, \\delta_1,..., \\delta_d)$ be the $\\delta$-vector of an integral polytope $\\Pc \\subset \\RR^N$ of dimension $d$. Following the previous work of characterizing the $\\delta$-vectors with $\\sum_{i=0}^d \\delta_i \\leq 3$, the possible $\\delta$-vectors with $\\sum_{i=0}^d \\delta_i = 4$ will be classified. And each possible $\\delta$-vectors can be obtained by simplices. We get this result by studying the problem of classifying the possible integral simplices with a given $\\...
Olfaction in vector-host interactions
Takken, W; Knols, B.G.J.
2010-01-01
This book addresses the topic how blood-feeding arthropods interact with their vertebrate hosts. As the transmission of infectious vector-borne pathogens is much dependent on the contact between vector and host, the efficacy of host location is of profound importance. Interruption of vector-host contact is considered on of the most effective means of vector-borne disease control, as is currently witnessed by the successful use of insecticide-treated bed nets for malaria control in sub-Saharan...
Vector perturbations of galaxy number counts
Durrer, Ruth
2016-01-01
We derive the contribution to relativistic galaxy number count fluctuations from vector and tensor perturbations within linear perturbation theory. Our result is consistent with the the relativistic corrections to number counts due to scalar perturbation, where the Bardeen potentials are replaced with line-of-sight projection of vector and tensor quantities. Since vector and tensor perturbations do not lead to density fluctuations the standard density term in the number counts is absent. We apply our results to vector perturbations which are induced from scalar perturbations at second order and give numerical estimates of their contributions to the power spectrum of relativistic galaxy number counts.
Distribution of rare earths in liver of mice administered with chloride compounds of 12 rare earths
Full text: Rare earths are used in high technology field, however, the information on their biological effects are not sufficient. The behaviour of rare earths in biology is of interest in connection with their toxicity. In the present study, the distribution of rare earths in liver of mice administered with these elements was investigated. The effects on Ca and other biological essential elements were also determined. Male mice (5 weeks old) were injected with one of 12 kinds of rare earths (chlorides of Y, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Yb) at the dose of 25 mg/KXg body weight. After 20 hours of administration, mice were sacrificed, then liver and other organs were taken out. Liver was homogenized and separated by centrifugation. The concentrations of rare earths administered were measured by microwave-induced plasma-mass spectrometry (MIP-MS) after acid digestion. The concentrations of administered elements in whole liver were about 100μg/g (wet weight), where the difference between elements was few. Distribution amounts of elements administered in four fractions were following order; 700μg precipitate > mitocondrial fraction > microsomal fraction > cytosol. The relative contents in these fractions, however, was different depending on the element administered. Calcium concentrations in liver of administered mice were higher than those of control mice. Increase of Ca concentrations were observed in all four fractions and the increase ratio was also dependent on the elements administered
Chuan-Ren Chen
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Even though the sensitivity of direct dark matter search experiments reaches the level of about 10−45 cm2, no confident signal of dark matter has been observed. We point out that, if dark matter is a vector boson, the null result in direct dark matter search experiments may be due to the destructive effects in dark-matter–nucleon elastic scattering. We illustrate the scenario using a modified Higgs portal model that includes exotic quarks. The significant cancellation can occur for a certain mass gap between new heavy quark and dark matter. As a result, the spin-independent dark-matter–nucleon elastic scattering is so suppressed that the future direct search experiments will hardly observe the signal of dark matter.
Vector Boson Scattering at ATLAS
Ozcan, V E
2009-01-01
While the Higgs model is the best studied scenario of electroweak symmetry breaking, there is no fundamental reason for the physics responsible for the symmetry breaking to be weakly-coupled. Many alternatives exist, predicting highly model-dependent signatures. By measuring the cross-section for the W and Z scattering at the LHC, it will be possible to obtain model-independent evidence for strong symmetry breaking or to constrain these various models. ATLAS Collaboration has recently performed a realistic simulation of this process and its backgrounds, which takes into account the detector effects and has developed new jet-analysis techniques for identifying vector bosons within the immense QCD backgrounds expected at the LHC. These techniques and the prospects for measuring the scattering signal will be presented.
Differentially Private Support Vector Machines
Sarwate, Anand; Monteleoni, Claire
2009-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of practical privacy-preserving machine learning: how to detect patterns in massive, real-world databases of sensitive personal information, while maintaining the privacy of individuals. Chaudhuri and Monteleoni (2008) recently provided privacy-preserving techniques for learning linear separators via regularized logistic regression. With the goal of handling large databases that may not be linearly separable, we provide privacy-preserving support vector machine algorithms. We address general challenges left open by past work, such as how to release a kernel classifier without releasing any of the training data, and how to tune algorithm parameters in a privacy-preserving manner. We provide general, efficient algorithms for linear and nonlinear kernel SVMs, which guarantee $\\epsilon$-differential privacy, a very strong privacy definition due to Dwork et al. (2006). We also provide learning generalization guarantees. Empirical evaluations reveal promising performance on real and...
Grieger, Joshua C; Soltys, Stephen M; Samulski, Richard Jude
2016-02-01
neuropathy (scAAV9), and retinitis pigmentosa (AAV2), which have been administered into patients. In addition, we report a minimum of a fivefold increase in overall vector production by implementing a perfusion method that entails harvesting rAAV from the culture media at numerous time-points post-transfection. PMID:26437810
Probing deformed orbitals with vector A( vector e, e' N)B reactions
We present results for response functions and asymmetries in the nuclear reactions 37 vector Ar( vector e, e' n)36Ar and 37 vector K( vector e,e' p)36Ar at quasifree kinematics. We compare PWIA results obtained using deformed HF wave functions with PWIA and DWIA results obtained assuming a spherical mean field. We show that the complex structure of the deformed orbitals can be probed by coincidence measurements with polarized beam and targets. ((orig.))
Zhang, Jianfeng; Jex, Edward; Feng, Tsungwei; Sivko, Gloria S.; Baillie, Leslie W.; Goldman, Stanley; Van Kampen, Kent R; Tang, De-chu C.
2013-01-01
Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, and its spores have been developed into lethal bioweapons. To mitigate an onslaught from airborne anthrax spores that are maliciously disseminated, it is of paramount importance to develop a rapid-response anthrax vaccine that can be mass administered by nonmedical personnel during a crisis. We report here that intranasal instillation of a nonreplicating adenovirus vector encoding B. anthracis protective antigen could confer rapid and sust...
Goodman, Anna L.; Blagborough, Andrew M.; Sumi Biswas; Yimin Wu; Hill, Adrian V.; Sinden, Robert E.; Draper, Simon J
2011-01-01
The ookinete surface protein Pfs25 is a macrogamete-to-ookinete/ookinete stage antigen of Plasmodium falciparum, capable of exerting high-level anti-malarial transmission-blocking activity following immunization with recombinant protein-in-adjuvant formulations. Here, this antigen was expressed in recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63), human adenovirus serotype 5 (AdHu5) and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) viral vectored vaccines. Two immunizations were administered to mice in a ...
Santosuosso, Michael; McCormick, Sarah; Zhang, Xizhong; Zganiacz, Anna; Xing, Zhou
2006-01-01
Parenterally administered Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine confers only limited immune protection from pulmonary tuberculosis in humans. There is a need for developing effective boosting vaccination strategies. We examined a heterologous prime-boost regimen utilizing BCG as a prime vaccine and our recently described adenoviral vector expressing Ag85A (AdAg85A) as a boost vaccine. Since we recently demonstrated that a single intranasal but not intramuscular immunization with AdAg85A was able to...
Open-label, multicenter study of self-administered icatibant for attacks of hereditary angioedema
Aberer, W; Maurer, M; Reshef, A; Longhurst, H; Kivity, S; Bygum, Anette; Caballero, T; Bloom, B; Nair, N; Malbrán, A
2014-01-01
Historically, treatment for hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks has been administered by healthcare professionals (HCPs). Patient self-administration could reduce delays between symptom onset and treatment, and attack burden. The primary objective was to assess the safety of self...
Deep Support Vector Machines for Regression Problems
Wiering, Marco; Schutten, Marten; Millea, Adrian; Meijster, Arnold; Schomaker, Lambertus
2013-01-01
In this paper we describe a novel extension of the support vector machine, called the deep support vector machine (DSVM). The original SVM has a single layer with kernel functions and is therefore a shallow model. The DSVM can use an arbitrary number of layers, in which lower-level layers contain su
Partitioning Hadamard vectors into Hadamard matrices
Casazza, Peter G.; Tremain, Janet C.
2016-01-01
We will show that in a space of dimension $m$, any family of $2^{m-1}$ distinct Hadamard vectors (where you can choose x or -x but not both) can be partitioned into Hadamard matrices if and only if $m=2^n$ for some n. We will solve this problem with a simple algorithm for assigning the vectors to the Hadamard matrices.
Application of Vectors to Relative Velocity
Tin-Lam, Toh
2004-01-01
The topic 'relative velocity' has recently been introduced into the Cambridge Ordinary Level Additional Mathematics syllabus under the application of Vectors. In this note, the results of relative velocity and the 'reduction to rest' technique of teaching relative velocity are derived mathematically from vector algebra, in the hope of providing…
Vector particles tunneling from BTZ black holes
Chen, Ge-Rui; Huang, Yong-Chang
2014-01-01
In this paper we investigate vector particles' Hawking radiation from a BTZ black hole. By applying the WKB approximation and the Hamilton-Jacobi Ansatz to the Proca equation, we obtain the tunneling spectrum of vector particles. The expected Hawking temperature is recovered.
Vector particles tunneling from BTZ black holes
Chen, Ge-Rui; Zhou, Shiwei; Huang, Yong-Chang
2015-11-01
In this paper we investigate vector particles' Hawking radiation from a Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole. By applying the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation and the Hamilton-Jacobi ansatz to the Proca equation, we obtain the tunneling spectrum of vector particles. The expected Hawking temperature is recovered.
Vector-Quantization using Information Theoretic Concepts
Lehn-Schiøler, Tue; Hegde, Anant; Erdogmus, Deniz;
2005-01-01
The process of representing a large data set with a smaller number of vectors in the best possible way, also known as vector quantization, has been intensively studied in the recent years. Very efficient algorithms like the Kohonen Self Organizing Map (SOM) and the Linde Buzo Gray (LBG) algorithm...
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vectors. 240.206 Section 240.206 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.206 Vectors....
Clustering Categories in Support Vector Machines
Carrizosa, Emilio; Nogales-Gómez, Amaya; Morales, Dolores Romero
2016-01-01
The support vector machine (SVM) is a state-of-the-art method in supervised classification. In this paper the Cluster Support Vector Machine (CLSVM) methodology is proposed with the aim to increase the sparsity of the SVM classifier in the presence of categorical features, leading to a gain in...
CLASSIFICATION OF CUBIC PARAMETERIZED HOMOGENEOUS VECTOR FIELDS
Karnal H.Yasir; TANG Yun
2002-01-01
In this paper the cubic homogeneous parameterized vector fields are studied.The classification of the phase portrait near the critical point is presented. This classification is an extension of the result given by Takens to the cubic homogeneous parameterized vector fields with six parameters.
CLASSIFICATION OF CUBIC PARAMETERIZED HOMOGENEOUS VECTOR FIELDS
KamalH.Yasir; TNAGYun
2002-01-01
In this paper the cubic homogeneous parameterized vector fields are studied.The classification of the phase portrait near the critical point is presented.This classification is an extension of the result given by takens to the cubic homogeneous parameterized vector fields with six parameters.
Nonlinear dynamics of a vectored thrust aircraft
Sørensen, C.B; Mosekilde, Erik
1996-01-01
With realistic relations for the aerodynamic coefficients, numerical simulations are applied to study the longitudional dynamics of a thrust vectored aircraft. As function of the thrust magnitude and the thrust vectoring angle the equilibrium state exhibits two saddle-node bifurcations and three...
Successful vectorization - reactor physics Monte Carlo code
Most particle transport Monte Carlo codes in use today are based on the ''history-based'' algorithm, wherein one particle history at a time is simulated. Unfortunately, the ''history-based'' approach (present in all Monte Carlo codes until recent years) is inherently scalar and cannot be vectorized. In particular, the history-based algorithm cannot take advantage of vector architectures, which characterize the largest and fastest computers at the current time, vector supercomputers such as the Cray X/MP or IBM 3090/600. However, substantial progress has been made in recent years in developing and implementing a vectorized Monte Carlo algorithm. This algorithm follows portions of many particle histories at the same time and forms the basis for all successful vectorized Monte Carlo codes that are in use today. This paper describes the basic vectorized algorithm along with descriptions of several variations that have been developed by different researchers for specific applications. These applications have been mainly in the areas of neutron transport in nuclear reactor and shielding analysis and photon transport in fusion plasmas. The relative merits of the various approach schemes will be discussed and the present status of known vectorization efforts will be summarized along with available timing results, including results from the successful vectorization of 3-D general geometry, continuous energy Monte Carlo. (orig.)
Vector optimization with cone semilocally preinvex functions
Surjeet Kaur Suneja
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we introduce cone semilocally preinvex, cone semilocally quasi preinvex and cone semilocally pseudo preinvex functions and study their properties. These functions are further used to establish necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for a vector minimization problem over cones. A Mond-Weir type dual is formulated for the vector optimization problem and various duality theorems are proved.
Vector Knowledge of Beginning Physics Students.
Knight, Randall D.
1995-01-01
Presents the Vector Knowledge Test that was designed to see if beginning physics students possess the minimal basic knowledge of vectors that will allow them to proceed with a study of Newtonian mechanics. Concludes that only one-third of the students in a calculus-based introductory course at California Polytechnic had sufficient vector…
Vector fields and differential operators: noncommutative case
A notion of Cartan pairs as an analogy of vector fields in the realm of noncommutative geometry has been proposed previously. In this paper an outline is given of the construction of a noncommutative analogy of the algebra of differential operators as well as its (algebraic) Fock space realization. Co-universal vector fields and covariant derivatives will also be discussed
Increasing the Efficacy of Oncolytic Adenovirus Vectors
William S. M. Wold
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Oncolytic adenovirus (Ad vectors present a new modality to treat cancer. These vectors attack tumors via replicating in and killing cancer cells. Upon completion of the vector replication cycle, the infected tumor cell lyses and releases progeny virions that are capable of infecting neighboring tumor cells. Repeated cycles of vector replication and cell lysis can destroy the tumor. Numerous Ad vectors have been generated and tested, some of them reaching human clinical trials. In 2005, the first oncolytic Ad was approved for the treatment of head-and-neck cancer by the Chinese FDA. Oncolytic Ads have been proven to be safe, with no serious adverse effects reported even when high doses of the vector were injected intravenously. The vectors demonstrated modest anti-tumor effect when applied as a single agent; their efficacy improved when they were combined with another modality. The efficacy of oncolytic Ads can be improved using various approaches, including vector design, delivery techniques, and ancillary treatment, which will be discussed in this review.
Clifford Fourier transform on vector fields.
Ebling, Julia; Scheuermann, Gerik
2005-01-01
Image processing and computer vision have robust methods for feature extraction and the computation of derivatives of scalar fields. Furthermore, interpolation and the effects of applying a filter can be analyzed in detail and can be advantages when applying these methods to vector fields to obtain a solid theoretical basis for feature extraction. We recently introduced the Clifford convolution, which is an extension of the classical convolution on scalar fields and provides a unified notation for the convolution of scalar and vector fields. It has attractive geometric properties that allow pattern matching on vector fields. In image processing, the convolution and the Fourier transform operators are closely related by the convolution theorem and, in this paper, we extend the Fourier transform to include general elements of Clifford Algebra, called multivectors, including scalars and vectors. The resulting convolution and derivative theorems are extensions of those for convolution and the Fourier transform on scalar fields. The Clifford Fourier transform allows a frequency analysis of vector fields and the behavior of vector-valued filters. In frequency space, vectors are transformed into general multivectors of the Clifford Algebra. Many basic vector-valued patterns, such as source, sink, saddle points, and potential vortices, can be described by a few multivectors in frequency space. PMID:16138556
Symmetric Distributions for Dependent Unit Vectors
Rivest, Louis-Paul
1984-01-01
This paper introduces several notions of symmetry for the joint distribution of two dependent unit vectors. Bivariate generalizations of $\\mathscr{L}$-symmetry (Rivest, 1984) and rotational symmetry are introduced. If the joint distribution of two unit vectors is at least $\\mathscr{L}$-symmetric the information matrix for the parameters indexing it is shown to have a simple shape.
Nonlinear dynamics of a vectored thrust aircraft
Sørensen, C.B; Mosekilde, Erik
With realistic relations for the aerodynamic coefficients, numerical simulations are applied to study the longitudional dynamics of a thrust vectored aircraft. As function of the thrust magnitude and the thrust vectoring angle the equilibrium state exhibits two saddle-node bifurcations and three...
Psychological sources of response effects in self-administered and telephone surveys
Schwarz, Norbert; Bishop, George F.; Hippler, Hans-J.; Strack, Fritz
1989-01-01
The impact of mode of data collection (self-administered questionnaire vs. telephone interview) on the emergence of response effects and the accuracy of recall from memory was explored in a cross-cultural experiment, conducted in the U.S. and the Federal Republic of Germany. As predicted on the basis of psychological considerations, question order effects were obtained under telephone interview conditions but not under self-administered conditions, where question order is eliminated by the op...
Metrological aspects in the estimate of the administered activity in nuclear medicine patients
In order to investigate the performance quality of routine measurements of Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS), the National Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation/Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (LNMRI/IRD) has been conducting, since 1998, a program of comparison for activity measurements of radiopharmaceuticals administered to patients in nuclear medicine. Correction factors are determined from the result of performance analysis in order to determine with better accuracy the activity to be administered to the patients. (author)
Beckner, Victoria; Howard, Isa; Vella, Lea; Mohr, David C.
2009-01-01
Depression is common in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). While psychotherapy is an effective treatment for depression, not all individuals benefit. We examined whether baseline social support might differentially affect treatment outcome in 127 participants with MS and depression randomized to either Telephone-administered Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (T-CBT) or Telephone-administered Emotion-Focused Therapy (T-EFT). We predicted that those with low social support would improve more ...
Dose Dependence of the Anticoagulant Effect of Intravenously Administered Cellulose Sulfate.
Drozd, N N; Kuznetsova, S A; Kalinina, T B; Vasilieva, N Yu
2016-04-01
Experiments on rabbits showed that increasing the dose of intravenously administered cellulose sulfate from wheat straw (dynamic viscosity 3.4 cP, sulfur content 14.1%) increased plasma clotting time in some coagulation tests and plasma anticoagulant activity. When cellulose sulfate was administered in the dose of 1 mg/kg, plasma clotting time in the presence of the anticoagulant (5 min after administration) was ~3-fold higher than after saline administration. PMID:27165079
Segmentation and texture representation with vector quantizers
Yuan, Li; Barba, Joseph
1990-11-01
An algorithm for segmentation of cell images and the extraction of texture textons based on vector quantization is presented. Initially a few low dimensional code vectors are employed in a standard vector quantization algorithm to generate a coarse code book a procedure which is equivalent to histogram sharpening. Representative gray level value from each coarse code vector are used to construct a larger fine code book. Coding the original image with the fine code book produces a less distorted image and facilitates cell and nuclear extraction. Texture textons are extracted by application of the same algorithm to the cell area using a larger number of initial code vectors and fine code book. Applications of the algorithm to cytological specimen are presented.
Copyright protection for GIS vector data production
Li, A.; Zhou, W.; Lin, B.; Chen, Y.
2008-10-01
Limited by the characters of GIS vector data, such as variety and complexity of expression, universality, mass, disorder and pretty good privacy, etc., the traditional copyright protection methods for image and audio productions cannot be applied into GIS vector data productions directly. In this paper, a solution to copyright protection of GIS vector data productions is proposed. Firstly, information characteristics, data organization and storage characteristics and attack characteristics of GIS vector data are comprehensively analyzed. Secondly, based on hash, file filter driver, dynamic encryption and decryption, the key techniques including zero-watermarking generation, access control, and data content protection are described. Finally, a copyright protection frame of GIS vector data is put forward.
Vectorization of nuclear codes 88-1
In this report, we describe the vectorization of thermal reactor standard neutronics code system SRAC, three dimensional neutron diffusion code CITATION, two dimensional discrete ordinates transport code TWOTRAN-II, multi-dimensional core burn-up calculation code COREBN, two and three dimensional neutron diffusion code CITATION-FBR. CITATION code, TWOTRAN code, collision probability method code PIJ in SRAC system are also vectorized. The performance ratio of the vectorized version to the original one is from 1.8 to 8.6 for SRC, from 2.3 to 10.1 for CITATION, 4.2 for TWOTRAN-II, from 2.9 to 10.4 for COREBN, from 3.9 to 13.3 for CITATION-FBR. In this report, we describe sample input data, summary of the codes, vectorization techniques and performance evaluation of the vectorized codes. (author)
Axial Vector $Z'$ and Anomaly Cancellation
Ismail, Ahmed; Tsao, Kuo-Hsing; Unwin, James
2016-01-01
Whilst the prospect of new $Z'$ gauge bosons with only axial couplings to the Standard Model (SM) fermions is widely discussed, examples of anomaly-free renormalisable models are lacking in the literature. We look to remedy this by constructing several motivated examples. Specifically, we consider axial vectors which couple universally to all SM fermions, as well as those which are generation-specific, leptophilic, and leptophobic. Anomaly cancellation typically requires the presence of new coloured and charged chiral fermions, and we argue that the masses of these new states must generally be comparable to that of the axial vector. Finally, an axial vector mediator could provide a portal between SM and hidden sector states, and we also consider the possibility that the axial vector couples to dark matter. If the dark matter relic density is set due to freeze-out via the axial vector, this strongly constrains the parameter space.
Cascade Support Vector Machines with Dimensionality Reduction
Oliver Kramer
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Cascade support vector machines have been introduced as extension of classic support vector machines that allow a fast training on large data sets. In this work, we combine cascade support vector machines with dimensionality reduction based preprocessing. The cascade principle allows fast learning based on the division of the training set into subsets and the union of cascade learning results based on support vectors in each cascade level. The combination with dimensionality reduction as preprocessing results in a significant speedup, often without loss of classifier accuracies, while considering the high-dimensional pendants of the low-dimensional support vectors in each new cascade level. We analyze and compare various instantiations of dimensionality reduction preprocessing and cascade SVMs with principal component analysis, locally linear embedding, and isometric mapping. The experimental analysis on various artificial and real-world benchmark problems includes various cascade specific parameters like intermediate training set sizes and dimensionalities.
Percutaneous Vaccination as an Effective Method of Delivery of MVA and MVA-Vectored Vaccines.
Clement A Meseda
Full Text Available The robustness of immune responses to an antigen could be dictated by the route of vaccine inoculation. Traditional smallpox vaccines, essentially vaccinia virus strains, that were used in the eradication of smallpox were administered by percutaneous inoculation (skin scarification. The modified vaccinia virus Ankara is licensed as a smallpox vaccine in Europe and Canada and currently undergoing clinical development in the United States. MVA is also being investigated as a vector for the delivery of heterologous genes for prophylactic or therapeutic immunization. Since MVA is replication-deficient, MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines are often inoculated through the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes. Vaccine inoculation via the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes requires the use of injection needles, and an estimated 10 to 20% of the population of the United States has needle phobia. Following an observation in our laboratory that a replication-deficient recombinant vaccinia virus derived from the New York City Board of Health strain elicited protective immune responses in a mouse model upon inoculation by tail scarification, we investigated whether MVA and MVA recombinants can elicit protective responses following percutaneous administration in mouse models. Our data suggest that MVA administered by percutaneous inoculation, elicited vaccinia-specific antibody responses, and protected mice from lethal vaccinia virus challenge, at levels comparable to or better than subcutaneous or intramuscular inoculation. High titers of specific neutralizing antibodies were elicited in mice inoculated with a recombinant MVA expressing the herpes simplex type 2 glycoprotein D after scarification. Similarly, a recombinant MVA expressing the hemagglutinin of attenuated influenza virus rgA/Viet Nam/1203/2004 (H5N1 elicited protective immune responses when administered at low doses by scarification. Taken together, our data suggest that
Present status of medical study on thorotrast-administered patients in Japan
Three-fourths of all thorotrast-administered cases in Japan was warwounded ex-servicemen and their dates of thorotrast injections were concentrated between 1932 and 1945. An epidemiological follow-up study on 147 thorotrast-administered warwounded ex-servicemen whose protocols, contained records of thorotrast-administration, were kept at four former military hospitals, was initiated in 1963. At the end of 1983 the total number of their protocols discovered has increased to 282. On December 31, 1983, the authors found 50 malignant hepatic tumors, 25 other malignant tumors, 16 liver cirrhosis, and 4 blood diseases in 261 intravascularly thorotrast-administered cases. In the remaining 21 cases who had been given thorotrast by the route other than intravascularly, no significant difference was observed in the incidence of any diseases when compared with the controls. In 270 throtrast-administered autopsy cases reported during 1945-1983, 267 had been injected with thorotrast intravascularly and the remaining 3 had been given by other routes. Of the 267 intravascularly thorotrast-administered autopsy cases, 180 were malignant hepatic tumors, 20 liver cirrhosis, 16 leukemias, 5 aplastic anemias, 5 lung cancers, 3 sarcomas of thorotrast injected site, 2 metholiomas, 1 hemangioendothelioma of the spleen, 1 malignant lymphoma, and 1 osteosarcoma. The dosimetry of 96 intravascularly thorotrast-administered autopsy cases was performed for an estimate of the absorbed dose of critical organs, such as the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. (orig./MG)
The present investigation sought to determine whether a self-administered questionnaire could be used to obtain occupational information from pregnant women attending the obstetrical clinics at the University of California, San Francisco from July to November 1986. The authors compared the accuracy of responses of 57 women on the self-administered questionnaire with those obtained on a detailed clinical interview by an occupational health professional. The self-administered questionnaire and the clinical interview included information on the woman's job title, the type of company she worked for, the level of physical activity, her exposures on the job and at home, and her partner's occupation. The authors also examined whether the validity of the self-administered questionnaire could be improved on review by an industrial hygienist. The questionnaire took less than 20 minutes to complete, with over 90% of the women answering three-quarters of it. It was substantially accurate in obtaining information on number of hours worked during pregnancy, type of shift worked, and stress level in the workplace; exposure to radiation, video display terminals, fumes, gases, and cigarette smoke in the workplace; and exposure to pesticides, paint, and cigarette smoke at home. On those variables for which the responses on the self-administered questionnaire were less accurate, review by the industrial hygienist improved the level of accuracy considerably. These findings suggest that a self-administered questionnaire can be used to obtain valid information from pregnant women attending a prenatal clinic
Flotte, Terence R
2011-10-01
Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors offer promise for the gene therapy of α(1)-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. In our prior trial, an rAAV vector expressing human AAT (rAAV1-CB-hAAT) provided sustained, vector-derived AAT expression for >1 year. In the current phase 2 clinical trial, this same vector, produced by a herpes simplex virus complementation method, was administered to nine AAT-deficient individuals by intramuscular injection at doses of 6.0×10(11), 1.9×10(12), and 6.0×10(12) vector genomes\\/kg (n=3 subjects\\/dose). Vector-derived expression of normal (M-type) AAT in serum was dose dependent, peaked on day 30, and persisted for at least 90 days. Vector administration was well tolerated, with only mild injection site reactions and no serious adverse events. Serum creatine kinase was transiently elevated on day 30 in five of six subjects in the two higher dose groups and normalized by day 45. As expected, all subjects developed anti-AAV antibodies and interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot responses to AAV peptides, and no subjects developed antibodies to AAT. One subject in the mid-dose group developed T cell responses to a single AAT peptide unassociated with any clinical effects. Muscle biopsies obtained on day 90 showed strong immunostaining for AAT and moderate to marked inflammatory cell infiltrates composed primarily of CD3-reactive T lymphocytes that were primarily of the CD8(+) subtype. These results support the feasibility and safety of AAV gene therapy for AAT deficiency, and indicate that serum levels of vector-derived normal human AAT >20 μg\\/ml can be achieved. However, further improvements in the design or delivery of rAAV-AAT vectors will be required to achieve therapeutic target serum AAT concentrations.
The Geometry of Tangent Bundles: Canonical Vector Fields
Tongzhu Li
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A canonical vector field on the tangent bundle is a vector field defined by an invariant coordinate construction. In this paper, a complete classification of canonical vector fields on tangent bundles, depending on vector fields defined on their bases, is obtained. It is shown that every canonical vector field is a linear combination with constant coefficients of three vector fields: the variational vector field (canonical lift, the Liouville vector field, and the vertical lift of a vector field on the base of the tangent bundle.
Sparse Signal Recovery in the Presence of Intra-Vector and Inter-Vector Correlation
Rao, Bhaskar D; Jin, Yuzhe
2012-01-01
This work discusses the problem of sparse signal recovery when there is correlation among the values of non-zero entries. We examine intra-vector correlation in the context of the block sparse model and inter-vector correlation in the context of the multiple measurement vector model, as well as their combination. Algorithms based on the sparse Bayesian learning are presented and the benefits of incorporating correlation at the algorithm level are discussed. The impact of correlation on the limits of support recovery is also discussed highlighting the different impact intra-vector and inter-vector correlations have on such limits.
Protective avian influenza in ovo vaccination with non-replicating human adenovirus vector.
Toro, Haroldo; Tang, De-chu C; Suarez, David L; Sylte, Matt J; Pfeiffer, Jennifer; Van Kampen, Kent R
2007-04-12
Protective immunity against avian influenza virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose in ovo vaccination with a non-replicating human adenovirus vector encoding an H5N9 avian influenza virus hemagglutinin. Vaccinated chickens were protected against both H5N1 (89% hemagglutinin homology; 68% protection) and H5N2 (94% hemagglutinin homology; 100% protection) highly pathogenic avian influenza virus challenges. This vaccine can be mass-administered using available robotic in ovo injectors which provide a major advantage over current vaccination regimens. In addition, this class of adenovirus-vectored vaccines can be produced rapidly with improved safety since they do not contain any replication-competent adenoviruses. Furthermore, this mode of vaccination is compatible with epidemiological surveys of natural avian influenza virus infections. PMID:17055126
O' Brien, Lyn M., E-mail: lmobrien@dstl.gov.uk; Goodchild, Sarah A.; Phillpotts, Robert J.; Perkins, Stuart D.
2012-05-10
Currently there are no licensed antiviral treatments for the Alphaviruses Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), Everglades virus and Mucambo virus. We previously developed a humanised version of the mouse monoclonal antibody 1A3B-7 (Hu1A3B-7) which exhibited a wide range of reactivity in vitro and was able to protect mice from infection with VEEV. Continued work with the humanised antibody has now demonstrated that it has the potential to be a new human therapeutic. Hu1A3B-7 successfully protected mice from infection with multiple Alphaviruses. The effectiveness of the humanisation process was determined by assessing proliferation responses in human T-cells to peptides derived from the murine and humanised versions of the V{sub H} and V{sub L} domains. This analysis showed that the number of human T-cell epitopes within the humanised antibody had been substantially reduced, indicating that Hu1A3B-7 may have reduced immunogenicity in vivo.
GRASS GIS Vector Processing: Towards GRASS 7
Metz, Markus; Landa, Martin; Petrasova, Anna; Petras, Vaclav; Chemin, Yann; Neteler, Markus
2014-05-01
The upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release improves not only raster processing and general design but the vector processing in the first place. GRASS GIS, as a topological GIS, recognizes that the topology plays the key role in the vector processing and analysis. Topology ensures that adjacent geographic components in a single vector map are related. In contrast to non-topological GIS, a border common to two areas exists only once and is shared between the two areas. Topological representation of vector data helps to produce and maintain vector maps with clean geometry as well as enables the user to perform certain analyses that can not be conducted with non-topological or spaghetti data. Non-topological vector data are automatically converted to a topological representation upon import. Further more, various cleaning tools exist to remove non-trivial topological errors. In the upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release the vector library was particularly improved to make it faster and more efficient with an improved internal vector file format. This new topological format reduces memory and disk space requirements, leading to a generally faster processing. Opening an existing vector requires less memory providing additionally support for large files. The new spatial index performs queries faster (compared to GRASS GIS 6 more than 10 times for large vectors). As a new option the user can select a file-based version of the spatial index for large vector data. All topological cleaning tools have been optimized with regard to processing speed, robustness, and system requirements. The topological engine comes with a new prototype for direct read/write support of Simple Features API/OGR. Additionally vector data can be directly exchanged with topological PostGIS 2 databases. Considering the wide spread usage of ESRI Shapefile, a non-topological format for vector data exchange, it is particularly advantageous that GRASS GIS 7 offers advanced cleaning tools. For power users and programmers, the
Maassen, C.B.M.; Holten-Neelen, C. van; Balk, F.; Bak-Glashouwer, M.-J.H. den; Leer, R.J.; Laman, J.D.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Claassen, E.
2000-01-01
Different Lactobacillus strains are frequently used in consumer food products. In addition, recombinant lactobacilli which contain novel expression vectors can now be used in immunotherapeutic applications such as oral vaccination strategies and in T cell tolerance induction approaches for autoimmun
Montano-Pedroso, Juan Carlos; Garcia, Elvio Bueno; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Ferreira, Lydia Masako
2016-01-01
Background Anaemia and iron deficiency are common complications following post-bariatric abdominoplasty. Given the low oral absorbability of iron resulting from bariatric surgery, it has been hypothesised that postoperative intravenously administered iron supplementation could be used to treat anaemia and to prevent the development of iron deficiency in these patients. Methods/Design In this multicentre open-label randomised clinical trial, 56 adult women undergoing post-bariatric anchor-line...
Zimmerman, Thea Palmer; Hull, Stephen G.; McNutt, Suzanne; Mittl, Beth; Islam, Noemi; Guenther, Patricia M.; Thompson, Frances E; Potischman, Nancy A.; Subar, Amy F.
2009-01-01
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is developing an automated, self-administered 24-hour dietary recall (ASA24) application to collect and code dietary intake data. The goal of the ASA24 development is to create a web-based dietary interview based on the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM) instrument currently used in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The ASA24 food list, detail probes, and portion probes were drawn from the ...
Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro
2014-12-01
In this article we compare students' understanding of vector concepts in problems with no physical context, and with three mechanics contexts: force, velocity, and work. Based on our "Test of Understanding of Vectors," a multiple-choice test presented elsewhere, we designed two isomorphic shorter versions of 12 items each: a test with no physical context, and a test with mechanics contexts. For this study, we administered the items twice to students who were finishing an introductory mechanics course at a large private university in Mexico. The first time, we administered the two 12-item tests to 608 students. In the second, we only tested the items for which we had found differences in students' performances that were difficult to explain, and in this case, we asked them to show their reasoning in written form. In the first administration, we detected no significant difference between the medians obtained in the tests; however, we did identify significant differences in some of the items. For each item we analyze the type of difference found between the tests in the selection of the correct answer, the most common error on each of the tests, and the differences in the selection of incorrect answers. We also investigate the causes of the different context effects. Based on these analyses, we establish specific recommendations for the instruction of vector concepts in an introductory mechanics course. In the Supplemental Material we include both tests for other researchers studying vector learning, and for physics teachers who teach this material.
Chiappini, Ciro [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, Austin, TX, 78712 (United States); Tasciotti, Ennio; Serda, Rita E.; Brousseau, Lou; Liu, Xuewu [Department of Nanomedicine and Biomedical Engineering, Mehtodist Hospital Research Institute, 6565 Fannin Street, Houston, TX, 77030 (United States); Ferrari, M. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, Austin, TX, 78712 (United States); Department of Nanomedicine and Biomedical Engineering, Mehtodist Hospital Research Institute, 6565 Fannin Street, Houston, TX, 77030 (United States); Department of Experimental Therapeutics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX (United States)
2011-06-15
Porous silicon is an attractive biomaterial for drug delivery thanks to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, ease of fabrication, tunable nanostructure, and porous network. Herein we briefly present the development of a multi-stage delivery vector that leverages these advantages to enhance delivery of systemically administered therapeutic agents. We illustrate the rational design, objective-oriented fabrication and geometric control of first stage porous silicon microparticles. We describe how geometry affects the biodistribution of first stage vectors and how their porous structure affects the loading and release of second stage theranostic payloads. We describe the mechanism of cellular internalization and intracellular trafficking of particles. Finally we present two multi-stage vector prototypes for the delivery of magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents and small interfering RNA (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
The Representation of a Broadband Vector Field
Qunyan Ren; Jean Pierre Hermand; Shengchun Piao
2011-01-01
Compared to a scalar pressure sensor,a vector sensor can provide a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)signal and more detailed information on the sound field.Study on vector sensors and their applications have become a hot topic.Research on the representation of a vector field is highly relevant for extending the scope of vector sensor technology.This paper discusses the range-frequency distribution of the vector field due to a broadband acoustic source moving in a shallow-water waveguide as the self noise of a surface ship,and the vector extension of the waveguide impulse response measured over a limited frequency range using an active source of known waveform.From theory analysis and numerical simulation,the range-frequency representation of a vector field exhibits an interference structure qualitatively similar to that of the corresponding pressure field but,being quantitatively different,provides additional information on the waveguide,especially through the vertical component.For the range-frequency representation,physical quantities that can better exhibit the interference characteristics of the waveguide are the products of pressure and particle velocity and of the pressure and pressure gradient.An image processing method to effectively detect and isolate the individual striations from an interference structure was reviewed briefly.The representation of the vector impulse response was discussed according to two different measurement systems,also known as particle velocity and pressure gradient.The vector impulse response representation can not only provide additional information from pressure only but even more than that of the range-frequency representation.
The standardised freight container: vector of vectors and vector-borne diseases.
Reiter, P
2010-04-01
The standardised freight container was one of the most important innovations of the 20th Century. Containerised cargoes travel from their point of origin to their destination by ship, road and rail as part of a single journey, without unpacking. This simple concept is the key element in cheap, rapid transport by land and sea, and has led to a phenomenal growth in global trade. Likewise, containerised air cargo has led to a remarkable increase in the inter-continental transportation of goods, particularly perishable items such as flowers, fresh vegetables and live animals. In both cases, containerisation offers great advantages in speed and security, but reduces the opportunity to inspect cargoes in transit. An inevitable consequence is the globalisation of undesirable species of animals, plants and pathogens. Moreover, cheap passenger flights offer worldwide travel for viral and parasitic pathogens in infected humans. The continued emergence of exotic pests, vectors and pathogens throughout the world is an unavoidable consequence of these advances in transportation technology. PMID:20617647
New Anomaly of the Axial-Vector Current
HE Han-Xin
2001-01-01
By computing the axial-vector current operator equation, we find the anomalous axial-vector curl equation besides the well-known anomalous axial-vector divergence equation (the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly) and discuss its implication.``
Phase interaction of short vector solitons
An interaction of vector solitons in the frame of coupled third-order nonlinear Schrödinger equations taking into account third-order linear dispersion, nonlinear dispersion, and cross-phase modulation terms is considered. Phase nature of the solitons' interaction is shown. In particular, dependence of solitons' trajectories on initial distance between solitons is shown. Conditions of reflection and propagation of solitons through each other are obtained. -- Highlights: ► Short vector soliton's interaction in the frame of CTNSE without SRS is studied. ► Analytical and numerical approaches are considered. ► Phase effects lead to short vector soliton's interaction character change.
Vector analysis for mathematicians, scientists and engineers
Simons, S
1970-01-01
Vector Analysis for Mathematicians, Scientists and Engineers, Second Edition, provides an understanding of the methods of vector algebra and calculus to the extent that the student will readily follow those works which make use of them, and further, will be able to employ them himself in his own branch of science. New concepts and methods introduced are illustrated by examples drawn from fields with which the student is familiar, and a large number of both worked and unworked exercises are provided. The book begins with an introduction to vectors, covering their representation, addition, geome
Nonlinear singular vectors and nonlinear singular values
无
2000-01-01
A novel concept of nonlinear singular vector and nonlinear singular value is introduced, which is a natural generalization of the classical linear singular vector and linear singular value to the nonlinear category. The optimization problem related to the determination of nonlinear singular vectors and singular values is formulated. The general idea of this approach is demonstrated by a simple two-dimensional quasigeostrophic model in the atmospheric and oceanic sciences. The advantage and its applications of the new method to the predictability, ensemble forecast and finite-time nonlinear instability are discussed. This paper makes a necessary preparation for further theoretical and numerical investigations.
A NEW HYPERSPHERE SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE ALGORITHM
Zhang Xinfeng; Shen Lansun
2006-01-01
The hypersphere support vector machine is a new algorithm in pattern recognition. By studying three kinds ofhypersphere support vector machines, it is found that their solutions are identical and the margin between two classes of samples is zero or is not unique. In this letter, a new kind ofhypersphere support vector machine is proposed. By introducing a parameter n(n＞l), a unique solution of the margin can be obtained.Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve better generalization performance.
2D vector-cyclic deformable templates
Schultz, Nette; Conradsen, Knut
1998-01-01
In this paper the theory of deformable templates is a vector cycle in 2D is described. The deformable template model originated in (Grenander, 1983) and was further investigated in (Grenander et al., 1991). A template vector distribution is induced by parameter distribution from transformation...... matrices applied to the vector cycle. An approximation in the parameter distribution is introduced. The main advantage by using the deformable template model is the ability to simulate a wide range of objects trained by e.g. their biological variations, and thereby improve restoration, segmentation and...
Development of Multigene and Regulated Lentivirus Vectors
Reiser, Jakob; Lai, Zhennan; Zhang, Xian-Yang; Brady, Roscoe O.
2000-01-01
Previously we described safe and efficient three-component human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-based gene transfer systems for delivery of genes into nondividing cells (H. Mochizuki, J. P. Schwartz, K. Tanaka, R. O. Brady, and J. Reiser, J. Virol. 72:8873–8883, 1998). To apply such vectors in anti-HIV gene therapy strategies and to express multiple proteins in single target cells, we have engineered HIV-1 vectors for the concurrent expression of multiple transgenes. Single-gene vector...
Weak equivalence classes of complex vector bundles
Hông-Vân Lê
2006-01-01
For any complex vector bundle Ek of rank k over a manifold Mm with Chern classes ci Î H2i(Mm, Z) and any non-negative integers l1, . . ., lk we show the existence of a positive number p(m, k) and the existence of a complex vector bundle Êk over Mm whose Chern classes are p(m, k) × li × ci Î H2i(Mm, Z). We also discuss a version of this statement for holomorphic vector bundles over projective algebraic manifolds.
Two Layer Vector Quantization of Images
V. Michalcin
2001-06-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with spatial scaleable vector quantization ofimages by using two layers. At the base layer the small dimensionalfull search vector quantization of an image of block means is carriedout. After subtracting it from the input image at the enhancement layerthe difference of full spatial resolution is quantized by largedimensional weighted pyramid vector quantizer in transform domain.Experimental results demonstrate acceptable quality of the downscaledimage from the output of base layer at very low bit rate andpossibility of next increasing its quality by the upscaled differenceimage from the output of enhancement layer.
Robust Pseudo-Hierarchical Support Vector Clustering
Hansen, Michael Sass; Sjöstrand, Karl; Olafsdóttir, Hildur; Larsson, Henrik B. W.; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Larsen, Rasmus
2007-01-01
Support vector clustering (SVC) has proven an efficient algorithm for clustering of noisy and high-dimensional data sets, with applications within many fields of research. An inherent problem, however, has been setting the parameters of the SVC algorithm. Using the recent emergence of a method for...... calculating the entire regularization path of the support vector domain description, we propose a fast method for robust pseudo-hierarchical support vector clustering (HSVC). The method is demonstrated to work well on generated data, as well as for detecting ischemic segments from multidimensional myocardial...
Vector supersymmetry in the universal bundle
We present a vector supersymmetry for Witten-type topological gauge theories, and examine its algebra in terms of a superconnection formalism. When covariant constraints on the supercurvature are chosen, a correspondence is established with the universal bundle construction of Atiyah and Singer. The vector supersymmetry represents a certain shift operator in the curvature of the universal bundle, and can be used to generate the hierarchy of observables in these theories. This formalism should lead to the construction of vector supergravity theories, and perhaps to the gravitational analogue of the universal bundle. (orig.)
Photoproduction of vector mesons in nuclei
The mass of vector mesons in the nuclear medium is of great interest in strong interaction dynamics because vector meson masses could decrease with increasing baryonic density as a consequence of chiral symmetry restoration. The purpose of this work is to define an observable sensitive to vector meson masses at nuclear matter density. This short paper reports some preliminary results which suggest that the quantum interference between (e+e-) pairs emitted in the photoproduction of ρ- and ω- mesons near threshold in heavy nuclei could be such quantity. (J.S.). 4 refs., 2 figs
Robust Pseudo-Hierarchical Support Vector Clustering
Hansen, Michael Sass; Sjöstrand, Karl; Olafsdóttir, Hildur;
2007-01-01
for calculating the entire regularization path of the support vector domain description, we propose a fast method for robust pseudo-hierarchical support vector clustering (HSVC). The method is demonstrated to work well on generated data, as well as for detecting ischemic segments from multidimensional myocardial......Support vector clustering (SVC) has proven an efficient algorithm for clustering of noisy and high-dimensional data sets, with applications within many fields of research. An inherent problem, however, has been setting the parameters of the SVC algorithm. Using the recent emergence of a method...
Hiralall Johan K
2009-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lentiviral vectors are well suited for gene therapy because they can mediate long-term expression in both dividing and nondividing cells. However, lentiviral vectors seem less suitable for liver gene therapy because systemically administered lentiviral vectors are preferentially sequestered by liver macrophages. This results in a reduction of available virus and might also increase the immune response to the vector and vector products. Reduction of macrophage sequestration is therefore essential for efficient lentiviral liver gene therapy. Results Fusions were made of Autographa californica GP64 and the hepatocyte specific Sendai Virus envelope proteins. Lentiviral vectors were produced with either wild type GP64, Sendai-GP64, or both wild type GP64 and Sendai-GP64 and tested in vitro and in vivo for hepatocyte and macrophage gene transfer. Sendai-GP64 pseudotyped vectors showed specific gene transfer to HepG2 hepatoma cells, with no detectable transduction of HeLa cervical carcinoma cells, and a decreased affinity for RAW mouse macrophages. Co-expression of wild type GP64 and Sendai-GP64 resulted in improved viral titers while retaining increased affinity for HepG2 cells. In vivo, the Sendai-GP64 vectors also showed decreased transduction of murine liver macrophages. Conclusion We demonstrate reduced macrophage transduction in vitro and in vivo with GP64/Sendai chimeric envelope proteins.
Several computer codes in the nuclear field have been vectorized, parallelized and transported on the FUJITSU VPP500 system, the AP3000 system and the Paragon system at Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. We dealt with 12 codes in fiscal 1998. These results are reported in 3 parts, i.e., the vectorization and parallelization on vector processors part, the parallelization on scalar processors part and the porting part. In this report, we describe the vectorization and parallelization on vector processors. In this vectorization and parallelization on vector processors part, the vectorization of General Tokamak Circuit Simulation Program code GTCSP, the vectorization and parallelization of Molecular Dynamics NTV (n-particle, Temperature and Velocity) Simulation code MSP2, Eddy Current Analysis code EDDYCAL, Thermal Analysis Code for Test of Passive Cooling System by HENDEL T2 code THANPACST2 and MHD Equilibrium code SELENEJ on the VPP500 are described. In the parallelization on scalar processors part, the parallelization of Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code MCNP4B2, Plasma Hydrodynamics code using Cubic Interpolated Propagation Method PHCIP and Vectorized Monte Carlo code (continuous energy model / multi-group model) MVP/GMVP on the Paragon are described. In the porting part, the porting of Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code MCNP4B2 and Reactor Safety Analysis code RELAP5 on the AP3000 are described. (author)
Ishizuki, Shigeru; Kawai, Wataru; Nemoto, Toshiyuki [Fujitsu Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ogasawara, Shinobu; Kume, Etsuo; Adachi, Masaaki; Kawasaki, Nobuo [Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering (Tokai Site), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Yatake, Yo-ichi [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
2000-03-01
Several computer codes in the nuclear field have been vectorized, parallelized and transported on the FUJITSU VPP500 system, the AP3000 system and the Paragon system at Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. We dealt with 12 codes in fiscal 1998. These results are reported in 3 parts, i.e., the vectorization and parallelization on vector processors part, the parallelization on scalar processors part and the porting part. In this report, we describe the vectorization and parallelization on vector processors. In this vectorization and parallelization on vector processors part, the vectorization of General Tokamak Circuit Simulation Program code GTCSP, the vectorization and parallelization of Molecular Dynamics NTV (n-particle, Temperature and Velocity) Simulation code MSP2, Eddy Current Analysis code EDDYCAL, Thermal Analysis Code for Test of Passive Cooling System by HENDEL T2 code THANPACST2 and MHD Equilibrium code SELENEJ on the VPP500 are described. In the parallelization on scalar processors part, the parallelization of Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code MCNP4B2, Plasma Hydrodynamics code using Cubic Interpolated Propagation Method PHCIP and Vectorized Monte Carlo code (continuous energy model / multi-group model) MVP/GMVP on the Paragon are described. In the porting part, the porting of Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code MCNP4B2 and Reactor Safety Analysis code RELAP5 on the AP3000 are described. (author)
Adenovirus Vectors for Gene Therapy, Vaccination and Cancer Gene Therapy
Wold, William S.M.; Toth, Karoly
2013-01-01
Adenovirus vectors are the most commonly employed vector for cancer gene therapy. They are also used for gene therapy and as vaccines to express foreign antigens. Adenovirus vectors can be replication-defective; certain essential viral genes are deleted and replaced by a cassette that expresses a foreign therapeutic gene. Such vectors are used for gene therapy, as vaccines, and for cancer therapy. Replication-competent (oncolytic) vectors are employed for cancer gene therapy. Oncolytic vector...
2010-02-19
... Forest Service Oil and Gas Leasing on Lands Administered by the Dixie National Forest, Supplemental... report to the Oil and Gas Leasing on Lands Administered by the Dixie National Forest Final Environmental... considered, the FS must receive written comments on the Oil and Gas Leasing on Lands Administered by...
38 CFR 2.3 - Delegation of authority to employees to take affidavits, to administer oaths, etc.
2010-07-01
... to employees to take affidavits, to administer oaths, etc. 2.3 Section 2.3 Pensions, Bonuses, and... employees to take affidavits, to administer oaths, etc. (a) An employee to whom authority is delegated by... from the Secretary to employees to take affidavits, to administer oaths, etc., will be evidenced by...
34 CFR 692.80 - How does a State administer its community service work-study program?
2010-07-01
... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does a State administer its community service work... Its Community Service Work-Study Program? § 692.80 How does a State administer its community service work-study program? When administering its community service work-study program, a State must...
Song, Zuowei; Zhang, Mengyao; Xue, Renyu; Cao, Guangli; Gong, Chengliang
2014-05-01
In previous studies, we reported that the blood glucose levels of mice with type I diabetes mellitus (TIDM) was reduced with orally administered silk gland powder from silkworms transgenic for human insulin-like growth factor-I (hIGF-I). However, potential safety hazards could not be eliminated because the transgenic silk gland powder contained heterologous DNA, including the green fluorescent protein (gfp) and neomycin resistance (neo) genes. These shortcomings might be overcome if the recombinant hIGF-I were secreted into the sericin layer of the cocoon. In this study, silkworm eggs were transfected with a novel piggyBac transposon vector, pigA3GFP-serHS-hIGF-I-neo, containing the neo, gfp, and hIGF-I genes controlled by the sericin-1 (ser-1) promoter with the signal peptide DNA sequence of the fibrin heavy chain (Fib-H) and a helper plasmid containing the piggyBac transposase sequence under the control of the Bombyx mori actin 3 (A3) promoter, using sperm-mediated gene transfer to generate the transformed silkworms. The hIGF-I content estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was approximately 162.7 ng/g. To estimate the biological activity of the expressed hIGF-I, streptozotocin-induced TIDM mice were orally administered sericin from the transgenic silkworm. The blood glucose levels of the mice were significantly reduced, suggesting that the extract from the transgenic hIGF-I silkworm cocoons can be used as an orally administered drug. PMID:24632065
Sensorless vector and direct torque control
Vas, Peter
1998-01-01
This is the first comprehensive book on sensorless high performance a.c. drives. It is essential reading for anyone interested in acquiring a solid background on sensorless torque-controlled drives. It presents a detailed and unified treatment of sensorless vector-controlled and direct-torque controlled drive systems. It also discusses the applications of artificial intelligence to drives. Where possible, space vector theory is used and emphasis is laid on detailed mathematical and physical analysis. Sensorless drive schemes for different types of permanent magnet synchronous motors, synchronous reluctance motors, and induction motors are also presented. These include more than twenty vector drives e.g. five types of MRAS-based vector drives, and eleven types of direct-torque-controlled (DTC) drives, e.g. the ABB DTC drive. However, torque-controlled switched reluctance motor drives are also discussed due to their emerging importance. The book also covers various drive applications using artificial intellige...
Generalized Stokes vector for three photon process
Shaji, Chitra; Satyanarayana, SVM; Sharan, Alok
2015-01-01
Stokes Muller formalism is important to understand the optical properties of materials by measuring the change in the polarization state of light upon scattering. The formalism can be extended to nonlinear scattering processes involving two and three photon processes. In this work, we derive a triple Stokes vector analytically using operator approach used in quantum theory of light. A three photon polarization state can be described by Stokes vector that has sixteen components involving cubes of intensities. The response of a material for the scattering of light in a three photon process is described by 4 x 16 Muller matrix. Polarization in Polarization out (PIPO) experiments can be carried out to determine the elements of Muller matrix. For that we identify 16 independent points in Poincare sphere and construct triple Stokes vector for each point. Four measurements to find the linear Stokes vector of the scattered light for incident light in each of the sixteen three photon states determine the Muller matrix...
Extracting Road Vector Data from Raster Maps
Chiang, Yao-Yi; Knoblock, Craig A.
Raster maps are an important source of road information. Because of the overlapping map features (e.g., roads and text labels) and the varying image quality, extracting road vector data from raster maps usually requires significant user input to achieve accurate results. In this paper, we present an accurate road vectorization technique that minimizes user input by combining our previous work on extracting road pixels and road-intersection templates to extract accurate road vector data from raster maps. Our approach enables GIS applications to exploit the road information in raster maps for the areas where the road vector data are otherwise not easily accessible, such as the countries of the Middle East. We show that our approach requires minimal user input and achieves an average of 93.2% completeness and 95.6% correctness in an experiment using raster maps from various sources.
VEST: Abstract Vector Calculus Simplification in Mathematica
J. Squire, J. Burby and H. Qin
2013-03-12
We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce scalar and vector expressions of a very general type using a systematic canonicalization procedure. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by canonicalization, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper [1], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations. __________________________________________________
VEST: Abstract vector calculus simplification in Mathematica
Squire, J.; Burby, J.; Qin, H.
2014-01-01
We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce three-dimensional scalar and vector expressions of a very general type to a well defined standard form. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by reduction, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper Burby et al. (2013) [12], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of high-order Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations.
Meromorphic Vector Fields and Circle Packings
Dias, Kealey
The objective of the Ph.D. project is to initiate a classification of bifurcations of meromorphic vector fields and to clarify their relation to circle packings. Technological applications are to image analysis and to effective grid generation using discrete conformal mappings. The two branches of...... dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions or meromorphic (allowing poles as...... singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic vector fields. Restricting to...
Application of Vector Triggering Random Decrement
Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune
1997-01-01
This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented in this...... result is a Random Decrement function from each measurement. In traditional Random Decrement estimation the triggering condition is a scalar condition, which should only be fulfilled in a single measurement. In vector triggering Random Decrement the triggering condition is a vector condition. The...... advantage of this new approach should be a reduction in estimation time without a significant loss of accuracy, since the vector triggering conditions ensure cross information between the measurements in the Random Decrement functions. The different problems with this technique is highlighted in two...
Application of Vector Triggering Random Decrement
Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune
This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented in this...... result is a Random Decrement function from each measurement. In traditional Random Decrement estimation the triggering condition is a scalar condition, which should only be fulfilled in a single measurement. In vector triggering Random Decrement the triggering condition is a vector condition. The...... advantage of this new approach should be a reduction in estimation time without a significant loss of accuracy, since the vector triggering conditions ensure cross information between the measurements in the Random Decrement functions. The different problems with this technique is highlighted in two...
Twisted Vector Bundles on Pointed Nodal Curves
Ivan Kausz
2005-05-01
Motivated by the quest for a good compactification of the moduli space of -bundles on a nodal curve we establish a striking relationship between Abramovich’s and Vistoli’s twisted bundles and Gieseker vector bundles.
The light filament as vector solitary wave
Kovachev, Lubomir M
2015-01-01
We present an analytical approach to the theory of nonlinear propagation of femtosecond optical pulses with broad-band spectrum in gases. The vector character of the nonlinear third-order polarization is investigated in details, taking into account the carrier to envelope phase. The corresponding system of vector amplitude equations is written by using left-hand and right-hand circular components of the electrical field. We found that this system nonlinear equations admits $3D+1$ vector soliton solution with Lorentz shape. The solution presents relatively stable propagation and rotation with GHz frequency of the vector of the electrical field in plane, orthogonal to the direction of propagation. The evolution of the intensity profile demonstrate weak self-compression and week spherical wave in the first milliseconds of propagation.
Students' difficulties with vector calculus in electrodynamics
Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke
2015-12-01
Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven encounter with the divergence and curl of a vector field in mathematical and physical contexts. We have found that they are quite skilled at doing calculations, but struggle with interpreting graphical representations of vector fields and applying vector calculus to physical situations. We have found strong indications that traditional instruction is not sufficient for our students to fully understand the meaning and power of Maxwell's equations in electrodynamics.
Students' difficulties with vector calculus in electrodynamics
Bollen, Laurens; De Cock, Mieke
2015-01-01
Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is a prerequisite to study the electrodynamic phenomena that are discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven encounter with the divergence and curl of a vector field in mathematical and physical contexts. We have found they are quite skilled at doing calculations, but struggle with interpreting graphical representations of vector fields and applying vector calculus to physical situations. We have found strong indications that traditional instruction is not sufficient for our students to fully understand the meaning and power of Maxwell's equations in electrodynamics.
Positional codes of complex numbers and vectors
Solomon, I.
2008-01-01
A little-known theory of positional coding of complex numbers and vectors is described this theory may be used for the development of specialized processors. The theory is supplemented by numerous examples.
Vectorized multisite coding for hydrodynamic cellular automata
Simulating eight lattices for Pomeau's cellular automata simultaneously through bit-per-bit operations, a vectorized Fortran program reached 30 million updates per second and per Cray YMP processor. They authors give the full innermost loops
Low Power, Self Calibrated Vector Magnetometer Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR project investigates a novel approach to vector magnetometry based on high precision measurements of the total magnetic field. The calibration is...
Gamow Vectors Explain the Shock "Batman" Profile
Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Conti, Claudio
2016-01-01
The description of shock waves beyond the shock point is a challenge in nonlinear physics. Finding solutions to the global dynamics of dispersive shock waves is not always possible due to the lack of integrability. Here we propose a new method based on the eigenstates (Gamow vectors) of a reversed harmonic oscillator in a rigged Hilbert space. These vectors allow analytical formulation for the development of undular bores of shock waves in a nonlinear nonlocal medium. Experiments by a photothermal induced nonlinearity confirm theoretical predictions: as the undulation period as a function of power and the characteristic quantized decays of Gamow vectors. Our results demonstrate that Gamow vector are a novel and effective paradigm for describing extreme nonlinear phenomena.
Fractional Vector Calculus and Fractional Special Function
Li, Ming-Fan; Ren, Ji-Rong; Zhu, Tao
2010-01-01
Fractional vector calculus is discussed in the spherical coordinate framework. A variation of the Legendre equation and fractional Bessel equation are solved by series expansion and numerically. Finally, we generalize the hypergeometric functions.
Vectorization and improvement of nuclear codes, (2)
Two nuclear codes, three dimensional thermal hydraulic analysis code 'SPARKLE' and two dimensional disruption thermal analysis code 'DREAM', have been vectorized. The Cray version of high energy radiation Monte Carlo elaborate system 'HERMES' has been converted to the Fujitsu MSP version. Reactor safety Analysis code 'RELAP5/MOD3' has been modified to assign its variables to the extended memory area of Fujitsu MSP operating system. We have obtained the speedup of 4.1-4.8 and 1.6 for the vectorized SPARKLE and DREAM, respectively, on the Fujitsu VP2600/10 in the vector execution compared with the scalar execution. In this report, outlines of the codes, techniques used in the vectorization and modification of the codes, and their performance are presented. (author)
VEST: abstract vector calculus simplification in Mathematica
Squire, Jonathan; Qin, Hong
2013-01-01
We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce three-dimensional scalar and vector expressions of a very general type to a well defined standard form. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by reduction, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper (Burby et al., 2013), we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of high-order Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations.
Xie, Yan-Ming; Li, Ming-Quan; Zhang, Yun-Ling; Ma, Rong; Xian, Shao-Xiang; Liu, Jian; Li, Su-Yun; Zhao, Yu-Bin
2013-09-01
The regulations on basic clinical use of parenterally administered Chinese medicine, issued jointly in 2008, by the ministry of health (MOH), China food and drug administration (SFDA) and the state administration of traditional Chinese medicine (SATCM). Integrating actual clinical practice, these presented doctors and nurses with detailed specifications for the safe use of parenterally administered Chinese medicine. The regulations emphasize the use of Chinese medicine pattern differentiation, use in strict accordance with instructions, and they prohibit use combined with other medicines. The emphasis of the regulations are practicality and operability, and provide meaningful guidance to doctors and nurses for the rational and safe use of parenterally administered Chinese medicine, to reduce adverse reactions/adverse events caused by improper use. PMID:24471306
Nielsen, Niels Dalsgaard; Brogaard, Kjeld; Dahl, Michael; Hansen, Poul Anders
Introduction: In our region Advanced Emergency Medical Technicians (AEMTs) respond to acutely ill or injured patients in rural areas. The AEMTs have been authorized to administer fentanyl intravenously in doses up to 2 μg/kg to selected groups of patients in pain. Higher doses can be allowed by a...... physician after a teleconference. We examined the effect of intravenous (IV) fentanyl treatment, expressed as pain reduction on a 10-point Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Moreover we examined the occurrence of negative coincident events to assess whether it was safe to let non-medical staff administer potent...... considered minor, and were not treated with naloxone. Conclusions: Our results suggest that non-medical personnel safely can administer IV fentanyl to selected groups of patients with a satisfactory result in terms of a considerable reduction in pain score and an acceptable rate of negative coincident...
Nozawa, Akio; Takei, Yuya
The aim of study was to quantitatively evaluate the effects of self-administered facial massage, which was done by hand or facial roller. In this study, the psychophysiological effects of facial massage were evaluated. The central nerves system and the autonomic nervous system were administered to evaluate physiological system. The central nerves system was assessed by Electroencephalogram (EEG). The autonomic nervous system were assessed by peripheral skin temperature(PST) and heart rate variability (HRV) with spectral analysis. In the spectral analysis of HRV, the high-frequency components (HF) were evaluated. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Profile of Mood Status (POMS) and subjective sensory amount with Visual Analog Scale (VAS) were administered to evaluate psychological status. These results suggest that kept brain activity and had strong effects on stress alleviation.
Angular velocity nonlinear observer from vector measurements
Magnis, Lionel; Petit, Nicolas
2015-01-01
The paper proposes a technique to estimate the angular velocity of a rigid body from vector measurements. Compared to the approaches presented in the literature, it does not use attitude information nor rate gyros as inputs. Instead, vector measurements are directly filtered through a nonlinear observer estimating the angular velocity. Convergence is established using a detailed analysis of the linear-time varying dynamics appearing in the estimation error equation. This equation stems from t...
Vector-boson-induced neutrino mass
One-loop radiative Majorana neutrino masses through the exchange of scalars have been considered for many years. We show for the first time how such a one-loop mass is also possible through the exchange of vector gauge bosons. It is based on a simple variation of a recently proposed SU(2)N extension of the Standard Model, where a vector boson is a candidate for the dark matter of the Universe.
Teleparallel Killing Vectors of the Einstein Universe
M. Sharif; Amir, M. Jamil
2007-01-01
In this short paper we establish the definition of the Lie derivative of a second rank tensor in the context of teleparallel theory of gravity and also extend it for a general tensor of rank $p+q$. This definition is then used to find Killing vectors of the Einstein universe. It turns out that Killing vectors of the Einstein universe in the teleparallel theory are the same as in General Relativity.
Vector blood velocity estimation in medical ultrasound
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gran, Fredrik; Udesen, Jesper;
2006-01-01
Two methods for making vector velocity estimation in medical ultrasound are presented. All of the techniques can find both the axial and transverse velocity in the image and can be used for displaying both the correct velocity magnitude and direction. The first method uses a transverse oscillation....... Using a correlation search can also yield the direction, and the full velocity vector is thereby found. An examples from a flow rig is shown....
Reducing the Genotoxic Potential of Retroviral Vectors
Ramezani, Ali; Hawley, Teresa S.; Hawley, Robert G.
2008-01-01
The recent development of leukemia in gene therapy patients with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency disease due to retroviral vector insertional mutagenesis has prompted reassessment of the genotoxic potential of integrating vector systems. In this chapter, various strategies are described to reduce the associated risks of retroviral genomic integration. These include deletion of strong transcriptional enhancer-promoter elements in the retroviral long terminal repeats, flanking the ret...
[Orthogonal Vector Projection Algorithm for Spectral Unmixing].
Song, Mei-ping; Xu, Xing-wei; Chang, Chein-I; An, Ju-bai; Yao, Li
2015-12-01
Spectrum unmixing is an important part of hyperspectral technologies, which is essential for material quantity analysis in hyperspectral imagery. Most linear unmixing algorithms require computations of matrix multiplication and matrix inversion or matrix determination. These are difficult for programming, especially hard for realization on hardware. At the same time, the computation costs of the algorithms increase significantly as the number of endmembers grows. Here, based on the traditional algorithm Orthogonal Subspace Projection, a new method called. Orthogonal Vector Projection is prompted using orthogonal principle. It simplifies this process by avoiding matrix multiplication and inversion. It firstly computes the final orthogonal vector via Gram-Schmidt process for each endmember spectrum. And then, these orthogonal vectors are used as projection vector for the pixel signature. The unconstrained abundance can be obtained directly by projecting the signature to the projection vectors, and computing the ratio of projected vector length and orthogonal vector length. Compared to the Orthogonal Subspace Projection and Least Squares Error algorithms, this method does not need matrix inversion, which is much computation costing and hard to implement on hardware. It just completes the orthogonalization process by repeated vector operations, easy for application on both parallel computation and hardware. The reasonability of the algorithm is proved by its relationship with Orthogonal Sub-space Projection and Least Squares Error algorithms. And its computational complexity is also compared with the other two algorithms', which is the lowest one. At last, the experimental results on synthetic image and real image are also provided, giving another evidence for effectiveness of the method. PMID:26964231
Insecticide Resistanca in Maleria Vector An. sacharovi
Üniversitesi, Çukurova; ABD, Tıp Fakültesi Tıbbi Biyoloji; Balcalı,; Adana-TÜRKİYE,
2000-01-01
Susceptibility tests have been successfully used for many years to determine insecticide resistance raised in pest and vector insects, including An. sacharovi,the primary human malaria vector in Turkey. As this method does not provide sufficient information about physiological resistance, an alternative method of enzyme tests based on biochemical and genetic evaluations has been developed. In this study, both methods were used for comparison. First of all, susceptibility to insecticides w...
Vector Fields and Differential Operators Noncommutative Case
Borowiec, A
1997-01-01
A notion of Cartan pairs as an analogy of vector fields in the realm of noncommutative geometry has been proposed in \\cite{AB}. In this paper we give an outline of the construction of a noncommutative analogy of the algebra of partial differential operators as well as its natural (Fock type) representation. We shall also define co-universal vector fields and covariant derivatives.
Proofs of Vector Identities Using Tensors
Uddin, Zaheer; Ulfat, Intikhab
2014-01-01
The vector algebra and calculus are frequently used in many branches of Physics, for example, classical mechanics, electromagnetic theory, Astrophysics, Spectroscopy, etc. Important vector identities with the help of Levi-Civita symbols and Kronecker delta tensor are proved and presented in this paper. Some of the identities have been proved using Levi-Civita Symbols by other mathematicians and Physicists. The rests are presented for the first time. The derivations are of interest for both gr...
Students' difficulties with vector calculus in electrodynamics
Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke
2015-01-01
Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven encounter with the divergence and curl of a vector field in mathematical and physical contexts. We have found that they are quite skilled at doing ca...
Killing vector fields and harmonic superfield theories
The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, also referred to as harmonic, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of this harmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature
Killing vector fields and harmonic superfield theories
Groeger, Josua
2014-09-01
The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, also referred to as harmonic, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of this harmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature.
Killing vector fields and harmonic superfield theories
Groeger, Josua, E-mail: groegerj@mathematik.hu-berlin.de [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Mathematik, Rudower Chaussee 25, 12489 Berlin (Germany)
2014-09-15
The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, also referred to as harmonic, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of this harmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature.
Frame theory for binary vector spaces
Bodmann, Bernhard G.; Le, My; Reza, Letty; Tobin, Matthew; Tomforde, Mark
2009-01-01
We develop the theory of frames and Parseval frames for finite-dimensional vector spaces over the binary numbers. This includes characterizations which are similar to frames and Parseval frames for real or complex Hilbert spaces, and the discussion of conceptual differences caused by the lack of a proper inner product on binary vector spaces. We also define switching equivalence for binary frames, and list all equivalence classes of binary Parseval frames in lowest dimensions, excluding cases...
Support Vector Machine Classification with Indefinite Kernels
Luss, Ronny; d'Aspremont, Alexandre
2008-01-01
We propose a method for support vector machine classification using indefinite kernels. Instead of directly minimizing or stabilizing a nonconvex loss function, our algorithm simultaneously computes support vectors and a proxy kernel matrix used in forming the loss. This can be interpreted as a penalized kernel learning problem where indefinite kernel matrices are treated as a noisy observations of a true Mercer kernel. Our formulation keeps the problem convex and relatively large problems ca...
Nonperturbative Aspects of Axial Vector Vertex
ZONG Hong-Shi; CHEN Xiang-Song; WANG Fan; CHANG Chao-Hsi; ZHAO En-Guang
2002-01-01
It is shown how the axial vector current of current quarks is related to that of constituent quarks within the framework of the global color symmetry model.Gluon dressing of the axial vector vertex and the quark self-energy functions are described by the inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation in the ladder approximation and the Schwinger Dyson equation in the rainbow approximation,respectively.
Vector bosons in the expanding universe
We exactly solve the relativistic wave equation for vector bosons in the expanding universe and show that the current of the vector bosons in this background is rapidly oscillating in early time. Additionally, we derive the solutions of the Proca equation from the solutions of the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau (DKP) equations in the same background and obtain the massless-particle, photon, solutions by taking the m2→0 limit of these solutions. (orig.)
Solving Parity Games on Integer Vectors
Abdulla, Parosh Aziz; Mayr, Richard; Sangnier, Arnaud; Sproston, Jeremy
2013-01-01
We consider parity games on infinite graphs where configurations are represented by control-states and integer vectors. This framework subsumes two classic game problems: parity games on vector addition systems with states (vass) and multidimensional energy parity games. We show that the multidimensional energy parity game problem is inter-reducible with a subclass of single-sided parity games on vass where just one player can modify the integer counters and the opponent can only change contr...
GEOMAGNETIC ANOMALY FIELD VECTOR OFF WESTERN AUSTRALIA
ノギ, ヨシフミ; エグチ, ヨシアキ; セアマ, ノブカズ; イセザキ, ノブヒロ; Yoshifumi, NOGI; Yoshiaki, EGUCHI; Nobukazu, SEAMA; Nobuhiro, ISEZAKI
1993-01-01
Vector data of the geomagnetic anomaly field were obtained during the 32nd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-32) off Western Australia. The strikes of the magnetic boundaries at their position were derived from vector data of the geomagnetic anomaly field. These strikes were interpreted as the directions of magnetic anomaly lineations originated either by seafloor spreading (seafloor spreading anomaly) or by morphological structures (structural magnetic anomaly). Some strikes of st...
Euclidean fields: vector mesons and photons
Free transverse vector fields of mass >= 0 are studied. The model is related to the usual free vector meson and electromagnetic quantum field theories by extension of the field operators from transverse to arbitrary test functions. The one-particle states in transverse gauge and their localization are described. Reflexion positivity is proved and derived are free Feynman-Kac-Nelson formulas. An Euclidean approach to a photon field in a spherical world using dilatation covariance and inversions is given
Singular Vectors in Logarithmic Conformal Field Theories
Flohr, Michael
1997-01-01
Null vectors are generalized to the case of indecomposable representations which are one of the main features of logarithmic conformal field theories. This is done by developing a compact formalism with the particular advantage that the stress energy tensor acting on Jordan cells of primary fields and their logarithmic partners can still be represented in form of linear differential operators. Since the existence of singular vectors is subject to much stronger constraints than in regular conf...
Vector meson contributions in ε'/ε
The CP-violating parameter -bar '/-bar is computed using the low-energy dynamics of the chiral theory supplemented by vector resonances. The divergent contributions coming from strong π-π scattering are tamed by vector-meson exchange terms. This amounts to softening the fast growing high-energy behaviour of π-π scattering. The final result for ε'/ε shows a smooth dependence on the cut-off where low energy dynamics is matched with that of QCD
Effects of Climate and Climate Change on Vectors and Vector-Borne Diseases: Ticks Are Different.
Ogden, Nick H; Lindsay, L Robbin
2016-08-01
There has been considerable debate as to whether global risk from vector-borne diseases will be impacted by climate change. This has focussed on important mosquito-borne diseases that are transmitted by the vectors from infected to uninfected humans. However, this debate has mostly ignored the biological diversity of vectors and vector-borne diseases. Here, we review how climate and climate change may impact those most divergent of arthropod disease vector groups: multivoltine insects and hard-bodied (ixodid) ticks. We contrast features of the life cycles and behaviour of these arthropods, and how weather, climate, and climate change may have very different impacts on the spatiotemporal occurrence and abundance of vectors, and the pathogens they transmit. PMID:27260548
Multiclass Reduced-Set Support Vector Machines
Tang, Benyang; Mazzoni, Dominic
2006-01-01
There are well-established methods for reducing the number of support vectors in a trained binary support vector machine, often with minimal impact on accuracy. We show how reduced-set methods can be applied to multiclass SVMs made up of several binary SVMs, with significantly better results than reducing each binary SVM independently. Our approach is based on Burges' approach that constructs each reduced-set vector as the pre-image of a vector in kernel space, but we extend this by recomputing the SVM weights and bias optimally using the original SVM objective function. This leads to greater accuracy for a binary reduced-set SVM, and also allows vectors to be 'shared' between multiple binary SVMs for greater multiclass accuracy with fewer reduced-set vectors. We also propose computing pre-images using differential evolution, which we have found to be more robust than gradient descent alone. We show experimental results on a variety of problems and find that this new approach is consistently better than previous multiclass reduced-set methods, sometimes with a dramatic difference.
An Unbroken Axial Vector Current Conservation Law
Sharafiddinov, Rasulkhozha S
2015-01-01
The mass, energy and momentum of the neutrino of a true flavor have an axial-vector nature. As a consequence, the left-handed truly neutral neutrino in an axial-vector field of emission can be converted into a right-handed one and vice versa. This predicts the unidenticality of masses, energies and momenta of neutrinos of the different components. Recognizing such a difference in masses, energies, momenta and accepting that the left-handed axial-vector neutrino and the right-handed antineutrino of true neutrality refer to long-lived C-odd leptons, and the right-handed truly neutral neutrino and the left-handed axial-vector antineutrino are of short-lived fermions of C-oddity, we would write a new CP-even Dirac equation taking into account the flavor symmetrical axial-vector mass, energy and momentum matrices. Their presence explains the spontaneous mirror symmetry violation, confirming that an axial-vector current conservation law has never violated. They reflect the availability of a mirror Minkowski space i...
Lentiviral vector gene transfer to porcine airways.
Sinn, Patrick L; Cooney, Ashley L; Oakland, Mayumi; Dylla, Douglas E; Wallen, Tanner J; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Chang, Eugene H; McCray, Paul B
2012-01-01
In this study, we investigated lentiviral vector development and transduction efficiencies in well-differentiated primary cultures of pig airway epithelia (PAE) and wild-type pigs in vivo. We noted gene transfer efficiencies similar to that observed for human airway epithelia (HAE). Interestingly, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-based vectors transduced immortalized pig cells as well as pig primary cells more efficiently than HIV-1-based vectors. PAE express TRIM5α, a well-characterized species-specific lentiviral restriction factor. We contrasted the restrictive properties of porcine TRIM5α against FIV- and HIV-based vectors using gain and loss of function approaches. We observed no effect on HIV-1 or FIV conferred transgene expression in response to porcine TRIM5α overexpression or knockdown. To evaluate the ability of GP64-FIV to transduce porcine airways in vivo, we delivered vector expressing mCherry to the tracheal lobe of the lung and the ethmoid sinus of 4-week-old pigs. One week later, epithelial cells expressing mCherry were readily detected. Our findings indicate that pseudotyped FIV vectors confer similar tropisms in porcine epithelia as observed in human HAE and provide further support for the selection of GP64 as an appropriate envelope pseudotype for future preclinical gene therapy studies in the porcine model of cystic fibrosis (CF).Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids (2012) 1, e56; doi:10.1038/mtna.2012.47; published online 27 November 2012. PMID:23187455
Discrete Vector Models for Catalysis and Autocatalysis
Peter Jörg Plath
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Based on Ruch's concept of diagram lattices formed by Young diagrams we investigated the possibility to transform incomparable diagrams into comparable ones by means of vector catalysis. Ruch's diagram lattices allow a very general description of comparing frequency distributions by their mixing-character as an order relation which is equivalent to majorisation in the mathematical theory of inequalities. Dealing with Young diagrams or vectors containing only integer components, respectively, vector catalysis is strongly related to entanglement catalysis in quantum informatics. In a very systematic way the diagram lattices of the partitions up to the number n=20 have been searched for incomparable pairs which can be catalysed. This concept opens the opportunity for regarding vector catalysis as a universal phenomenon which is not restricted to the quantum mechanical idea of entanglement catalysis. Such a general approach offers the possibility to compare vector catalysis with chemical ideas of catalysis and autocatalysis in a very fundamental sense. We emphasize that vector catalysis is a universally valid procedure for classification purposes, where incomparable sequences of symbols are transformed into comparable ones in a much higher dimensional space ignoring any physical interpretation of these symbols.
Integrated vector management: a critical strategy for combating vector-borne diseases in South Sudan
Chanda, Emmanuel; Govere, John M; Macdonald, Michael B.; Lako, Richard L; Haque, Ubydul; Baba, Samson P; Mnzava, Abraham
2013-01-01
Background Integrated vector management (IVM) based vector control is encouraged by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, operational experience with the IVM strategy has mostly come from countries with relatively well-established health systems and with malaria control focused programmes. Little is known about deployment of IVM for combating multiple vector-borne diseases in post-emergency settings, where delivery structures are less developed or absent. This manuscript reports on th...
Prophylactic efficacy of lithium administered every second day: a WHO multicentre study
Plenge, P; Amin, M; Agarwal, A K; Greil, W; Kim, M J; Panteleyeva, G; Park, J M; Prilipko, L; Rayushkin, V; Sharma, M; Mellerup, E
1999-01-01
OBJECTIVES: To study the prophylactic efficacy of lithium administered every second day to patients with bipolar disorder or recurrent unipolar depressive disorder. METHODS: The study was carried out as a WHO multicentre study in five different psychiatric clinics: Russia (Moscow), Canada (Montreal...... recurrences. The mean 12-h standard serum lithium concentration was lower in the patients who had recurrences than in those who stayed euthymic. The results suggest that to be effective when administered every second day, lithium must be given in a dose leading to a 12-h standard serum lithium concentration...
Patient protection in nuclear medicine due to optimization of the administered activity
The possibility of a radiological risk reduction in Nuclear Medicine patients is studied through the reduced absorbed doses in organs and tissues, and whole-body effective dose due to optimization of the administered radionuclide activities. Activity values, optimized for equipments and radiopharmaceuticals available in Cuba, are compared with the IAEA recommended values and with the routinary activities in medical practice. All doses were calculated using MIRDOSE 3.0 code for each activity and medical assay. The activity optimization permits to reduce in a 50% the doses administered to patients of the major part of studied medical assays. (Author)
Šutalo, S; Ruetten, M.; Hartnack, S; Reusch, C E; Kook, P H
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND: Gastric acid suppressants frequently are used in cats with acid-related gastric disorders. However, it is not known if these drugs effectively increase intragastric pH in cats. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of PO administered ranitidine and omeprazole on intragastric pH in cats and to compare the efficacy of once-daily versus twice-daily dosage regimens for omeprazole. ANIMALS: Eight domestic shorthair cats. METHODS: Using a randomized 4-way cross-over design, cats were g...
Co-occurrence Vectors from Corpora vs. Distance Vectors from Dictionaries
Niwa, Yoshiki; Nitta, Yoshihiko
1995-01-01
A comparison was made of vectors derived by using ordinary co-occurrence statistics from large text corpora and of vectors derived by measuring the inter-word distances in dictionary definitions. The precision of word sense disambiguation by using co-occurrence vectors from the 1987 Wall Street Journal (20M total words) was higher than that by using distance vectors from the Collins English Dictionary (60K head words + 1.6M definition words). However, other experimental results suggest that d...
Viral Vectors for in Vivo Gene Transfer
Thévenot, E.; Dufour, N.; Déglon, N.
The transfer of DNA into the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell (gene transfer) is a central theme of modern biology. The transfer is said to be somatic when it refers to non-germline organs of a developed individual, and germline when it concerns gametes or the fertilised egg of an animal, with the aim of transmitting the relevant genetic modification to its descendents [1]. The efficient introduction of genetic material into a somatic or germline cell and the control of its expression over time have led to major advances in understanding how genes work in vivo, i.e., in living organisms (functional genomics), but also to the development of innovative therapeutic methods (gene therapy). The efficiency of gene transfer is conditioned by the vehicle used, called the vector. Desirable features for a vector are as follows: Easy to produce high titer stocks of the vector in a reproducible way. Absence of toxicity related to transduction (transfer of genetic material into the target cell, and its expression there) and no immune reaction of the organism against the vector and/or therapeutic protein. Stability in the expression of the relevant gene over time, and the possibility of regulation, e.g., to control expression of the therapeutic protein on the physiological level, or to end expression at the end of treatment. Transduction of quiescent cells should be as efficient as transduction of dividing cells. Vectors currently used fall into two categories: non-viral and viral vectors. In non-viral vectors, the DNA is complexed with polymers, lipids, or cationic detergents (described in Chap. 3). These vectors have a low risk of toxicity and immune reaction. However, they are less efficient in vivo than viral vectors when it comes to the number of cells transduced and long-term transgene expression. (Naked DNA transfer or electroporation is rather inefficient in the organism. This type of gene transfer will not be discussed here, and the interested reader is referred to the
Hysek, C M; Simmler, L. D.; Schillinger, N.; De Meyer, N.; Schmid, Y; Donzelli, M; Grouzmann, E.; Liechti, M. E.
2014-01-01
Methylphenidate and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') are widely misused psychoactive drugs. Methylphenidate increases brain dopamine and norepinephrine levels by blocking the presynaptic reuptake transporters. MDMA releases serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine through the same transporters. Pharmacodynamic interactions of methylphenidate and MDMA are likely. This study compared the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic effects of methylphenidate and MDMA administered alone ...
Comparing Two Conditions of Administering the Six-Minute Walk Test in People with Multiple Sclerosis
Brian M. Sandroff; Pilutti, Lara A.; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Learmonth, Yvonne C.; Pula, John H.; Motl, Robert W.
2014-01-01
Objective: This quasi-experimental study was conducted to determine whether differences existed in the total distance walked and energy expended between two conditions of administering the 6-Minute Walk test (6MW) across different levels of disability in people with multiple sclerosis (MS).
34 CFR 650.41 - How are institutional payments to be administered?
2010-07-01
... Consumer Price Index for the previous calendar year. (b) If the institution of higher education charges and... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are institutional payments to be administered? 650.41 Section 650.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education...
Jensen, Jeppe Thue; Hornslet, Pernille; Konge, Lars;
2016-01-01
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Whereas data on moderate nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) efficacy and safety for standard endoscopy is abundant, few reports on the use of deep sedation by endoscopy nurses during advanced endoscopy, such as Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ER...
Mohr, David C.; Carmody, Timothy; Erickson, Lauren; Jin, Ling; Leader, Julie
2011-01-01
Objective: Multiple trials have found telephone-administered cognitive behavioral therapy (T-CBT) to be effective for the treatment of depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate T-CBT for the treatment of depression among veterans served by community-based outpatient clinics (CBOCs) outside of major urban areas. Method: Eighty-five veterans…
Horn, C R; Jones, R.M.; Lee, D.; Brennan, S. R.
1984-01-01
A double-blind, placebo controlled study of the effects of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), administered as a dry powder via the spinhaler, in established exercise-induced asthma, was carried out. DSCG resulted in an increase in the rate of recovery compared with placebo. The findings confirm that DSCG has bronchodilator properties.
20 CFR 664.610 - How is the summer employment opportunities element administered?
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the summer employment opportunities... Opportunities § 664.610 How is the summer employment opportunities element administered? Chief elected officials... used to provide summer youth employment opportunities, these providers must be selected by awarding...
40 CFR 147.52 - State-administered program-Hydraulic Fracturing of Coal Beds.
2010-07-01
...) The Program Description for the Regulation of Hydraulic Fracturing of Coal Beds As required by 40 CFR... Register on January 19, 2000 in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered...
Ahmad, Syed Hafeez; Junaid, Fatima A.
2010-01-01
The troubled state of affairs in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan portends serious repercussions and grave consequences, destined to affect education particularly higher education in the entire tribal belt. Ironically, no extensive study has been conducted, to investigate those dimensions of FATA higher education which…
Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; DunnGalvin, A.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Oude Elberink, J. N. G.; Duiverman, E. J.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; Dubois, A. E. J.
2009-01-01
Having a food allergy may affect health-related quality of life (HRQL). Currently, no validated, self-administered, disease-specific HRQL questionnaire exists for children with food allergy. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Child Form
Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M J; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J; Oude Elberink, Joanne N G; Duiverman, Eric J; Hourihane, Jonathan O'Brien; Dubois, Anthony E J
2008-01-01
BACKGROUND: Food allergy can affect health-related quality of life (HRQL). Currently, no validated, self-administered, disease-specific HRQL questionnaire for adolescents with food allergy exists. OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop and validate the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Teenager Fo
Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M J; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J; Oude Elberink, Joanne N G; Duiverman, Eric J; Hourihane, Jonathan O'Brien; Dubois, Anthony E J
2008-01-01
Background: Food allergy can affect health-related quality of life (HRQL). Currently, no validated, self-administered, disease-specific HRQL questionnaire for adolescents with food allergy exists. Objective: We sought to develop and validate the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Teenager Fo
21 CFR 1306.07 - Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs. 1306.07 Section 1306.07 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... an incidental adjunct to medical or surgical treatment of conditions other than addiction, or...
McGillivray, Jane A.; McCabe, Marita P.; Kershaw, Mavis M.
2008-01-01
The prevalence of co-morbid depression in people with intellectual disability (ID) provides a strong rationale for the early identification and treatment of individuals at risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate a staff-administered group CBT program for the treatment of depression in people with mild ID. A sample of 13 staff employed at two…
The current levels of administered activity of radiopharmaceuticals in several common nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures and their contribution to the radiation doses to the Israeli population in 1998-2000 were analyzed. Diagnostic reference levels and the concept of effective dose per capita are discussed as relevant parameters to optimize patient protection. (author)
20 CFR 668.120 - How must INA programs be administered?
2010-04-01
... 25 U.S.C. section 450a, as well as the Department of Labor's “American Indian and Alaska Native... administer INA programs through a single organizational unit and consistent with the requirements in section...) within the Employment and Training Administration (ETA) as this single organizational unit required...
22 CFR 196.2 - How is the Fellowship Program administered?
2010-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the Fellowship Program administered? 196.2 Section 196.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION THOMAS R. PICKERING FOREIGN AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.2 How is the Fellowship...
Mauser-Bunschoten, EP; Koopman, MMW; Goede-Bolder, ADE; Leebeek, FWG; Van der Meer, J; Kooij, GMV; Van der Linden, PWG
2002-01-01
We have prospectively monitored treatment of haemophilia patients with inhibitors by recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) administered by continuous infusion to obtain more insight in the underlying factors of the clinical efficacy of this administration method. At present, 43 treatment episodes of 14 d
Williams, Krista; Poel, Elissa Wolfe
2006-01-01
The Self-Administered Tool for Awareness and Relaxation (STAR) is a stress management strategy designed to facilitate awareness of the physical, mental, emotional, and physiological effects of stress through the interconnectedness of the brain, body, and emotions. The purpose of this article is to present a stress-management model for teachers,…
Psychomotor and Motor Speed in Power Athletes Self-Administering Testosterone and Anabolic Steroids.
Era, Pertti; And Others
1988-01-01
Self-administered testosterone and anabolic steroids resulted in insignificant improvement in psychomotor and motor speed tests of power athletes. This study is part of a larger study on the effects of such drugs on endocrinology, metabolism and neuromuscular functions. Methodolgy and results are discussed. (Author/JL)
40 CFR 503.33 - Vector attraction reduction.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vector attraction reduction. 503.33... STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pathogens and Vector Attraction Reduction § 503.33 Vector attraction reduction. (a)(1) One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in § 503.33 (b)(1)...
Malaria vector species in Colombia: a review.
Montoya-Lerma, James; Solarte, Yezid A; Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria Isabel; Quiñones, Martha L; Ruiz-López, Freddy; Wilkerson, Richard C; González, Ranulfo
2011-08-01
Here we present a comprehensive review of the literature on the vectorial importance of the major Anopheles malaria vectors in Colombia. We provide basic information on the geographical distribution, altitudinal range, immature habitats, adult behaviour, feeding preferences and anthropophily, endophily and infectivity rates. We additionally review information on the life cycle, longevity and population fluctuation of Colombian Anopheles species. Emphasis was placed on the primary vectors that have been epidemiologically incriminated in malaria transmission: Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles nuneztovari. The role of a selection of local, regional or secondary vectors (e.g., Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and Anopheles neivai) is also discussed. We highlight the importance of combining biological, morphological and molecular data for the correct taxonomical determination of a given species, particularly for members of the species complexes. We likewise emphasise the importance of studying the bionomics of primary and secondary vectors along with an examination of the local conditions affecting the transmission of malaria. The presence and spread of the major vectors and the emergence of secondary species capable of transmitting human Plasmodia are of great interest. When selecting control measures, the anopheline diversity in the region must be considered. Variation in macroclimate conditions over a species' geographical range must be well understood and targeted to plan effective control measures based on the population dynamics of the local Anopheles species. PMID:21881778
Vector processing of the neutron transport codes
One of the large computations in JAERI is the neutron transport ones used for reactor shielding and criticality analyses. The adaptability of vector processings has been investigated on the neutron transport codes under the assumption of future use of super-computer. Five codes have been tested. They are DOT3.5, TWOTRAN and ANISN based on finite difference method, and PALLAS-2DCY and BERMUDA on the direct integration method. It has been found that the gain from vectorization depends upon the numerical methods, geometries, and problems types to be solved. That is, the direct integration is rather suited for vector processing. But in the conventional finite difference method, the difference equation has an unvectorizable recurrence form in (r, z) and (r, -)-geometries. But by altering the interative process, the equation can be vectorized and some gains have been found to be achieved in a criticality problem. For each code, described are some views on vectorization, program restructurings, speedup ratio on F75 APU, numerical studies on the interative process, and so forth. (author)
Intersectoral approaches to dengue vector control.
Kay, B H
1994-12-01
Medical entomology in the context of urban vector control, especially for dengue, can be likened to the tail of a dog. Vertically structured Aedes aegypti campaigns such as run by Gorgas and Soper earlier this century relied on sufficient legislative backing for vector control to ensure that the tail was capable of wagging the dog. Under these conditions, especially where individual rights do not intrude, vertical programs will be successful. The global expansion of dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever and its vectors, plus growing trends towards urban/periurban living indicate a more serious scenario than at present. In 1987, the Brundtland Report: "Our Common Future" decried sectoralism in problem solving. Following the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in 1992, the resulting Commission on Sustainable Development has promoted the intersectoral message of health, environment and development. The WHO/FAO/UNEP/UNCHS Panel of Experts on Environmental Management for Vector Control has promoted this for some time and is attempting to build multidisciplinary projects against urban vector borne disease. Adequate solid waste management and recycling will reduce numbers of water bearing containers infested with Aedes aegypti and provision of reliable piped water supplies will impact heavily on infested water storage containers. Both should be encouraged as viable control options. For much of the world, vertical programs have been reported as prohibitively expensive, and unacceptable intrusion on human rights and thus unsustainable in the modern economic context. However there are successful modern examples.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7844851
Stability of Horndeski vector-tensor interactions
Jiménez, Jose Beltrán [Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology, Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Louvain University, 2 Chemin du Cyclotron, Louvain-la-Neuve, 1348 (Belgium); Durrer, Ruth; Heisenberg, Lavinia [Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics, Université de Genève, 24 quai Ansermet, Genève 4, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Thorsrud, Mikjel, E-mail: jose.beltran@uclouvain.be, E-mail: ruth.durrer@unige.ch, E-mail: lavinia.heisenberg@unige.ch, E-mail: mikjel.thorsrud@astro.uio.no [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, Oslo, N-0315 (Norway)
2013-10-01
We study the Horndeski vector-tensor theory that leads to second order equations of motion and contains a non-minimally coupled abelian gauge vector field. This theory is remarkably simple and consists of only 2 terms for the vector field, namely: the standard Maxwell kinetic term and a coupling to the dual Riemann tensor. Furthermore, the vector sector respects the U(1) gauge symmetry and the theory contains only one free parameter, M{sup 2}, that controls the strength of the non-minimal coupling. We explore the theory in a de Sitter spacetime and study the presence of instabilities and show that it corresponds to an attractor solution in the presence of the vector field. We also investigate the cosmological evolution and stability of perturbations in a general FLRW spacetime. We find that a sufficient condition for the absence of ghosts is M{sup 2} > 0. Moreover, we study further constraints coming from imposing the absence of Laplacian instabilities. Finally, we study the stability of the theory in static and spherically symmetric backgrounds (in particular, Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter). We find that the theory, quite generally, do have ghosts or Laplacian instabilities in regions of spacetime where the non-minimal interaction dominates over the Maxwell term. We also calculate the propagation speed in these spacetimes and show that superluminality is a quite generic phenomenon in this theory.
LHC Signatures of Vector-Like Quarks
Yasuhiro Okada
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This work provides an overview on the current status of phenomenology and searches for heavy vector-like quarks, which are predicted in many models of new physics beyond the Standard Model. Searches at Tevatron and at the LHC, here listed and shortly described, have not found any evidence for new heavy fermionic states (either chiral or vector-like and have therefore posed strong bounds on their masses: depending on specific assumptions on the interactions and on the observed final state, vector-like quarks with masses up to roughly 400–600 GeV have been excluded by all experiments. In order to be as simple and model independent as possible, the chosen framework for the phenomenological analysis is an effective model with the addition of a vector-like quark representation (singlet, doublet, or triplet under SU(2L which couples through Yukawa interactions with all SM families. The relevance of different observables for the determination of bounds on mixing parameters is then discussed and a complete overview of possible two body final states for every vector-like quark is provided, including their subsequent decay into SM particles. A list and short description of phenomenological analyses present in the literature are also provided for reference purposes.
Reduced Order Model Basis Vector Generation: Generates Basis Vectors fro ROMs
2016-03-03
libROM is a library that implements order reduction via singular value decomposition (SVD) of sampled state vectors. It implements 2 parallel, incremental SVD algorithms and one serial, non-incremental algorithm. It also provides a mechanism for adaptive sampling of basis vectors.
Adachi, Masaaki; Ogasawara, Shinobu; Kume, Etsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ishizuki, Shigeru; Nemoto, Toshiyuki; Kawasaki, Nobuo; Kawai, Wataru [Fujitsu Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yatake, Yo-ichi [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
2001-02-01
Several computer codes in the nuclear field have been vectorized, parallelized and trans-ported on the FUJITSU VPP500 system, the AP3000 system, the SX-4 system and the Paragon system at Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. We dealt with 18 codes in fiscal 1999. These results are reported in 3 parts, i.e., the vectorization and the parallelization part on vector processors, the parallelization part on scalar processors and the porting part. In this report, we describe the vectorization and parallelization on vector processors. In this vectorization and parallelization on vector processors part, the vectorization of Relativistic Molecular Orbital Calculation code RSCAT, a microscopic transport code for high energy nuclear collisions code JAM, three-dimensional non-steady thermal-fluid analysis code STREAM, Relativistic Density Functional Theory code RDFT and High Speed Three-Dimensional Nodal Diffusion code MOSRA-Light on the VPP500 system and the SX-4 system are described. (author)
Test of Understanding of Vectors: A Reliable Multiple-Choice Vector Concept Test
Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro
2014-01-01
In this article we discuss the findings of our research on students' understanding of vector concepts in problems without physical context. First, we develop a complete taxonomy of the most frequent errors made by university students when learning vector concepts. This study is based on the results of several test administrations of…
Support vector machines/relevance vector machine for remote sensing classification: A review
Pal, Mahesh
2011-01-01
Kernel-based machine learning algorithms are based on mapping data from the original input feature space to a kernel feature space of higher dimensionality to solve a linear problem in that space. Over the last decade, kernel based classification and regression approaches such as support vector machines have widely been used in remote sensing as well as in various civil engineering applications. In spite of their better performance with different datasets, support vector machines still suffer from shortcomings such as visualization/interpretation of model, choice of kernel and kernel specific parameter as well as the regularization parameter. Relevance vector machines are another kernel based approach being explored for classification and regression with in last few years. The advantages of the relevance vector machines over the support vector machines is the availability of probabilistic predictions, using arbitrary kernel functions and not requiring setting of the regularization parameter. This paper presen...
QCD sum rule analysis for light vector and axial-vector mesons in vacuum and nuclear matter
Leupold, Stefan
2001-01-01
Extending previous work we study the constraints of QCD sum rules on mass and width of light vector and axial-vector mesons in vacuum and in a medium with finite nuclear density. For the latter case especially the effect of nuclear pions leading to vector-axial-vector mixing is included in the analysis.
GENERALIZED VECTOR VARIATIONAL-TYPE INEQUALITIES IN FC-SPACES
FANG Min; DING Xie-ping
2006-01-01
A class of generalized vector variational-type inequality problems (GVVTIP) are studied in FC-spaces, which includes the most of vector equilibrium problems, vector variational inequality problems, generalized vector equilibrium problems and generalized vector variational inequality problem as special cases. By using F-KKM theorem,some new existence results for GVVTIP are established in noncompact FC-space. As consequences, some recent known results in literature are obtained under much weaker assumption.
Resonance vector soliton of the Rayleigh wave.
Adamashvili, G T
2016-02-01
A theory of acoustic vector solitons of self-induced transparency of the Rayleigh wave is constructed. A thin resonance transition layer on an elastic surface is considered using a model of a two-dimensional gas of impurity paramagnetic atoms or quantum dots. Explicit analytical expressions for the profile and parameters of the Rayleigh vector soliton with two different oscillation frequencies is obtained, as well as simulations of this nonlinear surface acoustic wave with realistic parameters, which can be used in acoustic experiments. It is shown that the properties of a surface vector soliton of the Rayleigh wave depend on the parameters of the resonance layer, the elastic medium, and the transverse structure of the surface acoustic wave. PMID:26986400
Quantum nonlinear lattices and coherent state vectors
Ellinas, Demosthenes; Johansson, M.; Christiansen, Peter Leth
1999-01-01
(FP) model. Based on the respective dynamical symmetries of the models, a method is put forward which by use of the associated boson and spin coherent state vectors (CSV) and a factorization ansatz for the solution of the Schrodinger equation, leads to quasiclassical Hamiltonian equations of motion...... ansatz made for the state vectors invokes the study of the Riemannian and symplectic geometry of the CSV manifolds as generalized phase spaces. Next, we investigate analytically and numerically the behavior of mean values and uncertainties of some physically interesting observables as well as the...... factorized state vectors, and accounts for the quantum correlations of the lattice sites that develop during the time evolution of the systems. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....
Magnetic field vector retrieval with HMI
Borrero, J M; Norton, A; Darnell, T; Schou, J; Scherrer, P; Bush, R; Lui, Y
2006-01-01
The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), will begin data acquisition in 2008. It will provide the first full disk, high temporal cadence observations of the full Stokes vector with a 0.5 arc sec pixel size. This will allow for a continuous monitoring of the Solar magnetic field vector. HMI data will advance our understanding of the small and large-scale magnetic field evolution, its relation to the solar and global dynamic processes, coronal field extrapolations, flux emergence, magnetic helicity and the nature of the polar magnetic fields. We summarize HMI's expected operation modes, focusing on the polarization cross-talk induced by the solar oscillations and how this affects the magnetic field vector determinations.
Vector meson mixing and charge symmetry violation
We discuss the consistency of the traditional vector meson dominance (VMD) model for photons coupling to matter with the vanishing of vector meson-meson- and meson-photon mixing self-energies at q2 = O. This vanishing of vector mixing has been demonstrated in the context of rho-omega mixing for a large class of effective theories. As a further constraint on these models, we here apply them to a study of photon-meson mixing and VMD. We compare the predicted momentum dependence of two models with that extracted experimentally. We find that one model produces a momentum-dependence which is consistent with the data, while the other does not. Hence we conclude that comparison with VMD phenomenology provides a powerful constraint on such models. (author). 34 refs., 1 fig
Genetic Modification of Baculovirus Expression Vectors
Shu-fen Li; Hua-lin Wang; Zhi-hong Hu; Fei Deng
2012-01-01
As a protein expression vector,the baculovirus demonstrates many advantages over other vectors.With the development of biotechnology,baculoviral vectors have been genetically modified to facilitate high level expression of heterologous proteins in both insect and mammalian cells.These modifications include utilization of different promoters and signal peptides,deletion or replacement of viral genes for increasing protein secretion,integration of polycistronic expression cassette for producing protein complexes,and baculovirus pseudotyping,promoter accommodation or surface display for enhancing mammalian cell targeting gene delivery.This review summarizes the development and the current state of art of the baculovirus expression system.Further development of baculovirus expression systems will make them even more feasible and accessible for advanced applications.
Interactions between parasites and insects vectors
Hilary Hurd
1994-01-01
Full Text Available This review stresses the importance of studies that will provide a basic understanding of the pathology of parasite-infected vector insects. This knowledge should be a vital component of the very focussed initiatives currently being funded in the areas of vector control. Vector fecundity reduction is discussed as an example of such pathology. Underlying mechanisms are being investigated in a model system, Hymenolepis diminuta-infected Tenebrio molitor and in Onchocerca-infected blackflies and Plasmodium-infected Anopheles stephensi. In all cases, host vitellogenesis is disrupted by the parasite and, in the tapeworm/beetle model, interaction between the parasite and the endocrine control of the insect's reproductive physiology has been demonstrated.
Complete shaping of optical vector beams.
Chen, Zhaozhong; Zeng, Tingting; Qian, Binjie; Ding, Jianping
2015-07-13
We propose and experimentally demonstrate the complete and simultaneous modulation of the amplitude, phase and arbitrary state of polarization of optical beams. Based on a 4-f system including a spatial light modulator (SLM), two orthogonally polarized beams serving as the base vector components are produced by a computer generated hologram. The complex amplitude of orthogonal components is realized by a macro-pixel encoding technique purposely designed for phase-only SLMs. Vector beams can be created from the coaxial superposition of the two base beams. This enables us to design optical fields with arbitrarily structured amplitude, phase and polarization by using only one SLM, and thus provides an easy-to-implement route for exploring the novel effects and expanding the functionality of vector beams with space-variant parameters. PMID:26191832
Axisymmetric thrust-vectoring nozzle performance prediction
Throat-hinged geometrically variable converging-diverging thrust-vectoring nozzles directly affect the jet flow geometry and rotation angle at the nozzle exit as a function of the nozzle geometry, the nozzle pressure ratio and flight velocity. The consideration of nozzle divergence in the effective-geometric nozzle relation is theoretically considered here for the first time. In this study, an explicit calculation procedure is presented as a function of nozzle geometry at constant nozzle pressure ratio, zero velocity and altitude, and compared with experimental results in a civil thrust-vectoring scenario. This procedure may be used in dynamic thrust-vectoring nozzle design performance predictions or analysis for civil and military nozzles as well as in the definition of initial jet flow conditions in future numerical VSTOL/TV jet performance studies
Support vector machines for classification and regression.
Brereton, Richard G; Lloyd, Gavin R
2010-02-01
The increasing interest in Support Vector Machines (SVMs) over the past 15 years is described. Methods are illustrated using simulated case studies, and 4 experimental case studies, namely mass spectrometry for studying pollution, near infrared analysis of food, thermal analysis of polymers and UV/visible spectroscopy of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The basis of SVMs as two-class classifiers is shown with extensive visualisation, including learning machines, kernels and penalty functions. The influence of the penalty error and radial basis function radius on the model is illustrated. Multiclass implementations including one vs. all, one vs. one, fuzzy rules and Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) trees are described. One-class Support Vector Domain Description (SVDD) is described and contrasted to conventional two- or multi-class classifiers. The use of Support Vector Regression (SVR) is illustrated including its application to multivariate calibration, and why it is useful when there are outliers and non-linearities. PMID:20098757
(Conformal) Killing vectors and their associated bivectors
Fayos and Sopuerta have recently set up a formalism for studying vacuum spacetimes with an isometry, a formalism that is centred around the bivector corresponding to the Killing vector and that adapts the tetrad to the bivector. Steele has generalized their approach to include the homothetic case. Here, we generalize this formalism to arbitrary spacetimes and to homothetic and conformal Killing vectors but do not insist on aligning the tetrad with the bivector. The most efficient way to use the formalism to find conformal Killing vectors (proper or not) of a given spacetime is to combine it with the notion of a preferred tetrad. A metric by Kimura is used as an illustrative example
Measuring vector magnetic fields in solar prominences
Suárez, D Orozco; Bueno, J Trujillo
2012-01-01
We present spectropolarimetric observations in the He I 1083.0 nm multiplet of a quiescent, hedgerow solar prominence. The data were taken with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter attached to the German Vacuum Tower Telescope at the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife; Canary Islands; Spain). The observed He I circular and linear polarization signals are dominated by the Zeeman effect and by atomic level polarization and the Hanle effect, respectively. These observables are sensitive to the strength and orientation of the magnetic field vector at each spatial point of the field of view. We determine the magnetic field vector of the prominence by applying the HAZEL inversion code to the observed Stokes profiles. We briefly discuss the retrieved magnetic field vector configuration.
Vector processor algorithms for transonic flow calculations
South, J. C., Jr.; Keller, J. D.; Hafez, M. M.
1979-01-01
This paper discusses a number of algorithms for solving the transonic full-potential equation in conservative form on a vector computer, such as the CDC STAR-100 or the CRAY-1. Recent research with the 'artificial density' method for transonics has led to development of some new iteration schemes which take advantage of vector-computer architecture without suffering significant loss of convergence rate. Several of these more promising schemes are described and 2-D and 3-D results are shown comparing the computational rates on the STAR and CRAY vector computers, and the CYBER-175 serial computer. Schemes included are: (1) Checkerboard SOR, (2) Checkerboard Leapfrog, (3) odd-even vertical line SOR, and (4) odd-even horizontal line SOR.
Targeting of breast metastases using a viral gene vector with tumour-selective transcription.
Rajendran, Simon
2012-01-31
BACKGROUND: Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have significant potential as gene delivery vectors for cancer gene therapy. However, broad AAV2 tissue tropism results in nonspecific gene expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated use of the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) promoter to restrict AAV expression to tumour cells, in subcutaneous MCF-7 xenograft mouse models of breast cancer and in patient samples, using bioluminescent imaging and flow cytometric analysis. RESULTS: Higher transgene expression levels were observed in subcutaneous MCF-7 tumours relative to normal tissue (muscle) using the CXCR4 promoter, unlike a ubiquitously expressing Cytomegalovirus promoter construct, with preferential AAVCXCR4 expression in epithelial tumour and CXCR4-positive cells. Transgene expression following intravenously administered AAVCXCR4 in a model of liver metastasis was detected specifically in livers of tumour bearing mice. Ex vivo analysis using patient samples also demonstrated higher AAVCXCR4 expression in tumour compared with normal liver tissue. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates for the first time, the potential for systemic administration of AAV2 vector for tumour-selective gene therapy.
Vector-like Sneutrino Dark Matter
Tang, Yi-Lei; Zhu, Shou-hua
2016-01-01
In this paper, we discuss the MSSM extended with one vector-like lepton doublets $L$-$\\overline{L}$ and one right-handed neutrino $N$. The neutral vecotor-like sneutrino can be a candidate of dark matter. In order to avoid the interaction with the necleons by exchanging a $Z$-boson, the mass splitting between the real part and the imaginary part of the sneutrino field is needed. Compared with the MSSM sneutrino dark matter, the mass splitting between the vector-like sneutrino field can be mor...
One-Dimensional Vector Based Pattern Matching
Y.M.Fouda
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Template matching is a basic method in image analysis to extract useful information from images. In this paper, we suggest a new method for pattern matching. Our method transform the template image from two dimensional image into one dimensional vector. Also all sub - windows (same size of template in the reference image will transform into one dimensional vectors. The three similarity measures SAD, SSD, and Euclidean are used to c ompute the likeness between template and all sub - windows in the reference image to find the best match. The experimental results show the superior performance of the proposed metho d over the conventional methods on various template of different sizes
Comparaciones Multivariantes de Vectores Aleatorios con Aplicaciones
Mulero González, Julio
2012-01-01
El resultado de un experimento es variable y está modelado por variables y vectores aleatorios. Comúnmente, las comparaciones entre están cantidades aleatorias están basadas en algunas medidas asociadas, pero a menudo no son demasiado informativas. En este caso, los órdenes estocásticos proporcionan una comparación más completa. A veces, estamos interesados en estudiar propiedades de una variable o vector aleatorio, es decir, sus propiedades de envejecimiento. Los órdenes estocásticos son tam...
Lepton flavor violation with light vector bosons
Heeck, Julian
2016-07-01
New sub-GeV vector bosons with couplings to muons but not electrons have been discussed in order to explain the muon's magnetic moment, the gap of high-energy neutrinos in IceCube or the proton radius puzzle. If such a light Z‧ not only violates lepton universality but also lepton flavor, as expected for example from the recent hint for h → μτ at CMS, the two-body decay mode τ → μZ‧ opens up and for MZ‧ vector bosons with lepton-flavor-violating couplings.
Intraoperative Vector Flow Imaging of the Heart
Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Møller-Sørensen, Hasse; Pedersen, Mads Møller;
2013-01-01
The cardiac flow is complex and multidirectional, and difficult to measure with conventional Doppler ultrasound (US) methods due to the one-dimensional and angle-dependent velocity estimation. The vector velocity method Transverse Oscillation (TO) has been proposed as a solution to this. TO is...... implemented on a conventional US scanner (Pro Focus 2202 UltraView, BK Medical) using a linear transducer (8670, BK Medical) and can provide real-time, angle-independent vector velocity estimates of the cardiac blood flow. During cardiac surgery, epicardiac US examinations using TO were performed on three...
[Conflicts and vector-borne diseases
Bygbjerg, Ib Christian
2010-01-01
Based on literature and personal experiences, vector-borne diseases and conflicts are reviewed. Simple rapid diagnostic tests for three important parasitoses are available. Resort is often made to case definitions and to presumptive treatment. Resistance is an emerging problem. Vaccines are still...... not available for most diseases. Promising preventive methods, including long-lasting impregnated bed-nets and tents, are available. War has been an impetus for disclosing life-cycles of vector-borne diseases and for control methods; peace, reconciliation and poverty reduction are required to achieve...
Performance of a vector velocity estimator
Munk, Peter; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
1998-01-01
tracking can be found in the literature, but no method with a satisfactory performance has been found that can be used in a commercial implementation. A method for estimation of the velocity vector is presented. Here an oscillation transverse to the ultrasound beam is generated, so that a transverse motion...... autocorrelation approach that yields both the axial and the lateral velocity, and thus the velocity vector. The method has the advantage that a standard array transducer and a modified digital beamformer, like those used in modern ultrasound scanners, is sufficient to obtain the information needed. The signal...
Polynomial Vector Fields in One Complex Variable
Branner, Bodil
In recent years Adrien Douady was interested in polynomial vector fields, both in relation to iteration theory and as a topic on their own. This talk is based on his work with Pierrette Sentenac, work of Xavier Buff and Tan Lei, and my own joint work with Kealey Dias.......In recent years Adrien Douady was interested in polynomial vector fields, both in relation to iteration theory and as a topic on their own. This talk is based on his work with Pierrette Sentenac, work of Xavier Buff and Tan Lei, and my own joint work with Kealey Dias....
Oracle Inequalities for High Dimensional Vector Autoregressions
Callot, Laurent; Kock, Anders Bredahl
This paper establishes non-asymptotic oracle inequalities for the prediction error and estimation accuracy of the LASSO in stationary vector autoregressive models. These inequalities are used to establish consistency of the LASSO even when the number of parameters is of a much larger order of...... hence the correct sparsity pattern). Finally conditions under which the Adaptive LASSO reveals the correct sign pattern with probability tending to one are given. Again, the number of parameters may be much larger than the sample size. Some maximal inequalities for vector autoregressions which might be...
Vector Fields European user group meeting
2007-01-01
The "Vector Fields European user group meeting" will take place at CERN on 26 and 27 September 2007. Within this framework two workshops are organized at the CERN Training Centre: 24 September 2007 Modelling Magnets with Opera 25 September 2007 Modelling of Charged Particle Beam Devices with Opera If you are interested in attending the workshop or the user group meeting please contact Julie Shepherd (Vector Fields) or Pierre Baehler (CERN) directly at: Julie.Shepherd@vectorfields.co.uk, +44 (0) 1865 854933 or +44 (0) 1865 370151 Pierre.Baehler@cern.ch, 75016 / 160156.
Craig, Nathaniel; Knapen, Simon; Longhi, Pietro; Strassler, Matthew
2016-07-01
We present a version of the twin Higgs mechanism with vector-like top partners. In this setup all gauge anomalies automatically cancel, even without twin leptons. The matter content of the most minimal twin sector is therefore just two twin tops and one twin bottom. The LHC phenomenology, illustrated with two example models, is dominated by twin glueball decays, possibly in association with Higgs bosons. We further construct an explicit four-dimensional UV completion and discuss a variety of UV completions relevant for both vector-like and fraternal twin Higgs models.
Variable ordering structures in vector optimization
Eichfelder, Gabriele
2014-01-01
This book provides an introduction to vector optimization with variable ordering structures, i.e., to optimization problems with a vector-valued objective function where the elements in the objective space are compared based on a variable ordering structure: instead of a partial ordering defined by a convex cone, we see a whole family of convex cones, one attached to each element of the objective space. The book starts by presenting several applications that have recently sparked new interest in these optimization problems, and goes on to discuss fundamentals and important results on a wide ra
Support Vector classifiers for Land Cover Classification
Pal, Mahesh
2008-01-01
Support vector machines represent a promising development in machine learning research that is not widely used within the remote sensing community. This paper reports the results of Multispectral(Landsat-7 ETM+) and Hyperspectral DAIS)data in which multi-class SVMs are compared with maximum likelihood and artificial neural network methods in terms of classification accuracy. Our results show that the SVM achieves a higher level of classification accuracy than either the maximum likelihood or the neural classifier, and that the support vector machine can be used with small training datasets and high-dimensional data.